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Sample records for 10-item depression scale

  1. Further Psychometric Support for the 10-Item Version of the Perceived Stress Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberti, Jonathan W.; Harrington, Lisa N.; Storch, Eric A.

    2006-01-01

    Because of increased stress conditions in college students, updated psychometrics of the Perceived Stress Scale, 10-item version (PSS-10; S. Cohen & G. Williamson, 1988) are necessary. Participants were 281 undergraduates at 3 public universities. An exploratory factor analysis revealed a 2-factor structure measuring Perceived Helplessness and…

  2. Screening instruments for a population of older adults: The 10-item Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10) and the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7).

    PubMed

    Vasiliadis, Helen-Maria; Chudzinski, Veronica; Gontijo-Guerra, Samantha; Préville, Michel

    2015-07-30

    Screening tools that appropriately detect older adults' mental disorders are of great public health importance. The present study aimed to establish cutoff scores for the 10-item Kessler Psychological Distress (K10) and the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) scales when screening for depression and anxiety. We used data from participants (n = 1811) in the Enquête sur la Santé des Aînés-Service study. Depression and anxiety were measured using DSM-V and DSM-IV criteria. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis provided an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.767 and 0.833 for minor and for major depression when using K10. A cutoff of 19 was found to balance sensitivity (0.794) and specificity (0.664) for minor depression, whereas a cutoff of 23 was found to balance sensitivity (0.692) and specificity (0.811) for major depression. When screening for an anxiety with GAD-7, ROC analysis yielded an AUC of 0.695; a cutoff of 5 was found to balance sensitivity (0.709) and specificity (0.568). No significant differences were found between subgroups of age and gender. Both K10 and GAD-7 were able to discriminate between cases and non-cases when screening for depression and anxiety in an older adult population of primary care service users. PMID:25956759

  3. Subjective caregiver burden: validity of the 10-item short version of the Burden Scale for Family Caregivers BSFC-s

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Subjective burden is a central variable describing the situation encountered by family caregivers. The 10-item short version of the Burden Scale for Family Caregivers (BSFC-short/BSFC-s) was developed to provide an economical measure of this variable. The present study examined the reliability and validity of the BSFC-s. Methods Comprehensive data from “the IDA project” were the basis of the calculations, which included 351 dyads and examined medical data on people with dementia, interview data from their family caregivers, and health insurance data. A factor analysis was performed to explore the structure of the BSFC-s; Cronbach’s alpha was used to evaluate the internal consistency of the scale. The items were analyzed to determine the item difficulty and the discriminatory power. Construct validity was tested with five hypotheses. To establish the predictive validity of the BSFC-s, predictors of institutionalization at a follow-up time of 2.5 years were analyzed (binary logistic regression). Results The BSFC-s score adhered to a one-factor structure. Cronbach's alpha for the complete scale was .92. A significant increase in the BSFC-s score was observed when dementia progressed, disturbing behavior occurred more frequently, care requirements increased, and when caregivers were diagnosed with depression. Caregiver burden was the second strongest predictor of institutionalization out of a total of four significant predictors. Conclusions All hypotheses that referred to the construct validity were supported. The BSFC-short with its ten items is a very economical instrument for assessing the caregiver’s total subjective burden in a short time frame. The BSFC-s score has predictive validity for the institutionalization of people with dementia. Therefore it is an appropriate outcome measure to evaluate caregiver interventions. The scale is available for free in 20 languages (http://www.caregiver-burden.eu). This availability facilitates the

  4. Factor Structure and Measurement Invariance of a 10-Item Decisional Balance Scale: Longitudinal and Subgroup Examination within an Adult Diabetic Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickering, Michael A.; Plotnikoff, Ronald C.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the longitudinal and subgroup measurement properties of a 10-item, physical activity decisional balance scale, previously published by Plotnikoff, Blanchard, Hotz, and Rhodes (2001), within a diabetic sample of Canadian adults. Results indicated that a three-factor measurement model consistently improved model fit compared to…

  5. Validity and reliability of the Spanish version of the 10-item CD-RISC in patients with fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background No resilience scale has been validated in Spanish patients with fibromyalgia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of the 10-item CD-RISC in a sample of Spanish patients with fibromyalgia. Methods Design: Observational prospective multicenter study. Sample: Patients with diagnoses of fibromyalgia recruited from primary care settings (N = 208). Instruments: In addition to sociodemographic data, the following questionnaires were administered: Pain Visual Analogue Scale (PVAS), the 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience scale (10-item CD-RISC), the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS), the Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire (CPAQ), and the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS). Results Regarding construct validity, the factor solution in the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was considered adequate, so the KMO test had a value of 0.91, and the Barlett’s test of sphericity was significant (χ2 = 852.8; gl = 45; p < 0.001). Only one factor showed an eigenvalue greater than 1, and it explained 50.4% of the variance. PCA and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) results did not show significant differences between groups. The 10-item CD-RISC scale demonstrated good internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.88) and test-retest reliability (r = 0.89 for a six-week interval). The 10-item CD-RISC score was significantly correlated with all of the other psychometric instruments in the expected direction, except for the PVAS (−0.115; p = 0.113). Conclusions Our study confirms that the Spanish version of the 10-item CD-RISC shows, in patients with fibromyalgia, acceptable psychometric properties, with a high level of reliability and validity. PMID:24484847

  6. Depression Rating Scale for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poznanski, Elva O.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    A Children's Depression Rating Scale (CDRS) was devised and tested on 30 inpatient children (6 to 12 years old) in a medical hospital. A high correlation was found between global ratings by two psychiatrists of severity of depression and scores on the CDRS. Journal availability: American Academy of Pediatrics, P.O. Box 1034, Evanston, IL 60204.…

  7. Scaling characteristics of topographic depressions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, P. V.; Kumar, P.

    2013-12-01

    Topographic depressions, areas of no lateral surface flow, are ubiquitous characteristic of land surface that control many ecosystem and biogeochemical processes. Landscapes with high density of depressions increase the surface storage capacity, whereas lower depression density increase runoff, thus influencing soil moisture states, hydrologic connectivity and the climate--soil--vegetation interactions. With the widespread availability of high resolution LiDAR based digital elevation model (lDEM) data, it is now possible to identify and characterize the structure of the spatial distribution of topographic depressions for incorporation in ecohydrologic and biogeochemical studies. Here we use lDEM data to document the prevalence and patterns of topographic depressions across five different landscapes in the United States and quantitatively characterize the distribution of attributes, such as surface area, storage volume, and the distance to the nearest neighbor. Through the use of a depression identification algorithm, we show that these distribution attributes follow scaling laws indicative of a fractal structure in which a large fraction of land surface areas can consist of high number of topographic depressions, accounting for 4 to 200 mm of depression storage. This implies that the impacts of small-scale topographic depressions in the fractal landscapes on the redistribution of surface energy fluxes, evaporation, and hydrologic connectivity are quite significant.

  8. Detecting depression in Chinese adults with mild dementia: findings with two versions of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Sheung-Tak; Chan, Alfred C M

    2008-05-30

    This study investigates the extent to which the diagnostic performance of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D; both 20- and 10-item versions) varies with cognitive status, and whether the same threshold can be applied regardless of cognitive status. Three hundred and ninety-six persons aged 60+ referred for psychiatric assessment were broken down into four groups depending on age (<70 and >or=70) and dementia status (mild vs. none). All were independently interviewed using the CES-D before their first evaluation by a psychiatrist. Receiver operating characteristic curves showed that both versions of the CES-D produced essentially identical results, regardless of age and dementia status. Both versions were more or less robust to the effect of mild dementia but were vulnerable to the effect of age itself. Furthermore, the optimal threshold for the 20-item version varied somewhat across the different age-dementia groups, and no clear-cut threshold existed in old-old persons with dementia. On the contrary, the same threshold of 12 can be adopted for the 10-item version, regardless of age and dementia status. Compared with the full 20-item scale, the 10-item version has the added advantage of an identical threshold across age and cognitive status. PMID:18346793

  9. Common Themes Among Morale and Depression Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, John N.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Reports on the intra- and interbattery scaling of three morale and depression batteries comprised of self-reported items: PGC, G-H, and ZUNG. Responses to the three scales were sought from a sample of long-term residents of a state mental hospital. (Author)

  10. Development of an Interview-Based Geriatric Depression Rating Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamison, Christine; Scogin, Forrest

    1992-01-01

    Developed interview-based Geriatric Depression Rating Scale (GDRS) and administered 35-item GDRS to 68 older adults with range of affective disturbance. Found scale to have internal consistency and split-half reliability comparable to those of Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression and Geriatric Depression Scale. Concurrent validity, construct…

  11. A Comparison of Four Scales for Anxiety, Depression, and Neuroticism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meites, Karen; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Examined the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), and the Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale (TMAS) for specificity and validity as measures of anxiety and depression with 170 undergraduate students. The BDI, SDS, and TMAS were intercorrelated significantly with the Eysenck Personality Inventory scale. Item content…

  12. Preliminary study of a scale measuring depression and somatic symptoms.

    PubMed

    Hung, Ching-I; Weng, Li-Jen; Su, Yi-Jen; Liu, Chia-Yih

    2006-10-01

    This description concerns the development of a scale measuring depression and somatic symptoms and the selection of its items for a Taiwanese sample. 102 Taiwanese outpatients (28 men, 74 women) with major depressive disorder completed a 44-item preliminary scale. All had experienced a major depressive episode but had not been treated by antidepressants within the prior two weeks. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale was administered to evaluate the validity of the Depression and Somatic Symptoms Scale (DSSS). Items, 12 for the Depression Subscale and 10 for the Somatic Subscale, were selected for the Depression and Somatic Symptoms Scale according to their frequency and their association with rated severity of depression and clinical practices. The mean Hamilton Depression score was 23.9 (SD = 5.2) versus 38.4 (SD = 11.3) for the total DSSS; means for the Depression subscale were 23.5 +/- 6.0 and the Somatic subscale 14.9 +/- 6.8. Cronbach alpha was .88 for the total DSSS, .78 for the Depression subscale, and .86 for the Somatic subscale. The Pearson correlation coefficient for the two scales was .59 (p <.01). The new scale had adequate internal consistency reliability and convergent validity. Much study is required to assess its structure, item characteristics, and in judging its applicability and limitations, and sensitivity to cultural differences in clinical settings. PMID:17153806

  13. Personality correlates of scores on the Depression-Happiness Scale.

    PubMed

    Cammock, T; Joseph, S; Lewis, C A

    1994-12-01

    The present aim was to estimate the internal reliability and convergent validity of the Depression-Happiness Scale. Internal reliability was .90, and higher scores on the Depression-Happiness Scale were associated with more internal control (.28), higher self-esteem (.36), and lower trait anxiety (-.69) among 45 undergraduates at the University of Ulster. The results provide some evidence for the validation of the Depression-Happiness Scale as well as confirming previous research on the correlates of happiness. PMID:7886189

  14. Development and Validation of a Depression Scale for Asian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woo, Bernardine S. C.; Chang, W. C.; Fung, Daniel S. S.; Koh, Jessie B. K.; Leong, Joyce S. F.; Kee, Carolyn H. Y.; Seah, Cheryl K. F.

    2004-01-01

    Items covering both core and culture-specific facets of depression were generated based on literature review and clinical experience. They were modified following focus group discussions with depressed adolescents and adolescents in the community. The newly constructed Asian Adolescent Depression Scale (AADS) was administered to a clinical and a…

  15. Measuring Depression at the End of Life: Is the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale a Valid Instrument?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olden, Megan; Rosenfeld, Barry; Pessin, Hayley; Breitbart, William

    2009-01-01

    Depression at the end of life is a common mental health issue with serious implications for quality of life and decision making. This study investigated the reliability and validity of one of the most frequently used measures of depression, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) in 422 patients with terminal cancer admitted to a palliative…

  16. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Geriatric Depression Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Kathryn Betts; Matto, Holly C.; Sanders, Sara

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: The Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) is widely used in clinical and research settings to screen older adults for depressive symptoms. Although several exploratory factor analytic structures have been proposed for the scale, no independent confirmation has been made available that would enable investigators to confidently identify scores…

  17. Reliability and norms for the 10-item self-motivation inventory: The TIGER Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Self-Motivation Inventory (SMI) has been shown to be a predictor of exercise dropout. The original SMI of 40 items has been shortened to 10 items and the psychometric qualities of the 10-item SMI are not known. To estimate the reliability of a 10-item SMI and develop norms for an ethnically dive...

  18. Mixed Rasch Modeling of the Self-Rating Depression Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Sehee; Min, Sae-Young

    2007-01-01

    In this study, mixed Rasch modeling was used on the Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), a widely used measure of depression, among a non-Western sample of 618 Korean college students. The results revealed three latent classes and confirmed the unidimensionality of the SDS. In addition, there was a significant effect for gender in terms of class…

  19. Power law scaling of topographic depressions and their hydrologic connectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Phong V. V.; Kumar, Praveen

    2014-03-01

    Topographic depressions, areas of no lateral surface flow, are ubiquitous characteristics of the land surface that control many ecosystem and biogeochemical processes. High density of depressions increases the surface storage capacity, whereas lower depression density increases runoff, thus influencing soil moisture states, hydrologic connectivity, and the climate-soil-vegetation interactions. With the widespread availability of high-resolution lidar-based digital elevation model (lDEM) data, it is now possible to identify and characterize the structure of the spatial distribution of topographic depressions for incorporation in ecohydrologic and biogeochemical studies. Here we use lDEM data to document the prevalence and patterns of topographic depressions across five different landscapes in the United States and quantitatively characterize the probability distribution of attributes, such as surface area, storage volume, and the distance to the nearest neighbor. Through the use of a depression identification algorithm, we show that these probability distributions of attributes follow scaling laws indicative of a structure in which a large fraction of land surface areas can consist of high number of topographic depressions of all sizes and can account for 4 to 21 mm of depression storage. This implies that the impacts of small-scale topographic depressions in the landscapes on the redistribution of material fluxes, evaporation, and hydrologic connectivity are quite significant.

  20. [Factorial analysis of the Hamilton depression scale, II].

    PubMed

    Dreyfus, J F; Guelfi, J D; Ruschel, S; Blanchard, C; Pichot, P

    1981-04-01

    A factorial analysis (principal components with Varimax rotation) was performed on 85 ratings of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale obtained in 1979-1980 on inpatients with a major depressive illness. Using a replicable statistical technique, 4 factors were obtained. These factors do not overlap with those obtain on a similar sample with a similar technique nor with those obtained by other authors. It thus appears that there is no such thing as a factorial structure of this scale. PMID:7305179

  1. Revisiting the dimensional structure of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS): empirical evidence for a general factor

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) has been proposed as a one-dimensional instrument and used as a single 10-item scale. This might be considered questionable since repeated psychometric studies have shown multi-dimensionality, which would entail using separate component subscales. This study reappraised the dimensional structure of the EPDS, with a focus on the extent of factor correlations and related factor-based discriminant validity as a foundation for deciding how to effectively scale the component items. Methods The sample comprised 811 randomly selected mothers of children up to 5 months attending primary health services of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Strict Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) and Exploratory Factor Analysis modeled within a CFA framework (E/CFA) were sequentially used to identify best fitting and parsimonious model(s), including a bifactor analysis to evaluate the existence of a general factor. Properties concerning the related 10-item raw-score scale were also investigated using non-parametric items response theory methods (scalability and monotonicity). Results An initial CFA rejected the one-dimensional structure, while an E/CFA subscribed a three-dimensional solution. Yet, factors were highly correlated (0.66, 0.75 and 0.82). The ensuing CFA showed poor discriminant validity (some square-roots of average variance extracted below the factor correlations). A general bifactor CFA was then fit. Results suggested that, although still weakly encompassing three specific factors, the EPDS might be better described by a model encompassing a general factor (loadings ranging from 0.51 to 0.81). The related 10-item raw score showed adequate scalability (Loevinger's H coefficient = 0.4208), monotonicity e partial double monotonicity (nonintersections of Item Step Response Functions). Conclusion Although the EPDS indicated the presence of specific factors, they do not qualify as independent dimensions if used separately and should

  2. A new type of scale for determining remission from depression: the Remission from Depression Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Mark; Martinez, Jennifer H; Attiullah, Naureen; Friedman, Michael; Toba, Cristina; Boerescu, Daniela A; Ragheb, Moataz

    2013-01-01

    Current standards for treating major depressive disorder (MDD) recommend that achieving remission should be considered the principal goal of treatment. Recent research suggests that the symptom-based definitions of remission used in efficacy studies do not adequately reflect the perspective of depressed patients receiving treatment in routine clinical settings. We developed the Remission from Depression Questionnaire (RDQ) to capture the broader array of domains considered by patients to be relevant to the construct of remission--symptoms of depression, nondepressive symptoms, features of positive mental health, coping ability, functioning, life satisfaction and a general sense of well-being. The current report is the first study of the reliability and validity of the RDQ. The test-retest reliability of the RDQ was studied in 60 depressed outpatients in ongoing treatment. The convergent and discriminant validity of the RDQ was studied in 274 depressed outpatients who were rated on the 17-item Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D) and who completed several self-report scales including the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS). The RDQ demonstrated excellent internal consistency, with a Cronbach's α of .97 for the total scale and above .80 for each of the 7 subscales. The test-retest reliability of the total scale was .85 and above .60 for each subscale. Both the RDQ and QIDS were significantly associated with patients' self-reported remission status. However, the RDQ remained significantly associated with remission status after controlling for QIDS scores (r = -.32, p < .001) whereas the QIDS was not associated with remission status after controlling for RDQ scores (r = -.06). The RDQ is a reliable and valid measure that evaluates the multiple domains that depressed patients consider important in determining remission. The results are consistent with prior research suggesting that depressed patients' perspective of remission goes beyond symptom resolution

  3. Components of depressed mood in married men and women. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies' Depression Scale.

    PubMed

    Ross, C E; Mirowsky, J

    1984-06-01

    The Center for Epidemiologic Studies' Depression Scale (CES-D) was developed to measure depressive symptoms in community populations. To be useful for epidemiologic studies of depression, the scale should measure the same thing in various subgroups. This study examines the psychometric properties of the CES-D among men and women, including its factor structure, reliability, and characteristics of its subscales. A national sample of 1,360 married men and women, collected in 1978, was used. Factor analysis produced four major factors in the CES-D: depressed affect, enervation , lack of positive affect, and interpersonal problems. These factors are generalizable across men and women with two exceptions--crying spells, which are a good indicator of depressed mood for women, do not indicate depressed mood for men; and feeling one's life is a failure is associated with depressed affect for women and with a lack of positive affect for men. The two items in the interpersonal factor (feeling that people dislike you and that people are unfriendly ) do not show the expected pattern of association with gender, since men have significantly more interpersonal symptoms than women. Women have more symptoms of depressed affect, enervation , and lack of positive affect. PMID:6731436

  4. Development and Validation of a Screening Scale for Depression in Korea: The Lee and Rhee Depression Scale

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Seon Hee; Rhee, Min Kyu; Kang, Rhee Hun; Lee, Hwa Young; Ham, Byung Joo; Lee, Young Sun

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to develop a culturally sensitive instrument that addressed how individuals express and experience depression to detect this disorder in Koreans. We also assessed the validity, reliability, and diagnostic utility of this scale (Lee and Rhee Depression Scale; LRDS). Methods The sample consisted of 3,697 normal adults selected from 12 administrative districts (Do) and 448 Korean patients diagnosed with depression using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders (SCID-I). Reliability was calculated using Cronbach's α. Construct validity, discriminant validity, and concurrent validity were also measured. Receiver-operator-characteristic (ROC) analysis was employed to evaluate diagnostic efficiency. Results The LRDS was found to be a reliable instrument (Cronbach's α=0.95) consisting of six factors: negative thinking about the future, negative thinking about the self, worry and agitation, depressed mood, somatization, and loss of volition. Comparison of LRDS scores discriminated the group of patients with depression from the normal individuals in the control group. The measure showed good concurrent validity in that scores were significantly and strongly correlated with scores on established scales such as the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D), and the D scale of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-second edition (MMPI-2). Diagnostic efficiency was 77.7%, and the cut-off scores were 65 for males and 70 for females. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first study to develop a depression-screening scale on the basis of Korean patients' complaints about the disorder. As a culturally sensitive tool, the LRDS will be useful in clinical and research settings in Korea. PMID:22396683

  5. The dysfunctional attitudes scale: psychometric properties in depressed adolescents.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Gregory M; Park, Jong-Hyo; Essex, Marilyn J; Klein, Marjorie H; Silva, Susan G; Hoyle, Rick H; Curry, John F; Feeny, Norah C; Kennard, Betsy; Kratochvil, Christopher J; Pathak, Sanjeev; Reinecke, Mark A; Rosenberg, David R; Weller, Elizabeth B; March, John S

    2009-11-01

    The psychometric properties and factor structure of the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale were examined in a sample of 422 male and female adolescents (ages 12-17) with current major depressive disorder. The scale demonstrated high internal consistency (alpha = .93) and correlated significantly with self-report and interview-based measures of depression. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that a correlated 2-factor model, with scales corresponding to perfectionism and need for social approval, provided a satisfactory fit to the data. The goodness-of-fit was equivalent across sexes and age groups. The findings support the use of the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale and its subscales in the assessment of clinically depressed adolescents. PMID:20183662

  6. Rasch Analysis of the Geriatric Depression Scale--Short Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Karl S.; Green, Kathy E.; Cox, Enid O.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine scale dimensionality, reliability, invariance, targeting, continuity, cutoff scores, and diagnostic use of the Geriatric Depression Scale-Short Form (GDS-SF) over time with a sample of 177 English-speaking U.S. elders. Design and Methods: An item response theory, Rasch analysis, was conducted with…

  7. A pilot evaluation of associations between displayed depression references on Facebook and self-reported depression using a clinical scale.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Megan Andreas; Christakis, Dimitri A; Egan, Katie G; Jelenchick, Lauren A; Cox, Elizabeth; Young, Henry; Villiard, Hope; Becker, Tara

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine associations between displayed depression symptoms on Facebook and self-reported depression symptoms using a clinical screen. Public Facebook profiles of undergraduates from two universities were examined for displayed depression references. Profiles were categorized as depression symptom displayers or non-displayers. Participants completed an online PHQ-9 depression scale. Analyses examined associations between PHQ-9 score and depression symptom displayers versus non-displayers. The mean PHQ-9 score for non-displayers was 4.7 (SD = 4.0), the mean PHQ-9 score for depression symptom displayers was 6.4 (SD = 5.1; p = 0.018). A trend approaching significance was noted that participants who scored into a depression category by their PHQ-9 score were more likely to display depression symptom references. Displayed references to depression symptoms were associated with self-reported depression symptoms. PMID:21863354

  8. A comparison of the performance of rating scales used in the diagnosis of postnatal depression.

    PubMed

    Thompson, W M; Harris, B; Lazarus, J; Richards, C

    1998-09-01

    The results of a study looking into the association between thyroid status and depression in the postpartum period were reanalysed to explore the psychometric properties of the rating scales employed. The performance of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was found to be superior to that of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in identifying RDC-defined depression, and on a par with the observer-rated Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, which it also matched for sensitivity to change in mood state over time. The anxiety subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale performed well, reflecting the fact that anxiety represents a prominent symptom in postnatal depression. PMID:9761410

  9. Combined use of the postpartum depression screening scale (PDSS) and Edinburgh postnatal depression scale (EPDS) to identify antenatal depression among Chinese pregnant women with obstetric complications.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ying; Kane, Irene; Wang, Jing; Shen, Beibei; Luo, Jianfeng; Shi, Shenxun

    2015-03-30

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate antenatal depression screening employing two scales: the Postpartum Depression Screening Scale (PDSS) and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) for the population of Chinese pregnant women with obstetric complications. A convenience sample of 842 Chinese pregnant women with complications participated in this study. The PDSS total score correlated strongly with the EPDS total score (r=0.652, p=0.000). Each tool performed extremely well for detecting major and major/minor depressions with PDSS resulting in a better psychometric performance than EPDS (p<0.01). If combined use, the recommended EPDS cut-off score was 8/9 for major depression, at which the sensitivity (71.6%) and specificity (87.6%) were the best, and the recommended PDSS cut-off score was 79/80 for major depression, along with its best sensitivity (86.4%) and specificity (100%). The study concluded that EPDS and PDSS appear to be reliable assessments for major and minor depression among the Chinese pregnant women with obstetric complications. Combined use of these tools should consider lower cutoff scores to reduce the misdiagnosis and improve the screening validity. PMID:25677395

  10. A Reliability Generalization Study of the Geriatric Depression Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieffer, Kevin M.; Reese, Robert J.

    2002-01-01

    Conducted a reliability generalization study of the Geriatric Depression Scale (T. Brink and others, 1982). Results from this investigation of 338 studies shows that the average score reliability across studies was 0.8482 and identifies the most important predictors of score reliability. (SLD)

  11. Assessing Depression Related Severity and Functional Impairment: The Overall Depression Severity and Impairment Scale (ODSIS)

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Masaya; Bentley, Kate H.; Oe, Yuki; Nakajima, Shun; Fujisato, Hiroko; Kato, Noriko; Miyamae, Mitsuhiro; Kanie, Ayako; Horikoshi, Masaru; Barlow, David H.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Overall Depression Severity and Impairment Scale (ODSIS) is a brief, five-item measure for assessing the frequency and intensity of depressive symptoms, as well as functional impairments in pleasurable activities, work or school, and interpersonal relationships due to depression. Although this scale is expected to be useful in various psychiatric and mental health settings, the reliability, validity, and interpretability have not yet been fully examined. This study was designed to examine the reliability, factorial, convergent, and discriminant validity of a Japanese version of the ODSIS, as well as its ability to distinguish between individuals with and without a major depressive disorder diagnosis. Methods From a pool of registrants at an internet survey company, 2830 non-clinical and clinical participants were selected randomly (619 with major depressive disorder, 619 with panic disorder, 576 with social anxiety disorder, 645 with obsessive–compulsive disorder, and 371 non-clinical panelists). Participants were asked to respond to the ODSIS and conventional measures of depression, functional impairment, anxiety, neuroticism, satisfaction with life, and emotion regulation. Results Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis of three split subsamples indicated the unidimensional factor structure of ODSIS. Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis showed invariance of factor loadings between non-clinical and clinical subsamples. The ODSIS also showed excellent internal consistency and test–retest intraclass correlation coefficients. Convergence and discriminance of the ODSIS with various measures were in line with our expectations. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses showed that the ODSIS was able to detect a major depressive syndrome accurately. Conclusions This study supports the reliability and validity of ODSIS in a non-western population, which can be interpreted as demonstrating cross-cultural validity. PMID:25874558

  12. Screening for Depressive Disorders Using the Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire Anhedonic Depression Scale: A Receiver-Operating Characteristic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bredemeier, Keith; Spielberg, Jeffery M.; Silton, Rebecca Levin; Berenbaum, Howard; Heller, Wendy; Miller, Gregory A.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the utility of the anhedonic depression scale from the Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire (MASQ-AD scale) as a way to screen for depressive disorders. Using receiver-operating characteristic analysis, we examined the sensitivity and specificity of the full 22-item MASQ-AD scale, as well as the 8- and 14-item…

  13. Discriminant Validity of the MMPI Depression Subtle (D-S) and Depression Obvious (D-O) Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zalewski, Christine; Schatz, Caroline T.; Gottesman, Irving I.; Nichols, David S.

    1997-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between diagnostic group membership (lifetime depressed, n=367; lifetime mixed psychiatric, n=367; nonpsychiatric, n=367) and scores on the Depression-Subtle (D-S) and Depression-Obvious (D-O) scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. D-O scores were significantly related to group membership,…

  14. [Anxiety and depression in the general population: normal values in the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale].

    PubMed

    Hinz, A; Schwarz, R

    2001-05-01

    For the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) psychometric properties were tested and standardised values were calculated on the basis of a representative sample of the German adult population with 2037 persons. The main result was the evidence of age and gender differences for anxiety and depression. Females were more anxious than males. For both dimensions of the HADS a nearly linear age dependency was found which was more pronounced for depression (r = 0.36) than for anxiety (r = 0.14). Standardised values are given for different age and gender groups, and the results of regression analyses are presented. The psychometric properties were satisfying or good, the two-dimensional factorial structure could be replicated. By means of the standardised values and regression coefficients it is now possible to compare patient groups of different age and gender distributions with the general population. PMID:11417357

  15. Assessing Latina/o Undergraduates' Depressive Symptomatology: Comparisons of the Beck Depression Inventory-II, the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale, and the Self-Report Depression Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gloria, Alberta M.; Castellanos, Jeanett; Kanagui-Munoz, Marlen; Rico, Melissa A.

    2012-01-01

    The use of depression scales as screening tools at university and college centers is increasing and thus, the question of whether scales are culturally valid for different student groups is increasingly more relevant with increased severity of depression for students and changing student demographics. As such, this study examined the reliability…

  16. Validation of Edinburgh postnatal depression scale for adolescent mothers.

    PubMed

    Logsdon, M Cynthia; Usui, Wayne M; Nering, Michael

    2009-12-01

    The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale has widespread use internationally with adult women, but few psychometric properties have been described for samples of adolescent mothers. The purpose of this paper is to validate the psychometric properties of the EPDS in a sample of adolescent mothers (n = 149) in a southern, urban area of the United States. Internal consistency reliability was .88. Principal components analysis supported a two factor structure accounting for 60% of variance. Results of item response theory analysis suggest that the EPDS and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies of Depression Scale have similar psychometric properties. This data can be used to provide evidence of construct validity of the EPDS. The study provides a foundation for further psychometric testing of the instrument. PMID:19639384

  17. The responsiveness of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale.

    PubMed

    Faries, D; Herrera, J; Rayamajhi, J; DeBrota, D; Demitrack, M; Potter, W Z

    2000-01-01

    In clinical studies of antidepressants, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) total score has been the gold standard instrument for establishing and comparing the efficacy of new treatments. However, the HAMD is a multidimensional measure, which may reduce its ability to detect differences between treatments, in particular, changes in core symptoms of depression. Two meta-analyses were conducted to compare the responsiveness of the HAMD total score with several published unidimensional subscale scores based upon core symptoms of depression. The first compared the above instrument's ability to detect differences between fluoxetine and placebo across eight studies involving over 1600 patients. The second analysis involved four studies and over 1200 patients randomized to tricyclic antidepressants and placebo. In both meta-analyses, the unidimensional core subscales outperformed the HAMD total score at detecting treatment differences. The implications of this on sample sizes and power for clinical studies will be discussed. In fact, studies based on the observed effect sizes from the core subscales would require approximately one-third less patients than studies based on the HAMD total score. Effect sizes from each individual HAMD item will also be presented to help explain the differences in responsiveness between the scales. PMID:10696827

  18. Comparison of the Validities of the Beck, Zung, and MMPI Depression Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Allan; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Surveyed 101 inpatient psychiatric patients and 99 chemical dependency patients to compare the validities of the Beck Depression Inventory, the Minnesota Multiphasic personality Inventory (MMPI) Depression scale, and the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale. The Zung produced better validity coefficients than the Beck, which yielded higher…

  19. Depression Rating Scales in Parkinson’s Disease: Critique and Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Schrag, Anette; Barone, Paolo; Brown, Richard G.; Leentjens, Albert F.G.; McDonald, William M.; Starkstein, Sergio; Weintraub, Daniel; Poewe, Werner; Rascol, Olivier; Sampaio, Cristina; Stebbins, Glenn T.; Goetz, Christopher G.

    2007-01-01

    Depression is a common comorbid condition in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and a major contributor to poor quality of life and disability. However, depression can be difficult to assess in patients with PD due to overlapping symptoms and difficulties in the assessment of depression in cognitively impaired patients. As several rating scales have been used to assess depression in PD (dPD), the Movement Disorder Society commissioned a task force to assess their clinimetric properties and make clinical recommendations regarding their use. A systematic literature review was conducted to explore the use of depression scales in PD and determine which scales should be selected for this review. The scales reviewed were the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Hamilton Depression Scale (Ham-D), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), Montgomery-As-berg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) Part I, Cornell Scale for the Assessment of Depression in Dementia (CSDD), and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Seven clinical researchers with clinical and research experience in the assessment of dPD were assigned to review the scales using a structured format. The most appropriate scale is dependent on the clinical or research goal. However, observer-rated scales are preferred if the study or clinical situation permits. For screening purposes, the HAM-D, BDI, HADS, MADRS, and GDS are valid in dPD. The CES-D and CSDD are alternative instruments that need validation in dPD. For measurement of severity of depressive symptoms, the Ham-D, MADRS, BDI, and SDS scales are recommended. Further studies are needed to validate the CSDD, which could be particularly useful for the assessment of severity of dPD in patients with comorbid dementia. To account for overlapping motor and nonmotor symptoms of depression, adjusted instrument cutoff scores may

  20. Validity of the Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Scale for youth with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Sterling, Lindsey; Renno, Patricia; Storch, Eric A; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Lewin, Adam B; Arnold, Elysse; Lin, Enjey; Wood, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    High rates of anxiety and depression are reported among youth with autism spectrum disorders. These conditions are generally assessed using measures validated for typically developing youth. Few studies have investigated their validity for autism spectrum disorders, which is crucial for accurate assessment and the provision of proper treatment. The Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Scale was evaluated with 67 youth with autism spectrum disorders to examine its utility in measuring anxiety and depression in this population. Parents and children (aged 11-15 years) referred to a multisite intervention study completed the Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale, Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children, Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule, Child Behavior Checklist, and Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Scale. Results suggest acceptable internal consistency of the Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Scale. Modest convergent validity was found among the Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Scale and other standardized measures of anxiety and depression. There were stronger correlations between Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Scale Total scores and subscales of measures expected to correlate significantly than those not expected to correlate. One exception was a significant association between the Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Scale and Child Behavior Checklist Attention subscale, calling into question the divergent validity in separating anxiety from attention problems. Overall, results suggest preliminary support for the Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Scale in youth with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders. PMID:24419073

  1. Development of a Geriatric Scale of Hopelessness: Implications for Counseling and Intervention with the Depressed Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, P. S.

    1984-01-01

    Evaluated hopelessness, depression, and self-esteem among depressed elderly people (N=78) and developed a Geriatric Hopelessness Scale (GHS). As predicted, elderly subjects who scored high on the GHS showed significantly higher depression and lower self-esteem scores. (JAC)

  2. Validating the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children in Rwanda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betancourt, Theresa; Scorza, Pamela; Meyers-Ohki, Sarah; Mushashi, Christina; Kayiteshonga, Yvonne; Binagwaho, Agnes; Stulac, Sara; Beardslee, William R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We assessed the validity of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC) as a screen for depression in Rwandan children and adolescents. Although the CES-DC is widely used for depression screening in high-income countries, its validity in low-income and culturally diverse settings, including sub-Saharan…

  3. Psychometric validation of the depression and family functioning scale.

    PubMed

    Williams, Valerie; François, Clément; Danchenko, Natalya; Nelson, Lauren; Williams, Nicole; Yarr, Stuart; DiBenedetti, Dana; Lançon, Christrophe

    2016-04-01

    Objective A new patient-reported outcome (PRO) measure developed to assess the impact of major depressive disorder (MDD) on partner and family interactions and quality of relationships, the Depression and Family Functioning Scale (DFFS), was analyzed to establish its reliability, validity, and responsiveness. Methods Data from a multi-center, prospective, 2-year observational study were analyzed to assess the psychometric properties of the DFFS in patients with MDD (nBaseline = 478; nMonth2 = 433). Measures administered to assess validity included the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS), Arizona Sexual Experiences Scale (ASEX) and Short Form Health Survey-12 (SF-12). Reliability (Cronbach's alphas and intra-class correlations), construct validity (factor analysis and correlations), discriminating ability (analyses of variance), and responsiveness (standardized effect size estimates) were evaluated. Results Principal components analyses indicated a single underlying dimension, confirmed by highly satisfactory Cronbach's alphas (αBaseline = 0.85, αMonth2 = 0.89). The DFFS demonstrated satisfactory test-re-test reliability in patients with the same SDS family life/home responsibilities ratings at baseline and month 2 (intraclass correlation = 0.75). Correlations with other measures showed convergent and divergent validity; e.g., the DFFS correlated better with SF-12 mental component scores (rBaseline = -0.35, rMonth2 = -0.49) than with SF-12 physical component scores (rBaseline = -0.05, rMonth2 = -0.31). Hypothesis tests were generally as predicted; many were statistically significant, substantiating DFFS discriminating ability. Standardized effect size estimates of responsiveness ranged from 0.44-0.84, demonstrating that the items were capable of detecting change. Conclusions The psychometric analyses support the reliability, validity, and responsiveness of the DFFS and its usefulness for assessing the impact of depression on family

  4. Validation of the General Practitioner Clinical Research Group 11-item depression scale.

    PubMed

    Gringras, M

    1980-01-01

    In trials performed by the General Practitioner Clinical Research Group two rating scales have been employed extensively to measure depression. One includes some 17 target symptoms whilst the second is a shorter scale of 11 items. Although extensively used, neither scale has been validated against other measures of depression. An attempt was made to validate the 11-item scale, completed by the physician, against the Zung self-rating depression scale and the Wakefield Inventory, both patient-completed scales. Using thirty depressed patients the correlation between the 11-item scale and the Zung was 0.59 and between the 11-item scale and the Wakefield it was 0.5. Surprisingly, although the two scales are patient-completed and purport to measure the same thing, the correlation between the Zung and the Wakefield scales was only 0.69. All the correlations were statistically significant at the 1% level. PMID:7202817

  5. Depressive Symptoms on the Geriatric Depression Scale and Suicide Deaths in Older Middle-aged Men: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Prospective evaluations of the associations between depressive symptoms and suicide deaths have been mainly performed in high-risk populations, such as individuals with psychiatric disorders or histories of self-harm. The purpose of this study was to prospectively examine whether more severe depressive symptoms assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) were associated with a greater risk of death from suicide in a general-risk population. Methods: A total of 113 478 men from the Korean Veterans Health Study (mean age, 58.9 years) who participated in a postal survey in 2004 were followed up for suicide mortality until 2010. Results: Over 6.4 years of follow-up, 400 men died by suicide (56.7 deaths per 100 000 person-years). More severe depressive symptoms were associated with greater risk of suicide death (p for trend <0.001). The unadjusted hazard ratios (HRs) in comparison to the absence of depression were 2.18 for mild depression, 2.13 for moderate depression, 3.33 for severe depression, and 3.67 for extreme depression. After adjusting for potential confounders, men with a potential depressive disorder had an approximate 90% higher mortality from suicide (adjusted HR, 1.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.38 to 2.68; p<0.001) than men without depression. Each five-point increase in the GDS score was associated with a higher risk of death by suicide (adjusted HR, 1.22; p<0.001). The value of the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve of GDS scores for suicide deaths was 0.61 (95% CI, 0.58 to 0.64). Conclusions: Depressive symptoms assessed using the GDS were found to be a strong independent predictor of future suicide. However, the estimate of relative risk was weaker than would be expected based on retrospective psychological autopsy studies. PMID:27255076

  6. Screening for Depression after Cardiac Events Using the Beck Depression Inventory-II and the Geriatric Depression Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Low, Gail D.; Hubley, Anita M.

    2007-01-01

    Despite findings that depression is a risk factor for heart disease and for death following cardiac events and that depressed cardiac patients experience significantly reduced quality of life and are less likely to follow treatment regimens, depression is neither adequately identified nor treated in cardiac patients. Recent calls in the literature…

  7. Measuring children's perceptions of their mother's depression: the Children's Perceptions of Others' Depression Scale-Mother Version.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Sherryl H; Tully, Erin; Connell, Arin M; Hartman, Corey L; Huh, Myoyeon

    2011-04-01

    Several theoretical perspectives suggest that knowledge of children's perceptions of and beliefs about their parents' depression may be critical for understanding its impact on children. This paper describes the development and preliminary evidence for the psychometric properties of a new measure, the Children's Perceptions of Others' Depression - Mother Version (CPOD-MV), which assesses theoretically and empirically driven constructs related to children's understanding and beliefs about their mothers' depression. These constructs include children's perceptions of the severity, chronicity, and impairment of their mothers' depression; self-blame for their mother's depression; and beliefs about their abilities to deal with their mother's depression. The CPOD-MV underwent two stages of development: (1) a review of the literature to identify key constructs, focus groups to help generate items, and clinicians' ratings on the relevance and comprehensibility of the drafted items and (2) a study of the measure's psychometric properties. The literature review, focus groups, and item-reduction techniques yielded a 21-item measure. Reliability, factor structure, and discriminant, convergent, and concurrent validity were tested in a sample of 10- to 17-year-old children whose mothers had been treated for depression. The scale had good internal consistency; factor structure suggestive of a single construct; and discriminant, concurrent, convergent, and incremental validity, suggesting the importance of measuring children's perceptions of their mothers' depression beyond knowledge of mothers' depression symptom level when explaining which children have the greatest risk for emotional and behavioral problems among children of depressed mothers. These findings support continued development and beginning clinical applications of the scale. PMID:21480696

  8. Can older adults with dementia accurately report depression using brief forms? Reliability and validity of the Geriatric Depression Scale.

    PubMed

    Lach, Helen W; Chang, Yu-Ping; Edwards, Dorothy

    2010-05-01

    The Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) is a commonly used screening tool, but its use in older adults with cognitive impairment has been controversial. This study compared the short forms of the GDS with clinician diagnosis of depression using standard criteria (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, text revision) in people with and without dementia. Sensitivity and specificity were acceptable for all forms of the GDS. These results build evidence for using the short GDS 5- and 15-item versions in populations that include people with mild to moderate dementia, increasing the ease of depression screening so it can be performed more frequently in clinical settings. PMID:20349852

  9. Screening for depressive disorders using the Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire Anhedonic Depression Scale: a receiver-operating characteristic analysis.

    PubMed

    Bredemeier, Keith; Spielberg, Jeffery M; Silton, Rebecca Levin; Berenbaum, Howard; Heller, Wendy; Miller, Gregory A

    2010-09-01

    The present study examined the utility of the anhedonic depression scale from the Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire (MASQ-AD scale) as a way to screen for depressive disorders. Using receiver-operating characteristic analysis, we examined the sensitivity and specificity of the full 22-item MASQ-AD scale, as well as the 8- and 14-item subscales, in relation to both current and lifetime Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.) depressive disorder diagnoses in two nonpatient samples. As a means of comparison, the sensitivity and specificity of a measure of a relevant personality dimension, Neuroticism, was also examined. Results from both samples support the clinical utility of the MASQ-AD scale as a means of screening for depressive disorders. Findings were strongest for the MASQ-AD 8-item subscale and when predicting current depression status. Furthermore, the MASQ-AD 8-item subscale outperformed the Neuroticism measure under certain conditions. The overall usefulness of the MASQ-AD scale as a screening device is discussed, as are possible cutoff scores for use in research. PMID:20822283

  10. Reliability and preliminary evidence of validity of a Farsi version of the depression anxiety stress scales.

    PubMed

    Bayani, Ali Asghar

    2010-08-01

    The internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct validity of the Farsi version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales were examined, with a sample of 306 undergraduate students (123 men, 183 women) ranging from 18 to 51 years of age (M age = 25.4, SD = 6.1). Participants completed the Satisfaction with Life Scale, Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales. The findings confirmed the preliminary reliabilities and preliminary construct validity of the Farsi translation of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales. PMID:21058592

  11. Factorial structure of the manic-depressiveness scale in American college students.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed; Lester, David

    2005-06-01

    In a sample of 503 American college students, the correlational matrix (18 x 18) of the Thalbourne, et al. Manic-Depressiveness Scale (1994) was subjected to exploratory factor analysis with a varimax rotation, which showed 13 items had the correct assignment to one of the scales (six for depression and seven for mania). PMID:16050610

  12. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale with a Young Adolescent Population: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Glenn A.; Shadish, William R.; Murray, David M.; Kubik, Martha; Lytle, Leslie A.; Birnbaum, Amanda S.

    2006-01-01

    The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CES-D) was developed to assess the population prevalence of depression. The CES-D was developed and normed on an adult population. Since the CES-D's publication, various studies have both used and psychometrically assessed the scale for older adolescent populations. However, we found no…

  13. Development and validation of the Affective Self Rating Scale for manic, depressive, and mixed affective states.

    PubMed

    Adler, Mats; Liberg, Benny; Andersson, Stig; Isacsson, Göran; Hetta, Jerker

    2008-01-01

    Most rating scales for affective disorders measure either depressive or hypomanic/manic symptoms and there are few scales for hypomania/mania in a self-rating format. We wanted to develop and validate a self-rating scale for comprehensive assessment of depressive, manic/hypomanic and mixed affective states. We developed an 18-item self-rating scale starting with the DSM-IV criteria for depression and mania, with subscales for depression and mania. The scale was evaluated on 61 patients with a diagnosis of affective disorder, predominantly bipolar disorder type I, using Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), Hypomania Interview Guide-Clinical version (HIGH-C) and Clinical Global Impression scale, modified for bipolar patients (CGI-BP) as reference scales. Internal consistency of the scale measured by Cronbach's alpha was 0.89 for the depression subscale and 0.91 for the mania subscale. Spearman's correlation coefficients (two-tailed) between the depression subscale and MADRS was 0.74 (P<0.01) and between mania subscale and HIGH-C 0.80 (P<0.01). A rotated factor analysis of the scale supported the separation of symptoms in the mania and depression subscale. We established that the self-rating scales sensitivity to identify mixed states, with combined cut-offs on the MADRS and HIGH-C as reference, was 0.90 with a specificity of 0.71. The study shows that the Affective Self Rating Scale is highly correlated with ratings of established interview scales for depression and mania and that it may aid the detection of mixed affective states. PMID:18569776

  14. Dimensionality of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) in Cardiac Patients: Comparison of Mokken Scale Analysis and Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emons, Wilco H. M.; Sijtsma, Klaas; Pedersen, Susanne S.

    2012-01-01

    The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) measures anxiety and depressive symptoms and is widely used in clinical and nonclinical populations. However, there is some debate about the number of dimensions represented by the HADS. In a sample of 534 Dutch cardiac patients, this study examined (a) the dimensionality of the HADS using Mokken…

  15. Conceptualization and manifestation of depression in an asian context: formal construction and validation of a children's depression scale in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Koh, Jessie B K; Chang, Weining C; Fung, Daniel S S; Kee, Carolyn H Y

    2007-06-01

    Understanding that the conceptualization and manifestation of depression vary across cultures, in a preliminary study, Koh and colleagues (2002) identified a cultural model and a prototype measure of depression for Asian children. The present study sought to provide further examination of the initially identified conceptualization, manifestation, and measurement of depression in Asian children. Involving a community sample of 442 Singaporean Chinese children (6 to 12 years old), a culturally salient factor, Negative Social Self, was established to constitute part of depression, in addition to three universally recognized factors: Negative Affect and Cognitive Dysfunction, Loss of Interest, and Psychosomatic Manifestations. The Asian Children Depression Scale (ACDS) and Negative Social Self (NSS) were found to be positively related to hopelessness and negatively related to self-esteem, subjective well-being, and control-related beliefs, establishing support for convergent validity. Notably, NSS was found to account for significant incremental validity over that of the universally recognized factors in predicting most of the above-mentioned variables, supporting its added value as a factor of depression in Asian children. The results suggested that the ACDS and the culturally salient dimension reflect the phenomenological experiences and manifestations of depression in Asian children. PMID:17592760

  16. [Late-onset depression and a new psychometric scale for its clinical evaluation].

    PubMed

    Ivanets, N N; Kinkul'kina, M A; Avdeeva, T I

    2012-01-01

    The most of existed psychometric scales for depression have some shortcomings hampering their use in old patients. The authors worked out the original scale for clinical evaluation of symptoms of late-onset depression. The list of symptoms was made up basing on literature data. The most significant symptoms that characterized the structure and severity of depression in old patients were singled out. According to results of factor analyses they were combined in the groups forming the corresponding items of the scale. In addition, some symptoms with particular clinical significance for late-onset depression (suicidal thoughts, senesto-hypochondriac symptoms, insight) were singled out. The scale comprises 13 items with scores from -6 to +6. It can be implemented for symptom screening, clinical diagnosis and rating, including dynamics of depression in elderly patients. PMID:23235407

  17. Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... make negative thinking worse. previous continue Depression Can Go Unrecognized People with depression may not realize they ... themselves or who have eating disorders or who go through extreme mood changes may have unrecognized depression. ...

  18. Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... The depression generally lifts during spring and summer. Bipolar disorder is different from depression but is included in this list is because someone with bipolar disorder experiences episodes of extreme low moods (depression). But ...

  19. Childhood Depression Subscales Using Repeated Sessions on Children's Depression Rating Scale – Revised (CDRS-R) Scores

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Ira; Trivedi, Madhukar; Mayes, Taryn; Kennard, Betsy; Emslie, Graham

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Although acute treatments have been shown to be effective in treating early-onset depression, only one-third or thereabouts reach a remission within 3 months. Unfortunately, delayed time to remission in early-onset depression leads to poorer therapeutic outcomes. Clearly, there is a need to identify, diagnose, and provide effective treatment of a depressed patient quickly. A sophisticated understanding of depression subscales and their change over time with treatment could enhance pathways to individualized treatment approaches for childhood depression. Objective: Previous studies have found that the clinician-measured instrument, Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R) measures multiple subscales (or components) of depression. The aim of this study was to see how these subscales may change over the course of a 12-week study. This knowledge will help determine if dimensions/subscales of childhood depression (paralleling the adult literature) using the subscales derived from factor analysis procedure is useful. Methods: We examined two clinical trials in which youth (n=234) with major depressive disorder (MDD) were treated openly with fluoxetine for eight sessions spread over 12 weeks. The CDRS-R was completed based on clinician interviews with parent and child at each session. Classical test theory and component analysis with associated parallel analysis (oblique rotation) were conducted on each week's scores. Results: Although more factors were needed for the baseline and first two therapy sessions, a two-factor solution sufficed thereafter. Depressed facial affect, listless speech, and hypoactivity best defined Factor I, whereas sleep problems, appetite disturbance, physical symptoms, irritability, guilt, and weeping best defined Factor II. All other symptoms cross-loaded almost equally on the two factors. The scale's reliability (internal consistency) improved from baseline to exit sessions (α=0.65–0.91). As a result, the

  20. Depressive Symptoms, Depletion, or Developmental Change? Withdrawal, Apathy, and Lack of Vigor in the Geriatric Depressive Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Kathryn Betts

    2001-01-01

    This study has dual goals of confirming the existence of a "Withdrawal/Apathy/[Lack of] Vigor" (WAV) dimension of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and determining if it is descriptive of either depletion or disengagement-related change in older adults. High endorsement rates suggest WAV may be congruent with disengagement or depletion and may…

  1. The Behavioral Activation for Depression Scale-Short Form: Development and Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manos, Rachel C.; Kanter, Jonathan W.; Luo, Wen

    2011-01-01

    Following a landmark component analysis of cognitive therapy by Jacobson and colleagues (1996), there has been renewed interest in behavioral activation (BA) treatments for depression. The Behavioral Activation for Depression Scale (BADS) was developed to measure when and how clients become activated over the course of BA treatment. Multiple…

  2. A Multidimensional Scaling Approach to the Assessment of Self-Concept in Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Stephanie A.; And Others

    Depression therapy literature cites the importance of self-concept in formulating therapeutic strategies. Traditional depression measures catalog a client's symptoms, but fail to tap the structure of dysfunctional thoughts and judgments that form the client's self-concept. Vector-product multidimensional scaling was used to develop a measure of…

  3. Diagnostic accuracy of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) for detecting major depression in pregnant and postnatal women: protocol for a systematic review and individual patient data meta-analyses

    PubMed Central

    Thombs, Brett D; Benedetti, Andrea; Kloda, Lorie A; Levis, Brooke; Riehm, Kira E; Azar, Marleine; Cuijpers, Pim; Gilbody, Simon; Ioannidis, John P A; McMillan, Dean; Patten, Scott B; Shrier, Ian; Steele, Russell J; Ziegelstein, Roy C; Tonelli, Marcello; Mitchell, Nicholas; Comeau, Liane; Schinazi, Joy; Vigod, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Studies of the diagnostic accuracy of depression screening tools often used data-driven methods to select optimal cut-offs. Typically, these studies report results from a small range of cut-off points around whatever cut-off score is identified as most accurate. When published data are combined in meta-analyses, estimates of accuracy for different cut-off points may be based on data from different studies, rather than data from all studies for each cut-off point. Thus, traditional meta-analyses may exaggerate accuracy estimates. Individual patient data (IPD) meta-analyses synthesise data from all studies for each cut-off score to obtain accuracy estimates. The 10-item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) is commonly recommended for depression screening in the perinatal period. The primary objective of this IPD meta-analysis is to determine the diagnostic accuracy of the EPDS to detect major depression among women during pregnancy and in the postpartum period across all potentially relevant cut-off scores, accounting for patient factors that may influence accuracy (age, pregnancy vs postpartum). Methods and analysis Data sources will include Medline, Medline In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, PsycINFO, and Web of Science. Studies that include a diagnosis of major depression based on a validated structured or semistructured clinical interview administered within 2 weeks of (before or after) the administration of the EPDS will be included. Risk of bias will be assessed with the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 tool. Bivariate random-effects meta-analysis will be conducted for the full range of plausible cut-off values. Analyses will evaluate data from pregnancy and the postpartum period separately, as well as combining data from all women in a single model. Ethics and dissemination This study does not require ethics approval. Dissemination will include journal articles and presentations to policymakers, healthcare

  4. Correlations between Pre-morbid Personality and Depression Scales in Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Sung Il; Park, Oak Tae; Park, Si-Woon; Choi, Eun Seok; Yi, Sook-Hee

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the correlation between pre-morbid personality and depression scales in patients with stroke. Method The subjects of this study included 45 patients with stroke and their caregivers. We conducted an interview of patients with Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and also evaluated general characteristic (age, sex, location of lesion, cause of stroke, duration of illness, educational background, history of medication for depression) and functional level. Caregivers were evaluated with Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) for depressive mood, with NEO-PI (Neuroticism, Extraversion and Openness Personality Inventory) for pre-morbid personality. The results of each questionnaire were analyzed in order to investigate their correlation. The results were statistically analyzed with independent t-test, ANOVA, and Pearson correlation test. Results The HRSD score of the caregivers had a significant correlation with the BDI score (p=0.001) of the patients. The BDI score correlated with Neuroticism (p=0.021) and the HRSD score also correlated with Neuroticism (p=0.015). There were no statistical correlation of depression with sex, age, case of stroke, location of lesion, duration of illness and functional level. Conclusion Among pre-morbid personalities, neuroticism of NEO-PI is the only factor which is significantly correlated with depression scales in stroke patients. Evaluating pre-morbid personality can be helpful in predicting the depressive mood in stroke patients, so we may have early intervention for it. PMID:22506141

  5. Accuracy of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale for identifying depression in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Christoph; Sievi, Noriane A; Clarenbach, Christian F; Schwarz, Esther Irene; Schlatzer, Christian; Brack, Thomas; Brutsche, Martin; Frey, Martin; Irani, Sarosh; Leuppi, Jörg D; Rüdiger, Jochen; Thurnheer, Robert; Kohler, Malcolm

    2014-01-01

    Psychological morbidity is common in chronic respiratory diseases. The diagnostic accuracy of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and risk factors for comorbid depression in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are addressed. Consecutive COPD patients (GOLD stage I-IV, 40-75 years old) were enrolled in a multicentre, cross-sectional cohort study. Diagnosis of depression was ascertained through clinical records. Lung function, HADS score, 6-minute walking test (6-MWT), MRC dyspnoea score, and COPD Assessment Test (CAT) were evaluated. Two hundred fifty-nine COPD patients (mean age 62.5 years; 32% female; mean FEV1 48% predicted) were included. Patients diagnosed with depression (29/259; 11.2%) had significantly higher HADS-D and HADS-Total scores than nondepressed patients (median (quartiles) HADS-D 6 [4; 9] versus 4 [2; 7], median HADS-Total 14 [10; 20] versus 8 [5; 14]). Receiver-operating characteristic plots showed moderate accuracy for HADS-D, AUC 0.662 (95%CI 0.601-0.719), and HADS-Total, AUC 0.681 (95%CI 0.620-0.737), with optimal cut-off scores of >5 and >9, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity were 62.1% and 62.6% for HADS-D compared to 75.9% and 55.2% for HADS-Total. Age, comorbidities, sex, and lower airflow limitation predicted depression. The HADS exhibits low diagnostic accuracy for depression in COPD patients. Younger men with comorbidities are at increased risk for depression. PMID:25548667

  6. Reliability and Validity of the Korean Version of the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hyun Kook; Hong, Seung Chul; Won, Wang Youn; Hahn, Changtae

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to explore the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD-K), a scale for assessment of depression in dementia. Methods The original CSDD was translated into Korean and the content was verified through back-translation procedures. This study included 59 depressive patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), 62 non-depressive patients with AD and 36 healthy elderly controls. The subjects were assessed using CSDD-K, the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D17), the 15-item Korean version of Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS15) and the Korean version of Mini-mental Status Examination (MMSE-K). Results In the reliability test, Cronbach's α coefficient and test-retest reliabilities were 0.92 and 0.91, respectively, indicating that the CSDD-K has good internal consistency. There were significant differences in CSDD-K total scores between AD patients with depression and AD patients without depression (p<0.001). In the analysis of the concurrent validity of the CSDD-K, there were significant correlations between the CSDD-K and HAM-D17 (r=0.91, p<0.001) and between the CSDD-K and GDS15 (r=0.75, p<0.001). ROC curve analysis identified a cut-off score of 7 for the CSDD-K, where the sensitivity was 87.5% and the specificity was 100%. Factor analysis resulted in a four-factor solution accounting for 63.8% of the common variance. Conclusion The CSDD-K showed good reliability and validity for the assessment of depressive symptom severity in AD patients. The CSDD-K is a useful instrument for assessing AD patients with depressive symptoms in Korean ethnic population. PMID:23251196

  7. A Study of Remitted and Treatment-Resistant Depression Using MMPI and Including Pessimism and Optimism Scales

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Masatoshi; Takahashi, Michio; Muneoka, Katsumasa; Sato, Koichi; Hashimoto, Kenji; Shirayama, Yukihiko

    2014-01-01

    Background The psychological aspects of treatment-resistant and remitted depression are not well documented. Methods We administered the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) to patients with treatment-resistant depression (n = 34), remitted depression (n = 25), acute depression (n = 21), and healthy controls (n = 64). Pessimism and optimism were also evaluated by MMPI. Results ANOVA and post-hoc tests demonstrated that patients with treatment-resistant and acute depression showed similarly high scores for frequent scale (F), hypochondriasis, depression, conversion hysteria, psychopathic device, paranoia, psychasthenia and schizophrenia on the MMPI compared with normal controls. Patients with treatment-resistant depression, but not acute depression registered high on the scale for cannot say answer. Using Student's t-test, patients with remitted depression registered higher on depression and social introversion scales, compared with normal controls. For pessimism and optimism, patients with treatment-resistant depression demonstrated similar changes to acutely depressed patients. Remitted depression patients showed lower optimism than normal controls by Student's t-test, even though these patients were deemed recovered from depression using HAM-D. Conclusions The patients with remitted depression and treatment-resistant depression showed subtle alterations on the MMPI, which may explain the hidden psychological features in these cohorts. PMID:25279466

  8. Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... it might motivate the person to go for treatment. Treating Depression Your doctor or mental health expert can often treat your depression successfully. Different therapies seem to work for different people. For instance, ...

  9. Depressants

    MedlinePlus

    Drug Fact Sheet Depressants Overview Includes barbiturates (barbs), benzodiazepines (benzos) and sedative-hypnotics. Depressants will put you ... unsafe, increasing the likelihood of coma or death. Benzodiazepines were developed to replace barbiturates, though they still ...

  10. A Psychometric Analysis of the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scales--Parent Version in a School Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebesutani, Chad; Chorpita, Bruce F.; Higa-McMillan, Charmaine K.; Nakamura, Brad J.; Regan, Jennifer; Lynch, Roxanna E.

