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Sample records for 10-item depression scale

  1. Screening instruments for a population of older adults: The 10-item Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10) and the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7).

    PubMed

    Vasiliadis, Helen-Maria; Chudzinski, Veronica; Gontijo-Guerra, Samantha; Préville, Michel

    2015-07-30

    Screening tools that appropriately detect older adults' mental disorders are of great public health importance. The present study aimed to establish cutoff scores for the 10-item Kessler Psychological Distress (K10) and the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) scales when screening for depression and anxiety. We used data from participants (n = 1811) in the Enquête sur la Santé des Aînés-Service study. Depression and anxiety were measured using DSM-V and DSM-IV criteria. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis provided an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.767 and 0.833 for minor and for major depression when using K10. A cutoff of 19 was found to balance sensitivity (0.794) and specificity (0.664) for minor depression, whereas a cutoff of 23 was found to balance sensitivity (0.692) and specificity (0.811) for major depression. When screening for an anxiety with GAD-7, ROC analysis yielded an AUC of 0.695; a cutoff of 5 was found to balance sensitivity (0.709) and specificity (0.568). No significant differences were found between subgroups of age and gender. Both K10 and GAD-7 were able to discriminate between cases and non-cases when screening for depression and anxiety in an older adult population of primary care service users.

  2. Validation of the Chinese version 10-item Perceived Efficacy in Patient–Physician Interactions scale in patients with osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Huiwen; Luo, Wen; Maly, Rose C; Liu, Jun; Lee, Junyi; Cui, Yaning

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to assess the reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the 10-item Perceived Efficacy in Patient–Physician Interaction (PEPPI-10) scale in hospitalized patients with severe knee osteoarthritis in the People’s Republic of China. Methods Between January and March 2015, the Chinese versions of PEPPI, self-efficacy for exercise scale, osteoporosis self-efficacy scale, and modified fall efficacy scale were applied to assess 110 severe knee osteoarthritis patients who were hospitalized in the second ward of the department of arthroplasty surgery of Tianjin Hospital. Results The Chinese version of the PEPPI-10 scale had a high coefficient of internal consistency (Cronbach’s α coefficient, 0.907). The score of the Chinese version of PEPPI was weakly correlated with the scores of the Chinese versions of self-efficacy for exercise scale, osteoporosis self-efficacy scale, and modified fall efficacy scale. Conclusion The Chinese version of the PEPPI-10 scale exhibits sufficient internal consistency and convergent validity in hospitalized patients with severe knee osteoarthritis in the People’s Republic of China. PMID:27822020

  3. Factor Structure and Measurement Invariance of a 10-Item Decisional Balance Scale: Longitudinal and Subgroup Examination within an Adult Diabetic Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickering, Michael A.; Plotnikoff, Ronald C.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the longitudinal and subgroup measurement properties of a 10-item, physical activity decisional balance scale, previously published by Plotnikoff, Blanchard, Hotz, and Rhodes (2001), within a diabetic sample of Canadian adults. Results indicated that a three-factor measurement model consistently improved model fit compared to…

  4. Validity and reliability of the Spanish version of the 10-item CD-RISC in patients with fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background No resilience scale has been validated in Spanish patients with fibromyalgia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of the 10-item CD-RISC in a sample of Spanish patients with fibromyalgia. Methods Design: Observational prospective multicenter study. Sample: Patients with diagnoses of fibromyalgia recruited from primary care settings (N = 208). Instruments: In addition to sociodemographic data, the following questionnaires were administered: Pain Visual Analogue Scale (PVAS), the 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience scale (10-item CD-RISC), the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS), the Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire (CPAQ), and the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS). Results Regarding construct validity, the factor solution in the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was considered adequate, so the KMO test had a value of 0.91, and the Barlett’s test of sphericity was significant (χ2 = 852.8; gl = 45; p < 0.001). Only one factor showed an eigenvalue greater than 1, and it explained 50.4% of the variance. PCA and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) results did not show significant differences between groups. The 10-item CD-RISC scale demonstrated good internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.88) and test-retest reliability (r = 0.89 for a six-week interval). The 10-item CD-RISC score was significantly correlated with all of the other psychometric instruments in the expected direction, except for the PVAS (−0.115; p = 0.113). Conclusions Our study confirms that the Spanish version of the 10-item CD-RISC shows, in patients with fibromyalgia, acceptable psychometric properties, with a high level of reliability and validity. PMID:24484847

  5. Dimensionality of the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS) in cardiac patients: comparison of Mokken scale analysis and factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Emons, Wilco H M; Sijtsma, Klaas; Pedersen, Susanne S

    2012-09-01

    The hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS) measures anxiety and depressive symptoms and is widely used in clinical and nonclinical populations. However, there is some debate about the number of dimensions represented by the HADS. In a sample of 534 Dutch cardiac patients, this study examined (a) the dimensionality of the HADS using Mokken scale analysis and factor analysis and (b) the scale properties of the HADS. Mokken scale analysis and factor analysis suggested that three dimensions adequately capture the structure of the HADS. Of the three corresponding scales, two scales of five items each were found to be structurally sound and reliable. These scales covered the two key attributes of anxiety and (anhedonic) depression. The findings suggest that the HADS may be reduced to a 10-item questionnaire comprising two 5-item scales measuring anxiety and depressive symptoms.

  6. A Comparison of Four Scales for Anxiety, Depression, and Neuroticism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meites, Karen; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Examined the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), and the Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale (TMAS) for specificity and validity as measures of anxiety and depression with 170 undergraduate students. The BDI, SDS, and TMAS were intercorrelated significantly with the Eysenck Personality Inventory scale. Item content…

  7. Development and Validation of a Depression Scale for Asian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woo, Bernardine S. C.; Chang, W. C.; Fung, Daniel S. S.; Koh, Jessie B. K.; Leong, Joyce S. F.; Kee, Carolyn H. Y.; Seah, Cheryl K. F.

    2004-01-01

    Items covering both core and culture-specific facets of depression were generated based on literature review and clinical experience. They were modified following focus group discussions with depressed adolescents and adolescents in the community. The newly constructed Asian Adolescent Depression Scale (AADS) was administered to a clinical and a…

  8. Current Use of Depression Rating Scales in Mental Health Setting

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun Jeong; Kim, Jung Bum; Shin, Im Hee; Lim, Kyung Hee; Lee, Sang Hee; Cho, Gyung Ah; Sung, Hyung Mo; Jung, Sung Won; Zmimmerman, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study was to investigate the current use of depression rating scales by psychiatrists and clinical psychologists in Korea. Methods The questionnaires from many psychiatrists and clinical psychologists were included in the analysis. The questionnaire was composed of items about examining the percentage of patients clinically using depression rating scales, reasons for not use of them, the degree of satisfaction, the perceived agreement rate between the result of depression rating scales and doctor's clinical interview in the evaluation of patients with depressive symptoms. Data were analyzed by χ2 and independent t-test. Results The clinical use of depression rating scales was more frequent in the psychologists than in the psychiatrists. The purposes for using depression rating scales were assessed into six areas, there was no significant difference in between two groups, and both groups pointed out their purpose as rating of severity and screening. The reasons for not using scales were that their interview may be sufficient for diagnosis and assessment of depressive patients and they are not familiar with the use of depression rating scales. The psychiatrists usually prefer the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Symptom Checklist 90-Revision (SCL-90-R) in order of frequency, and the clinical psychologists are more likely to use the BDI, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory and SCL-90-R. Overall rate of satisfaction in the use of the scales was 67.29±14.45% and overall perceived agreement rate was 70.89±16.45%. Conclusion Currently used depression rating scales at the clinical practice were not various. Therefore, to heighten clinicians' utility of these depression rating scales measures, either educational efforts or advertisements, or both, will be necessary to spread them wildly. PMID:20927305

  9. Measuring Depression at the End of Life: Is the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale a Valid Instrument?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olden, Megan; Rosenfeld, Barry; Pessin, Hayley; Breitbart, William

    2009-01-01

    Depression at the end of life is a common mental health issue with serious implications for quality of life and decision making. This study investigated the reliability and validity of one of the most frequently used measures of depression, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) in 422 patients with terminal cancer admitted to a palliative…

  10. Reliability and norms for the 10-item self-motivation inventory: The TIGER Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Self-Motivation Inventory (SMI) has been shown to be a predictor of exercise dropout. The original SMI of 40 items has been shortened to 10 items and the psychometric qualities of the 10-item SMI are not known. To estimate the reliability of a 10-item SMI and develop norms for an ethnically dive...

  11. Rating scales measuring the severity of psychotic depression

    PubMed Central

    Østergaard, Søren D.; Rothschild, Anthony J.; Flint, Alastair J.; Mulsant, Benoit H.; Whyte, Ellen M.; Leadholm, Anne Katrine; Bech, Per; Meyers, Barnett S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Unipolar psychotic depression (PD) is a severe and debilitating syndrome, which requires intensive monitoring. The objective of this study was to provide an overview of the rating scales used to assess illness severity in PD. Method Selective review of publications reporting results on non-self-rated, symptom-based rating scales utilized to measure symptom severity in PD. The clinical and psychometric validity of the identified rating scales was reviewed. Results A total of 14 rating scales meeting the predefined criteria were included in the review. These scales grouped into the following categories: I. Rating scales predominantly covering depressive symptoms, II. Rating scales predominantly covering psychotic symptoms, III. Rating scales covering delusions, and IV. Rating scales covering psychotic depression. For the vast majority of the scales, the clinical and psychometric validity had not been tested empirically. The only exception from this general tendency was the 11-item Psychotic Depression Assessment Scale (PDAS), which was developed specifically to assess the severity of PD. Conclusion In PD, the Psychotic Depression Assessment Scale (PDAS) represents the only empirically derived rating scale for the measurement of overall severity of illness. The PDAS should be considered in future studies of PD and in clinical practice. PMID:26016647

  12. The Spanish form of the Death Depression Scale.

    PubMed

    Tomás-Sábado, Joaquín; Gómez-Benito, Juana

    2003-02-01

    The aims were to estimate the psychometric properties of the Spanish form of the Death Depression Scale and to compare these with those of other versions of the scale. The Death Depression Scale was administered to a sample of 218 Spanish student nurses, together with Templer's Death Anxiety Scale and measures of general depression and anxiety. The Cronbach coefficient a was 83, and a 4-wk. test-retest correlation was .87. The correlations with scores on other tests were similar to those obtained in former studies. After applying a principal components factor analysis with varimax rotation, four factors with eigenvalues greater than one were identified. These factors were labeled Death Sadness, Death Finality, Meaninglessness of Life, and Feeling of Loss. Generally speaking, the results favour consideration of the Death Depression Scale as a valid and reliable means of assessment among Spanish-speaking individuals.

  13. Revisiting the dimensional structure of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS): empirical evidence for a general factor

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) has been proposed as a one-dimensional instrument and used as a single 10-item scale. This might be considered questionable since repeated psychometric studies have shown multi-dimensionality, which would entail using separate component subscales. This study reappraised the dimensional structure of the EPDS, with a focus on the extent of factor correlations and related factor-based discriminant validity as a foundation for deciding how to effectively scale the component items. Methods The sample comprised 811 randomly selected mothers of children up to 5 months attending primary health services of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Strict Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) and Exploratory Factor Analysis modeled within a CFA framework (E/CFA) were sequentially used to identify best fitting and parsimonious model(s), including a bifactor analysis to evaluate the existence of a general factor. Properties concerning the related 10-item raw-score scale were also investigated using non-parametric items response theory methods (scalability and monotonicity). Results An initial CFA rejected the one-dimensional structure, while an E/CFA subscribed a three-dimensional solution. Yet, factors were highly correlated (0.66, 0.75 and 0.82). The ensuing CFA showed poor discriminant validity (some square-roots of average variance extracted below the factor correlations). A general bifactor CFA was then fit. Results suggested that, although still weakly encompassing three specific factors, the EPDS might be better described by a model encompassing a general factor (loadings ranging from 0.51 to 0.81). The related 10-item raw score showed adequate scalability (Loevinger's H coefficient = 0.4208), monotonicity e partial double monotonicity (nonintersections of Item Step Response Functions). Conclusion Although the EPDS indicated the presence of specific factors, they do not qualify as independent dimensions if used separately and should

  14. The Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale: Psychometric Properties in Depressed Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Gregory M.; Park, Jong-Hyo; Essex, Marilyn J.; Klein, Marjorie H.; Silva, Susan G.; Hoyle, Rick H.; Curry, John F.; Feeny, Norah C.; Kennard, Betsy; Kratochvil, Christopher J.; Pathak, Sanjeev; Reinecke, Mark A.; Rosenberg, David R.; Weller, Elizabeth B.; March, John S.

    2009-01-01

    The psychometric properties and factor structure of the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale were examined in a sample of 422 male and female adolescents (ages 12-17) with current major depressive disorder. The scale demonstrated high internal consistency ([alpha] = 0.93) and correlated significantly with self-report and interview-based measures of…

  15. Inpatients with major depressive disorder: Psychometric properties of the new Multidimensional Depression Scale.

    PubMed

    Darharaj, Mohammad; Habibi, Mojtaba; Power, Michael J; Farzadian, Farzaneh; Rahimi, Maesoumeh; Kholghi, Habibeh; Kazemitabar, Maryam

    2016-12-01

    The New Multi-dimensional Depression Scale (NMDS) is one of the most comprehensive scales that measures depression symptoms in four domains, including emotional, cognitive, somatic, and interpersonal. This study aimed to evaluate the factor structure and psychometric properties of the NMDS in a group of Iranian inpatients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). At first, the scale was translated into Persian and used as part of a battery consisting of the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), Oxford Happiness Inventory (OHI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). The battery was administered to 271 inpatients with MDD (90 men and 181 women) aged from 18 to 60 who had been referred to psychiatric hospitals in Tehran, Iran. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Persian version of the NMDS upheld its original four-factor structure. Moreover, the results showed its good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha coefficient ranging from 0.70 for the emotional subscale to 0.83 for the interpersonal subscale). In addition, the NMDS scores were correlated with other constructs in empirically and theoretically expected ways, which provides evidence for the convergent (positive significant relationships with anxiety and cognitive and somatic-affective symptoms of depression) and divergent (negative significant relationships with happiness and mental health and physical health) validity of the scale. These findings supported the Persian version of the NMDS as a reliable and valid measure for the assessment of depression symptoms in patients with MDD.

  16. Relationships between the Underlying Constructs of the Beck Depression Inventory and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skorikov, Vladimir B.; Vandervoort, Debra J.

    2003-01-01

    Examined the relationships between the constructs of depression as measured by the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and the revised Beck Depression Inventory (BDI; Beck and others, 1979) in 261 college students. Findings suggest the BDI and CES-D measure different aspects of depression and should not be used…

  17. A pilot evaluation of associations between displayed depression references on Facebook and self-reported depression using a clinical scale.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Megan Andreas; Christakis, Dimitri A; Egan, Katie G; Jelenchick, Lauren A; Cox, Elizabeth; Young, Henry; Villiard, Hope; Becker, Tara

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine associations between displayed depression symptoms on Facebook and self-reported depression symptoms using a clinical screen. Public Facebook profiles of undergraduates from two universities were examined for displayed depression references. Profiles were categorized as depression symptom displayers or non-displayers. Participants completed an online PHQ-9 depression scale. Analyses examined associations between PHQ-9 score and depression symptom displayers versus non-displayers. The mean PHQ-9 score for non-displayers was 4.7 (SD = 4.0), the mean PHQ-9 score for depression symptom displayers was 6.4 (SD = 5.1; p = 0.018). A trend approaching significance was noted that participants who scored into a depression category by their PHQ-9 score were more likely to display depression symptom references. Displayed references to depression symptoms were associated with self-reported depression symptoms.

  18. The Validity and Utility of the Depression Proneness Rating Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zemore, Robert; And Others

    The development of the Depression Proneness Rating Scale (DPRS) and three investigations into its reliability, validity, and factor structure are described. Subjects of all three studies were university undergraduates. The first study (n=100) found a stability coefficient of 0.82 for the DPRS over a test-retest (Time 1-Time 2) interval of 9 weeks.…

  19. Measurement invariance of the depressive symptoms scale during adolescence

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study examined (1) the factor structure of a depressive symptoms scale (DSS), (2) the sex and longitudinal invariance of the DSS, and (3) the predictive validity of the DSS scale during adolescence in terms of predicting depression and anxiety symptoms in early adulthood. Methods Data were drawn from the Nicotine Dependence in Teens (NDIT) study, an ongoing prospective cohort study of 1,293 adolescents. Results The analytical sample included 527 participants who provided complete data or had minimal missing data over follow-up. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that an intercorrelated three-factor model with somatic, depressive, and anxiety factors provided the best fit. Further, this model was invariant across sex and time. Finally, DSS scores at Time 3 correlated significantly with depressive and anxiety symptoms measured at Time 4. Conclusions Results suggest that the DSS is multidimensional and that it is a suitable instrument to examine sex differences in somatic, depressive, and anxiety symptoms, as well as changes in these symptoms over time in adolescents. In addition, it could be used to identify individuals at-risk of psychopathology during early adulthood. PMID:24679136

  20. Screening for Depressive Disorders Using the Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire Anhedonic Depression Scale: A Receiver-Operating Characteristic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bredemeier, Keith; Spielberg, Jeffery M.; Silton, Rebecca Levin; Berenbaum, Howard; Heller, Wendy; Miller, Gregory A.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the utility of the anhedonic depression scale from the Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire (MASQ-AD scale) as a way to screen for depressive disorders. Using receiver-operating characteristic analysis, we examined the sensitivity and specificity of the full 22-item MASQ-AD scale, as well as the 8- and 14-item…

  1. Assessing Latina/o Undergraduates' Depressive Symptomatology: Comparisons of the Beck Depression Inventory-II, the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale, and the Self-Report Depression Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gloria, Alberta M.; Castellanos, Jeanett; Kanagui-Munoz, Marlen; Rico, Melissa A.

    2012-01-01

    The use of depression scales as screening tools at university and college centers is increasing and thus, the question of whether scales are culturally valid for different student groups is increasingly more relevant with increased severity of depression for students and changing student demographics. As such, this study examined the reliability…

  2. Construct validity of the Depression and Somatic Symptoms Scale: evaluation by Mokken scale analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Ya-Hsin; Lee, Chin-Pang; Liu, Chia-Yih; Hung, Ching-I

    2017-01-01

    Objective Previous studies of the Depression and Somatic Symptoms Scale (DSSS), a free scale, have been based on the classical test theory, and the construct validity and dimensionality of the DSSS are as yet uncertain. The aim of this study was to use Mokken scale analysis (MSA) to assess the dimensionality of the DSSS. Methods A sample of 214 psychiatric outpatients with mood and anxiety disorders were enrolled at a medical center in Taiwan (age: mean [SD] =38.3 [10.5] years; 63.1% female) and asked to complete the DSSS. MSA was used to assess the dimensionality of the DSSS. Results All 22 items of the DSSS formed a moderate unidimensional scale (Hs=0.403), supporting its construct validity. The DSSS was divided into 4 subscales (Hs ranged from 0.35 to 0.67), including a general somatic scale (GSS), melancholic scale (MS), muscular pain scale (MPS), and chest symptom scale (CSS). The GSS is a weak reliable Mokken scale; the other 3 scales are strong reliable Mokken scales. Conclusion The DSSS is a psychometrically sound measure of depression and somatic symptoms in adult psychiatric outpatients with depression or anxiety. The summed score of the DSSS and its 4 subscales are valid statistics. Further research is required for replication of the 4 subscales of the DSSS. PMID:28182138

  3. Evaluation of depressive symptoms in patients with coronary artery disease using the Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale.

    PubMed

    Bunevicius, Adomas; Staniute, Margarita; Brozaitiene, Julija; Pommer, Antoinette M; Pop, Victor J M; Montgomery, Stuart A; Bunevicius, Robertas

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate, in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), factor structure and psychometric properties of the Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) to identify patients with current major depressive episode (MDE). The construct validity of the MADRS against self-rating scales was also evaluated. Consecutive 522 CAD patients at admission to the cardiac rehabilitation program were interviewed for the severity of depressive symptoms using the MADRS and for current MDE using the structured MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Also, all patients completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory-II. The MADRS had one-factor structure and high internal consistency (Cronbach's coefficient α=0.82). Confirmative factor analysis indicated an adequate fit: comparative fit index=0.95, normed fit index=0.91, and root mean square error of approximation=0.07. At a cut-off value of 10 or higher, the MADRS had good psychometric properties for the identification of current MDE (positive predictive value=42%, with sensitivity=88% and specificity=85%). There was also a moderate to strong correlation of MADRS scores with scores on self-rating depression scales. In sum, in CAD patients undergoing rehabilitation, the MADRS is a unidimensional instrument with high internal consistency and can be used for the identification of depressed CAD patients. The association between MADRS and self-rating depression scores is moderate to strong.

