Science.gov

Sample records for 10-fold serial dilution

  1. Serial Dilution Simulation Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keler, Cynthia; Balutis, Tabitha; Bergen, Kim; Laudenslager, Bryanna; Rubino, Deanna

    2010-01-01

    Serial dilution is often a difficult concept for students to understand. In this short dry lab exercise, students perform serial dilutions using seed beads. This exercise helps students gain skill at performing dilutions without using reagents, bacterial cultures, or viral cultures, while being able to visualize the process.

  2. Microfluidic serial dilution ladder.

    PubMed

    Ahrar, Siavash; Hwang, Michelle; Duncan, Philip N; Hui, Elliot E

    2014-01-07

    Serial dilution is a fundamental procedure that is common to a large number of laboratory protocols. Automation of serial dilution is thus a valuable component for lab-on-a-chip systems. While a handful of different microfluidic strategies for serial dilution have been reported, approaches based on continuous flow mixing inherently consume larger amounts of sample volume and chip real estate. We employ valve-driven circulatory mixing to address these issues and also introduce a novel device structure to store each stage of the dilution process. The dilution strategy is based on sequentially mixing the rungs of a ladder structure. We demonstrate a 7-stage series of 1 : 1 dilutions with R(2) equal to 0.995 in an active device area of 1 cm(2).

  3. Microfluidic serial dilution circuit.

    PubMed

    Paegel, Brian M; Grover, William H; Skelley, Alison M; Mathies, Richard A; Joyce, Gerald F

    2006-11-01

    In vitro evolution of RNA molecules requires a method for executing many consecutive serial dilutions. To solve this problem, a microfluidic circuit has been fabricated in a three-layer glass-PDMS-glass device. The 400-nL serial dilution circuit contains five integrated membrane valves: three two-way valves arranged in a loop to drive cyclic mixing of the diluent and carryover, and two bus valves to control fluidic access to the circuit through input and output channels. By varying the valve placement in the circuit, carryover fractions from 0.04 to 0.2 were obtained. Each dilution process, which is composed of a diluent flush cycle followed by a mixing cycle, is carried out with no pipeting, and a sample volume of 400 nL is sufficient for conducting an arbitrary number of serial dilutions. Mixing is precisely controlled by changing the cyclic pumping rate, with a minimum mixing time of 22 s. This microfluidic circuit is generally applicable for integrating automated serial dilution and sample preparation in almost any microfluidic architecture.

  4. Planning a serial dilution test with multiple dilutions.

    PubMed

    Blodgett, Robert J

    2009-06-01

    The dilutions used in a serial dilution test determine which concentrations it can estimate well. Two criteria help to select how many and which dilutions to use. The first criterion is a low probability of outcomes with either all growth or all non-growth tubes at the concentrations of interest. The second criterion considers how far the estimated concentration (MPN) is likely to be from the actual concentration.

  5. Dispersion serial dilution methods using the gradient diluter device.

    PubMed

    Walling, Leslie; Schulz, Craig; Johnson, Michael

    2012-12-01

    A solute aspirated into a prefilled tube of diluent undergoes a dilution effect known as dispersion. Traditionally the effects of dispersion have been considered a negative consequence of using liquid-filled fixed-tip liquid handlers. We present a novel device and technique that utilizes the effects of dispersion to the benefit of making dilutions. The device known as the Gradient Diluter extends the dilution range of practical serial dilutions to six orders of magnitude in final volumes as low as 10 μL. Presented are the device, dispersion methods, and validation tests using fluorescence detection of sulforhodamine and the high-performance liquid chromatography/ultraviolet detection of furosemide. In addition, a T-cell inhibition assay of a relevant downstream protein is used to demonstrate IC(50) curves made with the Gradient Diluter compare favorably with those generated by hand.

  6. Statistical inference for serial dilution assay data.

    PubMed

    Lee, M L; Whitmore, G A

    1999-12-01

    Serial dilution assays are widely employed for estimating substance concentrations and minimum inhibitory concentrations. The Poisson-Bernoulli model for such assays is appropriate for count data but not for continuous measurements that are encountered in applications involving substance concentrations. This paper presents practical inference methods based on a log-normal model and illustrates these methods using a case application involving bacterial toxins.

  7. Electrocoalescence based serial dilution of microfluidic droplets.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Biddut; Vanapalli, Siva A

    2014-07-01

    Dilution of microfluidic droplets where the concentration of a reagent is incrementally varied is a key operation in drop-based biological analysis. Here, we present an electrocoalescence based dilution scheme for droplets based on merging between moving and parked drops. We study the effects of fluidic and electrical parameters on the dilution process. Highly consistent coalescence and fine resolution in dilution factor are achieved with an AC signal as low as 10 V even though the electrodes are separated from the fluidic channel by insulator. We find that the amount of material exchange between the droplets per coalescence event is high for low capillary number. We also observe different types of coalescence depending on the flow and electrical parameters and discuss their influence on the rate of dilution. Overall, we find the key parameter governing the rate of dilution is the duration of coalescence between the moving and parked drop. The proposed design is simple incorporating the channel electrodes in the same layer as that of the fluidic channels. Our approach allows on-demand and controlled dilution of droplets and is simple enough to be useful for assays that require serial dilutions. The approach can also be useful for applications where there is a need to replace or wash fluid from stored drops.

  8. Electrocoalescence based serial dilution of microfluidic droplets

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharjee, Biddut; Vanapalli, Siva A.

    2014-01-01

    Dilution of microfluidic droplets where the concentration of a reagent is incrementally varied is a key operation in drop-based biological analysis. Here, we present an electrocoalescence based dilution scheme for droplets based on merging between moving and parked drops. We study the effects of fluidic and electrical parameters on the dilution process. Highly consistent coalescence and fine resolution in dilution factor are achieved with an AC signal as low as 10 V even though the electrodes are separated from the fluidic channel by insulator. We find that the amount of material exchange between the droplets per coalescence event is high for low capillary number. We also observe different types of coalescence depending on the flow and electrical parameters and discuss their influence on the rate of dilution. Overall, we find the key parameter governing the rate of dilution is the duration of coalescence between the moving and parked drop. The proposed design is simple incorporating the channel electrodes in the same layer as that of the fluidic channels. Our approach allows on-demand and controlled dilution of droplets and is simple enough to be useful for assays that require serial dilutions. The approach can also be useful for applications where there is a need to replace or wash fluid from stored drops. PMID:25379096

  9. Serial dilutions: a new area of research for animal behavior.

    PubMed

    Nolf, Sondra L; Craig, David Philip Arthur; Abramson, Charles I

    2012-10-01

    This paper attempts to stimulate the psychological investigation of homeopathy and serially agitated dilutions. The history of homeopathy and serial dilutions is provided in a literature review of selected research areas. Two original illustrative experiments are also presented and discussed. The first examined the effect of serially agitated dilutions of Sevin on the mortality rate of honey bees (Apis mellifera). In a second experiment, the effect of serially agitated dilutions of sucrose on proboscis extension in honey bees was assessed. No differences were found between serially agitated dilutions of pesticides and sucrose compared with dilutions alone. Implications, limitations, and proposed further work are discussed.

  10. Serial dilution microchip for cytotoxicity test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bang, Hyunwoo; Lim, Sun Hee; Lee, Young Kyung; Chung, Seok; Chung, Chanil; Han, Dong-Chul; Chang, Jun Keun

    2004-08-01

    Today's pharmaceutical industry is facing challenges resulting from the vast increases in sample numbers produced by high-throughput screening (HTS). In addition, the bottlenecks created by increased demand for cytotoxicity testing (required to assess compound safety) are becoming a serious problem. We have developed a polymer PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) based microfluidic device that can perform a cytotoxicity test in a rapid and reproducible manner. The concept that the device includes is well adjustable to automated robots in huge HTS systems, so we can think of it as a potential dilution and delivery module. Cytotoxicity testing is all about the dilution and dispensing of a drug sample. Previously, we made a PDMS based microfluidic device which automatically and precisely diluted drugs with a buffer solution with serially increasing concentrations. This time, the serially diluted drug solution was directly delivered to 96 well plates for cytotoxicity testing. Cytotoxic paclitaxel solution with 2% RPMI 1640 has been used while carrying out cancerous cell based cytotoxicity tests. We believe that this rapid and robust use of the PDMS microchip will overcome the growing problem in cytotoxicity testing for HTS.

  11. A nanoliter microfluidic serial dilution bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Guo-Yue; Lee, Yi-Wei; Chiang, Chih-Chung; Yang, Ya-Tang

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial culture is a basic technique in both fundamental and applied microbiology. The excessive reagent consumption and laborious maintenance of bulk bioreactors for microbial culture have prompted the development of miniaturized on-chip bioreactors. With the minimal choice of two compartments (N = 2) and discrete time, periodic dilution steps, we realize a microfluidic bioreactor that mimics macroscopic serial dilution transfer culture. This device supports automated, long-term microbial cultures with a nanoliter-scale working volume and real-time monitoring of microbial populations at single-cell resolution. Because of the high surface-to-volume ratio, the device also operates as an effective biofilm-flow reactor to support cogrowth of planktonic and biofilm populations. We expect that such devices will open opportunities in many fields of microbiology. PMID:26392828

  12. A serial dilution microfluidic device for cytotoxicity assays.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Adrian T; Monteiro-Riviere, Nancy; Walker, Glenn M

    2006-01-01

    A novel microfluidic device is presented which creates a linear serial dilution of two input fluid streams. This platform facilitates higher productivity as a component of a high throughput cytotoxicity testing strategy. A modeling solution is presented to create custom linear dilution schemes. The featured device creates a serial dilution of two solutions in the range of 1:9 through 9:1 across nine discrete dilutions. It has been validated to create a highly linear progression of dilutions with an R2 value of 0.9993. The device functions equivalently over a wide range of flow rates. The standard deviation of dilution values averages 0.76% over six flow rates spanning 0.5 to 16 microl min(-1).

  13. Upper and lower bounds for a serial dilution test.

    PubMed

    Blodgett, Robert J

    2005-01-01

    A Poisson-binomial model estimates the concentration of a target microbe from a serial dilution test. The maximum likelihood procedure gives an equation whose solution equals the estimate of the concentration. This paper gives bounds for the solution to this equation that require only minimal calculations.

  14. Implementing Inquiry-Based Learning in Teaching Serial Dilutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Candace L.; McGill, Michael T.; Buikema, Arthur L., Jr.; Stevens, Ann M.

    2008-01-01

    The 5E model of inquiry-based learning was incorporated into a sophomore-level microbiology laboratory to increase student understanding of serial dilutions, a concept that is often difficult for most students to comprehend. Quantitative and qualitative assessments were conducted during the semester to determine the value of this approach for…

  15. Optimal serial dilutions designs for drug discovery experiments.

    PubMed

    Donev, Alexander N; Tobias, Randall D

    2011-05-01

    Dose-response studies are an essential part of the drug discovery process. They are typically carried out on a large number of chemical compounds using serial dilution experimental designs. This paper proposes a method of selecting the key parameters of these designs (maximum dose, dilution factor, number of concentrations and number of replicated observations for each concentration) depending on the stage of the drug discovery process where the study takes place. This is achieved by employing and extending results from optimal design theory. Population D- and D(S)-optimality are defined and used to evaluate the precision of estimating the potency of the tested compounds. The proposed methodology is easy to use and creates opportunities to reduce the cost of the experiments without compromising the quality of the data obtained in them.

  16. Estimating the precision of serial dilutions and viable bacterial counts.

    PubMed

    Hedges, A J

    2002-06-25

    The propagation of error in serial dilutions was investigated theoretically and by means of computer simulations. The principal aim of the study was, given only the pipette manufacturer's specification, to estimate the variance of any step in a dilution series both of pure solutions and of homogeneous bacterial suspensions by means of simple formulae. The study was extended to include bacterial plate counts by both the standard and the Miles and Misra methods. It was found that such estimation was possible and that the distributions approximated the normal sufficiently for the construction of confidence intervals (Cls) by the usual method. Such intervals can be regarded as minima which could be inflated by other, possibly undetermined, factors. It is suggested that laboratories could construct tables such as that reported here for pipettes and methods in common use to facilitate estimation. While replication of the final sampling step of a plate count increases the precision of estimation, averaging across dilutions may decrease precision and is not recommended for the standard pour-plate count.

  17. Statistical design for a small serial dilution series.

    PubMed

    Zelterman, Daniel; Tulupyev, Alexander; Heimer, Robert; Abdala, Nadia

    2010-02-10

    We describe statistical plans for a serial dilution series designed to detect and estimate the number of viral particles in a solution. The design addresses a problem when a very limited number of aliquots are available for proliferation. A gamma prior distribution on the number of viral particles allows us to describe the marginal probability distribution of all experimental outcomes. We examine a design that minimizes the expected reciprocal information and compare this with the maximum entropy design. We argue that the maximum entropy design is more useful from the point of view of the laboratory technician. The problem and design are motivated by our study of the viability of human immunodeficiency virus in syringes and other equipment that might mediate blood-borne viral transmission.

  18. Split-plot designs for robotic serial dilution assays.

    PubMed

    Buzas, Jeffrey S; Wager, Carrie G; Lansky, David M

    2011-12-01

    This article explores effective implementation of split-plot designs in serial dilution bioassay using robots. We show that the shortest path for a robot to fill plate wells for a split-plot design is equivalent to the shortest common supersequence problem in combinatorics. We develop an algorithm for finding the shortest common supersequence, provide an R implementation, and explore the distribution of the number of steps required to implement split-plot designs for bioassay through simulation. We also show how to construct collections of split plots that can be filled in a minimal number of steps, thereby demonstrating that split-plot designs can be implemented with nearly the same effort as strip-plot designs. Finally, we provide guidelines for modeling data that result from these designs.

  19. ON-DEMAND SERIAL DILUTION USING QUANTIZED NANO/PICOLITER-SCALE DROPLETS

    SciTech Connect

    Jambovane, Sachin R.; Prost, Spencer A.; Sheen, Allison M.; Magnuson, Jon K.; Kelly, Ryan T.

    2014-10-29

    This paper describes a fully automated droplet-based microfluidic device for on-demand serial dilution that is capable of achieving a dilution ratio of >6000 (concentration ranges from 1 mM to 160nM) over 35 nanoliter-scale droplets. This serial diluter can be applied to high throughput and label-free kinetic assays by integrating with our previously developed on-demand droplet-based microfluidic with mass spectrometry detection.

  20. Serial dilution via surface energy trap-assisted magnetic droplet manipulation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Shin, Dong Jin; Wang, Tza-Huei

    2013-12-21

    This paper demonstrates a facile method of generating precise serial dilutions in the form of droplets on an open surface platform. The method relies on the use of surface energy traps (SETs), etched areas of high surface energy on a Teflon coated glass substrate, to assist in the magnetic manipulation of droplets to meter and dispense liquid of defined volumes for the preparation of serial dilutions. The volume of the dispensed liquid can be precisely controlled by the size of the SETs, facilitating generation of concentration profiles of high linearity. We have applied this approach to the generation of serial dilutions of antibiotics for anti-microbial susceptibility testing (AST).

  1. An inline QC method for determining serial dilution performance of DMSO-based systems.

    PubMed

    Walling, Leslie A

    2011-06-01

    Serial dilution of compounds solubilized in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) for dose-response curves is a common method for efficacy analysis of potential drug candidates. In general, serial dilution methods are particularly prone to error propagation because each dilution is dependent on the previous concentration. Moreover, assumptions about quality control parameters (i.e., dye linearity) can lead to an erroneous process. Here, an inline performance measurement is sought to improve the precision and accuracy of dilution plates. Sulforhodamine 101 (S101) dye is introduced as the quantitative fluorometric method of choice for DMSO-based systems. Although S101 in DMSO behaves in a nonlinear fashion over its detectable range, we account for this with a direct calibration method that includes every point of the dilution template. This report contains dye selection rationale for the S101 dye and its use in quantifying the performance of 96- and 384-well dilution protocols as tested on five identical instruments.

  2. Theory of a microfluidic serial dilution bioreactor for growth of planktonic and biofilm populations.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Sze-Bi; Yang, Ya-Tang

    2016-04-01

    We present the theory of a microfluidic bioreactor with a two-compartment growth chamber and periodic serial dilution. In the model, coexisting planktonic and biofilm populations exchange by adsorption and detachment. The criteria for coexistence and global extinction are determined by stability analysis of the global extinction state. Stability analysis yields the operating diagram in terms of the dilution and removal ratios, constrained by the plumbing action of the bioreactor. The special case of equal uptake function and logistic growth is analytically solved and explicit growth curves are plotted. The presented theory is applicable to generic microfluidic bioreactors with discrete growth chambers and periodic dilution at discrete time points. Therefore, the theory is expected to assist the design of microfluidic devices for investigating microbial competition and microbial biofilm growth under serial dilution conditions.

  3. Design and analysis of serial limiting dilution assays with small sample sizes.

    PubMed

    Macken, C

    1999-01-01

    We study the design of serial limiting dilution assays (SLDAs) for estimation of effector cell frequency in settings that restrict severely the amount of material available for assay, and for which the assumption of a single-hit Poisson model is reasonable. For different designs (that is, dilution factor, number of dilution levels, and number of replicates at each level), we evaluate maximum likelihood and minimum chi-square estimators, using four quantitative criteria: probability of a non-informative assay (PNI), bias, coefficient of variation (CV), and mean squared error (MSE). Our results are exact, not simulation-based, nor approximations. We found that differences between these two estimators were insubstantial by comparison with the effect on the estimators of the experimental design. Bias was severe in small assays, and could lead, in extremely small designs, to overestimation of effector frequency by as much as 100%. These four criteria provide a rigorous basis for determining the most effective apportionment of total effort among replicates and dilution levels. By increasing the dilution factor and favoring the number of replicates over the number of dilution levels, the PNI is reduced while bias, CV and MSE are increased; and vice versa. Our study is easily extended to estimation of the density of biologically active particles per volume. It can also be extended to alternatives to the single-hit Poisson model for a serial limiting dilution assay.

  4. 2-layer based microfluidic concentration generator by hybrid serial and volumetric dilutions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kangsun; Kim, Choong; Kim, Youngeun; Jung, Keunhui; Ahn, Byungwook; Kang, Ji Yoon; Oh, Kwang W

    2010-04-01

    We present a 2-layer based microfluidic concentration generator by a hybrid of a serial and a volumetric dilution for dose-response experiments in drug screening. The hybrid dilution method using 2-layer based microfluidic network significantly reduces the total number of cascaded serial dilution stages. The proposed strategy is capable of generating a large number of universal stepwise monotonic concentrations with a wide range of logarithmic and linear scales. We have studied an equivalent electrical circuit to that of the 2-layer based microfluidic network, where the only variable parameter is channel length. We have designed a microfluidic dilution generator simultaneously covering 14 doses with a combination of 4-order logarithmic and 4-point linear concentrations. The design has been verified by a commercial circuit analysis software (e.g., P-Spice) for the electrical circuit analysis and a computational fluid dynamics software (e.g., CFD-ACE+) for the microfluidic circuit analysis. As a real-life application of the proposed dilution generator, we have successfully performed a dose-response experiment using MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. We expect that the proposed dilution method will be useful to study not only high throughput drug screening but also optimization in biology, chemistry, medicine, and material sciences.

  5. Establishing quality assurance criteria for serial dilution operations on liquid-handling equipment.

    PubMed

    Popa-Burke, Ioana; Lupotsky, Brian; Boyer, Joseph; Gannon, William; Hughes, Rob; Kadwill, Paul; Lyerly, Donald; Nichols, Jason; Nixon, Elizabeth; Rimmer, Darren; Saiz-Nicolas, Isabel; Sanfiz-Pinto, Beatriz; Holland, Sue

    2009-09-01

    Since the advent of high-throughput screening (HTS) in the early 1990s, parallel multichannel liquid handlers have become a mainstay in every drug discovery setting. Although several peer-reviewed publications have discussed methods and criteria for stamping multiwell copies, there is very little information about establishing a standard operating procedure (SOP) for standard (microliter-level) serial dilutions of compounds used in dose-response experiments. The authors discuss the 4 main criteria any serial dilution process must pass (accuracy, precision, fold dilution, and outliers) and the process for establishing thresholds for all of these values in a compound management or biological screening laboratory. The thresholds need to be both low enough to be acceptable from a biological potency variability perspective and high enough to allow the instruments to pass the quality assurance (QA) analysis on a regular basis. In this article, the authors suggest suitable thresholds arrived at by a variety of methods, including trend analysis of QA data, survey questionnaire from the main stakeholders (screening scientists, chemists), and published criteria for single-shot stamping. A mathematical analysis of the effect of threshold values on estimated XC(50)s was performed to ensure that the variability introduced by the serial dilution step is within acceptable overall variability limits.

  6. Use of sediment serial dilution series to establish biological effect levels and clean-up goals

    SciTech Connect

    Timmer, E.; DeLong, T.; Millard, J.; Dobroski, C.

    1995-12-31

    A sediment serial dilution study was used to determine biological effect levels for two freshwater invertebrates, Chironomus tentans and Hyalella azteca. The sediments for the test were collected from a New England brook which contained elevated levels of lead and polychlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons. The objective of the sediment dilution study was two-fold: (1 ) to provide a site-specific estimation of biological effect levels, thus reducing uncertainties associated with using literature-based values, and (2) to establish clean-up goals specific to this freshwater system.

  7. Generalized serial dilution module for monotonic and arbitrary microfluidic gradient generators.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kangsun; Kim, Choong; Ahn, Byungwook; Panchapakesan, Rajagopal; Full, Anthony R; Nordee, Ledum; Kang, Ji Yoon; Oh, Kwang W

    2009-03-07

    In this paper, we propose a generalized serial dilution module for universal microfluidic concentration gradient generators including N cascaded-mixing stages in a stepwise manner. Desired concentrations were generated by means of controlled volumetric mixing ratios of two merging solutions in each stage. The flow rates were adjusted by controlling channel length, which is proportional to fluidic resistance in each channel. A generalized mathematical model for generating any complex concentration and output flow rate gradients is presented based on the fact that there is an analogy between microfluidic circuits and electrical circuits. The pressure drop corresponds to a voltage drop, the flow rate to an electrical current, and the flow resistance to an electrical resistance. A simple equivalent electrical circuit model was generalized, and in the model each channel segment was represented by an electrical resistance. As a result of the mathematical modelling, the only variable parameter in the generalized serial dilution module was the channel length. By the use of the generalized serial dilution module with N = 4, three types of microfluidic gradient generators for linear, logarithmic and Gaussian gradients were successfully designed and tested. The proposed strategy is capable of generating universal monotonic gradients with a single module or arbitrary gradients with multiple modules ranging from linear to complex non-linear shapes of concentration gradients as well as arbitrary output flow rate gradients in a stepwise manner. The simple universal gradient generation technology using the generalized serial dilution module will find widespread use in the greater chemical and biological community, and address many challenges of gradient-dependent phenomena.

  8. Detection thresholds for phenyl ethyl alcohol using serial dilutions in different solvents.

    PubMed

    Tsukatani, Toshiaki; Miwa, Takaki; Furukawa, Mitsuru; Costanzo, Richard M

    2003-01-01

    Detection thresholds are typically obtained by presenting a subject with serial dilutions of an odorant. Many factors, including the solvent used to dilute the odorant, can influence the measurement of detection thresholds. Differences have been reported in detection thresholds for phenyl ethyl alcohol (PEA) when different solvents are used. In this study we used gas chromatography (GC) to investigate further the effect of solvent on odor detection thresholds. We used a single ascending method and serial dilutions of PEA in four different solvents--liquid paraffin (LP), mineral oil (MO), propylene glycol (PG) and dipropylene glycol (DPG)--to determine the PEA thresholds for 31 adult subjects. For each solvent, we prepared eight serial log base 10 step dilutions (1-8), with corresponding liquid PEA concentrations of 6.3 x 10(1)-6.3 x 10(-6) (% v/v). We found that the threshold concentrations for PEA in LP (step 6.5) and PEA in MO (step 5.5) were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than for PEA in PG (step 4.0) and DPG (step 4.0) We then used GC to measure both the liquid and gas PEA concentrations for the dilution steps prepared with LP and PG. Although there were large threshold differences in the liquid concentrations of PEA in LP and PG, the headspace gas concentrations of PEA were the same. These results demonstrate the importance of determining the gas concentration of odorant stimuli when performing odor threshold measurements, in particular when comparing odor detection thresholds obtained using different solvents.

  9. Standardisation and comparison of serial dilution and single dilution enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using different antigenic preparations of the Babesia (Theileria) equi parasite.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sanjay; Kumar, Yogesh; Malhotra, Dharam V; Dhar, Shruti; Nichani, Anil K

    2003-01-01

    Serial dilution and single dilution enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were standardised and their sensitivity and specificity were compared for serodiagnosis of Babesia equi infection. The antibody titres of 24 donkey sera of known identity were determined separately by serial dilution ELISA using three different B. equi antigens namely whole merozoite (WM), cell membrane (CM) and high speed supernatant (HSS). The ratios of the optical density (OD) of known positive and known negative sera at different serum dilutions were calculated and termed as the positive/negative (P/N) ratio. The coefficients of correlation (r) were calculated between the P/N ratios at different dilutions of sera and the log10 antibody titres of the same sera were ascertained by serial dilution ELISA. The highest value of 'r' was obtained at a serum dilution of 1:200. From log10 antibody titre of sera (y) and their P/N ratio at a dilution of 1:200 (x), regression equations (y = a + bx) were calculated separately for the three antigens. Test sera were diluted to 1:200, their OD were read in duplicate wells and were converted to the P/N ratio. Antibody titres were predicted from the P/N ratio using a regression equation separately for the three antigens. Titres obtained by both ELISAs were not significantly different from each other, thus confirming that single dilution ELISA could be successfully used to replace conventional serial dilution ELISA. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive value of single dilution ELISA was validated statistically using 42 B. equi disease-positive sera and 106 B. equi disease-negative sera. The WM antigen was found to be the most sensitive with a higher predictive value for negative test sera as compared to the CM or HSS antigens. Sera positive for other equine infections including Babesia caballi showed no cross-reaction with the three B. equi antigens in ELISA, thus the test was immunologically specific. Antibody titres of 109 unknown field donkey

  10. Authentic active learning activities demonstrating the use of serial dilutions and plate counts.

    PubMed

    March, Jordon K; Jensen, Kyle C; Porter, Nathan T; Breakwell, Donald P

    2011-01-01

    Serial dilution and plate counting is often taught in courses for both microbiology and allied health students. Lecture examples and examination questions addressing how the method is used can sometimes be contrived: artificial data sets may have little or no meaning other than to have students perform a calculation. Here we provide a set of activities employing data sets acquired from the primary literature. Our objective was to have the students think critically about a real scenario in which serial dilution and plate count was used. Each activity requires students to read a paragraph describing the study, predict the results, perform the appropriate calculations, and then evaluate the results in light of their predictions. To test the efficacy of these activities, a pretest quiz was given to approximately 100 students in an allied health/general microbiology course. After a lecture on how microbes are enumerated, students were given a different quiz. The class was then divided randomly into groups of three or four students and assigned one of the activities. A postactivity quiz was also administered. Approximately two weeks later, a serial dilution/plate count question was used on an examination and served as a final posttest. Standardized learning gains were calculated for the quiz administered after each learning activity. Even though learning gains were significantly higher after the lecture, there was also a significant improvement between the lecture and the activity. Using an exercise based on an authentic set of data significantly improved student learning gains, and is a useful practice for teaching microbiology.

  11. Authentic Active Learning Activities Demonstrating the Use of Serial Dilutions and Plate Counts †

    PubMed Central

    March, Jordon K.; Jensen, Kyle C.; Porter, Nathan T.; Breakwell, Donald P.

    2011-01-01

    Serial dilution and plate counting is often taught in courses for both microbiology and allied health students. Lecture examples and examination questions addressing how the method is used can sometimes be contrived: artificial data sets may have little or no meaning other than to have students perform a calculation. Here we provide a set of activities employing data sets acquired from the primary literature. Our objective was to have the students think critically about a real scenario in which serial dilution and plate count was used. Each activity requires students to read a paragraph describing the study, predict the results, perform the appropriate calculations, and then evaluate the results in light of their predictions. To test the efficacy of these activities, a pretest quiz was given to approximately 100 students in an allied health/general microbiology course. After a lecture on how microbes are enumerated, students were given a different quiz. The class was then divided randomly into groups of three or four students and assigned one of the activities. A postactivity quiz was also administered. Approximately two weeks later, a serial dilution/plate count question was used on an examination and served as a final posttest. Standardized learning gains were calculated for the quiz administered after each learning activity. Even though learning gains were significantly higher after the lecture, there was also a significant improvement between the lecture and the activity. Using an exercise based on an authentic set of data significantly improved student learning gains, and is a useful practice for teaching microbiology. PMID:23653759

  12. A prototype microfluidic platform for miniaturization and automation of serial dilution and dose-response assays.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Jeffrey; Vajjhala, Surekha; Coyne, Courtney; Flynn, Terence; Pezzuto, Marci; Williams, Manda; Levine, Leanna

    2002-11-01

    A novel microfluidic device was designed and developed to miniaturize, multiplex, and automate serial dilution and three-reagent dose-response assays using submicroliter quantities of reagents. This prototype microfluidic device can be used to measure enzyme kinetics and to test a chemical lead's response to a target by fluorescent readout using common plate readers and detection systems. The prototype microfluidic system yielded serial dilution and dose-response assay data comparable to results obtained from manual titrations and reagent additions performed using a microwell plate. Enzyme kinetics were highly reproducible using these devices, although Michaelis-Menten kinetics results differed from those obtained in the microwell plate. In all cases reported here, assays performed on the microfluidic format required lower volumes of reagents compared with the microwell plate. In addition to savings in reagent consumption, the microfluidic devices and bench-top instruments offer additional advantages over conventional solutions, including a small footprint and compatibility with commercially available fluorescence detectors. Future directions for the prototype technology are discussed.

  13. Automated Acoustic Dispensing for the Serial Dilution of Peptide Agonists in Potency Determination Assays.

    PubMed

    Naylor, Jacqueline; Rossi, Alessandra; Brankin, Christopher; Hornigold, David C

    2016-11-10

    As with small molecule drug discovery, screening for peptide agonists requires the serial dilution of peptides to produce concentration-response curves. Screening peptides affords an additional layer of complexity as conventional tip-based sample handling methods expose peptides to a large surface area of plasticware, providing an increased opportunity for peptide loss via adsorption. Preventing excessive exposure to plasticware reduces peptide loss via adherence to plastics and thus minimizes inaccuracies in potency prediction, and we have previously described the benefits of non-contact acoustic dispensing for in vitro high-throughput screening of peptide agonists(1). Here we discuss a fully integrated automation solution for non-contact acoustic preparation of peptide serial dilutions in microtiter plates utilizing the example of screening for peptide agonists at the mouse glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R). Our methods allow for high-throughput cell-based assays to screen for agonists and are easily scalable to support increased sample throughput, or to allow for increased numbers of assay plate copies (e.g., for a panel of more target cell lines).

  14. Automatic diluter for bacteriological samples.

    PubMed Central

    Trinel, P A; Bleuze, P; Leroy, G; Moschetto, Y; Leclerc, H

    1983-01-01

    The described apparatus, carrying 190 tubes, allows automatic and aseptic dilution of liquid or suspended-solid samples. Serial 10-fold dilutions are programmable from 10(-1) to 10(-9) and are carried out in glass tubes with screw caps and split silicone septa. Dilution assays performed with strains of Escherichia coli and Bacillus stearothermophilus permitted efficient conditions for sterilization of the needle to be defined and showed that the automatic dilutions were as accurate and as reproducible as the most rigorous conventional dilutions. Images PMID:6338826

  15. Testing deviation for a set of serial dilution most probable numbers from a Poisson-binomial model.

    PubMed

    Blodgett, Robert J

    2006-01-01

    A serial dilution experiment estimates the microbial concentration in a broth by inoculating several sets of tubes with various amounts of the broth. The estimation uses the Poisson distribution and the number of tubes in each of these sets that show growth. Several factors, such as interfering microbes, toxins, or disaggregation of adhering microbes, may distort the results of a serial dilution experiment. A mild enough distortion may not raise suspicion with a single outcome. The test introduced here judges whether the entire set of serial dilution outcomes appears unusual. This test forms lists of the possible outcomes. The set of outcomes is declared unusual if any occurrence of an observed outcome is on the first list, or more than one is on the first or second list, etc. A similar test can apply when there are only a finite number of possible outcomes, and each outcome has a calculable probability, and few outcomes have tied probabilities.

  16. Correlation of the serial-dilution protamine sulfate test with models of "hypercoagulability" and thrombosis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Francis, P B; Wilson, J E

    1977-04-01

    In a dog model, combinations of venous-injury thrombosis, homologous serum-induced "hypercoagulability," and fibrinolytic blockade were evaluated to determine the factors involved in the generation of a positive serial-dilution protamine sulfate test. Stasis and operative procedures did not produce a positive test. Small local thrombi induced by electrical current produced a positive test that tended to persist only during the initial formation and propagation of the thrombus, and was blocked by pretreatment with epsilon-aminocaproic acid, suggesting in this model that the test was detecting mainly early fibrin degradation products. Homologous serum infusion without venous-injury thrombosis also produced positive serial-dilution protamine sulfate test results that could not be blocked with epsilon-aminocaproic acid suggesting here that the serial-dilution protamine sulfate test was detecting mainly soluble complexes of fibrin monomer rather than early fibrin degradation products. The serial-dilution protamine sulfate test is therefore capable of detecting both small local thrombi and serum-induced "hypercoagulability" without thrombosis in the dog model.

  17. Patch testing with budesonide in serial dilutions: the significance of dose, occlusion time and reading time.

    PubMed

    Isaksson, M; Bruze, M; Goossens, A; Lepoittevin, J P

    1999-01-01

    Budesonide is advocated as a marker molecule for corticosteroid contact allergy. When patch testing corticosteroids, one must consider their sensitizing potential but also their anti-inflammatory properties, as well as the possibility of different time courses for such properties. The dose-response relationship for budesonide was therefore investigated with regard to dose, occlusion time, and reading time. 10 patients were patch tested with budesonide in ethanol in serial dilutions from 2.0% down to 0.0002% with occlusion times of 48, 24, and 5 h. Readings were on D2, D4, and D7. The 48-h occlusion picked up most positive reactors, 8/10. The D4 reading (48-h occlusion) detected most positive reactors, 8/10, and here 0.002% picked up most contact allergies. Late readings favoured high concentrations. The "edge effect" was noted for several concentrations at early readings. Due to the individual corticosteroid reactivity, the dose-response relationship and the time courses of the elicitation and the anti-inflammatory capacity, several features may be explained, i.e., that lower concentrations may detect budesonide allergy better at early readings, that patients with an "edge reaction" can have positive reactions to lower concentrations.

  18. Patch-testing with serial dilutions of tixocortol pivalate and potential cross-reactive substances.

    PubMed

    Isaksson, M; Bruze, M; Goossens, A; Lepoittevin, J P

    2000-01-01

    Of patch-tested patients with dermatitis, 4-5% are allergic to corticosteroids. Four groups of corticosteroids are recognized (A-D), where substances from the same group may cross-react. We investigated the potential cross-reactivity pattern and dose-response relationship for several corticosteroids from group A. We also included the corresponding aldehyde to hydrocortisone, as this degradation product has been proposed to be immunogenic. Eleven patients shown to be allergic to tixocortol pivalate were patch-tested with several corticosteroids from group A, as well as with the aldehyde, all in serial dilutions. All 11 reacted to both tixocortol pivalate and hydrocortisone. The dose-response relationship for the corticosteroids tended to be similar to sensitizers lacking anti-inflammatory potential. Patients with simultaneous reactions to many substances had high patch-test reactivity to tixocortol pivalate and hydrocortisone, while patients with few such reactions showed low reactivity (p=0.001 and 0.003, respectively). Several patients reacted to the aldehyde, supporting the theory that it is an intermediate in sensitization.

  19. Critical review and meta-analysis of serial agitated dilutions in experimental toxicology.

    PubMed

    Linde, K; Jonas, W B; Melchart, D; Worku, F; Wagner, H; Eitel, F

    1994-07-01

    1. We conducted an overview and quantitative meta-analysis of all experimental literature on the protective effects of serial agitated dilutions (SADs) of toxin preparations. 2. Articles were systematically collected and evaluated for scientific quality using pre-defined methodological criteria and then independently analysed for validity. 3. We found 105 publications exploring the effects of SAD preparations in toxicological systems. 4. The quality of evidence in these studies was low with only 43% achieving one half of the maximum possible quality score and only 31% reported in a fashion that permitted reevaluation of the data. 5. Very few studies were independently replicated using comparable models. 6. Among the high quality studies, positive effects were reported 50% more often than negative effects. 7. Four of 5 outcomes meeting quality and comparability criteria for meta-analysis showed positive effects from SAD preparations. 8. Average percent protection over controls in these preparations was 19.7 (95%Cl 6.2-33.2). 9. Further research with special attention to methodological detail and independent replication should be done.

  20. [Effect of ligand concentration on the precision of determining the parameters of ligand-receptor interaction by serial dilution methods].

    PubMed

    Bobrovnik, S A

    2004-01-01

    Earlier we suggested the method of serial dilution, which allows one to determine the parameters of ligand-receptor interaction even if the reactants are in a mixture and their concentrations are unknown. The method is especially useful if the liability of studied receptor does not allow its separation from corresponding ligand. The important prerequisite of the method's precision is that the concentration of the ligand should be sufficiently high comparing to the concentration of the receptor. In the present paper it was demonstrated that the method allows one to obtain sufficiently good precision even in the case when the concentration of the ligand is only one tenth of the receptor concentration.

  1. Estimating the precision of serial dilutions and colony counts: contribution of laboratory re-calibration of pipettes.

    PubMed

    Hedges, A J

    2003-10-15

    The basic (inherent) precision of serial dilutions and of colony counts made from them may be reliably estimated by reference solely to the pipette-manufacturer's specifications. Such estimates do not include external sources of variation and may be regarded as minima. The quality of estimation can be improved by using information gained by laboratory ('in-house') re-calibration of the pipettes. The degree of improvement was assessed by comparison with similar series made without re-calibration. It was found that improvement was minimal for colony counts but worthwhile for homogeneous solutions.

  2. Comparison of the serial dilution indicator and intragastric titration methods for measurement of meal-stimulated gastric acid secretion in man.

    PubMed

    Hogan, D L; Turken, D; Stern, A I; Isenberg, J I

    1983-11-01

    Two in vivo methods that permit quantitation of gastric acid secretion immediately after the meal are currently in use: intragastric titration and the serial dilution indicator method. During intragastric titration, intragastric pH is artificially maintained at 5.5 to 7 by the continuous addition of alkali to the gastric contents, while during serial dilution the intragastric pH is permitted to seek its natural pH. This study compared gastric acid secretion and serum gastrin in response to a liquid protein meal measured by both techniques in 10 subjects. Mean (+/- SE) 3-hr acid outputs were almost identical (53.6 +/- 6.0 mmol/3 hr with intragastric titration and 52.0 +/- 8.5 mmol/3 hr with serial dilution indicator). Furthermore, 30 min secretory responses in individual subjects were highly correlated (r = 0.98 +/- 0.01, P less than 0.001). Also, in spite of intragastric pH being less than 1.5 by 90 min after the meal during the serial dilution method, total integrated serum gastrin concentrations after the meal were similar (intragastric titration = 20.6 +/- 7.3 ng min/ml versus serial dilution indicator = 23.5 +/- 9.8 ng min/ml) and individual 30-min gastrins during the two separate tests were highly correlated (r = 0.80 +/- 0.06, P less than 0.01). It is concluded that both meal-stimulated gastric acid secretion and serum gastrin concentrations as measured by intragastric titration and by the serial dilution indicator method produced similar results.

  3. Transmission probabilities of mouse parvovirus 1 to sentinel mice chronically exposed to serial dilutions of contaminated bedding.

    PubMed

    Besselsen, David G; Myers, Erin L; Franklin, Craig L; Korte, Scott W; Wagner, April M; Henderson, Kenneth S; Weigler, Benjamin J

    2008-04-01

    Intermittent serodetection of mouse parvovirus (MPV) infections in animal facilities occurs frequently when soiled bedding sentinel mouse monitoring systems are used. We evaluated induction of seroconversion in naïve single-caged weanling ICR mice (n = 10 per group) maintained on 5-fold serially diluted contaminated bedding obtained from SCID mice persistently shedding MPV1e. Soiled bedding from the infected SCID mice was collected, diluted, and redistributed weekly to cages housing ICR mice to represent chronic exposure to MPV at varying prevalence in a research colony. Sera was collected every other week for 12 wk and evaluated for reactivity to MPV nonstructural and capsid antigens by multiplex fluorescent immunoassay. Mice were euthanized after seroconversion, and DNA extracted from lymph node and spleen was evaluated by quantitative PCR. Cumulative incidence of MPV infection for each of the 7 soiled bedding dilution groups (range, 1:5 to 1:78125 [v/v]) was 100%, 100%, 90%, 20%, 70%, 60%, and 20%, respectively. Most seropositive mice (78%) converted within the first 2 to 3 wk of soiled bedding exposure, correlating to viral exposure when mice were 4 to 7 wk of age. Viral DNA was detected in lymphoid tissues collected from all mice that were seropositive to VP2 capsid antigen, whereas viral DNA was not detected in lymphoid tissue of seronegative mice. These data indicate seroconversion occurs consistently in young mice exposed to high doses of virus equivalent to fecal MPV loads observed in acutely infected mice, whereas seroconversion is inconsistent in mice chronically exposed to lower doses of virus.

  4. EMJH medium with 5-fluorouracil and nalidixic acid associated with serial dilution technique used to recover Leptospira spp from experimentally contaminated bovine semen

    PubMed Central

    Miraglia, Fabiana; de Moraes, Zenaide Maria; Melville, Priscilla Anne; Dias, Ricardo Augusto; Vasconcellos, Silvio Arruda

    2009-01-01

    Bovine semen experimentally contaminated with Leptospira santarosai serovar Guaricura was submitted to the modified EMJH medium with 5-fluorouracil (300mg/L) and nalidixic acid (20mg/L), named as “selective medium” and using the serial dilution technique, in order to evaluate the percentage of recovery of the added microorganism. The selective EMJH medium was found with higher percentage of recovery of leptospiras and minor losses of samples due to contamination with opportunistic microorganisms than the non-selective EMJH medium: 151/376 (40.0%) of positive growth; and 38/376 (10.0%) contamination and 58/376 (15%) and 129/376 (34.0%), respectively. These results were statistically significant (p<0. 0001; Fisher). Differences were found when the frequencies of positive leptospires recovery have been compared in the serial dilution technique (10-1 to 10-4) between the selective and non-selective media at different dilution factors. At 1/10th dilution the percentages found were (0%, 0/80) and (38%, 30/80), at 1/100th dilution, (3%, 2/80) and (49%, 39/ 80) and at 1/1,000th dilution, (25%, 20/80) and (50%, 40/80), respectively. The percentage of recovery of leptospires was found to be directly proportional to the dilution used. The methodology of the serial dilution technique (setting at least three dilutions) and the use of selective EMJH medium have been found to be efficient for the isolation of leptospires from the bovine semen samples. PMID:24031342

  5. EMJH medium with 5-fluorouracil and nalidixic acid associated with serial dilution technique used to recover Leptospira spp from experimentally contaminated bovine semen.

    PubMed

    Miraglia, Fabiana; de Moraes, Zenaide Maria; Melville, Priscilla Anne; Dias, Ricardo Augusto; Vasconcellos, Silvio Arruda

    2009-01-01

    Bovine semen experimentally contaminated with Leptospira santarosai serovar Guaricura was submitted to the modified EMJH medium with 5-fluorouracil (300mg/L) and nalidixic acid (20mg/L), named as "selective medium" and using the serial dilution technique, in order to evaluate the percentage of recovery of the added microorganism. The selective EMJH medium was found with higher percentage of recovery of leptospiras and minor losses of samples due to contamination with opportunistic microorganisms than the non-selective EMJH medium: 151/376 (40.0%) of positive growth; and 38/376 (10.0%) contamination and 58/376 (15%) and 129/376 (34.0%), respectively. These results were statistically significant (p<0. 0001; Fisher). Differences were found when the frequencies of positive leptospires recovery have been compared in the serial dilution technique (10(-1) to 10(-4)) between the selective and non-selective media at different dilution factors. At 1/10(th) dilution the percentages found were (0%, 0/80) and (38%, 30/80), at 1/100(th) dilution, (3%, 2/80) and (49%, 39/ 80) and at 1/1,000(th) dilution, (25%, 20/80) and (50%, 40/80), respectively. The percentage of recovery of leptospires was found to be directly proportional to the dilution used. The methodology of the serial dilution technique (setting at least three dilutions) and the use of selective EMJH medium have been found to be efficient for the isolation of leptospires from the bovine semen samples.

  6. Diversity of bacteria and Archaea in sulphate-reducing enrichment cultures inoculated from serial dilution of Zostera noltii rhizosphere samples.

    PubMed

    Cifuentes, Ana; Antón, Josefa; De Wit, Rutger; Rodríguez-Valera, Francisco

    2003-09-01

    We have analysed the diversity of culturable sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in Zostera noltii colonized sediments from Bassin d'Arcachon (France). Four organic substrates have been tested as well as the combination of H2 and CO2 to select for lithotrophic SRB. All energy sources were supplied in parallel cultures that were amended with yeast extract plus NH4+ and prepared without a source of combined nitrogen, the latter to select for diazotrophic SRB. The 10 different enrichment media were inoculated from serial dilution of rhizosphere samples. The highest dilution cultures yielding positive growth (i.e. 10-7) were studied by molecular techniques (16S rDNA clone libraries, RISA and ARDRA). Lactate as a single organic substrate in combination with a source of combined nitrogen resulted in selection of members of the Desulfovibrionaceae. Surprisingly, when lactate was added without a source of combined nitrogen, Desulfobacteriaceae were selected. A strong influence of the presence or absence of combined nitrogen was also observed for the substrates sucrose and fructose. Whereas the liquid culture growing on sucrose and NH4+ systematically yielded 16S rDNA clones related to an environmental unidentified green sulphur bacterium (OPS185), on plates we were able to isolate a SRB related to Desulfovibrio dechloracetivorans, which likely represents a non-described species. Under diazotrophic conditions, sucrose selected for SRB clones related to the cluster formed by Desulfovibrio zosterae, Desulfovibrio salexigens and Desulfovibrio bastinii. The corresponding isolate obtained on plates showed only low sequence similarity with this closest neighbour (93.8%), and we suggest that it also represents a non-described species. Surprisingly, a 16S rDNA sequence corresponding to an archaeon, i.e. a non-extremophile Crenoarchaeota, was retrieved from several of the SRB enrichment cultures even after subsequent transfers.

  7. Quantifying uncertainty of determination by standard additions and serial dilutions methods taking into account standard uncertainties in both axes.

    PubMed

    Hyk, Wojciech; Stojek, Zbigniew

    2013-06-18

    The analytical expressions for the calculation of the standard uncertainty of the predictor variable either extrapolated or interpolated from a calibration line that takes into account uncertainties in both axes have been derived and successfully verified using the Monte Carlo modeling. These expressions are essential additions to the process of the analyte quantification realized with either the method of standard additions (SAM) or the method of serial dilutions (MSD). The latter one has been proposed as an alternative approach to the SAM procedure. In the MSD approach instead of the sequence of standard additions, the sequence of solvent additions to the spiked sample is performed. The comparison of the calculation results based on the expressions derived to their equivalents obtained from the Monte Carlo simulation, applied to real experimental data sets, confirmed that these expressions are valid in real analytical practice. The estimation of the standard uncertainty of the analyte concentration, quantified via either SAM or MSD or simply a calibration curve, is of great importance for the construction of the uncertainty budget of an analytical procedure. The correct estimation of the standard uncertainty of the analyte concentration is a key issue in the quality assurance in the instrumental analysis.

  8. Differences in Median Ultraviolet Light Transmissions of Serial Homeopathic Dilutions of Copper Sulfate, Hypericum perforatum, and Sulfur.

    PubMed

    Klein, Sabine D; Sandig, Annegret; Baumgartner, Stephan; Wolf, Ursula

    2013-01-01

    Homeopathic remedies are produced by potentising, that is, the serial logarithmic dilution and succussion of a mother tincture. Techniques like ultraviolet spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, calorimetry, or thermoluminescence have been used to investigate their physical properties. In this study, homeopathic centesimal (c) potencies (6c to 30c) of copper sulfate, Hypericum perforatum, and sulfur as well as succussed water controls were prepared. Samples of these preparations were exposed to external physical factors like heat, pressure, ultraviolet radiation, or electromagnetic fields to mimic possible everyday storage conditions. The median transmissions from 190 nm to 340 nm and 220 nm to 340 nm were determined by ultraviolet light spectroscopy on five measurement days distributed over several months. Transmissions of controls and potencies of sulfur differed significantly on two of five measurement days and after exposure to physical factors. Transmissions of potencies exposed to ultraviolet light and unexposed potencies of copper sulfate and Hypericum perforatum differed significantly. Potency levels 6c to 30c were also compared, and wavelike patterns of higher and lower transmissions were found. The Kruskal-Wallis test yielded significant differences for the potency levels of all three substances. Aiming at understanding the physical properties of homeopathic preparations, this study confirmed and expanded the findings of previous studies.

  9. [Determining the parameters for receptor-ligand interaction by serial dilution method for the case when the ligand and receptor are in a pre-existing mixture].

    PubMed

    Bobrovnik, S A

    2005-01-01

    New methods of determining the binding parameters for ligand-receptor interaction are considered. The considered approaches are based on the earlier suggested method of serial dilution and application of so-called coordinates of dilution. It was shown that the suggested methods allow to evaluate affinity constant and ligand concentration even for the case, when the receptor and corresponding ligand of unknown concentration are in a mixture and their separation from each other is impossible. In this connection the suggested methods are especially useful for studying the ligand-receptor interaction if the receptor is very liable and its purification from the ligand would cause drastic changes of its binding properties.

  10. Dilution

    PubMed Central

    Lavie, Nilli; Torralbo, Ana

    2010-01-01

    Load theory of attention proposes that distractor processing is reduced in tasks with high perceptual load that exhaust attentional capacity within task-relevant processing. In contrast, tasks of low perceptual load leave spare capacity that spills over, resulting in the perception of task-irrelevant, potentially distracting stimuli. Tsal and Benoni (2010) find that distractor response competition effects can be reduced under conditions with a high search set size but low perceptual load (due to a singleton color target). They claim that the usual effect of search set size on distractor processing is not due to attentional load but instead attribute this to lower level visual interference. Here, we propose an account for their findings within load theory. We argue that in tasks of low perceptual load but high set size, an irrelevant distractor competes with the search nontargets for remaining capacity. Thus, distractor processing is reduced under conditions in which the search nontargets receive the spillover of capacity instead of the irrelevant distractor. We report a new experiment testing this prediction. Our new results demonstrate that, when peripheral distractor processing is reduced, it is the search nontargets nearest to the target that are perceived instead. Our findings provide new evidence for the spare capacity spillover hypothesis made by load theory and rule out accounts in terms of lower level visual interference (or mere “dilution”) for cases of reduced distractor processing under low load in displays of high set size. We also discuss additional evidence that discounts the viability of Tsal and Benoni's dilution account as an alternative to perceptual load. PMID:21133554

  11. Generation of arbitrary monotonic concentration profiles by a serial dilution microfluidic network composed of microchannels with a high fluidic-resistance ratio.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Koji; Sugiura, Shinji; Kanamori, Toshiyuki

    2009-06-21

    This paper reports a serial dilution microfluidic network composed of microchannels with a high fluidic-resistance ratio for generating linear concentration profiles as well as logarithmic concentration profiles spanning 3 and 6 orders of magnitude. The microfluidic networks were composed of thin fluidic-resistance microchannels with 160 to 730 microm(2) cross-sectional areas and thick diffusion-mixing microchannels with 3,600 to 17,000 microm(2) cross-sectional areas, and were fabricated from polydimethylsiloxane by multilayer photolithography and replica molding. We proposed a design algorithm of the microfluidic network for an arbitrary monotonic concentration profile by means of a hydrodynamic calculation. Because of the high fluidic-resistance ratio of the fluidic-resistance microchannels to the diffusion-mixing microchannels, appropriate geometry and dimensions of the fluidic-resistance microchannels allowed us to obtain desired concentration profiles. The fabricated microfluidic network was compact, occupying a 8 x 18 to 21.0 x 13.5 mm(2) area on the microchip. Both the linear and the logarithmic concentration profiles were successfully generated with the error less than 15% for the linear concentration profile, 22% and 35% for the logarithmic concentration profiles of 3 and 6 orders of magnitude, respectively. The generated linear concentration profiles of the small molecule, calcein, were independent of the flow rate within the range of 0.009 to 0.23 microL/min. The concentration profiles of the large molecules, dextrans, depended on the flow rate and molecular weight. The required residence time of large molecules in the diffusion-mixing microchannel was correlated with dimensionless diffusion time, Fick number, and was discussed based on the scaling law. These compact, stable serial dilution microfluidic networks are expected to be applied to various integrated on-chip analyses.