    2011-01-01

    The Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale--Parent Version (RCADS-P) is a parent-report questionnaire of youth anxiety and depression with scales corresponding to the "DSM" diagnoses of separation anxiety disorder, social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and major depressive disorder. The…

  11. Prevalence of postpartum depression in Nuuk, Greenland – a cross-sectional study using Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale

    PubMed Central

    Motzfeldt, Iben; Andreasen, Sabina; Pedersen, Amalia Lynge; Pedersen, Michael Lynge

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of postnatal depression in Nuuk, Greenland. Study design Cross-sectional study. Methods The primary health care system in Nuuk initiated a project aiming to screen new mothers for depression using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). EPDS has a range on a scale from 0 to 30. All mothers residing in Nuuk who had given birth in 2011 were included in the study group. The screening was performed by health care visitors approximately 3 months following birth. Mothers who scored 13 points or above were defined as having possible postpartum depression (PPD). These mothers were then referred to a physician. A score at or less than 8 was defined as normal, whereas an intermediate score from 9 to 12 indicated a need for an extra visit. Results During 2011, a total of 217 mothers gave birth in Nuuk. Of them, 80.2% (174) were screened for PPD using EPDS. Fifteen mothers scored 13 points or above corresponding to a prevalence of possible PPD at 8.6% (15/174). Seventy-nine percentage scored less than 9 points (137/174), whereas 15% (22/174) scored from 9 to 12 points. Conclusion PPD seems to be a common problem in Nuuk, Greenland. EPDS seems to be a valuable tool in identifying women with PPD and vulnerable mothers with extra needs for support in a Greenlandic context. Continual routine screening is recommended. PMID:23984294

  12. Measuring symptoms of depression: comparing the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9-Observation Version.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Lorraine J

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to extend available psychometric data on the Patient Health Questionnaire-9-Observation Version (PHQ-9-OV) by comparing it with the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD) in a new sample of long-term care residents. Data were collected post intervention in a quasi-experimental storytelling study across six communities. The sample (N = 54) was 87% women with mean age of 84.5, mean CSDD score of 3.96, and mean PHQ-9-OV score of 4.22. Prevalence of depressive symptoms by CSDD criteria was 20.4% and by PHQ-9-OV criteria was 40.7%. The CSDD and PHQ-9-OV were well correlated (r(s) = 0.78, p < 0.0001). Neither scale was significantly correlated with depression diagnosis nor antidepressant agent use. Both measures demonstrated adequate reliability. The PHQ-9-OV item scoring and established cut-off points designate a lower threshold than the CSDD to detect clinically significant depressive symptoms. Further study is needed to determine the sensitivity of the PHQ-9-OV in identifying treatment effects. PMID:22165998

  13. Depressive Symptoms among Children and Adolescents in Iran: A Confirmatory Factor Analytic Study of the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essau, Cecilia A.; Olaya, Beatriz; Pasha, Gholamreza; Gilvarry, Catherine; Bray, Diane

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Iranian translation of the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC) in school children and adolescents in Iran. The CES-DC is a 20-item self-report scale designed to measure depressive symptoms in children and adolescents. A total of 1,984 children and…

  14. [Assessment of depressive symptoms in old visually-impaired people: a study of the Geriatric Depression Scale].

    PubMed

    Ferrando Piera, Pere Joan; Pallero, Rafael; Anguiano-Carrasco, Cristina; Montorio, Ignacio

    2010-11-01

    This study has two main purposes: (a) to assess the functioning of the Geriatric Depression Scale in its Spanish version in old visually-impaired people, and (b) to assess the relevance of measuring depressive symptoms within a comprehensive assessment of psychological adjustment related to vision impairment in that population. Respondents were 329 people affiliated to the ONCE who were a representative sample of the target population. The assessment of the first goal let us to establish two cut-off points, and led to new methodological developments that combine Item Response Theory and Classical Test Theory. The results indicated that the scale is particularly useful in the target population and that it is very relevant in the assessment of psychological adjustment related to visual impairment in old people. PMID:21044483

  15. Avoidance and activation as keys to depression: adaptation of the Behavioral Activation for Depression Scale in a Spanish sample.

    PubMed

    Barraca, Jorge; Pérez-Alvarez, Marino; Lozano Bleda, José Héctor

    2011-11-01

    In this paper we present the adaptation of the Behavioral Activation for Depression Scale (BADS), developed by Kanter, Mulick, Busch, Berlin, and Martell (2007), in a Spanish sample. The psychometric properties were tested in a sample of 263 participants (124 clinical and 139 non-clinical). The results show that, just as in the original English version, the Spanish BADS is a valid and internally consistent scale. Construct validity was examined by correlation with the BDI-II, AAQ, ATQ, MCQ-30, STAI and EROS. Factor analysis justified the four-dimensions of the original instrument (Activation, Avoidance/Rumination, Work/School Impairment and Social Impairment), although with some differences in the factor loadings of the items. Further considerations about the usefulness of the BADS in the clinical treatment of depressed patients are also suggested. PMID:22059343

  16. Examination of the Chicago Multiscale Depression Inventory and Initial Validation of a Positive Scale.

    PubMed

    Ukueberuwa, Dede M; Arnett, Peter A

    2016-01-01

    The Chicago Multiscale Depression Inventory (CMDI) was developed to improve accuracy in measuring depression symptoms in individuals with non-psychiatric medical illness. Earlier psychometric evaluation of the CMDI has emphasized properties of items that measure negative affect and experience. In this study, we provide an initial evaluation of an outcome scale of positive items that are also included within the CMDI but have previously been excluded from calculation of the total score. Psychometric data for the CMDI negative and positive item subscales were determined in healthy adults and patients with multiple sclerosis. Analysis included measurements of factor structure, reliability, and validity in comparison with other established measures of depression and affect. Study findings indicate that in healthy and patient samples, the CMDI Positive scale has very good reliability and validity. The Positive scale score also appears to predict depression symptoms beyond the negative item scale scores. The CMDI Positive scale could be a valuable clinical and research tool. Inclusion of the Positive scale in the CMDI total score appears to improve the measure by further capturing symptoms of affect and experience that are important to diagnosis of depression and are not covered by the negative scales alone. (JINS, 2016, 22, 76-82). PMID:26548955

  17. Validation of the Spanish Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression and Zung Self-Rating Depression Scales: A Comparative Validation Study

    PubMed Central

    Arevalo, Jorge M.; Chavez, Kristhy; Vilela, Ana; Lazo, Maria; Huapaya, Julio

    2012-01-01

    Background Depressive disorders are leading contributors to burden of disease in developing countries. Research aiming to improve their diagnosis and treatment is fundamental in these settings, and psychometric tools are widely used instruments to support mental health research. Our aim is to validate and compare the psychometric properties of the Spanish versions of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (ZSDS). Methodology/Principal Findings A Spanish version of the CES-D was revised by 5 native Spanish speaking psychiatrists using as reference the English version. A locally standardized Spanish version of the ZSDS was used. These Spanish versions were administered to 70 patients with a clinical diagnosis of DSM-IV Major Depressive Episode (MDE), 63 without major depression but with clinical diagnosis of other psychiatric disorders (OPD), and 61 with no evidence of psychiatric disorders (NEP). For both scales, Cronbach's alpha (C-α) and Hierarchical McDonald Omega for polychoric variables (MD-Ω) were estimated; and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis performed. For the CES-D and ZSDS scales, C-α was 0.93 and 0.89 respectively, while MD-Ω was 0.90 and 0.75 respectively. The area under the ROC curve in MDE+OPD was 0.83 for CES-D and 0.84 for ZSDS; and in MDE+NEP was 0.98 for CES-D and 0.96 for ZSDS. Cut-off scores (co) for the highest proportions of correctly classified (cc) individuals among MDE+OPD were ≥29 for CES-D (sensitivity (ss) = 77.1/specificity (sp) = 79.4%/(cc) = 78.2%) and ≥47 for ZSDS (ss = 85.7%/sp = 71.4%/cc = 78.9%). In the MDE+NEP, co were ≥24 for the CES-D (ss = 91.4%/sp = 96.7%/cc = 93.9%) and ≥45 for the ZSDS (ss = 91.4%/sp = 91.8%/cc = 91.6%). Conclusion Spanish versions of the CES-D and ZSDS are valid instruments to detect depression in clinical settings and could be useful for both epidemiological

  18. The Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS): The Study of Validity and Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akin, Ahmet; Cetin, Bayram

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS). The sample of the study consisted of 590 university students, 121 English teachers and 136 emotionally disturbed individuals who sought treatment in various clinics and counseling centers. Factor loadings of the scale ranged…

  19. Impacts of Centimetre-scale Landscape Roughness on Depression Storage, Runoff and Sediment Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Y. E.; Valeo, C.; Tait, M.; Johnson, E.

    2008-12-01

    Laser scanning was utilized to examine hillslope microtopography in a wildfire burn site in the Canadian Rockies, Canada. DTMs were created at scales of 0.75 cm, 10 cm, 25 cm, 50 cm, 75 cm and 1 metre; for each scale, bare surface (vegetation removed) and vegetated surfaces were analyzed. Several roughness indices, including Random Roughness, Tortuosity and Mean Upslope Depression, were calculated for bare and vegetated surfaces at the various scalinsg. Values of the roughness parameters and depression storage were found to be similar for the vegetated and bare surface DTMs, and do not change significantly as DTM grid cell resolution increases. In addition, a GIS-based approach was used to calculate depression storage for comparison with values based on roughness parameters. Mean depression storage based on the GIS approach decreases notably as DTM grid cell size increases. In contrast, values of depression storage based on the Random Roughness parameter remain stable with increasing size of grid cell. Hortonian overland flow generation was found to be affected by the values of depression storage for the various DTM scalings. The scale of the DTM was found to impact the proportion of water going into depression storage and that contributing to overland flow as time progresses. Furthermore, greater amounts of water are retained as depression storage for a particular value of rainfall excess after infiltration for the finer resolution DTMs. A modelling exercise was undertaken to examine the initiation and behaviour of overland flow from a rising groundwater table. Initially, water depths are lower than the main topographic roughness elements on the landscape, and water present on the landscape is relatively disconnected. Water flow becomes more integrated as channel flow increases.

  20. Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strock, Margaret

    Approximately ten percent of the population suffers from a depressive illness each year. Although the economic cost is high, the cost in human suffering is immeasurable. To help educate the population about this disorder, this paper presents a definition of depression and its common manifestations. The symptoms that people often experience are…

  1. Validation of the Korean Version of the Depression Coping Self-Efficacy Scale (DCSES-K).

    PubMed

    Lim, Young Mi; Perraud, Suzanne

    2016-08-01

    Coping self-efficacy is regarded as an important indicator of the quality of life and well-being for community-dwelling patients with depression. The Depression Coping Self-Efficacy Scale (DCSES) was designed to measure self-efficacy beliefs related to the ability to perform tasks specific to coping with the symptoms of depression. The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of a Korean version of the Depression Coping Self-Efficacy Scale (DCSES-K) for community-dwelling patients with depression. A cross-sectional survey design was used. Content and semantic equivalence of the instrument using translation and back-translation of the DCSES was established. A convenience sample of 149 community-dwelling patients with depression was recruited from psychiatric outpatient clinics. The reliability alpha for the DCSES-K was .93, and the internal consistency was found to be acceptable. For convergent validity, DCSES-K score was positively correlated with the General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES-K) score. For construct validity, significant differences in DCSES-K scores were found between a lower BDI group (mean=73.7, SD=16.54) and a higher BDI group (mean=53.74, SD=16.99) (t=7.19, p<.001). For the DCSES-K, 5 factors were extracted, accounting for 62.7% of the variance. Results of this study suggest that DCSES-K can be used as a reliable and valid measure for examining self-efficacy coping with depression for Korean community-dwelling patients with depression. PMID:27455919

  2. Genome-wide linkage on chromosome 10q26 for a dimensional scale of major depression.

    PubMed

    Knowles, Emma E M; Kent, Jack W; McKay, D Reese; Sprooten, Emma; Mathias, Samuel R; Curran, Joanne E; Carless, Melanie A; de Almeida, Marcio A A; Harald, H H Goring; Dyer, Tom D; Olvera, Rene L; Fox, Peter T; Duggirala, Ravi; Almasy, Laura; Blangero, John; Glahn, David C

    2016-02-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common and potentially life-threatening mood disorder. Identifying genetic markers for depression might provide reliable indicators of depression risk, which would, in turn, substantially improve detection, enabling earlier and more effective treatment. The aim of this study was to identify rare variants for depression, modeled as a continuous trait, using linkage and post-hoc association analysis. The sample comprised 1221 Mexican-American individuals from extended pedigrees. A single dimensional scale of MDD was derived using confirmatory factor analysis applied to all items from the Past Major Depressive Episode section of the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Scores on this scale of depression were subjected to linkage analysis followed by QTL region-specific association analysis. Linkage analysis revealed a single genome-wide significant QTL (LOD=3.43) on 10q26.13, QTL-specific association analysis conducted in the entire sample revealed a suggestive variant within an intron of the gene LHPP (rs11245316, p=7.8×10(-04); LD-adjusted Bonferroni-corrected p=8.6×10(-05)). This region of the genome has previously been implicated in the etiology of MDD; the present study extends our understanding of the involvement of this region by highlighting a putative gene of interest (LHPP). PMID:26655122

  3. Validity of Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale in a sample of Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Quiñones, Ana R; Thielke, Stephen M; Clark, Michael E; Phillips, Kristin M; Elnitsky, Christine; Andresen, Elena M

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Optimal depression screening necessitates measurement tools that are valid across varied populations and in the presence of comorbidities. Methods: This study assessed the test properties of two versions of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale against psychiatric diagnoses established by the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview among a clinical sample of US Veterans deployed during Operations Enduring Freedom, Iraqi Freedom, and New Dawn. Participants (N = 359) recruited from two Department of Veterans Affairs hospitals completed a clinical interview, structured diagnostic interview, and self-reported measures. Results: Based on diagnostic interview and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th Edition criteria, 29.5% of the sample met diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder and 26.5% met diagnostic criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder. Both Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression-20 and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression-10 scales performed well and almost identically against the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview-major depressive disorder in identifying Veterans with major depressive disorder (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression-20 area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve 91%; Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression-10 area under the ROC curve 90%). Overall, higher cut points for the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scales performed better in correctly identifying true positives and true negatives for major depressive disorder (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression-20 cut point 18+ sensitivity 92% specificity 72%; Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression-10 cut point 10+ sensitivity 92% specificity 69%). Conclusions: The specificity of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scales was poor among Veterans with co-occurring post-traumatic stress disorder (13% and 16%). Veterans with post-traumatic stress

  4. Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale in patients with tinnitus and hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Gomaa, Mohammed Abdel Motaal; Elmagd, Manal Hassan Abo; Elbadry, Mohammed Mohammed; Kader, Rafeek Mohammed Abdel

    2014-08-01

    The study was proposed to evaluate co-morbid depression, anxiety and stress associated with tinnitus patients. The study was done on 196 subjects: 100 patients suffering from subjective tinnitus associated with hearing loss (tinnitus group), 45 patients suffering from hearing loss only (hearing loss group) and 50 healthy subjects not suffering from tinnitus or hearing loss (control group); the age ranges from 20 to 60 years old. The studied sample was subjected to full ear, nose and throat examinations and audiological evaluation. Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) was developed by Levibond H and Levibond F to assess three self-report scales designed to measure the negative emotional status of depression, anxiety and stress. All patients and control group were evaluated by DASS. (1) Depression: males were affected more than females. All patients over 60 years were affected by depression. The duration of tinnitus seems correlating with the severity of depression. Only 2 patients (4.3 %) of the hearing loss group suffer from depression. (2) Anxiety: 90 % of males suffer from anxiety as compared to 83.3 % females. The age group 20-29 years old suffers more than other age groups. Only 4 patients (8.7 %) of hearing loss group suffer from anxiety. (3) Stress: females seem to be affected by the stress (76.7 %) more than males (67.5). Patients in age group 30-39 suffer the most from the disease. There is a direct correlation between duration of tinnitus and severity of stress. No one of the hearing loss group suffers from stress. In conclusion, depression, anxiety and stress should be taken into consideration in the treatment of patients suffering from tinnitus. PMID:24071860

  5. Postnatal depression among Sudanese women: prevalence and validation of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale at 3 months postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Khalifa, Dina Sami; Glavin, Kari; Bjertness, Espen; Lien, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Postnatal depression (PND) rates in low-resource countries have reached levels between 4.9% and 59%. Maternal mental health has not been researched in Sudan, and there are no existing statistics on prevalence or significant risk factors for PND. Consequently, no screening test has been validated to screen for PND at the primary health care level. This study investigates the 3 months prevalence of PND and validates the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) against the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Methodology Pregnant Sudanese women in the second and third trimesters were recruited to the study during routine antenatal care visits in two major maternity hospitals in Khartoum state. They were screened for PND at 3 months postpartum using the EPDS. Test positive women were matched with test negative women according to nearest date of birth. A clinical psychologist verified their depression status using the MINI. Results The follow-up rate was 79%. At a cutoff point of ≥12, the 3 months prevalence of PND was 9.2%. The sensitivity and specificity of the EPDS were 89% and 82%, respectively. The EPDS and MINI showed a strong positive relationship (odds ratio =36). The positive predictive value and negative predictive value, using this study’s prevalence, were 33% and 98.7%, respectively. The receiver operator characteristic analysis showed an area under the curve of 0.89. The cut-off point ≥12 was the most acceptable point as it had the lowest number needed to diagnose (1.4) and a false-positive rate of 18%. Conclusion The EPDS is a valid tool for screening for PND on a Sudanese population. It was accepted, easily administered, and understood by postnatal women. Health care personnel, especially village midwives, should be trained on screening and referral of depressed women for clinical evaluation and management. Due to limited resources available in Sudan, shorter screening tests need to be validated in the future. PMID

  6. Depressants

    MedlinePlus

    ... marketed in the United States. Common places of origin Generally, legitimate pharmaceutical products are diverted to the illicit market. Teens can obtain depressants from the family medicine cabinet, friends, family members, the Internet, doctors, ...

  7. Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... newborns, as well as jitteriness, difficulty feeding, and low blood sugar after delivery. However, moms who stop medications can ... a kind of antidepressant for treating depression and anxiety disorders. However, a number of research studies show ...

  8. Depressants

    MedlinePlus

    ... system. Doctors use them to treat things like insomnia or anxiety . But if depressant drugs (like sedatives, ... Other long-term effects include: impaired sexual function insomnia and other sleep problems breathing problems convulsions (similar ...

  9. Psychometric Properties of the Dutch Depression Stigma Scale (DSS) and Associations with Personal and Perceived Stigma in a Depressed and Community Sample

    PubMed Central

    Cuijpers, P.; Griffiths, K. M.; Kleiboer, A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Research on depression stigma is needed to gain more insight into the underlying construct and to reduce the level of stigma in the community. However, few validated measurements of depression stigma are available in the Netherlands. Therefore, this study first sought to examine the psychometric properties of the Dutch translation of the Depression Stigma Scale (DSS). Second, we examined which demographic (gender, age, education, partner status) and other variables (anxiety and knowledge of depression) are associated with personal and perceived stigma within these samples. Methods The study population consisted of an adult convenience sample (n = 253) (study 1) and a community adult sample with elevated depressive symptoms (n = 264) (study 2). Factor structure, internal consistency, and validity were assessed. The associations between stigma, demographic variables and anxiety level were examined with regression analyses. Results Confirmatory factor analysis supported the validity and internal consistency of the DSS personal stigma scale. Internal consistency was sufficient (Cronbach’s alpha = .70 (study 1) and .77 (study 2)). The results regarding the perceived stigma scale revealed no clear factor structure. Regression analyses showed that personal stigma was higher in younger people, those with no experience with depression, and those with lower education. Conclusions This study established the validity and internal consistency of the DSS personal scale in the Netherlands, in a community sample and in people with elevated depressive symptoms. However, additional research is needed to examine the factor structure of the DSS perceived scale and its use in other samples. PMID:27500969

  10. Validation of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) in non-postnatal women.

    PubMed

    Cox, J L; Chapman, G; Murray, D; Jones, P

    1996-07-29

    This paper reports the validation of the EPDS against a Research Diagnostic Criteria diagnosis of Major and Minor depression. The EPDS was administered to non-postnatal women with older children (mean age of youngest child 3 years 9 months) and to postnatal women (baby aged 6 months). All who scored 9 or above and one third of low scorers were interviewed, using Goldberg's Clinical Interview Schedule. The study confirmed good user acceptability of the EPDS when administered as a postal questionnaire (92% response rate). The EPDS was found to have satisfactory sensitivity (79%) and specificity (85%). Our findings suggest that the EPDS take a place alongside other screening scales for depression in Community samples. It is proposed that when used in these settings it is referred to as the Edinburgh Depression Scale. PMID:8856422

  11. Efficiently Assessing Negative Cognition in Depression: An Item Response Theory Analysis of the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beevers, Christopher G.; Strong, David R.; Meyer, Bjorn; Pilkonis, Paul A.; Miller, Ivan R.

    2007-01-01

    Despite a central role for dysfunctional attitudes in cognitive theories of depression and the widespread use of the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale, form A (DAS-A; A. Weissman, 1979), the psychometric development of the DAS-A has been relatively limited. The authors used nonparametric item response theory methods to examine the DAS-A items and…

  12. A Brief Version of the Geriatric Depression Scale for the Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Sheung-Tak; Chan, Alfred C. M.

    2004-01-01

    Elderly persons (N=310) attending outpatient psychiatric clinics were given an interview on the 30-item Geriatric Depression Scale (T. L. Brink et al., 1982; J. A. Yesavage et al., 1983) and received an independent psychiatric evaluation. A 3-step binary logistic regression showed that 2 items measuring positive affect and 2 others measuring…

  13. Validation of Geriatric Depression Scale--5 Scores among Sedentary Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marquez, David X.; McAuley, Edward; Motl, Robert W.; Elavsky, Steriani; Konopack, James F.; Jerome, Gerald J.; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the validity of Geriatric Depression Scale--5 (GDS-5) scores among older sedentary adults based on its structural properties and relationship with external criteria. Participants from two samples (Ns = 185 and 93; M ages = 66 and 67 years) completed baseline assessments as part of randomized controlled exercise trials.…

  14. Measurement Invariance of the Reynolds Depression Adolescent Scale across Gender and Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Wells, Craig; Paino, Mercedes; Lemos-Giraldez, Serafin; Villazon-Garcia, Ursula; Sierra, Susana; Garcia-Portilla Gonzalez, Ma Paz; Bobes, Julio; Muniz, Jose

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of the present study was to examine measurement invariance of the Reynolds Depression Adolescent Scale (RADS) (Reynolds, 1987) across gender and age in a representative sample of nonclinical adolescents. The sample was composed of 1,659 participants, 801 males (48.3%), with a mean age of 15.9 years (SD = 1.2). Confirmatory…

  15. A Psychometric Analysis of the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale-Parent Version in a Clinical Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebesutani, Chad; Bernstein, Adam; Nakamura, Brad J.; Chorpita, Bruce F.; Weisz, John R.

    2010-01-01

    The Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale-Parent Version (RCADS-P) is a 47-item parent-report questionnaire of youth anxiety and depression, with scales corresponding to the DSM-IV categories of Separation Anxiety Disorder, Social Phobia, Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), Panic Disorder, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, and Major Depressive…

  16. Rating scales for states for anxiety, depression, mania and schizophrenia. A multiaxial approach.

    PubMed

    Kastrup, M; Bech, P; Rafaelsen, O J

    1986-01-01

    Rating scales are considered to be an efficient instrument in the assessment of treatment effect, and during the last 25 years a number of rating scales has been constructed for measuring states of anxiety, depression, mania and schizophrenia. The paper describes some of the most frequently used scales. Time has come to coordinate the existing rating scales and to agree upon common operational definitions in the judgement of psychopathological symptoms. Basic practical guidelines to be used in both clinical practice and research are given. PMID:2881427

  17. Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... to eat at all Not being able to sleep, or sleeping too much Feeling very tired Feeling hopeless, irritable, anxious, or guilty Aches or pains, headaches, cramps, or digestive problems Thoughts of death or suicide Depression is a disorder of the brain. There are a variety of ...

  18. The Psychometric Properties of PHQ-4 Depression and Anxiety Screening Scale Among College Students.

    PubMed

    Khubchandani, Jagdish; Brey, Rebecca; Kotecki, Jerome; Kleinfelder, JoAnn; Anderson, Jason

    2016-08-01

    Depression and anxiety are some of the most common causes of morbidity, social dysfunction, and reduced academic performance in college students. The combination of improved surveillance and access to care would result in better outreach. Brief screening tools can help reach larger populations of college students efficiently. However, reliability and validity of brief screeners for anxiety and depression have not been assessed in college students. Thus, the purpose of this study was to assess in a sample of college students the psychometric properties of PHQ-4, a brief screening tool for depression and anxiety. Undergraduate students were recruited from general education classes at a Midwestern university. Students were given a questionnaire that asked them whether they had been diagnosed by a doctor or health professional with anxiety or depression. Next, they were asked to respond to the items on the PHQ-4 scale. A total of 934 students responded to the survey (response rate=72%). Majority of the participants were females (63%) and Whites (80%). The internal reliability of PHQ-4 was found to be high (α=0.81). Those who were diagnosed with depression or anxiety had statistically significantly higher scores on PHQ-4 (p<0.01). Corrected item total correlations for PHQ-4 were between r=0.66 and r=0.80. PHQ-4 operating characteristics were estimated and area under the curve (AUC) values were 0.835 and 0.787, respectively for anxiety and depression. The PHQ-4 is a reliable and valid tool that can serve as a mass screener for depression and anxiety in young adults. Widespread implementation of this screening tool should be explored across college campuses. PMID:27455918

  19. Reliability of a Scale Assessing Depressed Mood in the Context of Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Roane, Brandy M.; Seifer, Ronald; Sharkey, Katherine M.; Van Reen, Eliza; Bond, Tamara L. Y.; Raffray, Tifenn; Carskadon, Mary A.

    2014-01-01

    The current study assessed the reliability of Kandel & Davies mood scale with and without sleep-related items. 178 Brown University first-year students (mean age=18.1 years; 108 females) completed online biweekly surveys after weeks 2, 6, 8, and 10 and on 2 consecutive days after weeks 4 and 12 of their first semester. The scale was examined as a 1) full 6-item scale, 2) 5-item scale excluding the sleep item, and 3) 4-item scale excluding the sleep and tired items. Intraclass correlations (ICC) values for consecutive-day assessments and 6 biweekly surveys were similar and not a function of the weeks evaluated. Total-item correlations and inter-measure correlations with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies - Depressed Mood Scale (CES-D) supported the removal of the sleep-related items from the 6-item scale. These analyses confirm the reliability of the original Kandel and Davies depressed mood scale as well as without the sleep-related items. PMID:25346804

  20. Psychometric Properties of the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale in Severely Obese Patients.

    PubMed

    Paiva-Medeiros, Paula Francielle; Duarte-Guerra, Leorides Severo; Santo, Marco Aurélio; Lotufo-Neto, Francisco; Wang, Yuan-Pang

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic condition worldwide and has frequent association with major depression. The Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) was applied to obese patients in order to detect briefly and systematically depressive symptoms. The objectives were: to estimate the reliability of the MADRS and to investigate the criterion validity of MADRS. The best cut-off point to detect depressive symptoms was determined in comparison with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Diagnosis (SCID-I). The sample was recruited consecutively from the waiting list of a bariatric surgery service of the university clinic. Trained clinical psychologists applied the assessment instruments. The final sample was comprised of 374 class III obese adults (women 79.9 %, mean age 43.3 years [SD 11.6], mean body mass index 47.0 kg/m2 [SD 7.1]). The mean total score of the MADRS was 7.73 (SD 11.33) for the total sample, with a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of .93. Women presented higher mean score than men (8.08 versus 6.33; p = .23). The best cut-off point was 13/14 in accordance with the Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curve analysis, yielding a sensitivity of .81 and specificity of .85. The overall ability to discriminate depression according to area under the curve was .87. The results showed that the MADRS is a reliable and valid scale to detect depressive symptoms among patients seeking treatment in preoperative period, displaying adequate psychometric properties. PMID:26364907

  1. Establishing the reliability and validity of the Zagazig Depression Scale in a UK student population: an online pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background It is thought that depressive disorders will be the second leading cause of disability worldwide by 2020. Recently, there is a steady increase in the number of university students diagnosed and treated as depression patients. It can be assumed that depression is a serious mental health problem for university students because it affects all age groups of the students either younger or older equally. The current study aims to establish the reliability and validity of the Zagazig Depression scale in a UK sample. Methods The study was a cross-sectional online survey. A sample of 133 out of 275 undergraduate students from a range of UK Universities in the academic year 2008-2009, aged 20.3 ± 6.3 years old were recruited. A modified back translated version of Zagazig Depression scale was used. In order to validate the Zagazig Depression scale, participants were asked to complete the Patient Health Questionnaire. Statistical analysis includes Kappa analysis, Cronbach's alpha, Spearman's correlation analysis, and Confirmatory Factor analysis. Results Using the recommended cut-off of Zagazig Depression scale for possible minor depression it was found that 30.3% of the students have depression and higher percentage was identified according to the Patient Health Questionnaire (37.4%). Females were more depressed. The mean ZDS score was 8.3 ± 4.2. Rates of depression increase as students get older. The reliability of The ZDS was satisfactory (Cronbach's alpha was .894). For validity, ZDS score was strongly associated with PHQ, with no significant difference (p-value > 0.05), with strong positive correlation (r = +.8, p-value < 0.01). Conclusion The strong, significant correlation between the PHQ and ZDS, along with high internal consistency of the ZDS as a whole provides evidence that ZDS is a reliable measure of depressive symptoms and is promising for the use of the translated ZDS in a large-scale cross-culture study. PMID:21143972

  2. The Depression Intensity Scale Circles (DISCs): a first evaluation of a simple assessment tool for depression in the context of brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Turner-Stokes, L; Kalmus, M; Hirani, D; Clegg, F

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the validity, responsiveness, and test–retest reliability of DISCs (Depression Intensity Scale Circles) as a simple screening tool for depression in patients with cognitive or communicative deficits following acquired brain injury. Design: Cohort analysis of consecutive patients entered into an integrated care pathway for screening and management of depression in the context of rehabilitation. Setting: Regional neurological rehabilitation service in the UK. Participants: 114 patients with complex disabilities caused by acquired brain injury (mean (SD) age, 42.8 (14.5) years). Main outcome measures: DISCs (a graphic rating scale depicting six circles with increasing proportion of dark shading), Numbered Graphic Rating Scale (NGRS), Yale single question ("Do you often feel sad or depressed"), Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), DSM-IV criteria for depression. Results: At initial assessment the DISCs correlated with total BDI-II scores (Spearman ρ = 0.66, p<0.001), NGRS (ρ = 0.87, p<0.001), and DSM-IV (ρ = 0.59, p<0.001). A DISCs score ⩾2 identified depression (major or minor) according to DSM-IV criteria with 60% sensitivity, 87% specificity, 75% positive predictive value, and 77% negative predictive value. Test–retest reliability after 24 hours (n = 66) showed "excellent" level of agreement (weighted κ = 0.84). In 45 patients who received intervention for depression, the DISCs showed a significant change in response to treatment (Wilcoxon; p<0.001). Conclusions: DISCs had acceptable convergent validity, reliability, and responsiveness as a simple graded tool for screening and assessment of depression in patients with complex disabilities following acquired brain injury. It warrants further investigation in patients with more profound language and cognitive deficits for which it is primarily intended. PMID:16107367

  3. Measurement equivalence of the CES-D 8 depression-scale among the ageing population in eleven European countries.

    PubMed

    Missinne, Sarah; Vandeviver, Christophe; Van de Velde, Sarah; Bracke, Piet

    2014-07-01

    Depression is one of the most prevalent mental disorders in later life. However, despite considerable research attention, great confusion remains regarding the association between ageing and depression. There is doubt as to whether a depression scale performs identically for different age groups and countries. Although measurement equivalence is a crucial prerequisite for valid comparisons across age groups and countries, it has not been established for the eight-item version of the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D8). Using multi-group confirmatory factor analysis, we assess configural, metric, and scalar measurement equivalence across two age groups (50-64 years of age and 65 or older) in eleven European countries, employing data from the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement (SHARE). Results indicate that the construct of depression is comparable across age and country groups, allowing the substantive interpretation of correlates and mean levels of depressive symptoms. PMID:24767588

  4. Assessment of the structure of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in musculoskeletal patients

    PubMed Central

    Pallant, Julie F; Bailey, Catherine M

    2005-01-01

    Background Research suggests there is a high prevalence of anxiety and depression amongst patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain, which can influence the effectiveness of rehabilitation programs. It is therefore important for clinicians involved in musculoskeletal rehabilitation programs to consider screening patients for elevated levels of anxiety and depression and to provide appropriate counselling or treatment where necessary. The HADS has been used as a screening tool for assessment of anxiety and depression in a wide variety of clinical groups. Recent research however has questioned its suitability for use with some patient groups due to problems with dimensionality and the behaviour of individual items. The aim of this study is to assess the underlying structure and psychometric properties of the HADS among patients attending musculoskeletal rehabilitation. Methods Data was obtained from 296 patients attending an outpatient musculoskeletal pain clinic. The total sample was used to identify the proportion of patients with elevated levels of anxiety and depression. Half the sample (n = 142) was used for exploratory factor analysis (EFA), with the holdout sample (n = 154) used for confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to explore the underlying structure of the scale. Results A substantial proportion of patients were classified as probable cases on the HADS Anxiety subscale (38.2%) and HADS Depression subscale (30.1%), with the sample recording higher mean HADS subscales scores than many other patient groups (breast cancer, end-stage renal disease, heart disease) reported in the literature. EFA supported a two factor structure (representing anxiety and depression) as proposed by the scale's authors, however item 7 (an anxiety item) failed to load appropriately. Removing Item 7 resulted in a clear two factor solution in both EFA and CFA. Conclusion The high levels of anxiety and depression detected in this sample suggests that screening for psychological

  5. Gabapentin induces edema, hyperesthesia and scaling in a depressed patient; a diagnostic challenge

    PubMed Central

    Bidaki, Reza; Sadeghi, Zahra; Shafizadegan, Safiye; Sadeghi, Ali; Khalili, Behrang; Haghshenas, Alireza; Mirhosseini, Seyyed Mohammad Mahdy

    2016-01-01

    Gabapentin is a common drug used as analgesic and anticonvulsant and also is prescribed for insomnia, depression, obsessive – compulsive disorder and panic attack. We report a case of a 48-year-old man who is prescribed gabapentin because of insomnia, headache, and depressed mood. In the first period of using the drug no complication has been seen. However in the next period, side-effects such as hyperesthesia, scaling and severe localized edema has been observed. After several laboratory tests and imaging, no reason was found for his edema. And after discontinuing gabapentin the pain and edema was quite relieved. We found out the brand of the drug has been switched in the second stage. The point which makes our study special is the incidence of side-effects such as severe edema, scaling and hyperesthesia for the first time because of using gabapentin and changing the drug combination. PMID:26955622

  6. Gabapentin induces edema, hyperesthesia and scaling in a depressed patient; a diagnostic challenge.

    PubMed

    Bidaki, Reza; Sadeghi, Zahra; Shafizadegan, Safiye; Sadeghi, Ali; Khalili, Behrang; Haghshenas, Alireza; Mirhosseini, Seyyed Mohammad Mahdy

    2016-01-01

    Gabapentin is a common drug used as analgesic and anticonvulsant and also is prescribed for insomnia, depression, obsessive - compulsive disorder and panic attack. We report a case of a 48-year-old man who is prescribed gabapentin because of insomnia, headache, and depressed mood. In the first period of using the drug no complication has been seen. However in the next period, side-effects such as hyperesthesia, scaling and severe localized edema has been observed. After several laboratory tests and imaging, no reason was found for his edema. And after discontinuing gabapentin the pain and edema was quite relieved. We found out the brand of the drug has been switched in the second stage. The point which makes our study special is the incidence of side-effects such as severe edema, scaling and hyperesthesia for the first time because of using gabapentin and changing the drug combination. PMID:26955622

  7. Dimensional approach to symptom factors of major depressive disorder in Koreans, using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale: the Clinical Research Center for Depression of South Korea study.

    PubMed

    Park, Seon-Cheol; Jang, Eun Young; Kim, Daeho; Jun, Tae-Youn; Lee, Min-Soo; Kim, Jae-Min; Kim, Jung-Bum; Jo, Sun-Jin; Park, Yong Chon

    2015-01-01

    Although major depressive disorder (MDD) has a variety of symptoms beyond the affective dimensions, the factor structure and contents of comprehensive psychiatric symptoms of this disorder have rarely been explored using the 18-item Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). We aimed to identify the factor structure of the 18-item BPRS in Korean MDD patients. A total of 258 MDD patients were recruited from a multicenter sample of the Clinical Research Center for Depression of South Korea study. Psychometric scales were used to assess overall psychiatric symptoms (BPRS), depression (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale), anxiety (Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale), global severity (Clinical Global Impression of Severity Scale), suicidal ideation (Scale for Suicide Ideation), functioning (Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale), and quality of life (World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment-abbreviated version). Common factor analysis with oblique rotation was used to yield factor structure. A four-factor structure was designed and interpreted by the symptom dimensions to reflect mood disturbance, positive symptoms/apathy, bipolarity, and thought distortion/mannerism. These individual factors were also significantly correlated with clinical variables. The findings of this study support the view that the BPRS may be a promising measuring tool for the initial assessment of MDD patients. In addition, the four-factor structure of the BPRS may be useful in understanding the mood and psychotic characteristics of these patients. PMID:25600920

  8. Acculturation and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Hispanic Women

    PubMed Central

    McCabe, Brian E.; Vermeesch, Amber L.; Hall, Rosemary F.; Peragallo, Nilda P.; Mitrani, Victoria B.

    2011-01-01

    Background Culturally valid measures of depression for Spanish-speaking Hispanic women are important for developing and implementing effective interventions to reduce health disparities. The Center for Epidemiological Studies--Depression Scale (CES-D) is a widely used measure of depression. Differential item functioning has been studied using language preference as a proxy for acculturation, but it is unknown if the results were due to acculturation or the language of administration. Objective To evaluate the relationship of acculturation, defined with a dimensional measure, to Spanish CES-D item responses. Method Spanish-speaking Hispanic women (n = 504) were recruited for a randomized controlled trial of Salud, Educación, Prevención y Autocuidado (Health, Education, Prevention and Self-care). Acculturation, an important dimension of variation within the diverse United States Hispanic community, was defined by high or low scores on the Americanism subscale of the Bidimensional Acculturation Scale. Differential item functioning for each of the 20 CES-D items between more acculturated and less acculturated women was tested using ordinal logistic regression. Results No items on the Depressed Affect, Somatic Activity, or Positive Affect subscales showed meaningful differential item functioning, but one item (“People were unfriendly”) on the Interpersonal subscale had small results (R2 = 1.1%). Discussion The majority of CES-D items performed similarly for Spanish-speaking Hispanic women with high and low acculturation. Less acculturated women responded more positively to “People were unfriendly,” despite having an equivalent level of depression, than more acculturated women. Possibilities for improving this item are proposed. PMID:21677596

  9. Differential Item Functioning for Lesbians, Bisexual, and Heterosexual Women in the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birnholz, Justin L.; Young, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed whether the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) functions equivalently in assessing depressive symptom severity in lesbian, bisexual, and heterosexual women. Using differential item functioning methods, the authors examined (a) whether there is a bias in CES-D total scores and in individual item scores…

  10. Sex Differences on Depression Self-Rating Scale in Two Populations: Research Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyed-Hossein, Salimi; Mohamad-Reza, Tagavi; Parviz, Azad-Fallah; Reza, Karaminia; Tayebi, A.

    The self-report of depressive symptoms of high school adolescents from two populations were compared. The study aims to find out whether or not; 1) there are significant sex differences between two communities and 2) with regard to the same-sex, there are significant differences between two communities. Nine hundred and twenty eight adolescents from London and 2012 adolescents from six cities from Iran were requested to fill in the Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS). The results showed that significant differences between two sexes in each population. All girls had higher mean scores on all items on DSRS than boys. With regard to the same-sex, significant differences were found between either female or male populations in two communities. The research showed that female adolescents from Iran were significantly experienced more depressive symptoms than the Londoners. Similar results were repeated for the male groups. In conclusion, female adolescents are vulnerable to life stressors and tend to experience more negative feedback and interpretations than boys. Moreover, social roles and limitations, particularly for Iranian adolescents, may influence female adolescents to demonstrate depression symptoms.

  11. Detection of Mental Disorders Other Than Depression with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale in a Sample of Pregnant Women in Northern Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sifuentes-Alvarez, Antonio; Salas-Martinez, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    We sought to evaluate the capacity of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) in discriminating mental disorders other than depression in pregnant women in northern Mexico. Three hundred pregnant women attending prenatal consultations in a public hospital in Durango City, Mexico submitted a validated EPDS and were examined for mental disorders other than depression using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - 4th Ed. (DSM-IV) criteria. Sensitivity and specificity of cut-off points of the EPDS, and positive and negative predictive values were calculated. Of the 300 pregnant women studied, 21 had mental disorders other than depression by the DSM-IV criteria. The best EPDS score for screening mental disorders other than depression was 8/9. This threshold showed a sensitivity of 52.4%, a specificity of 67.0%, a positive predictive value of 11.5%, a negative predictive value of 95.4%, and an area under the curve of 0.643 (95% confidence interval: 0.52-0.76). The EPDS can be considered for screening mental disorders other than depression in Mexican pregnant women whenever a cut-off score of 8/9 is used. However, the tool showed small power to separate pregnant women with and without mental disorders other than depression. PMID:27403273

  12. Detection of Mental Disorders Other Than Depression with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale in a Sample of Pregnant Women in Northern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sifuentes-Alvarez, Antonio; Salas-Martinez, Carlos

    2016-05-18

    We sought to evaluate the capacity of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) in discriminating mental disorders other than depression in pregnant women in northern Mexico. Three hundred pregnant women attending prenatal consultations in a public hospital in Durango City, Mexico submitted a validated EPDS and were examined for mental disorders other than depression using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - 4(th) Ed. (DSM-IV) criteria. Sensitivity and specificity of cut-off points of the EPDS, and positive and negative predictive values were calculated. Of the 300 pregnant women studied, 21 had mental disorders other than depression by the DSM-IV criteria. The best EPDS score for screening mental disorders other than depression was 8/9. This threshold showed a sensitivity of 52.4%, a specificity of 67.0%, a positive predictive value of 11.5%, a negative predictive value of 95.4%, and an area under the curve of 0.643 (95% confidence interval: 0.52-0.76). The EPDS can be considered for screening mental disorders other than depression in Mexican pregnant women whenever a cut-off score of 8/9 is used. However, the tool showed small power to separate pregnant women with and without mental disorders other than depression. PMID:27403273

  13. Conjoint Community Resiliency Assessment Measure-28/10 items (CCRAM28 and CCRAM10): A self-report tool for assessing community resilience.

    PubMed

    Leykin, Dmitry; Lahad, Mooli; Cohen, Odeya; Goldberg, Avishay; Aharonson-Daniel, Limor

    2013-12-01

    Community resilience is used to describe a community's ability to deal with crises or disruptions. The Conjoint Community Resiliency Assessment Measure (CCRAM) was developed in order to attain an integrated, multidimensional instrument for the measurement of community resiliency. The tool was developed using an inductive, exploratory, sequential mixed methods design. The objective of the present study was to portray and evaluate the CCRAM's psychometric features. A large community sample (N = 1,052) were assessed by the CCRAM tool, and the data was subjected to exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. A Five factor model (21 items) was obtained, explaining 67.67 % of the variance. This scale was later reduced to 10-item brief instrument. Both scales showed good internal consistency coefficients (α = .92 and α = .85 respectively), and acceptable fit indices to the data. Seven additional items correspond to information requested by leaders, forming the CCRAM28. The CCRAM has been shown to be an acceptable practical tool for assessing community resilience. Both internal and external validity have been demonstrated, as all factors obtained in the factor analytical process, were tightly linked to previous literature on community resilience. The CCRAM facilitates the estimation of an overall community resiliency score but furthermore, it detects the strength of five important constructs of community function following disaster: Leadership, Collective Efficacy, Preparedness, Place Attachment and Social Trust. Consequently, the CCRAM can serve as an aid for community leaders to assess, monitor, and focus actions to enhance and restore community resilience for crisis situations. PMID:24091563

  14. The Symptom Frequency Characteristics of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Possible Symptom Clusters of Depressive Disorders in Korea: The CRESCEND Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Young-Nam; Jae, Young-Myo; Jun, Tae-Youn; Lee, Min-Soo; Kim, Jae-Min; Jeong, Seung-Hee; Kim, Jung-Bum

    2011-01-01

    Objective This study analyzed the symptom frequencies of 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17) to understand the characteristics of each item and to propose the possible symptoms clusters. Methods From psychiatric clinics of 18 Hospitals in Korea, 1,183 patients, diagnosed with major depressive disorder (psychotic or non-psychotic), dysthymia or depressive disorder not otherwise specified. according to DSM-IV criteria, participated in this study from January 2006 to August 2008. The frequencies of each item of HDRS-17 were analyzed according to sex and severity. In addition, we compared this study with a previous study performed in England by Hamilton and with two studies performed in Korea by Kim et al. Results The frequencies of HDRS-17 items varied widely in this study, ranging from 95.8% in work and activities to 37.4% in loss of weight. But, depressed mood, psychic anxiety and work and activities items exhibited constant and higher frequency or rank regardless of study, the severity of depression or sex. Insomnia early, somatic gastrointestinal, genital symptoms and insight showed relatively constant but lower frequency or rank in disregard of studies or the clinical variables. Other symptoms had variable frequencies or ranks according to the variable clinical situations (culture, time, sex, severity of depression). Conclusion We propose three clusters of symptoms in depressive disorders: core symptoms cluster, an associated symptoms, and a situation-specific symptoms. We can use these possible symptom clusters of depression in simplifying diagnosis of depression, increasing diagnostic specificity in special situation and indexing disease severity. PMID:22216040

  15. Cross-cultural validation of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kui; Shi, Hai-Song; Geng, Fu-Lei; Zou, Lai-Quan; Tan, Shu-Ping; Wang, Yi; Neumann, David L; Shum, David H K; Chan, Raymond C K

    2016-05-01

    The gap between the demand and delivery of mental health services in mainland China can be reduced by validating freely available and psychometrically sound psychological instruments. The present research examined the Chinese version of the 21-item Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21). Study 1 administered the DASS-21 to 1,815 Chinese college students and found internal consistency indices (Cronbach's alpha) of .83, .80, and .82 for the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress subscales, respectively, and .92 for the total DASS total. Test-retest reliability over a 6-month interval was .39 to .46 for each of the 3 subscales and .46 for the total DASS. Moderate convergent validity of the Depression and Anxiety subscales was demonstrated via significant correlations with the Chinese Beck Depression Inventory (r = .51 at Time 1 and r = .64 at Time 2) and the Chinese State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (r = .41), respectively. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the original 3-factor model with 1 minor change (nonnormed fit index [NNFI] = .964, comparative fit index [CFI] = .968, and root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA] = .079). Study 2 examined the clinical utility of the Chinese DASS-21 in 166 patients with schizophrenia and 90 matched healthy controls. Patients had higher Depression and Anxiety but not Stress subscale scores than healthy controls. A discriminant function composed of the linear combination of 3 subscale scores correctly discriminated 69.92% of participants, which again supported the potential clinical utility of the DASS in mainland China. Taken together, findings in these studies support the cross-cultural validity of the DASS-21 in China. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26619091

  16. The Carroll rating scale for depression. II. Factor analyses of the feature profiles.

    PubMed

    Smouse, P E; Feinberg, M; Carroll, B J; Park, M H; Rawson, S G

    1981-03-01

    Factor analyses were conducted for the Hamilton depression rating scale (HRS) and the self administered Carroll counterpart (CRS). The factor loadings for the respective first factors were similar; those for the respective second factors showed strict sign consistency but only moderate consistency of magnitude; the loadings for the respective third factors showed no particular consistency. The first three CRS and first three HRS factor scores were computed for each individual and correlations were computed from these factor scores. The first and second factors were highly correlated but the third factors were negatively correlated indicating that they were not measuring the same thing. The first factors of the CRS and HRS correlated highly with their respective raw total scores and were indices of the severity of illness. The self-administered CRS (with matching weights) is a credible alternative to the HRS for routine clinical assessment of the severity of depression. PMID:7272610

  17. True polar wander on Europa from global-scale small-circle depressions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenk, Paul; Matsuyama, Isamu; Nimmo, Francis

    2008-05-01

    The tectonic patterns and stress history of Europa are exceedingly complex and many large-scale features remain unexplained. True polar wander, involving reorientation of Europa's floating outer ice shell about the tidal axis with Jupiter, has been proposed as a possible explanation for some of the features. This mechanism is possible if the icy shell is latitudinally variable in thickness and decoupled from the rocky interior. It would impose high stress levels on the shell, leading to predictable fracture patterns. No satisfactory match to global-scale features has hitherto been found for polar wander stress patterns. Here we describe broad arcuate troughs and depressions on Europa that do not fit other proposed stress mechanisms in their current position. Using imaging from three spacecraft, we have mapped two global-scale organized concentric antipodal sets of arcuate troughs up to hundreds of kilometres long and 300m to ~1.5km deep. An excellent match to these features is found with stresses caused by an episode of ~80° true polar wander. These depressions also appear to be geographically related to other large-scale bright and dark lineaments, suggesting that many of Europa's tectonic patterns may also be related to true polar wander.

  18. Psychometric Properties of the Beck Scale for Depression (Beck Depression Inventory BDI-II)--A Study on a Sample of Students in the State of Kuwait Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahem, Ahmed Mohammed Faleh

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to identify the psychometric properties of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) the Arabized version by Gharib (2000); the study sample consisted of 500 male and female students from the Kuwaiti universities by 250 males and 250 females on whom the BDI-II scale was applied twice; the psychometric characteristics such as the…

  19. The Modified Depression Scale (MDS): A Brief, No-Cost Assessment Tool to Estimate the Level of Depressive Symptoms in Students and Schools

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Erin C.; Johnson, Renee M.; Green, Jennifer G.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent health researchers and practitioners are frequently interested in assessing depression as part of student screening and for school-wide prevention and intervention planning. However, this task is challenging given the lack of free, brief assessments of depressive symptoms in youth. This study evaluated the psychometric properties of an adapted version of the Modified Depression Scale (MDS). Data came from a school-based survey of 9th-12th graders in Boston (N=1,657). We assessed internal consistency reliability and known-groups validity, in addition to the feasibility of establishing a dichotomous cut-point to classify adolescents as having high versus low depressive symptoms. We also evaluated the validity of the adapted MDS as a school-wide measure. At the student-level, the adapted MDS demonstrated acceptable internal consistency. Students engaging in risk behaviors (e.g., substance use) or who were victimized (e.g., bullied) had significantly higher depressive symptom scores. Students who endorsed four or five MDS symptoms often or always had a heightened risk of suicidal ideation, substance use, and failing grades when compared to students who endorsed three or fewer symptoms often or always. At the school-level, higher mean levels of depressive symptoms in a school were associated with higher mean levels of suicidal ideation and failing grades. Results of this study suggest that the adapted MDS is a promising measurement tool that could be useful to school-based professionals and researchers to evaluate depressive symptoms in adolescents and ascertain the prevalence of depressive symptoms in schools. PMID:22639697

  20. Creation and validation of the Cognitive and Behavioral Response to Stress Scale in a depression trial.

    PubMed

    Miner, Adam S; Schueller, Stephen M; Lattie, Emily G; Mohr, David C

    2015-12-30

    The Cognitive and Behavioral Response to Stress Scale (CB-RSS) is a self-report measure of the use and helpfulness of several cognitive and behavioral skills. Unlike other measures that focus on language specific to terms used in therapy, the CB-RSS was intended to tap the strategies in ways that might be understandable to those who had not undergone therapy. The measure was included in a clinical trial of cognitive-behavioral therapy for depression and completed by 325 participants at baseline and end of treatment (18 weeks). Psychometric properties of the scale were assessed through iterative exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. These analyses identified two subscales, cognitive and behavioral skills, each with high reliability. Validity was addressed by investigating relationships with depression symptoms, positive affect, perceived stress, and coping self-efficacy. End of treatment scores predicted changes in all outcomes, with the largest relationships between baseline CB-RSS scales and coping self-efficacy. These findings suggest that the CB-RSS is a useful tool to measure cognitive and behavioral skills both at baseline (prior to treatment) as well as during the course of treatment. PMID:26553147

  1. MMS observations of kinetic-scale structure in a magnetic depression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gershman, D. J.; Dorelli, J.; Vinas, A. F.; Avanov, L. A.; Gliese, U.; Barrie, A.; Coffey, V. N.; Chandler, M. O.; Dickson, C.; MacDonald, E.; Salo, C.; Holland, M. P.; Saito, Y.; Chen, L. J.; Goodrich, K.; Plaschke, F.; Russell, C. T.; Strangeway, R. J.; Torbert, R. B.; Giles, B. L.; Pollock, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Fast Plasma Investigation (FPI) on NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) spacecraft enables measurement of full three-dimensional velocity distributions of both ions and electrons with an order of magnitude increased temporal resolution over previous magnetospheric instruments. Such high resolution is suitable for resolving dynamics that occur at ion and electron scales throughout Earth's magnetosphere, in particular in the plasma sheet where low magnetic field magnitudes result in larger particle gyroradii and gyroperiods. Here we present initial data from FPI's Dual Electron and Dual Ion Spectrometers taken in Earth's nightside plasma sheet during MMS commissioning. Near the central current sheet, we observe a sub-proton-scale magnetic depression (i.e., 'magnetic hole') containing distinct signatures in the electron data that appear non-gyrotropic in the spacecraft frame of reference. These structures may provide key insights into the small-scale dissipation of energy injected into the magnetosphere via magnetic reconnection in the tail. We will present a detailed examination of the velocity distribution functions of both ions and electrons during this time period and compare with expectations from current theoretical models of magnetic depressions. Although plasma data was only available on a single MMS spacecraft during these events, we are able to leverage Fields data on all four MMS observatories to provide valuable context for the spatial and temporal variation of this magnetic structure.

  2. Psychometric Evaluation of Chinese-Language 44-Item and 10-Item Big Five Personality Inventories, Including Correlations with Chronotype, Mindfulness and Mind Wandering.

    PubMed

    Carciofo, Richard; Yang, Jiaoyan; Song, Nan; Du, Feng; Zhang, Kan

    2016-01-01

    The 44-item and 10-item Big Five Inventory (BFI) personality scales are widely used, but there is a lack of psychometric data for Chinese versions. Eight surveys (total N = 2,496, aged 18-82), assessed a Chinese-language BFI-44 and/or an independently translated Chinese-language BFI-10. Most BFI-44 items loaded strongly or predominantly on the expected dimension, and values of Cronbach's alpha ranged .698-.807. Test-retest coefficients ranged .694-.770 (BFI-44), and .515-.873 (BFI-10). The BFI-44 and BFI-10 showed good convergent and discriminant correlations, and expected associations with gender (females higher for agreeableness and neuroticism), and age (older age associated with more conscientiousness and agreeableness, and also less neuroticism and openness). Additionally, predicted correlations were found with chronotype (morningness positive with conscientiousness), mindfulness (negative with neuroticism, positive with conscientiousness), and mind wandering/daydreaming frequency (negative with conscientiousness, positive with neuroticism). Exploratory analysis found that the Self-discipline facet of conscientiousness positively correlated with morningness and mindfulness, and negatively correlated with mind wandering/daydreaming frequency. Furthermore, Self-discipline was found to be a mediator in the relationships between chronotype and mindfulness, and chronotype and mind wandering/daydreaming frequency. Overall, the results support the utility of the BFI-44 and BFI-10 for Chinese-language big five personality research. PMID:26918618

  3. Psychometric Evaluation of Chinese-Language 44-Item and 10-Item Big Five Personality Inventories, Including Correlations with Chronotype, Mindfulness and Mind Wandering

    PubMed Central

    Carciofo, Richard; Yang, Jiaoyan; Song, Nan; Du, Feng; Zhang, Kan

    2016-01-01

    The 44-item and 10-item Big Five Inventory (BFI) personality scales are widely used, but there is a lack of psychometric data for Chinese versions. Eight surveys (total N = 2,496, aged 18–82), assessed a Chinese-language BFI-44 and/or an independently translated Chinese-language BFI-10. Most BFI-44 items loaded strongly or predominantly on the expected dimension, and values of Cronbach's alpha ranged .698-.807. Test-retest coefficients ranged .694-.770 (BFI-44), and .515-.873 (BFI-10). The BFI-44 and BFI-10 showed good convergent and discriminant correlations, and expected associations with gender (females higher for agreeableness and neuroticism), and age (older age associated with more conscientiousness and agreeableness, and also less neuroticism and openness). Additionally, predicted correlations were found with chronotype (morningness positive with conscientiousness), mindfulness (negative with neuroticism, positive with conscientiousness), and mind wandering/daydreaming frequency (negative with conscientiousness, positive with neuroticism). Exploratory analysis found that the Self-discipline facet of conscientiousness positively correlated with morningness and mindfulness, and negatively correlated with mind wandering/daydreaming frequency. Furthermore, Self-discipline was found to be a mediator in the relationships between chronotype and mindfulness, and chronotype and mind wandering/daydreaming frequency. Overall, the results support the utility of the BFI-44 and BFI-10 for Chinese-language big five personality research. PMID:26918618

  4. Assessment of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale factor structure among middle-aged workers in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Norio; Yasui-Furukori, Norio; Sasaki, Giro; Umeda, Takashi; Takahashi, Ippei; Danjo, Kazuma; Matsuzaka, Masashi; Kaneko, Sunao; Nakaji, Shigeyuki

    2011-02-01

    Our aim was to assess the internal consistency and structural/construct validity of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale among middle-aged employees in Japan. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 7284 workers, aged 49.0 ± 6.3 (mean ± SD) years old. Structural/construct validity was assessed by confirmatory factor analysis. The 4-factor structure reported in the general population was replicated, and a second-order model with an overarching depression factor fitted well. These findings indicate that the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale is a valid and reliable measure of depressive symptoms for middle-aged workers in Japan. PMID:21265946

  5. Psychometric properties of the Reynolds Child Depression Scale in community and clinical samples.

    PubMed

    Figueras Masip, Anna; Amador Campos, Juan Antonio; Guàrdia Olmos, Joan

    2008-11-01

    The factor structure of the Reynolds Child Depression Scale (RCDS; Reynolds, 1989), analyzed by confirmatory factor analysis and the scale's psychometric characteristics in a sample of 315 participants (140 boys and 175 girls) and a clinical sample of 62 participants (37 boys and 25 girls) between 10 and 12 years old, are presented. Two models are tested with confirmatory factor analysis: a one-factor model and a five-factor model. Both models show a good fit, but the one-factor model was chosen because it is the most parsimonious. The reliability coefficient ranged from .87 (at test) to .89 (at retest) in the community sample, and was .90 in the clinical sample (at test). Test-retest reliability was .66 in the community sample. Concurrent validity with other self-reports that measure depressive symptomatology was high, both in the community sample (.76) and the clinical sample (.71). There were no significant sex differences but there were differences due to age (school grade). PMID:18988449

  6. Social support and mobility limitation as modifiable predictors of improvement in depressive symptoms in the elderly: results of a national longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chun-Te; Yeh, Chih-Jung; Lee, Meng-Chih; Lin, Hui-Sheng; Chen, Vincent Chin-Hung; Hsieh, Ming-Hong; Yen, Chi-Hua; Lai, Te-Jen

    2012-01-01

    Few national longitudinal studies have investigated the predictors of a better depression outcome in geriatric depression. This study examined the predictors of improvement in case-level depressive symptoms in the elderly. In this prospective cohort and population-based study in Taiwan, 206 non-demented and case-level depressed subjects aged 65 and older were interviewed at baseline in 2003 and follow-up in 2007. The independent variables included demographics, chronic medical diseases, and health-related behaviors assessed at baseline. The dependent variable was depressive symptoms, assessed using the 10-item short form of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD-10) assessed at follow-up. Multivariate analyses were used to identify the predictors of improvement in depression. The independent predictors of improvement in depression over a 4-year follow-up period are more social support and fewer mobility limitations at baseline. With regards to practical health-related behaviors, the 2 items of social support most associated with improvement in depression were willingness of significant others to talk with you and satisfaction with dependence upon significant others; the 2 items of mobility limitations most associated with non-improvement of depression were difficulty in carrying things and squatting. These findings suggested that health-related behaviors were important to the depression outcome in the elderly; moreover, interventions to improve depression should include practical health-related behaviors aimed at these modifiable risk factors. PMID:22459317

  7. Lessons from scaling up a depression treatment program in primary care in Chile.

    PubMed

    Araya, Ricardo; Alvarado, Rubén; Sepúlveda, Rodrigo; Rojas, Graciela

    2012-09-01

    In Chile, the National Depression Detection and Treatment Program (Programa Nacional de Diagnóstico y Tratamiento de la Depresión, PNDTD) in primary care is a rare example of an evidence-based mental health program that was scaled up to the national level in a low- or middle-income country. This retrospective qualitative study aimed to better understand how policymakers made the decision to scale up mental health services to the national level, and to explore the elements, contexts, and processes that facilitated the decision to implement and sustain PNDTD. In-depth semistructured interviews with six key informants selected through intentional sampling were conducted in August-December 2008. Interviewees were senior officers at the Ministry of Health who were directly involved in the decision to scale up the program. Results yielded four elements pivotal to the decisionmaking process: scientific evidence, teamwork and leadership, strategic alliances, and program institutionalization. Each element contributed to building consensus, securing funding, attracting resources, and gaining lasting support from policymakers. Additionally, a review of available documentation led the authors to consider sociopolitical context and use of the media to be important factors. While research evidence for the effectiveness of mental health services in the primary care setting continues to accumulate, low- and middle-income countries should get started on the lengthy process of scaling up by incorporating the elements that led to decisionmaking and implementation of the PNDTD in Chile. PMID:23183564

  8. Factor Structure of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) Among Older Men and Women Who Provide Care to Persons with Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Rourke, Norm

    2005-01-01

    The Center for Epidemiologic Studies?Depression Scale (CES-D) is among the most widely used depression screening measures. Existing research suggests a higher order factor structure of responses among older adults (factors labeled as Depressive Affect, Absence of Well-being, Somatic Symptoms, and Interpersonal Affect each loading on a 2nd-order…

  9. Dietary lipids and geriatric depression scale score among elders: the EPIC-Greece cohort.

    PubMed

    Kyrozis, A; Psaltopoulou, T; Stathopoulos, P; Trichopoulos, D; Vassilopoulos, D; Trichopoulou, A

    2009-05-01

    In a prospective epidemiological investigation aiming to identify dietary lipids potentially associated with affective state and depression, 610 healthy men and women aged 60 years or older, participating in the EPIC-Greece cohort and residing in the Attika region had dietary, sociodemographic, anthropometric, medical and lifestyle variables ascertained at enrollment. Six to 13 years later, affective state was evaluated through the 15-point geriatric depression scale (GDS) score along with cognitive function and medical variables. In multivariate linear regression analysis, while adjusting for potential confounders, GDS score was negatively associated with dietary intake of monounsaturated lipids (MUFA) and their main source, olive oil, and positively associated with intake of polyunsaturated lipids (PUFA) and one of their principal sources, seed oils. Intake of calories, total lipids, fish and seafood or saturated lipids did not exhibit significant association with GDS. Potential non-linearities were assessed by quantile multivariate regression analysis: The median GDS score was positively associated with PUFA and seed oils intake, while other lipid groups showed no appreciable associations. The 90th percentile of the GDS score (towards the high end) exhibited significant negative associations with MUFA and olive oil, weaker positive associations with PUFA and seed oils and no appreciable association with other lipid group dietary intakes. We conclude that among Attika elders, lower intake of seed oils and higher intake of olive oil prospectively predict a healthier affective state. Olive oil intake, in particular, predicts a lower chance of scoring in the highest part of the GDS. PMID:18952225

  10. Psychometric Limitations of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale for Assessing Depressive Symptoms among Adults with HIV/AIDS: A Rasch Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kottorp, Anders; Lee, Kathryn A.