  4. Validity of the Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Scale for youth with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Sterling, Lindsey; Renno, Patricia; Storch, Eric A; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Lewin, Adam B; Arnold, Elysse; Lin, Enjey; Wood, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    High rates of anxiety and depression are reported among youth with autism spectrum disorders. These conditions are generally assessed using measures validated for typically developing youth. Few studies have investigated their validity for autism spectrum disorders, which is crucial for accurate assessment and the provision of proper treatment. The Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Scale was evaluated with 67 youth with autism spectrum disorders to examine its utility in measuring anxiety and depression in this population. Parents and children (aged 11-15 years) referred to a multisite intervention study completed the Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale, Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children, Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule, Child Behavior Checklist, and Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Scale. Results suggest acceptable internal consistency of the Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Scale. Modest convergent validity was found among the Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Scale and other standardized measures of anxiety and depression. There were stronger correlations between Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Scale Total scores and subscales of measures expected to correlate significantly than those not expected to correlate. One exception was a significant association between the Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Scale and Child Behavior Checklist Attention subscale, calling into question the divergent validity in separating anxiety from attention problems. Overall, results suggest preliminary support for the Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Scale in youth with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders.

  5. Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Depression About Depression Click for more information Depression is more than ... that contribute to depression. Is It Grief or Depression? Sometimes it can be difficult to distinguish grief ...

  6. Development of a Geriatric Scale of Hopelessness: Implications for Counseling and Intervention with the Depressed Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, P. S.

    1984-01-01

    Evaluated hopelessness, depression, and self-esteem among depressed elderly people (N=78) and developed a Geriatric Hopelessness Scale (GHS). As predicted, elderly subjects who scored high on the GHS showed significantly higher depression and lower self-esteem scores. (JAC)

  7. Validating the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children in Rwanda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betancourt, Theresa; Scorza, Pamela; Meyers-Ohki, Sarah; Mushashi, Christina; Kayiteshonga, Yvonne; Binagwaho, Agnes; Stulac, Sara; Beardslee, William R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We assessed the validity of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC) as a screen for depression in Rwandan children and adolescents. Although the CES-DC is widely used for depression screening in high-income countries, its validity in low-income and culturally diverse settings, including sub-Saharan…

  8. Screening for Depression after Cardiac Events Using the Beck Depression Inventory-II and the Geriatric Depression Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Low, Gail D.; Hubley, Anita M.

    2007-01-01

    Despite findings that depression is a risk factor for heart disease and for death following cardiac events and that depressed cardiac patients experience significantly reduced quality of life and are less likely to follow treatment regimens, depression is neither adequately identified nor treated in cardiac patients. Recent calls in the literature…

  9. Dimensionality of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) in Cardiac Patients: Comparison of Mokken Scale Analysis and Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emons, Wilco H. M.; Sijtsma, Klaas; Pedersen, Susanne S.

    2012-01-01

    The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) measures anxiety and depressive symptoms and is widely used in clinical and nonclinical populations. However, there is some debate about the number of dimensions represented by the HADS. In a sample of 534 Dutch cardiac patients, this study examined (a) the dimensionality of the HADS using Mokken…

  10. Screening depressive symptoms in Jordanian women: evaluation of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale (CES-D).

    PubMed

    Al-Modallal, Hanan

    2010-08-01

    This study examined the psychometric qualities of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale (CES-D) in Jordanian women. Cronbach's alpha for the 20-item CES-D was .90. Factor analysis yielded three components. Four of the items had poor factor loadings and, therefore, were dropped. Cronbach's alpha for the remaining 16 items was .85. Validity testing using independent samples t-test provided evidence of discriminant validity for the 20-item and the 16-item CES-D. Attributes of the CES-D items indicated that depression status can be easily identified by clinicians. Co morbidity of depressive symptoms with physical and mental problems necessitates routine screening for depressed mood.

  11. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD) as a screening instrument in tinnitus evaluation.

    PubMed

    Zöger, Sigyn; Svedlund, Jan; Holgers, Kajsa-Mia

    2004-09-01

    The identification of anxiety and depressive disorders in tinnitus patients is important from a therapeutic point of view. We have addressed this question by investigating the screening performance of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD) in a consecutive series of tinnitus patients (n = 82) without severe socially disabling hearing loss referred to an audiological clinic. The structured clinical interview for DSM-III criteria was used as the gold standard. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to compare the screening abilities of the HAD subscales for anxiety and depression and the total HAD Scale. The ROC analysis showed that the HAD Scale was better at detecting depression than anxiety disorders in tinnitus patients. The optimal cut-off score for the subscales was > or = 5 when we were screening for any anxiety or depressive disorder as well as for major depression. The performance of the HAD depression subscale was superior, especially when we were screening for major depression only (sensitivity 1.00; specificity 0.75). The findings of the study suggest that the HAD Scale is more useful for screening for depression than for anxiety disorders in tinnitus patients

  12. In Systemic Sclerosis, Anxiety and Depression Assessed by Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale Are Independently Associated with Disability and Psychological Factors

    PubMed Central

    Del Rosso, Angela; Mikhaylova, Svetlana; Baccini, Marco; Lupi, Ilaria; Matucci Cerinic, Marco; Maddali Bongi, Susanna

    2013-01-01

    Background. Anxious and depressive symptoms are frequent in Systemic Sclerosis (SSc). Our objective is to assess their prevalence and association with district and global disability and psychological variables. Methods. 119 SSc patients were assessed by Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS). Clinical depression and anxiety were defined for HADS score cutoff ≥8. Patients were assessed for psychological symptoms (RSES, COPE-NIV), hand (HAMIS, CHFDS, fist closure, and hand opening) and face disability (MHISS, mouth opening), global disability, and fatigue (HAQ, FACIT). Results. Both depression and anxiety in SSc are 36%. Depressive patients with comorbid anxiety have higher HADS-D score than patients with depression only (P = 0.001). HADS-A and -D are positively correlated with global disability, hands and mouth disability, fatigue, self-esteem and avoidance coping strategy, and, only HADS-A, also with social support (P < 0.05). By multiple regression, HADS-D is independently associated with FACIT-F (P < 0.001), RSES (P < 0.001), and MHISS total score (P = 0.016), together explaining 50% of variance. HADS-A is independently associated with RSES (P = 0.006), COPE-NIV SA (P = 0.003), COPE-NIV SS (P = 0.008), FACIT-F (P = 0.022), and MHISS mouth opening (P = 0.029), explaining 41% of variance. Conclusions. In SSc depression and anxiety correlate to local and global disabilities and psychological characteristics. Depressive patients with comorbid anxiety have higher level of depressive symptoms. PMID:23984376

  13. [A study of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) on 859 mothers: detection of mothers at risk for postpartum depression].

    PubMed

    Teissedre, F; Chabrol, H

    2004-01-01

    The postpartum is a high-risk period for the occurrence of anxious and depressive episodes. Indeed, during the first few days after delivery, mothers can present postpartum blues symptomatology: fatigue, anxiety, disordered sleeping and a changing mood. Postpartum depression is characterised by a changing mood, anxiety, irritability, depression, panic and obsessional phenomena. It occurs in approximately 10 to 20% mothers. The exact prevalence depending on the criteria used for detection. The first symptoms usually appear between the fourth and sixth week postpartum. However, postpartum depression can start from the moment of birth, or may result from depression evolving continuously since pregnancy. We can add that the intensity of postpartum blues is a risk factor that can perturb maternal development. So it is important for health professionals to dispose of predictive tools. This study is a validation of the French version of the EPDS. The aims of the study were to evaluate the postpartum depression predictive value at 3 days postpartum and to determine a cut-off score for major depression. Subjects participating in this study were met in 3 obstetrical clinics in, or in the vicinity of, Toulouse. Mothers with psychological problems, under treatment for psychological problems or mothers whose babies present serious health problems were excluded from the study. The EPDS was presented to 859 mothers (mean age=30.3; SD=4.5) met at one of the clinics at 3 days postpartum (period 1). They had an EPDS mean score of 6.4 (SD=4.6); 258 (30%) mothers had an EPDS score 9. 82.6% of these mothers experienced a natural childbirth and 17.3% a caesarean section; 51.5% gave birth to their first child, 36.2% to their second child and 12.3% to their third or more. All subjects were given a second EPDS with written instructions to complete the scale during the period 4 to 6 weeks postpartum and return it for analysis (period 2). Between the 4 to 6 weeks postpartum period, 722

  14. Childhood Depression Subscales Using Repeated Sessions on Children's Depression Rating Scale – Revised (CDRS-R) Scores

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Ira; Trivedi, Madhukar; Mayes, Taryn; Kennard, Betsy; Emslie, Graham

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Although acute treatments have been shown to be effective in treating early-onset depression, only one-third or thereabouts reach a remission within 3 months. Unfortunately, delayed time to remission in early-onset depression leads to poorer therapeutic outcomes. Clearly, there is a need to identify, diagnose, and provide effective treatment of a depressed patient quickly. A sophisticated understanding of depression subscales and their change over time with treatment could enhance pathways to individualized treatment approaches for childhood depression. Objective: Previous studies have found that the clinician-measured instrument, Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R) measures multiple subscales (or components) of depression. The aim of this study was to see how these subscales may change over the course of a 12-week study. This knowledge will help determine if dimensions/subscales of childhood depression (paralleling the adult literature) using the subscales derived from factor analysis procedure is useful. Methods: We examined two clinical trials in which youth (n=234) with major depressive disorder (MDD) were treated openly with fluoxetine for eight sessions spread over 12 weeks. The CDRS-R was completed based on clinician interviews with parent and child at each session. Classical test theory and component analysis with associated parallel analysis (oblique rotation) were conducted on each week's scores. Results: Although more factors were needed for the baseline and first two therapy sessions, a two-factor solution sufficed thereafter. Depressed facial affect, listless speech, and hypoactivity best defined Factor I, whereas sleep problems, appetite disturbance, physical symptoms, irritability, guilt, and weeping best defined Factor II. All other symptoms cross-loaded almost equally on the two factors. The scale's reliability (internal consistency) improved from baseline to exit sessions (α=0.65–0.91). As a result, the

  15. Depression rating scales in Parkinson's disease: A critical review updating recent literature.

    PubMed

    Torbey, Elizabeth; Pachana, Nancy A; Dissanayaka, Nadeeka N W

    2015-09-15

    Depression is a prominent non-motor symptom in Parkinson's disease (PD). Assessing depression in PD remains a challenge due to the overlap of somatic symptoms between depression and PD. Other neuropsychiatric manifestations associated with PD, such as cognitive decline, also complicate assessment of depression. Therefore it is critical to investigate the validity of depression rating scales for use in PD. This will allow evaluation of observer- and self-report instruments to be administered in neurologically ill geriatric populations such as PD, and identification of appropriate scales to use in cognitively challenged PD patients. The present review includes all studies examining the validity of depression rating scales in PD. It discusses the usefulness of 13 depression rating scales in PD. The clinician-rated and widely used HAMD-17 and the self-report GDS scales are recommended for screening and measuring severity of depression in PD. The GDS-15 may be a preferred choice due to its brevity and ease of use design for older adults. Other valid and reliable instruments to use in PD include self-rated scales, such as the HADS-D, HDI, and the BDI, and the observer-report, MADRS. The CSDD displayed satisfactory validity and reliability for identification of PD patients with and without dementia. The PHQ-2, PHQ-10, SDS, CES-D, UPDRS-Depression item, IDS-SR, and IDS-C each showed some evidence of validity or reliability, however further research on the psychometric properties of these scales when used in a PD population are required.

  16. Diagnostic accuracy of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) for detecting major depression in pregnant and postnatal women: protocol for a systematic review and individual patient data meta-analyses

    PubMed Central

    Thombs, Brett D; Benedetti, Andrea; Kloda, Lorie A; Levis, Brooke; Riehm, Kira E; Azar, Marleine; Cuijpers, Pim; Gilbody, Simon; Ioannidis, John P A; McMillan, Dean; Patten, Scott B; Shrier, Ian; Steele, Russell J; Ziegelstein, Roy C; Tonelli, Marcello; Mitchell, Nicholas; Comeau, Liane; Schinazi, Joy; Vigod, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Studies of the diagnostic accuracy of depression screening tools often used data-driven methods to select optimal cut-offs. Typically, these studies report results from a small range of cut-off points around whatever cut-off score is identified as most accurate. When published data are combined in meta-analyses, estimates of accuracy for different cut-off points may be based on data from different studies, rather than data from all studies for each cut-off point. Thus, traditional meta-analyses may exaggerate accuracy estimates. Individual patient data (IPD) meta-analyses synthesise data from all studies for each cut-off score to obtain accuracy estimates. The 10-item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) is commonly recommended for depression screening in the perinatal period. The primary objective of this IPD meta-analysis is to determine the diagnostic accuracy of the EPDS to detect major depression among women during pregnancy and in the postpartum period across all potentially relevant cut-off scores, accounting for patient factors that may influence accuracy (age, pregnancy vs postpartum). Methods and analysis Data sources will include Medline, Medline In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, PsycINFO, and Web of Science. Studies that include a diagnosis of major depression based on a validated structured or semistructured clinical interview administered within 2 weeks of (before or after) the administration of the EPDS will be included. Risk of bias will be assessed with the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 tool. Bivariate random-effects meta-analysis will be conducted for the full range of plausible cut-off values. Analyses will evaluate data from pregnancy and the postpartum period separately, as well as combining data from all women in a single model. Ethics and dissemination This study does not require ethics approval. Dissemination will include journal articles and presentations to policymakers, healthcare

  17. Validity of depression rating scales during pregnancy and the postpartum period: impact of trimester and parity.

    PubMed

    Ji, Shuang; Long, Qi; Newport, D Jeffrey; Na, Hyeji; Knight, Bettina; Zach, Elizabeth B; Morris, Natalie J; Kutner, Michael; Stowe, Zachary N

    2011-02-01

    The objective of the current study was to delineate the optimal cutpoints for depression rating scales during pregnancy and the postpartum period and to assess the perinatal factors influencing these scores. Women participating in prospective investigations of maternal mental illness were enrolled prior to 28 weeks gestation and followed through 6 months postpartum. At each visit, subjects completed self-rated depression scales--Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and clinician-rated scales--Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD(17) and HRSD(21)). These scores were compared to the SCID Mood Module for the presence of fulfilling diagnostic criteria for a major depressive episode (MDE) during 6 perinatal windows: preconception; first trimester; 2nd trimester; 3rd trimester; early postpartum; and later postpartum. Optimal cutpoints were determined by maximizing the sum of each scale's sensitivity and specificity. Stratified ROC analyses determined the impact of previous pregnancy and comparison of initial to follow-up visits. A total of 534 women encompassing 640 pregnancies and 4025 follow-up visits were included. ROC analysis demonstrated that all 4 scales were highly predictive of MDE. The AUCs ranged from 0.857 to 0.971 and were all highly significant (p < .0001). Optimal cutpoints were higher at initial visits and for multigravidas and demonstrated more variability for the self-rated scales. These data indicate that both clinician-rated and self-rated scales can be effective tools in identifying perinatal episodes of major depression. However, the results also suggest that prior childbirth experiences and the use of scales longitudinally across the perinatal period influence optimal cutpoints.

  18. Measurement-based Treatment of Residual Symptoms Using Clinically Useful Depression Outcome Scale: Korean Validation Study

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Sang Won; Han, Changsu; Ko, Young-Hoon; Yoon, Seo Young; Pae, Chi-Un; Choi, Joonho; Park, Yong Chon; Kim, Jong-Woo; Yoon, Ho-Kyoung; Ko, Seung-Duk; Patkar, Ashwin A.; Zimmerman, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study was aimed at evaluating the diagnostic validity of the Korean version of the Clinically Useful Depression Outcome Scale (CUDOS) with varying follow-up in a typical clinical setting in multiple centers. Methods In total, 891 psychiatric outpatients were enrolled at the time of their intake appointment. Current diagnostic characteristics were examined using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (41% major depressive disorder). The CUDOS was measured and compared with three clinician rating scales and four self-report scales. Results The CUDOS showed excellent results for internal consistency (Cronbach’s α, 0.91), test-retest reliability (patients at intake, r=0.81; depressed patients in ongoing treatment, r=0.89), and convergent and discriminant validity (measures of depression, r=0.80; measures of anxiety and somatization, r=0.42). The CUDOS had a high ability to discriminate between different levels of depression severity based on the rating of Clinical Global Impression for depression severity and the diagnostic classification of major depression, minor depression, and non-depression. The ability of the CUDOS to identify patients with major depression was high (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve=0.867). A score of 20 as the optimal cutoff point was suggested when screening for major depression using the CUDOS (sensitivity=89.9%, specificity=69.5%). The CUDOS was sensitive to change after antidepressant treatment: patients with greater improvement showed a greater decrease in CUDOS scores (p<0.001). Conclusion The results of this multi-site outpatient study found that the Korean version of the CUDOS is a very useful measurement for research and for clinical practice. PMID:28138107

  19. Accuracy of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale for identifying depression in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Christoph; Sievi, Noriane A; Clarenbach, Christian F; Schwarz, Esther Irene; Schlatzer, Christian; Brack, Thomas; Brutsche, Martin; Frey, Martin; Irani, Sarosh; Leuppi, Jörg D; Rüdiger, Jochen; Thurnheer, Robert; Kohler, Malcolm

    2014-01-01

    Psychological morbidity is common in chronic respiratory diseases. The diagnostic accuracy of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and risk factors for comorbid depression in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are addressed. Consecutive COPD patients (GOLD stage I-IV, 40-75 years old) were enrolled in a multicentre, cross-sectional cohort study. Diagnosis of depression was ascertained through clinical records. Lung function, HADS score, 6-minute walking test (6-MWT), MRC dyspnoea score, and COPD Assessment Test (CAT) were evaluated. Two hundred fifty-nine COPD patients (mean age 62.5 years; 32% female; mean FEV1 48% predicted) were included. Patients diagnosed with depression (29/259; 11.2%) had significantly higher HADS-D and HADS-Total scores than nondepressed patients (median (quartiles) HADS-D 6 [4; 9] versus 4 [2; 7], median HADS-Total 14 [10; 20] versus 8 [5; 14]). Receiver-operating characteristic plots showed moderate accuracy for HADS-D, AUC 0.662 (95%CI 0.601-0.719), and HADS-Total, AUC 0.681 (95%CI 0.620-0.737), with optimal cut-off scores of >5 and >9, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity were 62.1% and 62.6% for HADS-D compared to 75.9% and 55.2% for HADS-Total. Age, comorbidities, sex, and lower airflow limitation predicted depression. The HADS exhibits low diagnostic accuracy for depression in COPD patients. Younger men with comorbidities are at increased risk for depression.

