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Sample records for 10-fold molar excess

  1. Excess properties for 1-butanethiol + heptane, + cyclohexane, + benzene, and + toluene. 2. Excess molar enthalpies at 283.15, 298.15, and 333.15 K

    SciTech Connect

    Allred, G.C.; Beets, J.W.; Parrish, W.R.

    1995-09-01

    Thiols (mercaptans) are industrially important because of their occurrence in petroleum, their use as chemical intermediates, and their involvement in environmental problems. Excess molar enthalpies of binary mixtures of 1-butanethiol + heptane, + cyclohexane, + benzene, or + toluene have been determined at 283.15, 298.15, 333.15 K with a flow mixing calorimeter, and at 283.15 and 298.15 K with a titration calorimeter. Partial molar enthalpies have been derived from the titration calorimetric results. Where results were obtained by both methods, they were combined to obtain the best estimate of excess enthalpy for all compositions. Equimolar excess enthalpies for 1-butanethiol + heptane or + cyclohexane are endothermic and are comparable to the equimolar excess enthalpies for 1-butanol + heptane or + cyclohexane. Excess enthalpies of 1-butanethiol + alkane systems, which is contrary to the trend observed in 1-butanol + aromatic systems compared to 1-butanol + alkane systems. The excess enthalpy of 1-butanethiol + toluene is weakly exothermic.

  2. Excess molar volumes of mixtures of hexane + natural oils from 298.15 to 313.15 K

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, C.; Resa, J.M.; Ruiz, A.; Gutierrez, J.I.

    1997-03-01

    Excess molar volume data for mixtures containing hexane with three edible oils: olive, corn, and pip of grape have been determined from density measurements at various temperatures between 298.15 and 313.15 K using a vibrating tube densimeter. Results have been correlated by the Redlich-Kister equation. Systems showed negative deviations from ideality in the whole composition range.

  3. Densities, Excess Molar Volumes, and Thermal Expansion Coefficients of Aqueous Aminoethylethanolamine Solutions at Temperatures from 283.15 to 343.15 K.

    PubMed

    Stec, Marcin; Tatarczuk, Adam; Spiewak, Dariusz; Wilk, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    The densities of aqueous mixtures of aminoethylethanolamine (CAS #000111-41-1) were measured over the entire compositional range at temperatures of 283.15-343.15 K. The results of these measurements were used to calculate excess molar volumes and isobaric thermal expansion coefficients, and partial molar and apparent molar volumes and excess isobaric thermal expansion coefficients were subsequently derived. The excess molar volumes were correlated as a function of the mole fraction using the Redlich-Kister equation. Temperature dependences of the Redlich-Kister coefficients are also presented. The partial molar volumes at infinite dilution of AEEA in water were determined using two different methods. In addition, the solution density was correlated using a Joubian-Acree model. Aqueous solutions of AEEA exhibit similar properties to the aqueous solutions of other alkanolamines (like monoethanolamine) used in acid gas sweetening. PMID:24899753

  4. Densities and excess molar volumes of binary mixtures containing propylene carbonate + chlorohydrocarbons at 298.15 K and atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Comelli, F.; Francesconi, R.

    1995-11-01

    Densities and excess molar volumes, V{sub m}{sup E}, for binary mixtures containing propylene carbonate + 10 chlorohydrocarbons (dichloromethane, 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,3-dichloropropane, 1,4-dichlorobuthane, 1,6-dichlorohexane, 1,10-dichlorodecane, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, trans-1,2-dichloroethene, and trichloroethene) have been measured at 298.15 K and at atmospheric pressure using an Anton Paar digital vibrating tube density meter. The results are fitted to the Redlich-Kister equation. The values of V{sub m}{sup E} for the mixtures containing dichloroalkanes show an increasing trend with the increase of the chain length and vary from a minimum of {minus}0.24 cm{sup 3}/mol for dichloromethane up to a maximum of +0.31 cm{sup 3}/mol for 1,10-dichlorodecane. The excess molar volumes for the other mixtures are negative over the entire range of composition. Results are qualitatively discussed in terms of molecular interactions.

  5. Densities, Excess Molar Volumes, Viscosities, and Refractive Indices of Binary Mixtures of n-Butyl Acetate with 1-Chloroalkanes (C4-C8) at 298.15 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iloukhani, H.; Khanlarzadeh, K.; Rakhshi, M.

    2011-03-01

    Densities, viscosities, and refractive indices of binary mixtures of n-butyl acetate (1) +1-chlorobutane (2), +1-chloropentane (2), +1-chlorohexane (2), +1-chloroheptane (2), and +1-chlorooctane (2) were measured at 298.15 K for the liquid region and at ambient pressure for the whole composition range. The excess molar volumes V E were calculated from experimental densities. McAllister's three-body interaction, and Hind and Grunberg-Nissan models are used for correlating the viscosity of binary mixtures. The experimental data of binaries are analyzed to discuss the nature and strength of intermolecular interactions in these mixtures.

  6. Molar and excess volumes of liquid In-Sb, Mg-Sb, and Pb-Sb alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, A.R.; Kaminski, M.A. ); Eckert, C.A. )

    1990-04-01

    By a direct Archimedes' technique, volumetric data were obtained for liquid In, Mg, Pb, and Sb and mixtures of In-Sb, Mg-Sb, and Pb-Sb. In this paper the excess volumes for the alloys studied are presented and discussed.

  7. Excess molar enthalpies of ternary mixtures for propanone or benzene + aniline + 2-methyl-1-propanol and of binary mixtures for propanone or aniline + 2-methyl-1-propanol at 298.15 K

    SciTech Connect

    Nagata, Isamu; Tamura, Kazuhiro; Miyai, Koichi

    1996-11-01

    Experimental excess molar enthalpies for the ternary mixtures 2-methyl-1-propanol + aniline + propanone and 2-methyl-1-propanol + aniline + benzene and their constituent binary mixtures 2-methyl-1-propanol + aniline and 2-methyl-1-propanol + propanone at the temperature 298.15 K, measured by using an isothermal dilution calorimeter, are reported. The results have been analyzed using a polynomial equation and the UNIQUAC-associated solution model with binary and ternary parameters.

  8. Excess molar enthalpies of ternary systems butan-1-ol or butan-2-ol + aniline + propanone and of binary systems butan-1-ol or butan-2-ol + propanone at the temperature 298.15 K

    SciTech Connect

    Nagata, Isamu; Tamura, Kazuhiro; Kataoka, Hideo; Ksiazczak, A.

    1996-05-01

    The excess molar enthalpies at the temperature 298.15 K for ternary systems butan-1-ol + aniline + propanone and butan-2-ol + aniline + propanone and their constituent binary systems butan-1-ol + propanone and butan-2-ol + propanone, measured with an isothermal dilution calorimeter, are reported. The experimental results have been analyzed and compared with a polynomial equation and the UNIQUAC-associated solution model with binary and ternary additional parameters.

  9. Studies on intermolecular interaction on binary mixtures of methyl orange-water system: excess molar functions of ultrasonic parameters at different concentrations and at different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Thanuja, B; Kanagam, Charles; Sreedevi, S

    2011-11-01

    Density (ρ), viscosity (η) and ultrasonic velocity (u) of binary mixtures of methyl orange and water were measured at different concentrations and at different temperatures; several useful parameters such as excess volume, excess velocity, and excess adiabatic compressibility have been calculated. These parameters are used to explain the nature of intermolecular interactions taking place in the binary mixture. The above study is helpful in understanding the dye/solvent interaction at different concentration and temperatures. PMID:21596612

  10. Splenectomy Causes 10-Fold Increased Risk of Portal Venous System Thrombosis in Liver Cirrhosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Xingshun; Han, Guohong; Ye, Chun; Zhang, Yongguo; Dai, Junna; Peng, Ying; Deng, Han; Li, Jing; Hou, Feifei; Ning, Zheng; Zhao, Jiancheng; Zhang, Xintong; Wang, Ran; Guo, Xiaozhong

    2016-01-01

    Background Portal venous system thrombosis (PVST) is a life-threatening complication of liver cirrhosis. We conducted a retrospective study to comprehensively analyze the prevalence and risk factors of PVST in liver cirrhosis. Material/Methods All cirrhotic patients without malignancy admitted between June 2012 and December 2013 were eligible if they underwent contrast-enhanced CT or MRI scans. Independent predictors of PVST in liver cirrhosis were calculated in multivariate analyses. Subgroup analyses were performed according to the severity of PVST (any PVST, main portal vein [MPV] thrombosis >50%, and clinically significant PVST) and splenectomy. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were reported. Results Overall, 113 cirrhotic patients were enrolled. The prevalence of PVST was 16.8% (19/113). Splenectomy (any PVST: OR=11.494, 95%CI=2.152–61.395; MPV thrombosis >50%: OR=29.987, 95%CI=3.247–276.949; clinically significant PVST: OR=40.415, 95%CI=3.895–419.295) and higher hemoglobin (any PVST: OR=0.974, 95%CI=0.953–0.996; MPV thrombosis >50%: OR=0.936, 95%CI=0.895–0.980; clinically significant PVST: OR=0.935, 95%CI=0.891–0.982) were the independent predictors of PVST. The prevalence of PVST was 13.3% (14/105) after excluding splenectomy. Higher hemoglobin was the only independent predictor of MPV thrombosis >50% (OR=0.952, 95%CI=0.909–0.997). No independent predictors of any PVST or clinically significant PVST were identified in multivariate analyses. Additionally, PVST patients who underwent splenectomy had a significantly higher proportion of clinically significant PVST but lower MELD score than those who did not undergo splenectomy. In all analyses, the in-hospital mortality was not significantly different between cirrhotic patient with and without PVST. Conclusions Splenectomy may increase by at least 10-fold the risk of PVST in liver cirrhosis independent of severity of liver dysfunction. PMID:27432511

  11. Deciduous molar hypomineralization and molar incisor hypomineralization.

    PubMed

    Elfrink, M E C; ten Cate, J M; Jaddoe, V W V; Hofman, A; Moll, H A; Veerkamp, J S J

    2012-06-01

    This study was embedded in the Generation R Study, a population-based prospective cohort study from fetal life until young adulthood. This study focused on the relationship between Deciduous Molar Hypomineralization (DMH) and Molar Incisor Hypomineralization (MIH). First permanent molars develop during a period similar to that of second primary molars, with possible comparable risk factors for hypomineralization. Children with DMH have a greater risk of developing MIH. Clinical photographs of clean, moist teeth were taken with an intra-oral camera in 6,161 children (49.8% girls; mean age 74.3 mos, SD ± 5.8). First permanent molars and second primary molars were scored with respect to DMH or MIH. The prevalence of DMH and MIH was 9.0% and 8.7% at child level, and 4.0% and 5.4% at tooth level. The Odds Ratio for MIH based on DMH was 4.4 (95% CI, 3.1-6.4). The relationship between the occurrence of DMH and MIH suggests a shared cause and indicates that, clinically, DMH can be used as a predictor for MIH. PMID:22370445

  12. Removal of Deeply Impacted Mandibular Molars by Sagittal Split Osteotomy

    PubMed Central

    Isler, Sabri Cemil

    2016-01-01

    Mandibular third molars are the most common impacted teeth. Mandibular first and second molars do not share the same frequency of occurrence. In rare cases the occlusal surfaces of impacted molars are united by the same follicular space and the roots pointing in opposite direction; these are called kissing molars. In some cases, a supernumerary fourth molar can be seen as unerupted and, in this case, such a supernumerary, deeply impacted fourth molar is seen neighboring kissing molars. The extraction of deeply impacted wisdom molars from the mandible may necessitate excessive bone removal and it causes complications such as damage to the inferior alveolar nerve and iatrogenic fractures of the mandible. This case report describes the use of the sagittal split osteotomy technique to avoid extensive bone removal and protect the inferior alveolar nerve during surgical extruction of multiple impacted teeth. PMID:27429810

  13. Ruptured tubal molar pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Yakasai, I A; Adamu, N; Galadanchi, H S

    2012-01-01

    Molar pregnancies in most instances develop within the uterine cavity, but may occur at any site. Ectopic molar pregnancy is a rare event. The objective of this study was to present a case of ruptured tubal molar gestation, discuss its clinical features and ways to improve diagnostic accuracy. A 35-year-old woman presented with features suggestive of ruptured tubal ectopic pregnancy. There was neither any evidence at the time of presentation to suspect a molar gestation, nor β human chorionic gonadotrophin (βhCG) hormone estimation was done, but only a clearview pregnancy test was carried out. She had total left salpingectomy and histological evaluation of the specimen revealed complete hydatidiform mole. The hCG level normalized within 3 weeks of follow-up. Clinical features of ectopic molar pregnancy may be indistinguishable from non-molar ectopic pregnancy. We recommend βhCG estimation as well as histological examination of the surgical specimen for all patients coming with features suggestive of ectopic pregnancy. PMID:23238205

  14. Novel method for quantifying radiation-induced single-strand-break yields in plasmid DNA highlights 10-fold discrepancy.

    PubMed

    Balagurumoorthy, Pichumani; Adelstein, S James; Kassis, Amin I

    2011-10-15

    The widely used agarose gel electrophoresis method for assessing radiation-induced single-strand-break (SSB) yield in plasmid DNA involves measurement of the fraction of relaxed-circular (C) form that migrates independently from the intact supercoiled (SC) form. We rationalized that this method may underestimate the SSB yield since the position of the relaxed-circular form is not altered when the number of SSB per DNA molecule is >1. To overcome this limitation, we have developed a novel method that directly probes and quantifies SSBs. Supercoiled (3)H-pUC19 plasmid samples were irradiated with γ-rays, alkali-denatured, dephosphorylated, and kinated with γ-[(32)P]ATP, and the DNA-incorporated (32)P activities were used to quantify the SSB yields per DNA molecule, employing a standard curve generated using DNA molecules containing a known number of SSBs. The same irradiated samples were analyzed by agarose gel and SSB yields were determined by conventional methods. Comparison of the data demonstrated that the mean SSB yield per plasmid DNA molecule of [21.2±0.59]×10(-2)Gy(-1) as measured by direct probing is ~10-fold higher than that obtained from conventional gel-based methods. These findings imply that the SSB yields inferred from agarose gels need reevaluation, especially when they were utilized in the determination of radiation risk. PMID:21741945

  15. Endodontic treatment of molars

    PubMed Central

    Habl, Claudia; Bodenwinkler, Andrea; Stürzlinger, Heidi

    2006-01-01

    Objective Commissioned by the German Institute of Medical Documentation and Information (DIMDI) the Austrian Health Institute (ÖBIG) prepared a HTA report on the long-term effectiveness of endodontic treatment (root canal treatment, RCT) of molars. The focus is to examine factors influencing the outcome of endodontic treatment and showing their impact on long-term results. Additionally, economic aspects of root canal treatment in Germany are discussed. Methodology By performing a systematic literature search in 29 databases (e.g. MEDLINE), the Cochrane Library and by hand searching two peer-reviewed endodontic journals the authors could identify 750 relevant articles, of which finally 18 qualified for assessment. Results The findings show that the most relevant factor influencing the long-term outcome of endodontic treatment is the preoperative status of a tooth. The lowest success rates are reported for molars with a preoperative devital or necrotic pulp and persisting periapical lesions (so called periapical disease). Discussion Even if there is no positive selection of patients and the RCT is performed by a normal dentist rather than an endodontist - a fact which is very common - long-term success rates of more then 90% are possible. The overall success rates for endodontic treatment of molars therefore seem to be similar to those of other tooth-types. Conclusions Especially primary, conventional (i.e. non-surgical) root canal treatment is an effective and efficient therapy for endodontically ill molars, especially if no large periapical lesion persists. Nonetheless, a long term successful endodontic therapy requires a thorough assessment of the pre-operative status of the molar and treatment according to established guidelines. PMID:21289954

  16. Molar Incisor Hypomineralization.

    PubMed

    Rao, Murali H; Aluru, Srikanth C; Jayam, Cheranjeevi; Bandlapalli, Anila; Patel, Nikunj

    2016-01-01

    Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) is a developmental defect affecting teeth. High prevalence rates of MIH and its clinical implications are significant for both the patients and clinicians. A wide variation in defect prevalence (2.4-40.2%) is reported. It seems to differ with regions and various birth cohorts. Some of the recent prevalence studies are tabulated. Patient implications include hypersensitive teeth, rapid progression of caries, mastication impairment due to rapid attrition, and esthetic repercussions. Implications for clinicians include complexity in treatment planning and treatment implementation, poor prognosis of the restorations, difficulty in achieving pain control during treatment, and behavior management problems. Intention of this paper is to review the etio-pathogenesis, prevalence, clinical features, diagnostic features, and eventually present a sequential treatment approach, i.e., in accordance with current clinical practice guidelines. PMID:27595731

  17. Controversy of the third molars.

    PubMed

    Pitekova, L; Satko, I

    2009-01-01

    Third molars are teeth that have little functional value and a relatively high rate of associated pain and disease. Their value as a part of the dentition of modern people is dubious. Our aim is to review the evolution, morbidity and complications of the third molars (Ref. 19). Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk. PMID:19408843

  18. [Headgear-free molar distalization].

    PubMed

    Manhartsberger, C

    1994-12-01

    The difficulty in treating dentoalveolar class II disharmonies is briefly outlined. An innovative treatment method is presented which makes possible a distalization without the use of headgear. In the treatment method bands are cemented on the first molars, next impressions are made of the upper and lower dental arch, and then the impressions are poured with plaster. Following this the models are mounted in centric relationship in an articulator and the bite is opened 2 mm to 3 mm, so that the molars can be moved without making occlusal contact. The apparatus, an acrylic splint, is constructed in such a fashion as to cover the palatal surfaces from 2nd premolar to 2nd premolar. In addition, the premolars are also covered occlusally and buccally and the canine tips and the incisal edges are covered labially. A headgear tube is attached at the buccal surface in the premolar region of the acrylic splint. This acrylic splint, which is itself retentive, is cemented using glass ionomer cement. Combining this apparatus with a modified Nance Button makes it possible to establish an anchoring segment which is able to retain its position in the face of molar distalization. Molar distalization is then performed using a 0.032 inch stainless steel wire, which is placed between the headgear tube of the acrylic splint and the headgear tube of the band of the first molar. Highly elastic nickel-titanium open coil springs are used as the force elements. PMID:7851830

  19. Molar Intrusion in Open-bite Adults Using Zygomatic Miniplates.

    PubMed

    Marzouk, Eiman S; Abdallah, Essam Mohamed; El-Kenany, Walid A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the skeletal, dental and soft tissue changes that arise after intrusion of the maxillary molars using zygomatic miniplates in adult skeletal anterior open bite patients. In addition to measuring the amount and rate of molar intrusion; with special emphasis on changes in the axial inclination of the intruded molars. The study group was composed of 13 anterior open bite patients (mean age 18 years, 8 months ± 2 years, 2 months) with posterior dentoalveolar excess. Mini-plates were placed in the zygomatic buttress bilaterally. The upper arch was segmentally leveled and a double Trans-Palatal Arch (TPA) was bonded. Closed NiTi coil spring was placed bilaterally between the book of the mini-plate just mesial and distal to the first molar buccal tube applying intrusive force of 450 gper side. Lateral and posteroanterior cephalograms were taken before intrusion (T1: post upper segmental leveling) and after intrusion (T2). Comparison between means before and after the intrusion was done using Wilcoxon Signed Ranks test (WSRT). Mandibular autorotation followed the molar intrusion, SNB and SN-Pog angles significantly increased while the ANB, MP-SN angle and N-S-Gn angle significantly decreased. The mean amount of accomplished molar intrusion was 3.1mm ± 0.74mm, with a rate of 0.36mm per month ± 0.08mm per month and a bite closure of 6.55mm ± 1.83mm. There was no significant buccal tip in the right and left molars upon intrusion. Conclusion: Miniplates zygomatic anchorage can be used effectively for skeletal open bite correction through posterior dento-alveolar intrusion. Intrusion of the posterior teeth with skeletal anchorage induced counterclockwise rotation of the mandible and, as a consequence, corrected the anteroposterior intermaxillary relationship with a dramatic improvement in the facial soft tissue convexity. PMID:26349291

  20. Hypomineralized Second Primary Molars as Predictor of Molar Incisor Hypomineralization.

    PubMed

    Negre-Barber, A; Montiel-Company, J M; Boronat-Catalá, M; Catalá-Pizarro, M; Almerich-Silla, J M

    2016-01-01

    Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) is a developmental defect of dental enamel that shares features with hypomineralized second primary molars (HSPM). Prior to permanent tooth eruption, second primary molars could have predictive value for permanent molar and incisor hypomineralization. To assess this possible relationship, a cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 414 children aged 8 and 9 years from the INMA cohort in Valencia (Spain). A calibrated examiner (linear-weighted Kappa 0.83) performed the intraoral examinations at the University of Valencia between November 2013 and 2014, applying the diagnostic criteria for MIH and HSPM adopted by the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry. 100 children (24.2%) presented MIH and 60 (14.5%) presented HSPM. Co-occurrence of the two defects was observed in 11.1% of the children examined. The positive predictive value was 76.7% (63.9-86.6) and the negative predictive value 84.7% (80.6-88.3). The positive likelihood ratio (S/1-E) was 10.3 (5.9-17.9) and the negative likelihood ratio (1-S/E) 0.57 (0.47-0.68). The odds ratio was 18.2 (9.39-35.48). It was concluded that while the presence of HSPM can be considered a predictor of MIH, indicating the need for monitoring and control, the absence of this defect in primary dentition does not rule out the appearance of MIH. PMID:27558479

  1. Complications after third molar surgery.

    PubMed

    Pitekova, L; Satko, I; Novotnakova, D

    2010-01-01

    The authors describe the incidence of postoperative complications after the surgical removal of third molars, most common postoperative complications and their symptoms as well as risk factors leading to greater incidence of postoperative complications (Ref. 17). Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk. PMID:20568422

  2. Hypomineralized Second Primary Molars as Predictor of Molar Incisor Hypomineralization

    PubMed Central

    Negre-Barber, A.; Montiel-Company, J. M.; Boronat-Catalá, M.; Catalá-Pizarro, M.; Almerich-Silla, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) is a developmental defect of dental enamel that shares features with hypomineralized second primary molars (HSPM). Prior to permanent tooth eruption, second primary molars could have predictive value for permanent molar and incisor hypomineralization. To assess this possible relationship, a cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 414 children aged 8 and 9 years from the INMA cohort in Valencia (Spain). A calibrated examiner (linear-weighted Kappa 0.83) performed the intraoral examinations at the University of Valencia between November 2013 and 2014, applying the diagnostic criteria for MIH and HSPM adopted by the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry. 100 children (24.2%) presented MIH and 60 (14.5%) presented HSPM. Co-occurrence of the two defects was observed in 11.1% of the children examined. The positive predictive value was 76.7% (63.9–86.6) and the negative predictive value 84.7% (80.6–88.3). The positive likelihood ratio (S/1-E) was 10.3 (5.9–17.9) and the negative likelihood ratio (1-S/E) 0.57 (0.47–0.68). The odds ratio was 18.2 (9.39–35.48). It was concluded that while the presence of HSPM can be considered a predictor of MIH, indicating the need for monitoring and control, the absence of this defect in primary dentition does not rule out the appearance of MIH. PMID:27558479

  3. Fracture behavior of human molars.

    PubMed

    Keown, Amanda J; Lee, James J-W; Bush, Mark B

    2012-12-01

    Despite the durability of human teeth, which are able to withstand repeated loading while maintaining form and function, they are still susceptible to fracture. We focus here on longitudinal fracture in molar teeth-channel-like cracks that run along the enamel sidewall of the tooth between the gum line (cemento-enamel junction-CEJ) and the occlusal surface. Such fractures can often be painful and necessitate costly restorative work. The following study describes fracture experiments made on molar teeth of humans in which the molars are placed under axial compressive load using a hard indenting plate in order to induce longitudinal cracks in the enamel. Observed damage modes include fractures originating in the occlusal region ('radial-median cracks') and fractures emanating from the margin of the enamel in the region of the CEJ ('margin cracks'), as well as 'spalling' of enamel (the linking of longitudinal cracks). The loading conditions that govern fracture behavior in enamel are reported and observations made of the evolution of fracture as the load is increased. Relatively low loads were required to induce observable crack initiation-approximately 100 N for radial-median cracks and 200 N for margin cracks-both of which are less than the reported maximum biting force on a single molar tooth of several hundred Newtons. Unstable crack growth was observed to take place soon after and occurred at loads lower than those calculated by the current fracture models. Multiple cracks were observed on a single cusp, their interactions influencing crack growth behavior. The majority of the teeth tested in this study were noted to exhibit margin cracks prior to compression testing, which were apparently formed during the functional lifetime of the tooth. Such teeth were still able to withstand additional loading prior to catastrophic fracture, highlighting the remarkable damage containment capabilities of the natural tooth structure. PMID:22956116

  4. Mandibular lip bumper for molar torque control.

    PubMed

    Celentano, Giuseppe; Longobardi, Annalisa; Cannavale, Rosangela; Perillo, Letizia

    2011-01-01

    Treatment effects of lip bumpers alone include flaring of the mandibular incisors, distalization and uprighting of the mandibular first molars, and buccal expansion of the canines, premolars, and molar. Lip forces are transmitted through this appliance onto the molars. Moreover the lip bumper is able to derotate, expand or constrict, upright and reinforce the anchorage whereas torque control is lacking. Aim of this paper is the presentation of a new type of lip bumper that allows the molar torque control. PMID:21515237

  5. Non-compliance Appliances for Upper Molar Distalization: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Noorollahian, Saeed; Alavi, Shiva; Shirban, Farinaz

    2015-01-01

    Tooth Size Arch-length Discrepancy (TSALD) is a common problem in orthodontics. Its clinical signs are tooth crowding, impaction and incisor proclination. The treatment options are dental arch expansion or tooth mass reduction (stripping or extraction). The "extraction versus non-extraction" controversy has been widely debated in the orthodontic literature. Distalization is a kind of arch expansion in anetro-posterior dimension. Several studies have evaluated both the therapeutic effectiveness and the side effects of the appliances for this method of space gaining. In some cases molar distalization is preferred, e.g., a patient with acceptable profile and skeletal pattern and half cusp Class II molar malocclusion or even less. In some cases molar distalization is the only way, e.g., the patient with previous upper premolar extraction and excessive overijet, or a skeletal Class III patient with previous upper premolar extraction needed upper anterior teeth retraction to create reverse overjet aspre surgical orthodontic decompensation. In this review article, we described non-compliance upper molar distalizing appliances. PMID:26720949

  6. [Distalization of the upper second molar: biomechanics].

    PubMed

    Castaldo, A

    1991-01-01

    The Author shows a system to dystalize the second upper molars and, if necessary, the third upper molars. This system, easy to be adapted, is made up by a palatal bar inserted between the first upper molars, by a sectional and a 100 grams precalibrated open Sentalloy coil spring used as an active force. PMID:1784296

  7. Molar versus as a paradigm clash.

    PubMed Central

    Baum, W M

    2001-01-01

    The molar view of behavior arose in response to the demonstrated inadequacy of explanations based on contiguity. Although Dinsmoor's (2001) modifications to two-factor theory render it irrefutable, a more basic criticism arises when we see that the molar and molecular views differ paradigmatically. The molar view has proven more productive. PMID:11453623

  8. Excessive Sweating (Hyperhidrosis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Excessive Sweating (Hyperhidrosis) Information for adults A A A Profusely ... palms. Overview Hyperhidrosis, the medical name for excessive sweating, involves overactive sweat glands, usually of a defined ...

  9. The effect of cellulose molar mass on the properties of palmitate esters.

    PubMed

    Willberg-Keyriläinen, Pia; Talja, Riku; Asikainen, Sari; Harlin, Ali; Ropponen, Jarmo

    2016-10-20

    Nowadays one of the growing trends is to replace oil-based products with cellulose-based materials. Currently most cellulose esters require a huge excess of chemicals and have therefore, not been broadly used in the industry. Here, we show that decreasing the molar mass of cellulose by ozone hydrolysis provides cellulose functionalization with less chemical consumption. To reveal the differences in reactivity and chemical consumption, we showed esterification of both native cellulose and ozone treated hydrolyzed cellulose. Based on the results, the molar mass of the starting cellulose has a significant effect on the end product's degree of substitution and properties. Furthermore, molar mass controlled palmitate esters form mechanically strong, flexible and optically transparent films with excellent water barrier properties. We anticipate that molar mass controlled cellulose will provide a starting point for the greater use of cellulose based materials, in various application, such as films and composites. PMID:27474646

  10. Maxillary First Molar with Two Root Canals

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, Saeed; Ghasemi, Negin

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge regarding the anatomic morphology of maxillary molars is absolutely essential for the success of endodontic treatment. The morphology of the permanent maxillary first molar has been reviewed extensively; however, the presence of two canals in a two-rooted maxillary first molar has rarely been reported in studies describing tooth and root canal anatomies. This case report presents a patient with a maxillary first molar with two roots and two root canals, who was referred to the Department of Endodontics, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran. PMID:23862051

  11. Molar volumes and densities of minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robie, Richard A.; Bethke, Philip M.

    1962-01-01

    These tables present critically chosen "best values" for the density and molar volume of selected mineral compounds. No attempt was made to be all-inclusive; rather we have tried to present data for chemically and physically well-defined phases for which the molar volume and/or density was knovvn to the order of 0. 2 percent.

  12. General technique of third molar removal.

    PubMed

    Farish, Sam E; Bouloux, Gary F

    2007-02-01

    The most commonly performed surgical procedure in most oral and maxillofacial surgery practices is the removal of impacted third molars. Extensive training, skill, and experience allow this procedure to be performed in an atraumatic fashion with local anesthesia, sedation, or general anesthesia. The decision to remove symptomatic third molars is not usually difficult, but the decision to remove asymptomatic third molars is sometimes less clear and requires clinical experience. A wide body of literature (discussed elsewhere in this issue) attempts to establish clinical practice guidelines for dealing with impacted teeth. Data is beginning to accumulate from third molar studies, which hopefully will provide surgeons and their patients with evidence-based guidelines regarding elective third molar surgery. PMID:18088862

  13. Expressly fabricated molar tube bases: enhanced adhesion.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Tarun; Phull, Tarun Singh; Rana, Tarun; Kumar, Varun

    2014-06-01

    Clinicians, Orthodontists and their patients' parents often expect the best results in the shortest time span possible. Orthodontic bonding of molar tubes has been an acceptable risk in a modern era of refined biomaterials and instrumentation. Although many orthodontists still prefer banding to bonding, it is the failure rate of the tubes on molars which accounts to an impedance in molar bonding. One of the reasons for molar attachment failures is attributed to improper adaptation of the buccal tube base with or without increased thickness of composite. Merits of banding the second molars especially when these are the terminal teeth for anchorage have been overemphasized in the literature. The present article presents a simple and relatively less time consuming technique of preparing molar tubes to be bonded on tooth surfaces which may be quite difficult to isolate especially for bonding, for example, mandibular second molars. The increased surface area of the composite scaffold helps not only in enhanced bond strength but also serves to reduce the incidence of plaque accumulation given the dexterity of invitro preparation. The removal of the occlusal part of the molar tube scaffold helps in prevention of open / raised bite tendencies. The present innovation, therefore, is not merely serendipity but a structured technique to overcome a common dilemma for the clinical orthodontist. The present dictum of banding being superior to molar tube bonding may prove to be futile with trendsetting molar attachments. It is also an established fact that bonding proves to be a lesser expensive modality when compared to banding procedures. PMID:25121070

  14. Problems of Excess Capacity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, G.

    1972-01-01

    The problems of excess capacity in the airline industry are discussed with focus on the following topics: load factors; fair rate of return on investment; service-quality rivalry among airlines; pricing (fare) policies; aircraft production; and the impacts of excess capacity on operating costs. Also included is a discussion of the interrelationships among these topics.

  15. Excessive acquisition in hoarding.

    PubMed

    Frost, Randy O; Tolin, David F; Steketee, Gail; Fitch, Kristin E; Selbo-Bruns, Alexandra

    2009-06-01

    Compulsive hoarding (the acquisition of and failure to discard large numbers of possessions) is associated with substantial health risk, impairment, and economic burden. However, little research has examined separate components of this definition, particularly excessive acquisition. The present study examined acquisition in hoarding. Participants, 878 self-identified with hoarding and 665 family informants (not matched to hoarding participants), completed an Internet survey. Among hoarding participants who met criteria for clinically significant hoarding, 61% met criteria for a diagnosis of compulsive buying and approximately 85% reported excessive acquisition. Family informants indicated that nearly 95% exhibited excessive acquisition. Those who acquired excessively had more severe hoarding; their hoarding had an earlier onset and resulted in more psychiatric work impairment days; and they experienced more symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder, depression, and anxiety. Two forms of excessive acquisition (buying and free things) each contributed independent variance in the prediction of hoarding severity and related symptoms. PMID:19261435

  16. Excessive Acquisition in Hoarding

    PubMed Central

    Frost, Randy O.; Tolin, David F.; Steketee, Gail; Fitch, Kristin E.; Selbo-Bruns, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    Compulsive hoarding (the acquisition of and failure to discard large numbers of possessions) is associated with substantial health risk, impairment, and economic burden. However, little research has examined separate components of this definition, particularly excessive acquisition. The present study examined acquisition in hoarding. Participants, 878 self-identified with hoarding and 665 family informants (not matched to hoarding participants), completed an internet survey. Among hoarding participants who met criteria for clinically significant hoarding, 61% met criteria for a diagnosis of compulsive buying and approximately 85% reported excessive acquisition. Family informants indicated that nearly 95% exhibited excessive acquisition. Those who acquired excessively had more severe hoarding; their hoarding had an earlier onset and resulted in more psychiatric work impairment days; and they experienced more symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder, depression, and anxiety. Two forms of excessive acquisition (buying and free things) each contributed independent variance in the prediction of hoarding severity and related symptoms. PMID:19261435

  17. Maxillary second molar impaction in the adjacent ectopic third molar: Report of five rare cases.

    PubMed

    Souki, Bernardo Q; Cheib, Paula L; de Brito, Gabriela M; Pinto, Larissa S M C

    2015-01-01

    Maxillary second molar impaction in the adjacent ectopic third molar is a rare condition that practitioners might face in the field of pediatric dentistry and orthodontics. The early diagnosis and extraction of the adjacent ectopic third molar have been advocated, and prior research has reported a high rate of spontaneous eruption following third molar removal. However, some challenges in the daily practice are that the early diagnosis of this type of tooth impaction is difficult with conventional radiographic examination, and sometimes the early surgical removal of the maxillary third molar must be postponed because of the risks of damaging the second molar. The objective of this study is to report a case series of five young patients with maxillary second molar impaction and to discuss the difficulty of early diagnosis with the conventional radiographic examination, and unpredictability of self-correction. PMID:26321848

  18. Unilateral Molar Distalization: A Nonextraction Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, M. Bhanu; Sreevalli, S.

    2012-01-01

    In the recent years, nonextraction treatment approaches and noncompliance therapies have become more popular in the correction of space discrepancies. One of the conventional approaches for space gaining in the arches without patient compliance is done by using certain extra oral appliances or intraoral appliance. The greatest advantage of certain appliances like fixed functional and molar distalization appliances is that they minimize the dependence on patient cooperation. Molar distalization appliances like pendulum appliance which distalizes the molar rapidly without the need of head gear can be used in patients as a unilateral space gaining procedure due to buccal segment crowding. PMID:23320203

  19. Role of third molars in orthodontics.

    PubMed

    Almpani, Konstantinia; Kolokitha, Olga-Elpis

    2015-02-16

    The role of third molars in the oral cavity has been extensively studied over the years. Literature includes numerous diagnostic and treatment alternatives regarding the third molars. However, an issue that has not been discussed at the same level is their involvement in orthodontic therapy. The aim of this study is to present a review of the contemporary literature regarding the most broadly discussed aspects of the multifactorial role of third molars in orthodontics and which are of general dental interest too. PMID:25685759

  20. Excessive Blinking in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... scratch on the front surface of the eye), conjunctivitis (pink eye), foreign body in the eye, or ... is excessive blinking treated? If an abrasion or conjunctivitis is diagnosed, eye drops or ointment may be ...

  1. Molars and incisors: show your microarray IDs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background One of the key questions in developmental biology is how, from a relatively small number of conserved signaling pathways, is it possible to generate organs displaying a wide range of shapes, tissue organization, and function. The dentition and its distinct specific tooth types represent a valuable system to address the issues of differential molecular signatures. To identify such signatures, we performed a comparative transcriptomic analysis of developing murine lower incisors, mandibular molars and maxillary molars at the developmental cap stage (E14.5). Results 231 genes were identified as being differentially expressed between mandibular incisors and molars, with a fold change higher than 2 and a false discovery rate lower than 0.1, whereas only 96 genes were discovered as being differentially expressed between mandibular and maxillary molars. Numerous genes belonging to specific signaling pathways (the Hedgehog, Notch, Wnt, FGF, TGFβ/BMP, and retinoic acid pathways), and/or to the homeobox gene superfamily, were also uncovered when a less stringent fold change threshold was used. Differential expressions for 10 out of 12 (mandibular incisors versus molars) and 9 out of 10 selected genes were confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR). A bioinformatics tool (Ingenuity Pathway Analysis) used to analyze biological functions and pathways on the group of incisor versus molar differentially expressed genes revealed that 143 genes belonged to 9 networks with intermolecular connections. Networks with the highest significance scores were centered on the TNF/NFκB complex and the ERK1/2 kinases. Two networks ERK1/2 kinases and tretinoin were involved in differential molar morphogenesis. Conclusion These data allowed us to build several regulatory networks that may distinguish incisor versus molar identity, and may be useful for further investigations of these tooth-specific ontogenetic programs. These programs may be dysregulated in

  2. Single-rooted primary first mandibular molar

    PubMed Central

    Haridoss, SelvaKumar; Swaminathan, Kavitha; Rajendran, Vijayakumar; Rajendran, Bharathan

    2014-01-01

    Morphological variations like single-rooted molar in primary dentition are scarce. Understanding the root canal anatomy and variations is necessary for successful root canal therapy. The purpose of the present article is to report successful endodontic treatment of primary left mandibular first molar with an abnormal morphology of a single root. This case report highlights the importance of knowledge and its applications in the management of anomalous anatomic variants which play a crucial role in the success of endodontic treatment. PMID:25150245

  3. Maxillary molar distalization with first class appliance

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, Namitha; Palukunnu, Biswas; Ravindran, Nidhi; Nair, Preeti P

    2014-01-01

    Non-extraction treatment has gained popularity for corrections of mild-to-moderate class II malocclusion over the past few decades. The distalization of maxillary molars is of significant value for treatment of cases with minimal arch discrepancy and mild class II molar relation associated with a normal mandibular arch and acceptable profile. This paper describes our experience with a 16-year-old female patient who reported with irregularly placed upper front teeth and unpleasant smile. The patient was diagnosed to have angles class II malocclusion with moderate maxillary anterior crowding, deep bite of 4 mm on a skeletal class II base with an orthognathic maxilla and retrognathic mandible and normal growth pattern. She presented an ideal profile and so molar distalization was planned with the first-class appliance. Molars were distalised by 8 mm on the right and left quadrants and class I molar relation achieved within 4 months. The space gained was utilised effectively to align the arch and establish a class I molar and canine relation. PMID:24577171

  4. Densities, Ultrasonic Speeds, and Excess Properties of Binary Mixtures of Diethylene Glycol with 1-Butanol, 2-Butanol, and 1,4-Butanediol at Different Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Anwar; Ansari, Sana; Uzair, Sahar; Tasneem, Shadma; Nabi, Firdosa

    2015-11-01

    Densities ρ and ultrasonic speeds u for pure diethylene glycol, 1-butanol, 2-butanol, and 1,4-butanediol and for their binary mixtures over the entire composition range were measured at 298.15 K, 303.15 K, 308.15 K, and 313.15 K. Using these data, the excess molar volumes, VE_m, deviations in isentropic compressibilities, {\\varDelta }ks, apparent molar volumes, V_{φi} , partial molar volumes, overline{V}_{m,i} , and excess partial molar volumes, overline{V}_{m,i}^E , have been calculated over the entire composition range, and also the excess partial molar volumes of the components at infinite dilution, overline{V}_{m,i}^{E,infty } have been calculated. The excess functions have been correlated using the Redlich-Kister equation at different temperatures. The variations of these derived parameters with composition and temperature are presented graphically.

  5. Efficiency of a pendulum appliance for molar distalization related to second and third molar eruption stage.

    PubMed

    Kinzinger, Gero S M; Fritz, Ulrike B; Sander, Franz-Günter; Diedrich, Peter R

    2004-01-01

    A modified pendulum appliance, including a distal screw and special preactivated pendulum springs (built-in straightening activation and toe-in bending), was used for bilateral maxillary molar distalization in 36 adolescent patients in various stages of the molar dentition. The patients were divided into 3 groups (PG 1-3) according to the stage of eruption of their second and third molars. In PG 1 (18 patients), eruption of the second molars had either not yet taken place or was not complete. In PG 2 (15 patients), the second molars had already developed as far as the occlusal plane, with the third molars at the budding stage. In PG 3 (3 patients), germectomy of the wisdom teeth had been carried out, and the first and second molars on both sides had completely erupted. Analysis of cephalograms to identify any changes in the sagittal plane showed that, in the direction of distalization, a tooth bud acts on the mesial neighboring tooth like a fulcrum, and that tipping of the first molars in patients in whom the second molar was still at the budding stage was thus greater. In patients whose second molars had erupted completely, the degree of tipping was greater again when a third molar bud was located in the direction of movement. After previously completed germectomy of the wisdom teeth, almost exclusively bodily distalization of both molars is possible, even without bands being applied to the second molars. However, if the first and second molars are distalized simultaneously with a pendulum appliance, the duration of therapy will be longer, greater forces will have to be applied, and more anchorage will be lost. Statistical analysis of the results of dental-angular measurements showed significant differences in the degree of molar tipping and reciprocal incisor protrusion. The degree of distal tipping of first molars was less in patients with erupted second molars (PG 2 and PG 3) than in those whose second molars were not yet erupted (PG 1). For instance, the

  6. Lateral stress evolution in chromium sulfide cermets with varying excess chromium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petel, O. E.; Appleby-Thomas, G. J.; Wood, D. C.; Capozzi, A.; Nabavi, A.; Goroshin, S.; Frost, D. L.; Hazell, P. J.

    2016-04-01

    The shock response of chromium sulfide-chromium, a cermet of potential interest as a matrix material for ballistic applications, has been investigated at two molar ratios. Using a combustion synthesis technique allowed for control of the molar ratio of the material, which was investigated under near-stoichiometric (cermet) and excess chromium (interpenetrating composite) conditions, representing chromium:sulfur molar ratios of 1.15:1 and 4:1, respectively. The compacts were investigated via the plate-impact technique, which allowed the material to be loaded under a one-dimensional state of strain. Embedded manganin stress gauges were employed to monitor the temporal evolution of longitudinal and lateral components of stress in both materials. Comparison of these two components has allowed assessment of the variation of material shear strength both with impact pressure/strain-rate and time for the two molar ratio conditions. The two materials exhibited identical material strength despite variations in their excess chromium contents.

  7. Formation of polyelectrolyte complexes with diethylaminoethyl dextran: charge ratio and molar mass effect.

    PubMed

    Le Cerf, Didier; Pepin, Anne Sophie; Niang, Pape Momar; Cristea, Mariana; Karakasyan-Dia, Carole; Picton, Luc

    2014-11-26

    The formation of polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) between carboxymethyl pullulan and DEAE Dextran, was investigated, in dilute solution, with emphasis on the effect of charge density (molar ratio or pH) and molar masses. Electrophoretic mobility measurements have evidenced that insoluble PECs (neutral electrophoretic mobility) occurs for charge ratio between 0.6 (excess of polycation) and 1 (stoichiometry usual value) according to the pH. This atypical result is explained by the inaccessibility of some permanent cationic charge when screened by pH dependant cationic ones (due to the Hoffman alkylation). Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) indicates an endothermic formation of PEC with a binding constant around 10(5) L mol(-1). Finally asymmetrical flow field flow fractionation coupled on line with static multi angle light scattering (AF4/MALS) evidences soluble PECs with very large average molar masses and size around 100 nm, in agreement with scrambled eggs multi-association between various polyelectrolyte chains. PMID:25256478

  8. Excess molar enthalpies of (water + alkanolamine) systems and some thermodynamic calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Maham, Y.; Mather, A.E.; Hepler, L.G.

    1997-09-01

    Several (water + alkanolamine) systems are used for removal of acidic gases such as carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide from gas streams in the natural gas and petroleum industries and are of increasing importance in treating streams in the chemical production industries. The authors have made calorimetric measurements of enthalpies of mixing of (water + monoethanolamine), (water + diethanolamine), and (water + triethanolamine) at T = 298.15 K and of (water + methyldiethanolamine) at T = 298.15 and 313.15 K. Results of these measurements have been used in some thermodynamic calculations to illustrate general principals that are applicable to many systems of mixed liquids.

  9. Orthodontic extrusion of horizontally impacted mandibular molars

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zhigui; Yang, Chi; Zhang, Shanyong; Xie, Qianyang; Shen, Yuqing; Shen, Pei

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To introduce and evaluate a novel approach in treating horizontally impacted mandibular second and third molars. Materials and methods: An orthodontic technique was applied for treatment of horizontally impacted mandibular second and third molars, which included a push-type spring for rotation first, and then a cantilever for extrusion. There were 8 mandibular third molars (M3s) and 2 second molars (M2s) in this study. Tooth mobility, extraction time, the inclination and parallelism of the impacted tooth, alveolar bone height of the adjacent tooth, and the relationship of impacted M3 and the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) were evaluated. Results: Two horizontally impacted M2s could be upright in the arch and good occlusal relationships were obtained after treatment. All impacted M3s were successfully separated from the IAN, without any neurologic consequences. The average extraction time was 5 minutes. There was a significant change in the inclination and parallelism of the impacted tooth after treatment. A new bone apposition with the average height of 3.2 mm was noted distal to the adjacent tooth. Conclusions: This two-step orthodontic technique as presented here may be a safe and feasible alternative in management of severely horizontally impacted mandibular molars, which achieves a successful separation of M3s from the IAN and an excellent position for M2s. PMID:25419364

  10. Reducing Excessive Television Viewing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jason, Leonard A.; Rooney-Rebeck, Patty

    1984-01-01

    A youngster who excessively watched television was placed on a modified token economy: earned tokens were used to activate the television for set periods of time. Positive effects resulted in the child's school work, in the amount of time his family spent together, and in his mother's perception of family social support. (KH)

  11. HIV Excess Cancers JNCI

    Cancer.gov

    In 2010, an estimated 7,760 new cancers were diagnosed among the nearly 900,000 Americans known to be living with HIV infection. According to the first comprehensive study in the United States, approximately half of these cancers were in excess of what wo

  12. Oxygen from Hydrogen Peroxide. A Safe Molar Volume-Molar Mass Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedenbaugh, John H.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes a molar volume-molar mass experiment for use in general chemistry laboratories. Gives background technical information, procedures for the titration of aqueous hydrogen peroxide with standard potassium permanganate and catalytic decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to produce oxygen, and a discussion of the results obtained in three…

  13. Lower third molar eruption following orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Salehi, P; Danaie, S Momene

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of extraction and preservation of the 1st premolar on lower 3rd molar eruption. Orthodontic clinic records from 1993 to 1995 were evaluated before and after treatment and 8-9 years after treatment for 3 groups of patients: 32 with extraction of 1st premolars in both jaws, 32 with no extraction but orthodontic treatment and 48 controls with no extraction but orthodontic treatment in the upper jaws only. Successful eruption of 3rd molars was evaluated. There was a significant difference in the rates of successful eruptions in the extraction (42%), non-extraction (12%) and control (20%) groups. The findings indicate that 1st premolar extraction may increase the chance of 3rd molar eruption, leading to a lower incidence of health and economic complications. PMID:19161121

  14. High-Temperature CO2 Sorption on Hydrotalcite Having a High Mg/Al Molar Ratio.

    PubMed

    Kim, Suji; Jeon, Sang Goo; Lee, Ki Bong

    2016-03-01

    Hydrotalcites having a Mg/Al molar ratio between 3 and 30 have been synthesized as promising high-temperature CO2 sorbents. The existence of NaNO3 in the hydrotalcite structure, which originates from excess magnesium nitrate in the precursor, markedly increases CO2 sorption uptake by hydrotalcite up to the record high value of 9.27 mol kg(-1) at 240 °C and 1 atm CO2. PMID:26927529

  15. Molar and molecular views of choice.

    PubMed

    Baum, William M

    2004-06-30

    The molar and molecular views of behavior are not different theories or levels of analysis; they are different paradigms. The molecular paradigm views behavior as composed of discrete units (responses) occurring at moments in time and strung together in chains to make up complex performances. The discrete pieces are held together as a result of association by contiguity. The molecular view has a long history both in early thought about reflexes and in associationism, and, although it was helpful to getting a science of behavior started, it has outlived its usefulness. The molar view stems from a conviction that behavior is continuous, as argued by John Dewey, Gestalt psychologists, Karl Lashley, and others. The molar paradigm views behavior as inherently extended in time and composed of activities that have integrated parts. In the molar paradigm, activities vary in their scale of organization--i.e., as to whether they are local or extended--and behavior may be controlled sometimes by short-term relations and sometimes by long-term relations. Applied to choice, the molar paradigm rests on two simple principles: (a) all behavior constitutes choice; and (b) all activities take time. Equivalence between choice and behavior occurs because every situation contains more than one alternative activity. The principle that behavior takes time refers not simply to any notion of response duration, but to the necessity that identifying one action or another requires a sample extended in time. The molecular paradigm's momentary responses are inferred from extended samples in retrospect. In this sense, momentary responses constitute abstractions, whereas extended activities constitute concrete particulars. Explanations conceived within the molecular paradigm invariably involve hypothetical constructs, because they require causes to be contiguous with responses. Explanations conceived within the molar paradigm retain direct contact with observable variables. PMID:15157981

  16. The otherness of sexuality: excess.

    PubMed

    Stein, Ruth

    2008-03-01

    The present essay, the second of a series of three, aims at developing an experience-near account of sexuality by rehabilitating the idea of excess and its place in sexual experience. It is suggested that various types of excess, such as excess of excitation (Freud), the excess of the other (Laplanche), excess beyond symbolization and the excess of the forbidden object of desire (Leviticus; Lacan) work synergistically to constitute the compelling power of sexuality. In addition to these notions, further notions of excess touch on its transformative potential. Such notions address excess that shatters psychic structures and that is actively sought so as to enable new ones to evolve (Bersani). Work is quoted that regards excess as a way of dealing with our lonely, discontinuous being by using the "excessive" cosmic energy circulating through us to achieve continuity against death (Bataille). Two contemporary analytic thinkers are engaged who deal with the object-relational and intersubjective vicissitudes of excess. PMID:18430702

  17. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ja of... - Molar Exhaust Volumes and Molar Heat Content of Fuel Gas Constituents

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Molar Exhaust Volumes and Molar Heat... Exhaust Volumes and Molar Heat Content of Fuel Gas Constituents Constituent MEVa dscf/mol MHCb Btu/mol... Inerts 0.85 0 a MEV = molar exhaust volume, dry standard cubic feet per gram-mole (dscf/g-mol)...

  18. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ja of... - Molar Exhaust Volumes and Molar Heat Content of Fuel Gas Constituents

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Molar Exhaust Volumes and Molar Heat... Exhaust Volumes and Molar Heat Content of Fuel Gas Constituents Constituent MEVa dscf/mol MHCb Btu/mol... Inerts 0.85 0 a MEV = molar exhaust volume, dry standard cubic feet per gram-mole (dscf/g-mol)...

  19. Ectopic molar pregnancy: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Bousfiha, Najoua; Erarhay, Sanaa; Louba, Adnane; Saadi, Hanan; Bouchikhi, Chahrazad; Banani, Abdelaziz; Fatemi, Hind El; Sekkal, Med; Laamarti, Afaf

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of hydatidiform moles is 1 per 1,000 pregnancies. Ectopic pregnancy occurs in 20 per 1,000 pregnancies. Thus, the incidence of the ectopic molar gestation is very rare. We report a case of tubal molar pregnancy diagnosed at the systematic histology exam of an ectopic pregnancy. We report the case of 32 years old nulliparus women who presented a vaginal bleeding, lower abdominal pain and 6 weeks amenorrhea corresponding to the last menstrual period. At the clinical examination, the arterial pressure was 100/60 mmHG. The gynecological examination was difficult because of lower abdominal pain. Serum gonadotropin activity was 3454 ui/l. Pelvic ultrasound revealed an irregular echogenic mass in the left adnexa. Diagnostic laparoscopy revealed a left-sided unruptured ampullary ectopic pregnancy. A left laparoscopic salpingectomy was performed. The systematic histologic test identified an ectopic partial molar pregnancy, which was confirmed by DNA ploidy image analysis. The patient was followed with weekly quantitative B-hCG titers until three successive B-hCG levels were negative. It is pertinent that clinicians take routine histological examination of tubal specimens in ectopic pregnancy very seriously in order to diagnose cases of ectopic molar gestations early and mount appropriate post treatment surveillance. PMID:22655097

  20. Ectopic molar pregnancy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Bousfiha, Najoua; Erarhay, Sanaa; Louba, Adnane; Saadi, Hanan; Bouchikhi, Chahrazad; Banani, Abdelaziz; El Fatemi, Hind; Sekkal, Med; Laamarti, Afaf

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of hydatidiform moles is 1 per 1,000 pregnancies. Ectopic pregnancy occurs in 20 per 1,000 pregnancies. Thus, the incidence of the ectopic molar gestation is very rare. We report a case of tubal molar pregnancy diagnosed at the systematic histology exam of an ectopic pregnancy. We report the case of 32 years old nulliparus women who presented a vaginal bleeding, lower abdominal pain and 6 weeks amenorrhea corresponding to the last menstrual period. At the clinical examination, the arterial pressure was 100/60 mmHG. The gynecological examination was difficult because of lower abdominal pain. Serum gonadotropin activity was 3454 ui/l. Pelvic ultrasound revealed an irregular echogenic mass in the left adnexa. Diagnostic laparoscopy revealed a left-sided unruptured ampullary ectopic pregnancy. A left laparoscopic salpingectomy was performed. The systematic histologic test identified an ectopic partial molar pregnancy, which was confirmed by DNA ploidy image analysis. The patient was followed with weekly quantitative B-hCG titers until three successive B-hCG levels were negative. It is pertinent that clinicians take routine histological examination of tubal specimens in ectopic pregnancy very seriously in order to diagnose cases of ectopic molar gestations early and mount appropriate post treatment surveillance. PMID:22655097

  1. Mass versus molar doses, similarities and differences.

    PubMed

    Chmielewska, A; Lamparczyk, H

    2008-11-01

    Generally, they are two systems expressing the amounts of active substance in a given drug product, i.e. mass and molar dose. Currently, the dose system based on the mass is widely used in which doses are expressed in grams or milligrams. On the other hand, the molar dose system is in direct relation to the number of molecules. Hence, the objective of this work was to compare both systems in order to find their advantages and disadvantages. Active substances belonging to the groups of antibiotics, nootropic agents, beta-blockers, vitamins, GABA-analog, COX-2 inhibitors, calcium channel antagonists, benzodiazepine receptor agonists, lipid-modifying agents (fibrates), non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (profens), estrogens, neuroleptics, analgesics and benzodiazepines were considered. Moreover, products containing two active substances were also taken into account. These are mixtures of hydrochlorothiazide with active substances influencing the renin-angiotensin system and combined oral contraceptives. For each active substance, belonging to the groups mentioned above molar doses were calculated from mass doses and molar mass. Hence, groups of drugs with a single active substance, drugs with similar pharmacological activities, pharmaceutical alternatives, and drugs with a single active ingredient manufactured in different doses were compared in order to find which dose system describes more adequately differences between and within the groups mentioned above. Comparisons were supported by a number of equations, which theoretically justify the data, and relationships derived from calculations. PMID:19069248

  2. Selective alveolar corticotomy to intrude overerupted molars.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Dauro Douglas; de Oliveira, Bruno Franco; de Araújo Brito, Helio Henrique; de Souza, Margareth Maria Gomes; Medeiros, Paulo José

    2008-06-01

    Orthodontic intrusion of overerupted molars in adults is challenging for most clinicians. Efficient intrusion can be achieved by combining selective alveolar corticotomies with a modified full-coverage maxillary splint to reduce surgical risks, treatment time, and costs for both orthodontists and patients. PMID:18538256

  3. Excess flow shutoff valve

    DOEpatents

    Kiffer, Micah S.; Tentarelli, Stephen Clyde

    2016-02-09

    Excess flow shutoff valve comprising a valve body, a valve plug, a partition, and an activation component where the valve plug, the partition, and activation component are disposed within the valve body. A suitable flow restriction is provided to create a pressure difference between the upstream end of the valve plug and the downstream end of the valve plug when fluid flows through the valve body. The pressure difference exceeds a target pressure difference needed to activate the activation component when fluid flow through the valve body is higher than a desired rate, and thereby closes the valve.