    2016-01-01

    The Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale is a widely used measure of depressive symptoms, but its psychometric properties have not been adequately evaluated among adults with HIV/AIDS. This study used an item response theory approach (Rasch analysis) to evaluate the CES-D's validity and reliability in relation to key demographic and clinical variables in adults with HIV/AIDS. A convenience sample of 347 adults with HIV/AIDS (231 males, 93 females, and 23 transgenders; age range 22–77 years) completed the CES-D. A Rasch model application was used to analyze the CES-D's rating scale functioning, internal scale validity, person-response validity, person-separation validity, internal consistency, differential item functioning (DIF), and differential test functioning. CES-D scores were generally high and associated with several demographic and clinical variables. The CES-D distinguished 3 distinct levels of depression and had acceptable internal consistency but lacked unidimensionality, five items demonstrated poor fit to the model, 15% of the respondents demonstrated poor fit, and eight items demonstrated DIF related to gender, race, or AIDS diagnosis. Removal of misfitting items resulted in minimal improvement in the CES-D's substantive and structural validity. CES-D scores should be interpreted with caution in adults with HIV/AIDS, particularly when comparing scores across gender and racial groups. PMID:27042347

  11. Psychometric Limitations of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale for Assessing Depressive Symptoms among Adults with HIV/AIDS: A Rasch Analysis.

    PubMed

    Gay, Caryl L; Kottorp, Anders; Lerdal, Anners; Lee, Kathryn A

    2016-01-01

    The Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale is a widely used measure of depressive symptoms, but its psychometric properties have not been adequately evaluated among adults with HIV/AIDS. This study used an item response theory approach (Rasch analysis) to evaluate the CES-D's validity and reliability in relation to key demographic and clinical variables in adults with HIV/AIDS. A convenience sample of 347 adults with HIV/AIDS (231 males, 93 females, and 23 transgenders; age range 22-77 years) completed the CES-D. A Rasch model application was used to analyze the CES-D's rating scale functioning, internal scale validity, person-response validity, person-separation validity, internal consistency, differential item functioning (DIF), and differential test functioning. CES-D scores were generally high and associated with several demographic and clinical variables. The CES-D distinguished 3 distinct levels of depression and had acceptable internal consistency but lacked unidimensionality, five items demonstrated poor fit to the model, 15% of the respondents demonstrated poor fit, and eight items demonstrated DIF related to gender, race, or AIDS diagnosis. Removal of misfitting items resulted in minimal improvement in the CES-D's substantive and structural validity. CES-D scores should be interpreted with caution in adults with HIV/AIDS, particularly when comparing scores across gender and racial groups. PMID:27042347

  12. Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale Perfectionism: A Predictor and Partial Mediator of Acute Treatment Outcome among Clinically Depressed Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Rachel H.; Silva, Susan G.; Reinecke, Mark A.; Curry, John F.; Ginsburg, Golda S.; Kratochvil, Christopher J.; March, John S.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of perfectionism on acute treatment outcomes was explored in a randomized controlled trial of 439 clinically depressed adolescents (12–17 years of age) enrolled in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS) who received cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), fluoxetine, a combination of CBT and FLX, or pill placebo. Measures included the Children’s Depression Rating Scale–Revised, the Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire–Grades 7–9, and the perfectionism subscale from the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale (DAS). Predictor results indicate that adolescents with higher versus lower DAS perfectionism scores at baseline, regardless of treatment, continued to demonstrate elevated depression scores across the acute treatment period. In the case of suicidality, DAS perfectionism impeded improvement. Treatment outcomes were partially mediated by the change in DAS perfectionism across the 12-week period. PMID:20183664

  13. The Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression: The making of a “gold standard” and the unmaking of a chronic illness, 1960–1980

    PubMed Central

    Worboys, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To show why and how the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression became the ‘Gold Standard’ for assessing therapies from the mid-1960s and how it was used to frame depression as a short-term and curable illness rather than a chronic one. Methods: My approach is that of the social construction of knowledge, identifying the interests, institutional contexts and practices that produce knowledge claims and then mapping the social processes of their circulation, validation and acceptance. Results: The circulation and validation of Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression was relatively slow and it became a ‘Gold Standard’ ‘from below’, from an emerging consensus amongst psychiatrists undertaking clinical trials for depression, which from the 1960s were principally with psychopharmaceuticals for short-term illness. Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, drug trials and the construction of depression as non-chronic were mutually constituted. Discussion: Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression framed depression and its sufferers in new ways, leading psychiatrists to understand illness as a treatable episode, rather than a life course condition. As such, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression served the interests of psychiatrists and psychiatry in its new era of drug therapy outside the mental hospital. However, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression was a strange kind of ‘standard’, being quite non-standard in the widely varying ways it was used and the meanings given to its findings. PMID:23172888

  14. Dissociated large-scale functional connectivity networks of the precuneus in medication-naïve first-episode depression.

    PubMed

    Peng, Daihui; Liddle, Elizabeth B; Iwabuchi, Sarina J; Zhang, Chen; Wu, Zhiguo; Liu, Jun; Jiang, Kaida; Xu, Lin; Liddle, Peter F; Palaniyappan, Lena; Fang, Yiru

    2015-06-30

    An imbalance in neural activity within large-scale networks appears to be an important pathophysiological aspect of depression. Yet, there is little consensus regarding the abnormality within the default mode network (DMN) in major depressive disorder (MDD). In the present study, 16 first-episode, medication-naïve patients with MDD and 16 matched healthy controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at rest. With the precuneus (a central node of the DMN) as a seed region, functional connectivity (FC) was measured across the entire brain. The association between the FC of the precuneus and overall symptom severity was assessed using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Patients with MDD exhibited a more negative relationship between the precuneus and the non-DMN regions, including the sensory processing regions (fusiform gyrus, postcentral gyrus) and the secondary motor cortex (supplementary motor area and precentral gyrus). Moreover, greater severity of depression was associated with greater anti-correlation between the precuneus and the temporo-parietal junction as well as stronger positive connectivity between the precuneus and the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. These results indicate that dissociated large-scale networks of the precuneus may contribute to the clinical expression of depression in MDD. PMID:25957017

  15. [Comparison of 2 depression scales and their relationship with negative and akinetic symptoms in stabilized schizophrenic patients].

    PubMed

    Langlois-Thery, S; Dollfus, S; Lesieur, P; Petit, M

    1994-01-01

    Since the Bleuler's early writings, studies in schizophrenia have often shown a frequent occurrence of depression in the context of schizophrenia and also its implications for the morbidity and mortality of schizophrenic patients. The wide variability in the prevalence of depression (between 7 to 70% in post-psychotic period) is due in part to the difficulty in clearly separating depressive symptoms from akinesia induced by neuroleptic or negative symptoms and to the lack of a valid assessment of depressive symptoms in schizophrenic patients. Under these conditions, a better understanding of depressive symptomatology in schizophrenia seems to be necessary to go further in this area of research with clinical and therapeutical purposes. The "Echelle de Ralentissement Dépressif" (ERD, Widlöcher, 1983) was studied in a sample of 53 schizophrenic patients to determinate whether ERD composed of three subscores (motor, ideic and subjective) could be able to evaluate the subjective depressive symptomatology and whether its measure would be independent of negative symptoms or akinesia. Pearson's correlations and correlations with variables partialled out were used to compare ERD to Montgomery and Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS, 1979) and to establish their relationship with Positive And Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS< Kay, 1987) and an Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale (ESRS, Chouinard & Ross-Chouinard, 1980). Fifty three in or outpatients (35 males and 18 females, mean age +/- standard deviation = 38.26 +/- 9.82) were evaluated in a stable condition (i.e., when the psychotic symptomatology and the neuroleptic treatment have been stabilized since 4 weeks). According to DESM III-R criteria, 49 patients met the diagnosis of schizophrenia (2 schizoaffective disorders and 2 schizophreniform disorders).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7828511

  16. Depressive Symptoms and Resilience among Pregnant Adolescents: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Salazar-Pousada, Danny; Arroyo, Dalton; Hidalgo, Luis; Pérez-López, Faustino R.; Chedraui, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Background. Data regarding depression and resilience among adolescents is still lacking. Objective. To assess depressive symptoms and resilience among pregnant adolescents. Method. Depressive symptoms and resilience were assessed using two validated inventories, the 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression Scale (CESD-10) and the 14-item Wagnild and Young Resilience Scale (RS), respectively. A case-control approach was used to compare differences between adolescents and adults. Results. A total of 302 pregnant women were enrolled in the study, 151 assigned to each group. Overall, 56.6% of gravids presented total CESD-10 scores 10 or more indicating depressed mood. Despite this, total CESD-10 scores and depressed mood rate did not differ among studied groups. Adolescents did however display lower resilience reflected by lower total RS scores and a higher rate of scores below the calculated median (P < .05). Logistic regression analysis could not establish any risk factor for depressed mood among studied subjects; however, having an adolescent partner (OR, 2.0 CI 95% 1.06–4.0, P = .03) and a preterm delivery (OR, 3.0 CI 95% 1.43–6.55, P = .004) related to a higher risk for lower resilience. Conclusion. In light of the findings of the present study, programs oriented at giving adolescents support before, during, and after pregnancy should be encouraged. PMID:21461335

  17. Depressive Symptoms and Resilience among Pregnant Adolescents: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Salazar-Pousada, Danny; Arroyo, Dalton; Hidalgo, Luis; Pérez-López, Faustino R; Chedraui, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Background. Data regarding depression and resilience among adolescents is still lacking. Objective. To assess depressive symptoms and resilience among pregnant adolescents. Method. Depressive symptoms and resilience were assessed using two validated inventories, the 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression Scale (CESD-10) and the 14-item Wagnild and Young Resilience Scale (RS), respectively. A case-control approach was used to compare differences between adolescents and adults. Results. A total of 302 pregnant women were enrolled in the study, 151 assigned to each group. Overall, 56.6% of gravids presented total CESD-10 scores 10 or more indicating depressed mood. Despite this, total CESD-10 scores and depressed mood rate did not differ among studied groups. Adolescents did however display lower resilience reflected by lower total RS scores and a higher rate of scores below the calculated median (P < .05). Logistic regression analysis could not establish any risk factor for depressed mood among studied subjects; however, having an adolescent partner (OR, 2.0 CI 95% 1.06-4.0, P = .03) and a preterm delivery (OR, 3.0 CI 95% 1.43-6.55, P = .004) related to a higher risk for lower resilience. Conclusion. In light of the findings of the present study, programs oriented at giving adolescents support before, during, and after pregnancy should be encouraged. PMID:21461335

  18. The Short Version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21): Factor Structure in a Young Adolescent Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szabo, Marianna

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the factor structure of the short form of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21; Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995b) in a young adolescent sample. A group of 484 high school students ("Mean" age = 13.62 years, Min = 11.83, Max = 15.67 years, 52 % boys) completed the DASS-21. Several models were tested using Confirmatory Factor…

  19. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale: Factor Validity and Reliability in a French Sample of Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maiano, Christophe; Morin, Alexandre J. S.; Begarie, Jerome

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the factor validity and reliability of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) within a sample of adolescents with mild to moderate Intellectual Disability (ID). A total sample of 189 adolescents (121 boys and 68 girls), aged between 12 and 18 years old, with mild to moderate ID were…

  20. The Consequences of Perfectionism Scale: Factorial Structure and Relationships with Perfectionism, Performance Perfectionism, Affect, and Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoeber, Joachim; Hoyle, Azina; Last, Freyja

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the Consequences of Perfectionism Scale (COPS) and its relationships with perfectionism, performance perfectionism, affect, and depressive symptoms in 202 university students using confirmatory factor analysis, correlations, and regression analyses. Results suggest that the COPS is a reliable and valid measure of positive…

  1. A Reexamination of the Factor Structure of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale: Is a One-Factor Model Plausible?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Michael C.; Cheavens, Jennifer S.; Heiy, Jane E.; Cukrowicz, Kelly C.

    2010-01-01

    The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) is one of the most widely used measures of depressive symptoms in research today. The original psychometric work in support of the CES-D (Radloff, 1977) described a 4-factor model underlying the 20 items on the scale. Despite a long history of evidence supporting this structure,…

  2. A Measurement Invariance Examination of the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale in a Southern Sample: Differential Item Functioning between African American and Caucasian Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trent, Lindsay Rae; Buchanan, Erin; Ebesutani, Chad; Ale, Chelsea M.; Heiden, Laurie; Hight, Terry L.; Damon, John D.; Young, John

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale in a large sample of youth from the Southern United States. The authors aimed to determine (a) if the established six-factor Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale structure could be replicated in this Southern sample and (b) if scores were…

  3. Using the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 21 (DASS-21) across cultures.

    PubMed

    Oei, Tian P S; Sawang, Sukanlaya; Goh, Yong Wah; Mukhtar, Firdaus

    2013-01-01

    The DASS-21 is a well-established instrument for measuring depression, anxiety, and stress with good reliability and validity reported from Hispanic American, British, and Australian adults. However, the lack of appropriate validation among Asian populations continues to pose concerns over the use of DASS-21 in Asian samples. Cultural variation may influence the individual's experience and emotional expression. Thus, when researchers and practitioners employ Western-based assessments with Asian populations by directly translating them without an appropriate validation, the process can be challenging. We conducted a series of rigorous statistical tests and minimized any potential confounds from the demographic information. Following factor analyses, we performed multigroup analysis across six nations to demonstrate consistency of our findings. The advantages of this revised DASS-18 stress scale are twofold. First, it possesses fewer items, which results in a cleaner factorial structure. Second, it has a smaller interfactor correlation. With these justifications, the revised DASS-18 stress scale is potentially more suitable for Asian populations. Nonetheless, given limitations, findings should be considered preliminary. PMID:23425257

  4. The relationship between immigration and depression in South Africa: evidence from the first South African National Income Dynamics Study.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Andrew; Labys, Charlotte A; Burns, Jonathan K

    2014-12-01

    Few studies have examined depression among immigrants in post-apartheid South Africa, and factors that strengthen the relationship between immigration and depression. The first wave of the National Income Dynamics Study was used to investigate links between immigration and depression (n = 15,205). Depression symptoms were assessed using a 10-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale. Immigrants in South Africa had fewer depressive symptoms (CES-D ≥ 10) than locally-born participants (17.1 vs. 32.4%, F = 13.5, p < 0.01). Multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression analyses found that among immigrant populations, younger age (adjusted OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.01-1.05) and black African ethnicity (adjusted OR 3.72, 95% CI 1.29-10.7) were associated with higher depression. Younger age was associated with lower depression among locally-born study participants (adjusted OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.97-0.98). The varying relationship between certain demographic factors, depression and the different mental health challenges among these groups requires closer attention. PMID:24526432

  5. The relationship between immigration and depression in South Africa: Evidence from the first South African National Income Dynamics Study

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, Andrew; Labys, Charlotte A.; Burns, Jonathan K.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have examined depression among immigrants in post-apartheid South Africa, and factors that strengthen the relationship between immigration and depression. The first wave of the National Income Dynamics Study was used to investigate links between immigration and depression (n=15,205). Depression symptoms were assessed using a 10-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale. Immigrants in South Africa had fewer depressive symptoms (CES-D ≥ 10) than locally-born participants (17.1% vs. 32.4%, F = 13.5, p<0.01). Multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression analyses found that among immigrant populations, younger age (adjusted OR=1.03, 95% CI = 1.01-1.05) and black African ethnicity (adjusted OR=3.72, 95% CI = 1.29-10.7) were associated with higher depression. Younger age was associated with lower depression among locally-born study participants (adjusted OR=0.98, 95% CI = 0.97-0.98). The varying relationship between certain demographic factors, depression and the different mental health challenges among these groups requires closer attention. PMID:24526432

  6. Discriminant validity of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Beck Depression Inventory (II) and Beck Anxiety Inventory to confirmed clinical diagnosis of depression and anxiety in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Phan, Tina; Carter, Owen; Adams, Claire; Waterer, Grant; Chung, Li Ping; Hawkins, Maxine; Rudd, Cobie; Ziman, Mel; Strobel, Natalie

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the discriminant validity of commonly used depression and anxiety screening tools in order to determine the most suitable tool for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). COPD patients (n = 56) completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). These scores were compared to confirmed clinical diagnoses of depression and anxiety using the Mini Neuropsychiatric Interview. HADS depression subscale (HADS-D) sensitivity/specificity was 78/81%; BDI-II 89/77%; HADS anxiety subscale (HADS-A) 71/81%; and BAI 89/62%. HADS-D sensitivity/specificity was improved (100/83%) with the removal of Q4 'I feel as if I am slowed down' and adjusted cut-off (≥5). Removal of BDI-II Q21 'Loss of interest in sex' with adjusted cut-off ≥12 resulted in similar improvement (100/79%). No problematic items were identified for HADS-A or BAI. Previously reported low sensitivity/specificity of the HADS for COPD patients was not replicated. Furthermore, simple modifications of the HADS-D markedly improved sensitivity/specificity for depression.BDI-II, HADS-A and BAI produced acceptable sensitivity/specificity unmodified. Pending further research for COPD patients we recommend continued use of the HADS-A with standard cut-off (≥8) and removal of Q4 of the HADS-D with lower cut-off ≥5. PMID:26944070

  7. Exploring Associations between Problematic Internet Use, Depressive Symptoms and Sleep Disturbance among Southern Chinese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Yafei; Chen, Ying; Lu, Yaogui; Li, Liping

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine associations between problematic Internet use, depression and sleep disturbance, and explore whether there were differential effects of problematic Internet use and depression on sleep disturbance. A total of 1772 adolescents who participated in the Shantou Adolescent Mental Health Survey were recruited in 2012 in Shantou, China. The Chinese version of the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) was used to evaluate the prevalence and severity of Internet addiction. The Chinese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), a 10-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD-10), and other socio-demographic measures were also completed. Multiple regression analysis was used to test the mediating effect of problematic Internet use and depression on sleep disturbance. Among the participants, 17.2% of adolescents met the criteria for problematic Internet use, 40.0% were also classified as suffering from sleep disturbance, and 54.4% of students had depressive symptoms. Problematic Internet use was significantly associated with depressive symptoms and sleep disturbance. The correlation between depressive symptoms and sleep disturbance was highly significant. Both problematic Internet use (β = 0.014; Sobel test Z = 12.7, p < 0.001) and depression (β = 0.232; Sobel test Z = 3.39, p < 0.001) had partially mediating effects on sleep disturbance and depression was of greater importance for sleep disturbance than problematic Internet use. There is a high prevalence of problematic Internet use, depression and sleep disturbance among high school students in southern China, and problematic Internet use and depressive symptoms are strongly associated with sleep disturbance. This study provides evidence that problematic Internet use and depression have partially mediating effects on sleep disturbance. These results are important for clinicians and policy makers with useful information for prevention and

  8. Exploring Associations between Problematic Internet Use, Depressive Symptoms and Sleep Disturbance among Southern Chinese Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yafei; Chen, Ying; Lu, Yaogui; Li, Liping

    2016-03-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine associations between problematic Internet use, depression and sleep disturbance, and explore whether there were differential effects of problematic Internet use and depression on sleep disturbance. A total of 1772 adolescents who participated in the Shantou Adolescent Mental Health Survey were recruited in 2012 in Shantou, China. The Chinese version of the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) was used to evaluate the prevalence and severity of Internet addiction. The Chinese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), a 10-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD-10), and other socio-demographic measures were also completed. Multiple regression analysis was used to test the mediating effect of problematic Internet use and depression on sleep disturbance. Among the participants, 17.2% of adolescents met the criteria for problematic Internet use, 40.0% were also classified as suffering from sleep disturbance, and 54.4% of students had depressive symptoms. Problematic Internet use was significantly associated with depressive symptoms and sleep disturbance. The correlation between depressive symptoms and sleep disturbance was highly significant. Both problematic Internet use (β = 0.014; Sobel test Z = 12.7, p < 0.001) and depression (β = 0.232; Sobel test Z = 3.39, p < 0.001) had partially mediating effects on sleep disturbance and depression was of greater importance for sleep disturbance than problematic Internet use. There is a high prevalence of problematic Internet use, depression and sleep disturbance among high school students in southern China, and problematic Internet use and depressive symptoms are strongly associated with sleep disturbance. This study provides evidence that problematic Internet use and depression have partially mediating effects on sleep disturbance. These results are important for clinicians and policy makers with useful information for prevention and

  9. The Toronto Hospital Alertness Test scale: relationship to daytime sleepiness, fatigue, and symptoms of depression and anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Shahid, Azmeh; Chung, Sharon A; Maresky, Lance; Danish, Affan; Bingeliene, Arina; Shen, Jianhua; Shapiro, Colin M

    2016-01-01

    Objective The Toronto Hospital Alertness Test (THAT) scale was designed to measure alertness, defined as the capacity of the mind to respond appropriately to external and internal stimuli. The present study’s aim is to determine normative values of alertness on the THAT and to explore the relationship among excessive daytime sleepiness, fatigue, depressive symptoms, and alertness. Methods Normative data were collected from 60 healthy males and females. To explore the relationship among alertness, daytime sleepiness, fatigue, depression, and anxiety, data were collected from charts of sleep clinic patients. All study subjects completed measures for fatigue, sleepiness, depressive symptoms, and anxiety. Results The average score on the THAT was 34.9±7.2 (range 22–50) for the control group. The cutoff score for the THAT, indicative of clinically significant reduced alertness, was determined to be ≤20.5 (mean −2 SD). THAT alertness scores were found to be modestly, significantly, and negatively correlated with fatigue levels (r=−0.39, P<0.001), depressive symptoms (r=−0.53, P<0.001), and anxiety symptoms (r=−0.41, P<0.001). No correlations were found between alertness levels and daytime sleepiness. Regression analyses revealed a significant model (F=19.9, P<0.001, adjusted R2=0.35) with depressive symptoms (P<0.001) and fatigue (P=0.006) emerging as the only significant predictors of scores on the THAT. Conclusion The findings of this study support that sleepiness is not the same as poor alertness. Depressive symptoms and fatigue, but not sleepiness, were found to have a strong and significant impact on levels of alertness. This is the first study to link poor alertness to depressive symptoms. PMID:26855603

  10. Lost in translation: staff and interpreters' experiences of the edinburgh postnatal depression scale with women from refugee backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Stapleton, Helen; Murphy, Rebecca; Kildea, Sue

    2013-09-01

    This paper explores the cross-cultural application of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the difficulties associated with administration to women from refugee backgrounds. Assessing women's comprehension of individual scale items identified problems associated with "Western" terminology and concepts. Re-interpretation of discrete items on the scale was often necessary, raising doubts about the objectivity and reliability of scores. Our findings call for a closer examination of the ethnocentric assumptions underpinning the EPDS items, and the need to incorporate a more diverse range of cross-cultural understandings into future iterations. PMID:24004358

  11. Validity and test–retest reliability of the Persian version of the Montgomery–Asberg Depression Rating Scale

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadpanah, Mohammad; Sheikhbabaei, Meisam; Haghighi, Mohammad; Roham, Fatemeh; Jahangard, Leila; Akhondi, Amineh; Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Bajoghli, Hafez; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims The Montgomery–Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) is an expert’s rating tool to assess the severity and symptoms of depression. The aim of the present two studies was to validate the Persian version of the MADRS and determine its test–retest reliability in patients diagnosed with major depressive disorders (MDD). Methods In study 1, the translated MADRS and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) were applied to 210 patients diagnosed with MDD and 100 healthy adults. In study 2, 200 patients diagnosed with MDD were assessed with the MADRS in face-to-face interviews. Thereafter, 100 patients were assessed 3–14 days later, again via face-to-face-interviews, while the other 100 patients were assessed 3–14 days later via a telephone interview. Results Study 1: The MADRS and HDRS scores between patients with MDD and healthy controls differed significantly. Agreement between scoring of the MADRS and HDRS was high (r=0.95). Study 2: The intraclass correlation coefficient (test–retest reliability) was r=0.944 for the face-to-face interviews, and r=0.959 for the telephone interviews. Conclusion The present data suggest that the Persian MADRS has high validity and excellent test–retest reliability over a time interval of 3–14 days, irrespective of whether the second assessment was carried out face-to-face or via a telephone interview. PMID:27022265

  12. Marital status, gender, and depression: analysis of the baseline survey of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Ageing (KLoSA).

    PubMed

    Jang, Soong-Nang; Kawachi, Ichiro; Chang, Jiyeun; Boo, Kachung; Shin, Hyun-Gu; Lee, Hyejung; Cho, Sung-il

    2009-12-01

    Marital status is a robust predictor of health outcomes in Western populations. However, data from Asian cultures remain sparse, and some studies suggest marked gender differences in the health benefits of marriage among Asian populations. We investigated the influence of marital status on depressive symptoms in older adult Koreans. Data were obtained from a sample of adults aged 45 to 85 years (4016 men, 5003 women) who participated in the 2006 cross-sectional baseline survey of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Depressive symptoms were measured by the 10-item Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale. A multiple regression model was used to examine the association between marital status and depressive symptoms, controlling for socioeconomic status, living arrangement, disability, and number of chronic diseases. In women aged 75 to 85 years, no significant differences were found between women who were married versus those who were widowed, divorced, or separated with regard to depressive symptoms. These findings were driven by increasing depressive symptoms among married women with age. Whereas divorced and widowed men in the sample reported higher rates of depressive symptoms than did married men, the difference between married vs. widowed/divorced women converged as they aged. This pattern of depressive symptoms by gender and life stage may reflect the distinctive influence of the Asian context on relations between men and women, such as traditional gender roles and patriarchal norms for older generation. PMID:19819601

  13. Agreement for depression diagnosis between DSM-IV-TR criteria, three validated scales, oncologist assessment, and psychiatric clinical interview in elderly patients with advanced ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rhondali, Wadih; Freyer, Gilles; Adam, Virginie; Filbet, Marilène; Derzelle, Martine; Abgrall-Barbry, Gaelle; Bourcelot, Sophie; Machavoine, Jean-Louis; Chomat-Neyraud, Muriel; Gisserot, Olivier; Largillier, Rémi; Le Rol, Annick; Priou, Frank; Saltel, Pierre; Falandry, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Background Depression, a major outcome in cancer patients, is often evaluated by physicians relying on their clinical impressions rather than patient self-report. Our aim was to assess agreement between patient self-reported depression, oncologist assessment (OA), and psychiatric clinical interview (PCI) in elderly patients with advanced ovarian cancer (AOC). Methods This analysis was a secondary endpoint of the Elderly Women AOC Trial 3 (EWOT3), designed to assess the impact of geriatric covariates, notably depression, on survival in patients older than 70 years of age. Depression was assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale-30 (GDS), the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale, the distress thermometer, the mood thermometer, and OA. The interview guide for PCI was constructed from three validated scales: the GDS, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, revised (DSM) criteria for depression were used as a gold standard. Results Out of 109 patients enrolled at 21 centers, 99 (91%) completed all the assessments. Patient characteristics were: mean age 78, performance status ≥2: 47 (47%). Thirty six patients (36%) were identified as depressed by the PCI versus 15 (15%) identified by DSM. We found moderate agreement for depression identification between DSM and GDS (κ=0.508) and PCI (κ=0.431) and high agreement with MADRS (κ=0.663). We found low or no agreement between DSM with the other assessment strategies, including OA (κ=−0.043). Identification according to OA (yes/no) resulted in a false-negative rate of 87%. As a screening tool, GDS had the best sensitivity and specificity (94% and 80%, respectively). Conclusion The use of validated tools, such as GDS, and collaboration between psychologists and oncologists are warranted to better identify emotional disorders in elderly women with AOC. PMID:26203235

  14. The Relative Predictive Validity of Subtle vs. Obvious Items on the MMPI Depression Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhart, Barry R.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Obvious items were good predictors of all criteria; neutral items overlapped considerably with obvious items; and subtle items generally did not contribute uniquely to the prediction of any of the concurrent measures of depression. (Author)

  15. Displacement, county social cohesion and depression after a large-scale traumatic event

    PubMed Central

    Lê, Félice; Tracy, Melissa; Norris, Fran H.; Galea, Sandro

    2013-01-01

    Background Depression is a common and potentially debilitating consequence of traumatic events. Mass traumatic events cause wide-ranging disruptions to community characteristics, influencing the population risk of depression. In the aftermath of such events, population displacement is common. Stressors associated with displacement may increase risk of depression directly. Indirectly, persons who are displaced may experience erosion in social cohesion, further exacerbating their risk for depression. Methods Using data from a population-based cross-sectional survey of adults living in the 23 southernmost counties of Mississippi (N = 708), we modeled the independent and joint relations of displacement and county-level social cohesion with depression 18–24 months after Hurricane Katrina. Results After adjustment for individual- and county-level sociodemographic characteristics and county-level hurricane exposure, joint exposure to both displacement and low social cohesion was associated with substantially higher log-odds of depression (b = 1.34 [0.86–1.83]). Associations were much weaker for exposure only to low social cohesion (b = 0.28 [−0.35–0.90]) or only to displacement (b = 0.04 [−0.80– 0.88]). The associations were robust to additional adjustment for individually perceived social cohesion and social support. Conclusion Addressing the multiple, simultaneous disruptions that are a hallmark of mass traumatic events is important to identify vulnerable populations and understand the psychological ramifications of these events. PMID:23644724

  16. Genetic analyses benefit from using less heterogeneous phenotypes: An illustration with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)

    PubMed Central

    Laurin, Charles A.; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Willemsen, Gonneke; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Lubke, Gitta H.

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic heterogeneity of depression has been cited as one of causes of the limited success to detect genetic variants in genome-wide studies. The 7-item Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D) was developed to detect depression in individuals with physical health problems. An initial psychometric analysis showed that a short version (“HADS-4”) is less heterogeneous and hence more reliable than the full scale, and correlates equally strong with a DSM-oriented depression scale. We compared the HADS-D and the HADS-4 to assess the benefits of using less heterogeneous phenotype measures in genetic analyses. We compared HADS-D and HADS-4 in three separate analyses: (1) twin- and family-based heritability estimation, (2) SNP-based heritability estimation using the software GCTA, and (3) a genome-wide association study (GWAS). The twin study resulted in heritability estimates between 18 and 25%, with additive genetic variance being the largest component. There was also evidence for assortative mating and a dominance component of genetic variance, with HADS-4 having slightly lower estimates of assortment. Importantly, when estimating heritability from SNPs, the HADS-D did not show a significant genetic variance component, while for the HADS-4, a statistically significant amount of heritability was estimated. Moreover, the HADS-4 had substantially more SNPs with small p-values in the GWAS analysis than did the HADS-D. Our results underline the benefits of using more homogeneous phenotypes in psychiatric genetic analyses. Homogeneity can be increased by focusing on core symptoms of disorders, thus reducing the noise in aggregate phenotypes caused by substantially different symptom profiles. PMID:25832296

  17. Parameterization of Natural Depressions in Distributed Hydrologic Models: Implications for Scaling up Predictions of Sediment and Nutrient Yields in Ungauged Agricultural Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chien, H.; Mackay, S.; Cabot, P. E.; Karthikeyan, K.

    2005-12-01

    Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) are widely used in distributed hydrologic modeling. In general, interior depressions within catchments are viewed as errors in the DEM, even though they are hydrologically significant features. Natural depressions in catchments are capable of trapping surface runoff and associated sediment, but they are difficult to identify and represent, especially in ungauged basins. We examined the errors associated with the removal of such depressions on predictions from hydrologic models, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and Agricultural Policy/Environmental eXtender (APEX). Automated water and sediment samplers were installed in the outlets of three natural depressions in a small catchment in the North Fork of Pheasant Branch watershed in Dane County, Wisconsin, to collect surface runoff and sediment yields for the period 2003-2004. The data showed that when daily precipitation is over 26 mm, surface runoff with suspended sediment overtops the depressions. SWAT and APEX were calibrated to this data to examine the influence of nested depressions on sediment yields. The hypothesis addressed in this study is: sediment transport parameters can be used as proxies for the functioning of surface depression and to obtain the correct sediment response. The alternative is to explicitly prescribe depressions as reservoirs with more geometric details of depressions if the hypothesis failed. Initial model results showed that the adjustment of sediment transport parameters mimics the response of the depressions and significantly reduces sediment yields. Implications of a simple proxy of sediment deposition for scaling to larger, ungauged basins will be discussed.

  18. Diagnostic accuracy of the Depression subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D) for detecting major depression: protocol for a systematic review and individual patient data meta-analyses

    PubMed Central

    Thombs, Brett D; Benedetti, Andrea; Kloda, Lorie A; Levis, Brooke; Azar, Marleine; Riehm, Kira E; Saadat, Nazanin; Cuijpers, Pim; Gilbody, Simon; Ioannidis, John P A; McMillan, Dean; Patten, Scott B; Shrier, Ian; Steele, Russell J; Ziegelstein, Roy C; Loiselle, Carmen G; Henry, Melissa; Ismail, Zahinoor; Mitchell, Nicholas; Tonelli, Marcello

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The Depression subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D) has been recommended for depression screening in medically ill patients. Many existing HADS-D studies have used exploratory methods to select optimal cut-offs. Often, these studies report results from a small range of cut-off thresholds; cut-offs with more favourable accuracy results are more likely to be reported than others with worse accuracy estimates. When published data are combined in meta-analyses, selective reporting may generate biased summary estimates. Individual patient data (IPD) meta-analyses can address this problem by estimating accuracy with data from all studies for all relevant cut-off scores. In addition, a predictive algorithm can be generated to estimate the probability that a patient has depression based on a HADS-D score and clinical characteristics rather than dichotomous screening classification alone. The primary objectives of our IPD meta-analyses are to determine the diagnostic accuracy of the HADS-D to detect major depression among adults across all potentially relevant cut-off scores and to generate a predictive algorithm for individual patients. We are already aware of over 100 eligible studies, and more may be identified with our comprehensive search. Methods and analysis Data sources will include MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, PsycINFO and Web of Science. Eligible studies will have datasets where patients are assessed for major depression based on a validated structured or semistructured clinical interview and complete the HADS-D within 2 weeks (before or after). Risk of bias will be assessed with the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 tool. Bivariate random-effects meta-analysis will be conducted for the full range of plausible cut-off values, and a predictive algorithm for individual patients will be generated. Ethics and dissemination The findings of this study will be of interest to

  19. Factor analysis of treatment outcomes from a UK specialist addiction service: Relationship between the Leeds Dependence Questionnaire, Social Satisfaction Questionnaire and 10-item Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Fairhurst, Caroline; Böhnke, Jan R; Gabe, Rhian; Croudace, Tim J; Tober, Gillian; Raistrick, Duncan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction and Aims To examine the relationship between three outcome measures used by a specialist addiction service (UK): the Leeds Dependence Questionnaire (LDQ), the Social Satisfaction Questionnaire (SSQ) and the 10-item Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation (CORE-10). Design and Method A clinical sample of 715 service user records was extracted from a specialist addiction service (2011) database. The LDQ (dependence), SSQ (social satisfaction) and CORE-10 (psychological distress) were routinely administered at the start of treatment and again between 3 and 12 months post-treatment. A mixed pre/post-treatment dataset of 526 service users was subjected to exploratory factor analysis. Parallel Analysis and the Hull method were used to suggest the most parsimonious factor solution. Results Exploratory factor analysis with three factors accounted for 66.2% of the total variance but Parallel Analysis supported two factors as sufficient to account for observed correlations among items. In the two-factor solution, LDQ items and nine of the 10 CORE-10 items loaded on the first factor >0.41, and the SSQ items on factor 2 with loadings >0.63. A two dimensional summary appears sufficient and clinically meaningful. Discussion and Conclusions Among specialist addiction service users, social satisfaction appears to be a unique construct of addiction and is not the same as variation due to psychological distress or dependence. Our interpretation of the findings is that dependence is best thought of as a specific psychological condition subsumed under the construct psychological distress. [Fairhurst C, Böhnke JR, Gabe R, Croudace TJ, Tober G, Raistrick D. Factor analysis of treatment outcomes from a UK specialist addiction service: Relationship between the Leeds Dependence Questionnaire, Social Satisfaction Questionnaire and 10-item Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation. Drug Alcohol Rev 2014;33:643–650] PMID:24802233

  20. Extending the utility of the Depression Anxiety Stress scale by examining its psychometric properties in Chinese settings.

    PubMed

    Chan, Raymond C K; Xu, Ting; Huang, Jia; Wang, Yi; Zhao, Qing; Shum, David H K; O'Gorman, John; Potangaroa, Regan

    2012-12-30

    The Depression Anxiety Stress scale (DASS) is a widely used instrument for assessing mental health status, but the construct validity of the Chinese version of the test has not been demonstrated. The current study recruited three independent samples of Chinese participants to examine its reliability, factor structure, and utility in differentiating groups expected to show high and low scores on the scales. The first sample comprised 605 undergraduate student volunteers from Beijing, the second sample comprised 138 residents from the Sichuan Province who had experienced the 2008 earthquake there, and the third sample comprised 86 Beijing residents. Cronbach's alpha values in excess of 0.80 were found for all samples and all scales. Confirmatory factor analysis with the student sample supported a three-factor latent structure for the DASS (depression, anxiety, and stress). Substantially higher scores on all scales were found for the Sichuan earthquake sample compared with the Beijing resident's sample. Implications of these findings for the assessment of mental status using the DASS in China are discussed. PMID:22921506

  1. Development and validation of the Dimensional Anhedonia Rating Scale (DARS) in a community sample and individuals with major depression.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, Sakina J; Quilty, Lena C; Sproule, Beth A; Cyriac, Anna; Michael Bagby, R; Kennedy, Sidney H

    2015-09-30

    Anhedonia, a core symptom of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), is predictive of antidepressant non-response. In contrast to the definition of anhedonia as a "loss of pleasure", neuropsychological studies provide evidence for multiple facets of hedonic function. The aim of the current study was to develop and validate the Dimensional Anhedonia Rating Scale (DARS), a dynamic scale that measures desire, motivation, effort and consummatory pleasure across hedonic domains. Following item selection procedures and reliability testing using data from community participants (N=229) (Study 1), the 17-item scale was validated in an online study with community participants (N=150) (Study 2). The DARS was also validated in unipolar or bipolar depressed patients (n=52) and controls (n=50) (Study 3). Principal components analysis of the 17-item DARS revealed a 4-component structure mapping onto the domains of anhedonia: hobbies, food/drink, social activities, and sensory experience. Reliability of the DARS subscales was high across studies (Cronbach's α=0.75-0.92). The DARS also demonstrated good convergent and divergent validity. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed the DARS showed additional utility over the Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS) in predicting reward function and distinguishing MDD subgroups. These studies provide support for the reliability and validity of the DARS. PMID:26250147

  2. Autonomic Nervous System Dysfunction and Inflammation Contribute to the Increased Cardiovascular Mortality Risk Associated With Depression

    PubMed Central

    Kop, Willem J.; Stein, Phyllis K.; Tracy, Russell P.; Barzilay, Joshua I.; Schulz, Richard; Gottdiener, John S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate prospectively whether autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction and inflammation play a role in the increased cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related mortality risk associated with depression. Methods Participants in the Cardiovascular Health Study (n = 907; mean age, 71.3 ± 4.6 years; 59.1% women) were evaluated for ANS indices derived from heart rate variability (HRV) analysis (frequency and time domain HRV, and nonlinear indices, including detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA1) and heart rate turbulence). Inflammation markers included C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, fibrinogen, and white blood cell count). Depressive symptoms were assessed, using the 10-item Centers for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale. Cox proportional hazards models were used to investigate the mortality risk associated with depression, ANS, and inflammation markers, adjusting for demographic and clinical covariates. Results Depression was associated with ANS dysfunction (DFA1, p = .018), and increased inflammation markers (white blood cell count, p = .012, fibrinogen p = .043) adjusting for covariates. CVD-related mortality occurred in 121 participants during a median follow-up of 13.3 years. Depression was associated with an increased CVD mortality risk (hazard ratio, 1.88; 95% confidence interval, 1.23–2.86). Multivariable analyses showed that depression was an independent predictor of CVD mortality (hazard ratio, 1.72; 95% confidence interval, 1.05–2.83) when adjusting for independent HRV and inflammation predictors (DFA1, heart rate turbulence, interleukin-6), attenuating the depression-CVD mortality association by 12.7% (p < .001). Conclusion Autonomic dysfunction and inflammation contribute to the increased cardiovascular mortality risk associated with depression, but a large portion of the predictive value of depression remains unexplained by these neuroimmunological measures. PMID:20639389

  3. Predictors of and health services utilization related to depressive symptoms among elderly Koreans.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jin Hee; Do, Young Kyung; Maselko, Joanna; Brouwer, Rebecca J N; Song, Sang Wook; Østbye, Truls

    2012-07-01

    While the prevalence, comorbidity, risk profile and health care utilization for late-life depression have been described for many Western countries, much less is known about the recent epidemiology of late-life depression in East Asian countries such as Korea. We investigated predictors for depressive symptoms and the association between depressive symptoms and the utilization of both medical care and preventive services in elderly Koreans. Data were obtained from a nationally representative sample of Koreans aged 60 and above (2226 men, 2911 women) who participated in the 2008 wave of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Depressive symptoms were measured using the 10-item Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale. Risk factors considered included sociodemographics, health behaviors, chronic diseases, and physical function. Health care utilization factors included hospitalization, outpatient clinic use and basic medical checkup. Being female, being unmarried, and having less education, lower household income, physical inactivity and lower weight were associated with depressive symptoms. Presence of chronic diseases and limited physical function also showed a significant association with depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms were associated with increased odds of hospitalization and outpatient visits, but decreased the odds of utilization of basic medical checkup after controlling for potential confounders. Findings on most risk factors, except lower weight, were consistent with reports from Western countries. It is important to recognize the burden of depressive symptoms in the elderly. The interaction of such symptoms with chronic diseases should be acknowledged and considered in the clinical setting as well as in health care planning and policymaking. PMID:22531571

  4. Major depression

    MedlinePlus

    Depression - major; Depression - clinical; Clinical depression; Unipolar depression; Major depressive disorder ... Doctors do not know the exact causes of depression. It is believed that chemical changes in the ...

  5. A multilevel analysis of the relationship between neighborhood social disorder and depressive symptoms: Evidence from the South African National Income Dynamics Study

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, Andrew; Labys, Charlotte A.; Burns, Jonathan K

    2015-01-01

    The apartheid regime that governed South Africa from 1948 – 1994 established spatial segregation that is understood to have contributed to the magnitude of neighborhood social disorder in the post-apartheid era. Although a number of neighborhood social disorder characteristics, such as perceived violence and crime in the community, are prominent issues in South Africa, the extent to which these perceived spatial attributes are linked to depression is unknown at the population-level. Multilevel modeling of data from the second wave of the South African National Income Dynamics Study (SA-NIDS) was utilized to examine the relationship between depressive symptomatology and neighborhood social disorder as indicated by the perceived frequency of violent, criminal and illicit activities in the community. Depressive symptomatology was assessed using the 10-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. A cut off score of ten or higher was used to indicate the presence of significant depressive symptomatology. Results showed that perception of neighborhood social disorder was independently associated with significant levels of depressive symptomatology. Gender, race/ethnicity, perceived health status, and education were significant for individual-level covariates of depression. Community intervention strategies that reduce the risk of neighborhood disorganization and emphasize positive social norms in the neighborhood are warranted. Taking into account the residential de-racialization of a country transitioning from apartheid to non-racial democracy, a longitudinal spatial study design assessing the dynamics between depression and the aforementioned perceptions of neighborhood attributes may also be warranted. PMID:25642654

  6. A multilevel analysis of the relationship between neighborhood social disorder and depressive symptoms: evidence from the South African National Income Dynamics Study.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Andrew; Labys, Charlotte A; Burns, Jonathan K

    2015-01-01

    The apartheid regime that governed South Africa from 1948-1994 established spatial segregation that is understood to have contributed to the magnitude of neighborhood social disorder in the postapartheid era. Although a number of neighborhood social disorder characteristics, such as perceived violence and crime in the community, are prominent issues in South Africa, the extent to which these perceived spatial attributes are linked to depression is unknown at the population level. Multilevel modeling of data from the second wave of the South African National Income Dynamics Study (SA-NIDS) was utilized to examine the relationship between depressive symptomatology and neighborhood social disorder as indicated by the perceived frequency of violent, criminal and illicit activities in the community. Depressive symptomatology was assessed using the 10-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. A cut-off score of 10 or higher was used to indicate the presence of significant depressive symptomatology. Results showed that perception of neighborhood social disorder was independently associated with significant levels of depressive symptomatology. Gender, race or ethnicity, perceived health status, and education were significant for individual-level covariates of depression. Community intervention strategies that reduce the risk of neighborhood disorganization and emphasize positive social norms in the neighborhood are warranted. Taking into account the residential deracialization of a country transitioning from apartheid to nonracial democracy, a longitudinal spatial study design assessing the dynamics between depression and the aforementioned perceptions of neighborhood attributes may also be warranted. PMID:25642654

  7. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale: factor validity and reliability in a French sample of adolescents with Intellectual Disability.

    PubMed

    Maïano, Christophe; Morin, Alexandre J S; Bégarie, Jérôme

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the factor validity and reliability of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) within a sample of adolescents with mild to moderate Intellectual Disability (ID). A total sample of 189 adolescents (121 boys and 68 girls), aged between 12 and 18 years old, with mild to moderate ID were involved in two studies. In study 1, the content, phrasing and answering format of the CES-D were adapted for adolescents with ID. This instrument was renamed CES-D for ID (CES-D-ID) and two different versions based on two alternative answer scales (Likert and Likert-graphical) were developed and their psychometric properties were verified in study 2. The results provided support for the factor validity, reliability and invariance across gender and age of a 14-item version of the CES-D-ID based on a Likert-graphical answer scale. PMID:21530161

  8. Psychometric analysis of the Mental Health Recovery Measure in a sample of veterans with depression.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Kristen M; Nelson, C Beau; Ganoczy, Dara; Zivin, Kara; Brandfon, Samantha; Walters, Heather; Cohen, Jay L; Valenstein, Marcia

    2016-05-01

    Using data from a sample of 398 veterans diagnosed with depression, the present study used principal components analysis to shorten the Mental Health Recovery Measure (MHRM) to a 10-item instrument. Results indicated the 10-item MHRM had excellent internal reliability. Construct validity for the 10-item MHRM was evidenced by correlations with measures of depression coping self-efficacy, social adjustment, hopelessness, and depression. The 10-item MHRM derived in the present study was compared with a 10-item version of the MHRM that was previously empirically derived in a sample of veterans with schizophrenia (Armstrong, Cohen, Hellemann, Reist, & Young, 2014). Results suggest that similar items represent the underlying construct of recovery for veterans with depression and veterans with schizophrenia. Veterans with depression reported lower average levels of recovery than veterans with schizophrenia. Study limitations, directions for future investigations, and the implications of routine assessment of mental health recovery in public mental health systems are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27148954

  9. Depressive Symptoms Prior to Pregnancy and Infant Low Birth Weight in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Andrew; Labys, Charlotte A; Burns, Jonathan K

    2015-10-01

    Despite improvements in service delivery and patient management, low birth weight among infants has been a persistent challenge in South Africa. The study aimed to explore the relationship between depression before pregnancy and the low birth weight (LBW) of infants in post-apartheid South Africa. This study utilized data from Waves 1 and 2 of the South African National Income Dynamics Study, the main outcome being a dichotomous measure of child LBW (<2500 g) drawn from the Wave 2 child questionnaire. Depressive symptoms of non-pregnant women was the main predictor drawn from the Wave 1 adult questionnaire. Depressive symptoms were screened using the 10-item four-point Likert version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) instrument. A total score of 10 or greater on the CES-D indicates a positive screen for depressive symptoms. An adjusted logistic regression model was used to examine the relationship between women's depression before pregnancy and infant LBW. A sample size of 651 women in Wave 1 was linked to 672 newborns in Wave 2. The results of the adjusted logistic regression model indicated depressive symptoms (CES-D ≥ 10) prior to pregnancy were associated with infant LBW (adjusted OR 2.84, 95 % CI 1.08-7.46). Another significant covariate in the model was multiple childbirths. Our finding indicates that women's depressive symptoms prior to pregnancy are associated with the low birth weight of newborns and suggests that this association may not be limited to depression present during the ante-natal phase. PMID:25673370

  10. Depression, disability and functional status among community dwelling older adults in South Africa: Evidence from the first South African National Income Dynamics Study

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, Andrew; Burns, Jonathan K

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study examined the relationship between depression and functional status among a community-dwelling elderly population of 65 years and older in South Africa. Method Data from the first wave of the South African National Income Dynamics Study (SA-NIDS) was used, this being the first longitudinal panel survey of a nationally representative sample of households. The study focused on the data for resident adults 65 years and older (n=1,429). Depression was assessed using the 10-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Functional status, pertaining to both difficulty and dependency in activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), and physical functioning and mobility (PFM), were assessed using 11 items. Results Functional challenges were generally higher in the older age group. There was a significant association between depression and functional dependency in ADL (adjusted OR=2.57 [CI: 1.03-6.41]), IADL (adjusted OR=2.76 [CI: 1.89-4.04]) and PFM (adjusted OR=1.66 [CI: 1.18-2.33]) but the relationship between depression and functional status, particularly PFM, appeared weaker in older age. Conclusion The relationship between depression symptoms and function is complex. Functional characteristics between older and younger older populations are diverse, and caution is indicated against overgeneralizing the challenges related to depression and function among this target population. PMID:23512338

  11. Prospective study of the associations between television watching and car riding behaviors and development of depressive symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Sui, Xuemei; Brown, Wendy J.; Lavie, Carl J.; West, Delia S.; Pate, Russel R.; Payne, Jonathan P.W.; Blair, Steven N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the longitudinal association between sedentary behaviors and risk of developing depressive symptoms. Patients and Methods 1012 women and 3790 men (18–80 yr) not reporting depressive moods completed a health survey during 1982 when they reported their time spent watching television (TV) and riding in a car each week. All participants completed a follow-up health survey when they responded to the 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D 10). Those who scored 8 or more on the CES-D 10 were considered to have depressive symptoms. Results 568 participants reported depressive symptoms during an average follow-up of 9.3 years. After multivariate-adjustment including moderate- and vigorous- intensity physical activity (MVPA), time in riding in a car, watching TV and combined time spent in the two sedentary behaviors were positively (P trend <.05 for each) associated with depressive symptoms. Individuals who reported ≥9 hrs/wk riding in a car, >10 hrs/wk watching TV, or ≥19 hrs/wk of combined sedentary behavior had 28%, 52%, and 74% greater risk of developing depressive symptoms than those who reported <5 hrs/wk, <5 hrs/wk, or <12 hrs/wk, respectively after adjusting for baseline covariates and MVPA. The positive association between time in riding in a car or time in watching TV and depressive symptoms was only observed among individual who did not meet the current PA guidelines. Conclusion Longer time reported in these two sedentary behaviors was positively associated with depressive symptoms. The direct associations between time spent in car riding and TV viewing, with depressive symptoms, were however only significant among those who did not meet the current PA recommendation. PMID:25659236

  12. Dimensional versus categorical use of the PHQ-9 depression scale among persons with non-small-cell lung cancer: a pilot study including quality-of-life comparisons.

    PubMed

    Whitney, Kriscinda A; Steiner, Amy R; Lysaker, Paul H; Estes, Deborah D; Hanna, Nasser H

    2010-01-01

    The debate over the relative usefulness of categorical (yes/no) versus dimensional (continuous scales) assessments for determining mental illness has been running strong for nearly a half century. In order to address the utility of each of these assessment methods within the cancer population, in the present study, the dimensional and categorical scoring systems of the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) for depression were compared among patients (n = 14) in the pretreatment stages for locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Also included in the study was an additional dimensional measure of depression, the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). As predicted, dimensional assessments resulted in higher estimates of depression than did the categorical assessment. As predicted, the dimensional depression assessments, including the PHQ-9 and the BDI-II, which showed depression prevalence rates of 43% and 36%, respectively, produced higher estimates of depression than did the categorical system of the PHQ-9, whose use did not result in any patients being diagnosed with major depression or other depression. Also, as predicted, in terms of quality of life, patients found to be depressed by both the BDI-II and the dimensional PHQ-9 reported significantly worse physical, functional, and emotional well-being than did their nondepressed counterparts. Study findings suggest a need for further investigation into the possibility that patients who score highly on the dimensional scoring system of the PHQ-9 but at values below threshold on the more commonly accepted categorical scoring system of the same measure would benefit from consideration for psychotherapeutic treatment. PMID:21086881

  13. Measurement equivalence of the center for epidemiological studies depression scale for Latino and Anglo adolescents: a national study.

    PubMed

    Crockett, Lisa J; Randall, Brandy A; Shen, Yuh-Ling; Russell, Stephen T; Driscoll, Anne K

    2005-02-01

    The cross-ethnic measurement equivalence of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D; L. S. Radloff, 1977) was examined using a subsample of adolescents (N=10,691) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Configural and metric invariance, as well as functional and scalar equivalence, were examined for Anglo American, Mexican American, Cuban American, and Puerto Rican American youths age 12-18 years. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) in each group provided evidence of configural invariance for European and Mexican American adolescents but not for Cuban and Puerto Rican youths. A 2-group CFA for Anglo and Mexican Americans demonstrated partial metric invariance for these groups. Multigroup structural equation modeling indicated similar relations between CES-D scores and self-esteem for all 4 groups, supporting cross-ethnic functional and scalar equivalence. The results have implications for using the CES-D in cross-ethnic research and, more broadly, for the assessment and treatment of depression in Latinos. PMID:15709831

  14. How to compare scores from different depression scales: equating the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) and the ICD-10-Symptom Rating (ISR) using Item Response Theory.

    PubMed

    Fischer, H Felix; Tritt, Karin; Klapp, Burghard F; Fliege, Herbert

    2011-12-01

    A wide range of questionnaires for measuring depression are available. Item Response Theory models can help to evaluate the questionnaires exceeding the boundaries of Classical Test Theory and provide an opportunity to equate the questionnaires. In this study after checking for unidimensionality, a General Partial Credit Model was applied to data from two different depression scales [Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and ICD-10-Symptom Rating (ISR)] obtained in clinical settings from a consecutive sample, including 4517 observations from a total of 2999 inpatients and outpatients of a psychosomatic clinic. The precision of each questionnaire was compared and the model was used to transform scores based on the assumed underlying latent trait. Both instruments were constructed to measure the same construct and their estimates of depression severity are highly correlated. Our analysis showed that the predicted scores provided by the conversion tables are similar to the observed scores in a validation sample. The PHQ-9 and ISR depression scales measure depression severity across a broad range with similar precision. While the PHQ-9 shows advantages in measuring low or high depression severity, the ISR is more parsimonious and also suitable for clinical purposes. Furthermore, the equation tables derived in this study enhance the comparability of studies using either one of the instruments, but due to substantial statistical spread the comparison of individual scores is imprecise. PMID:22021205

  15. Criterion validity of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D): results from a community-based sample of older subjects in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Beekman, A T; Deeg, D J; Van Limbeek, J; Braam, A W; De Vries, M Z; Van Tilburg, W

    1997-01-01

    The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D) has been widely used in studies of late-life depression. Psychometric properties are generally favourable, but data on the criterion validity of the CES-D in elderly community-based samples are lacking. In a sample of older (55-85 years) inhabitants of the Netherlands, 487 subjects were selected to study criterion validity of the CES-D. Using the 1-month prevalence of major depression derived from the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS) as criterion, the weighted sensitivity of the CES-D was 100%; specificity 88%; and positive predictive value 13.2%. False positives were not more likely among elderly with physical illness, cognitive decline or anxiety. We conclude that the criterion validity of the CES-D for major depression was very satisfactory in this sample of older adults. PMID:9122304

  16. Longitudinal association of vitamin B-6, folate, and vitamin B-12 with depressive symptoms among older adults over time123

    PubMed Central

    Tangney, Christine; Li, Hong; Ouyang, Bichun; Evans, Denis A; Morris, Martha Clare

    2010-01-01

    Background: B-vitamin deficiencies have been associated with depression; however, there is very little prospective evidence from population-based studies of older adults. Objective: We examined whether dietary intakes of vitamins B-6, folate, or vitamin B-12 were predictive of depressive symptoms over an average of 7.2 y in a community-based population of older adults. Design: The study sample consisted of 3503 adults from the Chicago Health and Aging project, an ongoing, population-based, biracial (59% African American) study in adults aged ≥65 y. Dietary assessment was made by food-frequency questionnaire. Incident depression was measured by the presence of ≥4 depressive symptoms from the 10-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale. Results: The logistic regression models, which used generalized estimating equations, showed that higher total intakes, which included supplementation, of vitamins B-6 and B-12 were associated with a decreased likelihood of incident depression for up to 12 y of follow-up, after adjustment for age, sex, race, education, income, and antidepressant medication use. For example, each 10 additional milligrams of vitamin B-6 and 10 additional micrograms of vitamin B-12 were associated with 2% lower odds of depressive symptoms per year. There was no association between depressive symptoms and food intakes of these vitamins or folate. These associations remained after adjustment for smoking, alcohol use, widowhood, caregiving status, cognitive function, physical disability, and medical conditions. Conclusion: Our results support the hypotheses that high total intakes of vitamins B-6 and B-12 are protective of depressive symptoms over time in community-residing older adults. PMID:20519557

  17. Psychometric evaluation and normative data for the depression, anxiety, and stress scales-21 (DASS-21) in a nonclinical sample of U.S. adults.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Samuel Justin; Siefert, Caleb J; Slavin-Mulford, Jenelle M; Stein, Michelle B; Renna, Megan; Blais, Mark A

    2012-09-01

    Health care professionals are coming under increased pressure to empirically monitor patient outcomes across settings as a means of improving clinical practice. Within the psychiatric and primary care communities, many have begun utilizing brief psychometric measures of psychological functioning to accomplish these goals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties and clinical utility of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales-21-item version (DASS-21), and contribute normative data to facilitate interpretation using a sample of U.S. adults (N = 503). Item-scale convergence was generally supported, although assumptions of item-scale divergence were not met. Only 86%, 50%, and 43% of Depression, Anxiety, and Stress items, respectively, correlated significantly greater with their hypothesized scales than other scales. Internal consistency reliability was acceptable for all scales and comparable to existing research (αs = .91, .80, and .84 for Depression, Anxiety, and Stress, respectively). Scale-level correlations were greater than what has been reported elsewhere (range of rs = .68 to .73), and principal components analysis supported the extraction of only one component accounting for 47% of the item-level variance. However, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) favored a three-factor structure when compared to a one-factor model. The implications for the health care professions are discussed. PMID:22008979

  18. Comparison of the MMPI-2 restructured Demoralization Scale, Depression Scale, and Malingered Mood Disorder Scale in identifying non-credible symptom reporting in personal injury litigants and disability claimants.