  20. Accuracy of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale for Identifying Depression in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, Christoph; Sievi, Noriane A.; Clarenbach, Christian F.; Schwarz, Esther Irene; Schlatzer, Christian; Brack, Thomas; Brutsche, Martin; Frey, Martin; Irani, Sarosh; Leuppi, Jörg D.; Rüdiger, Jochen; Thurnheer, Robert; Kohler, Malcolm

    2014-01-01

    Psychological morbidity is common in chronic respiratory diseases. The diagnostic accuracy of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and risk factors for comorbid depression in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are addressed. Consecutive COPD patients (GOLD stage I–IV, 40–75 years old) were enrolled in a multicentre, cross-sectional cohort study. Diagnosis of depression was ascertained through clinical records. Lung function, HADS score, 6-minute walking test (6-MWT), MRC dyspnoea score, and COPD Assessment Test (CAT) were evaluated. Two hundred fifty-nine COPD patients (mean age 62.5 years; 32% female; mean FEV1 48% predicted) were included. Patients diagnosed with depression (29/259; 11.2%) had significantly higher HADS-D and HADS-Total scores than nondepressed patients (median (quartiles) HADS-D 6 [4; 9] versus 4 [2; 7], median HADS-Total 14 [10; 20] versus 8 [5; 14]). Receiver-operating characteristic plots showed moderate accuracy for HADS-D, AUC 0.662 (95%CI 0.601–0.719), and HADS-Total, AUC 0.681 (95%CI 0.620–0.737), with optimal cut-off scores of >5 and >9, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity were 62.1% and 62.6% for HADS-D compared to 75.9% and 55.2% for HADS-Total. Age, comorbidities, sex, and lower airflow limitation predicted depression. The HADS exhibits low diagnostic accuracy for depression in COPD patients. Younger men with comorbidities are at increased risk for depression. PMID:25548667

  1. The Major Depressive Disorder Hierarchy: Rasch Analysis of 6 items of the Hamilton Depression Scale Covering the Continuum of Depressive Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Melancholic features of depression (MFD) seem to be a unidimensional group of signs and symptoms. However, little importance has been given to the evaluation of what features are related to a more severe disorder. That is, what are the MFD that appear only in the most depressed patients. We aim to demonstrate how each MFD is related to the severity of the major depressive disorder. Methods We evaluated both the Hamilton depression rating scale (HDRS-17) and its 6-item melancholic subscale (HAM-D6) in 291 depressed inpatients using Rasch analysis, which computes the severity of each MFD. Overall measures of model fit were mean (±SD) of items and persons residual = 0 (±1); low χ2 value; p>0.01. Results For the HDRS-17 model fit, mean (±SD) of item residuals = 0.35 (±1.4); mean (±SD) of person residuals = -0.15 (±1.09); χ2 = 309.74; p<0.00001. For the HAM-D6 model fit, mean (±SD) of item residuals = 0.5 (±0.86); mean (±SD) of person residuals = 0.15 (±0.91); χ2 = 56.13; p = 0.196. MFD ordered by crescent severity were depressed mood, work and activities, somatic symptoms, psychic anxiety, guilt feelings, and psychomotor retardation. Conclusions Depressed mood is less severe, while guilt feelings and psychomotor retardation are more severe MFD in a psychiatric hospitalization. Understanding depression as a continuum of symptoms can improve the understanding of the disorder and may improve its perspective of treatment. PMID:28114341

  2. Prevalence of postpartum depression in Nuuk, Greenland – a cross-sectional study using Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale

    PubMed Central

    Motzfeldt, Iben; Andreasen, Sabina; Pedersen, Amalia Lynge; Pedersen, Michael Lynge

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of postnatal depression in Nuuk, Greenland. Study design Cross-sectional study. Methods The primary health care system in Nuuk initiated a project aiming to screen new mothers for depression using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). EPDS has a range on a scale from 0 to 30. All mothers residing in Nuuk who had given birth in 2011 were included in the study group. The screening was performed by health care visitors approximately 3 months following birth. Mothers who scored 13 points or above were defined as having possible postpartum depression (PPD). These mothers were then referred to a physician. A score at or less than 8 was defined as normal, whereas an intermediate score from 9 to 12 indicated a need for an extra visit. Results During 2011, a total of 217 mothers gave birth in Nuuk. Of them, 80.2% (174) were screened for PPD using EPDS. Fifteen mothers scored 13 points or above corresponding to a prevalence of possible PPD at 8.6% (15/174). Seventy-nine percentage scored less than 9 points (137/174), whereas 15% (22/174) scored from 9 to 12 points. Conclusion PPD seems to be a common problem in Nuuk, Greenland. EPDS seems to be a valuable tool in identifying women with PPD and vulnerable mothers with extra needs for support in a Greenlandic context. Continual routine screening is recommended. PMID:23984294

  3. Depressive Symptoms among Children and Adolescents in Iran: A Confirmatory Factor Analytic Study of the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essau, Cecilia A.; Olaya, Beatriz; Pasha, Gholamreza; Gilvarry, Catherine; Bray, Diane

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Iranian translation of the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC) in school children and adolescents in Iran. The CES-DC is a 20-item self-report scale designed to measure depressive symptoms in children and adolescents. A total of 1,984 children and…

  4. Depressants

    MedlinePlus

    ... of depressants, including alcohol and the illegal drugs GHB and Rohypnol , come in liquid or powder form ... by prescription only. Some depressants, including Rohypnol and GHB, are illegal in the United States. Illegal possession ...

  5. Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... There are a variety of causes, including genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. Depression can happen at ... are effective treatments for depression, including antidepressants, talk therapy, or both. NIH: National Institute of Mental Health

  6. Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... the winter months, when there is less natural sunlight. Return to top What causes depression? There is ... alone. Others with moderate to severe depression might benefit from antidepressants. It may take a few weeks ...

  7. Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003213.htm Depression - overview To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Depression may be described as feeling sad, blue, unhappy, ...

  8. Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... is in crisis, get help quickly. Reprints Share Depression Basics Download PDF Download ePub Order a free ... a serious but treatable mood disorder. What is depression? Everyone feels sad or low sometimes, but these ...

  9. Sensitivity to detect change and the correlation of clinical factors with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory in depressed inpatients.

    PubMed

    Schneibel, Rebecca; Brakemeier, Eva-Lotta; Wilbertz, Gregor; Dykierek, Petra; Zobel, Ingo; Schramm, Elisabeth

    2012-06-30

    Discrepancies between scores on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), as well as differences regarding their sensitivity to detect change, have been reported. This study investigates discrepancies and their potential prediction on the basis of demographic, personality, and clinical factors in depressed inpatients and analyzes the sensitivity to change. The HAMD and the BDI were administered to 105 inpatients with major depressive disorder randomized to 5 weeks of either interpersonal psychotherapy or clinical management. Personality was assessed with the NEO Five-Factor Inventory. Low extraversion and high neuroticism were associated with relatively higher endorsement of depressive symptoms on the BDI compared with the HAMD. The HAMD presented a greater reduction of symptom scores than the BDI. Patients with high BDI scores, high HAMD scores or both revealed the greatest change, possibly due to a statistical effect of regression to the mean. Restricted by sample size, analyses were not differentiated by treatment condition. Regression to the mean cannot be tested directly, but it might be considered as a possible explanation. The HAMD and the BDI should be regarded as two complementary rather than redundant or competing instruments as the discrepancy is associated with personality characteristics. Attributing large effect sizes solely to effective treatment and a sensitive measure may be misleading.

  10. Impacts of Centimetre-scale Landscape Roughness on Depression Storage, Runoff and Sediment Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Y. E.; Valeo, C.; Tait, M.; Johnson, E.

    2008-12-01

    Laser scanning was utilized to examine hillslope microtopography in a wildfire burn site in the Canadian Rockies, Canada. DTMs were created at scales of 0.75 cm, 10 cm, 25 cm, 50 cm, 75 cm and 1 metre; for each scale, bare surface (vegetation removed) and vegetated surfaces were analyzed. Several roughness indices, including Random Roughness, Tortuosity and Mean Upslope Depression, were calculated for bare and vegetated surfaces at the various scalinsg. Values of the roughness parameters and depression storage were found to be similar for the vegetated and bare surface DTMs, and do not change significantly as DTM grid cell resolution increases. In addition, a GIS-based approach was used to calculate depression storage for comparison with values based on roughness parameters. Mean depression storage based on the GIS approach decreases notably as DTM grid cell size increases. In contrast, values of depression storage based on the Random Roughness parameter remain stable with increasing size of grid cell. Hortonian overland flow generation was found to be affected by the values of depression storage for the various DTM scalings. The scale of the DTM was found to impact the proportion of water going into depression storage and that contributing to overland flow as time progresses. Furthermore, greater amounts of water are retained as depression storage for a particular value of rainfall excess after infiltration for the finer resolution DTMs. A modelling exercise was undertaken to examine the initiation and behaviour of overland flow from a rising groundwater table. Initially, water depths are lower than the main topographic roughness elements on the landscape, and water present on the landscape is relatively disconnected. Water flow becomes more integrated as channel flow increases.

  11. Multi-Scale Motility Amplitude Associated with Suicidal Thoughts in Major Depression

    PubMed Central

    Indic, Premananda; Murray, Greg; Maggini, Carlo; Amore, Mario; Meschi, Tiziana; Borghi, Loris; Baldessarini, Ross J.; Salvatore, Paola

    2012-01-01

    Major depression occurs at high prevalence in the general population, often starts in juvenile years, recurs over a lifetime, and is strongly associated with disability and suicide. Searches for biological markers in depression may have been hindered by assuming that depression is a unitary and relatively homogeneous disorder, mainly of mood, rather than addressing particular, clinically crucial features or diagnostic subtypes. Many studies have implicated quantitative alterations of motility rhythms in depressed human subjects. Since a candidate feature of great public-health significance is the unusually high risk of suicidal behavior in depressive disorders, we studied correlations between a measure (vulnerability index [VI]) derived from multi-scale characteristics of daily-motility rhythms in depressed subjects (n = 36) monitored with noninvasive, wrist-worn, electronic actigraphs and their self-assessed level of suicidal thinking operationalized as a wish to die. Patient-subjects had a stable clinical diagnosis of bipolar-I, bipolar-II, or unipolar major depression (n = 12 of each type). VI was associated inversely with suicidal thinking (r =  –0.61 with all subjects and r =  –0.73 with bipolar disorder subjects; both p<0.0001) and distinguished patients with bipolar versus unipolar major depression with a sensitivity of 91.7% and a specificity of 79.2%. VI may be a useful biomarker of characteristic features of major depression, contribute to differentiating bipolar and unipolar depression, and help to detect risk of suicide. An objective biomarker of suicide-risk could be advantageous when patients are unwilling or unable to share suicidal thinking with clinicians. PMID:22701706

  12. Psychometric properties of the Japanese CES-D, SDS, and PHQ-9 depression scales in university students.

    PubMed

    Umegaki, Yusuke; Todo, Naoya

    2017-03-01

    We used an item response theory (IRT) model to simultaneously compare the psychometric properties of 3 commonly used self-report depression scales translated into Japanese-the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and the Patient Health Questionnaire Depression Scale (PHQ-9)-in a Japanese university student sample. Although the 3 scales were likely to measure the same underlying construct-that is, depression-the choices of the negatively worded items in the SDS and CES-D did not function well. The CES-D provided more information than the other scales at the range of depression severity approximately from the mean through 2 standard deviations above the mean, while the PHQ-9 provided more information for the other degrees of depression. The PHQ-9 performed better as a whole, as it provided more information than the other scales on the broadest range of depression severity, and it did not contain items with inefficient choices. The CES-D may also be a good choice when sampling students with elevated levels of depressive symptoms. Finally, we linked the 3 instruments on a common scale using parameters derived from IRT analysis, and we provided a crosswalk table to enable the conversion of each scale score. (PsycINFO Database Record

  13. Validation of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale for use with multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Honarmand, Kimia; Feinstein, Anthony

    2009-12-01

    Detecting clinically significant symptoms of depression and anxiety in medically ill patients using self-report rating scales presents a challenge because of somatic confounders. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was developed with this in mind, but has never been validated for a multiple sclerosis population. Our objective was to validate the HADS for multiple sclerosis patients. Multiple sclerosis patients were interviewed for the presence of major depression (n = 180) and anxiety disorders (n = 140) with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV disorders. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was undertaken to assess which HADS cut-off scores give the best yield with respect to diagnoses of major depression and all anxiety disorders defined by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. A threshold score of 8 or greater on the HADS depression subscale provides a sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 87.3% (ROC area under the curve 0.938). The same cut-off score gives a sensitivity of 88.5% and a specificity of 80.7% on the anxiety subscale (ROC area under the curve 0.913), but for generalized anxiety disorder only. The study confirms the usefulness of the HADS as a marker of major depression and generalized anxiety disorder, but not other anxiety disorders, in multiple sclerosis patients.

  14. Genome-wide Linkage on Chromosome 10q26 for a Dimensional Scale of Major Depression

    PubMed Central

    Knowles, Emma. E. M.; Kent, Jack W.; McKay, D. Reese; Sprooten, Emma; Mathias, Samuel R.; Curran, Joanne E.; Carless, Melanie A.; de Almeida, Marcio A. A.; Goring, Harald, H. H.; Dyer, Tom D.; Olvera, Rene L.; Fox, Peter T.; Duggirala, Ravi; Almasy, Laura; Blangero, John; Glahn, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common and potentially life-threatening mood disorder. Identifying genetic markers for depression might provide reliable indicators of depression risk, which would, in turn, substantially improve detection, enabling earlier and more effective treatment. The aim of this study was to identify rare variants for depression, modeled as a continuous trait, using linkage and post-hoc association analysis. The sample comprised 1221 Mexican-American individuals from extended pedigrees. A single dimensional scale of MDD was derived using confirmatory factor analysis applied to all items from the Past Major Depressive Episode section of the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Scores on this scale of depression were subjected to linkage analysis followed by QTL region-specific association analysis. Linkage analysis revealed a single genome-wide significant QTL (LOD = 3.43) on 10q26.13, QTL-specific association analysis conducted in the entire sample revealed a suggestive variant within an intron of the gene LHPP (rs11245316, p = 7.8×10-04; LD-adjusted Bonferroni-corrected p = 8.6×10-05). This region of the genome has previously been implicated in the etiology of MDD; the present study extends our understanding of the involvement of this region by highlighting a putative gene of interest (LHPP). PMID:26655122

  15. Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strock, Margaret

    Approximately ten percent of the population suffers from a depressive illness each year. Although the economic cost is high, the cost in human suffering is immeasurable. To help educate the population about this disorder, this paper presents a definition of depression and its common manifestations. The symptoms that people often experience are…

  16. Comparison of physician-rating and self-rating scales for patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ching-Hua; Lu, Mei-Jou; Wong, Julielynn; Chen, Cheng-Chung

    2014-12-01

    Physician-rating scales remain the standard in antidepressant clinical trials. The current study aimed to examine the discrepancies between physician-rating scales and self-rating scales for symptoms and functioning, before and after treatment, in newly hospitalized patients. A total of 131 acutely ill inpatients with major depressive disorder were enrolled to receive 20 mg of fluoxetine daily for 6 weeks. Symptom severity and functioning were assessed at baseline and again at week 6. Symptom severity was rated using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17) and the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale (ZDS). Functioning was measured by the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) and the Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS). Pearson correlation coefficients (r) between HDRS-17 and ZDS and between GAF and WSAS were calculated at week 0 and week 6. Sensitivity to change was measured using effect sizes. One-hundred twelve patients completed the 6-week trial. After 6 weeks of treatment, correlations between HDRS-17 and ZDS or correlations between GAF and WSAS became larger from baseline to end point. All correlations were statistically significant (P < 0.001). Effect sizes measured by physician-rating scales (ie, HDRS-17 and GAF) were larger than by self-rating scales (ie, ZDS and WSAS). Correlations between baseline physician-rating scale scores and self-rating scale scores improved after 6 weeks of treatment. Physician-rating scales had larger effect sizes than self-rating scales. Physician-rating scales were more sensitive in detecting symptom or functional changes than self-rating scales.

  17. Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale in patients with tinnitus and hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Gomaa, Mohammed Abdel Motaal; Elmagd, Manal Hassan Abo; Elbadry, Mohammed Mohammed; Kader, Rafeek Mohammed Abdel

    2014-08-01

    The study was proposed to evaluate co-morbid depression, anxiety and stress associated with tinnitus patients. The study was done on 196 subjects: 100 patients suffering from subjective tinnitus associated with hearing loss (tinnitus group), 45 patients suffering from hearing loss only (hearing loss group) and 50 healthy subjects not suffering from tinnitus or hearing loss (control group); the age ranges from 20 to 60 years old. The studied sample was subjected to full ear, nose and throat examinations and audiological evaluation. Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) was developed by Levibond H and Levibond F to assess three self-report scales designed to measure the negative emotional status of depression, anxiety and stress. All patients and control group were evaluated by DASS. (1) Depression: males were affected more than females. All patients over 60 years were affected by depression. The duration of tinnitus seems correlating with the severity of depression. Only 2 patients (4.3 %) of the hearing loss group suffer from depression. (2) Anxiety: 90 % of males suffer from anxiety as compared to 83.3 % females. The age group 20-29 years old suffers more than other age groups. Only 4 patients (8.7 %) of hearing loss group suffer from anxiety. (3) Stress: females seem to be affected by the stress (76.7 %) more than males (67.5). Patients in age group 30-39 suffer the most from the disease. There is a direct correlation between duration of tinnitus and severity of stress. No one of the hearing loss group suffers from stress. In conclusion, depression, anxiety and stress should be taken into consideration in the treatment of patients suffering from tinnitus.

  18. Psychometric properties of the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 in older primary care patients.

    PubMed

    Gloster, Andrew T; Rhoades, Howard M; Novy, Diane; Klotsche, Jens; Senior, Ashley; Kunik, Mark; Wilson, Nancy; Stanley, Melinda A

    2008-10-01

    The Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS) was designed to efficiently measure the core symptoms of anxiety and depression and has demonstrated positive psychometric properties in adult samples of anxiety and depression patients and student samples. Despite these findings, the psychometric properties of the DASS remain untested in older adults, for whom the identification of efficient measures of these constructs is especially important. To determine the psychometric properties of the DASS 21-item version in older adults, we analyzed data from 222 medical patients seeking treatment to manage worry. Consistent with younger samples, a three-factor structure best fit the data. Results also indicated good internal consistency, excellent convergent validity, and good discriminative validity, especially for the Depression scale. Receiver operating curve analyses indicated that the DASS-21 predicted the diagnostic presence of generalized anxiety disorder and depression as well as other commonly used measures. These data suggest that the DASS may be used with older adults in lieu of multiple scales designed to measure similar constructs, thereby reducing participant burden and facilitating assessment in settings with limited assessment resources.

  19. Comparison of Short Scales to Measure Depressive Symptoms In Elders with Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Depression is the most common mental health problem among American elders and it is also prevalent among those with diabetes. The 20-item Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) is commonly used to measure depressive symptoms in elders, but its length is potentially burdensome. Twelve short forms of the CES-D (4-16 items) exist, but they have not been tested with elders with diabetes. Purpose This study compared reliability and validity estimates across the 12 short forms and investigated similarities in classifying elders with diabetes as clinically depressed using standardized cut scores. Theoretical Framework Beck’s theory provides a framework for identifying the affective, cognitive, behavioral, and somatic symptoms that are measured by the CES-D. Methods Data were merged from two studies, which yielded 80 elders with diabetes who completed the CES-D items during structured interviews. Results Cronbach’s alpha was .87 for the CES-D; it ranged from .60 (5-item) to .84 (16-item) for shorter forms. Correlations of the full CES-D and short forms ranged from .82 (4-item) to .98 (16-item). Using the CES-D cut score, 14% of the elders with diabetes had clinically significant depressive symptoms: 21% men, 11% women, 17% African Americans, and 13% Caucasians. A 5-item scale overestimated 29% as clinically depressed: 33% men, 27% women, 25% African Americans, and 29% Caucasians. Conclusions The findings suggest that shortened scales to measure depressive symptoms may be potentially useful with elders with diabetes. Further psychometric studies of the CES-D short forms are recommended with elders with chronic conditions. PMID:19050228

  20. Postnatal depression among Sudanese women: prevalence and validation of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale at 3 months postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Khalifa, Dina Sami; Glavin, Kari; Bjertness, Espen; Lien, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Postnatal depression (PND) rates in low-resource countries have reached levels between 4.9% and 59%. Maternal mental health has not been researched in Sudan, and there are no existing statistics on prevalence or significant risk factors for PND. Consequently, no screening test has been validated to screen for PND at the primary health care level. This study investigates the 3 months prevalence of PND and validates the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) against the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Methodology Pregnant Sudanese women in the second and third trimesters were recruited to the study during routine antenatal care visits in two major maternity hospitals in Khartoum state. They were screened for PND at 3 months postpartum using the EPDS. Test positive women were matched with test negative women according to nearest date of birth. A clinical psychologist verified their depression status using the MINI. Results The follow-up rate was 79%. At a cutoff point of ≥12, the 3 months prevalence of PND was 9.2%. The sensitivity and specificity of the EPDS were 89% and 82%, respectively. The EPDS and MINI showed a strong positive relationship (odds ratio =36). The positive predictive value and negative predictive value, using this study’s prevalence, were 33% and 98.7%, respectively. The receiver operator characteristic analysis showed an area under the curve of 0.89. The cut-off point ≥12 was the most acceptable point as it had the lowest number needed to diagnose (1.4) and a false-positive rate of 18%. Conclusion The EPDS is a valid tool for screening for PND on a Sudanese population. It was accepted, easily administered, and understood by postnatal women. Health care personnel, especially village midwives, should be trained on screening and referral of depressed women for clinical evaluation and management. Due to limited resources available in Sudan, shorter screening tests need to be validated in the future. PMID

  1. Screening for depressive symptoms in adolescents at school: New validity evidences on the short form of the Reynolds Depression Scale

    PubMed Central

    Aritio-Solana, Rebeca; Inchausti, Félix; Chocarro de Luis, Edurne; Lucas Molina, Beatriz; Pérez de Albéniz, Alicia