  4. Till Surgery do us Part: Unexpected Bilateral Kissing Molars

    PubMed Central

    Anish, Narayanankutty; Vivek, Velayudhannair; Thomas, Sunila; Daniel, Vineet Alex; Thomas, Jincy; Ranimol, Prasanna

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence impacted teeth, single or multiple is very common. But, phenomenon of kissing molars is an extremely rare phenomenon. Mandibular third molars are the most common impacted teeth. Mandibular first or second molars does not share the same frequency of occurrence. But, there are rare cases in which the occlusal surfaces of impacted molars are united by the same follicular space and the roots point in the opposite direction, and are termed as kissing molars. Sometimes, these teeth will be associated with pathologies. This article reports a rare case of mandibular bilateral kissing molars. PMID:25918627

  5. Patients' anxieties with third molar surgery.

    PubMed

    Earl, P

    1994-10-01

    There has been little study of patients' anxieties about third molar surgery despite its widespread practice. 105 patients were invited to complete questionnaires preoperatively to assess anxieties about the procedure and to assess how well it was explained. They were also asked post operatively to assess differences from expectations, accuracy of the preoperative explanation and which aspect would worry them most should the procedure be repeated. Patients generally found their worries as expected or even better. Few found events worse with only pain (12%) and paraesthesia (13%) of note. Although 88% of patients assessed pain as better than or as expected, 43% would fear it most if the procedure was repeated. Pain is the single most feared factor despite evidence that it is usually no worse than originally feared. Reassurance and adequate pain control are the most important factors to patients in third molar surgery, and this reassurance should start at operation booking rather than on admission. PMID:7999736

  6. Enzyme Molar Fractions: A Powerful Tool for Understanding Enzyme Kinetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serra, Juan L.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Deduces the relationship between reduced velocity and molar fractions for productive enzyme complexes; obtains the mathematical expression of molar fractions for an enzyme with two specific binding sites per molecule; and proposes a useful plot to follow the dependence of enzyme molar fractions with the concentration of one of its ligands. (JN)

  7. Molar tubal ectopic pregnancy: Report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Mbarki, Chaouki; Jerbi, Emna; Hsayaoui, Najeh; Zouari, Fatma; Ben Brahim, Ehsen; Oueslati, Hedhili

    2015-06-01

    Ectopic molar pregnancy is a rare occurrence and consequently not often considered as a diagnostic possibility. We report two cases of molar hydatidiform tubal pregnancy. Diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy was confirmed on clinical biological and sonographic investigations. Diagnosis of molar pregnancy was done on histopathology. The clinical course was favorable for both patients. Although rare, molar changes can occur at any site of an ectopic pregnancy. Clinical diagnosis of a molar pregnancy is difficult but histopathology is the gold standard for diagnosis. PMID:25510265

  8. Periodontal changes following molar intrusion with miniscrews

    PubMed Central

    Bayani, Shahin; Heravi, Farzin; Radvar, Mehrdad; Anbiaee, Najmeh; Madani, Azam Sadat

    2015-01-01

    Background: With the introduction of skeletal anchorage system, recently it is possible to successfully intrude molar teeth. On the other hand, there have been concerns about periodontal changes associated with intrusion and there are few studies on this topic, especially for posterior teeth. Materials and Methods: Ten female patients were enrolled in this study. Maxillary molar intrusion was achieved by inserting two miniscrews and a 17 × 25 titanium molybdenum alloy spring. Crestal height changes were evaluated at three intervals including: Baseline (T0), end of active treatment (T1) and 6 months after retention (T2). Other variables including probing depth, gingival recession, attachment level and bleeding on probing were evaluated by clinical measurements in the three above mentioned intervals. One-sample Kolmogrov-Smirnov test ascertained the normality of the data. For all patients, the changes in tooth position and crestal height were evaluated using one-sample t-test. (P < 0.05) Results: Supra-erupted molars were successfully intruded a mean of 2.1 ± 0.9 mm during active treatment (T0-T1). A mean bone resorption of 0.9 ± 0.9 mm in mesial crest and 1 ± 0.8 mm in distal crest had occurred in total treatment (T0-T2). A mean of 0.6 ± 1.4 mm bone was deposited on mesial crest during the retention period (T1-T2) following tooth relapse. On average, 0.8 ± 0.4 mm attachment gain was obtained. Gingival margin coronalized a mean of 0.8 ± 0.6 mm throughout the entire treatment. Probing depth showed no significant change during treatment. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, these results suggest that not only periodontal status was not negatively affected by intrusion, but also there were signs of periodontal improvement including attachment gain and shortening of clinical crown height. PMID:26288629

  9. Angle Class II, subdivision, with agenesis of mandibular second molars and extrusion of maxillary second molars *

    PubMed Central

    Tavares, Rubens Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    This clinical case reports the treatment of an Angle Class II malocclusion in a young woman with a balanced face affected by agenesis of second and third mandibular molars and subsequent extrusion of second maxillary molars. The atypical and peculiar occlusal anomaly led to individualized treatment proposed in order to normalize dental malpositions, with subsequent rehabilitation of edentulous areas by means of a multidisciplinary approach. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO) in partial fulfillment of the requirements for obtaining the title of certified by the BBO. PMID:25992995

  10. Mechanics analysis of molar tooth splitting.

    PubMed

    Barani, Amir; Chai, Herzl; Lawn, Brian R; Bush, Mark B

    2015-03-01

    A model for the splitting of teeth from wedge loading of molar cusps from a round indenting object is presented. The model is developed in two parts: first, a simple 2D fracture mechanics configuration with the wedged tooth simulated by a compact tension specimen; second, a full 3D numerical analysis using extended finite element modeling (XFEM) with an embedded crack. The result is an explicit equation for splitting load in terms of indenter radius and key tooth dimensions. Fracture experiments on extracted human molars loaded axially with metal spheres are used to quantify the splitting forces and thence to validate the model. The XFEM calculations enable the complex crack propagation, initially in the enamel coat and subsequently in the interior dentin, to be followed incrementally with increasing load. The fracture evolution is shown to be stable prior to failure, so that dentin toughness, not strength, is the controlling material parameter. Critical conditions under which tooth splitting in biological and dental settings are likely to be met, however rare, are considered. PMID:25584989

  11. Clinical significance of computed tomography assessment for third molar surgery.

    PubMed

    Nakamori, Kenji; Tomihara, Kei; Noguchi, Makoto

    2014-07-28

    Surgical extraction of the third molar is the most commonly performed surgical procedure in the clinical practice of oral surgery. Third molar surgery is warranted when there is inadequate space for eruption, malpositioning, or risk for cyst or odontogenic tumor formation. Preoperative assessment should include a detailed morphologic analysis of the third molar and its relationship to adjacent structures and surrounding tissues. Due to developments in medical engineering technology, computed tomography (CT) now plays a critical role in providing the clear images required for adequate assessment prior to third molar surgery. Removal of the maxillary third molar is associated with a risk for maxillary sinus perforation, whereas removal of the mandibular third molar can put patients at risk for a neurosensory deficit from damage to the lingual nerve or inferior alveolar nerve. Multiple factors, including demographic, anatomic, and treatment-related factors, influence the incidence of nerve injury during or following removal of the third molar. CT assessment of the third molar prior to surgery can identify some of these risk factors, such as the absence of cortication between the mandibular third molar and the inferior alveolar canal, prior to surgery to reduce the risk for nerve damage. This topic highlight presents an overview of the clinical significance of CT assessment in third molar surgery. PMID:25071882

  12. Clinical significance of computed tomography assessment for third molar surgery

    PubMed Central

    Nakamori, Kenji; Tomihara, Kei; Noguchi, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Surgical extraction of the third molar is the most commonly performed surgical procedure in the clinical practice of oral surgery. Third molar surgery is warranted when there is inadequate space for eruption, malpositioning, or risk for cyst or odontogenic tumor formation. Preoperative assessment should include a detailed morphologic analysis of the third molar and its relationship to adjacent structures and surrounding tissues. Due to developments in medical engineering technology, computed tomography (CT) now plays a critical role in providing the clear images required for adequate assessment prior to third molar surgery. Removal of the maxillary third molar is associated with a risk for maxillary sinus perforation, whereas removal of the mandibular third molar can put patients at risk for a neurosensory deficit from damage to the lingual nerve or inferior alveolar nerve. Multiple factors, including demographic, anatomic, and treatment-related factors, influence the incidence of nerve injury during or following removal of the third molar. CT assessment of the third molar prior to surgery can identify some of these risk factors, such as the absence of cortication between the mandibular third molar and the inferior alveolar canal, prior to surgery to reduce the risk for nerve damage. This topic highlight presents an overview of the clinical significance of CT assessment in third molar surgery. PMID:25071882

  13. Positional changes of the third molar in orthodontically treated patients

    PubMed Central

    Mihai, AM; Lulache, IR; Grigore, R; Sanabil, AS; Boiangiu, S; Ionescu, E

    2013-01-01

    Objective and Rationale. Over the years, the effects of the third molars eruption on the dental arches have been studied extensively. Still, literature provides less data regarding the effects of the orthodontic treatment on the third molars position. The aim of our study was to assess the positional changes of the third molars relative to the occlusal plane and to the second molar long axis, changes occurred during orthodontic treatment performed with or without premolar extractions. Method. This study included 20 orthodontic treated patients: 10 of them with premolar extractions and 10 without premolar extractions. The pretreatment and post treatment panoramic radiographs were analyzed, and the angles between the third molar long axis and the occlusal plane and between the long axis of the third molar and the long axis of the second molar were measured. Results. Changes in third molar position, from pretreatment to post treatment, for the two groups of patients were evaluated by using the Student’s t-test. The results of the statistical analysis revealed an improvement in third molars position, the best results were seen in the lower third molars, in the group of patients treated with premolar extractions. PMID:23904878

  14. Measuring Excess Noise in SDL's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katzberg, S. J.; Kowitz, H. R.; Rowland, C. W.; Shull, T. A.; Ruggles, S. L.; Matthews, L. F.

    1983-01-01

    New instrument gives quantitive information on "excess noise" in semiconductor-diode laser (SDL's). By proper selection of detector, instrument tests any SDL from visible wavelengths through thermal infrared. Lasers determine excess noise in SKL source by measuring photocurrent generated in photodetector exposed first to reference laser then to SKL under test.

  15. Economic and health implications of routine CBCT examination before surgical removal of the mandibular third molar in the Danish population

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, K R; Matzen, L H; Vaeth, M; Wenzel, A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This epidemiological study aimed to analyse economical and societal consequences in Denmark if CBCT is used routinely as a diagnostic method before removal of the mandibular third molar. Furthermore, the aim was to calculate the excess cancer incidence from this practice. Methods: 17 representative dental clinics in the regions of Denmark were visited by two observers, who registered the total number of patients in each clinic, the number of removed mandibular third molars from patients' files together with the age and gender of these patients. The data were collected from 2008 to 2014. The total number of removed mandibular third molars in Denmark each year was derived from the collected data and information on patients' contacts with dentists from Statistics Denmark as a sum of contributions from each region. The contribution of a region was obtained as the number of removed mandibular third molars in the selected clinics in the region times the ratio of the number of patients in the selected clinics in the region to the total number of patients with contact to a general practitioner in the region in 2011. Existing knowledge on the costs for panoramic and CBCT imaging was used to calculate total costs. The cancer incidence was calculated from lifetime attributable risk curves based on linear risk assumptions. Results: The selected clinics included 109,686 patients, and 1369 mandibular third molars had been surgically removed. Using data from Statistics Denmark gave an estimated annual number of removed mandibular third molars of 36,882 at a total cost of €6,633,400. The additional cancer incidence was estimated to be approximately 0.46 per year. Conclusions: The data should be used in a cost-effectiveness analysis of the clinical efficacy of CBCT imaging before removal of mandibular third molars. PMID:25785820

  16. Autotransplantation of Mandibular Third Molar: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Ravi kumar, Pabbati; Jyothi, Mandava; Sirisha, Kantheti; Racca, Khushboo; Uma, Chalasani

    2012-01-01

    Autogenous transplantation is a feasible, fast, and economical option for the treatment of nonsalvageable teeth when a suitable donor tooth is available. This paper presents successful autotransplantation of a mature mandibular left third molar (38) without anatomical variances is used to replace a mandibular left second molar (37). The mandibular second molar was nonrestorable due to extensive root caries and resorption of distal root. After extraction of mandibular second and third molars, root canal therapy was done for the third molar extraorally, and the tooth was reimplanted into the extracted socket of second molar site. After one year, clinical and radiographic examination revealed satisfactory outcome with no signs or symptoms suggestive of pathology. In selected cases, autogenous tooth transplantation, even after complete root formation of the donor tooth, may be considered as a practical treatment alternative to conventional prosthetic rehabilitation or implant treatment. PMID:23346422

  17. Intrusion of overerupted molars by corticotomy and orthodontic skeletal anchorage.

    PubMed

    Moon, Cheol-Hyun; Wee, Jin-Uk; Lee, Hyun-Sun

    2007-11-01

    This article describes the orthodontic treatment of a 26-year-old female patient with overerupted left maxillary molar teeth. Her chief complaint was that the maxillary left first and the second molar intruded into the space required for the mandibular left first and the second molars, preventing prosthodontic treatment. The authors performed a corticotomy and used orthodontic skeletal anchorage with a miniplate and orthodontic miniscrews with a head modified to provide a specially designed hook. With this approach, they were able to achieve a sufficient amount of molar intrusion without discomfort, root resorption, or extrusion of the adjacent teeth. The first molar was intruded 3.0 mm and second molar was intruded 3.5 mm during 2 months of treatment. These results have been maintained for 11 months. PMID:18004918

  18. Molar mass distribution and solubility modeling of asphaltenes

    SciTech Connect

    Yarranton, H.W.; Masliyah, J.H.

    1996-12-01

    Attempts to model asphaltene solubility with Scatchard-Hildebrand theory were hampered by uncertainty in molar volume and solubility parameter distribution within the asphaltenes. By considering asphaltenes as a series of polyaromatic hydrocarbons with randomly distributed associated functional groups, molar volume and solubility parameter distributions are calculated from experimental measurements of molar mass and density. The molar mass distribution of Athabasca asphaltenes is determined from interfacial tension and vapor pressure osmometry measurements together with plasma desorption mass spectrometry determinations from the literature. Asphaltene densities are calculated indirectly from mixtures of known concentration of asphaltene in toluene. Asphaltene density, molar volume, and solubility parameter are correlated with molar mass. Solid-liquid equilibrium calculations based on solubility theory and the asphaltene property correlations successfully predict experimental data for both the precipitation point and the amount of precipitated asphaltenes in toluene-hexane solvent mixtures.

  19. Ab initio molar volumes and Gaussian radii.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Drew F; Ninham, Barry W

    2009-02-12

    Ab initio molar volumes are calculated and used to derive radii for ions and neutral molecules using a spatially diffuse model of the electron distribution with Gaussian spread. The Gaussian radii obtained can be used for computation of nonelectrostatic ion-ion dispersion forces that underlie Hofmeister specific ion effects. Equivalent hard-sphere radii are also derived, and these are in reasonable agreement with crystalline ionic radii. The Born electrostatic self-energy is derived for a Gaussian model of the electronic charge distribution. It is shown that the ionic volumes used in electrostatic calculations of strongly hydrated cosmotropic ions ought best to include the first hydration shell. Ionic volumes for weakly hydrated chaotropic metal cations should exclude electron overlap (in electrostatic calculations). Spherical radii are calculated as well as nonisotropic ellipsoidal radii for nonspherical ions, via their nonisotropic static polarizability tensors. PMID:19140766

  20. Molar extinction coefficients of some fatty acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandhu, G. K.; Singh, Kulwant; Lark, B. S.; Gerward, L.

    2002-10-01

    The attenuation of gamma rays in some fatty acids, viz. formic acid (CH 2O 2), acetic acid (C 2H 4O 2), propionic acid (C 3H 6O 2), butyric acid (C 4H 8O 2), n-hexanoic acid (C 6H 12O 2), n-caprylic acid (C 8H 16O 2), lauric acid (C 12H 24O 2), myristic acid (C 14H 28O 2), palmitic acid (C 16H 32O 2), oleic acid (C 18H 34O 2) and stearic acid (C 18H 36O 2), has been measured at the photon energies 81, 356, 511, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV. Experimental values for the molar extinction coefficient, the effective atomic number and the electron density have been derived and compared with theoretical calculations. There is good agreement between experiment and theory.

  1. The Excess Winter Deaths Measure

    PubMed Central

    Gasparrini, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Background: Excess winter deaths, the ratio between average daily deaths in December–March versus other months, is a measure commonly used by public health practitioners and analysts to assess health burdens associated with wintertime weather. We seek to demonstrate that this measure is fundamentally biased and can lead to misleading conclusions about health impacts associated with current and future winter climate. Methods: Time series regression analysis of 779,372 deaths from natural causes in London over 15 years (1 August 1997–31 July 2012),collapsed by day of death and linked to daily temperature values. The outcome measures were the excess winter deaths index, and daily and annual deaths attributable specifically to cold. Results: Most of the excess winter deaths are driven by cold: The excess winter deaths index decreased from 1.19 to 1.07 after excluding deaths attributable to low temperatures. Over 40% of cold-attributable deaths occurred outside of the December–March period, leading to bias in the excess winter deaths measure. Although there was no relationship between winter severity and annual excess winter deaths, there was a clear correlation with annual cold-attributable deaths. Conclusions: Excess winter deaths is not an appropriate indicator of cold-related health impacts, and its use should be discontinued. We advocate alternative measures. The findings we present bring into doubt previous claims that cold-related deaths in the UK will not reduce in future as a result of climate change. PMID:26986872

  2. Autotransplantation of a Buccally Erupted Matured Mandibular Third Molar to Replace a Grossly Decayed Second Molar.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Sukhwant Singh; Bodh, Ranjeet; Kaushik, Aishvarya; Talwar, Sangeeta

    2016-02-01

    Autotransplantation can be a treatment option for tooth loss as an alternative to fixed or implant-supported prostheses. It has predictable results comparable to implants, with reported success rates often greater than 90%. In present case, buccally erupted matured third molar was autotransplanted in extraction socket of grossly carious mandibular second molar. The tooth was splinted for 1 week followed by root canal treatment. After 12 months follow up, tooth was in perfect state of function and aesthetic with healthy periapical and periodontal architecture. High success rate was found in immature tooth transplantation in previous case reports. This case report describes that even matured tooth can also be used as donor if atraumatic extraction is possible and endodontic treatment is well performed. PMID:27042593

  3. Autotransplantation of a Buccally Erupted Matured Mandibular Third Molar to Replace a Grossly Decayed Second Molar

    PubMed Central

    Bodh, Ranjeet; Kaushik, Aishvarya; Talwar, Sangeeta

    2016-01-01

    Autotransplantation can be a treatment option for tooth loss as an alternative to fixed or implant-supported prostheses. It has predictable results comparable to implants, with reported success rates often greater than 90%. In present case, buccally erupted matured third molar was autotransplanted in extraction socket of grossly carious mandibular second molar. The tooth was splinted for 1 week followed by root canal treatment. After 12 months follow up, tooth was in perfect state of function and aesthetic with healthy periapical and periodontal architecture. High success rate was found in immature tooth transplantation in previous case reports. This case report describes that even matured tooth can also be used as donor if atraumatic extraction is possible and endodontic treatment is well performed. PMID:27042593

  4. Anchorage reinforcement with a fixed functional appliance during protraction of the mandibular second molars into the first molar extraction sites.

    PubMed

    Chhibber, Aditya; Upadhyay, Madhur

    2015-07-01

    Protraction of posterior teeth into edentulous spaces is a challenge. This report describes the treatment of a 19-year-old woman with missing mandibular first molars owing to caries. A fixed functional appliance was used for anchorage reinforcement during mandibular second molar protraction. Eight millimeters of bilateral protraction was done with bodily mesial movement of the molars and no lingual tipping of the incisors. PMID:26124039

  5. Pressure and temperature dependence of excess enthalpies of methanol + tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether and methanol + polyethylene glycol dimethyl ether 250

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, E.R.; Coxam, J.Y.; Fernandez, J.; Grolier, J.P.E.

    1999-12-01

    The excess molar enthalpies at 323.15 K, 373.15 K, and 423.15 K, at 8 MPa, are reported for the binary mixtures methanol + tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether (TEGDME) and methanol + poly(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ether 250 (PEGDME 250). Excess molar enthalpies were determined with a Setaram C-80 calorimeter equipped with a flow mixing cell. For both systems, the excess enthalpies are positive over the whole composition range, increasing with temperature. The H{sup E}(x) curves are slightly asymmetrical, and their maxima are skewed toward the methanol-rich region. The excess enthalpies slightly change with the pressure, the sign of this change being composition-dependent. In the case of mixtures with TEGDME, the experimental H{sup E} values have been compared with those predicted with the Gmehling et al. version of UNIFAC (Dortmund) and the Nitta-Chao and DISQUAC group contribution models.

  6. [Distalization of the upper second molar: clinical case].

    PubMed

    Castaldo, A; Blasi, S; Vettese, P

    1991-01-01

    The Authors showed a clinical case in which has been put on a distalizing system together with a palatal bar between the first upper molars, a sectional placed between the first and the second molar and a 100 g precalibrated Sentalloy coil. PMID:1784297

  7. Mandibular third molar autotransplantation--literature review with clinical cases.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Rui Amaral; Rocha, Germano

    2004-12-01

    Autotransplantation of mandibular third molars in a precocious phase of development is indicated when a substitute for adjacent compromised or missing molars is needed, and when mesial movements of the posterior teeth, the resultant loss of space, and overeruption of opposing teeth and consequent changes in the occlusion must be avoided. Provided that the apices of the mandibular third molar are immature, the immediate replacement of a lost or compromised tooth usually ensures a good outcome. Transplantation of third molars helps to maintain alveolar bone and enables endosseous implantation without requiring bone regeneration. We present examples of transplantation of mandibular third molars and review the factors that affect the success or failure of this procedure, such as atraumatic extraction and adequate immobilization of the transplanted tooth and root development after transplantation. Sex or age seem to have no effect on the final outcome. PMID:15588551

  8. Nonsurgical Endodontic Management of a Molar-Incisor Malformation-affected Mandibular First Molar: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Yue, Wonyoung; Kim, Euiseong

    2016-04-01

    A molar-incisor malformation (MIM) is a newly reported type of dental anomaly that involves a characteristic root malformation in permanent first molars and deciduous second molars and a crown defect in permanent central incisors. This case report describes a nonsurgical root canal treatment of a MIM-affected molar by aid of a reformatted axial view of the tooth cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). A MIM-affected molar has calcified canal orifices and a few immature accessory furcal canals. Conventional root canal treatment with the aid of CBCT followed by resin restoration was performed on the tooth. The malformed roots of MIM teeth generally make it difficult to apply conventional endodontic treatment; however, it was possible to do with the aid of the reformatted axial view of the CBCT. PMID:26706790

  9. Calculating excess volumes of binary solutions with allowance for structural differences between mixed components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balankina, E. S.

    2016-06-01

    Analytical dependences of a volume's properties on the differences between the geometric structures of initial monosystems are obtained for binary systems simulated by a grain medium. The effect of microstructural parameter k (the ratio of volumes of molecules of mixed components) on the concentration behavior of the relative excess molar volume of different types of real binary solutions is analyzed. It is established that the contribution due to differences between the volumes of molecules and coefficients of the packing density of mixed components is ~80-100% for mutual solutions of n-alkanes and ~55-80% of the experimental value of the relative excess molar volume for water solutions of n-alcohols.

  10. Replacement of a first molar and 3 second molars by the mesial inclination of 4 impacted third molars in an adult with a Class II Division 1 malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Tomonari, Hiroshi; Yagi, Takakazu; Kuninori, Takaharu; Ikemori, Takahiro; Miyawaki, Shouichi

    2015-06-01

    This case report presents the successful replacement of 1 first molar and 3 second molars by the mesial inclination of 4 impacted third molars. A woman, 23 years 6 months old, had a chief complaint of crowding of her anterior teeth and linguoclination of a second molar on the left side. The panoramic radiographic images showed that the maxillary and mandibular third molars on both sides were impacted. Root resorption on the distal surfaces of the maxillary second molars was suspected. The patient was given a diagnosis of Angle Class II Division 1 malocclusion with severe crowding of the anterior teeth and 4 impacted third molars. After we extracted the treated maxillary second premolars and the second molars on both sides, the treated mandibular second premolar and the second molar on the left side, and the root canal-filled mandibular first molar on the right side, the 4 impacted third molars were uprighted and formed part of the posterior functional occlusion. The total active treatment period was 39 months. The maxillary and mandibular third molars on both sides successfully replaced the first and second molars. The replacement of a damaged molar by an impacted third molar is a useful treatment option for using sound teeth. PMID:26038080

  11. Quantitative prediction and molar description of the environment

    PubMed Central

    Baum, William M.

    1989-01-01

    Molecular explanations of behavior, based on momentary events and variables that can be measured each time an event occurs, can be contrasted with molar explanations, based on aggregates of events and variables that can be measured only over substantial periods of time. Molecular analyses cannot suffice for quantitative accounts of behavior, because the historical variables that determine behavior are inevitably molar. When molecular explanations are attempted, they always depend on hypothetical constructs that stand as surrogates for molar environmental variables. These constructs allow no quantitative predictions when they are vague, and when they are made precise, they become superfluous, because they can be replaced with molar measures. In contrast to molecular accounts of phenomena like higher responding on ratio schedules than interval schedules and free-operant avoidance, molar accounts tend to be simple and straightforward. Molar theory incorporates the notion that behavior produces consequences that in turn affect the behavior, the notion that behavior and environment together constitute a feedback system. A feedback function specifies the dependence of consequences on behavior, thereby describing properties of the environment. Feedback functions can be derived for simple schedules, complex schedules, and natural resources. A complete theory of behavior requires describing the environment's feedback functions and the organism's functional relations. Molar thinking, both in the laboratory and in the field, can allow quantitative prediction, the mark of a mature science. PMID:22478030

  12. Modification of uprighting spring for derotation of second molars.

    PubMed

    Mallikarjun, Vankre; Rachala, Madhukar Reddy; Aileni, Kaladhar Reddy; Jaipal, Pyata Reddy

    2013-01-01

    One of the most efficient ways for the correction of rotated upper molars is derotation with a transpalatal arch, but this appliance is usually favourable when the need for correction is same on both sides of the dental arch. Derotation of unilateral upper second molar is a difficult task, especially when there is no accessible tooth/ any attachment is available distal to it for the application of couple forces. We have designed a modification of uprighting spring which is far more convenient than using the conventional method of TPA for derotation of unilateral upper second molar. PMID:24640073

  13. Molar heat capacity and entropy of calcium metal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hemingway, B.S.; Robie, R.A.; Chase, M.W.

    1997-01-01

    The heat capacity of calcium has been measured at 85 mean temperatures between T ??? 8 K and T ??? 369 K using an adiabatically-shielded calorimeter in an intermittent heating mode. At T = 298.15 K, the recommended values for the molar heat capacity, molar entropy, and molar enthalpy increment referred to T = 0 are (25.77 ?? 0.08) J??K-1??mol-1, (42.90 ?? 0.11) J??K-1??mol-1, and (5811 ?? 12) J??mol-1, respectively. The uncertainties are twice the standard deviation of the mean. ?? 1997 Academic Press Limited.

  14. Lingual Guttering Technique for Removal of Impacted Mandibular Third Molars

    PubMed Central

    Kale, Tejraj P; Pandit, Vikram S; Patil, Shankargouda; Pawar, Vivek; Shetty, Nisha

    2014-01-01

    Background: To assess the clinical feasibility of lingual bone guttering technique for surgical extraction of mandibular third molars. Materials and Methods: 20 patients with thick lingual cortical plate were included in the study. Surgical extraction of mandibular third molars by lingual bone guttering technique was performed in all the subjects. These subjects were evaluated for integrity of lingual cortical plate and sensation of lingual nerve postoperatively. Results: All extractions done by lingual bone guttering technique were clinically feasible to perform and no complications were seen. Conclusion: Lingual bone guttering technique can be used safely in extraction of mandibular third molars with thick lingual cortical plate. PMID:25214725

  15. Excessive or unwanted hair in women

    MedlinePlus

    Hypertrichosis; Hirsutism; Hair - excessive (women); Excessive hair in women; Hair - women - excessive or unwanted ... much of this hormone, you may have unwanted hair growth. In most cases, the exact cause is ...

  16. Interspecific and intraspecific variation in selenium:mercury molar ratios in saltwater fish from the Aleutians: Potential protection on mercury toxicity by selenium

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Jeitner, Christian; Donio, Mark; Pittfield, Taryn

    2014-01-01

    A number of factors affect the consumption risk from mercury in fish, including mercury levels, seasonal patterns of mercury concentrations, human consumption patterns, and sensitive populations (e.g. pregnant women, fetuses, young children, and yet unknown genetic factors). Recently the protective effects of selenium on methylmercury toxicity have been publicized, particularly for saltwater fish. We examine levels of mercury and selenium in several species of fish and seabirds from the Aleutians (Alaska), determine selenium:mercury molar ratios, and examine species-specific and individual variation in the ratios as a means of exploring the use of the ratio in risk assessment and risk management. Variation among species was similar for mercury and selenium. There was significant inter-specific and intraspecific variation in selenium:mercury molar ratios for fish, and for birds. The mean selenium:mercury molar ratios for all fish and bird species were above 1, meaning there was an excess of selenium relative to mercury. It has been suggested that an excess of selenium confers some protective advantage for salt water fish, although the degree of excess necessary is unclear. The selenium:mercury molar ratio was significantly correlated negatively with total length for most fish species, but not for dolly varden. Some individuals of Pacific cod, yellow irish lord, rock greenling, Pacific halibut, dolly varden, and to a lesser extent, flathead sole, had selenium:mercury ratios below 1. No bird muscle had an excess of mercury (ratio below 1), and only glaucous-winged gull and pigeon guillemot had ratios between 1 and 5. There was a great deal of variation in selenium:mercury molar ratios within fish species, and within bird species, making it difficult and impractical to use these ratios in risk assessment or management, for fish advisories, or for consumers, particularly given the difficulty of interpreting the ratios. PMID:22664537

  17. Outflows in Sodium Excess Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jongwon; Jeong, Hyunjin; Yi, Sukyoung K.

    2015-08-01

    Van Dokkum and Conroy revisited the unexpectedly strong Na i lines at 8200 Å found in some giant elliptical galaxies and interpreted them as evidence for an unusually bottom-heavy initial mass function. Jeong et al. later found a large population of galaxies showing equally extraordinary Na D doublet absorption lines at 5900 Å (Na D excess objects: NEOs) and showed that their origins can be different for different types of galaxies. While a Na D excess seems to be related to the interstellar medium (ISM) in late-type galaxies, smooth-looking early-type NEOs show little or no dust extinction and hence no compelling signs of ISM contributions. To further test this finding, we measured the Doppler components in the Na D lines. We hypothesized that the ISM would have a better (albeit not definite) chance of showing a blueshift Doppler departure from the bulk of the stellar population due to outflow caused by either star formation or AGN activities. Many of the late-type NEOs clearly show blueshift in their Na D lines, which is consistent with the former interpretation that the Na D excess found in them is related to gas outflow caused by star formation. On the contrary, smooth-looking early-type NEOs do not show any notable Doppler components, which is also consistent with the interpretation of Jeong et al. that the Na D excess in early-type NEOs is likely not related to ISM activities but is purely stellar in origin.

  18. Caries Management Strategies for Primary Molars

    PubMed Central

    Santamaria, R.M.; Innes, N.P.T.; Machiulskiene, V.; Evans, D.J.P.; Splieth, C.H.

    2014-01-01

    Minimal invasive approaches to managing caries, such as partial caries removal techniques, are showing increasing evidence of improved outcomes over the conventional complete caries removal. There is also increasing interest in techniques where no caries is removed. We present the 1-yr results of clinical efficacy for 3 caries management options for occlusoproximal cavitated lesions in primary molars: conventional restorations (CR; complete caries removal and compomer restoration), Hall technique (HT; no caries removal, sealing in with stainless steel crowns), and nonrestorative caries treatment (NRCT; no caries removal, opening up the cavity, teaching brushing and fluoride application). In sum, 169 children (3-8 yr old; mean, 5.56 ± 1.45 yr) were enrolled in this secondary care–based, 3-arm, parallel-group, randomized clinical trial. Treatments were carried out by specialist pediatric dentists or postgraduate trainees. One lesion per child received CR, HT, or NRCT. Outcome measures were clinical failure rates, grouped as minor failure (restoration loss/need for replacement, reversible pulpitis, caries progression, etc.) and major failure (irreversible pulpitis, abscess, etc.). There were 148 children (87.6%) with a minimum follow-up of 11 mo (mean, 12.23 ± 0.98 mo). Twenty teeth were recorded as having at least 1 minor failure: NRCT, n = 8 (5%); CR, n = 11 (7%); HT, n = 1 (1%) (p = .002, 95% CI = 0.001 to 0.003). Only the comparison between NRCT and CR showed no significant difference (p = .79, 95% CI = 0.78 to 0.80). Nine (6%) experienced at least 1 major failure: NRCT, n = 4 (2%); CR, n = 5 (3%); HT, n = 0 (0%) (p = .002, 95% CI = 0.001 to 0.003). Individual comparison of NRCT and CR showed no statistically significant difference in major failures (p = .75, 95% CI = 0.73 to 0.76). Success and failure rates were not significantly affected by pediatric dentists’ level of experience (p = .13, 95% CI = 0.12 to 0.14). The HT was significantly more successful

  19. On the Etiology of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Alexandre R; Kup, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    Molar-incisor hypomineralization (MIH) is a condition that is defined based on its peculiar clinical presentation. Reports on the etiology of the condition and possible risk factors are inconclusive and the original suggestion that MIH is an idiopathic condition is often cited. Our group was the first to suggest MIH has a genetic component that involves genetic variation in genes expressed during dental enamel formation. In this report, we provide a rationale to explain the preferential affection of molars and incisors. We suggest that MIH is a genetic condition based on its prevalence, which varies depending on the geographic location, and the evidence that on occasion second primary molars, permanent canines, and premolars can show signs of hypomineralization of enamel when molars and incisors are affected. PMID:27111773

  20. Determining Molar Combining Ratios Using Radioisotopes--A Student Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sears, Jerry A.

    1976-01-01

    Outlines an experimental procedure in which an iodine radioisotope is used to determine molar combining ratios of lead and silver with the iodine. Tables and graphs show the definitive results that should be attainable. (CP)

  1. A Multidisciplinary Approach for Managing Severely Malaligned Lower Molars.

    PubMed

    Keinan, David; Birnboim-Blaum, Galit; Webber, Mariel

    2016-01-01

    An impacted mandibular molar is a common clinical situation that may damage adjacent teeth and impair periodontal health. Improper treatment brings the risk of damaging adjacent vital tissues. The risk can be reduced by early diagnosis and extraction of the impacted tooth by an experienced clinician. However, in clinical cases of two impacted molars, it may be beneficial for the patient to save at least one molar. This can be achieved by orthodontic alignment of one of the molars, while extracting the other. The decision should be based upon prognosis and risks for each procedure and for both teeth. The case presented here demonstrates a recommended clinical decision-making process before treatment, followed by monitored multidisciplinary treatment with adaptations made as the treatment progresses. PMID:26939154

  2. Reanalysis of the Lukeino molar (KNM-LU 335).

    PubMed

    Ungar, P S; Walker, A; Coffing, K

    1994-06-01

    This paper details a reanalysis of KNM-LU 335, a hominoid mandibular first molar dated to about 6 Ma from the Lukeino Formation, Kenya. Researchers have argued that this molar closely resembles those of modern chimpanzees and may approximate the ancestral morphotype of humans and chimpanzees. The investigation presented here describes a morphometric study of the Lukeino molar and M1s of Homo sapiens, Pan troglodytes, and early australopithecines. Results indicate that KNM-LU 335 differs from both human and chimpanzee M1s in relative distances (measured in three dimensions) between crown fissure termini. Further, the Lukeino molar shares with early australopithecines a pronounced flaring of the buccal surface of the crown not seen for either modern sample. Results of this study do not exclude KNM-LU 335 as a potential ancestral morphotype for Pan and Homo but provide no evidence that this morphotype resembled modern chimpanzees. PMID:8085609

  3. Treatment of a Maxillary First Molar with Two Palatal Roots

    PubMed Central

    Asghari, Vahideh; Rahimi, Saeed; Ghasemi, Negin; Talebzadeh, Bita; Norlouoni, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Thorough knowledge of the morphology and internal anatomy of the root canal system is essential, because it determines the successful outcome of endodontic treatment. The main goal of endodontic treatment is to prevent apical periodontitis and/or to promote the healing of periapical lesion. Presence of two canals or roots on the palatal side of the first maxillary molar has rarely been reported. This case report presents a maxillary first molar with two separate palatal roots. PMID:26523146

  4. Cervicothoracic Subcutaneous Emphysema and Pneumomediastinum After Third Molar Extraction.

    PubMed

    Picard, Maxime; Pham Dang, Nathalie; Mondie, Jean Michel; Barthelemy, Isabelle

    2015-12-01

    Third molar extraction is one of the most common interventions in dental and maxillofacial surgery. Complications are frequent and well documented, with swelling, pain, bleeding, infection, and lingual or alveolar nerve injury being the most common. This report describes a case of subcutaneous extensive emphysema and pneumomediastinum that occurred 4 days after extraction of an impacted right mandibular third molar. The management and etiology of this case and those reported in the literature are discussed. PMID:26341684

  5. Fusion or gemination? An unusual mandibular second molar

    PubMed Central

    Camargo, Angela Jordão; Arita, Emiko Saito; Watanabe, Plauto Christopher Aranha

    2015-01-01

    Fusion and gemination is not an uncommon finding and affected most primary dentition and the permanent maxillary incisors. These changes can develop a series of complication. A 11-year-old male presented radiography finding: an unusual mandibular second molar. A well-documented case brings a challenge for radiologists classify between fusion and gemination. In conclusion, this alteration although common in other regions, there are no case in the literature involving “second and third” molar. PMID:26945485

  6. The orthodontic extraction of permanent molars: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Chua, Emilia S L; Felicita, A Sumathi

    2015-05-01

    The most common cause of dental crowding is the presence of an arch-length--tooth-size discrepancy. Conventional methods of gaining space in orthodontics involve the extraction of teeth, often premolars. However, there are a number of clinical situations in which the extraction of permanent molars might be considered. This paper highlights the indications, advantages, disadvantages and timing of the extraction of the first, second and third permanent molars in the treatment of a crowded malocclusion. PMID:26219149

  7. Fusion or gemination? An unusual mandibular second molar.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Angela Jordão; Arita, Emiko Saito; Watanabe, Plauto Christopher Aranha

    2016-01-01

    Fusion and gemination is not an uncommon finding and affected most primary dentition and the permanent maxillary incisors. These changes can develop a series of complication. A 11-year-old male presented radiography finding: an unusual mandibular second molar. A well-documented case brings a challenge for radiologists classify between fusion and gemination. In conclusion, this alteration although common in other regions, there are no case in the literature involving "second and third" molar. PMID:26945485

  8. Densities, Viscosities, Sound Speeds, Refractive Indices, and Excess Properties of Binary Mixtures of Isoamyl Alcohol with Some Alkoxyethanols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Mahendra Nath; Sah, Radhey Shyam; Pradhan, Prasanna

    2010-02-01

    Densities and viscosities were measured for binary mixtures of isoamyl alcohol with 2-methoxyethanol, 2-ethoxyethanol, and 2-butoxyethanol over the entire range of composition at 303.15 K, 313.15 K, and 323.15K and ultrasonic speeds and refractive indices at 303.15 K under atmospheric pressure. From the experimental values of density, viscosity, ultrasonic speed, and refractive index, the values of excess molar volume ( V E), viscosity deviations (Δ η), deviations in isentropic compressibility (Δ K S ), and excess molar refraction (Δ R) have been calculated. The excess or deviation properties were found to be either negative or positive, depending on the molecular interactions and the nature of liquid mixtures.

  9. Root canal morphology of South Asian Indian maxillary molar teeth

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shishir; Pawar, Mansing

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to study the root canal morphology of South Asian Indian Maxillary molars using a tooth clearing technique. Materials and Methods: Hundred teeth each comprising of first, second, and third molars collected from different dental schools and clinics in India were subjected to standard dye penetration, decalcification and clearing procedure before being studied. Results: The first molar mesiobuccal roots exhibited 69% Type I, 24% Type II, 4% Type IV, 2% Type V, and 1% exhibited a Vertuccis Type VIII canal anatomy. In the group with three separate roots the second molar mesiobuccal roots in exhibited 80.6% Type I, 15.3% Type II, 2.7% Type IV, and 1.4% Type V canal anatomy while the third molars mesiobuccal roots exhibited 57.4% Type I, 32% Type II, 2.1% Type III, 8.5% Type IV, 1% had a Type V canal anatomy in the similar group. Conclusion: A varied root canal anatomy was seen in the mesiobuccal root canal of the maxillary molars. PMID:25713497

  10. Kissing molars extraction: Case series and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Arjona-Amo, Manuel; Torres-Carranza, Eusebio; Batista-Cruzado, Antonio; Serrera-Figallo, Maria-Angeles; Crespo-Torres, Santos; Belmonte-Caro, Rodolfo; Albisu-Andrade, Claudio; Gutiérrez-Pérez, José-Luis

    2016-01-01

    Kissing molars are a very rare form of inclusion defined as molars included in the same quadrant, with occlusal surfaces contacting each other within a single dental follicle. We present four cases of this pathology: a 35 year-old male, referred to the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Department of the Hospital Virgen del Rocio in Seville, and three females of 24, 26, and 31 years, all of which had kissing molars that were treated by tooth extraction. We have found only 10 cases published in the medical literature in which this type of inclusion is briefly described, none of which elaborate on the surgical technique employed. In these cases, the indication for surgery is established when there is a history of recurring infections or cystic lesions associated with dental inclusions. The extraction of kissing molars requires an exhaustive comprehension of the anatomy of the region involved, sufficiently developed surgical abilities, and an extensive planning process. Key words:Impacted molar, kissing molar, surgical extraction. PMID:26855716

  11. Finite Element Reconstruction of a Mandibular First Molar

    PubMed Central

    Ehsani, Sara; Mirhashemi, Fatemeh Sadat; Asgary, Saeed

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Mandibular first molar is the most important tooth with complicated morphology. In finite element (FE) studies, investigators usually prefer to model anterior teeth with a simple and single straight root; it makes the results deviate from the actual case. The most complicated and time-consuming step in FE studies is modeling of the desired tooth, thus this study was performed to establish a finite element method (FEM) of reconstructing a mandibular first molar with the greatest precision. Materials and Methods An extracted mandibular first molar was digitized, and then radiographed from different aspects to achieve its outer and inner morphology. The solid model of tooth and root canals were constructed according to this data as well as the anatomy of mandibular first molar described in the literature. Result A three-dimensional model of mandibular first molar was created, giving special consideration to shape and root canal system dimensions. Conclusion This model may constitute a basis for investigating the effect of different clinical situations on mandibular first molars in vitro, especially on its root canal system. The method described here seems feasible and reasonably precise foundation for investigations. PMID:23717327

  12. Standardised studies on Molar Incisor Hypomineralisation (MIH) and Hypomineralised Second Primary Molars (HSPM): a need.

    PubMed

    Elfrink, M E C; Ghanim, A; Manton, D J; Weerheijm, K L

    2015-06-01

    In November 2014, a review of literature concerning prevalence data of Molar Incisor Hypomineralisation (MIH) and Hypomineralised Second Primary Molars (HSPM) was performed. A search of PubMed online databases was conducted for relevant articles published until November 2014. The reference lists of all retrieved articles were hand-searched. Studies were included after assessing the eligibility of the full-text article. Out of 1078 manuscripts, a total of 157 English written publications were selected based on title and abstract. Of these 157, 60 were included in the study and allocated as 52 MIH and 5 HSPM, and 3 for both MIH and HSPM. These studies utilised the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry judgment criteria, the modified index of developmental defects of enamel (mDDE) and self-devised criteria, and demonstrated a wide variation in the reported prevalence (MIH 2.9-44 %; HSPM 0-21.8 %). Most values mentioned were representative for specific areas. More studies were performed in cities compared with rural areas. A great variation was found in calibration methods, number of participants, number of examiners and research protocols between the studies. The majority of the prevalence studies also investigated possible aetiological factors. To compare MIH and HSPM prevalence and or aetiological data around the world, standardisation of such studies seems essential. Standardisation of the research protocol should include a clearly described sample of children (minimum number of 300 for prevalence and 1000 for aetiology studies) and use of the same calibration sets and methods whereas aetiological studies need to be prospective in nature. A standardised protocol for future MIH and HSPM prevalence and aetiology studies is recommended. PMID:25894247

  13. Outflows in Sodium Excess Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jongwon; Jeong, Hyunjin; Yi, Sukyoung

    2016-01-01

    van Dokkum and Conroy reported that some giant elliptical galaxies show extraordinarily strong Na I absorption lines and suggested that this is the evidence of unusually bottom-heavy initial mass function. Jeong et al. later studied galaxies with unexpectedly strong Na D absorption lines (Na D excess objects: NEOs) and showed that the origins of NEOs are different for different types of galaxies. According to their study, the origin of Na D excess seems to be related to interstellar medium (ISM) in late-type galaxies, but there seems to be no contributions from ISM in smooth-looking early-type galaxies. In order to test this finding, we measured the Doppler components in Na D lines of NEOs. We hypothesized that if Na D absorption line is related to ISM, the absorption line is more likely to be blueshifted in the spectrum by the motion of ISM caused by outflow. Many of late-type NEOs show blueshifted Na D absorption lines, so their origin seems related to ISM. On the other hand, smooth-looking early-type NEOs do not show Doppler departure and Na D excess in early-type NEOs is likely not related to ISM, which is consistent with the finding of Jeong et al.

  14. The Cosmic Ray Electron Excess

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, J.; Adams, J. H.; Ahn, H. S.; Bashindzhagyan, G. L.; Christl, M.; Ganel, O.; Guzik, T. G.; Isbert, J.; Kim, K. C.; Kuznetsov, E. N.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Panov, A. D.; Schmidt, W. K. H.; Seo, E. S.; Sokolskaya, N. V.; Watts, J. W.; Wefel, J. P.; Wu, J.; Zatsepin, V. I.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the possible sources for the apparent excess of Cosmic Ray Electrons. The presentation reviews the Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) instrument, the various parts, how cosmic ray electrons are measured, and shows graphs that review the results of the ATIC instrument measurement. A review of Cosmic Ray Electrons models is explored, along with the source candidates. Scenarios for the excess are reviewed: Supernova remnants (SNR) Pulsar Wind nebulae, or Microquasars. Each of these has some problem that mitigates the argument. The last possibility discussed is Dark Matter. The Anti-Matter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysics (PAMELA) mission is to search for evidence of annihilations of dark matter particles, to search for anti-nuclei, to test cosmic-ray propagation models, and to measure electron and positron spectra. There are slides explaining the results of Pamela and how to compare these with those of the ATIC experiment. Dark matter annihilation is then reviewed, which represent two types of dark matter: Neutralinos, and kaluza-Kline (KK) particles, which are next explained. The future astrophysical measurements, those from GLAST LAT, the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS), and HEPCAT are reviewed, in light of assisting in finding an explanation for the observed excess. Also the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) could help by revealing if there are extra dimensions.

  15. Excess carbon in silicon carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, X; Oxley, Mark P.; Puzyrev, Y; Tuttle, B R; Duscher, Gerd; Pantelides, Sokrates T.

    2010-01-01

    The application of SiC in electronic devices is currently hindered by low carrier mobility at the SiC/SiO{sub 2} interfaces. Recently, it was reported that 4H-SiC/SiO{sub 2} interfaces might have a transition layer on the SiC substrate side with C/Si ratio as high as 1.2, suggesting that carbon is injected into the SiC substrate during oxidation or other processing steps. We report finite-temperature quantum molecular dynamics simulations that explore the behavior of excess carbon in SiC. For SiC with 20% excess carbon, we find that, over short time ({approx} 24 ps), carbon atoms bond to each other and form various complexes, while the silicon lattice is largely unperturbed. These results, however, suggest that at macroscopic times scale, C segregation is likely to occur; therefore a transition layer with 20% extra carbon would not be stable. For a dilute distribution of excess carbon, we explore the pairing of carbon interstitials and show that the formation of dicarbon interstitial cluster is kinetically very favorable, which suggests that isolated carbon clusters may exist inside SiC substrate.

  16. Verification of excess defense material

    SciTech Connect

    Fearey, B.L.; Pilat, J.F.; Eccleston, G.W.; Nicholas, N.J.; Tape, J.W.

    1997-12-01

    The international community in the post-Cold War period has expressed an interest in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) using its expertise in support of the arms control and disarmament process in unprecedented ways. The pledges of the US and Russian presidents to place excess defense materials under some type of international inspections raises the prospect of using IAEA safeguards approaches for monitoring excess materials, which include both classified and unclassified materials. Although the IAEA has suggested the need to address inspections of both types of materials, the most troublesome and potentially difficult problems involve approaches to the inspection of classified materials. The key issue for placing classified nuclear components and materials under IAEA safeguards is the conflict between these traditional IAEA materials accounting procedures and the US classification laws and nonproliferation policy designed to prevent the disclosure of critical weapon-design information. Possible verification approaches to classified excess defense materials could be based on item accountancy, attributes measurements, and containment and surveillance. Such approaches are not wholly new; in fact, they are quite well established for certain unclassified materials. Such concepts may be applicable to classified items, but the precise approaches have yet to be identified, fully tested, or evaluated for technical and political feasibility, or for their possible acceptability in an international inspection regime. Substantial work remains in these areas. This paper examines many of the challenges presented by international inspections of classified materials.

  17. 12 CFR 925.23 - Excess stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excess stock. 925.23 Section 925.23 Banks and... BANKS Stock Requirements § 925.23 Excess stock. (a) Sale of excess stock. Subject to the restriction in paragraph (b) of this section, a member may purchase excess stock as long as the purchase is approved by...

  18. 34 CFR 300.16 - Excess costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Excess costs. 300.16 Section 300.16 Education... DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.16 Excess costs. Excess costs means those costs that... for an example of how excess costs must be calculated.) (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1401(8))...

  19. 34 CFR 300.16 - Excess costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Excess costs. 300.16 Section 300.16 Education... DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.16 Excess costs. Excess costs means those costs that... for an example of how excess costs must be calculated.) (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1401(8))...

  20. 34 CFR 300.16 - Excess costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Excess costs. 300.16 Section 300.16 Education... DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.16 Excess costs. Excess costs means those costs that... for an example of how excess costs must be calculated.) (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1401(8))...

  1. Genetic integration of molar cusp size variation in baboons.

    PubMed

    Koh, Christina; Bates, Elizabeth; Broughton, Elizabeth; Do, Nicholas T; Fletcher, Zachary; Mahaney, Michael C; Hlusko, Leslea J

    2010-06-01

    Many studies of primate diversity and evolution rely on dental morphology for insight into diet, behavior, and phylogenetic relationships. Consequently, variation in molar cusp size has increasingly become a phenotype of interest. In 2007 we published a quantitative genetic analysis of mandibular molar cusp size variation in baboons. Those results provided more questions than answers, as the pattern of genetic integration did not fit predictions from odontogenesis. To follow up, we expanded our study to include data from the maxillary molar cusps. Here we report on these later analyses, as well as inter-arch comparisons with the mandibular data. We analyzed variation in two-dimensional maxillary molar cusp size using data collected from a captive pedigreed breeding colony of baboons, Papio hamadryas, housed at the Southwest National Primate Research Center. These analyses show that variation in maxillary molar cusp size is heritable and sexually dimorphic. We also estimated additive genetic correlations between cusps on the same crown, homologous cusps along the tooth row, and maxillary and mandibular cusps. The pattern for maxillary molars yields genetic correlations of one between the paracone-metacone and protocone-hypocone. Bivariate analyses of cuspal homologues on adjacent teeth yield correlations that are high or not significantly different from one. Between dental arcades, the nonoccluding cusps consistently yield high genetic correlations, especially the metaconid-paracone and metaconid-metacone. This pattern of genetic correlation does not immediately accord with the pattern of development and/or calcification, however these results do follow predictions that can be made from the evolutionary history of the tribosphenic molar. PMID:20034010

  2. Erupted complex odontoma delayed eruption of permanent molar.

    PubMed

    Ohtawa, Yumi; Ichinohe, Saori; Kimura, Eri; Hashimoto, Sadamitsu

    2013-01-01

    Odontomas, benign tumors that develop in the jaw, rarely erupt into the oral cavity. We report an erupted odontoma which delayed eruption of the first molar. The patient was a 10-year-old Japanese girl who came to our hospital due to delayed eruption of the right maxillary first molar. All the deciduous teeth had been shed. The second premolar on the right side had erupted, but not the first molar. Slight inflammation of the alveolar mucosa around the first molar had exposed a tooth-like, hard tissue. Panoramic radiography revealed a radiopaque mass indicating a lesion approximately 1 cm in diameter. The border of the image was clear, and part of the mass was situated close to the occlusal surface of the first molar. The root of the maxillary right first molar was only half-developed. A clinical diagnosis of odontoma was made. The odontoma was subsequently extracted, allowing the crown of the first molar to erupt almost 5 months later. The dental germ of the permanent tooth had been displaced by the odontoma. However, after the odontoma had been extracted, the permanent tooth was still able to erupt spontaneously, as eruptive force still remained. When the eruption of a tooth is significantly delayed, we believe that it is necessary to examine the area radiographically. If there is any radiographic evidence of a physical obstruction that might delay eruption, that obstruction should be removed before any problems can arise. Regular dental checkups at schools might improve our ability to detect evidence of delayed eruption earlier. PMID:24521551

  3. Genetic integration of molar cusp size variation in baboons

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Christina; Bates, Elizabeth; Broughton, Elizabeth; Do, Nicholas T.; Fletcher, Zachary; Mahaney, Michael C.; Hlusko, Leslea J.