    PubMed

    Henry, George K; Heilbronner, Robert L; Mittenberg, Wiley; Enders, Craig; Domboski, Kristen

    2009-01-01

    A known groups design compared the ability of the 24-item MMPI-2 Restructured Clinical Demoralization Scale (RCd), the 57-item Depression Scale (Scale 2), and the 15-item Malingered Mood Disorder Scale (MMDS) to identify non-credible symptom response sets in 84 personal injury litigants and disability claimants compared to 77 non-litigating head-injured controls. All three scales showed large effect sizes (>0.80). Scale 2 was associated with the largest effect size (2.19), followed by the MMDS (1.65), and the RCd (0.85). Logistic regression analyses revealed that a cutscore of > or =28 on the 57-item Scale 2 was associated with high specificity (96.1%) and sensitivity (76.2%), while a cutscore of > or =16 on the 24-item RCd was less accurate (87% specificity and 50% sensitivity). Cutscores for the MMDS were not calculated as they were reported in a previous study. Results indicated that like the 15-item MMDS, the 57-item MMPI-2 Scale 2 may provide another empirically derived index with known error rates upon which examiners may rely to investigate hypotheses relative to exaggeration of illness-related behavior and impression management in forensic contexts involving PI litigants and disability claimants. PMID:18609325

  19. Feasibility, Reliability and Validity of the Dutch Translation of the Anxiety, Depression and Mood Scale in Older Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermans, Heidi; Jelluma, Naftha; van der Pas, Femke H.; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The informant-based Anxiety, Depression And Mood Scale was translated into Dutch and its feasibility, reliability and validity in older adults (aged greater than or equal to 50 years) with intellectual disabilities (ID) was studied. Method: Test-retest (n = 93) and interrater reliability (n = 83), and convergent (n = 202 and n = 787),…

  20. Psychometric properties of the French translation of the Behavioral Activation for Depression Scale-Short Form (BADS-SF) in non-clinical adults.

    PubMed

    Wagener, Aurélie; Van der Linden, Martial; Blairy, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    A decrease in the level of engagement in activities ("behavioral activation") is usually observed in major depressive disorder. Because behavioral treatments of depression aim to counteract that mechanism, assessing changes in behavioral activation during treatment is of great interest. Therefore, Manos et al. (2011) developed a scale that assesses these changes, which was called the Behavioral Activation for Depression Scale-Short Form (BADS-SF). The aim of this study is to present a French version of this scale and to discuss its psychometric properties. The BADS-SF was translated into French, and 504 non-clinical adults completed an online survey that was composed of that scale and convergent measures. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed in two independent samples, and a two-factor solution was recommended, which references two functions of the engagement in activities (i.e., "activation" and "avoidance"). The results showed high levels of internal consistency and satisfying scores in terms of skewness and kurtosis. Moreover, relationships with measures of depression and behavioral systems indicated a good convergent validity. Therefore, the French BADS-SF can be seen as a reliable and valid instrument. PMID:25458479

  1. First validation of a Spanish-translated version of the Edinburgh postnatal depression scale (EPDS) for use in pregnant women. A Chilean study.

    PubMed

    Alvarado, Rubén; Jadresic, Enrique; Guajardo, Viviana; Rojas, Graciela

    2015-08-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Edinburg Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) to detect depression during pregnancy in Chile. The EPDS was applied to a sample of 111 pregnant women, who were attending an antenatal appointment in primary care centers. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-I) was used to assess the convergent validity, and the Depressive Episode module of the MINI was used to identify cases. The factor analysis showed that there was a good fit, with a factor model that explains 57.6 % of the total variance. There was a high degree of internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.914) and good convergent validity with the BDI-I (rho = 0.850, p < 0.001). The EPDS was capable of differentiating cases of depression from non-cases. The best cutoff point was between 12 and 13, corresponding to an overall accuracy of 87.4 %. The questionnaire has good psychometric properties and can be useful for detecting cases of depression during pregnancy. PMID:25300676

  2. Physical Characteristics and Processes of 100-m-scale raised-rim depressions (RRD's) on Earth: application to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burr, D. M.; Bruno, B.; Jaeger, W. L.; Lanagan, P. D.; Miyamoto, H.; Soare, R.; Wan Bun Tseung, J.

    2005-12-01

    100-m-scale raised-rim depressions (RRD's) of various origins are found on both Earth and Mars. We define RRD's morphologically, as circular, elongate, or irregularly shaped forms having raised rims encircling lower elevation terrain. Terrestrial RRD's include phreatomagmatic cones, basaltic ring structures, collapsing or collapsed pingos, rimmed kettle holes, and mud volcanoes. Terrestrial experience commonly guides extra-terrestrial investigations, so these terrestrial types of RRD's are also the types that have been commonly hypothesized for RRD's on Mars, although other origins (e.g., secondary impacts onto deflating surfaces) are also likely on Mars. Identifying the origins of Martian RRD's is useful because different types of RRD's imply different geological processes (and therefore have different astrobiological connotations). Being of a similar shape and size in plan view, different types of RRD's are often difficult to classify remotely. However, each of these types of RRD's has specific geomorphic characteristics that can be remotely assessed. Based on terrestrial studies, we present guidelines of a scale applicable to new current and near-future spacecraft data to aid in identifying various types of RRD's on Mars. This presentation will entail discussion of selected types of RRD's, including their geneses, morphologic characteristics, distributions, and common geological associations. The RRD's are grouped according to primary origin, ie., volcanic, sedimentologic, and other. In summary, we present some guidelines for classifying RRD's on Mars.

  3. Culturally Sensitive Depression Assessment for Chinese American Immigrants: Development of a Comprehensive Measure and a Screening Scale Using an Item Response Approach

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Rose; Wu, Rufina; Guo, Carmen; Lam, Julia K.; Snowden, Lonnie R.

    2011-01-01

    The present mixed methods study developed a comprehensive measure and a screening scale of depression for Chinese American immigrants by combining an emic approach with item response analysis. Clinical participants were immigrants diagnosed by licensed clinicians who worked in the community. Qualitative interviews with clinicians and clinical participants (N = 63) supported the definition of the construct of depression—which guided scale development—and a 47-item pilot scale. Clinical and community participants (N = 227) completed the pilot scale and measures of neurasthenia and acculturative stress, and the Patient Health Questionnaire Depression Module (PHQ-9). A Rasch Partial Credit Model of 42-items—representing psychological, somatic and interpersonal domains of distress—best fit the data. Twenty-three items overlapped with the DSM-IV symptoms of major depression. Twenty-seven items were biased by acculturation-related variables. Nine items appropriate for self-report screening in primary care and community organizations were chosen to form a brief scale. Both measures showed strong reliability and concurrent and convergent validity. The 9-item scale had better content validity than the PHQ-9. Implications regarding the impact of culture for assessment are highlighted. PMID:23504503

  4. Validation of the multi-dimensional scale of perceived social support (MSPSS) and the relationship between social support, intimate partner violence and antenatal depression in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lack of social support is an important risk factor for antenatal depression and anxiety in low- and middle-income countries. We translated, adapted and validated the Multi-dimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) in order to study the relationship between perceived social support, intimate partner violence and antenatal depression in Malawi. Methods The MSPSS was translated and adapted into Chichewa and Chiyao. Five hundred and eighty-three women attending an antenatal clinic were administered the MSPSS, depression screening measures, and a risk factor questionnaire including questions about intimate partner violence. A sub-sample of participants (n = 196) were interviewed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV to diagnose major depressive episode. Validity of the MSPSS was evaluated by assessment of internal consistency, factor structure, and correlation with Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) score and major depressive episode. We investigated associations between perception of support from different sources (significant other, family, and friends) and major depressive episode, and whether intimate partner violence was a moderator of these associations. Results In both Chichewa and Chiyao, the MSPSS had high internal consistency for the full scale and significant other, family, and friends subscales. MSPSS full scale and subscale scores were inversely associated with SRQ score and major depression diagnosis. Using principal components analysis, the MSPSS had the expected 3-factor structure in analysis of the whole sample. On confirmatory factor analysis, goodness–of-fit indices were better for a 3-factor model than for a 2-factor model, and met standard criteria when correlation between items was allowed. Lack of support from a significant other was the only MSPSS subscale that showed a significant association with depression on multivariate analysis, and this association was moderated by experience of intimate partner

  5. The critical warzone experiences (CWE) scale: initial psychometric properties and association with PTSD, anxiety, and depression.

    PubMed

    Kimbrel, Nathan A; Evans, Lianna D; Patel, Amee B; Wilson, Laura C; Meyer, Eric C; Gulliver, Suzy B; Morissette, Sandra B

    2014-12-30

    The objective of the present research was to develop and evaluate a critical warzone experiences (CWE) scale for use with Iraq/Afghanistan veterans. The psychometric properties of the CWE were evaluated across three independent samples of Iraq/Afghanistan veterans. Despite its brevity (7 items), the CWE exhibited good internal consistency (average α =0.83), good temporal stability (1-year test-retest reliability=0.73), good concurrent validity with lengthier measures of warzone experiences (average r=0.74), and a clear unidimensional factor structure (average factor loading=0.69). Study 2 confirmed the CWE׳s factor structure through confirmatory factor analysis, and structural equation modeling demonstrated a strong association between CWE and post-deployment mental health, β =0.49, p<0.001. Study 3 provided further support for the predictive validity of the CWE by demonstrating that it was associated with PTSD diagnosis, clinician-rated PTSD symptom severity, and global functional impairment in an independent sample of Iraq/Afghanistan veterans (average r=0.59). While replication of these findings in more diverse samples is needed, the preliminary evidence from these studies indicates that the CWE is a brief, reliable, and valid measure of critical warzone experiences among Iraq/Afghanistan war veterans. PMID:25238984

  6. Large-Scale Mass Spectrometry Imaging Investigation of Consequences of Cortical Spreading Depression in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Migraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carreira, Ricardo J.; Shyti, Reinald; Balluff, Benjamin; Abdelmoula, Walid M.; van Heiningen, Sandra H.; van Zeijl, Rene J.; Dijkstra, Jouke; Ferrari, Michel D.; Tolner, Else A.; McDonnell, Liam A.; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M. J. M.

    2015-06-01

    Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is the electrophysiological correlate of migraine aura. Transgenic mice carrying the R192Q missense mutation in the Cacna1a gene, which in patients causes familial hemiplegic migraine type 1 (FHM1), exhibit increased propensity to CSD. Herein, mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) was applied for the first time to an animal cohort of transgenic and wild type mice to study the biomolecular changes following CSD in the brain. Ninety-six coronal brain sections from 32 mice were analyzed by MALDI-MSI. All MSI datasets were registered to the Allen Brain Atlas reference atlas of the mouse brain so that the molecular signatures of distinct brain regions could be compared. A number of metabolites and peptides showed substantial changes in the brain associated with CSD. Among those, different mass spectral features showed significant ( t-test, P < 0.05) changes in the cortex, 146 and 377 Da, and in the thalamus, 1820 and 1834 Da, of the CSD-affected hemisphere of FHM1 R192Q mice. Our findings reveal CSD- and genotype-specific molecular changes in the brain of FHM1 transgenic mice that may further our understanding about the role of CSD in migraine pathophysiology. The results also demonstrate the utility of aligning MSI datasets to a common reference atlas for large-scale MSI investigations.

  7. Large-scale mass spectrometry imaging investigation of consequences of cortical spreading depression in a transgenic mouse model of migraine.

    PubMed

    Carreira, Ricardo J; Shyti, Reinald; Balluff, Benjamin; Abdelmoula, Walid M; van Heiningen, Sandra H; van Zeijl, Rene J; Dijkstra, Jouke; Ferrari, Michel D; Tolner, Else A; McDonnell, Liam A; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M J M

    2015-06-01

    Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is the electrophysiological correlate of migraine aura. Transgenic mice carrying the R192Q missense mutation in the Cacna1a gene, which in patients causes familial hemiplegic migraine type 1 (FHM1), exhibit increased propensity to CSD. Herein, mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) was applied for the first time to an animal cohort of transgenic and wild type mice to study the biomolecular changes following CSD in the brain. Ninety-six coronal brain sections from 32 mice were analyzed by MALDI-MSI. All MSI datasets were registered to the Allen Brain Atlas reference atlas of the mouse brain so that the molecular signatures of distinct brain regions could be compared. A number of metabolites and peptides showed substantial changes in the brain associated with CSD. Among those, different mass spectral features showed significant (t-test, P < 0.05) changes in the cortex, 146 and 377 Da, and in the thalamus, 1820 and 1834 Da, of the CSD-affected hemisphere of FHM1 R192Q mice. Our findings reveal CSD- and genotype-specific molecular changes in the brain of FHM1 transgenic mice that may further our understanding about the role of CSD in migraine pathophysiology. The results also demonstrate the utility of aligning MSI datasets to a common reference atlas for large-scale MSI investigations. PMID:25877011

  8. Does the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) measure anxiety symptoms consistently across adolescence? The TRAILS study

    PubMed Central

    Mathyssek, Christina M.; Olino, Thomas M.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Van Oort, Floor V.A.

    2013-01-01

    We assessed if the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) measures anxiety symptoms similarly across age groups within adolescence. This is crucial for valid comparison of anxiety levels between different age groups. Anxiety symptoms were assessed biennially in a representative population sample (n = 2226) at three time points (age range 10–17 years) using the RCADS anxiety subscales (generalized anxiety disorder [GAD], obsessive-compulsive disorder [OCD], panic disorder [PD], separation anxiety [SA], social phobia [SP]). We examined longitudinal measurement invariance of the RCADS, using longitudinal confirmatory factor analysis, by examining the factor structure (configural invariance), factor loadings (metric invariance) and thresholds (strong invariance). We found that all anxiety subtypes were configural invariant. Metric invariance held for items on the GAD, OCD, PD and SA subscales; yet, for the SP subscale three items showed modest longitudinal variation at age 10–12. Model fit decreased modestly when enforcing additional constraints across time; however, model fit for these models was still adequate to excellent. We conclude that the RCADS measures anxiety symptoms similarly across time in a general population sample of adolescents; hence, measured changes in anxiety symptoms very likely reflect true changes in anxiety levels. We consider the instrument suitable to assess anxiety levels across adolescence. PMID:23483654

  9. Depression - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - depression ... Depression is a medical condition. If you think you may be depressed, see a health care provider. ... following organizations are good sources of information on depression : American Psychological Association -- www.apa.org/topics/depress/ ...

  10. Disorganized cortical thickness covariance network in major depressive disorder implicated by aberrant hubs in large-scale networks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Wang, Kangcheng; Qu, Hang; Zhou, Jingjing; Li, Qi; Deng, Zhou; Du, Xue; Lv, Fajin; Ren, Gaoping; Guo, Jing; Qiu, Jiang; Xie, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Major depressive disorder is associated with abnormal anatomical and functional connectivity, yet alterations in whole cortical thickness topology remain unknown. Here, we examined cortical thickness in medication-free adult depression patients (n = 76) and matched healthy controls (n = 116). Inter-regional correlation was performed to construct brain networks. By applying graph theory analysis, global (i.e., small-worldness) and regional (centrality) topology was compared between major depressive disorder patients and healthy controls. We found that in depression patients, topological organization of the cortical thickness network shifted towards randomness, and lower small-worldness was driven by a decreased clustering coefficient. Consistently, altered nodal centrality was identified in the isthmus of the cingulate cortex, insula, supra-marginal gyrus, middle temporal gyrus and inferior parietal gyrus, all of which are components within the default mode, salience and central executive networks. Disrupted nodes anchored in the default mode and executive networks were associated with depression severity. The brain systems involved sustain core symptoms in depression and implicate a structural basis for depression. Our results highlight the possibility that developmental and genetic factors are crucial to understand the neuropathology of depression. PMID:27302485

  11. Disorganized cortical thickness covariance network in major depressive disorder implicated by aberrant hubs in large-scale networks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Wang, Kangcheng; Qu, Hang; Zhou, Jingjing; Li, Qi; Deng, Zhou; Du, Xue; Lv, Fajin; Ren, Gaoping; Guo, Jing; Qiu, Jiang; Xie, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Major depressive disorder is associated with abnormal anatomical and functional connectivity, yet alterations in whole cortical thickness topology remain unknown. Here, we examined cortical thickness in medication-free adult depression patients (n = 76) and matched healthy controls (n = 116). Inter-regional correlation was performed to construct brain networks. By applying graph theory analysis, global (i.e., small-worldness) and regional (centrality) topology was compared between major depressive disorder patients and healthy controls. We found that in depression patients, topological organization of the cortical thickness network shifted towards randomness, and lower small-worldness was driven by a decreased clustering coefficient. Consistently, altered nodal centrality was identified in the isthmus of the cingulate cortex, insula, supra-marginal gyrus, middle temporal gyrus and inferior parietal gyrus, all of which are components within the default mode, salience and central executive networks. Disrupted nodes anchored in the default mode and executive networks were associated with depression severity. The brain systems involved sustain core symptoms in depression and implicate a structural basis for depression. Our results highlight the possibility that developmental and genetic factors are crucial to understand the neuropathology of depression. PMID:27302485

  12. Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale Perfectionism: A Predictor and Partial Mediator of Acute Treatment Outcome among Clinically Depressed Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Rachel H.; Silva, Susan G.; Reinecke, Mark A.; Curry, John F.; Ginsburg, Golda S.; Kratochvil, Christopher J.; March, John S.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of perfectionism on acute treatment outcomes was explored in a randomized controlled trial of 439 clinically depressed adolescents (12-17 years of age) enrolled in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS) who received cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), fluoxetine, a combination of CBT and FLX, or pill placebo. Measures…

  13. [Attempted suicide and depression].

    PubMed

    Stenager, E N; Christensen, L L; Jepsen, I M; Krarup, G; Petersen, P; Rasmussen, G T; Benjaminsen, S

    1991-03-18

    The frequency of depressive illness was investigated in 195 patients who had been referred consecutively after attempted suicide during the period 15. February 1989-15, October 1989. A total of 130 of these patients were admitted to hospital while the remainder were treated in the psychiatric emergency room or admission department. Registration of depressive symptoms on admission revealed that 85% had depressed mood and other depressive symptoms. According to the criteria established by Feighner et al. 51% suffered from definite depressive disease on admission. According to Zung's Depression Scale, 60% were depressed. On the basis of observations during hospitalization, 25% suffered from depressive disease according to the criteria established by Feighner et al. 19% of these patients suffered from endogenic depression according to the Newcastle I scale which corresponds to 5% of all the hospitalized patients with attempted suicide. Approximately 10% were treated with antidepressives. Only 8% were discharged with the diagnoses of endogenic or reactive psychoses (ICD-8). It is concluded that depressive symptoms occur in the majority of patients with attempted suicide but that slight non-endogenic depressive states are most commonly concerned and that many of these improve rapidly during hospitalization without medicinal treatment. Restraint should be observed in prescription of antidepressive medicine to patients with attempted suicide until the diagnosis of depressive disease is verified. PMID:2014567

  14. Depressive symptoms, antidepressant use, and brain volumes on MRI in a population-based cohort of old persons without dementia.

    PubMed

    Geerlings, Mirjam I; Brickman, Adam M; Schupf, Nicole; Devanand, Davangere P; Luchsinger, José A; Mayeux, Richard; Small, Scott A

    2012-01-01

    We examined whether late-life depression, including depressive symptoms and antidepressant use, was associated with smaller total brain volume, smaller hippocampal volume, and larger white matter hyperintensity (WMH) volume in a large community-based cohort of old persons without dementia. Within the Washington/Hamilton Height-Inwood Columbia Aging Project (WHICAP), a community-based cohort study in northern Manhattan, 630 persons without dementia (mean age 80 years, SD = 5) had volumetric measures of the total brain, hippocampus, and WMH at 1.5 Tesla MRI and data on current depression, defined as a score of 4 or higher on the 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale, or use of antidepressants. Multiple linear regression analyses adjusted for age, gender, ethnicity, education, cardiovascular disease history, and MRI parameters showed that subjects with current depression had smaller relative total brain volume (B = -0.86%; 95% CI -1.68 to -0.05%; p < 0.05), smaller relative hippocampal volume (B = -0.07 ml; 95% CI -0.14 to 0.00 ml; p = 0.05), and larger relative WMH volume (natural logtransformed B = 0.19 ml; 95% CI 0.02 to 0.35 ml; p < 0.05). When examined separately, antidepressant use was significantly associated with smaller total brain, smaller hippocampal, and larger WMH volume, while high CES-D scores were not significantly associated with any of the brain measures, although the direction of association was similar as for antidepressant use. With the caveat that analyses were cross-sectional and we had no formal diagnosis of depression, our findings suggest that in this community-based sample of old persons without dementia, late-life depression is associated with more brain atrophy and more white matter lesions, which was mainly driven by antidepressant use. PMID:22377782

  15. Using electronic medical records to enable large-scale studies in psychiatry: treatment resistant depression as a model

    PubMed Central

    Perlis, R. H.; Iosifescu, D. V.; Castro, V. M.; Murphy, S. N.; Gainer, V. S.; Minnier, J.; Cai, T.; Goryachev, S.; Zeng, Q.; Gallagher, P. J.; Fava, M.; Weilburg, J. B.; Churchill, S. E.; Kohane, I. S.; Smoller, J. W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Electronic medical records (EMR) provide a unique opportunity for efficient, large-scale clinical investigation in psychiatry. However, such studies will require development of tools to define treatment outcome. Method Natural language processing (NLP) was applied to classify notes from 127 504 patients with a billing diagnosis of major depressive disorder, drawn from out-patient psychiatry practices affiliated with multiple, large New England hospitals. Classifications were compared with results using billing data (ICD-9 codes) alone and to a clinical gold standard based on chart review by a panel of senior clinicians. These cross-sectional classifications were then used to define longitudinal treatment outcomes, which were compared with a clinician-rated gold standard. Results Models incorporating NLP were superior to those relying on billing data alone for classifying current mood state (area under receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.85–0.88 v. 0.54–0.55). When these cross-sectional visits were integrated to define longitudinal outcomes and incorporate treatment data, 15% of the cohort remitted with a single antidepressant treatment, while 13% were identified as failing to remit despite at least two antidepressant trials. Non-remitting patients were more likely to be non-Caucasian (p<0.001). Conclusions The application of bioinformatics tools such as NLP should enable accurate and efficient determination of longitudinal outcomes, enabling existing EMR data to be applied to clinical research, including biomarker investigations. Continued development will be required to better address moderators of outcome such as adherence and co-morbidity. PMID:21682950

  16. Validation of cross-cultural child mental health and psychosocial research instruments: adapting the Depression Self-Rating Scale and Child PTSD Symptom Scale in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The lack of culturally adapted and validated instruments for child mental health and psychosocial support in low and middle-income countries is a barrier to assessing prevalence of mental health problems, evaluating interventions, and determining program cost-effectiveness. Alternative procedures are needed to validate instruments in these settings. Methods Six criteria are proposed to evaluate cross-cultural validity of child mental health instruments: (i) purpose of instrument, (ii) construct measured, (iii) contents of construct, (iv) local idioms employed, (v) structure of response sets, and (vi) comparison with other measurable phenomena. These criteria are applied to transcultural translation and alternative validation for the Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS) and Child PTSD Symptom Scale (CPSS) in Nepal, which recently suffered a decade of war including conscription of child soldiers and widespread displacement of youth. Transcultural translation was conducted with Nepali mental health professionals and six focus groups with children (n = 64) aged 11-15 years old. Because of the lack of child mental health professionals in Nepal, a psychosocial counselor performed an alternative validation procedure using psychosocial functioning as a criterion for intervention. The validation sample was 162 children (11-14 years old). The Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (K-SADS) and Global Assessment of Psychosocial Disability (GAPD) were used to derive indication for treatment as the external criterion. Results The instruments displayed moderate to good psychometric properties: DSRS (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.82, sensitivity = 0.71, specificity = 0.81, cutoff score ≥ 14); CPSS (AUC = 0.77, sensitivity = 0.68, specificity = 0.73, cutoff score ≥ 20). The DSRS items with significant discriminant validity were "having energy to complete daily activities" (DSRS.7), "feeling that life is not worth living" (DSRS.10), and "feeling

  17. Embodied intervention reduce depression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Dong-Qing; Bi, Xin; Fu, Ying

    2011-10-01

    To investigate the difference of the selected-rate of undergraduates' depression with respect to time, gender and scales and the intervention effect of embodied exercise, 201 Undergraduates were measured with Self-Rating Depression Scale and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI).The result shows there are significant difference of the selected-rates of undergraduates' depression resulted from long-time interval rather than from short-time interval and gender. After the intervention, the selected-rates are decreased and no significant difference has been found between the embodied groups and the controlled group. Only the embodied groups maintain the better effects of the intervention in the tracking. Also the result shows that only the participants of embodied groups obtain more positive emotional experience. We conclude that there is significant difference of selected-rate of undergraduates' depression on scales, and the embodied exercise can effectively reduce undergraduate's depression.

  18. Self-Compassion Scale (SCS): Psychometric Properties of The French Translation and Its Relations with Psychological Well-Being, Affect and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Kotsou, Ilios; Leys, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few years, the topic of self-compassion has attracted increasing attention from both scientific and clinical fields. The Self-Compassion Scale (SCS) was created to specifically capture this way of being kind and understanding towards oneself in moments of turmoil. In this article, we present a French adaptation of the SCS. We first explore the psychometric properties of this adaptation and then investigate its relation to psychological well-being. As in the original version of the SCS, the French adaptation has a strong 6-factor structure but a weaker hierarchical second order structure. However the bi-factor model yields a good omega index suggesting the relevance of a single score accounting for self-compassion. Moreover, there was a relation between the SCS and classical outcomes such as a positive relation with psychological well-being and negative relation with depressive symptoms. We then hypothesized that self-compassion would have a moderating role on the relation between affect and depression. This hypothesis was confirmed: expressing negative affect is correlated with depressive symptoms; however, being kind with oneself lowers depressive symptoms even when expressing negative affect. In conclusion, this research presents a valid self-compassion measure for French-speaking researchers and clinicians and outlines the need for further research on the concept of self-compassion. PMID:27078886

  19. Using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) to assess suicidal ideation among pregnant women in Lima, Peru.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Qiu-Yue; Gelaye, Bizu; Rondon, Marta B; Sánchez, Sixto E; Simon, Gregory E; Henderson, David C; Barrios, Yasmin V; Sánchez, Pedro Mascaro; Williams, Michelle A

    2015-12-01

    We sought to examine the concordance of two suicidal ideation items from the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), to evaluate the prevalence of suicidal ideation among pregnant women, and to assess the co-occurrence of suicidal ideation with antepartum depressive symptoms. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1,517 pregnant women attending prenatal care clinics in Lima, Peru. Item 9 of the PHQ-9 assesses suicidal ideation over the last 14 days while item 10 of the EPDS assesses suicidal ideation in the past 7 days. The two suicidal ideation items have a high concordance rate (84.2 %) but a moderate agreement (the Cohen's kappa = 0.42). Based on the PHQ-9 and the EPDS, 15.8 and 8.8 % of participants screened positive for suicidal ideation, respectively. Assessed by the PHQ-9, 51 % of participants with suicidal ideation had probable depression. In prenatal care clinics, screening for suicidal ideation is needed for women with and without depressive symptoms. Future studies are needed to identify additional predictors of antepartum suicidality, determine the appropriate duration of reporting period for suicidal ideation screening, and assess the percentage of individuals with positive responses to the two suicidal ideation items at high risk of planning and attempting suicide. PMID:25369907

  20. Self-Compassion Scale (SCS): Psychometric Properties of The French Translation and Its Relations with Psychological Well-Being, Affect and Depression.

    PubMed

    Kotsou, Ilios; Leys, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few years, the topic of self-compassion has attracted increasing attention from both scientific and clinical fields. The Self-Compassion Scale (SCS) was created to specifically capture this way of being kind and understanding towards oneself in moments of turmoil. In this article, we present a French adaptation of the SCS. We first explore the psychometric properties of this adaptation and then investigate its relation to psychological well-being. As in the original version of the SCS, the French adaptation has a strong 6-factor structure but a weaker hierarchical second order structure. However the bi-factor model yields a good omega index suggesting the relevance of a single score accounting for self-compassion. Moreover, there was a relation between the SCS and classical outcomes such as a positive relation with psychological well-being and negative relation with depressive symptoms. We then hypothesized that self-compassion would have a moderating role on the relation between affect and depression. This hypothesis was confirmed: expressing negative affect is correlated with depressive symptoms; however, being kind with oneself lowers depressive symptoms even when expressing negative affect. In conclusion, this research presents a valid self-compassion measure for French-speaking researchers and clinicians and outlines the need for further research on the concept of self-compassion. PMID:27078886

  1. An Item Response Theory (IRT) Analysis of the Short Inventory of Problems-Alcohol and Drugs (SIP-AD) among non-treatment seeking Men-Who-Have-Sex-With-Men: Evidence for a shortened 10-item SIP-AD

    PubMed Central

    Hagman, Brett T.; Kuerbis, Alexis N.; Morgenstern, Jon; Bux, Donald A.; Parsons, Jeffrey T.; Heidinger, Bram E.

    2009-01-01

    The Short Inventory of Problems-Alcohol and Drugs (SIP-AD) is a 15-item measure that assesses concurrently negative consequences associated with alcohol and illicit drug use. Current psychometric evaluation has been limited to classical test theory (CTT) statistics, and it has not been validated among non-treatment seeking men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM). Methods from Item Response Theory (IRT) can improve upon CTT by providing an in-depth analysis of how each item performs across the underlying latent trait that it is purported to measure. The present study examined the psychometric properties of the SIP-AD using methods from both IRT and CTT among a non-treatment seeking MSM sample (N = 469). Participants were recruited from the New York City area and were asked to participate in a series of studies examining club drug use. Results indicated that five items on the SIP-AD demonstrated poor item misfit or significant differential item functioning (DIF) across race/ethnicity and HIV status. These five items were dropped and two-parameter IRT analyses were conducted on the remaining 10 items, which indicated a restricted range of item location parameters (−.15 to −.99) plotted at the lower end of the latent negative consequences severity continuum, and reasonably high discrimination parameters (1.30 to 2.22). Additional CTT statistics were compared between the original 15-item SIP-AD and the refined 10-item SIP-AD and suggest that the differences were negligible with the refined 10-item SIP-AD indicating a high degree of reliability and validity. Findings suggest the SIP-AD can be shortened to 10 items and appears to be a non-biased reliable and valid measure among non-treatment seeking MSM. PMID:19564078

  2. Factor Structure and Psychometric Properties of English and Spanish Versions of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale Among Hispanic Women in a Primary Care Setting

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, Chelsey M.; Barroso, Nicole; Rey, Yasmin; Pettit, Jeremy W.; Bagner, Daniel M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although a number of studies have examined the factor structure of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) in predominately White or African American samples, no published research has reported on the factor structure among Hispanic women who reside in the United States. Objective The current study examined the factor structure of the EPDS among Hispanic mothers in the United States. Method Among 220 Hispanic women, drawn from a pediatric primary care setting, with an infant aged 0 to 10 months, 6 structural models guided by the empirical literature were evaluated using confirmatory factor analysis. Results Results supported a 2-factor model of depression and anxiety as the best fitting model. Multigroup models supported the factorial invariance across women who completed the EDPS in English and Spanish. Conclusion These findings provide initial support for the 2-factor structure of the EPDS among Hispanic women in the United States. PMID:24807217

  3. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale: a pilot study to examine its latent structure and the link between psychological state and symptom severity in transient ischaemic attack patients.

    PubMed

    Spurgeon, Laura; James, Gill; Sackley, Cath

    2016-07-01

    Transient ischaemic attack (TIA) is often associated with anxiety and depression, which may precipitate secondary stroke and interfere with treatment. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) is widely used to assess these states and to inform the management of any associated psychological problems, but there is considerable debate about what it actually measures. The HADS scores from a range of different clinical groups have been reviewed in order to assess its psychometric properties, but so far, no research has examined either its latent structure when used with TIA patients, or the association between symptom severity and the test's validity. The aims of this study, therefore, were to investigate: (a) the underlying structure of the HADS when used with TIA patients; and (b) the impact of symptom severity on the validity of the HADS. The HADS and a functional capacity measure were administered by post to a sample of 542 confirmed TIA patients. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted on the HADS scores to establish its underlying structure for this clinical group, and then, sub-sample correlations were undertaken between the anxiety/depression scores for different levels of functional capacity. Two factors emerged, with 13 of the 14 HADS items loading significantly on both, suggesting there is a common affective state underlying the standard anxiety and depression scales. Further data-exploration indicated that convergence between these affective states increased as functional capacity deteriorated. The results suggest firstly that the HADS measures general subjective distress when used with TIA patients, and secondly that the higher reported symptom severity in this clinical group may be associated with reduced affective differentiation. As the ability to retain clear affective discrimination is associated with health and well-being, this could provide a focus for post-TIA rehabilitation. PMID:26291749

  4. Identification of depression in women during pregnancy and the early postnatal period using the Whooley questions and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale: protocol for the Born and Bred in Yorkshire: PeriNatal Depression Diagnostic Accuracy (BaBY PaNDA) study

    PubMed Central

    Littlewood, Elizabeth; Ali, Shehzad; Ansell, Pat; Dyson, Lisa; Gascoyne, Samantha; Hewitt, Catherine; Keding, Ada; Mann, Rachel; McMillan, Dean; Morgan, Deborah; Swan, Kelly; Waterhouse, Bev; Gilbody, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Perinatal depression is well recognised as a mental health condition but <50% of cases are identified by healthcare professionals in routine clinical practice. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) is often used to detect symptoms of postnatal depression in maternity and child services. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) recommends 2 ‘ultra-brief’ case-finding questions (the Whooley questions) to aid identification of depression during the perinatal period, but this recommendation was made in the absence of any validation studies in a perinatal population. Limited research exists on the acceptability of these depression case-finding instruments and the cost-effectiveness of routine screening for perinatal depression. Methods and analysis The diagnostic accuracy of the Whooley questions and the EPDS will be determined against a reference standard (the Client Interview Schedule—Revised) during pregnancy (around 20 weeks) and the early postnatal period (around 3–4 months post partum) in a sample of 379 women. Further outcome measures will assess a range of psychological comorbidities, health-related quality of life and resource utilisation. Women will be followed up 12 months postnatally. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of the Whooley questions and the EPDS will be calculated against the reference standard at 20 weeks pregnancy and 3–4 months post partum. Acceptability of the depression case-finding instruments to women and healthcare professionals will involve in-depth qualitative interviews. An existing decision analytic model will be adapted to determine the cost-effectiveness of routine screening for perinatal depression. Ethics and dissemination This study is considered low risk for participants. Robust protocols will deal with cases where risk of depression, self-harm or suicide is identified. The protocol received favourable ethical opinion from the North East

  5. Validity of the Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Scale for Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Lindsey; Renno, Patricia; Storch, Eric A.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Lewin, Adam B.; Arnold, Elysse; Lin, Enjey; Wood, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    High rates of anxiety and depression are reported among youth with autism spectrum disorders. These conditions are generally assessed using measures validated for typically developing youth. Few studies have investigated their validity for autism spectrum disorders, which is crucial for accurate assessment and the provision of proper treatment.…

  6. Longitudinal Invariance of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale among Girls and Boys in Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motl, Robert W.; Dishman, Rod K.; Birnbaum, Amanda S.; Lytle, Leslie A.

    2005-01-01

    This study tested the longitudinal factorial invariance of a theoretically consistent, higher-order model for Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) scores among adolescent girls and boys in middle school. Data were collected from 2,416 adolescents who completed a survey containing the CES-D in the fall of 1998, spring of 1999, and…

  7. [Postpartum depression].

    PubMed

    Guo, S F

    1993-09-01

    A retrospective study was carried out in Beijing, China, in 1992. Edinburgh postnatal depression scale was used to inquire the mothers at 6-12 month after delivery. A total of 550 women were investigated by mailing. 425 women replied. The positive rate of PPD in our study was 17.9%. Women who had had a history of mood disorder before pregnancy had a higher risk of PPD. Social and psychological factors such as lacking support from the women's relatives, the poor marital relationship and the bad living condition shown to be significantly associated with postnatal depression. PPD can seriously affected the physical and mental health and well-being of women, her child's early education causing delayed development and her family causing a great deal of suffering, personal distress and marital troubles even causing divorce and suicide. Thus it is important to identify the high risk women and give treatment as early as possible. PMID:8313745

  8. A longitudinal examination of the measurement properties and predictive utility of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale among North American Indigenous adolescents.

    PubMed

    Armenta, Brian E; Sittner Hartshorn, Kelley J; Whitbeck, Les B; Crawford, Devan M; Hoyt, Dan R

    2014-12-01

    We examined the longitudinal measurement properties and predictive utility of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) from early to late adolescence among a sample of North American Indigenous youths. Participants were 632 North American Indigenous adolescents (n = 632; 50.3% girls; M age at baseline = 11.11 years) participating in an 8-year, 8-wave longitudinal study. Via in-person interviews, participants completed the CES-D at Waves 1, 3, 5, and 7, and the major depressive disorder (MDD) module of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children at Waves 1, 4, 6, and 8. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that responses to the CES-D were similarly explained by 2-, 3-, and 4-factor models, as well as a 1-factor model with correlations between the error variances for the positively worded items. Longitudinal measurement equivalence analyses indicated full structural (i.e., factor structure), metric (i.e., factor loadings), and scalar (i.e., observed item intercepts) equivalence for each factor structure. Substantive analyses showed that the CES-D was significantly associated with MDD both concurrently and prospectively, although these effects were smaller than might be expected. Finally, the CES-D negative affect and somatic complaints subscales were the strongest and most consistent predictors of MDD. Among our sample of North American Indigenous youths, the measurement properties of the CES-D were stable from early to late adolescence. Moreover, somatic difficulties and depressed affect were the strongest predictors of MDD. PMID:25181394

  9. A Longitudinal Examination of the Measurement Properties and Predictive Utility of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale Among North American Indigenous Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Armenta, Brian E.; Sittner Hartshorn, Kelley J.; Whitbeck, Les B.; Crawford, Devan M.; Hoyt, Dan R.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the longitudinal measurement properties and predictive utility of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) from early to late adolescence among a sample of North American Indigenous youths. Participants were 632 North American Indigenous adolescents (n = 632; 50.3% girls; M age at baseline = 11.11 years) participating in an 8-year, 8-wave longitudinal study. Via in-person interviews, participants completed the CES-D at Waves 1, 3, 5, and 7, and the major depressive disorder (MDD) module of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children at Waves 1, 4, 6, and 8. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that responses to the CES-D were similarly explained by 2-, 3-, and 4-factor models, as well as a 1-factor model with correlations between the error variances for the positively worded items. Longitudinal measurement equivalence analyses indicated full structural (i.e., factor structure), metric (i.e., factor loadings), and scalar (i.e., observed item intercepts) equivalence for each factor structure. Substantive analyses showed that the CES-D was significantly associated with MDD both concurrently and prospectively, although these effects were smaller than might be expected. Finally, the CES-D negative affect and somatic complaints subscales were the strongest and most consistent predictors of MDD. Among our sample of North American Indigenous youths, the measurement properties of the CES-D were stable from early to late adolescence. Moreover, somatic difficulties and depressed affect were the strongest predictors of MDD. PMID:25181394

  10. The brief scale for anxiety: a subdivision of the comprehensive psychopathological rating scale.

    PubMed Central

    Tyrer, P; Owen, R T; Cicchetti, D V

    1984-01-01

    A rating scale suitable for recording anxious symptoms is described. It is a subdivision of the Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale and comprises 10 items, all of which are rated on a 7 point scale. It is suitable for the rating of pathological anxiety alone or for anxiety occurring in the setting of other psychological or medical disorder. PMID:6481391

  11. Factors of Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (17 items) at 2 weeks correlated with poor outcome at 1 year in patients with ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Huaiwu; Zhang, Ning; Wang, Chunxue; Luo, Ben Yan; Shi, Yuzhi; Li, Jingjing; Zhou, Yong; Wang, Yilong; Zhang, Tong; Zhou, Juan; Zhao, Xingquan; Wang, Yongjun

    2014-02-01

    There was fewer paper about the relation between the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (17 Items, HDRS-17) factors and stroke outcomes. Our aim was to investigate the influence of total score and factors of HDRS-17 on outcome of ischemic stroke at 1 year. A total of 1,953 patients with acute ischemic stroke were enrolled into a multicentered and prospective cohort study. The HDRS-17 was used to assess symptoms at 2 weeks after ischemic stroke. The Modified Ranking Scale (mRS) scores of 3-6 points and 0-2 points were regarded as poor outcome and benign outcome, respectively. At 1 year, 1,753 (89.8 %) patients had mRS score data. After adjusting for the confounders, patients with a total HDRS-17 score of ≥ 8 had a worse outcome at 1 year (OR = 1.62, 95 % CI 1.18-2.23). Symptoms of suicide (OR = 1.89, 95 % CI 1.27-2.83), decreased or loss of interest of work (OR = 1.89, 95 % CI 1.38-2.58), retardation (OR = 1.74, 95 % CI 1.27-2.38), psychic anxiety (OR = 1.72, 95 % CI 1.26-2.34), and agitation (OR = 1.61, 95 % CI 1.08-2.40) increased the risks for poor outcome by >60 %, respectively. Depressed mood, somatic anxiety, somatic symptoms-gastrointestinal, and early insomnia also increased the risk for poor outcome by nearly 50 %, respectively. A total HDRS-17 score of ≥ 8, and suicide, decreased or loss of interest of work, anxiety, agitation, retardation, depressed mood, somatic anxiety, somatic symptoms-gastrointestinal, and early insomnia of the HDRS-17 factors at 2 weeks after ischemic stroke increase the risk for poor outcome at 1 year. PMID:23715751

  12. Empirical Evidence for Childhood Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lachar, David

    Although several theoretical positions deal with the concept of childhood depression, accurate measurement of depression can only occur if valid and reliable measures are available. Current efforts emphasize direct questioning of the child and quantification of parents' observations. One scale used to study childhood depression, the Personality…

  13. The Perception of False Self Scale for Adolescents: Reliability, Validity, and Longitudinal Relationships with Depressive and Anxious Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weir, Kirsty F.; Jose, Paul E.

    2010-01-01

    A scale assessing generalized false self-perceptions (Perceptions of False Self, POFS) was developed and tested across three studies involving a total of 331 adolescents (11-16 years). In Study 1, interviews were conducted to develop items for the scale. In Study 2, psychometric techniques were used to derive a scale composed of 16 items. Study 2…

  14. Depression - elderly

    MedlinePlus

    ... highest risk. Families should pay close attention to elderly relatives who are depressed and who live alone. ... health care provider. Alternative Names Depression in the elderly Images Depression among the elderly References Abbasi O, ...

  15. Postpartum depression

    MedlinePlus

    Depression - postpartum; Postnatal depression; Postpartum psychological reactions ... The exact causes of postpartum depression are unknown. Changes in hormone levels during and after pregnancy may affect a woman’s mood. Many non-hormonal factors may also ...

  16. Caregiver Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... will not sell or share your name. Caregiver Depression Tweet Bookmark this page | Email | Print Many caregivers ... depression See your doctor Treatment Coping Symptoms of depression Caregiving is hard — and can lead to feelings ...

  17. Lao Depression Inventory.

    PubMed

    Davidson-Muskin, M B; Golden, C

    1989-01-01

    There are no measurement tools that accurately measure depression among Lao refugees. The overall purpose of this research was to complete the development and validation procedures for the Lao Depression Inventory (LDI). The study consisted of 216 Ethnic Lao refugees. A clinical interview and 164 true/false questions were administered to identify specific items which could identify depression among the Ethnic Lao people. All items were administered in both English and Lao. Overall, 78 of the 164 items differentiated groups of depressed and nondepressed Lao at the .01 level. Results of validation procedures showed that a 30-item scale had an accuracy rate of 89% in identifying the presence of depression in the validation group; the hit-rate for the same items and cutoff was 92% in the cross-validation group. Potential uses of the scale are discussed. PMID:2918451

  18. Large-scale depressions on the 660 seismic discontinuity beneath Europe: signature of the role of akimotoite in subducting slabs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottaar, S.; Deuss, A. F.

    2015-12-01

    The upper and lower mantle are delineated by a seismic discontinuity around 660 km depth. This discontinuity is regularly associated with the dissociation of ringwoodite to bridgmanite and periclase, which has a negative Clapeyron slope, and appears to play a role in global mantle dynamics. Here we study the topography of this discontinuity and the one around 410 km, using receiver functions and investigate the effect of subducting and ponding slabs beneath Europe. We collected ~150,000 receiver functions across Europe over a time period from 2000 to 2014. After quality control, we use ~28,000 in a common conversion point stack. Corrections for lateral velocity variations are applied using the P- and S-velocity models in EU60 from Zhu et al. (2015). While northern Europe shows an average mantle transition zone, strong anomalous depressions of 30 km are seen in the topography of the 660 beneath central Europe and around the Mediterranean. There is no (anti-)correlated topographic anomaly on the 410 in these regions. The observed depressions beneath central Europe correlate with elevated seismic velocities above 660 km, and are therefore probably caused by cold subducted slab material. Temperature effects on the ringwoodite-bridgmanite transition alone cannot explain such a depression. Several wt% water deepens the 660 and increases the Clapeyron slope, but other geophysical observations, e.g. elevated Vp/Vs ratio, attenuation and electric conductivity, are not seen in these regions in various studies. Our preferred alternative hypothesis is the suggestion of Yu et al. (2011) that ringwoodite dissociates into akimotoite and periclase at temperatures beneath ~1400 K within the slab The subsequent transition of akimotoite to bridgmanite has a strong negative Clapeyron slope, which explains the deep discontinuity seen here in combination with cold temperatures, as well as providing a mechanism for slabs to pond in the mantle transition zone.

  19. Depression and bulimia: the link between depression and bulimic cognitions.

    PubMed

    Schlesier-Carter, B; Hamilton, S A; O'Neil, P M; Lydiard, R B; Malcolm, R

    1989-08-01

    This study assessed the link between bulimic and depressive cognitions. Twenty-nine bulimics and 16 controls from the general population were first assessed on levels of depression using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Change Version and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Bulimics were significantly more depressed than controls. Bulimics differed significantly from controls on all cognitive measures associated with depression (Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire, Dysfunctional Attitude Scale, and Attributional Style Questionnaire), but differences on these measures were nonsignificant when depression, as measured by the BDI, was controlled. Bulimics differed from controls regardless of level of depression on the three scales of the Restraint Inventory, the Rationalization and All-or-None scales of the Thoughts About Eating Inventory, and most of the eight scales of the Eating Disorders Inventory. Bulimics showed more maladaptive thinking associated with depression, but these differences likely reflect the levels of depression for each group. The differences on the measures of cognitive and behavioral symptoms of bulimia remained when the level of depression was controlled statistically. This suggests that although depression can be frequently diagnosed in a bulimic sample, specific maladaptive cognitions and behaviors reflect a distinct disorder (bulimia) and are not simply the expression of an affective disorder. PMID:2768669

  20. Factor structures of a Japanese version of the Geriatric Depression Scale and its correlation with the quality of life and functional ability.

    PubMed

    Imai, Hissei; Yamanaka, Gaku; Ishimoto, Yasuko; Kimura, Yumi; Fukutomi, Eriko; Chen, Wen-ling; Matsuoka, Sachi; Tanaka, Mire; Sakamoto, Ryota; Wada, Taizo; Okumiya, Kiyohito; Otsuka, Kuniaki; Matsubayashi, Kozo

    2014-02-28

    We investigated the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) with regard to its factors and, reproducibility, as well as its relationship to activities of daily living, social factors, medical conditions, and quality of life for community-dwelling elderly people in Japan. The study population consisted of 736 community-dwelling elderly participants aged 65 or older. Exploratory factor analysis of the data and correlation coefficients between factors and activities of daily living, quality of life, social factors, and medical conditions were calculated for two consecutive years. The reproducibility of the results was also evaluated. As the result, GDS-15 had three reproducible factors specified as follows: factor I, "energy loss and pessimistic outlook"; factor II, "positive mental status (reversed)"; and factor III, "empty feeling." Comparing our findings with a review of research in this area, positive items (excluding "feel full of energy") seem to compose an universal factor. Factor I correlated best with quality of life, factor II with activities of daily living, and factor III with subjective cognitive function. These results suggest the GDS-15 can be used to assess the functional ability and quality of life, as well as depressive mood in older adults. PMID:24388098

  1. Breastfeeding in Depressed Mother-Infant Dyads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Feijo, Larissa

    2002-01-01

    Interviewed depressed and non-depressed mothers on their breastfeeding practices and perceptions of their infants' feeding behavior. Found that, compared to non-depressed mothers, depressed mothers breast fed less often, stopped breastfeeding earlier, and scored lower on a breastfeeding confidence scale. Mothers who breastfed rather than bottle…

  2. Evaluations of treatment efficacy of depression from perspective of both patients' symptoms and general sense of mental health and wellbeing: A large scale, multi-centered, longitudinal study in China.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qingzhi; Wang, Wei Chun; Fang, Yiru; Mellor, David; Mccabe, Marita; Byrne, Linda; Zuo, Sai; Xu, Yifeng

    2016-07-30

    Relying on the absence, presence of level of symptomatology may not provide an adequate indication of the effects of treatment for depression, nor sufficient information for the development of treatment plans that meet patients' needs. Using a prospective, multi-centered, and observational design, the present study surveyed a large sample of outpatients with depression in China (n=9855). The 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD-17) and the Remission Evaluation and Mood Inventory Tool (REMIT) were administered at baseline, two weeks later and 4 weeks, to assess patients' self-reported symptoms and general sense of mental health and wellbeing. Of 9855 outpatients, 91.3% were diagnosed as experiencing moderate to severe depression. The patients reported significant improvement over time on both depressive symptoms and general sense after 4-week treatment. The effect sizes of change in general sense were lower than those in symptoms at both two week and four week follow-up. Treatment effects on both general sense and depressive symptomatology were associated with demographic and clinical factors. The findings indicate that a focus on both general sense of mental health and wellbeing in addition to depressive symptomatology will provide clinicians, researchers and patients themselves with a broader perspective of the status of patients. PMID:27156024

  3. Bullying in adolescence: psychiatric problems in victims and bullies as measured by the Youth Self Report (YSR) and the Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS).

    PubMed

    Ivarsson, Tord; Broberg, Anders G; Arvidsson, Tomas; Gillberg, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    Adolescents in junior high school (n = 237), completed a questionnaire on bullying as it relates to victim and to perpetrator status, suicidality and biographical data. Psychological symptoms were assessed by the Youth Self Report (YSR) and the Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS) supplemented by school health officers blind assessments. Bullying was common: bully only (18%), victim only (10%) and victim and bully (9%). Bullies had mainly externalizing symptoms (delinquency and aggression) and those of the victim and bully group both externalizing and internalizing symptoms as well as high levels of suicidality. Adolescents in the bully only group were more likely to be boys and to have attention problems. Moreover, a substantial proportion of the adolescents in the victim only group were judged by school health officer to have psychiatric symptoms and to function socially less well. PMID:16757465

  4. Depression in dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    King-Wing Ma, Terry; Kam-Tao Li, Philip

    2016-08-01

    Depression is the most common psychiatric illness in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The reported prevalence of depression in dialysis population varied from 22.8% (interview-based diagnosis) to 39.3% (self- or clinician-administered rating scales). Such differences were attributed to the overlapping symptoms of uraemia and depression. Systemic review and meta-analysis of observational studies showed that depression was a significant predictor of mortality in dialysis population. The optimal screening tool for depression in dialysis patients remains uncertain. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD) have been validated for screening purposes. Patients who scored ≥14 using BDI should be referred to a psychiatrist for early evaluation. Structured Clinical Interview for DSM disorders (SCID) remains the gold standard for diagnosis. Non-pharmacological treatment options include cognitive behavioural therapy and exercise training programs. Although frequent haemodialysis may have beneficial effects on patients' physical and mental well-being, it cannot and should not be viewed as a treatment of depression. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are generally effective and safe in ESRD patients, but most studies were small, non-randomized and uncontrolled. The European Renal Best Practice (ERBP) guideline suggests a trial of SSRI for 8 to 12 weeks in dialysis patients who have moderate-major depression. The treatment effect should be re-evaluated after 12 weeks to avoid prolonging ineffective medication. This review will discuss the current understanding in the diagnosis and management of depression in dialysis patients. PMID:26860073

  5. Depression in hypertensive subjects.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, V; Parikh, G J; Srinivasan, V

    1983-10-01

    168 patients attending hypertension clinic were randomly selected for the study. They were thoroughly investigated using E.C.G., X-ray chest, Urine analysis, Blood sugar, Blood urea, Serum cholesterol, Serum K, Serum Na, Scrum creatinine and Uric acid level. Detailed psychiatric case history and mental examination was carried out. Beck Rating Scale was used to measure the depression. 25% of hypertensive subjects exhibited depressive features and their mean score in Beck Rating scale is 21.76. The mean score of non-depressives is 4.46. All patients were receiving methyl dopa.25 mg. twice or thrice daily with thiazide diuretic. No significant difference in the incidence of depression with the duration of medication was observed.The hypertension was classified into mild, moderate and severe depending on the diastolic pressure. Depression was more frequent in severe hypertensives but not to the statistically significant level.Further hypertensives were classified into:1. Hypertension without organ involvement2. Hypertension with LVH only3. Hypertension with additional organ involvement4. Malignant hypertensionDepression was significantly more frequent in hypertensives with complications and also hypertensives in whom the B.P. remained uncontrolled. As all the patients were on the same drug, the drug effect is common to all; hence, the higher incidence of depression in hypertensives with complications is due to the limitation and distress caused by the illness. PMID:21847301

  6. The Measurement of Self-Rated Depression: A Multidimensional Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolon, Kevin; Barling, Julian

    1980-01-01

    Investigates the capacity of the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale for providing specific multidimensional descriptors of depressive behavior. Ideational, physiological and behavioral depression factors were evident in data from 96 normal, white university student volunteers. (Author/RH)

  7. Multi-scale research on the hydrology processes and soil loss on the karst peak-cluster depression in southwest of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, T.

    2012-04-01

    Land degradation, karst rocky desertification and other environmental problems caused by soil erosion, have became more serious in karst region southwest of China, which threaten the local people's life and social and economic development. However, due to the karst area has a unique geological conditions and fragile ecological environment background, soil erosion and hydrological cycle is different from other non-karst area, which also has a special environmental effects. In this study, we chose a limestone peak cluster depression catchment which belongs to one of the major karst landform type in southwest of China, carried out surface runoff and soil loss study at multi scales including slope-scale, gully or velley scale and catchment scale. Analysis the effects of different land use, vegetation cover and rainfall regimes on surface runoff and soil loss processes and mechanism at karst limestone area. Surface runoff and soil loss on the karst hill slopes were very small compared to the non-karst areas, most rainfall water was infiltrated into underground through limestone fissures and fractures, while little was in the form of surface runoff. The highest annual surface runoff coefficients at limestone slopes were less than 5%, and annual soil loss was less than 70 Mg km-2. However, runoff coefficients in karst gullies or velley were quite high, which account for more than 30% of annual precipitation. Springs were the most important source of surface runoff in gullies and valley that account more than 90%. Using this type of gullies or velley water resource effectively and properly, on the one hand could reduce the flood threat and soil loss in karst dry valley, on the other hand, it could provide an efficient way to resolve water shortage and resist drought in karst mountain regions.

  8. Postpartum Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... do not need treatment. The symptoms of postpartum depression last longer and are more severe. You may ... treatment right away, often in the hospital. Postpartum depression can begin anytime within the first year after ...

  9. Teen Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... shown that certain types of talk therapy or psychotherapy can help teens deal with depression. These include ... behaviors, and feelings related to depression, and interpersonal psychotherapy, which focuses on working on relationships. Read more ...

  10. Postpartum depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... therapy if you have postpartum depression. Having good social support from family, friends, and coworkers may help reduce ... Having good social support from family, friends, and coworkers may ... seriousness of postpartum depression, but may not prevent it. ...

  11. Postpartum Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... and do not need treatment. The symptoms of postpartum depression last longer and are more severe. You may ... get treatment right away, often in the hospital. Postpartum depression can begin anytime within the first year after ...

  12. Depression - overview

    MedlinePlus

    Depression may be described as feeling sad, blue, unhappy, miserable, or down in the dumps. Most of ... one time or another for short periods. Clinical depression is a mood disorder in which feelings of ...

  13. Adolescent Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Dina M.

    Affective disorder is characterized by maladaptive changes in mood, attitudes, energy level, and physical status. These changes constitute the basic dimensions of depression. Depression results from a combination of genetic and experiential factors. There are sex differences and age differences with regard to depression, and there is a high…

  14. Perinatal depression

    PubMed Central

    Alhusen, Jeanne L.; Alvarez, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Perinatal depression is a common condition with significant adverse maternal, fetal, neonatal, and early childhood outcomes. The perinatal period is an opportune time to screen, diagnose, and treat depression. Improved recognition of perinatal depression, particularly among low-income women, can lead to improved perinatal health outcomes. PMID:26934457

  15. Scales

    MedlinePlus

    Scales are a visible peeling or flaking of outer skin layers. These layers are called the stratum ... Scales may be caused by dry skin, certain inflammatory skin conditions, or infections. Eczema , ringworm , and psoriasis ...

  16. Improvements in Depression and Changes in Fatigue: Results from the SLAM DUNC Depression Treatment Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bengtson, Angela M.; Gaynes, Bradley N.; McGuinness, Teena; Quinlivan, Evelyn B.; Ogle, Michelle; Heine, Amy; Thielman, Nathan M.; Pence, Brian W.

    2016-01-01

    Fatigue and depression are common co-morbid conditions among people with HIV infection. We analyzed a population of HIV-infected adults with depression, who were enrolled in a depression treatment trial, to examine the extent to which improvements in depression over time were associated with improvements in HIV-related fatigue. Data for this analysis come from a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of improved depression treatment on antiretroviral adherence. Fatigue was measured using the HIV-Related Fatigue Scale, and depressive symptoms were measured with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Participants (n = 234) were on average nearly 44 years of age and predominantly male, black or African American, and unemployed. Individuals who experienced stronger depression response (i.e., greater improvement in depression score) had larger decreases in fatigue. However, even among those who demonstrated a full depression response, nearly three-quarters continued to have either moderate or severe fatigue at 6 and 12 months. PMID:26525221

  17. Medial Prefrontal and Anterior Insular Connectivity in Early Schizophrenia and Major Depressive Disorder: A Resting Functional MRI Evaluation of Large-Scale Brain Network Models.

    PubMed

    Penner, Jacob; Ford, Kristen A; Taylor, Reggie; Schaefer, Betsy; Théberge, Jean; Neufeld, Richard W J; Osuch, Elizabeth A; Menon, Ravi S; Rajakumar, Nagalingam; Allman, John M; Williamson, Peter C

    2016-01-01

    Anomalies in the medial prefrontal cortex, anterior insulae, and large-scale brain networks associated with them have been proposed to underlie the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and major depressive disorder (MDD). In this study, we examined the connectivity of the medial prefrontal cortices and anterior insulae in 24 healthy controls, 24 patients with schizophrenia, and 24 patients with MDD early in illness with seed-based resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging analysis using Statistical Probability Mapping. As hypothesized, reduced connectivity was found between the medial prefrontal cortex and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and other nodes associated with directed effort in patients with schizophrenia compared to controls while patients with MDD had reduced connectivity between the medial prefrontal cortex and ventral prefrontal emotional encoding regions compared to controls. Reduced connectivity was found between the anterior insulae and the medial prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia compared to controls, but contrary to some models emotion processing regions failed to demonstrate increased connectivity with the medial prefrontal cortex in MDD compared to controls. Although, not statistically significant after correction for multiple comparisons, patients with schizophrenia tended to demonstrate decreased connectivity between basal ganglia-thalamocortical regions and the medial prefrontal cortex compared to patients with MDD, which might be expected as these regions effect action. Results were interpreted to support anomalies in nodes associated with directed effort in schizophrenia and nodes associated with emotional encoding network in MDD compared to healthy controls. PMID:27064387

  18. Medial Prefrontal and Anterior Insular Connectivity in Early Schizophrenia and Major Depressive Disorder: A Resting Functional MRI Evaluation of Large-Scale Brain Network Models

    PubMed Central

    Penner, Jacob; Ford, Kristen A.; Taylor, Reggie; Schaefer, Betsy; Théberge, Jean; Neufeld, Richard W. J.; Osuch, Elizabeth A.; Menon, Ravi S.; Rajakumar, Nagalingam; Allman, John M.; Williamson, Peter C.