  12. Microarray Scanner Performance Over a Five-Week Period as Measured With Cy5 and Cy3 Serial Dilution Slides.

    PubMed

    Satterfield, Mary B; Lippa, Katrice; Lu, Z Q; Salit, Marc L

    2008-01-01

    To investigate scanner performance and guide development of an instrument qualification method, slides with replicates of successive dilutions of cyanine 5 (Cy5) and cyanine 3 (Cy3) dyes (referred to as dye slides) were scanned. The successive dilutions form a dose-response curve from which performance can be assessed. The effects of a variety of factors, including the number of scans and slide storage conditions, on scanner performance over a five-week period were investigated and tracked with time series charts of dye signal intensity, signal-to-noise (S/N), signal background, slope, and limit of detection (LOD). Scanner drift was tracked with a known stable reference material, Standard Reference Material (SRM) 2242. The greatest effect on the figures of merit was the dye, with the Cy5 dye showing signs of degradation after one week of scanning independent of all other factors while the Cy3 dye remained relatively stable. Use of the charts to track scanner performance over time holds promise for development of a method for microarray scanner performance qualification. Although not a prescription for performance qualification, this introductory study provides sufficient information regarding the use of dye slides to enable the user to institute a preliminary test method.

  13. A new method for the evaluation of antibody affinity based on serial dilutions of studied antibody-antigen mixture.

    PubMed

    Bobrovnik, S A

    2002-01-01

    A new method for the evaluation of the affinity of bivalent antibodies were suggested. This method is based on the previously published by the author the idea of using so-called coordinates of dilutions. It was shown that the suggested method allows to evaluate the affinity of antibodies with high accuracy using this simple approach. It is supposed that at some conditions the suggested method could have substantial advantages in comparison to the traditional methods. This method allows to analyze situations when antibodies are already in a mixture with antigen, for example in the bloodstream in the case of infections or autoimmune diseases. The method provides useful approach for the evaluation not only antibody affinity, but also the concentration of circulated antigen.

  14. A comparison of serial plate agar dilution, Bauer-Kirby disk diffusion, and the Vitek AutoMicrobic system for the determination of susceptibilities of Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter spp., and Pseudomonas aeruginosa to ten antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Fekete, T; Tumah, H; Woodwell, J; Truant, A; Satishchandran, V; Axelrod, P; Kreter, B

    1994-04-01

    The use of rapid, automated technologies for assessment of antimicrobial susceptibility and determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations has been evolving for over a decade. We compared the Vitek AutoMicrobic system and Bauer-Kirby disk diffusion with the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards methods of serial plate agar dilution for qualitative and quantitative susceptibilities of 301 hospital isolates of Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter spp., and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Antibiotics tested were aztreonam, cefoperazone, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, imipenem, piperacillin, ticarcillin-clavulanic acid, and tobramycin. Agar dilution and Bauer-Kirby results were more strongly correlated for all three genera than were the results for agar dilution and Vitek. If agar dilution is presumed to be the "gold standard," Bauer-Kirby disk diffusion had only half the number of false susceptibles as did the Vitek. Thus, the Vitek AutoMicrobic system seems to be somewhat less reliable for both qualitative and quantitative measurement of susceptibility and resistance than is Bauer-Kirby disk diffusion.

  15. Serial Wars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Orsdel, Lee C.; Born, Kathleen

    2007-01-01

    In a year filled with drama and hyperbole, the serials marketplace churned toward a future whose shape is the subject of fierce debate. Forecasts from commercial publishers touting collapse and disaster seemed oddly out of sync with the profits they enjoyed--around 25 percent on average. Nevertheless, in a market where prices continued to rise and…

  16. Splenectomy Causes 10-Fold Increased Risk of Portal Venous System Thrombosis in Liver Cirrhosis Patients.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xingshun; Han, Guohong; Ye, Chun; Zhang, Yongguo; Dai, Junna; Peng, Ying; Deng, Han; Li, Jing; Hou, Feifei; Ning, Zheng; Zhao, Jiancheng; Zhang, Xintong; Wang, Ran; Guo, Xiaozhong

    2016-07-19

    BACKGROUND Portal venous system thrombosis (PVST) is a life-threatening complication of liver cirrhosis. We conducted a retrospective study to comprehensively analyze the prevalence and risk factors of PVST in liver cirrhosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS All cirrhotic patients without malignancy admitted between June 2012 and December 2013 were eligible if they underwent contrast-enhanced CT or MRI scans. Independent predictors of PVST in liver cirrhosis were calculated in multivariate analyses. Subgroup analyses were performed according to the severity of PVST (any PVST, main portal vein [MPV] thrombosis >50%, and clinically significant PVST) and splenectomy. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were reported. RESULTS Overall, 113 cirrhotic patients were enrolled. The prevalence of PVST was 16.8% (19/113). Splenectomy (any PVST: OR=11.494, 95%CI=2.152-61.395; MPV thrombosis >50%: OR=29.987, 95%CI=3.247-276.949; clinically significant PVST: OR=40.415, 95%CI=3.895-419.295) and higher hemoglobin (any PVST: OR=0.974, 95%CI=0.953-0.996; MPV thrombosis >50%: OR=0.936, 95%CI=0.895-0.980; clinically significant PVST: OR=0.935, 95%CI=0.891-0.982) were the independent predictors of PVST. The prevalence of PVST was 13.3% (14/105) after excluding splenectomy. Higher hemoglobin was the only independent predictor of MPV thrombosis >50% (OR=0.952, 95%CI=0.909-0.997). No independent predictors of any PVST or clinically significant PVST were identified in multivariate analyses. Additionally, PVST patients who underwent splenectomy had a significantly higher proportion of clinically significant PVST but lower MELD score than those who did not undergo splenectomy. In all analyses, the in-hospital mortality was not significantly different between cirrhotic patient with and without PVST. CONCLUSIONS Splenectomy may increase by at least 10-fold the risk of PVST in liver cirrhosis independent of severity of liver dysfunction.

  17. Antimicrobial activity of a food-grade fully dilutable microemulsion against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Shen, Yan; Weng, Peifang; Zhao, Guoqun; Feng, Fengqin; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2009-11-15

    Microemulsions are colloidal nanodispersions of oil and water stabilized by an interfacial film of surfactant molecules, typically in conjunction with a cosurfactant. There is a limited number of reports in the literature on microemulsion use for antimicrobial purposes. The physicochemical characterization of a food-grade fully dilutable microemulsion system with glycerol monolaurate (GML) as oil, organic acids as cosurfactant, Tween 80 as surfactant, and the antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus have been studied in this paper. The influence of organic acids on oil solubilization was clearly reflected in the phase behavior of these systems. Propionic acid demonstrated the greatest capability to improve the oil solubilization among the tested linear and nonlinear chain organic acids and contributed to the formation of U-type microemulsion systems. One microemulsion formulation with an average particle size of 8nm was selected, the composition is GML/propionic acid/Tween 80/water=3:9:8:12. The kinetics of killing experiments demonstrated that the undiluted microemulsion caused a complete loss of viability of E. coli or S. aureus cells in 1min and still had effective bactericidal effects even when diluted, more than 99% viable E. coli cells were killed within 15min and a complete loss of viability was achieved at 45min while more than 99% viable S. aureus cells were killed within 30min and a complete loss of viability was achieved at 60min in the presence of the 10-fold diluted microemulsion. The fast killing kinetics of the ten-fold serial dilutions of microemulsions were in good agreement with the mode of action studies, indicating that the interaction between the antimicrobial microemulsions and bacterial membranes significantly decreased the bacterial cell surface hydrophobicity and induced the quick release of 260nm absorbing materials. This work suggests the potential use of food-grade fully dilutable microemulsions for

  18. Developments in Serials: 1977

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, John R.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses issues and developments relating to several aspects of serials, including economics and acquisitions; bibliographic control; automation; education; serials literature and bibliographies; and copyrights. A bibliography is included. (Author/MBR)

  19. Biomathematical modeling for diluted drugs.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, S

    2003-07-01

    Several workers have proven that succussed ultra high dilution of a drug molecule in water or alcoholic medium, even exceeding Avogadro number, can bring forth noticeable physiological changes of an organism. Homeopathic drugs are prepared by dissolving such drug ingredients in distilled water and then the solution is centesimally diluted serially by ethanol. A mathematical model has been proposed by the present worker, which explains why the drug does not become non-molecular even in ultra-high dilution. This is due to loss of homogeneity in the solution, caused by increase of dielectric constant of the medium during the process of potentization. Facilitated binding of the drug molecules with minute physiologically important protein factors may be the cause of visible physiological alterations.

  20. Dilution Confusion: Conventions for Defining a Dilution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishel, Laurence A.

    2010-01-01

    Two conventions for preparing dilutions are used in clinical laboratories. The first convention defines an "a:b" dilution as "a" volumes of solution A plus "b" volumes of solution B. The second convention defines an "a:b" dilution as "a" volumes of solution A diluted into a final volume of "b". Use of the incorrect dilution convention could affect…

  1. HIPPI/Serial-HIPPI

    SciTech Connect

    Tolmie, D.E. ); Halvorson, M.G. )

    1991-01-01

    The High-Performance Parallel Interface (HIPPI) is a simple high-performance, point-to-point channel for transmitting digital data at peak data rates of 800 or 1600 Mbit/S. The transmission distance between data processing equipment using copper cabling can be up to 25 meters. This distance may be increased by using a Serial-HIPPI extender. This paper describes the HIPPI channel, the choices considered for a serial extender, and the resulting agreement for the Serial-HIPPI specification. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  2. Drug susceptibility testing by dilution methods.

    PubMed

    Jeannot, Katy; Plésiat, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Serial twofold dilution methods are widely used to assess the bacteriostatic activities of antibiotics. This can be achieved by dilution of considered drugs in agar medium or in culture broth, and inoculation by calibrated inoculums. Although seemingly simple, these methods are greatly influenced by the experimental conditions used and may lead to discrepant results, in particular with untrained investigators. The present step-by-step protocol has been validated for Pseudomonas species, including P. aeruginosa. Introduction of appropriate control strains is crucial to ascertain minimal inhibitory concentration values and compare the results of independent experiments.

  3. Thermodynamics of Dilute Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jancso, Gabor; Fenby, David V.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses principles and definitions related to the thermodynamics of dilute solutions. Topics considered include dilute solution, Gibbs-Duhem equation, reference systems (pure gases and gaseous mixtures, liquid mixtures, dilute solutions), real dilute solutions (focusing on solute and solvent), terminology, standard states, and reference systems.…

  4. 8x8 and 10x10 Hyperspace Representations of SU(3) and 10-fold Point-Symmetry Group of Quasicrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Animalu, Alexander

    2012-02-01

    In order to further elucidate the unexpected 10-fold point-symmetry group structure of quasi-crystals for which the 2011 Nobel Prize in chemistry was awarded to Daniel Shechtman, we explore a correspondence principle between the number of (projective) geometric elements (points[vertices] + lines[edges] + planes[faces]) of primitive cells of periodic or quasi-periodic arrangement of hard or deformable spheres in 3-dimensional space of crystallography and elements of quantum field theory of particle physics [points ( particles, lines ( particles, planes ( currents] and hence construct 8x8 =64 = 28+36 = 26 + 38, and 10x10 =100= 64 + 36 = 74 + 26 hyperspace representations of the SU(3) symmetry of elementary particle physics and quasicrystals of condensed matter (solid state) physics respectively, As a result, we predict the Cabibbo-like angles in leptonic decay of hadrons in elementary-particle physics and the observed 10-fold symmetric diffraction pattern of quasi-crystals.

  5. Suicide in serial killers.

    PubMed

    Lester, David; White, John

    2010-02-01

    In a sample of 248 killers of two victims in America from 1900 to 2005, obtained from an encyclopedia of serial killers by Newton (2006), those completing suicide did not differ in sex, race, or the motive for the killing from those who were arrested.

  6. Stress in Harmonic Serialism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruitt, Kathryn Ringler

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation proposes a model of word stress in a derivational version of Optimality Theory (OT) called Harmonic Serialism (HS; Prince and Smolensky 1993/2004, McCarthy 2000, 2006, 2010a). In this model, the metrical structure of a word is derived through a series of optimizations in which the "best" metrical foot is chosen…

  7. The Acquisition of Serial Publications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huff, William H.

    1970-01-01

    Results of a questionnaire survey of large research libraries on procedures and special problems in serials acquisitions. Cooperative programs are discussed, including the Latin American Cooperative Acquisitions Program and the National Serials Data Program. (JS)

  8. Dilutions Made Easy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamin, Lawrence

    1996-01-01

    Presents problems appropriate for high school and college students that highlight dilution methods. Promotes an understanding of dilution methods in order to prevent the unnecessary waste of chemicals and glassware in biology laboratories. (JRH)

  9. The Effect of Dilution on the Structure of Microbial Communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mills, Aaron L.

    2000-01-01

    To determine how dilution of microbial communities affects the diversity of the diluted assemblage a series of numerical simulations were conducted that determined the theoretical change in diversity, richness, and evenness of the community with serial dilution. The results of the simulation suggested that the effects are non linear with a high degree of dependence on the initial evenness of the community being diluted. A series of incubation experiments using a range of dilutions of raw sewage as an inoculum into sterile sewage was used for comparison to the simulations. The diluted communities were maintained in batch fed reactors (three day retention time) for nine days. The communities were harvested and examined by conventional plating and by molecular analysis of the whole-community DNA using AFLP and T-RFLP. Additional, CLPP analysis was also applied. The effects on richness predicted by the numerical simulations were confirmed by the analyses used. The diluted communities fell into three groups, a low dilution, intermediate dilution, and high dilution group, which corresponded well with the groupings obtained for community richness in simulation. The grouping demonstrated the non-linear nature of dilution of whole communities. Furthermore, the results implied that the undiluted community consisted of a few dominant types accompanied by a number of rare (low abundance) types as is typical in unevenly distributed communities.

  10. Management of Serials in Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nisonger, Thomas E.

    This volume reviews current options for handling serials problems and clarifies fundamental issues in one of the greatest challenges confronting today's library and information science professionals. Focusing on the management of serials in libraries and the role of serials in scholarly communications, this book combines descriptive and…

  11. IRIG Serial Time Code Formats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-01

    TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND TIMING GROUP IRIG STANDARD 200-16 IRIG SERIAL TIME CODE FORMATS DISTRIBUTION A: APPROVED FOR...ARNOLD ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT COMPLEX NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION This page intentionally left blank. IRIG SERIAL TIME CODE ...Serial Time Code Formats, RCC 200-16, August 2016 v Table of Contents Preface

  12. Delaware's first serial killer.

    PubMed

    Inguito, G B; Sekula-Perlman, A; Lynch, M J; Callery, R T

    2000-11-01

    The violent murder of Shirley Ellis on November 29, 1987, marked the beginning of the strange and terrible tale of Steven Bryan Pennell's reign as the state of Delaware's first convicted serial killer. Three more bodies followed the first victim, and all had been brutally beaten and sadistically tortured. The body of a fifth woman has never been found. State and county police collaborated with the FBI to identify and hunt down their suspect, forming a task force of over 100 officers and spending about one million dollars. Through their knowledge and experience with other serial killers, the FBI was able to make an amazingly accurate psychological profile of Delaware's serial killer. After months of around-the-clock surveillance, Steven Pennell was arrested on November 29, 1988, one year to the day after the first victim was found. Pennell was found guilty in the deaths of the first two victims on November 29, 1989, and plead no contest to the murder of two others on October 30, 1991. Still maintaining his innocence, he asked for the death penalty so that he could spare his family further agony. Steven Pennell was executed by lethal injection on March 15, 1992.

  13. Chromogenic assay of human coagulation factor VIII: statistical comparison of 2 working dilution procedures.

    PubMed

    Alonso, C; Gonzalez, A; Frutos, G

    2005-08-01

    The effect of 2 different practices for preparation of working dilutions in the chromogenic substrate method for potency assay of factor VIII was evaluated. In this study the potency of several concentrate materials was shown to be statistically equivalent, whether performing the assay with independent or serial working dilutions.

  14. Serially recurrent osteoid osteoma.

    PubMed

    Sampath, Srihari C; Sampath, Srinath C; Rosenthal, Daniel I

    2015-06-01

    Osteoid osteoma is a relatively common, benign, painful tumor of bone. It is widely believed to run a course culminating in spontaneous regression. The tumor can usually be eliminated by excision or ablation, although it may recur locally. Although management has classically been surgical, thermocoagulation via percutaneously delivered radiofrequency energy has demonstrated excellent results, typically resulting in durable response following a single treatment. Here, we present an unusual case of serially recurrent pathologically proven pediatric osteoid osteoma, treated by radiofrequency ablation five times over the course of 11 years. Limitations of RF ablation of osteoid osteoma and possible factors predisposing to incomplete treatment or recurrence are discussed.

  15. The mathematics of dilution.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Barun Kumar

    2014-04-01

    The major objection to homeopathic medicine is that the doses of medicine prescribed in some cases are too dilute for any active ingredient to be present. The medicines would hence be rendered inactive, necessitating novel explanations for the action. A further examination of dilution in the light of the Langmuir equation shows that homeopathic medicines may not be as dilute as a simplistic application of Avogadro's Principle suggests, due to surface effects.

  16. Developmental Study of Serial Habituation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Dolores J.; And Others

    This study examines serial habituation in a sample of 54 infants aged 2, 3, and 4 months to determine whether age changes are partially a function of different "strategies" rather than simply different rates of habituation. The serial habituation hypothesis proposes that attention and habituation of attention proceed in order of the relative…

  17. Current Issues in Serials Librarianship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Benita M., Ed.; Bearman, Toni Carbo, Ed.

    1975-01-01

    The July 1975 issue of Drexel Library Quarterly is dedicated to current issues in serials librarianship. Two contributors present conflicting opinions on means of bibliographic control, specifically main entries and the International Standard Bibliographic Description (Serials) (ISBD(S). International issues are discussed, as are major national…

  18. A bit serial sequential circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, S.; Whitaker, S.

    1990-01-01

    Normally a sequential circuit with n state variables consists of n unique hardware realizations, one for each state variable. All variables are processed in parallel. This paper introduces a new sequential circuit architecture that allows the state variables to be realized in a serial manner using only one next state logic circuit. The action of processing the state variables in a serial manner has never been addressed before. This paper presents a general design procedure for circuit construction and initialization. Utilizing pass transistors to form the combinational next state forming logic in synchronous sequential machines, a bit serial state machine can be realized with a single NMOS pass transistor network connected to shift registers. The bit serial state machine occupies less area than other realizations which perform parallel operations. Moreover, the logical circuit of the bit serial state machine can be modified by simply changing the circuit input matrix to develop an adaptive state machine.

  19. Serial Network Flow Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Julie A.; Tate-Brown, Judy M.

    2009-01-01

    Using a commercial software CD and minimal up-mass, SNFM monitors the Payload local area network (LAN) to analyze and troubleshoot LAN data traffic. Validating LAN traffic models may allow for faster and more reliable computer networks to sustain systems and science on future space missions. Research Summary: This experiment studies the function of the computer network onboard the ISS. On-orbit packet statistics are captured and used to validate ground based medium rate data link models and enhance the way that the local area network (LAN) is monitored. This information will allow monitoring and improvement in the data transfer capabilities of on-orbit computer networks. The Serial Network Flow Monitor (SNFM) experiment attempts to characterize the network equivalent of traffic jams on board ISS. The SNFM team is able to specifically target historical problem areas including the SAMS (Space Acceleration Measurement System) communication issues, data transmissions from the ISS to the ground teams, and multiple users on the network at the same time. By looking at how various users interact with each other on the network, conflicts can be identified and work can begin on solutions. SNFM is comprised of a commercial off the shelf software package that monitors packet traffic through the payload Ethernet LANs (local area networks) on board ISS.

  20. Serial Input Output

    SciTech Connect

    Waite, Anthony; /SLAC

    2011-09-07

    Serial Input/Output (SIO) is designed to be a long term storage format of a sophistication somewhere between simple ASCII files and the techniques provided by inter alia Objectivity and Root. The former tend to be low density, information lossy (floating point numbers lose precision) and inflexible. The latter require abstract descriptions of the data with all that that implies in terms of extra complexity. The basic building blocks of SIO are streams, records and blocks. Streams provide the connections between the program and files. The user can define an arbitrary list of streams as required. A given stream must be opened for either reading or writing. SIO does not support read/write streams. If a stream is closed during the execution of a program, it can be reopened in either read or write mode to the same or a different file. Records represent a coherent grouping of data. Records consist of a collection of blocks (see next paragraph). The user can define a variety of records (headers, events, error logs, etc.) and request that any of them be written to any stream. When SIO reads a file, it first decodes the record name and if that record has been defined and unpacking has been requested for it, SIO proceeds to unpack the blocks. Blocks are user provided objects which do the real work of reading/writing the data. The user is responsible for writing the code for these blocks and for identifying these blocks to SIO at run time. To write a collection of blocks, the user must first connect them to a record. The record can then be written to a stream as described above. Note that the same block can be connected to many different records. When SIO reads a record, it scans through the blocks written and calls the corresponding block object (if it has been defined) to decode it. Undefined blocks are skipped. Each of these categories (streams, records and blocks) have some characteristics in common. Every stream, record and block has a name with the condition that each

  1. Helium dilution refrigeration system

    DOEpatents

    Roach, P.R.; Gray, K.E.

    1988-09-13

    A helium dilution refrigeration system operable over a limited time period, and recyclable for a next period of operation is disclosed. The refrigeration system is compact with a self-contained pumping system and heaters for operation of the system. A mixing chamber contains [sup 3]He and [sup 4]He liquids which are precooled by a coupled container containing [sup 3]He liquid, enabling the phase separation of a [sup 3]He rich liquid phase from a dilute [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He liquid phase which leads to the final stage of a dilution cooling process for obtaining low temperatures. The mixing chamber and a still are coupled by a fluid line and are maintained at substantially the same level with the still cross sectional area being smaller than that of the mixing chamber. This configuration provides maximum cooling power and efficiency by the cooling period ending when the [sup 3]He liquid is depleted from the mixing chamber with the mixing chamber nearly empty of liquid helium, thus avoiding unnecessary and inefficient cooling of a large amount of the dilute [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He liquid phase. 2 figs.

  2. Helium dilution refrigeration system

    DOEpatents

    Roach, Patrick R.; Gray, Kenneth E.

    1988-01-01

    A helium dilution refrigeration system operable over a limited time period, and recyclable for a next period of operation. The refrigeration system is compact with a self-contained pumping system and heaters for operation of the system. A mixing chamber contains .sup.3 He and .sup.4 He liquids which are precooled by a coupled container containing .sup.3 He liquid, enabling the phase separation of a .sup.3 He rich liquid phase from a dilute .sup.3 He-.sup.4 He liquid phase which leads to the final stage of a dilution cooling process for obtaining low temperatures. The mixing chamber and a still are coupled by a fluid line and are maintained at substantially the same level with the still cross sectional area being smaller than that of the mixing chamber. This configuration provides maximum cooling power and efficiency by the cooling period ending when the .sup.3 He liquid is depleted from the mixing chamber with the mixing chamber nearly empty of liquid helium, thus avoiding unnecessary and inefficient cooling of a large amount of the dilute .sup.3 He-.sup.4 He liquid phase.

  3. Dilution Zone Mixing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdeman, J. D.

    1983-01-01

    Studies to characterize dilution zone mixing; experiments on the effects of free-stream turbulence on a jet in crossflow; and the development of an interactive computer code for the analysis of the mixing of jets with a confined crossflow are reviewed.

  4. Dilution, Concentration, and Flotation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Ling; Schmuckler, Joseph S.

    2004-01-01

    As both classroom teaching practice and literature show, many students have difficulties learning science concepts such as density. Here are some investigations that identify the relationship between density and floating through experimenting with successive dilution of a liquid, or the systematic change of concentration of a saltwater solution.…

  5. A simplified semiquantitative determination of hepatitis C virus genome molecules by the end-point dilution method.

    PubMed

    Bathelier, C; Mercier, G; Lucotte, G

    1996-12-01

    We describe a semiquantitative method to measure hepatitis C virus (HCV) viral particle numbers, by carrying out reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on serial dilutions of serum samples. The virus concentrations measured were 10(3)-10(6) viral particles ml-1 of serum. The method described is relatively quick, and the only required manipulation is dilution of the serum. An optimal RT-PCR method is used for diluted and undiluted samples.

  6. Evaluation of performance across the dynamic range of the Abbott RealTime HIV-1 assay as compared to VERSANT HIV-1 RNA 3.0 and AMPLICOR HIV-1 MONITOR v1.5 using serial dilutions of 39 group M and O viruses.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Priscilla; Huang, Shihai; Abravaya, Klara; de Mendoza, Carmen; Soriano, Vincent; Devare, Sushil G; Hackett, John

    2007-04-01

    Performance of the Abbott m2000 instrument system and the Abbott RealTime HIV-1 assay was evaluated using a panel of 37 group M (subtypes A-D, F, G, CRF01_AE, CRF02_AG and unique recombinant forms) and 2 group O virus isolates. Testing was performed on 273 sample dilutions and compared to VERSANT HIV-1 RNA 3.0 (bDNA) and AMPLICOR HIV-1 MONITOR v1.5 (Monitor v1.5) test results. RealTime HIV-1, bDNA, and Monitor v1.5 tests quantified 87%, 78%, and 81% of samples, respectively. RealTime HIV-1 detected an additional 31 samples at < 40 copies/mL. For group M, RealTime HIV-1 dilution profiles and viral loads were highly correlated with bDNA and Monitor v1.5 values; 87% and 89% of values were within 0.5 log(10) copies/mL. In contrast, the group O viruses were not detected by Monitor v1.5 and were substantially underquantified by approximately 2 log(10) copies/mL in bDNA relative to the RealTime HIV-1 assay. Sequence analysis revealed that RealTime HIV-1 primer/probe binding sites are highly conserved and exhibit fewer nucleotide mismatches relative to Monitor v1.5. The automated m2000 system and RealTime HIV-1 assay offer the advantages of efficient sample processing and throughput with reduced "hands-on" time while providing improved sensitivity, expanded dynamic range and reliable quantification of genetically diverse HIV-1 strains.

  7. Is serial homicide really increasing?

    PubMed

    Schlesinger, L B

    2001-01-01

    Close examination of the available crime data reveals little scientific support for the widely held belief that serial homicide is frequent and increasing. The author argues that the dramatic changes in homicide clearance rates, incidence of murders with unknown motives, and victim gender data point to a likely increase, not in serial murder, but in contract murder. This type of killing appears to be having a significant impact on society; yet there has been a complete absence of forensic psychiatric study of this crime, a circumstance that needs to change.

  8. Bit-serial neuroprocessor architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tawel, Raoul (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A neuroprocessor architecture employs a combination of bit-serial and serial-parallel techniques for implementing the neurons of the neuroprocessor. The neuroprocessor architecture includes a neural module containing a pool of neurons, a global controller, a sigmoid activation ROM look-up-table, a plurality of neuron state registers, and a synaptic weight RAM. The neuroprocessor reduces the number of neurons required to perform the task by time multiplexing groups of neurons from a fixed pool of neurons to achieve the successive hidden layers of a recurrent network topology.

  9. Implementing a Serials Barcoding Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennertz, Lora L.; Conway, Cheryl L.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the process of planning and implementing a barcode project for library serials based on experiences at the University of Arkansas Fayetteville library. Topics include dumb versus smart barcodes, cataloging, classification, application rate of barcode labels, and library staff participation. (Author/LRW)

  10. 47 CFR 95.671 - Serial number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES Technical Regulations Additional Certification Requirements for Cb Transmitters § 95.671 Serial number. The serial number of each CB transmitter must be engraved on the transmitter chassis....

  11. The Serial Process in Visual Search

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilden, David L.; Thornton, Thomas L.; Marusich, Laura R.

    2010-01-01

    The conditions for serial search are described. A multiple target search methodology (Thornton & Gilden, 2007) is used to home in on the simplest target/distractor contrast that effectively mandates a serial scheduling of attentional resources. It is found that serial search is required when (a) targets and distractors are mirror twins, and…

  12. Serials Control System Procedures and Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlembach, Mary C.

    This document includes procedures and policies for a networked serials control system originally developed at the Grainger Engineering Library Information Center at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC). The serials control systems encompass serials processing, public service, and end-user functions. The system employs a…

  13. Distinguishing serial and parallel parsing.

    PubMed

    Gibson, E; Pearlmutter, N J

    2000-03-01

    This paper discusses ways of determining whether the human parser is serial maintaining at most, one structural interpretation at each parse state, or whether it is parallel, maintaining more than one structural interpretation in at least some circumstances. We make four points. The first two counterclaims made by Lewis (2000): (1) that the availability of alternative structures should not vary as a function of the disambiguating material in some ranked parallel models; and (2) that parallel models predict a slow down during the ambiguous region for more syntactically ambiguous structures. Our other points concern potential methods for seeking experimental evidence relevant to the serial/parallel question. We discuss effects of the plausibility of a secondary structure in the ambiguous region (Pearlmutter & Mendelsohn, 1999) and suggest examining the distribution of reaction times in the disambiguating region.

  14. Rape and the Serial Rapist

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    Continued) Page The Sexual Arousal Of The Rapist 20 The Sexual Behavior Of The Rapist 21 Sexual Dysfunctions And The Rapist 23 Notes 25...research oriented study on this subject. This author does however hope that by constructing a multi-disciplined comprehensive literature review, it will...this issue. DEFINITION OF TERMS Rape. Forcible sexual penetration of an unwilling victim.4 Serial Rapist. An individual who has committed 10 or more

  15. The sexually sadistic serial killer.

    PubMed

    Warren, J I; Hazelwood, R R; Dietz, P E

    1996-11-01

    This article explores characteristics and crime scene behavior of 20 sexually sadistic serial murderers. The pairing of character pathology with paraphilic arousal to the control and degradation of others is examined as it manifests itself in their murders. Commonalities across murders and across murderers are highlighted, i.e., the execution of murders that are well-planned, the use of preselected locations, captivity, a variety of painful sexual acts, sexual bondage, intentional torture, and death by means of strangulation and stabbing.

  16. Serial murder by healthcare professionals.

    PubMed

    Yorker, Beatrice Crofts; Kizer, Kenneth W; Lampe, Paula; Forrest, A R W; Lannan, Jacquetta M; Russell, Donna A

    2006-11-01

    The prosecution of Charles Cullen, a nurse who killed at least 40 patients over a 16-year period, highlights the need to better understand the phenomenon of serial murder by healthcare professionals. The authors conducted a LexisNexis search which yielded 90 criminal prosecutions of healthcare providers that met inclusion criteria for serial murder of patients. In addition we reviewed epidemiologic studies, toxicology evidence, and court transcripts, to provide data on healthcare professionals who have been prosecuted between 1970 and 2006. Fifty-four of the 90 have been convicted; 45 for serial murder, four for attempted murder, and five pled guilty to lesser charges. Twenty-four more have been indicted and are either awaiting trial or the outcome has not been published. The other 12 prosecutions had a variety of legal outcomes. Injection was the main method used by healthcare killers followed by suffocation, poisoning, and tampering with equipment. Prosecutions were reported from 20 countries with 40% taking place in the United States. Nursing personnel comprised 86% of the healthcare providers prosecuted; physicians 12%, and 2% were allied health professionals. The number of patient deaths that resulted in a murder conviction is 317 and the number of suspicious patient deaths attributed to the 54 convicted caregivers is 2113. These numbers are disturbing and demand that systemic changes in tracking adverse patient incidents associated with presence of a specific healthcare provider be implemented. Hiring practices must shift away from preventing wrongful discharge or denial of employment lawsuits to protecting patients from employees who kill.

  17. Use of serum ultrafiltrate in the serum dilution test.

    PubMed

    Leggett, J E; Wolz, S A; Craig, W A

    1989-10-01

    Although pooled human serum diluent is advocated in the serum dilution test, its use may compensate for protein binding defects in patients and yield nonrepresentative titers. To test this hypothesis, comparison was made of serum ultrafiltrate (molecular weight cutoff less than or equal to 30,000) serially diluted into either pooled serum ultrafiltrate or Mueller-Hinton broth with patient serum samples diluted into pooled human serum in 111 assays from 55 patients and 6 volunteers. Of 111 bactericidal titers in ultrafiltrate and/or Mueller-Hinton broth, 101 were within a single twofold dilution of titers in pooled human serum. Nine of 10 discordant titers involved highly bound drugs and were usually higher in ultrafiltrate than in pooled human serum. In seven additional volunteers with renal failure, titers in ultrafiltrate and in each volunteer's serum were higher than those diluted in pooled human serum (P = .002). Recommended methods using pooled serum diluent may not accurately predict actual bactericidal titers in patients with abnormal protein binding.

  18. Evaluation of a digital dispenser for direct curve dilutions in a vaccine potency assay.

    PubMed

    Roselle, Christopher; Whitehouse, Dana; Follmer, Thy; Ansbro, Fran; Bouaraphan, Silikhone; Guan, Liming; Wang, Sha-Ke; Shank-Retzlaff, Mary; Verch, Thorsten

    2017-03-01

    Dilutions are a common source of analytical error, both in terms of accuracy and precision, and a common source of analyst mistakes. When serial dilutions are used, errors compound, even when employing laboratory automation. Direct point dilutions instead of serial dilutions can reduce error but is often impractical as they require either large diluent volumes or very small sample volumes when performed with traditional liquid handling equipment. We evaluated preparation of dilution curves using a picoliter digital dispenser, the HP, Inc. / TECAN D300 which is capable of accurately delivering picoliter volumes directly into sample wells filled with assay diluent. Dilution linearity and variability of the direct dilutions were similar to or less than those generated with a traditional liquid handler as measured using a fluorophore assay and an ELISA used to measure vaccine potency. Minimum concentrations for detergent in the dispensed sample were identified but no correlation with detergent characteristics was observed. The tolerance to protein in the sample was evaluated as well with up to 5% BSA having no impact on dispense linearity and precision. We found the digital dispenser to reduce automation complexity while maintaining or improving assay performance in addition to facilitating complex plate lay-outs.

  19. Comparing single and serial homicide offenses.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, Gretchen W; Lord, Wayne D; Heilbrun, Kirk

    2004-01-01

    Serial homicide has attracted much attention, but little empirical scientific investigation. This exploratory study reports demographic information on a large sample of serial homicide offenders (157 offenders, 608 victims), and compares a subsample of serial homicide offenses with a control group of single homicide offenses. Results show that serial homicide offenders target more women than men, and kill more strangers than family or friends. Single homicide offenders kill men and women in equal frequency, but kill family and friends more often than strangers. Serial homicide offenders kill for apparent sexual motivation more often than for any other reason, while single homicide offenders kill most often out of anger.

  20. Comparison of MARC Serials, NSDP, and ISBD-S

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulsifier, Josephine S.

    1973-01-01

    The specifications for serial records of the MARC Serials Distribution Service, the National Serials Data Program, and the International Standard Bibliographic Description for Serials are discussed. Both data content and, where applicable, machine format are analyzed. (4 references) (Author)

  1. Dilution jet mixing program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, R.; Coleman, E.; Johnson, K.

    1984-01-01

    Parametric tests were conducted to quantify the mixing of opposed rows of jets (two-sided injection) in a confined cross flow. Results show that jet penetrations for two sided injections are less than that for single-sided injections, but the jet spreading rates are faster for a given momentum ratio and orifice plate. Flow area convergence generally enhances mixing. Mixing characteristics with asymmetric and symmetric convergence are similar. For constant momentum ratio, the optimum S/H(0) with in-line injections is one half the optimum value for single sided injections. For staggered injections, the optimum S/H(0) is twice the optimum value for single-sided injection. The correlations developed predicted the temperature distributions within first order accuracy and provide a useful tool for predicting jet trajectory and temperature profiles in the dilution zone with two-sided injections.

  2. Application specific serial arithmetic arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winters, K.; Mathews, D.; Thompson, T.

    1990-01-01

    High performance systolic arrays of serial-parallel multiplier elements may be rapidly constructed for specific applications by applying hardware description language techniques to a library of full-custom CMOS building blocks. Single clock pre-charged circuits have been implemented for these arrays at clock rates in excess of 100 Mhz using economical 2-micron (minimum feature size) CMOS processes, which may be quickly configured for a variety of applications. A number of application-specific arrays are presented, including a 2-D convolver for image processing, an integer polynomial solver, and a finite-field polynomial solver.

  3. A multifrequency serial EIT system.

    PubMed

    Chauveau, N; Ayeva, B; Rigaud, B; Morucci, J P

    1996-11-01

    A multifrequency (1 kHz-1 MHz) serial electrical impedance tomography (EIT) system has been developed. It is based on 16 active electrodes and can be extended up to 32. Each active electrode can be programmed for current driving and for measuring either the injected current or the voltage difference between adjacent electrodes, and includes calibration facilities. Real and imaginary parts of the impedance are obtained by applying a parametric identification method (extended Prony), but other techniques are easily adaptable. Image reconstruction is carried out using the Sheffield filtered back-projection algorithm. Characteristic frequency images are under development and should be of great interest to distinguish between normal and tumorous tissues.

  4. Stress in dilute suspensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Passman, Stephen L.

    1989-01-01

    Generally, two types of theory are used to describe the field equations for suspensions. The so-called postulated equations are based on the kinetic theory of mixtures, which logically should give reasonable equations for solutions. The basis for the use of such theory for suspensions is tenuous, though it at least gives a logical path for mathematical arguments. It has the disadvantage that it leads to a system of equations which is underdetermined, in a sense that can be made precise. On the other hand, the so-called averaging theory starts with a determined system, but the very process of averaging renders the resulting system underdetermined. A third type of theory is proposed in which the kinetic theory of gases is used to motivate continuum equations for the suspended particles. This entails an interpretation of the stress in the particles that is different from the usual one. Classical theory is used to describe the motion of the suspending medium. The result is a determined system for a dilute suspension. Extension of the theory to more concentrated systems is discussed.

  5. Evolution of human serial pairbonding.

    PubMed

    Fisher, H E

    1989-03-01

    Data on divorce taken for all available years between 1947 and 1981 from the Demographic Yearbooks of the United Nations on 58 peoples illustrate that divorce has a consistent pattern. Divorces exhibit a skewed distribution, characterized by the occurrence of the mode early in marriage (with a divorce peak on or around the fourth year) and a gradual, long-tailed decline following this peak. Divorce risk peaks in age category 25-29 for males and age categories 20-24 and 25-29 for females, the height of reproductive and parenting years, and divorce counts peak among couples with two or fewer children. These properties of divorce are unrelated to divorce rate; they occur in societies with both high and low divorce rates. Data on available horticultural and gathering/hunting societies illustrate that divorce also peaks among young couples early in marriage. Remarriage by divorced and widowed individuals of reproductive age is also common cross-culturally. It is proposed that the above four-year modal marriage duration among couples of reproductive age who divorce reflects a hominid reproductive strategy that probably evolved some time after the appearance of Homo in response to increased female "reproductive burden" and functioned to ensure the survival of the hominid infant through weaning. Serial pairbonding during the female's reproductive years had ancestral adaptive advantages, producing the modern cross-cultural pattern of serial pairbonding.

  6. The Relationship Context of Premarital Serial Cohabitation

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Jessica; Manning, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    Even though serial cohabitation is on the rise, it has not been integrated into recent family research. We analyze the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) cycle 6 to explore the relationship context of serial cohabitation for women throughout emerging adulthood (N=3,397). We provide a relationship context for serial cohabitation by examining the age at first cohabitation, duration of cohabiting unions, marital expectations and transitions, as well as premarital sexual histories. Furthermore, we examine the change in these relationship indicators across women’s birth cohorts. We find that serial cohabitors’ co-residential unions are about the same duration as single-instance cohabiting unions. Serial cohabitors start cohabiting younger, report lower marital expectations than single-instance cohabitors and a smaller proportion marry before age 30. Women who have more premarital sex partners have significantly greater odds of serial cohabiting. These findings indicate that women face increasingly complex relationship trajectories during emerging adulthood. PMID:24381370

  7. The Relationship Context of Premarital Serial Cohabitation.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jessica; Manning, Wendy

    2010-09-01

    Even though serial cohabitation is on the rise, it has not been integrated into recent family research. We analyze the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) cycle 6 to explore the relationship context of serial cohabitation for women throughout emerging adulthood (N=3,397). We provide a relationship context for serial cohabitation by examining the age at first cohabitation, duration of cohabiting unions, marital expectations and transitions, as well as premarital sexual histories. Furthermore, we examine the change in these relationship indicators across women's birth cohorts. We find that serial cohabitors' co-residential unions are about the same duration as single-instance cohabiting unions. Serial cohabitors start cohabiting younger, report lower marital expectations than single-instance cohabitors and a smaller proportion marry before age 30. Women who have more premarital sex partners have significantly greater odds of serial cohabiting. These findings indicate that women face increasingly complex relationship trajectories during emerging adulthood.

  8. Mechanical Serial-Sectioning Data Assistant

    SciTech Connect

    Poulter, Gregory A.; Madison, Jonathan D.

    2015-11-17

    Mechanical Serial-Sectioning Data Assistant (MECH-SSDA) is a real-time data analytics software with graphical user-interface that: 1) tracks and visualizes material removal rates for mechanical serial-sectioning experiments using at least two height measurement methods 2) tracks process time for specific segments of the serial-sectioning experiment and 3) alerts the user to anomalies in expected removal rate, process time or unanticipated operational pauses

  9. Serial turbo trellis coded modulation using a serially concatenated coder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor); Dolinar, Samuel J. (Inventor); Pollara, Fabrizio (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Serial concatenated trellis coded modulation (SCTCM) includes an outer coder, an interleaver, a recursive inner coder and a mapping element. The outer coder receives data to be coded and produces outer coded data. The interleaver permutes the outer coded data to produce interleaved data. The recursive inner coder codes the interleaved data to produce inner coded data. The mapping element maps the inner coded data to a symbol. The recursive inner coder has a structure which facilitates iterative decoding of the symbols at a decoder system. The recursive inner coder and the mapping element are selected to maximize the effective free Euclidean distance of a trellis coded modulator formed from the recursive inner coder and the mapping element. The decoder system includes a demodulation unit, an inner SISO (soft-input soft-output) decoder, a deinterleaver, an outer SISO decoder, and an interleaver.

  10. Serial turbo trellis coded modulation using a serially concatenated coder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor); Dolinar, Samuel J. (Inventor); Pollara, Fabrizio (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Serial concatenated trellis coded modulation (SCTCM) includes an outer coder, an interleaver, a recursive inner coder and a mapping element. The outer coder receives data to be coded and produces outer coded data. The interleaver permutes the outer coded data to produce interleaved data. The recursive inner coder codes the interleaved data to produce inner coded data. The mapping element maps the inner coded data to a symbol. The recursive inner coder has a structure which facilitates iterative decoding of the symbols at a decoder system. The recursive inner coder and the mapping element are selected to maximize the effective free Euclidean distance of a trellis coded modulator formed from the recursive inner coder and the mapping element. The decoder system includes a demodulation unit, an inner SISO (soft-input soft-output) decoder, a deinterleaver, an outer SISO decoder, and an interleaver.

  11. Modeling Serial Arguments in Close Relationships: The Serial Argument Process Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bevan, Jennifer L.; Finan, Andrea; Kaminsky, Allison

    2008-01-01

    Though an emerging research area, serial argumentation has yet to be cohesively explored from a theoretical lens. The current project thus extends and updates Trapp and Hoff's (1985) original serial argument model by explicating and testing a theoretical process an individual goes through immediately before, during, and after a serial argument…

  12. Scientific and Technical Serials Holdings Optimization in an Inefficient Market: A LSU Serials Redesign Project Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bensman, Stephen J.; Wilder, Stanley J.

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes the structure of the library market for scientific and technical (ST) serials. Describes an exercise aimed at a theoretical reconstruction of the ST-serials holdings of Louisiana State University (LSU) Libraries. Discusses the set definitions, measures, and algorithms necessary in the design of a computer program to appraise ST serials.…

  13. Dilution refrigeration for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Israelsson, U. E.; Petrac, D.

    1990-01-01

    Dilution refrigerators are presently used routinely in ground based applications where temperatures below 0.3 K are required. The operation of a conventional dilution refrigerator depends critically on the presence of gravity. To operate a dilution refrigerator in space many technical difficulties must be overcome. Some of the anticipated difficulties are identified in this paper and possible solutions are described. A single cycle refrigerator is described conceptually that uses forces other than gravity to function and the stringent constraints imposed on the design by requiring the refrigerator to function on the earth without using gravity are elaborated upon.

  14. Serial Cohabitation and the Marital Life Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichter, Daniel T.; Qian, Zhenchao

    2008-01-01

    Using cohort data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this paper tracks the experiences of "serial cohabitors." Results indicate that only a minority of cohabiting women (about 15%-20%) were involved in multiple cohabitations. Serial cohabitations were overrepresented among economically disadvantaged groups, especially those with low…

  15. Serial Order: A Parallel Distributed Processing Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Michael I.

    Human behavior shows a variety of serially ordered action sequences. This paper presents a theory of serial order which describes how sequences of actions might be learned and performed. In this theory, parallel interactions across time (coarticulation) and parallel interactions across space (dual-task interference) are viewed as two aspects of a…

  16. Training Serials Specialists: Internships as an Option.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meiseles, Linda; Feller, Sue

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the lack of qualified, experienced serials librarians; suggests recruiting support staff from within technical services departments; and describes an internship program developed at Hofstra University (New York) to help train a library school student in serials work. The manager's perspective, the student's perspective, and an evaluation…

  17. The Use of OCLC for Serials Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidner, Cathy

    Designed for use by serials librarians concerned with the implementation of OCLC (Ohio College Library Center) in their individual libraries, librarians responsible for deciding to adopt OCLC rather than a competitive system or to add the Serials Subsystem to the services they already receive from OCLC, and information scientists and systems…

  18. Serial Position Functions in General Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Matthew R.; Neath, Ian; Surprenant, Aimée M.

    2015-01-01

    Serial position functions with marked primacy and recency effects are ubiquitous in episodic memory tasks. The demonstrations reported here explored whether bow-shaped serial position functions would be observed when people ordered exemplars from various categories along a specified dimension. The categories and dimensions were: actors and age;…

  19. The Serial Murderer's Motivations: An Interdisciplinary Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeHart, Dana D.; Mahoney, John M.

    1994-01-01

    Defines serial killer as individual who murders two or more victims over an extended period of time, ranging from days to years, with the crimes often being sexually motivated. Reviews existing motivational theories of serial murder and proposes additional explications from range of disciplines. Presents suggestions for future research and…

  20. Reframing Serial Murder Within Empirical Research.

    PubMed

    Gurian, Elizabeth A

    2017-04-01

    Empirical research on serial murder is limited due to the lack of consensus on a definition, the continued use of primarily descriptive statistics, and linkage to popular culture depictions. These limitations also inhibit our understanding of these offenders and affect credibility in the field of research. Therefore, this comprehensive overview of a sample of 508 cases (738 total offenders, including partnered groups of two or more offenders) provides analyses of solo male, solo female, and partnered serial killers to elucidate statistical differences and similarities in offending and adjudication patterns among the three groups. This analysis of serial homicide offenders not only supports previous research on offending patterns present in the serial homicide literature but also reveals that empirically based analyses can enhance our understanding beyond traditional case studies and descriptive statistics. Further research based on these empirical analyses can aid in the development of more accurate classifications and definitions of serial murderers.

  1. Precise quantitation of antinuclear antibodies on HEp-2 cells without the need for serial dilution.

    PubMed

    Hollingsworth, P N; Dawkins, R I; Peter, J B

    1996-07-01

    Using HEp-2 cells as a substrate, we developed a method to quantitate antinuclear antibodies (ANA) by comparing the green fluorescence intensity of unknown samples with that of calibrated standards. Intensity was then converted to international units per milliliter by reference to a standard curve. This method is accurate and precise around the cutoff for positively (5 to 10 IU/ml) and therefore provides a reliable screening test for active, untreated systemic lupus erythematosus. Furthermore, the method can identify sera likely to contain autoantibodies commonly detected in ANA-positive sera (SS-A, SS-B, Sm, small nuclear ribonucleoprotein, Scl-70, and double-stranded DNA).

  2. Dose Response of MTLn3 Cells to Serial Dilutions of Arsenic Trioxide and Ionizing Radiation.

    PubMed

    Raja, Waseem Khan; Satti, Jahangir; Liu, Gang; Castracane, James

    2013-01-01

    MTLn3 cells derived from mouse mammary epithelium are known to be highly malignant and are resistant to both radio- and chemo-therapy. We exposed MTLn3 cells to various doses of inorganic Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) in combination with ionizing radiation. Cells were treated with a series of As2O3 concentrations ranging from 20 μM to 1.22 nM for 8 hour, 24 hour and 48 hour periods. Post-treated cell proliferation was quantified by measuring mitochondrial activity and DNA analysis. Cells exposed to radiation and As2O3 at concentration greater than 1.25 μM showed apoptosis and radiations alone treated cells were statistically not different from the control. Hormesis was observed for As2O3 concentrations in the range of 0.078 μM to 0.625 μM while the combined chemo and radiation treatments of the cells did not affect the hormetic effect. We have demonstrated that As2O3 (in the presence and absence of ionizing radiation) in specific low concentrations induced apoptosis in the otherwise chemoresistant cancer cells. This low concentration-mediated cell death is immediately followed by a surge in cell survival. Low dosing dosimetry is highly desirable in metronomic therapy however, it has a narrow window since necrosis, hormesis, apoptosis and other dose-dependent biological processes take place in this region. Further quantifiable dosimetry is highly desired for routine clinical practice.

  3. Serial killers with military experience: applying learning theory to serial murder.

    PubMed

    Castle, Tammy; Hensley, Christopher

    2002-08-01

    Scholars have endeavored to study the motivation and causality behind serial murder by researching biological, psychological, and sociological variables. Some of these studies have provided support for the relationship between these variables and serial murder. However, the study of serial murder continues to be an exploratory rather than explanatory research topic. This article examines the possible link between serial killers and military service. Citing previous research using social learning theory for the study of murder, this article explores how potential serial killers learn to reinforce violence, aggression, and murder in military boot camps. As with other variables considered in serial killer research, military experience alone cannot account for all cases of serial murder. Future research should continue to examine this possible link.

  4. Background instrumental music and serial recall.

    PubMed

    Nittono, H

    1997-06-01

    Although speech and vocal music are consistently shown to impair serial recall for visually presented items, instrumental music does not always produce a significant disruption. This study investigated the features of instrumental music that would modulate the disruption in serial recall. 24 students were presented sequences of nine digits and required to recall the digits in order of presentation. Instrumental music as played either forward or backward during the task. Forward music caused significantly more disruption than did silence, whereas the reversed music did not. Some higher-order factor may be at work in the effect of background music on serial recall.

  5. Quality Assessment of Serially Ultradiluted and Agitated Drug Digitalis purpurea by Emission Spectroscopy and Clinical Analysis of Its Effect on the Heart Rate of Indian Bufo melanostictus.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Anup; Purkait, Bulbul

    2013-01-01

    The investigation of ultradiluted (homeopathic) drugs is extremely interesting and challenging, and from that point of view this study shows novelty. A study of in vivo changes in heart rate of the Indian Bufo melanostictus caused by commercially available serially ultra-diluted and agitated extract of Digitalis purpurea has been tried in order to understand their pharmacological role. RR interval (of ECG) was compared after intraperitoneal administration of serially diluted and agitated Digitalis purpurea extract, diluent rectified spirit, and Digoxin in anesthetized animals. The study revealed statistically significant changes in the heart rate after application of these drugs except in case of Digoxin and the 200th serial dilution of Digitalis purpurea. The duration of RR intervals after application of the drugs was corroborative of the effect of Digoxin and Digitalis purpurea extract up to 30th dilution. Emission spectra were obtained for the experimental ultra-diluted Digitalis purpurea extract and Digoxin to identify and characterize them. The observed RR pattern and emission spectra show an association. The quality assessment of the commercial ultra-diluted organic drugs obtained from natural products may be initiated by monitoring in vivo studies on animal models.

  6. Why extreme dilutions reach non-zero asymptotes: a nanoparticulate hypothesis based on froth flotation.

    PubMed

    Chikramane, Prashant S; Kalita, Dhrubajyoti; Suresh, Akkihebbal K; Kane, Shantaram G; Bellare, Jayesh R

    2012-11-13

    Extreme dilutions, especially homeopathic remedies of 30c, 200c, and higher potencies, are prepared by a process of serial dilution of 1:100 per step. As a result, dilution factors of 10(60), 10(400), or even greater are achieved. Therefore, both the presence of any active ingredient and the therapeutic efficacy of these medicines have been contentious because the existence of even traces of the starting raw materials in them is inconceivable. However, physicochemical studies of these solutions have unequivocally established the presence of the starting raw materials in nanoparticulate form even in these extreme (super-Avogadro, >10(23)) dilutions. In this article, we propose and validate a hypothesis to explain how nanoparticles are retained even at such enormous dilution levels. We show that once the bulk concentration is below a threshold level of a few nanograms/milliliter (ng/mL), at the end of each dilution step, all of the nanoparticles levitate to the surface and are accommodated as a monolayer at the top. This dominant population at the air-liquid interface is preserved and carried to the subsequent step, thereby forming an asymptotic concentration. Thus, all dilutions are only apparent and not real in terms of the concentrations of the starting raw materials.

  7. Carboxylation of cytosine (5caC) in the CG dinucleotide in the E-box motif (CGCAG|GTG) increases binding of the Tcf3|Ascl1 helix-loop-helix heterodimer 10-fold.