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of the present study was to assess the depressive symptomatology and to gather new validity evidences of the Reynolds Depression Scale-Short form (RADS-SF) in a representative sample of youths. The sample consisted of 2914 adolescents with a mean age of 15.85 years (SD = 1.68). We calculated the descriptive statistics and internal consistency of the RADS-SF scores. Also, confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) at the item level and successive multigroup CFAs to test measurement invariance, were conducted. Latent mean differences across gender and educational level groups were estimated, and finally, we studied the sources of validity evidences with other external variables. The level of internal consistency of the RADS-SF Total score by means of Ordinal alpha was .89. Results from CFAs showed that the one-dimensional model displayed appropriate goodness of-fit indices with CFI value over .95, and RMSEA value under .08. In addition, the results support the strong measurement invariance of the RADS-SF scores across gender and age. When latent means were compared, statistically significant differences were found by gender and age. Females scored 0.347 over than males in Depression latent variable, whereas older adolescents scored 0.111 higher than the younger group. In addition, the RADS-SF score was associated with the RADS scores. The results suggest that the RADS-SF could be used as an efficient screening test to assess self-reported depressive symptoms in adolescents from the general population. PMID:28222193

  2. Psychometric Properties of the Dutch Depression Stigma Scale (DSS) and Associations with Personal and Perceived Stigma in a Depressed and Community Sample

    PubMed Central

    Cuijpers, P.; Griffiths, K. M.; Kleiboer, A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Research on depression stigma is needed to gain more insight into the underlying construct and to reduce the level of stigma in the community. However, few validated measurements of depression stigma are available in the Netherlands. Therefore, this study first sought to examine the psychometric properties of the Dutch translation of the Depression Stigma Scale (DSS). Second, we examined which demographic (gender, age, education, partner status) and other variables (anxiety and knowledge of depression) are associated with personal and perceived stigma within these samples. Methods The study population consisted of an adult convenience sample (n = 253) (study 1) and a community adult sample with elevated depressive symptoms (n = 264) (study 2). Factor structure, internal consistency, and validity were assessed. The associations between stigma, demographic variables and anxiety level were examined with regression analyses. Results Confirmatory factor analysis supported the validity and internal consistency of the DSS personal stigma scale. Internal consistency was sufficient (Cronbach’s alpha = .70 (study 1) and .77 (study 2)). The results regarding the perceived stigma scale revealed no clear factor structure. Regression analyses showed that personal stigma was higher in younger people, those with no experience with depression, and those with lower education. Conclusions This study established the validity and internal consistency of the DSS personal scale in the Netherlands, in a community sample and in people with elevated depressive symptoms. However, additional research is needed to examine the factor structure of the DSS perceived scale and its use in other samples. PMID:27500969

  3. Rasch analysis of the hospital anxiety and depression scale (hads) for use in motor neurone disease

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) is commonly used to assess symptoms of anxiety and depression in motor neurone disease (MND). The measure has never been specifically validated for use within this population, despite questions raised about the scale's validity. This study seeks to analyse the construct validity of the HADS in MND by fitting its data to the Rasch model. Methods The scale was administered to 298 patients with MND. Scale assessment included model fit, differential item functioning (DIF), unidimensionality, local dependency and category threshold analysis. Results Rasch analyses were carried out on the HADS total score as well as depression and anxiety subscales (HADS-T, D and A respectively). After removing one item from both of the seven item scales, it was possible to produce modified HADS-A and HADS-D scales which fit the Rasch model. An 11-item higher-order HADS-T total scale was found to fit the Rasch model following the removal of one further item. Conclusion Our results suggest that a modified HADS-A and HADS-D are unidimensional, free of DIF and have good fit to the Rasch model in this population. As such they are suitable for use in MND clinics or research. The use of the modified HADS-T as a higher-order measure of psychological distress was supported by our data. Revised cut-off points are given for the modified HADS-A and HADS-D subscales. PMID:21955749

  4. Measurement invariance of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 across medical student genders

    PubMed Central

    Jafari, Peyman; Nozari, Farnoosh; Ahrari, Forooghosadat

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to assess whether male and female Iranian medical students perceived the meaning of the items in the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 consistently. Methods A convenience sample of 783 preclinical medical students from the first to sixth semester was invited to this cross-sectional study. Of the 477 respondents, 238 were male and 239 were female. All participants completed the Persian version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21. The graded response model was used to assess measurement invariance of the instrument across the gender groups. Categorical confirmatory factor analysis was used to evaluate the construct validity of the measure. Moreover, internal consistency was assessed via Cronbach's Alpha. Results Statistically significant differential item functioning was flagged for just item 6 in the depression subscales (c2=6.5, df=1, p=0.011). However, removing or retaining the item 6 in the stress subscale did not change our findings significantly, when we compared stress scores across two genders. The results of categorical confirmatory factor analysis supported the fit of the three-factor model of Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21. Moreover, Cronbach’s alpha was greater than 0.7 in depression, anxiety and stress subscales. Conclusions This study revealed that Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 is an invariant measure across male and female medical students. Hence, this reliable and valid instrument can be used for meaningful comparison of distress scores between medical student genders. Gender comparisons of medical students’ psychological profiles provide a better insight into gender influences on the outcome of medical education and medical practice.  PMID:28362630

  5. Efficiently Assessing Negative Cognition in Depression: An Item Response Theory Analysis of the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beevers, Christopher G.; Strong, David R.; Meyer, Bjorn; Pilkonis, Paul A.; Miller, Ivan R.

    2007-01-01

    Despite a central role for dysfunctional attitudes in cognitive theories of depression and the widespread use of the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale, form A (DAS-A; A. Weissman, 1979), the psychometric development of the DAS-A has been relatively limited. The authors used nonparametric item response theory methods to examine the DAS-A items and…

  6. Evaluation of the psychometric properties of the Hungarian quality of life in depression scale.

    PubMed

    Viola, Reka; Lovas, Kornelia; Szabo, Zoltan; Czenner, Zsuzsanna; Meads, David M; Soos, Gyongyver; McKenna, Stephen P

    2008-01-01

    The paper describes the adaptation and psychometric evaluation of the Hungarian version of the quality of life in depression scale. The adaptation procedure involved: bilingual translation; field-testing for face and content validity; and assessment of instrument's reliability and construct validity. The new language version was shown to be well-accepted by respondents and to have excellent psychometric properties.

  7. Validation of Geriatric Depression Scale--5 Scores among Sedentary Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marquez, David X.; McAuley, Edward; Motl, Robert W.; Elavsky, Steriani; Konopack, James F.; Jerome, Gerald J.; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the validity of Geriatric Depression Scale--5 (GDS-5) scores among older sedentary adults based on its structural properties and relationship with external criteria. Participants from two samples (Ns = 185 and 93; M ages = 66 and 67 years) completed baseline assessments as part of randomized controlled exercise trials.…

  8. Measurement Invariance of the Reynolds Depression Adolescent Scale across Gender and Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Wells, Craig; Paino, Mercedes; Lemos-Giraldez, Serafin; Villazon-Garcia, Ursula; Sierra, Susana; Garcia-Portilla Gonzalez, Ma Paz; Bobes, Julio; Muniz, Jose

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of the present study was to examine measurement invariance of the Reynolds Depression Adolescent Scale (RADS) (Reynolds, 1987) across gender and age in a representative sample of nonclinical adolescents. The sample was composed of 1,659 participants, 801 males (48.3%), with a mean age of 15.9 years (SD = 1.2). Confirmatory…

  9. Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS): The Study of Validity and Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basha, Ertan; Kaya, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine validity and reliability of the Albanian version of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS), which is developed by Lovibond and Lovibond (1995). The sample of this study is consisted of 555 subjects who were living in Kosovo. The results of confirmatory factor analysis indicated 42 items loaded on…

  10. [The ICD-10 Symptom Rating (ISR): validation of the depression scale in a clinical sample].

    PubMed

    Brandt, Wolfram Alexis; Loew, Thomas; von Heymann, Friedrich; Stadtmüller, Godehard; Georgi, Alexander; Tischinger, Michael; Strom, Frederik; Mutschler, Friederike; Tritt, Karin

    2015-06-01

    The ICD-10 Symptom Rating (ISR) 1 measures the severity of psychiatric disorders with 29 items on 5 subscales as comprehensively as possible. The following syndromes are measured: Depressive syndrome, anxiety syndrome, obsessive-compulsive syndrome, Somatoform syndrome, eating disorder syndrome as well as additional items that cover various mental syndromes, and an overall score. The study reports findings on the validity and sensitivity to change of the depression subscale (ISR-D). In a clinical sample of N=949 inpatients with depression spectrum disorders the convergent validity was determined by correlation with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) 3 and the subscale "depression" of the Symptom-Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R) 4. The high correlation between the different instruments confirms the validity of the ISR-Depression Scale. The sensitivity to change of the ISR seems higher than that of the BDI and the SCL-90. Because of its economy and the good psychometric properties the ISR is recommended for use in clinical samples.

  11. Validation of the Arabic Version of Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Hani, Yahya; Ghuloum, Suhaila; Mahfoud, Ziyad; Opler, Mark; Khan, Anzalee; Yehya, Arij; Abdulhakam, Abdulmoneim; Hammoudeh, Samer; Al-Mujalli, Azza; Elsherbiny, Reem; Al-Amin, Hassen

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients with schizophrenia commonly show both depressive and negative symptoms that can differentially affect the prognosis and course of treatment. The Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS) was designed to distinguish between depression and negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. The purpose of this study is to validate an Arabic version of the CDSS among patients with schizophrenia. Methods The diagnosis of schizophrenia was confirmed using the Arabic Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview 6 (MINI 6). A standardized translation back-translation process was adopted. One rater administered the Arabic CDSS to subjects with schizophrenia as well as to a control group who should not have any psychiatric disorder except for depression. Another rater, blinded to the results administered the already validated Arabic version of Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). Results We recruited 102 patients and 102 controls subjects. The CDSS showed good internal consistency in the active group (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.82). The Intraclass Coefficient correlations (ICC) for the inter-rater reliability (n = 21) was 0.90, p<0.05 and test-retest reliability (n = 19) was 0.85, p<0.001. When compared to the BDI-II, the cutoff score of 5 on the Arabic CDSS showed reasonable sensitivity and specificity of 72.75% and 67.95% respectively. Conclusions The psychometric properties of the Arabic version of CDSS demonstrate that it is a valid tool to assess the depressive symptoms in the Arab patients with schizophrenia. PMID:27583831

  12. Depressants

    MedlinePlus

    ... with other drugs to add to the other drugs ’ high or to deal with their side effects. Abusers take higher doses than people taking the drugs under a doctor ’ s supervision for therapeutic purposes. Depressants ...

  13. A Psychometric Analysis of the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scales--Parent Version in a School Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebesutani, Chad; Chorpita, Bruce F.; Higa-McMillan, Charmaine K.; Nakamura, Brad J.; Regan, Jennifer; Lynch, Roxanna E.

    2011-01-01

    The Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale--Parent Version (RCADS-P) is a parent-report questionnaire of youth anxiety and depression with scales corresponding to the "DSM" diagnoses of separation anxiety disorder, social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and major depressive…

  14. A Psychometric Analysis of the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale-Parent Version in a Clinical Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebesutani, Chad; Bernstein, Adam; Nakamura, Brad J.; Chorpita, Bruce F.; Weisz, John R.

    2010-01-01

    The Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale-Parent Version (RCADS-P) is a 47-item parent-report questionnaire of youth anxiety and depression, with scales corresponding to the DSM-IV categories of Separation Anxiety Disorder, Social Phobia, Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), Panic Disorder, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, and Major Depressive…

  15. Evaluating and monitoring treatment response in depression using measurement-based assessment and rating scales.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Madhukar H

    2013-07-01

    Even with many treatment options available for major depressive disorder, many patients fail to achieve remission and return to their presymptomatic levels of functioning at work, in leisure activities, and in relationships. Throughout treatment, clinicians should implement measurement-based care by systematically monitoring patients' response using self-rated scales, such as the PHQ-9, QIDS-SR, or BDI. By tracking depressive symptoms, as well as suicidality, treatment adherence, and side effects, clinicians can adjust treatment to help patients achieve the best outcomes. Measurement-based care enables clinicians to make informed decisions at critical points throughout the treatment process and to involve patients in making those decisions.

  16. The self-reported Montgomery-Åsberg depression rating scale is a useful evaluative tool in major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Fantino, Bruno; Moore, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    Background The use of Patient-reported Outcomes (PROs) as secondary endpoints in the development of new antidepressants has grown in recent years. The objective of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of the 9-item, patient-administered version of the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS-S). Methods Data from a multicentre, double-blind, 8-week, randomised controlled trial of 278 outpatients diagnosed with Major Depressive Disorder were used to evaluate the validity, reliability and sensitivity to change of the MADRS-S using psychometric methods. A Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve was plotted to identify the most appropriate threshold to define perceived remission. Results No missing values were found at the item level, indicating good acceptability of the scale. The construct validity was satisfactory: all items contributed to a common underlying concept, as expected. The correlation between MADRS-S and physicians' MADRS was moderate (r = 0.54, p < 0.001) indicating that MADRS-S is complementary rather than redundant to the MADRS. Cronbach's alpha was 0.84, and the stability over time of the scale, estimated on a sub-sample of patients whose health status did not change during the first week of the study, was good (intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.78). MADRS-S sensitivity to change was shown. Using a threshold value of 5, the definition of "perceived remission" reached a sensitivity of 82% and a specificity of 75%. Conclusion Taking account of patient's perceptions of the severity of their own symptoms along with the psychometric properties of the MADRS-S enable its use for evaluative purposes in the development of new antidepressant drugs. PMID:19473506

  17. Validity study of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale among a group of Saudi patients.

    PubMed

    el-Rufaie, O E; Absood, G

    1987-11-01

    The Arabic version of the HAD scale was validated in a sample of 50 Saudi patients. The scale scores were assessed against the principal author's clinical evaluations. Spearman correlations of all items of the scale, except for one, were statistically significant. The non-significance of one item was probably related to the way it was translated into Arabic. The study furnished evidence that the Arabic version was a reliable instrument for detecting states of anxiety and depression in Saudi patients in a primary health care setting.

  18. Factor analysis of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale from a large cancer population.

    PubMed

    Smith, Adam B; Selby, Peter J; Velikova, Galina; Stark, Dan; Wright, E Penny; Gould, Ann; Cull, Ann

    2002-06-01

    The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) is widely used as a tool for assessing psychological distress in patients and non-clinical groups. Previous studies have demonstrated conflicting results regarding the factor structure of the questionnaire for different groups of patients, and the general population. This study investigated the factor structure of the HADS in a large heterogeneous cancer population of 1474 patients. It also sought to investigate emerging evidence that the HADS conforms to the tripartite model of anxiety and depression (Clark & Watson, 1993), and to test the proposal that detection rates for clinical cases of anxiety and depression could be enhanced by partialling out the effects of higher order factors from the HADS (Dunbar et al., 2000). The results demonstrated a two-factor structure corresponding to the Anxiety and Depression subscales of the questionnaire. The factor structure remained stable for different subgroups of the sample, for males and females, as well as for different age groups, and a subgroup of metastatic cancer patients. The two factors were highly correlated (r =.52) and subsequent secondary factor analyses demonstrated a single higher order factor corresponding to psychological distress or negative affectivity. We concluded that the HADS comprises two factors corresponding to anhedonia and autonomic anxiety, which share a common variance with a primary factor namely psychological distress, and that the subscales of the HADS, rather than the residual scores (e.g. Dunbar et al., 2000) were more effective at detecting clinical cases of anxiety and depression.

  19. Factor structure and validity of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 in Swedish translation.

    PubMed

    Alfonsson, S; Wallin, E; Maathz, P

    2017-03-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) is a widely used measurement for psychological symptoms and distress. Some previous studies have shown that the DASS-21 can accurately measure symptoms of anxiety, depression and stress, while other studies have indicated that the DASS-21 mainly measures overall distress. The factor structure of the DASS-21 is important and debated since if affects interpretations of findings. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: In this study, the DASS-21 was translated into Swedish and evaluated in three diverse samples. The DASS-21 subscales of Depression and Anxiety correlated significantly with corresponding criteria instruments. The DASS-21 Stress subscale showed more diverse associations with psychological distress. The analyses supported a bifactor model of the DASS-21 with three specific factors of depression, anxiety and stress as well as a general distress factor. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: The results show that the DASS-21 may be used to measure unique symptoms of depression, anxiety and, with some caveat, stress as well as overall psychological distress. This study confirms that the DASS-21 is theoretically sound instrument that is feasible for both research and clinical practice. The DASS-21 can be an accessible tool for screening and evaluation in first-line mental health services.

  20. Development of an Italian version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales.

    PubMed

    Severino, Giovanina A; Haynes, W David G

    2010-10-01

    Older Italian-born Australians represent one of the largest migrant populations in Australia. However, there are few valid and reliable Italian-language measures of mood symptomology suitable for use with this group. Following a rigorous translation and adaptation process, an Italian version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales was administered to a sample of 103 Italian-born men and women over the age of 55 years and the results were subjected to exploratory factor analysis. Items within the original Depression and Stress scales loaded consistently and strongly on separate factors. However, translated Anxiety items loaded across three separate factors, including a factor comprised solely of somatic expressions of anxiety. The results are explained with reference to cultural factors specific to an older Mediterranean migrant sample, including somatic expressions of distress and "nerves". The results are also discussed in light of the size and nature of the sample. The Depression and Stress scales can be used confidently by clinicians and researchers with this population. However, the Anxiety scale cannot be assumed to be measuring an homogenous construct, and as such, should be used with caution.

  1. Short version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21: is it valid for Brazilian adolescents?

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Hítalo Andrade; dos Passos, Muana Hiandra Pereira; de Oliveira, Valéria Mayaly Alves; Palmeira, Aline Cabral; Pitangui, Ana Carolina Rodarti; de Araújo, Rodrigo Cappato

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the interday reproducibility, agreement and validity of the construct of short version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 applied to adolescents. Methods The sample consisted of adolescents of both sexes, aged between 10 and 19 years, who were recruited from schools and sports centers. The validity of the construct was performed by exploratory factor analysis, and reliability was calculated for each construct using the intraclass correlation coefficient, standard error of measurement and the minimum detectable change. Results The factor analysis combining the items corresponding to anxiety and stress in a single factor, and depression in a second factor, showed a better match of all 21 items, with higher factor loadings in their respective constructs. The reproducibility values for depression were intraclass correlation coefficient with 0.86, standard error of measurement with 0.80, and minimum detectable change with 2.22; and, for anxiety/stress: intraclass correlation coefficient with 0.82, standard error of measurement with 1.80, and minimum detectable change with 4.99. Conclusion The short version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 showed excellent values of reliability, and strong internal consistency. The two-factor model with condensation of the constructs anxiety and stress in a single factor was the most acceptable for the adolescent population. PMID:28076595

  2. Depressants

    MedlinePlus

    ... crime punishable by hefty fines and jail time. How Can Someone Quit? Quitting depressants can be very difficult. A person who tries to stop taking the drugs can have tremors, breathing problems, and seizures, go into a coma, or even die. Because the body's systems get used to the ...

  3. A comparison of depressive mood of older adults in a community, nursing homes, and a geriatric hospital: factor analysis of Geriatric Depression Scale.

    PubMed

    Onishi, Joji; Suzuki, Yusuke; Umegaki, Hiroyuki; Endo, Hidetoshi; Kawamura, Takashi; Iguchi, Akihisa

    2006-03-01

    The Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS)-15 was used in 607 adults aged 65+ years living in a community, nursing homes, and a general hospital to explore characteristics of depressive mood in different care settings. Factor analysis of GDS-15 extracted 4 factors labeled unhappiness, apathy and anxiety, loss of hope and morale, and energy loss. The scale scores labeled unhappiness, apathy and anxiety, and loss of hope and morale were negatively correlated with the Barthel Index and the Mini-Mental State Examination scores. The results classified the depressive patterns into 2 types, one fitting the nursing home residents and the other fitting the hospital patients. The dominant factors of the nursing-home type were unhappiness and loss of hope and morale, and the hospital type was highly related with apathy and anxiety. The results indicate an extended utility of the GDS-15 for a deeper understanding of depressive mood in various care settings.

  4. Measurement equivalence of the CES-D 8 depression-scale among the ageing population in eleven European countries.

    PubMed

    Missinne, Sarah; Vandeviver, Christophe; Van de Velde, Sarah; Bracke, Piet

    2014-07-01

    Depression is one of the most prevalent mental disorders in later life. However, despite considerable research attention, great confusion remains regarding the association between ageing and depression. There is doubt as to whether a depression scale performs identically for different age groups and countries. Although measurement equivalence is a crucial prerequisite for valid comparisons across age groups and countries, it has not been established for the eight-item version of the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D8). Using multi-group confirmatory factor analysis, we assess configural, metric, and scalar measurement equivalence across two age groups (50-64 years of age and 65 or older) in eleven European countries, employing data from the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement (SHARE). Results indicate that the construct of depression is comparable across age and country groups, allowing the substantive interpretation of correlates and mean levels of depressive symptoms.

  5. Depression Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS-21): psychometric analysis across four racial groups.