    2016-01-01

    Anomalies in the medial prefrontal cortex, anterior insulae, and large-scale brain networks associated with them have been proposed to underlie the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and major depressive disorder (MDD). In this study, we examined the connectivity of the medial prefrontal cortices and anterior insulae in 24 healthy controls, 24 patients with schizophrenia, and 24 patients with MDD early in illness with seed-based resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging analysis using Statistical Probability Mapping. As hypothesized, reduced connectivity was found between the medial prefrontal cortex and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and other nodes associated with directed effort in patients with schizophrenia compared to controls while patients with MDD had reduced connectivity between the medial prefrontal cortex and ventral prefrontal emotional encoding regions compared to controls. Reduced connectivity was found between the anterior insulae and the medial prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia compared to controls, but contrary to some models emotion processing regions failed to demonstrate increased connectivity with the medial prefrontal cortex in MDD compared to controls. Although, not statistically significant after correction for multiple comparisons, patients with schizophrenia tended to demonstrate decreased connectivity between basal ganglia-thalamocortical regions and the medial prefrontal cortex compared to patients with MDD, which might be expected as these regions effect action. Results were interpreted to support anomalies in nodes associated with directed effort in schizophrenia and nodes associated with emotional encoding network in MDD compared to healthy controls. PMID:27064387

  19. A new hypothesis and exploratory model for the formation of large-scale inner-shelf sediment sorting and "rippled scour depressions"

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murray, A.B.; Thieler, E.R.

    2004-01-01

    Recent observations of inner continental shelves in many regions show numerous collections of relatively coarse sediment, which extend kilometers in the cross-shore direction and are on the order of 100m wide. These "rippled scour depressions" have been interpreted to indicate concentrated cross-shelf currents. However, recent observations strongly suggest that they are associated with sediment transport along-shore rather than cross-shore. A new hypothesis for the origin of these features involves the large wave-generated ripples that form in the coarse material. Wave motions interacting with these large roughness elements generate near-bed turbulence that is greatly enhanced relative to that in other areas. This enhances entrainment and inhibits settling of fine material in an area dominated by coarse sediment. The fine sediment is then carried by mean currents past the coarse accumulations, and deposited where the bed is finer. We hypothesize that these interactions constitute a feedback tending to produce accumulations of fine material separated by self-perpetuating patches of coarse sediments. As with many types of self-organized bedforms, small features would interact as they migrate, leading to a better-organized, larger-scale pattern. As an initial test of this hypothesis, we use a numerical model treating the transport of coarse and fine sediment fractions, treated as functions of the local bed composition - a proxy for the presence of large roughness elements in coarse areas. Large-scale sorted patterns exhibiting the main characteristics of the natural features result robustly in the model, indicating that this new hypothesis offers a plausible explanation for the phenomena. ?? 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Social support mediates loneliness and depression in elderly people.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lijun; Gou, Zhenggang; Zuo, Junnan

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated the effect of loneliness on depression and further tested the mediating effect of social support. A total of 320 elderly persons completed the Emotional and Social Loneliness Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and Self-Rating Depression Scale. Results revealed that loneliness and social support significantly correlated with depression. Structural Equation Modeling indicated that social support partially mediates loneliness and depression. The final model illustrated a significant path from loneliness to depression through social support. This study sheds light on the concurrent effects of loneliness and social support on depression, providing evidence on how to reduce depression among the elderly. PMID:24925547

  1. Reliability and validity of the Brief Resilience Scale (BRS) Spanish Version.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Rey, Rocío; Alonso-Tapia, Jesús; Hernansaiz-Garrido, Helena

    2016-05-01

    Resilience is defined as the ability to recover from stress. However, all resilience measures with exception of the Brief Resilience Scale (BRS) assess resources that make resilience possible instead of recovery. The purpose of this study was to translate the BRS to Spanish and to analyze the reliability and validity of its scores. The psychometric properties of its scores were examined in a heterogeneous sample of 620 Spanish adults. Confirmatory factor analyses were carried out to study its scores' evidence of structural validity. Besides, to study its scores' evidence of convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity in relation to other resilience questionnaires (Connor Davidson Resilience Scale 10-item version, Situated Subjective Resilience Questionnaire for Adults and Resiliency Questionnaire for Adults) and to variables such as emotions (Modified Differential Emotions Scale), coping (Person-situation Coping Questionnaire for Adults), anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), posttraumatic growth (Posttraumatic Growth Inventory), perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale) and posttraumatic stress (Davidson Trauma Scale), correlation and regression analyses were conducted. To study its sensitivity, we assessed the effect of sociodemographics and the ability of the scale to identify high-risk populations by conducting analyses of variance and Pearson correlations. The BRS scores showed adequate reliability (α = .83; intraclass coefficient = .69). Confirmatory factor analyses showed that the Spanish version of the BRS is mono-factorial (χ2/df = 2.36; standardized root mean square residual = .036; goodness-of-fit index = .980; comparative fit index = .984; incremental fit index = .984; root mean square error of approximation = .067). They also showed adequate evidence of the scores' convergent, concurrent and predictive validity. The Spanish version of the BRS is a reliable and valid means to assess resilience as the ability to bounce

  2. Antenatal depression and hematocrit levels as predictors of postpartum depression and anxiety symptoms.

    PubMed

    Roomruangwong, Chutima; Kanchanatawan, Buranee; Sirivichayakul, Sunee; Maes, Michael

    2016-04-30

    The aim of this study is to delineate the risk factors of antenatal depression and its consequences, including postnatal depression, and to examine whether the hematocrit (Hct) is associated with maternal depression. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), Spielberger's State Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Kennerley and Gath Maternity Blues Assessment Scale (KGB), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) were assessed at the end of term (T1) and 2-3 days (T2) and 4-6 weeks (T3) after delivery in 126 women with and without antenatal depression. The Hct was measured at T1. Antenatal depression was significantly predicted by lifetime depression and premenstrual syndrome and less education. Antenatal depression was not associated with obstetric or neonatal outcomes. Antenatal depression symptoms strongly predict depression and anxiety symptoms at T2 and T3. The EPDS, KGB, STAI and BDI, but not the HAMD, scores, were significantly lower at T3 than before. The incidence of depression significantly decreased from T1 (23.8%) to T2 (7.8%) and T3 (5.3%). T1 Hct values significantly predicted the T3 postnatal EPDS, STAI, KGB and BDI scores. Delivery significantly improves depression and anxiety symptoms. Increased Hct in the third trimester is a biomarker of postpartum depression and anxiety symptoms. PMID:27086235

  3. Depressive Symptoms and Impaired Respiration in Sleep.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bliwise, Donald L.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Associations between depression and impaired respiration in sleep are frequently noted clinically. This relationship was documented psychometrically with the Geriatric Depression Scale, a self-report measure of nonsomatic depressive symptoms. Mean values and effect size suggest that impaired respiration in sleep was associated with only relatively…

  4. Depression in Geriatric and Adult Medical Inpatients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magni, Guido; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Administered two scales for the evaluation of depression to two groups of medical inpatients: adults (N=201) and geriatric subjects (N=178). Results confirmed a high presence of depressive symptoms among patients with medical problems, particularly among geriatric subjects. Factors most predictive of depressive symptoms are identified. (JAC)

  5. Physical Abuse Among Depressed Women

    PubMed Central

    Scholle, Sarah Hudson; Rost, Kathryn M; Golding, Jacqueline M

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To provide estimates of physical abuse and use of health services among depressed women in order to inform efforts to increase detection and treatment of physical abuse. DESIGN Retrospective assessment of abuse and health services use over 1 year in a cohort of depressed women. SETTING Statewide community sample from Arkansas. PARTICIPANTS We recruited 303 depressed women through random-digit-dial screening. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Exposure to physical abuse based on the Conflict Tactics Scale, multi-informant estimate of health and mental health services. Over half of the depressed women (55.2%) reported experiencing physical abuse as adults, with 14.5% reporting abuse during the study year. Women abused as adults had significantly more severe depressive symptoms, more psychiatric comorbidity, and more physical illnesses than nonabused women. After controlling for sociodemographic and severity-of-illness factors, recently abused, depressed women were much less likely to receive outpatient care for mental health problems as compared to other depressed women (odds ratio [OR] 0.3;p = .013), though they were more likely to receive health care for physical problems (OR 5.7, p = .021). CONCLUSIONS Because nearly all depressed women experiencing abuse sought general medical rather than mental health care during the year of the study, primary care screening for physical abuse appears to be a critical link to professional help for abused, depressed women. Research is needed to inform primary care guidelines about methods for detecting abuse in depressed women. PMID:9754516

  6. Whiplash-associated disorders: who gets depressed? Who stays depressed?

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Linda J.; Cassidy, J. David; Côté, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Depression is common in whiplash-associated disorders (WAD). Our objectives were to identify factors associated with depressive symptomatology occurring in the initial stages of WAD, and to identify factors predicting the course of depressive symptoms. A population-based cohort of adults sustaining traffic-related WAD was followed at 6 weeks, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Baseline measures (assessed a median of 11 days post-crash) included demographic and collision-related factors, prior health, and initial post-crash pain and symptoms. Depressive symptomatology was assessed at baseline and at each follow-up using the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). We included only those who participated at all follow-ups (n = 3,452; 59% of eligible participants). Using logistic regression, we identified factors associated with initial (post-crash) depression. Using multinomial regression, we identified baseline factors predicting course of depression. Courses of depression were no depression; initial depression that resolves, recurs or persists, and later onset depression. Factors associated with initial depression included greater neck and low back pain severity, greater percentage of body in pain, numbness/tingling in arms/hand, dizziness, vision problems, post-crash anxiety, fracture, prior mental health problems, and poorer general health. Predictors of persistent depression included older age, greater initial neck and low back pain, post-crash dizziness, vision and hearing problems, numbness/tingling in arms/hands, anxiety, prior mental health problems, and poorer general health. Recognition of these underlying risk factors may assist health care providers to predict the course of psychological reactions and to provide effective interventions. PMID:20127261

  7. Discrepancies in Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD) items between residents and caregivers, and the CSDD’s factor structure

    PubMed Central

    Wongpakaran, Nahathai; Wongpakaran, Tinakon; van Reekum, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This validation study aims to examine Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD) items in terms of the agreement found between residents and caregivers, and also to compare alternative models of the Thai version of the CSDD. Patients and methods A cross-sectional study was conducted of 84 elderly residents (46 women, 38 men, age range 60–94 years) in a long-term residential home setting in Thailand between March and June 2011. The selected residents went through a comprehensive geriatric assessment that included use of the Mini-Mental State Examination, Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, and CSDD instruments. Intraclass correlation (ICC) was calculated in order to establish the level of agreement between the residents and caregivers, in light of the residents’ cognitive status. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was adopted to evaluate the alternative CSDD models. Results The CSDD yielded a high internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.87) and moderate agreement between residents and caregivers (ICC = 0.55); however, it was stronger in cognitively impaired subjects (ICC = 0.71). CFA revealed that there was no difference between the four-factor model, in which factors A (mood-related signs) and E (ideational disturbance) were collapsed into a single factor, and the five-factor model as per the original theoretical construct. Both models were found to be similar, and displayed a poor fit. Conclusion The CSDD demonstrated a moderate level of interrater agreement between residents and caregivers, and was more reliable when used with cognitively impaired residents. CFA indicated a poorly fitting model in this sample. PMID:23766640

  8. Major depression.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Susan M; Pagalilauan, Genevieve L; Simpson, Scott A

    2014-09-01

    Major depression is a common, disabling condition seen frequently in primary care practices. Non-psychiatrist ambulatory providers are increasingly responsible for diagnosing, and primarily managing patients suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD). The goal of this review is to help primary care providers to understand the natural history of MDD, identify practical tools for screening, and a thoughtful approach to management. Clinically challenging topics like co-morbid conditions, treatment resistant depression and pharmacotherapy selection with consideration to side effects and medication interactions, are also covered. PMID:25134869

  9. Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2009-01-01

    The common approach to scaling, according to Christopher Dede, a professor of learning technologies at the Harvard Graduate School of Education, is to jump in and say, "Let's go out and find more money, recruit more participants, hire more people. Let's just keep doing the same thing, bigger and bigger." That, he observes, "tends to fail, and fail…

  10. Trajectories of depressive symptoms after hip fracture

    PubMed Central

    Cristancho, P.; Lenze, E. J.; Avidan, M. S.; Rawson, K. S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Hip fracture is often complicated by depressive symptoms in older adults. We sought to characterize trajectories of depressive symptoms arising after hip fracture and examine their relationship with functional outcomes and walking ability. We also investigated clinical and psychosocial predictors of these trajectories. Method We enrolled 482 inpatients, aged ≥60 years, who were admitted for hip fracture repair at eight St Louis, MO area hospitals between 2008 and 2012. Participants with current depression diagnosis and/or notable cognitive impairment were excluded. Depressive symptoms and functional recovery were assessed with the Montgomery–Asberg Depression Rating Scale and Functional Recovery Score, respectively, for 52 weeks after fracture. Health, cognitive, and psychosocial variables were gathered at baseline. We modeled depressive symptoms using group-based trajectory analysis and subsequently identified correlates of trajectory group membership. Results Three trajectories emerged according to the course of depressive symptoms, which we termed ‘resilient’, ‘distressed’, and ‘depressed’. The depressed trajectory (10% of participants) experienced a persistently high level of depressive symptoms and a slower time to recover mobility than the other trajectory groups. Stressful life events prior to the fracture, current smoking, higher anxiety, less social support, antidepressant use, past depression, and type of implant predicted membership of the depressed trajectory. Conclusions Depressive symptoms arising after hip fracture are associated with poorer functional status. Clinical and psychosocial variables predicted membership of the depression trajectory. Early identification and intervention of patients in a depressive trajectory may improve functional outcomes after hip fracture. PMID:27032698

  11. Measuring Depression in a Clinical Population Using the MMPI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Linda D.

    1987-01-01

    Administered Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) to clinically depressed and nondepressed inpatients, and compared scores from its Depression scale with scores from the Beck Depression Inventory. Demonstrated a positive linear relationship between the two measures and their ability to discriminate between depressed and nondepressed…

  12. Ethnicity, music experience, and depression.

    PubMed

    Werner, Paul D; Swope, Alan J; Heide, Frederick J

    2009-01-01

    The researchers studied differences in self-reported music experience and depression across ethnic groups, as well as differences in the relationship between music experience and depression across groups. College participants (78 African Americans, 111 Asian Americans, 218 Whites, and 87 in other ethnic groups) completed the Music Experience Questionnaire (MEQ) and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale. Statistically significant differences across groups were found on depression as well as on the MEQ factor for Subjective/Physical Reactions to music and on MEQ scales for Commitment to Music, Affective Reactions, Positive Psychotropic Effects, and Reactive Musical Behavior. A distinctive pattern of relationship was found between music variables and depression in the Asian American group, relative to the White and Other group. In particular, among Asian Americans there were negative correlations between depression and the MEQ Subjective/ Physical Reactions factor as well as the Affective Reactions scale. Implications were discussed for the literature on ethnicity and depression, music experience, and music therapy. PMID:20394134

  13. Major depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... is very severe, you may have hallucinations and delusions (false beliefs). This condition is called depression with ... This helps relieve your symptoms. If you have delusions or hallucinations, your provider may prescribe additional medicines. ...

  14. Using the University Student Depression Inventory to Investigate the Effect of Demographic Variables on Students' Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khawaja, Nigar G.; Duncanson, Krystle

    2008-01-01

    Depression is a problem in the student population and may impact students of any age, gender and ethnicity. Previous studies have indicated student demographic characteristics are associated with depression; however, these studies have not utilised scales specifically designed to measure depression in the student population. The aim of the present…

  15. Depression among the Moroccan systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Wafki, Fahd; Amine, Bouchra; Ibn Yacoub, Yousra; Laatiriss, Assia; Znat, Fatima; Abouqal, Redouane; Hajjaj-Hassouni, Najia

    2012-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and predictors factors of depression in Moroccan patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc), we conducted a cross-sectional study of 59 Moroccan patients with systemic sclerosis. Patients were assessed by using the Patient Health Questionnaire depression scale "PHQ-9" and through extensive clinical histories and medical examinations. The Arabic version of HAQ and SF-36 was used to assess functional disability and health status, respectively. Forty-six patients (77.4%) presented symptoms of depression. Thirty six (61%) have a major depressive syndrome and 10 (16.4%) have a minor depressive syndrome. The PHQ-9 score was significantly higher in the patient with prolonged disease duration, severe joint pain, higher disease severity, and important acute-phase reactants. Also, depression had a negative impact on physical and mental scores. Systemic scleroderma is associated with a high prevalence of depression. Screening for depression among patients with SSc is recommended and it should be assessed for routinely. PMID:21629986

  16. Scales

    ScienceCinema

    Murray Gibson

    2010-01-08

    Musical scales involve notes that, sounded simultaneously (chords), sound good together. The result is the left brain meeting the right brain ? a Pythagorean interval of overlapping notes. This synergy would suggest less difference between the working of the right brain and the left brain than common wisdom would dictate. The pleasing sound of harmony comes when two notes share a common harmonic, meaning that their frequencies are in simple integer ratios, such as 3/2 (G/C) or 5/4 (E/C).

  17. Scales

    SciTech Connect

    Murray Gibson

    2007-04-27

    Musical scales involve notes that, sounded simultaneously (chords), sound good together. The result is the left brain meeting the right brain — a Pythagorean interval of overlapping notes. This synergy would suggest less difference between the working of the right brain and the left brain than common wisdom would dictate. The pleasing sound of harmony comes when two notes share a common harmonic, meaning that their frequencies are in simple integer ratios, such as 3/2 (G/C) or 5/4 (E/C).

  18. Factors associated with antenatal depression in pregnant Korean females: the effect of bipolarity on depressive symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chul Min; Seo, Hye-Jin; Jung, Young-Eun; Kim, Moon-Doo; Hong, Seong-Chul; Bahk, Won-Myong; Yoon, Bo-Hyun; Hur, Min Hee; Song, Jae Min

    2014-01-01

    Background This cross-sectional study sought to identify factors associated with antenatal depression in pregnant Korean females, including sociodemographic parameters, social support, social conflict, and bipolarity. Methods Eighty-four pregnant women were recruited to complete questionnaires on sociodemographic factors, obstetric history, depressive symptoms, and bipolarity. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Korean version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Bipolarity was assessed using the Korean version of the Mood Disorder Questionnaire. Results Nineteen participants (22.6%) had positive Mood Disorder Questionnaire scores, suggesting the presence of bipolarity, and were significantly more likely to score high on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Antenatal depression was associated with bad marital communication and marital dissatisfaction. Conclusion These results suggest that spousal interactions play a significant role in antenatal depression, and pregnant women with bipolarity may be more depressed than those without bipolarity. PMID:24966674

  19. Detecting Depression Severity from Vocal Prosody

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ying; Fairbairn, Catherine; Cohn, Jeffrey F.

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the relation between vocal prosody and change in depression severity over time, 57 participants from a clinical trial for treatment of depression were evaluated at seven-week intervals using a semi-structured clinical interview for depression severity (Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression: HRSD). All participants met criteria for Major Depressive Disorder at week 1. Using both perceptual judgments by naive listeners and quantitative analyses of vocal timing and fundamental frequency, three hypotheses were tested: 1) Naive listeners can perceive the severity of depression from vocal recordings of depressed participants and interviewers. 2) Quantitative features of vocal prosody in depressed participants reveal change in symptom severity over the course of depression. And 3) Interpersonal effects occur as well; such that vocal prosody in interviewers shows corresponding effects. These hypotheses were strongly supported. Together, participants’ and interviewers’ vocal prosody accounted for about 60% of variation in depression scores, and detected ordinal range of depression severity (low, mild, and moderate-to-severe) in 69% of cases (kappa = 0.53). These findings suggest that analysis of vocal prosody could be a powerful tool to assist in depression screening and monitoring over the course of depressive disorder and recovery. PMID:26985326

  20. Debt, social disadvantage and maternal depression.

    PubMed

    Reading, R; Reynolds, S

    2001-08-01

    Depression is common among women with young children, and is strongly associated with financial adversity. Debt is a common feature of such adversity, yet its relationship with depression has not been examined before. We have used longitudinal data, collected over six months, on 271 families with young children, to examine this relationship. Multiple regression was used to identify independent predictors of the total Edinburgh Post-natal Depression Scale score from a range of socioeconomic, demographic, social support and child health related variables. Worry about debt was the strongest independent socioeconomic predictor of the depression score at both initial and follow-up occasions. To account for the possibility of reverse causation, i.e. depression causing worry about debt, alternative regression models are reported which show that owing money by itself predicts depression and earlier debt worries predicts depression six months later. We were unable to show that earlier debt worries independently predicted subsequent depression scores after the initial depression score had been taken into account in the analysis. Although debt has not been shown to be an independent prospective predictor of depression, our results suggest it has a central place in the association between socioeconomic hardship and maternal depression. Evidence from qualitative studies on poverty and from studies on the causes of depression support this hypothesis. The implications for policy are that strategies to enable families to control debt should be an explicit part of wider antipoverty measures which are designed to reduce depression and psychological distress among mothers of young children. PMID:11459395

  1. Adolescents and Young Adults with Down Syndrome Presenting to a Medical Clinic with Depression: Phenomenology and Characterization Using the Reiss Scales and Aberrant Behavior Checklist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capone, George T.; Aidikoff, Jenna M.; Goyal, Parag

    2011-01-01

    Caretakers of adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome (DS) may report the onset of a depressive illness in previously mentally well individuals. However, the behavioral phenomenology of these conditions has not been well characterized. We ascertained a cohort of DS patient-subjects presenting to a specialty clinic with medical and/or…

  2. The Diagnostic Drawing Series and the Tree Rating Scale: An Isomorphic Representation of Multiple Personality Disorder, Major Depression, and Schizophrenic Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Maureen Batza

    1995-01-01

    The tree drawings of 80 subjects, who were diagnosed with either multiple personality disorder, schizophrenia, or major depression, and a control group, were rated. Patterns were examined and graphs were used to depict results. Certain features were found to distinguish each category. The descriptive statistical findings were both consistent and…

  3. Acculturation and Depression among Puerto Ricans in the Mainland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Blanca M.

    2005-01-01

    The relationship between acculturation and depression in a sample of 1,510 Puerto Ricans residing in the U.S. was examined. Acculturation was measured by assessing subjects' spoken, preferred, read, and written language. Depression was evaluated by the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. The scale yielded a three-factor structure…

  4. Relationship between dietary patterns and depressive symptoms: difference by gender, and unipolar and bipolar depression.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Rituna; Hiraoka, Mami; Watanabe, Yoshinori; Kagawa, Yasuo

    2013-01-01

    Although several studies have reported associations of depressive state with specific nutrients and foods, few have examined the associations with dietary patterns in adults. We investigated the association between major dietary patterns and depressive symptoms in Japanese patients with depression. Subjects were 166 Japanese patients (104 men and 62 women), aged 22-74 y, who were treated at a hospital psychiatry clinic in Tokyo. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Himorogi Self-rating Depression Scale (H-SDS) and Himorogi Self-rating Anxiety Scale (H-SAS). We categorized depressive symptoms into 3 types: physical, psychiatric, and anxiety symptoms. Dietary patterns were derived using principal component analysis of the consumption of 59 food and beverage items, which was assessed by a validated brief diet history questionnaire. Three dietary patterns were identified: 1) "plant foods and fish products," 2) "fish," and 3) "Western/meat." We calculated the correlation coefficients for the relationship between each dietary pattern score and depressive symptom score in unipolar depression vs. bipolar depression and in men vs. women. In bipolar depression, the plant foods and fish products pattern showed an inverse relationship with physical and psychiatric symptoms, and in men, this pattern showed an inverse relationship with psychiatric symptoms. The fish pattern and Western/meat pattern were not significantly associated with the 3 types of depressive symptoms. In conclusion, we identified 3 dietary patterns and found that associations between these patterns and depressive symptoms were observed only in bipolar depression and only in men. PMID:23727641

  5. Understanding Depression (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... daylight are shorter; for example, during winter months. Bipolar disorder (also called manic depression or bipolar depression) is ... to a Therapist Anxiety Disorders Cutting Word! Depression Bipolar Disorder Why Am I So Sad? Sadness and Depression ...

  6. [Toloxatone and depression].

    PubMed

    Fernández Labriola, R; Caetano Esquivel, G; Alvarez, M; Servidio, M

    1991-12-01

    One hundred and one depressed inpatients were treated by the authors with a second-generation antidepressive original molecule: Toloxatone, a specific and reversible MAO A inhibitor. Upon admission, all 101 patients with depressive illness did not score higher than 20 on Hamilton's Scale, and did not score lower than 4 on Fischer, Fernández Labriola and Rodríguez Casanova's Endogeneity Test. Biological profiles (Phenyl-ethylamine, NA, and MHPG) were available on 57 subjects. At the beginning of the experiment: (a) No subject was taking antidepressives, (b) Patients' age averaged 46; (c) The 6-week experiment was a double-blind vs. placebo type. Daily toloxatone dose was standardized in a 400 mg intake. Significant modifications were detected in 51 subjects. Among the 59 subjects that were administered active substance, 37 achieved either "excellent" or "good" outcomes. Biological markers pointed out a profile of patients with a better response to Toloxatone: Namely, patients with a lower noradrenergic activity. Anxiety-free depression as well as inhibited depressions are a psychiatrist's choice for administering Toloxatone. PMID:1843597

  7. P 300 EVENT RELATED POTENTIAL IN DEPRESSION

    PubMed Central

    Singh, R.; Shukla, R.; Dalal, P.K.; Sinha, P.K.; Trivedi, J.K.

    2000-01-01

    P300 component of the event related potential (ERP) provides one neurophysiological index of cognitive dysfunction in depression. Forty subjects fulfilling DSM-III criteria for depression were compared to 40 age and sex matched normal controls. The P300 was recorded using the auditory odd-ball paradigm. Depressives had a significantly prolonged P300 latency and reduced P300 amplitude as compared to the controls. The P300 latency showed a significant positive correlation with age of the patient and severity of depression while P300 amplitude showed a significant negative correlation with age. The clinical subcategory of depression, duration of illness and sex did not show any relationship with P300 abnormality. Twelve out of 40 depressives (30%) had an abnormal P300. The mean Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) score was significantly high in those with an abnormal P300. PMID:21407978

  8. Labor Supply of Poor Residents in Metropolitan Miami, Florida: The Role of Depression and the Co-Morbid Effects of Substance Use.

    PubMed

    Alexandre, Pierre K.; French, Michael T.

    2001-12-01

    use and problem drinking as defined by the 10-item Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST-10). Based on criteria defined in the MAST-10, 26 percent of the depressed individuals were problematic alcohol users (PAUs) compared to about 16 percent of the non-depressed sample.METHODS: The labor supply measures included employment in the past 30 days and number of weeks worked in the past 12 months. The analysis estimated a univariate probit model of employment as well as a bivariate probit model of depression and employment, which accounted for the possible correlation between the unobserved determinants of depression and employment. The annual weeks worked specification was estimated by a standard Tobit model as well as an instrumental variable (IV) Tobit model, which, in addition to the censoring of the observations, accounted for the possible endogeneity of depression. The stability of the estimated effects of depression to comorbid illicit drug and alcohol use was assessed, by controlling for CDU and PAU in these models. RESULTS: Results from both the univariate probit and the bivariate probit models indicate that depression significantly decreased the probability of being employed. Specifically, depression reduced the probability of employment by an average of 19 percentage points in both models, from a sample average of 43 percent for the non- depressed to 24 percent for the depressed. Estimates from the Tobit models revealed that depression also significantly reduced the number of weeks worked. Conditional on being employed, depressed individuals worked an average of 7 fewer annual weeks than the non-depressed sample in the univariate Tobit model and 8 fewer weeks in the IV Tobit. The findings also showed that the effects of depression on employment and annual weeks worked may be over-estimated if the analysis does not account for the comorbid influence of substance use. IMPLICATIONS FOR HEALTH CARE PROVISION AND USE: The results suggest that prevention and

  9. Screening for Depression Patients in Family Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Alic, Alma; Pranjic, Nurka; Selmanovic, Senada; Alibasic, Esad; Alic, Fahrudin; Ramic, Enisa; Spahic-Sarajlic, Selvedina

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Goal: The aims are to establish the prevalence of newfound, unidentified cases of depressive disorder by screening with the Becks Depression scale; To establish a comparative relationship with self-identified cases of depression in the patients in the family medicine; To assess the significance of the BDI in screening practice of family medicine. Patients and methods: A prospective study was conducted anonymously by Beck's Depression scale (Beck Depression Questionnaire org.-BDI) and specially created short questionnaire. The study included 250 randomly selected patients (20-60 years), users of services in family medicine in “Dom Zdravlja” Zenica, and the final number of respondents with included in the study was 126 (51 male, 75 female; response or response rate 50.4%). Exclusion factor was previously diagnosed and treated mental disorder. Participation was voluntary and respondents acknowledge the validity of completing the questionnaire. BDI consists of 21 items. Answers to questions about symptoms were ranked according to the Likert type scale responses from 0-4 (from irrelevant to very much). Respondents expressed themselves on personal perception of depression, whether are or not depressed. Results: Depression was observed in 48% of patients compared to 31% in self estimate depression analyzed the questionnaires. The negative trend in the misrecognition of depression is -17% (48:31). Depression was significantly more frequent in unemployed compared to employed respondents (p=0.001). The leading symptom in both sexes is the perception of lost hope (59% of cases). Conclusion: All respondents in family medicine care in Zenica showed a high percentage of newly detected (17%) patients with previously unrecognized depression. BDI is a really simple and effective screening tool for the detection and identification of persons with symptoms of depression. PMID:24783910

  10. A Psychometric Evaluation of the CDRS and MADRS in Assessing Depressive Symptoms in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jain, Shailesh; Carmody, Thomas J.; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Hughes, Carroll; Bernstein, Ira H.; Morris, David W.; Emslie, Graham J.; Rush, A. John

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study compared the psychometric properties of the Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R) and the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) in children with major depressive disorder. Method: Children (N = 96; ages 8 to 11 years inclusive) with nonpsychotic major depressive disorder were enrolled. Participants…

  11. Parental Depression and Divorce and Adult Children's Well-Being: The Role of Family Unpredictability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Lisa Thomson; Wynne, Stacie

    2010-01-01

    We examined how parental depression and divorce are associated with anxiety and depression among college students (N = 126; 83% female; 89% Caucasian). Participants provided retrospective recollections of their parents' depression, and they completed The Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale and portions of the Trait Anxiety Scale. In…

  12. Computerised cognitive behaviour therapy (cCBT) as treatment for depression in primary care (REEACT trial): large scale pragmatic randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Littlewood, Elizabeth; Hewitt, Catherine; Brierley, Gwen; Tharmanathan, Puvan; Araya, Ricardo; Barkham, Michael; Bower, Peter; Cooper, Cindy; Gask, Linda; Kessler, David; Lester, Helen; Lovell, Karina; Parry, Glenys; Richards, David A; Andersen, Phil; Brabyn, Sally; Knowles, Sarah; Shepherd, Charles; Tallon, Debbie; White, David

    2015-01-01

    Study question How effective is supported computerised cognitive behaviour therapy (cCBT) as an adjunct to usual primary care for adults with depression? Methods This was a pragmatic, multicentre, three arm, parallel randomised controlled trial with simple randomisation. Treatment allocation was not blinded. Participants were adults with symptoms of depression (score ≥10 on nine item patient health questionnaire, PHQ-9) who were randomised to receive a commercially produced cCBT programme (“Beating the Blues”) or a free to use cCBT programme (MoodGYM) in addition to usual GP care. Participants were supported and encouraged to complete the programme via weekly telephone calls. Control participants were offered usual GP care, with no constraints on the range of treatments that could be accessed. The primary outcome was severity of depression assessed with the PHQ-9 at four months. Secondary outcomes included health related quality of life (measured by SF-36) and psychological wellbeing (measured by CORE-OM) at four, 12, and 24 months and depression at 12 and 24 months. Study answer and limitations Participants offered commercial or free to use cCBT experienced no additional improvement in depression compared with usual GP care at four months (odds ratio 1.19 (95% confidence interval 0.75 to 1.88) for Beating the Blues v usual GP care; 0.98 (0.62 to 1.56) for MoodGYM v usual GP care). There was no evidence of an overall difference between either programme compared with usual GP care (0.99 (0.57 to 1.70) and 0.68 (0.42 to 1.10), respectively) at any time point. Commercially provided cCBT conferred no additional benefit over free to use cCBT or usual GP care at any follow-up point. Uptake and use of cCBT was low, despite regular telephone support. Nearly a quarter of participants (24%) had dropped out by four months. The study did not have enough power to detect small differences so these cannot be ruled out. Findings cannot be generalised to cCBT offered with a

  13. Spouses and depressive symptoms in older adulthood.

    PubMed

    Pradeep, Neeti; Sutin, Angelina R

    2015-01-01

    Depressive symptoms may co-occur within couples and follow similar trajectories, but relatively little is known about this process in old age. This study thus examined the association between some spousal characteristics (spouse's depressive symptoms, age difference between spouses) and the trajectory of depressive symptoms in older adults. Participants ≥ 65 years old were drawn from the Health and Retirement Study (N = 12,010; Mean age = 70.60 and 69.16 for target husbands and wives, respectively). Depressive symptoms were measured with a short form of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) scale. Hierarchical Linear Modeling was used to model up to 9 assessments of depressive symptoms of target spouses (Mean number of CESD assessments per target spouse = 3, range 1-9). Depressive symptoms between spouses were correlated; convergence over time was modest. For both husbands and wives, having a younger spouse was associated with more depressive symptoms at age 65. These results suggest that there is concordance between spouses' depressive symptoms and that the age difference between spouses contribute to depressive symptoms as couples enter old age. The association between spouses' depressive symptoms is nearly as strong as the effect of each decade increase in age. PMID:25716455

  14. A Practical Measure of Student Motivation: Establishing Validity Evidence for the Expectancy-Value-Cost Scale in Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosovich, Jeff J.; Hulleman, Chris S.; Barron, Kenneth E.; Getty, Steve

    2015-01-01

    We present validity evidence for the Expectancy-Value-Cost (EVC) Scale of student motivation. Using a brief, 10-item scale, we measured middle school students' expectancy, value, and cost for their math and science classes in the Fall and Winter of the same academic year. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the three-factor structure of the EVC…

  15. Validation of the Worry about Sexual Outcomes Scale for Use in STI/HIV Prevention Interventions for Adolescent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sales, Jessica M.; Spitalnick, Josh; Milhausen, Robin R.; Wingood, Gina M.; Diclemente, Ralph J.; Salazar, Laura F.; Crosby, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of a new scale to measure adolescents' worry regarding outcomes of risky sexual behavior (i.e. sexually transmitted infections, including HIV [STI/HIV], and unintended pregnancy). The 10-item worry about sexual outcomes (WASO) scale, resulting in two subscales STI/HIV worry and pregnancy worry, was…

  16. Measuring values and committed action with the Engaged Living Scale (ELS): psychometric evaluation in a nonclinical sample and a chronic pain sample.

    PubMed

    Trompetter, Hester R; Ten Klooster, Peter M; Schreurs, Karlein M G; Fledderus, Martine; Westerhof, Gerben J; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T

    2013-12-01

    This article describes the development and evaluation of the Engaged Living Scale (ELS) as a new self-report, process-specific measure to assess an engaged response style as conceptualized in acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT). The psychometric properties of the ELS test scores were evaluated in both a nonclinical sample (N = 439) and a clinical sample consisting of chronic pain patients who participated in a study on the effects of an online ACT intervention (N = 238). Item analysis and exploratory factor analysis in the nonclinical sample suggested a 16-item version of the ELS with 2 subscales, Valued Living (10 items) and Life Fulfillment (6 items). A bifactor model with 2 specific factors and 1 general underlying factor showed the best fit in confirmatory factor analyses in the chronic pain sample. In both samples, the scores on the ELS and its subscales showed good internal consistency and construct validity by consistent patterns of relationships with theoretically related process and outcome variables, such as psychological well-being, anxiety/depression, acceptance, mindfulness, and pain interference in daily life. Furthermore, in the chronic pain sample, the ELS showed incremental validity in explaining anxiety and depression, positive mental health, and pain interference beyond both acceptance and mindfulness. This study suggests the ELS shows promise as a useful tool for the measurement of an engaged response style, enabling more comprehensive evaluation of working mechanisms of ACT. PMID:23914955

  17. Effects of Eating on Depressed Moods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grenier, Victoria; And Others

    Research has found that depressed moods increase eating among persons who are dieting and among those characterized by high levels of weight fluctuation. To determine whether eating improves depressed moods among persons who score high on the weight fluctuation factor on the Restraint Scale (Herman, et al, 1978), 72 college women consumed either a…

  18. Depression and Related Problems in University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Pelaez, Martha; Deeds, Osvelia; Delgado, Jeannette

    2012-01-01

    Method: Depression and related problems were studied in a sample of 283 university students. Results: The students with high depression scores also had high scores on anxiety, intrusive thoughts, controlling intrusive thoughts and sleep disturbances scales. A stepwise regression suggested that those problems contributed to a significant proportion…

  19. Depressive Symptoms and Career-Related Goal Appraisals: Genetic and Environmental Correlations and Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Read, Sanna; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Korhonen, Tellervo; Dick, Danielle M.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Rose, Richard. J.

    2015-01-01

    In order to further understand why depressive symptoms are associated with negative goal appraisals, the present study examined the genetic and environmental correlations and interactions between depressive symptoms and career-related goal appraisals. A total of 1,240 Finnish twins aged 21℃26 years completed a questionnaire containing items on the appraisal of their career goals along five dimensions: importance, progress, effort, strain, and self-efficacy. In the same questionnaire, the 10-item General Behavior Inventory assessed depressive symptoms. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the genetic and environmental correlations and gene-environment interactions between the career-goal appraisals and depressive symptoms. Associations were identified, and were attributed to environmental factors. Of the career-related goal appraisals, the shared environmental component was of a higher magnitude for the dimension of strain among the depressed compared with non-depressed subjects. The results indicate that the interplay between depressive symptoms and negative career-related goal appraisals is significantly affected by environmental factors, and thus possibly susceptible to targeted interventions. PMID:24932581

  20. Depression: What We Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobel, Brana; Hirschfeld, Robert M. A.

    This booklet is concerned with the area of clinical depression. Questions about clinical depression are briefly answered in an overview section and are examined in greater detail in the five chapters that follow. In chapter 1, depression is defined and various types of depression are identified. The origins of depression are explored in the second…

  1. The relationship of anxiety to childhood depression.

    PubMed

    Norvell, N; Brophy, C; Finch, A J

    1985-04-01

    In order to investigate the relationship between anxiety and depression in emotionally disturbed children, 30 hospitalized inpatient children were individually administered the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI), the Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale-Revised (CMAS-R), and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC). Results indicated a significant relationship between CDI scores, the CMAS-R and its factors, and the STAIC. Correlations between the various factors of anxiety and depression suggest a complex relationship between the two constructs. Stepwise regression analyses indicated further the complexity of this relationship. Results were discussed in terms of the possible differential role which the different anxiety factors play in depression. PMID:3998984

  2. Patterns of depressive symptoms in caregivers of mechanically ventilated critically ill adults from ICU admission to two months post-ICU discharge: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Choi, JiYeon; Sherwood, Paula R.; Schulz, Richard; Ren, Dianxu; Donahoe, Michael P.; Given, Barbara; Hoffman, Leslie A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine trajectories of depressive symptoms in caregivers of critically ill adults from ICU admission to 2 months post-ICU discharge and explore patient and caregiver characteristics associated with differing trajectories. Design Longitudinal descriptive Setting Medical ICU in a tertiary university hospital Subjects 50 caregivers and 47 patients on mechanical ventilation for ≥ 4 days Intervention None Measurements and Main Results Caregivers completed measures assessing depressive symptoms (Short version Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale 10-items [shortened CES-D]), burden (Brief Zarit Burden Interview [Zarit-12]) and health risk behaviors (caregiver health behaviors) during ICU admission, at ICU discharge and 2 months post-ICU discharge. Group-based trajectory analysis was used to identify patterns of change in shortened CES-D scores over time. Two trajectory groups emerged: 1) caregivers who had clinically significant depressive symptoms (21.0 ± 4.1) during ICU admission that remained high (13.6 ± 5) at 2 months post-ICU discharge (high trajectory group, 56%) and 2) caregivers who reported scores that were lower (10.6 ± 5.7) during ICU admission and decreased further (5.7 ± 3.6) at 2 months post-ICU discharge (low trajectory group, 44%). Caregivers in the high trajectory group tended to be younger, female, adult child living with financial difficulty and less likely to report a religious background or preference. More caregivers in the high trajectory group reported greater burden and more health risk behaviors at all time points; patients tended to be male with poorer functional ability at ICU discharge. Caregivers’ responses during ICU admission did not differ in regard to number of days patients being on mechanical ventilation prior to enrollment. Conclusion Findings suggest two patterns of depressive symptom response in caregivers of critically ill adults on mechanical ventilation from ICU admission to two months post

  3. Nutritional Interventions in Depression and Perinatal Depression

    PubMed Central

    Rechenberg, Kaitlyn; Humphries, Debbie

    2013-01-01

    Depression is the leading cause of mental disability worldwide. Women who are depressed during pregnancy are at a higher risk for preterm delivery, preeclampsia, birth difficulties, and postpartum depression. The treatment of depression in conventional medicine has focused on physiological factors that lead to impaired neurotransmitter function and treatments to improve neurotransmitter function. Pharmaceutical substances pose risks for pregnant and lactating women, and lower risk options are preferred. Micronutrients, including certain B vitamins, folate, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), play a role in the synthesis and absorption of neurotransmitters. Experimental studies suggest that supplementation with specific micronutrients may alleviate depressive symptoms and improve birth outcomes in patients with perinatal depression. Alternative treatments for depression, including nutritional supplements, are an important treatment option for depressive symptoms while limiting potential side effects and treatment costs. This article explores the biological basis of perinatal depression and reviews the potential benefits of non-pharmacological interventions. PMID:23766734

  4. Benefits of Expressive Writing in Lowering Rumination and Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gortner, Eva-Marie; Rude, Stephanie S.; Pennebaker, James W.

    2006-01-01

    Depression-vulnerable college students (with both elevated prior depressive symptoms and low current depressive symptoms) wrote on 3 consecutive days in either an expressive writing or a control condition. As predicted, participants scoring above the median on the suppression scale of the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (Gross & John, 2003)…

  5. Bilingual Computerized Speech Recognition Screening for Depression Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Gerardo; Carter, Colby; Blanes, Erika

    2007-01-01

    The Voice-Interactive Depression Assessment System (VIDAS) is a computerized speech recognition application for screening depression based on the Center for Epidemiological Studies--Depression scale in English and Spanish. Study 1 included 50 English and 47 Spanish speakers. Study 2 involved 108 English and 109 Spanish speakers. Participants…

  6. Depression and Resilience in Breast Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ristevska-Dimitrovska, Gordana; Stefanovski, Petar; Smichkoska, Snezhana; Raleva, Marija; Dejanova, Beti

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A significant number of breast cancer patients, during their life with the diagnosis, experience emotional distress in the form of depression and anxiety. Psychological resilience is the ability of a person to protect his/her mental health when faced with adverse circumstances such as the cancer diagnosis. This study aims to assess the resilience in breast cancer patients and to explore whether depression affects the resilience. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two hundred eighteen (218) women, treated for early breast cancer responded to Connor - Davidson Resilience Scale and Hospital Depression and Anxiety Scale, in order to assess the level of psychological resilience and the level of depression. RESULTS: There is a significant negative correlation between depression and resilience in our sample (r = - 0.562, p < 0.001). Individuals with higher levels of depression have lower levels of psychological resilience. There is no statistically significant correlation between the ages of the participants; time passed since diagnosis, cancer stage and resilience levels. CONCLUSION: This study shows that patients who are less depressed have higher levels of resilience and that psychological resilience may independently contribute to lower levels of depression among breast cancer patients. The level of psychological resilience may be a protective factor for depression and psychological distress.

  7. Illness perceptions associated with perinatal depression treatment use.

    PubMed

    O'Mahen, Heather A; Flynn, Heather A; Chermack, Stephen; Marcus, Sheila

    2009-12-01

    The relationship between psychological beliefs about depression and depression treatment use was examined in depressed pregnant and postpartum women using the Common Sense Model as a framework (CSM; Leventhal H, Nerenz DR, Steele DF (1984) A handbook of psychology and health illness representations and coping with health threats. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.). Pregnant women who screened >/ 10 on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS; Cox et al. Br J Psychiatry 150:782-786, 1987) completed measures of depression symptoms, perceptions and treatment at three time points through 6 weeks postpartum. Understanding modifiable beliefs may be useful in improving low rates of perinatal depression treatment use. PMID:19471852

  8. An Analysis of the Dimensionality of the Pupil Control Ideology Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Steve; And Others

    1985-01-01

    The present study replicated an earlier investigation using the Pupil Control Ideology (PCI). The findings were congruent with earlier results. Consequently, it was recommended that the PCI should be refined and that the 10 item, unidimensional scale should be used in future investigations. (Author/LMO)

  9. RSE-40: An Alternate Scoring System for the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Gaylen R.

    The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory (RSE) is a 10-item scale purporting to measure self-esteem using self-acceptance and self-worth statements. This analysis covers concerns about the degree to which the RSE items represent a particular content universe, the RSE's applicability, factor analytic methods used, and the RSE's reliability and validity.…

  10. Refining the Attitudes toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help Scale: Factorial Invariance across Two Asian Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ang, Rebecca P.; Lau, Shun; Tan, Ai-Girl; Lim, Kam Ming

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the validation and refinement of the short, 10-item version of the Attitudes Toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help (E. H. Fischer & J. L. Turner, 1970) scale using 2 separate samples. Confirmatory factor analyses results provided evidence of factorial invariance across both samples, thus supporting the…

  11. Marker Items for a Single-Factor Scale for Appraisal of Teaching in Architecture Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meredith, Gerald M.

    1982-01-01

    The School of Architecture faculty posed the methodological problem to construct a scale of 10 items or less to reliably evaluate instruction at different levels of technical and artistic instruction. Among the first 10 ordered items were: "The instructor did a good job" and "The course was worthwhile." (CM)

  12. Rumination, anxiety, depressive symptoms and subsequent depression in adolescents at risk for psychopathology: a longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A ruminative style of responding to low mood is associated with subsequent high depressive symptoms and depressive disorder in children, adolescents and adults. Scores on self-report rumination scales correlate strongly with scores on anxiety and depression symptom scales. This may confound any associations between rumination and subsequent depression. Methods Our sample comprised 658 healthy adolescents at elevated risk for psychopathology. This study applied ordinal item (non-linear) factor analysis to pooled items from three self-report questionnaires to explore whether there were separate, but correlated, constructs of rumination, depression and anxiety. It then tested whether rumination independently predicted depressive disorder and depressive symptoms over the subsequent 12 months, after adjusting for confounding variables. Results We identified a single rumination factor, which was correlated with factors representing cognitive symptoms of depression, somatic symptoms of depression and anxiety symptoms; and one factor representing adaptive responses to low mood. Elevated rumination scores predicted onset of depressive disorders over the subsequent year (p = 0.035), and levels of depressive symptoms 12 months later (p < 0.0005), after adjustment for prior levels of depressive and anxiety symptoms. Conclusion High rumination predicts onset of depressive disorder in healthy adolescents. Therapy that reduces rumination and increases distraction/problem-solving may reduce onset and relapse rates of depression. PMID:24103296

  13. Persistent depressive disorder

    MedlinePlus

    PDD; Chronic depression; Depression - chronic ... The exact cause of persistent depressive disorder (PDD) is unknown. It tends to run in families. PDD occurs more often in women. Most people with PDD will also ...

  14. Depression after Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... Library CARING FOR SOMEONE WITH EMOTIONAL & BEHAVIORAL NEEDS Depression After Stroke After a stroke, your loved one ... available! Almost half of all stroke survivors have depression. Depression is a normal response to the losses ...

  15. Neuroticism, depressive symptoms, and serum BDNF

    PubMed Central

    Terracciano, Antonio; Lobina, Monia; Piras, Maria Grazia; Mulas, Antonella; Cannas, Alessandra; Meirelles, Osorio; Sutin, Angelina R.; Zonderman, Alan B; Uda, Manuela; Crisponi, Laura; Schlessinger, David

    2011-01-01

    Objective Animal models and clinical studies suggest that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in the pathophysiology of depression. We test whether serum and plasma levels of BDNF are associated with trait Neuroticism and its facets, and with state measure of depressive symptoms. Method In a community-based cohort (N = 2099) we measured serum and plasma BDNF concentration, administered the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Covariates included age, sex, cigarette smoking, obesity, and antidepressant use. Results Serum BDNF concentrations were inversely related to Neuroticism (r = −0.074, P < 0.001), in particular the Depression facet (r = −0.08, P < 0.001). Lower BDNF concentrations were also associated with severe depressive symptoms (CES-D ≥ 28; OR = 0.906; 95%CI = 0.851–0.965). The association of serum BDNF with Neuroticism was independent of depressive symptoms, indicating that serum BDNF might represent a biological correlate of Neuroticism and not just of transient depressive states. Plasma BDNF was not associated with measures of depression. Conclusions Our study suggests that lower serum BDNF is associated with both a dispositional vulnerability to depression and acute depressive states in the general population. PMID:21949427

  16. Depression in Parkinson's disease: study of 60 cases.

    PubMed

    Prado, Roberto César Pereira do; Barbosa, Egberto Reis

    2005-09-01

    Depression is very frequent in Parkinson's disease (PD) and largely unrecognized by neurologists, emphasizing the need of an approach to psychiatric symptoms by non psychiatrists in order to ensure an early diagnosis of depression in PD; clinical characteristics and the prevalence rate of depression in PD were evaluated and the relationship of depression in PD with other variables were determined. Sixty PD subjects, who fulfilled the clinical criteria for primary PD, 56.6% males, age range from 44 to 85 years old, in different stages of the disease were investigated. All subjects were submitted to the UPDRS-III, V and VI, Clinical Interview Schedule and the Hamilton depression scale. A significant correlation was found between depression and UPDRS-III, V and VI, anxiety and irritability. The frequency of depression in PD in this study was nearly 40% possessing specific features. Structured interviews and evaluation scales are essential for an accurate diagnosis and proper treatment of depression in PD. PMID:16258653

  17. Parental representations of neurotic and endogenous depressives.

    PubMed

    Parker, G; Kiloh, L; Hayward, L

    1987-01-01

    Low parental care and parental overprotection have been incriminated as risk factors to depression in adult life. The relevance of these parental characteristics to broad depressive 'types' with their varying imputed aetiologies was assessed by having 26 patients with endogenous depression (ED) and 40 with neurotic depression (ND) complete the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) self-report measure. In comparison to their controls, the EDs did not differ on the parental care and overprotection scales. The NDs, by contrast, were more likely than their controls to report their parents as uncaring and overprotective. A PBI care scale score of less than 10 was particularly discriminating, being reported by 3.8% of the EDs and 37.5% of the NDs. While findings support the binary view of depression in terms of broad imputed aetiological factors, several response biases which might influence the findings are considered. PMID:2959703

  18. Gullied Depression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    26 February 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows gullies formed in the wall of a depression located on the floor of Rabe Crater west of the giant impact basin, Hellas Planitia. Gullies such as these are common features on Mars, but the process by which they are formed is not fully understood. The debate centers on the role and source of fluids in the genesis of these features.

    Location near: 44.1oS, 325.9oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer

  19. Depression, anxiety, and the MCMI-III: construct validity and diagnostic efficiency.

    PubMed

    Saulsman, Lisa M

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to enhance knowledge of the construct validity and diagnostic efficiency of the depression- and anxiety-related scales of the MCMI-III (Millon, 1994). The MCMI-III, various concurrent depression and anxiety measures, and an Axis I structured diagnostic interview were administered in a total sample of 696 outpatients with depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, or both. Sound construct validity was found for the Dysthymia and Major Depression clinical syndrome scales and the Avoidant and Depressive personality disorder scales. The validity of the Anxiety scale was poor, showing moderate convergence with panic and worry-related anxiety measures, but problems discriminating from depression. Operating characteristics for discriminating depressed patients from anxious patients were fair for the Major Depression scale, but poor for the Anxiety and Dysthymia scales. PMID:21184333

  20. Diabetes mellitus in people with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder: a systematic review and large scale meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Vancampfort, Davy; Correll, Christoph U; Galling, Britta; Probst, Michel; De Hert, Marc; Ward, Philip B; Rosenbaum, Simon; Gaughran, Fiona; Lally, John; Stubbs, Brendon

    2016-06-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is highly predictive of cardiovascular diseases and can have particularly deleterious health impacts in people with severe mental illness (SMI), i.e. schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or major depressive disorder. This meta-analysis aimed: a) to describe pooled frequencies of T2DM in people with SMI; b) to analyze the influence of demographic, illness and treatment variables as well as T2DM assessment methods; and c) to describe T2DM prevalence in studies directly comparing persons with each specific SMI diagnosis to general population samples. The trim and fill adjusted pooled T2DM prevalence among 438,245 people with SMI was 11.3% (95% CI: 10.0%-12.6%). In antipsychotic-naïve participants, the prevalence of T2DM was 2.9% (95% CI: 1.7%-4.8%). There were no significant diagnostic subgroup differences. A comparative meta-analysis established that multi-episode persons with SMI (N=133,470) were significantly more likely to have T2DM than matched controls (N=5,622,664): relative risk, RR=1.85, 95% CI: 1.45-2.37, p<0.001. The T2DM prevalence was consistently elevated in each of the three major diagnostic subgroups compared to matched controls. Higher T2DM prevalences were observed in women with SMI compared to men (RR=1.43, 95% CI: 1.20-1.69, p<0.001). Multi-episode (versus first-episode) status was the only significant predictor for T2DM in a multivariable meta-regression analysis (r(2) =0.52, p<0.001). The T2DM prevalence was higher in patients prescribed antipsychotics, except for aripriprazole and amisulpride. Routine screening and multidisciplinary management of T2DM is needed. T2DM risks of individual antipsychotic medications should be considered when making treatment choices. PMID:27265707

  1. The association between Diabetes mellitus and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Bădescu, SV; Tătaru, C; Kobylinska, L; Georgescu, EL; Zahiu, DM; Zăgrean, AM; Zăgrean, L

    2016-01-01

    Depression occurrence is two to three times higher in people with diabetes mellitus, the majority of the cases remaining under-diagnosed. The purpose of this review was to show the links between depression and diabetes, point out the importance of identifying depression in diabetic patients and identify the possible ways to address both diseases. Possible common pathophysiological mechanisms as stress and inflammation were explained, while emphasis was made on screening for depression in diabetic patients. An important aspect for the diabetic specialist would be the understanding of the common origins of diabetes and depression and the awareness of this quite common comorbidity, in order to improve the outcomes of both diseases. Abbreviations: DALYS = disability adjusted life years, DSM-5 = American Psychiatric Association Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, DM1 = Type 1 diabetes mellitus, DM2 = Type 2 diabetes mellitus, HPA-axis = hypothalamus – pituitary – adrenal axis, SNS = sympathetic nervous system, BDI = Beck Depression Inventory, CES-D = Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, HADS = Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, PHQ = Patient Health Questionnaire. PMID:27453739

  2. Care of depressed patients with anxiety symptoms.

    PubMed

    Nutt, D J

    1999-01-01

    Anxiety frequently coexists with depression, either as a comorbid anxiety disorder or as anxiety symptoms accompanying a primary depressive disorder. Effective therapy for the treatment of depressive illness must include a consideration of anxiety symptoms, since anxiety has been estimated to be present in up to 96% of patients with depressive illness. Available data also indicate that depressed patients with significant anxiety may be at greater risk for suicide. Of particular clinical importance are symptoms of somatic anxiety: they are present in up to 86% of depressed patients, and the failure to treat them effectively can diminish the ability of a patient to function. Since the overall prognosis for recovery from a major depressive episode is less than optimal in patients with significant anxiety, treatments that can provide an effective and early relief of both depressive and anxiety symptoms are of paramount importance. Drugs with serotonin reuptake inhibition (such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors [SSRIs] or serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors [SNRIs]) may produce transient increases in anxiety symptomatology presenting as jitteriness, agitation, insomnia, and gastrointestinal symptoms when treatment is initiated. Mirtazapine has intrinsic receptor-blocking properties (in particular, serotonin-2 [5-HT2] receptor blockade) that can be linked to an early relief of anxiety symptoms during the treatment. The available data show that mirtazapine is superior to placebo in depressed patients with high baseline anxiety and/or agitation. Furthermore, mirtazapine was statistically significantly superior to both citalopram and paroxetine in alleviating anxiety symptoms early in treatment as assessed by changes from baseline on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety or the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression anxiety/somatization factor, respectively. Mirtazapine provides early and effective relief of both depressive and anxiety symptoms, reducing the

  3. Correlates of Self-Reported and Clinically Assessed Depression in Outpatient Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steer, Robert A.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Assesses levels of depression presented by 76 male and 29 female alcoholics using Beck Depression Inventory and Hamilton Psychiatric Rating Scale for Depression. To estimate overall depression from the self-report and clinical instruments, Z scores for both measures were summed. Correlations were calculated between composite scores and alcoholics'…

  4. Comorbidity of Anxiety-Depression among Australian University Students: Implications for Student Counsellors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitsika, Vicki; Sharpley, Christopher F.