    PubMed

    Golla, Jaya Prakash; Zhao, Jianfei; Mann, Ishminder K; Sayeed, Syed K; Mandal, Ajeet; Rose, Robert B; Vinson, Charles

    2014-06-27

    Three oxidative products of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) occur in mammalian genomes. We evaluated if these cytosine modifications in a CG dinucleotide altered DNA binding of four B-HLH homodimers and three heterodimers to the E-Box motif CGCAG|GTG. We examined 25 DNA probes containing all combinations of cytosine in a CG dinucleotide and none changed binding except for carboxylation of cytosine (5caC) in the strand CGCAG|GTG. 5caC enhanced binding of all examined B-HLH homodimers and heterodimers, particularly the Tcf3|Ascl1 heterodimer which increased binding ~10-fold. These results highlight a potential function of the oxidative products of 5mC, changing the DNA binding of sequence-specific transcription factors.

  8. The effect of dilution and the use of a post-extraction nucleic acid purification column on the accuracy, precision, and inhibition of environmental DNA samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mckee, Anna M.; Spear, Stephen F.; Pierson, Todd W.

    2015-01-01

    Isolation of environmental DNA (eDNA) is an increasingly common method for detecting presence and assessing relative abundance of rare or elusive species in aquatic systems via the isolation of DNA from environmental samples and the amplification of species-specific sequences using quantitative PCR (qPCR). Co-extracted substances that inhibit qPCR can lead to inaccurate results and subsequent misinterpretation about a species’ status in the tested system. We tested three treatments (5-fold and 10-fold dilutions, and spin-column purification) for reducing qPCR inhibition from 21 partially and fully inhibited eDNA samples collected from coastal plain wetlands and mountain headwater streams in the southeastern USA. All treatments reduced the concentration of DNA in the samples. However, column purified samples retained the greatest sensitivity. For stream samples, all three treatments effectively reduced qPCR inhibition. However, for wetland samples, the 5-fold dilution was less effective than other treatments. Quantitative PCR results for column purified samples were more precise than the 5-fold and 10-fold dilutions by 2.2× and 3.7×, respectively. Column purified samples consistently underestimated qPCR-based DNA concentrations by approximately 25%, whereas the directional bias in qPCR-based DNA concentration estimates differed between stream and wetland samples for both dilution treatments. While the directional bias of qPCR-based DNA concentration estimates differed among treatments and locations, the magnitude of inaccuracy did not. Our results suggest that 10-fold dilution and column purification effectively reduce qPCR inhibition in mountain headwater stream and coastal plain wetland eDNA samples, and if applied to all samples in a study, column purification may provide the most accurate relative qPCR-based DNA concentrations estimates while retaining the greatest assay sensitivity.

  9. Dilution and the elusive baseline.

    PubMed

    Likens, Gene E; Buso, Donald C

    2012-04-17

    Knowledge of baseline conditions is critical for evaluating quantitatively the effect of human activities on environmental conditions, such as the impact of acid deposition. Efforts to restore ecosystems to prior, "pristine" condition require restoration targets, often based on some presumed or unknown baseline condition. Here, we show that rapid and relentless dilution of surface water chemistry is occurring in the White Mountains of New Hampshire, following decades of acid deposition. Extrapolating measured linear trends using a unique data set of up to 47 years, suggest that both precipitation and streamwater chemistry (r(2) >0.84 since 1985) in the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF) will approximate demineralized water within one to three decades. Because such dilute chemistry is unrealistic for surface waters, theoretical baseline compositions have been calculated for precipitation and streamwater: electrical conductivity of 3 and 5 μS/cm, base cation concentrations of 7 and 39 μeq/liter, acid-neutralizing capacity values of <1 and 14 μeq/liter, respectively; and pH 5.5 for both. Significantly large and rapid dilution of surface waters to values even more dilute than proposed for Pre-Industrial Revolution (PIR) conditions has important ecological, biogeochemical and water resource management implications, such as for the success of early reproductive stages of aquatic organisms.

  10. 40 CFR 1065.240 - Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow meters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Flow-Related Measurements § 1065.240 Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow meters. (a) Application. Use a diluted exhaust flow... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dilution air and diluted exhaust...

  11. 40 CFR 1065.240 - Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow meters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Flow-Related Measurements § 1065.240 Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow meters. (a) Application. Use a diluted exhaust flow... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dilution air and diluted exhaust...

  12. 40 CFR 1065.240 - Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow meters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Flow-Related Measurements § 1065.240 Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow meters. (a) Application. Use a diluted exhaust flow... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dilution air and diluted exhaust...

  13. 40 CFR 1065.240 - Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow meters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Flow-Related Measurements § 1065.240 Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow meters. (a) Application. Use a diluted exhaust flow... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dilution air and diluted exhaust...

  14. 40 CFR 1065.240 - Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow meters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Flow-Related Measurements § 1065.240 Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow meters. (a) Application. Use a diluted exhaust flow... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dilution air and diluted exhaust...

  15. Serials Automation for San Jose State University Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Susana J.

    This study (1) examines the university's serials system and identifies its problems; (2) analyzes the current manual operations in the serials department, with emphasis on the serials check-in system; and (3) determines whether or not computerization of some or all of the serials subsystems would improve the department's internal effectiveness and…

  16. Analyzing Current Serials in Virginia: An Application of the Ulrich's Serials Analysis System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metz, Paul; Gasser, Sharon

    2006-01-01

    VIVA (the Virtual Library of Virginia) was one of the first subscribers to R. R. Bowker's Ulrich's Serials Analysis System (USAS). Creating a database that combined a union report of current serial subscriptions within most academic libraries in the state with the data elements present in Ulrich's made possible a comprehensive analysis designed…

  17. Hydrogen production by Rhodopseudomonas palustris WP 3-5 in a serial photobioreactor fed with hydrogen fermentation effluent.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chi-Mei; Hung, Guo-Jan; Yang, Chu-Fang

    2011-09-01

    In this study, a lab-scale serial photobioreactor composed of three column reactors was constructed and continuously operated to investigate several parameters influencing photohydrogen production when using the synthetic wastewater and the anaerobic hydrogen fermentation effluents as the influents. The results indicated that better hydrogen production rate was obtained when the serial photobioreactor was operated under cellular recycling at a short HRT of 8h. The serial photobioreactor maintained high hydrogen content ca. 80% in the produced gas and 0.4× dilution ratio was the suitable ratio for hydrogen production. When the photobioreactor fed with the real wastewater (Effluent 1) containing 100 mg/L NH4Cl, Column 1 reactor successfully reduced ammonia concentration to about 60 mg/L for cell synthesis, resulting in a steady hydrogen production in the following two column reactors. The average hydrogen production rate was 205 mL-H2/L/d.

  18. [The serial murder: a few theoretical perspectives].

    PubMed

    Leistedt, S; Linkowski, P

    2011-01-01

    Despite numbers of publications and effort to try to establish the definition, the classification, the epidemiology, the clinical aspects and the psychopathology of serial killers, a universal consensus seems to say the least. Crime, though reduced in some countries, appears to impact more and more consistent worldwide, generating controversial ideas and a multitude of possible explanations. The serial killer usually presents as a caucasian man, aged between 20 and 40 years, often embedded socially and in his family, but with serious psychiatric, personal and especially family history. Usually acting alone, the serial killer plans a crime well in advance, but sometimes within the scope of impulsivity for a minority, the victim not being previously selected. In the latter case, an actual mental illness like psychosis is found. It is clear from numerous psychopathological studies conducted so far that most serial killers are defined as psychopathic sexual sadists, whose childhood was difficult, if not flouted, punctuated by physical and psychological violence situations. In addition, pervasive fantasies combined with thoughts of death, sex and violence are as much in common with the original acts of which they are the instigators. Beyond a relentless media that is constantly watering the public with stories and pictures depicting them as such, serial killers remain an enigma. We can therefore attempt to answer the various questions raised by this phenomenon, the way these people operate and how we can curb the rise, thanks to the neurobiological and neurophysiological approaches that science offers us.

  19. Stochastic modeling of a serial killer.

    PubMed

    Simkin, M V; Roychowdhury, V P

    2014-08-21

    We analyze the time pattern of the activity of a serial killer, who during 12 years had murdered 53 people. The plot of the cumulative number of murders as a function of time is of "Devil's staircase" type. The distribution of the intervals between murders (step length) follows a power law with the exponent of 1.4. We propose a model according to which the serial killer commits murders when neuronal excitation in his brain exceeds certain threshold. We model this neural activity as a branching process, which in turn is approximated by a random walk. As the distribution of the random walk return times is a power law with the exponent 1.5, the distribution of the inter-murder intervals is thus explained. We illustrate analytical results by numerical simulation. Time pattern activity data from two other serial killers further substantiate our analysis.

  20. Serial multiplier arrays for parallel computation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winters, Kel

    1990-01-01

    Arrays of systolic serial-parallel multiplier elements are proposed as an alternative to conventional SIMD mesh serial adder arrays for applications that are multiplication intensive and require few stored operands. The design and operation of a number of multiplier and array configurations featuring locality of connection, modularity, and regularity of structure are discussed. A design methodology combining top-down and bottom-up techniques is described to facilitate development of custom high-performance CMOS multiplier element arrays as well as rapid synthesis of simulation models and semicustom prototype CMOS components. Finally, a differential version of NORA dynamic circuits requiring a single-phase uncomplemented clock signal introduced for this application.

  1. The eyeball killer: serial killings with postmortem globe enucleation.

    PubMed

    Coyle, Julie; Ross, Karen F; Barnard, Jeffrey J; Peacock, Elizabeth; Linch, Charles A; Prahlow, Joseph A

    2015-05-01

    Although serial killings are relatively rare, they can be the cause of a great deal of anxiety while the killer remains at-large. Despite the fact that the motivations for serial killings are typically quite complex, the psychological analysis of a serial killer can provide valuable insight into how and why certain individuals become serial killers. Such knowledge may be instrumental in preventing future serial killings or in solving ongoing cases. In certain serial killings, the various incidents have a variety of similar features. Identification of similarities between separate homicidal incidents is necessary to recognize that a serial killer may be actively killing. In this report, the authors present a group of serial killings involving three prostitutes who were shot to death over a 3-month period. Scene and autopsy findings, including the unusual finding of postmortem enucleation of the eyes, led investigators to recognize the serial nature of the homicides.

  2. Science Notes: Dilution of a Weak Acid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbot, Christopher; Wai, Chooi Khee

    2014-01-01

    This "Science note" arose out of practical work involving the dilution of ethanoic acid, the measurement of the pH of the diluted solutions and calculation of the acid dissociation constant, K[subscript a], for each diluted solution. The students expected the calculated values of K[subscript a] to be constant but they found that the…

  3. Modeling the myocardial dilution curve of a pure intravascular indicator.

    PubMed

    Lee, J S; Karch, J; Jayaweera, A R; Lindner, J R; Lee, L P; Skyba, D M; Kaul, S

    1997-10-01

    The dispersion and dilution of contrast medium through the myocardial vasculature is examined first with a serial model comprised of arterial, capillary, and venous components in series to determine their time-concentration curves (TCC) and the myocardial dilution curve (MDC). Analysis of general characteristics shows that the first moment of the MDC, adjusted for that of the aortic TCC and mean transit time (MTT) from the aorta to the first intramyocardial artery, is one-half the MTT of the myocardial vasculature and that the ratio of the area of the MDC and aortic TCC is the fractional myocardial blood volume (MBV). The use of known coronary vascular morphometry and a set of transport functions indicates that the temporal change in MDC is primarily controlled by the MTT. An analysis of several models with heterogeneous flow distributions justifies the procedures to calculate MTT and MBV from the measured MDC. Compared with previously described models, the present model is more general and provides a physical basis for the effects of flow dispersion and heterogeneity on the characteristics of the MDC.

  4. "Serial" Effects in Parallel Models of Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Ya-Ning; Furber, Steve; Welbourne, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    There is now considerable evidence showing that the time to read a word out loud is influenced by an interaction between orthographic length and lexicality. Given that length effects are interpreted by advocates of dual-route models as evidence of serial processing this would seem to pose a serious challenge to models of single word reading which…

  5. Serial Position Curves in Free Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laming, Donald

    2010-01-01

    The scenario for free recall set out in Laming (2009) is developed to provide models for the serial position curves from 5 selected sets of data, for final free recall, and for multitrial free recall. The 5 sets of data reflect the effects of rate of presentation, length of list, delay of recall, and suppression of rehearsal. Each model…

  6. Asymmetry in serial femtosecond crystallography data

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Amit; Johansson, Linda; Dunevall, Elin; Wahlgren, Weixiao Y.; Neutze, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Serial crystallography is an increasingly important approach to protein crystallography that exploits both X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) and synchrotron radiation. Serial crystallography recovers complete X-ray diffraction data by processing and merging diffraction images from thousands of randomly oriented non-uniform microcrystals, of which all observations are partial Bragg reflections. Random fluctuations in the XFEL pulse energy spectrum, variations in the size and shape of microcrystals, integrating over millions of weak partial observations and instabilities in the XFEL beam position lead to new types of experimental errors. The quality of Bragg intensity estimates deriving from serial crystallography is therefore contingent upon assumptions made while modeling these data. Here it is observed that serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) Bragg reflections do not follow a unimodal Gaussian distribution and it is recommended that an idealized assumption of single Gaussian peak profiles be relaxed to incorporate apparent asymmetries when processing SFX data. The phenomenon is illustrated by re-analyzing data collected from microcrystals of the Blastochloris viridis photosynthetic reaction center and comparing these intensity observations with conventional synchrotron data. The results show that skewness in the SFX observations captures the essence of the Wilson plot and an empirical treatment is suggested that can help to separate the diffraction Bragg intensity from the background. PMID:28248658

  7. Cooperative Serials Review: A Feasibility Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boston Library Consortium, MA.

    This report describes a 1980/81 project concerned with the formulation and validation of a model for determining whether cancellation and/or consolidation of serial subscriptions and holdings should be recommended to maximize the cost-effective use of combined collections and staff resources in the Boston Library Consortium (BLC). The publication…

  8. Advances in Serials Management. Volume 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hepfer, Cindy, Ed.; Gammon, Julia, Ed.; Malinowski, Teresa, Ed.

    In order to further discussion and support constructive change, this volume presents the following eight papers on various dimensions of serials management: (1) "CD-ROMs, Surveys, and Sales: The OSA [Optical Society of America] Experience" (Frank E. Harris and Alan Tourtlotte); (2) "Management and Integration of Electronic Journals into the…

  9. Unlinkable Serial Transactions: Protocols and Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-11-01

    Verification Additional Key Words and Phrases: Anonymity , blinding, cryptographic protocols, unlinkable serial transactions A preliminary version of...typically one for each vendor [Chaum 1981]. Customers maintain anonymity by conducting transactions using anonymous elec- tronic cash (e-cash). But...vendors are able to protect their interests by maintaining a profile on each anonymous customer. In this paper we present, effectively, the opposite

  10. Iranian Serials Published in Latin Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, John F.

    A list of English, French and German serials published in Iran and available for subscription abroad is given. Bibliographic information is included for each publication. The list was compiled with the help of Guity Afshar and Anoush Hovsepian from Pouri Soltani's "Directory of Iranian Periodicals," 1971. It was distrubuted to certain…

  11. Bibliography of Serials on Caribbean Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Dennis; Milman, Claudio

    An alphabetical listing of serial titles that are relevant to Caribbean affairs and culture is provided. Annotations include the individual publication's scope of coverage as well as its frequency of appearance (monthly, quarterly, weekly, etc.) and postal address. The same type of information regarding newspapers published in the Caribbean area…

  12. Coordination in serial-parallel image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wójcik, Waldemar; Dubovoi, Vladymyr M.; Duda, Marina E.; Romaniuk, Ryszard S.; Yesmakhanova, Laura; Kozbakova, Ainur

    2015-12-01

    Serial-parallel systems used to convert the image. The control of their work results with the need to solve coordination problem. The paper summarizes the model of coordination of resource allocation in relation to the task of synchronizing parallel processes; the genetic algorithm of coordination developed, its adequacy verified in relation to the process of parallel image processing.

  13. Notes for Serials Cataloging. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geer, Beverley, Ed.; Caraway, Beatrice L., Ed.

    Notes are indispensable to serials cataloging. Researchers, reference librarians, and catalogers regularly use notes on catalog records and, as the audience for these notes has expanded from the local library community to the global Internet community, the need for notes to be cogent, clear, and useful is greater than ever. This book is a…

  14. Neutral null models for diversity in serial transfer evolution experiments.

    PubMed

    Harpak, Arbel; Sella, Guy

    2014-09-01

    Evolution experiments with microorganisms coupled with genome-wide sequencing now allow for the systematic study of population genetic processes under a wide range of conditions. In learning about these processes in natural, sexual populations, neutral models that describe the behavior of diversity and divergence summaries have played a pivotal role. It is therefore natural to ask whether neutral models, suitably modified, could be useful in the context of evolution experiments. Here, we introduce coalescent models for polymorphism and divergence under the most common experimental evolution assay, a serial transfer experiment. This relatively simple setting allows us to address several issues that could affect diversity patterns in evolution experiments, whether selection is operating or not: the transient behavior of neutral polymorphism in an experiment beginning from a single clone, the effects of randomness in the timing of cell division and noisiness in population size in the dilution stage. In our analyses and discussion, we emphasize the implications for experiments aimed at measuring diversity patterns and making inferences about population genetic processes based on these measurements.

  15. Serial ricinine levels in serum and urine after ricin intoxication.

    PubMed

    Røen, Bent Tore; Opstad, Aase Mari; Haavind, Anniken; Tønsager, Janne

    2013-06-01

    Ricinine is an alkaloid present in the castor bean plant (Ricinus communis) that can be used as a biomarker for ricin poisoning. Serial ricinine levels are reported in the serum and urine of a patient suffering from intentional ricin intoxication. The patient was brought to the hospital 4 h after injection and oral intake of a castor bean extract, but died 38 h later, despite intensive medical care. Ricinine was isolated from the samples by solid-phase extraction and quantitatively determined by isotopic dilution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The ricinine level in serum declined from 33 to 23 ng/mL between 10 and 29 h post-exposure. Three urine samples collected from 12 to 41 h after ricin intoxication showed ricinine concentrations in the range of 20-58 ng/mL. The creatinine corrected values (21-30 µg/g) indicated a concentration-time profile with a maximum ricinine level in urine between 12 and 29 h after exposure.

  16. A Microgravity Helium Dilution Cooler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roach, Pat R.; Sperans, Joel (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    We are developing a He-3-He-4 dilution cooler to operate in microgravity. It uses charcoal adsorption pumps and heaters for its operation; it has no moving parts. It currently operates cyclically to well below 0.1 K and we have designed a version to operate continuously. We expect that the continuous version will be able to provide the long-duration cooling that many experiments need at temperatures down to 0.040 K. More importantly, such a dilution cooler could provide the precooling that enables the use of adiabatic demagnetization techniques that can reach temperatures below 0.001 K. At temperatures below 0.002 K many fascinating microgravity experiments on superfluid He-3 become possible. Among the possibilities are: research into a superfluid He-3 gyroscope, study of the nucleation of the B-phase of superfluid He-3 when the sample is floating out of contact with walls, study of the anisotropy of the surface tension of the B-phase, and NMR experiments on tiny free-floating clusters of superfluid He-3 atoms that should model the shell structure of nuclei.

  17. Preferential use of dilutions of single sera than mixture of sera to standardize the quantitation of anticardiolipin antibodies.

    PubMed

    Rupin, A; Reber, G; Bardos, P; de Moerloose, P

    1994-08-15

    The aim of this study was to compare four house standards coming from two University Hospital laboratories with the standards provided by the Antiphospholipid Standardization Laboratory (ASL) in order to quantify anticardiolipin antibodies. Using two different plates and two different buffered protein solutions, slopes from the serial dilutions of each of the four house standards were found comparable. In contrast different slopes were obtained when using the ASL standards which consist of a mixture of sera. Our results indicate that dilutions of single sera are more suitable than mixture of sera when quantification of anticardiolipin antibodies is required.

  18. A Model of Serial Argument in Interpersonal Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trapp, Robert; Hoff, Nancy

    1985-01-01

    While most scholars view argument as a single conversational event, the interaction can be seen as a serial episode that occurs and recurs in everyday life. This essay presents a model of serial argument with supporting data. (PD)

  19. Magnetic Particle Recovery of Serial Numbers

    SciTech Connect

    D. Utrata; M.J. Johnson

    2003-10-01

    One method used by crime labs to recover obliterated serial numbers in steel firearms (ferrous samples) is the magnetic particle technique. The use of this method is predicated on the detection of metal deformation present under stamped serial numbers after the visible stamp has been removed. Equipment specialized for this detection is not used in these attempts; a portable magnetic yoke used typically for flaw detection on large weldments or structures, along with dry visible magnetic powders, have been the tools of criminologists working in this area. Crime labs have reported low success rates using these tools [1, 2]. This is not surprising when one considers that little formal development has apparently evolved for use in such investigations since the publication of seminal work in this area some time ago [3]. The aim of this project is to investigate specific aspects of magnetic particle inspection for serial number recovery. This includes attempts to understand the magnetic characteristics of different steels that affect their performance in the test, such as varying results for carbon steels and alloy steels after different thermal and forming treatments. Also investigated are the effects of the nature of the sample magnetization (AC, rectified DC, and true DC) and the use of various detection media, such as visible powders and fluorescent sprays, on test outcome. Additionally, some aspects of surface preparation of firearm samples prior to number recovery were included in this work. The scope of this report includes a brief overview of the magnetic particle inspection method in general and its applications to forensic serial number recovery. This is followed by a description of how such investigations were simulated on lab samples, including a look at how the microstructure of a given steel will affect its performance in the test. Investigations into the serial number recovery in a series of ferromagnetic firearms (both steel and certain stainless steels

  20. An Investigation of Selective College and University Libraries' Serial Arrangement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesler, Elizabeth Gates; Teborek, Gay

    Data from a survey on serials arrangement procedures and policies at academic libraries was used by the University of Rhode Island (URI) Library in changing current serials policies. Ten libraries, four of which have similar serial holdings and user populations to URI, responded to a questionnaire. Information was obtained on classification versus…

  1. English Literature: A Student's Guide to Serial Bibliographies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGill Univ., Montreal (Quebec). McLennan Library.

    This selected guide to serial bibliographies covering English language literature is based on an essay bibliography by David E. Pownall. Other bibliographies of serial bibliographies which were consulted include "A Reference Guide to English Studies,""Periodicals Containing Reviews and Bibliographies,""Serial Bibliographies in the Humanities and…

  2. The OCLC Serials Sub-System: A First Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgar, Neal L.; And Others

    This examination of the OCLC serials control sub-system points to positive and negative aspects of the OCLC system as they relate to serials, and evaluates the system's serials cataloging capabilities. While this report assumes a knowledge of the basic operations of OCLC, it describes the system in general, its function in cataloging, and its…

  3. Ritual and signature in serial sexual homicide.

    PubMed

    Schlesinger, Louis B; Kassen, Martin; Mesa, V Blair; Pinizzotto, Anthony J

    2010-01-01

    Ritual and signature are fantasy-driven, repetitive crime scene behaviors that have been found to occur in serial sexual homicide. Notwithstanding numerous anecdotal case reports, ritual and signature have rarely been studied empirically. In a national sample of 38 offenders and their 162 victims, we examined behavioral and thematic consistency, as well as the evolution and uniqueness of these crime scene actions. The notion that serial sexual murderers engage in the same rituals and leave unique signatures at every scene was not supported by our data. In fact, the results suggest that the crime scene conduct of this group of offenders is fairly complex and varied. Implications of these findings for forensic assessments and criminal investigations are discussed.

  4. Desynchronization in diluted neural networks.

    PubMed

    Zillmer, Rüdiger; Livi, Roberto; Politi, Antonio; Torcini, Alessandro

    2006-09-01

    The dynamical behavior of a weakly diluted fully inhibitory network of pulse-coupled spiking neurons is investigated. Upon increasing the coupling strength, a transition from regular to stochasticlike regime is observed. In the weak-coupling phase, a periodic dynamics is rapidly approached, with all neurons firing with the same rate and mutually phase locked. The strong-coupling phase is characterized by an irregular pattern, even though the maximum Lyapunov exponent is negative. The paradox is solved by drawing an analogy with the phenomenon of "stable chaos," i.e., by observing that the stochasticlike behavior is "limited" to an exponentially long (with the system size) transient. Remarkably, the transient dynamics turns out to be stationary.

  5. Band anticrossing in dilute nitrides

    SciTech Connect

    Shan, W.; Yu, K.M.; Walukiewicz, W.; Wu, J.; Ager III, J.W.; Haller, E.E.

    2003-12-23

    Alloying III-V compounds with small amounts of nitrogen leads to dramatic reduction of the fundamental band-gap energy in the resulting dilute nitride alloys. The effect originates from an anti-crossing interaction between the extended conduction-band states and localized N states. The interaction splits the conduction band into two nonparabolic subbands. The downward shift of the lower conduction subband edge is responsible for the N-induced reduction of the fundamental band-gap energy. The changes in the conduction band structure result in significant increase in electron effective mass and decrease in the electron mobility, and lead to a large enhance of the maximum doping level in GaInNAs doped with group VI donors. In addition, a striking asymmetry in the electrical activation of group IV and group VI donors can be attributed to mutual passivation process through formation of the nearest neighbor group-IV donor nitrogen pairs.

  6. Serial dependence in the perception of attractiveness

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Ye; Leib, Allison Yamanashi; Whitney, David

    2016-01-01

    The perception of attractiveness is essential for choices of food, object, and mate preference. Like perception of other visual features, perception of attractiveness is stable despite constant changes of image properties due to factors like occlusion, visual noise, and eye movements. Recent results demonstrate that perception of low-level stimulus features and even more complex attributes like human identity are biased towards recent percepts. This effect is often called serial dependence. Some recent studies have suggested that serial dependence also exists for perceived facial attractiveness, though there is also concern that the reported effects are due to response bias. Here we used an attractiveness-rating task to test the existence of serial dependence in perceived facial attractiveness. Our results demonstrate that perceived face attractiveness was pulled by the attractiveness level of facial images encountered up to 6 s prior. This effect was not due to response bias and did not rely on the previous motor response. This perceptual pull increased as the difference in attractiveness between previous and current stimuli increased. Our results reconcile previously conflicting findings and extend previous work, demonstrating that sequential dependence in perception operates across different levels of visual analysis, even at the highest levels of perceptual interpretation. PMID:28006077

  7. Serial Pixel Analog-to-Digital Converter

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, E D

    2010-02-01

    This method reduces the data path from the counter to the pixel register of the analog-to-digital converter (ADC) from as many as 10 bits to a single bit. The reduction in data path width is accomplished by using a coded serial data stream similar to a pseudo random number (PRN) generator. The resulting encoded pixel data is then decoded into a standard hexadecimal format before storage. The high-speed serial pixel ADC concept is based on the single-slope integrating pixel ADC architecture. Previous work has described a massively parallel pixel readout of a similar architecture. The serial ADC connection is similar to the state-of-the art method with the exception that the pixel ADC register is a shift register and the data path is a single bit. A state-of-the-art individual-pixel ADC uses a single-slope charge integration converter architecture with integral registers and “one-hot” counters. This implies that parallel data bits are routed among the counter and the individual on-chip pixel ADC registers. The data path bit-width to the pixel is therefore equivalent to the pixel ADC bit resolution.

  8. Serial FBG sensor network allowing overlapping spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbenseth, S.; Lochmann, S.; Ahrens, A.; Rehm, B.

    2016-05-01

    For structure or material monitoring low impact serial fiber Bragg grating (FBG) networks have attracted increasing research interest. Common sensor networks using wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) for FBG interrogation are limited in their efficiency by the spectral width of their light source, the FBG tuning range and the spectral guard bands. Overlapping spectra are strictly forbidden in this case. Applying time division multiplexing (TDM) or active resonator schemes may overcome these restrictions. However, they introduce other substantial disadvantages like signal roundtrip dependency or sophisticated control of active resonating structures. Code division multiplexing (CDM) as a means of FBG interrogation by simple autocorrelation of appropriate codes has been shown to be superior in this respect. However, it came at the cost of a second spectrometer introducing additional equalization efforts. We demonstrate a new serial FBG sensor network utilizing CDM signal processing for efficient sensor interrogation without the need of a second spectrometer and additional state of polarization (SOP) controlling components. It allows overlapping spectra even when all sensing FBGs are positioned at the same centre wavelength and it shows a high degree of insensitivity to SOP. Sequence inversed keyed (SIK) serial signal processing utilizing quasi-orthogonal balanced codes ensures simple and quick sensor interrogation with high signal-to-interference/noise ratio.

  9. From animal cruelty to serial murder: applying the graduation hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Wright, Jeremy; Hensley, Christopher

    2003-02-01

    Although serial murder has been recorded for centuries, limited academic attention has been given to this important topic. Scholars have attempted to examine the causality and motivations behind the rare phenomenon of serial murder. However, scant research exists which delves into the childhood characteristics of serial murderers. Using social learning theory, some of these studies present supporting evidence for a link between childhood animal cruelty and adult aggression toward humans. Based on five case studies of serial murderers, we contribute to the existing literature by exploring the possible link between childhood cruelty toward animals and serial murder with the application of the graduation hypothesis.

  10. Bias-corrected confidence intervals for the concentration parameter in a dilution assay.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Basu, S

    1999-03-01

    Interval estimates of the concentration of target entities from a serial dilution assay are usually based on the maximum likelihood estimator. The distribution of the maximum likelihood estimator is skewed to the right and is positively biased. This bias results in interval estimates that either provide inadequate coverage relative to the nominal level or yield excessively long intervals. Confidence intervals based on both log transformation and bias reduction are proposed and are shown through simulations to provide appropriate coverage with shorter widths than the commonly used intervals in a variety of designs. An application to feline AIDS research, which motivated this work, is also presented.

  11. Dilution of individual microtubules observed in real time in vitro: evidence that cap size is small and independent of elongation rate

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    Although the mechanism of microtubule dynamic instability is thought to involve the hydrolysis of tubulin-bound GTP, the mechanism of GTP hydrolysis and the basis of microtubule stability are controversial. Video microscopy of individual microtubules and dilution protocols were used to examine the size and lifetime of the stabilizing cap. Purified porcine brain tubulin (7-23 microM) was assembled at 37 degrees C onto both ends of isolated sea urchin axoneme fragments in a miniature flow cell to give a 10-fold variation in elongation rate. The tubulin concentration in the region of microtubule growth could be diluted rapidly (by 84% within 3 s of the onset of dilution). Upon perfusion with buffer containing no tubulin, microtubules experienced a catastrophe (conversion from elongation to rapid shortening) within 4-6 s on average after dilution to 16% of the initial concentration, independent of the predilution rate of elongation and length. Based on extrapolation of catastrophe frequency to zero tubulin concentration, the estimated lifetime of the stable cap after infinite dilution was less than 3-4 s for plus and minus ends, much shorter than the approximately 200 s observed at steady state (Walker, R. A., E. T. O'Brien, N. K. Pryer, M. Soboeiro, W. A. Voter, H. P. Erickson, and E. D. Salmon. 1988. J. Cell Biol. 107:1437-1448.). We conclude that during elongation, both plus and minus ends are stabilized by a short region (approximately 200 dimers or less) and that the size of the stable cap is independent of 10-fold variation in elongation rate. These results eliminate models of dynamic instability which predict extensive "build- up" stabilizing caps and support models which constrain the cap to the elongating tip. We propose that the cell may take advantage of such an assembly mechanism by using "catastrophe factors" that can promote frequent catastrophe even at high elongation rates by transiently binding to microtubule ends and briefly inhibiting GTP

  12. Implementation of a Multichannel Serial Data Streaming Algorithm using the Xilinx Serial RapidIO Solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doxley, Charles A.

    2016-01-01

    In the current world of applications that use reconfigurable technology implemented on field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), there is a need for flexible architectures that can grow as the systems evolve. A project has limited resources and a fixed set of requirements that development efforts are tasked to meet. Designers must develop robust solutions that practically meet the current customer demands and also have the ability to grow for future performance. This paper describes the development of a high speed serial data streaming algorithm that allows for transmission of multiple data channels over a single serial link. The technique has the ability to change to meet new applications developed for future design considerations. This approach uses the Xilinx Serial RapidIO LOGICORE Solution to implement a flexible infrastructure to meet the current project requirements with the ability to adapt future system designs.

  13. Fusion of competing features is not serial.

    PubMed

    Herzog, Michael H; Parish, Landi; Koch, Christof; Fahle, Manfred

    2003-08-01

    How features of an object are bound into a unique percept is one of the puzzling problems in the cognitive and neuro-sciences. In order to investigate the spatio-temporal mechanisms of feature binding, we serially present two verniers with opposite offset directions for very short durations. Only one vernier is perceived with its offset dominated by the vernier presented second. This dominance reverses if the two verniers are followed by masking gratings, i.e. the first presented vernier dominates performance. Therefore, feature fusion can neither be explained completely by spatially local mechanisms nor by the temporal order of appearance of elements.

  14. CAR-T cells are serial killers.

    PubMed

    Davenport, Alexander J; Jenkins, Misty R; Ritchie, David S; Prince, H Miles; Trapani, Joseph A; Kershaw, Michael H; Darcy, Phillip K; Neeson, Paul J

    2015-12-01

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells have enjoyed unprecedented clinical success against haematological malignancies in recent years. However, several aspects of CAR T cell biology remain unknown. We recently compared CAR and T cell receptor (TCR)-based killing in the same effector cell and showed that CAR T cells can not only efficiently kill single tumor targets, they can also kill multiple tumor targets in a sequential manner. Single and serial killing events were not sustained long term due to CAR down-regulation after 20 hours.

  15. Serial murder by children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Myers, Wade C

    2004-01-01

    Six cases of serial murder by children and adolescents spanning the past 150 years are presented. The available literature pertaining to this area is reviewed. Each of these six offenders committed sexually homicidal behavior as demonstrated by their expression of erotic interest or engagement in overt sexual behavior at the crime scenes. From a DSM-IV-TR perspective they all exhibited signs of sexual sadism, and their crime characteristics reflected behavior of a more predatory than affective nature. Hands on methods of killing were preferred, i.e., cutting, stabbing, or strangulation. These crimes are extremely rare. Case reports in this area are encouraged to advance our knowledge of these youths.

  16. EM Immunity Study of Serial Links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontana, M.; Rigazio, L.; Canavero, F. G.; Perraud, R.

    2012-05-01

    This paper proposes a systematic study of IC immunity for a TX/RX digital system, implemented in a FPGA board. A DPI setup is used to measure the immunity of signal I/O ports to conducted continuous- wave interference. The injection path from RF noise source to input pin is characterized to define the injected power level causing a malfunction on the TX/RX system, up to 250 MHz. The impact of data coding on immunity measurement is analyzed by comparing error rates of Flexray coded data over a standard serial transmission protocol.

  17. Automated Serial Sectioning for 3D Reconstruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alkemper, Jen; Voorhees, Peter W.

    2003-01-01

    Some aspects of an apparatus and method for automated serial sectioning of a specimen of a solder, aluminum, or other relatively soft opaque material are discussed. The apparatus includes a small milling machine (micromiller) that takes precise, shallow cuts (increments of depth as small as 1 micron) to expose successive sections. A microscope equipped with an electronic camera, mounted in a fixed position on the micromiller, takes pictures of the newly exposed specimen surface at each increment of depth. The images are digitized, and the resulting data are subsequently processed to reconstruct three-dimensional (3D) features of the specimen.

  18. Concurrent Cognitive Processes in Rat Serial Pattern Learning: Item Memory, Serial Position, and Pattern Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Melissa D.; Fountain, Stephen B.

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments examined the processes mediating rat serial pattern learning for rule-consistent versus rule-violating pattern elements ("violation elements"). In all three experiments, rats were trained to press retractable levers in a circular array in a specific sequence for brain-stimulation reward (BSR). Experiment 1 examined the role of…

  19. Report of the ARL Serials Prices Project. A Compilation of Reports Examining the Serials Prices Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Research Libraries, Washington, DC.

    The rising prices of journals and serials--major information sources for academic and research communities--are explored in this work, which presents two contractor reports on the topic. These two reports are introduced by an overview and summary together with recommendations for further Association of Research Libraries (ARL) action, short…

  20. Serial position curves in free recall.

    PubMed

    Laming, Donald

    2010-01-01

    The scenario for free recall set out in Laming (2009) is developed to provide models for the serial position curves from 5 selected sets of data, for final free recall, and for multitrial free recall. The 5 sets of data reflect the effects of rate of presentation, length of list, delay of recall, and suppression of rehearsal. Each model accommodates the serial position curve for first recalls (where those data are available) as well as that for total recalls. Both curves are fit with the same parameter values, as also (with 1 exception) are all of the conditions compared within each experiment. The distributions of numbers of recalls are also examined and shown to have variances increased above what would be expected if successive recalls were independent. This is taken to signify that, in those experiments in which rehearsals were not recorded, the retrieval of words for possible recall follows the same pattern that is observed following overt rehearsal, namely, that retrieval consists of runs of consecutive elements from memory. Finally, 2 sets of data are examined that the present approach cannot accommodate. It is argued that the problem with these data derives from an interaction between the patterns of (covert) rehearsal and the parameters of list presentation.

  1. Serial Cognition and Personality in Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Altschul, Drew M.; Terrace, Herbert S.; Weiss, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    We examined the associations between serial cognition and personality in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Nine macaques were tested on a simultaneous chaining task to assess their cognitive abilities. They were also rated for personality traits and scored according to a previously extracted six component structure derived from free-ranging rhesus macaques. Friendliness and Openness were positively associated with good performance on three measures of accuracy on the serial learning task: Progress, Error, and Rewarded (i.e., correctly completed) Trials. Faster Reaction Times were associated with lower Friendliness and higher Confidence, as well as higher Openness when only correct responses were analyzed. We also used regularized exploratory factor analysis to extract two, three, four, five, and six factor structures, and found consistent associations between accuracy and single factors within each of these structures. Prior results on intelligence in other nonhuman primate species have focused on basic intelligence tests; this study demonstrates that more complex, abstract cognitive tasks can be used to assess intelligence and personality in nonhuman primates. PMID:27158661

  2. Galileo - The Serial-Production AIT Challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ragnit, Ulrike; Brunner, Otto

    2008-01-01

    The Galileo Project is one of the most demanding projects of ESA, being Europe's autarkic navigation system and a constellation composed of 30 satellites. This presentation points out the different phases of the project up to the full operational capability and the corresponding launch options with respect to launch vehicles as well as launch configurations. One of the biggest challenges is to set up a small serial 'production line' for the overall integration and test campaign of satellites. This production line demands an optimization of all relevant tasks, taking into account also backup and recovery actions. A comprehensive AIT concept is required, reflecting a tightly merged facility layout and work flow design. In addition a common data management system is needed to handle all spacecraft related documentation and to have a direct input-out flow for all activities, phases and positions at the same time. Process optimization is a well known field of engineering in all small high tech production lines, nevertheless serial production of satellites are still not the daily task in space business and therefore new concepts have to be put in place. Therefore, and in order to meet the satellites overall system optimization, a thorough interface between unit/subsystem manufacturing and satellite AIT must be realized to ensure a smooth flow and to avoid any process interruption, which would directly lead to a schedule impact.

  3. [Linkage analysis of serial sex crimes].

    PubMed

    Yokota, Kaeko; Watanabe, Kazumi; Wachi, Taeko; Otsuka, Yusuke; Kuraishi, Hiroki; Fujita, Goro

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: first, to create an index for a behavioral linkage analysis of serial sex crimes, and second, to construct a predictive model for the analysis. Data on 720 sex crimes (rape, indecent assault) committed by 360 offenders arrested between 1993 and 2005 throughout Japan were collected. The following seven behaviors were examined during a series of analyses aimed at illustrating the effectiveness of crime linkage in serial sex crimes: victim age group, area type, publicness of offense site, weapon, time, contact method, and day of the week. The results indicated that six of the seven behaviors (excluding "day of the week") significantly distinguished between linked and unlinked crime pairs. Under a logistic regression of these six variables, which were dichotomously coded in terms of the concordance or discordance between each pair of incidents, the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.85 (95% CI = 0.82-0.87), indicating a high level of discriminative accuracy in identifying disparate sex crimes committed by the same person.

  4. "Serial" effects in parallel models of reading.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ya-Ning; Furber, Steve; Welbourne, Stephen

    2012-06-01

    There is now considerable evidence showing that the time to read a word out loud is influenced by an interaction between orthographic length and lexicality. Given that length effects are interpreted by advocates of dual-route models as evidence of serial processing this would seem to pose a serious challenge to models of single word reading which postulate a common parallel processing mechanism for reading both words and nonwords (Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, & Ziegler, 2001; Rastle, Havelka, Wydell, Coltheart, & Besner, 2009). However, an alternative explanation of these data is that visual processes outside the scope of existing parallel models are responsible for generating the word-length related phenomena (Seidenberg & Plaut, 1998). Here we demonstrate that a parallel model of single word reading can account for the differential word-length effects found in the naming latencies of words and nonwords, provided that it includes a mapping from visual to orthographic representations, and that the nature of those orthographic representations are not preconstrained. The model can also simulate other supposedly "serial" effects. The overall findings were consistent with the view that visual processing contributes substantially to the word-length effects in normal reading and provided evidence to support the single-route theory which assumes words and nonwords are processed in parallel by a common mechanism.

  5. CMOS serial link for fully duplexed data communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kyeongho; Kim, Sungjoon; Ahn, Gijung; Jeong, Deog-Kyoon

    1995-04-01

    This paper describes a CMOS serial link allowing fully duplexed 500 Mbaud serial data communication. The CMOS serial link is a robust and low-cost solution to high data rate requirements. A central charge pump PLL for generating multiphase clocks for oversampling is shared by several serial link channels. Fully duplexed serial data communication is realized in the bidirectional bridge by separating incoming data from the mixed signal on the cable end. The digital PLL accomplishes process-independent data recovery by using a low-ratio oversampling, a majority voting, and a parallel data recovery scheme. Mostly, digital approach could extend its bandwidth further with scaled CMOS technology. A single channel serial link and a charge pump PLL are integrated in a test chip using 1.2 micron CMOS process technology. The test chip confirms upto 500 Mbaud unidirectional mode operation and 320 Mbaud fully duplexed mode operation with pseudo random data patterns.

  6. Representation of the serial killer on the Italian Internet.

    PubMed

    Villano, P; Bastianoni, P; Melotti, G

    2001-10-01

    The representation of serial killers was examined from the analysis of 317 Web pages in the Italian language to study how the psychological profiles of serial killers are described on the Italian Internet. The correspondence analysis of the content of these Web pages shows that in Italy the serial killer is associated with words such as "monster" and "horror," which suggest and imply psychological perversion and aberrant acts. These traits are peculiar for the Italian scenario.

  7. Low-dose fixed-target serial synchrotron crystallography.

    PubMed

    Owen, Robin L; Axford, Danny; Sherrell, Darren A; Kuo, Anling; Ernst, Oliver P; Schulz, Eike C; Miller, R J Dwayne; Mueller-Werkmeister, Henrike M

    2017-04-01

    The development of serial crystallography has been driven by the sample requirements imposed by X-ray free-electron lasers. Serial techniques are now being exploited at synchrotrons. Using a fixed-target approach to high-throughput serial sampling, it is demonstrated that high-quality data can be collected from myoglobin crystals, allowing room-temperature, low-dose structure determination. The combination of fixed-target arrays and a fast, accurate translation system allows high-throughput serial data collection at high hit rates and with low sample consumption.

  8. A psychological profile of a serial killer: a case report.

    PubMed

    Dogra, T D; Leenaars, Antoon A; Chadha, R K; Manju, Mehta; Lalwani, Sanjeev; Sood, Mamta; Lester, David; Raina, Anupuma; Behera, C

    2012-01-01

    Serial killers have always fascinated society. A serial killer is typically defined as a perpetrator who murders three or more people over a period of time. Most reported cases of serial killers come from the United States and Canada. In India, there are few reported cases. We present, to the best of our knowledge, the first Indian case in the literature. The present case is of a 28-year-old man, Surinder Koli. The Department of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delphi handled the forensic study. We present a most unique psychological investigation into the mind of a serial killer.

  9. Impact of recycling stillage on conversion of dilute sulfuric acid pretreated corn stover to ethanol.

    PubMed

    Mohagheghi, Ali; Schell, Daniel J

    2010-04-01

    Both the current corn starch to ethanol industry and the emerging lignocellulosic biofuels industry view recycling of spent fermentation broth or stillage as a method to reduce fresh water use. The objective of this study was to understand the impact of recycling stillage on conversion of corn stover to ethanol. Sugars in a dilute-acid pretreated corn stover hydrolysate were fermented to ethanol by the glucose-xylose fermenting bacteria Zymomonas mobilis 8b. Three serial fermentations were performed at two different initial sugar concentrations using either 10% or 25% of the stillage as makeup water for the next fermentation in the series. Serial fermentations were performed to achieve near steady state concentration of inhibitors and other compounds in the corn stover hydrolysate. Little impact on ethanol yields was seen at sugar concentrations equivalent to pretreated corn stover slurry at 15% (w/w) with 10% recycle of the stillage. However, ethanol yields became progressively poorer as the sugar concentration increased and fraction of the stillage recycled increased. At an equivalent corn stover slurry concentration of 20% with 25% recycled stillage the ethanol yield was only 5%. For this microorganism with dilute-acid pretreated corn stover, recycling a large fraction of the stillage had a significant negative impact on fermentation performance. Although this finding is of concern for biochemical-based lignocellulose conversion processes, other microorganism/pretreatment technology combinations will likely perform differently.

  10. Increased detection of human cardiac troponin I by a decrease of nonspecific adsorption in diluted self-assembled monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Jun; Ding, Xiuqing; Greer, John J.; Shankar, Karthik

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, we tested the hypothesis that there is an increased sensitivity for detecting and measuring disease biomarkers (such as human cardiac troponin I, cTnI) by a decrease of nonspecific adsorption in diluted self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on planar sputtered gold films. Combining grazing angle Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and antibody-antigen-antibody (sandwich) fluorescence-based immunoassay, we examined the relationship of sensitivity, specificity of detection of cTnI and the level of nonspecific protein adsorption in the following SAMs: pure MHA (16-mercaptohexadecanoic acid, 1 mM, with head COO-, x = 1.0), a mixed SAM comprising MHA (0.1 mM) and UDT (1-undecane thiol, 0.9 mM, with hydrophobic head CH3, x = 0.1UDT), and a mixed SAM comprising MHA (0.1 mM) and MUD (11-mercapto-1-undecanol, 0.9 mM, with hydrophilic head OH, x = 0.1MUD). Our data revealed that nonspecific binding to SAMs is favored in the following order: CH3 > COO- > OH, consistent with previous studies. Compared with pure SAMs, diluting MHA SAMs with MUD increases the sensitivity of cTnI, whereas diluted MHA SAMs with UDT has the same sensitivity of detection of cTnI, suggesting it is the nature of the second diluting thiol that plays an important role on the amount of adsorbed protein on the surface. We obtained a 10-fold increase in the limit of detection of cTnI to 10 ng/ml using x = 0.1MUD due to a decrease of nonspecific binding. Further, specific binding between the antigen cTnI and its antibody is unaltered on pure and diluted SAMs.

  11. Helium Dilution Cryocooler for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roach, Pat; Hogan, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    NASA's New Millenium Program Space Technology presents the Helium Dilution Cryocooler for Space Applications. The topics include: 1) Capability; 2) Applications; and 3) Advantages. This paper is in viewgraph form.

  12. Dilution Refrigerator Technology for Scalable Quantum Computing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-22

    has successfully designed, built, tested, and delivered a cryogen free dilution refrigerator for scalable quantum computing. This document is intended... Cryogenics , quantum computing REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) ARO 8. PERFORMING...W911NF-10-C-0004. High Precision Devices, Inc. has successfully designed, built, tested, and delivered a cryogen free dilution refrigerator for

  13. Data Exploration Toolkit for serial diffraction experiments

    DOE PAGES

    Zeldin, Oliver B.; Brewster, Aaron S.; Hattne, Johan; ...

    2015-01-23

    Ultrafast diffraction at X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) has the potential to yield new insights into important biological systems that produce radiation-sensitive crystals. An unavoidable feature of the 'diffraction before destruction' nature of these experiments is that images are obtained from many distinct crystals and/or different regions of the same crystal. Combined with other sources of XFEL shot-to-shot variation, this introduces significant heterogeneity into the diffraction data, complicating processing and interpretation. To enable researchers to get the most from their collected data, a toolkit is presented that provides insights into the quality of, and the variation present in, serial crystallography datamore » sets. These tools operate on the unmerged, partial intensity integration results from many individual crystals, and can be used on two levels: firstly to guide the experimental strategy during data collection, and secondly to help users make informed choices during data processing.« less

  14. [Accelerated determination of microbial sensitivity to antibiotics and chemotherapeutic preparations by serial dilutions using the peroxidase test].

    PubMed

    Fel'dman, Iu M; Leĭbman, E T

    1980-02-01

    A rapid method for determination of microbial sensitivity to antibiotics and chemotherapeutic drugs with the use of the peroxidase test is described. The procedure takes 6 hours. Peroxidase is determined by a change in the color of the methyl-para-amino phenol sulfate solution added to the broth culture in 6 hours (simultaneously with hydrogen peroxide). The peroxidase test provides detection of the microbe multiplication even when no turbidity is observed.

  15. Serial Magnetization Transfer Imaging in Acute Optic Neuritis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickman, S. J.; Toosy, A. T.; Jones, S. J.; Altmann, D. R.; Miszkiel, K. A.; MacManus, D. G.; Barker, G. J.; Plant, G. T.; Thompson, A. J.; Miller, D.H.

    2004-01-01

    In serial studies of multiple sclerosis lesions, reductions in magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) are thought to be due to demyelination and axonal loss, with later rises due to remyelination. This study followed serial changes in MTR in acute optic neuritis in combination with clinical and electrophysiological measurements to determine if the MTR…

  16. List Onset and Isolation in Continuous Serial Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lippman, Louis G.

    1974-01-01

    This experiment attempted to obtain an estimate of perceptual isolation effects when the isolated item was the only distinctive feature in the list and to obtain data on continuous serial learning in order that isolation and serial-position effects could be compared directly. (Author/RK)

  17. Forgetting in Immediate Serial Recall: Decay, Temporal Distinctiveness, or Interference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberauer, Klaus; Lewandowsky, Stephan

    2008-01-01

    Three hypotheses of forgetting from immediate memory were tested: time-based decay, decreasing temporal distinctiveness, and interference. The hypotheses were represented by 3 models of serial recall: the primacy model, the SIMPLE (scale-independent memory, perception, and learning) model, and the SOB (serial order in a box) model, respectively.…

  18. The Effect of Concurrent Semantic Categorization on Delayed Serial Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acheson, Daniel J.; MacDonald, Maryellen C.; Postle, Bradley R.

    2011-01-01

    The influence of semantic processing on the serial ordering of items in short-term memory was explored using a novel dual-task paradigm. Participants engaged in 2 picture-judgment tasks while simultaneously performing delayed serial recall. List material varied in the presence of phonological overlap (Experiments 1 and 2) and in semantic content…

  19. Balancing Information Needs with Serials Value and Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Linda A.

    1997-01-01

    To prevent further erosion of their monographs budget and to allow for a modest number of new serial subscriptions to support changing curricular and research needs, librarians at Bowling Green State University (Ohio) decided to cut serial subscriptions and to subsidize article delivery from a commercial document delivery vendor. Discusses the…

  20. Indexing Serialized Fiction: May the Force Be with You.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Melissa M.

    The adult novel offers indexers an unusual opportunity to create a serialized fiction index. This research paper involved designing and creating a Character Index, Thesaurus, Glossary, and Abstract (with descriptors) for 21 novels based on the "Star Wars" movies. The novels are an unusual example of serialized fiction featuring main…

  1. Retrospective Revaluation Effects Following Serial Compound Training and Target Extinction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Effting, Marieke; Vervliet, Bram; Kindt, Merel

    2010-01-01

    Using a conditioned suppression task, two experiments examined retrospective revaluation effects after serial compound training in a release from overshadowing design. In Experiment 1, serial X [right arrow] A+ training produced suppression to target A, which was enhanced when preceded by feature X, whereas X by itself elicited no suppression.…

  2. Serials Information on CD-ROM: A Reference Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karch, Linda S.

    1990-01-01

    Describes Ulrich's PLUS (a CD-ROM version of Ulrich's serials directories) and EBSCO's CD-ROM version of "The Serials Directory," and compares the two in terms of their use as reference tools. Areas discussed include database content, user aids, system features, search features, and a comparison of search results. Equipment requirements…

  3. Multiple Serial List Learning with Two Mnemonic Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marston, Paul T.; Young, Robert K.

    The classic mnemonic for learning serial lists, the method of loci, and its modern counterpart, the peg system, were compared by having subjects learn three 20-item serial lists. In addition to the type of mnemonic training, list imagery was either high (rated 6-7) or medium (rated 4-5), and instructions were either progressive elaboration (e.g.,…

  4. 10 CFR 32.201 - Serialization of nationally tracked sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Serialization of nationally tracked sources. 32.201 Section 32.201 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION SPECIFIC DOMESTIC LICENSES TO MANUFACTURE OR TRANSFER CERTAIN ITEMS CONTAINING BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Specifically Licensed Items § 32.201 Serialization...