    PubMed

    Norton, Peter J

    2007-09-01

    Growing cross-cultural awareness has led researchers to examine frequently used research instruments and assessment tools in racially diverse populations. The present study was conducted to assess the psychometric characteristics of the 21-item version of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales (DASS-21) among different racial groups. The DASS-21 was chosen because it appears to be a reliable and easy to administer measure, ideal for both clinical and research purposes. Results suggest that the internal consistency, and convergent and divergent validity of the DASS-21 are similar across racial groups. Multigroup CFA, however, indicated that item loadings were invariant, while scale covariances were not invariant. This suggests that, although the items may load similarly on the depression, anxiety and stress constructs, these constructs may be differentially inter-related across groups. Implications for application in clinical practice are discussed.

  6. Measuring depressive symptoms among treatment-resistant seizure disorder patients: POMS Depression scale as an alternative to the BDI-II.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Nathan M; Szaflarski, Jerzy P; Szaflarski, Magdalena; Kent, Glenn P; Schefft, Bruce K; Howe, Steven R; Privitera, Michael D

    2005-09-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is the most prevalent psychiatric comorbidity among patients with treatment-resistant seizures. The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) is often used to measure the severity of self-reported depressive symptoms among patients with seizure disorders. In contrast, researchers often use the Profile of Mood States (POMS) Depression (D) scale to assess depressed mood among other medical patient groups. The clinical significance of POMS-D scores among seizure disorder patients is not clear. In this study, we computed the correlation of POMS-D and BDI-II scores, determined a formula for converting POMS-D scores to BDI-II scores, and computed the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of the POMS-D among seizure disorder patients. Two BDI-II cutoffs (BDI-II16 and 20) were used as criteria for significant reported depressive symptoms. We found a strong correlation between POMS-D and BDI-II scores. Analyses indicated that POMS-D scores strongly predict BDI-II scores. In addition, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV values obtained demonstrated that POMS-D scores accurately classify seizure disorder patients who endorse significant depressive symptoms. These results suggest that the POMS-D may be effective in measuring reported depressive symptoms among seizure disorder patients.

  7. Dimensional approach to symptom factors of major depressive disorder in Koreans, using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale: the Clinical Research Center for Depression of South Korea study.

    PubMed

    Park, Seon-Cheol; Jang, Eun Young; Kim, Daeho; Jun, Tae-Youn; Lee, Min-Soo; Kim, Jae-Min; Kim, Jung-Bum; Jo, Sun-Jin; Park, Yong Chon

    2015-01-01

    Although major depressive disorder (MDD) has a variety of symptoms beyond the affective dimensions, the factor structure and contents of comprehensive psychiatric symptoms of this disorder have rarely been explored using the 18-item Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). We aimed to identify the factor structure of the 18-item BPRS in Korean MDD patients. A total of 258 MDD patients were recruited from a multicenter sample of the Clinical Research Center for Depression of South Korea study. Psychometric scales were used to assess overall psychiatric symptoms (BPRS), depression (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale), anxiety (Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale), global severity (Clinical Global Impression of Severity Scale), suicidal ideation (Scale for Suicide Ideation), functioning (Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale), and quality of life (World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment-abbreviated version). Common factor analysis with oblique rotation was used to yield factor structure. A four-factor structure was designed and interpreted by the symptom dimensions to reflect mood disturbance, positive symptoms/apathy, bipolarity, and thought distortion/mannerism. These individual factors were also significantly correlated with clinical variables. The findings of this study support the view that the BPRS may be a promising measuring tool for the initial assessment of MDD patients. In addition, the four-factor structure of the BPRS may be useful in understanding the mood and psychotic characteristics of these patients.

  8. Evaluation of the internal consistency, factor structure, and validity of the Depression Change Expectancy Scale.

    PubMed

    Eddington, Kari M; Dozois, David J A; Backs-Dermott, Barb J

    2014-10-01

    The psychometric properties and predictive validity of the Depression Change Expectancy Scale (DCES), a modification of an expectancy scale originally developed for patients with anxiety disorders, were examined in two studies. In Study 1, the 20-item scale was administered along with a battery of questionnaires to a sample of 416 dysphoric undergraduate students and demonstrated good internal consistency. A two-factor solution most parsimoniously accounted for the variance, with one factor containing all pessimistically worded items (DCES-P) and the second containing all optimistically worded items (DCES-O). The DCES-P showed patterns of correlations with other measures of related constructs consistent with hypothesized relationships; the DCES-O showed similar, but weaker, relationships with the other measures. Multilevel modeling was used to examine the predictive utility of the DCES in a clinical sample of 63 adults (Study 2). Improved depressive symptoms (over 6 weeks) were strongly associated with optimistic expectancies but were unrelated to pessimistic expectancies for change. The DCES appears to be a promising measure of expectancies for improvement among individuals with depressive symptoms.

  9. The Effects of Donepezil on 15-Item Geriatric Depression Scale Structure in Patients with Alzheimer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Youngsoon; Kwak, Yong Tae

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims In Alzheimer disease (AD), depression is among the most common accompanying neuropsychiatric symptoms and has different clinical manifestations when compared with early-life depression. In patients with drug-naïve AD, we tried to explore the structure of the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS15) and the effect of donepezil on these substructures. Methods GDS15, cognitive function, and activities of daily living function tests were administered to 412 patients with probable AD who had not been medicated before visiting the hospital. Using principal component analysis, three factors were identified. The patients with AD who received only donepezil were retrospectively analyzed and we compared the change of cognition and GDS15 subgroup after donepezil medication. Results Our study identified three factors and revealed that the GDS15 may be comprised of a heterogeneous scale. The Barthel index was significantly correlated with factor 1 (positively) and factor 2 (negatively). The Korean version of the MMSE (K-MMSE) was significantly correlated with factor 2 and factor 3. Compared to the baseline state, K-MMSE and GDS15 showed significant improvement after taking donepezil. Among GDS15 subgroups, factor 2 and factor 3 showed significant improvement after donepezil treatment. Conclusions These results suggest that the GDS15 may be comprised of a heterogeneous scale and donepezil differentially affects the GDS15 subgroup in AD. PMID:27790242

  10. Acculturation and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Hispanic Women

    PubMed Central

    McCabe, Brian E.; Vermeesch, Amber L.; Hall, Rosemary F.; Peragallo, Nilda P.; Mitrani, Victoria B.

    2011-01-01

    Background Culturally valid measures of depression for Spanish-speaking Hispanic women are important for developing and implementing effective interventions to reduce health disparities. The Center for Epidemiological Studies--Depression Scale (CES-D) is a widely used measure of depression. Differential item functioning has been studied using language preference as a proxy for acculturation, but it is unknown if the results were due to acculturation or the language of administration. Objective To evaluate the relationship of acculturation, defined with a dimensional measure, to Spanish CES-D item responses. Method Spanish-speaking Hispanic women (n = 504) were recruited for a randomized controlled trial of Salud, Educación, Prevención y Autocuidado (Health, Education, Prevention and Self-care). Acculturation, an important dimension of variation within the diverse United States Hispanic community, was defined by high or low scores on the Americanism subscale of the Bidimensional Acculturation Scale. Differential item functioning for each of the 20 CES-D items between more acculturated and less acculturated women was tested using ordinal logistic regression. Results No items on the Depressed Affect, Somatic Activity, or Positive Affect subscales showed meaningful differential item functioning, but one item (“People were unfriendly”) on the Interpersonal subscale had small results (R2 = 1.1%). Discussion The majority of CES-D items performed similarly for Spanish-speaking Hispanic women with high and low acculturation. Less acculturated women responded more positively to “People were unfriendly,” despite having an equivalent level of depression, than more acculturated women. Possibilities for improving this item are proposed. PMID:21677596

  11. Depression.

    PubMed

    McCarron, Robert M; Vanderlip, Erik R; Rado, Jeffrey

    2016-10-04

    This issue provides a clinical overview of depression, focusing on screening, diagnosis, treatment, and practice improvement. The content of In the Clinic is drawn from the clinical information and education resources of the American College of Physicians (ACP), including MKSAP (Medical Knowledge and Self-Assessment Program). Annals of Internal Medicine editors develop In the Clinic in collaboration with the ACP's Medical Education and Publishing divisions and with the assistance of additional science writers and physician writers.

  12. Sensitivity to changes during antidepressant treatment: a comparison of unidimensional subscales of the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS-C) and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) in patients with mild major, minor or subsyndromal depression.

    PubMed

    Helmreich, Isabella; Wagner, Stefanie; Mergl, Roland; Allgaier, Antje-Kathrin; Hautzinger, Martin; Henkel, Verena; Hegerl, Ulrich; Tadić, André

    2012-06-01

    In the efficacy evaluation of antidepressant treatments, the total score of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) is still regarded as the 'gold standard'. We previously had shown that the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS) was more sensitive to detect depressive symptom changes than the HAMD17 (Helmreich et al. 2011). Furthermore, studies suggest that the unidimensional subscales of the HAMD, which capture the core depressive symptoms, outperform the full HAMD regarding the detection of antidepressant treatment effects. The aim of the present study was to compare several unidimensional subscales of the HAMD and the IDS regarding their sensitivity to changes in depression symptoms in a sample of patients with mild major, minor or subsyndromal depression (MIND). Biweekly IDS-C28 and HAMD17 data from 287 patients of a 10-week randomised, placebo-controlled trial comparing the effectiveness of sertraline and cognitive-behavioural group therapy in patients with MIND were converted to subscale scores and analysed during the antidepressant treatment course. We investigated sensitivity to depressive change for all scales from assessment-to-assessment, in relation to depression severity level and placebo-verum differences. The subscales performed similarly during the treatment course, with slight advantages for some subscales in detecting treatment effects depending on the treatment modality and on the items included. Most changes in depressive symptomatology were detected by the IDS short scale, but regarding the effect sizes, it performed worse than most subscales. Unidimensional subscales are a time- and cost-saving option in judging drug therapy outcomes, especially in antidepressant treatment efficacy studies. However, subscales do not cover all facets of depression (e.g. atypical symptoms, sleep disturbances), which might be important for comprehensively understanding the nature of the disease depression. Therefore, the cost-to-benefit ratio must be

  13. Differential Item Functioning for Lesbians, Bisexual, and Heterosexual Women in the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birnholz, Justin L.; Young, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed whether the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) functions equivalently in assessing depressive symptom severity in lesbian, bisexual, and heterosexual women. Using differential item functioning methods, the authors examined (a) whether there is a bias in CES-D total scores and in individual item scores…

  14. The Psychometric Properties of the Hospital Anxiety and Depressions Scale Adapted for Use with People with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dagnan, D.; Jahoda, A.; McDowell, K.; Masson, J.; Banks, P.; Hare, D.

    2008-01-01

    Background: There is increasing recognition of depression in people with intellectual disabilities (ID). There is a need to develop well-standardised self-report measures for both clinical and research purposes. This paper presents some psychometric properties of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) adapted for use with people with ID.…

  15. Factor Structure of Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in Malaysian patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Satpal; Zainal, Nor Zuraida; Low, Wah Yun; Ramasamy, Ravindran; Sidhu, Jaideep Singh

    2015-05-01

    The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) is a common screening instrument used to determine the levels of anxiety and depression experienced by a patient and has been extensively used in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). This study aimed to establish the factor structure of HADS in a Malaysian sample of 189 patients with CAD. Factor analysis of HADS using principal component analysis with varimax rotation yielded 3 factors. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the use of HADS in assessing 3 distinct dimensions of psychological distress--namely, anxiety, anhedonia, and psychomotor retardation. The HADS showed good internal consistency and was found to be a valid measure of psychological distress among Malaysian patients with CAD. However, low mean scores on the original 2 factors--that is, anxiety and depression--and also on the 2 depression subscales--anhedonia and psychomotor retardation--suggests that the recommended cutoff score to screen for psychological distress among CAD patients be reevaluated. Further research to determine the generalizability and consistency for the tridimensional structure of the HADS in Malaysia is recommended.

  16. Validation of a Telephone-administered Geriatric Depression Scale in a Hispanic Elderly Population

    PubMed Central

    Carrete, Paula; Augustovski, Federico; Gimpel, Nora; Fernandez, Sebastian; Di Paolo, Rodolfo; Schaffer, Irene; Rubinstein, Fernando

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To develop and validate a Spanish version of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) for telephone administration. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS The original version of the GDS was translated into Spanish. A random sample of 282 ambulatory elderly individuals was contacted by phone. Those completing the phone GDS (GDS-T) were asked to schedule an appointment within two weeks in which we collected data on demographics, physical exam, functional and mental status, and a face-to-face version of the GDS (GDS-P). We estimated question-to-question κ statistics and the Pearson correlation coefficient between the GDS-T and GDS-P scores. We evaluated reliability of the GDS-T and GDS-P using the Cronbach's α coefficient. We estimated the sensitivity, specificity, and criterion validity of the GDS using the DSM IV criteria for depression as our gold standard. RESULTS Thirty patients (11%) refused to participate. Of the remaining 252 patients, 169 (67%) attended the personal interview. The Cronbach's α coefficient was 0.85 for GSD-P and 0.88 for GDS-T. Sensitivity and specificity were 88% and 82% for GDS-P and 84% and 79% for GDS-T. The prevalence of depression in the group completing both scales was 12.8% using the GDS-P and 14.9% using the GDS-T (P >.05). Among those who only completed the GDS-T, the prevalence was 22.7% (P <.05) suggesting that depressed patients kept their appointments less frequently. CONCLUSIONS The telephone GDS had high internal consistency and was highly correlated with the validated personal administration of the scale, suggesting that it could be a valid instrument for screening of depression among elderly ambulatory Spanish-speaking patients. Because the depression rate was significantly higher among those not presenting to the personal evaluation, the adoption of GDS-T may help detect and plan early interventions in patients who otherwise would not be identified. PMID:11520381

  17. Using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale to Assess Depression in Women With HIV and Women at Risk for HIV: Are Somatic Items Invariant?

    PubMed

    Adams, Leah M; Wilson, Tracey E; Merenstein, Daniel; Milam, Joel; Cohen, Jennifer; Golub, Elizabeth T; Adedimeji, Adebola; Cook, Judith A

    2017-02-23

    The prevalence of depression among women living with HIV/AIDS is elevated, compared with women in the general population and men diagnosed with HIV/AIDS. Although symptoms of HIV may overlap with somatic symptoms of depression, little research has explored how well screening tools accurately assess depression rather than symptoms of HIV/AIDS among women. The present study examined the utility of a widely used tool for assessing depression symptoms among women living with HIV/AIDS. Data are from the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS), a multisite, longitudinal cohort study of women living with HIV/AIDS (n = 1,329) and seronegative women (n = 541) matched on key risk factors for HIV/AIDS. Confirmatory factor analysis-based measurement invariance tests of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) were conducted to determine whether women with HIV and those without HIV responded to the scale similarly. Results supported measurement invariance of CES-D scores. Findings suggest that the CES-D can be used to assess for burden of depression symptoms among women diagnosed with HIV/AIDS. (PsycINFO Database Record

  18. Detection of Mental Disorders Other Than Depression with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale in a Sample of Pregnant Women in Northern Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sifuentes-Alvarez, Antonio; Salas-Martinez, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    We sought to evaluate the capacity of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) in discriminating mental disorders other than depression in pregnant women in northern Mexico. Three hundred pregnant women attending prenatal consultations in a public hospital in Durango City, Mexico submitted a validated EPDS and were examined for mental disorders other than depression using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - 4th Ed. (DSM-IV) criteria. Sensitivity and specificity of cut-off points of the EPDS, and positive and negative predictive values were calculated. Of the 300 pregnant women studied, 21 had mental disorders other than depression by the DSM-IV criteria. The best EPDS score for screening mental disorders other than depression was 8/9. This threshold showed a sensitivity of 52.4%, a specificity of 67.0%, a positive predictive value of 11.5%, a negative predictive value of 95.4%, and an area under the curve of 0.643 (95% confidence interval: 0.52-0.76). The EPDS can be considered for screening mental disorders other than depression in Mexican pregnant women whenever a cut-off score of 8/9 is used. However, the tool showed small power to separate pregnant women with and without mental disorders other than depression. PMID:27403273

  19. Detection of Mental Disorders Other Than Depression with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale in a Sample of Pregnant Women in Northern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sifuentes-Alvarez, Antonio; Salas-Martinez, Carlos

    2016-05-18

    We sought to evaluate the capacity of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) in discriminating mental disorders other than depression in pregnant women in northern Mexico. Three hundred pregnant women attending prenatal consultations in a public hospital in Durango City, Mexico submitted a validated EPDS and were examined for mental disorders other than depression using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - 4(th) Ed. (DSM-IV) criteria. Sensitivity and specificity of cut-off points of the EPDS, and positive and negative predictive values were calculated. Of the 300 pregnant women studied, 21 had mental disorders other than depression by the DSM-IV criteria. The best EPDS score for screening mental disorders other than depression was 8/9. This threshold showed a sensitivity of 52.4%, a specificity of 67.0%, a positive predictive value of 11.5%, a negative predictive value of 95.4%, and an area under the curve of 0.643 (95% confidence interval: 0.52-0.76). The EPDS can be considered for screening mental disorders other than depression in Mexican pregnant women whenever a cut-off score of 8/9 is used. However, the tool showed small power to separate pregnant women with and without mental disorders other than depression.

  20. "Barriers to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Homework Completion Scale- Depression Version": Development and Psychometric Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Callan, Judith A; Dunbar-Jacob, Jacqueline; Sereika, Susan M; Stone, Clement; Fasiczka, Amy; Jarrett, Robin B; Thase, Michael E

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a two-phase study to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of an instrument to identify barriers to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) homework completion in a depressed sample. In Phase I, we developed an item pool by interviewing 20 depressed patients and 20 CBT therapists. In Phase II, we created and administered a draft instrument to 56 people with depression. Exploratory Factor Analysis revealed a 2-factor oblique solution of "Patient Factors" and "Therapy/Task Factors." Internal consistency coefficients ranged from .80 to .95. Temporal stability was demonstrated through Pearson correlations of .72 (for the therapist/task subscale) to .95 (for the patient subscale) over periods of time that ranged from 2 days to 3 weeks. The patient subscale was able to satisfactorily classify patients (75 to 79 %) with low and high adherence at both sessions. Specificity was .66 at both time points. Sensitivity was .80 at sessions B and .77 at session C. There were no consistent predictors of assignment compliance when measured by the Assignment Compliance Rating Scale (Primakoff, Epstein, & Covi, 1986). The Rating Scale and subscale scores did, however, correlate significantly with assignment non-compliance (.32 to .46).

  1. Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale: Factor Structure, Internal Consistency and Convergent Validity in Patients with Dizziness.

    PubMed

    Piker, Erin G; Kaylie, David M; Garrison, Douglas; Tucci, Debara L

    2015-01-01

    Psychiatric comorbidities, particularly anxiety-related pathologies, are often observed in dizzy patients. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) is a widely used self-report instrument used to screen for anxiety and depression in medical outpatient settings. The purpose of this study was to assess the factor structure, internal consistency and convergent validity of the HADS in an unselected group of patients with dizziness. The HADS and the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) were administered to 205 dizzy patients. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted and indicated a 3-factor structure, inconsistent with the 2-subscale structure (i.e. anxiety and depression) of the HADS. The total scale was found to be internally consistent, and convergent validity, as assessed using the DHI, was acceptable. Overall findings suggest that the HADS should not be used as a tool for psychiatric differential diagnosis, but rather as a helpful screener for general psychiatric distress in the two domains of psychiatric illness most germane in dizzy patients.