    2012-01-01

    The incidence, factor structure and scale item differences in anxiety-depression comorbidity were investigated in a sample of Australian university students defined according to the presence of anxiety and/or depression. The incidence of anxiety-depression comorbidity was over 32%, about four times that for anxiety or depression alone.…

  5. The effect of dance over depression.

    PubMed

    Akandere, Mehibe; Demir, Banu

    2011-09-01

    Dance and movement therapy are consisted of music, easy exercises and sensorial stimulus and provide drugless treatment for the depression on low rates. In this study, it has been aimed to examine the effect of dance over the depression. A total of 120 healthy male and female conservatory students ranged from 20 and 24 ages volunteered to participate in this study. They were divided randomly into 1 of 2 groups: dance training group (DTG; N = 60) and control group (CG; N = 60). A dance training program was applied to the subjects three days a week (Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday) during 12 weeks. The subjects in the control group did not participate in the training and participated only in the pre and post test measurements. Beck Depression Scale was used for the pre and post test measurements of subjects. 12 weeks of dance training has been found to be effective on the depression levels of the subjects participating in the research as the training group (p < 0.05). The depression level of males and females before training has meaningfully decreased after 12 weeks of dance training (p < 0.05). When the depression levels of the subjects participated in research as the control group were separately evaluated for males and females, no meaningful change has been found in the depression levels during 12 weeks (p > 0.05). In conclusion, it has been seen that dance affects the depression levels of university students positively and decreases their depression levels. PMID:22053537

  6. Adolescent depression in Trinidad and Tobago.

    PubMed

    Maharajh, Hari D; Ali, Akleema; Konings, Monique

    2006-02-01

    This study investigates depression in adolescents in Trinidad and Tobago and identifies any significant trends associated with its occurrence. A stratified random sample of 1.845 adolescent students from 24 schools was administered a questionnaire requesting demographic information and responses to the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale. In all, 14% of the sample was depressed. Depression was 2.18 times more likely to occur in females than males (17.9 % vs. 8.2 %). The peak age was 16 years with a rate of 15.9%. Both attendance at a religious institution and prayer with the family resulted in lower depression rates. Intact families had the lowest rate (11.7 %),while the reconstituted family had the highest rate (25.7 %). Individuals who had alcohol abuse in their family were 1.8 times more likely to be depressed than those without abuse. Adolescents from non-prestige schools were more likely to be depressed than those from prestige schools (p < 0.01). There were no ethnic differences in depression. The findings of this study are comparable to those of developed countries and provide guidelines for the planning and development of strategies for fighting depression in developing countries. PMID:16514507

  7. Early-onset Parkinson's disease and depression.

    PubMed

    Bertucci Filho, Délcio; Teive, Hélio A G; Werneck, Lineu C

    2007-03-01

    Patients with Parkinsons disease (PD) in whom symptoms start before the age of 45 years (EOPD) present different clinical characteristics from those with the late-onset form of the disease. The incidence of depression is believed to be greater in patients with EOPD than with the late-onset form of the disease, although there is no risk factor or marker for depression in patients with PD. We studied 45 patients with EOPD to define the frequency of depression and to identify possible differences between the groups with and without depression. Depression was diagnosed in 16 (35.5%) of the patients, a higher incidence than in the population at large but similar to the figure for late-onset Parkinson disease; 8 (50%) of the patients had mild depression, 4 (25%) moderate depression and 4 (25%) were in remission. There was no relationship between depression and any of the clinical characteristics of the disease, although the EOPD patients with depression presented earlier levodopa-related complications and were more affected on the Hoehn-Yahr, UPDRS and Schwab-England scales. PMID:17420818

  8. Diabetes mellitus in people with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder: a systematic review and large scale meta‐analysis

    PubMed Central

    Vancampfort, Davy; Correll, Christoph U.; Galling, Britta; Probst, Michel; De Hert, Marc; Ward, Philip B.; Rosenbaum, Simon; Gaughran, Fiona; Lally, John; Stubbs, Brendon

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is highly predictive of cardiovascular diseases and can have particularly deleterious health impacts in people with severe mental illness (SMI), i.e. schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or major depressive disorder. This meta‐analysis aimed: a) to describe pooled frequencies of T2DM in people with SMI; b) to analyze the influence of demographic, illness and treatment variables as well as T2DM assessment methods; and c) to describe T2DM prevalence in studies directly comparing persons with each specific SMI diagnosis to general population samples. The trim and fill adjusted pooled T2DM prevalence among 438,245 people with SMI was 11.3% (95% CI: 10.0%‐12.6%). In antipsychotic‐naïve participants, the prevalence of T2DM was 2.9% (95% CI: 1.7%‐4.8%). There were no significant diagnostic subgroup differences. A comparative meta‐analysis established that multi‐episode persons with SMI (N=133,470) were significantly more likely to have T2DM than matched controls (N=5,622,664): relative risk, RR=1.85, 95% CI: 1.45‐2.37, p<0.001. The T2DM prevalence was consistently elevated in each of the three major diagnostic subgroups compared to matched controls. Higher T2DM prevalences were observed in women with SMI compared to men (RR=1.43, 95% CI: 1.20‐1.69, p<0.001). Multi‐episode (versus first‐episode) status was the only significant predictor for T2DM in a multivariable meta‐regression analysis (r2=0.52, p<0.001). The T2DM prevalence was higher in patients prescribed antipsychotics, except for aripriprazole and amisulpride. Routine screening and multidisciplinary management of T2DM is needed. T2DM risks of individual antipsychotic medications should be considered when making treatment choices. PMID:27265707

  9. Symptoms of depression in ICU physicians

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Work and family are the two domains from which most adults develop satisfaction in life. They also are responsible for stressful experiences. There is a perception in the community that work is increasingly the source of much of our stress and distress. Depressive symptoms may be related to repeated stressful experiences. Intensive care unit (ICU) physicians are exposed to major stressors. However, the existence of depressive symptoms in these doctors has been poorly studied. This study was designed to evaluate the prevalence and associated risk factors of depressive symptoms in junior and senior ICU physicians. Method A one-day national survey was conducted in adult intensive care units (ICU) in French public hospitals. Symptoms of depression were assessed using the Centers of Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Results A total of 189 ICUs participated, and 901 surveys were returned (75.8% response rate). Symptoms of depression were found in 23.8% of the respondents using the CES-D scale. Fifty-eight percent of these intensivists presenting symptoms of depression wished to leave their job compared with only 33% of those who did not exhibit signs of depression as assessed by the CES-D scale (p < 0.0001). Multiple logistic regression showed that organizational factors were associated with the presence of depressive symptoms. Workload (long interval since the last nonworking weekend, absence of relief of service until the next working day after a night shift) and impaired relationships with other intensivists were independently associated with the presence of depressive symptoms. A high level of burnout also was related to the presence of depressive symptoms. In contrast, no demographic factors regarding ICU physicians and no factor related to the severity of illness of patients were retained by the model. The quality of relationships with other physicians (from other departments) was associated with the absence of depressive symptoms

  10. Family moves and depression among Coast Guard wives.

    PubMed

    McGarigal, Alyssa; Jablonski, Jessica; Ferri, Christine; Lester, David

    2009-12-01

    A comparison of 78 Coast Guard wives' and 30 firefighters' wives' scores on Zung's self-rating scale for depression showed no differences, but the Coast Guard wives had more often been prescribed antidepressants. Scores on a scale to assess the negative effects of moving were positively associated with current depression for the Coast Guard wives. PMID:20099556

  11. Prenatal Depression Effects on Pregnancy Feelings and Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany; Yando, Regina; Bendell, Debra; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Diego, Miguel A.; Vera, Yanexy; Gil, Karla

    2007-01-01

    Depressed (n = 110) and nondepressed (n = 104) mothers were given a set of self-report measures, including the CES-D (depression), the STAI (anxiety), the STAXI (anger), the Perinatal Anxieties and Attitudes Scale, a questionnaire on substance use and the Feelings About Pregnancy and Delivery Scale that was designed for this study and that…

  12. Assessing the Cognitive Regulation of Emotion in Depressed Stroke Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Margaret A.; Andrewes, David G.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the psychometric properties of a simple scale for measuring positive interpersonal attitudes of depressed stroke patients, with regard to their cognitive limitations. Two versions of the Attitudes Towards Relationships Scale were developed and administered to depressed stroke (n = 48) and control rheumatic/orthopaedic (n = 45)…

  13. Assessing the risk factors for difficult-to-treat depression and treatment-resistant depression.

    PubMed

    Gaynes, Bradley

    2016-02-01

    Depression is the leading cause of disability among people across the globe, according to the World Health Organization. Among those who have been diagnosed, many fail to achieve remission after following recommended antidepressant medication and psychosocial therapies. In particular, difficult-to-treat and treatment-resistant depression may cause severe impairments for patients, including diminished cognitive functioning, increased medical bills, and decreased workplace performance, as well as an increased risk of developing comorbid illnesses. However, many tools are available to clinicians for identifying treatment-resistant depression, including rating scales such as the 9-question Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR16), as well as clinical evidence related to risk factors for difficult-to-treat or treatment-resistant depression. Accurately identifying treatment-resistant depression is the first step toward changing treatment regimens to help patients achieve remission. PMID:26829431

  14. [Depressive symptoms and negative symptoms during schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Dollfus, S; Langlois, S; Assouly-Besse, F; Petit, M

    1995-06-01

    Taking into account the wellknown frequency of depressive and extrapyramidal symptoms in schizophrenia and the rare studies about their evolution, several questions can be raised: How do these different symptoms move? Are there specific characters of each of them? First, stability of negative symptoms evaluated by the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) was studied among 57 schizophrenic patients at admission and at discharge. The course of negative symptoms was compared to that of depressive MADRS (Montgomery et Asberg Depression Rating Scale) and akinetic symptoms (Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale). All the subscores of the SANS decreased significantly but 4 items belonging to the affective flattening subscale and one item belonging to the alogia subscale did not vary significantly, showing the necessity of taking into account the individual items of the SANS rather than the subscale scores to evaluate the course of negative symptoms. Changes in all the SANS subscores except the alogia and anhedonia subscores were associated with variations in scores of other scales. Correlations between the changes of negative symptoms and the changes of depressive symptoms showed the necessity to do more specific scales, for example, scales for depression in schizophrenia. Langlois-Théry et al. (1994) evaluated among 53 schizophrenic patients stabilized with neuroleptic treatment, depressive symptomatology with Echelle de Ralentissement Dépressif (ERD, Widlöcher, 1983) and MADRS, negative symptomatology (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale) and akinesia (ESRS), to determinate whether ERD composed of 3 subscores (motor, ideic and subjective) could be able to evaluate the depressive symptomatology, independently of the measures of negative and akinetic symptomatology.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7628337

  15. Coping Styles, Aggression and Interpersonal Conflicts among Depressed and Non-Depressed People

    PubMed Central

    Nazir, Amber; Mohsin, Humaira

    2013-01-01

    Background: The present study compared people with depressive symptoms and people without depressive symptoms with reference to their coping styles, level of aggression and interpersonal conflicts. Methods: A purposive sample of 128 people (64 depressed and 64 normal controls)was selected from four different teaching hospitals of Lahore. Both the groups were matched on four demographic levels i.e. age, gender, education and monthly income. Symptom Checklist-R was used to screen out depressed and non-depressed people. The Brief COPE, the Aggression Questionnaire and the Bergen Social Relationship Scale were used to assess coping styles, aggression and interpersonal conflicts respectively. The Independent t-test was used to compare the groups. Binary logistic Regression was also carried out to predict the role of research variables in causing depression. Results: The results showed that level of aggression and interpersonal conflict was significantly more in people with depressive symptoms as compared to control group. On the other hand control group was using more adaptive coping styles than people with depressive symptoms but no difference was found in the use of maladaptive coping styles. Conclusion: The present findings revealed that coping styles, aggression and interpersonal conflicts play important role in depression. Therefore, these dimensions must be considered while dealing with the depressive patients. Implications for preventive work are also discussed in the light of previous researches. PMID:24688956

  16. Observational Study of Depression in Patients Undergoing Cervical Disc Arthroplasty: Evidence of a Correlation between Pain Relief and Resolution of Depression

    PubMed Central

    Copay, Anne G.; Schranck, Francine W.; Kopjar, Branko

    2016-01-01

    Background Depression has been associated with inferior outcomes following lumbar spine surgery. Our purpose was to investigate the prevalence of depression and its impact on the outcomes of a large sample of cervical disc arthroplasty patients and to examine the change in depression occurring in conjunction with changes in disability and pain. Methods A cohort of 271 patients who underwent single or multi-level cervical disc arthroplasty at a single orthopedic center filled out the Neck Disability Index, Medical Outcomes Study SF-36, numerical rating scales for neck pain and arm pain, preoperatively and 12-month postoperatively. Patients were classified as Depressed or Non-Depressed, based on their preoperative SF-36 Mental Component Summary (MCS) score. Preoperative scores, 12-month postoperative scores, and change in scores (adjusted for preoperative scores, smoking status, and strenuous job) were compared between Depressed and Non-Depressed. Next, patients in the 2 groups were subdivided into 4 groups: Always Depressed, Never Depressed, No Longer Depressed, and Newly Depressed, based on their combined preoperative and postoperative MCS scores. The same score comparisons were conducted among the 4 groups. Results Forty-four percent (118 of 271) of the patients in our sample were Depressed. Despite a significant improvement after surgery, Depressed patients had poorer pre- and postoperative scores than Non-Depressed patients for NDI, MCS, neck pain and arm pain. Two-thirds (80 of 118) of the Depressed patients were No Longer Depressed at 12 months and had postoperative scores similar to the Never Depressed patients. Eight percent (12 of 153) of the Non-Depressed patients became Newly Depressed by 12 months and had postoperative scores similar to the Always Depressed patients. Conclusions Depression is a common occurrence in patients with cervical disorders. Relief from pain and disability after cervical disc arthroplasty can be associated with relief from

  17. Job characteristics: their relationship to job satisfaction, stress and depression

    PubMed Central

    Steyn, Renier; Vawda, Naseema

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the influences of job characteristics on job satisfaction, stress and depression among South African white collar workers. Participants were managers in full-time employment with large organisations. They completed the Job Diagnostic Survey, the Perceived Stress Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory. A regression approach was used to predict job satisfaction, stress and depression from job characteristics. Job characteristics (skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy and feedback) predicted job satisfaction, as well as stress and depression. Job characteristics are weak predictors of perceived stress and depression. Work related factors, such as interpersonal relations and organisational culture, may better predict mental health in work settings. PMID:25632265

  18. Depression, stress, emotional support, and self-esteem among baccalaureate nursing students in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ross, Ratchneewan; Zeller, Richard; Srisaeng, Pakvilai; Yimmee, Suchawadee; Somchid, Sujidra; Sawatphanit, Wilaiphan

    2005-01-01

    Nursing students are valuable human resources. Detection of potential depression among nursing students is crucial since depression can lead to low productivity, minimized quality of life, and suicidal ideas. Identifying factors affecting depression among students can help nursing educators to find ways to decrease depression. The purpose of this study was to examine rates of depression and the associations between depression and stress, emotional support, and self-esteem among baccalaureate nursing students in Thailand. This correlational, cross-sectional study recruited 331 baccalaureate Thai nursing students. Students completed three instruments that had been translated into Thai: The Center for Epidemiology Studies Depression Scale, Perceived Stress Questionnaire, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Another instrument created in Thai was used to measure emotional support. Results revealed that, when using the standard definition, 50.1% of the students were depressed. Stress was positively related to depression, whereas emotional support and self-esteem were negatively related to depression. PMID:16646920

  19. Lifestyle and Depression among Hong Kong Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Teris; Yip, Paul S.F.

    2016-01-01

    Recent longitudinal data suggest a close association between depression and lifestyle. Little work to date has estimated the prevalence of depression in the nursing workforce in China, nor considered what lifestyle factors might be correlated with it—a gap filled by the present study. The study’s web-based cross-sectional survey solicited data from qualified nurses aged between 21 and 65 registered with the Hong Kong Nursing Council. The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale 21 was used to measure 850 nurses for depression, anxiety and symptoms of stress; a generalized linear regression model examined associations between lifestyle factors and depression. Mean depression symptom scores show a downward linear trend for male and female participants. Gender and age, however, did not emerge as significant predictors of depression. Three lifestyles factors (sleep, entertainment and hobbies) showed a significant association with depression. Nurses should make therapeutic lifestyle changes to improve their work-life balance and safeguard their functioning at work and personal well-being. PMID:26784216

  20. General Medical Drugs Associated with Depression

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Drug-induced depression has been the focus of intense scrutiny by the US Food and Drug Administration and has serious clinical and medicolegal implications. “Gold standard” studies of drug-induced depression—involving randomized, placebo-controlled design and direct assessment of depressive symptoms—are lacking. Based on the available literature, our review suggests that only a few types of drugs are strongly linked with induction of depression. However, the potential for idiosyncratic reactions—not necessarily detected in large-scale studies—suggests that particular caution and careful monitoring are warranted with several types of drugs, including isotretinoin, rimonabant, and alpha interferons. PMID:19724774

  1. Reassurance seeking and depression in adults with mild intellectual disability

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, S. L.; Lickel, A. Hayes; MacLean, W. E.

    2010-01-01

    Background Adults with intellectual disability (ID) experience a high prevalence of depression. Yet, little research has investigated interpersonal processes related to depression in this population. In the general population, depressed persons behave in ways that elicit negative and rejecting reactions from others. In particular, excessive reassurance seeking, defined as excessively and persistently seeking assurance from others that one is lovable and worthy, indirectly contributes to depressive symptoms through evoking negative and rejecting social interactions. We examined the relation between excessive reassurance seeking, negative and rejecting social interactions and depression in adults with mild ID. Method Eighty-seven adults with mild ID and staff completed the Glasgow Depression Scale for people with a Learning Disorder and the Reassurance-Seeking Scale. In addition, adults with mild ID reported on their experience of negative social interactions, and staff rated their relative preference to interact with the adult with mild ID. A meditational model of the indirect effect of excessive reassurance seeking on depressive symptoms via negative and rejecting social interactions was tested. Results Excessive reassurance seeking was positively related to depressive symptoms. Negative and rejecting interactions partially mediated the relation between excessive reassurance seeking and depressive symptoms. Conclusions Findings identify an important interpersonal process in depression. Efforts to educate staff and adults with mild ID about excessive reassurance seeking and ways to alter it may be useful in treating depression. PMID:19017166

  2. [Possibilities of group psychological correction of depressiveness among adolescents].

    PubMed

    Markeviciūte, Aurelija; Gostautas, Antanas; Pilkauskiene, Ina

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the possibility of psychological correction in groups to decrease depressiveness among senior schoolchildren. Data of 87 (53 girls and 34 boys) depressive schoolchildren, who participated in the sessions for developing communication skills were analyzed. Depressiveness was assessed by the Depression scale of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory for Adolescents. Communication skills training method consisted of ten structured hourly sessions. The effectiveness of psychological correction was assessed by the Abbreviated self-awareness scale and the Depression scale of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory for Adolescents. The results showed decrease in depressiveness and self-worth both among boys and girls (p<0.005). Among boys decrease in average present self-worth scores was noted, while among girls decrease in average present self-worth and average self-worth deviation. Depressiveness as well as self-worth decreased better among boys and girls, which had attended most sessions (p<0.005). CONCLUSIONS. Psychological correction enabled adolescents to decrease the manifestation of depressiveness, and to increase their self-worth: they became more active, communicable, optimistic and in a better mood. Depressiveness among boys decreased better among adolescents, who attended most sessions. Depressiveness decreased better among girls irrespective of their involvement in the sessions, and among actively involved boys. Self-awareness among boys and girls increased better among adolescents, who attended most sessions. Self-awareness increased better among girls irrespective of their involvement in the sessions, and among actively involved boys. PMID:12878825

  3. Older Adults and Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... your depression or making it worse. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is sometimes used for severe depression that is ... does not respond to medication or therapy. Although ECT once had a bad reputation, it has greatly ...

  4. Genetic biomarkers of depression

    PubMed Central

    Tamatam, Anand; Khanum, Farhath; Bawa, Amarinder Singh

    2012-01-01

    Depression is a term that has been used to describe a variety of ailments, ranging from minor to incapacitating. Clinically significant depression, termed as major depression, is a serious condition characterized not only by depressed mood but also by a cluster of somatic, cognitive, and motivational symptoms. Significant research efforts are aimed to understand the neurobiological as well as psychiatric disorders, and the evaluation of treatment of these disorders is still based solely on the assessment of symptoms. In order to identify the biological markers for depression, we have focused on gathering information on different factors responsible for depression including stress, genetic variations, neurotransmitters, and cytokines and chemokines previously suggested to be involved in the pathophysiology of depression. The present review illustrates the potential of biomarker profiling for psychiatric disorders, when conducted in large collections. The review highlighted the biomarker signatures for depression, warranting further investigation. PMID:22754217

  5. Persistent depressive disorder

    MedlinePlus

    The exact cause of persistent depressive disorder (PDD) is unknown. It tends to run in families. PDD occurs more often in women. Most people with PDD will also have an episode of major depression at some point in their lives. ...

  6. Depression in the Workplace

    MedlinePlus

    ... on treatment for heart disease iv . The annual economic cost of depression in 1995 was $600 per ... Lowe SW, Berglund PA, Corey-Lisle PK. The economic burden of depression in the United States: how ...

  7. Heart disease and depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... a type of talk therapy commonly used to treat depression. It helps you change thinking patterns and behaviors ... are two of the most common used to treat depression. Your provider or therapist can help you find ...

  8. Depression and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Steven M; Rumsfeld, John S

    2015-10-01

    There is a wealth of evidence linking depression to increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and worse outcomes among patients with known CVD. In addition, there are safe and effective treatments for depression. Despite this, depression remains under-recognized and undertreated in patients at risk for or living with CVD. In this review, we first summarize the evidence linking depression to increased risk of CVD and worse patient outcomes. We then review the mechanisms by which depression may contribute to cardiovascular risk and poor cardiovascular outcomes. We then summarize prior studies of depression treatment on cardiovascular outcomes. Finally, we offer guidance in the identification and management of depression among CVD populations. Given that 1 in 4 CVD patients has concurrent depression, application of these best-practices will assist providers in achieving optimal outcomes for their CVD patients. PMID:25850976

  9. Screening for Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... events Visit the podcast archive Mood Disorders Depression Bipolar Disorder Anxiety Screening Center Co-occurring Illnesses/Disorders Related ... for Your Patients Information about Depression Information about Bipolar Disorder Wellness Tools DBSA Support Groups Active Research Studies ...

  10. Irrational Beliefs in Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, R. Eric

    1977-01-01

    To examine the hypothesis that certain types of irrational beliefs covary with the severity of depression, 156 undergraduates completed the Beck Depression Inventory and R. G. Jone's Irrational Beliefs Test (IBT). (Author)

  11. Depression: Working It Out

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Depression Working It Out Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents ... of this technique. Especially when combined with medications, it can help relieve depression. Research shows that it ...

  12. Help With Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... Girls Raises the Risk of Depression New York Times Well Blog) Earlier onset of breast development in ... Bell: I’m Over Staying Silent About Depression Time: Motto There’s nothing weak about struggling with mental ...

  13. Depression - stopping your medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... prescription medicines you may take to help with depression, anxiety, or pain. Like any medicine, there are ... at risk for: Returning symptoms, such as severe depression Increased risk of suicide (for some people) Withdrawal ...

  14. Depression in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stickle, Fred; Onedera, Jill D.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to address selected aspects of depression in older adults. Specifically, symptoms, risk factors, diagnosis, and interventions for depression in older adults are reviewed.

  15. Postpartum Depression Action Plan

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Postpartum Depression | Postpartum Depression Action Plan Patient __________________________ Physician/NP/PA __________________ Clinic ____________________________ Phone Number ____________________ Choose one area and add other areas as you begin to ...

  16. Assessment of Childhood Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefkowitz, Monroe M.; Tesiny, Edward P.

    1980-01-01

    Examined the psychometric properties of the Peer Nomination Inventory of Depression (PNID). Reliability proved highly acceptable. Content validity was determined by experts' judgments. Subjects with high PNID scores exhibited depressed intellectual functioning, poor social behavior, and diminished ebullience. (Author)

  17. Managing your depression - teens

    MedlinePlus

    ... Jansen KL, Cloy JA. Treatment of childhood and adolescent depression. Am Fam Physician . 2012;86:442-448. PMID: ... Services Task Force. Screening and treatment for major depressive ... Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. Pediatrics . ...

  18. Differences in depressive symptoms between Korean and American outpatients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Hong Jin; Walker, Rosemary S; Inamori, Aya; Hong, Jin Pyo; Cho, Maeng Je; Baer, Lee; Clain, Alisabet; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David

    2014-05-01

    Previous epidemiologic studies have revealed that East-Asian populations experience fewer depressive symptoms than American populations do. However, it is unclear whether this difference applies to clinical patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). This present study included 1592 Korean and 3744 American outpatients who were 18 years of age or older and met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. criteria for single or recurrent episodes of nonpsychotic MDD, and evaluated their symptoms of depression using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire Short Form. Korean patients scored significantly lower for guilt and depressed mood items, and higher for hypochondriasis and suicidality items than American patients did, after adjusting for total Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scores. Conversely, no significant differences were found in quality and function of daily life between groups. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that Korean patients experienced less frequent depressed mood and guilt, including verbal and nonverbal expression of depressed mood [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.08-0.23] and feelings of punishment (AOR = 0.036, 95% CI 0.025-0.054) when compared with Americans after adjusting for age and sex. Conversely, Korean patients experienced more frequent suicidality and hypochondriasis, including suicidal ideas or gestures (AOR = 2.10, 95% CI 1.60-2.76) and self-absorption of hypochondriasis (AOR = 1.94, 95% CI 1.70-2.20). In conclusion, decreased expression of depressed mood and guilt may cause underdiagnosis of MDD in Korean patients. Early diagnosis of and intervention for depression and suicide may be delayed because of this specific cross-cultural difference in depression symptoms. PMID:24323201

  19. Risk factors associated with depressive symptoms among undergraduate students.

    PubMed

    Besharat, Mohammad Ali; Issazadegan, Ali; Etemadinia, Mahin; Golssanamlou, Safar; Abdolmanafi, Atefe

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship of several cognitive and emotional variables including perfectionism, rumination, and attachment quality with depressive symptoms in a sample of Iranian undergraduate students. Two hundred and ninety nine undergraduate students (144 males, 156 females) from Urmia University of Technology, Urmia University, and Urmia University of Medical Sciences participated in this study. Participants were asked to complete Tehran Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (TMPS), Ruminative Responses Scale (RRS), Revised Adult Attachment Scale (RAAS), and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). The results demonstrated that insecurity of attachment, socially prescribed perfectionism, and rumination could significantly predict the depressive symptoms in undergraduate students. Confirming predictive risk factors of depressive symptoms, results of the present study can produce an empirical basis for designing educational and health programs for people at risk. Accordingly, proper assessment of the risk factors of depressive symptoms in health care settings may provide invaluable information for prevention and management programs. PMID:25042947

  20. Method of treating depression

    DOEpatents

    Henn, Fritz

    2013-04-09

    Methods for treatment of depression-related mood disorders in mammals, particularly humans are disclosed. The methods of the invention include administration of compounds capable of enhancing glutamate transporter activity in the brain of mammals suffering from depression. ATP-sensitive K.sup.+ channel openers and .beta.-lactam antibiotics are used to enhance glutamate transport and to treat depression-related mood disorders and depressive symptoms.

  1. Method of treating depression

    DOEpatents

    Henn, Fritz

    2012-01-24

    Methods for treatment of depression-related mood disorders in mammals, particularly humans are disclosed. The methods of the invention include administration of compounds capable of enhancing glutamate transporter activity in the brain of mammals suffering from depression. ATP-sensitive K.sup.+ channel openers and .beta.-lactam antibiotics are used to enhance glutamate transport and to treat depression-related mood disorders and depressive symptoms.

  2. 17 CFR 229.10 - (Item 10) General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... financial information required to be disclosed by Article 11 of Regulation S-X (17 CFR 210.11-01 through 210... pursuant to its Records Control Schedule (17 CFR 200.80f). (e) Use of non-GAAP financial measures in... not an annual report on Form 10-K or Form 20-F (17 CFR 249.220f), a registrant need not include...

  3. 17 CFR 229.10 - (Item 10) General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... not an annual report on Form 10-K or Form 20-F (17 CFR 249.220f), a registrant need not include the... pursuant to its Records Control Schedule (17 CFR 200.80f). (e) Use of non-GAAP financial measures in... financial information required to be disclosed by Article 11 of Regulation S-X (17 CFR 210.11-01 through...

  4. 17 CFR 229.10 - (Item 10) General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... measures; and (iii) If the filing is not an annual report on Form 10-K or Form 20-F (17 CFR 249.220f), a... have not been disposed of by the Commission pursuant to its Records Control Schedule (17 CFR 200.80f... (17 CFR 210.11-01 through 210.11-03); or (E) Use titles or descriptions of non-GAAP financial...

  5. 17 CFR 229.10 - (Item 10) General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... future performance. Management, however, must have a reasonable basis for such an assessment. Although a... Rule 3b-6 under the Exchange Act (§ 240.3b-6 of this chapter) of management's projections of future economic performance that have a reasonable basis and are presented in an appropriate format....

  6. 17 CFR 229.10 - (Item 10) General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... have not been disposed of by the Commission pursuant to its Records Control Schedule (17 CFR 200.80f... (17 CFR 210.11-01 through 210.11-03); or (E) Use titles or descriptions of non-GAAP financial measures... measures; and (iii) If the filing is not an annual report on Form 10-K or Form 20-F (17 CFR 249.220f),...

  7. Platelet serotonin concentration and depressive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Peitl, Vjekoslav; Vidrih, Branka; Karlović, Zoran; Getaldić, Biserka; Peitl, Milena; Karlović, Dalibor

    2016-05-30

    Depressive symptoms seem to be frequent in schizophrenia, but so far they have received less attention than other symptom domains. Impaired serotonergic neurotransmission has been implicated in the pathogenesis of depression and schizophrenia. The objectives of this study were to investigate platelet serotonin concentrations in schizophrenic patients with and without depressive symptoms, and to investigate the association between platelet serotonin concentrations and symptoms of schizophrenia, mostly depressive symptoms. A total of 364 patients were included in the study, 237 of which had significant depressive symptoms. Significant depressive symptoms were defined by the cut-off score of 7 or more on Calgary Depression Rating Scale (CDSS). Platelet serotonin concentrations were assessed by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Prevalence of depression in patients with schizophrenia was 65.1%. Schizophrenic patients with depressive symptoms showed lower platelet serotonin concentrations (mean±SD; 490.6±401.2) compared to schizophrenic patients without depressive symptoms (mean±SD; 660.9±471.5). An inverse correlation was established between platelet serotonin concentration and depressive symptoms, with more severe symptoms being associated with lower platelet serotonin concentrations. Depressive symptoms in schizophrenic patients may be associated with reduced concentrations of platelet serotonin. PMID:27137969

  8. Borderline personality features in depressed or anxious patients.

    PubMed

    Distel, Marijn A; Smit, Johannes H; Spinhoven, Philip; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2016-07-30

    Anxiety and depression frequently co-occur with borderline personality disorder. Relatively little research examined the presence of borderline personality features and its main domains (affective instability, identity problems, negative relationships and self-harm) in individuals with remitted and current anxiety and depression. Participants with current (n=597) or remitted (n=1115) anxiety and/or depression and healthy controls (n=431) were selected from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. Assessments included the Personality Assessment Inventory - Borderline Features Scale and several clinical characteristics of anxiety and depression. Borderline personality features were more common in depression than in anxiety. Current comorbid anxiety and depression was associated with most borderline personality features. Anxiety and depression status explained 29.7% of the variance in borderline personality features and 3.8% (self-harm) to 31% (identity problems) of the variance in the four domains. A large part of the variance was shared between anxiety and depression but both disorders also explained a significant amount of unique variance. The severity of anxiety and depression and the level of daily dysfunctioning was positively associated with borderline personality features. Individuals with a longer duration of anxiety and depression showed more affective instability and identity problems. These findings suggest that patients with anxiety and depression may benefit from an assessment of personality pathology as it may have implications for psychological and pharmacological treatment. PMID:27183108

  9. Depression and disease progression in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: A comprehensive meta-regression analysis.

    PubMed

    Pagnini, Francesco; Manzoni, Gian Mauro; Tagliaferri, Aurora; Gibbons, Chris J

    2015-08-01

    Depression in people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, a fatal and progressive neurodegenerative disorder, is a serious issue with important clinical consequences. However, physical impairment may confound the diagnosis when using generic questionnaires. We conducted a comprehensive review of literature. Mean scores from depression questionnaires were meta-regressed on study-level mean time since onset of symptoms. Data from 103 studies (3190 subjects) indicate that the Beck Depression Inventory and, to a lesser degree, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale are influenced by the time since symptom onset, strongly related to physical impairment. Our results suggest that widely used depression scales overestimate depression due to confounding with physical symptoms. PMID:24764286

  10. Heart disease and depression

    MedlinePlus

    Heart disease and depression often go hand-in-hand. You are are more likely to feel sad or depressed after a heart attack ... heart disease. The good news is that treating depression may help improve both your mental and physical ...

  11. Depression and Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Marshall, Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Contains four articles related to depression and aging. Compares normal adults with those having a major depressive disorder. Focuses on life satisfaction in the elderly, describing an individualized measure of life satisfaction. Describes similarities and differences between grief and depression. Contains a psychometric analysis of the Zung…

  12. Importance of Depression in Diabetes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lustman, Patrick J.; Clouse, Ray E.; Anderson, Ryan J.

    Depression doubles the likelihood of comorbid depression, which presents as major depression in 11% and subsyndromal depression in 31% of patients with the medical illness. The course of depression is chronic, and afflicted patients suffer an average of one episode annually. Depression has unique importance in diabetes because of its association…

  13. Winter depression and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Christine R

    2012-12-01

    Depression is a common and often harmful disorder, which is frequently associated with the winter season. Research has shown a link between type 2 diabetes mellitus and depression. Furthermore, diabetics with depression have a higher rate of adverse outcomes. Little has been published regarding the seasonality of depression in diabetics. The case report described in this article concerns a 65-year-old woman with type 2 diabetes and a history of winter depression. Current evidence-based management options are reviewed. PMID:23089656

  14. [Symptomatic and concurrent depressions].

    PubMed

    Terra, J L

    1999-04-01

    The symptomatic and concurrent depressions description need to resort to comorbidity and symptomatic co-occurrence concepts. Patients with depressive symptoms or in a major depressive episode may also be suffering from another nonmood psychiatric disorders as alcoholism, anxiety or eating disorders. Many general medical conditions which are link with depression are illustrated with the examples of cancer, coronary artery disease, endocrinologic diseases, dementia, stroke and chronic fatigue syndrome. When depression and another psychiatric or medical conditions occur together, it is important to provide to the practitioner guidelines for the decision to treat one of the two disorders. This paper contains an example of decisional algorithm. PMID:10337217

  15. Evaluating the Measurement Structure of the Abbreviated HIV Stigma Scale in a Sample of African Americans Living with HIV/AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Eboneé T.; Yaghmaian, Rana A.; Best, Andrew; Chan, Fong; Burrell, Reginald, Jr.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to validate the 10-item version of the HIV Stigma Scale (HSS-10) in a sample of African Americans with HIV/AIDS. Method: One hundred and ten African Americans living with HIV/AIDS were recruited from 3 case management agencies in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Measurement structure of the HSS-10 was evaluated using…

  16. Testing the temporal relationship between maternal and adolescent depressive and anxiety symptoms in a community sample.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ruth C; Clark, Shaunna L; Dahne, Jennifer; Stratton, Kelcey J; MacPherson, Laura; Lejuez, C W; Amstadter, Ananda B

    2015-01-01

    Transactional models have been used to explain the relationship between maternal depression and child behavioral problems; however, few studies have examined transactional models for maternal depression and adolescent depression and anxiety. Using an autoregressive cross-lagged analysis, we examined the longitudinal association between maternal and adolescent depression to determine the extent to which maternal depression influences adolescent depression and anxiety, and vice versa, over the course of a 4-year period. Participants were a community sample of 277 mother-adolescent dyads with offspring 10 to 14 years of age at the 1st year used in the analyses (43.7% female; 35% African American, 2.9% Hispanic/Latino). Depressive symptoms were assessed using maternal self-report (Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale; Radloff, 1977), and adolescent depression and anxiety were assessed by self-report (Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale; Chorpita, Yim, Moffitt, Umemoto, & Francis, 2000). The final model, χ(2)(14) = 23.74, p = .05 (TLI = .97, CFI = .98, RMSEA = .05), indicated that maternal depression was significantly associated with adolescent depression 2 years later. Of interest, adolescent depression did not significantly predict maternal depression, and the association between maternal and adolescent depression was not moderated by gender, age, or ethnicity. The association between maternal depression and adolescent anxiety was weaker than that observed for adolescent depression. Results suggest that the transaction model of maternal depression may not extend to adolescent depression and anxiety. Furthermore, maternal depression can have an enduring effect on adolescent depression, and continued research and clinical monitoring over extended periods is warranted. PMID:24702257

  17. Basic concepts of depression

    PubMed Central

    Paykel, Eugene S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews concepts of depression, including history and classification. The original broad concept of melancholia included all forms of quiet insanity. The term depression began to appear in the nineteenth century as did the modern concept of affective disorders, with the core disturbance now viewed as one of mood. The 1930s saw the introduction of defined criteria into official diagnostic schemes. The modern separation into unipolar and bipolar disorder was introduced following empirical research by Angst and Perris in the 1960s. The partially overlapping distinctions between psychotic and neurotic depression, and between endogenous and reactive depression, started to generate debate in the 1920s, with considerable multivariate research in the 1960s. The symptom element in endogenous depression currently survives in melancholia or somatic syndrome. Life stress is common in various depressive pictures. Dysthymia, a valuable diagnosis, represents a form of what was regarded earlier as neurotic depression. Other subtypes are also discussed. PMID:18979941

  18. Depression in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Thapar, Anita; Collishaw, Stephan; Pine, Daniel S; Thapar, Ajay K

    2012-01-01

    Unipolar depressive disorder in adolescence is common worldwide but often unrecognised. The incidence, notably in girls, rises sharply after puberty and, by the end of adolescence, the 1 year prevalence rate exceeds 4%. The burden is highest in low-income and middle-income countries. Depression is associated with sub stantial present and future morbidity, and heightens suicide risk. The strongest risk factors for depression in adolescents are a family history of depression and exposure to psychosocial stress. Inherited risks, developmental factors, sex hormones, and psychosocial adversity interact to increase risk through hormonal factors and associated perturbed neural pathways. Although many similarities between depression in adolescence and depression in adulthood exist, in adolescents the use of antidepressants is of concern and opinions about clinical management are divided. Effective treatments are available, but choices are dependent on depression severity and available resources. Prevention strategies targeted at high-risk groups are promising. PMID:22305766

  19. Criterion-related validity of the Arabic Children's Depression Inventory.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Khalek, A M

    1998-06-01

    The Arabic Children's Depression Inventory and the Beck Depression Inventory were administered to 109 Kuwaiti school students whose ages ranged from 14 to 18 years. Pearson correlations for total score on the two scales were .57, .83, and .75 for boys, girls, and the combined group, respectively, denoting the convergent validity of the new Arabic inventory against the Beck Depression Inventory as criterion. PMID:9676502

  20. The Consequences of Foreclosure for Depressive Symptomatology

    PubMed Central

    Osypuk, Theresa L.; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Platt, Robert; Misra, Dawn

    2012-01-01

    Purpose We tested whether experiencing the stressful event of a home mortgage foreclosure was associated with depressive symptomatology. Methods Data derive from a cohort study of 662 new mothers in the Life-course Influences on Fetal Environment (LIFE) Study. Eligibility included age 18-45 Black/African American mothers who had just given birth to a singleton baby. Mothers enrolled June 2009 to December 2010 were interviewed immediately after giving birth. Our outcome measure was depressive symptoms based on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale, dichotomized to measure severe depressive symptomatology during the week prior to the interview. Results 8% of the sample experienced foreclosure in the past 2 years. Covariate-adjusted Poisson regression models showed that women experiencing a recent foreclosure had 1.76 times higher risk for severe depressive symptoms during the week prior to birth compared to women not experiencing foreclosure (95%CI: 1.25 to 2.47, p=.001); foreclosure was also associated with higher excess absolute risk for depressive symptoms (adjusted risk difference =0.173, 95%CI: 0.044 to 0.301, p=.008). Conclusions Women who have recently experienced foreclosure are at risk for severe depressive symptoms. The mental health needs of pregnant women experiencing foreclosure or other housing stressors should be considered in clinical practice. PMID:22625995

  1. Depressive symptoms in institutionalized older adults

    PubMed Central

    Santiago, Lívia Maria; Mattos, Inês Echenique

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of depressive symptoms among institutionalized elderly individuals and to analyze factors associated with this condition. METHODS This was a cross-sectional study involving 462 individuals aged 60 or older, residents in long stay institutions in four Brazilian municipalities. The dependent variable was assessed using the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale. Poisson’s regression was used to evaluate associations with co-variables. We investigated which variables were most relevant in terms of presence of depressive symptoms within the studied context through factor analysis. RESULTS Prevalence of depressive symptoms was 48.7%. The variables associated with depressive symptoms were: regular/bad/very bad self-rated health; comorbidities; hospitalizations; and lack of friends in the institution. Five components accounted for 49.2% of total variance of the sample: functioning, social support, sensory deficiency, institutionalization and health conditions. In the factor analysis, functionality and social support were the components which explained a large part of observed variance. CONCLUSIONS A high prevalence of depressive symptoms, with significant variation in distribution, was observed. Such results emphasize the importance of health conditions and functioning for institutionalized older individuals developing depression. They also point to the importance of providing opportunities for interaction among institutionalized individuals. PMID:24897042

  2. Postpartum depression among women with unintended pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Cynthia Nunes de Oliveira; Alves, Sandra Valongueiro; Ludermir, Ana Bernarda; de Araújo, Thália Velho Barreto

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the association between unintended pregnancy and postpartum depression. METHODS This is a prospective cohort study conducted with 1,121 pregnant aged 18 to 49 years, who attended the prenatal program devised by the Brazilian Family Health Strategy, Recife, PE, Northeastern Brazil, between July 2005 and December 2006. We interviewed 1,121 women during pregnancy and 1,057 after childbirth. Unintended pregnancy was evaluated during the first interview and postpartum depression symptoms were assessed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Screening Scale. The crude and adjusted odds ratios for the studied association were estimated using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS The frequency for unintended pregnancy was 60.2%; 25.9% presented postpartum depression symptoms. Those who had unintended pregnancies had a higher likelihood of presenting this symptoms, even after adjusting for confounding variables (OR = 1.48; 95%CI 1.09;2.01). When the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20) variable was included, the association decreased, however, remained statistically significant (OR = 1.42; 95%CI 1.03;1.97). CONCLUSIONS Unintended pregnancy showed association with subsequent postpartum depressive symptoms. This suggests that high values in Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Screening Scale may result from unintended pregnancy. PMID:26083941

  3. Effect of social support on depression of internet addicts and the mediating role of loneliness

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Many studies have determined the existence of an extremely close association between Internet addiction and depression. However, the reasons for the depression of Internet addicts have not been fully investigated. Aim This cross-sectional study aims to explore the factors that influence depression among Internet addicts. Methods A total of 162 male Internet addicts completed the Emotional and Social Loneliness Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and Self-Rating Depression Scale. Results Loneliness and lack of social support are significantly correlated with depression among Internet addicts. Structural Equation Modeling results indicate that social support partially mediates loneliness and depression. Conclusions Both social support and loneliness were negatively associated with depression of Internet addicts whereas loneliness plays a mediating role between social support and depression. PMID:25147581

  4. Associations of Pulmonary Function with Dementia and Depression in an Older Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Suelin; Kang, Hee-Ju; Bae, Kyung-Yeol; Kim, Sung-Wan; Shin, Il-Seon; Yoon, Jin-Sang

    2015-01-01

    Objective Previous studies reported an association between pulmonary function and cognitive function. However, not much has been investigated in this regard concerning dementia in a community population, taking depression into account. We aimed to examine the associations of pulmonary function with dementia and depression in a community-dwelling elderly population. Methods A total of 1,038 participants were evaluated for dementia and depression using the Korean version of the Geriatric Mental State Schedule B3 (GMS B3-K), the Community Screening Interview for Dementia-Korean version (CSID-K) and a modified 10-item Word List Learning from the Consortium to Establish a Registry of Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD). Pulmonary function was measured as forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) from a forced expiratory maneuver. Results Prevalence rates of dementia and depression were 11.0% and 10.4%, respectively. Individuals who were diagnosed with dementia manifested a lower mean FEV1, as compared to those without dementia after adjusting for potential confounders, including disability and depression [OR=1.34 (1.05-1.72)]. Following gender-stratified analysis, the association was only statistically significant in women [OR=1.40 (1.04-1.89)]. The association between depression and mean FEV1 was less significant compared to dementia [OR=1.32 (1.10-1.58)]. However, the association was no longer significant after adjusting for age and years of education. No association was significant in the gender-stratified analysis. Conclusion Decreased pulmonary function was associated with dementia status only in an older female Korean population. Pulmonary function and depression were not significantly associated in either gender. PMID:26508954

  5. Depressive Symptoms Among Older Adults in Mexico City

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Fernando A.; Sánchez-Garcia, Sergio; Juárez-Cedillo, Teresa; Espinel-Bermúdez, Claudia; García-Gonzalez, José Juan; Gallegos-Carrillo, Katia; Franco-Marina, Francisco; Gallo, Joseph J.

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Ageing and depression are associated with disability and have significant consequences for health systems in many other developing countries. Depression prevalence figures among the elderly are scarce in developing countries. OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of depressive symptoms and their cross-sectional association with selected covariates in a community sample of Mexico City older adults affiliated to the main healthcare provider. DESIGN Cross-sectional, multistage community survey. PARTICIPANTS A total of 7,449 persons aged 60 years and older. MEASUREMENTS Depression was assessed using the 30-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS); cognitive impairment, using the Mini-Mental State Examination; and health-related quality of life with the SF-36 questionnaire. MAIN RESULTS The prevalence of significant depressive symptoms was estimated to be 21.7%, and 25.3% in those aged 80 and older. After correcting for GDS sensitivity and specificity, major depression prevalence was estimated at 13.2%. Comparisons that follow are adjusted for age, sex, education and stressful life events. The prevalence of cognitive impairment was estimated to be 18.9% in depressed elderly and 13.7% in non-depressed. SF-36 overall scores were 48.0 in depressed participants and 68.2 in non-depressed (adjusted mean difference = −20.2, 95% CI = −21.3, −19.1). Compared to non-depressed elderly, the odds of healthcare utilization were higher among those depressed, both for any health problem (aOR 1.4, 95% CI = 1.1, 1.7) and for emotional problems (aOR 2.7, 95% CI = 2.2, 3.2). CONCLUSIONS According to GDS estimates, one of every eight Mexican older adults had major depressive symptoms. Detection and management of older patients with depression should be a high priority in developing countries. PMID:18818976

  6. Effects of Qigong on Depression: A Systemic Review

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Byeongsang; Choi, Sun Mi; Inamori, Aya; Rosenthal, David; Yeung, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Physical exercises and relaxation have been found to be beneficial for depression. However, there is little evidence on the use of Qigong, a mind-body practice integrating gentle exercise and relaxation, in the management of depression. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the effects of Qigong on depression. The paper examined clinical trials measuring the effect of Qigong on depression within six large-scale medical research databases (PubMed, Medline, ProQuest, Science Direct, EMBASE, and PsycInfo) till October 2011. Key words “Qigong,” “depression,” and “mood” were used. Ten studies were identified as original randomized controlled trial (RCT) studies investigating the effect of Qigong on depression as primary (n = 2) or secondary outcome (n = 8). Four studies reported positive results of the Qigong treatment on depression; two reported that Qigong effect on depression was as effective as physical exercise. One study reported that Qigong was comparable to a conventional rehabilitation program, but the remaining three studies found no benefits of Qigong on depression. While the evidence suggests the potential effects of Qigong in the treatment of depression, the review of the literature shows inconclusive results. Further research using rigorous study designs is necessary to investigate the effectiveness of Qigong in depression. PMID:23533461

  7. Life expectancy without depression increases among Brazilian older adults

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Flávia Cristina Drumond; Wu, Fan; Lebrão, Maria Lúcia; Duarte, Yeda Aparecida de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate life expectancy with and without depressive symptoms in older adults for the years 2000 and 2010. METHODS We evaluated individuals aged 60 years or older (n = 1,862 in 2000 and n = 1,280 in 2010), participants of the Saúde, Bem-Estar e Envelhecimento (SABE – Health, Wellbeing and Aging) study in in Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. Depression was measured using the shorter version of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15); respondents scoring ≥ 6 were classified as having depression. Estimates of life expectancy with and without depression were obtained using the Sullivan method. RESULTS Data from 2000 indicate that 60-year-old men could expect to live, on average, 14.7 years without depression and 60-year-old women could expect to live 16.5 years without depression. By 2010, life expectancy without depression had increased to 16.7 years for men and 17.8 years for women. Expected length of life with depression differed by sex, with women expected to live more years with depression than men. CONCLUSIONS Between 2000 and 2010, life expectancy without depression in Sao Paulo increased. However, older adults in Brazil, especially older women, still face a serious burden of mental illness. PMID:27143612

  8. Exercise for Adolescents with Depressive Disorders: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Dopp, Richard R.; Mooney, Ann J.; Armitage, Roseanne; King, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Adolescence is associated with increased depressive symptoms and decreased aerobic exercise, yet the relationship between exercise and clinical depression among adolescents requires further examination. This study assessed the feasibility of a 12-week intervention designed to increase exercise for adolescents with depressive disorders: Will a teenager with depression exercise? Methods. Participants were 13 adolescents with depression reporting low levels of aerobic exercise. They completed a 12-week intervention (15 supervised exercise sessions and 21 independent sessions). Exercise was measured through the aerobic exercise Questionnaire, actigraphy, and heart-rate monitoring. Depression was measured with the Children's Depression Rating Scale, Revised, and Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology, Self-Report. Results. All participants who started the intervention completed the protocol, attending all supervised exercise sessions. Actigraphy verified 81% adherence to the protocol's independent sessions. Analysis of secondary outcomes showed a significant increase in exercise levels and a significant decrease in depression severity. Initially, ten participants were overweight or obese, and three were healthy weight. After 12 weeks of exercise, the number of participants in the healthy-weight category doubled. Conclusions. Adolescents suffering from depression can complete a rigorous protocol requiring structured increases in aerobic exercise. Participants showed significant increases in exercise, and significant decreases in depressive symptoms. PMID:22888415

  9. Mortality and depressive symptoms in inhabitants of residential homes.

    PubMed

    Cuijpers, P

    2001-02-01

    It has been hypothesised that there is a relationship between depression and mortality rate. Some earlier studies have confirmed this relationship, but others have not. In the present study the association was examined between depressive symptoms and mortality in the inhabitants of ten residential homes for the elderly in The Netherlands. Four hundred and twenty-four subjects who were not cognitively impaired, and who participated in an intervention study, were included. One year after the initial interview, they were contacted again and it was found that 69 (16.3%) had died. In the initial interview, depressive symptoms and psychological distress were assessed with the Geriatric Depression Scale and the mental health subscale of the MOS-SF-20. The following correlates of depression were assessed: functional impairment, earlier depression, pain, social support, loneliness, and the presence of seven common chronic illnesses. In bivariate analyses no significant relationship was found between depression and mortality, while controlling for living in an experimental or control home. In logistic regression analyses with mortality as the dependent variable and depressive symptoms, demographic variables, and correlates of depression as predictors, no significant relationship between depression and mortality was found either. It is concluded that no evidence was found in this population for a significant relationship between depression and mortality. Mortality was related to measures of social support, to activities of daily living, and to the presence of chronic non-specific lung disease. PMID:11241717

  10. Prevalence of depression and anxiety among cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Nikbakhsh, Novin; Moudi, Sussan; Abbasian, Setareh; Khafri, Soraya

    2014-01-01

    Background: Depression and anxiety had negative effects on the quality of life of cancer patients, thus hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS) is a useful instrument for screening these problems. This research was performed to assess the prevalence of their anxiety and depression. Methods: From 2012-2013, one hundred fifty patients with recent diagnosis of different cancers in Babol, Iran were assessed. A presumptive diagnosis of anxiety and depression was based on a four point 14-item HADS. The score of 0-7 means without clinical symptoms of anxiety or depression, 8-10 mild and 11-21 symptomatic anxiety or depression. The data were collected and analyzed. Results: Forty-four (29.3%) patients had mild anxiety, 25 (16.7%) symptomatic anxiety but mild and symptomatic depression were seen in 40 (26.7%) and 32 (21.3%) patients, respectively. There were significant relationships between anxiety, depression and the age group of the patients with higher frequency in older ages. There were significant relationships between anxiety and depression with the type of cancer and type of treatment. Breast and stomach cancer patients had the highest prevalence of anxiety and depression and the higher prevalence was observed in the patients who received chemotherapy as the single treatment. Conclusion: The results show that patients with breast and stomach cancer had the highest prevalence of anxiety and depression among all others cancer patients. PMID:25202445

  11. Does Personality Predict Depression and Use of an Internet-Based Intervention for Depression among Adolescents?

    PubMed Central

    Vangberg, Hans Christian B.; Lillevoll, Kjersti R.; Waterloo, Knut; Eisemann, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Background. Focus upon depression and prevention of its occurrence among adolescents is increasing. Novel ways of dealing with this serious problem have become available especially by means of internet-based prevention and treatment programs of depression and anxiety. The use of Internet-based intervention programs among adolescents has revealed some difficulties in implementation that need to be further elucidated. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between personality and adolescent depression and the characteristics of users of an Internet-based intervention program. Method. The Junior Temperament and Character Inventory (JTCI), the General Self-Efficacy scale (GSE) and the Centre for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale (CES-D) have been administered to a sample (n = 1234) of Norwegian senior high-school students. Results. Multiple regression analysis revealed associations between depression and gender, and several JTCI domains and facets. In line with previous findings in adults, high Harm Avoidance and low Self-Directedness emerged as the strongest predictors of adolescent depressive symptoms. Further, in logistic regression analysis with the covariates JTCI, GSE and CES-D, the only significant variables predicting use/non-use were the CES-D and the temperament domain Reward Dependence. Conclusion. The results in this study revealed level of depressive symptoms as the strongest predictor of the use of the Internet based intervention and that personality might provide useful information about the users. PMID:22928095

  12. Depression associated with dementia.

    PubMed

    Gutzmann, H; Qazi, A

    2015-06-01

    Depression and cognitive disorders, including dementia and mild cognitive impairment, are common disorders in old age. Depression is frequent in dementia, causing distress, reducing the quality of life, exacerbating cognitive and functional impairment and increasing caregiver stress. Even mild levels of depression can significantly add to the functional impairment of dementia patients and the severity of psychopathological and neurological impairments increases with increasing severity of depression. Depressive symptoms may be both a risk factor for, as well as a prodrome of dementia. Major depressive syndrome of Alzheimer's disease may be among the most common mood disorders of older adults. Treating depression is therefore a key clinical priority to improve the quality of life both of people with dementia as well as their carergivers. Nonpharmacological approaches and watchful waiting should be attempted first in patients who present with mild to moderate depression and dementia. In cases of severe depression or depression not able to be managed through nonpharmacological means, antidepressant therapy should be considered. PMID:25962363

  13. The depressive situation

    PubMed Central

    A. Jacobs, Kerrin

    2013-01-01

    From a naturalistic perspective on mental illness, depression is often described in terms of biological dysfunctions, while a normative perspective emphasizes the lived experience of depression as a harmful condition. The paper relates a conceptual analysis of “depressive situation” to an analysis of the lived experience of depression. As such, it predominantly aims to specify depression as a harmful condition in lights of normative perspective on mental disorder, but partially refers to empirical research, i.e., naturalistic perspective on depression, to exemplarily stress on the methodological merits and limits of relating phenomenological considerations closer to empirical research. The depressive situation is further specified with an examination of the evaluative dynamics by which individuals meaningfully relate to themselves, others and the world. These evaluative dynamics emerge out of the interplay of pre-reflective and reflective processes, which are significantly altered in depression. Such alterations of the evaluative structure are inextricably intertwined with significant distortions of practical sense in depression. From a phenomenological perspective, these distortions of practical sense show in characteristic experiences of evaluative incoherence and impairments of agency. Finally, this paper focuses on an examination of “evaluative incapacity,” which has the integrative potential to capture a range of typical changes of meaningful relatedness that determine the depressive situation. PMID:23882238

  14. Reduced Venous Blood Basophil Count and Anxious Depression in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Ji Hyun; Kim, Hee-Jin; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Papakostas, George I; Nierenberg, Andrew; Heo, Jung-Yoon

    2016-01-01

    Objective Anxious depression has a distinct neurobiology, clinical course and treatment response from non-anxious depression. Role of inflammation in anxious depression has not been examined. As an exploratory study to characterize the role of inflammation on a development of anxious depression, we aimed to determine the relationship between white blood cell (WBC) subset counts and anxiety in individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods A total of 709 patients who were newly diagnosed with MDD were recruited. Anxiety levels of participants were evaluated using the Anxiety/ Somatization subitem of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. The association between WBC subset fraction and anxiety was evaluated. Results Basophil and eosinophil sub-fractions showed significant negative correlations with HAM-D anxiety/somatization factor scores (basophils: r=-0.092, p=0.014 and eosinophils: r=-0.075, p=0.046). When an anxiety score (a sum of somatic and psychic anxiety) was entered as a dependent variable, only basophils showed significant negative association with the anxiety scores after adjusting for all other WBC subset counts and demographic factors (t=-2.57, p=0.010). Conclusion This study showed that anxious depression had a decreased basophil subfraction, which might be associated with involvement of inflammation in development of anxious depression. PMID:27247599

  15. Change in Psychosocial Functioning and Depressive Symptoms during Acute-Phase Cognitive Therapy for Depression

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Todd W.; Vittengl, Jeffrey R.; Clark, Lee Anna; Carmody, Thomas; Thase, Michael E.; Jarrett, Robin B.

    2013-01-01

    Background Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is highly prevalent, is recurrent, and impairs people’s work, relationships, and leisure. Acute-phase treatments improve psychosocial impairment associated with MDD, but how these improvements occur is unclear. In this study, we tested the hypotheses that reductions in depressive symptoms exceed, precede, and predict improvements in psychosocial functioning. Method Patients with recurrent MDD (N = 523; 68% women, 81% Caucasian; M = 42 years old) received acute-phase Cognitive Therapy (CT; Beck, Rush, Shaw & Emery, 1979). We measured functioning and symptom severity with the Social Adjustment Scale—Self-Report (Weissman & Bothwell, 1976), Range of Impaired Functioning Tool (Leon et al., 1999), Beck Depression Inventory (Beck, Ward, Mendelson, Mock, & Erbaugh, 1961), Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (Hamilton, 1960) and Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology—Self-Report (Rush et al., 1996). We tested cross-lagged correlations between functioning and symptoms measured at baseline and the beginning, middle and end of acute phase CT. Results Pre- to post- treatment improvement in psychosocial functioning and depressive symptoms was large and inter-correlated. Depressive symptoms improved more and sooner than did psychosocial functioning. But among four assessments across the course of treatment, improvements in functioning more strongly predicted later improvement in symptoms than vice versa. Conclusions Improvements in psychosocial functioning and depressive symptoms correlate substantially during acute-phase CT, and improvements in functioning may play a role in subsequent symptom reduction during acute-phase CT. PMID:21781377

  16. Amyloid-Associated Depression

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaoyan; Steffens, David C.; Au, Rhoda; Folstein, Marshal; Summergrad, Paul; Yee, Jacqueline; Rosenberg, Irwin; Mwamburi, D. Mkaya; Qiu, Wei Qiao

    2010-01-01

    Context A high ratio of plasma amyloid-β peptide 40 (Aβ40) toAβ42, determined by both high Aβ40 and low Aβ42 levels, increases the risk of Alzheimer disease. In a previous study, we reported that depression is also associated with low plasma Aβ42 levels in the elderly population. Objective To characterize plasma Aβ40:Aβ42 ratio and cognitive function in elderly individuals with and without depression. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Homecare agencies. Participants A total of 995 homebound elderly individuals of whom 348 were defined as depressed by a Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression score of 16 or greater. Main Outcome Measures Cognitive domains of memory, language, executive, and visuospatial functions according to levels of plasma Aβ40 and Aβ42 peptides. Results Subjects with depression had lower plasma Aβ42 levels (median, 14.1 vs 19.2 pg/mL; P = .006) and a higher plasma Aβ40:Aβ42 ratio (median, 8.9 vs 6.4; P < .001) than did those without depression in the absence of cardiovascular disease and antidepressant use. The interaction between depression and plasma Aβ40:Aβ42 ratio was associated with lower memory score (β = −1.9, SE = 0.7, P = .006) after adjusting for potentially confounders. Relative to those without depression, “amyloid-associated depression,” defined by presence of depression and a high plasma Aβ40:Aβ42 ratio, was associated with greater impairment in memory, visuospatial ability, and executive function; in contrast, nonamyloid depression was not associated with memory impairment but with other cognitive disabilities. Conclusion Amyloid-associated depression may define a subtype of depression representing a prodromal manifestation of Alzheimer disease. PMID:18458206

  17. Effect of Sahaj Yoga on depressive disorders.

    PubMed

    Sharma, V K; Das, S; Mondal, S; Goswampi, U; Gandhi, A

    2005-01-01

    Sahaj Yoga is a meditative technique that has been found to have beneficial effects in some psycho-somatic illnesses. The study was carried out on 30 cases (19 Males, 11 females, age 18-45 years) of major depression diagnosed on the basis of DSM IV criteria. The patients were then randomly divided into two groups: Group 1: (10 Males & 5 Females) Patients who were practising Sahaj Yoga and also received conventional anti-depressants. Group 2: (9 Males & 6 Females) Patients who were only receiving conventional anti-depressants. Training in Sahaj yoga was conducted under the supervision of a trained Sahaj Yogi for 8 weeks. At start of the study, all the patients were subjected to Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) and Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (HAM-A). Above scales were again assessed after two months of treatment. There was significant improvement in HAM-D as well as HAM-A scores in both Group 1 and Group 2 patients (P<0.001). However, percentage improvement in HAM-D scores and HAM-A scores in patients receiving Sahaj Yoga was significantly higher than in Group 2 patients. The number of patients who went into remission after two months of intervention were also significantly higher in Group 1 patients (P=0.02). The present study demonstrates that Sahaj Yoga has got a potential role as a component in the management of depressive disorders. PMID:16579401

  18. Digit Symbol Performance in Mild Dementia and Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Robert P.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Patients with mild dementia of the Alzheimer's type (DAT), patients with major depression, and normal control subjects completed the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) Digit Symbol test of incidental memory. Though mild DAT and depressed patients had equivalent deficits in psychomotor speed, DAT patients recalled fewer digit-symbol items.…

  19. Depressive Symptoms during Adolescence: Do Learning Difficulties Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiuru, Noona; Leskinen, Esko; Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Salmela-Aro, Katariina

    2011-01-01

    To examine whether learning difficulties play a role in depressive symptoms, 658 Finnish adolescents were asked to complete scales for depression three times during the transition to post-comprehensive education. They also reported on their learning difficulties and feelings of inadequacy as a student. The results showed that learning difficulties…

  20. The Roles of Sex, Gender, and Coping in Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Cindy Ellen; DiGiuseppe, Raymond; Froh, Jeffrey

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the roles of coping and masculinity in higher rates of depressive symptoms among adolescent girls, as compared to boys. A model was designed and tested through path analysis, which involved the variables of sex, gender, problem-focused coping, rumination, and distraction. The Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale and the Bem…

  1. Benchmarks for Psychotherapy Efficacy in Adult Major Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minami, Takuya; Wampold, Bruce E.; Serlin, Ronald C.; Kircher, John C.; Brown, George S.