  5. Linking Associative and Serial List Memory: Pairs Versus Triples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caplan, Jeremy B.; Glaholt, Mackenzie G.; McIntosh, Anthony R.

    2006-01-01

    Paired associates and serial list memory are typically investigated separately. An "isolation principle" (J. B. Caplan, 2005) was proposed to explain behavior in both paradigms by using a single model, in which serial list and paired associates memory differ only in how isolated pairs of items are from interference from other studied items. In…

  6. Implications of Proposed Changes in Rules for Entry of Serials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Joseph H.

    In a presentation to the American Library Association, the author describes some advantages of converting serial title entries to the International Standard Bibliographic Description for Serials--ISBD(S)--and some difficulties of conversion. The coordination of the Anglo-American Cataloging Rules with ISBD(S) is discussed, as well as ISBD(S) in…

  7. New method of tracing blood hemoglobin concentration to hematocrit ratio for monitoring plasma dilution and osmotic origin shifts in blood.

    PubMed

    Andrijauskas, Audrius; Ivaskevicius, Juozas

    2006-01-01

    Blood hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit are probably the most widely used parameters for outpatient and inpatient examination. In addition to their inherent significance for evaluation of blood viscosity and oxygen carrying capacity, these parameters are traditionally used as tracers of plasma dilution. Blood test derived results are conventionally recorded on multiple pages in patient's medical records making dynamical investigations tedious and time-consuming. In addition, research results describing plasma dilution by means of hemoglobin or hematocrit are presented in a clinically unpractical way. A new method, referred to as HBS Graphics (patent pending--USA serial # 60/712809) is introduced for the first time in this article. This method of evaluation of dynamical hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration value deploys interfering parameter shifts for the evaluation of plasma dilution in relation to osmotic dynamics. The HBS Graphics complements two coordinate systems--hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit--with incorporated mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration value specific trends referred to as radiating lines. Isosmotic plasma dilution and erythrocyte volume shifts follow radiating lines, while osmotic shifts induce intertrend shifts. This article also reviews other methods of tracing plasma dilution by means of blood hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit dynamics.

  8. On detecting interference from endogenous antibodies in immunoassays by doubling dilutions test.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Adel A A

    2007-01-01

    The clinical laboratory may perform additional test or tests to ascertain the integrity of immunoassay analyses when the results are in doubt. Doubling serial dilutions is one of these confirmatory tests. Doubling dilutions is a useful and informative test for detecting inaccuracy and potential interference from endogenous antibodies in immunoassays. Despite its technical simplicity, the science underpinning this test is highly complex. Appreciating such complexities could help in understanding the various outcomes of such tests from misleadingly inaccurate but virtually linear/parallel results, despite the presence of interfering antibodies in some immunoassays, to an array of non-linearity/non-parallelism synonymous with interference in others. A lack of parallelism/linearity could identify some 60% of samples with inaccurate and potentially misleading results caused by endogenous interfering antibodies. Assessing real-time binding kinetics using techniques such as non-linear regression analysis or linearised transformations such as the Scatchard plot could help in identifying more samples in which the doubling dilutions test remains linear and parallel.

  9. A microfluidic device for antimicrobial susceptibility testing based on a broth dilution method.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wen-Bin; Fu, Chien-Yu; Chang, Wen-Hsin; You, Huey-Ling; Wang, Chih-Hung; Lee, Mel S; Lee, Gwo-Bin

    2017-01-15

    Bacterial resistance to antimicrobial compounds is increasing at a faster rate than the development of new antibiotics; this represents a critical challenge for clinicians worldwide. Normally, the minimum inhibitory concentration of an antibiotic, the dosage at which bacterial growth is thwarted, provides an effective quantitative measure for antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and determination of minimum inhibitory concentration is conventionally performed by either a serial broth dilution method or with the commercially available Etest(®) (Biomerieux, France) kit. However, these techniques are relatively labor-intensive and require a significant amount of training. In order to reduce human error and increase operation simplicity, a simple microfluidic device that can perform antimicrobial susceptibility testing automatically via a broth dilution method to accurately determine the minimum inhibitory concentration was developed herein. As a proof of concept, wild-type (ATCC 29212) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus cells were incubated at five different vancomycin concentrations on-chip, and the sample injection, transport, and mixing processes occurred within five reaction chambers and three reagent chambers via the chip's automatic dispensation and dilution functions within nine minutes. The minimum inhibitory concentration values measured after 24h of antibiotic incubation were similar to those calculated using Etest(®). With its high flexibility, reliability, and portability, the developed microfluidic device provides a simple method for antimicrobial susceptibility testing in an automated format that could be implemented for clinical and point-of-care applications.

  10. Graphene-based microfluidics for serial crystallography.

    PubMed

    Sui, Shuo; Wang, Yuxi; Kolewe, Kristopher W; Srajer, Vukica; Henning, Robert; Schiffman, Jessica D; Dimitrakopoulos, Christos; Perry, Sarah L

    2016-08-02

    Microfluidic strategies to enable the growth and subsequent serial crystallographic analysis of micro-crystals have the potential to facilitate both structural characterization and dynamic structural studies of protein targets that have been resistant to single-crystal strategies. However, adapting microfluidic crystallization platforms for micro-crystallography requires a dramatic decrease in the overall device thickness. We report a robust strategy for the straightforward incorporation of single-layer graphene into ultra-thin microfluidic devices. This architecture allows for a total material thickness of only ∼1 μm, facilitating on-chip X-ray diffraction analysis while creating a sample environment that is stable against significant water loss over several weeks. We demonstrate excellent signal-to-noise in our X-ray diffraction measurements using a 1.5 μs polychromatic X-ray exposure, and validate our approach via on-chip structure determination using hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) as a model system. Although this work is focused on the use of graphene for protein crystallography, we anticipate that this technology should find utility in a wide range of both X-ray and other lab on a chip applications.

  11. Serial dependence promotes object stability during occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Liberman, Alina; Zhang, Kathy; Whitney, David

    2016-01-01

    Object identities somehow appear stable and continuous over time despite eye movements, disruptions in visibility, and constantly changing visual input. Recent results have demonstrated that the perception of orientation, numerosity, and facial identity is systematically biased (i.e., pulled) toward visual input from the recent past. The spatial region over which current orientations or face identities are pulled by previous orientations or identities, respectively, is known as the continuity field, which is temporally tuned over the past several seconds (Fischer & Whitney, 2014). This perceptual pull could contribute to the visual stability of objects over short time periods, but does it also address how perceptual stability occurs during visual discontinuities? Here, we tested whether the continuity field helps maintain perceived object identity during occlusion. Specifically, we found that the perception of an oriented Gabor that emerged from behind an occluder was significantly pulled toward the random (and unrelated) orientation of the Gabor that was seen entering the occluder. Importantly, this serial dependence was stronger for predictable, continuously moving trajectories, compared to unpredictable ones or static displacements. This result suggests that our visual system takes advantage of expectations about a stable world, helping to maintain perceived object continuity despite interrupted visibility. PMID:28006066

  12. Switch for serial or parallel communication networks

    DOEpatents

    Crosette, Dario B.

    1994-01-01

    A communication switch apparatus and a method for use in a geographically extensive serial, parallel or hybrid communication network linking a multi-processor or parallel processing system has a very low software processing overhead in order to accommodate random burst of high density data. Associated with each processor is a communication switch. A data source and a data destination, a sensor suite or robot for example, may also be associated with a switch. The configuration of the switches in the network are coordinated through a master processor node and depends on the operational phase of the multi-processor network: data acquisition, data processing, and data exchange. The master processor node passes information on the state to be assumed by each switch to the processor node associated with the switch. The processor node then operates a series of multi-state switches internal to each communication switch. The communication switch does not parse and interpret communication protocol and message routing information. During a data acquisition phase, the communication switch couples sensors producing data to the processor node associated with the switch, to a downlink destination on the communications network, or to both. It also may couple an uplink data source to its processor node. During the data exchange phase, the switch couples its processor node or an uplink data source to a downlink destination (which may include a processor node or a robot), or couples an uplink source to its processor node and its processor node to a downlink destination.

  13. Task based synthesis of serial manipulators

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sarosh; Sobh, Tarek

    2015-01-01

    Computing the optimal geometric structure of manipulators is one of the most intricate problems in contemporary robot kinematics. Robotic manipulators are designed and built to perform certain predetermined tasks. There is a very close relationship between the structure of the manipulator and its kinematic performance. It is therefore important to incorporate such task requirements during the design and synthesis of the robotic manipulators. Such task requirements and performance constraints can be specified in terms of the required end-effector positions, orientations and velocities along the task trajectory. In this work, we present a comprehensive method to develop the optimal geometric structure (DH parameters) of a non-redundant six degree of freedom serial manipulator from task descriptions. In this work we define, develop and test a methodology to design optimal manipulator configurations based on task descriptions. This methodology is devised to investigate all possible manipulator configurations that can satisfy the task performance requirements under imposed joint constraints. Out of all the possible structures, the structures that can reach all the task points with the required orientations are selected. Next, these candidate structures are tested to see whether they can attain end-effector velocities in arbitrary directions within the user defined joint constraints, so that they can deliver the best kinematic performance. Additionally least power consuming configurations are also identified. PMID:26257946

  14. Switch for serial or parallel communication networks

    DOEpatents

    Crosette, D.B.

    1994-07-19

    A communication switch apparatus and a method for use in a geographically extensive serial, parallel or hybrid communication network linking a multi-processor or parallel processing system has a very low software processing overhead in order to accommodate random burst of high density data. Associated with each processor is a communication switch. A data source and a data destination, a sensor suite or robot for example, may also be associated with a switch. The configuration of the switches in the network are coordinated through a master processor node and depends on the operational phase of the multi-processor network: data acquisition, data processing, and data exchange. The master processor node passes information on the state to be assumed by each switch to the processor node associated with the switch. The processor node then operates a series of multi-state switches internal to each communication switch. The communication switch does not parse and interpret communication protocol and message routing information. During a data acquisition phase, the communication switch couples sensors producing data to the processor node associated with the switch, to a downlink destination on the communications network, or to both. It also may couple an uplink data source to its processor node. During the data exchange phase, the switch couples its processor node or an uplink data source to a downlink destination (which may include a processor node or a robot), or couples an uplink source to its processor node and its processor node to a downlink destination. 9 figs.

  15. Impact of dilution on microbial community structure and functional potential: comparison of numerical simulations and batch culture experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franklin, R. B.; Garland, J. L.; Bolster, C. H.; Mills, A. L.

    2001-01-01

    A series of microcosm experiments was performed using serial dilutions of a sewage microbial community to inoculate a set of batch cultures in sterile sewage. After inoculation, the dilution-defined communities were allowed to regrow for several days and a number of community attributes were measured in the regrown assemblages. Based upon a set of numerical simulations, community structure was expected to differ along the dilution gradient; the greatest differences in structure were anticipated between the undiluted-low-dilution communities and the communities regrown from the very dilute (more than 10(-4)) inocula. Furthermore, some differences were expected among the lower-dilution treatments (e.g., between undiluted and 10(-1)) depending upon the evenness of the original community. In general, each of the procedures used to examine the experimental community structures separated the communities into at least two, often three, distinct groups. The groupings were consistent with the simulated dilution of a mixture of organisms with a very uneven distribution. Significant differences in community structure were detected with genetic (amplified fragment length polymorphism and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism), physiological (community level physiological profiling), and culture-based (colony morphology on R2A agar) measurements. Along with differences in community structure, differences in community size (acridine orange direct counting), composition (ratio of sewage medium counts to R2A counts, monitoring of each colony morphology across the treatments), and metabolic redundancy (i.e., generalist versus specialist) were also observed, suggesting that the differences in structure and diversity of communities maintained in the same environment can be manifested as differences in community organization and function.

  16. Diluted magnetic semiconductor nanowires exhibiting magnetoresistance

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Peidong; Choi, Heonjin; Lee, Sangkwon; He, Rongrui; Zhang, Yanfeng; Kuykendal, Tevye; Pauzauskie, Peter

    2011-08-23

    A method for is disclosed for fabricating diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) nanowires by providing a catalyst-coated substrate and subjecting at least a portion of the substrate to a semiconductor, and dopant via chloride-based vapor transport to synthesize the nanowires. Using this novel chloride-based chemical vapor transport process, single crystalline diluted magnetic semiconductor nanowires Ga.sub.1-xMn.sub.xN (x=0.07) were synthesized. The nanowires, which have diameters of .about.10 nm to 100 nm and lengths of up to tens of micrometers, show ferromagnetism with Curie temperature above room temperature, and magnetoresistance up to 250 Kelvin.

  17. Automatic dilution gaging of rapidly varying flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duerk, M.D.

    1983-01-01

    The analysis showed that the discharges measured by dye-dilution techniques were generally within ± 10 percent of the discharges determined from ratings established by current-meter measurements. Larger differences were noted at the start of and on the rising limb of four hydrographs. Of the 20 storms monitored, dilution measurements on 17 were of acceptable accuracy. Peak discharges from the open-channel site ranged from 0 to 12 percent departures from the existing rating whereas the comparison of peak discharge at the storm sewer site ranged from 0 to 5 percent departures from the existing rating.

  18. Automatic registration of serial mammary gland sections

    SciTech Connect

    Arganda-Carreras, Ignacio; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Rodrigo; Ortiz-de-Solorzano, Carlos

    2004-04-13

    We present two new methods for automatic registration of microscope images of consecutive tissue sections. They represent two possibilities for the first step in the 3-D reconstruction of histological structures from serially sectioned tissue blocks. The goal is to accurately align the sections in order to place every relevant shape contained in each image in front of its corresponding shape in the following section before detecting the structures of interest and rendering them in 3D. This is accomplished by finding the best rigid body transformation (translation and rotation) of the image being registered by maximizing a matching function based on the image content correlation. The first method makes use of the entire image information, whereas the second one uses only the information located at specific sites, as determined by the segmentation of the most relevant tissue structures. To reduce computing time, we use a multiresolution pyramidal approach that reaches the best registration transformation in increasing resolution steps. In each step, a subsampled version of the images is used. Both methods rely on a binary image which is a thresholded version of the Sobel gradients of the image (first method) or a set of boundaries manually or automatically obtained that define important histological structures of the sections. Then distance-transform of the binary image is computed. A proximity function is then calculated between the distance image of the image being registered and that of the reference image. The transformation providing a maximum of the proximity function is then used as the starting point of the following step. This is iterated until the registration error lies below a minimum value.

  19. Sulfuric Acid and Water: Paradoxes of Dilution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leenson, I. A.

    2004-01-01

    On equilibrium properties of aqueous solutions of sulfuric acid, Julius Thomsen has marked that the heat evolved on diluting liquid sulfuric acid with water is a continuous function of the water used, and excluded absolutely the acceptance of definite hydrates as existing in the solution. Information about thermochemical measurement, a discussion…

  20. Osmosis is not driven by water dilution.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Eric M; Myers, David R

    2013-04-01

    There is a misconception among plant scientists that osmosis is driven by the tendency of solutes to dilute water. In this opinion article, we discuss the quantitative and qualitative failures of this view, and go on to review the correct kinetic picture of osmosis as it appears in physics textbooks.

  1. Declining ecosystem health and the dilution effect

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Hussein; Ecke, Frauke; Evander, Magnus; Magnusson, Magnus; Hörnfeldt, Birger

    2016-01-01

    The “dilution effect” implies that where species vary in susceptibility to infection by a pathogen, higher diversity often leads to lower infection prevalence in hosts. For directly transmitted pathogens, non-host species may “dilute” infection directly (1) and indirectly (2). Competitors and predators may (1) alter host behavior to reduce pathogen transmission or (2) reduce host density. In a well-studied system, we tested the dilution of the zoonotic Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) in bank voles (Myodes glareolus) by two competitors and a predator. Our study was based on long-term PUUV infection data (2003–2013) in northern Sweden. The field vole (Microtus agrestis) and the common shrew (Sorex araneus) are bank vole competitors and Tengmalm’s owl (Aegolius funereus) is a main predator of bank voles. Infection probability in bank voles decreased when common shrew density increased, suggesting that common shrews reduced PUUV transmission. Field voles suppressed bank vole density in meadows and clear-cuts and indirectly diluted PUUV infection. Further, Tengmalm’s owl decline in 1980–2013 may have contributed to higher PUUV infection rates in bank voles in 2003–2013 compared to 1979–1986. Our study provides further evidence for dilution effect and suggests that owls may have an important role in reducing disease risk. PMID:27499001

  2. Calculation of Geometric Dilution of Precision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jijie

    1992-07-01

    In this short communication, a very simple closed-form formula for the calculation of the Geometric Dilution of Precision (GDOP) in Global Positioning System (GPS) navigation and in Global Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS) navigation is presented, which requires less than 40 multiplications.

  3. Pushing the detection limit of infrared spectroscopy for structural analysis of dilute protein samples.

    PubMed

    Baldassarre, Maurizio; Barth, Andreas

    2014-11-07

    Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy is a powerful and versatile tool to investigate the structure and dynamics of proteins in solution. The intrinsically low extinction coefficient of the amide I mode, the main structure-related oscillator, together with the high infrared absorptivity of aqueous media, requires that proteins are studied at high concentrations (>10 mg L(-1)). This may represent a challenge in the study of aggregation-prone proteins and peptides, and questions the significance of structural data obtained for proteins physiologically existing at much lower concentrations. Here we describe the development of a simple experimental approach that increases the detection limit of protein structure analysis by infrared spectroscopy. Our approach relies on custom-made filters to isolate the amide I region (1700-1600 cm(-1)) from irrelevant spectral regions. The sensitivity of the instrument is then increased by background attenuation, an approach consisting in the use of a neutral density filter, such as a non-scattering metal grid, to attentuate the intensity of the background spectrum. When the filters and grid are combined, a 2.4-fold improvement in the noise level can be obtained. We have successfully tested this approach using a highly diluted solution of pyruvate kinase in deuterated medium (0.2% w/v), and found that it provides spectra of a quality comparable to those recorded with a 10-fold higher protein concentration.

  4. Fast Grasp Contact Computation for a Serial Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shi, Jianying (Inventor); Hargrave, Brian (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A system includes a controller and a serial robot having links that are interconnected by a joint, wherein the robot can grasp a three-dimensional (3D) object in response to a commanded grasp pose. The controller receives input information, including the commanded grasp pose, a first set of information describing the kinematics of the robot, and a second set of information describing the position of the object to be grasped. The controller also calculates, in a two-dimensional (2D) plane, a set of contact points between the serial robot and a surface of the 3D object needed for the serial robot to achieve the commanded grasp pose. A required joint angle is then calculated in the 2D plane between the pair of links using the set of contact points. A control action is then executed with respect to the motion of the serial robot using the required joint angle.

  5. Union Lists and the Public Record of Serials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Kenneth D.

    1970-01-01

    Adaptation of union listing of serials to displace individually constructed public records in contributing libraries is discussed. Standardization in scope, main entry, and input would be necessary. (Author/JS)

  6. Health care serial murder: a patient safety orphan.

    PubMed

    Kizer, Kenneth W; Yorker, Beatrice C

    2010-04-01

    Two recent instances of alleged health care serial murder raise questions about the priority of efforts to address this problem and the adequacy of current health care safety systems for preventing such intentionally caused adverse events.

  7. ISBD (S) and Title Main Entry for Serials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spalding, C. Sumner

    1975-01-01

    I shall side with the IFLA 1961 decision to accord main entry under corporate bodies for the publications resulting from their corporate activity, monographic or serial. I find the case for arbitrary entry under title to be essentially weak. (Author)

  8. Bibliographic Control of Serial Publications: ISDS and ISBD(S)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouffez, F.; Grousseaud, A.

    1978-01-01

    A comparison of the International Serials Data System within the UNISIST framework to the IFLA sponsored International Standard Bibliographic Description draws attention to the complementary nature of the two systems. (Author/JAB)

  9. A simple deep monitoring well dilution technique.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogiers, Bart; Labat, Serge; Gedeon, Matej; Vandersteen, Katrijn

    2015-04-01

    Well dilution techniques are well known and studied as one of the basic techniques to quantify groundwater fluxes. A typical well dilution test consists of the injection of a tracer, a mixing mechanism (e.g. water circulation with a pump) to achieve a homogeneous concentration distribution within the well, and monitoring of the evolution of tracer concentration with time. An apparent specific discharge can be obtained from such a test, and when details on the well construction are known, it can be converted into a specific discharge representative of the undisturbed aquifer. For deep wells however, the injection of tracer becomes less practical and the use of pumps for circulating and mixing the water becomes problematic. This is due to the limited pressure that common pumps can endure at the outlet, as well as the large volume of water that makes it difficult to achieve a homogeneous concentration, and the impracticalities of getting a lot of equipment to large depths in very small monitoring wells. Injection and monitoring of tracer at a specific depth omits several of the problems with deep wells. We present a very simple device that can be used to perform a dilution test at a specific depth in deep wells. The injection device consists of a PVC tube with a detachable rubber seal at its bottom. To minimize disturbance of the water column in the well, we integrated an EC sensor in this injection device, which enables us to use demineralized water or dissolved salts as a tracer. Once at the target depth, the PVC tube is retracted and the EC sensor and tracer become subject to groundwater flow. The device was tested on a shallow well, on which different types of dilution tests were performed. The results of the other tests agree well with the injection tube results. Finally, the device was used to perform a dilution test in a deep well in order to demonstrate the feasibility of the approach.

  10. Fast assembling of neuron fragments in serial 3D sections.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hanbo; Iascone, Daniel Maxim; da Costa, Nuno Maçarico; Lein, Ed S; Liu, Tianming; Peng, Hanchuan

    2017-04-01

    Reconstructing neurons from 3D image-stacks of serial sections of thick brain tissue is very time-consuming and often becomes a bottleneck in high-throughput brain mapping projects. We developed NeuronStitcher, a software suite for stitching non-overlapping neuron fragments reconstructed in serial 3D image sections. With its efficient algorithm and user-friendly interface, NeuronStitcher has been used successfully to reconstruct very large and complex human and mouse neurons.

  11. [A serial killer as exemplified by T. R. Bundy].

    PubMed

    Gałeska-Sliwka, Anita

    2008-01-01

    The question of serial homicides and their perpetrators poses a considerable problem of both a definitional and practical nature. T R. Bundy is the first perpetrator who was officially termed a "serial killer". Since that time, this concept has been commonly used and sometimes even overused, e.g. in reference to mass murderers. However, the definitions established for Bundy's case have been preserved and continue to be used in practice.

  12. Serial CSTR digester configuration for improving biogas production from manure.

    PubMed

    Boe, Kanokwan; Angelidaki, Irini

    2009-01-01

    A new configuration of manure digesters for improving biogas production has been investigated in laboratory scale. A single thermophilic continuous-flow stirred tank reactor (CSTR) operated with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 15 days was compared to a serial CSTR configuration with volume distribution ratio of 80/20 and 90/10, and total HRT of 15 days. The results showed that the serial CSTR could obtain 11% higher biogas yield compared to the single CSTR. The increased biogas yield in the serial CSTR was mainly from the second reactor, which accounted for 16% and 12% of total biogas yield in the 90/10 and 80/20 configuration, respectively. VFA concentration in the serial CSTR was high in the first reactor but very low in the second reactor. The results from organic pulse load test showed that the second reactor in serial CSTR helped utilizing VFA produced from overloading in the first reactor, which improved the effluent quality and conversion efficiency of the serial CSTR.

  13. The Assessment of Experimental Methods of Serial Number Restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argo, Mackenzie

    Serial number restoration is a common and successful process of revealing obliterated serial numbers on firearms. In a crime laboratory setting, obliterated serial numbers are commonly processed in order to tie a person to a crime scene or provide an investigative lead for officers. Currently serial numbers are restored using a chemical etchant method that can eat away at the metal on the firearm even after the examination is complete. It can also take several hours to complete and only provide an examiner with a partial number. There are other nondestructive options however little to no literature is available. The purpose of this study is to discover new methods for nondestructive serial number restoration and to compare them to the traditional chemical method used. Metal bars of premeasured obliteration depths and different compositions were examined using three proposed experimental methods: near infrared imaging, cold frost, and scanning acoustic microscopy. Results did not indicate significant difference in the median number of visible digits recovered for each of the three proposed methods compared to the traditional chemical method. There were significant results in the median number of composition utilized and depth of obliteration. This indicates that different firearm compositions and depth of obliteration has an effect on serial number restoration.

  14. Development of serial processing in reading and rapid naming.

    PubMed

    Protopapas, Athanassios; Altani, Angeliki; Georgiou, George K

    2013-12-01

    Serial rapid automatized naming (RAN) is more strongly related to reading fluency than naming of isolated words, suggesting that the implementation of serial processing may underlie the RAN-reading relationship. In this study, 107 Greek children from Grade 2 and 107 from Grade 6 were tested with discrete and serial naming of digits, objects, and words in 50-item arrays. The correlation between discrete and serial word reading was very high in Grade 2 but only moderate in Grade 6. In confirmatory factor analysis, a reading-naming latent structure fit the Grade 2 data best; in contrast, a serial-discrete structure fit the Grade 6 data. Thus, the superficial longitudinal stability of RAN-reading correlations belies vastly different patterns of interrelations, indicative of changes in the developing cognitive processes underlying both naming and reading. Word fluency tasks in Grade 2 are apparently accomplished largely as a series of isolated individual word naming trials even though multiple individual letters in each word may be processed in parallel. In contrast, specifically serial procedures are applied in Grade 6, presumably via simultaneous processing of multiple individual words at successive levels. It is proposed that this feat requires endogenous control of cognitive cascades.

  15. Three more semantic serial position functions and a SIMPLE explanation.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Matthew R; Neath, Ian; Surprenant, Aimée M

    2013-05-01

    There are innumerable demonstrations of serial position functions-with characteristic primacy and recency effects-in episodic tasks, but there are only a handful of such demonstrations in semantic memory tasks, and those demonstrations have used only two types of stimuli. Here, we provide three more examples of serial position functions when recalling from semantic memory. Participants were asked to reconstruct the order of (1) two cartoon theme song lyrics, (2) the seven Harry Potter books, and (3) two sets of movies, and all three demonstrations yielded conventional-looking serial position functions with primacy and recency effects. The data were well-fit by SIMPLE, a local distinctiveness model of memory that was originally designed to account for serial position effects in short- and long-term episodic memory. According to SIMPLE, serial position functions in both episodic and semantic memory tasks arise from the same type of processing: Items that are more separated from their close neighbors in psychological space at the time of recall will be better remembered. We argue that currently available evidence suggests that serial position functions observed when recalling items that are presumably in semantic memory arise because of the same processes as those observed when recalling items that are presumably in episodic memory.

  16. Diluting the burden of load: perceptual load effects are simply dilution effects.

    PubMed

    Tsal, Yehoshua; Benoni, Hanna

    2010-12-01

    The substantial distractor interference obtained for small displays when the target appears alone is reduced in large displays when the target is embedded among neutral letters. This finding has been interpreted as reflecting low-load and high-load processing, respectively, thereby supporting the theory of perceptual load (Lavie & Tsal, 1994). However, a possible alternative interpretation of this effect is that the distractor is similarly processed in both displays, yet its interference in the large ones is diluted by the presence of the neutral letters. We separated the effects of load and dilution by introducing dilution displays. They contained as many letters as the high-load displays but were clearly distinguished from the target, thus allowing for a low-load processing mode. Distractor interference obtained under both the low-load and high-load conditions disappeared under the dilution condition. Hence, the display size effect traditionally misattributed to perceptual load is fully accounted for by dilution. Furthermore, when dilution is controlled for, it is high load not low load producing greater interference.

  17. Is flow cytometry crossmatch analysis using sera with different dilutions important for pretransplant analysis? A case report.

    PubMed

    Sağıroğlu, T; Tozkır, H; Kılıçarslan-Ayna, T; Yağcı, M A; Sezer, A; Carin, M

    2012-01-01

    The most effective form of treatment for chronic renal failure is kidney transplantation from a cadaver or a living donor. For a kidney transplant to be successful, tissue compatibility and a lack of donor-specific anti-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies in the circulation of the patient are vital, in addition to ABO blood group compatibility. The presence of anti-HLA antibodies is assayed before transplantation using various methods, but because organ rejections have been observed in previous studies, different techniques are required to detect anti-HLA antibodies. Today, flow cytometry crossmatching is one of the most important and effective techniques in testing for donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies (DSAs). If weakly positive serum is assayed after serial dilution, it can yield high positivity. Herein, we describe the differences between the results for diluted and undiluted weakly positive sera studied using the flow cytometry crossmatch (FCXM) technique. In a recent study, the sera of weakly FCXM-positive patients were diluted 1/50, and the FCXM test was repeated. The use of diluted serum eliminated the effect of the prozone so that the DSAs could be detected.

  18. Analysis of assembly serial number usage in domestic light-water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Reich, W.J. ); Moore, R.S. )

    1991-05-01

    Domestic light-water reactor (LWR) fuel assemblies are identified by a serial number that is placed on each assembly. These serial numbers are used as identifiers throughout the life of the fuel. The uniqueness of assembly serial numbers is important in determining their effectiveness as unambiguous identifiers. The purpose of this study is to determine what serial numbering schemes are used, the effectiveness of these schemes, and to quantify how many duplicate serial numbers occur on domestic LWR fuel assemblies. The serial numbering scheme adopted by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) ensures uniqueness of assembly serial numbers. The latest numbering scheme adopted by General Electric (GE), was also found to be unique. Analysis of 70,971 fuel assembly serial numbers from permanently discharged fuel identified 11,948 serial number duplicates. Three duplicate serial numbers were found when analysis focused on duplication within the individual fuel inventory at each reactor site, but these were traced back to data entry errors and will be corrected by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). There were also three instances where the serial numbers used to identify assemblies used for hot cell studies differed from the serial numbers reported to the EIA. It is recommended that fuel fabricators and utilities adhere to the ANSI serial numbering scheme to ensure serial number uniqueness. In addition, organizations collecting serial number information, should request that all known serial numbers physically attached or associated with each assembly be reported and identified by the corresponding number scheme. 10 refs., 5 tabs.

  19. Total body skeletal muscle mass: estimation by creatine (methyl-d3) dilution in humans.

    PubMed

    Clark, Richard V; Walker, Ann C; O'Connor-Semmes, Robin L; Leonard, Michael S; Miller, Ram R; Stimpson, Stephen A; Turner, Scott M; Ravussin, Eric; Cefalu, William T; Hellerstein, Marc K; Evans, William J

    2014-06-15

    Current methods for clinical estimation of total body skeletal muscle mass have significant limitations. We tested the hypothesis that creatine (methyl-d3) dilution (D3-creatine) measured by enrichment of urine D3-creatinine reveals total body creatine pool size, providing an accurate estimate of total body skeletal muscle mass. Healthy subjects with different muscle masses [n = 35: 20 men (19-30 yr, 70-84 yr), 15 postmenopausal women (51-62 yr, 70-84 yr)] were housed for 5 days. Optimal tracer dose was explored with single oral doses of 30, 60, or 100 mg D3-creatine given on day 1. Serial plasma samples were collected for D3-creatine pharmacokinetics. All urine was collected through day 5. Creatine and creatinine (deuterated and unlabeled) were measured by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Total body creatine pool size and muscle mass were calculated from D3-creatinine enrichment in urine. Muscle mass was also measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and traditional 24-h urine creatinine. D3-creatine was rapidly absorbed and cleared with variable urinary excretion. Isotopic steady-state of D3-creatinine enrichment in the urine was achieved by 30.7 ± 11.2 h. Mean steady-state enrichment in urine provided muscle mass estimates that correlated well with MRI estimates for all subjects (r = 0.868, P < 0.0001), with less bias compared with lean body mass assessment by DXA, which overestimated muscle mass compared with MRI. The dilution of an oral D3-creatine dose determined by urine D3-creatinine enrichment provides an estimate of total body muscle mass strongly correlated with estimates from serial MRI with less bias than total lean body mass assessment by DXA.

  20. Kinetic model for dilute traffic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balouchi, Ashkan; Browne, Dana A.

    The flow of traffic represents a many-particle non-equilibrium problem with important practical consequences. Traffic behavior has been studied using a variety of approaches, including fluid dynamics models, Boltzmann equation, and recently cellular automata (CA). The CA model for traffic flow that Nagel and Schreckenberg (NS) introduced can successfully mimic many of the known features of the traffic flow. We show that in the dilute limit of the NS model, where vehicles exhibit free flow, cars show significant nearest neighbor correlation primarily via a short-range repulsion. introduce an approximate analytic model to describe this dilute limit. We show that the distribution of the distance between consecutive vehicles obeys a drift-diffusion equation. We compared this model with direct simulations. The steady state solution and relaxation of this model agrees well with direct simulations. We explore how this model breaks down as the transition to jams occurs.

  1. Surface layering effect of diluted Intralipid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foschum, F.; Bodenschatz, N.; Krauter, P.; Nothelfer, S.; Liemert, A.; Simon, E.; Kröner, S.; Kienle, A.

    2015-07-01

    In this study the formation of a surface layer on top of an Intralipid dilution was studied. By use of spatial frequency reflectance and spatially resolved reflectance the surface layer could be characterized. The influence on the determination of the optical properties assuming a semi-infinite medium in the theory was investigated. By use of an angularly resolved reflectance device the formation even on a horizontally orientated glass slide could be shown.

  2. Half-metallic diluted antiferromagnetic semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Akai, H; Ogura, M

    2006-07-14

    The possibility of half-metallic antiferromagnetism, a special case of ferrimagnetism with a compensated magnetization, in the diluted magnetic semiconductors is highlighted on the basis of the first-principles electronic structure calculation. As typical examples, the electrical and magnetic properties of II-VI compound semiconductors doped with 3d transition metal ion pairs--(V, Co) and (Fe, Cr)--are discussed.

  3. Dynamic scaling of dilute polymer solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Marqusee, J.A.; Deutch, J.M.

    1981-04-15

    Dynamic scaling relations are presented for the diffusion coefficient and intrinsic viscosity of dilute polymer solutions in D dimensions. The functional integration description of Adler and Freed is used with the correct D-dimensional hydrodynamic interaction and assumptions of power law dependence to obtain the scaling relations. Recursion relations for the exponents are determined in the asymptotic region of large N by an interdimensional scaling argument. 19 references.

  4. Infiltration as Ventilation: Weather-Induced Dilution

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max H.; Turner, William J.N.; Walker, Iain S.

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of outdoor air ventilation is to dilute or remove indoor contaminants to which occupants are exposed. It can be provided by mechanical or natural means. In most homes, especially older homes, weather-driven infiltration provides the dominant fraction of the total ventilation. As we seek to provide good indoor air quality at minimum energy cost, it is important to neither over-ventilate nor under-ventilate. Thus, it becomes critically important to evaluate correctly the contribution infiltration makes to the total outdoor air ventilation rate. Because weather-driven infiltration is dependent on building air leakage and weather-induced pressure differences, a given amount of air leakage will provide different amounts of infiltration. Varying rates of infiltration will provide different levels of contaminant dilution and hence effective ventilation. This paper derives these interactions and then calculates the impact of weather-driven infiltration for different climates. A new “N-factor” is introduced to provide a convenient method for calculating the ventilation contribution of infiltration for over 1,000 locations across North America. The results of this work could be used in indoor air quality standards (specifically ASHRAE 62.2) to account for the contribution of weather-driven infiltration towards the dilution of indoor pollutants.

  5. Dilution physics modeling: Dissolution/precipitation chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Onishi, Y.; Reid, H.C.; Trent, D.S.

    1995-09-01

    This report documents progress made to date on integrating dilution/precipitation chemistry and new physical models into the TEMPEST thermal-hydraulics computer code. Implementation of dissolution/precipitation chemistry models is necessary for predicting nonhomogeneous, time-dependent, physical/chemical behavior of tank wastes with and without a variety of possible engineered remediation and mitigation activities. Such behavior includes chemical reactions, gas retention, solids resuspension, solids dissolution and generation, solids settling/rising, and convective motion of physical and chemical species. Thus this model development is important from the standpoint of predicting the consequences of various engineered activities, such as mitigation by dilution, retrieval, or pretreatment, that can affect safe operations. The integration of a dissolution/precipitation chemistry module allows the various phase species concentrations to enter into the physical calculations that affect the TEMPEST hydrodynamic flow calculations. The yield strength model of non-Newtonian sludge correlates yield to a power function of solids concentration. Likewise, shear stress is concentration-dependent, and the dissolution/precipitation chemistry calculations develop the species concentration evolution that produces fluid flow resistance changes. Dilution of waste with pure water, molar concentrations of sodium hydroxide, and other chemical streams can be analyzed for the reactive species changes and hydrodynamic flow characteristics.

  6. Growth dilution of metals in microalgal biofilms.

    PubMed

    Hill, Walter R; Larsen, Ingvar L

    2005-03-15

    Despite the key role microalgae play in introducing toxicants into aquatic food webs, little is known about the effects of environmental factors on metal accumulation by these primary producers. Environmental factors such as light and nutrients alter growth rates and may consequently influence metal concentrations in microalgae through growth dilution. Laboratory experiments suggested that metal uptake and elimination by microalgal biofilms were gradual enough to enable dilution of metals within the biofilms by photosynthetically accrued carbon, and a simple kinetic model of metal accumulation predicted significant variation in metal content due to growth dilution over the natural range of microalgal growth rates. The ratio of metal uptake to carbon uptake by microalgal biofilms decreased exponentially with increasing light in short-term laboratory experiments because photosynthesis was much more sensitive to a light gradient than was metal uptake. The effect of light on biofilm metal concentrations was confirmed in situ with a long-term experiment in which experimental shading of biofilms in a metal-contaminated stream decreased biofilm growth rates and caused a 3x increase in biofilm concentrations of twelve metals, including methylmercury. Slow growth at the primary producer level is a likely contributor to higher biotic metal concentrations in shaded, oligotrophic, or cold ecosystems.

  7. Hardware Implementation of Serially Concatenated PPM Decoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moision, Bruce; Hamkins, Jon; Barsoum, Maged; Cheng, Michael; Nakashima, Michael

    2009-01-01

    A prototype decoder for a serially concatenated pulse position modulation (SCPPM) code has been implemented in a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). At the time of this reporting, this is the first known hardware SCPPM decoder. The SCPPM coding scheme, conceived for free-space optical communications with both deep-space and terrestrial applications in mind, is an improvement of several dB over the conventional Reed-Solomon PPM scheme. The design of the FPGA SCPPM decoder is based on a turbo decoding algorithm that requires relatively low computational complexity while delivering error-rate performance within approximately 1 dB of channel capacity. The SCPPM encoder consists of an outer convolutional encoder, an interleaver, an accumulator, and an inner modulation encoder (more precisely, a mapping of bits to PPM symbols). Each code is describable by a trellis (a finite directed graph). The SCPPM decoder consists of an inner soft-in-soft-out (SISO) module, a de-interleaver, an outer SISO module, and an interleaver connected in a loop (see figure). Each SISO module applies the Bahl-Cocke-Jelinek-Raviv (BCJR) algorithm to compute a-posteriori bit log-likelihood ratios (LLRs) from apriori LLRs by traversing the code trellis in forward and backward directions. The SISO modules iteratively refine the LLRs by passing the estimates between one another much like the working of a turbine engine. Extrinsic information (the difference between the a-posteriori and a-priori LLRs) is exchanged rather than the a-posteriori LLRs to minimize undesired feedback. All computations are performed in the logarithmic domain, wherein multiplications are translated into additions, thereby reducing complexity and sensitivity to fixed-point implementation roundoff errors. To lower the required memory for storing channel likelihood data and the amounts of data transfer between the decoder and the receiver, one can discard the majority of channel likelihoods, using only the remainder in

  8. Contribution to diagnostics/prognostics of tuberculosis in children. I. New methods of assaying zinc and simultaneously copper and zinc in diluted sera by flame atomic-absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Luterotti, Svjetlana; Kordić, Tončica Vukman; Dodig, Slavica

    2015-09-01

    In an attempt to provide a reliable status of metal ions in children, new methods of analysis of children's sera are proposed. New flame atomic-absorption spectrometric (FAAS) methods are simple, cost- and time-effective and, above all, labor-, reagent- and sample-saving. Two methods were suggested: method A for simultaneous determination of Cu and Zn from 5-fold diluted sera, and method B, for assaying zinc alone in 10-fold diluted samples. Both methods are based on a single-step sample pretreatment (deproteinization with 3 mol dm-3 HCl). Method A uses a single-step calibration with a mixed standard. The main advantage of method B is an additional reduction in sample consumption. Both methods were fully validated against reference methods. Accuracy, sensitivity and precision have proven them to be comparable to the reference methods in terms of analytical performance, and applicable to analyses of children's sera.

  9. Hemodynamics in Coronary Arterial Tree of Serial Stenoses

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Bin; Jia, Xinwei; Zhong, Liang; Kassab, Ghassan S.; Tan, Wenchang

    2016-01-01

    Serial segmental narrowing frequently occurs in humans, which alters coronary hemodynamics and further affects atherosclerotic progression and plaque formation. The objective of this study was to understand the distribution of hemodynamic parameters in the epicardial left main coronary arterial (LMCA) tree with serial stenoses reconstructed from patient computer tomography angiography (CTA) images. A finite volume method was used in conjunction with the inlet pressure wave and outlet flow resistance. The time-averaged wall shear stress (TAWSS) and oscillatory shear index (OSI) were determined from the flow field. A stenosis at a mother vessel mainly deteriorated the hemodynamics near the bifurcation while a stenosis at a daughter vessel affected the remote downstream bifurcation. In comparison with a single stenosis, serial stenoses increased the peak pressure gradient along the main trunk of the epicardial left anterior descending arterial tree by > 50%. An increased distance between serial stenoses further increased the peak pressure gradient. These findings have important implications on the diagnosis and treatment of serial coronary stenoses. PMID:27685989

  10. Genetic programming and serial processing for time series classification.

    PubMed

    Alfaro-Cid, Eva; Sharman, Ken; Esparcia-Alcázar, Anna I

    2014-01-01

    This work describes an approach devised by the authors for time series classification. In our approach genetic programming is used in combination with a serial processing of data, where the last output is the result of the classification. The use of genetic programming for classification, although still a field where more research in needed, is not new. However, the application of genetic programming to classification tasks is normally done by considering the input data as a feature vector. That is, to the best of our knowledge, there are not examples in the genetic programming literature of approaches where the time series data are processed serially and the last output is considered as the classification result. The serial processing approach presented here fills a gap in the existing literature. This approach was tested in three different problems. Two of them are real world problems whose data were gathered for online or conference competitions. As there are published results of these two problems this gives us the chance to compare the performance of our approach against top performing methods. The serial processing of data in combination with genetic programming obtained competitive results in both competitions, showing its potential for solving time series classification problems. The main advantage of our serial processing approach is that it can easily handle very large datasets.

  11. Experimental demonstration of sequence recognition of serial memristors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truong, Son Ngoc; Van Pham, Khoa; Yang, Wonsun; Jo, Anjae; Vo, Huan Minh; Lee, Mi Jung; Min, Kyeong-Sik

    2017-01-01

    The sequence recognition is very essential in mimicking brain's neocortical function because most of input patterns to brain's neocortex are dynamically changing over time, not static regardless of time. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate the sequence recognition for various input sequences using serial memristors, for the first time. In this experiment, the serial memristors are used, which were fabricated with carbon fiber and aluminum film on glass substrate. To verify the sequence recognition, we store the following 3 sequences in the fabricated serial memristors, which are `A'→`B'→`C', `B'→`A'→`C', and `C'→`B'→`A', respectively. By performing this experiment, it is verified the serial memristors are changed to Low Resistance State only when the input sequence matches the stored one. When the input sequence is different from the stored one, the serial memristors remain unchanged. The simple voltage comparator can be used to sense the output voltage to indicate whether the sequence matching happens or not. This experimental demonstration can be very useful to realize memristor crossbars which can process the temporal and sequential patterns in future. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  12. The relationship between serial sexual murder and autoerotic asphyxiation.

    PubMed

    Myers, Wade C; Bukhanovskiy, Alexandr; Justen, Elle; Morton, Robert J; Tilley, John; Adams, Kenneth; Vandagriff, Virgil L; Hazelwood, Robert R

    2008-04-07

    This case series documents and examines the association between autoerotic asphyxiation, sadomasochism, and serial sexual murderers. Autoerotic asphyxiation, along with other paraphilias found in this population, is reviewed. Five cases of serial sexual killers who engaged in autoerotic asphyxiation were identified worldwide: four from the United States and one from Russia. Case reports for each are provided. All (100%) were found to have sexual sadism in addition to autoerotic asphyxiation. Furthermore, two (40%) had bondage fetishism, and two (40%) had transvestic fetishism, consistent with these paraphilias co-occurring in those with autoerotic asphyxiation. Overall the group averaged 4.0 lifetime paraphilias. Some possible relationships were observed between the offenders' paraphilic orientation and their modus operandi, e.g., all of these serial killers strangled victims-suggesting an association between their sadistic and asphyxiative paraphilic interests. The overlap of seemingly polar opposite paraphilias in this sample--sexual sadism and autoerotic asphyxiation--is explored from a historical and clinical perspective. Multiple commonalities shared between these five offenders and serial sexual murderers in general are addressed. A primary limitation of this study is its small sample size and empirical basis; the results may not be generalizable beyond the sample. The findings from this study support the supposition that crime scene behaviors often reflect paraphilic disturbances in those who commit serial sexual homicides.

  13. Dilution of Wastewater Discharges from Moving Cruise Ships

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-01

    et al. estimate that effluent discharged at a rate of 200 meters3 second-1 from a cruise ship traveling at between 6 and 10 knots would be diluted...that would elapse before this level of dilution was achieved. The Alaska Cruise Ship Initiative Science Panel has also made estimates of the dilution...field. To quantify dilution, we spiked wastewater tanks with rhodamine dye. The crew of the cruise ship then emptied the tanks while the vessel was

  14. Towards time-resolved serial crystallography in a microfluidic device.

    PubMed

    Pawate, Ashtamurthy S; Šrajer, Vukica; Schieferstein, Jeremy; Guha, Sudipto; Henning, Robert; Kosheleva, Irina; Schmidt, Marius; Ren, Zhong; Kenis, Paul J A; Perry, Sarah L

    2015-07-01

    Serial methods for crystallography have the potential to enable dynamic structural studies of protein targets that have been resistant to single-crystal strategies. The use of serial data-collection strategies can circumvent challenges associated with radiation damage and repeated reaction initiation. This work utilizes a microfluidic crystallization platform for the serial time-resolved Laue diffraction analysis of macroscopic crystals of photoactive yellow protein (PYP). Reaction initiation was achieved via pulsed laser illumination, and the resultant electron-density difference maps clearly depict the expected pR(1)/pR(E46Q) and pR(2)/pR(CW) states at 10 µs and the pB1 intermediate at 1 ms. The strategies presented here have tremendous potential for extension to chemical triggering methods for reaction initiation and for extension to dynamic, multivariable analyses.

  15. Energy data base. Serial titles with ISSN listing

    SciTech Connect

    Hendricks, P.L.

    1984-03-01

    This issue of Serial Titles with ISSN Listing is the first revision of DOE/TIC-4579 to include the International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) for journals. The TIC journal authority was established to bring about conformity in citing the approximately 16,000 titles contained in this authority. It can prove to be a valuable tool in establishing the precise journal by ISSN and CODEN indication, especially for journals with the same title published in different locations. Serial Titles with ISSN Listing is comprised of two parts. Part 1 is an alphabetical listing by full title of the publication and also includes abbreviated title, CODEN, ISSN, coverage code, and country code. Part 2 is an ISSN-title correlation arranged in numeric order by ISSN and also includes the CODEN and full title.

  16. Towards time-resolved serial crystallography in a microfluidic device

    PubMed Central

    Pawate, Ashtamurthy S.; Šrajer, Vukica; Schieferstein, Jeremy; Guha, Sudipto; Henning, Robert; Kosheleva, Irina; Schmidt, Marius; Ren, Zhong; Kenis, Paul J. A.; Perry, Sarah L.

    2015-01-01

    Serial methods for crystallography have the potential to enable dynamic structural studies of protein targets that have been resistant to single-crystal strategies. The use of serial data-collection strategies can circumvent challenges associated with radiation damage and repeated reaction initiation. This work utilizes a microfluidic crystallization platform for the serial time-resolved Laue diffraction analysis of macroscopic crystals of photoactive yellow protein (PYP). Reaction initiation was achieved via pulsed laser illumination, and the resultant electron-density difference maps clearly depict the expected pR1/pRE46Q and pR2/pRCW states at 10 µs and the pB1 intermediate at 1 ms. The strategies presented here have tremendous potential for extension to chemical triggering methods for reaction initiation and for extension to dynamic, multivariable analyses. PMID:26144226

  17. Violent cultural factors and serial homicide by males.

    PubMed

    DeFronzo, James; Prochnow, Jane

    2004-02-01

    Explaining the phenomenon of male serial homicide has usually been approached from a psychiatric perspective. However, recent integrative theory suggests that cultural factors may play a role in shaping the psychology of young males with particular psychiatric and possibly neurological vulnerabilities in such ways as to facilitate converting the motivation to kill into actual behavior. Present results indicated that 34-45% of the interstate variation in rates of serial killer activity could be accounted for by three dimensions of local culture. Higher rates of male serial killer activity were associated with a local state culture supportive of game hunting and military training and a local culture supportive of punitive violence. The findings must be viewed with caution since societal variables are complex and the results are based on correlations which cannot be causally interpreted without more direct evidence of validity.

  18. A combination strategy for tracking the serial criminal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Chuan; Zhang, Yuan-Biao; Wan, Jiadi; Yu, Wenjing

    2010-08-01

    We build a Geographic Profiling Model to generate the criminal's geographical profile, by combining two complementary strategies: the Spatial Distribution Strategy and the Probability Distance Strategy. In the first strategy, we designate the mean of all the known crime sites as the anchor point, and build a Standard Deviational Ellipse Model, considering the effect of landscape. In the second strategy, we take many factors such as the buffer zone and distance decay theory into consideration and calculate the probability of the offender's residence in a certain area by using the Bayesian Theorem and the Rossmo Algorithm. Then, we combine the result of two strategies and get three search areas suit different conditions of the police to track the serial criminal. Apply the model to the English serial killer Peter Sutcliffe's case, the calculation result shows that the model can effectively be used to track serial criminal.

  19. Serial processing in reading aloud: reply to Zorzi (2000).

    PubMed

    Rastle, K; Coltheart, M

    2000-06-01

    K. Rastle and M. Coltheart (1999; see also M. Coltheart & K. Rastle, 1994) reported data demonstrating that the cost of irregularity in reading aloud low-frequency exception words is modulated by the position of the irregularity in the word. They argued that these data implicated a serial process and falsified all models of reading aloud that operate solely in parallel, a conclusion that M. Zorzi (2000) challenged by successfully simulating the position of irregularity effect with such a model. Zorzi (2000) further claimed that a reanalysis of K. Rastle and M. Coltheart's (1999) data demonstrates sensitivity to grapheme-phoneme consistency (which he claimed was confounded across the position of irregularity manipulation) rather than the use of a serial process. Here, the authors argue that M. Zorzi's (2000) reanalyses were inappropriate and reassert that K. Rastle and M. Coltheart's (1999) findings are evidence for serial processing.

  20. Effective viscosity of dilute bacterial suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haines, Brian M.

    This dissertation explores the bulk (volume averaged) properties of suspensions of microswimmers in a fluid. A microswimmer is a microscopic object that propels itself through a fluid. A common example of a microswimmer is a bacterium, such as Bacillus subtilis. Our particular interest is the bulk rheological properties of suspensions of bacteria -- that is, studying how such a suspension deforms under the application of an external force. In the simplest case, the rheology of a fluid can be described by a scalar effective viscosity. The goal of this dissertation is to find explicit formulae for the effective viscosity in terms of known geometric and physical parameters characterizing bacteria and use them to explain experimental observations. Throughout the dissertation, we consider bacterial suspensions in the dilute limit, where bacteria are assumed to be so far apart that interactions between them are negligible. This simplifies calculations significantly and is the regime in which the most striking experimental results have been observed. We first study suspensions of self-propelled particles using a two-dimensional (2D) Partial Differential Equation (PDE) model. A bacterium is modeled as a disk in 2D with self-propulsion provided by a point force in the fluid. A formula is obtained for the effective viscosity of such suspensions in the dilute limit. This formula includes the two terms that are found in the 2D version of Einstein's classical result for a passive suspension of spheres. To this, our main contribution is added, an additional term due to self-propulsion which depends on the physical and geometric properties of the suspension. This work demonstrates how bacterial self-propulsion can alter the viscosity of a fluid and highlights the importance of bacterial orientation. Next, we present a more realistic PDE model for dilute suspensions of swimming bacteria in a three-dimensional fluid. In this work, a bacterium is modeled as a prolate spheroid with

  1. Native sulfur/chlorine SAD phasing for serial femtosecond crystallography

    SciTech Connect

    Nakane, Takanori; Song, Changyong; Suzuki, Mamoru; Nango, Eriko; Kobayashi, Jun; Masuda, Tetsuya; Inoue, Shigeyuki; Mizohata, Eiichi; Nakatsu, Toru; Tanaka, Tomoyuki; Tanaka, Rie; Shimamura, Tatsuro; Tono, Kensuke; Joti, Yasumasa; Kameshima, Takashi; Hatsui, Takaki; Yabashi, Makina; Nureki, Osamu; Iwata, So; Sugahara, Michihiro

    2015-11-27

    Sulfur SAD phasing facilitates the structure determination of diverse native proteins using femtosecond X-rays from free-electron lasers via serial femtosecond crystallography. Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) allows structures to be determined with minimal radiation damage. However, phasing native crystals in SFX is not very common. Here, the structure determination of native lysozyme from single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (SAD) by utilizing the anomalous signal of sulfur and chlorine at a wavelength of 1.77 Å is successfully demonstrated. This sulfur SAD method can be applied to a wide range of proteins, which will improve the determination of native crystal structures.