  2. Cross-cultural validation of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kui; Shi, Hai-Song; Geng, Fu-Lei; Zou, Lai-Quan; Tan, Shu-Ping; Wang, Yi; Neumann, David L; Shum, David H K; Chan, Raymond C K

    2016-05-01

    The gap between the demand and delivery of mental health services in mainland China can be reduced by validating freely available and psychometrically sound psychological instruments. The present research examined the Chinese version of the 21-item Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21). Study 1 administered the DASS-21 to 1,815 Chinese college students and found internal consistency indices (Cronbach's alpha) of .83, .80, and .82 for the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress subscales, respectively, and .92 for the total DASS total. Test-retest reliability over a 6-month interval was .39 to .46 for each of the 3 subscales and .46 for the total DASS. Moderate convergent validity of the Depression and Anxiety subscales was demonstrated via significant correlations with the Chinese Beck Depression Inventory (r = .51 at Time 1 and r = .64 at Time 2) and the Chinese State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (r = .41), respectively. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the original 3-factor model with 1 minor change (nonnormed fit index [NNFI] = .964, comparative fit index [CFI] = .968, and root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA] = .079). Study 2 examined the clinical utility of the Chinese DASS-21 in 166 patients with schizophrenia and 90 matched healthy controls. Patients had higher Depression and Anxiety but not Stress subscale scores than healthy controls. A discriminant function composed of the linear combination of 3 subscale scores correctly discriminated 69.92% of participants, which again supported the potential clinical utility of the DASS in mainland China. Taken together, findings in these studies support the cross-cultural validity of the DASS-21 in China. (PsycINFO Database Record

  3. Using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale for women and men-some cautionary thoughts.

    PubMed

    Matthey, Stephen; Agostini, Francesca

    2017-04-01

    The objective of the study was to critically consider some of the possible limitations in the Edinburgh Depression Scale (EDS), given that great emphasis is put on the results of this measure within both clinical and research fields. Using findings and discussion points from other studies, as well as from a critical analysis of issues by the authors based upon their clinical and research experience, possible limitations with the scale in nine areas are discussed. Possible limitations include the following: (1) ambiguous items, (2) exclusion of certain types of distress, (3) scoring difficulties, (4) low positive predictive value, (5) frequent use of incorrect cut-off scores, (6) a vast array of validated cut-off scores, (7) validation against a questionable gold-standard, (8) limited anxiety detection and of depressive symptoms in men, and (9) many screen positive women only have transient distress. While the EDS has unquestionably been an extremely valuable instrument in aiding in the recognition of the importance of perinatal mental health, users of the scale should be aware that it, like other measures, has limitations. We discuss possible strategies to overcome these limitations and describe a recent scale that has been developed to surmount these shortcomings more effectively.

  4. The factor structure of the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia among probable Alzheimer's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Harwood, D G; Ownby, R L; Barker, W W; Duara, R

    1998-01-01

    The authors rated 137 outpatients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) on the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD) as part of routine evaluation. Principal-factors analysis with varimax rotation resulted in a four-factor solution that accounted for 43.1% of the common variance. The four factors included general depression (lack of reactivity to pleasant events, poor self-esteem, pessimism, loss of interest, physical complaints, psychomotor retardation, sadness); rhythm disturbances (difficulty falling asleep, multiple night awakenings, early morning awakenings, weight loss, diurnal variation of mood); agitation/psychosis (agitation, mood-congruent delusions, suicide); and negative symptoms (appetite loss, weight loss, lack of energy, loss of interest, lack of reactivity to pleasant events). The observed factor structure showed moderate concordance with the five symptom clusters proposed in the original presentation of the CSDD.

  5. The Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS): detecting anxiety disorder and depression in employees absent from work because of mental health problems

    PubMed Central

    Nieuwenhuijsen, K; de Boer, A G E M; Verbeek, J; Blonk, R; van Dijk, F J H

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To (1) evaluate the psychometric properties and (2) examine the ability to detect cases with anxiety disorder and depression in a population of employees absent from work because of mental health problems. Methods: Internal consistency, construct validity, and criterion validity of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) were assessed. Furthermore, the ability to identify anxiety disorders or depression was evaluated by calculating posterior probabilities of these disorders following positive and negative test results for different cut off scores of the DASS-Depression and DASS-Anxiety subscales. Results: Internal consistency of the DASS subscales was high, with Cronbach's alphas of 0.94, 0.88, and 0.93 for depression, anxiety, and stress respectively. Factor analysis revealed a three factor solution, which corresponded well with the three subscales of the DASS. Construct validity was further supported by moderately high correlations of the DASS with indices of convergent validity (0.65 and 0.75), and lower correlations of the DASS with indices of divergent validity (range -0.22 to 0.07). Support for criterion validity was provided by a statistically significant difference in DASS scores between two diagnostic groups. A cut off score of 5 for anxiety and 12 for depression is recommended. The DASS showed probabilities of anxiety and depression after a negative test result of 0.05 and 0.06 respectively. Probabilities of 0.29 for anxiety disorder and 0.33 for depression after a positive test result reflect relatively low specificity of the DASS. Conclusion: The psychometric properties of the DASS are suitable for use in an occupational health care setting. The DASS can be helpful in ruling out anxiety disorder and depression in employees with mental health problems. PMID:12782751

  6. Do Somatic Symptoms Predict the Severity of Depression? A Validation Study of the Korean Version of the Depression and Somatic Symptoms Scale

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at exploring the psychometric characteristics of the Korean Version of the Depression and Somatic Symptoms Scale (DSSS) in a clinical sample, and investigating the impact of somatic symptoms on the severity of depression. Participants were 203 consecutive outpatients with current major depressive disorders (MDD) or lifetime diagnosis of MDD. The DSSS was compared with the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and the 17-items Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD). The DSSS showed a two-factor structure that accounted for 56.8% of the variance, as well as excellent internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.95), concurrent validity (r = 0.44–0.82), and temporal stability (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.79). The DSSS had a high ability to identify patients in non-remission (area under receiver operating characteristic [ROC] curve = 0.887). Maximal discrimination between remission and non-full remission was obtained at a cut-off score of 22 (sensitivity = 82.1%, specificity = 81.4%). The number of somatic symptoms (the range of somatic symptoms) and the scores on the somatic subscale (SS, the severity of somatic symptoms) in non-remission patients were greater than those in remission patients. The number of somatic symptoms (slope = 0.148) and the SS score (slope = 0.472) were confirmed as excellent predictors of the depression severity as indicated by the MADRS scores. The findings indicate that the DSSS is a useful tool for simultaneously, rapidly, and accurately measuring depression and somatic symptoms in clinical practice settings and in consultation fields. PMID:27822942

  7. Psychometric Evaluation of Chinese-Language 44-Item and 10-Item Big Five Personality Inventories, Including Correlations with Chronotype, Mindfulness and Mind Wandering

    PubMed Central

    Carciofo, Richard; Yang, Jiaoyan; Song, Nan; Du, Feng; Zhang, Kan

    2016-01-01

    The 44-item and 10-item Big Five Inventory (BFI) personality scales are widely used, but there is a lack of psychometric data for Chinese versions. Eight surveys (total N = 2,496, aged 18–82), assessed a Chinese-language BFI-44 and/or an independently translated Chinese-language BFI-10. Most BFI-44 items loaded strongly or predominantly on the expected dimension, and values of Cronbach's alpha ranged .698-.807. Test-retest coefficients ranged .694-.770 (BFI-44), and .515-.873 (BFI-10). The BFI-44 and BFI-10 showed good convergent and discriminant correlations, and expected associations with gender (females higher for agreeableness and neuroticism), and age (older age associated with more conscientiousness and agreeableness, and also less neuroticism and openness). Additionally, predicted correlations were found with chronotype (morningness positive with conscientiousness), mindfulness (negative with neuroticism, positive with conscientiousness), and mind wandering/daydreaming frequency (negative with conscientiousness, positive with neuroticism). Exploratory analysis found that the Self-discipline facet of conscientiousness positively correlated with morningness and mindfulness, and negatively correlated with mind wandering/daydreaming frequency. Furthermore, Self-discipline was found to be a mediator in the relationships between chronotype and mindfulness, and chronotype and mind wandering/daydreaming frequency. Overall, the results support the utility of the BFI-44 and BFI-10 for Chinese-language big five personality research. PMID:26918618

  8. Psychometric Evaluation of Chinese-Language 44-Item and 10-Item Big Five Personality Inventories, Including Correlations with Chronotype, Mindfulness and Mind Wandering.

    PubMed

    Carciofo, Richard; Yang, Jiaoyan; Song, Nan; Du, Feng; Zhang, Kan

    2016-01-01

    The 44-item and 10-item Big Five Inventory (BFI) personality scales are widely used, but there is a lack of psychometric data for Chinese versions. Eight surveys (total N = 2,496, aged 18-82), assessed a Chinese-language BFI-44 and/or an independently translated Chinese-language BFI-10. Most BFI-44 items loaded strongly or predominantly on the expected dimension, and values of Cronbach's alpha ranged .698-.807. Test-retest coefficients ranged .694-.770 (BFI-44), and .515-.873 (BFI-10). The BFI-44 and BFI-10 showed good convergent and discriminant correlations, and expected associations with gender (females higher for agreeableness and neuroticism), and age (older age associated with more conscientiousness and agreeableness, and also less neuroticism and openness). Additionally, predicted correlations were found with chronotype (morningness positive with conscientiousness), mindfulness (negative with neuroticism, positive with conscientiousness), and mind wandering/daydreaming frequency (negative with conscientiousness, positive with neuroticism). Exploratory analysis found that the Self-discipline facet of conscientiousness positively correlated with morningness and mindfulness, and negatively correlated with mind wandering/daydreaming frequency. Furthermore, Self-discipline was found to be a mediator in the relationships between chronotype and mindfulness, and chronotype and mind wandering/daydreaming frequency. Overall, the results support the utility of the BFI-44 and BFI-10 for Chinese-language big five personality research.

  9. Psychometric Properties of the Beck Scale for Depression (Beck Depression Inventory BDI-II)--A Study on a Sample of Students in the State of Kuwait Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahem, Ahmed Mohammed Faleh

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to identify the psychometric properties of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) the Arabized version by Gharib (2000); the study sample consisted of 500 male and female students from the Kuwaiti universities by 250 males and 250 females on whom the BDI-II scale was applied twice; the psychometric characteristics such as the…

  10. Creation and Validation of the Cognitive and Behavioral Response to Stress Scale in a Depression Trial

    PubMed Central

    Miner, Adam S.; Schueller, Stephen M.; Lattie, Emily G.; Mohr, David C.

    2015-01-01

    The Cognitive and Behavioral Response to Stress Scale (CB-RSS) is a self-report measure of the use and helpfulness of several cognitive and behavioral skills. Unlike other measures that focus on language specific to terms used in therapy, the CB-RSS was intended to tap the strategies in ways that might be understandable to those who had not undergone therapy. The measure was included in a clinical trial of cognitive-behavioral therapy for depression and completed by 325 participants at baseline and end of treatment (18 weeks). Psychometric properties of the scale were assessed through iterative exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. These analyses identified two subscales, cognitive and behavioral skills, each with high reliability. Validity was addressed by investigating relationships with depression symptoms, positive affect, perceived stress, and coping self-efficacy. End of treatment scores predicted changes in all outcomes, with the largest relationships between baseline CB-RSS scales and coping self-efficacy. These findings suggest that the CB-RSS is a useful tool to measure cognitive and behavioral skills both at baseline (prior to treatment) as well as during the course of treatment. Keywords: Development, Validation, Telehealth PMID:26553147

  11. MMS observations of kinetic-scale structure in a magnetic depression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gershman, D. J.; Dorelli, J.; Vinas, A. F.; Avanov, L. A.; Gliese, U.; Barrie, A.; Coffey, V. N.; Chandler, M. O.; Dickson, C.; MacDonald, E.; Salo, C.; Holland, M. P.; Saito, Y.; Chen, L. J.; Goodrich, K.; Plaschke, F.; Russell, C. T.; Strangeway, R. J.; Torbert, R. B.; Giles, B. L.; Pollock, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Fast Plasma Investigation (FPI) on NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) spacecraft enables measurement of full three-dimensional velocity distributions of both ions and electrons with an order of magnitude increased temporal resolution over previous magnetospheric instruments. Such high resolution is suitable for resolving dynamics that occur at ion and electron scales throughout Earth's magnetosphere, in particular in the plasma sheet where low magnetic field magnitudes result in larger particle gyroradii and gyroperiods. Here we present initial data from FPI's Dual Electron and Dual Ion Spectrometers taken in Earth's nightside plasma sheet during MMS commissioning. Near the central current sheet, we observe a sub-proton-scale magnetic depression (i.e., 'magnetic hole') containing distinct signatures in the electron data that appear non-gyrotropic in the spacecraft frame of reference. These structures may provide key insights into the small-scale dissipation of energy injected into the magnetosphere via magnetic reconnection in the tail. We will present a detailed examination of the velocity distribution functions of both ions and electrons during this time period and compare with expectations from current theoretical models of magnetic depressions. Although plasma data was only available on a single MMS spacecraft during these events, we are able to leverage Fields data on all four MMS observatories to provide valuable context for the spatial and temporal variation of this magnetic structure.

  12. The Self-Stigma of Depression Scale: Translation and Validation of the Arabic Version

    PubMed Central

    Darraj, Hussain Ahmed; Mahfouz, Mohamed Salih; Al Sanosi, Rashad Mohamed; Badedi, Mohammed; Sabai, Abdullah

    2017-01-01

    Background: Self-stigma may feature strongly and be detrimental for people with depression, but the understanding of its nature and prevalence is limited by the lack of psychometrically validated measures. This study is aimed to validate the Arabic version self-stigma of depression scale (SSDS) among adolescents. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study involved 100 adolescents randomly selected. The analyses include face validation, factor analysis, and reliability testing. A test–retest was conducted within a 2-week interval. Results: The mean score for self-stigma of depression among study participants was 68.9 (Standard deviation = 8.76) median equal to 71 and range was 47. Descriptive analysis showed that the percentage of those who scored below the mean score (41.7%) is shown less than those who scored above the mean score (58.3%). Preliminary construct validation analysis confirmed that factor analysis was appropriate for the Arabic-translated version of the SSDS. Furthermore, the factor analysis showed similar factor loadings to the original English version. The total internal consistency of the translated version, which was measured by Cronbach's alphas ranged from 0.70 to 0.77 for the four subscales and 0.84 for the total scale. Test–retest reliability was assessed in 65 respondents after 2 weeks. Cronbach's alphas ranged from 0.70 to 0.77 for the four subscales and 0.84 for the total scale. Conclusions: Face validity, construct validity, and reliability analysis were found satisfactory for the Arabic-translated version of the SSDS. The Arabic-translated version of the SSDS was found valid and reliable to be used in future studies, with comparable properties to the original version and to previous studies. PMID:28149090

  13. Patients’ perspectives on the use of the Montgomery-Asberg depression rating scale self-assessment version in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Wikberg, Carl; Pettersson, Agneta; Westman, Jeanette; Björkelund, Cecilia; Petersson, Eva-Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of the current study was to better understand how patients with depression perceive the use of MADRS-S in primary care consultations with GPs. Design Qualitative study. Focus group discussion and analysis through Systematic Text Condensation. Setting Primary Health Care, Region Västra Götaland, Sweden. Subjects Nine patients with mild/moderate depression who participated in a RCT evaluating the effects of regular use of the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Self-assessment scale (MADRS-S) during the GP consultations. Main Outcome measure Patients’ experiences and perceptions of the use of MADRS-S in primary care. Results Three categories emerged from the analysis: (I) confirmation; MADRS-S shows that I have depression and how serious it is, (II) centeredness; the most important thing is for the GP to listen to and take me seriously and (III) clarification; MADRS-S helps me understand why I need treatment for depression. Conclusion Use of MADRS-S was perceived as a confirmation for the patients that they had depression and how serious it was. MADRS-S showed the patients something black on white that describes and confirms the diagnosis. The informants emphasized the importance of patient-centeredness; of being listened to and to be taken seriously during the consultation. Use of self-assessment scales such as MADRS-S could find its place, but needs to adjust to the multifaceted environment that primary care provides. Key Points Patients with depression in primary care perceive that the use of a self-assessment scale in the consultation purposefully can contribute in several ways. The scale contributes to Confirmation: MADRS-S shows that I have depression and how serious it is. Centeredness: The most important thing is for the GP to listen to and take me seriously. Clarification: MADRS-S helps me understand why I need treatment for depression. PMID:27804312

  14. Factor structure and reliability of the depression, anxiety and stress scales in a large Portuguese community sample.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos-Raposo, José; Fernandes, Helder Miguel; Teixeira, Carla M

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the factor structure and reliability of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS-21) in a large Portuguese community sample. Participants were 1020 adults (585 women and 435 men), with a mean age of 36.74 (SD = 11.90) years. All scales revealed good reliability, with Cronbach's alpha values between .80 (anxiety) and .84 (depression). The internal consistency of the total score was .92. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the best-fitting model (*CFI = .940, *RMSEA = .038) consisted of a latent component of general psychological distress (or negative affectivity) plus orthogonal depression, anxiety and stress factors. The Portuguese version of the DASS-21 showed good psychometric properties (factorial validity and reliability) and thus can be used as a reliable and valid instrument for measuring depression, anxiety and stress symptoms.

  15. Psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the Depressive Cognition Scale in Brazilian adults with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Valmi D; Zanetti, Maria L; Zauszniewski, Jaclene A; Mendes, Isabel A C; Daguano, Michelle O

    2008-01-01

    Identifying depressive cognitions in Brazilians with diabetes can be important step to prevent the development of clinical depression, which is negatively associated with diabetes self-management. This study focused on the psychometric testing of the Portuguese version of the Depressive Cognition Scale, the Escala Cognitiva de Depressão (ECD), among 82 Brazilian adults with diabetes mellitus. The questionnaire was assessed for internal consistency, homogeneity, and construct validity using factor analysis and convergent validity assessment with the Portuguese version of the Beck Depression Inventory, the Inventário de Depressão Beck (IDB). Cronbach's alpha for the ECD was .88. The homogeneity of the instrument was supported by item-to-total correlations between .30 and .70. Factor extraction generated only one factor with eigenvalues greater than 1, which is consistent with the English version. The ECD's total score had a weak but significant correlation with the IDB's total score (r = .24, p < .05), indicating convergent validity. Evidence for the reliability and construct validity of the ECD was provided by this study. This scale has the potential to become a useful screening tool for depressive cognitions among Brazilians with diabetes.

  16. Retesting the validity of the Arabic version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) scale in primary health care.

    PubMed

    el-Rufaie, O E; Absood, G H

    1995-01-01

    The Arabic version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) scale was retested and cut-off points determined in a sample of 217 patients attending a primary health care centre in Al Ain, United Arab Emirates (U.A.E.). Subjects were screened using the HAD scale and all patients were then interviewed by a single consultant psychiatrist. The scale scores were assessed against the psychiatrist's clinical evaluations. The study furnished evidence that the Arabic version of the HAD scale is a valid instrument for detecting anxiety and depressive disorders in primary health care settings. Spearman rank correlations of all items of the scale were significantly above zero. The butterflies item of the anxiety subscale had the lowest correlation coefficients. The overall Cronbach alpha measures of internal consistency were 0.7836 and 0.8760 for anxiety and depression, respectively. The cut-off points that produced a balanced combination of sensitivity and specificity appropriate for referral to a psychiatric facility by the general practitioner were 6/7 for anxiety and 3/4 for depression. Almost all other similar studies have determined a single cut-off point for both subscales of the HAD. This study also indicated that the HAD depression subscale is more consistent and more predictive than the HAD anxiety subscale. Moreover some of the problems arising from applying psychiatric research instruments across cultures are highlighted by this study.

  17. The impact of education, country, race and ethnicity on the self-report of postpartum depression using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale

    PubMed Central

    Di Florio, A.; Putnam, K.; Altemus, M.; Apter, G.; Bergink, V.; Bilszta, J.; Brock, R.; Buist, A.; Deligiannidis, K. M.; Devouche, E.; Epperson, C. N.; Guille, C.; Kim, D.; Lichtenstein, P.; Magnusson, P. K. E.; Martinez, P.; Munk-Olsen, T.; Newport, J.; Payne, J.; Penninx, B. W.; O’Hara, M.; Robertson-Blackmore, E.; Roza, S. J.; Sharkey, K. M.; Stuart, S.; Tiemeier, H.; Viktorin, A.; Schmidt, P. J.; Sullivan, P. F.; Stowe, Z. N.; Wisner, K. L.; Jones, I.; Rubinow, D. R.; Meltzer-Brody, S.

    2017-01-01

    Background Universal screening for postpartum depression is recommended in many countries. Knowledge of whether the disclosure of depressive symptoms in the postpartum period differs across cultures could improve detection and provide new insights into the pathogenesis. Moreover, it is a necessary step to evaluate the universal use of screening instruments in research and clinical practice. In the current study we sought to assess whether the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), the most widely used screening tool for postpartum depression, measures the same underlying construct across cultural groups in a large international dataset. Method Ordinal regression and measurement invariance were used to explore the association between culture, operationalized as education, ethnicity/race and continent, and endorsement of depressive symptoms using the EPDS on 8209 new mothers from Europe and the USA. Results Education, but not ethnicity/race, influenced the reporting of postpartum depression [difference between robust comparative fit indexes (Δ*CFI) < 0.01]. The structure of EPDS responses significantly differed between Europe and the USA (Δ*CFI > 0.01), but not between European countries (Δ*CFI < 0.01). Conclusions Investigators and clinicians should be aware of the potential differences in expression of phenotype of postpartum depression that women of different educational backgrounds may manifest. The increasing cultural heterogeneity of societies together with the tendency towards globalization requires a culturally sensitive approach to patients, research and policies, that takes into account, beyond rhetoric, the context of a person’s experiences and the context in which the research is conducted. PMID:27866476

  18. Lessons from scaling up a depression treatment program in primary care in Chile.

    PubMed

    Araya, Ricardo; Alvarado, Rubén; Sepúlveda, Rodrigo; Rojas, Graciela

    2012-09-01

    In Chile, the National Depression Detection and Treatment Program (Programa Nacional de Diagnóstico y Tratamiento de la Depresión, PNDTD) in primary care is a rare example of an evidence-based mental health program that was scaled up to the national level in a low- or middle-income country. This retrospective qualitative study aimed to better understand how policymakers made the decision to scale up mental health services to the national level, and to explore the elements, contexts, and processes that facilitated the decision to implement and sustain PNDTD. In-depth semistructured interviews with six key informants selected through intentional sampling were conducted in August-December 2008. Interviewees were senior officers at the Ministry of Health who were directly involved in the decision to scale up the program. Results yielded four elements pivotal to the decisionmaking process: scientific evidence, teamwork and leadership, strategic alliances, and program institutionalization. Each element contributed to building consensus, securing funding, attracting resources, and gaining lasting support from policymakers. Additionally, a review of available documentation led the authors to consider sociopolitical context and use of the media to be important factors. While research evidence for the effectiveness of mental health services in the primary care setting continues to accumulate, low- and middle-income countries should get started on the lengthy process of scaling up by incorporating the elements that led to decisionmaking and implementation of the PNDTD in Chile.