    2007-01-01

    This study estimates pretreatment-posttreatment effect size benchmarks for the treatment of major depression in adults that may be useful in evaluating psychotherapy effectiveness in clinical practice. Treatment efficacy benchmarks for major depression were derived for 3 different types of outcome measures: the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression…

  2. Enhanced platelet reactivity in pediatric depression: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Can, Mehmet M; Guler, Gamze; Guler, Ekrem; Ozveren, Olcay; Turan, Burak; DiNicolantinio, James J; Kipshidze, Nodar; Serebruany, Victor

    2015-10-01

    Depression is associated with poor prognosis for cardiovascular disease (CVD) including mortality. Among multiple mechanisms linking depression and CVD, changes in platelet reactivity are known to be one of the major confounders of such adverse association. However, there are very limited data in children. Thus, we evaluated some conventional hemostatic indices including whole blood platelet aggregation in patients with documented pediatric depression and compared these data with those obtained from healthy children. The pediatric patients fulfilled criteria for major depression with a minimum score of 19 on the 21-item Beck Depression Inventory Scale. Plasma fibrinogen, D-dimer, platelet count, mean platelet volume, and platelet aggregation induced by ADP and collagen were measured in 67 pediatric patients with depression and matched by age and sex with 78 healthy controls. As expected, the depressed children had significantly higher BECK scales (P = 0.001) compared with the normal subjects. Platelet aggregation induced by ADP and collagen (P = 0.0001 for both) was significantly higher in depressed children. BECK scale scores correlated significantly with platelet aggregation induced by ADP (r = 0.3, P = 0.001) and collagen (r = 0.4, P = 0.01). In contrast, platelet counts, fibrinogen, D-dimer, mean platelet volume, and antithrombin-III levels were almost identical between both groups. Children with depression exhibit mostly intact hemostatic parameters, with the exception of significantly higher platelet activity when compared with healthy controls. These data match well with prior evidence from depressed adults supporting the hypothesis that platelets participate in the pathogenesis of depression. However, beyond pure assessment of platelet activity, other elements including serotonin content and cell receptor changes in pediatric depression should be elucidated before randomized trial(s) can be justified. PMID:25688456

  3. Ethiopathogenesis of Depressive Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Pasquini, M; Berardelli, I; Biondi, M

    2014-01-01

    Etiology of depressive disorders is still unknown. Several factors are involved in its pathophysiology such as neurotransmitters and neuroendocrine alterations, genetics, life events and their appraisal. Some of these components are strictly linked. Subjects with a family member affected by mood disorders are more prone to suffer from depressive disorders. It is also true that receiving feedbacks of indifference or neglect during childhood from one parent who suffer from depression may represent a factor of vulnerability. Indeed, reaction to a specific negative event may determine an increased allostasis which lead to a depressive episode. Thus, a psychological cause does not exclude a neurobiological cascade. Whereas in other cases recurrent depressive episodes appear in absence of any negative life event. This review provides a set of data regarding the current etiopathogenesis models of depression, with a particular attention to the neurobiological correlates and vulnerability factors. PMID:25614753

  4. Pulsed depressed collector

    SciTech Connect

    Kemp, Mark A

    2015-11-03

    A high power RF device has an electron beam cavity, a modulator, and a circuit for feed-forward energy recovery from a multi-stage depressed collector to the modulator. The electron beam cavity include a cathode, an anode, and the multi-stage depressed collector, and the modulator is configured to provide pulses to the cathode. Voltages of the electrode stages of the multi-stage depressed collector are allowed to float as determined by fixed impedances seen by the electrode stages. The energy recovery circuit includes a storage capacitor that dynamically biases potentials of the electrode stages of the multi-stage depressed collector and provides recovered energy from the electrode stages of the multi-stage depressed collector to the modulator. The circuit may also include a step-down transformer, where the electrode stages of the multi-stage depressed collector are electrically connected to separate taps on the step-down transformer.

  5. Diabetes and Depression

    PubMed Central

    de Groot, Mary; Golden, Sherita Hill

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes and depression occur together approximately twice as frequently as would be predicted by chance alone. Comorbid diabetes and depression are a major clinical challenge as the outcomes of both conditions are worsened by the other. Although the psychological burden of diabetes may contribute to depression, this explanation does not fully explain the relationship between these 2 conditions. Both conditions may be driven by shared underlying biological and behavioral mechanisms, such as hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation, inflammation, sleep disturbance, inactive lifestyle, poor dietary habits, and environmental and cultural risk factors. Depression is frequently missed in people with diabetes despite effective screening tools being available. Both psychological interventions and antidepressants are effective in treating depressive symptoms in people with diabetes but have mixed effects on glycemic control. Clear care pathways involving a multidisciplinary team are needed to obtain optimal medical and psychiatric outcomes for people with comorbid diabetes and depression. PMID:24743941

  6. [Anxiety and depression levels in rape offenders].

    PubMed

    Herrera-Hernández, E; Marván, L; Saavedra, M; Contreras, C M

    1993-03-01

    Whether the active subject of rape possesses a particular personality trait is a much debated matter. It is an accepted fact that a small amount of rapists fall into the sadistic diagnostic category. Other psychopatologic traits likely to identify a rapist are, however, unknown. The present study was carried over at a jail near the city of Xalapa (Veracruz) Mexico. Hamilton, IDARE, and Zung scales, in their modified Spanish version were applied to a sample of imprisoned adult rapists. Compared to their control group (men serving sentences for other felonies), rapists scored higher in anxiety, and depression scales. In the light of these results, it is suggested that some rapists are likely to be anxious-depressive subjects that, after having "acquired" a sociopathic repertoire, offend other people in conditions of indefensiveness, contrary to depressive subjects who aggress themselves. PMID:8237434

  7. Depression and the Gifted Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Cindy

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses the incidence of depression and signs of depression in gifted children, including perfectionism, emotional sensitivity, existential depression, and a history of depression in the family. A list of questions to consider regarding possible signs of depression in children is provided. (Contains references.) (CR)

  8. [Sleep in depression].

    PubMed

    Pringuey, D; Darcourt, G

    1990-11-28

    Insomnia is a cardinal symptom of depression, side by side with alterations of mood and slowing down of psychomotor activities. It bears witness to a rupture in the built-in circadian rhythm: architectural changes in sleep betray a biological desynchronization. Insomnia is also a failed attempt at finding a solution to depression. Total deprivation of sleep for one night may damp down the depressive disorders, and so does partial sleep deprivation in the second part of the night during several days. This leads to the conclusion that the waking-sleep system participates in the expression of symptoms of depression or even contributes to the genesis of the disease. PMID:2148377

  9. Depression and eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Casper, R C

    1998-01-01

    Both depressive disorders and eating disorders are multidimensional and heterogeneous disorders. This paper examines the nature of their relationship by reviewing clinical descriptive, family-genetic, treatment, and biological studies that relate to the issue. The studies confirm the prominence of depressive symptoms and depressive disorders in eating disorders. Other psychiatric syndromes which occur with less frequency, such as anxiety disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorders in anorexia nervosa, or personality disorders, anxiety disorders, and substance abuse in bulimia nervosa, also play an important role in the development and maintenance of eating disorders. Since few studies have controlled for starvation-induced physical, endocrine, or psychological changes which mimic the symptoms considered diagnostic for depression, further research will be needed. The evidence for a shared etiology is not compelling for anorexia nervosa and is at most suggestive for bulimia nervosa. Since in contemporary cases dieting-induced weight loss is the principal trigger, women with self-critical or depressive features will be disproportionately recruited into eating disorders. The model that fits the data best would accommodate a relationship between eating disorders and the full spectrum of depressive disorders from no depression to severe depression, with somewhat higher rates of depression in bulimic anorectic and bulimia nervosa patients than in restricting anorexia nervosa patients, but the model would admit a specific pathophysiology and psychopathology in each eating disorder. PMID:9809221

  10. Postpartum depression: a metasynthesis.

    PubMed

    Beck, Cheryl Tatano

    2002-04-01

    Postpartum depression has been described as a dangerous thief that robs mothers of the love and happiness they expected to feel toward their newborn babies. Even though the number of qualitative studies on postpartum depression is increasing, knowledge development will be impeded unless the rich understandings gleaned from these studies are synthesized. Using Noblit and Hare's 1988 approach, the author conducted a metasynthesis of 18 qualitative studies on postpartum depression. Four overarching themes emerged that reflected four perspectives involved in postpartum depression: (a) incongruity between expectations and the reality of motherhood, (b) spiraling downward, (c) pervasive loss, and (d) making gains. Implications for clinical practice and theory development are addressed. PMID:11939248

  11. Late-life Depressive Symptoms: Prediction Models of Change

    PubMed Central

    García-Peña, Carmen; Wagner, Fernando A.; Sánchez-García, Sergio; Espinel-Bermúdez, Claudia; Juárez-Cedillo, Teresa; Pérez-Zepeda, Mario; Arango-Lopera, Victoria; Franco-Marina, Francisco; Ramírez-Aldana, Ricardo; Gallo, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Background Depression is a well-recognised problem in the elderly. The aim of this study was to determine the factors associated with predictors of change in depressive symptoms, both in subjects with and without baseline significant depressive symptoms. Methods Longitudinal study of community-dwelling elderly people (>60 years or older), baseline evaluations, and two additional evaluations were reported. Depressive symptoms were measured using a 30-item Geriatric Depression Scale, and a score of 11 was used as cutoff point for significant depressive symptoms in order to stratify the analyses in two groups: with significant depressive symptoms and without significant depressive symptoms. Sociodemographic data, social support, anxiety, cognition, positive affect, control locus, activities of daily living, recent traumatic life events, physical activity, comorbidities, and quality of life were evaluated. Multi-level generalised estimating equation model was used to assess the impact on the trajectory of depressive symptoms. Results 7,882 subjects were assessed, with 29.42% attrition. At baseline assessment, mean age was 70.96 years, 61.15% were women. Trajectories of depressive symptoms had a decreasing trend. Stronger associations in those with significant depressive symptoms, were social support (OR .971, p<.001), chronic pain (OR 2.277, p<.001) and higher locus of control (OR .581, p<.001). In contrast for those without baseline significant depressive symptoms anxiety and a higher locus of control were the strongest associations. Conclusions New insights into late-life depression are provided, with special emphasis in differentiated factors influencing the trajectory when stratifying regarding basal status of significant depressive symptoms. Limitations The study has not included clinical evaluations and nutritional assessments PMID:23731940

  12. Prevalence, Work-Loss Days and Quality of Life of Community Dwelling Subjects with Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Jee Hoon; Ahn, Seung Hee; Seong, Su Jeong; Ryu, Ji Min

    2013-01-01

    The nationwide prevalence of major depressive disorder in Korea is lower than most countries, despite the high suicide rate. To explain this unexpectedly low prevalence, we examined the functional disability and quality of life in community-dwelling subjects with significant depressive symptoms not diagnosable as depressive disorder. A total of 1,029 subjects, randomly chosen from catchment areas, were interviewed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale, Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, WHO Quality of Life scale, and the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule. Those with scores over 21 on the depression scale were interviewed by a psychiatrist for diagnostic confirmation. Among community-dwelling subjects, the 1-month prevalence of major depressive disorder was 2.2%, but the 1-month prevalence of depressive symptoms not diagnosable as depressive disorder was 14.1%. Depressive disorders were the cause of 24.7% of work loss days, while depressive symptoms not diagnosable as depressive disorder were the cause of 17.2% of work loss days. These findings support the dimensional or spectrum approach to depressive disorder in the community and might be the missing link between the apparent low prevalence of depressive disorder and high suicide rate in Korea. PMID:23399785

  13. Prevalence, work-loss days and quality of life of community dwelling subjects with depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Jee Hoon; Ahn, Seung Hee; Seong, Su Jeong; Ryu, Ji Min; Cho, Maeng Je

    2013-02-01

    The nationwide prevalence of major depressive disorder in Korea is lower than most countries, despite the high suicide rate. To explain this unexpectedly low prevalence, we examined the functional disability and quality of life in community-dwelling subjects with significant depressive symptoms not diagnosable as depressive disorder. A total of 1,029 subjects, randomly chosen from catchment areas, were interviewed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale, Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, WHO Quality of Life scale, and the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule. Those with scores over 21 on the depression scale were interviewed by a psychiatrist for diagnostic confirmation. Among community-dwelling subjects, the 1-month prevalence of major depressive disorder was 2.2%, but the 1-month prevalence of depressive symptoms not diagnosable as depressive disorder was 14.1%. Depressive disorders were the cause of 24.7% of work loss days, while depressive symptoms not diagnosable as depressive disorder were the cause of 17.2% of work loss days. These findings support the dimensional or spectrum approach to depressive disorder in the community and might be the missing link between the apparent low prevalence of depressive disorder and high suicide rate in Korea. PMID:23399785

  14. The Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure as a Measure of Implicit Depression and the Role of Psychological Flexibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussey, Ian; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot

    2012-01-01

    A broad implicit measure of depressive emotional reactions was created by mapping the content of the depression scale from the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) on to the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP). Participants were asked to relate pairings of antecedents and emotional reactions that followed the formula "When X…

  15. A Primary Healthcare Screening Tool to Identify Depression and Anxiety Disorders among People with Epilepsy in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Mbewe, Edward K; Uys, Leana R; Nkwanyana, Ntombifikile M; Birbeck, Gretchen L

    2013-01-01

    Among the 50 million people with epilepsy (PWE) worldwide, ~15 to 60% also likely suffer from depression and/or anxiety disorders and 80% reside in low-income regions where these comorbidities are often under-recognised and undertreated. We developed a 10-item screening tool for the detection of depression and anxiety disorders for use in Zambian primary care clinics where the baseline detection rate of depression and/or anxiety disorders among PWE is ~1%. Consenting adults (n=595) completed the screening tool and 53.7% screened positive. The screen was validated by a Psychiatric Clinical Officer using DMS-IV criteria. Cronbach’s Alpha was 0.77 overall, and 0.67 and 0.57 for the depression and anxiety components, respectively. Other test characteristics included sensitivity 56.63%, specificity 68.05%, positive predictive value 67.3%, and negative predictive value 57.5%. Interrater reliability (kappa) was 0.85. The psychometric qualities of the tool are inadequate. Development of further, better quality instruments is needed though this will likely require a longer tool which the healthcare workers delivering epilepsy care services have previously deemed non-feasible for routine use. As we work toward development and acceptability of a more optimal instrument, use of this initial screening tool which healthcare workers are willing to use may increase the identification of comorbid depression and anxiety in the low resource setting described in the study. PMID:23510742

  16. A primary healthcare screening tool to identify depression and anxiety disorders among people with epilepsy in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Mbewe, Edward K; Uys, Leana R; Nkwanyana, Ntombifikile M; Birbeck, Gretchen L

    2013-05-01

    Among the 50 million people with epilepsy (PWE) worldwide, ~15 to 60% also likely suffer from depression and/or anxiety disorders, and 80% reside in low-income regions where these comorbidities are often underrecognized and undertreated. We developed a 10-item screening tool for the detection of depression and anxiety disorders for use in Zambian primary care clinics where the baseline detection rate of depression and/or anxiety disorders among PWE is ~1%. Consenting adults (n=595) completed the screening tool, and 53.7% screened positive. The screen was validated by a psychiatric clinical officer using DMS-IV criteria. Cronbach's alpha was 0.77 overall and 0.67 and 0.57 for the depression and anxiety components, respectively. Other test characteristics included sensitivity 56.6%, specificity 68.1%, positive predictive value 67.3%, and negative predictive value 57.5%. Interrater reliability (kappa) was 0.85. The psychometric qualities of the tool are inadequate. Development of further, better quality instruments is needed though this will likely require a longer tool which the healthcare workers delivering epilepsy care services have previously deemed nonfeasible for routine use. As we work toward development and acceptability of a more optimal instrument, use of this initial screening tool which healthcare workers are willing to use may increase the identification of comorbid depression and anxiety in the low resource setting described in the study. PMID:23510742

  17. On the Factor Structure of the Beck Depression Inventory-II: G Is the Key

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouwer, Danny; Meijer, Rob R.; Zevalkink, Jolien

    2013-01-01

    The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II; Beck, Steer, & Brown, 1996) is intended to measure severity of depression, and because items represent a broad range of depressive symptoms, some multidimensionality exists. In recent factor-analytic studies, there has been a debate about whether the BDI-II can be considered as one scale or whether…

  18. Relations between Suicidal Ideation and Dimensions of Depressive Symptoms in High-School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chabrol, Henri; Rodgers, Rachel; Rousseau, Amelie

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the link between the different dimensions of depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation in adolescents. A sample of 1057 adolescents completed the CES-D (Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale) and three additional items measuring suicidal ideation. The four dimensions of depressive symptoms on the…

  19. Social Comparison Processes and Depressive Symptoms in Children and Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedley, Darren; Young, Robyn

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between social comparison processes and depressive symptoms in 36 participants (34 males and two females) aged 10 to 16 years with Asperger syndrome. Participants completed the Social Comparison Scale and the Children's Depression Inventory. Depressive symptoms were significantly correlated with the…

  20. Postnatal Depression and Infant Health Practices among High-Risk Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zajicek-Farber, Michaela L.

    2009-01-01

    Women's postnatal depressive symptoms have been associated with many adverse outcomes for children. The current study examined the frequency association with relative risk between postnatal depressive symptoms and mothers' use of preventative infant health practices. The study used the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and Parental…

  1. The Sensitivity and Specificity of Depression Screening Tools among Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ailey, Sarah H.

    2009-01-01

    This study describes the validity and the sensitivity and specificity of depression screening tools among adults with intellectual and disabilities (ID). Subjects (N = 75) were interviewed with the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) and the Glasgow Depression Scale for People with a Learning Disability (GDS-LD) and also completed a clinical…

  2. The Factor Structure of the Beck Depression Inventory-II: An Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanheule, Stijn; Desmet, Mattias; Groenvynck, Hans; Rosseel, Yves; Fontaine, Johnny

    2008-01-01

    The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) is a frequently used scale for measuring depressive severity. BDI-II data (404 clinical; 695 nonclinical adults) were analyzed by means of confirmatory factor analysis to test whether the factor structure model with a somatic-affective and cognitive component of depression, formulated by Beck and…

  3. [Anxiety and depression in medicine: models and measurement].

    PubMed

    Telles-Correia, Diogo; Barbosa, António

    2009-01-01

    Anxiety and depression are very common in patients with medical illness and can be associated to a reduction in quality of life and a poor clinical evolution. The actual concept of anxiety is based on many theoretical models as Goldstein's anxiety model, State/trate anxiety model, Lazarus' transactional stress model. The concept of depression is based on models such as Beck's Cognitive Model and Seligman's learned helplessness model of depression. The link between anxiety/depression and medical illness can be of two kinds: biological (immunological, neuroendocrine, inflammatory systems) and behavioural (coping strategies, adherence to medical advice and prescription, etc). The evaluation of anxiety and depression in medical patient can be done by many ways: taxonomic VS dimensional approach, auto VS heteroevaluation; specific instruments VS nonespecific instruments. All of these approaches are explored in this article. The only instruments used to evaluate anxiety and depression validated to the Portuguese population are: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), o Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) (BDI) e o State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). The only scale validated exclusively in the medical population, and that can overcome the influence that medical disease can have in depression and anxiety is HADS. PMID:19341597

  4. Depressive symptoms in Chinese Americans with Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Steven Z.; Matthews, Brandy R.; Yokoyama, Jennifer S.; Betty Lai, Ngan; Ong, Hilary; Tse, Marian; Yuan, Runfen Frances; Lin, Amy; Kramer, Joel; Yaffe, Kristine; Miller, Bruce L.; Rosen, Howard J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the prevalence of geriatric depression in Chinese American patients with cognitive impairment and to compare the prevalence to that of cognitively normal elderly Chinese Americans and Caucasians. Design We compared rates of depressive symptomatology in elderly Chinese Americans to a matched group of Caucasians, with and without dementia, and assessed rates of treatment for depression across all groups. Setting Academic subspecialty referral clinic. Participants Participants included a total of 137 elderly, cognitively impaired and cognitively normal Chinese Americans and 140 Caucasians with and without cognitive impairment. Measurements Demographic (e.g. age, education, race, language ability), cognitive (MMSE score), medical (e.g. cardiovascular morbidity) and functional (Clinical Dementia Rating Scale) risk factors were assessed for association with depressive symptomatology as measured by the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). Results Depression (GDS score ≥ 6 out of 15) was significantly more common in cognitively impaired Chinese Americans (35%) versus cognitively impaired Caucasians (15%, χ2 = 33.8, p<0.05), and Chinese Americans were less likely to be on treatment for depression (12%) than Caucasians (37%, χ2 = 41, p<0.05). Cognitive and functional impairment, age and education were all independent predictors of GDS score. Rates of depression were not significantly different in cognitively normal Chinese American (6%) and Caucasian (0%) groups. Conclusions These findings indicate that elderly Chinese Americans with cognitive impairment are at significantly increased risk for unrecognized depression and that education, and/or other cultural factors associated with education may contribute to this risk. PMID:24021225

  5. Attachment Styles, Abuse Experiences and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunduz, Bulent; Capri, Burhan; Akbay, Sinem Evin; Tunc, Aygul

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to examine the relationship between abuse experiences, depression and attachment styles. The data for this study was collected from 251 students (123 females and 128 males) who attend Mersin University. As a part of the data collection, students completed the Experiences in Affiliation Inventory, Childhood Trauma Scale and Brief…

  6. Depression Storage Thresholds in Prairie Hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martz, L. W.

    2012-12-01

    An initial and essential step in hydrologic modeling is to decompose a watershed into its constituent channel and catchment segments and to measure the geometric andenvironmental properties of those segments. TOPAZ (Topographic Parameterization) is a widely used software system that processes digital elevation models todelineate channel and catchment segments and to measure their geometric properties. TOPAZ and similar software are now widely used in meso-scale hydrologic modeling. TOPAZ and similar software assume that surface depressions are errors in the digital elevation data and apply various techniques to fill those depressions and direct flow across the resulting surface. However, it is the case in many low-relief areas of the earth's surface that depressions are real features that function as significant storage reservoirs. These depressions are typically strung together by connecting channels and the filling of depressions represents major thresholds in changing the contributing area of streams. This paper examines some recent advances in digital terrain analysis for hydrologic model parameterization that address the role of depression storage thresholds in producing step-wise and major changes in watershed contributing areas.

  7. Nutritional aspects of depression.

    PubMed

    Lang, Undine E; Beglinger, Christoph; Schweinfurth, Nina; Walter, Marc; Borgwardt, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Several nutrition, food and dietary compounds have been suggested to be involved in the onset and maintenance of depressive disorders and in the severity of depressive symptoms. Nutritional compounds might modulate depression associated biomarkers and parallel the development of depression, obesity and diabetes. In this context, recent studies revealed new mediators of both energy homeostasis and mood changes (i.e. IGF-1, NPY, BDNF, ghrelin, leptin, CCK, GLP-1, AGE, glucose metabolism and microbiota) acting in gut brain circuits. In this context several healthy foods such as olive oil, fish, fruits, vegetables, nuts, legumes, poultry, dairy and unprocessed meat have been inversely associated with depression risk and even have been postulated to improve depressive symptoms. In contrast, unhealthy western dietary patterns including the consumption of sweetened beverage, refined food, fried food, processed meat, refined grain, and high fat diary, biscuits, snacking and pastries have been shown to be associated with an increased risk of depression in longitudinal studies. However, it is always difficult to conclude a real prospective causal relationship from these mostly retrospective studies as depressed individuals might also change their eating habits secondarily to their depression. Additionally specific selected nutritional compounds, e.g. calcium, chromium, folate, PUFAs, vitamin D, B12, zinc, magnesium and D-serine have been postulated to be used as ad-on strategies in antidepressant treatment. In this context, dietary and lifestyle interventions may be a desirable, effective, pragmatical and non-stigmatizing prevention and treatment strategy for depression. At last, several medications (pioglitazone, metformin, exenatide, atorvastatin, gram-negative antibiotics), which have traditionally been used to treat metabolic disorders showed a certain potential to treat depression in first randomized controlled clinical trials. PMID:26402520

  8. Economic Hardship and Depression Among Women in Latino Farmworker Families.

    PubMed

    Pulgar, Camila A; Trejo, Grisel; Suerken, Cynthia; Ip, Edward H; Arcury, Thomas A; Quandt, Sara A

    2016-06-01

    Farmworker family members risk poor mental health due to stressors including poverty, relocation, and documentation status. This paper explores the relationship between farm-work related stressors and depressive symptoms in women of Latino farmworker families. 248 mothers of young children completed fixed-response interviews in Spanish. Measures included the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale, Migrant Farmworker Stress Inventory, and USDA Household Food Security Survey Module. Bivariate analyses indicated greater depressive symptoms with more economic hardship, more farm work-related stressors, greater age, and being unmarried. In multivariable logistic regression, economic hardship remained the only factor associated with depressive symptoms. Greater economic hardship, but not general farm work-related stress, is a main factor associated with depression in women of Latino farmworker families. Maternal depression can have consequences for both mothers and families. Mental health services for women in farmworker families should be targeted to those with the greatest economic challenges. PMID:26022147

  9. Physical conditions and depressive symptoms of Chinese postpartum mothers in the United States and Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ching-Yu; Walker, Lorraine O; Chu, Tsui-Ping

    2013-07-01

    In this study, we aimed to determine commonalities and differences in physical conditions and depressive symptoms of Chinese postpartum mothers in the United States and Taiwan, and whether their relationship differs by country. Data from 151 Chinese mothers in the United States and 238 Taiwanese mothers were analyzed. A physical health condition checklist and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CESD) scale were used. More Taiwanese mothers experienced depression. Depression scores were correlated with physical conditions. Over 50% of mothers with depression experienced physical exhaustion, sleep disturbances, interrupted sleep, and decreases in memory. Active assessments and cultural care for managing physical conditions may prevent postpartum depression. PMID:23384405

  10. Predictors of Depressive Symptoms Among Hispanic Women in South Florida

    PubMed Central

    Vermeesch, Amber L.; Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa M.; Hall, Rosemary; McCabe, Brian E.; Cianelli, Rosina; Peragallo, Nilda P.

    2013-01-01

    U.S. Hispanics, especially women, experience a disproportionate amount of disease burden for depression. This disparity among Hispanic women necessitates examination of factors associated with depression. The objective of this study was to use an adaptation of the Stress Process Model to test whether self-esteem mediated the relationship between Hispanic stress and depressive symptoms. Data for this secondary analysis were from a previous randomized-control HIV prevention trial. Participants were 548 Hispanic women (19–52 years). Data collection measures included the Center for Epidemiological Studies–Depression Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and Hispanic Stress Scale. The bootstrap method in Mplus 6 was used to test mediation. Results indicated that self-esteem was inversely related to depression, and Hispanic stress was found to be positively related to depression. Self-esteem partially mediated the relationship between stress and depression. Strategies to improve/maintain self-esteem should be considered in future interventions for Hispanic women with depression. PMID:23858067

  11. Viscosity Depressants for Coal Liquefaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalfayan, S. H.

    1983-01-01

    Proposed process modification incorporates viscosity depressants to prevent coal from solidifying during liquefaction. Depressants reduce amount of heat needed to liquefy coal. Possible depressants are metallic soaps, such as stearate, and amides, such as stearamide and dimer acid amides.

  12. Counseling Interventions with Depressed Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downing, Jerry

    1988-01-01

    Defines depression and anxiety in children and addresses assessment issues. Describes nine specific interventions within the home and school that have helped depressed children. Provides case example of depressed sixth grade boy. (ABL)

  13. Dimensions of depressive symptoms and cingulate volumes in older adults

    PubMed Central

    McLaren, M E; Szymkowicz, S M; O'Shea, A; Woods, A J; Anton, S D; Dotson, V M

    2016-01-01

    Clinical depression and subthreshold depressive symptoms in older adults have been linked to structural changes in the cingulate gyrus. The cingulate comprises functionally distinct subregions that may have distinct associations with different types, or symptom dimensions, of depression. This study examined the relationship between symptom dimensions of depression and gray matter volumes in the anterior cingulate, posterior cingulate and isthmus of the cingulate in a nonclinical sample. The study included 41 community-dwelling older adults between the ages of 55 and 81. Participants received a structural magnetic resonance imaging scan and completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Subscale scores for depressed mood, somatic symptoms and lack of positive affect were calculated, and Freesurfer was used to extract cingulate gray matter volumes. Regression analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between depressive symptoms and volumes of cingulate subregions while controlling for sex, age and estimated total intracranial volume. Higher scores on the depressed mood subscale were associated with larger volumes in the left posterior cingulate and smaller volumes in the isthmus cingulate. Higher scores on the somatic symptoms subscale were significantly related to smaller volumes in the posterior cingulate. A trend was observed for a positive relationship between higher scores on the lack of positive affect subscale and larger volumes in the anterior cingulate cortex. These results are consistent with previous findings of altered cingulate volumes with increased depressive symptomatology and suggest specific symptom dimensions of depression may differ in their relationship with subregions of the cingulate. PMID:27093070

  14. Bidirectional Influences of Anxiety and Depression in Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Joyce; Gouze, Karen R.; Bryant, Fred B.

    2014-01-01

    Anxiety and depression tend to co-occur in children. Studies indicate that higher levels of anxiety are associated with subsequent higher levels of depression, while depression may inhibit subsequent anxiety. It is important to increase our understanding of the temporal sequencing of these disorders and, particularly, to determine if suppression effects account for the inhibitory association. In addition, further information about these relationships in young children is needed. Participants were a diverse (20.4 % Hispanic, 16.7 % African American; 49.1 % boys) community sample of 796 children with data available at ages 4, 5, and 6–7 years. Anxiety and depression symptoms were assessed using the Child Symptom Inventory and symptom count measures from the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-Parent Scale-Young Child version. The results indicated: (a) anxiety and depression were relatively stable over time; (b) anxiety at age 4 and 5 was a significant positive predictor of subsequent depression; (c) while an inhibitory effect of depression on subsequent anxiety was found, that inhibitory effect was due to negative suppression, and higher levels of depression were actually associated with subsequent anxiety; (e) consistent with a significant suppression effect, when depression was included as a predictor, the association between anxiety at ages 4 and 5 and anxiety one year later increases in magnitude. Both anxiety and depression are associated with higher levels of one another in the subsequent year. Implications for prevention are discussed. PMID:24934567

  15. Dimensions of depressive symptoms and cingulate volumes in older adults.

    PubMed

    McLaren, M E; Szymkowicz, S M; O'Shea, A; Woods, A J; Anton, S D; Dotson, V M

    2016-01-01

    Clinical depression and subthreshold depressive symptoms in older adults have been linked to structural changes in the cingulate gyrus. The cingulate comprises functionally distinct subregions that may have distinct associations with different types, or symptom dimensions, of depression. This study examined the relationship between symptom dimensions of depression and gray matter volumes in the anterior cingulate, posterior cingulate and isthmus of the cingulate in a nonclinical sample. The study included 41 community-dwelling older adults between the ages of 55 and 81. Participants received a structural magnetic resonance imaging scan and completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Subscale scores for depressed mood, somatic symptoms and lack of positive affect were calculated, and Freesurfer was used to extract cingulate gray matter volumes. Regression analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between depressive symptoms and volumes of cingulate subregions while controlling for sex, age and estimated total intracranial volume. Higher scores on the depressed mood subscale were associated with larger volumes in the left posterior cingulate and smaller volumes in the isthmus cingulate. Higher scores on the somatic symptoms subscale were significantly related to smaller volumes in the posterior cingulate. A trend was observed for a positive relationship between higher scores on the lack of positive affect subscale and larger volumes in the anterior cingulate cortex. These results are consistent with previous findings of altered cingulate volumes with increased depressive symptomatology and suggest specific symptom dimensions of depression may differ in their relationship with subregions of the cingulate. PMID:27093070

  16. Additive genetic contribution to symptom dimensions in major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Rahel; Palmer, Rohan H C; Brick, Leslie A; McGeary, John E; Knopik, Valerie S; Beevers, Christopher G

    2016-05-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a phenotypically heterogeneous disorder with a complex genetic architecture. In this study, genomic-relatedness-matrix restricted maximum-likelihood analysis (GREML) was used to investigate the extent to which variance in depression symptoms/symptom dimensions can be explained by variation in common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a sample of individuals with MDD (N = 1,558) who participated in the National Institute of Mental Health Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) study. A principal components analysis of items from the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) obtained prior to treatment revealed 4 depression symptom components: (a) appetite, (b) core depression symptoms (e.g., depressed mood, anhedonia), (c) insomnia, and (d) anxiety. These symptom dimensions were associated with SNP-based heritability (hSNP2) estimates of 30%, 14%, 30%, and 5%, respectively. Results indicated that the genetic contribution of common SNPs to depression symptom dimensions were not uniform. Appetite and insomnia symptoms in MDD had a relatively strong genetic contribution whereas the genetic contribution was relatively small for core depression and anxiety symptoms. While in need of replication, these results suggest that future gene discovery efforts may strongly benefit from parsing depression into its constituent parts. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27124715

  17. Fluvoxamine monotherapy for psychotic depression: the potential role of sigma-1 receptors

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Psychotic depression is a clinical subtype of major depressive disorder. A number of clinical studies have demonstrated the efficacy of the combination of an antidepressant (for example, a tricyclic antidepressant or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)) and an atypical antipsychotic or electroconvulsive therapy in treating psychotic depression. In some cases, the clinician or patient may prefer to avoid antipsychotic drugs altogether because of the risk of extrapyramidal side effects (EPS) in patients with psychotic depression treated with these drugs. Methods We report five cases where fluvoxamine monotherapy was effective in the patients with psychotic depression. Results The scores on the Hamilton Depression (HAM-D) scale and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) in the five patients with psychotic depression were reduced after fluvoxamine monotherapy. Conclusion Doctors should consider fluvoxamine monotherapy as an alternative approach in treating psychotic depression because it avoids the risk of EPS from antipsychotic drugs. PMID:20025739

  18. Antenatal Depression in a Tertiary Care Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Bavle, Amar D.; Chandahalli, Asha S.; Phatak, Akshay S.; Rangaiah, Nagarathnamma; Kuthandahalli, Shashikala M.; Nagendra, Prasad N.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Antenatal depression is not easily visible, though the prevalence is high. The idea of conducting this study was conceived from this fact. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of antenatal depression and identify the risk factors, for early diagnosis and intervention. Settings and Design: The study conducted in a Tertiary Care Hospital was prospective and cross-sectional. Materials and Methods: Pregnant women between 18 and 40 years of age were studied. The sample size comprised 318 women. They were assessed using Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) score, Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition Axis I Disorders, Life Event Stress Scale (LESS), and Life Distress Inventory (LDI). Statistical Analysis Used: The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 15 software was used to measure percentages, mean, correlation, and P < 0.05 were considered significant. Results: Prevalence of antenatal depression in the study was 12.3%. Correlation of the sociodemographic factors, obstetric factors, LDI, and LESS with EPDS scores showed statistical significance for unplanned pregnancy, distress associated with relationships, physical health, financial situation, social life, presence of personality disorder, being a homemaker, and higher educational status. Conclusion: The study showed a high prevalence rate of depression and identified risk factors. PMID:27011399

  19. Overgeneral autobiographical memory at baseline predicts depressive symptoms at follow-up in patients with first-episode depression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yansong; Zhang, Fuquan; Wang, Zhiqiang; Cao, Leiming; Wang, Jun; Na, Aiguo; Sun, Yujun; Zhao, Xudong

    2016-09-30

    Previous studies have shown that overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) is a characteristic of depression. However, there are no studies to explore the association between baseline OGM and depressive symptoms at follow-up in patients with first-episode depression (FE). This study investigated whether baseline OGM predicts depressive symptoms at follow-up in patients with FE. We recruited 125 patients with FE. The participants were divided into remitted group and non-remitted group according to the severity of their depression at 12 months follow-up. The measures consisted of the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Ruminative Response Scale, and Autobiographical Memory Test. Hierarchical linear regression analyses and bootstrap mediation analyses were conducted. The results showed that non-remitted patients had more OGM at baseline. Baseline OGM predicted depressive symptoms at follow-up in patients with FE. Rumination mediated the relationship between baseline OGM and depressive symptoms at follow-up. Our findings highlight OGM as a vulnerability factor involved in the maintenance of depression in patients with FE. PMID:27392229

  20. Cognition in Late Life Depression: Treatment Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, Aaron M.

    2014-01-01

    Opinion statement Late life depression (LLD) frequently presents with cognitive impairment, and growing evidence suggests that these disease processes are “linked” in multiple ways. For some individuals, LLD may be a recurrence of a long-standing depressive illness, while for others it may be the leading symptom of a developing neuropathological disorder. Overall, studies investigating the relationship between treatment of LLD and improvement in cognitive functioning have yielded mixed results. Research suggests that a subset of individuals with LLD and cognitive dysfunction will experience an improvement in cognitive function after antidepressant treatment, though a significant proportion will continue to exhibit cognitive impairment following resolution of their depressive symptoms. From a treatment standpoint, it is critical to ensure that an individual's depressive symptoms have been treated to remission, measured by a standardized rating scale such as the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). SSRI or SNRI monotherapy is often effective, and may be enhanced by employing an evidence-based psychotherapy such as Problem Solving Therapy (PST) or Interpersonal Therapy (IPT), modified to accommodate cognitive impairments that may be present. With respect to specific treatment of cognitive dysfunction, cognitive augmentation or training strategies can be helpful for some patients, and may be explored in combination with treatment of the primary depressive episode. While the introduction of a cholinesterase inhibitor (e.g. donepezil) may be considered, the potential benefit (modest improvement in cognition and functioning) must be weighed against an increased risk for worsening or recurrent depression. Finally, lifestyle factors—such as aerobic exercise, follow-up with a primary care physician for management of co-morbid medical illnesses, and regular participation in stimulating activities (such as through a senior center)—are important and should be included as

  1. Characteristics of fathers with depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, David G; Learned, Nicole; Liu, Ying-Hua; Weitzman, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Extensive research shows maternal depression to be associated with poorer child outcomes, and characteristics of these mothers have been described. Recent research describes associations of paternal depressive symptoms and child behavioral and emotional outcomes, but characteristics of these fathers have not been investigated. This study describes characteristics of fathers with depressive symptoms in the USA. Utilizing data from 7,247 fathers and mothers living in households with children aged 5-17 years who participated in the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey 2004-2006, the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 was used to assess parental depressive symptoms, the Short Form-12 was used to examine paternal and maternal physical health, the Columbia Impairment Scale was used to measure child behavioral or emotional problems, and the Children with Special Health Care Needs Screener was used to identify children with special health care needs. In multivariate analyses, poverty (AOR 1.52; 95% CI 1.05-2.22), maternal depressive symptoms (AOR 5.77; 95% CI 4.18-7.95), living with a child with special health care needs (AOR 1.42, 95% CI 1.04-1.94), poor paternal physical health (AOR 3.31; 95% CI 2.50-4.38) and paternal unemployment (AOR 6.49; 95% CI 4.12-10.22) were independently associated with increased rates of paternal depressive symptoms. These are the first data that demonstrate that poverty, paternal physical health problems, having a child with special health care needs, maternal depressive symptoms, and paternal unemployment are independently associated with paternal depressive symptoms, with paternal unemployment associated with the highest rates of such problems. PMID:22362259

  2. Depressive Symptoms and Risk of Uterine Leiomyomata

    PubMed Central

    Wise, Lauren A.; Se, Li; Palmer, Julie R.; Rosenberg, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Objective Uterine leiomyomata (UL) are a major source of gynecologic morbidity and the primary indication for hysterectomy. Depression can cause dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which may affect the synthesis of reproductive hormones involved in UL pathogenesis. We assessed the association between depressive symptoms and UL among 15,963 premenopausal women. Study Design Data were derived from the Black Women’s Health Study, a prospective cohort study. In 1999 and 2005, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) was used to ascertain depressive symptoms. On biennial follow-up questionnaires from 1999 through 2011, women reported physician-diagnosed depression, antidepressant use, and UL diagnoses. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using multivariable Cox regression. Results There were 4,722 incident UL cases diagnosed by ultrasound (n=3,793) or surgery (n=929) during 131,262 person-years of follow-up. Relative to baseline CES-D scores <16, IRRs were 1.05 (95% CI, 0.98–1.13) for CES-D scores 16–24 and 1.16 (95% CI, 1.06–1.27) for CES-D scores ≥25 (P-trend=0.001). IRRs for current and past physician-diagnosed depression relative to no depression were 1.15 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.34) and 1.25 (95% CI: 1.13, 1.39), respectively. Results persisted after further control for antidepressant use. IRRs for current and past use of antidepressants (any indication) relative to never use were 1.11 (95% CI: 0.97, 1.28) and 1.32 (95% CI: 1.14, 1.52), respectively. Conclusions In this cohort of black women, greater depressive symptoms were associated with UL, independent of antidepressant use, supporting the hypothesis that dysregulation of the HPA axis increases UL risk. PMID:25514762

  3. The Depression Coping Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinke, Chris L.

    College students (N=396), chronic pain patients (N=319), and schizophrenic veterans (N=43) completed the Depression Coping Questionnaire (DCQ) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Factor analysis of the DCQ identified eleven coping responses: social support, problem solving, self-blame/escape, aggression, indulgence, activities, medication,…

  4. Depression Begets Depression: Comparing the Predictive Utility of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms to Later Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Kate; Feng, Xin; Hipwell, Alison; Klostermann, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Background: The high comorbidity between depressive and anxiety disorders, especially among females, has called into question the independence of these two symptom groups. It is possible that childhood anxiety typically precedes depression in girls. Comparing of the predictive utility of symptoms of anxiety with the predictive utility of symptoms…

  5. Real Stories of Depression

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... and Depression Background on Educational Materials Resources for Health Care Providers Public Service Announcements (PSAs) Join A Study Depression Studies for Adults Contact Us Staff Directories Privacy Notice Policies FOIA Accessibility Topic ... The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) is part of the National Institutes of ...

  6. Treatment of bipolar depression.

    PubMed

    Musetti, Laura; Del Grande, Claudia; Marazziti, Donatella; Dell'Osso, Liliana

    2013-08-01

    Depressive symptoms and episodes dominate the long-term course of bipolar disorder and are associated with high levels of disability and an increased risk of suicide. However, the treatment of bipolar depression has been poorly investigated in comparison with that of manic episodes and unipolar major depressive disorder. The goal of treatment in bipolar depression is not only to achieve full remission of acute symptoms, but also to avoid long-term mood destabilization and to prevent relapses. A depressive presentation of bipolar disorder may often delay the appropriate management and, thus, worsen the long-term outcome. In these cases, an accurate screening for diagnostic indicators of a possible bipolar course of the illness should guide the therapeutic choices, and lead to prognostic improvement. Antidepressant use is still the most controversial issue in the treatment of bipolar depression. Despite inconclusive evidence of efficacy and tolerability, this class of agents is commonly prescribed in acute and long-term treatment, often in combination with mood stabilizers. In this article, we review available treatment options for bipolar depression, and we shall provide some suggestions for the management of the different presentations of depression in the course of bipolar disorder. PMID:23391164

  7. Depression - older adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... these steps do not help, medicines to treat depression and talk therapy often help. Doctors often prescribe lower doses of ... Depression often responds to treatment. The outcome is usually better for people who have access to social services, family, and friends ...

  8. Postpartum Depression: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albright, Angela

    1993-01-01

    Occurring in about 12 percent of postpartum women, postpartum depression has been focus of considerable research. Variables that have been correlated with postpartum depression range from biological causes, to lack of social support, to relationship with husband, to attributional styles, to psychodynamic explanations. There is need for more…

  9. Depression in Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... that concern you or may be due to depression. The doctor may: Ask you and other family members questions. Do some tests to rule out ... one of these medicines might be causing the depression, the doctor will ... advice for you and other family members and caregivers on how to cope. He ...

  10. Development and persistence of depressive symptoms in adolescents with CHD.

    PubMed

    Luyckx, Koen; Rassart, Jessica; Goossens, Eva; Apers, Silke; Oris, Leen; Moons, Philip

    2016-08-01

    Patients with CHD are vulnerable to psychiatric disorders. The present study compared baseline depressive symptoms between adolescents with CHD and community adolescents, and also assessed the development and persistence of depressive symptoms in patients. We examined the implications of persistent depressive symptoms towards quality of life and patient-reported health. In total, 296 adolescents with CHD participated in a four-wave longitudinal study, with 9-month intervals, and completed measures of depressive symptoms - Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) - at time points one to four and of quality of life - linear analogue scale (LAS) - and patient-reported health - LAS and Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory - at T (time) 4. Information about diagnosis, disease complexity, and previous heart surgery was collected from medical records. At T1, 278 patients were matched 1:1 with community adolescents, based on sex and age. The findings of this study indicate that patients scored significantly lower on depressive symptoms compared with community adolescents. Depressive symptoms in the total patient sample were stable over time and were unrelated to disease complexity. Based on conventional cut-off scores of the CES-D, substantial individual differences existed in the extent to which depressive symptoms persisted over time: 12.2% of the patients reported elevated depressive symptoms at minimally three out of the four time points. Especially physical functioning, cardiac symptoms, and patient-reported health at T4 were predicted by persistent depressive symptoms, even when controlling for the level of depressive symptoms at T4. Our findings indicate that those involved in the care of adolescents with CHD should remain vigilant to persistent depressive symptoms and arrange timely referral to mental healthcare services. PMID:27365113

  11. Grief and depression after miscarriage: their separation, antecedents, and course.

    PubMed

    Beutel, M; Deckardt, R; von Rad, M; Weiner, H

    1995-01-01

    Bereavement is a major risk factor for physical illness, grief, depression, and anxiety. In contrast to recent tendencies in the psychiatric literature to equate grief and depression, we propose that a careful discrimination between the two must be made for diagnostic, therapeutic, and investigative purposes. We report the results of a longitudinal study of a frequent but neglected event, miscarriage early in pregnancy, to make this point. Clinical criteria for differentiating grief and depressive reactions were developed based on phenomenological criteria and theoretical considerations. We hypothesized that the detrimental psychological and physical consequences occur only when the miscarriage was not mourned and resulted in a depressive reaction, but not in a grief reaction. In a controlled, representative study, 125 consecutive women were assessed shortly after their miscarriage (before the 20th week of gestation) and 6 months (N = 94) and 12 months (N = 90) later. Assessments included standardized questionnaires for life events, depression, physical complaints, anxiety, and a specific, multidimensional grief scale (Munich Grief Scale) that we had developed previously. Immediately after the miscarriage, the average anxiety and depression scores were elevated when compared with 80 pregnant and 125 age-matched community controls. Twenty percent of the patients who had miscarried showed a grief reaction, 12% showed a depressive reaction, and 20% responded with a combined depressive and grief reaction. The remaining women (48%) reported no changes in their emotional reactions. As predicted, longer-lasting psychological, social, and health status changes followed the initial depressive, but not the grief reactions. Depressive reactions were predicted by a history of previous depression, a lack of social resources, and an ambivalent attitude to the lost fetus. The grief measures were reliable and made it possible to discriminate between grief and depression. PMID

  12. [Women seek for help - men die! Is depression really a female disease?].

    PubMed

    Hausmann, Armand; Rutz, Wolfgang; Benke, Ulrich

    2008-01-01

    Prevalence rates of depression in females are about two to three times higher as compared to men. Biological evidence seems to support these data. Genderspecific suiciderates, closely linked to depressive illness, however raise doubts about the genderspecific epidemiological data of depression as males commit suicide three to ten times more often than females. The sociomedical concept of "male depression" delivers an explanation. A gender bias in diagnose as well as a reduced male helpseeking behavior and dysfuntional stress coping in males might be reasons for the reported low prevalence-rates of depression in males. Depression might hide behind addictive- and risk-behavior as well as irritability. As these symptoms differ from the classic depressive symptoms they might not be detected and identified as such. Validated rating scales which specifically assess male symptoms of depression, as well as peer-education programs for colleagues might change current depression rates in males. PMID:18381057

  13. Burnout in Teachers: Is It Burnout or Is It Depression?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schonfeld, Irvin Sam

    Burnout measures cover the same ground as depressive symptom scales. Problems with burnout scales include their vulnerability to attribution errors. The few studies having both burnout/stress and psychological symptom measures suggest considerable overlap in the scales. Three cross-sectional studies from very different geographic areas reveal high…

  14. Depressed REM Sleep Behavior Disorder Patients Are Less Likely to Recall Enacted Dreams than Non-Depressed Ones

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyeong Gon; Choi, Jae Won; Lee, Yu Jin

    2016-01-01

    Objective REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is associated with psychiatric symptoms, such as anxiety and alexithymia. However, only a few studies on the relationship between depression and RBD have been published. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of depression and associated factors in patients with RBD. Methods In total 94 patients (mean age: 61.9±12.7 years, male: 70.2%) diagnosed as RBD were examined using detailed clinical histories, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and nocturnal polysomnography (PSG). Results The mean BDI score of all patients was 12.4±10.3 and 44.7% of RBD patients showed depressed mood (BDI >11 points). Depressed RBD patients were less able to recall enacted dreams than were non-depressed patients (61.9% vs. 86.5%, p=0.008). Logistic regression analysis showed that failure to recall enacted dreams was significantly associated with depression, after controlling for confounding variables including the respiratory disturbance index and a history of psychiatric disorders (odds ratio=0.323, p=0.041). Conclusion In this study, 44.7% of RBD patients were found to suffer from depressed mood. And, depression was found to be associated with reduced ability to recall enacted dreams. We suggest that routine evaluation of depression be performed in RBD patients, particularly when failure to recall enacted dreams is evident. We speculate that such failure may be associated with emotional dysregulation or neurodegeneration. PMID:27081385

  15. [Severe depression : psychoanalysis].

    PubMed

    Bouvet de la Maisonneuve, O

    2009-12-01

    The indication for psychoanalysis in severe depression is not clear. And yet, demands for this type of intervention are increasing, despite the absence of any form of consensus on the subject. Freud considered depression as a failure of analytical efforts and, based on this observation, revised his theory, in particular to include the notions of narcissism and the death drive. Many analysts have been reluctant to follow his teachings on this last point and provide depressed patients with analytical-type therapies aimed at restoring narcissism. Melanie Klein pushed Freud's ideas about depression even further and brought such therapies back to the heart of analytical practice. Jacques Lacan took the debate to another level by proposing an overhaul of the principles on which analysis has been based. Today, while following certain precautionary rules, true psychoanalyses can be proposed to patients with severe depression, whether of the bipolar, recurring or even neurotic type that can reach this level of severity. PMID:20141799

  16. [Depression in Parkinson's disease].

    PubMed

    Murata, Miho; Okamoto, Tomoko

    2013-01-01

    The frequency of depression in patients with Parkinson's disease is approximately 30-40%. Depression has a significantly negative impact on the QOL in Parkinson's disease patients. It leads to the worsening of tremors and frozen gait without disease progression and decreases the patient's motivation to participate in rehabilitation. The distinguishing feature of depression in patients with Parkinson's disease is that guilt, self-blame and suicidal ideation are rarely seen compared to that observed in patients with major depression. Depression can occur in the pre-motor, diagnostic and advanced stages of Parkinson's disease. In particular, patients with wearing-off symptoms are apt to develop anxiety. As for treatment, it is very important to optimize dopamine replacement therapy. Antiparkinsonian drugs may have beneficial effects not only on the motor symptoms of the disease, but also the patient's mood. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and peer counseling may also be beneficial. PMID:24622217

  17. Depression in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Becker, R E

    1988-12-01

    Depressive syndromes that occur during the course of schizophrenia are not clearly understood but have important implications for the treatment of the schizophrenic patient. In this review of the literature on depression secondary to schizophrenia, the author notes that lack of tested diagnostic criteria has led to a misunderstanding of its relatively high frequency and its association with poor outcome features such as impaired psychosocial functioning, schizophrenic relapse, and suicide. Differential diagnosis, including ruling out akinetic depression, is essential, he believes, partly because the concept of schizophrenic depression as postpsychotic is not supported by evidence. Clinical management must address such increased risk factors as relapse and suicide, but evidence indicates that secondary depression in schizophrenia does not respond to antidepressant medication. PMID:3068116

  18. Activities on Facebook Reveal the Depressive State of Users

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Jinah

    2013-01-01

    Background As online social media have become prominent, much effort has been spent on identifying users with depressive symptoms in order to aim at early diagnosis, treatment, and even prevention by using various online social media. In this paper, we focused on Facebook to discern any correlations between the platform’s features and users’ depressive symptoms. This work may be helpful in trying to reach and detect large numbers of depressed individuals more easily. Objective Our goal was to develop a Web application and identify depressive symptom–related features from users of Facebook, a popular social networking platform. Methods 55 Facebook users (male=40, female=15, mean age 24.43, SD 3.90) were recruited through advertisement fliers distributed to students in a large university in Korea. Using EmotionDiary, the Facebook application we developed, we evaluated depressive symptoms using the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale. We also provided tips and facts about depression to participants and measured their responses using EmotionDiary. To identify the Facebook features related to depression, correlation analyses were performed between CES-D and participants’ responses to tips and facts or Facebook social features. Last, we interviewed depressed participants (CES-D≥25) to assess their depressive symptoms by a psychiatrist. Results Facebook activities had predictive power in distinguishing depressed and nondepressed individuals. Participants’ response to tips and facts, which can be explained by the number of app tips viewed and app points, had a positive correlation (P=.04 for both cases), whereas the number of friends and location tags had a negative correlation with the CES-D scale (P=.08 and P=.045 respectively). Furthermore, in finding group differences in Facebook social activities, app tips viewed and app points resulted in significant differences (P=.01 and P=.03 respectively) between probably depressed and

  19. Late pregnancy thyroid-binding globulin predicts perinatal depression.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Cort; Leserman, Jane; Garcia, Nacire; Stansbury, Melissa; Meltzer-Brody, Samantha; Johnson, Jacqueline

    2016-03-01

    Previously we found that late pregnancy total and free thyroxine (TT4, FT4) concentrations were negatively related to greater pre and/or postpartum depressive symptoms. In a much larger cohort, the current study examined whether these thyroid indices measured earlier in the third trimester (31-33 weeks) predict subsequent perinatal depression and anxiety ratings as well as syndromal depression. Thyroid-binding globulin (TBG) concentrations increase markedly during pregnancy and may be an index of sensitivity to elevated estrogen levels. TBG was examined in this study because prior findings suggest that postpartum depression is related to sensitivity to mood destabilization by elevated sex hormone concentrations during pregnancy. Our cohort was 199 euthyroid women recruited from a public health obstetrics clinic (63.8% Hispanic, 21.6% Black). After screening and blood draws for hormone measures at pregnancy weeks 31-33, subjects were evaluated during home visits at pregnancy weeks 35-36 as well as postpartum weeks 6 and 12. Evaluations included psychiatric interviews for current and life-time DSM-IV psychiatric history (M.I.N.I.-Plus), subject self-ratings and interviewer ratings for depression and anxiety (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, Montgomery-Ǻsberg Depression Rating Scale; Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Hamilton Anxiety Inventory), as well as a standardized interview to obtain life-time trauma history. Numerous covariates were included in all regression analyses. Trauma and major depression history were robustly significant predictors of depression and anxiety ratings over the study period when these variables were analyzed individually or in a combined model including FT4 or TBG (p<.001). When analyzed alone, FT4 levels were a less strong but still significant predictor of all depression and anxiety ratings (p<.05) while TBG levels was a significant or nearly significant predictor of most ratings. FT4, TBG and trauma history, but not

  20. Yoga and massage therapy reduce prenatal depression and prematurity.

    PubMed

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Medina, Lissette; Delgado, Jeannette; Hernandez, Andrea

    2012-04-01

    Eighty-four prenatally depressed women were randomly assigned to yoga, massage therapy or standard prenatal care control groups to determine the relative effects of yoga and massage therapy on prenatal depression and neonatal outcomes. Following 12 weeks of twice weekly yoga or massage therapy sessions (20 min each) both therapy groups versus the control group had a greater decrease on depression, anxiety and back and leg pain scales and a greater increase on a relationship scale. In addition, the yoga and massage therapy groups did not differ on neonatal outcomes including gestational age and birthweight, and those groups, in turn, had greater gestational age and birthweight than the control group. PMID:22464118

  1. Cognitive function, functional performance and severity of depression in Chinese older persons with late-onset depression.

    PubMed

    Tam, C W C; Lam, L C W

    2012-03-01

    OBJECTIVES. The relationship between cognitive status and depressive symptoms and their liability to cause functional decline are of clinical and public health importance as it appears to be common, frequently coexists, and may be treatable. This study examined the relationship of depression severity and cognitive performance and the impact of such an interaction on functional ability in Chinese elderly subjects with late-onset depression. METHODS. A total of 105 non-demented elderly patients with late-onset depression were recruited. Impairment in instrumental activities of daily living and severity of depression were respectively assessed with the Disability Assessment for Dementia scale and the 24-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Various cognitive domains were assessed including global cognitive function, delayed episodic memory, and executive functions. The relationship between specific cognitive impairment and mood symptom severity was assessed. The clinical correlates of functional performance were also examined. RESULTS. Increasingly severe depression was associated with lower scores in the Mini-Mental State Examination, delayed recall, and poorer performance in the Trail Making Test-Part A (after adjusting for the effect of age and education). The severity of apathy correlated negatively with the Mini-Mental State Examination scores only. Among the depressed subjects, greater levels of depression and apathy, poorer performance in Trail Making Test-Part B, and mild parkinsonian signs were associated with lower functional scores. CONCLUSIONS. Lack of interest and motivation, depressive mood, compounded by behavioural abnormalities resulting from executive dysfunction, accounted for functional disability in elderly subjects with late-onset depression. These relationships may provide the background for developing interventions targeting functional deficits associated with specific cognitive dysfunctions and depression. PMID:22447800

  2. A Molecular Signature of Depression in the Amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Sibille, Etienne; Wang, Yingjie; Joeyen-Waldorf, Jennifer; Gaiteri, Chris; Surget, Alexandre; Oh, Sunghee; Belzung, Catherine; Tseng, George C.; Lewis, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Major depressive disorder is a heterogeneous illness with a mostly un-characterized pathology. Recent gene array attempts to identify the molecular underpinnings of the illness in human postmortem subjects have not yielded a consensus. The authors hypothesized that controlling several sources of clinical and technical variability and supporting their analysis with array results from a parallel study in the unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) rodent model of depression would facilitate identification of the molecular pathology of major depression. Method Large-scale gene expression was monitored in postmortem tissue from the anterior cingulate cortex and amygdala in paired male subjects with familial major depression and matched control subjects without major depression (N=14–16 pairs). Area dissections and analytical approaches were optimized. Results from the major depression group were compared with those from the UCMS study and confirmed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Gene coexpression network analysis was performed on transcripts with conserved major depression-UCMS effects. Results Significant and bidirectional predictions of altered gene expression were identified in amygdala between major depression and the UCMS model of depression. These effects were detected at the group level and also identified a subgroup of depressed subjects with a more homogeneous molecular pathology. This phylogenetically conserved “molecular signature” of major depression was reversed by antidepressants in mice, identified two distinct oligodendrocyte and neuronal phenotypes, and participated in highly cohesive and interactive gene co-expression networks. Conclusions These studies demonstrate that the biological liability to major depression is reflected in a persistent molecular pathology that affects the amygdala, and support the hypothesis of maladaptive changes in this brain region as a putative primary pathology in major

  3. Prevention of Depression in Childhood and Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Mendelson, Tamar; Tandon, S Darius

    2016-04-01

    This article discusses strategies and programs used to prevent depression in children and adolescents. It describes the rationale for depression prevention and discusses prevention approaches in schools and other settings, highlighting examples of programs that have been empirically evaluated. Prevention effects are small but significant, comparable or greater in magnitude than adolescent prevention programs for other issues, including substance use and human immunodeficiency virus. Future research should include rigorous design features, including attention control groups, allocation concealment, larger sample sizes, longer follow-up assessments, and theory-driven tests of moderation and mediation, and should test larger-scale implementation of prevention programs. PMID:26980124

  4. [Depression and the elderly].