  2. In situ serial Laue diffraction on a microfluidic crystallization device

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Sarah L.; Guha, Sudipto; Pawate, Ashtamurthy S.; Henning, Robert; Kosheleva, Irina; Srajer, Vukica; Kenis, Paul J. A.; Ren, Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Renewed interest in room-temperature diffraction has been prompted by the desire to observe structural dynamics of proteins as they function. Serial crystallography, an experimental strategy that aggregates small pieces of data from a large uniform pool of crystals, has been demonstrated at synchrotrons and X-ray free-electron lasers. This work utilizes a microfluidic crystallization platform for serial Laue diffraction from macroscopic crystals and proposes that a collection of small slices of Laue data from many individual crystals is a realistic solution to the difficulties in dynamic studies of irreversible biochemical reactions. PMID:25484843

  3. Serial murder in America: case studies of seven offenders.

    PubMed

    Beasley, James O

    2004-01-01

    This article summarizes and compares information on seven interviewed serial killers in an ongoing project designed to study similarities and differences among these individuals. The aim of this article is to increase our collective knowledge of the dynamics of serial murder by examining the perpetrators' backgrounds, as well as the unique ways in which they view themselves and the world around them. Although qualitative interview research alone is not sufficient to fully understand such behavior, it is useful in many ways. Some of the information discussed based on the seven offenders interviewed is compared with broader epidemiological studies, and the strengths and limitations of each type of research are discussed.

  4. A neuropsychiatric developmental model of serial homicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Silva, J Arturo; Leong, Gregory B; Ferrari, Michelle M

    2004-01-01

    Serial sexual homicide has been the object of intensive study from forensic psychiatric, criminological, developmental, and sociological perspectives. In contradistinction to these approaches, neuropsychiatric concepts and methods have received relatively little attention in this area. In this article we adopt a neuropsychiatric developmental perspective and undertake a review of the psychiatric literature on violence and autism spectrum disorders. Our analysis of this literature suggests the presence of an association between autism spectrum psychopathology and serial homicidal behavior. Recommendations for further research to help clarify the nature of this association are briefly discussed.

  5. Percolation quantum phase transitions in diluted magnets.

    PubMed

    Vojta, Thomas; Schmalian, Jörg

    2005-12-02

    We show that the interplay of geometric criticality and quantum fluctuations leads to a novel universality class for the percolation quantum phase transition in diluted magnets. All critical exponents involving dynamical correlations are different from the classical percolation values, but in two dimensions they can nonetheless be determined exactly. We develop a complete scaling theory of this transition, and we relate it to recent experiments in La2Cu(1-p)(Zn,Mg)(p)O4. Our results are also relevant for disordered interacting boson systems.

  6. Dilution jet mixing program, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, R.; Coleman, E.; Myers, G.; White, C.

    1985-01-01

    The main objectives for the NASA Jet Mixing Phase 3 program were: extension of the data base on the mixing of single sided rows of jets in a confined cross flow to discrete slots, including streamlined, bluff, and angled injections; quantification of the effects of geometrical and flow parameters on penetration and mixing of multiple rows of jets into a confined flow; investigation of in-line, staggered, and dissimilar hole configurations; and development of empirical correlations for predicting temperature distributions for discrete slots and multiple rows of dilution holes.

  7. Steadiness in Dilute Pyroclastic Density Currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, B. J.

    2015-12-01

    Pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) are often unsteady, as evidenced by direct observations of dilute lobes or jets emerging from the fronts of larger currents and by deposits that indicate transient transport and depositional regimes. We used scaled experiments to investigate unsteadiness in dilute PDCs. The experimental currents were run in an 8.5x6.1x2.6 m tank and comprised heated or ambient temperature 20-μm talc powder turbulently suspended in air. Experiments were scaled such that densimetric and thermal Richardson numbers, Froude number, and particle Stokes and settling numbers were dynamically similar to natural dilute PDCs. Although the experiment Reynolds numbers are substantially lower than those of natural PDCs, the experiments are fully turbulent. Experiments were observed with video and high-speed cameras and high-frequency thermocouples. Currents were generated with total eruption durations of 100 s. Unsteadiness in source conditions was produced by interrupting supply for intervals, t, with durations of 1, 2.5, 5, and 10 s in the experimental runs at 35 and 70 s. When t<2.5 s, the currents are indistinguishable from currents with steady supply. In runs with t=2.5-5 s, the individual pulses comprising each current are readily apparent near the source, but decay with distance downstream until the currents appear as single (e.g. steady) flows. In experiments with t=10 s, the 3 pulses comprising each run never merge and the currents remain unsteady. Comparison with the integral turbulent timescale, τ, and current velocity, U, show that unsteadiness is persistent when t>3<τ but currents are steady when t<τ. In currents with 3τ>t>τ, unsteadiness decays such that at a distance of ~4Ut, the currents are again steady. Applied to natural dilute PDCs, our results suggest that currents and their resulting deposits, will only show evidence of unsteadiness if they are disrupted for many seconds and those breaks may "heal" over distances of 100s of meters.

  8. Low shear viscosity of dilute polymer solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Chiou, C.S.; Gordon, R.J.

    1980-09-01

    A modification of a viscometer originally proposed by Zimm and Crothers is studied, which may be used to measure ultra low shear viscosity for highly dilute polymer solutions. This may provide useful information on polymer coil dimensions and relaxation time. Use of the low shear viscosity data leads to large value of relaxation time induced by polymer addition to a concentration of only 2 to 3 ppM by wt. This finding is consistent with the marked viscoelastic effects exhibited by these solutions.

  9. Geometric Exponents of Dilute Loop Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provencher, Guillaume; Saint-Aubin, Yvan; Pearce, Paul A.; Rasmussen, Jørgen

    2012-04-01

    The fractal dimensions of the hull, the external perimeter and of the red bonds are measured through Monte Carlo simulations for dilute minimal models, and compared with predictions from conformal field theory and SLE methods. The dilute models used are those first introduced by Nienhuis. Their loop fugacity is β=-2 \\cos(π/bar{kappa}) where the parameter bar{kappa} is linked to their description through conformal loop ensembles. It is also linked to conformal field theories through their central charges c(bar{kappa})=13-6(bar{kappa}+bar{kappa}^{-1}) and, for the minimal models of interest here, bar{kappa}=p/p' where p and p' are two coprime integers. The geometric exponents of the hull and external perimeter are studied for the pairs ( p, p')=(1,1),(2,3),(3,4),(4,5),(5,6),(5,7), and that of the red bonds for ( p, p')=(3,4). Monte Carlo upgrades are proposed for these models as well as several techniques to improve their speeds. The measured fractal dimensions are obtained by extrapolation on the lattice size H, V→∞. The extrapolating curves have large slopes; despite these, the measured dimensions coincide with theoretical predictions up to three or four digits. In some cases, the theoretical values lie slightly outside the confidence intervals; explanations of these small discrepancies are proposed.

  10. ANALYSIS OF BORON DILUTION TRANSIENTS IN PWRS.

    SciTech Connect

    DIAMOND,D.J.BROMLEY,B.P.ARONSON,A.L.

    2004-02-04

    A study has been carried out with PARCS/RELAP5 to understand the consequences of hypothetical boron dilution events in pressurized water reactors. The scenarios of concern start with a small-break loss-of-coolant accident. If the event leads to boiling in the core and then the loss of natural circulation, a boron-free condensate can accumulate in the cold leg. The dilution event happens when natural circulation is re-established or a reactor coolant pump (RCP) is restarted in violation of operating procedures. This event is of particular concern in B&W reactors with a lowered-loop design and is a Generic Safety Issue for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The results of calculations with the reestablishment of natural circulation show that there is no unacceptable fuel damage. This is determined by calculating the maximum fuel pellet enthalpy, based on the three-dimensional model, and comparing it with the criterion for damage. The calculation is based on a model of a B&W reactor at beginning of the fuel cycle. If an RCP is restarted, unacceptable fuel damage may be possible in plants with sufficiently large volumes of boron-free condensate in the cold leg.

  11. Stoichiometric controls of mercury dilution by growth.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Roxanne; Chen, Celia Y; Pickhardt, Paul C; Fisher, Nicholas S; Folt, Carol L

    2007-05-01

    Rapid growth could significantly reduce methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in aquatic organisms by causing a greater than proportional gain in biomass relative to MeHg (somatic growth dilution). We hypothesized that rapid growth from the consumption of high-quality algae, defined by algal nutrient stoichiometry, reduces MeHg concentrations in zooplankton, a major source of MeHg for lake fish. Using a MeHg radiotracer, we measured changes in MeHg concentrations, growth and ingestion rates in juvenile Daphnia pulex fed either high (C:P = 139) or low-quality (C:P = 1317) algae (Ankistrodesmus falcatus) for 5 d. We estimated Daphnia steady-state MeHg concentrations, using a biokinetic model parameterized with experimental rates. Daphnia MeHg assimilation efficiencies (approximately 95%) and release rates (0.04 d(-1)) were unaffected by algal nutrient quality. However, Daphnia growth rate was 3.5 times greater when fed high-quality algae, resulting in pronounced somatic growth dilution. Steady-state MeHg concentrations in Daphnia that consumed high-quality algae were one-third those of Daphnia that consumed low-quality algae due to higher growth and slightly lower ingestion rates. Our findings show that rapid growth from high-quality food consumption can significantly reduce the accumulation and trophic transfer of MeHg in freshwater food webs.

  12. Whole-pattern fitting technique in serial femtosecond nanocrystallography

    PubMed Central

    Dilanian, Ruben A.; Williams, Sophie R.; Martin, Andrew V.; Streltsov, Victor A.; Quiney, Harry M.

    2016-01-01

    Serial femtosecond X-ray crystallography (SFX) has created new opportunities in the field of structural analysis of protein nanocrystals. The intensity and timescale characteristics of the X-ray free-electron laser sources used in SFX experiments necessitate the analysis of a large collection of individual crystals of variable shape and quality to ultimately solve a single, average crystal structure. Ensembles of crystals are commonly encountered in powder diffraction, but serial crystallography is different because each crystal is measured individually and can be oriented via indexing and merged into a three-dimensional data set, as is done for conventional crystallography data. In this way, serial femtosecond crystallography data lie in between conventional crystallography data and powder diffraction data, sharing features of both. The extremely small sizes of nanocrystals, as well as the possible imperfections of their crystallite structure, significantly affect the diffraction pattern and raise the question of how best to extract accurate structure-factor moduli from serial crystallography data. Here it is demonstrated that whole-pattern fitting techniques established for one-dimensional powder diffraction analysis can be feasibly extended to higher dimensions for the analysis of merged SFX diffraction data. It is shown that for very small crystals, whole-pattern fitting methods are more accurate than Monte Carlo integration methods that are currently used. PMID:27006776

  13. Prior-List Intrusions in Serial Recall Are Positional

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osth, Adam F.; Dennis, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Henson (1996) provided a number of demonstrations of error patterns in serial recall that contradict chaining models. One such error pattern concerned when participants make intrusions from prior lists: Rather than originating from random positions in the prior list, intrusions tend to be recalled in the same position as their position in the…

  14. Technical Processing Monographs and Serials. RDU-75-08.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Miriam

    A report on technical processing of monographs and serials at Purdue University Libraries and Audio-Visual Center was compiled as part of preparation for the use of Ohio College Library Center services. The current organization and flow of work in the acquisitions and cataloging departments were described in narrative and flowchart form, and…

  15. Regularization in Short-Term Memory for Serial Order

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botvinick, Matthew; Bylsma, Lauren M.

    2005-01-01

    Previous research has shown that short-term memory for serial order can be influenced by background knowledge concerning regularities of sequential structure. Specifically, it has been shown that recall is superior for sequences that fit well with familiar sequencing constraints. The authors report a corresponding effect pertaining to serial…

  16. FPGA based fast synchronous serial multi-wire links synchronization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozniak, Krzysztof T.

    2013-10-01

    The paper debates synchronization method of multi-wire, serial link of constant latency, by means of pseudo-random numbers generators. The solution was designed for various families of FPGA circuits. There were debated synchronization algorithm and functional structure of parameterized transmitter and receiver modules. The modules were realized in VHDL language in a behavioral form.

  17. Analysis of aging in lager brewing yeast during serial repitching.

    PubMed

    Bühligen, Franziska; Lindner, Patrick; Fetzer, Ingo; Stahl, Frank; Scheper, Thomas; Harms, Hauke; Müller, Susann

    2014-10-10

    Serial repitching of brewing yeast inoculates is an important economic factor in the brewing industry, as their propagation is time and resource intensive. Here, we investigated whether replicative aging and/or the population distribution status changed during serial repitching in three different breweries with the same brewing yeast strain but different abiotic backgrounds and repitching regimes with varying numbers of reuses. Next to bud scar numbers the DNA content of the Saccharomyces pastorianus HEBRU cells was analyzed. Gene expression patterns were investigated using low-density microarrays with genes for aging, stress, storage compound metabolism and cell cycle. Two breweries showed a stable rejuvenation rate during serial repitching. In a third brewery the fraction of virgin cells varied, which could be explained with differing wort aeration rates. Furthermore, the number of bud scars per cell and cell size correlated in all 3 breweries throughout all runs. Transcriptome analyses revealed that from the 6th run on, mainly for the cells positive gene expression could be seen, for example up-regulation of trehalose and glycogen metabolism genes. Additionally, the cells' settling in the cone was dependent on cell size, with the lowest and the uppermost cone layers showing the highest amount of dead cells. In general, cells do not progressively age during extended serial repitching.

  18. Mixed-List Phonological Similarity Effects in Delayed Serial Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Simon

    2006-01-01

    Recent experiments have shown that placing dissimilar items on lists of phonologically similar items enhances accuracy of ordered recall of the dissimilar items [Farrell, S., & Lewandowsky, S. (2003). Dissimilar items benefit from phonological similarity in serial recall. "Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition," 29,…

  19. Phospohorus and calcium retention in serially harvested cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Data from 3 serial harvest trials were utilized to calculate phosphorus and calcium retention in cattle. Trial 1 evaluated the effect of three rates of gain during a growing period followed by a common finishing diet utilizing British crossbred steers. Four steers were harvested from each treatmen...

  20. Kiondo Bag Boutique: A Serial Case for Introductory Financial Accounting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siriwardane, Harshini P.

    2014-01-01

    Kiondo Bag Boutique is a hypothetical serial case involving a start-up retail business. The case evolves from an ambitious business idea to a successful business. Through the evolving business, the importance of accounting information is highlighted. Different iterations are used to illustrate the role of accounting in serving and managing…

  1. When Temporal Isolation Benefits Memory for Serial Order

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewandowsky, Stephan; Nimmo, Lisa M.; Brown, Gordon D. A.

    2008-01-01

    According to temporal distinctiveness models, items that are temporally isolated from their neighbors during list presentation are more distinct and thus should be recalled better. Contrary to that expectation of distinctiveness views, much recent evidence has shown that forward short-term serial recall is unaffected by temporal isolation. We…

  2. Picture Detection in Rapid Serial Visual Presentation: Features or Identity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Mary C.; Wyble, Brad; Pandav, Rijuta; Olejarczyk, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    A pictured object can be readily detected in a rapid serial visual presentation sequence when the target is specified by a superordinate category name such as "animal" or "vehicle". Are category features the initial basis for detection, with identification of the specific object occurring in a second stage (Evans &…

  3. Process to restore obliterated serial numbers on metal surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, S. G.; Parker, B.; Chisum, W. J.

    1974-01-01

    Metal smeared into grooves of serial numbers by grinding or filing can be cleaned out by process called cavitation. Ultrasonic vibrator generates very high frequency vibrations in water which create millions of microscopic bubbles. Cavitation bubbles impact metal surface at thousands of pounds per square inch pressure. Metal particles filling grooves are broken away.

  4. Serial Killers: Academic Libraries Respond to Soaring Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Paul

    1994-01-01

    Discusses ways in which academic libraries are responding to rising costs of serials. Topics addressed include pricing by publishers; the effect of journal cancellations on research activities; interlibrary loans and document delivery services; coordinated cancelling; electronic journals; and experiences at the University of Arizona. (LRW)

  5. Phonological Similarity in Serial Recall: Constraints on Theories of Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewandowsky, Stephan; Farrell, Simon

    2008-01-01

    In short-term serial recall, similar-sounding items are remembered more poorly than items that do not sound alike. When lists mix similar and dissimilar items, performance on the dissimilar items is of considerable theoretical interest. Farrell and Lewandowsky [Farrell, S., & Lewandowsky, S. (2003). Dissimilar items benefit from phonological…

  6. Serial Back-Plane Technologies in Advanced Avionics Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varnavas, Kosta

    2005-01-01

    Current back plane technologies such as VME, and current personal computer back planes such as PCI, are shared bus systems that can exhibit nondeterministic latencies. This means a card can take control of the bus and use resources indefinitely affecting the ability of other cards in the back plane to acquire the bus. This provides a real hit on the reliability of the system. Additionally, these parallel busses only have bandwidths in the 100s of megahertz range and EMI and noise effects get worse the higher the bandwidth goes. To provide scalable, fault-tolerant, advanced computing systems, more applicable to today s connected computing environment and to better meet the needs of future requirements for advanced space instruments and vehicles, serial back-plane technologies should be implemented in advanced avionics architectures. Serial backplane technologies eliminate the problem of one card getting the bus and never relinquishing it, or one minor problem on the backplane bringing the whole system down. Being serial instead of parallel improves the reliability by reducing many of the signal integrity issues associated with parallel back planes and thus significantly improves reliability. The increased speeds associated with a serial backplane are an added bonus.

  7. Counterbalancing for Serial Order Carryover Effects in Experimental Condition Orders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Joseph L.

    2012-01-01

    Reactions of neural, psychological, and social systems are rarely, if ever, independent of previous inputs and states. The potential for serial order carryover effects from one condition to the next in a sequence of experimental trials makes counterbalancing of condition order an essential part of experimental design. Here, a method is proposed…

  8. Benchmarking Usage Statistics in Collection Management Decisions for Serials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Cory

    2009-01-01

    Usage statistics are an important metric for making decisions on serials. Although the University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV) Libraries have been collecting usage statistics, the statistics had not frequently been used to make decisions and had not been included in collection development policy. After undergoing a collection assessment, the…

  9. Serials Conversion at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banach, Patricia; Spell, Cynthia

    1988-01-01

    Describes a project in which OCLC retrospectively converted more than 27,000 serial titles held by the University of Massachusetts Library at Amherst. Details of the reasons for choosing OCLC, the contract between the library and OCLC, and the effectiveness of the project in meeting the library's goals are discussed. (Author/CLB)

  10. Serials Standards in Convergence: ISBD(S) Developments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parent, Ingrid

    This paper provides an update on the revision process undertaken to produce a new, relevant, and useful ISBD(S) (International Standard Bibliographic Description) standard for describing serial publications in both print and electronic formats. Highlights include: the concept of "integrating resource," i.e., a bibliographic resource that…

  11. Union List of Serials in Pacific Island Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Arlene G., Comp.; Yoshida, Patricia, Comp.

    This union list contains the serial holdings from Pacific Island libraries, including the University of the South Pacific Library (Fiji), the University of Guam Robert F. Kennedy Library, Guam Public Library, College of Micronesia-FSM Library, College of the Marshall Islands Library, Micronesian Seminar Library, Palau Community College Library,…

  12. Serial Learning in Rats: A Test of Three Hypotheses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capaldi, E. J.; Miller, Ronald Mellado

    2004-01-01

    Findings obtained by providing rats with a single fixed series of events, A-B-C-..., often are equally compatible with three alternative serial learning interpretations: that the signal for items is (A) their position in the series (position view), (B) the prior item of the series (chaining view), and (C) one, two, or more prior items of the…

  13. In vitro strain adaptation of CWD prions by serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification.

    PubMed

    Meyerett, Crystal; Michel, Brady; Pulford, Bruce; Spraker, Terry R; Nichols, Traci A; Johnson, Theodore; Kurt, Timothy; Hoover, Edward A; Telling, Glenn C; Zabel, Mark D

    2008-12-20

    We used serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification (sPMCA) to amplify the D10 strain of CWD prions in a linear relationship over two logs of D10 dilutions. The resultant PMCA-amplified D10 induced terminal TSE disease in CWD-susceptible Tg(cerPrP)1536 mice with a survival time approximately 80 days shorter than the original D10 inoculum, similar to that produced by in vivo sub-passage of D10 in Tg(cerPrP)1536 mice. Both in vitro-amplified and mouse-passaged D10 produced brain lesion profiles, glycoform ratios and conformational stabilities significantly different than those produced by the original D10 inoculum in Tg(cerPrP)1536 mice. These findings demonstrate that sPMCA can amplify and adapt prion strains in vitro as effectively and much more quickly than in vivo strain adaptation by mouse passage. Thus sPMCA may represent a powerful tool to assess prion strain adaptation and species barriers in vitro.

  14. MITESS: a moored in situ trace element serial sampler for deep-sea moorings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Jory; Betts, Joe; Boyle, Edward

    2002-11-01

    We have designed, constructed and tested a trace element clean sampling device for long term deployment (6 months or longer) on deep-sea moorings. The device collects unfiltered 500 ml samples by opening and closing a bottle originally filled with dilute acid (passively replaced by denser seawater). Each sample is collected by an independent module, so failure of a single unit does not affect others. Seven years of deployments have refined the sampler into a rugged and reliable device. The device also can be hung below a wire to collect water column samples. Automated trace element sampler (ATE), a spinoff from moored in situ trace element serial sampler, is a single-module device for allowing trace metal clean near-surface samples to be collected by personnel not trained in trace element sampling. ATE/VANE, another variation, allows the same personnel to collect upper water column profiles on conventional hydrowire. The systems have been tested by comparing samples collected for lead and iron with those collected by previously proven sampling techniques.

  15. Adolescent exposure to methylphenidate impairs serial pattern learning in the serial multiple choice (SMC) task in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Rowan, James D; McCarty, Madison K; Kundey, Shannon M A; Osburn, Crystal D; Renaud, Samantha M; Kelley, Brian M; Matoushek, Amanda Willey; Fountain, Stephen B

    2015-01-01

    The long-term effects of adolescent exposure to methylphenidate (MPD) on adult cognitive capacity are largely unknown. We utilized a serial multiple choice (SMC) task, which is a sequential learning paradigm for studying complex learning, to observe the effects of methylphenidate exposure during adolescence on later serial pattern acquisition during adulthood. Following 20.0mg/kg/day MPD or saline exposure for 5 days/week for 5 weeks during adolescence, male rats were trained to produce a highly structured serial response pattern in an octagonal operant chamber for water reinforcement as adults. During a transfer phase, a violation to the previously-learned pattern structure was introduced as the last element of the sequential pattern. Results indicated that while rats in both groups were able to learn the training and transfer patterns, adolescent exposure to MPD impaired learning for some aspects of pattern learning in the training phase which are learned using discrimination learning or serial position learning. In contrast adolescent exposure to MPD had no effect on other aspects of pattern learning which have been shown to tap into rule learning mechanisms. Additionally, adolescent MPD exposure impaired learning for the violation element in the transfer phase. This indicates a deficit in multi-item learning previously shown to be responsible for violation element learning. Thus, these results clearly show that adolescent MPD produced multiple cognitive impairments in male rats that persisted into adulthood long after MPD exposure ended.

  16. Serials Management in the Electronic Era: Papers in Honor of Peter Gellatly, Founding Editor of "The Serials Librarian."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Jim, Ed.; Williams, James W., Ed.

    This book assesses progress and technical changes in the field of serials management and anticipates future directions and challenges for librarians. The book consists of 18 chapters: (1) "Introduction" (Jim Cole and James W. Williams); (2) "Peter Gellatly--Editor with a Deft Touch" (Ruth C. Carter); (3) "The "Deseret…

  17. Cold Lake Blend diluted bitumen toxicity to the early development of Japanese medaka.

    PubMed

    Madison, Barry N; Hodson, Peter V; Langlois, Valerie S

    2017-03-20

    Diluted bitumen (dilbit) from Alberta oil sands (Canada) is transported across major continental watersheds, yet little is known about its toxicity to fish if spilled into aquatic environments. The toxicity of Cold Lake (CLB) dilbit was assessed for medaka embryos (Oryzias latipes) exposed to water accommodated fractions (WAF) and chemically-enhanced WAF (CEWAF) using Corexit(®)EC9500A as dispersant. The effects of CLB toxicity were similar to conventional crude oils and Access Western Blend (AWB) dilbit. The prevalence of malformations and cyp1a mRNA synthesis in hatched fish increased monotonically with concentration during WAF and CEWAF treatments and provided a novel indicator of dilbit PAH toxicity. Apart from nfe2 (an antioxidant transcription factor), there were no statistically significant monotonic exposure-responses of ahr, arnt2, cat, sod, gpx, gst, gsr, g6pdh, p53, and hsp70 transcripts at total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (TPAH) concentrations bracketing EC50s for embryotoxicity (WAF ≅ 3 μg/L; CEWAF ≅ 0.1 μg/L TPAH). Based on measured TPAH concentrations in exposure test solutions, CLB dilbit was 6-10 fold more toxic to medaka than AWB during chronic exposures. Lack of direct monotonic gene transcription responses to increasing oil concentrations during exposures that were embryotoxic suggests that the capacity of the oxidative stress response is limited in earlier lifestages or that differences exist among species in mechanisms of toxicity. This study provides a comparative framework for identifying suitable biomarkers and toxicity methods for those fish species in sensitive lifestages at highest risk of Canadian oil sands dilbit exposure following a spill in the freshwater environment.

  18. Maximum independent set on diluted triangular lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fay, C. W., IV; Liu, J. W.; Duxbury, P. M.

    2006-05-01

    Core percolation and maximum independent set on random graphs have recently been characterized using the methods of statistical physics. Here we present a statistical physics study of these problems on bond diluted triangular lattices. Core percolation critical behavior is found to be consistent with the standard percolation values, though there are strong finite size effects. A transfer matrix method is developed and applied to find accurate values of the density and degeneracy of the maximum independent set on lattices of limited width but large length. An extrapolation of these results to the infinite lattice limit yields high precision results, which are tabulated. These results are compared to results found using both vertex based and edge based local probability recursion algorithms, which have proven useful in the analysis of hard computational problems, such as the satisfiability problem.

  19. Electronic bandstructure of semiconductor dilute bismide structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erucar, T.; Nutku, F.; Donmez, O.; Erol, A.

    2017-02-01

    In this work electronic band structure of dilute bismide GaAs/GaAs1-xBix quantum well structures with 1.8% and 3.75% bismuth compositions have been investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Photoluminescence (PL) measurements reveal that effective bandgap of the samples decreases approximately 65 meV per bismuth concentration. Temperature dependence of the effective bandgap is obtained to be higher for the sample with higher bismuth concentration. Moreover, both asymmetric characteristic at the low energy tail of the PL and full width at half maximum (FWHM) of PL peak increase with increasing bismuth composition as a result of increased Bi related defects located above valence band (VB). In order to explain composition dependence of the effective bandgap quantitatively, valence band anti-crossing (VBAC) model is used. Bismuth composition and temperature dependence of effective bandgap in a quantum well structure is modeled by solving Schrödinger equation and compared with experimental PL data.

  20. Dilution Jet Mixing Program, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, R.; Berenfeld, A.; Mongia, H. C.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of jet to mainstream density ratio, flow area convergence as encounted in transition sections, and nonuniform mainstream profile upstream of dilution orifices on the mixing of a row of jets with a confined cross flow was quantified. It is found that: (1) jet spreading rate in transverse direction is increased with increasing J, H/D and with decreasing S/D; (2) the density ratio has only a second order effect on the jet mixing characteristics for a constant momentum ratio; (3) the temperature distributions in the jet mixing region are strongly influenced by the undisturbed mainstream profile; (4) flow area convergence enhances mixing in radial and transverse directions. An asymmetric convergent duct with flat wall injection has the same jet mixing characteristics as a symmetric convergent duct. An asymmetric convergent duct with slant wall injection has a faster jet spreading rate in the transverse direction.

  1. Negative magnetophoresis in diluted ferrofluid flow.

    PubMed

    Hejazian, Majid; Nguyen, Nam-Trung

    2015-07-21

    We report magnetic manipulation of non-magnetic particles suspended in diluted ferrofluid. Diamagnetic particles were introduced into a circular chamber to study the extent of their deflection under the effect of a non-uniform magnetic field of a permanent magnet. Since ferrofluid is a paramagnetic medium, it also experiences a bulk magnetic force that in turn induces a secondary flow opposing the main hydrodynamic flow. Sheath flow rate, particle size, and magnetic field strength were varied to examine this complex behaviour. The combined effect of negative magnetophoresis and magnetically induced secondary flow leads to various operation regimes, which can potentially find applications in separation, trapping and mixing of diamagnetic particles such as cells in a microfluidic system.

  2. Random bilayer phases of dilute surfactant solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cates, M. E.; Roux, D.

    1990-12-01

    Surfactant molecules in dilute solution may aggregate reversibly into extended structures. For suitably chosen molecules, the preferred packing involves a locally flat bilayer which tends to wander entropically at large distances. At low temperatures (and/or high concentrations) the system forms a stack of flat sheets with one-dimensional quasi-long range order (a smectic liquid crystal), but at high temperatures or low concentrations, the stack can melt into a random surface structure that resembles a multiply connected labyrinth or 'sponge' of bilayer in a sea of solvent. Recent theoretical and experimental progress in understanding the properties of the sponge is reviewed. The authors argue that the sponge phase may provide a good system for the study of various liquid-state critical phenomena.

  3. Fermi Surface of the Most Dilute Superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Xiao; Zhu, Zengwei; Fauqué, Benoît; Behnia, Kamran

    2013-04-01

    The origin of superconductivity in bulk SrTiO3 is a mystery since the nonmonotonous variation of the critical transition with carrier concentration defies the expectations of the crudest version of the BCS theory. Here, employing the Nernst effect, an extremely sensitive probe of tiny bulk Fermi surfaces, we show that, down to concentrations as low as 5.5×1017cm-3, the system has both a sharp Fermi surface and a superconducting ground state. The most dilute superconductor currently known therefore has a metallic normal state with a Fermi energy as little as 1.1 meV on top of a band gap as large as 3 eV. The occurrence of a superconducting instability in an extremely small, single-component, and barely anisotropic Fermi surface implies strong constraints for the identification of the pairing mechanism.

  4. Stable isotope dilution assays in mycotoxin analysis.

    PubMed

    Rychlik, Michael; Asam, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    The principle and applications of stable isotope dilution assays (SIDAs) in mycotoxin analysis are critically reviewed. The general section includes historical aspects of SIDAs, the prerequisites and limitations of the use of stable isotopically labelled internal standards, and possible calibration procedures. In the application section actual SIDAs for the analysis of trichothecenes, zearalenone, fumonisins, patulin, and ochratoxin A are presented. The syntheses and availability of labelled mycotoxins for use as internal standards is reviewed and specific advances in food analysis and toxicology are demonstrated. The review indicates that LC-MS applications, in particular, require the use of stable isotopically labelled standards to compensate for losses during clean-up and for discrimination due to ion suppression. As the commercial availability of these compounds continues to increase, SIDAs can be expected to find expanding use in mycotoxin analysis.

  5. The Circulation Analysis of Serial Use: Numbers Game or Key to Service?

    PubMed Central

    Raisig, L. Miles

    1967-01-01

    The conventionally erected and reported circulation analysis of serial use in the individual and the feeder library is found to be statistically invalid and misleading, since it measures neither the intellectual use of the serial's contents nor the physical handlings of serial units, and is nonrepresentative of the in-depth library use of serials. It fails utterly to report or even to suggest the relation of intralibrary and interlibrary serial resources. The actual mechanics of the serial use analysis, and the active variables in the library situation which affect serial use, are demonstrated in a simulated analysis and are explained at length. A positive design is offered for the objective gathering and reporting of data on the local intellectual use and physical handling of serials and the relating of resources. Data gathering in the feeder library, and implications for the extension of the feeder library's resources, are discussed. PMID:6055863

  6. Dilute acid/metal salt hydrolysis of lignocellulosics

    DOEpatents

    Nguyen, Quang A.; Tucker, Melvin P.

    2002-01-01

    A modified dilute acid method of hydrolyzing the cellulose and hemicellulose in lignocellulosic material under conditions to obtain higher overall fermentable sugar yields than is obtainable using dilute acid alone, comprising: impregnating a lignocellulosic feedstock with a mixture of an amount of aqueous solution of a dilute acid catalyst and a metal salt catalyst sufficient to provide higher overall fermentable sugar yields than is obtainable when hydrolyzing with dilute acid alone; loading the impregnated lignocellulosic feedstock into a reactor and heating for a sufficient period of time to hydrolyze substantially all of the hemicellulose and greater than 45% of the cellulose to water soluble sugars; and recovering the water soluble sugars.

  7. 40 CFR 89.424 - Dilute emission sampling calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... mode for bag measurements and diesel heat exchanger system measurements is determined from the..., for diesel heat exchanger systems, average hydrocarbon concentration of the dilute exhaust sample...

  8. Toxicity of contaminated sediments in dilution series with control sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, M.K.; Landrum, P.F.; Burton, G.A.; Klaine, S.J.; Crecelius, E.A.; Byl, T.D.; Gossiaux, Duane C.; Tsymbal, V.N.; Cleveland, L.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Sasson-Brickson, G.

    1993-01-01

    The use of dilutions has been the foundation of our approach for assessing contaminated water, and accordingly, it may be important to establish similar or parallel approaches for sediment dilutions. Test organism responses to dilution gradients can identify the degree of necessary sediment alteration to reduce the toxicity. Using whole sediment dilutions to represent the complex interactions of in situ sediments can identify the toxicity, but the selection of the appropriate diluent for the contaminated sediment may affect the results and conclusions drawn. Contaminated whole sediments were examined to evaluate the toxicity of dilutions of sediments with a diversity of test organisms. Dilutions of the contaminated sediments were prepared with differing diluents that varied in organic carbon content, particle size distribution, and volatile solids. Studies were conducted using four macroinvertebrates and a vascular, rooted plant. Responses by some test organisms followed a sigmoidal dose-response curve, but others followed a U-shaped curve. Initial dilutions reduced toxicity as expected, but further dilution resulted in an increase in toxicity. The type of diluent used was an important factor in assessing the sediment toxicity, because the control soil reduced toxicity more effectively than sand as a diluent of the same sediment. Using sediment chemical and physical characteristics as an indicator of sediment dilution may not be as useful as chemical analysis of contaminants, but warrants further investigation.

  9. Serial-Order Short-Term Memory Predicts Vocabulary Development: Evidence from a Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leclercq, Anne-Lise; Majerus, Steve

    2010-01-01

    Serial-order short-term memory (STM), as opposed to item STM, has been shown to be very consistently associated with lexical learning abilities in cross-sectional study designs. This study investigated longitudinal predictions between serial-order STM and vocabulary development. Tasks maximizing the temporary retention of either serial-order or…

  10. Long-Term Phonological Knowledge Supports Serial Ordering in Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakayama, Masataka; Tanida, Yuki; Saito, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    Serial ordering mechanisms have been investigated extensively in psychology and psycholinguistics. It has also been demonstrated repeatedly that long-term phonological knowledge contributes to serial ordering. However, the mechanisms that contribute to serial ordering have yet to be fully understood. To understand these mechanisms, we demonstrate…

  11. Low-Stroke Actuation for a Serial Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Dalong (Inventor); Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A serial robot includes a base, first and second segments, a proximal joint joining the base to the first segment, and a distal joint. The distal joint that joins the segments is serially arranged and distal with respect to the proximal joint. The robot includes first and second actuators. A first tendon extends from the first actuator to the proximal joint and is selectively moveable via the first actuator. A second tendon extends from the second actuator to the distal joint and is selectively moveable via the second actuator. The robot includes a transmission having at least one gear element which assists rotation of the distal joint when an input force is applied to the proximal and/or distal joints by the first and/or second actuators. A robotic hand having the above robot is also disclosed, as is a robotic system having a torso, arm, and the above-described hand.

  12. [Some criminological and psychopathologic reflexions about serial crimes].

    PubMed

    Romi, Juan Carlos

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the concept of serial crime, including murder as well as any action for the purpose of inflicting bodily harm upon any person. It characterizes three types of multi-murderers: serial killers, mass murderers, and spree killers. These offenders often have a specific (ritual) behavior that is idiosyncratic and repeated on each crime, which allows the psychological profiling of the murderer. Examples, a psychopathological background, and a description of both their criminal behavior and dynamics are provided for each of these criminals. They are further classified according to their different motivations: psychotic, prophetic or enlightened, pleasure, secondary or pecuniary profits, power or control. Finally, the author shares his personal experience over 20 years in the assessment of sexual offenders.

  13. Molluscan engrailed expression, serial organization, and shell evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, D. K.; Wray, C. G.; Wedeen, C. J.; Kostriken, R.; DeSalle, R.; Staton, J. L.; Gates, R. D.; Lindberg, D. R.

    2000-01-01

    Whether the serial features found in some molluscs are ancestral or derived is considered controversial. Here, in situ hybridization and antibody studies show iterated engrailed-gene expression in transverse rows of ectodermal cells bounding plate field development and spicule formation in the chiton, Lepidochitona cavema, as well as in cells surrounding the valves and in the early development of the shell hinge in the clam, Transennella tantilla. Ectodermal expression of engrailed is associated with skeletogenesis across a range of bilaterian phyla, suggesting a single evolutionary origin of invertebrate skeletons. The shared ancestry of bilaterian-invertebrate skeletons may help explain the sudden appearance of shelly fossils in the Cambrian. Our interpretation departs from the consideration of canonical metameres or segments as units of evolutionary analysis. In this interpretation, the shared ancestry of engrailed-gene function in the terminal/posterior addition of serially repeated elements during development explains the iterative expression of engrailed genes in a range of metazoan body plans.

  14. Jacob--the case of a serial killer.

    PubMed

    Kallian, M; Bar-el, Y C; Durst, R; Witztum, E

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a rare forensic psychiatric syndrome which has been the subject of massive publicity in the last decade. Despite the widespread interest, the psychodynamic process whereby a person becomes a serial murderer remains largely unknown. "Jacob" was convicted of a series of murders that he carried out over a decade. The case material is based on the psychiatric reports that were presented to the court and the many articles published in the local press at the time. Despite the limitations imposed by the material, the available information on "Jacob" bears some similarity to the phenomenological and psychodynamic models described in the literature. An attempt is made to understand the transformation of a person into a serial killer considering the life events, psychopathology and stressors that lead to the emergence from the world of imagination and fantasy of a potential murderer to the deeds that comprise the syndrome.

  15. Insect morphological diversification through the modification of wing serial homologs.

    PubMed

    Ohde, Takahiro; Yaginuma, Toshinobu; Niimi, Teruyuki

    2013-04-26

    Fossil insects living some 300 million years ago show winglike pads on all thoracic and abdominal segments, which suggests their serial homology. It remains unclear whether winglike structures in nonwinged segments have been lost or modified through evolution. Here, we identified a ventral lateral part of the body wall on the first thoracic segment, the hypomeron, and pupal dorsolateral denticular outgrowths as wing serial homologs in the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor. Both domains transform into winglike structures under Hox RNA interference conditions. Gene expression and functional analyses revealed central roles for the key wing selector genes, vestigial and scalloped, in the hypomeron and the denticular outgrowth formation. We propose that modification, rather than loss, of dorsal appendages has provided an additional diversifying mechanism of insect body plan.

  16. Lipidic cubic phase serial millisecond crystallography using synchrotron radiation

    PubMed Central

    Nogly, Przemyslaw; James, Daniel; Wang, Dingjie; White, Thomas A.; Zatsepin, Nadia; Shilova, Anastasya; Nelson, Garrett; Liu, Haiguang; Johansson, Linda; Heymann, Michael; Jaeger, Kathrin; Metz, Markus; Wickstrand, Cecilia; Wu, Wenting; Båth, Petra; Berntsen, Peter; Oberthuer, Dominik; Panneels, Valerie; Cherezov, Vadim; Chapman, Henry; Schertler, Gebhard; Neutze, Richard; Spence, John; Moraes, Isabel; Burghammer, Manfred; Standfuss, Joerg; Weierstall, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Lipidic cubic phases (LCPs) have emerged as successful matrixes for the crystallization of membrane proteins. Moreover, the viscous LCP also provides a highly effective delivery medium for serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) at X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs). Here, the adaptation of this technology to perform serial millisecond crystallography (SMX) at more widely available synchrotron microfocus beamlines is described. Compared with conventional microcrystallography, LCP-SMX eliminates the need for difficult handling of individual crystals and allows for data collection at room temperature. The technology is demonstrated by solving a structure of the light-driven proton-pump bacteriorhodopsin (bR) at a resolution of 2.4 Å. The room-temperature structure of bR is very similar to previous cryogenic structures but shows small yet distinct differences in the retinal ligand and proton-transfer pathway. PMID:25866654

  17. Fast word reading in pure alexia: "fast, yet serial".

    PubMed

    Bormann, Tobias; Wolfer, Sascha; Hachmann, Wibke; Neubauer, Claudia; Konieczny, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Pure alexia is a severe impairment of word reading in which individuals process letters serially with a pronounced length effect. Yet, there is considerable variation in the performance of alexic readers with generally very slow, but also occasionally fast responses, an observation addressed rarely in previous reports. It has been suggested that "fast" responses in pure alexia reflect residual parallel letter processing or that they may even be subserved by an independent reading system. Four experiments assessed fast and slow reading in a participant (DN) with pure alexia. Two behavioral experiments investigated frequency, neighborhood, and length effects in forced fast reading. Two further experiments measured eye movements when DN was forced to read quickly, or could respond faster because words were easier to process. Taken together, there was little support for the proposal that "qualitatively different" mechanisms or reading strategies underlie both types of responses in DN. Instead, fast responses are argued to be generated by the same serial-reading strategy.

  18. Serial thyroid iodine content in hyperthyroid patients treated with radioiodine

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, G.S.; Sandler, M.P.; Patton, J.A.; Brill, A.B.

    1986-02-01

    X-ray fluorescent scanning was used to measure initial thyroidal iodine content in 64 patients diagnosed as being hyperthyroid and selected for I-131 therapy, and serially in 48 of these patients after therapy in an attempt to determine those patients that were at high risk of becoming hypothyroid. Iodine content fell rapidly after therapy, reaching a nadir at about three months. Based on the population studied, the chance of early hypothyroidism (within 12 months) is about 80% if the iodine content measured at three months is less than 2 mg. If the iodine content is greater than 2 mg, the chance is only about 14%. The serial measurement of thyroidal iodine content (with x-ray fluorescent scanning) may allow early identification of those patients at high risk of developing permanent hypothyroidism following a therapeutic dose of I-131.

  19. Dilute Surfactant Methods for Carbonate Formations

    SciTech Connect

    Kishore K. Mohanty

    2006-02-01

    There are many fractured carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). The process of using dilute anionic surfactants in alkaline solutions has been investigated in this work for oil recovery from fractured oil-wet carbonate reservoirs both experimentally and numerically. This process is a surfactant-aided gravity drainage where surfactant diffuses into the matrix, lowers IFT and contact angle, which decrease capillary pressure and increase oil relative permeability enabling gravity to drain the oil up. Anionic surfactants have been identified which at dilute concentration of 0.05 wt% and optimal salinity can lower the interfacial tension and change the wettability of the calcite surface to intermediate/water-wet condition as well or better than the cationic surfactant DTAB with a West Texas crude oil. The force of adhesion in AFM of oil-wet regions changes after anionic surfactant treatment to values similar to those of water-wet regions. The AFM topography images showed that the oil-wetting material was removed from the surface by the anionic surfactant treatment. Adsorption studies indicate that the extent of adsorption for anionic surfactants on calcite minerals decreases with increase in pH and with decrease in salinity. Surfactant adsorption can be minimized in the presence of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. Laboratory-scale surfactant brine imbibition experiments give high oil recovery (20-42% OOIP in 50 days; up to 60% in 200 days) for initially oil-wet cores through wettability alteration and IFT reduction. Small (<10%) initial gas saturation does not affect significantly the rate of oil recovery in the imbibition process, but larger gas saturation decreases the oil recovery rate. As the core permeability decreases, the rate of oil recovery reduces

  20. Oil-free hyaluronic acid matrix for serial femtosecond crystallography

    PubMed Central

    Sugahara, Michihiro; Song, Changyong; Suzuki, Mamoru; Masuda, Tetsuya; Inoue, Shigeyuki; Nakane, Takanori; Yumoto, Fumiaki; Nango, Eriko; Tanaka, Rie; Tono, Kensuke; Joti, Yasumasa; Kameshima, Takashi; Hatsui, Takaki; Yabashi, Makina; Nureki, Osamu; Numata, Keiji; Iwata, So

    2016-01-01

    The grease matrix was originally introduced as a microcrystal-carrier for serial femtosecond crystallography and has been expanded to applications for various types of proteins, including membrane proteins. However, the grease-based matrix has limited application for oil-sensitive proteins. Here we introduce a grease-free, water-based hyaluronic acid matrix. Applications for proteinase K and lysozyme proteins were able to produce electron density maps at 2.3-Å resolution. PMID:27087008

  1. Two Serial Data to Pulse Code Modulation System Interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamory, Phil

    2006-01-01

    Two pulse code modulation (PCM) system interfaces for asynchronous serial data are described. One interface is for global positioning system (GPS) data on the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) F-15B (McDonnell Douglas Corporation, St. Louis, Missouri) airplane, tail number 836 (F-15B/836). The other is for flight control computer data on the duPont Aerospace (La Jolla, California) DP-1, a 53-percent scale model of the duPont Aerospace DP-2.

  2. Oil-free hyaluronic acid matrix for serial femtosecond crystallography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugahara, Michihiro; Song, Changyong; Suzuki, Mamoru; Masuda, Tetsuya; Inoue, Shigeyuki; Nakane, Takanori; Yumoto, Fumiaki; Nango, Eriko; Tanaka, Rie; Tono, Kensuke; Joti, Yasumasa; Kameshima, Takashi; Hatsui, Takaki; Yabashi, Makina; Nureki, Osamu; Numata, Keiji; Iwata, So

    2016-04-01

    The grease matrix was originally introduced as a microcrystal-carrier for serial femtosecond crystallography and has been expanded to applications for various types of proteins, including membrane proteins. However, the grease-based matrix has limited application for oil-sensitive proteins. Here we introduce a grease-free, water-based hyaluronic acid matrix. Applications for proteinase K and lysozyme proteins were able to produce electron density maps at 2.3-Å resolution.

  3. A nonparametric trend test for seasonal data with serial dependence.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hirsch, R.M.; Slack, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    Statistical tests for monotonic trend in seasonal (eg monthly) hydrologic time series are commonly confounded by some of the following problems: nonnormal data, missing values, seasonality, censoring and serial dependence. An extension of the Mann-Kendall test for trend (designed for such data) is presented here. Because the test is based entirely on tanks, it is robust against nonnormality and censoring.-from Authors

  4. A GaAs Based Digital Serial Communications System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-25

    TASK Student, HQDA, MILPERCEN (DAPC-OPA-E), AREA & WORK UNIT NUMBERS *200 Stovall Street, Alexandria, Virginia 22332 II. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME...MONITORING AGENCY NAME & ADDRESS(f different from Controlling Office) 15. SECURITY CLASS. (of this report) NOT CLASSIFIED Sa. DECL ASSI FICATION/DOWN...shift register with sixteen parallel lines and one serial line. In this system, the shift register is sequenced by a 4-bit controller through 16 states

  5. Which serial killers commit suicide? An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Lester, David; White, John

    2012-11-30

    In a sample of 483 serial killers, 6.2% were documented to have committed suicide. Those who committed suicide were found to come from more dysfunctional homes characterized by more psychiatric disturbance in the parents. The sexual acts involved in the murders by the suicides seemed to be more deviant in some aspects, such as committing more bizarre sexual acts or more often taping the murder.

  6. Development of a real-time PCR for Bartonella spp. detection, a current emerging microorganism.

    PubMed

    Parra, Elena; Segura, Ferran; Tijero, Jessica; Pons, Imma; Nogueras, Maria-Mercedes

    2017-04-01

    A real-time PCR assay using SYBR Green was optimized to detect those Bartonella that are most frequently described as pathogens. The assay was genus-specific. Sequencing allowed to distinguish species. Assay sensitivity was determined using 10-fold serial dilutions of genomic DNA. Dynamic range was 100 ng-100 fg and sensitivity was 50 copies/reaction.

  7. Phytoplankton growth and microzooplankton grazing dynamics across vertical environmental gradients determined by transplant in situ dilution experiments.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, Andrés; Selph, Karen E; Landry, Michael R

    2016-03-01

    The Costa Rica Dome (CRD) represents a classic case of the bloom-forming capacity of small phytoplankton. Unlike other upwelling systems, autotrophic biomass in the CRD is dominated by picocyanobacteria and small eukaryotes that outcompete larger diatoms and reach extremely high biomass levels. We investigated responses of the subsurface phytoplankton community of the CRD to changes associated with vertical displacement of water masses, coupling in situ transplanted dilution experiments with flow cytometry and epifluorescence microscopy to assess group-specific dynamics. Growth rates of Synechococcus (SYN) and photosynthetic picoeukaryotes (PEUK) were positively correlated with light (Rpearson_SYN = 0.602 and Rpearson_PEUK = 0.588, P < 0.001). Growth rates of Prochlorococcus (PRO), likely affected by photoinhibition, were not light correlated (Rpearson_PRO = 0.101, P = 0.601). Overall, grazing and growth rates were closely coupled in all picophytoplankton groups (Rspearman_PRO = 0.572, Rspearman_SYN = 0.588, Rspearman_PEUK = 0.624), and net growth rates remained close to zero. Conversely, the abundance and biomass of larger phytoplankton, mainly diatoms, increased more than 10-fold in shallower transplant incubations indicating that, in addition to trace-metal chemistry, light also plays a significant role in controlling microphytoplankton populations in the CRD.

  8. Phytoplankton growth and microzooplankton grazing dynamics across vertical environmental gradients determined by transplant in situ dilution experiments

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, Andrés; Selph, Karen E.; Landry, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    The Costa Rica Dome (CRD) represents a classic case of the bloom-forming capacity of small phytoplankton. Unlike other upwelling systems, autotrophic biomass in the CRD is dominated by picocyanobacteria and small eukaryotes that outcompete larger diatoms and reach extremely high biomass levels. We investigated responses of the subsurface phytoplankton community of the CRD to changes associated with vertical displacement of water masses, coupling in situ transplanted dilution experiments with flow cytometry and epifluorescence microscopy to assess group-specific dynamics. Growth rates of Synechococcus (SYN) and photosynthetic picoeukaryotes (PEUK) were positively correlated with light (Rpearson_SYN = 0.602 and Rpearson_PEUK = 0.588, P < 0.001). Growth rates of Prochlorococcus (PRO), likely affected by photoinhibition, were not light correlated (Rpearson_PRO = 0.101, P = 0.601). Overall, grazing and growth rates were closely coupled in all picophytoplankton groups (Rspearman_PRO = 0.572, Rspearman_SYN = 0.588, Rspearman_PEUK = 0.624), and net growth rates remained close to zero. Conversely, the abundance and biomass of larger phytoplankton, mainly diatoms, increased more than 10-fold in shallower transplant incubations indicating that, in addition to trace-metal chemistry, light also plays a significant role in controlling microphytoplankton populations in the CRD. PMID:27275030

  9. Ultrasound-guided serial transabdominal cardiac biopsies in cats.

    PubMed

    van Essen, Vivian J; Uilenreef, Joost J; Szatmári, Viktor; Veldhuis Kroeze, Edwin J B; Kuiper, Raoul V; Rothuizen, Jan; de Bruin, Alain

    2012-03-01

    A percutaneous/transdiaphragmatic core needle biopsy technique was developed in cats to obtain serial biopsies from different locations of the left ventricle, through which morphological and molecular changes within the same individual can be studied to unravel the mechanisms of feline cardiomyopathies. Transmural left ventricular myocardial samples were obtained from 29 anesthetized, healthy, adult cats with ultrasound guidance. An 18G automatic biopsy needle was inserted between the last left rib and the sternum through the diaphragm into the thorax. Biopsies were obtained from the left ventricular wall. In five cats, three single biopsies were taken with 4-week intervals. Autopsy was performed on six cats, of which three cats had serial biopsies. In total, 87 biopsies were obtained without long-term effects on cardiac function or structure. The biopsies caused transient single ventricular premature complexes and mild pericardial effusion without tamponade. Necropsy revealed a minimal amount of fibrous connective tissue in the diaphragm and the heart without any significant microscopic lesions in the adjacent muscle tissue. The high quality biopsy material was suitable for morphological and molecular studies. This minimally invasive, ultrasound-guided cardiac biopsy technique thus allows for the safe collection of serial biopsies to study feline cardiomyopathies in an experimental setting.