    2010-01-01

    Many studies of primate diversity and evolution rely on dental morphology for insight into diet, behavior, and phylogenetic relationships. Consequently, variation in molar cusp size has increasingly become a phenotype of interest. In 2007 we published a quantitative genetic analysis of mandibular molar cusp size variation in baboons. Those results provided more questions than answers, as the pattern of genetic integration did not fit predictions from odontogenesis. To follow up, we expanded our study to include data from the maxillary molar cusps. Here we report on these later analyses, as well as inter-arch comparisons with the mandibular data. We analyzed variation in two-dimensional maxillary molar cusp size using data collected from a captive pedigreed breeding colony of baboons, Papio hamadryas, housed at the Southwest National Primate Research Center. These analyses show that variation in maxillary molar cusp size is heritable and sexually dimorphic. We also estimated additive genetic correlations between cusps on the same crown, homologous cusps along the tooth row, and maxillary and mandibular cusps. The pattern for maxillary molars yields genetic correlations of one between the paracone-metacone and protocone-hypocone. Bivariate analyses of cuspal homologues on adjacent teeth yield correlations that are high or not significantly different from one. Between dental arcades, the non-occluding cusps consistently yield high genetic correlations, especially the metaconid-paracone and metaconid-metacone. This pattern of genetic correlation does not immediately accord with the pattern of development and/or calcification, however these results do follow predictions that can be made from the evolutionary history of the tribosphenic molar. PMID:20034010

  4. First molar health status in different craniofacial relationships

    PubMed Central

    Linjawi, Amal I

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between the health status of permanent first molars and different craniofacial relationships among adolescents. Study design This is a retrospective study on patients’ records aged 11–15 years. Sex, skeletal relationship, vertical growth pattern, malocclusion, overjet, and overbite were assessed. The health status of permanent first molars was recorded from the orthopantomograms and intraoral photographs as “sound” and “not sound”. Chi-square, Mann–Whitney U and Kruskal–Wallis tests, and Pearson’s correlation coefficient were used to analyze and correlate the assessed variables. Significance level was set at P<0.05. Results A total of 210 records were evaluated; 81 were male, 68 had Class I and 91 had Class II skeletal relationships. More than half of the subjects had normal (n=67) to moderate deep bite (n=72); normal (n=91), moderately increased (n=54), to severely increased (n=50) overjet; and Class I (n=106) and Class II division 1 (n=75) malocclusion. Significant differences were found in the health status of the permanent first molars with respect to sex (P=0.034), vertical growth pattern (P=0.01), and overbite (P=0.047). Strong correlations were only found between the health status of the permanent first molars and the following variables: sex (P=0.036) and vertical growth pattern (P=0.004). Significant correlation was further found between the upper left first molar health status and sex (P=0.019) and the lower right first molar health status and the vertical growth pattern (P=0.001). No significant association was found with the anteroposterior craniofacial relationships (P>0.05). Conclusion Sex difference and vertical growth patterns were found to be potential predictors of the health status of the permanent first molars. No significant association was found with the anteroposterior craniofacial relationships. PMID:27462176

  5. Requirement of alveolar bone formation for eruption of rat molars.

    PubMed

    Wise, Gary E; He, Hongzhi; Gutierrez, Dina L; Ring, Sherry; Yao, Shaomian

    2011-10-01

    Tooth eruption is a localized event that requires a dental follicle (DF) to regulate the resorption of alveolar bone to form an eruption pathway. During the intra-osseous phase of eruption, the tooth moves through this pathway. The mechanism or motive force that propels the tooth through this pathway is controversial but many studies have shown that alveolar bone growth at the base of the crypt occurs during eruption. To determine if this bone growth (osteogenesis) was causal, experiments were designed in which the expression of an osteogenic gene in the DF, bone morphogenetic protein-6 (Bmp6), was inhibited by injection of the first mandibular molar of the rat with a small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeted against Bmp6. The injection was followed by electroporation to promote uptake of the siRNA. In 45 first molars injected, eruption was either delayed or completely inhibited (seven molars). In the impacted molars, an eruption pathway formed but bone growth at the base of the crypt was greatly reduced compared with the erupted first-molar controls. These studies show that alveolar bone growth at the base of the crypt is required for tooth eruption and that Bmp6 may be essential for promoting this growth. PMID:21896048

  6. Requirement of alveolar bone formation for eruption of rat molars

    PubMed Central

    Wise, Gary E.; He, Hongzhi; Gutierrez, Dina L.; Ring, Sherry; Yao, Shaomian

    2011-01-01

    Tooth eruption is a localized event that requires a dental follicle (DF) to regulate the resorption of alveolar bone to form an eruption pathway. During the intra-osseous phase of eruption, the tooth moves through this pathway. The mechanism or motive force that propels the tooth through this pathway is controversial but many studies have shown that alveolar bone growth at the base of the crypt occurs during eruption. To determine if this bone growth (osteogenesis) was causal, experiments were designed in which the expression of an osteogenic gene in the DF, bone morphogenetic protein-6 (BMP6), was inhibited by injection of the 1st mandibular molar of the rat with an siRNA targeted against BMP6. The injection was followed by electroporation to promote uptake of the siRNA. In 45 first molars injected, eruption either was delayed or completely inhibited (7 molars). In the impacted molars, an eruption pathway formed but bone growth at the base of the crypt was greatly reduced as compared to the erupted first molar controls. These studies show that alveolar bone growth at the base of the crypt is required for tooth eruption and that BMP6 may be an essential gene for promoting this growth. PMID:21896048

  7. Orthodontic band retention on primary molar stainless steel crowns.

    PubMed

    Beemer, R L; Ferracane, J L; Howard, H E

    1993-01-01

    The retention of orthodontic bands cemented on primary molar stainless steel crowns (SSC) was studied in vitro. Unitek maxillary and mandibular 1st and 2nd primary molar SSC were fitted with one of four commonly used orthodontic bands (Unitek regular, Unitek narrow, Rocky Mountain, or custom bands made from SSC) using glass ionomer cement. The cemented samples were tested for their resistance to dislodgment on the Instron Universal Testing Machine (Instron Engineering Corp., Canton, MA) in tensile mode. Alpha level for statistical significance was set at alpha = 0.05. Unitek regular bands cemented on the 2nd molar crowns and Unitek narrow bands cemented on the 1st molar crown samples had equivalent or superior resistance to dislodgment compared with the other bands in the study. When the inside of the band and the outside band-bearing surfaces of selected crowns were lightly scored with a diamond bur prior to cementation, samples exhibited significantly superior retention. Subgroup means increased from 107 to 330%, compared to the values obtained in their preroughened state. The mean values obtained using the roughened band/crown interface technique (range 52.9 +/- 7.6 to 73.6 +/- 8.4 lbs) compared favorably with retention values from the literature for orthodontic bands cemented on permanent molar and premolar teeth. PMID:8153003

  8. 3D imaging reconstruction and impacted third molars: case reports

    PubMed Central

    Tuzi, Andrea; Di Bari, Roberto; Cicconetti, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Summary There is a debate in the literature about the need for Computed Tomagraphy (CT) before removing third molars, even if positive radiographic signs are present. In few cases, the third molar is so close to the inferior alveolar nerve that its extraction might expose patients to the risk of post-operative neuro-sensitive alterations of the skin and the mucosa of the homolateral lower lip and chin. Thus, the injury of the inferior alveolar nerve may represent a serious, though infrequent, neurologic complication in the surgery of the third molars rendering necessary a careful pre-operative evaluation of their anatomical relationship with the inferior alveolar nerve by means of radiographic imaging techniques. This contribution presents two case reports showing positive radiographic signs, which are the hallmarks of a possible close relationship between the inferior alveolar nerve and the third molars. We aim at better defining the relationship between third molars and the mandibular canal using Dental CT Scan, DICOM image acquisition and 3D reconstruction with a dedicated software. By our study we deduce that 3D images are not indispensable, but they can provide a very agreeable assistance in the most complicated cases. PMID:23386934

  9. Selenium and mercury molar ratios in commercial fish from New Jersey and Illinois: Variation within species and relevance to risk communication

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

    2015-01-01

    There is an emerging consensus that people consuming large amounts of fish with selenium:mercury ratios below 1 may be at higher risk from mercury toxicity. As the relative amount of selenium increases compared to mercury, risk may be lowered, but it is unclear how much excess selenium is required. It would be useful if the selenium:mercury ratio was relatively consistent within a species, but this has not been the case in our studies of wild-caught fish. Since most people in developed countries and urban areas obtain their fish and other seafood commercially, we examined selenium:mercury molar ratios in commercial fish purchased in stores and fish markets in central New Jersey and Chicago. There was substantial interspecific and intraspecific variation in molar ratios. Across species the selenium:mercury molar ratio decreased with increasing mean mercury levels, but selenium variation also contributed to the ratio. Few samples had selenium:mercury molar ratios below 1, but there was a wide range in ratios, complicating the interpretation for use in risk management and communication. Before ratios can be used in risk management, more information is needed on mercury:selenium interactions and mutual bioavailability, and on the relationship between molar ratios and health outcomes. Further, people who are selenium deficient may be more at risk from mercury toxicity than others. PMID:23541437

  10. Pendulum Therapy of Molar Distalization in Mixed Dentition.

    PubMed

    Patil, Raju Umaji; Prakash, Amit; Agarwal, Anshu

    2016-01-01

    Early and timely pedo-orthodontic treatment is aimed at eliminating the disturbances of skeletal or dentoalveolar development, to harmonize the stomatognathic system before the full eruption of all permanent teeth. The advantages of pendulum appliance are its minimal dependence on patient's compliance (child cooperation), ease of fabrication, onetime activation and adjustment of the springs if necessary to correct minor transverse and vertical molar positions. This article reports a successful treatment method of class II malocclusion with pendulum appliance in mixed dentition phase. Distalization of maxillary molar was done, followed by guidance of canine impaction orthodontically and other dental correction using 0.022 MBT appliances. Posttreatment results were stable and remarkable. How to cite this article: Patil RU, Prakash A, Agarwal A. Pendulum Therapy of Molar Distalization in Mixed Dentition. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):67-73. PMID:27274159

  11. Pendulum Therapy of Molar Distalization in Mixed Dentition

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Amit; Agarwal, Anshu

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Early and timely pedo-orthodontic treatment is aimed at eliminating the disturbances of skeletal or dentoalveolar development, to harmonize the stomatognathic system before the full eruption of all permanent teeth. The advantages of pendulum appliance are its minimal dependence on patient’s compliance (child cooperation), ease of fabrication, onetime activation and adjustment of the springs if necessary to correct minor transverse and vertical molar positions. This article reports a successful treatment method of class II malocclusion with pendulum appliance in mixed dentition phase. Distalization of maxillary molar was done, followed by guidance of canine impaction orthodontically and other dental correction using 0.022 MBT appliances. Posttreatment results were stable and remarkable. How to cite this article: Patil RU, Prakash A, Agarwal A. Pendulum Therapy of Molar Distalization in Mixed Dentition. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):67-73. PMID:27274159

  12. Aberration in the palatal root of the maxillary first molar

    PubMed Central

    Rajalbandi, Sandeep; Shingte, Sandhya Narayan; Sundaresh, K J; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa

    2013-01-01

    Thorough knowledge of root canal morphology is essential for the endodontic therapy. Variations in the root and root canal morphology, especially in multirooted teeth, are a constant challenge for diagnosis and management. The dentist needs to be familiar with the various root canal configurations and their variations for successful endodontic therapy. There are rare variations in canal number and configuration in maxillary molars, which could affect treatment outcome. Two lingual root structures are occasionally found on human permanent maxillary molars. One of these is the normal lingual root, which is always present, the other is a supernumerary structure which can be located either mesiolingually (radix mesiolingualis) or distolingually (radix distolingualis). The purpose of this paper is to review the literature and to demonstrate a case report which describes the successful non-surgical endodontic management of an unusual maxillary first molar with four separate roots and four canals. PMID:23632609

  13. Excess heat capacity in liquid binary alkali-fluoride mixtures.

    PubMed

    Beilmann, M; Beneš, O; Capelli, E; Reuscher, V; Konings, R J M; Fanghänel, Th

    2013-03-01

    Using drop calorimetry, we measured enthalpy increments of the LiF-KF, LiF-RbF, and LiF-CsF binary systems at temperatures above the melting point. Ten samples with different compositions (four compositions for LiF-KF, one composition for LiF-RbF, and five compositions for LiF-CsF) were prepared and measured between 884 K and 1382 K. To protect the calorimeter from corrosive fluoride vapor at high temperature, an encapsulating technique developed for this purpose was used. The samples were filled in nickel containers that were sealed by laser welding and afterward used for the measurements. From the obtained results, we derived the molar heat capacity functions of the respective samples. The heat capacities of the samples, having different compositions of the same binary system, were compared with the values for ideal behavior and the excess heat capacity function was determined for the entire composition range of the liquid solution. It was found that the excess heat capacities clearly depend on the cation radius and increase in the following order: LiF-NaF < LiF-KF < LiF-RbF < LiF-CsF. PMID:23421448

  14. Excess parameters for binary mixtures of ethyl benzoate with 1-propanol, 1-butanol and 1-pentanol at T=303, 308, 313, 318, and 323 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreehari Sastry, S.; Babu, Shaik; Vishwam, T.; Parvateesam, K.; Sie Tiong, Ha.

    2013-07-01

    Various thermo-acoustic parameters, such as excess isentropic compressibility (KsE), excess molar volume (VE), excess free length (LfE), excess Gibb's free energy (ΔG*E), and excess Enthalpy (HE), have been calculated from the experimentally determined data of density, viscosity and speed of sound for the binary mixtures of ethyl benzoate+1-propanol, or +1-butanol, or +1-pentanol over the entire range of composition at different temperatures (303, 308, 313, 318 and 323 K). The excess functions have been fitted to the Redlich-Kister type polynomial equation. The deviations for excess thermo-acoustic parameters have been explained on the basis of the intermolecular interactions present in these binary mixtures.

  15. Molar enamel thickness and dentine horn height in Gigantopithecus blacki.

    PubMed

    Olejniczak, A J; Smith, T M; Wang, W; Potts, R; Ciochon, R; Kullmer, O; Schrenk, F; Hublin, J-J

    2008-01-01

    Absolutely thick molar enamel is consistent with large body size estimates and dietary inferences about Gigantopithecus blacki, which focus on tough or fibrous vegetation. In this study, 10 G. blacki molars demonstrating various stages of attrition were imaged using high-resolution microtomography. Three-dimensional average enamel thickness and relative enamel thickness measurements were recorded on the least worn molars within the sample (n = 2). Seven molars were also virtually sectioned through the mesial cusps and two-dimensional enamel thickness and dentine horn height measurements were recorded. Gigantopithecus has the thickest enamel of any fossil or extant primate in terms of absolute thickness. Relative (size-scaled) measures of enamel thickness, however, support a thick characterization (i.e., not "hyper-thick"); G. blacki relative enamel thickness overlaps slightly with Pongo and completely with Homo. Gigantopithecus blacki dentine horns are relatively short, similar to (but shorter than) those of Pongo, which in turn are shorter than those of humans and African apes. Gigantopithecus blacki molar enamel (and to a lesser extent, that of Pongo pygmaeus) is distributed relatively evenly across the occlusal surface compared with the more complex distribution of enamel thickness in Homo sapiens. The combination of evenly distributed occlusal enamel and relatively short dentine horns in G. blacki results in a flat and low-cusped occlusal surface suitable to grinding tough or fibrous food objects. This suite of molar morphologies is also found to varying degrees in Pongo and Sivapithecus, but not in African apes and humans, and may be diagnostic of subfamily Ponginae. PMID:17941103

  16. Sex assessment by molar odontometrics in North Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Narang, Ramandeep Singh; Manchanda, Adesh S.; Singh, Balwinder

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Human identification is based on scientific principles, mainly involving dental records, fingerprints, estimation of age, postmortem reports, differentiation by blood groups, and DNA comparisons. Sex assessment is one of the prime factors employed to assist with the identification of an individual. Aims and Objective: To investigate univariate sex differences in the dimensions of permanent first molars and to assess sex, based on buccolingual (BL) and mesiodistal (MD) dimensions of permanent first molars in a population of north India. In addition, the study intended to evaluate the reliability of dimensional variation of these teeth in assessment of sex among the population. Materials and Methods: The study sample consists of 410 adult individuals (200 males and 210 females), from a north Indian population. The BL and MD diameters of the permanent first molars were measured using digital vernier callipers. Results: It was observed statistically significant difference between males and females with P < 0.05, in maxillary casts in both BL and MD dimensions; but only in the MD dimension in mandibular casts. A high level of sexual dimorphism of 7.7% was found in the BL dimension of the maxillary right first molar. The accuracy of sex assessment by each dimension was deliberated by univariate analyses with an overall accuracy ranging from 67.5 to 88% for various dimensions. Conclusion: Sexual dimorphism of teeth is population specific and among north Indian population, BL and MD dimensions in maxillary first molar and MD dimension in mandibular first molar can be used for sex assessment. PMID:25709321

  17. Asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation coupled with multi-angle light scattering and refractive index detections for characterization of ultra-high molar mass poly(acrylamide) flocculants.

    PubMed

    Leeman, Mats; Islam, Mohammad T; Haseltine, William G

    2007-11-23

    The molar mass distributions of ultra-high molar mass polyacrylamide-based flocculants were measured using asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AFFFF) coupled with multi-angle light scattering and refractive index detectors. The mass load onto the separation channel was found to be critical in obtaining a good size separation. The detailed investigation with ultra-high molar mass polyacrylamides found that the injected amount should be molar mass and radius information, each sample was injected 10 times and the resulting signals were averaged before calculating the molar mass and radius. In addition, the channel was equipped with a slotted outlet to increase the concentration of sample passing through the detectors. After implementing the above strategies, it was possible to perform separation of polymers having molar mass and size as high as 10(8)gmol(-1) and root-mean-square radius of approximately 250nm, respectively. The resulting weight-average molar mass of the highest MW sample was in excess of 18x10(6)gmol(-1). PMID:17961584

  18. [Iodine excess induced thyroid dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Egloff, Michael; Philippe, Jacques

    2016-04-20

    The principle sources of iodine overload, amiodarone and radiologic contrast media, are frequently used in modern medicine. The thyroid gland exerts a protective effect against iodine excess by suppressing iodine internalization into the thyrocyte and iodine organification, the Wolff-Chaikoff effect. Insufficiency of this effect or lack of escape from it leads to hypo- or hyperthyroidism respectively. Amiodarone induced thyrotoxicosis is a complex condition marked by two different pathophysiological mechanisms with different treatments. Thyroid metabolism changes after exposure to radiologic contrast media are frequent, but they rarely need to be treated. High risk individuals need to be identifed in order to delay the exam or to monitor thyroid function or apply prophylactic measures in selected cases. PMID:27276725

  19. Diphoton excess and running couplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Kyu Jung; Endo, Motoi; Hamaguchi, Koichi; Moroi, Takeo

    2016-06-01

    The recently observed diphoton excess at the LHC may suggest the existence of a singlet (pseudo-)scalar particle with a mass of 750 GeV which couples to gluons and photons. Assuming that the couplings to gluons and photons originate from loops of fermions and/or scalars charged under the Standard Model gauge groups, we show that there is a model-independent upper bound on the cross section σ (pp → S → γγ) as a function of the cutoff scale Λ and masses of the fermions and scalars in the loop. Such a bound comes from the fact that the contribution of each particle to the diphoton event amplitude is proportional to its contribution to the one-loop β functions of the gauge couplings. We also investigate the perturbativity of running Yukawa couplings in models with fermion loops, and show the upper bounds on σ (pp → S → γγ) for explicit models.

  20. Procedures to recover DNA from pre-molar and molar teeth of decomposed cadavers with different post-mortem intervals.

    PubMed

    Raimann, Paulo E; Picanço, Juliane B; Silva, Deborah S B S; Albuquerque, Trícia C K; Paludo, Francis Jackson O; Alho, Clarice S

    2012-11-01

    A task-force to resolve 26 pending forensic caseworks was carried out. We tested four different protocols to extract DNA from molar and pre-molar teeth from 26 cadavers with post-mortem intervals from 2 months to 12 years. We compared the amount of DNA and DNA profiles with the time elapsed between death and laboratory procedures. Molar or pre-molar teeth were removed from the corpses, cleaned, and DNA was extracted using 2 or 12h of incubation on lysis buffer and filtered using concentration column or precipitated with isopropanol. DNA profiles were obtained using PowerPlex16™ System PCR Amplification Kit, AmpFlSTR(®) Yfiler™ and/or mtDNA sequencing. Complete DNA profiles comparison and statistical evaluation allowed unambiguous identification of the 26 victims. No significant differences were observed in the amount of DNA obtained with the distinct incubation times. The use of concentration column resulted in an increased amount of DNA when compared to isopropanol. However, the lower concentration of DNA obtained with isopropanol seemed to have been compensated by the higher purity. No significant differences in the number of amplified loci were found. A non-significant tendency was found between the amount of total DNA recovered and the time elapsed between death and laboratory procedures. The increase of post-mortem time did not interfere in the analysed autosomal loci. In conclusion, molar and pre-molar teeth were shown to be good candidates to obtain satisfactory DNA profiles, suggesting the high potential of tooth samples as source for DNA typing independently of the decomposed corpse's time or laboratory procedures. PMID:23040740

  1. 12 CFR 1263.23 - Excess stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Excess stock. 1263.23 Section 1263.23 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS MEMBERS OF THE BANKS Stock Requirements § 1263.23 Excess stock. (a) Sale of excess stock. Subject to the restriction in paragraph (b) of...

  2. 7 CFR 985.56 - Excess oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excess oil. 985.56 Section 985.56 Agriculture... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Volume Limitations § 985.56 Excess oil. Oil of any class in excess of a producer's applicable annual allotment shall be identified...

  3. 7 CFR 985.56 - Excess oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Excess oil. 985.56 Section 985.56 Agriculture... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Volume Limitations § 985.56 Excess oil. Oil of any class in excess of a producer's applicable annual allotment shall be identified...

  4. 7 CFR 985.56 - Excess oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Excess oil. 985.56 Section 985.56 Agriculture... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Volume Limitations § 985.56 Excess oil. Oil of any class in excess of a producer's applicable annual allotment shall be identified...

  5. 7 CFR 985.56 - Excess oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Excess oil. 985.56 Section 985.56 Agriculture... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Volume Limitations § 985.56 Excess oil. Oil of any class in excess of a producer's applicable annual allotment shall be identified...

  6. 7 CFR 985.56 - Excess oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Excess oil. 985.56 Section 985.56 Agriculture... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Volume Limitations § 985.56 Excess oil. Oil of any class in excess of a producer's applicable annual allotment shall be identified...

  7. 43 CFR 426.12 - Excess land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Excess land. 426.12 Section 426.12 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.12 Excess land. (a) The process of designating excess and nonexcess land. If a landowner owns...

  8. 10 CFR 904.10 - Excess energy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Excess energy. 904.10 Section 904.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE CHARGES FOR THE SALE OF POWER FROM THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT Power Marketing § 904.10 Excess energy. (a) If excess Energy is determined by the United States to be...

  9. 10 CFR 904.10 - Excess energy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Excess energy. 904.10 Section 904.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE CHARGES FOR THE SALE OF POWER FROM THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT Power Marketing § 904.10 Excess energy. (a) If excess Energy is determined by the United States to be...

  10. 10 CFR 904.10 - Excess energy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excess energy. 904.10 Section 904.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE CHARGES FOR THE SALE OF POWER FROM THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT Power Marketing § 904.10 Excess energy. (a) If excess Energy is determined by the United States to be...

  11. 10 CFR 904.10 - Excess energy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Excess energy. 904.10 Section 904.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE CHARGES FOR THE SALE OF POWER FROM THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT Power Marketing § 904.10 Excess energy. (a) If excess Energy is determined by the United States to be...

  12. Management of Six Root Canals in Mandibular First Molar

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Fabio de Almeida; Sousa, Bruno Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Success in root canal treatment is achieved after thorough cleaning, shaping, and obturation of the root canal system. This clinical case describes conventional root canal treatment of an unusual mandibular first molar with six root canals. The prognosis for endodontic treatment in teeth with abnormal morphology is unfavorable if the clinician fails to recognize extra root canals. PMID:25685156

  13. The effect of dexamethasone on neurapraxia following third molar surgery.

    PubMed

    Von Arx, D P; Simpson, M T

    1989-12-01

    A double blind, controlled trial was undertaken to assess the effect of intra-muscular dexamethasone on neurapraxia following the surgical removal of mandibular third molars. No significant difference was found 24 h post-operatively between a control group and a group given dexamethasone. PMID:2597658

  14. Survival rates of porcelain molar crowns-an update.

    PubMed

    Kassem, Amr Shebl; Atta, Osama; El-Mowafy, Omar

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify recent studies that dealt with the clinical performance of porcelain molar crowns and to explore the possibility of grouping the findings from similar studies together to draw overall conclusions. A MEDLINE literature search was conducted in early 2009 covering the preceding 12 years. Seventeen studies were indentified. However, only seven met the specific inclusion criteria and were analyzed. Among seven studies, five European countries were covered. Five studies reported on Procera AllCeram molar crowns while one reported on In-Ceram Alumina and Spinell crowns and another on CEREC crowns. For comparison, one additional study that reported on premolar crowns was included. In the five Procera AllCeram studies, 235 molar crowns were evaluated for 5 or more years, of which 24 failed. When the results of the five studies on the performance of Procera AllCeram molar crowns were considered collectively, an overall failure rate of 10.2% was found at 5 or more years. Int J Prosthodont 2010;23:60-62. PMID:20234895

  15. A cervical ectopic masquerading as a molar pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Masir, N; Tamby, M R; Jamil, M A

    2000-03-01

    We report a case of cervical pregnancy complicated by life threatening hemorrhage. An initial diagnosis of molar pregnancy was made preoperatively. During uterine evacuation she developed profuse hemorrhage which required an emergency hysterectomy for uncontrolled bleeding. Histopathological examination confirmed a cervical pregnancy. The clinical and pathological criteria for the diagnosis and the etiology of cervical pregnancy are discussed. PMID:11072500

  16. Anterior tympanic plate fracture following extraction of the lower molar

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The present case report describes an external auditory canal injury following extraction of the lower molar. The external auditory canal was torn in the same fashion that occurs in an anterior tympanic plate fracture. This case demonstrates one of the rare complications associated with dental extractions. PMID:26904496

  17. Intrusion of overerupted molars by corticotomy and magnets.

    PubMed

    Hwang, H S; Lee, K H

    2001-08-01

    Although posterior tooth intrusion in an adult patient is a difficult procedure, it can be achieved without extruding the adjacent teeth by performing a corticotomy and using magnets. In carrying out this procedure on 2 adult patients whose molars had overerupted due to the early loss of antagonists, tooth movement was rapidly achieved without discomfort or side effects. PMID:11500664

  18. Lower molar and incisor displacement associated with mandibular remodeling.

    PubMed

    Baumrind, S; Bravo, L A; Ben-Bassat, Y; Curry, S; Korn, E L

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the amount of alveolar modeling at the apices of the mandibular incisor and first molar specifically associated with appositional and resorptive changes on the lower border of the mandible during growth and treatment. Cephalometric data from superimpositions on anterior cranial base, mandibular implants of the Björk type, and anatomical "best fit" of mandibular border structures were integrated using a recently developed strategy, which is described. Data were available at annual intervals between 8.5 and 15.5 years for a previously described sample of approximately 30 children with implants. The average magnitudes of the changes at the root apices of the mandibular first molar and central incisor associated with modeling/remodeling of the mandibular border and symphysis were unexpectedly small. At the molar apex, mean values approximated zero in both anteroposterior and vertical directions. At the incisor apex, mean values approximated zero in the anteroposterior direction and averaged less than 0.15 mm/year in the vertical direction. Standard deviations were roughly equal for the molar and the incisor in both the anteroposterior and vertical directions. Dental displacement associated with surface modeling plays a smaller role in final tooth position in the mandible than in the maxilla. It may also be reasonably inferred that anatomical best-fit superimpositions made in the absence of implants give a more complete picture of hard tissue turnover in the mandible than they do in the maxilla. PMID:9107373

  19. A Time for Heresy: A Molar Reading Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Leon E.

    A survey of the literature concerning the mental processes used in reading reveals a proliferation of molecular theories which explain only a small (and frequently neurological) component of the reading act. Enough information exists, however, to sketch an integrated, molar model of the reading process, which stresses the interrelationships…

  20. Correct Expressions of Enthalpy of Mixing and Excess Entropy from MIVM and Their Simplified Forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Dong-Ping

    2016-02-01

    In this work, the author pointed out that empirically to compare the molecular interaction volume model (MIVM) with thermodynamic definition of excess Gibbs energy would result in the incorrect expressions of enthalpy of mixing and excess entropy. The correct expressions of molar and partial molar enthalpies of mixing and excess entropies from the MIVM are consistent thermodynamically and are suggested for replacing their past incorrect ones. The simplification of Z i = Z = 10 is verified to be feasible by the average errors of fitting in the binary liquid alloys M-P (M = Cr, Fe, and Mn) and of predicting in the ternary liquid alloys Fe-Cr-P and Fe-Mn-P by using two coordination numbers of phosphorus Z P = 3.04 and Z P = 8.96. Further, their simplified forms are proposed for predicting easily thermodynamic properties of a multicomponent liquid system and are preliminarily tested to be coordinated mutually in the binary liquid alloys Au-Cu, Cd-Zn, Ca-Zn, and Ni-Pb.

  1. Adsorption and excess fission xenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podosek, F. A.; Bernatowicz, T. J.; Kramer, F. E.

    1982-01-01

    The adsorption of Xe and Kr on lunar soil 10084 was measured by a method that employs only very low fractions of monolayer coverage. Results are presented as parameters for calculation of the Henry constant for adsorption as a function of temperature. The adsorption potentials are about 3 kcal/mole for Kr and 5 kcal/mole for Xe; heating the sample in vacuum increased the Xe potential to nearly 7 kcal/mole. Henry constants at the characteristic lunar temperature are about 0.3 cu cm STP/g-atm. These data were applied to consider whether adsorption is important in producing the excess fission Xe effect characteristic of highland breccias. Sorption equilibrium with a transient lunar atmosphere vented fission Xe produces concentrations seven orders of magnitude lower than observed concentrations. Higher concentrations result because of the resistance of the regolith to upward diffusion of Xe. A diffusion coefficient of 0.26 sq cm/sec is estimated for this process.

  2. Corticotomy-assisted molar protraction with the aid of temporary anchorage device.

    PubMed

    Uribe, Flavio; Janakiraman, Nandakumar; Fattal, Amine N; Schincaglia, Gian Pietro; Nanda, Ravindra

    2013-11-01

    This case report describes the interdisciplinary management of a 58-year-old woman who was missing lower first molars and supraerupted maxillary first molars. The treatment plan included intrusion of the upper first molars and corticotomy-assisted mandibular second molar protraction with the aid of temporary anchorage devices. Miniscrews were effective in intrusion of the maxillary first molars and protraction of the lower second molars. Although good functional outcome was achieved in 41 months, the corticotomy-assisted procedure did not significantly reduce the treatment time. PMID:23834274

  3. Potential Moderating Effects of Selenium on Mercury Uptake and Selenium:Mercury Molar Ratios in Fish From Oak Ridge and Savannah River Site - 12086

    SciTech Connect

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Donio, Mark; Jeitner, Christian; Pittfield, Taryn

    2012-07-01

    species, however, suggests that the relative Se:Hg molar ratios in fish are not stable enough to be used in risk assessment at this time. Nor is it known how much excess selenium is required to confer any degree of protectiveness. That is, in conducting risk assessments, it is not possible to determine the spread of ratios, which would be needed for probabilistic risk assessment. Significantly more fish samples per species are required to begin to generate data that would allow it use in risk assessment. Adding Se:Hg molar ratios seems to complicate risk assessment for the potential adverse effects of mercury exposure, and using mercury levels at this time remains the most viable option. (authors)

  4. Piezoelectric Versus Conventional Rotary Techniques for Impacted Third Molar Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Qian; Qiu, Yating; Yang, Chi; Yang, Jingyun; Chen, Minjie; Zhang, Zhiyuan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Impacted third molars are frequently encountered in clinical work. Surgical removal of impacted third molars is often required to prevent clinical symptoms. Traditional rotary cutting instruments are potentially injurious, and piezosurgery, as a new osteotomy technique, has been introduced in oral and maxillofacial surgery. No consistent conclusion has been reached regarding whether this new technique is associated with fewer or less severe postoperative sequelae after third molar extraction. The aim of this study was to compare piezosurgery with rotary osteotomy techniques, with regard to surgery time and the severity of postoperative sequelae, including pain, swelling, and trismus. We conducted a systematic literature search in the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar. The eligibility criteria of this study included the following: the patients were clearly diagnosed as having impacted mandibular third molars; the patients underwent piezosurgery osteotomy, and in the control group rotary osteotomy techniques, for removing impacted third molars; the outcomes of interest include surgery time, trismus, swelling or pain; the studies are randomized controlled trials. We used random-effects models to calculate the difference in the outcomes, and the corresponding 95% confidence interval. We calculated the weighted mean difference if the trials used the same measurement, and a standardized mean difference if otherwise. A total of seven studies met the eligibility criteria and were included in our analysis. Compared with rotary osteotomy, patients undergoing piezosurgery experienced longer surgery time (mean difference 4.13 minutes, 95% confidence interval 2.75–5.52, P < 0.0001). Patients receiving the piezoelectric technique had less swelling at postoperative days 1, 3, 5, and 7 (all Ps ≤0.023). Additionally, there was a trend of less postoperative pain and trismus in the piezosurgery groups. The number of included randomized controlled

  5. Mineralocorticoid Excess or Glucocorticoid Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Kenyon, Christopher J.; Bailey, Matthew A.; Conway, Bryan R.; Diaz, Mary E.; Mullins, John J.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and hypertension are 2 major health issues of the 21st century. The syndrome of apparent mineralocorticoid excess is caused by deficiency of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (Hsd11b2), which normally inactivates glucocorticoids, rendering the mineralocorticoid receptor aldosterone–specific. The metabolic consequences of Hsd11b2 knockout in the rat are investigated in parallel with electrolyte homeostasis. Hsd11b2 was knocked out, by pronuclear microinjection of targeted zinc-finger nuclease mRNAs, and 1 line was characterized for its response to renal and metabolic challenges. Plasma 11-dehydrocorticosterone was below detection thresholds, and Hsd11b2 protein was undetected by Western blot, indicating complete ablation. Homozygotes were 13% smaller than wild-type littermates, and were polydipsic and polyuric. Their kidneys, adrenals, and hearts were significantly enlarged, but mesenteric fat pads and liver were significantly smaller. On a 0.3% Na diet, mean arterial blood pressure was ≈65 mm Hg higher than controls but only 25 mm Hg higher on a 0.03% Na+ diet. Urinary Na/K ratio of homozygotes was similar to controls on 0.3% Na+ diet but urinary albumin and calcium were elevated. Corticosterone and aldosterone levels showed normal circadian variation on both a 0.3% and 0.03% Na+ diet, but plasma renin was suppressed in homozygotes on both diets. Plasma glucose responses to an oral glucose challenge were reduced despite low circulating insulin, indicating much greater sensitivity to insulin in homozygotes. The rat model reveals mechanisms linking electrolyte homeostasis and metabolic control through the restriction of Hsd11b1 substrate availability. PMID:26077568

  6. Exploring metameric variation in human molars: a morphological study using morphometric mapping.

    PubMed

    Morita, Wataru; Morimoto, Naoki; Ohshima, Hayato

    2016-09-01

    Human molars exhibit a type of metameric variation, which is the difference in serially repeated morphology within an organism. Various theories have been proposed to explain how this variation is brought about in the molars. Actualistic data that support the theories, however, are still relatively scarce because of methodological limitations. Here we propose new methods to analyse detailed tooth crown morphologies. We applied morphometric mapping to the enamel-dentine junction of human maxillary molars and examined whether odontogenetic models were adaptable to human maxillary molars. Our results showed that the upper first molar is phenotypically distinct among the maxillary molars. The average shape of the upper first molar is characterized by four well-defined cusps and precipitous surface relief of the occlusal table. On the other hand, upper third molar is characterized by smooth surface relief of the occlusal table and shows greater shape variation and distinct distribution patterns in morphospace. The upper second molar represents an intermediate state between first and third molar. Size-related shape variation was investigated by the allometric vector analysis, and it appeared that human maxillary molars tend to converge toward the shape of the upper first molar as the size increases. Differences between the upper first molar and the upper second and third molar can thus be largely explained as an effect of allometry. Collectively, these results indicate that the observed pattern of metameric variation in human molars is consistent with odontogenetic models of molar row structure (inhibitory cascade model) and molar crown morphology (patterning cascade model). This study shows that morphometric mapping is a useful tool to visualize and quantify the morphological features of teeth, which can provide the basis for a better understanding of tooth evolution linking morphology and development. PMID:27098351

  7. Thermal correction to the molar polarizability of a Boltzmann gas

    SciTech Connect

    Jentschura, U. D.; Puchalski, M.; Mohr, P. J.

    2011-12-15

    Metrology in atomic physics has been crucial for a number of advanced determinations of fundamental constants. In addition to very precise frequency measurements, the molar polarizability of an atomic gas has recently also been measured very accurately. Part of the motivation for the measurements is due to ongoing efforts to redefine the International System of Units (SI), for which an accurate value of the Boltzmann constant is needed. Here we calculate the dominant shift of the molar polarizability in an atomic gas due to thermal effects. It is given by the relativistic correction to the dipole interaction, which emerges when the probing electric field is Lorentz transformed into the rest frame of the atoms that undergo thermal motion. While this effect is small when compared to currently available experimental accuracy, the relativistic correction to the dipole interaction is much larger than the thermal shift of the polarizability induced by blackbody radiation.

  8. Thermal correction to the molar polarizability of a Boltzmann gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jentschura, U. D.; Puchalski, M.; Mohr, P. J.

    2011-12-01

    Metrology in atomic physics has been crucial for a number of advanced determinations of fundamental constants. In addition to very precise frequency measurements, the molar polarizability of an atomic gas has recently also been measured very accurately. Part of the motivation for the measurements is due to ongoing efforts to redefine the International System of Units (SI), for which an accurate value of the Boltzmann constant is needed. Here we calculate the dominant shift of the molar polarizability in an atomic gas due to thermal effects. It is given by the relativistic correction to the dipole interaction, which emerges when the probing electric field is Lorentz transformed into the rest frame of the atoms that undergo thermal motion. While this effect is small when compared to currently available experimental accuracy, the relativistic correction to the dipole interaction is much larger than the thermal shift of the polarizability induced by blackbody radiation.

  9. Ectopic 3rd Molar Tooth in the Maxillary Antrum

    PubMed Central

    Bello, Seidu A.; Oketade, Ifeoluwa O.; Osunde, Otasowie D.

    2014-01-01

    Location of ectopic tooth in a nondentate area like the maxillary antrum is rare. A 17-year-old boy, with one year history of recurrent right facial swelling and radiographic finding of a maxillary third molar tooth located at the posterior wall of the maxillary antrum, is presented. Under endotracheal intubation, the tooth was extracted through a Caldwell-Luc antrostomy approach and patient had an uneventful recovery and has been symptom free for eight months. Ectopic tooth in the maxillary antrum is rare and is commonest with maxillary third molar. It may be symptomless but is more commonly associated with inflammatory symptoms. The treatment of choice is surgical excision which is mostly carried out with Caldwell-Luc approach, even though endoscopic approach is being reported. PMID:25132999

  10. Ectopic 3rd molar tooth in the maxillary antrum.

    PubMed

    Bello, Seidu A; Oketade, Ifeoluwa O; Osunde, Otasowie D

    2014-01-01

    Location of ectopic tooth in a nondentate area like the maxillary antrum is rare. A 17-year-old boy, with one year history of recurrent right facial swelling and radiographic finding of a maxillary third molar tooth located at the posterior wall of the maxillary antrum, is presented. Under endotracheal intubation, the tooth was extracted through a Caldwell-Luc antrostomy approach and patient had an uneventful recovery and has been symptom free for eight months. Ectopic tooth in the maxillary antrum is rare and is commonest with maxillary third molar. It may be symptomless but is more commonly associated with inflammatory symptoms. The treatment of choice is surgical excision which is mostly carried out with Caldwell-Luc approach, even though endoscopic approach is being reported. PMID:25132999

  11. Fate of the molar dental lamina in the monophyodont mouse.

    PubMed

    Dosedělová, Hana; Dumková, Jana; Lesot, Hervé; Glocová, Kristýna; Kunová, Michaela; Tucker, Abigail S; Veselá, Iva; Krejčí, Pavel; Tichý, František; Hampl, Aleš; Buchtová, Marcela

    2015-01-01

    The successional dental lamina (SDL) plays an essential role in the development of replacement teeth in diphyodont and polyphyodont animals. A morphologically similar structure, the rudimental successional dental lamina (RSDL), has been described in monophyodont (only one tooth generation) lizards on the lingual side of the developing functional tooth. This rudimentary lamina regresses, which has been proposed to play a role in preventing the formation of future generations of teeth. A similar rudimentary lingual structure has been reported associated with the first molar in the monophyodont mouse, and we show that this structure is common to all murine molars. Intriguingly, a lingual lamina is also observed on the non-replacing molars of other diphyodont mammals (pig and hedgehog), initially appearing very similar to the successional dental lamina on the replacing teeth. We have analyzed the morphological as well as ultrastructural changes that occur during the development and loss of this molar lamina in the mouse, from its initiation at late embryonic stages to its disappearance at postnatal stages. We show that loss appears to be driven by a reduction in cell proliferation, down-regulation of the progenitor marker Sox2, with only a small number of cells undergoing programmed cell death. The lingual lamina was associated with the dental stalk, a short epithelial connection between the tooth germ and the oral epithelium. The dental stalk remained in contact with the oral epithelium throughout tooth development up to eruption when connective tissue and numerous capillaries progressively invaded the dental stalk. The buccal side of the dental stalk underwent keratinisation and became part of the gingival epithelium, while most of the lingual cells underwent programmed cell death and the tissue directly above the erupting tooth was shed into the oral cavity. PMID:26010446

  12. Effective molarity in a nucleic acid-controlled reaction.

    PubMed

    Catalano, Michael J; Price, Nathan E; Gates, Kent S

    2016-06-01

    Positioning of reactive functional groups within a DNA duplex can enable chemical reactions that otherwise would not occur to an appreciable extent. However, few studies have quantitatively defined the extent to which the enforced proximity of reaction partners in duplex DNA can favor chemical processes. Here, we measured substantial effective molarities (as high as 25M) afforded by duplex DNA to a reaction involving interstrand cross-link formation between 2'-deoxyadenosine and a 2-deoxyribose abasic (Ap) site. PMID:27117430

  13. Five Canalled and Three-Rooted Primary Second Mandibular Molar

    PubMed Central

    Selvakumar, Haridoss; Kavitha, Swaminathan; Bharathan, Rajendran; Varghese, Jacob Sam

    2014-01-01

    A thorough knowledge of root canal anatomy and its variation is necessary for successful completion of root canal procedures. Morphological variations such as additional root canals in human deciduous dentition are rare. A mandibular second primary molar with more than four canals is an interesting example of anatomic variations, especially when three of these canals are located in the distal root. This case shows a rare anatomic configuration and points out the importance of looking for additional canals. PMID:25147744

  14. The maxillary second molar - anatomical variations (case report).

    PubMed

    Beshkenadze, E; Chipashvili, N

    2015-01-01

    To be acquainted with dental anatomical specificity is of great importance for dental endodontic treatment algorithm. The subject of present publication is 2 clinical cases of upper second molars, detailed characterization of, which is considered very important for enrichment of anatomical knowledge about dental anatomical variations. In one case, the reason for admission to the clinic of a 38-year-old woman was complains as of esthetic character as well as functional misbalance (disturbance of chewing function due to the damage of orthopedic construction). The patient indicated to the existence of coronary defects of large size aesthetic discomforts, damage and discolouration of old orthopedic construction (denture) in maxillary right molar area. According to the data obtained after clinical and visiographical examinations, chronic periodontitis of 17 teeth was identified as a result of incomplete endodontic treatment. According to the data obtained after clinical and visiographical examinations, the diagnosis of chronic periodontitis of 17 teeth was identified, tooth 17 with 2 roots and 2 canals. In the second clinical case, the reason for admission to the clinic of a 39-year-old woman was severe pain in the upper right molar area. The patient indicated to the caries on the tooth 17. After completion of proper survey clinical and visiographical examinations, acute pulpitis (K04.00) - with three roots and 4 canals was diagnosed. In both cases after the proper examinations and agreement with the patients a treatment plan envisaging: 17 teeth endodontic treatment, filling of caries defects and their preparation on one hand for orthopedic construction (denture) and on the other hand for restoration of anatomical integrity by light-cured composite, was scheduled. The present study is designed to prevent complications of endodontic treatment of the second molar, to optimize diagnosis and treatment algorithm, once again proving reliable information indicating to the

  15. Extrusion of impacted mandibular second molar using removable appliance

    PubMed Central

    Karthikeyan, M. K.; Prabhakar, Ramachandran; Saravanan, R.; Vikram, N. Raj; Kumar, R. Vinoth; Prasath, R. Eshwara

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the principles of case management of impacted mandibular molars and to illustrate their potential to respond well to treatment. Although the scope of treatment may be influenced by the patient's age, past dental history, severity of impaction, dentoalveolar development, and root form, the case reports demonstrate the inherent potential for good treatment outcome even in the most unfavorable circumstances. PMID:25210378

  16. Five canalled and three-rooted primary second mandibular molar.

    PubMed

    Selvakumar, Haridoss; Kavitha, Swaminathan; Bharathan, Rajendran; Varghese, Jacob Sam

    2014-01-01

    A thorough knowledge of root canal anatomy and its variation is necessary for successful completion of root canal procedures. Morphological variations such as additional root canals in human deciduous dentition are rare. A mandibular second primary molar with more than four canals is an interesting example of anatomic variations, especially when three of these canals are located in the distal root. This case shows a rare anatomic configuration and points out the importance of looking for additional canals. PMID:25147744

  17. Fate of the Molar Dental Lamina in the Monophyodont Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Dosedělová, Hana; Dumková, Jana; Lesot, Hervé; Glocová, Kristýna; Kunová, Michaela; Tucker, Abigail S.; Veselá, Iva; Krejčí, Pavel; Tichý, František; Hampl, Aleš; Buchtová, Marcela

    2015-01-01

    The successional dental lamina (SDL) plays an essential role in the development of replacement teeth in diphyodont and polyphyodont animals. A morphologically similar structure, the rudimental successional dental lamina (RSDL), has been described in monophyodont (only one tooth generation) lizards on the lingual side of the developing functional tooth. This rudimentary lamina regresses, which has been proposed to play a role in preventing the formation of future generations of teeth. A similar rudimentary lingual structure has been reported associated with the first molar in the monophyodont mouse, and we show that this structure is common to all murine molars. Intriguingly, a lingual lamina is also observed on the non-replacing molars of other diphyodont mammals (pig and hedgehog), initially appearing very similar to the successional dental lamina on the replacing teeth. We have analyzed the morphological as well as ultrastructural changes that occur during the development and loss of this molar lamina in the mouse, from its initiation at late embryonic stages to its disappearance at postnatal stages. We show that loss appears to be driven by a reduction in cell proliferation, down-regulation of the progenitor marker Sox2, with only a small number of cells undergoing programmed cell death. The lingual lamina was associated with the dental stalk, a short epithelial connection between the tooth germ and the oral epithelium. The dental stalk remained in contact with the oral epithelium throughout tooth development up to eruption when connective tissue and numerous capillaries progressively invaded the dental stalk. The buccal side of the dental stalk underwent keratinisation and became part of the gingival epithelium, while most of the lingual cells underwent programmed cell death and the tissue directly above the erupting tooth was shed into the oral cavity. PMID:26010446

  18. Spontaneous emergence of overgrown molar teeth in a colony of Prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster)

    PubMed Central

    Jheon, Andrew H; Prochazkova, Michaela; Sherman, Michael; Manoli, Devanand S; Shah, Nirao M; Carbone, Lawrence; Klein, Ophir

    2015-01-01

    Continuously growing incisors are common to all rodents, which include the Microtus genus of voles. However, unlike many rodents, voles also possess continuously growing molars. Here, we report spontaneous molar defects in a population of Prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster). We identified bilateral protuberances on the ventral surface of the mandible in several voles in our colony. In some cases, the protuberances broke through the cortical bone. The mandibular molars became exposed and infected, and the maxillary molars entered the cranial vault. Visualisation upon soft tissue removal and microcomputed tomography (microCT) analyses confirmed that the protuberances were caused by the overgrowth of the apical ends of the molar teeth. We speculate that the unrestricted growth of the molars was due to the misregulation of the molar dental stem cell niche. Further study of this molar phenotype may yield additional insight into stem cell regulation and the evolution and development of continuously growing teeth. PMID:25634121

  19. Spontaneous emergence of overgrown molar teeth in a colony of Prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster).

    PubMed

    Jheon, Andrew H; Prochazkova, Michaela; Sherman, Michael; Manoli, Devanand S; Shah, Nirao M; Carbone, Lawrence; Klein, Ophir

    2015-03-01

    Continuously growing incisors are common to all rodents, which include the Microtus genus of voles. However, unlike many rodents, voles also possess continuously growing molars. Here, we report spontaneous molar defects in a population of Prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster). We identified bilateral protuberances on the ventral surface of the mandible in several voles in our colony. In some cases, the protuberances broke through the cortical bone. The mandibular molars became exposed and infected, and the maxillary molars entered the cranial vault. Visualisation upon soft tissue removal and microcomputed tomography (microCT) analyses confirmed that the protuberances were caused by the overgrowth of the apical ends of the molar teeth. We speculate that the unrestricted growth of the molars was due to the misregulation of the molar dental stem cell niche. Further study of this molar phenotype may yield additional insight into stem cell regulation and the evolution and development of continuously growing teeth. PMID:25634121

  20. The Use of Narrow Diameter Implants in the Molar Area.

    PubMed

    Saad, M; Assaf, A; Gerges, E

    2016-01-01

    Implant rehabilitations in the posterior jaw are influenced by many factors such as the condition of the remaining teeth, the force factors related to the patient, the quality of the bone, the maintenance of the hygiene, the limited bone height, the type and extent of edentulism, and the nature of the opposing arch. The gold standard is to place a regular diameter implant (>3.7 mm) or a wide one to replace every missing molar. Unfortunately, due to horizontal bone resorption, this option is not possible without lateral bone augmentation. In this situation, narrow diameter implant (NDI < 3.5 mm) could be the alternative to lateral bone augmentation procedures. This paper presents a clinical study where NDIs were used for the replacement of missing molars. They were followed up to 11 years. Special considerations were observed and many parameters were evaluated. NDI could be used to replace missing molar in case of moderate horizontal bone resorption if strict guidelines are respected. Yet, future controlled prospective clinical trials are required to admit their use as scientific evidence. PMID:27293436

  1. Molar tooth carbonates and benthic methane fluxes in Proterozoic oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Bing; Dong, Lin; Xiao, Shuhai; Lang, Xianguo; Huang, Kangjun; Peng, Yongbo; Zhou, Chuanming; Ke, Shan; Liu, Pengju

    2016-01-01

    Molar tooth structures are ptygmatically folded and microspar-filled structures common in early- and mid-Proterozoic (~2,500-750 million years ago, Ma) subtidal successions, but extremely rare in rocks <750 Ma. Here, on the basis of Mg and S isotopes, we show that molar tooth structures may have formed within sediments where microbial sulphate reduction and methanogenesis converged. The convergence was driven by the abundant production of methyl sulphides (dimethyl sulphide and methanethiol) in euxinic or H2S-rich seawaters that were widespread in Proterozoic continental margins. In this convergence zone, methyl sulphides served as a non-competitive substrate supporting methane generation and methanethiol inhibited anaerobic oxidation of methane, resulting in the buildup of CH4, formation of degassing cracks in sediments and an increase in the benthic methane flux from sediments. Precipitation of crack-filling microspar was driven by methanogenesis-related alkalinity accumulation. Deep ocean ventilation and oxygenation around 750 Ma brought molar tooth structures to an end.