  19. Urdu translation of the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression: Results of a validation study

    PubMed Central

    Hashmi, Ali M.; Naz, Shahana; Asif, Aftab; Khawaja, Imran S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To develop a standardized validated version of the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) in Urdu. Methods: After translation of the HAM-D into the Urdu language following standard guidelines, the final Urdu version (HAM-D-U) was administered to 160 depressed outpatients. Inter-item correlation was assessed by calculating Cronbach alpha. Correlation between HAM-D-U scores at baseline and after a 2-week interval was evaluated for test-retest reliability. Moreover, scores of two clinicians on HAM-D-U were compared for inter-rater reliability. For establishing concurrent validity, scores of HAM-D-U and BDI-U were compared by using Spearman correlation coefficient. The study was conducted at Mayo Hospital, Lahore, from May to December 2014. Results: The Cronbach alpha for HAM-D-U was 0.71. Composite scores for HAM-D-U at baseline and after a 2-week interval were also highly correlated with each other (Spearman correlation coefficient 0.83, p-value < 0.01) indicating good test-retest reliability. Composite scores for HAM-D-U and BDI-U were positively correlated with each other (Spearman correlation coefficient 0.85, p < 0.01) indicating good concurrent validity. Scores of two clinicians for HAM-D-U were also positively correlated (Spearman correlation coefficient 0.82, p-value < 0.01) indicated good inter-rater reliability. Conclusion: The HAM-D-U is a valid and reliable instrument for the assessment of Depression. It shows good inter-rater and test-retest reliability. The HAM-D-U can be a tool either for clinical management or research. PMID:28083049

  20. Clinical utility of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) for an outpatient fibromyalgia education program.

    PubMed

    Nam, Seungree; Tin, Diane; Bain, Lorna; Thorne, J Carter; Ginsburg, Liane

    2014-05-01

    This paper examines the clinical utility of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) in the context of evaluating the Fibromyalgia Outpatient Education Program at Southlake Regional Health Centre (Newmarket, Canada). A pre-test/post-test design was implemented for data analysis. A total of 232 patients' data were obtained through retrospective patient chart review. Complete pre-post data were available for 70 patients and qualitative analysis was done for 12 patients. Main outcome measures included HADS and Arthritis Self-Efficacy (ASE) scores. At the end of the education program, subgroups of patients (high attendance, high exercise habit, low medication) experienced significant improvement on HADS-depression and ASE scores. Linear regression analysis found that HADS pre-program scores explain far more variance in HADS post-test scores than ASE pre-program scores explain in ASE post-program scores; more variance in ASE post-program scores was explained by other variables. In contrast to the quantitative analysis of the Anxiety subscale of HADS, patients in the focus group indicated that their anxiety level decreased through attending the education program. These findings suggest that HADS is an appropriate tool for evaluating fibromyalgia and related patient education programs. Moreover, patient education programs have positive effects on enhancing patients' psychological well-being and self-confidence in controlling fibromyalgia-related symptoms.

  1. Dietary lipids and geriatric depression scale score among elders: the EPIC-Greece cohort.

    PubMed

    Kyrozis, A; Psaltopoulou, T; Stathopoulos, P; Trichopoulos, D; Vassilopoulos, D; Trichopoulou, A

    2009-05-01

    In a prospective epidemiological investigation aiming to identify dietary lipids potentially associated with affective state and depression, 610 healthy men and women aged 60 years or older, participating in the EPIC-Greece cohort and residing in the Attika region had dietary, sociodemographic, anthropometric, medical and lifestyle variables ascertained at enrollment. Six to 13 years later, affective state was evaluated through the 15-point geriatric depression scale (GDS) score along with cognitive function and medical variables. In multivariate linear regression analysis, while adjusting for potential confounders, GDS score was negatively associated with dietary intake of monounsaturated lipids (MUFA) and their main source, olive oil, and positively associated with intake of polyunsaturated lipids (PUFA) and one of their principal sources, seed oils. Intake of calories, total lipids, fish and seafood or saturated lipids did not exhibit significant association with GDS. Potential non-linearities were assessed by quantile multivariate regression analysis: The median GDS score was positively associated with PUFA and seed oils intake, while other lipid groups showed no appreciable associations. The 90th percentile of the GDS score (towards the high end) exhibited significant negative associations with MUFA and olive oil, weaker positive associations with PUFA and seed oils and no appreciable association with other lipid group dietary intakes. We conclude that among Attika elders, lower intake of seed oils and higher intake of olive oil prospectively predict a healthier affective state. Olive oil intake, in particular, predicts a lower chance of scoring in the highest part of the GDS.

  2. Psychometric Limitations of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale for Assessing Depressive Symptoms among Adults with HIV/AIDS: A Rasch Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kottorp, Anders; Lee, Kathryn A.

    2016-01-01

    The Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale is a widely used measure of depressive symptoms, but its psychometric properties have not been adequately evaluated among adults with HIV/AIDS. This study used an item response theory approach (Rasch analysis) to evaluate the CES-D's validity and reliability in relation to key demographic and clinical variables in adults with HIV/AIDS. A convenience sample of 347 adults with HIV/AIDS (231 males, 93 females, and 23 transgenders; age range 22–77 years) completed the CES-D. A Rasch model application was used to analyze the CES-D's rating scale functioning, internal scale validity, person-response validity, person-separation validity, internal consistency, differential item functioning (DIF), and differential test functioning. CES-D scores were generally high and associated with several demographic and clinical variables. The CES-D distinguished 3 distinct levels of depression and had acceptable internal consistency but lacked unidimensionality, five items demonstrated poor fit to the model, 15% of the respondents demonstrated poor fit, and eight items demonstrated DIF related to gender, race, or AIDS diagnosis. Removal of misfitting items resulted in minimal improvement in the CES-D's substantive and structural validity. CES-D scores should be interpreted with caution in adults with HIV/AIDS, particularly when comparing scores across gender and racial groups. PMID:27042347

  3. Testing a tripartite model: I. Evaluating the convergent and discriminant validity of anxiety and depression symptom scales.

    PubMed

    Watson, D; Weber, K; Assenheimer, J S; Clark, L A; Strauss, M E; McCormick, R A

    1995-02-01

    L.A. Clark and D. Watson (1991) proposed a tripartite model that groups symptoms of depression and anxiety into 3 subtypes: symptoms of general distress that are largely nonspecific, manifestations of somatic tension and arousal that are relatively unique to anxiety, and symptoms of anhedonia and low Positive Affect that are specific to depression. This model was tested in 5 samples (3 student, 1 adult, and 1 patient sample) using the Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire (MASQ; D. Watson & L. A. Clark, 1991), which was designed to assess the hypothesized symptom groups, together with other symptom and cognition measures. Consistent with the tripartite model, the MASQ Anxious Arousal and Anhedonic Depression scales both differentiated anxiety and depression well and also showed excellent convergent validity. Thus, differentiation of these constructs can be improved by focusing on symptoms that are relatively unique to each.

  4. The Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale-Short Version: Scale Reduction via Exploratory Bifactor Modeling of the Broad Anxiety Factor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebesutani, Chad; Reise, Steven P.; Chorpita, Bruce F.; Ale, Chelsea; Regan, Jennifer; Young, John; Higa-McMillan, Charmaine; Weisz, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Using a school-based (N = 1,060) and clinic-referred (N = 303) youth sample, the authors developed a 25-item shortened version of the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) using Schmid-Leiman exploratory bifactor analysis to reduce client burden and administration time and thus improve the transportability characteristics of this…

  5. The Short Version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21): Factor Structure in a Young Adolescent Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szabo, Marianna

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the factor structure of the short form of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21; Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995b) in a young adolescent sample. A group of 484 high school students ("Mean" age = 13.62 years, Min = 11.83, Max = 15.67 years, 52 % boys) completed the DASS-21. Several models were tested using Confirmatory Factor…

  6. The Consequences of Perfectionism Scale: Factorial Structure and Relationships with Perfectionism, Performance Perfectionism, Affect, and Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoeber, Joachim; Hoyle, Azina; Last, Freyja

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the Consequences of Perfectionism Scale (COPS) and its relationships with perfectionism, performance perfectionism, affect, and depressive symptoms in 202 university students using confirmatory factor analysis, correlations, and regression analyses. Results suggest that the COPS is a reliable and valid measure of positive…

  7. Depressive Symptoms and Resilience among Pregnant Adolescents: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Salazar-Pousada, Danny; Arroyo, Dalton; Hidalgo, Luis; Pérez-López, Faustino R.; Chedraui, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Background. Data regarding depression and resilience among adolescents is still lacking. Objective. To assess depressive symptoms and resilience among pregnant adolescents. Method. Depressive symptoms and resilience were assessed using two validated inventories, the 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression Scale (CESD-10) and the 14-item Wagnild and Young Resilience Scale (RS), respectively. A case-control approach was used to compare differences between adolescents and adults. Results. A total of 302 pregnant women were enrolled in the study, 151 assigned to each group. Overall, 56.6% of gravids presented total CESD-10 scores 10 or more indicating depressed mood. Despite this, total CESD-10 scores and depressed mood rate did not differ among studied groups. Adolescents did however display lower resilience reflected by lower total RS scores and a higher rate of scores below the calculated median (P < .05). Logistic regression analysis could not establish any risk factor for depressed mood among studied subjects; however, having an adolescent partner (OR, 2.0 CI 95% 1.06–4.0, P = .03) and a preterm delivery (OR, 3.0 CI 95% 1.43–6.55, P = .004) related to a higher risk for lower resilience. Conclusion. In light of the findings of the present study, programs oriented at giving adolescents support before, during, and after pregnancy should be encouraged. PMID:21461335

  8. A Measurement Invariance Examination of the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale in a Southern Sample: Differential Item Functioning between African American and Caucasian Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trent, Lindsay Rae; Buchanan, Erin; Ebesutani, Chad; Ale, Chelsea M.; Heiden, Laurie; Hight, Terry L.; Damon, John D.; Young, John

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale in a large sample of youth from the Southern United States. The authors aimed to determine (a) if the established six-factor Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale structure could be replicated in this Southern sample and (b) if scores were…

  9. Can a One-Item Mood Scale Do the Trick? Predicting Relapse over 5.5-Years in Recurrent Depression

    PubMed Central

    van Rijsbergen, Gerard D.; Bockting, Claudi L. H.; Berking, Matthias; Koeter, Maarten W. J.; Schene, Aart H.

    2012-01-01

    Background To examine whether a simple Visual Analogue Mood Scale (VAMS) is able to predict time to relapse over 5.5-years. Methodology/Principal Findings 187 remitted recurrently depressed out-patients were interviewed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I) and the 17-item Hamilton Depression rating scale (HAM-D) to verify remission status (HAM-D <10). All patients rated their current mood with the help of a Visual Analogue Mood Scale (VAMS) at baseline and at a follow-up assessment three months later. Relapse over 5.5-years was assessed by the SCID-I. Cox regression revealed that both the VAMS at baseline and three months later significantly predicted time to relapse over 5.5-years. Baseline VAMS even predicted time to relapse when the number of previous depressive episodes and HAM-D scores were controlled for. The baseline VAMS explained 6.3% of variance in time to relapse, comparable to the HAM-D interview. Conclusions/Significance Sad mood after remission appears to play a pivotal role in the course of depression. Since a simple VAMS predicted time to relapse, the VAMS might be an easy and time-effective way to monitor mood and risk of early relapse, and offers possibilities for daily monitoring using e-mail and SMS. Trial Registration International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Register Identifier: ISRCTN68246470. PMID:23056456

  10. The relationship between immigration and depression in South Africa: Evidence from the first South African National Income Dynamics Study

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, Andrew; Labys, Charlotte A.; Burns, Jonathan K.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have examined depression among immigrants in post-apartheid South Africa, and factors that strengthen the relationship between immigration and depression. The first wave of the National Income Dynamics Study was used to investigate links between immigration and depression (n=15,205). Depression symptoms were assessed using a 10-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale. Immigrants in South Africa had fewer depressive symptoms (CES-D ≥ 10) than locally-born participants (17.1% vs. 32.4%, F = 13.5, p<0.01). Multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression analyses found that among immigrant populations, younger age (adjusted OR=1.03, 95% CI = 1.01-1.05) and black African ethnicity (adjusted OR=3.72, 95% CI = 1.29-10.7) were associated with higher depression. Younger age was associated with lower depression among locally-born study participants (adjusted OR=0.98, 95% CI = 0.97-0.98). The varying relationship between certain demographic factors, depression and the different mental health challenges among these groups requires closer attention. PMID:24526432

  11. Validity of the definite and semidefinite questionnaire version of the Hamilton Depression Scale, the Hamilton Subscale and the Melancholia Scale. Part I.

    PubMed

    Bent-Hansen, Jesper; Bech, Per

    2011-02-01

    Instruments for self-rating in depression are available, but their psychometric properties have not been fully explored; discrepancies with clinician ratings have been identified. This study was longitudinal with 85 patients fulfilling the DSM-III-R diagnosis of Seasonal Affective Disorder. Self-reporting versions (definitely and semidefinitely anchored) corresponding to the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD), the Hamilton Subscale (HAM₆), and the Bech-Rafaelsen Melancholia Scale (MES) were compared to each other and the clinician-rated version. The unidimensional property of the sum score in each scale was tested by the item-response theory model ad modum Rasch. The scales were also tested for their sensitivity to discriminate between placebo and citalopram therapy. The sum scores and the sum score variances of the definite self-rating versions did not differ significantly from the sum scores of the corresponding observer scales at any of the five time points. The semidefinite scales significantly over-scored at all time points. The convergent validity between corresponding definite self-ratings and observer ratings was very high with correlations exceeding 0.90. Only item responses from the MES, the HAM₆, and their corresponding definite versions of the self-rating questionnaires DMQ and DHAM₆ were accepted by the Rasch analysis, and only these four valid scales discriminated significantly between the effect of citalopram and placebo treatment. Our results are limited to patients with moderate depression. Two new self-report scales with unparalleled construct validity, reliability, sensitivity, and convergent validity have been identified (DMQ and DHAM₆). We have also identified a crucial importance of format for the means and variances of self-rating scales. These findings are of high practical and scientific value.

  12. Measuring Positive Emotion With the Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire: Psychometric Properties of the Anhedonic Depression Scale.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Ashley D; Zinbarg, Richard E; Bobova, Lyuba; Mineka, Susan; Revelle, William; Prenoveau, Jason M; Craske, Michelle G

    2016-02-01

    Low positive emotion distinguishes depression from most types of anxiety. Formative work in this area employed the Anhedonic Depression scale from the Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire (MASQ-AD), and the MASQ-AD has since become a popular measure of positive emotion, often used independently of the full MASQ. However, two key assumptions about the MASQ-AD-that it should be represented by a total scale score, and that it measures time-variant experiences-have not been adequately tested. The present study factor analyzed MASQ-AD data collected annually over 3 years (n = 618, mean age = 17 years at baseline), and then decomposed its stable and unstable components. The results suggested the data were best represented by a hierarchical structure, and that less than one quarter of the variance in the general factor fluctuated over time. The implications for interpreting past findings from the MASQ-AD, and for conducting future research with the scale, are discussed.

  13. Une validation de la forme abrégée de l’Échelle de provisions sociales : l’ÉPS-10 items

    PubMed Central

    Caron, Jean

    2016-01-01

    L’Échelle de provisions sociales-10 items (ÉPS-10) est une version abrégée de l’Échelle de provisions sociales (Social Provisions Scale) (Cutrona et Russell, 1987) validée en langue française sur une population québécoise (Caron, 1996) et qui permet de mesurer la disponibilité du soutien social. L’ÉPS-10 conserve cinq des six sous-échelles de l’ÉPS (l’attachement ; l’intégration sociale ; la confirmation de sa valeur ; l’aide matérielle et l’orientation), le besoin de se sentir utile et nécessaire ayant été exclu, et ne garde que les items formulés positivement, soit deux items par dimension du soutien. L’article présente la validation de l’EPS-10 sur un échantillon représentatif de 2433 personnes provenant de la population générale du sud-ouest de Montréal. Elle a une forte validité concomitante avec l’Échelle originelle de 24 items (ÉPS). Tous ces items sont fortement corrélés au score total et sa consistance interne est excellente. Des analyses de corrélation entre les sous-échelles et le score global et une analyse factorielle indiquent que l’ÉPS-10 conserve sa validité de construit. L’ÉPS-10 explique 14,1 % de la variance de la détresse psychologique et 25,4 % de la variance de la qualité de vie et conserve un pouvoir prédictif équivalent à l’ÉPS à 24 items. L’ensemble des analyses suggère que l’ÉPS-10 est un instrument fiable et valide pour mesurer la disponibilité du soutien social avec un temps d’administration réduit de moitié. Il s’avère un excellent choix pour les enquêtes épidémiologiques. PMID:24337002

  14. Mediterranean Diet and Depressive Symptoms Among Older Adults Over Time

    PubMed Central

    Skarupski, K.A.; Tangney, C.C.; Li, H.; Evans, D.A.; Morris, M.C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine whether adherence to a Mediterranean-based dietary pattern is predictive of depressive symptoms among older adults. Design Generalized estimating equation models were used to test the association between a Mediterranean-based dietary pattern and depressive symptoms over time. Models were adjusted for age, sex, race, education, income, widowhood, antidepressant use, total calorie intake, body mass index, smoking, alcohol consumption, number of self-reported medical conditions, cognitive function, and physical disability. Setting Chicago, Illinois. Participants Community-dwelling participants (n=3502) of the Chicago Health and Aging Project aged 65+ years (59% African American) who had no evidence of depression at the baseline. Measurements Adherence to a Mediterranean-based dietary pattern was assessed by the MedDietScore. Dietary evaluation was performed with a food frequency questionnaire at baseline and related to incident depression as measured by the presence of four or more depressive symptoms from the 10-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale. Results Over an average follow-up of 7.2 years, greater adherence to a Mediterranean-based diet was associated with a reduced number of newly occurring depressive symptoms (parameter estimate = -0.002, standard error = 0.001; p = 0.04). The annual rate of developing depressive symptoms was 98.6% lower among persons in the highest tertile of a Mediterranean-based dietary pattern compared with persons in the lowest tertile group. Conclusion Our results support the hypothesis that adherence to a diet comprised of vegetables, fruits, whole grains, fish, and legumes may protect against the development of depressive symptoms in older age. PMID:23636545

  15. Lost in translation: staff and interpreters' experiences of the edinburgh postnatal depression scale with women from refugee backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Stapleton, Helen; Murphy, Rebecca; Kildea, Sue

    2013-09-01

    This paper explores the cross-cultural application of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the difficulties associated with administration to women from refugee backgrounds. Assessing women's comprehension of individual scale items identified problems associated with "Western" terminology and concepts. Re-interpretation of discrete items on the scale was often necessary, raising doubts about the objectivity and reliability of scores. Our findings call for a closer examination of the ethnocentric assumptions underpinning the EPDS items, and the need to incorporate a more diverse range of cross-cultural understandings into future iterations.