  10. Efficient multitasking: parallel versus serial processing of multiple tasks.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Rico; Plessow, Franziska

    2015-01-01

    In the context of performance optimizations in multitasking, a central debate has unfolded in multitasking research around whether cognitive processes related to different tasks proceed only sequentially (one at a time), or can operate in parallel (simultaneously). This review features a discussion of theoretical considerations and empirical evidence regarding parallel versus serial task processing in multitasking. In addition, we highlight how methodological differences and theoretical conceptions determine the extent to which parallel processing in multitasking can be detected, to guide their employment in future research. Parallel and serial processing of multiple tasks are not mutually exclusive. Therefore, questions focusing exclusively on either task-processing mode are too simplified. We review empirical evidence and demonstrate that shifting between more parallel and more serial task processing critically depends on the conditions under which multiple tasks are performed. We conclude that efficient multitasking is reflected by the ability of individuals to adjust multitasking performance to environmental demands by flexibly shifting between different processing strategies of multiple task-component scheduling.

  11. Learning to recognize face shapes through serial exploration.

    PubMed

    Wallraven, Christian; Whittingstall, Lisa; Bülthoff, Heinrich H

    2013-05-01

    Human observers are experts at visual face recognition due to specialized visual mechanisms for face processing that evolve with perceptual expertize. Such expertize has long been attributed to the use of configural processing, enabled by fast, parallel information encoding of the visual information in the face. Here we tested whether participants can learn to efficiently recognize faces that are serially encoded-that is, when only partial visual information about the face is available at any given time. For this, ten participants were trained in gaze-restricted face recognition in which face masks were viewed through a small aperture controlled by the participant. Tests comparing trained with untrained performance revealed (1) a marked improvement in terms of speed and accuracy, (2) a gradual development of configural processing strategies, and (3) participants' ability to rapidly learn and accurately recognize novel exemplars. This performance pattern demonstrates that participants were able to learn new strategies to compensate for the serial nature of information encoding. The results are discussed in terms of expertize acquisition and relevance for other sensory modalities relying on serial encoding.

  12. Cognitive, emotional and social markers of serial murdering.

    PubMed

    Angrilli, Alessandro; Sartori, Giuseppe; Donzella, Giovanna

    2013-01-01

    Although criminal psychopathy is starting to be relatively well described, our knowledge of the characteristics and scientific markers of serial murdering is still very poor. A serial killer who murdered more than five people, KT, was administered a battery of standardized tests aimed at measuring neuropsychological impairment and social/emotional cognition deficits. KT exhibited a striking dissociation between a high level of emotional detachment and a low score on the antisocial behavior scale on the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 showed a normal pattern with the psychotic triad at borderline level. KT had a high intelligence score and showed almost no impairment in cognitive tests sensitive to frontal lobe dysfunction (Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Theory of Mind, Tower of London, this latter evidenced a mild impairment in planning performance). In the tests on moral, emotional and social cognition, his patterns of response differed from matched controls and from past reports on criminal psychopaths as, unlike these individuals, KT exhibited normal recognition of fear and a relatively intact knowledge of moral rules but he was impaired in the recognition of anger, embarrassment and conventional social rules. The overall picture of KT suggests that serial killing may be closer to normality than psychopathy defined according to either the DSM IV or the PCL-R, and it would be characterized by a relatively spared moral cognition and selective deficits in social and emotional cognition domains.

  13. Serial pixel analog-to-digital converter (ADC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Eric D.

    2010-02-01

    This method reduces the data path from the counter to the pixel register of the analog-to-digital converter (ADC) from as many as 10 bits to a single bit. The reduction in data path width is accomplished by using a coded serial data stream similar to a pseudo random number (PRN) generator. The resulting encoded pixel data is then decoded into a standard hexadecimal format before storage. The high-speed serial pixel ADC concept is based on the single-slope integrating pixel ADC architecture. Previous work has described a massively parallel pixel readout of a similar architecture. The serial ADC connection is similar to the state-of-the art method with the exception that the pixel ADC register is a shift register and the data path is a single bit. A state-of-the-art individual-pixel ADC uses a single-slope charge integration converter architecture with integral registers and "one-hot" counters. This implies that parallel data bits are routed among the counter and the individual on-chip pixel ADC registers. The data path bit-width to the pixel is therefore equivalent to the pixel ADC bit resolution.

  14. DDCMP protocol on a DMA serial-line board

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, D.N.; Kessler, G.C.

    1982-01-01

    The Nuclear Chemistry Division of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is in the midst of an upgrade to their radiation counting facility. The result of this upgrade wil be a computer-based data acquisition network, the Nuclear Chemistry Counting Facility Network (NCCF-NET). This network will consist of forty dedicated LSI-11/2 based controllers, ten interactive LSI-11/23 based workstations and a VAX-11/750 central node for data reduction and storage. One of the data acquisition instruments used in this network is a Nuclear Data pulse-height analyzer, the ND66L. This analyzer communicates to a host system over a 9600-baud serial line, using the DDCMP link level protocol. In order to relieve the host computer from the overhead of handling the DDCMP protocol, an in-house designed DMA serial line board was implemented to communicate with the ND66L. The hardware used and its environment will be duscussed along with the design and implementation of the firmware, which implements the serial DDCMP link.

  15. Serial extraction: 20 years of follow-up

    PubMed Central

    de ALMEIDA, Renato Rodrigues; de ALMEIDA, Marcio Rodrigues; OLTRAMARI-NAVARRO, Paula Vanessa Pedron; CONTI, Ana Cláudia de Castro Ferreira; NAVARRO, Ricardo de Lima; de SOUZA, Karen Regina Siqueira

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports a case treated by a serial extraction program at the mixed dentition stage followed by a corrective orthodontic treatment, with a long-term follow-up period. Twenty years after the interceptive treatment, a harmonious face was observed along with treatment stability in the anterior posterior direction, deep overbite (which has been mentioned as a disadvantage of the serial extraction program), and a small relapse of anterior tooth crowding. All these conditions have been regarded as normal occurrences for most orthodontic treatments with a long-term follow-up period. This case report demonstrated that the establishment of a serial extraction protocol determined relevant esthetic changes that afforded an improvement of the patient's self-esteem, with a positive social impact. Furthermore, the low cost of this protocol permits the use of this therapy with underprivileged populations. It is important to emphasize that an early correction of tooth crowding by this protocol does not guarantee stability, but small relapses do not invalidate its accomplishment. PMID:23032213

  16. Applying social learning theory to childhood and adolescent firesetting: can it lead to serial murder?

    PubMed

    Singer, Stephen D; Hensley, Christopher

    2004-08-01

    Despite the fact that serial murder has existed for centuries, it has been given little academic attention in the social science literature. Existing studies have primarily examined the motivational factors involved in the commission of serial murder. However, research examining the childhood and adolescent backgrounds of serial murderers is scant. Based on three case studies of serial murderers, this study contributes to the existing literature by exploring the possible link between childhood and/or adolescent fire setting and adult serial murder by applying social learning theory.

  17. Decomposition of dilute trichloroethylene by nonthermal plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Oda, Tetsuji; Takahashi, Tadashi; Tada, Keiko

    1999-03-01

    Decomposition performance of a dilute toxic organic compound, trichloroethylene (TCE), in air by using nonthermal plasma processing was studied extensively. The nonthermal plasma was generated by the high-frequency (2 kHz) or commercial-frequency (50 Hz) barrier discharge in a fused silica tube. Three types of reactors, bolt type, rod type (both are barrier-discharge type), and coil type (surface-discharge type), were tested. Analysis of byproducts, residual materials, and end products generated by the plasma process was performed by a gas chromatography mass spectrometer of gas chromatography. Most organic byproducts decrease with an increase of the electric discharge power, but only toxic phosgene increases with the increase of the discharge power. As a post process, NaOH solution was used to test effluent from the plasma reactor. The solution was found effective in phosgene absorption. Comparison between nonthermal plasma and UV irradiation for TCE decomposition was also made. In regard to the energy efficiency of the TCE decomposition, UV irradiation is found much better than discharge plasma.

  18. Chain Dynamics in a Dilute Magnetorheological Fluid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Jing; Hagenbuchle, Martin

    1996-01-01

    The structure, formation, and dynamics of dilute, mono-dispersive ferrofluid emulsions in an external magnetic field have been investigated using dynamic light scattering techniques. In the absence of the magnetic field, the emulsion particles are randomly distributed and behave like hard spheres in Brownian motion. An applied magnetic field induces a magnetic dipole moment in each particle. Dipolar interactions between particles align them into chains where correlation functions show two decay processes. The short-time decay shows the motion of straight chains as a whole where the apparent chain length increases with the applied magnetic field and the particle volume fraction. Good scaling results are obtained showing that the apparent chain length grows with time following a power law with exponent of 0.6 and depends on the applied field, particle volume fraction, and diffusion constant of the particles. The long-time decay in the correlation function shows oscillation when the chains reach a certain length with time and stiffness with threshold field This result shows that chains not only fluctuate, but move in a periodic motion with a frequency of 364 Hz at lambda = 15. It may suggest the existence of phonons. This work is the first step in the understanding of the structure formation, especially chain coarsening mechanism, of magnetorheological (MR) fluids at higher volume fractions.

  19. DILUTE SURFACTANT METHODS FOR CARBONATE FORMATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kishore K. Mohanty

    2004-10-01

    There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the only hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. Simulation studies indicate that both wettability alteration and gravity-driven flow play significant role in oil recovery from fractured carbonates. Anionic surfactants (Alfoterra 35, 38) recover about 55% of the oil in about 150 days by imbibition driven by wettability alteration and low tension in the core-scale. Anionic surfactant, Alfoterra-68, recovers about 40% of the oil by lower tension aided gravity-driven imbibition in the core-scale. Cationic surfactant, DTAB recovers about 35% of the oil. Plans for the next quarter include conducting simulation and imbibition studies.

  20. DILUTE SURFACTANT METHODS FOR CARBONATE FORMATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kishore K. Mohanty

    2003-07-01

    There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the only hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. We have conducted adsorption, phase behavior, interfacial tension (IFT) and wettability studies. Addition of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} decreases IFT with a minimum at about 0.2 M. Addition of surfactant decreases IFT further. In the absence of surfactant the minerals are oil-wet after aging with crude oil. Addition of surfactant solution decreases the contact angle to intermediate-wet for many surfactants and water-wet for one surfactant. Addition of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} decreases anionic surfactant adsorption on calcite surface. Plans for the next quarter include conducting core adsorption, phase behavior, wettability and mobilization studies.

  1. Dilute Surfactant Methods for Carbonate Formations

    SciTech Connect

    Kishore K. Mohanty

    2005-10-01

    There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the best hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. Laboratory-scale surfactant brine imbibition experiments give high oil recovery (35-62% OOIP) for initially oil-wet cores through wettability alteration and IFT reduction. Core-scale simulation results match those of the experiments. Initial capillarity-driven imbibition gives way to a final gravity-driven process. As the matrix block height increases, surfactant alters wettability to a lesser degree, or permeability decreases, oil production rate decreases. The scale-up to field scale will be further studied in the next quarter.

  2. DILUTE SURFACTANT METHODS FOR CARBONATE FORMATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kishore K. Mohanty

    2003-10-01

    There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the only hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. We have conducted adsorption, phase behavior, interfacial tension (IFT) and wettability studies. Alfoterra-38 (0.05 wt%), Alfoterra-35 (0.05 wt%), SS-6656 (0.05 wt%), and DTAB (1 wt%) altered the wettability of the initially oil-wet calcite plate to an intermediate/water-wet state. Low IFT ({approx}10{sup -3} dynes/cm) is obtained with surfactants 5-166, Alfoterra-33 and Alfoterra-38. Plans for the next quarter include conducting wettability and mobilization studies.

  3. DILUTE SURFACTANT METHODS FOR CARBONATE FORMATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kishore K. Mohanty

    2005-01-01

    There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the only hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. Imbibition in an originally oil-wet 2D capillary is the fastest in the case of Alf-38 and slowest in the case of DTAB (among the surfactants studied). Force of adhesion studies and contact angle measurements show that greater wettability alteration is possible with these anionic surfactants than the cationic surfactant studied. The water imbibition rate does not increase monotonically with an increase in the surfactant concentration. A numerical model has been developed that fits the rate of imbibition. Plans for the next quarter include conducting simulation and imbibition studies.

  4. DILUTE SURFACTANT METHODS FOR CARBONATE FORMATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kishore K. Mohanty

    2005-04-01

    There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the only hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. Laboratory imbibition tests show about 61% oil recovery in the case of Alf-38 and 37% in the case of DTAB. A numerical model has been developed that fits the rate of imbibition of the laboratory experiment. Field-scale fracture block simulation shows that as the fracture spacing increases, so does the time of recovery. Plans for the next quarter include simulation studies.

  5. Dilute Surfactant Methods for Carbonate Formations

    SciTech Connect

    Kishore K. Mohanty

    2004-03-31

    There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the only hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. Anionic surfactants (Alfoterra 35, 38) recover more than 40% of the oil in about 50 days by imbibition driven by wettability alteration in the core-scale. Anionic surfactant, Alfoterra-68, recovers about 28% of the oil by lower tension aided gravity-driven imbibition in the core-scale. Residual oil saturation showed little capillary number dependence between 10{sup -5} and 10{sup -2}. Wettability alteration increases as the number of ethoxy groups increases in ethoxy sulfate surfactants. Plans for the next quarter include conducting mobilization, and imbibition studies.

  6. DILUTE SURFACTANT METHODS FOR CARBONATE FORMATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kishore K. Mohanty

    2003-07-01

    There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the only hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. We have conducted adsorption, phase behavior and wettability studies. Addition of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} decreases IFT with a minimum at about 0.2 M. Addition of surfactant decreases IFT further. In the absence of surfactant the minerals are oil wet after aging with crude oil. Addition of surfactant solution decreases the contact angle to intermediate wettability. Addition of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} decreases anionic surfactant adsorption on calcite surface. Plans for the next quarter include conducting adsorption, phase behavior and wettability studies.

  7. DILUTE SURFACTANT METHODS FOR CARBONATE FORMATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kishore K. Mohanty

    2003-01-01

    There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the only hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. We have acquired field oil and core samples and field brine compositions from Marathon. We have conducted preliminary adsorption and wettability studies. Addition of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} decreases anionic surfactant adsorption on calcite surface. Receding contact angles increase with surfactant adsorption. Plans for the next quarter include conducting adsorption, phase behavior and wettability studies.

  8. Dilute ferromagnetic semiconductors: Physics and spintronic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietl, Tomasz; Ohno, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    This review compiles results of experimental and theoretical studies on thin films and quantum structures of semiconductors with randomly distributed Mn ions, which exhibit spintronic functionalities associated with collective ferromagnetic spin ordering. Properties of p-type Mn-containing III-V as well as II-VI, IV-VI, V2-VI3, I-II-V, and elemental group IV semiconductors are described, paying particular attention to the most thoroughly investigated system (Ga,Mn)As that supports the hole-mediated ferromagnetic order up to 190 K for the net concentration of Mn spins below 10%. Multilayer structures showing efficient spin injection and spin-related magnetotransport properties as well as enabling magnetization manipulation by strain, light, electric fields, and spin currents are presented together with their impact on metal spintronics. The challenging interplay between magnetic and electronic properties in topologically trivial and nontrivial systems is described, emphasizing the entangled roles of disorder and correlation at the carrier localization boundary. Finally, the case of dilute magnetic insulators is considered, such as (Ga,Mn)N, where low-temperature spin ordering is driven by short-ranged superexchange that is ferromagnetic for certain charge states of magnetic impurities.

  9. DILUTE SURFACTANT METHODS FOR CARBONATE FORMATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kishore K. Mohanty

    2005-07-01

    There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the only hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. Laboratory imbibition tests show that imbibition rate is not very sensitive to the surfactant concentration (in the range of 0.05-0.2 wt%) and small amounts of trapped gas saturation. It is however very sensitive to oil permeability and water-oil-ratio. Less than 0.5 M Na2CO3 is needed for in situ soap generation and low adsorption; NaCl can be added to reach the necessary total salinity. The simulation result matches the laboratory imbibition experimental data. Small fracture spacing and high permeability would be needed for high rate of recovery.

  10. DILUTE SURFACTANT METHODS FOR CARBONATE FORMATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kishore K. Mohanty

    2004-01-01

    There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the only hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. Anionic surfactants (SS-6656, Alfoterra 35, 38, 63,65,68) have been identified which can change the wettability of the calcite surface to intermediate/water-wet condition as well or better than the cationic surfactant DTAB with a West Texas crude oil in the presence of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. All the carbonate surfaces (Lithographic Limestone, Marble, Dolomite and Calcite) show similar behavior with respect to wettability alteration with surfactant 4-22. Anionic surfactants (5-166, Alfoterra-33 and Alfoterra-38 and Alfoterra-68), which lower the interfacial tension with a West Texas crude oil to very low values (<10{sup -2} nM/m), have also been identified. Plans for the next quarter include conducting wettability, mobilization, and imbibition studies.

  11. Ultrafast photonic interfaces for storage networking using serial-to-parallel and parallel-to-serial conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Ryo; Nakahara, Tatsushi; Takenouchi, Hirokazu; Takahata, Kiyoto; Yasui, Takako; Kondo, Naoto; Yumoto, Junji

    2003-09-01

    We propose novel ultrafast photonic interfaces for use in storage networking based on all-optical serial-to-parallel and photonic parallel-to-serial conversion. We confirm their operation with 40-Gbit/s 16-bit optical data using compact modules and a potential bandwidth of over 100 Gbit/s. We realize a photonic random access memory (RAM) by sandwiching a CMOS RAM with these two interfaces and achieve the storage and read-out of 40-Gbit/s 16-bit optical data. We also discuss the advantages of the interfaces and their possible applications to storage networking such as the real-time remote back-up of huge quantities of data, disaster recovery and video communication systems.

  12. Highly Reliable, High-Speed, Unidirectional Serial Data Links

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Robert M.; Bishop, Jamie

    2005-01-01

    Highly reliable, high-speed, unidirectional serial data-communication subsystems have been proposed to be installed in an upgrade of the computing systems aboard the space shuttles. The basic design concept of these serial data links is also adaptable to terrestrial use in applications in which there are requirements for highly reliable serial data communications. The hardware and software aspects of the architecture of the data links are dictated largely by a requirement, in the original space-shuttle application, for one computer to monitor the memory transactions and memory contents of other computers in real time with high reliability and without reliance on requests for retransmission. To minimize weight while affording a capability to transfer data at a required rate of 2.56 x 10(exp 8) bits per second, it was decided that the links would be serial ones of the fiber-channel type. [Fiber channel denotes a type of serial computer bus that is used to connect a computer (usually a supercomputer) with a high-speed data storage device. Depending on the specific application, the physical connection between the transmitter and receiver could be made via an optical fiber or a twisted pair of wires.] Heretofore, fiber-channel links have ordinarily been bidirectional and have operated under protocols that provide for receiving stations to detect errors and request retransmission when necessary. In the present case, the time taken by processing to request retransmission would conflict with the requirement for real-time transfer of data. To ensure reliability without retransmission, a link according to the proposal would utilize a modified version of the normal fiberchannel character set in conjunction with forward error correction by means of a Reed-Solomon code (see figure). The Reed-Solomon encoding and decoding and the translations between the normal and modified character sets would be effected by logic circuitry external to the fiber-channel transmitter and receiver

  13. 21 CFR 864.5240 - Automated blood cell diluting apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Automated blood cell diluting apparatus. 864.5240 Section 864.5240 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... § 864.5240 Automated blood cell diluting apparatus. (a) Identification. An automated blood cell...

  14. 21 CFR 864.5240 - Automated blood cell diluting apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Automated blood cell diluting apparatus. 864.5240 Section 864.5240 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... § 864.5240 Automated blood cell diluting apparatus. (a) Identification. An automated blood cell...

  15. 21 CFR 864.5240 - Automated blood cell diluting apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Automated blood cell diluting apparatus. 864.5240 Section 864.5240 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... § 864.5240 Automated blood cell diluting apparatus. (a) Identification. An automated blood cell...

  16. 40 CFR 1065.667 - Dilution air background emission correction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.667 Dilution air background emission correction. (a) To determine the mass of background emissions to subtract... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dilution air background...

  17. 40 CFR 1065.667 - Dilution air background emission correction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.667 Dilution air background emission correction. (a) To determine the mass of background emissions to subtract... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dilution air background...

  18. 40 CFR 1065.667 - Dilution air background emission correction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.667 Dilution air background emission correction. (a) To determine the mass of background emissions to subtract... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dilution air background...

  19. 40 CFR 1065.667 - Dilution air background emission correction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.667 Dilution air background emission correction. (a) To determine the mass of background emissions to subtract... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dilution air background...

  20. 40 CFR 1065.667 - Dilution air background emission correction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.667 Dilution air background emission correction. (a) To determine the mass of background emissions to subtract... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dilution air background...

  1. 21 CFR 864.5240 - Automated blood cell diluting apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automated blood cell diluting apparatus. 864.5240 Section 864.5240 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... § 864.5240 Automated blood cell diluting apparatus. (a) Identification. An automated blood cell...

  2. 21 CFR 864.5240 - Automated blood cell diluting apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Automated blood cell diluting apparatus. 864.5240 Section 864.5240 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... § 864.5240 Automated blood cell diluting apparatus. (a) Identification. An automated blood cell...

  3. Efficacy comparison between simple mixed-dilution and simple mid-dilution on-line hemodiafiltration techniques: a crossover study.

    PubMed

    Susantitaphong, Paweena; Tiranathanagul, Khajohn; Katavetin, Pisut; Hanwiwatwong, Orawadee; Wittayalertpanya, Supeecha; Praditpornsilpa, Kearkiat; Tungsanga, Kriang; Eiam-Ong, Somchai

    2012-12-01

    Mid-dilution and mixed-dilution on-line hemodiafiltration (OL-HDF) techniques are innovated to overcome the limitations of two standard techniques including predilution and postdilution. Unfortunately, the head-to-head comparisons between these two novel techniques in the same study are still limited. Moreover, the original mid-dilution and mixed-dilution OL-HDF need special dialyzers and special machines. In the present study, simple mid-dilution and simple mixed-dilution OL-HDF were settled with the aim for clinical use in general hemodialysis (HD) centers. The efficacies of uremic toxins removal between both modalities were measured and compared. This prospective randomized crossover study was conducted on 12 stable HD patients undergoing simple mixed-dilution and simple mid-dilution OL-HDF techniques. HD prescriptions were similar in both techniques. The dialysis efficacies were determined by calculating small- (urea, creatinine, and phosphate) and middle-molecule (beta-2 microglobulin [β2M]) removal. Moreover, potential complications such as high transmembrane pressure (TMP) and protein loss were also observed. Simple mixed-dilution OL-HDF provided significantly greater clearances of urea, creatinine, and β2M when compared with the simple mid-dilution OL-HDF techniques. Phosphate clearances in both techniques were comparable. In addition, TMP and dialysate albumin loss were not different. There were no intradialytic complications in both techniques. Simple mixed-dilution OL-HDF could provide greater efficacy for small- and middle-molecule clearances and acceptable potential risks, while phosphate removal is comparable.

  4. Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase 2 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, H.M.; Riley, M.F.; Kobayashi, H.

    2005-09-30

    A novel burner, in which fuel (natural gas) and oxidant (oxygen or air) are separately injected into a furnace, shows promise for achieving very low nitrogen oxide(s) (NOx) emissions for commercial furnace applications. The dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) burner achieves very low NOx through in-furnace dilution of the oxidant stream prior to combustion, resulting in low flame temperatures, thus inhibiting thermal NOx production. The results of a fundamental and applied research effort on the development of the DOC burner are presented. In addition, the results of a market survey detailing the potential commercial impact of the DOC system are disclosed. The fundamental aspects of the burner development project involved examining the flame characteristics of a natural gas turbulent jet in a high-temperature (~1366 K) oxidant (7-27% O2 vol. wet). Specifically, the mass entrainment rate, the flame lift-off height, the velocity field and major species field of the jet were evaluated as a function of surrounding-gas temperature and composition. The measured entrainment rate of the fuel jet decreased with increasing oxygen content in the surrounding high-temperature oxidant, and was well represented by the d+ scaling correlation found in the literature. The measured flame lift-off height decreased with increasing oxygen content and increasing temperature of the surrounding gas. An increase in surrounding-gas oxygen content and/or temperature inhibited the velocity decay within the jet periphery as a function of axial distance as compared to isothermal turbulent jets. However, the velocity measurements were only broadly represented by the d+ scaling correlation. Several DOC burner configurations were tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at a nominal firing rate of 185 kW (~0.63 MMBtu/h). The flue gas composition was recorded as a function of furnace nitrogen content, furnace temperature, burner geometric arrangement, firing rate, and fuel injection velocity. NOx emissions

  5. Dilute oxygen combustion. Phase I report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    A novel burner, in which fuel (natural gas) and oxidant (oxygen or air) are separately injected into a furnace, shows promise for achieving very low nitrogen oxide(s) (NO{sub x}) emissions for commercial furnace applications. The dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) burner achieves very low NO{sub x} through in-furnace dilution of the oxidant stream prior to combustion, resulting in low flame temperatures, thus inhibiting thermal NO{sub x} production. The results of a fundamental and applied research effort on the development of the DOC burner are presented. In addition, the results of a market survey detailing the potential commercial impact of the DOC system are disclosed. The fundamental aspects of the burner development project involved examining the flame characteristics of a natural gas turbulent jet in a high-temperature ({approximately}1366 K) oxidant (7-27% O{sub 2} vol. wet). Specifically, the mass entrainment rate, the flame lift-off height, the velocity field and major species field of the jet were evaluated as a function of surrounding-gas temperature and composition. The measured entrainment rate of the fuel jet decreased with increasing oxygen content in the surrounding high-temperature oxidant, and was well represented by the d{sup +} scaling correlation found in the literature. The measured flame lift-off height decreased with increasing oxygen content and increasing temperature of the surrounding gas. An increase in surrounding-gas oxygen content and/or temperature inhibited the velocity decay within the jet periphery as a function of axial distance as compared to isothermal turbulent jets. However, the velocity measurements were only broadly represented by the d{sup +} scaling correlation. Several DOC burner configurations were tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at a nominal firing rate of 185 kW ({approximately}0.63 MMBtu/h). The flue gas composition was recorded as a function of furnace nitrogen content, furnace temperature, burner geometric

  6. Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase I Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, H.M.; Riley, M.F.; Kobayashi, H.

    1997-10-31

    A novel burner, in which fuel (natural gas) and oxidant (oxygen or air) are separately injected into a furnace, shows promise for achieving very low nitrogen oxide(s) (NOx) emissions for commercial furnace applications. The dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) burner achieves very low NOx through in-furnace dilution of the oxidant stream prior to combustion, resulting in low flame temperatures, thus inhibiting thermal NOx production. The results of a fundamental and applied research effort on the development of the DOC burner are presented. In addition, the results of a market survey detailing the potential commercial impact of the DOC system are disclosed. The fundamental aspects of the burner development project involved examining the flame characteristics of a natural gas turbulent jet in a high-temperature (~1366 K) oxidant (7-27% O2 vol. wet). Specifically, the mass entrainment rate, the flame lift-off height, the velocity field and major species field of the jet were evaluated as a function of surrounding-gas temperature and composition. The measured entrainment rate of the fuel jet decreased with increasing oxygen content in the surrounding high-temperature oxidant, and was well represented by the d+ scaling correlation found in the literature. The measured flame lift-off height decreased with increasing oxygen content and increasing temperature of the surrounding gas. An increase in surrounding-gas oxygen content and/or temperature inhibited the velocity decay within the jet periphery as a function of axial distance as compared to isothermal turbulent jets. However, the velocity measurements were only broadly represented by the d+ scaling correlation. Several DOC burner configurations were tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at a nominal firing rate of 185 kW (~0.63 MMBtu/h). The flue gas composition was recorded as a function of furnace nitrogen content, furnace temperature, burner geometric arrangement, firing rate, and fuel injection velocity. NOx emissions

  7. Dilution of boar ejaculates with BTS containing HEPES in place of bicarbonate immediately after ejaculation can reduce the increased inducibility of the acrosome reaction by treatment with calcium and calcium ionophore A23187, which is potentially associated with boar subfertility.

    PubMed

    Murase, Tetsuma; Imaeda, Noriaki; Yamada, Hiroto; Takasu, Masaki; Taguchi, Kazuo; Katoh, Tsutomu

    2010-06-01

    The present study investigated whether substitution of HEPES for bicarbonate in BTS (BTS-H) used to dilute boar ejaculates immediately after ejaculation could reduce the increased inducibility of the acrosome reaction by calcium and calcium ionophore A23187. When an ejaculate was split, diluted 5-fold with regular BTS (BTS-B) and BTS-H and stored at 17 C for 12 h or 60 h, the extender or storage time had no significant influence on sperm motility or viability measured by the eosin-nigrosin method. When spermatozoa diluted serially with BTS-B and stored (36 h) were stimulated with Ca2+ (3 mM) and A23187 (0.3 microM), the proportion of spermatozoa that underwent the acrosome reaction (% acrosome reactions) significantly increased as the magnifications of dilution increased (bicarbonate content almost unchanged by dilution). By contrast, the % acrosome reactions in spermatozoa similarly diluted and stored with BTS-H decreased with the increasing magnifications of dilution (bicarbonate decreased). Sperm motility immediately after the end of incubation without A23178 tended to be lower for BTS-H than BTS-B, and the ejaculates for BTS-H had a tendency to have a lower total protein in seminal plasma than those for BTS-B. These results implied that the samples for BTS-H could be used as a model for ejaculates possibly collected during summer and showing subfertility. When an ejaculate was split, diluted serially with BTS-B and BTS-H and stored, viability measured by staining with propidium iodide was extremely similar between the 2 extenders and among the different dilution magnifications, regardless of whether spermatozoa were washed (stored for 36-66 h) or not (stored for 66-72 h). These results suggest that boar ejaculate can be stored with BTS-H at least according to the results for sperm motility and viability and that hypersensitivity of spermatozoa to Ca2+ and A23187 potentially associated with boar subfertility could be lessened by diluting ejaculates with BTS-H.

  8. Dilute passage promotes expression of genetic and phenotypic variants of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in cell culture.

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Palomino, S; Rojas, J M; Martínez, M A; Fenyö, E M; Nájera, R; Domingo, E; López-Galíndez, C

    1993-01-01

    We have studied the extent of genetic and phenotypic diversification of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) upon 15 serial passages of clonal viral populations in MT-4 cell cultures. Several genetic and phenotypic modifications previously noted during evolution of HIV-1 in infected humans were also observed upon passages of the virus in cell culture. Notably, the transition from non-syncytium-inducing to syncytium-inducing phenotype (previously observed during disease progression) and fixation of amino acid substitutions at the main antigenic loop V3 of gp120 were observed in the course of replication of the virus in MT-4 cell cultures in the absence of immune selection. Interestingly, most genetic and phenotypic alterations occurred upon passage of the virus at a low multiplicity of infection (0.001 infectious particles per cell) rather than at a higher multiplicity of infection (0.1 infectious particles per cell). The degree of genetic diversification attained by HIV-1, estimated by the RNase A mismatch cleavage method and by nucleotide sequencing, is of about 0.03% of genomic sites mutated after 15 serial passages. This value is not significantly different from previous estimates for foot-and-mouth disease virus when subjected to a similar process and analysis. We conclude that several genetic and phenotypic modifications of HIV-1 previously observed in vivo occur also in the constant environment provided by a cell culture system. Dilute passage promotes in a highly significant way the expression of deviant HIV-1 genomes. Images PMID:8474182

  9. Dynamics of atmospheres with a non-dilute condensible component.

    PubMed

    Pierrehumbert, Raymond T; Ding, Feng

    2016-06-01

    The diversity of characteristics for the host of recently discovered exoplanets opens up a great deal of fertile new territory for geophysical fluid dynamics, particularly when the fluid flow is coupled to novel thermodynamics, radiative transfer or chemistry. In this paper, we survey one of these new areas-the climate dynamics of atmospheres with a non-dilute condensible component, defined as the situation in which a condensible component of the atmosphere makes up a substantial fraction of the atmospheric mass within some layer. Non-dilute dynamics can occur for a wide range of condensibles, generically applying near both the inner and the outer edges of the conventional habitable zone and in connection with runaway greenhouse phenomena. It also applies in a wide variety of other planetary circumstances. We first present a number of analytical results developing some key features of non-dilute atmospheres, and then show how some of these features are manifest in simulations with a general circulation model adapted to handle non-dilute atmospheres. We find that non-dilute atmospheres have weak horizontal temperature gradients even for rapidly rotating planets, and that their circulations are largely barotropic. The relative humidity of the condensible component tends towards 100% as the atmosphere becomes more non-dilute, which has important implications for runaway greenhouse thresholds. Non-dilute atmospheres exhibit a number of interesting organized convection features, for which there is not yet any adequate theoretical understanding.

  10. Biodiversity inhibits parasites: Broad evidence for the dilution effect.

    PubMed

    Civitello, David J; Cohen, Jeremy; Fatima, Hiba; Halstead, Neal T; Liriano, Josue; McMahon, Taegan A; Ortega, C Nicole; Sauer, Erin Louise; Sehgal, Tanya; Young, Suzanne; Rohr, Jason R

    2015-07-14

    Infectious diseases of humans, wildlife, and domesticated species are increasing worldwide, driving the need to understand the mechanisms that shape outbreaks. Simultaneously, human activities are drastically reducing biodiversity. These concurrent patterns have prompted repeated suggestions that biodiversity and disease are linked. For example, the dilution effect hypothesis posits that these patterns are causally related; diverse host communities inhibit the spread of parasites via several mechanisms, such as by regulating populations of susceptible hosts or interfering with parasite transmission. However, the generality of the dilution effect hypothesis remains controversial, especially for zoonotic diseases of humans. Here we provide broad evidence that host diversity inhibits parasite abundance using a meta-analysis of 202 effect sizes on 61 parasite species. The magnitude of these effects was independent of host density, study design, and type and specialization of parasites, indicating that dilution was robust across all ecological contexts examined. However, the magnitude of dilution was more closely related to the frequency, rather than density, of focal host species. Importantly, observational studies overwhelmingly documented dilution effects, and there was also significant evidence for dilution effects of zoonotic parasites of humans. Thus, dilution effects occur commonly in nature, and they may modulate human disease risk. A second analysis identified similar effects of diversity in plant-herbivore systems. Thus, although there can be exceptions, our results indicate that biodiversity generally decreases parasitism and herbivory. Consequently, anthropogenic declines in biodiversity could increase human and wildlife diseases and decrease crop and forest production.

  11. Dynamics of atmospheres with a non-dilute condensible component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierrehumbert, Raymond T.; Ding, Feng

    2016-06-01

    The diversity of characteristics for the host of recently discovered exoplanets opens up a great deal of fertile new territory for geophysical fluid dynamics, particularly when the fluid flow is coupled to novel thermodynamics, radiative transfer or chemistry. In this paper, we survey one of these new areas-the climate dynamics of atmospheres with a non-dilute condensible component, defined as the situation in which a condensible component of the atmosphere makes up a substantial fraction of the atmospheric mass within some layer. Non-dilute dynamics can occur for a wide range of condensibles, generically applying near both the inner and the outer edges of the conventional habitable zone and in connection with runaway greenhouse phenomena. It also applies in a wide variety of other planetary circumstances. We first present a number of analytical results developing some key features of non-dilute atmospheres, and then show how some of these features are manifest in simulations with a general circulation model adapted to handle non-dilute atmospheres. We find that non-dilute atmospheres have weak horizontal temperature gradients even for rapidly rotating planets, and that their circulations are largely barotropic. The relative humidity of the condensible component tends towards 100% as the atmosphere becomes more non-dilute, which has important implications for runaway greenhouse thresholds. Non-dilute atmospheres exhibit a number of interesting organized convection features, for which there is not yet any adequate theoretical understanding.

  12. Use of diluted urine for cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Jaatinen, Sanna; Lakaniemi, Aino-Maija; Rintala, Jukka

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to study the biomass growth of microalga Chlorella vulgaris using diluted human urine as a sole nutrient source. Batch cultivations (21 days) were conducted in five different urine dilutions (1:25-1:300), in 1:100-diluted urine as such and with added trace elements, and as a reference, in artificial growth medium. The highest biomass density was obtained in 1:100-diluted urine with and without additional trace elements (0.73 and 0.60 g L(-1), respectively). Similar biomass growth trends and densities were obtained with 1:25- and 1:300-diluted urine (0.52 vs. 0.48 gVSS L(-1)) indicating that urine at dilution 1:25 can be used to cultivate microalgal based biomass. Interestingly, even 1:300-diluted urine contained sufficiently nutrients and trace elements to support biomass growth. Biomass production was similar despite pH-variation from < 5 to 9 in different incubations indicating robustness of the biomass growth. Ammonium formation did not inhibit overall biomass growth. At the beginning of cultivation, the majority of the biomass consisted of living algal cells, while towards the end, their share decreased and the estimated share of bacteria and cell debris increased.

  13. Analytical expression for the inverted inertia matrix of serial robots

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, S.K.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the analytical derivation of the inertia matrix and its inverse for an open-loop, serial-chain robot. The derivation allows one to write a recursive forward-dynamics algorithm for simulation purposes whose computational complexity is of order n, i.e., {Omicron}(n) -- n being the degrees of freedom of the robot under study. The proposed methodology is based on the Gaussian elimination of the inertia matrix, in contrast to, say, Kalman filtering, which is proposed elsewhere. The derivation is illustrated with a three-degrees-of-freedom planar robot.

  14. A semiautomated approach for artefact removal in serial tissue cryosections.

    PubMed

    Kindle, L M; Kakadiaris, I A; Ju, T; Carson, J P

    2011-02-01

    Thinly sliced serial tissue sections of an organ can be imaged using optical microscopy at a resolution detailing individual cells. When the tissue sections are first subjected to in situ hybridization or immunohistochemistry, these data sets can be analysed for changes in gene expression and gene products. Such spatial information is important for understanding the functional effects of experimental or environmental challenges to the organism. However, a critical step in analysing these data sets is mitigating artefacts that result from the preparation of the tissue sections. In this paper, we describe an automated method with manual validation tools that together enable detecting and addressing artefacts including dust particles and air bubbles.

  15. Protein crystal screening and characterization for serial femtosecond nanocrystallography

    PubMed Central

    Darmanin, Connie; Strachan, Jamie; Adda, Christopher G.; Ve, Thomas; Kobe, Bostjan; Abbey, Brian

    2016-01-01

    The recent development of X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) has spurred the development of serial femtosecond nanocrystallography (SFX) which, for the first time, is enabling structure retrieval from sub-micron protein crystals. Although there are already a growing number of structures published using SFX, the technology is still very new and presents a number of unique challenges as well as opportunities for structural biologists. One of the biggest barriers to the success of SFX experiments is the preparation and selection of suitable protein crystal samples. Here we outline a protocol for preparing and screening for suitable XFEL targets. PMID:27139248

  16. Serial rapists and their victims: reenactment and repetition.

    PubMed

    Burgess, A W; Hazelwood, R R; Rokous, F E; Hartman, C R; Burgess, A G

    1988-01-01

    The major finding in this study of 41 serial rapists is the large numbers of reported and unreported victims. For over 1200 attempted and completed rapes, there were 200 convictions. The hidden rapes or earliest nonreported victims of these men as boys and adolescents were identified from their families, their neighborhood, and their schools. Examining the possible link between childhood sexual abuse and criminal behavior in this sample of 41 serial rapists, 56.1% were judged to have at least one forced or exploitive abuse experience in boyhood, as compared to a study of 2,972 college males reporting 7.3% experiencing boyhood sexual abuse. Looking within the abused samples, 56.1% of the rapists reported forced sex, compared to the college sample's 30.4%. Also, the rapist sample revealed higher rates of family member as abuser (48.4%), compared to 22.2% for the college sample. Retrospective reconstruction of the sexual activities and assertive behaviors of these men as boys reveals that 51% of the boys reenact the abuse as a preadolescent with their earliest victims being known to them (48% as neighborhood girls), family (25% as sisters), or girlfriend (25%). The onset of rape fantasies in midadolescence (mean age 16.9) crystalizes the earlier sexually initiated behaviors into juvenile behaviors of spying, fetish burglaries, molestations, and rapes. Repetition of these juvenile behaviors set their criminal patters on strangers--their next group of victims. To reduce victimization, serial rapists need to be identified early and stopped. This means acknowledging and reporting boy sexual abuse. This includes being sensitive to the reenactment behaviors noted in the initiated activities of abused children, which in turn need to be differentiated from peer play. Closer attention needs to be paid to families with incest behavior to insure that younger children are protected. Adolescents showing early repetitive juvenile delinquent behaviors must be assessed for physical

  17. High-Resolution Protein Structure Determination by Serial Femtosecond Crystallography

    PubMed Central

    Boutet, Sébastien; Lomb, Lukas; Williams, Garth J.; Barends, Thomas R. M.; Aquila, Andrew; Doak, R. Bruce; Weierstall, Uwe; DePonte, Daniel P.; Steinbrener, Jan; Shoeman, Robert L.; Messerschmidt, Marc; Barty, Anton; White, Thomas A.; Kassemeyer, Stephan; Kirian, Richard A.; Seibert, M. Marvin; Montanez, Paul A.; Kenney, Chris; Herbst, Ryan; Hart, Philip; Pines, Jack; Haller, Gunther; Gruner, Sol M.; Philipp, Hugh T.; Tate, Mark W.; Hromalik, Marianne; Koerner, Lucas J.; van Bakel, Niels; Morse, John; Ghonsalves, Wilfred; Arnlund, David; Bogan, Michael J.; Caleman, Carl; Fromme, Raimund; Hampton, Christina Y.; Hunter, Mark S.; Johansson, Linda C.; Katona, Gergely; Kupitz, Christopher; Liang, Mengning; Martin, Andrew V.; Nass, Karol; Redecke, Lars; Stellato, Francesco; Timneanu, Nicusor; Wang, Dingjie; Zatsepin, Nadia A.; Schafer, Donald; Defever, James; Neutze, Richard; Fromme, Petra; Spence, John C. H.; Chapman, Henry N.; Schlichting, Ilme

    2013-01-01

    Structure determination of proteins and other macromolecules has historically required the growth of high-quality crystals sufficiently large to diffract x-rays efficiently while withstanding radiation damage. We applied serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) using an x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) to obtain high-resolution structural information from microcrystals (less than 1 micrometer by 1 micrometer by 3 micrometers) of the well-characterized model protein lysozyme. The agreement with synchrotron data demonstrates the immediate relevance of SFX for analyzing the structure of the large group of difficult-to-crystallize molecules. PMID:22653729

  18. High-resolution protein structure determination by serial femtosecond crystallography.

    PubMed

    Boutet, Sébastien; Lomb, Lukas; Williams, Garth J; Barends, Thomas R M; Aquila, Andrew; Doak, R Bruce; Weierstall, Uwe; DePonte, Daniel P; Steinbrener, Jan; Shoeman, Robert L; Messerschmidt, Marc; Barty, Anton; White, Thomas A; Kassemeyer, Stephan; Kirian, Richard A; Seibert, M Marvin; Montanez, Paul A; Kenney, Chris; Herbst, Ryan; Hart, Philip; Pines, Jack; Haller, Gunther; Gruner, Sol M; Philipp, Hugh T; Tate, Mark W; Hromalik, Marianne; Koerner, Lucas J; van Bakel, Niels; Morse, John; Ghonsalves, Wilfred; Arnlund, David; Bogan, Michael J; Caleman, Carl; Fromme, Raimund; Hampton, Christina Y; Hunter, Mark S; Johansson, Linda C; Katona, Gergely; Kupitz, Christopher; Liang, Mengning; Martin, Andrew V; Nass, Karol; Redecke, Lars; Stellato, Francesco; Timneanu, Nicusor; Wang, Dingjie; Zatsepin, Nadia A; Schafer, Donald; Defever, James; Neutze, Richard; Fromme, Petra; Spence, John C H; Chapman, Henry N; Schlichting, Ilme

    2012-07-20

    Structure determination of proteins and other macromolecules has historically required the growth of high-quality crystals sufficiently large to diffract x-rays efficiently while withstanding radiation damage. We applied serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) using an x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) to obtain high-resolution structural information from microcrystals (less than 1 micrometer by 1 micrometer by 3 micrometers) of the well-characterized model protein lysozyme. The agreement with synchrotron data demonstrates the immediate relevance of SFX for analyzing the structure of the large group of difficult-to-crystallize molecules.

  19. Controllable optomechanical coupling in serially-coupled triple resonators

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Chenguang Zhao, Yunsong; Fan, Jiahua; Zhu, Lin

    2014-12-15

    Radiation pressure can efficiently couple mechanical modes with optical modes in an optical cavity. The coupling efficiency is quite dependent on the interaction between the optical mode and mechanical mode. In this report, we investigate a serially-coupled triple resonator system, where a freestanding beam is placed in the vicinity of the middle resonator. In this coupled system, we demonstrate that the mechanical mode of the free-standing beam can be selectively coupled to different resonance supermodes through the near field interaction.

  20. Serial femtosecond X-ray diffraction of enveloped virus microcrystals

    DOE PAGES

    Lawrence, Robert M.; Conrad, Chelsie E.; Zatsepin, Nadia A.; ...

    2015-08-20

    Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) using X-ray free-electron lasers has produced high-resolution, room temperature, time-resolved protein structures. We report preliminary SFX of Sindbis virus, an enveloped icosahedral RNA virus with ~700 Å diameter. Microcrystals delivered in viscous agarose medium diffracted to ~40 Å resolution. Small-angle diffuse X-ray scattering overlaid Bragg peaks and analysis suggests this results from molecular transforms of individual particles. Viral proteins undergo structural changes during entry and infection, which could, in principle, be studied with SFX. This is a pertinent step toward determining room temperature structures from virus microcrystals that may enable time-resolved studies of enveloped viruses.

  1. Hi-speed versatile serial crate controller for CAMAC

    SciTech Connect

    Horelick, D.

    1984-10-01

    A serial crate controller, primarily for use in the SLC CAMAC control system, has been designed, and has been in use for about 2 years. The design supports a party line approach, with up to 16 crates on a single twisted pair for data transfers, plus another pair for prompt L response. The bit rate is 5 megabits/s, and complete transaction times of about 10 ..mu..s are achieved for 16-bit data transfers over cables up to 1000 feet long. One of the primary objects of the design was simplicity - there are approximately 60 chips in the two-board unit.

  2. Two-stage dilute acid prehydrolysis of biomass

    DOEpatents

    Grohmann, Karel; Torget, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    A two-stage dilute acid prehydrolysis process on xylan containing hemicellulose in biomass is effected by: treating feedstock of hemicellulosic material comprising xylan that is slow hydrolyzable and xylan that is fast hydrolyzable under predetermined low temperature conditions with a dilute acid for a residence time sufficient to hydrolyze the fast hydrolyzable xylan to xylose; removing said xylose from said fast hydrolyzable xylan and leaving a residue; and treating said residue having a slow hydrolyzable xylan with a dilute acid under predetermined high temperature conditions for a residence time required to hydrolyze said slow hydrolyzable xylan to xylose.

  3. Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase IV Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, M.F.

    2003-04-30

    Novel furnace designs based on Dilute Oxygen Combustion (DOC) technology were developed under subcontract by Techint Technologies, Coraopolis, PA, to fully exploit the energy and environmental capabilities of DOC technology and to provide a competitive offering for new furnace construction opportunities. Capital cost, fuel, oxygen and utility costs, NOx emissions, oxide scaling performance, and maintenance requirements were compared for five DOC-based designs and three conventional air5-fired designs using a 10-year net present value calculation. A furnace direct completely with DOC burners offers low capital cost, low fuel rate, and minimal NOx emissions. However, these benefits do not offset the cost of oxygen and a full DOC-fired furnace is projected to cost $1.30 per ton more to operate than a conventional air-fired furnace. The incremental cost of the improved NOx performance is roughly $6/lb NOx, compared with an estimated $3/lb. NOx for equ8pping a conventional furnace with selective catalytic reduction (SCCR) technology. A furnace fired with DOC burners in the heating zone and ambient temperature (cold) air-fired burners in the soak zone offers low capital cost with less oxygen consumption. However, the improvement in fuel rate is not as great as the full DOC-fired design, and the DOC-cold soak design is also projected to cost $1.30 per ton more to operate than a conventional air-fired furnace. The NOx improvement with the DOC-cold soak design is also not as great as the full DOC fired design, and the incremental cost of the improved NOx performance is nearly $9/lb NOx. These results indicate that a DOC-based furnace design will not be generally competitive with conventional technology for new furnace construction under current market conditions. Fuel prices of $7/MMBtu or oxygen prices of $23/ton are needed to make the DOC furnace economics favorable. Niche applications may exist, particularly where access to capital is limited or floor space limitations

  4. Retroviral sequences located within an intron of the dilute gene alter dilute expression in a tissue-specific manner.

    PubMed Central

    Seperack, P K; Mercer, J A; Strobel, M C; Copeland, N G; Jenkins, N A

    1995-01-01

    The murine dilute coat color locus encodes an unconventional myosin heavy chain that is thought to be required for the elaboration or maintenance of dendrites or organelle transport in melanocytes and neurons. In previous studies we showed that the d mutation carried by many inbred strains of mice (now referred to as dilute viral, dv), is caused by the integration of an ecotropic murine leukemia virus (Emv-3) into the dilute gene and that phenotypic revertants of dv (termed d+) result from viral excision; a solo viral long terminal repeat (LTR) is all that remains in revertant DNA. In the studies described here we show that Emv-3 sequences are located within an intron of the dilute gene in a region of the C-terminal tail that is differentially spliced. We also show that these Emv-3 sequences result in the production of shortened and abnormally spliced dilute transcripts and that the level of this effect varies among tissues. This tissue-specific effect on dilute expression likely accounts for the absence of neurological abnormalities observed in dv mice. Surprisingly, we also found that the solo viral LTR present in revertant d+ DNA produces a tissue-specific effect on dilute expression, although this effect is less dramatic than with the full-length provirus and produces no obvious mutant phenotype. These findings have important implications for understanding the effects of viral sequences on mammalian gene expression. Images PMID:7774591

  5. Initial and serial evoked potentials in cerebrovascular critical care patients.

    PubMed

    Haupt, Walter F; Pawlik, Gunter; Thiel, Alexander

    2006-10-01

    Results of somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) and brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) examinations performed early in the clinical course of patients with acute cerebrovascular disease correlate statistically significantly with outcome regardless of type and localization of the primary lesion. The prognostic value of serial examinations of SEP and BAEP has not been studied yet. The authors examined a group of 215 patients suffering from acute stroke requiring neurocritical care composed of 75 supratentorial and 36 infratentorial ischemic strokes, 58 supratentorial and 18 infratentorial hemorrhages, and 28 aneurysmatic subarachnoid hemorrhages prospectively using spinal and cortical SEP and BAEP according to routine procedures on admission as well as after 1 and 2 weeks. The findings were correlated to outcome at 4 weeks. Statistical assessment was performed using standard methods of contingency analysis. In all groups, SEP findings were significantly correlated with outcome at initial and all subsequent examinations, similar correlations were also found for BAEP. However, after partialling out the prognostic information gained from the initial examination of SEP and BAEP, the follow-up examinations rendered only a marginal increase in prognostic information. Therefore, the initial examination of evoked potentials supplies valuable prognostic information, however, serial examinations of evoked potentials during the first weeks of disease improve the prognostic information only marginally.

  6. External serial connection without layer patterning for organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Ying Qian; Wong, Hin Yong; Tan, Ching Seong; Meng, Hsin-Fei

    2016-12-01

    This paper proposes a novel alternative to conventional internal serial connection, where precise patterning and scribing of organic layers can be eliminated. Adjacent cells can be made nearer for better space-utilization and higher voltages per unit area. Also, blade coating is proposed as the fabrication method as it has low material wastage (less than 5%), easily scalable to large area, has high film uniformity and has high throughput due to its roll-to-roll potential. This paper demonstrates 3-cells large area (12.98 cm2) external serial connection organic solar cells (OSCs) using the material poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl):[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) and 2,6-Bis(trimethyltin)-4, 8-bis(5-(2-ethylhexyl)thiophen-2-yl)benzo [1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene:6,6-phenyl C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PBDTTT-CT:PC71BM) respectively. The power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of the resulting 3-cells modules are 2.0% and 4.1% respectively.

  7. Serial crystallography on in vivo grown microcrystals using synchrotron radiation

    PubMed Central

    Gati, Cornelius; Bourenkov, Gleb; Klinge, Marco; Rehders, Dirk; Stellato, Francesco; Oberthür, Dominik; Yefanov, Oleksandr; Sommer, Benjamin P.; Mogk, Stefan; Duszenko, Michael; Betzel, Christian; Schneider, Thomas R.; Chapman, Henry N.; Redecke, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Crystal structure determinations of biological macromolecules are limited by the availability of sufficiently sized crystals and by the fact that crystal quality deteriorates during data collection owing to radiation damage. Exploiting a micrometre-sized X-ray beam, high-precision diffractometry and shutterless data acquisition with a pixel-array detector, a strategy for collecting data from many micrometre-sized crystals presented to an X-ray beam in a vitrified suspension is demonstrated. By combining diffraction data from 80 Trypanosoma brucei procathepsin B crystals with an average volume of 9 µm3, a complete data set to 3.0 Å resolution has been assembled. The data allowed the refinement of a structural model that is consistent with that previously obtained using free-electron laser radiation, providing mutual validation. Further improvements of the serial synchrotron crystallography technique and its combination with serial femtosecond crystallography are discussed that may allow the determination of high-resolution structures of micrometre-sized crystals. PMID:25075324

  8. Parallel, semiparallel, and serial processing of visual hyperacuity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahle, Manfred W.