  2. Determination of partial molar volumes from free energy perturbation theory†

    PubMed Central

    Vilseck, Jonah Z.; Tirado-Rives, Julian

    2016-01-01

    Partial molar volume is an important thermodynamic property that gives insights into molecular size and intermolecular interactions in solution. Theoretical frameworks for determining the partial molar volume (V°) of a solvated molecule generally apply Scaled Particle Theory or Kirkwood–Buff theory. With the current abilities to perform long molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations, more direct methods are gaining popularity, such as computing V° directly as the difference in computed volume from two simulations, one with a solute present and another without. Thermodynamically, V° can also be determined as the pressure derivative of the free energy of solvation in the limit of infinite dilution. Both approaches are considered herein with the use of free energy perturbation (FEP) calculations to compute the necessary free energies of solvation at elevated pressures. Absolute and relative partial molar volumes are computed for benzene and benzene derivatives using the OPLS-AA force field. The mean unsigned error for all molecules is 2.8 cm3 mol−1. The present methodology should find use in many contexts such as the development and testing of force fields for use in computer simulations of organic and biomolecular systems, as a complement to related experimental studies, and to develop a deeper understanding of solute–solvent interactions. PMID:25589343

  3. Molar tooth carbonates and benthic methane fluxes in Proterozoic oceans

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Bing; Dong, Lin; Xiao, Shuhai; Lang, Xianguo; Huang, Kangjun; Peng, Yongbo; Zhou, Chuanming; Ke, Shan; Liu, Pengju

    2016-01-01

    Molar tooth structures are ptygmatically folded and microspar-filled structures common in early- and mid-Proterozoic (∼2,500–750 million years ago, Ma) subtidal successions, but extremely rare in rocks <750 Ma. Here, on the basis of Mg and S isotopes, we show that molar tooth structures may have formed within sediments where microbial sulphate reduction and methanogenesis converged. The convergence was driven by the abundant production of methyl sulphides (dimethyl sulphide and methanethiol) in euxinic or H2S-rich seawaters that were widespread in Proterozoic continental margins. In this convergence zone, methyl sulphides served as a non-competitive substrate supporting methane generation and methanethiol inhibited anaerobic oxidation of methane, resulting in the buildup of CH4, formation of degassing cracks in sediments and an increase in the benthic methane flux from sediments. Precipitation of crack-filling microspar was driven by methanogenesis-related alkalinity accumulation. Deep ocean ventilation and oxygenation around 750 Ma brought molar tooth structures to an end. PMID:26739600

  4. Molar tooth carbonates and benthic methane fluxes in Proterozoic oceans.

    PubMed

    Shen, Bing; Dong, Lin; Xiao, Shuhai; Lang, Xianguo; Huang, Kangjun; Peng, Yongbo; Zhou, Chuanming; Ke, Shan; Liu, Pengju

    2016-01-01

    Molar tooth structures are ptygmatically folded and microspar-filled structures common in early- and mid-Proterozoic (∼2,500-750 million years ago, Ma) subtidal successions, but extremely rare in rocks <750 Ma. Here, on the basis of Mg and S isotopes, we show that molar tooth structures may have formed within sediments where microbial sulphate reduction and methanogenesis converged. The convergence was driven by the abundant production of methyl sulphides (dimethyl sulphide and methanethiol) in euxinic or H2S-rich seawaters that were widespread in Proterozoic continental margins. In this convergence zone, methyl sulphides served as a non-competitive substrate supporting methane generation and methanethiol inhibited anaerobic oxidation of methane, resulting in the buildup of CH4, formation of degassing cracks in sediments and an increase in the benthic methane flux from sediments. Precipitation of crack-filling microspar was driven by methanogenesis-related alkalinity accumulation. Deep ocean ventilation and oxygenation around 750 Ma brought molar tooth structures to an end. PMID:26739600

  5. Variable permanent mandibular first molar: Review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Ballullaya, Srinidhi V; Vemuri, Sayesh; Kumar, Pabbati Ravi

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The success of root canal therapy depends on the locations of all the canals, thourough debridement and proper sealing. At times the clinicians are challenged with variations in morphology of root canal. This review article attempts to list out all the variations of permanent mandibular first molar published so for in the literature. Materials and Methods: An exhaustive search was undertaken using PUBMED database to identify published literature from 1900 to 2010 relating to the root canal morphology of permanent first molar by using key words. The selected artcles were obtained and reviewed. Results: Total ninty seven articles were selected out of which 50 were original article and forty seven were case reports. The incidence of third canal in mesial root was 0.95% to 15%. The incidence of three rooted mandibular first molar was 3% to 33%. Only ninety cases reported with c-shape canal configuration. Incidence of Taurodintism without congenital disorder was very rare. Conclusion: The root canal treatment requires proper knowlegde of variations in root canal morphology in order to recognise, disinfect and seal all portal of exit. This can be accomplished with proper diagnosis using newer modes, modification in access preparation, use of operating microscope, enhanced methods of disinfecting and sealing of all canals. PMID:23716959

  6. The Use of Narrow Diameter Implants in the Molar Area

    PubMed Central

    Saad, M.; Assaf, A.; Gerges, E.

    2016-01-01

    Implant rehabilitations in the posterior jaw are influenced by many factors such as the condition of the remaining teeth, the force factors related to the patient, the quality of the bone, the maintenance of the hygiene, the limited bone height, the type and extent of edentulism, and the nature of the opposing arch. The gold standard is to place a regular diameter implant (>3.7 mm) or a wide one to replace every missing molar. Unfortunately, due to horizontal bone resorption, this option is not possible without lateral bone augmentation. In this situation, narrow diameter implant (NDI < 3.5 mm) could be the alternative to lateral bone augmentation procedures. This paper presents a clinical study where NDIs were used for the replacement of missing molars. They were followed up to 11 years. Special considerations were observed and many parameters were evaluated. NDI could be used to replace missing molar in case of moderate horizontal bone resorption if strict guidelines are respected. Yet, future controlled prospective clinical trials are required to admit their use as scientific evidence. PMID:27293436

  7. From molecular to molar: a paradigm shift in behavior analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Baum, William M

    2002-01-01

    A paradigm clash is occurring within behavior analysis. In the older paradigm, the molecular view, behavior consists of momentary or discrete responses that constitute instances of classes. Variation in response rate reflects variation in the strength or probability of the response class. The newer paradigm, the molar view, sees behavior as composed of activities that take up varying amounts of time. Whereas the molecular view takes response rate and choice to be "derived" measures and hence abstractions, the molar view takes response rate and choice to be concrete temporally extended behavioral allocations and regards momentary "responses" as abstractions. Research findings that point to variation in tempo, asymmetry in concurrent performance, and paradoxical resistance to change are readily interpretable when seen in the light of reinforcement and stimulus control of extended behavioral allocations or activities. Seen in the light of the ontological distinction between classes and individuals, extended behavioral allocations, like species in evolutionary taxonomy, constitute individuals, entities that change without changing their identity. Seeing allocations as individuals implies that less extended activities constitute parts of larger wholes rather than instances of classes. Both laboratory research and everyday behavior are explained plausibly in the light of concrete extended activities and their nesting. The molecular- view, because it requires discrete responses and contiguous events, relies on hypothetical stimuli and consequences to account for the same phenomena. One may prefer the molar view on grounds of elegance, integrative power, and plausibility. PMID:12144313

  8. Determination of partial molar volumes from free energy perturbation theory.

    PubMed

    Vilseck, Jonah Z; Tirado-Rives, Julian; Jorgensen, William L

    2015-04-01

    Partial molar volume is an important thermodynamic property that gives insights into molecular size and intermolecular interactions in solution. Theoretical frameworks for determining the partial molar volume (V°) of a solvated molecule generally apply Scaled Particle Theory or Kirkwood-Buff theory. With the current abilities to perform long molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations, more direct methods are gaining popularity, such as computing V° directly as the difference in computed volume from two simulations, one with a solute present and another without. Thermodynamically, V° can also be determined as the pressure derivative of the free energy of solvation in the limit of infinite dilution. Both approaches are considered herein with the use of free energy perturbation (FEP) calculations to compute the necessary free energies of solvation at elevated pressures. Absolute and relative partial molar volumes are computed for benzene and benzene derivatives using the OPLS-AA force field. The mean unsigned error for all molecules is 2.8 cm(3) mol(-1). The present methodology should find use in many contexts such as the development and testing of force fields for use in computer simulations of organic and biomolecular systems, as a complement to related experimental studies, and to develop a deeper understanding of solute-solvent interactions. PMID:25589343

  9. Molar Macrowear Reveals Neanderthal Eco-Geographic Dietary Variation

    PubMed Central

    Fiorenza, Luca; Benazzi, Stefano; Tausch, Jeremy; Kullmer, Ottmar; Bromage, Timothy G.; Schrenk, Friedemann

    2011-01-01

    Neanderthal diets are reported to be based mainly on the consumption of large and medium sized herbivores, while the exploitation of other food types including plants has also been demonstrated. Though some studies conclude that early Homo sapiens were active hunters, the analyses of faunal assemblages, stone tool technologies and stable isotopic studies indicate that they exploited broader dietary resources than Neanderthals. Whereas previous studies assume taxon-specific dietary specializations, we suggest here that the diet of both Neanderthals and early Homo sapiens is determined by ecological conditions. We analyzed molar wear patterns using occlusal fingerprint analysis derived from optical 3D topometry. Molar macrowear accumulates during the lifespan of an individual and thus reflects diet over long periods. Neanderthal and early Homo sapiens maxillary molar macrowear indicates strong eco-geographic dietary variation independent of taxonomic affinities. Based on comparisons with modern hunter-gatherer populations with known diets, Neanderthals as well as early Homo sapiens show high dietary variability in Mediterranean evergreen habitats but a more restricted diet in upper latitude steppe/coniferous forest environments, suggesting a significant consumption of high protein meat resources. PMID:21445243

  10. Primate molar crown formation times and life history evolution revisited.

    PubMed

    Macho, G A

    2001-12-01

    Comparative studies have convincingly demonstrated that the pattern and timing of tooth emergence are highly correlated with life-history variables and brain size. Conversely, a firm relationship between molar formation time and life-history variables has not yet been established. It seems counterintuitive that one aspect of dental development should be correlated with life-history variables, whereas the other should not. In order to shed light on this apparent discrepancy this study analyzed all data on primate molar crown formations available in the published literature in relation to life-history variables, brain size, and female body mass. Crown formation times were found to be particularly highly correlated with both female body mass and brain size. Species that depart from the overall brain/body allometry by being relatively large-bodied, e.g., Gorilla gorilla and later Theropithecus oswaldi, also have shorter molar crown formation times than expected. The reverse is not found for species that depart from the overall brain/body allometry due to their larger brains, i.e., Homo sapiens. This finding is interpreted within an evolutionary and ecological framework. Specifically, by focusing on ecological commonalities, a scenario is proposed which may allow predictions to be made about the evolutionary history of other extinct primates also. If confirmed in future studies, crown formation time may again become a powerful tool in evolutionary enquiry. PMID:11748692

  11. Efficacy of Postoperative Prophylactic Antibiotic Therapy in Third Molar Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Reddy B, Praveen

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Surgical extraction of mandibular third molar is the most frequently performed procedure in oral surgery. This procedure is associated with significant postoperative sequelae such as trismus, swelling, pain and infection. The need of antibiotic therapy during the removal of mandibular third molar has been a contentious issue. Method: This study investigated a regimen by using amoxycillin and metronidazole in one group and without using antibiotics in the other. Both the groups were assessed postoperatively on the 1st, 2nd, 5th, 7th and 10th days by the same observer for post operative mouth opening (interincisal distance), presence of a purulent discharge at the site of surgery, pain and swelling. Result: Overall, no statistically significant difference was seen between both the treatment groups when interincisal distance, pain, swelling and purulent discharge were considered. Conclusion: The results of this study failed to show any advantage which was associated with the routine postoperative use of antibiotics in asymptomatic third molar surgeries. PMID:24995236

  12. Relationship between mandibular condyle and angle fractures and the presence of mandibular third molars

    PubMed Central

    Mah, Deuk-Hyun; Moon, Seong-Yong; Oh, Ji-Su; You, Jae-Seek

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We retrospectively evaluated the impact of mandibular third molars on the occurrence of angle and condyle fractures. Materials and Methods This was a retrospective investigation using patient records and radiographs. The sample set consisted of 440 patients with mandibular fractures. Eruption space, depth and angulation of the third molar were measured. Results Of the 144 angle fracture patients, 130 patients had third molars and 14 patients did not. The ratio of angle fractures when a third molar was present (1.26 : 1) was greater than when no third molar was present (0.19 : 1; odds ratio, 6.58; P<0.001). Of the 141 condyle fractures patients, the third molar was present in 84 patients and absent in 57 patients. The ratio of condyle fractures when a third molar was present (0.56 : 1) was lower than when no third molar was present (1.90 : 1; odds ratio, 0.30; P<0.001). Conclusion The increased ratio of angle fractures with third molars and the ratio of condyle fractures without a third molar were statistically significant. The occurrence of angle and condyle fractures was more affected by the continuity of the cortical bone at the angle than by the depth of a third molar. These results demonstrate that a third molar can be a determining factor in angle and condyle fractures. PMID:25741462

  13. Molar Mass and Second Virial Coefficient of Polyethylene Glycol by Vapor Pressure Osmometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwinefus, Jeffrey J.; Checkal, Caleb; Saksa, Brian; Baka, Nadia; Modi, Kalpit; Rivera, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    In this laboratory experiment, students determine the number-average molar masses and second virial coefficients of polyethylene glycol (PEG) polymers ranging in molar mass from 200 to 1500 g mol[superscript -1] using vapor pressure osmometry (VPO). Students assess VPO in relation to accurate molar mass calculations of PEG polymers. Additionally,…

  14. Sub-10-Minute Characterization of an Ultrahigh Molar Mass Polymer by Multi-detector Hydrodynamic Chromatography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Molar mass averages, distributions, and architectural information of polymers are routinely obtained using size-exclusion chromatography (SEC). It has previously been shown that ultrahigh molar mass polymers may experience degradation during SEC analysis, leading to inaccurate molar mass averages a...

  15. Influence of excess diamine on properties of PMR polyimide resins and composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurwitz, F. I.

    1980-01-01

    By varying the stoichiometry of the reactants in the preparation of PMR polyimide resin, changes occur in molecular weight distribution which influence the rheological properties and thus the processability of the resin, as well as the mechanical properties of the composite. The influence of 1-10 percent molar excess MDA on the molecular weight distribution and rheological properties of an imidized PMR system were exposed. Molecular weight distribution is characterized by gel permeation chromatography of the imidized molding compound; shear viscosity is related to changes in average molecular weight. The thermo-oxidative stability at 600 F, glass transition temperature, flexural and interlaminar shear properties of PMR polyimide/Celion 6000 graphite fiber composites are compared as a function of the percent excess MDA in the monomer reactant mixture.

  16. Dental fluorosis and skeletal fluoride content as biomarkers of excess fluoride exposure in marsupials.

    PubMed

    Death, Clare; Coulson, Graeme; Kierdorf, Uwe; Kierdorf, Horst; Morris, William K; Hufschmid, Jasmin

    2015-11-15

    Particulate and gaseous fluoride emissions contaminate vegetation near fluoride-emitting industries, potentially impacting herbivorous wildlife in neighboring areas. Dental fluorosis has been associated with consumption of fluoride-contaminated foliage by juvenile livestock and wildlife in Europe and North America. For the first time, we explored the epidemiology and comparative pathology of dental fluorosis in Australian marsupials residing near an aluminium smelter. Six species (Macropus giganteus, Macropus rufogriseus, Wallabia bicolor, Phascolarctos cinereus, Trichosurus vulpecula, Pseudocheirus peregrinus) demonstrated significantly higher bone fluoride levels in the high (n=161 individuals), compared to the low (n=67 individuals), fluoride areas (p<0.001). Necropsy examinations of all six species from the high-fluoride area near the smelter revealed dental lesions considered characteristic of dental fluorosis in eutherian mammals. Within the high-fluoride area, 67% of individuals across the six species showed dental enamel lesions, compared to 3% in the low-fluoride areas. Molars that erupted before weaning were significantly less likely to display pathological lesions than those developing later, and molars in the posterior portion of the dental arcade were more severely fluorotic than anterior molars in all six species. The severity of dental lesions was positively associated with increasing bone fluoride levels in all species, revealing a potential biomarker of excess fluoride exposure. PMID:26188404

  17. 43 CFR 426.12 - Excess land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... as excess is binding on the land. However, the landowner may change the designation under the...) If the status of land is changed by law or regulations. (1) If the district had a contract with... 25, 1926 (43 U.S.C. 423e); (ii) If the status of this land changes from nonexcess into excess after...

  18. 43 CFR 426.12 - Excess land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... as excess is binding on the land. However, the landowner may change the designation under the...) If the status of land is changed by law or regulations. (1) If the district had a contract with... 25, 1926 (43 U.S.C. 423e); (ii) If the status of this land changes from nonexcess into excess after...

  19. 43 CFR 426.12 - Excess land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... as excess is binding on the land. However, the landowner may change the designation under the...) If the status of land is changed by law or regulations. (1) If the district had a contract with... 25, 1926 (43 U.S.C. 423e); (ii) If the status of this land changes from nonexcess into excess after...

  20. 30 CFR 57.6902 - Excessive temperatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Excessive temperatures. 57.6902 Section 57.6902... Requirements-Surface and Underground § 57.6902 Excessive temperatures. (a) Where heat could cause premature... shall— (1) Measure an appropriate number of blasthole temperatures in order to assess the specific...

  1. 30 CFR 56.6902 - Excessive temperatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Excessive temperatures. 56.6902 Section 56.6902... Requirements § 56.6902 Excessive temperatures. (a) Where heat could cause premature detonation, explosive... an appropriate number of blasthole temperatures in order to assess the specific mine conditions...

  2. Part B Excess Cost Quick Reference Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Wayne; Beridon, Virginia; Hamre, Kent; Morse, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    This Quick Reference Document has been prepared by the Regional Resource Center Program ARRA/Fiscal Priority Team to aid RRCP State Liaisons and other (Technical Assistance) TA providers in understanding the general context of state questions surrounding excess cost. As a "first-stop" for TA providers in investigating excess cost questions on…

  3. 43 CFR 426.12 - Excess land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... financial institution as defined in § 426.14(a) of the Acreage Limitation Rules and Regulations (43 CFR Part... transfers such excess land to an eligible buyer at a price and on terms approved by Reclamation; or (iv...) Sells or transfers such excess land to an eligible buyer at a price and on terms approved by...

  4. 30 CFR 57.6902 - Excessive temperatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Excessive temperatures. 57.6902 Section 57.6902... Requirements-Surface and Underground § 57.6902 Excessive temperatures. (a) Where heat could cause premature... shall— (1) Measure an appropriate number of blasthole temperatures in order to assess the specific...

  5. 30 CFR 56.6902 - Excessive temperatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Excessive temperatures. 56.6902 Section 56.6902... Requirements § 56.6902 Excessive temperatures. (a) Where heat could cause premature detonation, explosive... an appropriate number of blasthole temperatures in order to assess the specific mine conditions...

  6. 30 CFR 56.6902 - Excessive temperatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Excessive temperatures. 56.6902 Section 56.6902... Requirements § 56.6902 Excessive temperatures. (a) Where heat could cause premature detonation, explosive... an appropriate number of blasthole temperatures in order to assess the specific mine conditions...

  7. 30 CFR 56.6902 - Excessive temperatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Excessive temperatures. 56.6902 Section 56.6902... Requirements § 56.6902 Excessive temperatures. (a) Where heat could cause premature detonation, explosive... an appropriate number of blasthole temperatures in order to assess the specific mine conditions...

  8. 30 CFR 57.6902 - Excessive temperatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Excessive temperatures. 57.6902 Section 57.6902... Requirements-Surface and Underground § 57.6902 Excessive temperatures. (a) Where heat could cause premature... shall— (1) Measure an appropriate number of blasthole temperatures in order to assess the specific...

  9. 30 CFR 57.6902 - Excessive temperatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Excessive temperatures. 57.6902 Section 57.6902... Requirements-Surface and Underground § 57.6902 Excessive temperatures. (a) Where heat could cause premature... shall— (1) Measure an appropriate number of blasthole temperatures in order to assess the specific...

  10. 30 CFR 56.6902 - Excessive temperatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Excessive temperatures. 56.6902 Section 56.6902... Requirements § 56.6902 Excessive temperatures. (a) Where heat could cause premature detonation, explosive... an appropriate number of blasthole temperatures in order to assess the specific mine conditions...

  11. 30 CFR 57.6902 - Excessive temperatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Excessive temperatures. 57.6902 Section 57.6902... Requirements-Surface and Underground § 57.6902 Excessive temperatures. (a) Where heat could cause premature... shall— (1) Measure an appropriate number of blasthole temperatures in order to assess the specific...

  12. 7 CFR 929.59 - Excess cranberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excess cranberries. 929.59 Section 929.59 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 929.59 Excess...

  13. 7 CFR 929.59 - Excess cranberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Excess cranberries. 929.59 Section 929.59 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 929.59 Excess...

  14. 7 CFR 929.59 - Excess cranberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Excess cranberries. 929.59 Section 929.59 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 929.59 Excess...

  15. 7 CFR 929.59 - Excess cranberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Excess cranberries. 929.59 Section 929.59 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 929.59 Excess...

  16. 7 CFR 929.59 - Excess cranberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Excess cranberries. 929.59 Section 929.59 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 929.59 Excess...

  17. Excess mortality associated with alcohol consumption.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, P.

    1988-01-01

    To estimate the excess mortality due to alcohol in England and Wales death rates specific to alcohol consumption that had been derived from five longitudinal studies were applied to the current population divided into categories of alcohol consumption. Because of the J shaped relation between alcohol consumption and death the excess mortality used as a baseline was an alcohol consumption of 1-10 units/week and an adjustment was made for the slight excess mortality of abstainers. The number of excess deaths was obtained by subtracting the number of deaths expected if all the population had the consumption of the lowest risk group; correction for the total observed mortality in the population was made. This resulted in an estimate of 28,000 deaths each year in England and Wales as the excess mortality among people aged 15-74 associated with alcohol consumption. PMID:3140936

  18. Mandibular third molar development after mantle radiation in long-term survivors of childhood Hodgkin's disease

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, J.P. Jr.; Hopkins, K.P.; Thompson, E.I.; Hustu, H.O.

    1987-05-01

    Sequential panoramic radiographs were assessed for mandibular third molar development in 47 long-term survivors of childhood Hodgkin's disease after treatment with 37 Gy mantle field radiation. To make a comparison, panoramic radiographs of 149 healthy, nonirradiated children were reviewed for the presence of mandibular third molars. In children between the ages of 7 and 12 years, bilateral agenesis of mandibular third molars was more frequent in patients who had been treated with mantle radiation than in nonirradiated patients. Unilateral agenesis, crown hypoplasia, and root growth impairment of mandibular third molars were also found. Similar, apparent, radiation-induced developmental anomalies were noted in maxillary third molars of the irradiated patients.

  19. Compensation trends of the angulation of first molars: retrospective study of 1 403 malocclusion cases

    PubMed Central

    Su, Hong; Han, Bing; Li, Sa; Na, Bin; Ma, Wen; Xu, Tian-Min

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the compensatory trends of mesiodistal angulation of first molars in malocclusion cases. We compared differences in the angulation of first molars in different developmental stages, malocclusion classifications and skeletal patterns. The medical records and lateral cephalogrammes of 1 403 malocclusion cases taken before treatment were measured to evaluate compensation of molar angulation in relation to the skeletal jaw. The cases were stratified by age, Angle classification and skeletal patterns. Differences in the mesiodistal angulation of the first molars were compared among the stratifications. We observed three main phenomena. First, angulation of the upper first molar varied significantly with age and tipped most distally in cases aged <12 years and least distally in cases aged >16 years. The lower first molar did not show such differences. Second, in Angle Class II or skeletal Class II cases, the upper first molar was the most distally tipped, the lower first molar was the most mesially tipped, and opposite angulation compensation was observed in Class III cases. Third, in high-angle cases, the upper and lower first molars were the most distally tipped, and opposite angulation compensation was observed in low-angle cases. These data suggest that the angulation of the molars compensated for various growth patterns and malocclusion types. Hence, awareness of molar angulation compensation would help to adjust occlusal relationships, control anchorage and increase the chances of long-term stability. PMID:24699185

  20. Patterning by heritage in mouse molar row development

    PubMed Central

    Prochazka, Jan; Pantalacci, Sophie; Churava, Svatava; Rothova, Michaela; Lambert, Anne; Lesot, Hervé; Klein, Ophir; Peterka, Miroslav; Laudet, Vincent; Peterkova, Renata

    2010-01-01

    It is known from paleontology studies that two premolars have been lost during mouse evolution. During mouse mandible development, two bud-like structures transiently form that may represent rudimentary precursors of the lost premolars. However, the interpretation of these structures and their significance for mouse molar development are highly controversial because of a lack of molecular data. Here, we searched for typical tooth signaling centers in these two bud-like structures, and followed their fate using molecular markers, 3D reconstructions, and lineage tracing in vitro. Transient signaling centers were indeed found to be located at the tips of both the anterior and posterior rudimentary buds. These centers expressed a similar set of molecular markers as the “primary enamel knot” (pEK), the signaling center of the first molar (M1). These two transient signaling centers were sequentially patterned before and anterior to the M1 pEK. We also determined the dynamics of the M1 pEK, which, slightly later during development, spread up to the field formerly occupied by the posterior transient signaling center. It can be concluded that two rudimentary tooth buds initiate the sequential development of the mouse molars and these have previously been mistaken for early stages of M1 development. Although neither rudiment progresses to form an adult tooth, the posterior one merges with the adjacent M1, which may explain the anterior enlargement of the M1 during mouse family evolution. This study highlights how rudiments of lost structures can stay integrated and participate in morphogenesis of functional organs and help in understanding their evolution, as Darwin suspected long ago. PMID:20709958

  1. Patterning by heritage in mouse molar row development.

    PubMed

    Prochazka, Jan; Pantalacci, Sophie; Churava, Svatava; Rothova, Michaela; Lambert, Anne; Lesot, Hervé; Klein, Ophir; Peterka, Miroslav; Laudet, Vincent; Peterkova, Renata

    2010-08-31

    It is known from paleontology studies that two premolars have been lost during mouse evolution. During mouse mandible development, two bud-like structures transiently form that may represent rudimentary precursors of the lost premolars. However, the interpretation of these structures and their significance for mouse molar development are highly controversial because of a lack of molecular data. Here, we searched for typical tooth signaling centers in these two bud-like structures, and followed their fate using molecular markers, 3D reconstructions, and lineage tracing in vitro. Transient signaling centers were indeed found to be located at the tips of both the anterior and posterior rudimentary buds. These centers expressed a similar set of molecular markers as the "primary enamel knot" (pEK), the signaling center of the first molar (M1). These two transient signaling centers were sequentially patterned before and anterior to the M1 pEK. We also determined the dynamics of the M1 pEK, which, slightly later during development, spread up to the field formerly occupied by the posterior transient signaling center. It can be concluded that two rudimentary tooth buds initiate the sequential development of the mouse molars and these have previously been mistaken for early stages of M1 development. Although neither rudiment progresses to form an adult tooth, the posterior one merges with the adjacent M1, which may explain the anterior enlargement of the M1 during mouse family evolution. This study highlights how rudiments of lost structures can stay integrated and participate in morphogenesis of functional organs and help in understanding their evolution, as Darwin suspected long ago. PMID:20709958

  2. Cameriere's third molar maturity index in assessing age of majority.

    PubMed

    Galić, Ivan; Lauc, Tomislav; Brkić, Hrvoje; Vodanović, Marin; Galić, Elizabeta; Biazevic, Maria Gabriela Haye; Brakus, Ivan; Badrov, Jozo; Cameriere, Roberto

    2015-07-01

    Estimation of chronological age of an individual is one of the main challenges in forensic science. Legally to be able to treat a person as a minor or an adult, it is necessary to determine whether their age of majority (if they are older or younger than 18, in most countries). Methods for estimating age are especially important when an individual in question lacks personal documents or other means of identification. As the dental age differs in various populations, the aim of this study was to evaluate applicability of third molar method for assessing age of majority in Croatia. Cameriere's third molar maturity index (I3M) value of 0.08, measured by the open apices of the teeth, was verified in sample of 1336 panoramic images aged between 14 and 23 years. Chronological age gradually decreased as I3M increased in both genders. Males showed statistically significant advanced maturation when I3M was between 0.0 and 0.3 value. The results indicate that the sensitivity of the test for 0.08 value was 84.3% (95%CI 80.6%, 87.5%) for females and 91.2% (95%CI 88.7%, 93.1) for males. Specificity was 95.4% (95%CI 92.5%, 97.5%) and 91.9% (95%CI 88.8%, 94.3%). The proportions of accurately classified males were 88.8% and that of females 91.5%. The estimated post-test probabilities, of individuals, in other word the probability that a Croatian individual with an I3M<0.08 is 18 years or older is 94.5% for females, and 96.5% for males. With high accuracy, the third molar maturity index should be used as a determinant of the age of majority in Croatia. PMID:26013667

  3. Restoration of Endodontically Treated Molars Using All Ceramic Endocrowns

    PubMed Central

    Carlos, Roopak Bose; Thomas Nainan, Mohan; Pradhan, Shamina; Roshni Sharma; Benjamin, Shiny; Rose, Rajani

    2013-01-01

    Clinical success of endodontically treated posterior teeth is determined by the postendodontic restoration. Several options have been proposed to restore endodontically treated teeth. Endocrowns represent a conservative and esthetic restorative alternative to full coverage crowns. The preparation consists of a circular equigingival butt-joint margin and central retention cavity into the entire pulp chamber constructing both the crown and the core as a single unit. The case reports discussed here are moderately damaged endodontically treated molars restored using all ceramic endocrowns fabricated using two different systems, namely, CAD/CAM and pressed ceramic. PMID:24455318

  4. Histological evaluation of mandibular third molar roots retrieved after coronectomy.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vinod; Sproat, Chris; Kwok, Jerry; Beneng, Kiran; Thavaraj, Selvam; McGurk, Mark

    2014-05-01

    There is a resurgence of interest in coronectomy for the management of mandibular third molars because it has a low risk of injury to the inferior dental nerve. However, there is concern that the root that is left in place will eventually become a source of infection. We describe the histological evaluation of 26 consecutive symptomatic coronectomy roots in 21 patients. All roots had vital tissue in the pulp chamber and there was no evidence of periradicular inflammation. Persistent postoperative symptoms related predominantly to inflammation of the soft tissue, which was caused by partially erupted roots or failure of the socket to heal. PMID:24684971

  5. Why, what and how: caries control for erupting molars.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Helen J; Morgan, Annie G; Batley, Haris; Deery, Chris

    2015-03-01

    This article aims to update the practitioner on the various techniques and interventions available to prevent or control caries during this high-risk period. The evidence to support provision of toothbrushing advice, placement of fissure sealants and fluoride varnish application is considered, along with more novel methods. An evidence-based protocol is suggested to help the practitioner determine when further intervention is required and what action to undertake. Clinical Relevance: This article aims to reinforce the need for rigorous caries prevention in an erupting permanent molar and provides an update on the evidence behind a range of clinical techniques used for this purpose. PMID:26058229

  6. The topography of the furcation entrance in Chinese molars. Furcation entrance dimensions.

    PubMed

    Hou, G L; Chen, S F; Wu, Y M; Tsai, C C

    1994-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to document the furcation entrance dimensions (FEDs) of the maxillary and mandibular 1st and 2nd molars and relate them to the choice of periodontal therapy. Study samples consisted of 89 maxillary molars (49 1st and 40 2nd molars) and 93 mandibular molars (50 1st and 43 2nd molars). All the FEDs of the molars were examined and measured under a stereomicroscope at 2.5 x equipped with a Bioscan OPTIMAS Image Analyzer (BOIA). The results may be summarized as follows. (1) The mean FEDs in the buccal, distal and mesial furcations of maxillary 1st and 2nd molars were 0.74 mm, 0.99 mm and 1.04 mm in the 1st molars, and 0.63 mm, 0.67 mm, 0.90 mm in the 2nd molars, respectively. In the buccal and lingual furcations of mandibular 1st and 2nd molars, they measured 0.88 mm and 0.81 mm, and 0.73 mm and 0.71 mm, respectively. (2) The %s of FEDs of 0.56 mm or less (the tip width of a Cavitron tip being 0.56 mm) in the buccal, distal and mesial furcations of maxillary 1st and 2nd molars, accounted for 32%, 8% and 6% of 1st molars, and 40%, 40% and 18% of 2nd molars. In the buccal and lingual areas of mandibular 1st and 2nd molars, they accounted for 16% and 26%, and 35% and 33% of the furcations, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7929856

  7. Replantation of a maxillary second molar after removal of a third molar with a dentigerous cyst: Case report and 12-month follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Peñarrocha-Diago, María A.; Peñarrocha-Oltra, David; Peñarrocha-Diago, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the replantation of a maxillary second right molar, which had been removed for surgical reasons in order to remove a dentigerous cyst associated with the adjacent third molar, and the case’s 12-month follow-up. A 51-year-old man presented swelling in the right maxillary area. Radiographic examination showed a large radiolucency in close proximity to the third molar, suggesting a follicular cyst. The third molar was extracted and the cyst underwent curettage. The second molar had to be extracted to enable complete removal of the cyst and to achieve primary closure of the wound, which would have been impossible without repositioning the molar. With this objective, extraoral endodontic treatment was performed, the root-end was resected and prepared with ultrasonic retrotips, and root-end filling was accomplished with MTA before the molar was replanted. At the 12-month follow-up, the tooth showed no clinical signs or symptoms, probing depth was no greater than 3 mm and radiographic examination showed no evidence of root resorption or periapical lesion. Key words:Replantation, maxillary molar, follicular cyst, dentigerous cyst. PMID:24790721

  8. Mercury and selenium in European catfish (Silurus glanis) from Northern Italian Rivers: can molar ratio be a predictive factor for mercury toxicity in a top predator?

    PubMed

    Squadrone, S; Benedetto, A; Brizio, P; Prearo, M; Abete, M C

    2015-01-01

    The study of mercury and selenium bioaccumulation in fish is crucially important for evaluating the extent of contamination in freshwater environments, and the possible health risk posed for humans when the antagonistic interactions of these two elements are considered. Several factors affect the risk of mercury intake from fish consumption, including mercury levels, human consumption patterns, and sensitive populations (e.g., pregnant women, foetuses, young children and unknown genetic factors). The protective effects of selenium on mercury toxicity have been extensively publicised in recent years, particularly targeting fish consumers. In this study, mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) concentrations were determined in the muscle of European catfish (Silurus glanis) collected from North Italian Rivers. Differences in mercury and selenium levels, as a function of size, gender and location were investigated. Hg was strongly related to length, gender and location, while Se levels are not dependent on fish size or location. The mean Se/Hg molar ratio was strongly affected by location, and significantly related to length and age. Selenium was in molar excess of mercury in all sites, with a rank order of mean Se/Hg molar ratio of the Parma River (2.55)>Po River (1.71)>Tanaro River (1.66)>Bormida River (1.36). However, in 37% of analyzed samples, Hg exceeded the maximum level set by 1881/2006/EC and 629/2008/EC in fish muscle. The molar ratio of Se/Hg was <1 only in the presence of significantly high Hg levels (>0.5mg/kg), and therefore the mean molar ratio cannot be considered as a safety criterion in top predator fish. PMID:25460744

  9. Unilateral failure of development of mandibular premolars and molars in an Eastern Grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus) and its effects on molar progression.

    PubMed

    Barber, D; Campbell, J; Davey, J; Luke, T; Agren, E; Beveridge, I

    2008-01-01

    An adult male Eastern Grey kangaroo from a wildlife reserve near Melbourne was submitted for necropsy examination and was discovered to have abnormal dentition. There was no evidence that any premolars or molars had ever been present on the right mandible, whilst the incisors were normal. The age of the kangaroo was estimated to be 1 year 9 months using the right maxillary molars and 2 years 4 months old using the contralateral side, presumably due to the asymmetry of the dental arcades. 'Lumpy jaw', a common periodontal disease of kangaroos, from which Bacteroides sp was cultured, was present on the base of the vertical ramus of the left mandible. Complete unilateral absence of premolar and molar teeth in the mandible of a kangaroo has not been described. This condition affected molar progression in both sets of maxillary molars. PMID:18271832

  10. Enamel thickness trends in Plio-Pleistocene hominin mandibular molars.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Matthew M; Alemseged, Zeresenay; Gaunitz, Charleen; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2015-08-01

    Enamel thickness continues to be an important morphological character in hominin systematics and is frequently invoked in dietary reconstructions of Plio-Pleistocene hominin taxa. However, to date, the majority of published data on molar enamel thickness of Pliocene and early Pleistocene hominins derive from naturally fractured random surfaces of a small number of specimens. In this study we systematically analyze enamel thickness in a large sample of Plio-Pleistocene fossil hominins (n = 99), extant hominoids (n = 57), and modern humans (n = 30). Based on analysis of 2D mesial planes of section derived from microtomography, we examine both average and relative enamel thickness, and the distribution of enamel across buccal, occlusal, and lingual components of mandibular molars. Our results confirm the trend of increasing enamel thickness during the Pliocene that culminates in the thick enamel of the robust Australopithecus species, and then decreases from early Homo to recent modern humans. All hominin taxa share a regional average enamel thickness pattern of thick occlusal enamel and greater buccal than lingual enamel thickness. Pan is unique in exhibiting the thinnest average enamel thickness in the occlusal basin. Statistical analysis indicates that among Pliocene hominins enamel thickness is a weak taxonomic discriminator. The data underlying these results are included in a table in the Supplementary Online Material. PMID:26024565

  11. A geometric morphometric analysis of hominin upper first molar shape.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Robles, A; Martinón-Torres, M; Bermúdez de Castro, J M; Margvelashvili, A; Bastir, M; Arsuaga, J L; Pérez-Pérez, A; Estebaranz, F; Martínez, L M

    2007-09-01

    Recent studies have revealed interesting differences in upper first molar morphology across the hominin fossil record, particularly significant between H. sapiens and H. neanderthalensis. Usually these analyses have been performed by means of classic morphometric methods, including the measurement of relative cusp areas or the angles defined between cusps. Although these studies have provided valuable information for the morphological characterization of some hominin species, we believe that the analysis of this particular tooth could be more conclusive for taxonomic assignment. In this study, we have applied geometric morphometric methods to explore the morphological variability of the upper first molar (M(1)) across the human fossil record. Our emphasis focuses on the study of the phenetic relationships among the European middle Pleistocene populations (designated as H. heidelbergensis) with H. neanderthalensis and H. sapiens, but the inclusion of Australopithecus and early Homo specimens has helped us to assess the polarity of the observed traits. H. neanderthalensis presents a unique morphology characterized by a relatively distal displacement of the lingual cusps and protrusion in the external outline of a large and bulging hypocone. This morphology can be found in a less pronounced degree in the European early and middle Pleistocene populations, and reaches its maximum expression with the H. neanderthalensis lineage. In contrast, modern humans retain the primitive morphology with a square occlusal polygon associated with a round external outline. PMID:17599390

  12. Evolutionary novelty in a rat with no molars

    PubMed Central

    Esselstyn, Jacob A.; Achmadi, Anang Setiawan; Rowe, Kevin C.

    2012-01-01

    Rodents are important ecological components of virtually every terrestrial ecosystem. Their success is a result of their gnawing incisors, battery of grinding molars and diastema that spatially and functionally separates the incisors from the molars. Until now these traits defined all rodents. Here, we describe a new species and genus of shrew-rat from Sulawesi Island, Indonesia that is distinguished from all other rodents by the absence of cheek teeth. Moreover, rather than gnawing incisors, this animal has bicuspid upper incisors, also unique among the more than 2200 species of rodents. Stomach contents from a single specimen suggest that the species consumes only earthworms. We posit that by specializing on soft-bodied prey, this species has had no need to process food by chewing, allowing its dentition to evolve for the sole purpose of procuring food. Thus, the removal of functional constraints, often considered a source of evolutionary innovations, may also lead to the loss of the very same traits that fuelled evolutionary diversification in the past. PMID:22915626

  13. Nanoparticle Counting: Towards Accurate Determination of the Molar Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Jing; Gao, Xiaohu

    2014-01-01

    Summary Innovations in nanotechnology have brought tremendous opportunities for the advancement of many research frontiers, ranging from electronics, photonics, energy, to medicine. To maximize the benefits of nano-scaled materials in different devices and systems, precise control of their concentration is a prerequisite. While concentrations of nanoparticles have been provided in other forms (e.g., mass), accurate determination of molar concentration, arguably the most useful one for chemical reactions and applications, has been a major challenge (especially for nanoparticles smaller than 30 nm). Towards this significant yet chronic problem, a variety of strategies are currently under development. Most of these strategies are applicable to a specialized group of nanoparticles due to their restrictions on the composition and size ranges of nanoparticles. As research and uses of nanomaterials being explored in an unprecedented speed, it is necessary to develop universal strategies that are easy to use, and compatible with nanoparticles of different sizes, compositions, and shapes. This review outlines the theories and applications of current strategies to measure nanoparticle molar concentration, discusses the advantages and limitations of these methods, and provides insights into future directions. PMID:25099190

  14. Ameloblastin and amelogenin expression in posnatal developing mouse molars.

    PubMed

    Torres-Quintana, María Angélica; Gaete, Marcia; Hernandez, Marcela; Farías, Marcela; Lobos, Nelson

    2005-03-01

    Ameloblastin and amelogenin are structural proteins present in the enamel matrix of developing teeth. Here we report the results of in situ hybridization analyses with DNA probes of ameloblastin and amelogenin expression in the mandibular first molars of ICR/Jcl mice from postnatal day 1 to day 15. Ameloblastin mRNA expression was observed in ameloblasts at day 2 while amelogenin mRNA was detected in secretory ameloblasts at day 3. Significant expression of both molecules was observed at days 4, 5 and 6, after which the levels decreased. Amelogenin expression ended on day 10, while ameloblastin mRNA was only weakly detected on day 12. Neither amelogenin nor ameloblastin expression was observed in day 15 mouse molars. Amelogenin and ameloblastin mRNAs were restricted to ameloblasts. We conclude that amelogenin and ameloblastin expression is enamel-specific, and suggest that these genes might be involved in the mineralization of enamel. It is possible that ameloblastin could participate in the attachment of ameloblasts to the enamel surface. In this case, the downregulation of expression may indicate the beginning of the maturation stage in which the ameloblasts tend to detach from the enamel layer. PMID:15881226

  15. Genetics Home Reference: aromatase excess syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... males, the increased aromatase and subsequent conversion of androgens to estrogen are responsible for the gynecomastia and limited bone growth characteristic of aromatase excess syndrome . Increased estrogen in females can cause symptoms ...

  16. Understand Your Risk for Excessive Blood Clotting

    MedlinePlus

    ... excessive blood clotting in the heart and brain: Atherosclerosis is a disease in which a waxy substance ... is considered healthy. These conditions can lead to atherosclerosis, which increases the risk of clots. Metabolic syndrome ...

  17. Fate of excess sulfur in higher plants

    SciTech Connect

    Rennenberg, H.

    1984-01-01

    The mechanisms which have evolved in higher plants to cope with excess sulfur in their environments are reviewed. Survival in a sulfur-rich environment is seldom achieved through avoidance of the intake of sulfur. The presence of excess sulfur in the soil or in the air usually results in an intake of excess sulfur into plants. An immediate injury by the excess sulfur taken up is, however, prevented by a series of metabolic processes. Storage of excess sulfur in a metabolically inactive compartment, i.e. the vacuole, appears to occur in most plants. The finding of a storage of glutathione is several investigations suggests that with increasing accumulation of sulfate its reduction also increases. Under these conditions the cysteine concentration in different compartments of the cell may still be maintained at a low level by the incorporation of the excess cysteine synthesized into glutathione. This peptide appears to be the storage form of reduced sulfur in higher plants. 167 references, 2 figures.

  18. Deuterium excess in the Rayleigh model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dütsch, Marina; Pfahl, Stephan; Sodemann, Harald

    2016-04-01

    The deuterium excess is a useful quantity for measuring nonequilibrium effects of isotopic fractionation, and can therefore provide information about the meteorological conditions in evaporation regions (e.g., relative humidity over the ocean or the fraction of plant transpiration over land). In addition to nonequilibrium fractionation, there are two other effects that can change the deuterium excess during phase transitions. The first is the dependence of the equilibrium fractionation factors on temperature, the second is the nonlinearity of the delta scale, on which the deuterium excess is defined. We tested the impact of these three effects (nonequilibrium, temperature and delta scale) in a simple Rayleigh condensation model simulating the isotopic composition of an air parcel during a moist adiabatic ascent. The delta scale effect is important especially for depleted air parcels where it can change the sign of the deuterium excess in the remaining vapour from negative to positive. In this case the deuterium excess to a large extent reflects an artefact of its own definition, which overwrites both the nonequilibrium and the temperature effect. This problem can be solved by an alternative definition for the deuterium excess that is not based on the delta scale.

  19. Etiology, Classification and Management of Ectopic Eruption of Permanent First Molars.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Chu-Chun; Boynton, James R

    2016-01-01

    Ectopic eruption of a permanent tooth involves abnormal resorption of a portion or all of the adjacent primary tooth. Among the most commonly ectopically erupted teeth are the permanent first molars. Ectopically erupting molars may require intervention to allow for full eruption, or they may spontaneously self-correct and erupt into occlusion. Decisions regarding the necessity of intervention, its ideal timing, and intervention type are multifactorial. Treatment options for the ectopically erupting permanent first molar include the elastomeric separator, brass wire, pre-fabricated clip separator, custom made appliances (Humphrey appliance, Halterman appliance), or extraction of the primary molar. Early intervention when indicated can ensure proper full eruption of the permanent first molar and prevent mesial angulation, arch perimeter loss, tooth impaction and ankylosis. Two cases are described that manage ectopic eruption of the permanent first molar. PMID:26882645

  20. Efficiency of two protocols for maxillary molar intrusion with mini-implants

    PubMed Central

    Paccini, Juliana Volpato Curi; Cotrim-Ferreira, Flávio Augusto; Ferreira, Flávio Vellini; de Freitas, Karina Maria Salvatore; Cançado, Rodrigo Hermont; Valarelli, Fabrício Pinelli

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of two protocols for maxillary molar intrusion with two or three mini-implants. Methods: Twenty five maxillary first molars extruded for loss of their antagonists in adult subjects were selected. The sample was divided into two groups, according to the intrusion protocol with two or three mini-implants. Group 1 consisted of 15 molars that were intruded by two mini-implants. Group 2 consisted of 10 molars intruded by three mini-implants. Changes with treatment were analyzed in lateral cephalograms at the beginning and at the end of intrusion of maxillary molars. Results: Results showed that there was no difference in efficiency for the two intrusion protocols. It was concluded that extruded maxillary molars can be intruded with two or three mini-implants with similar efficiency. PMID:27409654

  1. Ectopic third molar in the mandibular sigmoid notch: Report of a case and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Baykul, Timuçin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the etiopathogenesis, clinical features and surgical approaches for removal of ectopic third molars in the mandible. Methods: We report a case of an impacted mandibular third molar dislocated on mandibular sigmoid notch. 20 cases of ectopic mandibular third molars reported in the English-language literature, identified from Pubmed and Medline databases are also reviewed. Results: Among the 20 article reported in the presented study, ectopic third molars were generally located in the condylar region. The common symptoms of the clinical examination were pain, trismus, swelling, temporomandibular joint syndroms or no symptoms. Conclusions: Ectopic third molar may be asymptomatic initially with clinical manifestations, later on as adjacent structures are affected. The surgical approach must be carefully planned for the aim of choosing the more conservative technique that produces the minimum trauma to patients. Key words:Ectopic third molar, sigmoid notch, cyst. PMID:25810825

  2. Molar extinction coefficients of solutions of some organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Kulwant; Sandhu, G. K.; Lark, B. S.

    2004-05-01

    Molar extinction coefficients of aqueous solutions of some organic compounds, viz. formamide (CH_{3}NO), N-methylformamide (C_{2}H_{5}NO), NN-dimethylformamide (C_{3}H_{7}NO), NN-dimethylacetamide (C_{4}H_{9}NO), 1,4-dioxane (C_{4}H_{8}O_{2}), succinimide (C_{4}H_{5}NO_{2}) and solutions of acetamide (C_{2}H_{5}NO) and benzoic acid (C_{7}H_{6}O_{2}) in 1,4-dioxane (C_{4}H_{8}O_{2}) have been determined by narrow beam gamma-ray transmission method at 81, 356, 511, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV. The experimental values of mass attenuation coefficients of these compounds have been used to calculate effective atomic numbers and electron densities. The additivity rule earlier used for aqueous solution has been extended to non-aqueous (1,4-dioxane) solutions.

  3. Analgesic regimens for third molar surgery: pharmacologic and behavioral considerations.

    PubMed

    Moore, P A; Werther, J R; Seldin, E B; Stevens, C M

    1986-11-01

    The level of pain following the extraction of impacted third molars was evaluated in 75 patients. Participants were administered acetaminophen 1,000 mg or a placebo before surgery. After surgery, acetaminophen 650 mg was administered either at fixed intervals or as needed to relieve pain. When acetaminophen was administered before surgery, the onset of peak pain was delayed and patient discomfort was decreased 3, 4, and 5 hours after surgery. Patients following the fixed interval regimen after surgery experienced more pain overall and requested the backup narcotic analgesic more frequently. Of the regimens tested, patients preferred the regimen of acetaminophen 1,000 mg administered before surgery with acetaminophen administered as needed for pain after surgery. PMID:3465787

  4. Third molar consent forms: how comprehensive should they be?

    PubMed

    Britton, Danielle; Burns, Andrew; Hudyba, Stephen; Nugent, Michael

    2016-09-01

    To establish a gold standard for the information given to patients about the risks associated with third molar extractions, we surveyed 79 oral and maxillofacial surgeons (OMFS) to find out what information they gave to patients during the consent process. We also surveyed 62 medicolegal solicitors to find out what information they thought patients should be given before the procedure, and in what form. A total of 20/76 OMFS (26%) used a two-stage process to obtain consent; 13 (17%) included paraesthesia on the consent form and also gave out an information leaflet. All the lawyers agreed that patients should give their consent in writing and thought that the risk of paraesthesia should be included on the form. Three-quarters thought that they should also be given an information leaflet that includes paraesthesia. We encourage surgeons to do this as part of the two-stage consent process. PMID:27256800

  5. New vector bosons and the diphoton excess

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Blas, Jorge; Santiago, José; Vega-Morales, Roberto

    2016-08-01

    We consider the possibility that the recently observed diphoton excess at ∼ 750 GeV can be explained by the decay of a scalar particle (φ) to photons. If the scalar is the remnant of a symmetry-breaking sector of some new gauge symmetry, its coupling to photons can be generated by loops of the charged massive vectors of the broken symmetry. If these new W‧ vector bosons carry color, they can also generate an effective coupling to gluons. In this case the diphoton excess could be entirely explained in a simplified model containing just φ and W‧. On the other hand, if W‧ does not carry color, we show that, provided additional colored particles exist to generate the required φ to gluon coupling, the diphoton excess could be explained by the same W‧ commonly invoked to explain the diboson excess at ∼ 2 TeV. We also explore possible connections between the diphoton and diboson excesses with the anomalous t t bar forward-backward asymmetry.

  6. Excess Plutonium: Weapons Legacy or National Asset?

    SciTech Connect

    Klipa, G.; Boeke, S.; Hottel, R.

    2002-02-27

    The Nuclear Materials Stewardship Initiative was established in January, 2000, to accelerate the work of achieving integration and cutting long-term costs associated with the management of nuclear materials. As part of that initiative, the Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Management (EM), has established Nuclear Material Management Groups for the management of excess nuclear materials. As one of these groups, the Plutonium Material Management Group (PMMG) has been chartered to serve as DOE's complex wide resource and point of contact for technical coordination and program planning support in the safe and efficient disposition of the nations excess Plutonium 239. This paper will explain the mission, goals, and objectives of the PMMG. In addition, the paper will provide a broad overview of the status of the plutonium inventories throughout the DOE complex. The DOE currently manages approximately 99.5 MT of plutonium isotopes. Details of the various categories of plutonium, from material designated for national security needs through material that has been declared excess, will be explained. For the plutonium that has been declared excess, the various pathways to disposition (including reuse, recycling, sale, transfer, treatment, consumption, and disposal) will be discussed. At this time 52.5 MT of plutonium has been declared excess and the method of disposition for that material is the subject of study and evaluation within DOE. The role of the PMMG in those evaluations will be outlined.

  7. Phenomenology and psychopathology of excessive indoor tanning.

    PubMed

    Petit, Aymeric; Karila, Laurent; Chalmin, Florence; Lejoyeux, Michel

    2014-06-01

    Excessive indoor tanning, defined by the presence of an impulse towards and repetition of tanning that leads to personal distress, has only recently been recognized as a psychiatric disorder. This finding is based on the observations of many dermatologists who report the presence of addictive relationships with tanning salons among their patients despite being given diagnoses of malignant melanoma. This article synthesizes the existing literature on excessive indoor tanning and addiction to investigate possible associations. This review focuses on the prevalence, clinical features, etiology, and treatment of this disorder. A literature review was conducted, using PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE and PsycINFO, to identify articles published in English from 1974 to 2013. Excessive indoor tanning may be related to addiction, obsessive-compulsive disorder, impulse control disorder, seasonal affective disorder, anorexia, body dysmorphic disorder, or depression. Excessive indoor tanning can be included in the spectrum of addictive behavior because it has clinical characteristics in common with those of classic addictive disorders. It is frequently associated with anxiety, eating disorders, and tobacco dependence. Further controlled studies are required, especially in clinical psychopathology and neurobiology, to improve our understanding of excessive indoor tanning. PMID:24601904

  8. Partial molar volume of L-Valine in water under high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawamura, Seiji

    2013-06-01

    Partial molar volume of L-valine in water was estimated up to 400 MPa from pressure coefficient of the solubility of the solute and molar volume of solid valine. The former was measured in a previous paper and the latter was measured in this article using a piston-cylinder typed cell. The partial molar volume increased with pressure and a maximum was observed around 250 MPa. It was compared with other amino acids.

  9. Three-rooted mandibular first primary molar: Report of three cases

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Shilpi; Nagaveni, N. B.; Chandranee, N. J.

    2012-01-01

    Accessory root formation in primary teeth is an uncommon finding. An awareness and understanding of the presence of additional roots and unusual root canal morphology is essential as it determines the successful outcome of the endodontic treatment. This paper presents three case reports on the presence of three-rooted mandibular first primary molar (primary three-rooted mandibular left first molar and bilateral mandibular first molar). PMID:22629056

  10. Automatic Molar Extraction from Dental Panoramic Radiographs for Forensic Personal Identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samopa, Febriliyan; Asano, Akira; Taguchi, Akira

    Measurement of an individual molar provides rich information for forensic personal identification. We propose a computer-based system for extracting an individual molar from dental panoramic radiographs. A molar is obtained by extracting the region-of-interest, separating the maxilla and mandible, and extracting the boundaries between teeth. The proposed system is almost fully automatic; all that the user has to do is clicking three points on the boundary between the maxilla and the mandible.