    PubMed

    Gallarda, T; Lôo, H

    2009-06-01

    "Depression" and "old age" are often associated among our contemporaries. In this case, "depression" is understood to be "existential despair" and not a "depressive disease": an amalgam is made of the tragedy of the patient's existence and a pathological condition. Clinical pictures of depression, the pathological nature of which is obvious, are frequent in the elderly; however, the line between normal and pathological becomes less clear above a certain symptomatic threshold, in the presence of chronic evolutions and in situations of comorbidity. The nosographical tool, in spite of its limits, is precious. Epidemiological studies that include the comorbidities of the depressive episode with cognitive and/or somatic affections permit better estimations of the prevalence of the symptoms and the depressive problems among elderly populations. The formula "depression is depression at whatever age" harbours a certain truth if one takes into account the multiple factors that modify the symptomatic expression of depression in later life. The most documented factor is the comorbidity of depression with somatic affections that is present in the majority of those aged over 80. Other psychological or sociocultural factors are also apparent, but their influence has been studied less. The decline in cognitive performance observed during depression is not exclusive to the elderly but is undeniably more marked in this population. Making an early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease or, conversely, eliminating this diagnosis in a depressed patient complaining of diminished cognition is an essential step in the subsequent management. Together with the neuropsychological assessment and brain imaging, required for diagnosis, a neuropsychogeriatric pluridisciplinary assessment is obviously required. The management of geriatric depression is based on various approaches that include somatic care, psychotropic drugs, brain stimulation techniques and psychotherapy, but also requires

  5. Anhedonia, suicide ideation and dexamethasone nonsuppression in depressed patients.

    PubMed

    Oei, T I; Verhoeven, W M; Westenberg, H G; Zwart, F M; van Ree, J M

    1990-01-01

    In the search for a valid analysis of a number of operationalised symptoms common to depressive behaviour, a study was performed comprising 46 patients showing depressive symptoms, according to operationalised criteria and as part of which all agreed to undergo the following tests: (a) psychiatric: Present State Examination; (b) psychological: Hamilton Rating Scale, Montgomery-Asberg Rating Scale, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Beck Suicide Ideation Scale, Chapman Anhedonia Scale, Mood Scale, Sleep Quality Scale, Activities Scale, Social Support Scale, Questionnaire on Recently Experienced Events and the Paykel Life Events Interview; and (c) biochemical: Dexamethasone Suppression (DEX) Test. After gathering different depressive subgroups, based on operationalised symptoms, a dichotomy was made in the distributions of the (an)hedonia, suicide ideation and DEX-(non) suppression scores. This study may indicate that anhedonia, suicide ideation and DEX-nonsuppression are the opening to the identification of a subgroup of depressed patients. This symptom complex could not definitely be identified on the basis of existing DSM-III diagnostic entities, because of the known fact that this method of classification is not appropriate for our purposes in revealing pathophysiological processes. It is suggested, therefore, that these symptoms might prove to be the anchor-point from which to reach a better insight into the aetiology and pathogenesis (i.e. the final common pathway) of depression. PMID:2366212

  6. Lesbians’ Constructions of Depression

    PubMed Central

    Barnard, Amy

    2009-01-01

    Lesbians are a marginalized group of women living in a heteronormative society. This study describes lesbians’ subjective experiences of depression, and identifies the ways that dominant and alternative discourses shaped their understandings of depression and sexuality. Twelve self-identified lesbians participated in up to three in-depth interviews conducted over a nine month period. Thematic analysis led to themes that explicated their physical and emotional descriptions of depression; identified troubled interpersonal relationships as a primary source of depression; and the means implemented to cope with depression, including taking medication, engagement in therapy, developing social support networks, and discovering their own spirituality. Depression and sexuality were understood within the framework of the dominant discourses of (1) medical model (2) dysfunctional family and (3) organized religion; and the alternative discourses of (1) lesbian identity, (2) alternative families and (3) spirituality. Nurses in clinical practice can assist depressed lesbians clients by bolstering explorations of spirituality and the development of strong support networks within the lesbian and gay communities. Politically, institutionalized heteronormativity must be attacked at every level. PMID:19350435

  7. [Depression and aging].

    PubMed

    Léger, J M; Clément, J P

    1992-09-01

    Old age is a qualitative state during which depression frequently occurs. This illness presents particular features which should be considered in the course of both normal ageing and senility. Viewed as an existential crisis, ageing may be considered as a depression promoting factor. Rich in depression promoting factors, this period of life is a sequence of crises which result in reorganizations heavily dependent on the adaptive capabilities of the aged person. During ageing, depression exhibits particular features that one should be able to recognize and distinguish from the consequences of deficits that are the normal adjuncts of the ageing process. The same is true of alterations occurring in the cognitive sphere and which might result from demential alteration. During ageing, depression should be identified among the other decompensation patterns occurring in the aged patient by viewing the situation in terms of overhelmed mechanisms. Depression exhibits a pattern whereby it relates closely with the risk of dementia. Therapeutic management should take into account such a perspective, that one might call transnosographic, when considering the depressiveness of aged patients as a high-risk situation requiring long-term follow-up of their biological, psychodynamic, social and cognitive functions. PMID:1308847

  8. Depression in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Fiske, Amy; Wetherell, Julie Loebach; Gatz, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Depression is less prevalent among older adults than among younger adults but can have serious consequences. Over half of cases represent a first onset in later life. Although suicide rates in the elderly are declining, they are still higher than in younger adults and more closely associated with depression. Depressed older adults are less likely to endorse affective symptoms and more likely to display cognitive changes, somatic symptoms, and loss of interest than are younger adults. Risk factors leading to the development of late life depression likely comprise complex interactions among genetic vulnerabilities, cognitive diathesis, age-associated neurobiological changes, and stressful events. Insomnia is an often overlooked risk factor for late life depression. We suggest that a common pathway to depression in older adults, regardless of which predisposing risks are most prominent, may be curtailment of daily activities. Accompanying self-critical thinking may exacerbate and maintain a depressed state. Offsetting the increasing prevalence of certain risk factors in late life are age-related increases in psychological resilience. Other protective factors include higher education and socioeconomic status, engagement in valued activities, and religious or spiritual involvement. Treatments including behavioral therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, cognitive bibliotherapy, problem-solving therapy, brief psychodynamic therapy, and life review/reminiscence therapy are effective but too infrequently used with older adults. Preventive interventions including education for individuals with chronic illness, behavioral activation, cognitive restructuring, problem-solving skills training, group support, and life review have also received support. PMID:19327033

  9. Improving Depression Treatment for Women: Integrating a Collaborative Care Depression Intervention into OB-GYN Care

    PubMed Central

    LaRocco-Cockburn, Anna; Reed, Susan D.; Melville, Jennifer; Croicu, Carmen; Russo, Joan; Inspektor, Michal; Edmondson, Eddie; Katon, Wayne

    2013-01-01

    Background Women have higher rates of depression and often experience depression symptoms during critical reproductive periods, including adolescence, pregnancy, postpartum, and menopause. Collaborative care intervention models for mood disorders in patients receiving care in an OB-GYN clinic setting have not been evaluated. Study design and methodology for a randomized, controlled trial of collaborative care depression management versus usual care in OB-GYN clinics and the details of the adapted collaborative care intervention and model implementation are described in this paper. Methods Women over age 18 years with clinically significant symptoms of depression, as measured by a Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) score ≥10 and a clinical diagnosis of major depression or dysthymia, were randomized to the study intervention or to usual care and were followed for 18 months. The primary outcome assessed was change over time in the SCL-20 depression scale between baseline and 12 months. Baseline Results 205 women were randomized: 57% white, 20% African American, 9% Asian or Pacific Islander, 7% Hispanic, and 6% Native American. Mean age was 39 years. 4.6% were pregnant and 7.5% were within 12 months postpartum. The majority were single, (52%), and 95% had at least the equivalent of a high school diploma. Almost all patients met DSM IV criteria for major depression (99%) and approximately 33% met criteria for dysthymia. Conclusions An OB-GYN collaborative care team including a social worker, psychiatrist and OB-GYN physician who met weekly and used an electronic tracking system for patients were essential elements of the proposed depression care treatment model described here. Further study of models that improve quality of depression care that are adapted to the unique OB-GYN setting are needed. PMID:23939510

  10. Depression and Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Sue; Schmidt, Mike; Patton, George; Dwyer, Terry; Blizzard, Leigh; Otahal, Petr; Venn, Alison

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the association between depressive disorder and insulin resistance in a sample of young adults using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview to ascertain depression status. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Cross-sectional data were collected from 1,732 participants aged between 26 and 36 years. Insulin resistance was derived from blood chemistry measures of fasting insulin and glucose using the homeostasis model assessment method. Those identified with mild, moderate, or severe depression were classified as having depressive disorder. RESULTS The 12-month prevalence of depressive disorder was 5.4% among men and 11.7% among women. In unadjusted models mean insulin resistance was 17.2% (95% CI 0.7–36.0%, P = 0.04) higher in men and 11.4% (1.5–22.0%, P = 0.02) higher in women with depressive disorder. After adjustment for behavioral and dietary factors, the increased level of insulin resistance associated with depressive disorder was 13.2% (−3.1 to 32.3%, P = 0.12) in men and 6.1% (−4.1 to 17.4%, P = 0.25) in women. Waist circumference was identified as a mediator in the relationship between depression and insulin resistance, reducing the β coefficient in the fully adjusted models in men by 38% and in women by 42%. CONCLUSIONS A positive association was found between depressive disorder and insulin resistance in this population-based sample of young adult men and women. The association seemed to be mediated partially by waist circumference. PMID:20185745

  11. Cued recall in depression.

    PubMed

    Watts, F N; Sharrock, R

    1987-05-01

    An experiment is reported in which a depressed and a control group were tested on free recall, cued recall and recognition memory for a prose passage. As expected from previous work the depressives tended to show less impairment on recognition than on free recall. However, contrary to what some theories would predict, cued recall performance was no better than free recall. The implications of this finding for the nature of the depressive memory deficit for neutral materials are discussed. It seems that neither the amount of verbal output required, nor the need to generate retrieval cues, are critical factors. PMID:3580652

  12. Collective efficacy and major depression in urban neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Ahern, Jennifer; Galea, Sandro

    2011-06-15

    Depression contributes substantially to the global burden of disease and disability. Population-level factors that shape depression may be efficient targets for intervention to decrease the depression burden. The authors aimed to identify the relation between neighborhood collective efficacy and major depression. Analyses were conducted on data from the New York Social Environment Study (n = 4,000), a representative study of residents of New York, New York, conducted in 2005. Neighborhood collective efficacy was measured as the average neighborhood response on a well-established scale. Major depression was assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire. A marginal modeling approach was applied to present results on the additive scale relevant to public health and intervention. Analyses were adjusted for demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, recent life events that could contribute to both depression and change in residence, and individual perception of collective efficacy. Collective efficacy was related to major depression among older adults; marginal models estimated a 6.2% (95% confidence interval: 0.1, 17.5) lower prevalence of depression if all older adults (65 years and older) had lived in high versus low collective efficacy neighborhoods. Similar results were suggested among younger adults; however, the confidence interval crossed the null. These and other study findings suggest that community-randomized trials targeting collective efficacy merit consideration. PMID:21527512

  13. Indicators of depression in elderly and different screening methods

    PubMed Central

    Matias, Amanda Gilvani Cordeiro; Fonsêca, Marília de Andrade; Gomes, Maria de Lourdes de Freitas; Matos, Marcos Antonio Almeida

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To determine the prevalence of depressive symptoms among elderly and correlate the agreement between the screening methods used. Methods A cross-section study of 137 elderly attending the Programa Vivendo a Terceira Idade [Living for the Elderly Program]. Depressive symptoms were screened by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale, by Yesavage. Cohen´s kappa analyzed the degree of agreement of these scales. Results The prevalence of depressive symptoms screened by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 was 62.8% and, by the Geriatric Depression Scale, 52.6%. The Spearman correlation between the results of scales obtained rho=0.387, p<0.000. The Kappa reliability coefficient was 0.41 and significance level of p<0.001. The screening methods showed sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 44%. Conclusion Both scales showed moderate agreement and were useful for detecting a relevant prevalence of the target outcome of depression among the elderly. PMID:27074227

  14. Association of Postpartum Depression With Weight Retention 1 Year After Childbirth

    PubMed Central

    Herring, Sharon J.; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Oken, Emily; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Kleinman, Ken P.; Gillman, Matthew W.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine the extent to which early postpartum depression is associated with weight retention 1 year after childbirth. Methods and Procedures In a prospective cohort study of 850 women enrolled in Project Viva, mothers reported depressive symptoms on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at midpregnancy and 6 months postpartum. A score >12 indicated probable depression. We assessed associations of antenatal and postpartum depression with risk of substantial weight retention (at least 5 kg) 1 year after childbirth. Results Seven-hundred thirty-six women (87%) were not depressed during or after pregnancy, 55 (6%) experienced antenatal depression only, 22 (3%) experienced both antenatal and postpartum depression, and 37 (4%) experienced postpartum depression only. At 1 year, participants retained a mean of 0.6 kg (range −16.4 to 25.5), and 12% retained at least 5 kg. In multivariate logistic regression analyses, after adjustment for weight-related covariates, maternal sociodemographics, and parity, new-onset postpartum depression was associated with more than a doubling of risk of retaining at least 5 kg (odds ratio (OR): 2.54, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06, 6.09). Antenatal depression, either alone or in combination with postpartum depression, was not associated with substantial weight retention. Discussion New-onset postpartum depression was associated with substantial weight retention in the first postpartum year. Interventions to manage depressive symptoms may help reduce excess weight retained postpartum and aid in the prevention of obesity among women. PMID:18369338

  15. Rumination-focused cognitive behaviour therapy for residual depression: a case series.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Ed; Scott, Jan; Wingrove, Janet; Rimes, Katharine; Bathurst, Neil; Steiner, Herbert; Kennell-Webb, Sandra; Moulds, Michelle; Malliaris, Yanni

    2007-09-01

    The treatment of chronic and recurrent depression is a priority for the development of new interventions. The maintenance of residual symptoms following acute treatment for depression is a risk factor for both chronic depression and further relapse/recurrence. This open case series provides the first data on a cognitive-behavioural treatment for residual depression that explicitly targets depressive rumination. Rumination has been identified as a key factor in the onset and maintenance of depression, which is found to remain elevated following remission from depression. Fourteen consecutively recruited participants meeting criteria for medication--refractory residual depression [Paykel, E.S., Scott, J., Teasdale, J.D., Johnson, A.L., Garland, A., Moore, R. et al., 1999. Prevention of relapse in residual depression by cognitive therapy--a controlled trial. Archives of General Psychiatry 56, 829-835] were treated individually for up to 12 weekly 60-min sessions. Treatment specifically focused on switching patients from less helpful to more helpful styles of thinking through the use of functional analysis, experiential/imagery exercises and behavioural experiments. Treatment produced significant improvements in depressive symptoms, rumination and co-morbid disorders: 71% responded (50% reduction on Hamilton Depression Rating Scale) and 50% achieved full remission. Treating depressive rumination appears to yield generalised improvement in depression and co-morbidity. This study provides preliminary evidence that rumination-focused CBT may be an efficacious treatment for medication--refractory residual depression. PMID:17367751

  16. Welfare Program Implementation and Parents’ Depression

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Pamela A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines how the frontline practices in welfare offices explain variation in program impacts on parents’ depression. The study uses data from four large-scale experimental studies and conducts multilevel statistical modeling on 6,761 families in 22 local welfare offices. Analyses examine the ways that two program implementation practices (emphasis on quick job entry and personal client attention) are associated with program impacts on parents’ depressive symptoms. Effects vary by the age composition of the parents’ children, such that programmatic emphasis on quick job entry is associated with increases in depression among parents with preschool-age children but not among parents with school-age children. Findings have implications for research, policy, and practice. PMID:22058575

  17. The impact of social support on postpartum depression: The mediator role of self-efficacy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanjun; Jin, Shenghua

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the impact of perceived social support on the depression of postpartum women, and mainly focuses on confirming the mediator role of self-efficacy. A total of 427 new mothers from two general hospitals in Beijing accomplished the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, General Self-efficacy Scale, and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. The results revealed that both social support and self-efficacy significantly correlate with postpartum depression. Structural equation modeling indicated that self-efficacy partially mediates the relationship between social support and postpartum depression. PMID:24925546

  18. Depression and school performance in middle adolescent boys and girls.

    PubMed

    Fröjd, Sari A; Nissinen, Eeva S; Pelkonen, Mirjami U I; Marttunen, Mauri J; Koivisto, Anna-Maija; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu

    2008-08-01

    The study aimed to investigate the associations between different levels of depression with different aspects of school performance. The target population included 2516 7th-9th grade pupils (13-17 years) of whom 90% completed the questionnaire anonymously in the classroom. Of the girls 18.4% and of the boys 11.1% were classified as being depressed (R-Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Finnish version of the 13-item BDI). The lower the self-reported grade point average (GPA) or the more the GPA had declined from the previous term, the more commonly the adolescents were depressed. Depression was associated with difficulties in concentration, social relationships, self-reliant school performance and reading and writing as well as perceiving schoolwork as highly loading. The school performance variables had similar associations with depression among both sexes when a wide range of depression was studied but gender differences appeared when studying the severe end of the depression scale. Our study indicates that pupils reporting difficulties in academic performance should be screened for depression. PMID:17949806

  19. Antidepressant treatment of the depressed patient with insomnia.

    PubMed

    Thase, M E

    1999-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are an integral part of depressive disorder. As such, they are a part of all contemporary sets of diagnostic criteria for major depression and of all major symptom-based rating scales for depression. Insomnia is a particularly frequent complaint, and it is reported by more than 90% of depressed patients. Although the "kindling" or "illness transduction" model of depression remains hypothetical, there is evidence that people with recurrent depression have more pronounced abnormalities of sleep neurophysiology than those experiencing a single or initial episode. Therefore, early relief of insomnia in a depressed patient, in addition to alleviating other symptoms, may increase adherence to treatment and increase daytime performance and overall functioning, while complete relief of insomnia may improve prognosis. Stimulation of serotonin-2 (5-HT2) receptors is thought to underlie insomnia and changes in sleep architecture seen with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs). This is the reason why hypnotics or low-dose trazodone are commonly coprescribed at the initiation of the treatment with either the SSRIs or SNRIs. On the other hand, antidepressant drugs with 5-HT2 blocking properties, such as mirtazapine or nefazodone, alleviate insomnia and improve sleep architecture. In depressed patients, mirtazapine produces a significant shortening of sleep-onset latency, increases a total sleep time, and leads to a marked improvement in sleep efficiency. Antidepressants with preferential 5-HT2 blocking properties are therefore a good treatment option for depressed patients with marked insomnia. PMID:10446739

  20. Mapping Depression in Schizophrenia: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Veena; Peters, Emmanuelle; Guinn, Ashley; Fannon, Dominic; Russell, Tamara; Sumich, Alexander; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Williams, Steven C. R.; ffytche, Dominic H.

    2016-01-01

    Depressive symptoms are common in schizophrenia, often left untreated, and associated with a high relapse rate, suicidal ideation, increased mortality, reduced social adjustment and poor quality of life. The neural mechanisms underlying depression in psychosis are poorly understood. Given reports of altered brain response to negative facial affect in depressive disorders, we examined brain response to emotive facial expressions in relation to levels of depression in people with psychosis. Seventy outpatients (final N = 63) and 20 healthy participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during an implicit affect processing task involving presentation of facial expressions of fear, anger, happiness as well as neutral expressions and a (no face) control condition. All patients completed Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and had their symptoms assessed on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). In patients, depression (BDI-II) scores associated positively with activation of the left thalamus, extending to the putamen-globus pallidus, insula, inferior-middle frontal and para-post-pre-central gyri during fearful expressions. Furthermore, patients with moderate-to-severe depression had significantly higher activity in these brain regions during fearful expressions relative to patients with no, minimal, or mild depression and healthy participants. The study provides first evidence of enhanced brain response to fearful facial expressions, which signal an uncertain source of threat in the environment, in patients with psychosis and a high level of self-reported depression. PMID:26712855

  1. Immune and hormonal activity in adults suffering from depression.

    PubMed

    Nunes, S O V; Reiche, E M V; Morimoto, H K; Matsuo, T; Itano, E N; Xavier, E C D; Yamashita, C M; Vieira, V R; Menoli, A V; Silva, S S; Costa, F B; Reiche, F V; Silva, F L V; Kaminami, M S

    2002-05-01

    An association between depression and altered immune and hormonal systems has been suggested by the results of many studies. In the present study we carried out immune and hormonal measurements in 40 non-medicated, ambulatory adult patients with depression determined by CID-10 criteria and compared with 34 healthy nondepressed subjects. The severity of the condition was determined with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Of 40 depressed patients, 31 had very severe and 9 severe or moderate depression, 29 (72.5%) were females and 11 (27.5%) were males (2.6:1 ratio). The results revealed a significant reduction of albumin and elevation of alpha-1, alpha-2 and beta-globulins, and soluble IL-2 receptor in patients with depression compared to the values obtained for nondepressed subjects (P<0.05). The decrease lymphocyte proliferation in response to a mitogen was significantly lower in severely or moderately depressed patients when compared to control (P<0.05). These data confirm the immunological disturbance of acute phase proteins and cellular immune response in patients with depression. Other results may be explained by a variety of interacting factors such as number of patients, age, sex, and the nature, severity and/or duration of depression. Thus, the data obtained should be interpreted with caution and the precise clinical relevance of these findings requires further investigation. PMID:12011944

  2. Resilient Coping Moderates the Effect of Trauma Exposure on Depression.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Vaughn G; Wallston, Kenneth A; Strachan, Eric

    2016-08-01

    Posttraumatic depression rates are increasing in the United States, and there is a great need to identify malleable factors that could moderate posttraumatic depression levels. The purpose of this study was to examine whether resilient coping moderates the effects of trauma exposure on depression, while controlling for neuroticism-an established predictor of depressive symptoms. This study used data from 3,734 pairs of twins from the community-based University of Washington Twin Registry. Each twin pair was randomized with twin A in one subsample and twin B in the second subsample. The four-item Brief Resilient Coping Scale measured resilient coping. The two-item Patient Health Questionnaire measured depression. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed on each subsample, controlling for neuroticism. In addition to significant effects of neuroticism and trauma exposure on depression (p < .001), the effect of the interaction of resilient coping and trauma exposure on depression was significant in both subsamples (p < .01). High levels of resilient coping were associated with lower depression scores in the context of previous trauma exposure. Individuals high in resilient coping who experienced significant life traumas were less depressed after trauma exposure, even after controlling for neuroticism. Because coping skills may be learned, interventions that teach resilient coping to individuals with traumatic histories merit investigation. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27176758

  3. Depression and Cognitive Function in Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Agganis, Brian T.; Weiner, Daniel E.; Giang, Lena M.; Scott, Tammy; Tighiouart, Hocine; Griffith, John L.; Sarnak, Mark J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Both depression and cognitive impairment are common in hemodialysis patients, are associated with adverse clinical outcomes, and place an increased burden on health care resources. Study Design Cross-sectional cohort Setting & Participants 241 maintenance hemodialysis patients in the Boston area Predictor Depressive symptomatology, defined by a Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) score of 16 or higher Outcome Performance on a detailed neurocognitive battery Results Mean age was 63.8 years, 49.0% were female, 21.6% were African American, and median dialysis duration was 13.8 months. There were 57 (23.7%) participants with significant depressive symptoms. In multivariable analysis adjusting for age, sex, education and other comorbid conditions, participants with and without depressive symptoms performed similarly on the Mini-Mental State Examination (p=0.4) and tests of memory. However, participants with greater depressive symptoms performed significantly worse on tests assessing processing speed, attention, and executive function, including Trails Making Test B (p=0.02) and Digit-Symbol Coding (p=0.01). Defining depression using a CES-D score ≥18 did not substantially change results. Limitations Cross-sectional design, absence of brain imaging Conclusions Hemodialysis patients with a greater burden of depressive symptoms perform worse on tests of cognition related to processing speed and executive function. Further research is needed to assess the effects of treating depressive symptoms on cognitive performance in dialysis patients. PMID:20673602

  4. Serum DHEAS levels are associated with the development of depression.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guang; Yin, You; Xiao, Chun-Lan; Mao, Rong-Jie; Shi, Bo-Hai; Jie, Yong; Wang, Zuo-Wei

    2015-09-30

    The aim of study was to evaluate the association between serum DHEAS levels and depression with a case-control study together with a meta-analysis. Radioimmunoassay (RIA) was performed to measure the serum DHEAS levels of all participants before and after treatment. Depression Patients were divided into mild depression and severe depression based on Hamilton depression scale (HAMD24) and received 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and citalopram (20mg/d) for 8 weeks. Case-control studies related to our study theme were enrolled for meta-analysis and Comprehensive Meta-analysis 2.0 (CMA 2.0) was used for statistical analysis. After treatment, DHEAS levels in depression patients were significantly increased, while before and after treatment, DHEAS levels were all lower in depression patients than in controls (all P<0.001); further analysis on age revealed that DHEAS levels were decreased with the rising of age. Meta-analysis results suggested that serum DHEAS levels (ng/mL) were significantly higher in healthy controls compared to depression patients (SMD=0.777, 95%CI=0.156-1.399, P=0.014). In conclusion, our study suggests that serum DHEAS levels are associated with the development of depression and it decreased with the rising of age. PMID:26205628

  5. Mapping Depression in Schizophrenia: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Veena; Peters, Emmanuelle; Guinn, Ashley; Fannon, Dominic; Russell, Tamara; Sumich, Alexander; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Williams, Steven C R; Ffytche, Dominic H

    2016-05-01

    Depressive symptoms are common in schizophrenia, often left untreated, and associated with a high relapse rate, suicidal ideation, increased mortality, reduced social adjustment and poor quality of life. The neural mechanisms underlying depression in psychosis are poorly understood. Given reports of altered brain response to negative facial affect in depressive disorders, we examined brain response to emotive facial expressions in relation to levels of depression in people with psychosis. Seventy outpatients (final N= 63) and 20 healthy participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during an implicit affect processing task involving presentation of facial expressions of fear, anger, happiness as well as neutral expressions and a (no face) control condition. All patients completed Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and had their symptoms assessed on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). In patients, depression (BDI-II) scores associated positively with activation of the left thalamus, extending to the putamen-globus pallidus, insula, inferior-middle frontal and para-post-pre-central gyri during fearful expressions. Furthermore, patients with moderate-to-severe depression had significantly higher activity in these brain regions during fearful expressions relative to patients with no, minimal, or mild depression and healthy participants. The study provides first evidence of enhanced brain response to fearful facial expressions, which signal an uncertain source of threat in the environment, in patients with psychosis and a high level of self-reported depression. PMID:26712855

  6. A Genome-Wide Association Study of Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Cornelis, Marilyn C.; Amin, Najaf; Bakshis, Erin; Baumert, Jens; Ding, Jingzhong; Liu, Yongmei; Marciante, Kristin; Meirelles, Osorio; Nalls, Michael A.; Sun, Yan V.; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Yu, Lei; Bandinelli, Stefania; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Bennett, David A.; Boomsma, Dorret; Cannas, Alessandra; Coker, Laura H.; de Geus, Eco; De Jager, Philip L.; Diez-Roux, Ana V.; Purcell, Shaun; Hu, Frank B.; Rimma, Eric B.; Hunter, David J.; Jensen, Majken K.; Curhan, Gary; Rice, Kenneth; Penman, Alan D.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Emeny, Rebecca; Eriksson, Johan G.; Evans, Denis A.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Fornage, Myriam; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Hofman, Albert; Illig, Thomas; Kardia, Sharon; Kelly-Hayes, Margaret; Koenen, Karestan; Kraft, Peter; Kuningas, Maris; Massaro, Joseph M.; Melzer, David; Mulas, Antonella; Mulder, Cornelis L.; Murray, Anna; Oostra, Ben A.; Palotie, Aarno; Penninx, Brenda; Petersmann, Astrid; Pilling, Luke C.; Psaty, Bruce; Rawal, Rajesh; Reiman, Eric M.; Schulz, Andrea; Shulman, Joshua M.; Singleton, Andrew B.; Smith, Albert V.; Sutin, Angelina R.; Uitterlinden, André G.; Völzke, Henry; Widen, Elisabeth; Yaffe, Kristine; Zonderman, Alan B.; Cucca, Francesco; Harris, Tamara; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz; Llewellyn, David J.; Räikkönen, Katri; Tanaka, Toshiko

    2013-01-01

    Background Depression is a heritable trait that exists on a continuum of varying severity and duration. Yet, the search for genetic variants associated with depression has had few successes. We exploit the entire continuum of depression to find common variants for depressive symptoms. Methods In this genome-wide association study, we combined the results of 17 population-based studies assessing depressive symptoms with the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Replication of the independent top hits (p < 1 × 10−5) was performed in five studies assessing depressive symptoms with other instruments. In addition, we performed a combined meta-analysis of all 22 discovery and replication studies. Results The discovery sample comprised 34,549 individuals (mean age of 66.5) and no loci reached genome-wide significance (lowest p = 1.05 × 10−7). Seven independent single nucleotide polymorphisms were considered for replication. In the replication set (n = 16,709), we found suggestive association of one single nucleotide polymorphism with depressive symptoms (rs161645, 5q21, p = 9.19 × 10−3). This 5q21 region reached genome-wide significance (p = 4.78 × 10−8) in the overall meta-analysis combining discovery and replication studies (n = 51,258). Conclusions The results suggest that only a large sample comprising more than 50,000 subjects may be sufficiently powered to detect genes for depressive symptoms. PMID:23290196

  7. Do You Have Major Depression?

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Depression Do You Have Major Depression? Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents Simple ... member may have major depression. —NIMH Types of Depression Just like other illnesses, such as heart disease, ...

  8. Depression, Pain, and Pain Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefe, Francis J.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Examined the degree to which depression predicted pain and pain behavior. The Beck Depression Inventory was administered to 207 low back pain patients. Depression and physical findings were the most important predictors of pain and pain behavior. Depression proved significant even after controlling for important demographic and medical status…

  9. Depression, Dementia, and Social Supports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esser, Sally R.; Vitaliano, Peter P.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews recent literature on the relationships among dementia, depression, and social support, emphasizing the diagnostic differentiation of dementia and depression, and the role of these three entities in elderly with cognitive impairment. Discusses dementia-like symptoms arising in depression and the coexistence of dementia and depression.…

  10. Depression Affects the Whole Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hojnar, Laura; Thomas, Dawn V.; Stillwell, Margaret; Bennett, Tess; Allison, Anita

    1997-01-01

    Discusses how expanding one's knowledge of depression can help in supporting Head Start families. Defines depression and lists symptoms of depression for adults and children of various ages, describes how parent's depression can affect child development and the family, and considers how Head Start and support agencies can support children and…

  11. Depression in older breast cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among U.S. women .The 5-year survival rate for this tumour is nowadays 85%, and the 61% of these women are still alive at 15 years. When depression symptoms are present as a consequence of breast cancer treatments, they may interfere negatively with patients’ quality of life. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of breast cancer treatment on the quality of life and the impact of depression on the health-related life. Methods We enrolled 173 women aged 65-75 years with early stage breast cancer diagnosed over the last 10 years, initially recruited to participate in a study examining heath-related quality of life in the first 5 years after breast cancer diagnosis. Participants were divided into four groups: 1) 46 breast cancer survivors (aged 65-70); 2) 62 women diagnosed with breast cancer (aged 65-69); 3) 32 women with recurrent breast cancer after 10 years (aged 66-75); 4) 30 women in good health status (aged 60-70). The Geriatric Depression Scale was used as a routine part of a comprehensive geriatric assessment. Collection of data for the application of instruments, such as sociodemographic variables (age, educational level, social state) and clinical date (stage and time of the disease and treatment), was carried out by trained researcher assistants. Results Our results demonstrated the correlation between depression and previous cancer experiences. In fact, in patients with cancer experience, the grade of depression was significantly higher compared to healthy subjects. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the patients with recurrent breast cancer were severely depressed compared to other groups. Conclusions A high percentage of participants were identified as having emotional and/or well being problems. Further investigations on the cause of depression problems cancer-related are needed. PMID:23173836

  12. Zung, Beck, and Hamilton Rating Scales as Measures of Treatment Outcome: A Meta-Analytic Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Michael J.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Treatment studies using the Zung Self-Rating Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression as dependent measures were reviewed to determine whether these scales provide comparable data for assessing treatment effects. Results indicated that the Zung and the Beck showed less change in depression following…

  13. [Deficit in selective attention and its evolution in depression].

    PubMed

    Thomas, J; Raoux, N; Everett, J; Dantchev, N; Widlöcher, D

    1997-01-01

    Selective attention was measured in 34 depressed patients and 34 controls using a computerized version of the Stroop test, that included a manipulation of the stimulus onset asynchrony (SCA) in order to explore the efficacy of cognitive inhibition as a function of depression and of clinical amelioration of degression after therapy. Clinical tests included a measure of psychomotor slowing [Echelle de Ralentissement de Widlöcher (ERD), the Hamilton (Psychiatric Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD), and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS)]. Selective attention was measured with the Stroop test, which includes four measures: Word, Color, Color-Word, and Color-Word minus Color, or interference. All of these measures were deficient in the depressed patients, particularly Stroop interference. Even when additional time was given to inhibit the Stroop distractor in the SOA condition, depressed subjects still showed significantly inferior performance. After four weeks of anti-depressive treatment, fifteen of the patients were retested, and showed significant improvement on all the Stroop measures, particularly on Stroop interference. The improvement in performance on the attentional measures was comparable in magnitude to that seen on the clinical scales, and suggests that the interference measure can be a sensitive indicator of clinical status in depressed patients. PMID:9264929

  14. Quality of Life, Health Status, and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Pike, Nancy A.; Evangelista, Lorraine S.; Doering, Lynn V.; Eastwood, Jo-Ann; Lewis, Alan B.; Child, John S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Quality of life (QOL) in adolescents and adults who have undergone the Fontan procedure and are living with only 1 ventricle is presumed to be diminished. Objectives This study aimed to compare QOL, health status, and prevalence of depression in adolescents/adults after the Fontan procedure with healthy counterparts and to identify predictors of QOL in the Fontan group. Methods Using a comparative, cross-sectional design, 54 adolescents and adults with single ventricle congenital heart disease who have undergone the Fontan procedure were compared with 66 age-matched healthy counterparts. Quality of life, health status, depression, and social support were measured using the Satisfaction With Life Scale, Short Form Survey Version 2, Patient Health Questionnaire Depression Module, and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Clinical variables were abstracted from medical records. Predictors of QOL were determined using multiple linear regression. Results Adolescents and adults in the Fontan group reported lower physical health status (mean [SD] = 46.5 [9.3] vs mean [SD] = 55.9 [5.1], P < .001) and were more depressed (mean [SD] = 7.3 [5.9] vs mean [SD] = 4.5 [4.3], P < .004) than their healthy counterparts. There were no differences in QOL, mental health status, or social support between the 2 groups. Functional status (New York Heart Association class), depression, and social support accounted for 55% of the variance in QOL in the Fontan group. Conclusions Despite lower levels of physical health, the QOL of Fontan patients was comparable with that of their healthy counterparts; this finding contradicts previous proxy reports, self-reports, and assumptions that QOL is lower in patients with complex single ventricle congenital heart disease. However, because Fontan patients were more depressed than their healthy counterparts, the need for early screening and detection is warranted. PMID:21912272

  15. Emotional Support and Adult Depression in Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Musliner, Katherine L.; Singer, Jonathan B.

    2015-01-01

    The goals of this study were to evaluate the effects of emotional support from friends and parents at two time points (adolescence and adulthood) on adult depression in a nationally representative sample of survivors of childhood sexual abuse (CSA), and examine whether the associations were moderated by the identity of the perpetrator (parent/caregiver vs. not). Data was taken from Waves I and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). The study sample included 1,238 Add Health participants with a history of CSA and an equivalently sized comparison group of individuals with no history of CSA. Parental support was measured using four items from each wave that assessed the warmth of participants' relationships with their parents and their satisfaction with those relationships. Friend support in adolescence was measured using participants' perceptions of how much their friends cared about them and in adulthood using participants' self-reported number of close friends. Depression was measured using a 10-item subscale of the CES-D. Support from friends and parents in adulthood were significantly associated with lower odds of adult depression in CSA survivors with a history of non-parent/caregiver abuse. Among survivors of parent/caregiver abuse, emotional support was not significantly associated with adult depression regardless of when or by whom it was provided. Emotional support in adulthood from friends and parents is associated with reduced odds of adult depression in CSA survivors, but only in cases where the abuse was perpetrated by someone other than a parent or caregiver. PMID:24630442

  16. Neuroinflammation, Neurodegeneration and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Hurley, Laura L.; Tizabi, Yousef

    2013-01-01

    Neurodegeneration and depression are two common co-morbid conditions, particularly within the aging population. Research has linked neuroinflammation as a major contributing factor to both of these diseases. The key to neuroinflammation effects on neurodegeneration and depression appears to lie within the dysregulation of the control and release of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. This can come from an internal or external insult to the system, or from changes in the individual due to aging that culminate in immune dysregulation. The need to reduce neuroinflammation has led to extensive research into neuroprotectants. We discuss the efficacy found with nicotine, alcohol, resveratrol, curcumin, and ketamine. Our main focus will be on what research is telling us about the connections between neuroinflammation, neurodegeneration, and depression, and the hope that neuroprotectants research is giving people suffering from neurodegeneration and depression stemming from neuroinflammation. We will conclude by making suggestions for future research in this area. PMID:22895696

  17. Depression - stopping your medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000570.htm Depression - stopping your medicines To use the sharing features on this page, ... Why Do You Want to Stop Taking This Medicine? Write down all of the reasons you want ...

  18. Recognizing teen depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... are twice as likely as boys to have depression. Your teen has trouble being social Your teen has learning disabilities Your teen has a chronic illness There are family problems or problems with their parents

  19. Caregiving and Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... dosage or interactions with other medications. Complementary and Alternative Therapies St. John’s wort . One of the most studied alternative treatments for depressive symptoms is St. John’s wort ( ...

  20. [Melancholia and neurotic depression].

    PubMed

    Hartmann, S

    1999-11-01

    The author considers the psychopathological distinction between endogenous and neurotic depression as one of differing psychodynamics. In so doing he embeds both illnesses within psychoanalytic theory while at the same time allowing a sharp differentiation. Even the premorbid personalities of patients with endogenous and neurotic depression are different. The personalities of those with endogenous depression bear a similarity to those with obsessional character and betray a pathological super-ego monopolized by defence mechanisms. The personalities of patients with neurotic depression show an oral-dependent structure characterised by a structural deficit of the ego functions and of an autonomous super-ego. These factors are responsible for the greatly differing pathodynamics found in these illnesses and point to different etiological factors in socialization. PMID:10593139

  1. Depression and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... the baby. In this case, controlling depression with medications prescribed by a health care provider may help prevent more serious problems from substance abuse. I’m considering trying an alternative treatment for ...

  2. Post-stroke depression.

    PubMed

    Gaete, Jorge Moncayo; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2008-01-01

    Post-stroke depression (PSD) is among the most common emotional disorders afflicting stroke sufferers. Approximately one third of stroke survivors experience an early or later onset of depression. PSD impedes the rehabilitation and recovery process, jeopardizes quality of life and increases mortality. Diagnosis of PSD is challenging in the acute and chronic aftermath. Therefore, it often remains unrecognized and/or undertreated. The interaction between depression and stroke is very complex and the pathophysiological mechanisms have not as yet been fully elucidated, although an interaction between anatomical and psychosocial factors may be important in PSD development. Neurochemical changes and clinical findings are similar to endogenous depression. PSD is potentially treatable, although no conclusive benefits of antidepressant agents and nonpharmacological interventions have been observed. The efficacy of preventive strategies in PSD remains essentially undetermined. PMID:18088202

  3. Pharmacologic Treatment of Dimensional Anxious Depression: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Niciu, Mark J.; Richards, Erica M.; Zarate, Carlos A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To review the pharmacologic treatment of dimensionally defined anxious depression. Data Sources: English-language, adult human research articles published between 1949 and February 2013 were identified via PUBMED and EMBASE. The search term was treatment of anxious depression. Study Selection: We identified and reviewed 304 original articles. Of these, 31 studies of patients with anxious depression, who were treated with an antidepressant or antipsychotic, are included in this review. Data Extraction: All studies explicitly used a dimensional definition of anxious depression. All patients were treated with either antidepressants or antipsychotic medications. Results: Of the 31 relevant psychopharmacologic studies identified, 7 examined patients receiving only 1 medication, 2 studied cotherapeutic strategies, 1 examined antipsychotic augmentation, and 21 compared multiple medications. Eleven were pooled analyses from several studies. All studies were of adults (18–92 years old). The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale Anxiety/Somatization Factor Score was used to define anxious depression in 71% of the studies, and 77.4% were post hoc analyses of previous datasets. Seventeen studies found selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), and/or tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) to be useful for successfully treating anxious depression. However, patients with anxious depression were less likely to experience sustained response or remission. Furthermore, baseline anxious depression puts patients at greater risk for side effect burden. Conclusions: Despite achieving response with SSRIs, SNRIs, and TCAs, patients with dimensionally defined anxious depression do not maintain response or remission and often report a larger burden of side effects compared to nonanxious depressive patients, suggesting that it is a harder-to-treat subtype of major depressive disorder. PMID:25317369

  4. Vitamin D Deficiency and Depressive Symptomatology in Psychiatric Patients Hospitalized with a Current Depressive Episode: A Factor Analytic Study

    PubMed Central

    von Känel, Roland; Fardad, Nasser; Steurer, Nadine; Horak, Nicole; Hindermann, Esther; Fischer, Franz; Gessler, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    Background Low vitamin D levels have been associated with depressive symptoms in population-based studies and non-clinical samples as well as with clinical depression. This study aimed to examine the association of vitamin D levels with the severity and dimensions of depressive symptoms in hospitalized patients with a current episode of depression taking into account confounding variables. Methods We investigated 380 patients (mean age 47±12 years, 70% women) who were consecutively hospitalized with a main diagnosis of an ICD-10 depressive episode. All patients self-rated depressive symptom severity with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D), the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), and the Brief Symptom Inventory. A principal component analysis was performed with all 34 items of these questionnaires and serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-OH D) were measured. Results Vitamin D deficiency (<50 nmol/l), insufficiency (50–75 nmol/l), and sufficiency (>75 nmol/l) were present in 55.5%, 31.8% and 12.6%, respectively, of patients. Patients with vitamin D deficiency scored higher on the HADS-D scale and on an anhedonia symptom factor than those with insufficient (p-values ≤0.023) or sufficient (p-values ≤0.008) vitamin D. Vitamin D deficient patients also scored higher on the BDI-II scale than those with sufficient vitamin D (p = 0.007); BDI-II cognitive/affective symptoms, but not somatic/affective symptoms, were higher in patients with vitamin D deficiency (p = 0.005) and insufficiency (p = 0.041) relative to those with sufficient vitamin D. Effect sizes suggested clinically relevant findings. Conclusions Low vitamin D levels are frequent in hospitalized patients with a current episode of depression. Especially 25-OH D levels <50 nmol/l were associated with cognitive/affective depressive symptoms, and anhedonia symptoms in particular. PMID:26397113

  5. The genetics of depression: a review.

    PubMed

    Levinson, Douglas F

    2006-07-15

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is common and moderately heritable. Recurrence and early age at onset characterize cases with the greatest familial risk. Major depressive disorder and the neuroticism personality trait have overlapping genetic susceptibilities. Most genetic studies of MDD have considered a small set of functional polymorphisms relevant to monoaminergic neurotransmission. Meta-analyses suggest small positive associations between the polymorphism in the serotonin transporter promoter region (5-HTTLPR) and bipolar disorder, suicidal behavior, and depression-related personality traits but not yet to MDD itself. This polymorphism might also influence traits related to stress vulnerability. Newer hypotheses of depression neurobiology suggest closer study of genes related to neurotoxic and neuroprotective (neurotrophic) processes and to overactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, with mixed evidence regarding association of MDD with polymorphisms in one such gene (brain-derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF]). Several genome-wide linkage studies of MDD and related traits have been reported or are near completion. There is some evidence for convergence of linkage findings across studies, but more data are needed to permit meta-analysis. Future directions will include more intensive, systematic study of linkage candidate regions and of the whole genome for genetic association; gene expression array studies; and larger-scale studies of gene-environment interactions and of depression-related endophenotypes. PMID:16300747

  6. [A pathogenesis of post-stroke depression].

    PubMed

    Filatova, E G; Dobrovol'skaia, L E; Posokhov, S I; Sharapova, R B

    2002-01-01

    Thirty-one patients (17 males and 14 females aged 30-74 years, mean age 61 years) with depression were examined 3-6 months after ischemic stroke. Control group included 10 sex- and age-matched healthy subjects. Neurological, psychological and psychometric tests (the Hamilton, Beck, Spilberger, mini mental scales and Quality of Life questionnaire) were conducted. A mean depression level in patients with stroke did not differ from that in the controls and did not depend on lesion size, location, neurological deficit degree. Clinically pronounced, i.e. relatively severe, post-stroke depression was detected in 22% of the patients and its severity was higher in cases of right-hemisphere stroke. Psychosocial factors were found to be the most significant in post-stroke depression. Depression occurred more often in patients, who were single, in women, in preserved intelligence and higher level of personality anxiety. Loss of job as a result of the vascular disaster proved to be not a very important psycho-traumatizing factor in the group studied. PMID:12747096

  7. The link between multiple sclerosis and depression.

    PubMed

    Feinstein, Anthony; Magalhaes, Sandra; Richard, Jean-Francois; Audet, Blair; Moore, Craig

    2014-09-01

    Depression--be it a formal diagnosis based on consensus clinical criteria, or a collection of symptoms revealed by a self-report rating scale--is common in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and adds substantially to the morbidity and mortality associated with this disease. This Review discusses the prevalence and epidemiology of depression in patients with MS, before covering aetiological factors, including genetics, brain pathology, immunological changes, dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and psychosocial influences. Treatment options such as antidepressant drugs, cognitive-behavioural therapy, mindfulness-based therapy, exercise and electroconvulsive therapy are also reviewed in the context of MS-related depression. Frequent comorbid conditions, namely pain, fatigue, anxiety, cognitive dysfunction and alcohol use, are also summarized. The article then explores three key challenges facing researchers and clinicians: what is the optimal way to define depression in the context of diseases such as MS, in which the psychiatric and neurological symptoms overlap; how can current knowledge about the biological and psychological underpinnings of MS-related depression be used to boost the validity of this construct; and can intervention be made more effective through use of combination therapies with additive or synergistic effects, which might exceed the modest benefits derived from their individual components? PMID:25112509

  8. Within-Person Changes in Individual Symptoms of Depression Predict Subsequent Depressive Episodes in Adolescents: a Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Kouros, Chrystyna D; Morris, Matthew C; Garber, Judy

    2016-04-01

    The current longitudinal study examined which individual symptoms of depression uniquely predicted a subsequent Major Depressive Episode (MDE) in adolescents, and whether these relations differed by sex. Adolescents (N = 240) were first interviewed in grade 6 (M = 11.86 years old; SD = 0.56; 54% female; 81.5% Caucasian) and then annually through grade 12 regarding their individual symptoms of depression as well as the occurrence of MDEs. Individual symptoms of depression were assessed with the Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R) and depressive episodes were assessed with the Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation (LIFE). Results showed that within-person changes in sleep problems and low self-esteem/excessive guilt positively predicted an increased likelihood of an MDE for both boys and girls. Significant sex differences also were found. Within-person changes in anhedonia predicted an increased likelihood of a subsequent MDE among boys, whereas irritability predicted a decreased likelihood of a future MDE among boys, and concentration difficulties predicted a decreased likelihood of an MDE in girls. These results identified individual depressive symptoms that predicted subsequent depressive episodes in male and female adolescents, and may be used to guide the early detection, treatment, and prevention of depressive disorders in youth. PMID:26105209

  9. The Radiologist and Depression.

    PubMed

    Bender, Claire E; Parikh, Jay R; Arleo, Elizabeth Kagan; Bluth, Edward

    2016-07-01

    Clinical depression affects physicians, including radiologists. Medical professionals, including radiologists, may be more comfortable treating a patient than being one, and psychiatric issues may be regarded as taboo for discussion, so the issue of clinical depression in the specialty and subspecialty has not received widespread attention. Specifically, a review of the national and international literature in PubMed, Scopus, and Google reveals few publications dedicated to the issue of clinical depression in radiology; although statistically, they must exist. The purpose of this report is to define the terms and describe the manifestations and scope of the issues related to clinical depression, with special attention given to risk factors unique to radiologists, such as working in low ambient light or near different fields of magnetic strength. By the end of the article, it is the authors' hope that the reading radiologist will be aware of, and open to, the possibility of clinical depression in a colleague or within his or herself because clinical depression is common and it is important to get help. PMID:27085789

  10. Overweight and depression.

    PubMed

    Ross, C E

    1994-03-01

    Is being overweight distressing? If it is, is the distress due to negative appraisals by others, to the stresses of trying to fit norms of thinness by dieting, or to the health consequences of being overweight? If being overweight is stigmatizing, negative evaluations by others may be internalized as high levels of depression. This perspective predicts that being overweight has a direct effect on depression, and that the effect is greater in social groups where being overweight is less common, especially among women, Whites, younger people, the well-educated, and the well-to-do. Alternatively, overweight may not be distressing per se. Instead, attempting to fit norms of appearance that equate thinness with attractiveness by dieting is distressing. According to this perspective, the association between being overweight and depression is explained by dieting. Finally, this association may be due to the health consequences of being overweight. A random sample of 2,020 U.S. adults aged 18-90 were interviewed by telephone in 1990. Results showed that being overweight has no direct effect on depression in any social group except among the well-educated. Overweight persons are more likely to diet and to experience worse physical health, both of which are associated with depression. Combined, these explain the negative effects of being overweight on depression. PMID:8014430

  11. Relationships Among Depressive Symptoms, Benefit-Finding, Optimism, and Positive Affect in Multiple Sclerosis Patients After Psychotherapy for Depression

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Stacey L.; Vella, Lea; Mohr, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective While many patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) experience psychological problems, such as depression, benefit-finding is commonly reported. Using the Broaden-and-Build Model of positive emotions (Fredrickson, 2001) and the Expectancy-Value Model of optimism (Carver & Scheier, 1998) as two related, yet, distinct conceptual frameworks, this study examined positive affect and optimism as mediators of the relationship between improved depression and enhanced benefit-finding. Design MS patients (N = 127), who participated in a larger, randomized clinical trial comparing two types of telephone psychotherapy for depression, were assessed at baseline, midtherapy (8 weeks), end of therapy (16 weeks), and 6- and 12-month posttherapy. Main Outcome Measures Depression was measured with a telephone administered version of the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression; Positive Affect was measured with the Positive Affect Subscale from the Positive and Negative Affect Scale; Optimism was measured with the Life Orientation Test—Revised; Benefit-Finding was measured with the revised version of the Stress-Related Growth Scale. Results Data were analyzed with multilevel random-effects models, controlling for time since MS diagnosis and type of treatment. Improved depression was associated with increased benefit-finding over time. The relationship between improved depression and benefit-finding was significantly mediated by both increased optimism and increased positive affect. Conclusion Findings provide support to both theoretical models. Positivity appears to promote benefit-finding in MS. PMID:18377142

  12. Emerging from Depression: Treatment of Adolescent Depression Using the Major Treatment Models of Adult Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Kathleen M.

    Noting that adolescents who commit suicide are often clinically depressed, this paper examines various approaches in the treatment of depression. Major treatment models of adult depression, which can be directly applied to the treatment of the depressed adolescent, are described. Major treatment models and selected research studies are reviewed in…

  13. Sex Differences in the Relationship of Anger and Depression: An Empirical Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Jody L.; Gray, Elizabeth A.; Fuqua, Dale R.

    1999-01-01

    A comparison of mean scores on the Beck Depression Inventory and State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory scales revealed that women scored significantly higher than men on depression, whereas there were no significant differences on any of the six anger scales. These findings support further research on functional affective differences between men…

  14. Increased Neutrophil/Lymphocyte Ratio in Patients with Depression is Correlated with the Severity of Depression and Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Aydin Sunbul, Esra; Yanartas, Omer; Cengiz, Fatma; Bozbay, Mehmet; Sari, Ibrahim; Gulec, Huseyin

    2016-01-01

    Objective Chronic inflammation is associated with cardiovascular (CV) risk factors and psychiatric disorders. The neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has been investigated as a new biomarker for systemic inflammatory response. The aim of the study is to investigate the relation of NLR with severity of depression and CV risk factors. Methods The study population consisted of 256 patients with depressive disorder. Patients were evaluated with the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D). Patients were classified into four groups according to their HAM-D score such as mild, moderate, severe, and very severe depression. Patients were also evaluated in terms of CV risk factors. Results Patients with higher HAM-D score had significantly higher NLR levels compared to patients with lower HAM-D score. Correlation analysis revealed that severity of depression was associated with NLR in depressive patients (r=0.333, p<0.001). Patients with one or more CV risk factors have significantly higher NLR levels. Correlation analysis revealed that CV risk factors were associated with NLR in depressive patients (r=0.132, p=0.034). In logistic regression analyses, NLR levels were an independent predictor of severe or very severe depression (odds ratio: 3.02, 95% confidence interval: 1.867-4.884, p<0.001). A NLR of 1.57 or higher predicted severe or very severe depression with a sensitivity of 61.4% and specificity of 61.2%. Conclusion Higher HAM-D scores are associated with higher NLR levels in depressive patients. NLR more than 1.57 was an independent predictor of severe or very severe depression. A simple, cheap white blood cell count may give an idea about the severity of depression. PMID:26766954

  15. Development of a Computerized Adaptive Test for Depression

    PubMed Central

    Gibbons, Robert D.; Weiss, David J.; Pilkonis, Paul A.; Frank, Ellen; Moore, Tara; Kim, Jong Bae; Kupfer, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Context Unlike other areas of medicine, psychiatry is almost entirely dependent on patient report to assess the presence and severity of disease; therefore, it is particularly crucial that we find both more accurate and efficient means of obtaining that report. Objective To develop a computerized adaptive test (CAT) for depression, called the Computerized Adaptive Test–Depression Inventory (CAT-DI), that decreases patient and clinician burden and increases measurement precision. Design Case-control study. Setting A psychiatric clinic and community mental health center. Participants A total of 1614 individuals with and without minor and major depression were recruited for study. Main Outcome Measures The focus of this study was the development of the CAT-DI. The 24-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, Patient Health Questionnaire 9, and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale were used to study the convergent validity of the new measure, and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV was used to obtain diagnostic classifications of minor and major depressive disorder. Results A mean of 12 items per study participant was required to achieve a 0.3 SE in the depression severity estimate and maintain a correlation of r=0.95 with the total 389-item test score. Using empirically derived thresholds based on a mixture of normal distributions, we found a sensitivity of 0.92 and a specificity of 0.88 for the classification of major depressive disorder in a sample consisting of depressed patients and healthy controls. Correlations on the order of r=0.8 were found with the other clinician and self-rating scale scores. The CAT-DI provided excellent discrimination throughout the entire depressive severity continuum (minor and major depression), whereas the traditional scales did so primarily at the extremes (eg, major depression). Conclusions Traditional measurement fixes the number of items administered and allows measurement uncertainty to vary. In

  16. Screening for depression among newly arrived Vietnamese refugees in primary care settings.

    PubMed

    Buchwald, D; Manson, S M; Brenneman, D L; Dinges, N G; Keane, E M; Beals, J; Kinzie, J D

    1995-10-01

    A brief, culture-specific, self-report screening measure for depression, the Vietnamese Depression Scale, was used to determine the prevalence of depressive symptoms among 1,998 consecutive adult Vietnamese refugees who presented at 10 public health clinics within 2 months of their arrival in the United States. Of these patients, 6% met the criterion for a probable case of depression ("positive"). Being divorced, separated, or widowed and poorly educated were strongly associated with a greater likelihood of screening positive. Somatic complaints were common and induced considerable anxiety about physical health status. Nearly a third of the patients reported sadness and dysphoria; culture-specific symptoms of depression also were prevalent. Our findings document the feasibility of screening for depression using the Vietnamese Depression Scale among Vietnamese refugees, particularly in primary care settings where they are first likely to be seen by health professionals after arrival in their host country. PMID:7483590

  17. Reliability and validity of a new scale on internal coherence (ICS) of cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Kröz, Matthias; Büssing, Arndt; von Laue, Hans Broder; Reif, Marcus; Feder, Gene; Schad, Friedemann; Girke, Matthias; Matthes, Harald

    2009-01-01

    Background Current inventories on quality of life used in oncology mainly focus on functional aspects of patients in the context of disease adaption and treatments (side) effects (EORTC QLQ C30) or generically the status of common functions (Medical Outcome Study SF 36). Beyond circumscribed dimensions of quality of life (i.e., physical, emotional, social, cognitive etc.), there is a lack of inventories which also address other relevant dimensions such as the 'sense of coherence' (SOC) in cancer patients. SOC is important because of its potential prognostic relevance in cancer patients, but the current SOC scale has mainly been validated for psychiatric and psychosomatic patients. Our two-step validation study addresses the internal coherence (ICS) scale, which is based on expert rating, using specific items for oncological patients, with respect to its reliability, validity and sensitivity to chemotherapy. Methods The items were tested on 114 participants (57 cancer patients and a matched control group), alongside questions on autonomic regulation (aR), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), self-regulation (SRQ) and Karnofsky the Performance-Index (KPI). A retest of 65 participants was carried out after a median time span of four weeks. In the second part of the study, the ICS was used to assess internal coherence during chemotherapy in 25 patients with colorectal carcinoma (CRC) and 17 breast cancer patients. ICS was recorded before, during and 4 – 8 weeks after treatment. Results The 10-item scale of 'internal coherence' (ICS) shows good to very good reliability: Cronbach-α r = 0.91, retest-reliability r = 0.80. The ICS correlates with r = 0.43 – 0.72 to the convergence criteria (all p < 0.001). We are able to show decreased ICS-values after the third cycle for CRC and breast cancer patients, with a subsequent increase of ICS scores after the end of chemotherapy. Conclusion The ICS has good to very good reliability, validity and sensitivity to

  18. Diabetes education improves depressive state in newly diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bin; Zhang, Xiyao; Xu, Xiuping; Lv, Xiaofeng; Yao, Lu; Huang, Xu; Guo, Xueying; Liu, Baozhu; Li, Qiang; Cui, Can

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The prevalence of depression is relatively high in individuals with diabetes. However, screening and monitoring of depressive state in patients with diabetes is still neglected in developing countries and the treatment of diabetes-related depression is rarely performed in these countries. In this study, our aim was to study the role of diabetes education in the improvement of depressive state in newly diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: The Dutch version of the center for epidemiological studies depression scale (CES-D scale) and the problem areas in diabetes (PAID) questionnaire were used to assess depression and diabetes-specific emotional distress in 1200 newly diagnosed male adult patients with type 2 diabetes before and after a two-week diabetes education by professionally trained nurses. Pearson correlation and regression analysis were used to analyze the factors related to depression in patients with type 2 diabetes. Results: The incidence of depression in newly diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes was 28%, and the rate of diabetes-specific emotional distress was 65.5%. High education levels, low income were correlated to depression in individuals with diabetes. After two weeks of diabetes education, the incidence of depression and diabetes-specific emotional distress decreased significantly to 20.5% (P < 0.05) and 11% (P < 0.001), respectively. Conclusions: The incidence of depression, especially diabetes-specific emotional distress, was relatively high in newly diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes. The depression state could be improved by diabetes education. PMID:24353709

  19. Depression symptomatology and the neural correlates of infant face and cry perception during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, Helena J V; Graber, Kelsey M; Mayes, Linda C

    2016-08-01

    Depression symptoms during pregnancy may affect emerging maternal sensitivity and have lasting consequences for the dyadic relationship. Here, we examined whether depression was associated with the neural correlates of infant face and cry perception during pregnancy. In 36 women between 34 and 38 weeks gestation, we examined the P300 elicited by infant emotional (happy, distressed, and neutral) faces and cries (high- and low-distress cries and a neutral tone). The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory-II were employed to measure current depression symptomatology. Higher depression symptoms were associated with an attenuated P300 to distressed infant faces, but not with happy or neutral infant faces. There was no association between depression symptoms and the P300 elicited by infant cries. These results suggest that depression symptoms during pregnancy may affect neural processing of infant faces, especially when the infant face is expressing distress. PMID:26465979

  20. Factors related to depression and eating disorders: self-esteem, body image, and attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Grubb, H J; Sellers, M I; Waligroski, K

    1993-06-01

    To test hypotheses that women suffering from some form of eating disorder would experience lower self-esteem and higher depression and that women with lower self-esteem and greater depression would rate their attractiveness lower and see themselves as heavier than less depressed individuals, 42 college undergraduate women were individually administered the Eating Disorders Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory, and a Body Image/Attractiveness Perception Scale. A Pearson correlation indicated a substantial relation between scores on depression and scores on eating disorders, but nonsignificant values between self-esteem scores and scores on either eating disorders or on depression. Depression scores correlated significantly with rated body size, but not attractiveness, while self-esteem scores were significantly correlated with rated attractiveness, not body size. These results contradict literature on the relation between self-esteem and depression. Directions for additional research are discussed. PMID:8332667