    1990-10-01

    Humans can discriminate between certain elementary stimulus features in parallel, i.e., simultaneously over the visual field. I present evidence that, in man, vernier rnisalignments in the hyperacuity-range, i.e., below the photoreceptor diameter, can also be detected in parallel. This indicates that the visUal system performs some form of spatial interpolation beyond the photoreceptor spacing simultaneously over the visual field. Vernier offsets are detected in parallel even when orientation cues are masked: deviation from straightness is an elementary feature of visual perception. However, the identification process, that classifies each vernier in a stimulus as being offset to the right (versus to the left) is serial and has to scan the visual field sequentially if orientation cues are masked. Therefore, reaction times and thresholds in vernier acuity tasks increase with the number of verniers presented simultaneously if classification of different features is required. Furthermore, when approaching vernier threshold, simple vernier detection is no longer parallel but becomes partially serial, or semi-parallel.

  9. Nonlinear Process Fault Diagnosis Based on Serial Principal Component Analysis.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xiaogang; Tian, Xuemin; Chen, Sheng; Harris, Chris J

    2016-12-22

    Many industrial processes contain both linear and nonlinear parts, and kernel principal component analysis (KPCA), widely used in nonlinear process monitoring, may not offer the most effective means for dealing with these nonlinear processes. This paper proposes a new hybrid linear-nonlinear statistical modeling approach for nonlinear process monitoring by closely integrating linear principal component analysis (PCA) and nonlinear KPCA using a serial model structure, which we refer to as serial PCA (SPCA). Specifically, PCA is first applied to extract PCs as linear features, and to decompose the data into the PC subspace and residual subspace (RS). Then, KPCA is performed in the RS to extract the nonlinear PCs as nonlinear features. Two monitoring statistics are constructed for fault detection, based on both the linear and nonlinear features extracted by the proposed SPCA. To effectively perform fault identification after a fault is detected, an SPCA similarity factor method is built for fault recognition, which fuses both the linear and nonlinear features. Unlike PCA and KPCA, the proposed method takes into account both linear and nonlinear PCs simultaneously, and therefore, it can better exploit the underlying process's structure to enhance fault diagnosis performance. Two case studies involving a simulated nonlinear process and the benchmark Tennessee Eastman process demonstrate that the proposed SPCA approach is more effective than the existing state-of-the-art approach based on KPCA alone, in terms of nonlinear process fault detection and identification.

  10. Stability of high cell density brewery fermentations during serial repitching.

    PubMed

    Verbelen, Pieter J; Dekoninck, Tinne M L; Van Mulders, Sebastiaan E; Saerens, Sofie M G; Delvaux, Filip; Delvaux, Freddy R

    2009-11-01

    The volumetric productivity of the beer fermentation process can be increased by using a higher pitching rate (i.e. higher inoculum size). However, the decreased yeast net growth observed in these high cell density brewery fermentations can adversely affect the physiological stability throughout subsequent yeast generations. Therefore, different O(2) conditions (wort aeration and yeast preoxygenation) were applied to high cell density fermentation and eight generations of fermentations were evaluated together with conventional fermentations. Freshly propagated high cell density populations adapted faster to the fermentative conditions than normal cell density populations. Preoxygenating the yeast was essential for the yeast physiological and beer flavor compound stability of high cell density fermentations during serial repitching. In contrast, the use of non-preoxygenated yeast resulted in inadequate growth which caused (1) insufficient yield of biomass to repitch all eight generations, (2) a 10% decrease in viability, (3) a moderate increase of yeast age, (4) and a dramatic increase of the unwanted flavor compounds acetaldehyde and total diacetyl during the sequence of fermentations. Therefore, to achieve sustainable high cell density fermentations throughout the economical valuable process of serial repitching, adequate yeast growth is essential.

  11. Serial lobar lung lavage in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis.

    PubMed

    Baldi, Milind M; Nair, Jairaj; Athavale, Amita; Gavali, Varun; Sarkar, Manjula; Divate, Smita; Shah, Unmil

    2013-10-01

    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare disease with worldwide distribution and an estimated incidence of 0.36 cases per million. We report a case of a PAP coexisting with Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia and Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. The patient was treated with serial lobar lung lavages, GM-CSF, cotrimoxazole, and antituberculosis drugs. His PaO2 on room air improved from 45.7 to 63.8 torr and pulmonary functions normalized (FVC 81.2%, FEV1 95.3%, FEV1/FVC 91.8). A high-resolution computed tomography scan of the thorax showed clearing of both lower lobes. Whole-lung lavage is used in the treatment of PAP, but it may worsen the hypoxemia and lead to hemodynamic instability during the procedure. To the best of our knowledge, there are no reports of bronchoscopic serial lobar lung lavages in cases of PAP performed in India. This method can be performed in bronchoscopic suites having general anesthesia facilities without the requirement of special gadgets.

  12. The serial nature of the masked onset priming effect revisited.

    PubMed

    Mousikou, Petroula; Coltheart, Max

    2014-01-01

    Reading aloud is faster when target words/nonwords are preceded by masked prime words/nonwords that share their first sound with the target (e.g., save-SINK) compared to when primes and targets are unrelated to each other (e.g., farm-SINK). This empirical phenomenon is the masked onset priming effect (MOPE) and is known to be due to serial left-to-right processing of the prime by a sublexical reading mechanism. However, the literature in this domain lacks a critical experiment. It is possible that when primes are real words their orthographic/phonological representations are activated in parallel and holistically during prime presentation, so any phoneme overlap between primes and targets (and not just initial-phoneme overlap) could facilitate target reading aloud. This is the prediction made by the only computational models of reading aloud that are able to simulate the MOPE, namely the DRC1.2.1, CDP+, and CDP++ models. We tested this prediction in the present study and found that initial-phoneme overlap (blip-BEST), but not end-phoneme overlap (flat-BEST), facilitated target reading aloud compared to no phoneme overlap (junk-BEST). These results provide support for a reading mechanism that operates serially and from left to right, yet are inconsistent with all existing computational models of single-word reading aloud.

  13. Optimal Weights in Serial Generalized-Ensemble Simulations.

    PubMed

    Chelli, Riccardo

    2010-07-13

    In serial generalized-ensemble simulations, the sampling of a collective coordinate of a system is enhanced through non-Boltzmann weighting schemes. A popular version of such methods is certainly the simulated tempering technique, which is based on a random walk in temperature ensembles to explore the phase space more thoroughly. The most critical aspect of serial generalized-ensemble methods with respect to their parallel counterparts, such as replica exchange, is the difficulty of weight determination. Here we propose an adaptive approach to update the weights on the fly during the simulation. The algorithm is based on generalized forms of the Bennett acceptance ratio and of the free energy perturbation. It does not require intensive communication between processors and, therefore, is prone to be used in distributed computing environments with modest computational cost. We illustrate the method in a series of molecular dynamics simulations of a model system and compare its performances to two recent approaches, one based on adaptive Bayesian-weighted histogram analysis and the other based on initial estimates of weight factors obtained by potential energy averages.

  14. Random-effects models for serial observations with binary response

    SciTech Connect

    Stiratelli, R.; Laird, N.; Ware, J.H.

    1984-12-01

    This paper presents a general mixed model for the analysis of serial dichotomous responses provided by a panel of study participants. Each subject's serial responses are assumed to arise from a logistic model, but with regression coefficients that vary between subjects. The logistic regression parameters are assumed to be normally distributed in the population. Inference is based upon maximum likelihood estimation of fixed effects and variance components, and empirical Bayes estimation of random effects. Exact solutions are analytically and computationally infeasible, but an approximation based on the mode of the posterior distribution of the random parameters is proposed, and is implemented by means of the EM algorithm. This approximate method is compared with a simpler two-step method proposed by Korn and Whittemore, using data from a panel study of asthmatics originally described in that paper. One advantage of the estimation strategy described here is the ability to use all of the data, including that from subjects with insufficient data to permit fitting of a separate logistic regression model, as required by the Korn and Whittemore method. However, the new method is computationally intensive.

  15. Parallel and serial grouping of image elements in visual perception.

    PubMed

    Houtkamp, Roos; Roelfsema, Pieter R

    2010-12-01

    The visual system groups image elements that belong to an object and segregates them from other objects and the background. Important cues for this grouping process are the Gestalt criteria, and most theories propose that these are applied in parallel across the visual scene. Here, we find that Gestalt grouping can indeed occur in parallel in some situations, but we demonstrate that there are also situations where Gestalt grouping becomes serial. We observe substantial time delays when image elements have to be grouped indirectly through a chain of local groupings. We call this chaining process incremental grouping and demonstrate that it can occur for only a single object at a time. We suggest that incremental grouping requires the gradual spread of object-based attention so that eventually all the object's parts become grouped explicitly by an attentional labeling process. Our findings inspire a new incremental grouping theory that relates the parallel, local grouping process to feedforward processing and the serial, incremental grouping process to recurrent processing in the visual cortex.

  16. Rethinking Conceptual Definitions of the Criminal Career and Serial Criminality.

    PubMed

    Edelstein, Arnon

    2016-01-01

    Since Cesare Lombroso's days, criminology seeks to define, explain, and categorize the various types of criminals, their behaviors, and motives. This aim has theoretical as well as policy-related implications. One of the important areas in criminological thinking focuses chiefly on recidivist offenders who perform large numbers of crimes and/or commit the most dangerous crimes in society (rape, murder, arson, and armed robbery). These criminals have been defined as "habitual offenders," "professional criminals," "career criminals," and "serial offenders." The interest in these criminals is a rational one, given the perception that they present a severe threat to society. The main challenge in this area of research is a conceptual problem that has significant effects across the field. To this day, scholars have reused and misused titles to define and explain different concepts. The aim of this article is 3-fold. First, to review the concepts of criminal career, professional crime, habitual offenses, and seriality with a critical attitude on confusing terms. Second, to propose the redefinition of concepts mentioned previously, mainly on the criminal career. Third, to propose a theoretical model to enable a better understanding of, and serve as a basis for, further research in this important area of criminology.

  17. Separation processes using expulsion from dilute supercritical solutions

    DOEpatents

    Cochran, H.D. Jr.

    1993-04-20

    A process is described for separating isotopes as well as other mixtures by utilizing the behavior of dilute repulsive or weakly attractive elements of the mixtures as the critical point of the solvent is approached.

  18. Sorption-cooled continuous miniature dilution refrigeration for astrophysical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, Andrew J.; Calisse, Paolo G.; Coppi, Gabriele; Haynes, Vic; Martinis, Lorenzo; McCulloch, Mark A.; Melhuish, Simon J.; Piccirillo, Lucio

    2016-07-01

    A progress report is provided on the development of a tiltable continuous miniature dilution refrigerator and associated 3He/4He sorption coolers. These systems are currently being developed to provide sub-Kelvin cooling of the bolometer arrays for several ground- and balloon-based experiments which aim to measure the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (QUBIC, LSPE and POLARBEAR-2). The novel tiltable miniaturised system benefits from a lack of external circulation pumps and a mechanically simple design. The condenser of the twin-pumped recirculating diluter is cooled continuously by two 3He/4He sorption coolers. The sorption pumps are operated by convective heat switches. The dilution unit features a thermally separated mixing chamber, still and step heat exchangers. The designs and analyses of both the sorption coolers and the diluter are reported; both systems have been manufactured and are presently under test.

  19. Separation processes using expulsion from dilute supercritical solutions

    DOEpatents

    Cochran, Jr., Henry D.

    1993-01-01

    A process for separating isotopes as well as other mixtures by utilizing the behavior of dilute repulsive or weakly attractive elements of the mixtures as the critical point of the solvent is approached.

  20. Frequency of serial sexual homicide victimization in Virginia for a ten-year period.

    PubMed

    McNamara, James J; Morton, Robert J

    2004-05-01

    The frequency of serial sexual murder has been widely discussed, and estimates of the number of victims in the United States range from 500 to 6000 per year. This study attempted to quantify the number of serial sexual murder victims in Virginia for a ten-year period. Multiple sources of data were utilized, including Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) case files, FBI's Violent Criminal Apprehension Program (ViCAP) reports, Virginia State Police ViCAP reports, Virginia Homicide Investigators Association, and the Virginia Division of Forensic Science DNA database, to effectively cull out all the known serial sexual murder victims for the given time period. Review of these records revealed a total of 28 victims of serial sexual murder, compared with a total of 5183 murder victims for the same ten-year period. The frequency of serial sexual victimization was 0.5% of all homicides for the given period. These results highlight the unusual frequency of serial sexual murder.

  1. Falsifying serial and parallel parsing models: empirical conundrums and an overlooked paradigm.

    PubMed

    Lewis, R L

    2000-03-01

    When the human parser encounters a local structural ambiguity, are multiple structures pursued (parallel or breadth-first parsing), or just a single preferred structure (serial or depth-first parsing)? This note discusses four important classes of serial and parallel models: simple limited parallel, ranked limited parallel, deterministic serial with reanalysis, and probabilistic serial with reanalysis. It is argued that existing evidence is compatible only with probabilistic serial-reanalysis models, or ranked parallel models augmented with a reanalysis component. A new class of linguistic structures is introduced on which the behavior of serial and parallel parsers diverge the most radically: multiple local ambiguities are stacked to increase the number of viable alternatives in the ambiguous region from two to eight structures. This paradigm may provide the strongest test yet for parallel models.

  2. Active accumulation of very diluted biomolecules by nano-dispensing for easy detection below the femtomolar range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grilli, S.; Miccio, L.; Gennari, O.; Coppola, S.; Vespini, V.; Battista, L.; Orlando, P.; Ferraro, P.

    2014-11-01

    Highly sensitive detection of biomolecules is of paramount interest in many fields including biomedicine, safety and eco-pollution. Conventional analyses use well-established techniques with detection limits ~1 pM. Here we propose a pyro-concentrator able to accumulate biomolecules directly onto a conventional binding surface. The operation principle is relatively simple but very effective. Tiny droplets are drawn pyro-electro-dynamically and released onto a specific site, thus increasing the sensitivity. The reliability of the technique is demonstrated in case of labelled oligonucleotides diluted serially. The results show the possibility to detect very diluted oligonucleotides, down to a few hundreds of attomoles. Excellent results are shown also in case of a sample of clinical interest, the gliadin, where a 60-fold improved detection limit is reached, compared with standard ELISA. This method could open the way to a mass-based technology for sensing molecules at very low concentrations, in environmental as well as in diagnostics applications.

  3. Dilution and stoichiometry effects on gas reburning: An experimental study

    SciTech Connect

    Bilbao, R.; Alzueta, M.U.; Millera, A.; Prada, L.

    1997-06-01

    Gas reburning is a NO{sub x} reduction technique that can be applied to different combustion systems. The influence of stoichiometry and dilution effects on the efficiency of the gas reburning process has been studied from an experimental point of view at a temperature of 1,100 C. Methane, ethane, and natural gas have been used as reburning fuels. The results obtained show that both stoichiometry and dilution level are very important parameters for the performance of the process.

  4. Fibrinogen Concentrate in Dilutional Coagulopathy: a Dose Study in Pigs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    measurements, animals underwent a 60% normovolemic hemodilution (HD) with 6% hydroxyethyl starch (HES) 130/0.4 (Voluven, Fresenius Co., Bad Homburg...improves whole blood clot firmness after dilution with hydroxyethyl starch in bleeding patients undergoing radical cystectomy: a randomized, placebo...clinically relevant overestimation of fibrinogen concentration in plasma diluted with hydroxyethyl starch . Clin Appl Thromb Hemost 2010;16:461-71. 28

  5. Attentional sets influence perceptual load effects, but not dilution effects.

    PubMed

    Benoni, Hanna; Zivony, Alon; Tsal, Yehoshua

    2014-01-01

    Perceptual load theory [Lavie, N. (1995). Perceptual load as a necessary condition for selective attention. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 21, 451-468.; Lavie, N., & Tsal, Y. (1994) Perceptual load as a major determinant of the locus of selection in visual attention. Perception & Psychophysics, 56, 183-197.] proposes that interference from distractors can only be avoided in situations of high perceptual load. This theory has been supported by blocked design manipulations separating low load (when the target appears alone) and high load (when the target is embedded among neutral letters). Tsal and Benoni [(2010a). Diluting the burden of load: Perceptual load effects are simply dilution effects. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 36, 1645-1656.; Benoni, H., & Tsal, Y. (2010). Where have we gone wrong? Perceptual load does not affect selective attention. Vision Research, 50, 1292-1298.] have recently shown that these manipulations confound perceptual load with "dilution" (the mere presence of additional heterogeneous items in high-load situations). Theeuwes, Kramer, and Belopolsky [(2004). Attentional set interacts with perceptual load in visual search. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 11, 697-702.] independently questioned load theory by suggesting that attentional sets might also affect distractor interference. When high load and low load were intermixed, and participants could not prepare for the presentation that followed, both the low-load and high-load trials showed distractor interference. This result may also challenge the dilution account, which proposes a stimulus-driven mechanism. In the current study, we presented subjects with both fixed and mixed blocks, including a mix of dilution trials with low-load trials and with high-load trials. We thus separated the effect of dilution from load and tested the influence of attentional sets on each component. The results revealed that whereas

  6. Fate of phosphorus in diluted urine with tap water.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoning; Wen, Guoqi; Wang, Huihui; Zhu, Xiaoqi; Hu, Zhengyi

    2014-10-01

    P loss during the fresh urine storage process is inevitable because of the presence of Ca and Mg. Dilution is one of the most important parameters influencing urine composition and subsequent P recovery. This study aimed to investigate the fate of P in urine with different dilution ratios (Vwater/Vurine, i.e., 0/100, 25/75, 50/50 and 75/25). The results indicate that the percentage of P loss increased from 43% to 76% as the dilution ratio increased from 0/100 to 75/25 because of more Ca and Mg obtained from tap water. Meanwhile, P removal efficiency through struvite precipitation decreased from 51% to 8% because of lower supersaturation ratio as a result of dilution. Struvite crystals with high purity were still obtained even under a dilution ratio of 50/50 urine solution. Batch experiments were also performed to study the influence of temperature (15-35°C) on P recovery and crystal size. For different dilution ratios of urine solutions, no significant discrepancy for the P removal efficiencies were observed at 15 and 35°C, whereas the P removal efficiencies at 25°C showed an increasing gap with those at 15 and 35°C. The largest average crystal sizes were found at 25°C, which was opposite to the trend of P removal efficiency.

  7. Mercury speciation in seafood using isotope dilution analysis: a review.

    PubMed

    Clémens, Stéphanie; Monperrus, Mathilde; Donard, Olivier F X; Amouroux, David; Guérin, Thierry

    2012-01-30

    Mercury is a toxic compound that can contaminate humans through food and especially via fish consumption. Mercury's toxicity depends on the species, with methylmercury being the most hazardous form for humans. Hg speciation analysis has been and remains a widely studied subject because of the potential difficulty of preserving the initial distribution of mercury species in the analysed sample. Accordingly, many analytical methods have been developed and most of them incur significant loss and/or cross-species transformations during sample preparation. Therefore, to monitor and correct artefact formations, quantification by isotope dilution is increasingly used and provides significant added value for analytical quality assurance and quality control. This review presents and discusses the two different modes of application of isotope dilution analysis for elemental speciation (i.e. species-unspecific isotope dilution analysis and species-specific isotope dilution analysis) and the different quantification techniques (i.e. classical and multiple spike isotope dilution analyses). Isotope tracers are thus used at different stages of sample preparation to determine the extent of inter-species transformations and correct such analytical artefacts. Finally, a synthesis of the principal methods used for mercury speciation in seafood using isotope dilution analysis is presented.

  8. New developments in electron microscopy for serial image acquisition of neuronal profiles.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Yoshiyuki

    2015-02-01

    Recent developments in electron microscopy largely automate the continuous acquisition of serial electron micrographs (EMGs), previously achieved by laborious manual serial ultrathin sectioning using an ultramicrotome and ultrastructural image capture process with transmission electron microscopy. The new systems cut thin sections and capture serial EMGs automatically, allowing for acquisition of large data sets in a reasonably short time. The new methods are focused ion beam/scanning electron microscopy, ultramicrotome/serial block-face scanning electron microscopy, automated tape-collection ultramicrotome/scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscope camera array. In this review, their positive and negative aspects are discussed.

  9. 48 CFR 252.246-7005 - Notice of Warranty Tracking of Serialized Items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... _, Warranty Tracking Information, (indicated by a single asterisk (*)), on each contract line item number..., starting event, serialized item, unique item identifier, usage, warranty administrator, warranty...

  10. Serial agonistic attacks by greylag goose families, Anser anser, against the same opponent

    PubMed Central

    Scheiber, Isabella B.R.; Kotrschal, Kurt; Weiß, Brigitte M.

    2011-01-01

    It is known from primates that alliance partners may support each other’s interests in competition with others, for example, through repeated agonistic attacks against a particular individual. We examined serial aggressive interactions between greylag goose families and other flock members. We found that repeated attacks towards the same individual were common and that up to five serial attacks by family members followed an initial attack. Family size did not affect the frequency of such serial attacks. Juvenile geese evidently benefited most from active social support through serial attacks. About 60% of the juveniles’ lost primary interactions were subsequently reversed by another family member. This may be one of the reasons why juveniles rank higher in the social hierarchy than would be expected from their age and size alone. Losses in serial attacks predominantly occurred against other, presumably higher-ranking, family geese and ganders. We propose three major functions/consequences of serial attacks. Analogous to primates, serial attacks in greylag geese may serve to reinforce a losing experience of an opponent defeated in a preceding attack. On the side of the winning family, serial attacks may reinforce the experience of winning. Both winning and losing experiences are linked with physiological consequences in higher vertebrates, affecting the future social performance of winners or losers. Finally, serial attacks may signal the agonistic potential of a family to other flock members. This is supported by heart rate data, which indicate that greylags are competent to interpret third-party relationships. PMID:21984838

  11. Registration of serial sections of mouse liver cell nuclei.

    PubMed

    Baheerathan, S; Albregtsen, F; Danielsen, H E

    1998-10-01

    Image registration of biological tissue is essential for 3D reconstruction, which is important for visualizing and quantifying the 3D relationships between internal structures of an object. The biological role of DNA organization, which is an extremely complex 3D architecture within the cell nucleus, has come into focus since it has become clear that the chromatin structure in itself functions as a regulator of DNA. Thus, 3D reconstruction of cell nuclei based on consecutive series of high-resolution ultrathin slices may provide new information about the chromatin structure and its organizational changes during carcinogenesis. This work focuses mainly on the problem of registering successive serial transmission electron micrographs of ultrathin sections of mouse liver cell nuclei to analyse the 3D chromatin structure. A five-step semiautomatic interactive registration method is proposed. The first two steps of the procedure correct the rotation and translation components by using the phase correlation. The third, fourth and fifth steps correct the global distortion, employing a point mapping method based on different ways of selecting the control points. In step three, the control points were automatically computed by phase correlating corresponding subimages of the reference and sensed image. A semiautomatic method is used in the fourth step to select the control points, i.e. an automated method for computing the centre of mass of manually identified anatomical structures in neighbouring slices. For the sections which could not be properly corrected by the four steps, a final step is introduced, where control points are manually selected in the reference and sensed images. An algorithm is proposed to examine the spatial distribution of selected control points. Four sets of serial sections of mouse liver cell nuclei, each with approximately 100 sections, are registered by the proposed method and also registered manually for the comparison of registration accuracy

  12. Determination of irritant threshold concentrations to weeds, trees and grasses through serial dilutions in intradermal testing on healthy clinically nonallergic dogs.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Cynthia L; Hensel, Patrick; Austel, Michaela; Keys, Deborah

    2010-04-01

    Irritant threshold concentration (ITC) for intradermal testing (IDT) was determined in 31 healthy, clinically nonallergic dogs. Twenty-three allergens were tested at five variable concentrations ranging from 1000 to 8000 PNU/mL. To distinguish irritant reactions from subclinical IgE-mediated hypersensitivities, serum allergy testing was performed. ITCs were determined by evaluating the lowest concentration to which no dogs (0% cut-off) and to which at least 10% of dogs (> or = 10% cut-off) reacted. ITCs at the 0% cut-off were: 1000 PNU/mL (Johnson grass), 2000 PNU/mL (Ash, Lamb's Quarter and Bermuda), 3000 PNU/mL (Bahia, Rye, Pig Weed and Virginia Oak), 4000 PNU/mL (Marsh Elder and Maple), 5000 PNU/mL (Sorrel sheep) and 7000 PNU/mL (Cocklebur and Black Willow). ITC for Dog Fennel, Box Elder and Red Cedar was <1000 PNU/mL. ITCs at the > or = 10% cut-off were: 2500 PNU/mL (Johnson), 3000 PNU/mL (Box Elder), 5000 PNU/mL (Bahia), 6000 PNU/mL (Pigweed and Marsh Elder) and 8000 PNU/mL (Virginia Oak and Black Willow). For all other allergens, the ITC was >8000 PNU/mL and could not be determined. No significant agreement between positive values was found for the same allergen on IDT and serum allergy testing for each dog suggesting reactions caused by the determined ITCs are less likely subclinical IgE-mediated reactions. These results suggest that ITCs may vary, also they may be very high for the allergens tested and that higher test concentrations may be used for IDT for the tested allergens without inducing an irritant reaction. Further studies are needed to evaluate the benefit of higher IDT concentrations in atopic dogs.

  13. Performance of flow cytometric analysis for the micronucleus assay--a reconstruction model using serial dilutions of malaria-infected cells with normal mouse peripheral blood.

    PubMed

    Torous, Dorothea; Asano, Norihide; Tometsko, Carol; Sugunan, Siva; Dertinger, Stephen; Morita, Takeshi; Hayashi, Makoto

    2006-01-01

    To confirm the performance and statistical power of a flow cytometric method for scoring micronucleated erythrocytes, reconstruction experiments were performed. For these investigations, peripheral blood erythrocytes from untreated mice, with a micronucleated erythrocyte frequency of approximately 0.1% were combined with known quantities of Plasmodium berghei (malaria) infected mouse erythrocytes. These cells had an infected erythrocyte frequency of approximately 0.7%, and mimic the DNA content of micronuclei (MN). For an initial experiment, samples with a range of MN/malaria (Mal) content were constructed and analysed in triplicate by flow cytometry until 2000, 20,000 and 200,000 total erythrocytes were acquired. In a second experiment, each specimen was analysed in triplicate until 2000, 20,000, 200,000 and 1,000,000 erythrocytes were acquired. As expected, the sensitivity of the assay to detect small changes in rare erythrocyte sub-population frequencies was directly related to the number of cells analysed. For example, when 2000 cells were scored, increases in MN/Mal frequencies of 3.9- or 2.7-fold were detected as statistically significant. When 200,000 cells were analysed, a 1.2-fold increase was detected. These data have implications for the experimental design and interpretation of micronucleus assays that are based on automated scoring procedures, since previously unattainable numbers of cells can now be readily scored.

  14. Bit-Serial Adder Based on Quantum Dots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fijany, Amir; Toomarian, Nikzad; Modarress, Katayoon; Spotnitz, Mathew

    2003-01-01

    A proposed integrated circuit based on quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) would function as a bit-serial adder. This circuit would serve as a prototype building block for demonstrating the feasibility of quantum-dots computing and for the further development of increasingly complex and increasingly capable quantum-dots computing circuits. QCA-based bit-serial adders would be especially useful in that they would enable the development of highly parallel and systolic processors for implementing fast Fourier, cosine, Hartley, and wavelet transforms. The proposed circuit would complement the QCA-based circuits described in "Implementing Permutation Matrices by Use of Quantum Dots" (NPO-20801), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 25, No. 10 (October 2001), page 42 and "Compact Interconnection Networks Based on Quantum Dots" (NPO-20855), which appears elsewhere in this issue. Those articles described the limitations of very-large-scale-integrated (VLSI) circuitry and the major potential advantage afforded by QCA. To recapitulate: In a VLSI circuit, signal paths that are required not to interact with each other must not cross in the same plane. In contrast, for reasons too complex to describe in the limited space available for this article, suitably designed and operated QCA-based signal paths that are required not to interact with each other can nevertheless be allowed to cross each other in the same plane without adverse effect. In principle, this characteristic could be exploited to design compact, coplanar, simple (relative to VLSI) QCA-based networks to implement complex, advanced interconnection schemes. To enable a meaningful description of the proposed bit-serial adder, it is necessary to further recapitulate the description of a quantum-dot cellular automation from the first-mentioned prior article: A quantum-dot cellular automaton contains four quantum dots positioned at the corners of a square cell. The cell contains two extra mobile electrons that can tunnel (in the

  15. Impaired serial visual search in children with developmental dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Sireteanu, Ruxandra; Goebel, Claudia; Goertz, Ralf; Werner, Ingeborg; Nalewajko, Magdalena; Thiel, Aylin

    2008-12-01

    In order to test the hypothesis of attentional deficits in dyslexia, we investigated the performance of children with developmental dyslexia on a number of visual search tasks. When tested with conjunction tasks for orientation and form using complex, letter-like material, dyslexic children showed an increased number of errors accompanied by faster reaction times in comparison to control children matched to the dyslexics on age, gender, and intelligence. On conjunction tasks for orientation and color, dyslexic children were also less accurate, but showed slower reaction times than the age-matched control children. These differences between the two groups decreased with increasing age. In contrast to these differences, the performance of dyslexic children in feature search tasks was similar to that of control children. These results suggest that children with developmental dyslexia present selective deficits in complex serial visual search tasks, implying impairment in goal-directed, sustained visual attention.

  16. Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) in rat liver regeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Cimica, Velasco . E-mail: vcimica@aecom.yu.edu; Batusic, Danko; Haralanova-Ilieva, Borislava; Chen, Yonglong; Hollemann, Thomas; Pieler, Tomas; Ramadori, Giuliano

    2007-08-31

    We have applied serial analysis of gene expression for studying the molecular mechanism of the rat liver regeneration in the model of 70% partial hepatectomy. We generated three SAGE libraries from a normal control liver (NL library: 52,343 tags), from a sham control operated liver (Sham library: 51,028 tags), and from a regenerating liver (PH library: 53,061 tags). By SAGE bioinformatics analysis we identified 40 induced genes and 20 repressed genes during the liver regeneration. We verified temporal expression of such genes by real time PCR during the regeneration process and we characterized 13 induced genes and 3 repressed genes. We found connective tissue growth factor transcript and protein induced very early at 4 h after PH operation before hepatocytes proliferation is triggered. Our study suggests CTGF as a growth factor signaling mediator that could be involved directly in the mechanism of liver regeneration induction.

  17. Merging of synchrotron serial crystallographic data by a genetic algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Zander, Ulrich; Cianci, Michele; Foos, Nicolas; Silva, Catarina S.; Mazzei, Luca; Zubieta, Chloe; de Maria, Alejandro; Nanao, Max H.

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in macromolecular crystallography have made it practical to rapidly collect hundreds of sub-data sets consisting of small oscillations of incomplete data. This approach, generally referred to as serial crystallography, has many uses, including an increased effective dose per data set, the collection of data from crystals without harvesting (in situ data collection) and studies of dynamic events such as catalytic reactions. However, selecting which data sets from this type of experiment should be merged can be challenging and new methods are required. Here, it is shown that a genetic algorithm can be used for this purpose, and five case studies are presented in which the merging statistics are significantly improved compared with conventional merging of all data. PMID:27599735

  18. Linguistic ostracism causes prejudice: Support for a serial mediation effect.

    PubMed

    Hitlan, Robert Thomas; A Zárate, Michael; Kelly, Kristine M; Catherine DeSoto, M

    2016-01-01

    This research investigated the effects of linguistic ostracism, defined as any communication setting in which a target individual (or group) is ostracized by another individual (or group) in a language that the target has extremely limited ability to understand. Participants were included or ostracized by their group members during a computer-mediated group discussion. Half of the ostracized participants were linguistically ostracized via their group members conversing with one another in a language the participant did not know well (Spanish Ostracism: SO), or in a language the participant did know well (English Ostracism: EO). SO participants reported feeling less similar than both included and EO participants. SO participants also reported being angrier and expressed more prejudice than included participants (and EO participants using effect size estimates). Results also provided support for the hypothesized serial mediation model. Findings are discussed in terms of implications for intergroup relations.

  19. Serial femtosecond crystallography of soluble proteins in lipidic cubic phase

    DOE PAGES

    Fromme, Raimund; Ishchenko, Andrii; Metz, Markus; ...

    2015-08-04

    Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) at X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) enables high-resolution protein structure determination using micrometre-sized crystals at room temperature with minimal effects from radiation damage. SFX requires a steady supply of microcrystals intersecting the XFEL beam at random orientations. An LCP–SFX method has recently been introduced in which microcrystals of membrane proteins are grown and delivered for SFX data collection inside a gel-like membrane-mimetic matrix, known as lipidic cubic phase (LCP), using a special LCP microextrusion injector. Here, it is shown enabling a dramatic reduction in the amount of crystallized protein required for data collection compared with crystals deliveredmore » by liquid injectors. High-quality LCP–SFX data sets were collected for two soluble proteins, lysozyme and phycocyanin, using less than 0.1 mg of each protein.« less

  20. Serial femtosecond crystallography of soluble proteins in lipidic cubic phase

    SciTech Connect

    Fromme, Raimund; Ishchenko, Andrii; Metz, Markus; Chowdhury, Shatabdi Roy; Basu, Shibom; Boutet, Sébastien; Fromme, Petra; White, Thomas A.; Barty, Anton; Spence, John C. H.; Weierstall, Uwe; Liu, Wei; Cherezov, Vadim

    2015-08-04

    Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) at X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) enables high-resolution protein structure determination using micrometre-sized crystals at room temperature with minimal effects from radiation damage. SFX requires a steady supply of microcrystals intersecting the XFEL beam at random orientations. An LCP–SFX method has recently been introduced in which microcrystals of membrane proteins are grown and delivered for SFX data collection inside a gel-like membrane-mimetic matrix, known as lipidic cubic phase (LCP), using a special LCP microextrusion injector. Here, it is shown enabling a dramatic reduction in the amount of crystallized protein required for data collection compared with crystals delivered by liquid injectors. High-quality LCP–SFX data sets were collected for two soluble proteins, lysozyme and phycocyanin, using less than 0.1 mg of each protein.

  1. A case of serial homicide by injection of succinylcholine.

    PubMed

    Maeda, H; Fujita, M Q; Zhu, B L; Ishidam, K; Oritani, S; Tsuchihashi, H; Nishikawa, M; Izumi, M; Matsumoto, F

    2000-04-01

    The abstract of this paper was presented at the 14th Meeting of the International Association of Forensic Sciences, Tokyo in 1996. We report a bizarre criminal case of suspected serial homicide by injection of a muscle relaxant (succinylcholine). Five victims were found buried in a rural area. In two victims showing moderate decomposition (about three months after death), intense pulmonary oedema with pleural effusion was observed. Evidence of a puncture site was found in one of the victims. Succinylcholine could not be detected in the victims, but was identified in a syringe found near the corpses. The 40-mg ampule dose of succinylcholine administered intramuscularly to the victims, possibly causing prolonged apnea, was considered to be at least around the minimum lethal dose, although the combined effect of the sedation with hypnotics also used was not negligible.

  2. Closed-Loop Analysis of Soft Decisions for Serial Links

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansdowne, Chatwin A.; Steele, Glen F.; Zucha, Joan P.; Schlensinger, Adam M.

    2012-01-01

    Modern receivers are providing soft decision symbol synchronization as radio links are challenged to push more data and more overhead through noisier channels, and software-defined radios use error-correction techniques that approach Shannon s theoretical limit of performance. The authors describe the benefit of closed-loop measurements for a receiver when paired with a counterpart transmitter and representative channel conditions. We also describe a real-time Soft Decision Analyzer (SDA) implementation for closed-loop measurements on single- or dual- (orthogonal) channel serial data communication links. The analyzer has been used to identify, quantify, and prioritize contributors to implementation loss in real-time during the development of software defined radios.

  3. Closed-Loop Analysis of Soft Decisions for Serial Links

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansdowne, Chatwin A.; Steele, Glen F.; Zucha, Joan P.; Schlesinger, Adam M.

    2013-01-01

    We describe the benefit of using closed-loop measurements for a radio receiver paired with a counterpart transmitter. We show that real-time analysis of the soft decision output of a receiver can provide rich and relevant insight far beyond the traditional hard-decision bit error rate (BER) test statistic. We describe a Soft Decision Analyzer (SDA) implementation for closed-loop measurements on single- or dual- (orthogonal) channel serial data communication links. The analyzer has been used to identify, quantify, and prioritize contributors to implementation loss in live-time during the development of software defined radios. This test technique gains importance as modern receivers are providing soft decision symbol synchronization as radio links are challenged to push more data and more protocol overhead through noisier channels, and software-defined radios (SDRs) use error-correction codes that approach Shannon's theoretical limit of performance.

  4. Serial interactome capture of the human cell nucleus.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Thomas; Albrecht, Anne-Susann; de Melo Costa, Veronica Rodrigues; Sauer, Sascha; Meierhofer, David; Ørom, Ulf Andersson

    2016-04-04

    Novel RNA-guided cellular functions are paralleled by an increasing number of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs). Here we present 'serial RNA interactome capture' (serIC), a multiple purification procedure of ultraviolet-crosslinked poly(A)-RNA-protein complexes that enables global RBP detection with high specificity. We apply serIC to the nuclei of proliferating K562 cells to obtain the first human nuclear RNA interactome. The domain composition of the 382 identified nuclear RBPs markedly differs from previous IC experiments, including few factors without known RNA-binding domains that are in good agreement with computationally predicted RNA binding. serIC extends the number of DNA-RNA-binding proteins (DRBPs), and reveals a network of RBPs involved in p53 signalling and double-strand break repair. serIC is an effective tool to couple global RBP capture with additional selection or labelling steps for specific detection of highly purified RBPs.

  5. The problem of multimodal concurrent serial order in behavior.

    PubMed

    Kolodny, Oren; Edelman, Shimon

    2015-09-01

    The "problem of serial order in behavior," as formulated and discussed by Lashley (1951), is arguably more pervasive and more profound both than originally stated and than currently appreciated. We spell out two complementary aspects of what we term the generalized problem of behavior: (i) multimodality, stemming from the disparate nature of the sensorimotor variables and processes that underlie behavior, and (ii) concurrency, which reflects the parallel unfolding in time of these processes and of their asynchronous interactions. We illustrate these on a number of examples, with a special focus on language, briefly survey the computational approaches to multimodal concurrency, offer some hypotheses regarding the manner in which brains address it, and discuss some of the broader implications of these as yet unresolved issues for cognitive science.

  6. The evolution of photosynthesis in chromist algae through serial endosymbioses

    PubMed Central

    Stiller, John W.; Schreiber, John; Yue, Jipei; Guo, Hui; Ding, Qin; Huang, Jinling

    2014-01-01

    Chromist algae include diverse photosynthetic organisms of great ecological and social importance. Despite vigorous research efforts, a clear understanding of how various chromists acquired photosynthetic organelles has been complicated by conflicting phylogenetic results, along with an undetermined number and pattern of endosymbioses, and the horizontal movement of genes that accompany them. We apply novel statistical approaches to assess impacts of endosymbiotic gene transfer on three principal chromist groups at the heart of long-standing controversies. Our results provide robust support for acquisitions of photosynthesis through serial endosymbioses, beginning with the adoption of a red alga by cryptophytes, then a cryptophyte by the ancestor of ochrophytes, and finally an ochrophyte by the ancestor of haptophytes. Resolution of how chromist algae are related through endosymbioses provides a framework for unravelling the further reticulate history of red algal-derived plastids, and for clarifying evolutionary processes that gave rise to eukaryotic photosynthetic diversity. PMID:25493338

  7. Does the identification of simple features require serial processing?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folk, C. L.; Egeth, H.

    1989-01-01

    Several recent studies have shown performance decrements with increasing display size when background texture elements are present in a same-different feature discrimination task--a result that challenges the traditional notion that the identities of simple visual features are processed in parallel, preattentively. Four experiments are reported that explore the implications of these results. Experiment 1 replicates the recent studies but limits the generalizability of the results to small target numbers. Experiments 2 and 3 show that the observed performance decrements are not due to a serial or even limited-capacity, parallel process. Experiment 4 suggests that decision factors idiosyncratic to the use of texture elements in a same-different task are responsible for the effect. It is concluded that the identification of simple visual features proceeds in parallel, with unlimited capacity (i.e., preattentively).

  8. Serial assessment of local peripheral vascular function after eccentric exercise.

    PubMed

    Stacy, Mitchel R; Bladon, Kallie J; Lawrence, Jennifer L; McGlinchy, Sarah A; Scheuermann, Barry W

    2013-12-01

    Muscle damage is a common response to unaccustomed eccentric exercise; however, the effects of skeletal muscle damage on local vascular function and blood flow are poorly understood. This study examined serial local vascular responses to flow-mediated (endothelial-dependent) and nitroglycerin-mediated (endothelial-independent) dilation in the brachial artery after strenuous eccentric exercise and serially assessed resting blood flow. Ten healthy males performed 50 maximal eccentric unilateral arm contractions to induce muscle damage to the biceps brachii. Changes in maximal isometric strength and vascular responses were assessed 1, 24, 48, and 96 h after exercise. Mean blood velocities and arterial diameters, measured with Doppler ultrasound, were used to calculate blood flow and shear stress (expressed as area under the curve). Eccentric exercise resulted in impaired maximal isometric strength for up to 96 h (p < 0.001). Reductions in flow-mediated dilation (before exercise, 9.4% ± 2.6%; 1 h after exercise, 5.1% ± 2.2%) and nitroglycerin responses (before exercise, 26.3% ± 6.5%; 1 h after exercise, 20.7% ± 4.7%) were observed in the 1 h after exercise and remained lower for 96 h (p < 0.05). The shear stress response was attenuated immediately after exercise and remained impaired for 48 h (p < 0.05). Resting blood pressure and muscle blood flow remained similar throughout the study. Results suggest that muscle damage from eccentric exercise leads to impaired local endothelial and vascular smooth muscle function. Lower shear stress after exercise might contribute to the observed reduction in flow-mediated dilation responses, but the mechanism responsible for the attenuated endothelial-independent vasodilation remains unclear.

  9. Depression and pain: testing of serial multiple mediators

    PubMed Central

    Wongpakaran, Tinakon; Wongpakaran, Nahathai; Tanchakvaranont, Sitthinant; Bookkamana, Putipong; Pinyopornpanish, Manee; Wannarit, Kamonporn; Satthapisit, Sirina; Nakawiro, Daochompu; Hiranyatheb, Thanita; Thongpibul, Kulvadee

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Despite the fact that pain is related to depression, few studies have been conducted to investigate the variables that mediate between the two conditions. In this study, the authors explored the following mediators: cognitive function, self-sacrificing interpersonal problems, and perception of stress, and the effects they had on pain symptoms among patients with depressive disorders. Participants and methods An analysis was performed on the data of 346 participants with unipolar depressive disorders. The 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Mini-Mental State Examination, the pain subscale of the health-related quality of life (SF-36), the self-sacrificing subscale of the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems, and the Perceived Stress Scale were used. Parallel multiple mediator and serial multiple mediator models were used. An alternative model regarding the effect of self-sacrificing on pain was also proposed. Results Perceived stress, self-sacrificing interpersonal style, and cognitive function were found to significantly mediate the relationship between depression and pain, while controlling for demographic variables. The total effect of depression on pain was significant. This model, with an additional three mediators, accounted for 15% of the explained variance in pain compared to 9% without mediators. For the alternative model, after controlling for the mediators, a nonsignificant total direct effect level of self-sacrificing was found, suggesting that the effect of self-sacrificing on pain was based only on an indirect effect and that perceived stress was found to be the strongest mediator. Conclusion Serial mediation may help us to see how depression and pain are linked and what the fundamental mediators are in the chain. No significant, indirect effect of self-sacrificing on pain was observed, if perceived stress was not part of the depression and/or cognitive function mediational chain. The results shown here have implications for future

  10. Quantitative single serum-dilution liquid phase competitive blocking ELISA for the assessment of herd immunity and expected protection against foot-and-mouth disease virus in vaccinated cattle.

    PubMed

    Robiolo, Blanca; La Torre, José; Duffy, Sergio; Leon, Emilio; Seki, Cristina; Torres, Adriana; Mattion, Nora

    2010-06-01

    A single serum-dilution liquid phase ELISA (slpELISA) was standardized to be used for serological evaluation of herd immunity against foot-and-mouth disease. The absorbance value at a dilution 1:64 of each serum sample was interpolated in a standard curve by plotting the antibody titers of six control sera determined by end point dilution liquid phase ELISA (lpELISA), against the absorbance values for the same control sera at 1:64 dilutions. A straight line was obtained by linear regression analysis (r>0.90) in the titer range of 1.40-2.40. The reliability of the antibody titers was confirmed by the simultaneous titration of 60 cattle sera by slpELISA and lpELISA, which showed an acceptable correlation (R(2)>0.87) for viral strains A24/Cruzeiro, A/Argentina/01, O1/Campos and C3/Indaial. Titers obtained by both methods were not significantly different (p>0.05), thus confirming that slpELISA could be used successfully to replace the conventional serial dilution ELISA for the assessment of protection status of cattle in epidemiological studies. In addition, this quantitative slpELISA provides an adequate method for monitoring the effectiveness of vaccination campaigns and is also suitable for the assessment of seroconversion of naive animals during early stages of infection.

  11. [Formation of oxalate in oxaliplatin injection diluted with infusion solutions].

    PubMed

    Eto, Seiji; Yamamoto, Kie; Shimazu, Kounosuke; Sugiura, Toshimune; Baba, Kaori; Sato, Ayaka; Goromaru, Takeshi; Hagiwara, Yoshiaki; Hara, Keiko; Shinohara, Yoshitake; Takahashi, Kojiro

    2014-01-01

    Oxaliplatin use can cause acute peripheral neuropathy characterized by sensory paresthesias, which are markedly exacerbated by exposure to cold temperatures, and is a dose-limiting factor in the treatment of colorectal cancer.Oxalate is eliminated in a series of nonenzymatic conversions of oxaliplatin in infusion solutions or biological fluids.Elimination of oxalate from oxaliplatin has been suggested as one of the reasons for the development of acute neuropathy.In this study, we developed a high-performance liquid chromatography(HPLC)-based method to detect oxalate formation, and investigated the time dependent formation of oxalate in oxaliplatin diluted with infusion solutions.The results obtained showed that the amount of oxalate in the solution corresponded to 1.6% of oxaliplatin 8 h after oxaliplatin dilution with a 5% glucose solution. On the other hand, oxalate formation from oxaliplatin diluted with a saline solution was ten-fold higher than that from oxaliplatin diluted with the 5% glucose solution.Most patients who were intravenously injected with oxaliplatin experienced venous pain.As a preventive measure against venous pain, dexamethasone was added to the oxaliplatin injection.We measured the amount of oxalate formed in the dexamethasone-containing oxaliplatin injection diluted with a 5% glucose solution.The amount of oxalate formed when dexamethasone was added did not differ significantly from that formed when dexamethasone was not added.Thus, there are no clinical problems associated with the stability of oxaliplatin solutions.

  12. High-dilution effects revisited. 2. Pharmacodynamic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Bellavite, Paolo; Marzotto, Marta; Olioso, Debora; Moratti, Elisabetta; Conforti, Anita

    2014-01-01

    The pharmacodynamics aspects of homeopathic remedies are appraised by laboratory studies on the biological effects at various levels (cellular, molecular and systemic). The major question is how these medicines may work in the body. The possible answers concern the identification of biological targets, the means of drug-receptor interactions, the mechanisms of signal transmission and amplification, and the models of inversion of effects according to the traditional 'simile' rule. These problems are handled by two experimental and theoretical lines, according to the doses or dilutions considered (low-medium versus high dilutions). Homeopathic formulations in low-medium dilutions, containing molecules in the range of ultra-low doses, exploit the extreme sensitivity of biological systems to exogenous and endogenous signals. Their effects are interpreted in the framework of hormesis theories and paradoxical pharmacology. The hypotheses regarding the action mechanisms of highly diluted/dynamized solutions (beyond Avogadro-Loschmidt limit) variously invoke sensitivity to bioelectromagnetic information, participation of water chains in signalling, and regulation of bifurcation points of systemic networks. High-dilution pharmacology is emerging as a pioneering subject in the domain of nanomedicine and is providing greater plausibility to the puzzling claims of homeopathy.

  13. Non‐diluted seawater enhances nasal ciliary beat frequency and wound repair speed compared to diluted seawater and normal saline

    PubMed Central

    Bonnomet, Arnaud; Luczka, Emilie; Coraux, Christelle

    2016-01-01

    Background The regulation of mucociliary clearance is a key part of the defense mechanisms developed by the airway epithelium. If a high aggregate quality of evidence shows the clinical effectiveness of nasal irrigation, there is a lack of studies showing the intrinsic role of the different irrigation solutions allowing such results. This study investigated the impact of solutions with different pH and ionic compositions, eg, normal saline, non‐diluted seawater and diluted seawater, on nasal mucosa functional parameters. Methods For this randomized, controlled, blinded, in vitro study, we used airway epithelial cells obtained from 13 nasal polyps explants to measure ciliary beat frequency (CBF) and epithelial wound repair speed (WRS) in response to 3 isotonic nasal irrigation solutions: (1) normal saline 0.9%; (2) non‐diluted seawater (Physiomer®); and (3) 30% diluted seawater (Stérimar). The results were compared to control (cell culture medium). Results Non‐diluted seawater enhanced the CBF and the WRS when compared to diluted seawater and to normal saline. When compared to the control, it significantly enhanced CBF and slightly, though nonsignificantly, improved the WRS. Interestingly, normal saline markedly reduced the number of epithelial cells and ciliated cells when compared to the control condition. Conclusion Our results suggest that the physicochemical features of the nasal wash solution is important because it determines the optimal conditions to enhance CBF and epithelial WRS thus preserving the respiratory mucosa in pathological conditions. Non‐diluted seawater obtains the best results on CBF and WRS vs normal saline showing a deleterious effect on epithelial cell function. PMID:27101776

  14. The Automation of Government Publications: Functional Requirements and Selected Software Systems for Serials Controls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Mary Sue; Purcell, Gary R.

    1985-01-01

    Describes computer-based software and network systems for application to serials and government publications. General and specific functional requirements (hardware, software, file structure) are discussed, and descriptive information about commercially available serials control systems and a list of distributors are provided. (CLB)

  15. Print Serial Cancellations in University Libraries Post 1990: What Do the CAUL Statistics Reveal?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genoni, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Recent reports on Australia's research infrastructure have highlighted the decline in serial subscriptions in academic and research libraries during the 1990s. They have used the annual CAUL statistics in order to support these claims. This article examines the CAUL statistics for serial subscriptions, indicating their numerous flaws when used for…

  16. 77 FR 66920 - Registration of Claims to Copyright: Group Registration of Serial Issues Filed Electronically

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-08

    ... Copyright Office 37 CFR Part 202 Registration of Claims to Copyright: Group Registration of Serial Issues Filed Electronically AGENCY: Copyright Office, Library of Congress. ACTION: Interim regulations. SUMMARY: The Copyright Office is adopting interim regulations that allow groups of related serial issues to...

  17. Repetition Learning in the Immediate Serial Recall of Visual and Auditory Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Mike P. A.; Cumming, Nick; Norris, Dennis; Hitch, Graham J.; McNeil, Alan M.

    2006-01-01

    In 5 experiments, a Hebb repetition effect, that is, improved immediate serial recall of an (unannounced) repeating list, was demonstrated in the immediate serial recall of visual materials, even when use of phonological short-term memory was blocked by concurrent articulation. The learning of a repeatedly presented letter list in one modality…

  18. The Locus of Serial Processing in Reading Aloud: Orthography-to-Phonology Computation or Speech Planning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mousikou, Petroula; Rastle, Kathleen; Besner, Derek; Coltheart, Max

    2015-01-01

    Dual-route theories of reading posit that a sublexical reading mechanism that operates serially and from left to right is involved in the orthography-to-phonology computation. These theories attribute the masked onset priming effect (MOPE) and the phonological Stroop effect (PSE) to the serial left-to-right operation of this mechanism. However,…

  19. 48 CFR 211.274-5 - Policy for assignment of Government-assigned serial numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Policy for assignment of... Using and Maintaining Requirements Documents 211.274-5 Policy for assignment of Government-assigned serial numbers. It is DoD policy that contractors apply Government-assigned serial numbers, such as...

  20. 48 CFR 211.274-5 - Policy for assignment of Government-assigned serial numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Policy for assignment of... Using and Maintaining Requirements Documents 211.274-5 Policy for assignment of Government-assigned serial numbers. It is DoD policy that contractors apply Government-assigned serial numbers, such as...