  11. Age estimation using development of third molars in South Indian population: A radiological study

    PubMed Central

    Priyadharshini, K. Indra; Idiculla, Jose Joy; Sivapathasundaram, B.; Mohanbabu, V.; Augustine, Dominic; Patil, Shankargouda

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To assess the estimation of chronological age based on the stages of third molar development following the eight stages (A–H) method of Demirjian et al. in Chennai population of South India. Materials and Methods: A sample consisting of 848 individuals (471 males and 377 females) aged between 14 and 30 years was randomly selected for the clinical evaluation and 323 orthopantomograms with clinically missing third molars were taken for radiological evaluation using Demirjian's method from a Chennai population of known chronological age and sex. Statistical analysis was performed using Pearson's Chi-square test and mean values were compared between the study groups using t-test or analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey's highly significant difference (HSD). In the present study, P < 0.05 was considered as the level of significance. Results: The results showed that the mean age of having clinically completely erupted maxillary third molars was 22.41 years in male subjects and 23.81 years in female subjects and that of mandibular third molars was 21.49 years in male subjects and 23.34 years in female subjects. Mandibular third molars were clinically missing more often in females than in males. Eruption of mandibular third molars was generally ahead of the emergence of maxillary third molars into the oral cavity. Third molar development between male and female subjects showed statistically significant differences at calcification stage F and stage G in maxillary third molars and stage F in mandibular third molars (P < 0.05). Conclusion: There are differences indicating that maxillary and mandibular third molar eruption reached Demirjian's formation stages earlier in males than in females. It is suggested that in future studies, to increase the accuracy of age determination, indications of sexual maturity and ossification should also be evaluated in addition to third molar mineralization. PMID:25984465

  12. Periodontal regeneration of transplanted rat molars after cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Naoko; Hamamoto, Yoshioki; Nakajima, Tamio; Irie, Kazuharu; Ozawa, Hidehiro

    2004-01-01

    The effects of cryopreservation on periodontal regeneration of transplanted rat molars were investigated histologically and histochemically in rats. Bilateral first and second maxillary molars of 4-week-old Wistar rats were gently extracted and transplanted into the abdominal subcutaneous connective tissue immediately or after cryopreservation in liquid nitrogen overnight. Donor teeth were slowly frozen by a rate-controlling freezer (program freezer) using 5% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and 6% hydroxyethyl starch (HES) as cryoprotectants. One-four weeks after transplantation, they were carefully excised with the surrounding tissues. Regeneration of acellular cementum, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone were observed 2 weeks after immediate transplantation. The pulp was repaired by the ingrowth of granulation tissue from the root apex followed by the formation of calcified tissue. The regenerated periodontal ligament was positive for alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Small or mononuclear tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) positive cells were scattered on the newly formed alveolar bone and on the hard tissue in the pulp, but there was no external or internal progressive root resorption at 4 weeks. Cryopreserved teeth had acellular cementum with a rough surface at 1 week, but with the increase of cementoblasts and the appearance of periodontal ligament and alveolar bone, the surface became smooth at 3 weeks. Epithelial rests of Malassez (ERM) also revived. After regeneration of the periodontal tissues at 4 weeks, there was no evidence of root resorption. Although the process proceeded slowly, the cryopreserved teeth showed the periodontal regeneration substantially similar to that of the immediately transplanted teeth without progressive root resorption, indicating that they could be applicable for clinical use. PMID:14693198

  13. Brief communication: Molar development and crown areas in early Australopithecus.

    PubMed

    Lacruz, Rodrigo S; Ramirez Rozzi, Fernando V; Wood, Bernard A; Bromage, Timothy G

    2012-08-01

    Recent studies suggest that the hypodigms representing the two earliest Australopithecus (Au. anamensis and Au. afarensis) form an ancestor-descendant lineage. Understanding the details of this possible transition is important comparative evidence for assessing the likelihood of other examples of ancestor-descendant lineages within the hominin clade. To this end we have analyzed crown and cusp base areas of high resolution replicas of the mandibular molars of Au. anamensis (Allia Bay and Kanapoi sites) and those of Au. afarensis (Hadar, Laetoli, and Maka). We found no statistically significant differences in crown areas between these hypodigms although the mean of M(1) crowns was smaller in Au. anamensis, being the smallest of any Australopithecus species sampled to date. Intraspecies comparison of the areas of mesial cusps for each molar type using Wilcoxon signed rank test showed no differences for Au. anamensis. Significant differences were found between the protoconid and metaconid of Au. afarensis M(2)s and M(3)s. Furthermore, the area formed by the posterior cusps as a whole relative to the anterior cusps showed significant differences in Au. afarensis M(1)s and in Au. anamensis M(2)s but no differences were noted for M(3)s of either taxon. Developmental information derived from microstructural details in enamel shows that M(1) crown formation in Au. anamensis is similar to Pan and shorter than in H. sapiens. Taken together, these data suggests that the overall trend in the Au. anamensis-Au. afarensis transition may have involved a moderate increase in M(1) crown areas with relative expansion of distal cusps. PMID:22623291

  14. Saving the 2nd Molar from the 3rd Is it Really the Guilt of the Tilt?

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Pankaj; Nawal, Ruchika Roongta; Talwar, Sangeeta; Verma, Mahesh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Clinicians often relate the distal caries in second molars to angulated third molars, which if left undetected can lead to gross decay that may further require removal of the tooth. Due to this fact, many third molars are advised for prophylactic removal to prevent decay in the second molar. But this approach would only be justified when the incidence of decay/loss of second molar due to third molar are reasonably high. We sought to determine incidence of caries experience and also sequel extraction in second molars associated with the third molars. Aim The study was conducted to answer the basic question that whether the incidence of caries and subsequent extraction of second molar due to angulated third molars is high enough to justify the prophylactic removal of third molar or not. Materials and Methods This study was conducted on radiographic records of 1187 patients. The effect of tilted third molar on the second molar was measured in relation with three parameters namely level & position of third molar with respect to second molar and the distribution among arches. Results The results indicated that out of total number of teeth examined only 5.4% of maxillary and 9.6% of mandibular second molars were affected by tilted third molars. Further, only 2.2% of mandibular and 2.9% of maxillary second molars were indicated for extraction. The data was statistically insignificant. Conclusion It was concluded that distal caries in second molars is not very common. It may be present in some cases of third molar impactions and prophylactic removal of these impacted teeth may not be considered appropriate. PMID:27437353

  15. A Prospective Study of Clinical Outcomes Related to Third Molar Removal or Retention

    PubMed Central

    Cunha-Cruz, Joana; Rothen, Marilynn; Spiekerman, Charles; Drangsholt, Mark; Anderson, Loren; Roset, Gayle A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated outcomes of third molar removal or retention in adolescents and young adults. Methods. We recruited patients aged 16 to 22 years from a dental practice–based research network in the Pacific Northwest from May 2009 through September 2010 who had at least 1 third molar present and had never undergone third molar removal. Data were acquired via questionnaire and clinical examination at baseline, periodic online questionnaires, and clinical examination at 24 months. Results. A total of 801 patients participated. Among patients undergoing third molar removal, rates of paresthesia and jaw joint symptoms lasting more than 1 month were 6.3 and 34.3 per 100 person-years, respectively. Among patients not undergoing removal, corresponding rates were 0.7 and 8.8. Periodontal attachment loss at distal sites of second molars did not significantly differ by third molar removal status. Incident caries at the distal surfaces of second molars occurred in fewer than 1% of all sites. Conclusions. Rates of paresthesia and temporomandibular joint disorder were higher after third molar removal. Periodontal attachment loss and incident caries at the distal sites of second molars were not affected by extraction status. PMID:24524521

  16. Mandibular Third Molar Impaction: Review of Literature and a Proposal of a Classification

    PubMed Central

    Daugela, Povilas

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives The purpose of present article was to review impacted mandibular third molar aetiology, clinical anatomy, radiologic examination, surgical treatment and possible complications, as well as to create new mandibular third molar impaction and extraction difficulty degree classification based on anatomical and radiologic findings and literature review results. Material and Methods Literature was selected through a search of PubMed, Embase and Cochrane electronic databases. The keywords used for search were mandibular third molar, impacted mandibular third molar, inferior alveolar nerve injury third molar, lingual nerve injury third molar. The search was restricted to English language articles, published from 1976 to April 2013. Additionally, a manual search in the major anatomy and oral surgery journals and books was performed. The publications there selected by including clinical and human anatomy studies. Results In total 75 literature sources were obtained and reviewed. Impacted mandibular third molar aetiology, clinical anatomy, radiographic examination, surgical extraction of and possible complications, classifications and risk factors were discussed. New mandibular third molar impaction and extraction difficulty degree classification based on anatomical and radiologic findings and literature review results was proposed. Conclusions The classification proposed here based on anatomical and radiological impacted mandibular third molar features is promising to be a helpful tool for impacted tooth assessment as well as for planning for surgical operation. Further clinical studies should be conducted for new classification validation and reliability evaluation. PMID:24422029

  17. Periodontal considerations in the use of bonds or bands on molars in adolescents and adults.

    PubMed

    Boyd, R L; Baumrind, S

    1992-01-01

    This longitudinal study compared the periodontal status of bonded and banded molars in 20 adult and 40 adolescent patients before, during and after treatment with fixed orthodontic appliances. Plaque accumulation (measured by the Plaque Index), gingival inflammation (measured by the Gingival Index and the bleeding tendency), and pocket depth were assessed by one examiner at sites along the mesio-buccal line angle of the maxillary right first molar and the mandibular left first molar. Assessments were made immediately prior to the placement of fixed appliances (pretreatment), at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 18 months after appliances were placed; and 3 months after appliances were removed (posttreatment). Loss of attachment between the pretreatment and posttreatment visits also was determined. At pretreatment, no significant differences were found in gingival inflammation between maxillary and mandibular banded and bonded molars. During treatment, both maxillary and mandibular banded molars showed significantly (p less than 0.05) greater gingival inflammation and plaque accumulation than did bonded molars. Three months after appliance removal, the maxillary molars that had been banded continued to show significantly more gingival inflammation and loss of attachment than did the maxillary molars that had been bonded. When all banded and bonded teeth were grouped by patient age, mean values for plaque accumulation and gingival inflammation in the maxillary molar regions were significantly greater for adolescents than for adults. PMID:1626745

  18. Assessment of maxillary third molars with panoramic radiography and cone-beam computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Yun-Hoa

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated maxillary third molars and their relation to the maxillary sinus using panoramic radiography and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and Methods A total of 395 maxillary third molars in 234 patients were examined using panoramic radiographs and CBCT images. We examined the eruption level of the maxillary third molars, the available retromolar space, the angulation, the relationship to the second molars, the number of roots, and the relationship between the roots and the sinus. Results Females had a higher frequency of maxillary third molars with occlusal planes apical to the cervical line of the second molar (Level C) than males. All third molars with insufficient retromolar space were Level C. The most common angulation was vertical, followed by buccoangular. Almost all of the Level C molars were in contact with the roots of the second molar. Erupted teeth most commonly had three roots, and completely impacted teeth most commonly had one root. The superimposition of one third of the root and the sinus floor was most commonly associated with the sinus floor being located on the buccal side of the root. Conclusion Eruption levels were differently distributed according to gender. A statistically significant association was found between the eruption level and the available retromolar space. When panoramic radiographs showed a superimposition of the roots and the sinus floor, expansion of the sinus to the buccal side of the root was generally observed in CBCT images. PMID:26730371

  19. Reduced radiation-absorbed dose to tissues with partial panoramic radiography for evaluation of third molars.

    PubMed

    Kircos, L T; Eakle, W S; Smith, R A

    1986-05-01

    The radiation-absorbed doses from panoramic radiography, distal molar radiography, and a partial panoramic radiographic technique that exposes only the third molar region to radiation are compared. Doses of radiation to the submandibular salivary gland were comparable by all three techniques, but doses of radiation to the head and neck were reduced greatly by the partial panoramic radiographic technique. Partial panoramic radiography is a diagnostically satisfactory and a radiologically safer technique for evaluation of third molar pathosis than is panoramic or distal molar radiography. PMID:3458783

  20. Reduced radiation-absorbed dose to tissues with partial panoramic radiography for evaluation of third molars

    SciTech Connect

    Kircos, L.T.; Eakle, W.S.; Smith, R.A.

    1986-05-01

    The radiation-absorbed doses from panoramic radiography, distal molar radiography, and a partial panoramic radiographic technique that exposes only the third molar region to radiation are compared. Doses of radiation to the submandibular salivary gland were comparable by all three techniques, but doses of radiation to the head and neck were reduced greatly by the partial panoramic radiographic technique. Partial panoramic radiography is a diagnostically satisfactory and a radiologically safer technique for evaluation of third molar pathosis than is panoramic or distal molar radiography.

  1. Singlet scalar resonances and the diphoton excess

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDermott, Samuel D.; Meade, Patrick; Ramani, Harikrishnan

    2016-04-01

    ATLAS and CMS recently released the first results of searches for diphoton resonances in 13 TeV data, revealing a modest excess at an invariant mass of approximately 750 GeV. We find that it is generically possible that a singlet scalar resonance is the origin of the excess while avoiding all other constraints. We highlight some of the implications of this model and how compatible it is with certain features of the experimental results. In particular, we find that the very large total width of the excess is difficult to explain with loop-level decays alone, pointing to other interesting bounds and signals if this feature of the data persists. Finally we comment on the robust Zγ signature that will always accompany the model we investigate.

  2. Excessive crying in infants with regulatory disorders.

    PubMed

    Maldonado-Duran, M; Sauceda-Garcia, J M

    1996-01-01

    The authors point out a correlation between regulatory disorders in infants and the problem of excessive crying. The literature describes other behavioral problems involving excessive crying in very young children, but with little emphasis on this association. The recognition and diagnosis of regulatory disorders in infants who cry excessively can help practitioners design appropriate treatment interventions. Understanding these conditions can also help parents tailor their caretaking style, so that they provide appropriate soothing and stimulation to their child. In so doing, they will be better able to develop and preserve a satisfactory parent-child relationship, as well as to maintain their own sense of competence and self-esteem as parents. PMID:8742673

  3. Systemic causes of excessive uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Lusher, J M

    1999-07-01

    In assessing a patient with excessive uterine bleeding, the clinician should consider systemic causes in the differential diagnosis. Both hereditary and acquired conditions can result in mucous membrane bleeding, including menorrhagia, epistaxis, and gum bleeding, as well as excessive bruising. Among hereditary conditions, von Willebrand disease (vWD) is by far the most common, affecting an estimated 1% of the population worldwide. It is important to consider the possibility of vWD, and to establish the proper diagnosis (including subtype), as safe, effective, and easy-to-use treatment is available for most persons with this disorder. This review also covers a number of other systemic conditions that can be manifested by excessive uterine bleeding, including congenital deficiency of factor XI, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and other acquired platelet disorders, acquired autoantibodies against factor VIII (FVIII), and vitamin K deficiency states. PMID:10513767

  4. Rhabdomyolysis induced by excessive coffee drinking.

    PubMed

    Chiang, W-F; Liao, M-T; Cheng, C-J; Lin, S-H

    2014-08-01

    Excessive ingestion of caffeine-containing beverages is a rare cause of rhabdomyolysis. Here, we describe the case of a 44-year-old woman presented with nausea, vomiting, palpitations, and tea-colored urine 6 h after drinking a liter of black coffee containing approximately 565 mg of caffeine for mental alertness. Laboratory studies were notable for myoglobinuria and markedly elevated plasma creatine kinase (CK) level of 7315 U/L. With volume expansion and alkalization, her plasma CK level returned to normal within 5 days. Rhabdomyolysis should be considered a potential health hazard from excessive consumption of caffeine-containing products. PMID:24220878

  5. Excess Sodium Tetraphenylborate and Intermediates Decomposition Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, M.J.

    1998-12-07

    The stability of excess amounts of sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) in the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) facility depends on a number of variables. Concentration of palladium, initial benzene, and sodium ion as well as temperature provide the best opportunities for controlling the decomposition rate. This study examined the influence of these four variable on the reactivity of palladium-catalyzed sodium tetraphenylborate decomposition. Also, single effects tests investigated the reactivity of simulants with continuous stirring and nitrogen ventilation, with very high benzene concentrations, under washed sodium concentrations, with very high palladium concentrations, and with minimal quantities of excess NaTPB.

  6. Excess Electron Localization in Solvated DNA Bases

    SciTech Connect

    Smyth, Maeve; Kohanoff, Jorge

    2011-06-10

    We present a first-principles molecular dynamics study of an excess electron in condensed phase models of solvated DNA bases. Calculations on increasingly large microsolvated clusters taken from liquid phase simulations show that adiabatic electron affinities increase systematically upon solvation, as for optimized gas-phase geometries. Dynamical simulations after vertical attachment indicate that the excess electron, which is initially found delocalized, localizes around the nucleobases within a 15 fs time scale. This transition requires small rearrangements in the geometry of the bases.

  7. Infrared excess and extended emission around Cepheids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallenne, A.; Kervella, P.; Mérand, A.

    2011-12-01

    We present new thermal IR photometry and spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of the classical Cepheids W Sgr, Y Oph and FF Aql, using newly obtained VISIR thermal IR photometric measurements. We used the BURST mode of the instrument to get diffraction-limited images at 8.59, 11.25 and 11.85 μm. For these three stars, the SEDs show an IR excess at long wavelengths. These excesses are likely extended emissions surrounding the stars linked to a possible mass loss mechanism. We also detected a spatially extended emission around W Sgr and Y Oph while we do not resolve the circumstellar envelope of FF Aql.

  8. Quark seesaw, vectorlike fermions and diphoton excess

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dev, P. S. Bhupal; Mohapatra, Rabindra N.; Zhang, Yongchao

    2016-02-01

    We present a possible interpretation of the recent diphoton excess reported by the early √{s}=13 TeV LHC data in quark seesaw left-right models with vectorlike fermions proposed to solve the strong CP problem without the axion. The gauge singlet real scalar field responsible for the mass of the vectorlike fermions has the right production cross section and diphoton branching ratio to be identifiable with the reported excess at around 750 GeV diphoton invariant mass. Various ways to test this hypothesis as more data accumulates at the LHC are proposed.

  9. Diphoton excess as a hidden monopole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Masaki; Yanagida, Tsutomu T.; Yonekura, Kazuya

    2016-08-01

    We provide a theory with a monopole of a strongly-interacting hidden U(1) gauge symmetry that can explain the 750-GeV diphoton excess reported by ATLAS and CMS. The excess results from the resonance of monopole, which is produced via gluon fusion and decays into two photons. In the low energy, there are only mesons and a monopole in our model because any baryons cannot be gauge invariant in terms of strongly interacting Abelian symmetry. This is advantageous of our model because there is no unwanted relics around the BBN epoch.

  10. 26 CFR 54.4979-1 - Excise tax on certain excess contributions and excess aggregate contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (SEP) as defined in section 408(k) that accepts elective contributions is exempted from the tax of... employer's notification to each affected employee of the excess SEP contributions must specifically state... employees by the last day of the 12-month period following the year of excess SEP contributions, the...

  11. 26 CFR 54.4979-1 - Excise tax on certain excess contributions and excess aggregate contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (SEP) as defined in section 408(k) that accepts elective contributions is exempted from the tax of... employer's notification to each affected employee of the excess SEP contributions must specifically state... employees by the last day of the 12-month period following the year of excess SEP contributions, the...

  12. 26 CFR 54.4979-1 - Excise tax on certain excess contributions and excess aggregate contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (SEP) as defined in section 408(k) that accepts elective contributions is exempted from the tax of... employer's notification to each affected employee of the excess SEP contributions must specifically state... employees by the last day of the 12-month period following the year of excess SEP contributions, the...

  13. 26 CFR 54.4979-1 - Excise tax on certain excess contributions and excess aggregate contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (SEP) as defined in section 408(k) that accepts elective contributions is exempted from the tax of... employer's notification to each affected employee of the excess SEP contributions must specifically state... employees by the last day of the 12-month period following the year of excess SEP contributions, the...

  14. 26 CFR 54.4979-1 - Excise tax on certain excess contributions and excess aggregate contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (SEP) as defined in section 408(k) that accepts elective contributions is exempted from the tax of... employer's notification to each affected employee of the excess SEP contributions must specifically state... employees by the last day of the 12-month period following the year of excess SEP contributions, the...

  15. 75 FR 27572 - Monthly Report of Excess Income and Annual Report of Uses of Excess Income

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-17

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Monthly Report of Excess Income and Annual Report of Uses of Excess Income AGENCY... Development, 451 Seventh Street, SW., Washington, DC 20410; e-mail Leroy McKinney Jr. at Leroy.McKinneyJr@hud... public that the Department of Housing and Urban Development has submitted to OMB a request for...

  16. The effects and underlying mechanism of excessive iodide on excessive fluoride-induced thyroid cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongliang; Zeng, Qiang; Cui, Yushan; Yu, Linyu; Zhao, Liang; Hou, Changchun; Zhang, Shun; Zhang, Lei; Fu, Gang; Liu, Yeming; Jiang, Chunyang; Chen, Xuemin; Wang, Aiguo

    2014-07-01

    In many regions, excessive fluoride and excessive iodide coexist in groundwater, which may lead to biphasic hazards to human thyroid. To explore fluoride-induced thyroid cytotoxicity and the mechanism underlying the effects of excessive iodide on fluoride-induced cytotoxicity, a thyroid cell line (Nthy-ori 3-1) was exposed to excessive fluoride and/or excessive iodide. Cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, apoptosis, and the expression levels of inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1) pathway-related molecules were detected. Fluoride and/or iodide decreased cell viability and increased LDH leakage and apoptosis. ROS, the expression levels of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), IRE1, C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), and spliced X-box-binding protein-1 (sXBP-1) were enhanced by fluoride or the combination of the two elements. Collectively, excessive fluoride and excessive iodide have detrimental influences on human thyroid cells. Furthermore, an antagonistic interaction between fluoride and excessive iodide exists, and cytotoxicity may be related to IRE1 pathway-induced apoptosis. PMID:25104093

  17. The influence of impaction to the third molar mineralization in northwestern Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yu-cheng; Yan, Chun-xia; Lin, Xing-wei; Zhang, Wen-tao; Zhou, Hong; Pan, Feng; Wei, Lai; Tang, Zheng; Liang, Feng; Chen, Teng

    2014-07-01

    Age estimation by third molar mineralization has been developed for a period of time. Recent studies showed that impaction status has an influence on the rate of the third molar mineralization in Europids and male Black African populations. In this regard, the present study was conducted to determine whether the impaction status could delay the chronological process of third molar mineralization in northwestern Chinese population too. A total of 3,512 digital orthopantomograms of 1,255 male and 2,257 female northwestern Chinese subjects aged from 11 to 26 years were assessed based on the formation stages described by Demirjian et al. with two modifications. Mineralization stage and impaction status were determined for all third molars. Statistical measures were calculated at stages C-H in the male and female gender for both impacted and non-impacted third molars. It was ascertained that the mean ages with impacted third molars at stages C-H were 0.02-1.42 years higher in males and 0.04-1.52 years higher in females than those with non-impacted third molars, but statistical differences were only found at stages C, D, and E in males and stages D and E in females. The probabilities of being under 14, 16, or 18 years of age with non-impacted third molars were all higher than those with impacted third molars. The results prove that impacted third molars show significant slower mineralization than non-impacted ones at stages D and E in both males and females of northwestern Chinese population. It is recommended to consider the influence of impaction on the rate of third molar mineralization for dental age estimation. PMID:24532176

  18. Accuracy of Panoramic Radiograph in Assessment of the Relationship Between Mandibular Canal and Impacted Third Molars

    PubMed Central

    Tantanapornkul, Weeraya; Mavin, Darika; Prapaiphittayakun, Jaruthai; Phipatboonyarat, Natnicha; Julphantong, Wanchanok

    2016-01-01

    Background: The relationship between impacted mandibular third molar and mandibular canal is important for removal of this tooth. Panoramic radiography is one of the commonly used diagnostic tools for evaluating the relationship of these two structures. Objectives: To evaluate the accuracy of panoramic radiographic findings in predicting direct contact between mandibular canal and impacted third molars on 3D digital images, and to define panoramic criterion in predicting direct contact between the two structures. Methods: Two observers examined panoramic radiographs of 178 patients (256 impacted mandibular third molars). Panoramic findings of interruption of mandibular canal wall, isolated or with darkening of third molar root, diversion of mandibular canal and narrowing of third molar root were evaluated for 3D digital radiography. Direct contact between mandibular canal and impacted third molars on 3D digital images was then correlated with panoramic findings. Panoramic criterion was also defined in predicting direct contact between the two structures. Results: Panoramic findings of interruption of mandibular canal wall, isolated or with darkening of third molar root were statistically significantly correlated with direct contact between mandibular canal and impacted third molars on 3D digital images (p < 0.005), and were defined as panoramic criteria in predicting direct contact between the two structures. Conclusion: Interruption of mandibular canal wall, isolated or with darkening of third molar root observed on panoramic radiographs were effective in predicting direct contact between mandibular canal and impacted third molars on 3D digital images. Panoramic radiography is one of the efficient diagnostic tools for pre-operative assessment of impacted mandibular third molars. PMID:27398105

  19. Appearance of dentin gamma-carboxyglutamic acid-containing proteins in developing rat molars in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Finkelman, R.D.; Butler, W.T.

    1985-07-01

    An in vitro model of mineralization was devised in order to study the developmental appearance of dentin gamma-carboxyglutamic acid-containing proteins (DGPs) in relation to the onset of mineralization. Maxillary third molars from 11-day-old rats were cultured with or without fetal calf serum (FCS) as modified from Navia et al. Molars were incubated without radiolabel, or with either /sup 45/CaCl/sub 2/ (5 microCi/ml) for 24 hr at various stages of a ten-day culture period or (/sup 3/H)-leucine (10 microCi/ml) for 24 hr at the eighth day of culture. Molars were lyophilized and extracted with 10% formic acid overnight at 4 degrees C. DGPs in extracts were detected by immunologic and chromatographic techniques; DGPs in molar sections were detected by immunolocalization using indirect immunofluorescence. Molar development was evaluated histologically using the Von Kossa staining technique. Molars cultured with FCS showed histologic evidence for mineralized dentin and enamel and a significant increase in /sup 45/Ca uptake after the sixth day in vitro. Eleven-day-old molars in vivo and molars cultured without FCS showed no evidence of the presence of mineralized tissues. (/sup 3/H)-Leucine-labeled DGPs were isolated and identified by affinity and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and by gel electrophoresis from both mineralized and unmineralized molars. DGP antigens were localized immunohistochemically using rabbit anti-rat antibodies raised against a highly purified DGP preparation. In the unmineralized molar, antigenicity was seen in odontoblasts but not in predentin matrix, preodontoblasts, or in any other cell type. Antigens in the mineralized molar were localized to odontoblasts and dentin.

  20. 7 CFR 966.44 - Excess funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excess funds. 966.44 Section 966.44 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA...

  1. Excess Sodium Tetraphenylborate and Intermediates Decomposition Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, M.J.; Peterson , R.A.

    1998-04-01

    The stability of excess amounts of sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) in the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) facility depends on a number of variables. Concentration of palladium, initial benzene, and sodium ion as well as temperature provide the best opportunities for controlling the decomposition rate. This study examined the influence of these four variables on the reactivity of palladium-catalyzed sodium tetraphenylborate decomposition. Also, single effects tests investigated the reactivity of simulants with continuous stirring and nitrogen ventilation, with very high benzene concentrations, under washed sodium concentrations, with very high palladium concentrations, and with minimal quantities of excess NaTPB. These tests showed the following.The testing demonstrates that current facility configuration does not provide assured safety of operations relative to the hazards of benzene (in particular to maintain the tank headspace below 60 percent of the lower flammability limit (lfl) for benzene generation rates of greater than 7 mg/(L.h)) from possible accelerated reaction of excess NaTPB. Current maximal operating temperatures of 40 degrees C and the lack of protection against palladium entering Tank 48H provide insufficient protection against the onset of the reaction. Similarly, control of the amount of excess NaTPB, purification of the organic, or limiting the benzene content of the slurry (via stirring) and ionic strength of the waste mixture prove inadequate to assure safe operation.

  2. [Children's Television Advertising Excesses and Abuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choate, Robert B.

    This testimony presents evidence of children's television advertising excesses and abuses. The testimony points out that the average TV-watching child sees more than 22,000 commercials a year, and that on the programs most popular with children large numbers of over-the-counter drugs and hazardous products are advertised. The history of private…

  3. Excess capacity: markets regulation, and values.

    PubMed Central

    Madden, C W

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the conceptual bases for the conflicting views of excess capacity in healthcare markets and their application in the context of today's turbulent environment. STUDY SETTING: The policy and research literature of the past three decades. STUDY DESIGN: The theoretical perspectives of alternative economic schools of thought are used to support different policy positions with regard to excess capacity. Changes in these policy positions over time are linked to changes in the economic and political environment of the period. The social values implied by this history are articulated. DATA COLLECTION: Standard library search procedures are used to identify relevant literature. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Alternative policy views of excess capacity in healthcare markets rely on differing theoretical foundations. Changes in the context in which policy decisions are made over time affect the dominant theoretical framework and, therefore, the dominant policy view of excess capacity. CONCLUSIONS: In the 1990s, multiple perspectives of optimal capacity still exist. However, our evolving history suggests a set of persistent values that should guide future policy in this area. PMID:10029502

  4. Search for excess showers from Crab Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirov, I. N.; Stamenov, J. N.; Ushev, S. Z.; Janminchev, V. D.; Aseikin, V. S.; Nikolsky, S. I.; Nikolskaja, N. M.; Yakovlev, V. I.; Morozov, A. E.

    1985-01-01

    The arrival directions of muon poor showers registrated in the Tien Shan experiment during an effective running time about I,8.IO(4)h were analyzed. It is shown that there is a significant excess of these showers coming the direction of Crab Nebula.

  5. Controlled expedient disposal of excess gun propellant.

    PubMed

    Walsh, M R; Thiboutot, S; Walsh, M E; Ampleman, G

    2012-06-15

    The expedient field disposal of excess gun propellants on the ground is an integral part of live-fire training in many countries. However, burning excess propellant in the field will leave significant quantities of energetic residues and heavy metals in the environment. Compounds such as dinitrotoluene and nitroglycerin and metals such as lead will leach into the soil column, eventually migrating to groundwater. Contamination of the environment will lead to high remediation costs and the possible loss of the training facility. After investigating the contamination at several propellant disposal sites, a portable propellant burn pan was developed and tested. The pan was transported to training sites where excess propellant was loaded and burned in a controlled manner. Up to 120 kg of excess single-base propellant charges have been burned during two series of tests at a consumption rate of greater than 99.9%. Less than 0.03% of the energetic material was recovered outside the burn pan. Recovered lead is largely contained within the pan. The turnover rate for burns is 15 min. The residues can be collected following cool-down for proper disposal. PMID:22503215

  6. 7 CFR 956.44 - Excess funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excess funds. 956.44 Section 956.44 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET ONIONS GROWN IN THE WALLA...

  7. 7 CFR 956.44 - Excess funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Excess funds. 956.44 Section 956.44 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET ONIONS GROWN IN THE WALLA...

  8. 7 CFR 955.44 - Excess funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Excess funds. 955.44 Section 955.44 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN...

  9. 7 CFR 955.44 - Excess funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excess funds. 955.44 Section 955.44 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN...

  10. Low excess air operations of oil boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.A.; Celebi, Y.; Litzke, Wai Lin

    1997-09-01

    To quantify the benefits which operation at very low excess air operation may have on heat exchanger fouling BNL has recently started a test project. The test allows simultaneous measurement of fouling rate, flue gas filterable soot, flue gas sulfuric acid content, and flue gas sulfur dioxide.

  11. ESTIMATING EXCESS DIETARY EXPOSURES OF YOUNG CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nine children in a daycare that routinely applied the pesticide, esfenvalerate, were studied to assess excess dietary exposures. Surface wipes, a standard food item of processed American cheese slice pressed on the surface and handled by the child, an accelerometer reading, and ...

  12. Can Excess Bilirubin Levels Cause Learning Difficulties?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pretorius, E.; Naude, H.; Becker, P. J.

    2002-01-01

    Examined learning problems in South African sample of 7- to 14-year-olds whose mothers reported excessively high infant bilirubin shortly after the child's birth. Found that this sample had lowered verbal ability with the majority also showing impaired short-term and long-term memory. Findings suggested that impaired formation of astrocytes…

  13. 7 CFR 956.44 - Excess funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Excess funds. 956.44 Section 956.44 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET ONIONS GROWN IN THE WALLA...

  14. 7 CFR 956.44 - Excess funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Excess funds. 956.44 Section 956.44 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET ONIONS GROWN IN THE WALLA...

  15. 7 CFR 956.44 - Excess funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Excess funds. 956.44 Section 956.44 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET ONIONS GROWN IN THE WALLA...

  16. 7 CFR 955.44 - Excess funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Excess funds. 955.44 Section 955.44 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN...

  17. 7 CFR 955.44 - Excess funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Excess funds. 955.44 Section 955.44 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN...

  18. 7 CFR 955.44 - Excess funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Excess funds. 955.44 Section 955.44 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN...

  19. 43 CFR 2653.10 - Excess selections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Excess selections. 2653.10 Section 2653.10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) ALASKA NATIVE SELECTIONS Miscellaneous...

  20. 34 CFR 668.166 - Excess cash.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... funds that an institution receives from the Secretary under the just-in-time payment method. (b) Excess...; and (2) Providing funds to the institution under the reimbursement payment method or cash monitoring payment method described in § 668.163(d) and (e), respectively. (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1094)...

  1. Modified Distal Shoe Appliance for Premature Loss of Multiple Deciduous Molars: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    K., Navin H.; Idris, Mohammed; Christopher, Pradeep; Rai, Niharika

    2014-01-01

    Preservation of the primary dentition until the normal time of exfoliation is one of the most important factor involved in preventive and interceptive dentistry. The premature loss of second primary molar before the eruption of permanent first molar can create a significant arch space/tooth size discrepancy. Distal shoe space maintainer is a valuable part of the Paediatric Dentist’s armamentarium in those cases where the second primary molar is prematurely lost and it helps to guide the first permanent molar into place. Conventional design poses various limitations in cases of premature loss of multiple deciduous molars. Thus, it is required to modify the conventional designs according to the needs of the patient. This case report describes an innovative modification of distal shoe appliance in cases of premature loss of multiple deciduous molars. In the present case, modification of distal shoe space maintainer was advocated because of inadequate abutments caused due to multiple loss of deciduous molars. Bilateral design of distal shoe was planned for unilateral loss of deciduous molars. PMID:25302284

  2. Prenatal screening tests may be a warning for the partial molar pregnancy? case report

    PubMed Central

    Sargin, Mehmet Akif; Tug, Niyazi; Yassa, Murat; Yavuz, Arzu

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal screening tests are frequently requested for chromosomal abnormalities. Placental pathologies in early pregnancy may be overlooked, especially in partial molar pregnancy. We are reporting an incorrect preliminary diagnosed case with an increased risk of Down syndrome in her first-trimester screening test due to partial molar pregnancy. PMID:26175814

  3. Maxillary Tuberosity Fracture Associated with First Molar Extraction: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Polat, Hidayet B.; Ay, Sinan; Kara, M. Isa

    2007-01-01

    Maxillary tuberosity fractures during molar teeth extraction can occur commonly in dental practice; however, very few cases are reported and discussed in the literature. This article presents a case of large fracture of maxillary tuberosity during extraction of first maxillary molar tooth and its conservative treatment outcomes. PMID:19212477

  4. Concomitant Third Molar Removal During Sagittal Split Osteotomy of the Mandible.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Ryo; Yao, Chuan-Fong; Chen, Ying-An; Lin, Cheng-Hui; Chen, Yu-Ray

    2016-01-01

    It is described in textbook about management of third molar in orthognathic surgery that "ideally, the third molars should be removed 9 to 12 months before sagittal split osteotomy (SSO)." At the Chang Gung Craniofacial Center, the authors always remove mandibular third molars during SSO, because: removal of third molars at the same time of SSO could reduce psychological stress on patients by saving 1 surgical procedure under local anesthesia, better exposure of impacted third molars could be facilitated by sagittal split of buccal cortical plate, rigid fixation could be performed without difficulty by our fixation method using plates and screws crossover anterior oblique line. Strong force during the elevation of third molars, however, may result in the fracture of distal segment of SSO, where the buccal cortical plate is relatively thin because of the presence of third molar. Therefore, more care needs to be taken in the surgical technique, which is different from ordinary tooth extraction. In this paper, the details of surgical procedure of third molar removal during SSO were reported. PMID:26745199

  5. Degradation of Ultra-High Molar Mass Polymers in Size-Exclusion Chromatography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The degradation of high molar mass polymers during size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) analysis has been a topic of interest for several decades. Should a polymer degrade during analysis, the accuracy of the molar mass (M) and architectural information obtained will be compromised. To this effect,...

  6. Radiological age estimation: based on third molar mineralization and eruption in Turkish children and young adults.

    PubMed

    Karadayi, Beytullah; Kaya, Ahsen; Kolusayın, Melek Ozlem; Karadayi, Sükriye; Afsin, Hüseyin; Ozaslan, Abdi

    2012-11-01

    Radiographic evaluation of mineralization and eruption stages of third molars using dental panoramic radiographies can be an efficient tool for chronological age estimation in both forensic sciences and legal medicine. The third molar tooth is utilized for dental age estimation about the age span of 15-23 years because it represents the only tooth still in development. The aim of this study is to obtain and analyze data regarding third molar development and eruption in Turkish population for dental age estimation. A total of 744 dental panoramic radiographies of 394 female and 350 male subjects aged between 8 and 22 years were examined. Third molar development was determined according to the Nolla classification system, and eruption was assessed relative to the alveolar bone level. Mandibular and maxillary third molars were generally found at similar stages of development on both sides. Nolla stage 6 (completed crown calcification) was reached at around the age of 15 in both maxillary and mandibular third molars in both sexes. Alveolar emergence was at around the age of 16 in males and around age of 17 in females. Although third molars' eruption shows greater variability than development of third molars, data which were obtained from this study about eruption of these teeth can be supportive to development data for age estimation. PMID:23010906

  7. Mandibular third molar development after mantle radiation in long-term survivors of childhood Hodgkin's disease.

    PubMed

    McGinnis, J P; Hopkins, K P; Thompson, E I; Hustu, H O

    1987-05-01

    Sequential panoramic radiographs were assessed for mandibular third molar development in 47 long-term survivors of childhood Hodgkin's disease after treatment with 37 Gy mantle field radiation. To make a comparison, panoramic radiographs of 149 healthy, nonirradiated children were reviewed for the presence of mandibular third molars. In children between the ages of 7 and 12 years, bilateral agenesis of mandibular third molars was more frequent in patients who had been treated with mantle radiation than in nonirradiated patients. Unilateral agenesis, crown hypoplasia, and root growth impairment of mandibular third molars were also found. Similar, apparent, radiation-induced developmental anomalies were noted in maxillary third molars of the irradiated patients. PMID:3473386

  8. A Noble, Easy and Conceptual Radiographic Analysis to Assess the Type of Tooth Movement (Molar Distalization)

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Anaveri Thimmappa; Deepthi; Naik, Atri

    2015-01-01

    Context and Aim Bodily tooth movement is desirable in the field of Orthodontics and so is with molar distalization. Till date there is no such analysis available which could gauge and quantify the molar distalization and the type of tooth movement achieved, therefore one was required. Materials and Methods An OPG and Lateral cephalogram was used taking Inter orbitale plane and FH plane respectively as reference lines and the analysis was devised to measure the amount and type of tooth movement achieved in distalization of molar. Conclusion This analysis is a noble, easy and conceptual analysis to assess the type of tooth movement achieved during molar distalization and other molar movements using Lateral cephalogram and orthopantomogram. PMID:26436040

  9. Removal of an Upper Third Molar from the Maxillary Sinus

    PubMed Central

    Amorim, Klinger de Souza; da Silva, Vanessa Tavares; da Cunha, Rafael Soares; Souto, Maria Luisa Silveira; São Mateus, Carla Rocha; Souza, Liane Maciel de Almeida

    2015-01-01

    The maxillary sinus or antrum is the largest of the paranasal sinuses. It is located in the maxillary bone and has a proximity to the apexes of upper molars and premolars, which allows it to form a direct link between the sinus and the oral cavity. Dislocation of a foreign body or tooth to the interior of a paranasal sinus is a situation that can occur as a result of car accidents, firearm attacks, or iatrogenic in surgical procedures. Therefore, it is necessary to know how to treat this kind of situation. This study's objective is to report the case of a 23-year-old female patient, leucoderma, who sought treatment from the Surgical Unit at the Dental Faculty of the Federal University of Sergipe. She had a history of pain and edema in the right side of the genian region and two failed attempts at removing dental unit (DU) 18. The extraoral clinical exam revealed intense edema of the left hemiface with signs of infection, excoriation of the labial commissure, hematoma, a body temperature of 39°C, and a limited ability to open her mouth. The patient was medicated and treated surgically. The tooth was removed from the maxillary sinus with caution, as should have been done initially. PMID:25705524

  10. Variability of Australopithecus second maxillary molars from Sterkfontein Member 4.

    PubMed

    Fornai, Cinzia; Bookstein, Fred L; Weber, Gerhard W

    2015-08-01

    The question of how many Australopithecus species lived at Sterkfontein Member 4 and Makapansgat continues to be controversial inasmuch as the fossils are poorly preserved, the stratigraphy is difficult to interpret, and the cranial, dental, and postcranial remains are mostly not associated. To proceed we applied the most intensive modern methods of 3D geometric morphometrics to dental form, specifically the shapes of the upper second molars (M(2)s) in a sample combining 13 Australopithecus, 11 Paranthropus, and 23 Homo. We analyzed outer and inner crown surfaces, as well as crown and cervical outlines both separately and together, using a total of 16 landmarks, 51 curve semilandmarks, and 48 pseudolandmarks over the four structures. Outer and inner enamel surfaces are highly correlated in this dataset, while crown outline is the least informative of the four structures. Homo was easily distinguished from both Australopithecus and Paranthropus by these methods, likewise Homo sapiens from Homo neanderthalensis. There were, however, no stable classes within the Australopithecus sample or between Australopithecus and Paranthropus. Instead, there was a gradient along which Australopithecus prometheus and Australopithecus africanus lie toward the extremes, with Paranthropus overlapping both. If there are indeed different species at this site, then either their M(2) morphologies are uninformative or else the present sample is too small to make an accurate assessment. Our findings suggest that the variability of the Australopithecus specimens will be difficult to interpret authoritatively, independent of the method used. PMID:26163295

  11. Biodentine Pulpotomy in Mature Permanent Molar: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Irreversible pulpitis is the most common reason for endodontic treatment in primary and permanent teeth. Root canal therapy and extraction are the two viable and most documented treatment options for the same. Studies with regards to management of mature permanent teeth with carious exposure and treatment with vital pulp therapies such as adult permanent tooth pulpotomy are scarce. However, permanent tooth pulpotomy with the new calcium-silicate based cements (Mineral Trioxide Aggregate and Biodentine) can help preserve the tooth pulp vitality and promote healing and repair foregoing the more invasive root canal therapy procedure. A 12-year old male patient with irreversible pulpitis in right mandibular first permanent molar was treated with complete coronal pulpotomy with placement of Biodentine in the pulp chamber and a full coronal coverage using stainless steel crown. Clinical and radiographic examinations were performed at three, six, twelve and eighteen months. At the end of 18 months, the patient was completely asymptomatic and the tooth was free of any clinical and radiographic signs of inflammation and infection.

  12. Molar crown inner structural organization in Javanese Homo erectus.

    PubMed

    Zanolli, Clément

    2015-01-01

    This contribution investigates the inner organizational pattern (tooth tissue proportions and enamel-dentine junction morphology) of seven Homo erectus permanent molar crowns from the late Lower-early Middle Pleistocene Kabuh Formation of the Sangiran Dome (Central Java, Indonesia). The previous study of their external characteristics confirmed the degree of time-related structural reduction occurred in Javanese H. erectus, and also revealed a combination of nonmetric features which are rare in the Lower and early Middle Pleistocene dental record, but more frequently found in recent humans. In accordance with their outer occlusal morphology, the specimens exhibit a set of derived internal features, such as thick to hyperthick enamel, an incomplete expression of the crest patterns at the enamel-dentine junction (EDJ) level, a sharp EDJ topography. As a whole, these features differ from those expressed in some penecontemporaneous specimens/samples representing African H. erectus/ergaster and H. heidelbergensis, as well as in Neanderthals, but occur in recent human populations. Further research in virtual dental paleoanthropology to be developed at macroregional scale would clarify the polarity and intensity of the intermittent exchanges between continental and insular Southeast Asia around the Lower to Middle Pleistocene boundary, as well as should shed light on the still poorly understood longitudinal evolutionary dynamics across continental Asia. PMID:25209431

  13. Functional implication of nucleolin in the mouse first molar development.

    PubMed

    Xie, Ming; Kobayashi, Ieyoshi; Kiyoshima, Tamotsu; Yamaza, Haruyoshi; Honda, Jun-ya; Takahashi, Keiko; Enoki, Norio; Akamine, Akifumi; Sakai, Hidetaka

    2007-08-10

    We examined the functional implication of nucleolin in the mouse first molar development. Both the nucleolin mRNA and protein expressions were demonstrated in the odontogenic epithelial cells in the early stage and in the inner enamel epithelial layer in the late stage. The expression pattern of nucleolin corresponded to the proliferating cells in the tooth germ, thus showing that nucleolin could possibly be related to cell proliferation. No in situ signal of nucleolin was found in the primary enamel knot (PEK). Furthermore, nucleolin protein was demonstrated in the PEK by immunohistochemistry. The existence of nucleolin protein in the PEK may possibly be related to the apoptosis in the PEK cells. An inhibition assay using the hemagglutinating virus of Japan-liposome containing nucleolin antisense phosphorothioated oligonucleotide (AS S-ODN) in cultured mouse mandibles at embryonic day (E) 11.0 showed a marked growth inhibition of tooth germ. Moreover, no developmental arrest was found in the cultured tooth germ at E15.0 treated with nucleolin AS S-ODN. Real time PCR was performed to examine the mRNA expression of nucleolin-related genes, and a significant reduction in the midkine mRNA expression was thus observed in the mouse mandible after being treated with nucleolin AS S-ODN. This inhibition assay indicated that nucleolin could thus be involved in the early stage of tooth germ initiation and morphogenesis, possibly by regulating the midkine expression. PMID:17562718

  14. Dietary Inference from Upper and Lower Molar Morphology in Platyrrhine Primates

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Kari L.; Cooke, Siobhán B.; Gonzales, Lauren A.; Kay, Richard F.

    2015-01-01

    The correlation between diet and dental topography is of importance to paleontologists seeking to diagnose ecological adaptations in extinct taxa. Although the subject is well represented in the literature, few studies directly compare methods or evaluate dietary signals conveyed by both upper and lower molars. Here, we address this gap in our knowledge by comparing the efficacy of three measures of functional morphology for classifying an ecologically diverse sample of thirteen medium- to large-bodied platyrrhines by diet category (e.g., folivore, frugivore, hard object feeder). We used Shearing Quotient (SQ), an index derived from linear measurements of molar cutting edges and two indices of crown surface topography, Occlusal Relief (OR) and Relief Index (RFI). Using SQ, OR, and RFI, individuals were then classified by dietary category using Discriminate Function Analysis. Both upper and lower molar variables produce high classification rates in assigning individuals to diet categories, but lower molars are consistently more successful. SQs yield the highest classification rates. RFI and OR generally perform above chance. Upper molar RFI has a success rate below the level of chance. Adding molar length enhances the discriminatory power for all variables. We conclude that upper molar SQs are useful for dietary reconstruction, especially when combined with body size information. Additionally, we find that among our sample of platyrrhines, SQ remains the strongest predictor of diet, while RFI is less useful at signaling dietary differences in absence of body size information. The study demonstrates new ways for inferring the diets of extinct platyrrhine primates when both upper and lower molars are available, or, for taxa known only from upper molars. The techniques are useful in reconstructing diet in stem representatives of anthropoid clade, who share key aspects of molar morphology with extant platyrrhines. PMID:25738266

  15. Dietary inference from upper and lower molar morphology in platyrrhine primates.

    PubMed

    Allen, Kari L; Cooke, Siobhán B; Gonzales, Lauren A; Kay, Richard F

    2015-01-01

    The correlation between diet and dental topography is of importance to paleontologists seeking to diagnose ecological adaptations in extinct taxa. Although the subject is well represented in the literature, few studies directly compare methods or evaluate dietary signals conveyed by both upper and lower molars. Here, we address this gap in our knowledge by comparing the efficacy of three measures of functional morphology for classifying an ecologically diverse sample of thirteen medium- to large-bodied platyrrhines by diet category (e.g., folivore, frugivore, hard object feeder). We used Shearing Quotient (SQ), an index derived from linear measurements of molar cutting edges and two indices of crown surface topography, Occlusal Relief (OR) and Relief Index (RFI). Using SQ, OR, and RFI, individuals were then classified by dietary category using Discriminate Function Analysis. Both upper and lower molar variables produce high classification rates in assigning individuals to diet categories, but lower molars are consistently more successful. SQs yield the highest classification rates. RFI and OR generally perform above chance. Upper molar RFI has a success rate below the level of chance. Adding molar length enhances the discriminatory power for all variables. We conclude that upper molar SQs are useful for dietary reconstruction, especially when combined with body size information. Additionally, we find that among our sample of platyrrhines, SQ remains the strongest predictor of diet, while RFI is less useful at signaling dietary differences in absence of body size information. The study demonstrates new ways for inferring the diets of extinct platyrrhine primates when both upper and lower molars are available, or, for taxa known only from upper molars. The techniques are useful in reconstructing diet in stem representatives of anthropoid clade, who share key aspects of molar morphology with extant platyrrhines. PMID:25738266

  16. Comparison of Primary Molar Crown Dimensions with Stainless Steel Crowns in a Sample of Iranian Children

    PubMed Central

    Afshar, Hossein; Kamali Sabeti, Arghavan; Shahrabi, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Due to anatomic variation in tooth anatomy between populations, this study compared the buccolingual (BL) and mesiodistal (MD) dimensions of primary molars with those of stainless steel crowns (SSCs) in anIranian population. Materials and methods. Impressions were taken from both dental arches of children, and casts were poured. Teeth with caries, restoration, hypoplasia or other dental anomalies were excluded. 216 primary molars were selected and divided into 4 groups of 54 each (maxillary and mandibular first and second primary molars). MD/BL dimensions were measured using a digital caliper with 0.01 mm precision on casts and SCCs (3M brand). Data were assessed using paired t-test, post hoc test and ANOVA. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. The MD dimension of the lower first molar SSC and the BL dimension of the lower second molar SSC had the least difference with the corresponding values of the respective teeth. The MD dimension of the upper second molar SSC and the BL dimension of the upper first molar SSC had the greatest difference with the corresponding values in the respective teeth. Comparison of the two different brands of SSCs for the upper first molar revealed that both types had significant differences with the teeth in terms of both MD (P = 0.0) and BL (P = 0.0) dimensions. Conclusion. In the studied population, best adaptation was seen in second lower molars and the least adaptationswere seen in first and second upper molars. PMID:26236433

  17. Characterization of stem and progenitor cells in the dental pulp of erupted and unerupted murine molars

    PubMed Central

    Balic, Anamaria; Aguila, H. Leonardo; Caimano, Melissa J.; Francone, Victor P.; Mina, Mina

    2010-01-01

    In the past few years there have been significant advances in the identification of putative stem cells also referred to as “mesenchymal stem cells” (MSC) in dental tissues including the dental pulp. It is thought that MSC in dental pulp share certain similarities with MSC isolated from other tissues. However, cells in dental pulp are still poorly characterized. This study focused on the characterization of progenitor and stem cells in dental pulps of erupted and unerupted mice molars. Our study showed that dental pulps from unerupted molars contain a significant number of cells expressing CD90+/CD45-, CD117+/CD45-, Sca-1+/CD45- and little if any CD45+ cells. Our in vitro functional studies showed that dental pulp cells from unerupted molars displayed extensive osteo-dentinogenic potential but were unable to differentiate into chondrocytes and adipocytes. Dental pulp from erupted molars displayed a reduced number of cells, contained higher percentage of CD45+ and lower percentage of cells expressing CD90+/CD45-, CD117+/CD45- as compared to unerupted molars. In vitro functional assays demonstrated the ability of a small fraction of cells to differentiate into odontoblasts, osteoblasts, adipocytes and chondrocytes. There was a significant reduction in the osteo-dentinogenic potential of the pulp cells derived from erupted molars compared to unerupted molars. Furthermore, the adipogenic and chondrogenic differentiation of pulp cells from erupted molars was dependent on a long induction period and infrequent. Based on these findings we propose that the dental pulp of the erupted molars contain a small population of multipotent cells, whereas the dental pulp of the unerupted molars does not contain multipotent cells but is enriched in osteo-dentinogenic progenitors engaged in the formation of coronal and radicular odontoblasts. PMID:20193787

  18. Predictive factors of excessive online poker playing.

    PubMed

    Hopley, Anthony A B; Nicki, Richard M

    2010-08-01

    Despite the widespread rise of online poker playing, there is a paucity of research examining potential predictors for excessive poker playing. The aim of this study was to build on recent research examining motives for Texas Hold'em play in students by determining whether predictors of other kinds of excessive gambling apply to Texas Hold'em. Impulsivity, negative mood states, dissociation, and boredom proneness have been linked to general problem gambling and may play a role in online poker. Participants of this study were self-selected online poker players (N = 179) who completed an online survey. Results revealed that participants played an average of 20 hours of online poker a week and approximately 9% of the sample was classified as a problem gambler according to the Canadian Problem Gambling Index. Problem gambling, in this sample, was uniquely predicted by time played, dissociation, boredom proneness, impulsivity, and negative affective states, namely depression, anxiety, and stress. PMID:20712496

  19. Scalar explanation of diphoton excess at LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Huayong; Wang, Shaoming; Zheng, Sibo

    2016-06-01

    Inspired by the diphoton signal excess observed in the latest data of 13 TeV LHC, we consider either a 750 GeV real scalar or pseudo-scalar responsible for this anomaly. We propose a concrete vector-like quark model, in which the vector-like fermion pairs directly couple to this scalar via Yukawa interaction. For this setting the scalar is mainly produced via gluon fusion, then decays at the one-loop level to SM diboson channels gg , γγ , ZZ , WW. We show that for the vector-like fermion pairs with exotic electric charges, such model can account for the diphoton excess and is consistent with the data of 8 TeV LHC simultaneously in the context of perturbative analysis.

  20. 750 GeV diphoton excess

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altmannshofer, Wolfgang; Galloway, Jamison; Gori, Stefania; Kagan, Alexander L.; Martin, Adam; Zupan, Jure

    2016-05-01

    We explore several perturbative scenarios in which the diphoton excess at 750 GeV can potentially be explained: a scalar singlet, a two Higgs doublet model (2HDM), a 2HDM with an extra singlet, and the decays of heavier resonances, both vector and scalar. We draw the following conclusions: (i) due to gauge invariance a 750 GeV scalar singlet can accommodate the observed excess more readily than a scalar S U (2 )L doublet; (ii) scalar singlet production via gluon fusion is one option, however, vector boson fusion can also provide a large enough rate, (iii) 2HDMs with an extra singlet and no extra fermions can only give a signal in a severely tuned region of the parameter space; (iv) decays of heavier resonances can give a large enough diphoton signal at 750 GeV, while simultaneously explaining the absence of a signal at 8 TeV.

  1. Excess plutonium disposition: The deep borehole option

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, K.L.

    1994-08-09

    This report reviews the current status of technologies required for the disposition of plutonium in Very Deep Holes (VDH). It is in response to a recent National Academy of Sciences (NAS) report which addressed the management of excess weapons plutonium and recommended three approaches to the ultimate disposition of excess plutonium: (1) fabrication and use as a fuel in existing or modified reactors in a once-through cycle, (2) vitrification with high-level radioactive waste for repository disposition, (3) burial in deep boreholes. As indicated in the NAS report, substantial effort would be required to address the broad range of issues related to deep bore-hole emplacement. Subjects reviewed in this report include geology and hydrology, design and engineering, safety and licensing, policy decisions that can impact the viability of the concept, and applicable international programs. Key technical areas that would require attention should decisions be made to further develop the borehole emplacement option are identified.

  2. 31 CFR 315.11 - Excess purchases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Excess purchases. 315.11 Section 315.11 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT REGULATIONS GOVERNING U.S. SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, J, AND K, AND...

  3. Earnings Quality Measures and Excess Returns

    PubMed Central

    Perotti, Pietro; Wagenhofer, Alfred

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines how commonly used earnings quality measures fulfill a key objective of financial reporting, i.e., improving decision usefulness for investors. We propose a stock-price-based measure for assessing the quality of earnings quality measures. We predict that firms with higher earnings quality will be less mispriced than other firms. Mispricing is measured by the difference of the mean absolute excess returns of portfolios formed on high and low values of a measure. We examine persistence, predictability, two measures of smoothness, abnormal accruals, accruals quality, earnings response coefficient and value relevance. For a large sample of US non-financial firms over the period 1988–2007, we show that all measures except for smoothness are negatively associated with absolute excess returns, suggesting that smoothness is generally a favorable attribute of earnings. Accruals measures generate the largest spread in absolute excess returns, followed by smoothness and market-based measures. These results lend support to the widespread use of accruals measures as overall measures of earnings quality in the literature. PMID:26300582

  4. Search for bright stars with infrared excess

    SciTech Connect

    Raharto, Moedji

    2014-03-24

    Bright stars, stars with visual magnitude smaller than 6.5, can be studied using small telescope. In general, if stars are assumed as black body radiator, then the color in infrared (IR) region is usually equal to zero. Infrared data from IRAS observations at 12 and 25μm (micron) with good flux quality are used to search for bright stars (from Bright Stars Catalogues) with infrared excess. In magnitude scale, stars with IR excess is defined as stars with IR color m{sub 12}−m{sub 25}>0; where m{sub 12}−m{sub 25} = −2.5log(F{sub 12}/F{sub 25})+1.56, where F{sub 12} and F{sub 25} are flux density in Jansky at 12 and 25μm, respectively. Stars with similar spectral type are expected to have similar color. The existence of infrared excess in the same spectral type indicates the existence of circum-stellar dust, the origin of which is probably due to the remnant of pre main-sequence evolution during star formation or post AGB evolution or due to physical process such as the rotation of those stars.

  5. Origin of Excess 176Hf in Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thrane, Kristine; Connelly, James N.; Bizzarro, Martin; Meyer, Bradley S.; The, Lih-Sin

    2010-07-01

    After considerable controversy regarding the 176Lu decay constant (λ176Lu), there is now widespread agreement that (1.867 ± 0.008) × 10-11 yr-1 as confirmed by various terrestrial objects and a 4557 Myr meteorite is correct. This leaves the 176Hf excesses that are correlated with Lu/Hf elemental ratios in meteorites older than ~4.56 Ga meteorites unresolved. We attribute 176Hf excess in older meteorites to an accelerated decay of 176Lu caused by excitation of the long-lived 176Lu ground state to a short-lived 176m Lu isomer. The energy needed to cause this transition is ascribed to a post-crystallization spray of cosmic rays accelerated by nearby supernova(e) that occurred after 4564.5 Ma. The majority of these cosmic rays are estimated to penetrate accreted material down to 10-20 m, whereas a small fraction penetrate as deep as 100-200 m, predicting decreased excesses of 176Hf with depth of burial at the time of the irradiation event.

  6. [Adaptation of thyroid function to excess iodine].

    PubMed

    Aurengo, Andre; Leenhardt, Laurence; Aurengo, Helyett

    2002-10-26

    NORMALLY: The production of thyroid hormones is normally stable, despite iodine supplies that may vary widely and even on sudden excess iodine. The metabolism of iodine is characterised by adapted thyroid uptake, the requirements varying on the age and physiological status of the individual (pregnancy, breastfeeding) and by insufficient supplies in several areas in France. IN THE CASE OF EXCESS: The mechanisms that permit the thyroid to adapt to a sudden or chronic excess of iodine are immature in the newborn and sometimes deficient in adults, and may lead to iodine-induced dysthyroidism. Thanks to the recent progress made in thyroid physiology, these mechanisms are now better known. PATHOLOGICAL IMPACT: Iodine-induced hyperthyroidisms in a healthy or pathological thyroid are frequent. They are predominantly related to amiodarone. Iodine-related hypothyroidism frequently appears in cases of pre-existing thyroid diseases (asymptomatic autoimmune thyroiditis, for example). They are frequent in the newborn, notably in the premature. The iodine prophylaxis organised in Poland following the Tchernobyl accident led to very few pathological consequences in adults or children. PMID:12448332

  7. Negative excess noise in gated quantum wires

    SciTech Connect

    Dolcini, F.; Trauzettel, B.; Safi, I.; Grabert, H.

    2009-04-23

    The electrical current noise of a quantum wire is expected to increase with increasing applied voltage. We show that this intuition can be wrong. Specifically, we consider a single channel quantum wire with impurities and with a capacitive coupling to a metallic gate, and find that its excess noise, defined as the change in the noise caused by the finite voltage, can be negative at zero temperature. This feature is present both for large (c>>c{sub q}) and small (c<>c{sub q}, negativity of the excess noise can occur at finite frequency when the transmission coefficients are energy dependent, i.e. in the presence of Fabry-Perot resonances or band curvature. In the opposite regime c < or approx. c{sub q}, a non trivial voltage dependence of the noise arises even for energy independent transmission coefficients: at zero frequency the noise decreases with voltage as a power law when cexcess noise are present due to Andreev-type resonances.

  8. Leptophilic dark matter in Galactic Center excess

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Bo-Qiang; Zong, Hong-Shi

    2016-04-01

    Herein we explore the possibility of explaining a gamma-ray excess in the Galactic Center with the dark matter scenario. After taking into account the constraints from both the AMS-02 experiment and the gamma-ray observation on dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxies in Fermi-LAT, we find that the τ lepton channel is the only permissive channel for the interpretation of the Galaxy center excess. Tau leptophilic dark matter provides a well-motivated framework in which the dark matter can dominantly couple to τ lepton at tree-level. We describe the interactions with a general effective field theory approach by using higher-dimensional operators, and this approach provides for a model independent analysis. We consider the constraints from the measurement of the DM relic density in the Planck experiment and the AMS-02 cosmic rays experiment, and find that most of the interaction operators except O7 , O9 and O12 have been excluded. Due to the quantum fluctuations, even in such a scenario there are loop induced dark matter-nucleon interactions. We calculate the dark matter-nucleon scattering cross-section at loop-level, and if the limits on the dark matter-nucleon scattering cross-section from direct detection experiments are also taken into account, we find that the operators remaining available for accounting for the Galaxy center excess are O9 and O12.

  9. [CLINICAL INVESTIGATION OF AN EXCESSIVE SLEEPINESS COMPLAINT].

    PubMed

    Evangelista, Elisa; Barateau, Lucie; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2016-06-01

    Excessive sleepiness is a common problem, defined by a complaint of excessive daytime sleepiness almost daily with an inability to stay awake and alert dosing periods at sleep, with episodes of irresistible sleep need or drowsiness or non-intentional sleep, or by a night's sleep time overly extended often associated with sleep inertia. This sleepiness is variable in terms of phenotype and severity to be specified by the out-patient clinic. It is considered to be chronic beyond three months and often responsible for significant functional impairment of school and professional performance, of the accidents and cardiovascular risk. We need to decipher the causes of excessive sleepiness: sleep deprivation, toxic and iatrogenic, psychiatric disorders (including depression), non-psychiatric medical problems (obesity, neurological pathologies...), sleep disorders (as for example the sleep apnea syndrome), and finally the central hypersomnias namely narcolepsy type 1 and 2, idiopathic hypersomnia, and Kleine-Levin syndrome. If careful questioning often towards one of these etiologies, need most of the time a paraclinical balance with a sleep recording to confirm the diagnosis. Patients affected with potential central hypersomnia must be referred to the Sleep Study Centers that have the skills and the appropriate means to achieve this balance sheet. PMID:27538325

  10. Hyperthyroidism caused by excessive consumption of sausages.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, L E L; Looij, B J

    2010-03-01

    Hyperthyroidism results from excessive production of thyroid hormones. This is usually caused by Graves disease, but exogenous thyroid hormones can lead to similar symptoms. Recognition of the latter is difficult as excessive intake of thyroid hormone is not usually admitted nor recognised. To our knowledge, exogenous hyperthyroidism caused by thyroid-contaminated food has been described twice, but not in the Netherlands. A 77-year-old man presented at the Outpatient Department of Internal Medicine with lab values revealing hyperthyroidism. There were no abnormal findings at the physical examination. Antibodies against the thyroidstimulating hormone (TSH) receptor were not detectable. Thyroid scintigraphy with 123I showed an uptake of less than 1%. Silent thyroiditis was diagnosed and the natural course was awaited, but with no improvement in the thyroid values. The thyroglobulin was very low. Further anamnesis revealed an excessive daily consumption of sausages. Thyroid hormones were detectable in these sausages. After the patient stopped eating them, he became and remained euthyroid. The case stipulates the importance of a thorough anamnesis. PMID:20308711

  11. 24 CFR 320.8 - Excess Yield Securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Excess Yield Securities. 320.8... MORTGAGE-BACKED SECURITIES Pass-Through Type Securities § 320.8 Excess Yield Securities. (a) Definition. Excess Yield Securities are securities backed by the excess servicing income relating to...

  12. 24 CFR 320.8 - Excess Yield Securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excess Yield Securities. 320.8... MORTGAGE-BACKED SECURITIES Pass-Through Type Securities § 320.8 Excess Yield Securities. (a) Definition. Excess Yield Securities are securities backed by the excess servicing income relating to...

  13. Complex cellular responses to tooth wear in rodent molar.

    PubMed

    Mahdee, A; Alhelal, A; Eastham, J; Whitworth, J; Gillespie, J I

    2016-01-01

    The arrangement and roles of the odontoblast and its process in sensing and responding to injuries such as tooth wear are incompletely understood. Evidence is presented that dentine exposure by tooth wear triggers structural and functional changes that aim to maintain tooth integrity. Mandibular first molars from freshly culled 8 week Wistar rats were prepared for light microscopy ground-sections (n=6), or fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde, decalcified in 17% EDTA, sectioned and stained with antibodies to cyto-skeletal proteins (vimentin (vim), α-tubulin (tub) and α-actin), cellular homeostatic elements (sodium potassium ATPase (NaK-ATPase) and sodium hydrogen exchanger (NHE-1)), and sensory nerve fibres (CGRP) (n=10) for fluorescence microscopy of worn and unworn regions of the mesial cusp. Immunoreactivity (IR) to vim, actin, NaK-ATPase and CGRP was confined to the pulpal third of odontoblast processes (OPs). IR to tub and nhe-1 was expressed by OPs in full dentine thickness. In areas associated with dentine exposure, the tubules contained no OPs. In regions with intact dentine, odontoblasts were arranged in a single cell layer and easily distinguished from the sub-odontoblast cells. In regions with open tubules, the odontoblasts were in stratified or pseudo-stratified in arrangement. Differences in structural antibody expression suggest a previously unreported heterogeneity of the odontoblast population and variations in different regions of the OP. This combined with differences in OPs extension and pulp cellular arrangement in worn and unworn regions suggests active and dynamic cellular responses to the opening of dentinal tubules by tooth wear. PMID:26547699

  14. Morphometric variation of extant platyrrhine molars: taxonomic implications for fossil platyrrhines.

    PubMed

    Nova Delgado, Mónica; Galbany, Jordi; Pérez-Pérez, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    The phylogenetic position of many fossil platyrrhines with respect to extant ones is not yet clear. Two main hypotheses have been proposed: the layered or successive radiations hypothesis suggests that Patagonian fossils are Middle Miocene stem platyrrhines lacking modern descendants, whereas the long lineage hypothesis argues for an evolutionary continuity of all fossil platyrrhines with the extant ones. Our geometric morphometric analysis of a 15 landmark-based configuration of platyrrhines' first and second lower molars suggest that morphological stasis may explain the reduced molar shape variation observed. Platyrrhine lower molar shape might be a primitive retention of the ancestral state affected by strong ecological constraints throughout the radiation of the main platyrrhine families. The Patagonian fossil specimens showed two distinct morphological patterns of lower molars, Callicebus-like and Saguinus-like, which might be the precursors of the extant forms, whereas the Middle Miocene specimens, though showing morphological resemblances with the Patagonian fossils, also displayed new, derived molar patterns, Alouatta-like and Pitheciinae-like, thereby suggesting that despite the overall morphological stasis of molars, phenotypic diversification of molar shape was already settled during the Middle Miocene. PMID:27190704

  15. Morphology of the Physiological Apical Foramen in Maxillary and Mandibular First Molars

    PubMed Central

    Abarca, J.; Zaror, C.; Monardes, H.; Hermosilla, V.; Muñoz, C.; Cantin, M.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Information regarding the anatomy of the physiological apical foramen is limited. Knowing its diameter and shapes contributes to clinical work, specifically to the cleaning and shaping of the apical third. The aim of this ex vivo study was to determine the minimum and maximum diameters and shape of the physiological apical foramen in the roots of maxillary and mandibular first molars. A descriptive study was conducted on 89 recently extracted first molars. Roots 3–5 mm from the apex were sectioned and prepared for analysis at 40× magnification. The minimum and maximum diameters of each physiological foramen were measured using the program Motic Images plus 2.0 ML. The shape of the foramina, classified as round, oval or irregular, was determined by the difference between the maximum and minimum diameters. A total of 174 physiological foramina were analyzed. The average of the minimum and maximum diameters was between 0.24–0.33 mm in maxillary first molars and between 0.25–0.33 mm in mandibular first molars. In maxillary molars, the most common shape of the foramen was oval (50%), then irregular (32%), then round (18%). In mandibular molars, the oval shape was also the most frequent (59%), followed by irregular (23%) and round (18%). The findings of this study regarding the morphology of physiological apical foramina in first molars make it easier for the operator to choose the appropriately-sized instruments to perform endodontic therapy successfully. PMID:25937698

  16. Incidence of chronic neuropathic pain subsequent to surgical removal of impacted third molars.

    PubMed

    Berge, Trond Inge

    2002-03-01

    To determine the incidence of atypical odontalgia/chronic neuropathic pain subsequent to surgical removal of impacted third molars, a telephone survey and a clinical investigation were carried out. Patients operated on for impacted mandibular third molars during 1994 96 in the Oral Surgery Clinic. School of Dentistry, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway, were contacted by telephone. Answers were obtained from 1035 (71%) out of a total of 1458 operated patients. Median observation time was 5 years 9 months, ranging from 4 years 5 months to 6 years 9 months. All except 23 (2.2%) patients stated that they had no long-term symptoms or problems from the surgical site, jaw, or face after the third molar removal. These 23 patients were all examined clinically and radiologically, and symptoms and findings were evaluated. Seventeen patients had TMJ dysfunction: primarily pain of muscular and joint origin. Three patients had a periodontal problem associated with the adjacent second molar, with deep bony pockets and recurrent periodontal infection while two had chronic pulpitis of a second molar. One patient reported a temporary maxillary pain after removal of an ipsilateral mandibular third molar. None of the patients met the criteria for a diagnosis of atypical odontalgia/neuropathic pain. A 95% confidence interval of 0-0.38% of incidence rate of postoperative neuropathic pain was calculated. It is concluded that atypical odontalgia/ chronic neuropathic pain subsequent to surgical third molar removal is rare. PMID:12020113

  17. Morphometric variation of extant platyrrhine molars: taxonomic implications for fossil platyrrhines

    PubMed Central

    Nova Delgado, Mónica; Galbany, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    The phylogenetic position of many fossil platyrrhines with respect to extant ones is not yet clear. Two main hypotheses have been proposed: the layered or successive radiations hypothesis suggests that Patagonian fossils are Middle Miocene stem platyrrhines lacking modern descendants, whereas the long lineage hypothesis argues for an evolutionary continuity of all fossil platyrrhines with the extant ones. Our geometric morphometric analysis of a 15 landmark-based configuration of platyrrhines’ first and second lower molars suggest that morphological stasis may explain the reduced molar shape variation observed. Platyrrhine lower molar shape might be a primitive retention of the ancestral state affected by strong ecological constraints throughout the radiation of the main platyrrhine families. The Patagonian fossil specimens showed two distinct morphological patterns of lower molars, Callicebus—like and Saguinus—like, which might be the precursors of the extant forms, whereas the Middle Miocene specimens, though showing morphological resemblances with the Patagonian fossils, also displayed new, derived molar patterns, Alouatta—like and Pitheciinae—like, thereby suggesting that despite the overall morphological stasis of molars, phenotypic diversification of molar shape was already settled during the Middle Miocene. PMID:27190704

  18. The influence of endodontic infection on periodontal status in mandibular molars.

    PubMed

    Jansson, L E; Ehnevid, H

    1998-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of an endodontic infection on periodontal probing depth and presence of furcation involvement in periodontally-involved mandibular molars. All first and second mandibular molars in 100 patients were selected if at least one was root-filled or had a possible periapical radiolucency. The sample consisted of patients from a referral population at a periodontal clinic which represented an adult population with a mean age between 50 and 60 years. For mandibular molars with periapical destruction at both roots, mean periodontal probing depth was significantly greater compared to teeth without periapical destruction. Horizontal furcation depths > or =3 mm were significantly more frequent at mandibular molars with periapical destruction. It is suggested that a root canal infection in periodontitis-involved molars may potentiate periodontitis progression by spreading of endodontic pathogens through patent accessory canals and dentinal tubules. In conclusion, an endodontic infection in mandibular molars was found to be associated with additional attachment loss in the furcation area, and may thus be considered to be one of several risk factors influencing the prognosis of molars in periodontitis-prone patients. PMID:9926769

  19. Fate of excess phosphorus in the Baltic Sea: A real driving force for cyanobacterial blooms?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raateoja, M.; Kuosa, H.; Hällfors, S.

    2011-02-01

    The wintertime ratio of inorganic dissolved nitrogen to phosphorus (DIN/DIP) in the surface waters of the Baltic Sea is typically below the molar Redfield ratio of 16, which expresses the presence of an excess inorganic dissolved phosphorus (eDIP) reserve compared to DIN. We assessed the role of the vernal phytoplankton bloom period (VPBP) in the consumption of the potential wintertime eDIP reserve, and the role of eDIP after the VPBP as a nutritional agent for the summertime growth of the cyanobacteria in the Baltic Sea. We employed a high-frequency dataset collected by the unattended monitoring systems on board merchant ships. The dataset encompasses the Baltic basins from the Arkona Basin to the Western Gulf of Finland and the time period from 1993 to 2009. All the observed values of the wintertime DIN/DIP ratio were below the molar Redfield ratio; the ratio showed a declining trend during the study, suggesting that there is a pronounced wintertime stock of the potential eDIP in the waters of the Baltic Sea, and that this stock has lately increased in magnitude. The VPBP took up excessively DIP to DIN than calculated according to the uptake in the molar Redfield ratio, thus reducing the potential eDIP reserve. On average, 59% of the potential eDIP reserve was left in the water after the VPBP as eDIP. eDIP was typically exhausted in the time frame early June-early July, matching well the timing of the appearance of cyanobacteria in substantial numbers in the water-column. eDIP clearly fueled the cyanobacterial growth in every instance in which it was possible to clarify their relationship. The cyanobacteria must still have another DIP source than eDIP to form extensive late-summer blooms, except in the western Gulf of Finland, where eDIP remained detectable up to early August. The annual role of eDIP for cyanobacterial growth depends greatly on the weather of late spring and early summer: this may sometimes launch the cyanobacterial growth much earlier than is

  20. Developmental constraints revealed by co-variation within and among molar rows in two murine rodents.

    PubMed

    Renaud, Sabrina; Pantalacci, Sophie; Quéré, Jean-Pierre; Laudet, Vincent; Auffray, Jean-Christophe

    2009-01-01

    Morphological integration corresponds to interdependency between characters that can arise from several causes. Proximal causes of integration include that different phenotypic features may share common genetic sets and/or interact during their development. Ultimate causes may be the prolonged effect of selection favoring integration of functionally interacting characters, achieved by the molding of these proximal causes. Strong and direct interactions among successive teeth of a molar row are predicted by genetic and developmental evidences. Functional constraints related to occlusion, however, should have selected more strongly for a morphological integration of occluding teeth and a corresponding evolution of the underlying developmental and genetic pathways. To investigate how these predictions match the patterns of phenotypic integration, we studied the co-variation among the six molars of the murine molar row, focusing on two populations of house mice (Mus musculus domesticus) and wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus). The size and shape of the three upper and lower molars were quantified and compared. Our results evidenced similar patterns in both species, size being more integrated than shape among all the teeth, and both size and shape co-varying strongly between adjacent teeth, but also between occluding teeth. Strong co-variation within each molar row is in agreement with developmental models showing a cascade influence of the first molar on the subsequent molars. In contrast, the strong co-variation between molars of the occluding tooth rows confirms that functional constraints molded patterns of integration and probably the underlying developmental pathways despite the low level of direct developmental interactions occurring among molar rows. These patterns of co-variation are furthermore conserved between the house mouse and the wood mouse that diverged >10 Ma, suggesting that they may constitute long-running constraints to the diversification of the murine

  1. Allometric and metameric shape variation in Pan mandibular molars: a digital morphometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Singleton, Michelle; Rosenberger, Alfred L; Robinson, Chris; O'neill, Rob

    2011-02-01

    The predominance of molar teeth in fossil hominin assemblages makes the patterning of molar shape variation a topic of bioanthropological interest. Extant models are the principal basis for understanding dental variation in the fossil record. As the sister taxon to the hominin clade, Pan is one such model and the only widely accepted extant hominid model for both interspecific and intraspecific variation. To explore the contributions of allometric scaling and meristic variation to molar variation in Pan, we applied geometric shape analysis to 3D landmarks collected from virtual replicas of chimpanzee and bonobo mandibular molars. Multivariate statistical analysis and 3D visualization of metameric and allometric shape vectors were used to characterize shape differences and test the hypothesis that species of Pan share patterns of metameric variation and molar shape allometry. Procrustes-based shape variables were found to effectively characterize crown shape, sorting molars into species and tooth-row positions with ≥ 95% accuracy. Chimpanzees and bonobos share a common pattern of M(1) -M(2) metameric variation, which is defined by differences in the relative position of the metaconid, size of the hypoconulid, curvature of the buccal wall, and proportions of the basins and foveae. Allometric scaling of molar shape is homogeneous for M(1) and M(2) within species, but bonobo and chimpanzee allometric vectors are significantly different. Nevertheless, the common allometric shape trend explains most molar-shape differences between P. paniscus and P. troglodytes. When allometric effects are factored out, chimpanzee and bonobo molars are not morphometrically distinguishable. Implications for hominid taxonomy and dietary reconstruction are discussed. PMID:21235007

  2. Rat molar teeth as a study model for direct pulp capping research in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Dammaschke, Till

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this review is to evaluate the suitability of rat molar teeth in preclinical evaluation of medical devices for direct pulp capping. The ISO standard 7405 states clearly that only non-rodent mammals are suitable species for animal research in dentistry. Furthermore, without clear justification a considerable number of researchers previously rejected results of animal experiments concerning preclinical evaluation of the biocompatibility of dental materials undertaken in rat molar teeth. However, in the past 50 years about 70 studies have been published using rat molar teeth in order to evaluate direct pulp capping, pulpotomies and tissue reactions after pulp exposure. Numerous studies showed that the healing of rat molar pulp tissue after direct pulp capping is histologically comparable with humans and other animal species pulp tissue. Rat molar teeth, including pulp tissue, can be seen anatomically, histologically, biologically, and physiologically as miniature human molar teeth. Hence, the essential biological reactions of the pulp tissue and the interaction during the different stages of wound healing of rat molar teeth are comparable with that of other mammals. Rat molar teeth are a valid study model in order to provide valuable data concerning pulp tissue reaction after direct pulp capping and related questions in dentistry. Therefore, the use of rats may significantly reduce the number of currently used higher animals in research. Tests in higher developed animals should be limited to experiments which clarify inconsistent results. However, some technical difficulties, like the small size of rat molar teeth must be dealt with before undertaking any research. PMID:19854755

  3. Vital Pulp Therapy with Three Different Pulpotomy Agents in Immature Molars: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Harandi, Azadeh; Forghani, Maryam; Ghoddusi, Jamileh

    2013-01-01

    Introduction This case report describes apexogenesis treatment of three molar teeth of an 8-year-old boy using three different pulpotomy agents. Methods Pulpotomy was performed on decayed immature molar teeth with established irreversible pulpitis and the remaining pulp was capped with either zinc oxide eugenol, ProRoot mineral trioxide aggregate or calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement. Teeth were restored with stainless steel crowns. Results Eighteen months clinical and radiographic follow-up revealed successful preservation of pulpal vitality with continued root development in all treated teeth. Conclusion Based on this case report, CEM cement may be an alternative option for pulpotomy treatment of immature permanent molars. PMID:23922578

  4. A New Orthodontic Appliance with a Mini Screw for Upper Molar Distalization

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to present a new upper molar distalization appliance called Cise distalizer designed as intraoral device supported with orthodontic mini screw for upper permanent molar distalization. The new appliance consists of eight main components. In order to understand the optimum force level, the appliance under static loading is tested by using strain gage measurement techniques. Results show that one of the open coils produces approximately 300 gr distalization force. Cise distalizer can provide totally 600 gr distalization force. This range of force level is enough for distalization of upper first and second molar teeth. PMID:27528796

  5. [Analysis of divergent angle and length of CEJ to furcation entrance in extracted molars].

    PubMed

    Hou, G L; Chen, S F; Tsai, C C; Huang, J S

    1997-12-01

    The purposes of this study were to investigate the furcation entrance angle (FEA) and the distance between cemento-enamel junction (CEJ) and furcation entrance (FE) of the extracted maxillary and mandibular molars. Assay teeth comprised 89 maxillary molars and 93 mandibular molars. All the FEAs and CEJ-FEs of the molars were measured by a stereomicroscope at 2.5 x equipped with a Bioscan OPTIMAS Image Analyzer (BOIA). The results were summarized as follows: (1) The mean FEAs in the buccal, mesial and distal furcations were 96.3 +/- 10.0, 103.8 +/- 9.7, and 107.2 +/- 12.2 degrees in the maxillary molars, and 91.6 +/- 11.7, 101.7 +/- 11.5, and 97.1 +/- 10.7 degrees in the maxillary second molars, respectively. At the buccal and lingual furcations of mandibular first and second molars, they measured 100.5 +/- 9.7/102.7 +/- 8.5, and 93.3 +/- 11.5/91.7 +/- 10.8 degrees, respectively. (2) The mean distance of CEJ-FEs at the buccal, mesial and distal furcations of maxillary molars were 3.42 +/- 1.5mm, 3.55 +/- 0.97 mm, and 3.69 +/- 0.98mm for the first molars, and 3.01 +/- 1.04mm, 4.04 +/- 1.58mm and 3.00 +/- 1.14mm for the second molars. At the buccal and lingual furcations of the mandibular first and second molars, they were recorded as 1.90 +/- 0.08mm and 2.90 +/- 0.07mm, and 2.82 +/- 1.34mm and 3.46 +/- 1.03mm, respectively. It was concluded that buccal FEA of maxillary 2nd molar was the smallest (91.56 +/- 9.68 degrees) as compared to the mesial and distal FEAs; whereas the mean distance of CEJ-FEs at the buccal surface was the smallest (1.90mm +/- 0.08mm) when compared to the others. PMID:9436343

  6. Endodontic management of maxillary first molar with type I canal configuration- a rare case report.

    PubMed

    Desai, Niranjan; Jadhav, Ganesh Ranganath; Raghavendra, Srinidhi Surya; Mittal, Priya; Patil, Gururaj

    2015-04-01

    Thorough knowledge about the root canal variations is essential for the predictable endodontic treatment outcome. The root and root canal anatomy of maxillary first molar varies greatly. A Pub-med literature search about single rooted single canalled maxillary first molar was done to know its details such as incidence, diagnostic method used, age, sex and ethnic background of patient. This article presented report of a single rooted single canalled maxillary first molar in a 27-year-old healthy Asian female. PMID:26023655

  7. Paediatric dentistry in the new millennium: 4. Cost-effective restorative techniques for primary molars.

    PubMed

    Duggal, M S; Gautam, S K; Nichol, R; Robertson, A J

    2003-10-01

    In the fourth article in this series the techniques for carrying out pulp therapy and stainless steel restoration in primary molars are discussed. Early pulp involvement in primary molars means that pulp therapy and the use of appropriate coronal restoration, such as stainless steel crowns, are indispensable if repetitive restoration of primary molars is to be avoided. These techniques themselves are not difficult to carry out once the child's co-operation is established and should be well within the capability of any dentist with an interest in the dental care of children. PMID:14619729

  8. Excess-electron and excess-hole states of charged alkali halide clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honea, Eric C.; Homer, Margie L.; Whetten, R. L.

    1990-12-01

    Charged alkali halide clusters from a He-cooled laser vaporization source have been used to investigate two distinct cluster states corresponding to the excess-electron and excess-hole states of the crystal. The production method is UV-laser vaporization of an alkali metal rod into a halogen-containing He flow stream, resulting in variable cluster composition and cooling sufficient to stabilize weakly bound forms. Detection of charged clusters is accomplished without subsequent ionization by pulsed-field time-of-flight mass spectrometry of the skimmed cluster beam. Three types of positively charged sodium fluoride cluster are observed, each corresponding to a distinct physical situation: NanF+n-1 (purely ionic form), Nann+1F+n-1 (excess-electron form), and NanF+n (excess-hole form). The purely ionic clusters exhibit an abundance pattern similar to that observed in sputtering and fragmentation experiments and are explained by the stability of completed cubic microlattice structures. The excess-electron clusters, in contrast, exhibit very strong abundance maxima at n = 13 and 22, corresponding to the all-odd series (2n + 1 = jxkxl;j,k,l odd). Their high relative stability is explained by the ease of Na(0) loss except when the excess electron localizes in a lattice site to complete a cuboid structure. These may correspond to the internal F-center state predicted earlier. A localized electron model incorporating structural simulation results as account for the observed pattern. The excess-hole clusters, which had been proposed as intermediates in the ionization-induced fragmentation of neutral AHCs, exhibit a smaller variation in stability, indicating that the hole might not be well localized.

  9. Quirky explanations for the diphoton excess

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtin, David; Verhaaren, Christopher B.

    2016-03-01

    We propose two simple quirk models to explain the recently reported 750 GeV diphoton excesses at ATLAS and CMS. It is already well known that a real singlet scalar ϕ with Yukawa couplings ϕ X ¯X to vectorlike fermions X with mass mX>mϕ/2 can easily explain the observed signal, provided X carries both SM color and electric charge. We instead consider first the possibility that the pair production of a fermion, charged under both SM gauge groups and a confining S U (3 )v gauge group, is responsible. If pair produced it forms a quirky bound state, which promptly annihilates into gluons, photons, v-gluons and possibly SM fermions. This is an extremely minimal model to explain the excess, but is already in some tension with existing displaced searches, as well as dilepton and dijet resonance bounds. We therefore propose a hybrid quirk-scalar model, in which the fermion of the simple ϕ X ¯X toy model is charged under the additional S U (3 )v confining gauge group. Constraints on the new heavy fermion X are then significantly relaxed. The main additional signals of this model are possible dilepton, dijet and diphoton resonances at ˜2 TeV or more from quirk annihilation, and the production of v-glueballs through quirk annihilation and ϕ decay. The glueballs can give rise to spectacular signatures, including displaced vertices and events with leptons, photons and Z -bosons. If the quirk-scalar model is responsible for the 750 GeV excess it should be discovered in one of these channels with 20 or 300 fb-1 of LHC Run 2 data.

  10. Syndromes that Mimic an Excess of Mineralocorticoids.

    PubMed

    Sabbadin, Chiara; Armanini, Decio

    2016-09-01

    Pseudohyperaldosteronism is characterized by a clinical picture of hyperaldosteronism with suppression of renin and aldosterone. It can be due to endogenous or exogenous substances that mimic the effector mechanisms of aldosterone, leading not only to alterations of electrolytes and hypertension, but also to an increased inflammatory reaction in several tissues. Enzymatic defects of adrenal steroidogenesis (deficiency of 17α-hydroxylase and 11β-hydroxylase), mutations of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and alterations of expression or saturation of 11-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (apparent mineralocorticoid excess syndrome, Cushing's syndrome, excessive intake of licorice, grapefruits or carbenoxolone) are the main causes of pseudohyperaldosteronism. In these cases treatment with dexamethasone and/or MR-blockers is useful not only to normalize blood pressure and electrolytes, but also to prevent the deleterious effects of prolonged over-activation of MR in epithelial and non-epithelial tissues. Genetic alterations of the sodium channel (Liddle's syndrome) or of the sodium-chloride co-transporter (Gordon's syndrome) cause abnormal sodium and water reabsorption in the distal renal tubules and hypertension. Treatment with amiloride and thiazide diuretics can respectively reverse the clinical picture and the renin aldosterone system. Finally, many other more common situations can lead to an acquired pseudohyperaldosteronism, like the expansion of volume due to exaggerated water and/or sodium intake, and the use of drugs, as contraceptives, corticosteroids, β-adrenergic agonists and FANS. In conclusion, syndromes or situations that mimic aldosterone excess are not rare and an accurate personal and pharmacological history is mandatory for a correct diagnosis and avoiding unnecessary tests and mistreatments. PMID:27251484

  11. ATLAS diboson excess from Stueckelberg mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Wan-Zhe; Liu, Zuowei; Nath, Pran

    2016-04-01

    We discuss the diboson excess seen by the ATLAS collaboration around 2 TeV in the LHC run I at √{s}=8 TeV. We explore the possibility that such an excess can arise from a Z' boson which acquires mass through a U(1) X Stueckelberg extension. The corresponding Z' gauge boson is leptophobic with a mass of around 2 TeV and has interactions with SU(2) L Yang-Mills fields and gauge fields of the hypercharge. The analysis predicts Z' decays into WW and ZZ as well as into Zγ. Further three-body as well as four-body decays of the Z' such as WWZ, WWγ, WWZZ etc are predicted. In the analysis we use the helicity formalism which allows us to exhibit the helicity structure of the Z' decay processes in an transparent manner. In particular, we are able to show the set of vanishing helicity amplitudes in the decay of the massive Z' into two vector bosons due to angular momentum conservation with a special choice of the reference momenta. The residual set of non-vanishing helicity amplitudes are identified. The parameter space of the model compatible with the diboson excess seen by the ATLAS experiment at √{s}=8 TeV is exhibited. Estimate of the diboson excess expected at √{s}=13 TeV with 20 fb-1 of integrated luminosity at LHC run II is also given. It is shown that the WW, ZZ and Zγ modes are predicted to be in the approximate ratio 1 : cos2 θ W (1 + α tan2 θ W )2 /2 : (1 - α)2 sin2 θ W /2 where α is the strength of the coupling of Z' with the hypercharge gauge field relative to the coupling with the Yang-Mills gauge fields. Thus observation of the Zγ mode as well as three-body and four-body decay modes of the Z' will provide a definite test of the model and of a possible new source of interaction beyond the standard model.

  12. Propylene Glycol Poisoning From Excess Whiskey Ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Kevin; Sue, Gloria R.

    2015-01-01

    In this report, we describe a case of high anion gap metabolic acidosis with a significant osmolal gap attributed to the ingestion of liquor containing propylene glycol. Recently, several reports have characterized severe lactic acidosis occurring in the setting of iatrogenic unintentional overdosing of medications that use propylene glycol as a diluent, including lorazepam and diazepam. To date, no studies have explored potential effects of excess propylene glycol in the setting of alcohol intoxication. Our patient endorsed drinking large volumes of cinnamon flavored whiskey, which was likely Fireball Cinnamon Whisky. To our knowledge, this is the first case of propylene glycol toxicity from an intentional ingestion of liquor containing propylene glycol. PMID:26904700

  13. Excess wings in broadband dielectric spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candelaresi, S.; Hilfer, R.

    2014-12-01

    Analysis of excess wings in broadband dielectric spectroscopy data of glass forming materials provides evidence for anomalous time evolutions and fractional semigroups. Solutions of fractional evolution equations in frequency space are used to fit dielectric spectroscopy data of glass forming materials with a range between 4 and 10 decades in frequency. It is shown that with only three parameters (two relaxation times plus one exponent) excellent fits can be obtained for 5-methyl-2-hexanol and for methyl-m-toluate over up to 7 decades. The traditional Havriliak-Negami fit with three parameters (two exponents and one relaxation time) fits only 4-5 decades. Using a second exponent, as in Havriliak-Negami fits, the α-peak and the excess wing can be modeled perfectly with our theory for up to 10 decades for all materials at all temperatures considered here. Traditionally this can only be accomplished by combining two Havriliak-Negami functions with 7 parameters. The temperature dependent relaxation times are fitted with the Vogel-Tammann-Fulcher relation which provides the corresponding Vogel-Fulcher temperatures. The relaxation times turn out to obey almost perfectly the Vogel-Tammann-Fulcher law. Computable expressions of time dependent relaxation functions are also reported.

  14. Effective interpretations of a diphoton excess

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthier, Laure; Cline, James M.; Shepherd, William; Trott, Michael

    2016-04-01

    We discuss some consistency tests that must be passed for a successful explanation of a diphoton excess at larger mass scales, generated by a scalar or pseudoscalar state, possibly of a composite nature, decaying to two photons. Scalar states at mass scales above the electroweak scale decaying significantly into photon final states generically lead to modifications of Standard Model Higgs phenomenology. We characterise this effect using the formalism of Effective Field Theory (EFT) and study the modification of the effective couplings to photons and gluons of the Higgs. The modification of Higgs phenomenology comes about in a variety of ways. For scalar 0+ states, a component of the Higgs and the heavy boson can mix. Lower energy phenomenology gives a limit on the mixing angle, which gets generated at one loop in any theory explaining the diphoton excess. Even if the mixing angle is set to zero, we demonstrate that a relation exists between lower energy Higgs data and a massive scalar decaying to diphoton final states. If the new boson is a pseudoscalar, we note that if it is composite, it is generic to have an excited scalar partner that can mix with a component of the Higgs, which has a stronger coupling to photons. In the case of a pseudoscalar, we also characterize how lower energy Higgs phenomenology is directly modified using EFT, even without assuming a scalar partner of the pseudoscalar state. We find that naturalness concerns can be accommodated, and that pseudoscalar models are more protected from lower energy constraints.

  15. Preferential solvation: dividing surface vs excess numbers.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Seishi; Matubayasi, Nobuyuki

    2014-04-10

    How do osmolytes affect the conformation and configuration of supramolecular assembly, such as ion channel opening and actin polymerization? The key to the answer lies in the excess solvation numbers of water and osmolyte molecules; these numbers are determinable solely from experimental data, as guaranteed by the phase rule, as we show through the exact solution theory of Kirkwood and Buff (KB). The osmotic stress technique (OST), in contrast, purposes to yield alternative hydration numbers through the use of the dividing surface borrowed from the adsorption theory. However, we show (i) OST is equivalent, when it becomes exact, to the crowding effect in which the osmolyte exclusion dominates over hydration; (ii) crowding is not the universal driving force of the osmolyte effect (e.g., actin polymerization); (iii) the dividing surface for solvation is useful only for crowding, unlike in the adsorption theory which necessitates its use due to the phase rule. KB thus clarifies the true meaning and limitations of the older perspectives on preferential solvation (such as solvent binding models, crowding, and OST), and enables excess number determination without any further assumptions. PMID:24689966

  16. Excessive daytime sleepiness in sleep disorders

    PubMed Central

    Steier, Joerg

    2012-01-01

    Excessive daytime sleepiness is a significant public health problem, with prevalence in the community estimated to be as high as 18%. Sleepiness is caused by abnormal sleep quantity or sleep quality. Amongst others, multiple neurological, psychological, cardiac and pulmonary disorders may contribute. Risk factors for excessive sleepiness include obesity, depression, extremes of age and insufficient sleep. In the clinical setting, two of the most commonly encountered causes are obstructive sleep apnoea and periodic limb movement disorder. There is continuing discussion of the mechanisms by which these disorders cause daytime symptoms, with intermittent nocturnal hypoxia, sleep fragmentation and autonomic dysregulation identified as important factors. The increased prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea in obese subjects does not fully account for the increased rates of daytime sleepiness in this population and there is evidence to suggest that it is caused by metabolic factors and chronic inflammation in obese individuals. Sleepiness is also more common in those reporting symptoms of depression or anxiety disorders and significantly impacts their quality of life. Clinicians should be aware of factors which put their patients at high risk of daytime sleepiness, as it is a debilitating and potentially dangerous symptom with medico-legal implications. Treatment option should address underlying contributors and promote sleep quantity and sleep quality by ensuring good sleep hygiene. However, stimulant medication may be indicated in some cases to allow for more normal daytime functioning. PMID:23205286

  17. Accidental Displacement of Third Molar into the Sublingual Space: a Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Robson Rodrigues; Botelho, Tessa Lucena; Franco, Ademir; Silva, Rhonan Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Successful extraction of third molars depends on preoperative diagnosis and planning. Gold standard preoperative examinations are performed through computed tomography, decreasing risks and avoiding potential accidents. The present report highlights the value of preoperative examinations in face of accidentally displaced third molars. Methods An 18-years-old female patient underwent a third mandibular molar extraction with a general dentist. Accidentally, the mandibular left third molar was displaced into the sublingual space, making necessary a second surgical step. The surgery was interrupted and the patient was referred to an expert in maxillofacial surgery. Results After 21 days awaiting an asymptomatic health status, the second surgical step was successfully performed using multislice computed tomography as preoperative imaging guide. Conclusions The present case report highlights the clinical usefulness of imaging planning and informed consents in face of legal and ethic potential complaints. PMID:25386232

  18. Management of Chronic Hyperplastic Pulpitis in Mandibular Molars of Middle Aged Adults- A Multidisciplinary Approach

    PubMed Central

    Lingeswaran, Somiya; Ari, Geetha; Thyagarajan, Ramakrishnan; Logaranjani, Anitha

    2016-01-01

    The molar tooth of children and young adults is a common site for chronic hyperplastic pulpitis (pulp polyp). It rarely occurs in middle aged adults. This condition is usually characterized by extensive involvement of the pulp, dictating the extraction of involved tooth. Extraction of permanent molars can lead to transient or permanent malocclusion, aesthetic, phonetic and functional problems. Here we report a case of pulp polyp in mandibular first molar of a 33-year-old woman that grew into the carious cavity. The aim of this case report is to describe the diagnosis of a chronic hyperplastic pulpitis involving the permanent molar as well as to describe its management in order to preserve them as a functional unit of the dentition. PMID:26894192

  19. Root Canal Configuration of Maxillary First Permanent Molars in an Iranian Population

    PubMed Central

    Shahi, Shahriar; Yavari, Hamid Reza; Rahimi, Saeed; Ahmadi, Ali

    2007-01-01

    Background and aims It is critical to have a proper knowledge of the normal anatomy of the pulp and its variations for the success of endodontic treatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate variations in the root canal system of maxillary first permanent molars in an Iranian population. Materials and methods In this study, 137 maxillary first molars were decalcified, dye-injected, cleared and studied. Results The results demonstrated that 37.96% of the maxillary first molars under study had three canals, 58.4% had four canals and 3.64% had five canals. Conclusion According to the results of this study and considering variations in the root canal systems of maxillary first molars, it seems that great care should be taken in the root canal treatment of these teeth. PMID:23277826

  20. Root Canal Morphology of Human Mandibular First Permanent Molars in an Iranian Population

    PubMed Central

    Shahi, Shahriar; Yavari, Hamid Reza; Rahimi, Saeed; Torkamani, Reza

    2008-01-01

    Background and aims The knowledge of variations in root canal morphology is critical for a successful endodontic treatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate variations in the root canal system of human mandibular first permanent molars in an Iranian population. Materials and methods In this study, 209 mandibular first molar teeth were decalcified, dye-injected, and cleared in order to determine the number and configuration of the root canals. Results The results demonstrated that 65.56% of the mandibular first molars under study had three, 31.57% had four and 2.87% had two canals. Conclusion According to the results of this study and considering variations in the root canal systems of the mandibular first molars, it seems that great care should be taken in the root canal treatment of these teeth. PMID:23285325

  1. Molar incisor hypomineralization: considerations about treatment in a controlled longitudinal case.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Daniela Cristina; Favretto, Carla Oliveira; Cunha, Robson Frederico

    2015-01-01

    Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) is a defect in the tooth enamel of systemic origin and may affect one or all four first permanent molars frequently associated with the permanent incisors. This case reports a 7-year-old child with severe MIH in the permanent molars associated with tooth decay and intense pain. In the first stage of treatment, therapy was performed with fluoride varnish and restoration with glass ionomer cement (GIC). After 6 years of clinical and radiographic follow-up, the restorations presented wear and fractures on the margins, indicating their replacement with composite resin. Severe cases of MIH in the early permanent molars can be treated with varnish and GIC to restore the patient's comfort and strengthen the hypomineralized dental structures. The clinical and radiographic monitoring frequently indicated when the restoration with composite resin should be performed. PMID:25872636

  2. How Many Digits Should We Use in Formula or Molar Mass Calculations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svensson, Christer

    2004-01-01

    The calculations of uncertainties in the formula or molar masses of compounds are streamlined. Three rules of increasing complexity are proposed, which overestimate the uncertainty so there is little if any risk that the true values are missed.

  3. Periodontal healing after impacted lower third molar surgery in adolescents and adults. A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Kugelberg, C F; Ahlström, U; Ericson, S; Hugoson, A; Kvint, S

    1991-02-01

    The effects of impacted lower 3rd molar surgery on periodontal tissues in the adjacent 2nd molar area have been investigated in a prospective study comprising 176 cases from 2 age groups: less than or equal to 20 years (n = 93) and greater than or equal to 30 years (n = 83), respectively. The preoperative and 1-year postoperative examinations included both clinical and radiographic variables. All patients were subjected to a standardized surgical procedure and optimal plaque control pre-, intra- and postoperatively. Early removal of impacted lower 3rd molars with large angulation and close positional relationship to the adjacent 2nd molar proved to have a beneficial effect on periodontal health. PMID:2019777

  4. Simplifying Chemical Reactor Design by using Molar Quantities Instead of Fractional Conversion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lee F.; Falconer, John L.

    1987-01-01

    Explains the advantages of using molar quantities in chemical reactor design. Advocates the use of differential versions of reactor mass balances rather than the integrated forms. Provides specific examples and cases to illustrate the principles. (ML)

  5. Management of Chronic Hyperplastic Pulpitis in Mandibular Molars of Middle Aged Adults- A Multidisciplinary Approach.

    PubMed

    Anilkumar, Kanakamedala; Lingeswaran, Somiya; Ari, Geetha; Thyagarajan, Ramakrishnan; Logaranjani, Anitha

    2016-01-01

    The molar tooth of children and young adults is a common site for chronic hyperplastic pulpitis (pulp polyp). It rarely occurs in middle aged adults. This condition is usually characterized by extensive involvement of the pulp, dictating the extraction of involved tooth. Extraction of permanent molars can lead to transient or permanent malocclusion, aesthetic, phonetic and functional problems. Here we report a case of pulp polyp in mandibular first molar of a 33-year-old woman that grew into the carious cavity. The aim of this case report is to describe the diagnosis of a chronic hyperplastic pulpitis involving the permanent molar as well as to describe its management in order to preserve them as a functional unit of the dentition. PMID:26894192

  6. Sexual dimorphism in crown units of mandibular deciduous and permanent molars in Australian Aborigines.

    PubMed

    Kondo, S; Townsend, G C

    2004-01-01

    Sexual differences in the crown units of mandibular molars were investigated in Australian Aborigines. The first and second deciduous molars (dm1 and dm2), and first to third permanent molars (M1, M2 and M3) were measured on dental casts using a sliding caliper. Measurements of tooth crowns included overall mesiodistal and buccolingual diameters, as well as the mesiodistal and buccolingual diameters of the trigonid and talonid. Percentage dimorphism values were greater in the talonid dimensions than the trigonid, indicating that sex differences tend to be larger in the later-developing crown units. Sex differences in mesiodistal diameters increased from dm1 to M2 but decreased for M3, the tooth that showed the least dimorphism of all the molars. This result seems to be due to the marked variability in size of the M3 between individuals. PMID:15553268

  7. Alternative approach to management of early loss of second primary molar: a clinical case report.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Ravi; Chaudhry, Kalpna; Yeluri, Ramakrishna; Singh, Chanchal; Munshi, Autar K

    2014-05-01

    Preservation of space after premature loss of the second primary molar is essential to prevent mesial drifting of the permanent first molar. Various modifications of distal shoe space maintainers, which have been documented, are all nonfunctional in nature. This paper describes an innovative design of a functional distal shoe space maintainer that is intended to overcome the disadvantages of conventional non-functional space maintainers and that does not hamper the periodontal status of the abutment tooth. PMID:25087351

  8. Unilateral Maxillary First Molar Extraction in Class II Subdivision: An Unconventional Treatment Alternative

    PubMed Central

    Booij, J. W.; Livas, Christos

    2016-01-01

    The asymmetrical intra-arch relationship in Class II subdivision malocclusion poses challenges in the treatment planning and mechanotherapy of such cases. This case report demonstrates a treatment technique engaging unilateral extraction of a maxillary first molar and Begg fixed appliances. The outcome stability and the enhancing effect on the eruption of the third molar in the extraction segment were confirmed by a 4-year follow-up examination. PMID:27200194

  9. A geometric morphometric analysis of hominin lower molars: Evolutionary implications and overview of postcanine dental variation.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Robles, Aida; Bermúdez de Castro, José María; Martinón-Torres, María; Prado-Simón, Leyre; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2015-05-01

    Lower molars have been extensively studied in the context of hominin evolution using classic and geometric morphometric analyses, 2D and 3D approaches, evaluations of the external (outer enamel surface) and internal anatomy (dentine, pulp chamber, and radicular canals), and studies of the crown and root variation. In this study, we present a 2D geometric morphometric analysis of the crown anatomy of lower first, second, and third molars of a broad sample of hominins, including Pliocene and Lower, Middle, and Upper Pleistocene species coming from Africa, Asia, and Europe. We show that shape variability increases from first to second and third molars. While first molars tend to retain a relatively stable 5-cusped conformation throughout the hominin fossil record, second and third molars show marked distal reductions in later Homo species. This trend to distal reduction is similar to that observed in previous studies of premolars and upper second and third molars, and points to a correlated reduction of distal areas across the whole postcanine dentition. Results on lower molar variation, as well as on other postcanine teeth, show certain trends in European Pleistocene populations from the Atapuerca sites. Middle Pleistocene hominins from Sima de los Huesos show Neanderthal affinities and strong dental reduction, especially in the most distal molars. The degree of dental reduction in this population is stronger than that observed in classic Neanderthals. Homo antecessor hominins from Gran Dolina-TD6 have primitive lower teeth that contrast with their more derived upper teeth. The evolutionary implications of these dental affinities are discussed in light of recent paleogenetic studies. PMID:25840859

  10. Root Canal Therapy of a Mandibular First Molar with Five Root Canals: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Reyhani, Mohammad Frough; Rahimi, Saeed; Shahi, Shahriar

    2007-01-01

    A mandibular first molar requiring root canal therapy was found with five canals, three mesial canals, and two distal canals. Initially, four canals (mesiobuccal, mesiolingual, distobuccal, and distolingual) were identified. The mesiobuccal and mesiolingual canals were found in their normal locations, and a fifth canal was noted between these two. This case demonstrates a rare anatomical configuration and supplements previous reports of the existence of such configurations in mandibular first molars. PMID:24298291

  11. Unilateral Maxillary First Molar Extraction in Class II Subdivision: An Unconventional Treatment Alternative.

    PubMed

    Booij, J W; Livas, Christos

    2016-01-01

    The asymmetrical intra-arch relationship in Class II subdivision malocclusion poses challenges in the treatment planning and mechanotherapy of such cases. This case report demonstrates a treatment technique engaging unilateral extraction of a maxillary first molar and Begg fixed appliances. The outcome stability and the enhancing effect on the eruption of the third molar in the extraction segment were confirmed by a 4-year follow-up examination. PMID:27200194

  12. Comparison of sexual dimorphism of permanent mandibular canine with mandibular first molar by odontometrics

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Aditi; Manjunatha, Bhari Shranesha; Dholia, Bhavik; Althomali, Yousef

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Sexual dimorphism is one of important tool of forensic science. The objective of this study is to assess the dimorphic status of mesio-distal (MD) and bucco-lingual (BL) diameter of mandibular canine with mandibular first molar among the students of dental college. This study is of definite significance as sex chromosomes and hormonal production influenced tooth morphology. Materials and Methods: The descriptive study adopted the purposive sampling technique, of 50 male and 50 female aged 17-25 years, using study casts for mesio-distal and bucco-lingual dimensions of mandibular canine with mandibular first molar were taken using digital Vernier caliper. The data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis using descriptive statistics and t-test to compare MD and BL dimensions in male and female populations and P ≤ 0.05 was found statistically significant. Results: Sexual dimorphism can be predicted by measuring mesiodistal dimension of mandibular canine and mandibular first molar. The left mandibular canine showed more sexual dimorphism (12.66%) in comparison to left mandibular first molar (0.824%) only. Right mandibular canine showed greater dimorphism in MD dimensions (10.94%) in comparison to right mandibular first molar (6.96%). In bucco-lingual dimensions mandibular canine showed less variability when compared with mandibular first molar, thus our study showed more significance on mesio-distal dimensions of both teeth. Conclusion: The present study concludes statistically significant sexual dimorphism in mandibular canine over mandibular first molar on study casts. The MD dimensions in mandibular canine and mandibular first molar can help in determining sex and identification of unknown person. PMID:26816466

  13. Agenesis of premolar associated with submerged primary molar and a supernumerary premolar: An unusual case report

    PubMed Central

    Nirmala, S. V. S. G.; Sandeep, C.; Sivakumar, N.; Babu, M. S.; Lalitha, V.