  1. The Nature of Verbal Short-Term Impairment in Dyslexia: The Importance of Serial Order

    PubMed Central

    Majerus, Steve; Cowan, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Verbal short-term memory (STM) impairment is one of the most consistent associated deficits observed in developmental reading disorders such as dyslexia. Few studies have addressed the nature of this STM impairment, especially as regards the ability to temporarily store serial order information. This question is important as studies in typically developing children have shown that serial order STM abilities are predictors of oral and written language development. Associated serial order STM deficits in dyslexia may therefore further increase the learning difficulties in these populations. In this mini review, we show that specific serial order STM impairment is frequently reported in both dyslexic children and adults with a history of dyslexia. Serial order STM impairment appears to occur for the retention of both verbal and visuo-spatial sequence information. Serial order STM impairment is, however, not a characteristic of every individual dyslexic subject and is not specific to dyslexia. Future studies need to determine whether serial order STM impairment is a risk factor which, in association with phonological processing deficits, can lead to dyslexia or whether serial order STM impairment reflects associated deficits causally unrelated to dyslexia. PMID:27752247

  2. Automated Serials Control at the Indian Institutes of Technology: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghosh, Tapas Kumar; Panda, K. C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to highlight the functional attributes of the automated serials control systems of the libraries in seven Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs) and provide a comparative analysis. Design/methodology/approach: Features of the serials control modules of the library management systems (LMSs) in use in the…

  3. Children's Memory: SES Differences in the Development of Serial Processing Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeton, Anne; McLean, Leslie D.

    Two studies examined serial recall process of first-grade Canadian children from inner-city and suburban backgrounds. In the first study significant differences were found in the serial position curve of recall. Suburban children recalled a greater number of early-presented, primacy items, while inner-city children who had equivalent span…

  4. Race as Seriality: A Response to David Benatar and Zimitri Erasmus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gouws, A.

    2010-01-01

    In this article I draw on the Sarte's notion of "seriality" as theorized in his book "Dialectic of Reason" and as interpreted by Iris Marion Young. I argue that seriality can be used to escape the false essentialism and identity politics of race as a category for admissions to universities. A series is a social collective whose members are unified…

  5. Highly sensitive detection of small ruminant bovine spongiform encephalopathy within transmissible spongiform encephalopathy mixes by serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification.

    PubMed

    Gough, Kevin C; Bishop, Keith; Maddison, Ben C

    2014-11-01

    It is assumed that sheep and goats consumed the same bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)-contaminated meat and bone meal that was fed to cattle and precipitated the BSE epidemic in the United Kingdom that peaked more than 20 years ago. Despite intensive surveillance for cases of BSE within the small ruminant populations of the United Kingdom and European Union, no instances of BSE have been detected in sheep, and in only two instances has BSE been discovered in goats. If BSE is present within the small ruminant populations, it may be at subclinical levels, may manifest as scrapie, or may be masked by coinfection with scrapie. To determine whether BSE is potentially circulating at low levels within the European small ruminant populations, highly sensitive assays that can specifically detect BSE, even within the presence of scrapie prion protein, are required. Here, we present a novel assay based on the specific amplification of BSE PrP(Sc) using the serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification assay (sPMCA), which specifically amplified small amounts of ovine and caprine BSE agent which had been mixed into a range of scrapie-positive brain homogenates. We detected the BSE prion protein within a large excess of classical, atypical, and CH1641 scrapie isolates. In a blind trial, this sPMCA-based assay specifically amplified BSE PrP(Sc) within brain mixes with 100% specificity and 97% sensitivity when BSE agent was diluted into scrapie-infected brain homogenates at 1% (vol/vol).

  6. IEEE 1394/firewire a low cost, high speed, digital serial bus

    SciTech Connect

    Gaunt, R.

    1997-05-01

    Does the world need yet another 1/0 bus standard? If you need fast and cheap serial video communication, then the answer is yes. As technology advances, so too must data transport mechanisms advance. You can`t expect RS-232 to support real-time digital video, and if you can`t afford expensive professional serial video interfaces, (such as Sony`s Serial Digital Interface), Firewire may be a good solution. IEEE 1394, or commonly known as Firewire, is a general purpose serial bus that meets many of the 1/0 needs of today`s video and multimedia developers. For those of you who only read the first paragraph, here`s Firewire in a nutshell: It provides a guaranteed transfer rate of 10OMbps or 20OMbps of digital data (such as video direct from camera to computer), over an inexpensive, non-proprietary serial bus. Here is a list of its features.

  7. The case of Jeffrey Dahmer: sexual serial homicide from a neuropsychiatric developmental perspective.

    PubMed

    Silva, J Arturo; Ferrari, Michelle M; Leong, Gregory B

    2002-11-01

    Sexual serial homicidal behavior has received considerable attention during the last three decades. Substantial progress has been made in the development of methods aimed at identifying and apprehending individuals who exhibit these behaviors. In spite of these advances, the origins of sexual serial killing behavior remain for the most part unknown. In this article we propose a biopsychosocial psychiatric model for understanding the origins of sexual serial homicidal behavior from both neuropsychiatric and developmental perspectives, using the case of convicted serial killer Jeffrey Dahmer as the focal point. We propose that his homicidal behavior was intrinsically associated with autistic spectrum psychopathology, specifically Asperger's disorder. The relationship of Asperger's disorder to other psychopathology and to his homicidal behavior is explored. We discuss potential implications of the proposed model for the future study of the causes of sexual serial homicidal crime.

  8. Female serial murderers: directions for future research on a hidden population.

    PubMed

    Gurian, Elizabeth A

    2011-02-01

    This comprehensive overview on a sample of 65 cases (134 total offenders, including some partnered teams of more than 2 offenders) provides information on female serial murderers who either work in a mixed-sex offending group or alone. These female serial homicide offenders have a distinct set of offender-victim characteristics, including specific victim preferences, methods, and motivations: Partnered serial homicide offenders are more likely to target adult strangers and dispatch them using a combination of methods, whereas solo female serial murderers are most likely to target adult family members and murder them with poison. These patterns have the potential to add to our understanding of the possible similarities and differences of serial homicide cases by building on established offender characteristics. Convictions and sentences for the offenders are included and areas of future research and implications for treatment with this sample are also explored.

  9. Cross-domain interference costs during concurrent verbal and spatial serial memory tasks are asymmetric.

    PubMed

    Morey, Candice C; Mall, Jonathan T

    2012-01-01

    Some evidence suggests that memory for serial order is domain-general. Evidence also points to asymmetries in interference between verbal and visual-spatial tasks. We confirm that concurrently remembering verbal and spatial serial lists provokes substantial interference compared with remembering a single list, but we further investigate the impact of this interference throughout the serial position curve, where asymmetries are indeed apparent. A concurrent verbal order memory task affects spatial memory performance throughout the serial positions of the list, but performing a spatial order task affects memory for the verbal serial list only for early list items; in the verbal task only, the final items are unaffected by a concurrent task. Adding suffixes eliminates this asymmetry, resulting in impairment throughout the list for both tasks. These results suggest that domain-general working memory resources may be supplemented with resources specific to the verbal domain, but perhaps not with equivalent spatial resources.

  10. Gas dilution system results and application to acid rain utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Jolley-Souders, K.; Geib, R.; Dunn, C.

    1997-12-31

    In 1997, the United States EPA will remove restrictions preventing acid rain utilities from using gas dilution systems for calibration or linearity studies for continuous emissions monitoring, Test Method 205 in 40CFR51 requires that a gas dilution system must produce calibration gases whose measured values are within {+-}2% of predicted values. This paper presents the evaluation of the Environics/CalMat 2020 Dilution System for use in calibration studies. Internal studies show that concentrations generated by this unit are within {+-}0.5% of predicted values. Studies are being conducted by several acid rain utilities to evaluate the Environics/CalMat system using single minor component calibration standards. In addition, an internally generated study is being performed to demonstrate the system`s accuracy using a multi-component gas mixture. Data from these tests will be presented in the final version of the paper.

  11. Maximum First Transfer and Dilution Volumes for 241SY101

    SciTech Connect

    BARTON, W.B.

    1999-10-28

    This report discusses the solution to the following problem: what is the maximum waste transfer and dilution quantities and locations which can be allowed in the first transfer of waste from SY-101 given the following constraints? (1) The crust must float on the submerged waste (waste becomes less dense when diluted, eventually allowing crust to sink); (2) No credit is taken for the top dilution; (3) Addition of water to the bulk slurry through the transfer pump must be able to refloat the crust base to above 295 inches; (4) The margin between refloating to 295 inches and crust sinking must be at least 10,000 gallons; (5) The crust can't be thinned to less than 60 inches thick.

  12. Production and distribution of dilute species in semiconducting materials

    SciTech Connect

    James, Ralph B.; Camarda, Giuseppe; Bolotnikov, Aleksey E.; Hossain, Anwar; Yang, Ge; Kim, Kihyun

    2016-09-06

    Technologies are described effective to implement systems and methods of producing a material. The methods comprise receiving a tertiary semiconductor sample with a dilute species. The sample has two ends. The first end of the sample includes a first concentration of the dilute species lower than a second concentration of the dilute species in the second end of the sample. The method further comprises heating the sample in a chamber. The chamber has a first zone and a second zone. The first zone having a first temperature higher than a second temperature in the second zone. The sample is orientated such that the first end is in the first zone and the second end is in the second zone.

  13. Process of concentrating ethanol from dilute aqueous solutions thereof

    DOEpatents

    Oulman, C.S.; Chriswell, C.D.

    1981-07-07

    Relatively dilute aqueous solutions of ethanol are concentrated by passage through a bed of a crystalline silica polymorph, such as silicalite, to adsorb the ethanol with residual dilute feed in contact with the bed, which is displaced by passing concentrated aqueous ethanol through the bed without displacing the adsorbed ethanol. A product concentrate is then obtained by removing the adsorbed ethanol from the bed together with at least a portion of the concentrated aqueous ethanol used as the displacer liquid. This process permits ethanol to be concentrated from dilute fermentation beers, which may contain from 6 to 10% ethanol, to obtain a concentrate product at very low energy cost having an ethanol concentration in excess of 95%, such as a concentration of from 98 to 99.5%. 5 figs.

  14. Process of concentrating ethanol from dilute aqueous solutions thereof

    DOEpatents

    Oulman, Charles S. [Ames, IA; Chriswell, Colin D. [Slater, IA

    1981-07-07

    Relatively dilute aqueous solutions of ethanol are concentrated by passage through a bed of a crystalline silica polymorph, such as silicalite, to adsorb the ethanol with residual dilute feed in contact with the bed, which is displaced by passing concentrated aqueous ethanol through the bed without displacing the adsorbed ethanol. A product concentrate is then obtained by removing the adsorbed ethanol from the bed together with at least a portion of the concentrated aqueous ethanol used as the displacer liquid. This process permits ethanol to be concentrated from dilute fermentation beers, which may contain from 6 to 10% ethanol, to obtain a concentrate product at very low energy cost having an ethanol concentration in excess of 95%, such as a concentration of from 98 to 99.5%.

  15. Application of Cryocoolers to a Vintage Dilution Refrigerator

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, Richard; Smith, Gary; Ruschman, Mark; Beaty, Jim; /Minnesota U.

    2011-06-06

    A dilution refrigerator is required for 50mK detector operation of CDMS (Cryogenic Dark Matter Search). Besides shielding the dilution refrigerator itself, the liquid nitrogen shield and liquid helium bath in the refrigerator cool the detector cryostat heat shields and cool electronics, resulting in significant external heat loads at 80K and at 4K. An Oxford Instruments Kelvinox 400 has served this role for ten years but required daily transfers of liquid nitrogen and liquid helium. Complicating the cryogen supply is the location 800 meters below ground in an RF shielded, class 10000 clean room at Soudan, MN. Nitrogen and helium re-liquefiers using cryocoolers were installed outside the clean room and continuously condense room temperature gas and return the liquids to the dilution refrigerator through a transfer line. This paper will describe the design, installation, controls and performance of liquefaction systems.

  16. Dilution cycle control for an absorption refrigeration system

    DOEpatents

    Reimann, Robert C.

    1984-01-01

    A dilution cycle control system for an absorption refrigeration system is disclosed. The control system includes a time delay relay for sensing shutdown of the absorption refrigeration system and for generating a control signal only after expiration of a preselected time period measured from the sensed shutdown of the absorption refrigeration system, during which the absorption refrigeration system is not restarted. A dilution cycle for the absorption refrigeration system is initiated in response to generation of a control signal by the time delay relay. This control system is particularly suitable for use with an absorption refrigeration system which is frequently cycled on and off since the time delay provided by the control system prevents needless dilution of the absorption refrigeration system when the system is turned off for only a short period of time and then is turned back on.

  17. 40 CFR 1065.140 - Dilution for gaseous and PM constituents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.140 Dilution for gaseous and PM constituents. (a) General. You may dilute exhaust with ambient air, synthetic air, or... diluting exhaust at a location as close as possible to the location where ambient air dilution would...

  18. Operation of a dilution refrigerator in a micro mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edelman, V. S.

    2003-05-01

    It is shown that a dilution refrigerator in which 3He circulates due to condensation of He evaporating in the still on a cold wall at T=0.4- 0.5 K and condensate drains down to the mixing chamber can operate at 3He circulation rate down to 1 μmol/ s. On the base of this result we designed and tested experimental dilution refrigerator with sorption pumping of 3He bath and 1 K pot which can be inserted in a helium transport Dewar with a 24 mm hole in the neck.

  19. Field observations of dilution on the Ipanema Beach outfall.

    PubMed

    Roldão, J; Carvalho, J L; Roberts, P J

    2001-01-01

    Field observations of the Ipanema Beach, Rio de Janeiro, ocean sewage outfall are presented. Measurements of dilution and other wastefield characteristics were obtained by adding dye tracer to the effluent and measuring in-situ. Simultaneous measurements of oceanographic conditions were made by Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers, thermistor strings, and profiling instruments. Four experiments were performed, two during unstratified conditions when the plume was surfacing, and two during conditions of strong stratification when the plume was submerged. The minimum dilution varied from 30 to 130. The measurements reflect the worst case conditions as the campaigns were all made for weak currents.

  20. Concentration-dependent correlated scattering properties of Intralipid 20% dilutions.

    PubMed

    Raju, Michael; Unni, Sujatha Narayanan

    2017-02-01

    Dilutions of Intralipid 20% are widely used as optical phantoms for mimicking scattering properties of turbid media such as tissues. One of the frequently used methodologies for quantifying the scattering coefficient and anisotropy of Intralipid 20% is the use of single-particle Mie scattering theory, which in fact is not valid for nontenuous media. Hence, two methodologies consisting of analytical wave theory and effective medium theory, incorporating particle size distribution and concentration-dependent correlated scattering phenomena, are used to estimate the effective scattering coefficient and anisotropy of Intralipid 20% dilutions (1%-100% v/v) from 380 to 1000 nm.

  1. Evaluation of two gas-dilution methods for instrument calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, A., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Two gas dilution methods were evaluated for use in the calibration of analytical instruments used in air pollution studies. A dual isotope fluorescence carbon monoxide analyzer was used as the transfer standard. The methods are not new but some modifications are described. The rotary injection gas dilution method was found to be more accurate than the closed loop method. Results by the two methods differed by 5 percent. This could not be accounted for by the random errors in the measurements. The methods avoid the problems associated with pressurized cylinders. Both methods have merit and have found a place in instrument calibration work.

  2. 77 FR 35718 - Certain Universal Serial Bus (“USB”) Portable Storage Devices, Including USB Flash Drives and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Universal Serial Bus (``USB'') Portable Storage Devices, Including USB Flash Drives and... importation of certain universal serial bus (``USB'') portable storage devices, including USB flash drives...

  3. EDITORIAL: Focus on Dilute Magnetic Semiconductors FOCUS ON DILUTE MAGNETIC SEMICONDUCTORS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, Scott A.; Gallagher, Bryan

    2008-05-01

    This focus issue of New Journal of Physics is devoted to the materials science of dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS). A DMS is traditionally defined as a diamagnetic semiconductor doped with a few to several atomic per cent of some transition metal with unpaired d electrons. Several kinds of dopant-dopant interactions can in principle couple the dopant spins leading to a ferromagnetic ground state in a dilute magnetic system. These include superexchange, which occurs principally in oxides and only between dopants with one intervening oxygen, and double exchange, in which dopants of different formal charges exchange an electron. In both of these mechanisms, the ferromagnetic alignment is not critically dependent on free carriers in the host semiconductor because exchange occurs via bonds. A third mechanism, discovered in the last few years, involves electrons associated with lattice defects that can apparently couple dopant spins. This mechanism is not well understood. Finally, the most desirable mechanism is carrier-mediated exchange interaction in which the dopant spins are coupled by itinerant electrons or holes in the host semiconductor. This mechanism introduces a fundamental link between magnetic and electrical transport properties and offers the possibility of new spintronic functionalities. In particular electrical gate control of ferromagnetism and the use of spin polarized currents to carry signals for analog and digital applications. The spin light emitting diode is a prototypical device of this kind that has been extensively used to characterize the extent of spin polarization in the active light emitting semiconductor heterostructure. The prototypical carrier mediated ferromagnetic DMS is Mn-doped GaAs. This and closely related narrow gap III-V materials have been very extensively studied. Their properties are generally quite well understood and they have led to important insights into fundamental properties of ferromagnetic systems with strong spin

  4. Serial exercise gated radionuclide ventriculograms (RVG) in monitoring doxorubicin cardiotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, H.A.; Lahoda, J.; Fox, L.

    1985-05-01

    The resting RVG (Radionuclide Ventriculograms) are demonstrated to be an effective monitor of the cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin. The exercise RVG has not been as well studied to see if it yields additional information or detects toxicity effects earlier. Sixteen patients receiving doxorubicin for chemotherapy had 2-6 serial exercise studies with intervals between studies of 1 month to 15 months. The patients exercised varying amounts with cardiac work indicated by their double products (HR x Sys. BP). Although all patients started with a normal resting LVEF (>50%), 5 of the 16 did not have a normal response (greater than or equal to5% increase in LVEF) with initial exercise study. Of the 11 patients with an initially normal response to exercise, on at least one subsequent study, 3 had an abnormal response to exercise. On a later follow up study 1 of these 3 patients again had a normal response to exercise. Six of these 11 patients had had RVG evidence of cardiotoxicity. Four of these 6 patients had continually normal exercise responses, while 2 of these 5 patients had had an abnormal exercise response. An initial exercise RVG may be reasonable to detect unsuspected CAD in cancer victims. These patients are reported to be more sensitive to the toxic effects of doxorubicin. Follow up exercise RVGs do not contribute useful information, do not predict cardiotoxicity, and may be misleading.

  5. A novel inert crystal delivery medium for serial femtosecond crystallography

    SciTech Connect

    Conrad, Chelsie E.; Basu, Shibom; James, Daniel; Wang, Dingjie; Schaffer, Alexander; Roy-Chowdhury, Shatabdi; Zatsepin, Nadia A.; Aquila, Andrew; Coe, Jesse; Gati, Cornelius; Hunter, Mark S.; Koglin, Jason E.; Kupitz, Christopher; Nelson, Garrett; Subramanian, Ganesh; White, Thomas A.; Zhao, Yun; Zook, James; Boutet, Sébastien; Cherezov, Vadim; Spence, John C. H.; Fromme, Raimund; Weierstall, Uwe; Fromme, Petra

    2015-06-30

    Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) has opened a new era in crystallography by permitting nearly damage-free, room-temperature structure determination of challenging proteins such as membrane proteins. In SFX, femtosecond X-ray free-electron laser pulses produce diffraction snapshots from nanocrystals and microcrystals delivered in a liquid jet, which leads to high protein consumption. A slow-moving stream of agarose has been developed as a new crystal delivery medium for SFX. It has low background scattering, is compatible with both soluble and membrane proteins, and can deliver the protein crystals at a wide range of temperatures down to 4°C. Using this crystal-laden agarose stream, the structure of a multi-subunit complex, phycocyanin, was solved to 2.5Å resolution using 300µg of microcrystals embedded into the agarose medium post-crystallization. The agarose delivery method reduces protein consumption by at least 100-fold and has the potential to be used for a diverse population of proteins, including membrane protein complexes.

  6. Serial femtosecond crystallography of soluble proteins in lipidic cubic phase

    SciTech Connect

    Fromme, Raimund; Ishchenko, Andrii; Metz, Markus; Chowdhury, Shatabdi Roy; Basu, Shibom; Boutet, Sébastien; Fromme, Petra; White, Thomas A.; Barty, Anton; Spence, John C. H.; Weierstall, Uwe; Liu, Wei; Cherezov, Vadim

    2015-08-04

    Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) at X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) enables high-resolution protein structure determination using micrometre-sized crystals at room temperature with minimal effects from radiation damage. SFX requires a steady supply of microcrystals intersecting the XFEL beam at random orientations. An LCP–SFX method has recently been introduced in which microcrystals of membrane proteins are grown and delivered for SFX data collection inside a gel-like membrane-mimetic matrix, known as lipidic cubic phase (LCP), using a special LCP microextrusion injector. Here, it is demonstrated that LCP can also be used as a suitable carrier medium for microcrystals of soluble proteins, enabling a dramatic reduction in the amount of crystallized protein required for data collection compared with crystals delivered by liquid injectors. High-quality LCP–SFX data sets were collected for two soluble proteins, lysozyme and phycocyanin, using less than 0.1 mg of each protein.

  7. Serially connected solid oxide fuel cells having monolithic cores

    DOEpatents

    Herceg, J.E.

    1985-05-20

    Disclosed is a solid oxide fuel cell for electrochemically combining fuel and oxidant for generating galvanic output. The cell core has an array of cell segments electrically serially connected in the flow direction, each segment consisting of electrolyte walls and interconnect that are substantially devoid of any composite inert materials for support. Instead, the core is monolithic, where each electrolyte wall consists of thin layers of cathode and anode materials sandwiching a thin layer of electrolyte material therebetween. Means direct the fuel to the anode-exposed core passageways and means direct the oxidant to the cathode-exposed core passageways; and means also direct the galvanic output to an exterior circuit. Each layer of the electrolyte composite materials is of the order of 0.002 to 0.01 cm thick; and each layer of the cathode and anode materials is of the order of 0.002 to 0.05 cm thick. Between 2 and 50 cell segments may be connected in series.

  8. Serial analysis of gene expression in eukaryotic pathogens.

    PubMed

    Kronstad, James W

    2006-09-01

    The tag-based method of serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) has been used to measure mRNA abundance and differential expression in a variety of organisms including several parasites and fungal pathogens. SAGE is based on the collection of short sequence tags as a measure of transcript abundance and the method provides an alternative, and in some instances, complementary approach to array-based methods of measuring differential gene expression. These methods are being used to improve our molecular understanding of the pathogenesis of eukaryotic microbes and SAGE in particular presents valuable opportunities for gene discovery and genome annotation. For eukaryotic pathogens, the SAGE method has been employed for the parasites Plasmodium falciparum, Toxoplasma gondii and Giardia lamblia, as well as fungal pathogens of plants (Magnaporthe grisea, Blumeria graminis, Ustilago maydis) and humans (Cryptococcus neoformans, Coccidiodes posadasii, Trichophyton rubrum). The accumulating information promises to speed the identification of key pathogen functions for virulence and proliferation in the host with the hope that some of these will represent important targets for drug and vaccine development.

  9. Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE): application in cancer research.

    PubMed

    Tuteja, Renu; Tuteja, Narendra

    2004-06-01

    Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) is a powerful tool that allows digital analysis of overall gene expression patterns. SAGE provides quantitative and comprehensive expression profiling in a given cell population. Because SAGE does not require a preexisting clone, it can be used to identify and quantitate new as well as known genes. It works by isolating short fragments of genetic information from the genes expressed in the cell being studied. These short sequences, called SAGE tags, are linked together for efficient sequencing. SAGE is particularly well suited for organisms whose genome is not completely sequenced, because it does not require a hybridization probe for each transcript and allows new genes to be discovered. New modifications of SAGE now permit the analysis of gene expression in cell sub-populations or micro-anatomic structures, providing access to unexplored transcriptomes of normal and disease biology. Data derived using the SAGE technology have been used to identify tumor markers for a variety of cancers, including gastrointestinal cancer, lung and thyroid cancer, breast and ovarian cancer, neuroblastoma and glioblastoma, prostate cancer, and renal cell carcinoma. In this review we present an outline of the method and updated information on the applications of SAGE technology to various cancers.

  10. LabVIEW Serial Driver Software for an Electronic Load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scullin, Vincent; Garcia, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    A LabVIEW-language computer program enables monitoring and control of a Transistor Devices, Inc., Dynaload WCL232 (or equivalent) electronic load via an RS-232 serial communication link between the electronic load and a remote personal computer. (The electronic load can operate at constant voltage, current, power consumption, or resistance.) The program generates a graphical user interface (GUI) at the computer that looks and acts like the front panel of the electronic load. Once the electronic load has been placed in remote-control mode, this program first queries the electronic load for the present values of all its operational and limit settings, and then drops into a cycle in which it reports the instantaneous voltage, current, and power values in displays that resemble those on the electronic load while monitoring the GUI images of pushbuttons for control actions by the user. By means of the pushbutton images and associated prompts, the user can perform such operations as changing limit values, the operating mode, or the set point. The benefit of this software is that it relieves the user of the need to learn one method for operating the electronic load locally and another method for operating it remotely via a personal computer.

  11. Identification of rogue datasets in serial crystallography1

    PubMed Central

    Assmann, Greta; Brehm, Wolfgang; Diederichs, Kay

    2016-01-01

    Advances in beamline optics, detectors and X-ray sources allow new techniques of crystallographic data collection. In serial crystallography, a large number of partial datasets from crystals of small volume are measured. Merging of datasets from different crystals in order to enhance data completeness and accuracy is only valid if the crystals are isomorphous, i.e. sufficiently similar in cell parameters, unit-cell contents and molecular structure. Identification and exclusion of non-isomorphous datasets is therefore indispensable and must be done by means of suitable indicators. To identify rogue datasets, the influence of each dataset on CC1/2 [Karplus & Diederichs (2012 ▸). Science, 336, 1030–1033], the correlation coefficient between pairs of intensities averaged in two randomly assigned subsets of observations, is evaluated. The presented method employs a precise calculation of CC1/2 that avoids the random assignment, and instead of using an overall CC1/2, an average over resolution shells is employed to obtain sensible results. The selection procedure was verified by measuring the correlation of observed (merged) intensities and intensities calculated from a model. It is found that inclusion and merging of non-isomorphous datasets may bias the refined model towards those datasets, and measures to reduce this effect are suggested. PMID:27275144

  12. Early serial SPET in acute middle cerebral artery infarction.

    PubMed

    Nuutinen, J; Kuikka, J; Roivainen, R; Vanninen, E; Sivenius, J

    2000-05-01

    The size and severity of perfusion defects in acute cerebral ischaemia on single photon emission tomographic (SPET) images may provide useful information regarding long-term (> 3 month) stroke outcome. A decreased predictive value has been reported with delayed SPET more than 24 h after stroke onset. We examined 20 patients with acute middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarctions using serial 99Tcm-ECD or 99Tcm-HMPAO SPET (SPET 1 one day and SPET 2 three days after stroke onset). Neurological (NIH, SSS) and functional (Barthel, Rankin) scores were calculated simultaneously and 3 months poststroke. The two SPET scans correlated equally well with the severity of functional and neurological deficits evaluated 3 months after stroke onset. In comparison to clinical assessment, the prognostic value of SPET was relatively better on the first day than the third day. Crossed cerebellar diaschisis correlated with early SPET deficits, but did not predict functional outcome. Our results suggest that SPET, either with 99Tcm-ECD or 99Tcm-HMPAO, can be used to predict stroke outcome in acute MCA infarction up to 72 h poststroke without significant interference from luxury perfusion.

  13. Structure of the Angiotensin Receptor Revealed by Serial Femtosecond Crystallography

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Haitao; Unal, Hamiyet; Gati, Cornelius; ...

    2015-05-07

    We report that angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) is a G protein-coupled receptor that serves as a primary regulator for blood pressure maintenance. Although several anti-hypertensive drugs have been developed as AT1R blockers (ARBs), the structural basis for AT1R ligand-binding and regulation has remained elusive, mostly due to the difficulties of growing high quality crystals for structure determination using synchrotron radiation. By applying the recently developed method of serial femtosecond crystallography at an X-ray free-electron laser, we successfully determined the room-temperature crystal structure of the human AT1R in complex with its selective antagonist ZD7155 at 2.9 Å resolution. Themore » AT1R-ZD7155 complex structure revealed key structural features ofAT1R and critical interactions for ZD7155 binding. Finally, docking simulations of the clinically used ARBs into the AT1R structure further elucidated both the common and distinct binding modes for these anti-hypertensive drugs. Our results thereby provide fundamental insights into AT1R structure-function relationship and structure-based drug design.« less

  14. Structure of the Angiotensin Receptor Revealed by Serial Femtosecond Crystallography

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Haitao; Unal, Hamiyet; Gati, Cornelius; Han, Gye Won; Liu, Wei; Zatsepin, Nadia A.; James, Daniel; Wang, Dingjie; Nelson, Garrett; Weierstall, Uwe; Sawaya, Michael R.; Xu, Qingping; Messerschmidt, Marc; Williams, Garth J.; Boutet, Sébastien; Yefanov, Oleksandr M.; White, Thomas A.; Wang, Chong; Ishchenko, Andrii; Tirupula, Kalyan C.; Desnoyer, Russell; Coe, Jesse; Conrad, Chelsie E.; Fromme, Petra; Stevens, Raymond C.; Katritch, Vsevolod; Karnik, Sadashiva S.; Cherezov, Vadim

    2015-05-07

    We report that angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) is a G protein-coupled receptor that serves as a primary regulator for blood pressure maintenance. Although several anti-hypertensive drugs have been developed as AT1R blockers (ARBs), the structural basis for AT1R ligand-binding and regulation has remained elusive, mostly due to the difficulties of growing high quality crystals for structure determination using synchrotron radiation. By applying the recently developed method of serial femtosecond crystallography at an X-ray free-electron laser, we successfully determined the room-temperature crystal structure of the human AT1R in complex with its selective antagonist ZD7155 at 2.9 Å resolution. The AT1R-ZD7155 complex structure revealed key structural features ofAT1R and critical interactions for ZD7155 binding. Finally, docking simulations of the clinically used ARBs into the AT1R structure further elucidated both the common and distinct binding modes for these anti-hypertensive drugs. Our results thereby provide fundamental insights into AT1R structure-function relationship and structure-based drug design.

  15. Serial femtosecond crystallography of soluble proteins in lipidic cubic phase

    PubMed Central

    Fromme, Raimund; Ishchenko, Andrii; Metz, Markus; Chowdhury, Shatabdi Roy; Basu, Shibom; Boutet, Sébastien; Fromme, Petra; White, Thomas A.; Barty, Anton; Spence, John C. H.; Weierstall, Uwe; Liu, Wei; Cherezov, Vadim

    2015-01-01

    Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) at X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) enables high-resolution protein structure determination using micrometre-sized crystals at room temperature with minimal effects from radiation damage. SFX requires a steady supply of microcrystals intersecting the XFEL beam at random orientations. An LCP–SFX method has recently been introduced in which microcrystals of membrane proteins are grown and delivered for SFX data collection inside a gel-like membrane-mimetic matrix, known as lipidic cubic phase (LCP), using a special LCP microextrusion injector. Here, it is demonstrated that LCP can also be used as a suitable carrier medium for microcrystals of soluble proteins, enabling a dramatic reduction in the amount of crystallized protein required for data collection compared with crystals delivered by liquid injectors. High-quality LCP–SFX data sets were collected for two soluble proteins, lysozyme and phycocyanin, using less than 0.1 mg of each protein. PMID:26306196

  16. Three-dimensional reconstruction from serial sections using triakis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preston, Kendall, Jr.; Siderits, Richard

    1992-06-01

    Various methods for serial-section reconstruction from images of tissue sections have been investigated using the Apple Macintosh-based program Triakis. Triakis is a three-dimensional mathematical morphology software package that processes 3-D binary data in the FCC (face centered cubic) tessellation by means of LUT (look-up table) manipulations. Tissue sections have been obtained from a breast tumor and traced using PC3-D [Jandel Scientific, Corte Madera, Calif.] were transferred via a software interface to Triakis. Triakis uses the Apple Macintosh polygon filling routine to fill each tracing with binary ones. Next, ranking transforms in the binary FCC tessellation were used in order to demonstrate their capability of smoothly interpolating from one section to the other. The optimum transform is based on the placement of the binarized tissue sections in hexagonal planes and uses three cycles of a rank three transform for the initial interpolation. Irregularities are then removed from the resulting solid by seven cycles of a compound transform. Thereafter, the filled polygons were eroded using Triakis and, from the annular histogram, the spatial interrelationships of malignant cells within the tumor determined.

  17. A synchronous serial bus for multidimensional array acoustic logging tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Men, Baiyong; Ju, Xiaodong; Lu, Junqiang; Qiao, Wenxiao

    2016-12-01

    In high-temperature and spatial borehole applications, a distributed structure is employed in a multidimensional array acoustic logging tool (MDALT) based on a phased array technique for electronic systems. However, new challenges, such as synchronous multichannel data acquisition, multinode real-time control and bulk data transmission in a limited interval, have emerged. To address these challenges, we developed a synchronous serial bus (SSB) in this study. SSB works in a half-duplex mode via a master-slave architecture. It also consists of a single master, several slaves, a differential clock line and a differential data line. The clock line is simplex, whereas the data line is half-duplex and synchronous to the clock line. A reliable communication between the master and the slaves with real-time adjustment of synchronisation is achieved by rationally designing the frame format and protocol of communication and by introducing a scramble code and a Hamming error-correcting code. The control logic of the master and the slaves is realized in field programmable gate array (FPGA) or complex programmable logic device (CPLD). The clock speed of SSB is 10 MHz, the effective data rate of the bulk data transmission is over 99%, and the synchronous errors amongst the slaves are less than 10 ns. Room-temperature test, high-temperature test (175 °C) and field test demonstrate that the proposed SSB is qualified for MDALT.

  18. Salience modulation in serial preexposure: implications for perceptual learning.

    PubMed

    Artigas, Antonio A; Contel, David M; Sansa, Joan; Prados, Jose

    2012-01-01

    In three experiments rats were given serial preexposure to two flavor stimuli. In Experiment 1, some animals were given exposure to AX followed by the presentation of BX, a forward schedule; the others were given backward preexposure (BX→AX). Conditioning and test trials with the A element showed that salience or effectiveness of A was better protected in the forward than in the backward condition. Experiments 2 and 3 assessed the relevance of this salience modulation mechanism for perceptual learning. In these experiments, generalization of a conditioned aversion from AX to BX was reduced in the forward (but not in the backward) condition only after prolonged exposure, indicating that the establishment of an inhibitory link from B to A is required for successful discrimination. However, generalization to a novel compound stimulus, NX, was reduced in the forward group both after short and long preexposure, suggesting the existence of salience modulation processes that work in parallel with associative inhibition. These results seem to support the existence of a salience modulation mechanism that seems to be beyond the scope of current theories of perceptual learning.

  19. A novel inert crystal delivery medium for serial femtosecond crystallography

    DOE PAGES

    Conrad, Chelsie E.; Basu, Shibom; James, Daniel; ...

    2015-06-30

    Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) has opened a new era in crystallography by permitting nearly damage-free, room-temperature structure determination of challenging proteins such as membrane proteins. In SFX, femtosecond X-ray free-electron laser pulses produce diffraction snapshots from nanocrystals and microcrystals delivered in a liquid jet, which leads to high protein consumption. A slow-moving stream of agarose has been developed as a new crystal delivery medium for SFX. It has low background scattering, is compatible with both soluble and membrane proteins, and can deliver the protein crystals at a wide range of temperatures down to 4°C. Using this crystal-laden agarose stream, themore » structure of a multi-subunit complex, phycocyanin, was solved to 2.5 Å resolution using 300 µg of microcrystals embedded into the agarose medium post-crystallization. The agarose delivery method reduces protein consumption by at least 100-fold and has the potential to be used for a diverse population of proteins, including membrane protein complexes.« less

  20. A novel inert crystal delivery medium for serial femtosecond crystallography

    SciTech Connect

    Conrad, Chelsie E.; Basu, Shibom; James, Daniel; Wang, Dingjie; Schaffer, Alexander; Roy-Chowdhury, Shatabdi; Zatsepin, Nadia A.; Aquila, Andrew; Coe, Jesse; Gati, Cornelius; Hunter, Mark S.; Koglin, Jason E.; Kupitz, Christopher; Nelson, Garrett; Subramanian, Ganesh; White, Thomas A.; Zhao, Yun; Zook, James; Boutet, Sébastien; Cherezov, Vadim; Spence, John C. H.; Fromme, Raimund; Weierstall, Uwe; Fromme, Petra

    2015-06-30

    Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) has opened a new era in crystallography by permitting nearly damage-free, room-temperature structure determination of challenging proteins such as membrane proteins. In SFX, femtosecond X-ray free-electron laser pulses produce diffraction snapshots from nanocrystals and microcrystals delivered in a liquid jet, which leads to high protein consumption. A slow-moving stream of agarose has been developed as a new crystal delivery medium for SFX. It has low background scattering, is compatible with both soluble and membrane proteins, and can deliver the protein crystals at a wide range of temperatures down to 4°C. Using this crystal-laden agarose stream, the structure of a multi-subunit complex, phycocyanin, was solved to 2.5 Å resolution using 300 µg of microcrystals embedded into the agarose medium post-crystallization. The agarose delivery method reduces protein consumption by at least 100-fold and has the potential to be used for a diverse population of proteins, including membrane protein complexes.

  1. A rare case of serial killing by poisoning.

    PubMed

    Vuori, Erkki; Pelander, Anna; Rasanen, Ilpo; Juote, Mikko; Ojanperä, Ilkka

    2013-01-01

    A case of serial killing by poisoning by a 59-year-old practical nurse is discussed. Following a report by an emergency-room doctor of an attempted murder, police performed an investigation into all deaths of patients in the nurse's care. Earlier, a medico-legal cause-of-death investigation had been performed on two of these cadavers, but in the other three cases the death certificate had been issued after a medical investigation only. In two of these latter cases, the body had been cremated, but fixed histological samples taken at medical autopsy were available, while in one case the person had died recently and the body was thereafter exhumed and autopsied. All of the suspected victims were older people who required nursing, and the nurse's course of action was consistent in all cases. In the absence of ordinary post-mortem toxicology samples in the medical cases, extraordinary evidence--paraffin-embedded liver tissue samples originally taken for histology at autopsy--was successfully recovered in two cases and analyzed for drugs. In all five cases, drugs not prescribed to the patient were detected, including digoxin, dixyrazine, citalopram, venlafaxine, and benzodiazepines (diazepam, chlordiazepoxide, temazepam, and oxazepam). The nurse was eventually found guilty of five murders by poisoning, five attempted murders, and three aggravated assaults. The nurse was sentenced to life imprisonment.

  2. Implications of the focal beam profile in serial femtosecond crystallography

    SciTech Connect

    Galli, Lorenzo; Chapman, Henry N.; Metcalf, Peter

    2015-05-12

    The photon density profile of an X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) beam at the focal position is a critical parameter for serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX), but is difficult to measure because of the destructive power of the beam. A novel high intensity radiation induced phasing method (HIRIP) has been proposed as a general experimental approach for protein structure determination, but has proved to be sensitive to variations of the X-ray intensity, with uniform incident fluence desired for best performance. Here we show that experimental SFX data collected at the nano-focus chamber of the Coherent X-ray Imaging end-station at the Linac Coherent Light Source using crystals with a limited size distribution suggests an average profile of the X-ray beam that has a large variation of intensity. We propose a new method to improve the quality of high fluence data for HI-RIP, by identifying and removing diffraction patterns from crystals exposed to the low intensity region of the beam. The method requires crystals of average size comparable to the width of the focal spot.

  3. Serial ammonia measurement in patients poisoned with glufosinate ammonium herbicide.

    PubMed

    Moon, J M; Chun, B J

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated whether ammonia concentrations can predict delayed neurotoxicity development and neurotoxicity latency in glufosinate ammonium (GLA) herbicide-poisoned patients presenting with an alert mental state and stable hemodynamics. This retrospective observational case study included 26 patients divided into 2 groups: neurotoxicity during hospitalization (complicated group) and without neurotoxicity (noncomplicated group). Thirteen patients (50.0%) experienced neurotoxicity at 16 h post-ingestion. Although ammonia concentrations at presentation did not differ significantly between the two groups, the ammonia level in the complicated group increased significantly at the next measurement and remained significantly higher than that in the noncomplicated group until 48 h after ingestion. The peak ammonia concentration before neurotoxicity development was an independent predictor of neurotoxicity (odds ratio: 1.047, 95% confidence interval: 1.010-1.087, p value = 0.014), and the optimal cutoff value of peak ammonia concentration for predicting neurotoxicity was 101.5 μg/dL. The rate of ammonia increase was not associated with the time latency from ingestion to neurotoxicity development. This study showed that serial ammonia measurements in GLA-poisoned patients may identify those who are at high risk of developing neurotoxicity. However, as this study enrolled few patients, further qualified trials are required to confirm our results and to reveal the etiology of hyperammonemia and its causality in neurotoxicity.

  4. Serial evaluation of hepatic function profile after Fontan operation.

    PubMed

    Kaulitz, R; Haber, P; Sturm, E; Schäfer, J; Hofbeck, M

    2014-02-01

    Moderate persistent elevation of the γ-glutamyltransferase (γGT) level is a frequent finding during long-term follow-up of patients with total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC) for palliation of functionally univentricular hearts. Serial intraindividual data revealed a significant increase in the γGT level within a minimum 4-year interval in more than 80 % of cases. The level of γGT elevation showed a significant correlation to hemodynamic parameters such as systemic ventricular end diastolic pressure and mean pulmonary artery pressure, but did not strongly correlate with duration of follow-up or other liver function parameters, which were less frequent and less impressively deranged. None of the patients had signs of synthetic dysfunction. With increasing postoperative follow-up, abnormalities of sonographic hepatic texture including increased echogenicity, inhomogeneity, or liver surface nodularity were found. All 17 patients with liver surface nodularity had a follow-up period of over 10 years. Structural abnormalities did not correlate with biochemical or hemodynamic parameters. Doppler evaluation revealed inspiratory dependence of hepatic vein flow in more than 90 % as a relevant finding after TCPC; a decrease in portal vein flow velocity was observed in many patients. Since long-term survivors after Fontan procedure are at an increased risk of cardiac hepatopathy and cirrhosis, detailed routine investigation and monitoring of hepatic morphology are needed.

  5. Serial transverse enteroplasty for short bowel syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kim, Heung Bae; Lee, Patricia W; Garza, Jennifer; Duggan, Christopher; Fauza, Dario; Jaksic, Tom

    2003-06-01

    The patient is a 2-year-old boy born with gastroschisis and midgut volvulus that left him dependent on total parenteral nutrition (TPN). At 11 months of age, a Bianchi procedure was performed increasing the total length of bowel from 72 cm to 130 cm. Although he appeared to have sufficient bowel length, he continued to have malabsorption and could only tolerate 10% of his caloric requirement enterally. A barium study found significant dilatation of the lengthened small bowel. At 23 months, we performed a novel bowel lengthening procedure that we have reported previously in an animal model. The serial transverse enteroplasty (STEP) operation increased the 83 cm of dilated and previously lengthened bowel to 147 cm, making the total small bowel length 200 cm. The patient tolerated the procedure well and began to have semisolid bowel movements. Small intestinal absorptive capacity measured by D-xylose absorption showed a substantial increase from 5 to 12 mg/dL (normal range, >20), implying improved but not completely normal small bowel function. This case shows that the STEP procedure increases intestinal length, can be used after a prior Bianchi, and may result in improved intestinal absorptive capacity. The STEP procedure should be considered a surgical option for children with short bowel syndrome.

  6. Serial Femtosecond Crystallography Opens New Avenues for Structural Biology

    PubMed Central

    Coe, Jesse; Fromme, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Free electron lasers (FELs) provide X-ray pulses in the femtosecond time domain with up to 1012 higher photon flux than synchrotrons and open new avenues for the determination of difficult to crystallize proteins, like large complexes and human membrane proteins. While the X-ray pulses are so strong that they destroy any solid material, the crystals diffract before they are destroyed. The most successful application of FELs for biology has been the method of serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) where nano or microcrystals are delivered to the FEL beam in a stream of their mother liquid at room temperature, which ensures the replenishment of the sample before the next X-ray pulse arrives. New injector technology allows also for the delivery of crystal in lipidic cubic phases or agarose, which reduces the sample amounts for an SFX data set by two orders of magnitude. Time-resolved SFX also allows for analysis of the dynamics of biomolecules, the proof of principle being recently shown for light-induced reactions in photosystem II and photoactive yellow protein. An SFX data sets consist of thousands of single crystal snapshots in random orientations, which can be analyzed now “on the fly” by data analysis programs specifically developed for SFX, but de-novo phasing is still a challenge, that might be overcome by two-color experiments or phasing by shape transforms. PMID:26786767

  7. Reusable chelating resins concentrate metal ions from highly dilute solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, A. J.; Weetal, H. H.; Weliky, N.

    1966-01-01

    Column chromatographic method uses new metal chelating resins for recovering heavy-metal ions from highly dilute solutions. The absorbed heavy-metal cations may be removed from the chelating resins by acid or base washes. The resins are reusable after the washes are completed.

  8. 40 CFR 1066.610 - Dilution air background correction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... interval. x CO = amount of CO measured in the sample over the test interval. a = atomic hydrogen-to-carbon... = atomic oxygen-to-carbon ratio of the test fuel. You may measure b or use default values from Table 1 of.... ER28AP14.102 (d) Determine the time-weighted dilution factor, DF w, over the duty cycle using the...

  9. Activity coefficients of chlorophenols in water at infinite dilution

    SciTech Connect

    Tabai, S.; Rogalski, M.; Solimando, R.; Malanowski, S.K.

    1997-11-01

    The total pressure of aqueous solutions of chlorophenols was determined by a ebulliometric total pressure method for the aqueous solutions of phenol, 2-chlorophenol, 3-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol, and 2,4-dichlorophenol in the temperature range from 40 to 90 C. The activity coefficients at infinite dilution and the Henry constants were derived.

  10. Modeling the Dilution of Static Droplet Arrays with Moving Plugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, William; Vanapalli, Siva

    2014-11-01

    Generation of arrays of immobilized microfluidic droplets with variation in reagent concentration from drop-to-drop is important for a variety of biochemical and screening assays. Recently our laboratory (Sun et al., Lab Chip, 2011) showed that such gradients in chemical concentration can be achieved by coalescing diluting plugs with drops immobilized in a microfluidic parking network. In this study, we investigate the key hydrodynamic mechanisms responsible for generation of concentration gradients in static droplet arrays, with the goal of predicting the dilution profiles observed in experiments. We conduct simulations based on a phenomenological model that includes diffusion, advection due to circulating flow within moving plugs, enhanced material transfer due to coalescence and break-up events, and geometry. Consistent with experiments, we find that the concentration profiles can exhibit segmentation between rows of parked droplets due to coalescence events occurring on alternating sides of the diluting plug. Tail-sweeping of wall material can increase concentrations in the plug tail. Also, coalescence and break-up events can significantly enhance dilution rates and ranges. Our results impact the design of SDAs for creating broad and predictable concentration gradients. NSF CAREER.

  11. 21 CFR 866.2500 - Microtiter diluting and dispensing device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Microtiter diluting and dispensing device. 866.2500 Section 866.2500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices §...

  12. 21 CFR 866.2500 - Microtiter diluting and dispensing device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Microtiter diluting and dispensing device. 866.2500 Section 866.2500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices §...

  13. 21 CFR 866.2500 - Microtiter diluting and dispensing device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Microtiter diluting and dispensing device. 866.2500 Section 866.2500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices §...

  14. 21 CFR 866.2500 - Microtiter diluting and dispensing device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Microtiter diluting and dispensing device. 866.2500 Section 866.2500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices §...

  15. 21 CFR 866.2500 - Microtiter diluting and dispensing device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Microtiter diluting and dispensing device. 866.2500 Section 866.2500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices §...

  16. Coffee-ring effect beyond the dilute limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin Young; Ryu, Seul-A.; Kim, Hyungdae; Kim, Joon Heon; Park, Jung Su; Park, Yong Seok; Oh, Jeong Su; Weon, Byung Mook

    2015-11-01

    The coffee-ring effect, which is a natural generation of outward capillary flows inside drying coffee drops, is valid at the dilute limit of initial solute concentrations. If the solute is not dilute, the ring deposit is forced to have a non-zero width; higher initial concentration leads to a wider ring. Here we study the coffee-ring effect in the dense limit by demonstrating differences with various initial coffee concentrations from 0.1% to 60%. The coffee drops with high initial concentrations of real coffee particles show interesting evaporation dynamics: dense coffee drops tend to evaporate slowly. This result is different from the classic coffee-ring effect in the dilute limit. We suppose that the slow evaporation of dense coffee drops is associated with the ring growth dynamics. The coffee-ring effect becomes more significant in modern technologies such as self-assembly of nanoparticles, ink-jet printing, painting and ceramics. The complexity in evaporation dynamics of colloidal fluids would be able to be understood by expanding the coffee-ring effects in the dilute as well as the dense limits.

  17. Simplified Method for Groundwater Treatment Using Dilution and Ceramic Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musa, S.; Ariff, N. A.; Kadir, M. N. Abdul; Denan, F.

    2016-07-01

    Groundwater is one of the natural resources that is not susceptible to pollutants. However, increasing activities of municipal, industrial, agricultural or extreme land use activities have resulted in groundwater contamination as occured at the Research Centre for Soft Soil Malaysia (RECESS), Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM). Thus, aims of this study is to treat groundwater by using rainwater and simple ceramic filter as a treatment agent. The treatment uses rain water dilution, ceramic filters and combined method of dilute and filtering as an alternate treatment which are simple and more practical compared to modern or chemical methods. The water went through dilution treatment processes able to get rid of 57% reduction compared to initial condition. Meanwhile, the water that passes through the filtering process successfully get rid of as much as 86% groundwater parameters where only chloride does not pass the standard. Favorable results for the combination methods of dilution and filtration methods that can succesfully eliminate 100% parameters that donot pass the standards of the Ministry of Health and the Interim National Drinking Water Quality Standard such as those found in groundwater in RECESS, UTHM especially sulfate and chloride. As a result, it allows the raw water that will use clean drinking water and safe. It also proves that the method used in this study is very effective in improving the quality of groundwater.

  18. Dilution and volatilization of groundwater contaminant discharges in streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aisopou, Angeliki; Bjerg, Poul L.; Sonne, Anne T.; Balbarini, Nicola; Rosenberg, Louise; Binning, Philip J.

    2015-01-01

    An analytical solution to describe dilution and volatilization of a continuous groundwater contaminant plume into streams is developed for risk assessment. The location of groundwater plume discharge into the stream (discharge through the side versus bottom of the stream) and different distributions of the contaminant plume concentration (Gaussian, homogeneous or heterogeneous distribution) are considered. The model considering the plume discharged through the bank of the river, with a uniform concentration distribution was the most appropriate for risk assessment due to its simplicity and limited data requirements. The dilution and volatilization model is able to predict the entire concentration field, and thus the mixing zone, maximum concentration and fully mixed concentration in the stream. It can also be used to identify groundwater discharge zones from in-stream concentration measurement. The solution was successfully applied to published field data obtained in a large and a small Danish stream and provided valuable information on the risk posed by the groundwater contaminant plumes. The results provided by the dilution and volatilization model are very different to those obtained with existing point source models, with a distributed source leading to a larger mixing length and different concentration field. The dilution model can also provide recommendations for sampling locations and the size of impact zones in streams. This is of interest for regulators, for example when developing guidelines for the implementation of the European Water Framework Directive.

  19. Dilution as a Model of Long-Term Forgetting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lansdale, Mark; Baguley, Thom

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a model of long term forgetting based on 3 ideas: (a) Memory for a stimulus can be described by a population of accessible traces; (b) probability of retrieval after a delay is predicted by the proportion of traces in this population that will be defined as correct if sampled; and (c) this population is diluted over time by…

  20. Thermodynamics of a dilute XX chain in a field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timonin, P. N.

    2016-06-01

    Gapless phases in ground states of low-dimensional quantum spin systems are rather ubiquitous. Their peculiarity is a remarkable sensitivity to external perturbations due to permanent criticality of such phases manifested by a slow (power-low) decay of pair correlations and the divergence of the corresponding susceptibility. A strong influence of various defects on the properties of the system in such a phase can then be expected. Here, we consider the influence of vacancies on the thermodynamics of the simplest quantum model with a gapless phase, the isotropic spin-1/2 XX chain. The existence of the exact solution of this model gives a unique opportunity to describe in detail the dramatic effect of dilution on the gapless phase—the appearance of an infinite series of quantum phase transitions resulting from level crossing under the variation of a longitudinal magnetic field. We calculate the jumps in the field dependences of the ground-state longitudinal magnetization, susceptibility, entropy, and specific heat appearing at these transitions and show that they result in a highly nonlinear temperature dependence of these parameters at low T. Also, the effect of enhancement of the magnetization and longitudinal correlations in the dilute chain is established. The changes of the pair spin correlators under dilution are also analyzed. The universality of the mechanism of the quantum transition generation suggests that similar effects of dilution can also be expected in gapless phases of other low-dimensional quantum spin systems.