    2012-01-01

    The combination of submerged primary molar, agenesis of permanent successor with a supernumerary in the same place is very rare. The purpose of this article is to report a case of submerged mandibular left second primary molar with supernumerary tooth in the same region along with agenesis of second premolar in an 11-year-old girl, its possible etiological factors, and a brief discussion on treatment options. PMID:22629079

  14. Spectrophotometric color evaluation of permanent incisors, canines and molars. A cross-sectional clinical study

    PubMed Central

    POP-CIUTRILA, IOANA-SOFIA; COLOSI, HORATIU ALEXANDRU; DUDEA, DIANA; BADEA, MANDRA EUGENIA

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims An accurate color reproduction represents the final validation level of an esthetic anterior or posterior restoration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the color of permanent maxillary incisors, canines and molars, using a clinical spectrophotometer. Methods The Vita Easyshade Advance 4.0® intraoral spectrophotometer was used by one clinician to determine the color of 369 permanent maxillary incisors, canines and molars. The best matches to Vitapan Classical® and 3D-Master® shade guides were recorded. A one-way analysis of variance and Kruskal-Wallis test were used to compare L*, a*, b*, c* and h* color coordinates among the 3 types of teeth. Differences between the mean values of all color coordinates were evaluated by use of Bonferroni corrections. Color difference (ΔE*) between incisors, canines and molars was calculated from ΔL*, Δa* and Δb* data and the results were compared to ΔE*=3.3 acceptability threshold. Results Except for Δa* and Δh* between canines and molars, statistically significant differences among the mean differences of all color coordinates were found when the 3 types of teeth were compared by pairs. The most frequently measured shades were A1 (48.4%), respectively 1M1 (31.5%) for incisors, B3 (36.6%), respectively 2M3 (39.8%) for canines and B3 (44.7%), respectively 2M3 (52%) for molars. Incisors had the highest lightness values, followed by canines and molars. Molars were the most chromatic with the highest a* and b* values. Conclusions Despite the limitations of this study, color differences among incisors, canines and molars were found to be statistically significant, above the clinical acceptability threshold established. In conclusion, successful esthetic restorations of permanent teeth of the same patient need an individual color assessment and reproduction of every type of tooth. PMID:26733753

  15. An in vitro assessment of type, position and incidence of isthmus in human permanent molars

    PubMed Central

    de LIMA, Fernando José Camello; MONTAGNER, Francisco; JACINTO, Rogério Castilho; AMBROSANO, Glaucia Maria Bovi; GOMES, Brenda Paula Figueiredo de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    Root canal anatomical complexities, such as isthmus, may limit the action of the endodontic instruments, irrigant solutions and intracanal medications, leading to endodontic treatment failure. Objectives This in vitro study assessed the type, position and incidence of isthmus in human permanent molars. Material and Methods One hundred and twenty eight upper and lower first and second permanent molars were analyzed. The roots were embedded in transparent resin, and then split at different distances from the apex (1.0-2.5-4.0-5.5-7.0 mm). Following the sample examination in stereomicroscope, the data were submitted to chi-square statistical test at a 5% significance level. Results The highest isthmus incidence was at 7.0 mm from the root apex in all samples, except the distal root of lower molars (at 5.5 mm). In upper and lower molars, type V (complete isthmus with a continuous opening between the two main root canals) was the most common classification of isthmus (28.8%). In the mesial root of first and second mandibular molars, type IV had the highest incidence (36% and 23.9%, respectively). Conclusion It was concluded that isthmus was widely found in flat roots, with a low percentage in areas close to the apex. In upper and lower molars, these structures were most frequently found at 7 mm from the apex. PMID:25141198

  16. Removal versus retention of asymptomatic third molars in mandibular angle fractures: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Z; Findlay, G; O'Rourke, P; Batstone, M

    2016-05-01

    The treatment dilemma provided by asymptomatic third molars in mandibular angle fractures remains controversial. This prospective randomized controlled trial was undertaken to determine whether there is an advantage to extraction or retention of the third molar whilst repairing a mandibular angle fracture. Sixty-four patients were allocated randomly to the two treatment groups. All underwent open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) with standard postoperative care. The primary outcome measure was uncomplicated fracture healing. Secondary measures were surgical duration, malocclusion, wound healing, nerve injury, and return to theatre. All patients had uncomplicated fracture healing. The incidence of nerve injury was 16% for the retention group compared with 39% for the removal group (P=0.038). The average operating time for ORIF and third molar retention cases was 58.5min and for ORIF and third molar removal cases was 66.3min (P=0.26). There was no statistically significant difference between groups for wound healing, occlusion outcomes, or return to theatre. Given the additional risk of nerve injury and the additional operating time required for removal of a third molar, in the absence of an absolute indicator for removal of the third molar, it appears justifiable to advise retaining the tooth in the line of a mandibular angle fracture. PMID:26867667

  17. Recommendations for Third Molar Removal: A Practice-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Rothen, Marilynn; Spiekerman, Charles; Drangsholt, Mark; McClellan, Lyle; Huang, Greg J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated general dentists’ reasons for recommending removal or retention of third molars and whether patients adhered to dentists’ recommendations. Methods. In a 2-year prospective cohort study (2009–2011) in the Pacific Northwest, we followed 801 patients aged 16 to 22 years from 50 general dental practices. Generalized estimating equations logistic regressions related patient and dentist characteristics to dentists' recommendations to remove third molars and to patient adherence. Results. General dentists recommended removal of 1683 third molars from 469 (59%) participants, mainly to prevent future problems (79%) or because a third molar had an unfavorable orientation or was unlikely to erupt (57%). Dentists recommended retention and monitoring of 1244 third molars from 366 (46%) participants, because it was too early to decide (73%), eruption path was favorable (39%), or space for eruption was sufficient (26%). When dentists recommended removal, 55% of participants adhered to this recommendation during follow-up, and the main reason was availability of insurance (88%). Conclusions. General dentists frequently recommended removal of third molars for reasons not related to symptoms or pathology, but rather to prevent future problems. PMID:24524519

  18. A Novel Chitin Binding Crayfish Molar Tooth Protein with Elasticity Properties

    PubMed Central

    Tynyakov, Jenny; Bentov, Shmuel; Abehsera, Shai; Khalaila, Isam; Manor, Rivka; Katzir Abilevich, Lihie; Weil, Simy; Aflalo, Eliahu D.; Sagi, Amir

    2015-01-01

    The molar tooth of the crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus is part of the mandible, and is covered by a layer of apatite (calcium phosphate). This tooth sheds and is regenerated during each molting cycle together with the rest of the exoskeleton. We discovered that molar calcification occurs at the pre-molt stage, unlike calcification of the rest of the new exoskeleton. We further identified a novel molar protein from C. quadricarinatus and cloned its transcript from the molar-forming epithelium. We termed this protein Cq-M13. The temporal level of transcription of Cq-M13 in an NGS library of molar-forming epithelium at different molt stages coincides with the assembly and mineralization pattern of the molar tooth. The predicted protein was found to be related to the pro-resilin family of cuticular proteins. Functionally, in vivo silencing of the transcript caused molt cycle delay and a recombinant version of the protein was found to bind chitin and exhibited elastic properties. PMID:26010981

  19. A novel chitin binding crayfish molar tooth protein with elasticity properties.

    PubMed

    Tynyakov, Jenny; Bentov, Shmuel; Abehsera, Shai; Khalaila, Isam; Manor, Rivka; Katzir Abilevich, Lihie; Weil, Simy; Aflalo, Eliahu D; Sagi, Amir

    2015-01-01

    The molar tooth of the crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus is part of the mandible, and is covered by a layer of apatite (calcium phosphate). This tooth sheds and is regenerated during each molting cycle together with the rest of the exoskeleton. We discovered that molar calcification occurs at the pre-molt stage, unlike calcification of the rest of the new exoskeleton. We further identified a novel molar protein from C. quadricarinatus and cloned its transcript from the molar-forming epithelium. We termed this protein Cq-M13. The temporal level of transcription of Cq-M13 in an NGS library of molar-forming epithelium at different molt stages coincides with the assembly and mineralization pattern of the molar tooth. The predicted protein was found to be related to the pro-resilin family of cuticular proteins. Functionally, in vivo silencing of the transcript caused molt cycle delay and a recombinant version of the protein was found to bind chitin and exhibited elastic properties. PMID:26010981

  20. Prevalence of Third Molar Agenesis: Associated Dental Anomalies in Non-Syndromic 5923 Patients.

    PubMed

    Sujon, Mamun Khan; Alam, Mohammad Khursheed; Rahman, Shaifulizan Abdul

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of third molar agenesis and other associated dental anomalies in Bangladeshi population and to investigate the relationship of other dental anomalies with the third molar presence/agenesis. A retrospective study was performed using panoramic radiographs of 5923 patients, who ranged in age from 10 to 50 years. All radiographs were analyzed by Planmeca Romexis® 3.0 software (Planmeca Oy, Helsinki, Finland). Pearson chi-square and one way ANOVA (Post Hoc) test were conducted. The prevalence of third molar agenesis was 38.4%. The frequency of third molar agenesis was significantly higher in females than males (p <0.025). Third molar agenesis was significantly more prevalent in maxilla as compared to mandible (p <0.007). The prevalence of other dental anomalies was 6.5%, among them hypodontia was 3.1%. Prevalence of third molar agenesis varies in different geographic region. Among the other dental anomalies hypodontia was more prevalent. PMID:27580050

  1. A reliable method for evaluating upper molar distalization: Superimposition of three-dimensional digital models

    PubMed Central

    Nalcaci, Ruhi; Bicakci, Ali Altug; Ozturk, Firat; Babacan, Hasan

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of measurements obtained after the superimposition of three-dimensional (3D) digital models by comparing them with those obtained from lateral cephalometric radiographs and photocopies of plaster models for the evaluation of upper molar distalization. Methods Data were collected from plaster models and lateral cephalometric radiographs of 20 Class II patients whose maxillary first molars were distalized with an intraoral distalizer. The posterior movements of the maxillary first molars were evaluated using lateral cephalometric radiographs (group CP), photocopies of plaster models (group PH), and digitized 3D models (group TD). Additionally, distalization and expansion of the other teeth and the degrees of molar rotation were measured in group PH and group TD and compared between the two groups. Results No significant difference was observed regarding the amount of molar distalization among the three groups. A comparison of the aforementioned parameters between group PH and group TD did not reveal any significant difference. Conclusions 3D digital models are reliable to assess the results of upper molar distalization and can be considered a valid alternative to conventional measurement methods. PMID:25798414

  2. Enantiomeric excesses in meteoritic amino acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronin, J. R.; Pizzarello, S.

    1997-01-01

    Gas chromatographic-mass spectral analyses of the four stereoisomers of 2-amino-2,3-dimethylpentanoic acid (dl-alpha-methylisoleucine and dl-alpha-methylalloisoleucine) obtained from the Murchison meteorite show that the L enantiomer occurs in excess (7.0 and 9.1%, respectively) in both of the enantiomeric pairs. Similar results were obtained for two other alpha-methyl amino acids, isovaline and alpha-methylnorvaline, although the alpha hydrogen analogs of these amino acids, alpha-amino-n-butyric acid and norvaline, were found to be racemates. With the exception of alpha-amino-n-butyric acid, these amino acids are either unknown or of limited occurrence in the biosphere. Because carbonaceous chondrites formed 4.5 billion years ago, the results are indicative of an asymmetric influence on organic chemical evolution before the origin of life.

  3. Scalar Hint from the Diboson Excess?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cacciapaglia, Giacomo; Deandrea, Aldo; Hashimoto, Michio

    2015-10-01

    In view of the recent diboson resonant excesses reported by both ATLAS and CMS Collaborations, we suggest that a new weak singlet pseudoscalar particle ηW Z may decay into two weak bosons while being produced in gluon fusion at the LHC. The couplings to the gauge bosons can arise from a Wess-Zumino-Witten anomaly term and thus we study an effective model based on the anomaly term as a well motivated phenomenological model. In models where the pseudoscalar particle arises as a composite state, the coefficients of the anomalous couplings can be related to the fermion components of the underlying dynamics. We provide an example to test the feasibility of the idea.

  4. Mapping interfacial excess in atom probe data.

    PubMed

    Felfer, Peter; Scherrer, Barbara; Demeulemeester, Jelle; Vandervorst, Wilfried; Cairney, Julie M

    2015-12-01

    Using modern wide-angle atom probes, it is possible to acquire atomic scale 3D data containing 1000 s of nm(2) of interfaces. It is therefore possible to probe the distribution of segregated species across these interfaces. Here, we present techniques that allow the production of models for interfacial excess (IE) mapping and discuss the underlying considerations and sampling statistics. We also show, how the same principles can be used to achieve thickness mapping of thin films. We demonstrate the effectiveness on example applications, including the analysis of segregation to a phase boundary in stainless steel, segregation to a metal-ceramic interface and the assessment of thickness variations of the gate oxide in a fin-FET. PMID:26346774

  5. Di-photon excess illuminates dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backović, Mihailo; Mariotti, Alberto; Redigolo, Diego

    2016-03-01

    We propose a simplified model of dark matter with a scalar mediator to accommodate the di-photon excess recently observed by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations. Decays of the resonance into dark matter can easily account for a relatively large width of the scalar resonance, while the magnitude of the total width combined with the constraint on dark matter relic density leads to sharp predictions on the parameters of the Dark Sector. Under the assumption of a rather large width, the model predicts a signal consistent with ˜ 300 GeV dark matter particle and ˜ 750 GeV scalar mediator in channels with large missing energy. This prediction is not yet severely bounded by LHC Run I searches and will be accessible at the LHC Run II in the jet plus missing energy channel with more luminosity. Our analysis also considers astro-physical constraints, pointing out that future direct detection experiments will be sensitive to this scenario.

  6. Excess compressibility in binary liquid mixtures.

    PubMed

    Aliotta, F; Gapiński, J; Pochylski, M; Ponterio, R C; Saija, F; Salvato, G

    2007-06-14

    Brillouin scattering experiments have been carried out on some mixtures of molecular liquids. From the measurement of the hypersonic velocities we have evaluated the adiabatic compressibility as a function of the volume fraction. We show how the quadratic form of the excess compressibility dependence on the solute volume fraction can be derived by simple statistical effects and does not imply any interaction among the components of the system other than excluded volume effects. This idea is supported by the comparison of the experimental results with a well-established prototype model, consisting of a binary mixture of hard spheres with a nonadditive interaction potential. This naive model turns out to be able to produce a very wide spectrum of structural and thermodynamic features depending on values of its parameters. An attempt has made to understand what kind of structural information can be gained through the analysis of the volume fraction dependence of the compressibility. PMID:17581064

  7. A case of postmenopausal androgen excess.

    PubMed

    Lambrinoudaki, Irene; Dafnios, Nikos; Kondi-Pafiti, Agathi; Triantafyllou, Nikos; Karopoulou, Evangelia; Papageorgiou, Anastasia; Augoulea, Areti; Armeni, Eleni; Creatsa, Maria; Vlahos, Nikolaos

    2015-10-01

    Ovarian steroid cell tumors are very rare but potentially life-threatening neoplasms. They represent less than 0.1% of all ovarian tumors, typically present in premenopausal women and frequently manifest with virilization. Signs of hyperandrogenism may appear in postmenopausal women due to tumorοus and non-tumorοus adrenal and ovarian causes as well due to the normal aging process. In any case, steroid cell tumor should be suspected in postmenopausal women who present with rapid progressive androgen excess symptoms. This report describes a case of a 67-year-old postmenopausal woman with signs of hyperandrogenism, where an ovarian steroid cell tumor was diagnosed and treated by laparoscopic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and synchronous hysterectomy. PMID:26287476

  8. On dilatons and the LHC diphoton excess

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megías, Eugenio; Pujolàs, Oriol; Quirós, Mariano

    2016-05-01

    We study soft wall models that can embed the Standard Model and a naturally light dilaton. Exploiting the full capabilities of these models we identify the parameter space that allows to pass Electroweak Precision Tests with a moderate Kaluza-Klein scale, around 2 TeV. We analyze the coupling of the dilaton with Standard Model (SM) fields in the bulk, and discuss two applications: i) Models with a light dilaton as the first particle beyond the SM pass quite easily all observational tests even with a dilaton lighter than the Higgs. However the possibility of a 125 GeV dilaton as a Higgs impostor is essentially disfavored; ii) We show how to extend the soft wall models to realize a 750 GeV dilaton that could explain the recently reported diphoton excess at the LHC.

  9. Scalar Hint from the Diboson Excess?

    PubMed

    Cacciapaglia, Giacomo; Deandrea, Aldo; Hashimoto, Michio

    2015-10-23

    In view of the recent diboson resonant excesses reported by both ATLAS and CMS Collaborations, we suggest that a new weak singlet pseudoscalar particle η(WZ) may decay into two weak bosons while being produced in gluon fusion at the LHC. The couplings to the gauge bosons can arise from a Wess-Zumino-Witten anomaly term and thus we study an effective model based on the anomaly term as a well motivated phenomenological model. In models where the pseudoscalar particle arises as a composite state, the coefficients of the anomalous couplings can be related to the fermion components of the underlying dynamics. We provide an example to test the feasibility of the idea. PMID:26551102

  10. RESTORED STREAMS ENHANCE ABILITY TO REMOVE EXCESS NITROGEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Issue: Excess nitrogen from fertilizer, septic tanks, animal feedlots, and runoff from pavement can threaten human and aquatic ecosystem health. Furthermore, degraded ecosystems like those impacted by urbanization have reduced ability to process and remove excess nitrogen from t...

  11. New Results and AN Ongoing Excess Heat Controversy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalski, L.; Luce, G.; Little, S.; Slaughter, R.

    Mizuno-type cells (glow discharge plasma electrolysis) were used to measure excess heat generated at several potentials between 250 and 650 V. No significant amounts of excess heat were detected. That conclusion contradicts findings of several researchers.

  12. Excessive Alcohol Use and Risks to Women's Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Spectrum Disorders (FASDs) Impaired Driving Fact Sheets - Excessive Alcohol Use and Risks to Women's Health Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Excessive Alcohol Use and Risks to Women’s Health Although men ...

  13. Excessive Alcohol Use and Risks to Men's Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Spectrum Disorders (FASDs) Impaired Driving Fact Sheets - Excessive Alcohol Use and Risks to Men's Health Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Excessive Alcohol Use and Risks to Men's Health Men are ...

  14. Hyperplasia in glands with hormone excess.

    PubMed

    Marx, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Five syndromes share predominantly hyperplastic glands with a primary excess of hormones: neonatal severe primary hyperparathyroidism, from homozygous mutated CASR, begins severely in utero; congenital non-autoimmune thyrotoxicosis, from mutated TSHR, varies from severe with fetal onset to mild with adult onset; familial male-limited precocious puberty, from mutated LHR, expresses testosterone oversecretion in young boys; hereditary ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, from mutated FSHR, expresses symptomatic systemic vascular permeabilities during pregnancy; and familial hyperaldosteronism type IIIA, from mutated KCNJ5, presents in young children with hypertension and hypokalemia. The grouping of these five syndromes highlights predominant hyperplasia as a stable tissue endpoint and as their tissue stage for all of the hormone excess. Comparisons were made among this and two other groups of syndromes, forming a continuum of gland staging: predominant oversecretions express little or no hyperplasia; predominant hyperplasias express little or no neoplasia; and predominant neoplasias express nodules, adenomas, or cancers. Hyperplasias may progress (5 of 5) to neoplastic stages while predominant oversecretions rarely do (1 of 6; frequencies differ P<0.02). Hyperplasias do not show tumor multiplicity (0 of 5) unlike neoplasias that do (13 of 19; P<0.02). Hyperplasias express mutation of a plasma membrane-bound sensor (5 of 5), while neoplasias rarely do (3 of 14; P<0.002). In conclusion, the multiple distinguishing themes within the hyperplasias establish a robust pathophysiology. It has the shared and novel feature of mutant sensors in the plasma membrane, suggesting that these are major contributors to hyperplasia. PMID:26407873

  15. Vitamin paradox in obesity: Deficiency or excess?

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shi-Sheng; Li, Da; Chen, Na-Na; Zhou, Yiming

    2015-08-25

    Since synthetic vitamins were used to fortify food and as supplements in the late 1930s, vitamin intake has significantly increased. This has been accompanied by an increased prevalence of obesity, a condition associated with diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, asthma and cancer. Paradoxically, obesity is often associated with low levels of fasting serum vitamins, such as folate and vitamin D. Recent studies on folic acid fortification have revealed another paradoxical phenomenon: obesity exhibits low fasting serum but high erythrocyte folate concentrations, with high levels of serum folate oxidation products. High erythrocyte folate status is known to reflect long-term excess folic acid intake, while increased folate oxidation products suggest an increased folate degradation because obesity shows an increased activity of cytochrome P450 2E1, a monooxygenase enzyme that can use folic acid as a substrate. There is also evidence that obesity increases niacin degradation, manifested by increased activity/expression of niacin-degrading enzymes and high levels of niacin metabolites. Moreover, obesity most commonly occurs in those with a low excretory reserve capacity (e.g., due to low birth weight/preterm birth) and/or a low sweat gland activity (black race and physical inactivity). These lines of evidence raise the possibility that low fasting serum vitamin status in obesity may be a compensatory response to chronic excess vitamin intake, rather than vitamin deficiency, and that obesity could be one of the manifestations of chronic vitamin poisoning. In this article, we discuss vitamin paradox in obesity from the perspective of vitamin homeostasis. PMID:26322161

  16. Origin of Tungsten Excess in Komatiites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, H.; Brandon, A. D.; Walker, R. J.

    2004-12-01

    The limited database available for W abundances in komatiites (n=7, Newsom et al., 1996) suggests that when melting and fractional crystallization effects are filtered out, these komatiites have about 10 times higher W, compared to other mantle-derived mafic-ultramafic magmas (MORB, OIB). The excess of W in the komatiites relative to lithophile highly incompatible elements becomes obvious when compared with the low concentrations of the light REE Ce and Nd (about 1-2 ug/g in many komatiites, compared to > 10 ug/g in most MORB and OIB). In order to increase the komatiite W database, komatiite samples from Phanerozoic (Gorgona Island) and Archean terraines (Boston Creek/Canada, Belingwe/South Africa, 2.7 Ga) were dissolved and W was separated in order to obtain W concentrations by isotope dilution. Except for one sample from Gorgona Island with low W (23 ng/g), samples from all three locales show high W (516 to 2643 ng/g), with most samples containing near 700 ng/g W. Three Hawaiian picrites (H23, LO-02-04, MK-1-6) were also analyzed for comparative purposes and contain 75, 163 and 418 ng/g W, respectively. The W concentrations in the Hawaiian picrites are comparable or lower than W concentrations in Hawaiian tholeiites (Newsom et al., 1996). Mass balance considerations suggest that it is unlikely that the W excess in komatiites reflects W contributions to the mantle sources of komatiites from the outer core. The W enrichment could result from shallow-level alteration processes if primary W abundances of komatiites were low and W was added via fluids, containing W and other fluid-mobile elements derived from crustal rocks. Because most W in such samples would be of crustal origin, small contributions from the outer core may be difficult to detect using 182W systematics (Schersten et al., 2003).

  17. Invisible excess of sense in social interaction

    PubMed Central

    Koubová, Alice

    2014-01-01

    The question of visibility and invisibility in social understanding is examined here. First, the phenomenological account of expressive phenomena and key ideas of the participatory sense-making theory are presented with regard to the issue of visibility. These accounts plead for the principal visibility of agents in interaction. Although participatory sense-making does not completely rule out the existence of opacity and invisible aspects of agents in interaction, it assumes the capacity of agents to integrate disruptions, opacity and misunderstandings in mutual modulation. Invisibility is classified as the dialectical counterpart of visibility, i.e., as a lack of sense whereby the dynamics of perpetual asking, of coping with each other and of improvements in interpretation are brought into play. By means of empirical exemplification this article aims at demonstrating aspects of invisibility in social interaction which complement the enactive interpretation. Without falling back into Cartesianism, it shows through dramaturgical analysis of a practice called “(Inter)acting with the inner partner” that social interaction includes elements of opacity and invisibility whose role is performative. This means that opacity is neither an obstacle to be overcome with more precise understanding nor a lack of meaning, but rather an excess of sense, a “hiddenness” of something real that has an “active power” (Merleau-Ponty). In this way it contributes to on-going social understanding as a hidden potentiality that naturally enriches, amplifies and in part constitutes human participation in social interactions. It is also shown here that this invisible excess of sense already functions on the level of self-relationship due to the essential self-opacity and self-alterity of each agent of social interaction. The analysis consequently raises two issues: the question of the enactive ethical stance toward the alterity of the other and the question of the autonomy of the

  18. 20 CFR 404.437 - Excess earnings; benefit rate subject to deductions because of excess earnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... excess earnings (see § 404.430), after your benefits may have been reduced because of the following: (a) The family maximum (see §§ 404.403 and 404.404), which applies to entitled beneficiaries remaining...); (b) Your entitlement to benefits (see § 404.410) for months before you reach full retirement age...

  19. 32 CFR 644.351 - Excess property exempted from reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Excess property exempted from reporting. 644.351... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Reports of Excess Real Property and Related Personal Property to General Services Administration (gsa) § 644.351 Excess property exempted from reporting. No reports to...

  20. 32 CFR 644.351 - Excess property exempted from reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Excess property exempted from reporting. 644.351... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Reports of Excess Real Property and Related Personal Property to General Services Administration (gsa) § 644.351 Excess property exempted from reporting. No reports to...

  1. 32 CFR 644.351 - Excess property exempted from reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Excess property exempted from reporting. 644.351... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Reports of Excess Real Property and Related Personal Property to General Services Administration (gsa) § 644.351 Excess property exempted from reporting. No reports to...

  2. 7 CFR 51.1014 - Excessively rough texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Excessively rough texture. 51.1014 Section 51.1014 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....1014 Excessively rough texture. Excessively rough texture means that the skin is badly ridged or...

  3. 7 CFR 51.1014 - Excessively rough texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Excessively rough texture. 51.1014 Section 51.1014 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....1014 Excessively rough texture. Excessively rough texture means that the skin is badly ridged or...

  4. 40 CFR 76.13 - Compliance and excess emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance and excess emissions. 76.13 Section 76.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.13 Compliance and excess emissions. Excess emissions of nitrogen oxides under §...

  5. 20 CFR 416.1324 - Suspension due to excess resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Suspension due to excess resources. 416.1324... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Suspensions and Terminations § 416.1324 Suspension due to excess resources... payments because of excess resources is required effective with the month in which: (1)...

  6. 49 CFR 374.405 - Baggage excess value declaration procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Baggage excess value declaration procedures. 374... REGULATIONS PASSENGER CARRIER REGULATIONS Notice of and Procedures for Baggage Excess Value Declaration § 374.405 Baggage excess value declaration procedures. All motor common carriers of passengers and...

  7. 49 CFR 374.405 - Baggage excess value declaration procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Baggage excess value declaration procedures. 374... REGULATIONS PASSENGER CARRIER REGULATIONS Notice of and Procedures for Baggage Excess Value Declaration § 374.405 Baggage excess value declaration procedures. All motor common carriers of passengers and...

  8. 20 CFR 416.1324 - Suspension due to excess resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Suspension due to excess resources. 416.1324... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Suspensions and Terminations § 416.1324 Suspension due to excess resources... payments because of excess resources is required effective with the month in which: (1)...

  9. 20 CFR 416.1324 - Suspension due to excess resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension due to excess resources. 416.1324... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Suspensions and Terminations § 416.1324 Suspension due to excess resources... payments because of excess resources is required effective with the month in which: (1)...

  10. 49 CFR 192.383 - Excess flow valve installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Excess flow valve installation. 192.383 Section..., and Service Lines § 192.383 Excess flow valve installation. (a) Definitions. As used in this section... serves only one single-family residence. (b) Installation required. An excess flow valve...

  11. 46 CFR 154.546 - Excess flow valve: Closing flow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Excess flow valve: Closing flow. 154.546 Section 154.546... and Process Piping Systems § 154.546 Excess flow valve: Closing flow. (a) The rated closing flow of vapor or liquid cargo for an excess flow valve must be specially approved by the Commandant (CG-522)....

  12. 46 CFR 154.550 - Excess flow valve: Bypass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Excess flow valve: Bypass. 154.550 Section 154.550 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... and Process Piping Systems § 154.550 Excess flow valve: Bypass. If the excess flow valve allowed...

  13. 46 CFR 154.1315 - Restricted gauge excess flow valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restricted gauge excess flow valve. 154.1315 Section 154... Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1315 Restricted gauge excess flow valve. Each restricted gauge that penetrates a cargo tank must have an excess flow valve unless the gauge meets § 154.536....

  14. 49 CFR 192.383 - Excess flow valve installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Excess flow valve installation. 192.383 Section..., and Service Lines § 192.383 Excess flow valve installation. (a) Definitions. As used in this section... serves only one single-family residence. (b) Installation required. An excess flow valve...

  15. 46 CFR 154.1315 - Restricted gauge excess flow valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Restricted gauge excess flow valve. 154.1315 Section 154... Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1315 Restricted gauge excess flow valve. Each restricted gauge that penetrates a cargo tank must have an excess flow valve unless the gauge meets § 154.536....

  16. 46 CFR 154.550 - Excess flow valve: Bypass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Excess flow valve: Bypass. 154.550 Section 154.550 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... and Process Piping Systems § 154.550 Excess flow valve: Bypass. If the excess flow valve allowed...

  17. 46 CFR 154.546 - Excess flow valve: Closing flow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Excess flow valve: Closing flow. 154.546 Section 154.546... and Process Piping Systems § 154.546 Excess flow valve: Closing flow. (a) The rated closing flow of vapor or liquid cargo for an excess flow valve must be specially approved by the Commandant (CG-522)....

  18. 46 CFR 154.550 - Excess flow valve: Bypass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Excess flow valve: Bypass. 154.550 Section 154.550 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... and Process Piping Systems § 154.550 Excess flow valve: Bypass. If the excess flow valve allowed...

  19. 46 CFR 154.546 - Excess flow valve: Closing flow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Excess flow valve: Closing flow. 154.546 Section 154.546... and Process Piping Systems § 154.546 Excess flow valve: Closing flow. (a) The rated closing flow of vapor or liquid cargo for an excess flow valve must be specially approved by the Commandant (CG-ENG)....

  20. 46 CFR 154.546 - Excess flow valve: Closing flow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Excess flow valve: Closing flow. 154.546 Section 154.546... and Process Piping Systems § 154.546 Excess flow valve: Closing flow. (a) The rated closing flow of vapor or liquid cargo for an excess flow valve must be specially approved by the Commandant (CG-ENG)....

  1. 46 CFR 154.550 - Excess flow valve: Bypass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Excess flow valve: Bypass. 154.550 Section 154.550 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... and Process Piping Systems § 154.550 Excess flow valve: Bypass. If the excess flow valve allowed...

  2. 46 CFR 154.1315 - Restricted gauge excess flow valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Restricted gauge excess flow valve. 154.1315 Section 154... Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1315 Restricted gauge excess flow valve. Each restricted gauge that penetrates a cargo tank must have an excess flow valve unless the gauge meets § 154.536....

  3. 46 CFR 154.1315 - Restricted gauge excess flow valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Restricted gauge excess flow valve. 154.1315 Section 154... Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1315 Restricted gauge excess flow valve. Each restricted gauge that penetrates a cargo tank must have an excess flow valve unless the gauge meets § 154.536....

  4. 46 CFR 154.550 - Excess flow valve: Bypass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Excess flow valve: Bypass. 154.550 Section 154.550 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... and Process Piping Systems § 154.550 Excess flow valve: Bypass. If the excess flow valve allowed...

  5. 48 CFR 52.211-17 - Delivery of Excess Quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Delivery of Excess....211-17 Delivery of Excess Quantities. As prescribed in 11.703(b), insert the following clause: Delivery of Excess Quantities (SEP 1989) The Contractor is responsible for the delivery of each...

  6. 7 CFR 929.61 - Outlets for excess cranberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Outlets for excess cranberries. 929.61 Section 929.61... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF... excess cranberries. (a) Noncommercial outlets. Excess cranberries may be disposed of in...

  7. 7 CFR 929.61 - Outlets for excess cranberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Outlets for excess cranberries. 929.61 Section 929.61... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF... excess cranberries. (a) Noncommercial outlets. Excess cranberries may be disposed of in...

  8. 7 CFR 929.104 - Outlets for excess cranberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Outlets for excess cranberries. 929.104 Section 929... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES... excess cranberries. (a) In accordance with § 929.61, excess cranberries may be disposed of only in...

  9. 7 CFR 929.61 - Outlets for excess cranberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Outlets for excess cranberries. 929.61 Section 929.61... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF... excess cranberries. (a) Noncommercial outlets. Excess cranberries may be disposed of in...

  10. 7 CFR 929.104 - Outlets for excess cranberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Outlets for excess cranberries. 929.104 Section 929... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES... excess cranberries. (a) In accordance with § 929.61, excess cranberries may be disposed of only in...

  11. 7 CFR 929.61 - Outlets for excess cranberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Outlets for excess cranberries. 929.61 Section 929.61... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF... excess cranberries. (a) Noncommercial outlets. Excess cranberries may be disposed of in...

  12. 7 CFR 929.104 - Outlets for excess cranberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Outlets for excess cranberries. 929.104 Section 929... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES... excess cranberries. (a) In accordance with § 929.61, excess cranberries may be disposed of only in...

  13. 7 CFR 929.104 - Outlets for excess cranberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Outlets for excess cranberries. 929.104 Section 929... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES... excess cranberries. (a) In accordance with § 929.61, excess cranberries may be disposed of only in...

  14. 7 CFR 929.61 - Outlets for excess cranberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Outlets for excess cranberries. 929.61 Section 929.61... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF... excess cranberries. (a) Noncommercial outlets. Excess cranberries may be disposed of in...

  15. 7 CFR 929.104 - Outlets for excess cranberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Outlets for excess cranberries. 929.104 Section 929... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES... excess cranberries. (a) In accordance with § 929.61, excess cranberries may be disposed of only in...

  16. 20 CFR 416.1324 - Suspension due to excess resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Suspension due to excess resources. 416.1324... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Suspensions and Terminations § 416.1324 Suspension due to excess resources... payments because of excess resources is required effective with the month in which: (1)...

  17. Live-born diploid fetus complicated with partial molar pregnancy presenting with pre-eclampsia, maternal anemia, and seemingly huge placenta: A rare case of confined placental mosaicism and literature review.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Kaoru; Kondoh, Eiji; Minamiguchi, Sachiko; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Higasa, Koichiro; Fujita, Kohei; Mogami, Haruta; Chigusa, Yoshitsugu; Konishi, Ikuo

    2016-08-01

    A partial molar pregnancy almost always ends in miscarriage due to a triploid fetus. We describe a rare case of a singleton, partial molar pregnancy with a seemingly huge placenta, which continued to delivery of a live-born diploid baby. A 27-year-old primigravida suffered from severe pre-eclampsia and progressive anemia. The uterus was enormously enlarged for the gestational age. A cesarean section was performed because of deterioration of maternal status at 25 weeks' gestation, when more than 3000 mL blood spouted concurrently with the delivery of the placenta. The histological examination showed congestion in the decidua, which indicated disturbance of maternal venous return from the intervillous space. The chromosome complement of the placenta and the neonate were 69,XXX and 46,XX, respectively. We also reviewed all published cases of a singleton, partial molar pregnancy. A literature search yielded 18 cases of a singleton, diploid fetus with partial molar pregnancy. The mean gestational age at delivery was 24.5 ± 6.2 weeks, and fetuses survived outside the uterus in only four cases (22.2%). Intriguingly, previous reports numbered 10 cases with diploid placenta as well as five cases with no karyotyping of the placenta, indicating that they may have included a complete mole in a twin pregnancy or placental mesenchymal dysplasia. In conclusion, this was the first case of placentomegaly that presented manifestations of excessive abdominal distension and maternal severe anemia, and the second case of a singleton, partial molar pregnancy confirmed by chromosome analysis resulting in a diploid living baby. PMID:27225660

  18. Molar gas ratios of air entrapped in ice: A new tool to determine the origin of relict massive ground ice bodies in permafrost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardyn, Raphaelle; Clark, Ian D.; Lacelle, Denis; Lauriol, Bernard; Zdanowicz, Christian; Calmels, Fabrice

    2007-09-01

    The molar ratios of atmospheric gases change during dissolution in water due to differences in their relative solubilities. We exploited this characteristic to develop a tool to clarify the origin of ice formations in permafrost regions. Extracted from ice, molar gas ratios can distinguish buried glacier ice from intrasedimental ground ice formed by freezing groundwaters. An extraction line was built to isolate gases from ice by melting and trapping with liquid He, followed by analysis of N 2, O 2,, Ar, 18O O2 and 15N N2, by continuous flow mass spectrometry. The method was tested using glacier ice, aufeis ice (river icing) and intrasedimental ground ice from sites in the Canadian Arctic. O 2/Ar and N 2/Ar ratios clearly distinguish between atmospheric gas in glacial ice and gases from intrasedimental ground ice, which are exsolved from freezing water. δ15N N2 and δ18O O2 in glacier ice, aufeis ice and intrasedimental ground ice do not show clear distinguishing trends as they are affected by various physical processes during formation such as gravitational settling, excess air addition, mixing with snow pack, and respiration.

  19. Analysis and evaluation of relative positions of mandibular third molar and mandibular canal impacts

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hang-Gul

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study used cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images to categorize the relationships between the mandibular canal and the roots and investigated the prevalence of nerve damage. Materials and Methods Through CBCT images, contact and three-dimensional positional relationships between the roots of the mandibular third molar and the mandibular canal were investigated. With this data, prevalence of nerve damage according to the presence of contact and three-dimensional positional relationships was studied. Other factors that affected the prevalence of nerve damage were also investigated. Results When the mandibular third molar and the mandibular canal were shown to have direct contact in CBCT images, the prevalence of nerve damage was higher than in other cases. Also, in cases where the mandibular canal was horizontally lingual to the mandibular third molar and the mandibular canal was vertically at the cervical level of the mandibular third molar, the prevalence of nerve damage was higher than in opposite cases. The percentage of mandibular canal contact with the roots of the mandibular third molar was higher when the mandibular canal was horizontally lingual to the mandibular third molar. Finally, the prevalence of nerve damage was higher when the diameter of the mandibular canal lumen suddenly decreased at the contact area between the mandibular canal and the roots, as shown in CBCT images. Conclusion The three-dimensional relationship of the mandibular third molar and the mandibular canal can help predict nerve damage and can guide patient expectations of the possibility and extent of nerve damage. PMID:25551092

  20. Enamel-dentine junction (EDJ) morphology distinguishes the lower molars of Australopithecus africanus and Paranthropus robustus.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Matthew M; Gunz, Philipp; Wood, Bernard A; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2008-12-01

    Tooth crown morphology plays a central role in hominin systematics, but the removal of the original outer enamel surface by dental attrition often eliminates from consideration the type of detailed crown morphology that has been shown to discriminate among hominin taxa. This reduces the size of samples available for study. The enamel-dentine junction (EDJ) is the developmental precursor and primary contributor to the morphology of the unworn outer enamel surface, and its morphology is only affected after considerable attrition. In this paper, we explore whether the form of the EDJ can be used to distinguish between the mandibular molars of two southern African fossil hominins: Paranthropus (or Australopithecus) robustus and Australopithecus africanus. After micro-computed tomographic scanning the molar sample, we made high-resolution images of the EDJ and used geometric morphometrics to compare EDJ shape differences between species, in addition to documenting metameric variation along the molar row within each species. Landmarks were collected along the marginal ridge that runs between adjacent dentine horns and around the circumference of the cervix. Our results suggest that the morphology of the EDJ can distinguish lower molars of these southern African hominins, and it can discriminate first, second, and third molars within each taxon. These results confirm previous findings that the EDJ preserves taxonomically valuable shape information in worn teeth. Mean differences in EDJ shape, in particular dentine horn height, crown height, and cervix shape, are more marked between adjacent molars within each taxon than for the same molar between the two taxa. PMID:18824253

  1. A crayfish molar tooth protein with putative mineralized exoskeletal chitinous matrix properties.

    PubMed

    Tynyakov, Jenny; Bentov, Shmuel; Abehsera, Shai; Yehezkel, Galit; Roth, Ziv; Khalaila, Isam; Weil, Simy; Berman, Amir; Plaschkes, Inbar; Tom, Moshe; Aflalo, Eliahu D; Sagi, Amir

    2015-11-01

    Some crustaceans possess exoskeletons that are reinforced with calcium carbonate. In the crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus, the molar tooth, which is part of the mandibular exoskeleton, contains an unusual crystalline enamel-like apatite layer. As this layer resembles vertebrate enamel in composition and function, it offers an interesting example of convergent evolution. Unlike other parts of the crayfish exoskeleton, which is periodically shed and regenerated during the molt cycle, molar mineral deposition takes place during the pre-molt stage. The molar mineral composition transforms continuously from fluorapatite through amorphous calcium phosphate to amorphous calcium carbonate and is mounted on chitin. The process of crayfish molar formation is entirely extracellular and presumably controlled by proteins, lipids, polysaccharides, low-molecular weight molecules and calcium salts. We have identified a novel molar protein termed Cq-M15 from C. quadricarinatus and cloned its transcript from the molar-forming epithelium. Its transcript and differential expression were confirmed by a next-generation sequencing library. The predicted acidic pI of Cq-M15 suggests its possible involvement in mineral arrangement. Cq-M15 is expressed in several exoskeletal tissues at pre-molt and its silencing is lethal. Like other arthropod cuticular proteins, Cq-M15 possesses a chitin-binding Rebers-Riddiford domain, with a recombinant version of the protein found to bind chitin. Cq-M15 was also found to interact with calcium ions in a concentration-dependent manner. This latter property might make Cq-M15 useful for bone and dental regenerative efforts. We suggest that, in the molar tooth, this protein might be involved in calcium phosphate and/or carbonate precipitation. PMID:26385331

  2. Radiographic findings on 3rd molars removed in 20-year-old men.

    PubMed

    Rajasuo, Ari; Peltola, Jaakko; Ventä, Irja; Murtomaa, Heikki

    2003-10-01

    In this study we assess radiographic findings characteristic of mandibular 3rd molars that had required either routine or surgical extraction. X-ray findings relating to acute pericoronitis were also examined. The material was collected by investigating patient records and rotational panoramic radiographs of 20-year-old Finnish male conscripts (n = 738) treated during military service because of 3rd-molar-related problems. The follicle around the crown of mandibular 3rd molars with acute pericoronitis was enlarged in 19% of cases and in 13% of chronic symptom-free pericoronitis cases (not statistically significant difference). Mandibular 3rd molars extracted surgically were more often mesially inclined than those extracted routinely (61% vs. 23%; P < 0.001), partially or totally intrabony impacted (92% vs. 66%; P < 0.001) and deep situated (on average 4.2 mm vs. 2.5 mm under the occlusal plane). Surgical extraction was also associated with the roots completely developed [92% vs. 84% of the teeth routinely extracted, odds ratio (OR) 2.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-5.5] and with the absence of radiographic pericoronitis [around 27% vs. 39% of the teeth routinely extracted (OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.3-0.8)]. In 86% of cases the space between 2nd molar and ramus of the mandible was narrower than the 3rd molar extracted surgically, whereas this was 62% in routine extraction cases (P < 0.001). We conclude that there are some typical 3rd-molar findings in rotational panoramic radiographs that show a need for surgical extraction. PMID:14763776

  3. Comparison of K-loop Molar Distalization with that of Pendulum Appliance - A Prospective Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Shashidhar, Nagam Reddy; Reddy, S.Rama Koteswara

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Molar distalization is the non extraction method of managing Class II malocclusions. Aim The purpose of this study was to evaluate the skeletal and dentoalveolar effects of maxillary molar distalization with K-loop appliance, and to compare these effects with that of pendulum group. Materials and Methods Class I and dental Class II malocclusions were divided into two groups of 15 each: In Group 1 (nine females and six males; mean age, 16.0±2.6 years) patients were treated with K-Loop molar distalization supported palatally by Nance button, while in Group 2 (seven females and eight males; mean age, 15.4±4.7 years), the patients were treated with conventional pendulum appliance. Standardized lateral cephalograms were taken at the beginning of treatment (T0) and at the end of molar distalization (T1) and the changes were statistically analyzed with paired t-test. Results The results showed no statistically significant difference in the amount of molar distalization in either of the appliance groups: the mean amount of molar distal movement of 5.1±0.8 mm and 4.93±1.68 mm was observed in the Group 1 and 2 respectively. The incisors moved mesially by 1.3±0.63 mm in Group 1 and 1.57±0.58 mm in Group 2. Conclusion K-Loop molar distalizing appliance has similar skeletal and dentoalveolar effects as that of pendulum appliance, with the advantages of simple yet efficient to control the moment-force ratio to produce all types of tooth movements and also requires minimal patient co-operation. PMID:27504403

  4. The Component Slope Linear Model for Calculating Intensive Partial Molar Properties: Application to Waste Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, Jacob G.

    2013-01-11

    Partial molar properties are the changes occurring when the fraction of one component is varied while the fractions of all other component mole fractions change proportionally. They have many practical and theoretical applications in chemical thermodynamics. Partial molar properties of chemical mixtures are difficult to measure because the component mole fractions must sum to one, so a change in fraction of one component must be offset with a change in one or more other components. Given that more than one component fraction is changing at a time, it is difficult to assign a change in measured response to a change in a single component. In this study, the Component Slope Linear Model (CSLM), a model previously published in the statistics literature, is shown to have coefficients that correspond to the intensive partial molar properties. If a measured property is plotted against the mole fraction of a component while keeping the proportions of all other components constant, the slope at any given point on a graph of this curve is the partial molar property for that constituent. Actually plotting this graph has been used to determine partial molar properties for many years. The CSLM directly includes this slope in a model that predicts properties as a function of the component mole fractions. This model is demonstrated by applying it to the constant pressure heat capacity data from the NaOH-NaAl(OH{sub 4}H{sub 2}O system, a system that simplifies Hanford nuclear waste. The partial molar properties of H{sub 2}O, NaOH, and NaAl(OH){sub 4} are determined. The equivalence of the CSLM and the graphical method is verified by comparing results detennined by the two methods. The CSLM model has been previously used to predict the liquidus temperature of spinel crystals precipitated from Hanford waste glass. Those model coefficients are re-interpreted here as the partial molar spinel liquidus temperature of the glass components.

  5. A Comprehensive Census of Nearby Infrared Excess Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotten, Tara H.; Song, Inseok

    2016-07-01

    The conclusion of the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission presents an opportune time to summarize the history of using excess emission in the infrared as a tracer of circumstellar material and exploit all available data for future missions such as the James Webb Space Telescope. We have compiled a catalog of infrared excess stars from peer-reviewed articles and perform an extensive search for new infrared excess stars by cross-correlating the Tycho-2 and all-sky WISE (AllWISE) catalogs. We define a significance of excess in four spectral type divisions and select stars showing greater than either 3σ or 5σ significance of excess in the mid- and far-infrared. Through procedures including spectral energy distribution fitting and various image analyses, each potential excess source was rigorously vetted to eliminate false positives. The infrared excess stars from the literature and the new stars found through the Tycho-2 and AllWISE cross-correlation produced nearly 500 “Prime” infrared excess stars, of which 74 are new sources of excess, and >1200 are “Reserved” stars, of which 950 are new sources of excess. The main catalog of infrared excess stars are nearby, bright, and either demonstrate excess in more than one passband or have infrared spectroscopy confirming the infrared excess. This study identifies stars that display a spectral energy distribution suggestive of a secondary or post-protoplanetary generation of dust, and they are ideal targets for future optical and infrared imaging observations. The final catalogs of stars summarize the past work using infrared excess to detect dust disks, and with the most extensive compilation of infrared excess stars (˜1750) to date, we investigate various relationships among stellar and disk parameters.

  6. A Comprehensive Census of Nearby Infrared Excess Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotten, Tara H.; Song, Inseok

    2016-07-01

    The conclusion of the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission presents an opportune time to summarize the history of using excess emission in the infrared as a tracer of circumstellar material and exploit all available data for future missions such as the James Webb Space Telescope. We have compiled a catalog of infrared excess stars from peer-reviewed articles and perform an extensive search for new infrared excess stars by cross-correlating the Tycho-2 and all-sky WISE (AllWISE) catalogs. We define a significance of excess in four spectral type divisions and select stars showing greater than either 3σ or 5σ significance of excess in the mid- and far-infrared. Through procedures including spectral energy distribution fitting and various image analyses, each potential excess source was rigorously vetted to eliminate false positives. The infrared excess stars from the literature and the new stars found through the Tycho-2 and AllWISE cross-correlation produced nearly 500 “Prime” infrared excess stars, of which 74 are new sources of excess, and >1200 are “Reserved” stars, of which 950 are new sources of excess. The main catalog of infrared excess stars are nearby, bright, and either demonstrate excess in more than one passband or have infrared spectroscopy confirming the infrared excess. This study identifies stars that display a spectral energy distribution suggestive of a secondary or post-protoplanetary generation of dust, and they are ideal targets for future optical and infrared imaging observations. The final catalogs of stars summarize the past work using infrared excess to detect dust disks, and with the most extensive compilation of infrared excess stars (∼1750) to date, we investigate various relationships among stellar and disk parameters.

  7. 26 CFR 54.4979-0 - Excise tax on certain excess contributions and excess aggregate contributions; table of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.4979-0 Excise tax on certain excess contributions and excess aggregate contributions... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excise tax on certain excess contributions...

  8. Evaluation of root canal morphology of human primary molars by using CBCT and comprehensive review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Gozde; Sekerci, Ahmet Ercan; Cantekin, Kenan; Aydinbelge, Mustafa; Dogan, Salih

    2016-05-01

    Objective Knowledge of primary tooth morphology is essential for clinical dentistry, especially for root canal treatment and dental traumatology. However, this has not been well documented to date with a large sample. This study was carried out to investigate the variation in number and morphology of the root canals of the primary molars, to study the applicability of cone beam computerized tomography (CBCT) in assessing the same and to provide a comprehensive review of the literature. Materials and methods A total of 343 primary molars, without any root resorption, were divided into four main groups including the maxillary first molars, maxillary second molars, mandibular first molars and mandibular second molars. All of them were analysed in CBCT images in the axial, sagittal and coronal planes. Various parameters such as the number of roots, number of canals, the root canal type, diameter of root and root canal and root canal curvature were studied. Results Primary molars in all four groups showed variability in the number of roots and root canals. As far as length of the roots was concerned, the palatal root of the maxillary molar was found to be longest, while the distobuccal root was shortest. In mandibular molars, the mesial root was longer than the distal root. The length of distobuccal root canal of the maxillary molars and the distolingual canal of the mandibular molars was found to be shortest. The number of roots and root canals varied from two to four and three to four, respectively. The maxillary molars exhibited more one-canal than two-canal roots. Conclusion The present study provides comprehensive information to the existing literature concerning the variation in root canal morphology of the maxillary and mandibular primary molar teeth. These data may help clinicians in the root canal treatment of these teeth. PMID:26523502

  9. Compositional dependent partial molar volume and compressibility of CO2 in rhyolite, phonolite and basalt glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerch, P.; Seifert, R.; Malfait, W. J.; Sanchez-Valle, C.

    2012-12-01

    Carbon dioxide is the second most abundant volatile in magmatic systems and plays an important role in many magmatic processes, e.g. partial melting, volatile saturation, outgassing. Despite this relevance, the volumetric properties of carbon-bearing silicates at relevant pressure and temperature conditions remain largely unknown because of considerable experimental difficulties associated with in situ measurements. Density and elasticity measurements on quenched glasses can provide an alternative source of information. For dissolved water, such measurements indicate that the partial molar volume is independent of compositions at ambient pressure [1], but the partial molar compressibility is not [2, 3]. Thus the partial molar volume of water may depend on melt composition at elevated pressure. For dissolved CO2, no such data is available. In order to constrain the effect of magma composition on the partial molar volume and compressibility of dissolved carbon, we determined the density and elasticity for three series of carbon-bearing basalt, phonolite and rhyolite glasses, quenched from 3.5 GPa and relaxed at ambient pressure. The CO2 content varies between 0 to 3.90 wt% depending on the glass composition. Glass densities were determined using the sink/float method in a diiodomethane (CH2I2) - acetone mixture. Brillouin measurements were conducted on relaxed and unrelaxed silicate glasses in platelet geometry to determine the compressional (VP) and shear (VS) wave velocities and elastic moduli. The partial molar volume of CO2 in rhyolite, phonolite and basalt glasses is 25.4 ± 0.9, 22.1 ± 0.6 and 26.6 ±1.8 cm3/mol, respectively. Thus, unlike for dissolved water, the partial molar volume of CO2 displays a resolvable compositional effect. Although the composition and CO2/carbonate speciation of the phonolite glasses is intermediate between that of the rhyolite and basalt glasses, the molar volume is not. Similar to dissolved water, the partial molar bulk modulus

  10. Pathological (late) fractures of the mandibular angle after lower third molar removal: a case series

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Pathological (late) fracture of the mandibular angle after third molar surgery is very rare (0.005% of third molar removals). There are 94 cases reported in the literature; cases associated with osseous pathologies such as osteomyelitis or any local and systemic diseases that may compromise mandibular bone strength have not been included. We describe three new cases of pathological (late) fracture of the mandibular angle after third molar surgery. Case presentations The first patient was a 27-year-old Caucasian man who had undergone surgical removal of a 3.8, mesioangular variety, class II-C third molar 20 days before admission to our clinic. The fracture of his left mandibular angle, complete and composed, occurred during chewing. The second patient was a 32-year-old Caucasian man. He had undergone surgical removal of a 3.8, mesioangular variety, class II-B third molar 22 days before his admission. The fracture, which occurred during mastication, was studied by computed tomography that showed reparative tissue in the fracture site. The third patient was a 36-year-old Caucasian man who had undergone surgical removal of a 3.8, vertical variety, class II-C third molar 25 days before the observation. In this case the fracture of his mandibular angle was oblique (unfavorable), complete and composed. The fracture had occurred during chewing. We studied the fracture by optical projection tomography and computed tomography. All of the surgical removals of the 3.8 third molars, performed by the patients’ dentists who had more than 10 years of experience, were difficult. We treated the fractures with open surgical reduction, internal fixation by titanium miniplates and intermaxillary elastic fixation removed after 6 weeks. Conclusions The literature indicates that the risk of pathological (late) fracture of the mandibular angle after third molar surgery for total inclusions (class II-III, type C) is twice that of partial inclusions due to the necessity of

  11. Mandibular molar displacement secondary to the use of forces to retract the maxilla.

    PubMed

    Ben-Bassat, Y; Baumrind, S; Korn, E L

    1986-01-01

    Using previously described computer-aided techniques, we have been able to characterize quantitatively the displacements of the lower first molar associated with the use of several different therapeutic modalities that are conventionally employed to retract the maxilla in the treatment of Class II malocclusion. The total displacement of the molar has been partitioned into two components associated respectively with displacement of the entire mandible and with local interosseous migration (dental compensation) of the molar within the mandible. A further attempt has been made to partition treatment-associated effects from nontreatment-associated effects. While considerable variability in effect was observed within each sample on a case-by-case basis, some important normative trends did emerge. Contrary to our expectations, it was found that in each of the treatment groups, the mean local intraosseous rotational effect (Table IIB.2) was of greater magnitude than the mean effect of mandibular rotation (Table IIB.1). The character of the intraosseous rotation differed significantly (P less than 0.05) between the control group and each of the treatment groups. In the control group, a mean mesial crown tipping (that is, "proclination") was noted. In each of the treatment groups, a mean distal crown tipping ("uprighting") was noted. In both the cervical and intraoral groups, the lower molar tended to displace mesially more than in the control or high-pull groups. This mesial displacement derived from the mesial displacement of the mandible (Table IIC.3), rather than from displacement of the tooth within the bone (Table IIC.4). In both the high-pull and the intraoral groups, the lower molar erupted within the mandible significantly more than in the control and cervical groups (Table IIC.6). The statistically significant supereruption/extrusion of the upper molar in the cervical group (Table IIC.2) was not accompanied by an associated inhibition of the eruption of the lower

  12. Gel injection successfully shuts off excess water

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    Unocal applied a high-temperature organic polymer gel in Feather field Well H-43 in the UK North Sea to reduce water production in them more-permeable upper perforated section of the Brent Sand. The operation and technical details of the polymer system developed by Unocal, and how it was applied, are described in paper SPE 30426, ``Water shut off in the North Sea; Testing a new polymer system in the Heather field, UKCS Block 2/5.`` The authors concluded that the new gel system successfully isolated the Upper Brent water production, increasing oil production and decreasing water production. Lower perforations were successfully isolated using sized calcium carbonate suspended in an HEC polymer--a technique difficult to monitor in the deviated well. Batch mixing provided ``excellent`` quality gel, closely matching lab measured performance. And the gel required no pre-cooling in the near-wellbore area. Some 1,100 bbl were injected without excessive wellhead pressure, at 1 bpm. A summary of the paper`s highlights is presented here.

  13. Excess optical quantum noise in atomic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikova, Irina; Mikhailov, Eugeniy; Xiao, Yanhong

    2015-05-01

    Enhanced nonlinear optical response of a coherent atomic medium is the basis for many atomic sensors, and their performance is ultimately limited by the quantum fluctuations of the optical read-out. Here we demonstrate that off-resonant interactions can significantly modify the quantum noise of the optical field, even when their effect on the mean signal is negligible. We illustrate this concept by using an atomic magnetometer based on the nonlinear Faraday effect: the rotation of the light polarization is mainly determined by the resonant light-induced spin alignment, which alone does not change the photon statistics of the optical probe. Yet, we found that the minimum noise of output polarization rotation measurements is above the expected shot noise limit. This excess quantum noise is due to off-resonant coupling and grows with atomic density. We also show that the detection scheme can be modified to reduce the measured quantum noise (even below the shot-noise limit) but only at the expense of the reduced rotational sensitivity. These results show the existence of previously unnoticed factors in fundamental limitations in atomic magnetometry and could have impacts in many other atom-light based precision measurements. We acknowledge the support from AFOSR (grant FA9550-13-1-0098), NSF (grant PHY-1308281), NBRPC(973 Program Grant 2012CB921604 and 2011CB921604), and NNSFC (Grants No. 11322436).

  14. Etiologies and sequelae of excessive daytime sleepiness.

    PubMed

    Roth, T; Roehrs, T A

    1996-01-01

    Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), the primary complaint of patients seen in sleep clinics, affects up to 12% of the general population. The effects of EDS can be debilitating and even life threatening. Patients with EDS may exhibit psychosocial distress, decreased work or school performance, and increased risk for accidents. The differential diagnosis of EDS requires objective assessments, such as polysomnography and the Multiple Sleep Latency Test. There are four major causes of EDS: (1) central nervous system (CNS) pathologic abnormalities, such as narcolepsy and idiopathic CNS hypersomnia; (2) qualitative or quantitative sleep deficiencies, such as sleep apnea and insufficient nocturnal sleep; (3) misalignments of the body's circadian pacemaker with the environment (eg. jet lag or shift work); and (4) drugs, which can increase sleepiness either therapeutically or as a side effect. Depending on etiology, management strategies for EDS include extension of time in bed, naps, surgery, various medical devices (eg, oral appliances, continuous positive airway pressure), and pharmacotherapy. Pharmacotherapy is generally achieved with stimulants, such as amphetamine sulfate, methylphenidate, and pemoline or newer, safer compounds like modafinil. PMID:8879887

  15. Potential health impacts of excessive flavonoid intake.

    PubMed

    Skibola, C F; Smith, M T

    2000-08-01

    Plant flavonoids are common dietary components that have many potent biological properties. Early studies of these compounds investigated their mutagenic and genotoxic activity in a number of in vitro assays. Recently, a renewed interest in flavonoids has been fueled by the antioxidant and estrogenic effects ascribed to them. This has led to their proposed use as anticarcinogens and cardioprotective agents, prompting a dramatic increase in their consumption as dietary supplements. Unfortunately, the potentially toxic effects of excessive flavonoid intake are largely ignored. At higher doses, flavonoids may act as mutagens, pro-oxidants that generate free radicals, and as inhibitors of key enzymes involved in hormone metabolism. Thus, in high doses, the adverse effects of flavonoids may outweigh their beneficial ones, and caution should be exercised in ingesting them at levels above that which would be obtained from a typical vegetarian diet. The unborn fetus may be especially at risk, since flavonoids readily cross the placenta. More research on the toxicological properties of flavonoids is warranted given their increasing levels of consumption. PMID:11035267

  16. Prevention and treatment of excessive dermal scarring.

    PubMed Central

    Roseborough, Ingrid E.; Grevious, Mark A.; Lee, Raphael C.

    2004-01-01

    Today, wound management to avoid excessive scar formation is increasingly important, especially in populations with Fitzpatrick 3 or higher skin pigmentation. Medical science and industrial development are devoting more effort toward understanding and offering better therapy to control scars. However, advances in scar management have been hampered by the confusing or ambiguous terminology. There is no consensus on what amount of post-traumatic skin scar formation is "normal" and what should be considered "hypertrophic". In the World Health Organization's ICD-9, there is no diagnostic code for hypertrophic scar--only keloid is listed. Yet, the medical and scientific literature distinguishes them as different conditions. Our experience suggests that the diagnosis of keloid disease is greatly over-rendered. For black patients, an elevated scar seems, by default, diagnosed as keloid by most. This confusion results in inappropriate management of scar formation, and occasionally contributes to decision making related to elective or cosmetic surgery. Given that patients are expecting better outcomes from wound care today than in the past, this review article attempts to capture the essential biological factors related to wound scar production and discusses treatment options and indications used by the authors. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:14746360

  17. The Neurometabolic Fingerprint of Excessive Alcohol Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Meinhardt, Marcus W; Sévin, Daniel C; Klee, Manuela L; Dieter, Sandra; Sauer, Uwe; Sommer, Wolfgang H

    2015-01-01

    ‘Omics' techniques are widely used to identify novel mechanisms underlying brain function and pathology. Here we applied a novel metabolomics approach to further ascertain the role of frontostriatal brain regions for the expression of addiction-like behaviors in rat models of alcoholism. Rats were made alcohol dependent via chronic intermittent alcohol vapor exposure. Following a 3-week abstinence period, rats had continuous access to alcohol in a two-bottle, free-choice paradigm for 7 weeks. Nontargeted flow injection time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used to assess global metabolic profiles of two cortical (prelimbic and infralimbic) and two striatal (accumbens core and shell) brain regions. Alcohol consumption produces pronounced global effects on neurometabolomic profiles leading to a clear separation of metabolic phenotypes between treatment groups, particularly. Further comparisons of regional tissue levels of various metabolites, most notably dopamine and Met-enkephalin, allow the extrapolation of alcohol consumption history. Finally, a high-drinking metabolic fingerprint was identified indicating a distinct alteration of central energy metabolism in the accumbens shell of excessively drinking rats that could indicate a so far unrecognized pathophysiological mechanism in alcohol addiction. In conclusion, global metabolic profiling from distinct brain regions by mass spectrometry identifies profiles reflective of an animal's drinking history and provides a versatile tool to further investigate pathophysiological mechanisms in alcohol dependence. PMID:25418809

  18. Cool WISPs for stellar cooling excesses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannotti, Maurizio; Irastorza, Igor; Redondo, Javier; Ringwald, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    Several stellar systems (white dwarfs, red giants, horizontal branch stars and possibly the neutron star in the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A) show a mild preference for a non-standard cooling mechanism when compared with theoretical models. This exotic cooling could be provided by Weakly Interacting Slim Particles (WISPs), produced in the hot cores and abandoning the star unimpeded, contributing directly to the energy loss. Taken individually, these excesses do not show a strong statistical weight. However, if one mechanism could consistently explain several of them, the hint could be significant. We analyze the hints in terms of neutrino anomalous magnetic moments, minicharged particles, hidden photons and axion-like particles (ALPs). Among them, the ALP or a massless HP represent the best solution. Interestingly, the hinted ALP parameter space is accessible to the next generation proposed ALP searches, such as ALPS II and IAXO and the massless HP requires a multi TeV energy scale of new physics that might be accessible at the LHC.

  19. "Excess Water" Following Deforestation by Beetle Kill?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyde, K.; Miller, S. N.; Anderson-Sprecher, R.; Ewers, B. E.; Speckman, H.

    2014-12-01

    Deforestation resulting from tree mortality by insects and disease may reduce transpiration demand and increase available water in mountain environments throughout. We tested this hypothesis using three large catchments (97-407 km2) located in the Snowy Mountains of Wyoming where hydrology is snowmelt dominated. An epidemic of spruce bark beetle and associated tree mortality emerged in 2006 and has since impacted 60 to 80% of basal area of the spruce-fir and mixed conifer forests. A 25-year continuous record (1998-2013) of daily snowfall, temperature, and stream discharge data between 1 April and 30 September of each year were available for each catchment. We used quantile regression and multivariate time series analysis first to control for the effects of temperature and snow water equivalent on the timing and magnitude of discharge and then to test for changes in discharge trends since 2006. We found no compelling evidence of changes in discharge trends associated with the onset of the beetle epidemic independent of snowmelt trends. Several factors could explain this apparent lack of "excess water" following tree mortality by insects and disease. Any increases in water may be scale dependent, a local phenomenon that does not transfer through large catchments. Other vegetation including young cohorts of affected tree species, shrubs, and herbaceous cover may respond robustly to the open canopy and utilize soil water previously consumed by the infected trees.

  20. Excessive internet use and depressive disorders.

    PubMed

    Mihajlović, Goran; Hinić, Darko; Damjanović, Aleksandar; Gajić, Tomislav; Dukić-Dejanović, Slavica

    2008-03-01

    Recent studies of Internet influence on behavioural disorders of its users, have created quite a polarised ambience. On the one hand, there are those who believe that the Internet is a new better medium for enabling various patterns of communication and social relations. On the other hand, others maintain that Internet use can lead to social isolation and other forms of psychological disorders, for an example depression. The aim of this work is a review of research attempts to confirm a connection between increased Internet use and psychological disorders, in the first place, depression. The number of studies on this subject is not very great thus far. This is mainly because depression and similar disorders are serious distorsions in basic psychological processes; this suggests how difficult it may be to work with such examinees, and how complex it may appear to distinguish etiological factors. These facts do not lessen the importance of the aim itself, i.e. defining potential consequences of excessive Internet use when it comes to psychological wellbeing, since the Internet is expected to become a basic form of social interaction in the near future, and consequently one of the major factors of socialisation and constitution of one's psychological identity. Due to that fact, the aim of this work is to indicate methodological and conceptual flaws of the studies which have attempted to make a connection between mood disorders and the Internet, so as to establish the base for future studies of the psychological consequences of Internet development. PMID:18376325

  1. Containing the cost of third-molar extractions: a dilemma for health insurance.

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, J W

    1983-01-01

    No known scientific studies support the extraction of third molars (wisdom teeth) to prevent future disease. Yet, third-molar surgery for this purpose has become so common that in at least one major U.S. health insurance plan, the cumulative cost exceeds that for every other kind of major surgery. Many third molars that are developing normally in adolescents are classified as impacted and removed before they erupt, a practice that results in large expenditures for unnecessary surgery. In addition, the difficulty of the extractions is frequently exaggerated, so that patients and insurance plans are overcharged. Third molar surgery is not without risk of iatrogenic injury. Fracture of the jaw, permanent numbness of the lip (paresthesia), and injury to other teeth may occur. This paper presents a mechanism for containing the cost of third-molar surgery by elimination of payment for nonessential extractions and of the related overcharges. Adoption of this policy by administrators of dental insurance plans would save millions of dollars each year, money that could be better used in providing care for more people with real dental disease. PMID:6611824

  2. Anatomical Relationship of Lingual Nerve to the Region of Mandibular Third Molar

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho Leite Leal Nunes, Carla Maria; de Almeida Lopes, Maria Cândida

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives This study evaluated the relationship of the lingual nerve with the adjacent anatomical structures of the mandibular third molar region, influencing the dentist to be aware of the variability of these relationships. Material and Methods Samples of 24 human corpse half-heads were selected and divided according with the presence or absence of the mandibular third molars. The lingual nerve (LN) was explored, showing its run from the oblique line until its crossing with the submandibular gland duct. The measurements along the LN and the adjacent anatomical structures were taken at the retromolar, molar and sublingual region with the use of a digital caliper. Results The distance from the LN and the third molar socket, which represents the horizontal distance of the lingual plate to the nerve, on average, was 4.4 mm (SD 2.4 mm). The distance from the LN and the lingual alveolar rim, which represents the vertical relationship between the nerve and the lingual alveolar rim of the third molar socket, on average, was 16.8 mm (SD 5.7 mm). The LN has a varied topography that leaves it very vulnerable during any procedure executed in this region. Conclusions Unless adequate protection of the lingual nerve is acquired by following an adequate surgical technique, the lingual nerve will always be vulnerable to damage during surgical intervention or manipulation in this region. PMID:24478912

  3. Ectopic third molar in the mandibular condyle: A review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Iglesias-Martin, Fernando; Torres-Carranza, Eusebio; Prats-Golczer, Victoria-Eugenia; Garcia-Perla-Garcia, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the etiopathogenesis, clinical features, therapeutic options, and surgical approaches for removal of ectopic third molars in the mandibular condyle. Study design: MEDLINE search of articles published on ectopic third molars in the mandibular condyle from 1980 to 2011. 14 well-documented clinical cases from the literature were evaluated together with a new clinical case provided by the authors, representing a sample of 15 patients. Results: We found a mean age at diagnosis of 48.6 years and a higher prevalence in women. In 14 patients, associated radiolucent lesions were diagnosed on radiographic studies and confirmed histopathologically as odontogenic cysts. Clinical symptoms were pain and swelling in the jaw or preauricular region, trismus, difficulty chewing, cutaneous fistula and temporomandibular joint dysfunction. Treatment included conservative management in one case and in the other cases, surgical removal by intra- or extraoral approaches, the latter being the most common approach carried out. In most reported cases, serious complications were not outlined. Conclusions: The etiopathogenic theory involving odontogenic cysts in the displacement of third molars to the mandibular condyle seems to be the most relevant. They must be removed if they cause symptoms or are associated with cystic pathology. The surgical route must be planned according to the location and position of the ectopic third molar, and the possible morbidity associated with surgery. Key words:Third molar, ectopic tooth, condyle, mandible. PMID:22926463

  4. Prevalence of cysts and tumors around the retained and unerupted third molars in the Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Santosh; Halgatti, Vishal; Khandelwal, Suneet; Santosh, B.S.; Maheshwari, Sneha

    2014-01-01

    Aim Tooth impaction is a frequent phenomena and surgical removal of these teeth are the commonest of the dental surgical procedures. The debate over the removal of asymptomatic impacted third molars still continues. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the incidence of development of cysts and tumors around the retained and unerupted third molars in the Indian population. Material and methods 5486 impacted third molars of 4133 patients were studied through the panoramic radiographs for the presence of associated cysts and tumors. The ages of the patients ranged from 17 to 67 years, with a mean of 33.7 years. The results were evaluated using the Pearson chi-square test. P-values less than 0.05 were considered to be statistically significant. Results There were 134 cysts (2.24%) and 63 tumors (1.16%) found that were associated with impacted third molars, of which 3 were malignant (0.05%). 143 patients had symptoms such as swelling or pain due to cystic or neoplastic lesions. The remainder 54 patients had no symptoms suggestive of pathology. The most common cyst was dentigerous cyst and the most common tumor was ameloblastoma. Conclusion The results indicate that cysts and tumors do develop in a relatively small but still considerable minority of patients. The fact that a considerable number of patients had no signs or symptoms indicating pathology is certainly worth considering. Consultation should be sought from dental specialists if there are symptoms in the third molar region. PMID:25737923

  5. Cysts in Periradicular Region of Deciduous Molars in Mixed Dentition: Retrospective Study of Five Cases

    PubMed Central

    Chavan, Ankush; Wadde, Kavita; Dewalwar, Vishal

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT% The cyst in mixed dentition stage cause expansion of buccal cortex, displacement of teeth and may present as case of infection. The cyst in periradicular region of deciduous molar are of frequent occurrence. The differential diagnosis of this lesion is radicular cysts of deciduous molar: developmental or infammatory dentigerous cyst of corresponding unerupted premolar. After going through the available literature of radicular cyst of deciduous molars and dentigerous cysts of developing premolars in mixed dentition we studied the five cases of cyst in periradicular region of deciduous molars in mixed dentition retrospectively for the diagnostic dilemma of radicular cyst verses dentigerous cyst. In conclusion, we can set some criteria for the diagnosis which is particularly important for treatment and for conservation of developing premolar. How to cite this article: Manekar VS, Chavan A, Wadde K, Dewalwar V. Cysts in Periradicular Region of Deciduous Molars in Mixed Dentition: Retrospective Study of Five Cases. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(3):229-235. PMID:25709310

  6. Structural Morphology of Molars in Large Mammalian Herbivores: Enamel Content Varies between Tooth Positions

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, Daniela E.; Kaiser, Thomas M.

    2015-01-01

    The distribution of dental tissues in mammalian herbivores can be very different from taxon to taxon. While grazers tend to have more elaborated and complexly folded enamel ridges, browsers have less complex enamel ridges which can even be so far reduced that they are completely lost. The gradient in relative enamel content and complexity of structures has so far not been addressed within a single species. However, several studies have noted tooth position specific wear rates in small mammals (rabbits, guinea pigs) which may be related to individual tooth morphology. We investigate whether differentiated enamel content by tooth position is also to be found in large herbivores. We use CT-scanning techniques to quantify relative enamel content in upper and lower molar teeth of 21 large herbivorous mammal species. By using a broad approach and including both perissodactyls and artiodactyls, we address phylogenetic intraspecific differences in relative enamel content. We find that enamel is highly unevenly distributed among molars (upper M1, M2, M3 and lower m1, m2, m3) in most taxa and that relative enamel content is independent of phylogeny. Overall, relative enamel content increases along the molar tooth row and is significantly higher in lower molars compared to upper molars. We relate this differential enamel content to prolonged mineralisation in the posterior tooth positions and suggest a compensatory function of m3 and M3 for functional losses of anterior teeth. PMID:26313359

  7. Third molar observations in a sample of British male young offenders.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Sally E

    2015-07-01

    Development, morphology and eruption of third molars are highly variable, and it is generally accepted that the emergence time is between the ages of 17 and 21 years. This study reports on variation in timing encountered in a sample of 155 young males (15-18 years) of British nationality who were detained at Her Majesty's Prison and Young Offenders Institution (HMP&YOI) Ashfield as young offenders. All 155 participants were self-reported in terms of their chronological age and their ethnic origin. Of the 17 year-olds, 68% of Black males displayed one or more erupted third molars compared to 39% of the White males. For those who were of mixed ancestry, 50% showed evidence of eruption of at least one third molar in this age group. This difference between Black and White ethnicity was further supported when missing first or second molars were taken into consideration. Whilst it has been suggested in the literature that ethnicity plays no major part in eruption timings for the third molars, this clinical observation poses some interesting questions about the accuracy of dental age assessment. PMID:26087875

  8. The incidence of cysts and tumors associated with impacted third molars

    PubMed Central

    Vigneswaran, A. T.; Shilpa, S.

    2015-01-01

    Incidence of cysts and tumors associated with lower impacted third molars are very low prevalence, which might be because of the fact that most pathologies go unnoticed as many practitioners discard the erupted tissue after surgical removal of the impacted teeth rather than sending the tissue for histopathological examination. Our aim was to evaluate the patients who came for third molar surgical removal with due therapeutic prophylacis and an incidental finding. A proper study protocol both inclusion and exclusion criteria was strictly followed for all the cases, which were included in the study. The period of study was 6 years and the total number of cases assessed were 2778 patients out of which 70 cases reported pathology associated with the impacted third molars. Among 70 cases 61.4% were reported as cyst and tumors and 38.6% of the cases had chronic inflammatory reaction, including two cases with normal dental follicle. High incidence rate of pathology associated with third molar occurred between age group of 20 and 30 years older age groups showed very low incidence. Most common site of impaction was found to be left side of mandible and positions were vertical and distoangular impactions. Thus was male predominance in the younger groups. The examination is necessary whether the third molars impacted cases were symptomatic or asymptomatic PMID:26015725

  9. Efficacy of fentanyl transdermal patch in pain control after lower third molar surgery: A preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Vasovic, Miroslav; Andric, Miroslav; Todorovic, Ljubomir; Kokovic, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Background Surgical removal of impacted lower third molars is a common oral surgical procedure, generally followed by moderate to severe postoperative pain. Transdermal drug delivery as a concept offers interesting possibilities for postoperative pain control. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of transdermal system with fentanyl in relieving pain following impacted lower third molar surgery. Material and Methods Seventeen patients with bilateral impacted lower third molars were included in this preliminary study. For postoperative pain control, patients randomly received a fentanyl patch plus placebo tablet after the first operation and regular (placebo) patch and an analgesic, after the second operation. Analgesia was evaluated during first 24 hours postoperatively according to patients’ reports about time of first pain appearance and additional analgesic consumption. Pain severity was rated using a 10 cm long visual analogue scale (VAS). Results Intensity of postoperative pain and postoperative analgesic consumption were significantly lower after the Fentanyl Transdermal System (FTS) was applied (p<0.05). Duration of postoperative analgesia was significantly higher with FTS when compared to control treatment (p<0.05). Conclusions Based on the results of this preliminary study, transdermal system with fentanyl significantly reduced postoperative pain after third molar surgery. Key words:Analgesia, fentanyl, transdermal administration, third molar surgery, acute pain, postoperative care. PMID:27475691

  10. [Application of composite resin inlays to deciduous molars--a clinical observation of the resin onlay].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, H; Iyori, H; Kanomi, R; Yao, K; Hieda, T

    1990-01-01

    Although composite resin has been used as an aesthetic restorative material, wear and fracture of the resin of fracture of the tooth structure are likely to occur when the size of the dental cavities are large. In addition to the lack of the aesthetic value, clinical results of prefabricated metal crown revealed several problems which were caused by the wear of the metal and the ill-adaptation of the cervical margin. In the present study, 50 devitalized deciduous molars were treated with composite resin onlays which were designed to cover the entire occlusal surface of the deciduous molar, and the clinical results were evaluated for a 6 month period. Additionally, for the purpose of simplification of the laboratory process for making resin onlays, ready-made occlusal shells were fabricated. The variety of the prepared shell size consisted of 7 sizes for the first deciduous molar, 9 sizes for the upper second deciduous molar and 10 sizes for the lower deciduous molar. The following results were obtained. 1) A partial resin fracture at the peripheral area of the mesio-buccal cuspid was found in five cases out of 50. 2) A glossy appearance on the surface of the onlay which was created by coated unfilled resin disappeared after 6 months of observation. 3) In relation to the resin onlay, when the antagonistic tooth was restored with prefabricated metal crowns, holes were made by attrition on all the crowns within a 3-4 month period.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2133972

  11. Molar Incisor Hypomineralization: An Epidemiological Study with Prevalence and Etiological Factors in Indian Pediatric Population

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Ramesh K

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aims: To determine the prevalence of molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) in Indian children and to analyze the possible etiological factors. Materials and methods: First permanent molars and all permanent incisors were examined in 1,369 children aged 8 to 12 years. Examinations were performed by two calibrated observers. The subjects were evaluated using judgment criteria proposed by Weerheijm et al in 2003. The parents accompanying children were given a questionnaire regarding pre- and postnatal history of the children. Results: A total of 191 children were diagnosed with MIH with a prevalence of 13.9%. Chi-square/Fisher exact test was used to compare the dichotomous variables. The relative risk with its 95% confidence interval was calculated to find the risk of clinical infections, such as chicken pox, jaundice, renal disorders, cardiac disorders, and affected molars with sex and type of delivery. Pre- and postnatal history of infection in a child was significantly correlated with the prevalence of MIH. Conclusion: The prevalence of MIH was 13.9% in the age group of 8 to 12 years. Prenatal and postnatal infections play an important role in hypomineralization of molars and incisors. How to cite this article: Mishra A, Pandey RK. Molar Incisor Hypomineralization: An Epidemiological Study with Prevalence and Etiological Factors in Indian Pediatric Population. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):167-171. PMID:27365942

  12. Treatment of 3rd molar-induced periodontal defects with guided tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Oxford, G E; Quintero, G; Stuller, C B; Gher, M E

    1997-07-01

    Recent reports provide evidence of increased attachment levels when using guided tissue regeneration (GTR) techniques for the treatment of periodontal defects. Periodontal defects frequently occur at the distal aspect of mandibular 2nd molars which are next to mesioangular impacted 3rd molars that have oral communication. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the use of GTR can enhance probing attachment levels (PALs) following extraction of mesioangular impacted third molars. 12 patients with bilateral soft tissue impacted mandibular 3rd molars entered this split mouth study. After extractions, the previously exposed distal root surface of the 2nd molars were debrided. The defects on the randomly selected experimental sites were covered with expanded polytetraflouro-ethylene (e-PTFE) membrane and the tissue was replaced to cover the membrane. Membranes were removed after 6 weeks. Control sites were treated identically except no membrane was placed. GI, P1I, PD, PAL and BOP records were obtained at 0, 3 and 6 months. The use of barrier material did not provide statistically-significant differences in PAL when comparing experimental versus control sites. Nevertheless, PAL gain was consistently greater at 3 and 6 months when GTR techniques were used in sites with deep impactions. PMID:9226386

  13. The incidence of cysts and tumors associated with impacted third molars.

    PubMed

    Vigneswaran, A T; Shilpa, S

    2015-04-01

    Incidence of cysts and tumors associated with lower impacted third molars are very low prevalence, which might be because of the fact that most pathologies go unnoticed as many practitioners discard the erupted tissue after surgical removal of the impacted teeth rather than sending the tissue for histopathological examination. Our aim was to evaluate the patients who came for third molar surgical removal with due therapeutic prophylacis and an incidental finding. A proper study protocol both inclusion and exclusion criteria was strictly followed for all the cases, which were included in the study. The period of study was 6 years and the total number of cases assessed were 2778 patients out of which 70 cases reported pathology associated with the impacted third molars. Among 70 cases 61.4% were reported as cyst and tumors and 38.6% of the cases had chronic inflammatory reaction, including two cases with normal dental follicle. High incidence rate of pathology associated with third molar occurred between age group of 20 and 30 years older age groups showed very low incidence. Most common site of impaction was found to be left side of mandible and positions were vertical and distoangular impactions. Thus was male predominance in the younger groups. The examination is necessary whether the third molars impacted cases were symptomatic or asymptomatic. PMID:26015725

  14. Coronectomy of impacted mandibular third molars: A meta-analysis and systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Cervera-Espert*, Juan; Pérez-Martínez*, Sara; Cervera-Ballester, Juan; Penarrocha-Oltra, David

    2016-01-01

    Background Coronectomy is an alternative to complete removal of an impacted mandibular third molar. Most authors have recommended coronectomy to prevent damage to the inferior alveolar nerve during surgical extraction of lower third molars. The present study offers a systematic review and metaanalysis of the coronectomy technique. Material and Methods A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed based on a PubMed and Cochrane databases search for articles published from 2014 and involving coronectomy of mandibular third molars located near the inferior alveolar nerve canal, with a minimum of 10 cases and a minimum follow-up period of 6 months. After application of the inclusion and exclusion criteria, a total of 12 articles were included in the study. Results and Discussion Coronectomy results in significantly lesser loss of sensitivity of the inferior alveolar nerve and prevents the occurrence of dry socket. No statistically significant differences were observed in the incidence of pain and infection between coronectomy and complete surgical extraction. After coronectomy, the remaining tooth fragment migrates an average of 2 mm within two years. Conclusions Coronectomy is indicated when the mandibular third molar is in contact with the inferior alveolar nerve and complete removal of the tooth may cause nerve damage. Key words:Coronectomy, included third molar, inferior alveolar nerve injury. PMID:27031064

  15. [An 18 month evaluation of MM-MTA pulpotomy on primary decayed molars].

    PubMed

    Abou Chedid, J C; Mchayleh, N; Khalil, I; Melki, B; Hardan, L S

    2015-12-01

    Pulpotomy is the most performed and controversial therapeutic in pediatric dentistry. Formocresol is known to have a toxic effect on living tissues, a mutagenic and carcinogenic potential with a systemic uptake of formocresol via pulpotomized teeth, other alternative products have been investigated. 40 molars were pulpotomized using Micro Mega Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MM-MTA), which eliminates the need for the use of formocresol. The effects of this material were evaluated both clinically and radiographically. Post-operative control examinations were performed at 1, 6, 12, and 18 months trying to detect spontaneous or stimulated pain, pathological tooth mobility, abscesses or fistulas, internal or external pathological tooth resorption, periapical bone destruction, or canal obliteration. Pain was absent at 18 months post operatively. Thirty six molar treated with the MM-MTA didn't show any mobility or pain, one molar presented a pathological resorption and one molar presented an abscess without a fistula at 12 month. The observations were compared to others related to formocresol, ferric sulfate, MTA, and laser pulpotomies, using the Chi-square test x2. The abundance of positive result strongly demonstrate that the MM-MTA pulpotomy on carious temporary molars is a promising technique. PMID:26939217

  16. Molar tooth structures in calcareous nodules, early Neoproterozoic Burovaya Formation, Turukhansk region, Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, Michael C.; Bartley, Julie K.; Knoll, Andrew H.; Petrov, Peter Yu.

    2003-05-01

    Molar tooth structures are abundant in large (1-2 m diameter) carbonate nodules within fine-grained, subtidal carbonates of the early Neoproterozoic (lower Upper Riphean) Burovaya Formation along the Sukhaya Tunguska River, Turukhansk Uplift, northwestern Siberia. Although molar tooth structures are regionally abundant in this unit, here they occur only within the nodules. Stable isotopic compositions of molar-tooth-filling dolomicrospar cements and of thinly bedded dolomicrite within and surrounding the nodules are indistinguishable from one another. The carbon isotopic compositions (mean δ13C=+2.8‰ PDB±0.4) reflect mean average oceanic surface water composition during their formation; the light oxygen isotopic compositions (mean δ18O=-6.4‰ PDB±2.2) are generally similar to those of other little-altered Meso- to Neoproterozoic limestones and dolostones. These molar tooth structures have no features that would support a tectonic origin; they more likely formed through bacterial processes. Carbonate cement filling of these voids occurred soon after their formation, but the mechanism responsible for this carbonate precipitation is currently uncertain. Local restriction of molar tooth structures to early diagenetic nodules suggests that penecontemporaneous lithification was required for the formation, or at least preservation, of these widespread Mesoproterozoic to Neoproterozoic features.

  17. Demirjian's method in the estimation of age: A study on human third molars

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Amitha J.; Boaz, Karen; Nagesh, K. R; Srikant, N; Gupta, Neha; Nandita, K. P; Manaktala, Nidhi

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The primary aim of the following study is to estimate the chronological age based on the stages of third molar development following the eight stages (A to H) method of Demirjian et al. (along with two modifications-Orhan) and secondary aim is to compare third molar development with sex and age. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 115 orthopantomograms from South Indian subjects with known chronological age and gender. Multiple regression analysis was performed with chronological age as the dependable variable and third molar root development as independent variable. All the statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS 11.0 package (IBM ® Corporation). Results: Statistically no significant differences were found in third molar development between males and females. Depending on the available number of wisdom teeth in an individual, R2 varied for males from 0.21 to 0.48 and for females from 0.16 to 0.38. New equations were derived for estimating the chronological age. Conclusion: The chronological age of a South Indian individual between 14 and 22 years may be estimated based on the regression formulae. However, additional studies with a larger study population must be conducted to meet the need for population-based information on third molar development. PMID:26005306

  18. Morphologic and Demographic Predictors of Third Molar Agenesis: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Carter, K; Worthington, S

    2015-07-01

    We aimed to consolidate all available data on worldwide third molar agenesis frequencies, with a particular emphasis on exploring the factors leading authors to find contradictory results for the demographic and morphologic predictors of this anomaly. A total of 12,376 studies were originally identified, then narrowed down to 1,312 for title/abstract screening. On the basis of our inclusion and exclusion criteria, we selected 92 studies, containing 100 effect sizes and 63,314 subjects, for systematic review and metaregression. The worldwide rate of agenesis was found to be 22.63% (95% confidence interval = 20.64% to 24.76%), although the estimates ranged from 5.32% to 56.0%. Our subgroup analyses revealed that women are 14% more likely than men to have agenesis of ≥1 third molars and that maxillary agenesis was 36% more likely than mandibular agenesis in both sexes. Furthermore, we found that having agenesis of 1 or 2 molars was most common, while agenesis of 3 or 4 molars was least common. Finally, we found large differences among agenesis frequency depending on geographic region. This information is expected to be of use not only to clinicians and patients but also to policy makers, given the implications for third molar extraction protocols. PMID:25883107

  19. Accuracy of scanography using storage phosphor plate systems and film for assessment of mandibular third molars

    PubMed Central

    Matzen, LH; Christensen, J; Wenzel, A

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of two digital photostimulable storage phosphor (PSP) systems and film for assessment of mandibular third molars before surgery. Methods 110 patients were referred to have both their mandibular third molars removed. Each patient underwent a radiographic examination with scanography using either Digora (Soredex, Helsinki, Finland) and film or VistaScan (Dürr Dental, Beitigheim-Bissingen, Germany) and film in a randomized paired design. Two observers examined the following variables on the scanograms: bone coverage, angulation of the tooth in the bone, number of roots, root morphology and the relationship to the mandibular canal. In 75 of the pairs (Digora/film pair = 38 and Vista/film pair = 37) both third molars were eventually removed. During and after surgery the same variables were assessed, which served as reference standard for the radiographic assessments. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test tested differences in accuracy (radiographic compared with surgical findings) between Digora/film and between Vista/film. Results There was no statistically significant difference between the diagnostic accuracy of film and either of the two digital receptors for assessment of mandibular third molars before surgery (P > 0.05), although Digora obtained a higher accuracy than film. Conclusions Scanography is a valuable method for examination of mandibular third molars before removal and the PSP digital receptors in this study were equal to film for this purpose. PMID:21697156

  20. The Diagnosis of Choriocarcinoma in Molar Pregnancies: A Revised Approach in Clinical Testing

    PubMed Central

    Duffy, Lisa; Zhang, Liangtao; Sheath, Karen; Love, Donald R.; George, Alice M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Hydatidiform moles occur in approximately 1 in 1,500 pregnancies; however, early miscarriages or spontaneous abortions may not be correctly identified as molar pregnancies due to poor differentiation of chorionic villi. Methods The current clinical testing algorithm used for the detection of hydatidiform moles uses a combination of morphological analysis and p57 immunostaining followed by ploidy testing to establish a diagnosis of either a complete or partial molar pregnancy. We review here 198 referrals for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) ploidy testing, where the initial diagnosis based on morphology is compared to the final diagnosis based on a combination of morphology, FISH and p57 immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. Results Approximately 40% of cases were determined to be genetically abnormal, but only 28.8% of cases were diagnosed as molar pregnancies. The underestimation of complete molar pregnancies and those with androgenetic inheritance was also found to be likely using conventional diagnostic methods, as atypical p57 staining was observed in approximately 10% of cases. Conclusions Our findings suggest that a revised approach to testing products of conception is necessary, with cases screened according to their clinical history in order to distinguish molar pregnancy referrals from hydropic pregnancies. PMID:26566410

  1. Kissing molars: report of three cases and new prospective on aetiopathogenetic theories

    PubMed Central

    Menditti, Dardo; Laino, Luigi; Cicciù, Marco; Mezzogiorno, Antonio; Perillo, Letizia; Menditti, Marco; Cervino, Gabriele; Muzio, Lorenzo Lo; Baldi, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    Kissing molars (KMs) is an extremely rare condition of impacted third molars, pointed in the opposite direction in a single follicular space; it consists exactly in a full impacted of permanent molars which occurs only in the lower jaw. Actually, about less than thirty cases have been reported in scientific literatures. The aetiology and pathogenesis of this pathological double dental inclusion remain unknown; above all events that lead two molars to appear, as KMs remain mysterious. The association to metabolic connective diseases such as mucopolysaccharidosis was emphasized. KMs considered as an isolated event, may be associated to an abnormal position of the tooth-bud from lower permanent molars, or fourth supernumerary tooth (distomolar). Recently, hyperplastic dental follicle (HDF), with a down regulation of matrix metal-proteinases and up regulation of several genes of collagens, has been mentioned in association with KMs. In this paper, after having analyzed three new cases of KMs that have been treated, we report a new hypothesis. This last is based on the failure in the dental follicle’s ability to initiate or continue properly resorption of the overlying alveolar bone, by many exogenous factors which may act on eruptive phase that would lead to its rotation with its contents coming out a pathological situation of KMs. The therapy of choice is related to the surgical removal of KMs through a double odontectomy with transalveolar method. Other treatments can be, eventually, orthodontic therapy of the impacted teeth and a radiological follow-up without surgery. PMID:26884840

  2. Anatomical study of C-shaped canals in mandibular second molars by analysis of computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Jin, Guang-Chun; Lee, Seong-Jong; Roh, Byoung-Duck

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and configuration of the C-shaped canal using serial axial computed tomography images of the mandibular second molars that had not been restored severely or treated endodontically, and to compare the thickness of the remaining tooth structure from the center of the canal to the outer surface of the deepest groove area in C-shaped mandibular second molar to that of "danger zone of perforation" in normal mandibular second molar. This distance was measured at the cervical, middle, and apical third level each. From 220 teeth, C-shaped canals were found in 98 teeth (44.5%). Almost all the grooves were directed lingual (99%). The continuous C-shaped canal was the most frequently found (49%) and the separated canal was the least (17.4%). The thinnest remaining tooth structure in the groove area of the C-shaped mandibular second molar was not different from that of the danger zone of normal mandibular second molar at the three levels (p > 0.05). PMID:16410060

  3. Convergence Insufficiency/Divergence Insufficiency Convergence Excess/Divergence Excess: Some Facts and Fictions

    PubMed Central

    Khawam, Edward; Abiad, Bachir; Boughannam, Alaa; Saade, Joanna; Alameddine, Ramzi

    2015-01-01

    Great discrepancies are often encountered between the distance fixation and the near-fixation esodeviations and exodeviations. They are all attributed to either anomalies of the AC/A ratio or anomalies of the fusional convergence or divergence amplitudes. We report a case with pseudoconvergence insufficiency and another one with pseudoaccommodative convergence excess. In both cases, conv./div. excess and insufficiency were erroneously attributed to anomalies of the AC/A ratio or to anomalies of the fusional amplitudes. Our purpose is to show that numerous factors, other than anomalies in the AC/A ratio or anomalies in the fusional conv. or divergence amplitudes, can contaminate either the distance or the near deviations. This results in significant discrepancies between the distance and the near deviations despite a normal AC/A ratio and normal fusional amplitudes, leading to erroneous diagnoses and inappropriate treatment models. PMID:26351603

  4. Di-photon excess at LHC and the gamma ray excess at the Galactic Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hektor, Andi; Marzola, Luca

    2016-07-01

    Motivated by the recent indications for a 750 GeV resonance in the di-photon final state at the LHC, in this work we analyse the compatibility of the excess with the broad photon excess detected at the Galactic Centre. Intriguingly, by analysing the parameter space of an effective models where a 750 GeV pseudoscalar particles mediates the interaction between the Standard Model and a scalar dark sector, we prove the compatibility of the two signals. We show, however, that the LHC mono-jet searches and the Fermi LAT measurements strongly limit the viable parameter space. We comment on the possible impact of cosmic antiproton flux measurement by the AMS-02 experiment.

  5. 26 CFR 54.4981A-1T - Tax on excess distributions and excess accumulations (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... potentially subject to tax ((3)−(4)) $0 (6) Portion of aggregate distributions in excess of $125,000 ($300,000×$75,000−$125,000) $250,000 (7) Amount subject to tax (lesser of (5) and (6)) $0 (8) Amount of tax (15% of (7)) $0 (9) Remaining undistributed value of grandfather amount as of 12/31/89 ((1)−(4))...

  6. Displacement of lower third molar into the lateral pharyngeal space in a case of mandibular angle fracture: An unusual complication

    PubMed Central

    Kasatwar, Akash; Bhola, Nitin; Borle, Rajiv; Rajanikanth, K.

    2016-01-01

    Fracture of the angle of the mandible accounts for nearly one-third of all fractures involved. The presence of lower third molar increases the risk of fracture in angle region. The third molar acts as an area of weakness leading to fracture lines passing medially, distally, and occasionally through it. Angle fracture leads to the mobility of the third molar and sometimes its displacement. Third molars maintain its position in favorable fracture and can be displaced in unfavorable fractures. Displacement of lower third molar in lateral pharyngeal space due to mandibular fracture is not seen commonly. To our knowledge, this is the first reported incidence of displacement of the third molar into lateral pharyngeal space in a case of mandibular fracture. PMID:27307673

  7. Value of Computed Tomography (CT) in Imaging the Morbidity of Submerged Molars: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kırzıoḡlu, Zuhal; Karayılmaz, Hüseyin; Baykal, Bahattin

    2007-01-01

    Submerged primary molars can be difficult to manage due to the developing dentition. Rarely in some severe cases, may the surgical interventions be required while ensuring the vital structures are protected. Therefore these cases require sophisticated imaging techniques in order to locate the vital structures. In this case report, a 17 year old girl who had a retained and submerged deciduous molar which caused impaction of the second premolar and tipping of the first molar was presented. In addition, value of computed tomography (CT) for locating the vital anatomic structures was discussed. In our case, CT has been supplied effective information about localization of the vital structures and amount of bone volume during the diagnosis and treatment planning period in addition to the routine dental radiographies. PMID:19212475

  8. Lingual nerve injury after third molar removal: Unilateral atrophy of fungiform papillae

    PubMed Central

    de-Pablo-Garcia-Cuenca, Alba; Bescós-Atín, Maria S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pain and sensory changes due to lingual nerve injury are one of the most common alterations that follow surgical removal of third molar. They are usually transient but other less common complications, such as the atrophy of fungiform papillae, have an uncertain prognosis. Case Description: We report a case of a 34-year-old woman who presented a unilateral lingual atrophy of fungiform papillae after third molar extraction accompanied by severe dysesthesia that altered her daily life significantly during the following months and how this complication evolved over time. We conducted a literature review on the different factors that can lead to a lingual nerve injury. Clinical Implications: The clinical evolution of temporary and permanent somatosensitve injuries is an important fact to take into consideration during the postoperative management because it will indicate the lesion prognosis. Key words:Lingual nerve, third molar removal, somatosensitive alteration, papillae atrophy, permanent injury, temporary injury. PMID:24790723

  9. Molar proportions of volatile fatty acids in the gastrointestinal tract of East African wild ruminants.

    PubMed

    Clemens, E T; Maloiy, G M; Sutton, J D

    1983-01-01

    The molar proportions of seven individual VFA's were determined at select sites along the gastrointestinal tract of sixteen species of East African wild ruminants. The resulting data were statistically analyzed for species effect, and for effects due to major feeding groups (browsers, grazers, fresh grass grazers, etc.) and for body weight groups (5-750 kg animals). Present data suggest that body weight, rather than diet, is the more influential factor in reticulo-rumen fermentation rate, and in the molar proportion of fatty acids present. The molar proportions of VFA's observed in the mid and hindgut of these wild ruminants appeared more responsive to diet and body weight of the animal than did foregut VFA values. PMID:6139202

  10. Holocellulose Nanofibers of High Molar Mass and Small Diameter for High-Strength Nanopaper.

    PubMed

    Galland, Sylvain; Berthold, Fredrik; Prakobna, Kasinee; Berglund, Lars A

    2015-08-10

    Wood cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) based on bleached pulp are different from the cellulose microfibrils in the plant cell wall in terms of larger diameter, lower cellulose molar mass, and modified cellulose topochemistry. Also, CNF isolation often requires high-energy mechanical disintegration. Here, a new type of CNFs is reported based on a mild peracetic acid delignification process for spruce and aspen fibers, followed by low-energy mechanical disintegration. Resulting CNFs are characterized with respect to geometry (AFM, TEM), molar mass (SEC), and polysaccharide composition. Cellulose nanopaper films are prepared by filtration and characterized by UV-vis spectrometry for optical transparency and uniaxial tensile tests. These CNFs are unique in terms of high molar mass and cellulose-hemicellulose core-shell structure. Furthermore, the corresponding nanopaper structures exhibit exceptionally high optical transparency and the highest mechanical properties reported for comparable CNF nanopaper structures. PMID:26151837

  11. Continuously growing rodent molars result from a predictable quantitative evolutionary change over 50 million years.

    PubMed

    Tapaltsyan, Vagan; Eronen, Jussi T; Lawing, A Michelle; Sharir, Amnon; Janis, Christine; Jernvall, Jukka; Klein, Ophir D

    2015-05-01

    The fossil record is widely informative about evolution, but fossils are not systematically used to study the evolution of stem-cell-driven renewal. Here, we examined evolution of the continuous growth (hypselodonty) of rodent molar teeth, which is fuelled by the presence of dental stem cells. We studied occurrences of 3,500 North American rodent fossils, ranging from 50 million years ago (mya) to 2 mya. We examined changes in molar height to determine whether evolution of hypselodonty shows distinct patterns in the fossil record, and we found that hypselodont taxa emerged through intermediate forms of increasing crown height. Next, we designed a Markov simulation model, which replicated molar height increases throughout the Cenozoic and, moreover, evolution of hypselodonty. Thus, by extension, the retention of the adult stem cell niche appears to be a predictable quantitative rather than a stochastic qualitative process. Our analyses predict that hypselodonty will eventually become the dominant phenotype. PMID:25921530

  12. Comment on ``Hydrophobic effects on partial molar volume'' [J. Chem. Phys. 122, 094509 (2005)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graziano, Giuseppe

    2005-10-01

    It is pointed out that the results obtained by Imai and Hirata [ J. Chem. Phys.122, 094509 (2005)] for the partial molar volume of benzene in a detailed model of water and in a hypothetical nonpolar water model should be interpreted with care. By turning off the electrostatic interactions among water molecules, keeping fixed the molar volume and so the liquid number density, in order to produce the hypothetical nonpolar water without H bonds, the size of water molecules increases from about 2.8 to about 3.2Å. This fact is due to the bunching-up effect of H bonds. The consequences of this fact are clarified by means of calculations performed using the analytical expression of the partial molar volume derived by Lee [J. Phys. Chem.87, 112 (1983)] from the scaled particle theory equation of state for hard-sphere mixtures.

  13. Peri-operative concerns in a patient with thyroid storm secondary to molar pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Samra, Tanvir; Kaur, Ranvinder; Sharma, Neha; Chaudhary, Lalita

    2015-01-01

    Awareness of the presence of thyroid function abnormalities in patients with molar pregnancy is important for its prompt diagnosis and management. We report the development of thyroid storm in the immediate post-operative period in a 25-year-old female who underwent evacuation of her molar pregnancy under saddle spinal block after being controlled for her thyrotoxicosis with a combination of antithyroid drugs, iodine, steroids and adrenergic blocking agents. We advocate the use of esmolol infusions up to a maximum dose of 200 μg/kg/min for immediate haemodynamic management of the patient. Optimum time needed for stabilisation of the hyper metabolic state after initiation of antithyroid drugs is still not known and evacuation of molar pregnancy remains the only definitive management of the thyrotoxic state. PMID:26755840

  14. Survival and success rate of one-piece implant inserted in molar sites

    PubMed Central

    Carinci, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Background: Recently, the use of one-piece implants (OPI) has become more popular. Since no reports specifically focus on OPIs inserted in molar areas, a retrospective study has been performed. Materials and Methods: A series of 36 OPIs (Diamond; BIOIMPLANT, Milan, Italy) were inserted into the molar area of patients admitted at the Dental Clinic, University of Chieti, Italy, for oral rehabilitation between January and December 2010. Results: In our series survival rate (SVR) and success rate (SCR) were 91.7% and 97%, respectively. Statistical analysis demonstrated that no studied variable has an impact on survival (i.e., lost implants) as well as on clinical success (i.e., crestal bone resorption). Conclusion: OPIs are reliable devices for oral rehabilitation in the molar areas. PMID:23814575

  15. Peri-operative concerns in a patient with thyroid storm secondary to molar pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Samra, Tanvir; Kaur, Ranvinder; Sharma, Neha; Chaudhary, Lalita

    2015-11-01

    Awareness of the presence of thyroid function abnormalities in patients with molar pregnancy is important for its prompt diagnosis and management. We report the development of thyroid storm in the immediate post-operative period in a 25-year-old female who underwent evacuation of her molar pregnancy under saddle spinal block after being controlled for her thyrotoxicosis with a combination of antithyroid drugs, iodine, steroids and adrenergic blocking agents. We advocate the use of esmolol infusions up to a maximum dose of 200 μg/kg/min for immediate haemodynamic management of the patient. Optimum time needed for stabilisation of the hyper metabolic state after initiation of antithyroid drugs is still not known and evacuation of molar pregnancy remains the only definitive management of the thyrotoxic state. PMID:26755840

  16. Correlating molar masses of nitrocelluloses with their intrinsic viscosities measured using capillary electrophoresis instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Alinat, Elodie; Delaunay, Nathalie; Archer, Xavier; Gareil, Pierre

    2015-09-01

    Specific viscosities for a set of six nitrocellulose (NC) standards comprising three different mass-average molar masses (between 20,000 and 300,000 g mol(-1)) of two different nitrogen contents (11.2 and 12.1%) were measured at 20 °C in tetrahydrofuran, using capillary electrophoresis instrumentation as a bench-top viscometer in frontal mode. Intrinsic viscosities were derived applying Huggins' and Kraemer's models, showing excellent convergence of both models at infinitely diluted polymer concentration. Good overall consistency was shown between viscosity data experimentally acquired by this new protocol and the mass-average molar masses provided by the manufacturers. This simple protocol should be of interest for a better understanding of the solvent interaction given by this complex polymer, and beyond this, for tailoring NC solutions devoted to film deposition, and for the determination of mass-average molar masses of unknown NC samples. PMID:26005144

  17. Estimation of molar absorptivities and pigment sizes for eumelanin and pheomelanin using femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piletic, Ivan R.; Matthews, Thomas E.; Warren, Warren S.

    2009-11-01

    Fundamental optical and structural properties of melanins are not well understood due to their poor solubility characteristics and the chemical disorder present during biomolecular synthesis. We apply nonlinear transient absorption spectroscopy to quantify molar absorptivities for eumelanin and pheomelanin and thereby get an estimate for their average pigment sizes. We determine that pheomelanin exhibits a larger molar absorptivity at near IR wavelengths (750nm), which may be extended to shorter wavelengths. Using the molar absorptivities, we estimate that melanin pigments contain ˜46 and 28 monomer units for eumelanin and pheomelanin, respectively. This is considerably larger than the oligomeric species that have been recently proposed to account for the absorption spectrum of eumelanin and illustrates that larger pigments comprise a significant fraction of the pigment distribution.

  18. An Evaluation of Pathologic Changes in the Follicle of Impacted Mandibular Third Molars

    PubMed Central

    Tambuwala, Aruna Azhar; Oswal, Rakesh Gulabchand; Desale, Rushikesh Suresh; Oswal, Nitin Prakash; Mall, Prashant Edwin; Sayed, Aatif Riyaz; Pujari, Aniket Tarachand

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the early pathologic changes in the follicular tissue of completely impacted mandibular third molar. Materials and Methods: 52 patients, between 18 and 52 years of age of which 25 were males and 27 were females, were selected. They had impacted mandibular third molars, which were indicated for extraction. After extraction, the follicle was sent for a histopathological evaluation to two different oral pathologists. Results: The results showed that 80.8% of the specimen had normal follicles. 11.5% specimen suggested cystic changes while 7.7% suggested infected follicle. Conclusion: It is desirable to consider prophylactic removal of impacted mandibular third molar presenting at a younger age, whereas their removal remains an enigma for the older age group and should only be considered appropriate in those cases where frank causes for its removal are established. PMID:25954073

  19. Analysis of masseter and temporal muscles during surgical extraction of impacted third molars.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Michelle B; Naclerio-Homem, Maria G; Nascimento, Rodrigo D; Oliveira Amorim, Jose Benedito; Raldi, Fernando V

    2015-01-01

    With the aim of contributing to the discussion on stomatognathic system dysfunction after surgical procedures, this study compared the electromyographic activity of the superficial masseter and temporal masticatory muscles before, during, and after impacted mandibular third molar extractions. Muscular activity was recorded presurgery, transsurgery, immediately postoperatively, and on postoperative days 7, 15, and 30. Twenty patients requiring extraction of impacted mandibular third molars were selected and evaluated. In 20 patients who underwent mandibular third molar extractions, electromyography showed no alterations in muscle tone, and no statistically significant differences were observed in the left and right temporal and masseter muscles at any of the experimental periods at either mandibular rest or isometric contraction position. However, the degree of mouth opening increased 11.76% from pretreatment to 30 days after surgery. These results may reflect the shorter, careful extraction procedure performed by the surgeon. PMID:26325653

  20. Risks and benefits of removal of impacted third molars. A critical review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Mercier, P; Precious, D

    1992-02-01

    A critical review of the literature about risks and benefits of the removal of impacted 3rd molar teeth is presented in 4 categories: risk of non-intervention, risk of intervention, benefit of non-intervention and benefit of intervention. There are well-defined criteria for removal of impacted 3rd molar teeth. Absolute indications and contra-indications for the removal of asymptomatic 3rd molar teeth cannot be established because no long-term studies exist which validate the benefit to the patient either of early removal or of deliberate retention of these teeth. The prudent course of action for the clinician to follow is based on rational clinical decision-making using traditional methods of evaluation to effect the optimal outcome, keeping the interests of the individual patient above all else. PMID:1569360