  16. Discriminant validity of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Beck Depression Inventory (II) and Beck Anxiety Inventory to confirmed clinical diagnosis of depression and anxiety in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Phan, Tina; Carter, Owen; Adams, Claire; Waterer, Grant; Chung, Li Ping; Hawkins, Maxine; Rudd, Cobie; Ziman, Mel; Strobel, Natalie

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the discriminant validity of commonly used depression and anxiety screening tools in order to determine the most suitable tool for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). COPD patients (n = 56) completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). These scores were compared to confirmed clinical diagnoses of depression and anxiety using the Mini Neuropsychiatric Interview. HADS depression subscale (HADS-D) sensitivity/specificity was 78/81%; BDI-II 89/77%; HADS anxiety subscale (HADS-A) 71/81%; and BAI 89/62%. HADS-D sensitivity/specificity was improved (100/83%) with the removal of Q4 'I feel as if I am slowed down' and adjusted cut-off (≥5). Removal of BDI-II Q21 'Loss of interest in sex' with adjusted cut-off ≥12 resulted in similar improvement (100/79%). No problematic items were identified for HADS-A or BAI. Previously reported low sensitivity/specificity of the HADS for COPD patients was not replicated. Furthermore, simple modifications of the HADS-D markedly improved sensitivity/specificity for depression.BDI-II, HADS-A and BAI produced acceptable sensitivity/specificity unmodified. Pending further research for COPD patients we recommend continued use of the HADS-A with standard cut-off (≥8) and removal of Q4 of the HADS-D with lower cut-off ≥5.

  17. Rasch Rating Scale Modeling of the Korean Version of the Beck Depression Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Sehee; Wong, Eunice C.

    2005-01-01

    The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) is one of the most frequently used instruments in the study of depression both within and outside of the United States. Though developed primarily with European American clinical populations, the BDI has been applied in nonclinical and non-Western samples. To determine whether such a practice is warranted, the…

  18. The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale in older community samples in Indonesia, North Korea, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, and Thailand.

    PubMed

    Mackinnon, A; McCallum, J; Andrews, G; Anderson, I

    1998-11-01

    Cultural differences in the reporting of depressive symptoms among older people were examined using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) scale in five Southeast Asian countries: Indonesia, Korea, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, and Thailand. Previous work in Asian samples--principally North American immigrants--suggested differential functioning of the CES-D. The four-factor solution established in the original studies of the CES-D was replicated for all countries using a confirmatory factor analytic approach. It was, however, demonstrated that little information was lost in considering full-scale scores rather than the four subscales separately. The behavior of the CES-D in older Asian populations was found to be comparable to results obtained in North American and European cultures. Significant somatization of depression in these Asian samples was not found. There appears to be a general factor measuring depressed mood across older populations. The results support the validity of comparing responses on the CES-D across cultures.

  19. A psychometric analysis of the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scales--parent version in a school sample.

    PubMed

    Ebesutani, Chad; Chorpita, Bruce F; Higa-McMillan, Charmaine K; Nakamura, Brad J; Regan, Jennifer; Lynch, Roxanna E

    2011-02-01

    The Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale-Parent Version (RCADS-P) is a parent-report questionnaire of youth anxiety and depression with scales corresponding to the DSM diagnoses of separation anxiety disorder, social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and major depressive disorder. The RCADS-P was recently developed and has previously demonstrated strong psychometric properties in a clinic-referred sample (Ebesutani et al., Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 38, 249-260, 2010b). The present study examined the psychometric properties of the RCADS-P in a school-based population. As completed by parents of 967 children and adolescents, the RCADS-P demonstrated high internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and good convergent/divergent validity, supporting the RCADS-P as a measure of internalizing problems specific to depression and five anxiety disorders in school samples. Normative data are also reported to allow for the derivation of T-scores to enhance clinicians' ability to make classification decisions using RCADS-P subscale scores.

  20. Exploring Associations between Problematic Internet Use, Depressive Symptoms and Sleep Disturbance among Southern Chinese Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yafei; Chen, Ying; Lu, Yaogui; Li, Liping

    2016-03-14

    The primary aim of this study was to examine associations between problematic Internet use, depression and sleep disturbance, and explore whether there were differential effects of problematic Internet use and depression on sleep disturbance. A total of 1772 adolescents who participated in the Shantou Adolescent Mental Health Survey were recruited in 2012 in Shantou, China. The Chinese version of the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) was used to evaluate the prevalence and severity of Internet addiction. The Chinese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), a 10-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD-10), and other socio-demographic measures were also completed. Multiple regression analysis was used to test the mediating effect of problematic Internet use and depression on sleep disturbance. Among the participants, 17.2% of adolescents met the criteria for problematic Internet use, 40.0% were also classified as suffering from sleep disturbance, and 54.4% of students had depressive symptoms. Problematic Internet use was significantly associated with depressive symptoms and sleep disturbance. The correlation between depressive symptoms and sleep disturbance was highly significant. Both problematic Internet use (β = 0.014; Sobel test Z = 12.7, p < 0.001) and depression (β = 0.232; Sobel test Z = 3.39, p < 0.001) had partially mediating effects on sleep disturbance and depression was of greater importance for sleep disturbance than problematic Internet use. There is a high prevalence of problematic Internet use, depression and sleep disturbance among high school students in southern China, and problematic Internet use and depressive symptoms are strongly associated with sleep disturbance. This study provides evidence that problematic Internet use and depression have partially mediating effects on sleep disturbance. These results are important for clinicians and policy makers with useful information for prevention and

  1. Structural ambiguity of the Chinese version of the hospital anxiety and depression scale in patients with coronary heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenru; Lopez, Violeta; Thompson, David; Martin, Colin R

    2006-01-01

    Background The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) is a widely used screening tool designed as a case detector for clinically relevant anxiety and depression. Recent studies of the HADS in coronary heart disease (CHD) patients in European countries suggest it comprises three, rather than two, underlying sub-scale dimensions. The factor structure of the Chinese version of the HADS was evaluated in patients with CHD in mainland China. Methods Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted on self-report HADS forms from 154 Chinese CHD patients. Results Little difference was observed in model fit between best performing three-factor and two-factor models. Conclusion The current observations are inconsistent with recent studies highlighting a dominant underlying tri-dimensional structure to the HADS in CHD patients. The Chinese version of the HADS may perform differently to European language versions of the instrument in patients with CHD. PMID:16438711

  2. Agreement for depression diagnosis between DSM-IV-TR criteria, three validated scales, oncologist assessment, and psychiatric clinical interview in elderly patients with advanced ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rhondali, Wadih; Freyer, Gilles; Adam, Virginie; Filbet, Marilène; Derzelle, Martine; Abgrall-Barbry, Gaelle; Bourcelot, Sophie; Machavoine, Jean-Louis; Chomat-Neyraud, Muriel; Gisserot, Olivier; Largillier, Rémi; Le Rol, Annick; Priou, Frank; Saltel, Pierre; Falandry, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Background Depression, a major outcome in cancer patients, is often evaluated by physicians relying on their clinical impressions rather than patient self-report. Our aim was to assess agreement between patient self-reported depression, oncologist assessment (OA), and psychiatric clinical interview (PCI) in elderly patients with advanced ovarian cancer (AOC). Methods This analysis was a secondary endpoint of the Elderly Women AOC Trial 3 (EWOT3), designed to assess the impact of geriatric covariates, notably depression, on survival in patients older than 70 years of age. Depression was assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale-30 (GDS), the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale, the distress thermometer, the mood thermometer, and OA. The interview guide for PCI was constructed from three validated scales: the GDS, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, revised (DSM) criteria for depression were used as a gold standard. Results Out of 109 patients enrolled at 21 centers, 99 (91%) completed all the assessments. Patient characteristics were: mean age 78, performance status ≥2: 47 (47%). Thirty six patients (36%) were identified as depressed by the PCI versus 15 (15%) identified by DSM. We found moderate agreement for depression identification between DSM and GDS (κ=0.508) and PCI (κ=0.431) and high agreement with MADRS (κ=0.663). We found low or no agreement between DSM with the other assessment strategies, including OA (κ=−0.043). Identification according to OA (yes/no) resulted in a false-negative rate of 87%. As a screening tool, GDS had the best sensitivity and specificity (94% and 80%, respectively). Conclusion The use of validated tools, such as GDS, and collaboration between psychologists and oncologists are warranted to better identify emotional disorders in elderly women with AOC. PMID:26203235

  3. Technical Report: Kindergarten Early Learning Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley-Ayers, Shannon; Jung, Kwanghee; Quinn, Jorie

    2014-01-01

    The Kindergarten Early Learning Scale (KELS) was developed as a concise observational assessment for young children. It examines three domains including (1) Math/Science, (2) Social Emotional/Social Studies, and (3) Language and Literacy, with a total of 10 items across the domains. Scores reported for each of the 10 items are based upon…

  4. [A comparative validation of the scale CES-D, BDI, and HADS(d) in diagnosis of depressive disorders in general practice].

    PubMed

    Andriushchenko, A V; Drobizhev, M Iu; Dobrovol'skiĭ, A V

    2003-01-01

    To determine a most precise instrument for diagnostics of depression and a level of its severity, a comparative study of 3 questionnaires: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (d) (HADS(d)), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CED-D) was conducted in 148 patients (91 women, 57 men), aged 46.5 +/- 9.34 years. An analysis of sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of positive and negative results allowed to detect optimal cut off points, distinguishing depressive patients, as follows: = 18 for CES-D, = 12 for BDI, = 0.89 for HADS(d). For all scales, areas under receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) curve (0.97 +/- 0.02, 0.96 +/- 0.02 and 0.94 +/- 0.02, respectively) proved to be comparable. The optimal cut off points for distinct separation between patients with mild and severe depression were detected as = 26 for CES-D, = 20 for BDI, = 10 for HADS(d). The area under ROC curve for CES-D was higher (0.99 +/- 0.01) than those for BDI (0.86 +/- 0.04) and for HADS(d) (0.83 +/- 0.05). The data obtained reveal that the cut off points ascertained in the study reduce a chance of depression under diagnosis. All the scales could be recommended to interns for primary (screening) diagnostics of depression in routine medical care.

  5. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale: Invariance across heterosexual men, heterosexual women, gay men, and lesbians.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Rapson; McLaren, Suzanne

    2017-04-01

    The present study examined measurement invariance of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) in community groups of Australian heterosexual men (N = 1106), heterosexual women (N = 2111), gay men (N = 527), and lesbians (N = 712). Confirmatory factor analysis of CES-D item scores supported the theorized oblique 4-factor model. There was support for full measurement invariance across the 4 groups, based on differences in approximate fit indices. In contrast there was support for only partial invariance when the chi-square difference test was applied. Lack of invariance was mostly for depressed affect and somatic symptom items, with noninvariant somatic symptom items showing consistently high factor loadings and thresholds among lesbians compared with the other groups. The findings are discussed in relation to the use of the CES-D, the relevance of different depression symptoms to how depressions is experienced by the different gender and sexual orientation groups, and gender role socialization and minority sexual orientation theories. (PsycINFO Database Record

  6. Depression and Suicidality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, C. V.

    1974-01-01

    Suicidality ratings for 90 patients in a voluntary psychiatric hospital ward are correlated with five possible indices of depression: self-ratings of depression, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory Depression scale scores, depressive diagnosis, and alcohol and drug use. Both depression and suicidality emerges in the factor structure as…

  7. Parameterization of Natural Depressions in Distributed Hydrologic Models: Implications for Scaling up Predictions of Sediment and Nutrient Yields in Ungauged Agricultural Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chien, H.; Mackay, S.; Cabot, P. E.; Karthikeyan, K.

    2005-12-01

    Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) are widely used in distributed hydrologic modeling. In general, interior depressions within catchments are viewed as errors in the DEM, even though they are hydrologically significant features. Natural depressions in catchments are capable of trapping surface runoff and associated sediment, but they are difficult to identify and represent, especially in ungauged basins. We examined the errors associated with the removal of such depressions on predictions from hydrologic models, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and Agricultural Policy/Environmental eXtender (APEX). Automated water and sediment samplers were installed in the outlets of three natural depressions in a small catchment in the North Fork of Pheasant Branch watershed in Dane County, Wisconsin, to collect surface runoff and sediment yields for the period 2003-2004. The data showed that when daily precipitation is over 26 mm, surface runoff with suspended sediment overtops the depressions. SWAT and APEX were calibrated to this data to examine the influence of nested depressions on sediment yields. The hypothesis addressed in this study is: sediment transport parameters can be used as proxies for the functioning of surface depression and to obtain the correct sediment response. The alternative is to explicitly prescribe depressions as reservoirs with more geometric details of depressions if the hypothesis failed. Initial model results showed that the adjustment of sediment transport parameters mimics the response of the depressions and significantly reduces sediment yields. Implications of a simple proxy of sediment deposition for scaling to larger, ungauged basins will be discussed.

  8. Development and validation of the Dimensional Anhedonia Rating Scale (DARS) in a community sample and individuals with major depression.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, Sakina J; Quilty, Lena C; Sproule, Beth A; Cyriac, Anna; Michael Bagby, R; Kennedy, Sidney H

    2015-09-30

    Anhedonia, a core symptom of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), is predictive of antidepressant non-response. In contrast to the definition of anhedonia as a "loss of pleasure", neuropsychological studies provide evidence for multiple facets of hedonic function. The aim of the current study was to develop and validate the Dimensional Anhedonia Rating Scale (DARS), a dynamic scale that measures desire, motivation, effort and consummatory pleasure across hedonic domains. Following item selection procedures and reliability testing using data from community participants (N=229) (Study 1), the 17-item scale was validated in an online study with community participants (N=150) (Study 2). The DARS was also validated in unipolar or bipolar depressed patients (n=52) and controls (n=50) (Study 3). Principal components analysis of the 17-item DARS revealed a 4-component structure mapping onto the domains of anhedonia: hobbies, food/drink, social activities, and sensory experience. Reliability of the DARS subscales was high across studies (Cronbach's α=0.75-0.92). The DARS also demonstrated good convergent and divergent validity. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed the DARS showed additional utility over the Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS) in predicting reward function and distinguishing MDD subgroups. These studies provide support for the reliability and validity of the DARS.

  9. Diagnostic accuracy of the Depression subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D) for detecting major depression: protocol for a systematic review and individual patient data meta-analyses

    PubMed Central

    Thombs, Brett D; Benedetti, Andrea; Kloda, Lorie A; Levis, Brooke; Azar, Marleine; Riehm, Kira E; Saadat, Nazanin; Cuijpers, Pim; Gilbody, Simon; Ioannidis, John P A; McMillan, Dean; Patten, Scott B; Shrier, Ian; Steele, Russell J; Ziegelstein, Roy C; Loiselle, Carmen G; Henry, Melissa; Ismail, Zahinoor; Mitchell, Nicholas; Tonelli, Marcello

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The Depression subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D) has been recommended for depression screening in medically ill patients. Many existing HADS-D studies have used exploratory methods to select optimal cut-offs. Often, these studies report results from a small range of cut-off thresholds; cut-offs with more favourable accuracy results are more likely to be reported than others with worse accuracy estimates. When published data are combined in meta-analyses, selective reporting may generate biased summary estimates. Individual patient data (IPD) meta-analyses can address this problem by estimating accuracy with data from all studies for all relevant cut-off scores. In addition, a predictive algorithm can be generated to estimate the probability that a patient has depression based on a HADS-D score and clinical characteristics rather than dichotomous screening classification alone. The primary objectives of our IPD meta-analyses are to determine the diagnostic accuracy of the HADS-D to detect major depression among adults across all potentially relevant cut-off scores and to generate a predictive algorithm for individual patients. We are already aware of over 100 eligible studies, and more may be identified with our comprehensive search. Methods and analysis Data sources will include MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, PsycINFO and Web of Science. Eligible studies will have datasets where patients are assessed for major depression based on a validated structured or semistructured clinical interview and complete the HADS-D within 2 weeks (before or after). Risk of bias will be assessed with the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 tool. Bivariate random-effects meta-analysis will be conducted for the full range of plausible cut-off values, and a predictive algorithm for individual patients will be generated. Ethics and dissemination The findings of this study will be of interest to

  10. One-trial 10-item free-recall performance in Taiwanese elderly and near-elderly: A potential screen for cognitive decline.

    PubMed

    Tractenberg, Rochelle E; Aisen, Paul S; Chuang, Yi-Li

    2005-01-01

    To explore a one-trial 10-item free-recall test as a potential dementia screening tool, we analyzed recall scores and individualized serial position effects in near-elderly (N = 2,336) and elderly (N = 2,371) participants in a population-based survey in Taiwan. Age and sex were significantly associated with recall score [younger > older (p < 0.001); men > women (p < 0.001)]; after controlling for gender and age group, weak association between recall and education was still observed. By contrast, serial position effects (SPEs), defined for each participant and analyzed aggregated over each age group, were not associated with education and tended not to be associated with sex. Primacy effects were observed in 67 to 80 percent, and recency effects were observed in 41 to 54 percent of respondents. Because SPEs were defined for each respondent, we could determine that loss of the primacy effect was associated with significantly larger losses in total recall score in elderly persons who had exhibited both SPEs at the first survey, as compared to those who maintained both SPEs at successive surveys (p < 0.01). Elderly subjects showed slight longitudinal decline in free recall. A one-trial 10-item free-recall test demonstrated age-related cognitive decline in this Taiwanese population survey cohort; SPEs at the individual level may be useful markers for important cognitive change and warrant further study and benchmarking against valid and reliable tests of memory and cognitive decline.

  11. Depression (Major Depressive Disorder)

    MedlinePlus

    ... related. Depression can cause pain — and pain can cause depression. Sometimes pain and depression create a vicious cycle ... depression worsens feelings of pain. In many people, depression causes unexplained physical symptoms such as back pain or ...

  12. Validity of the Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Scale for Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Lindsey; Renno, Patricia; Storch, Eric A.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Lewin, Adam B.; Arnold, Elysse; Lin, Enjey; Wood, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    High rates of anxiety and depression are reported among youth with autism spectrum disorders. These conditions are generally assessed using measures validated for typically developing youth. Few studies have investigated their validity for autism spectrum disorders, which is crucial for accurate assessment and the provision of proper treatment.…

  13. Are different measures of depressive symptoms in old age comparable? An analysis of the CES-D and Euro-D scales in 13 countries.

    PubMed

    Courtin, Emilie; Knapp, Martin; Grundy, Emily; Avendano-Pabon, Mauricio

    2015-12-01

    The Centre for Epidemiologic Studies of Depression (CES-D) and the Euro-D are commonly used depressive symptom scales but their comparability has not been assessed to date. This article aims to contribute to the literature comparing the drivers of depression in old age across countries by examining whether CES-D (in its eight-item short version) and Euro-D are comparable. Data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE, N = 15,487) covering 13 countries was used to examine the scales' distributional properties, systematic differences between population subgroups, sensitivity and specificity, and associations with established risk factors for depression in old age. CES-D and Euro-D were strongly correlated (r = 0.6819, p < 0.000). However, agreement between the two scales was moderate. There were systematic discrepancies in scores by demographic characteristics. CES-D captures a more extreme pool of depressed individuals than Euro-D. Although associations with risk factors are always in the same direction, they are often stronger for CES-D than Euro-D. Findings highlight the need to be cautious when comparing depression levels and associations with risk factors between surveys using different measures of depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. [Accuracy and diagnostic utility of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD) in a sample of obese Mexican patients].

    PubMed

    López-Alvarenga, Juan Carlos; Vázquez-Velázquez, Verónica; Arcila-Martínez, Denise; Sierra-Ovando, Angel Ernesto; González-Barranco, Jorge; Salín-Pascual, Rafael J

    2002-01-01

    The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD) have been used in Mexico in drug abusers, burned patients, older people, with renal insufficiency and high-risk pregnant women. The aim of this study was to determine reproducibility and accuracy of the questionnaire in a sample of obese subjects. A group of 75 obese patients (BMI > 27) without diabetes mellitus were invited to participated in the study. Diagnosis of anxiety or depression was made by an structured interview based on the DSM-IV criteria, and they were requested to complete the HAD. All subjects were randomized for the manoeuvre sequence. Sensibility specificity, positive predictive value and negative value, and unweighted kappa coefficient (for concordance) were calculated for the two procedures. The questionnaire reproducibility was assessed buy test-retest with other 25 independent subjects. Internal validity was estimated by alpha Cronbach, Guttman and intraclass correlation coefficients. Mean age was 39.7 +/- 11.5 years and BMI 39.1 +/- 9.6. The best cut off point for anxiety was 8 points (Kappa 0.68) and for depression 7 points (Kappa 0.73). Mean age for test-retest was 39.2 +/- 14.5 years and BMI 45.3 +/- 14.6. The alpha-Cronbach was 0.84 for the first tes. and 0.86 for the second. Intraclass coefficient correlation was 0.946. The HAD is applicable for obese subjects, it is reproducible and concordant with a structured interview.

  15. Major depression

    MedlinePlus

    Depression - major; Depression - clinical; Clinical depression; Unipolar depression; Major depressive disorder ... providers do not know the exact causes of depression. It is believed that chemical changes in the ...

  16. A multilevel analysis of the relationship between neighborhood social disorder and depressive symptoms: Evidence from the South African National Income Dynamics Study

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, Andrew; Labys, Charlotte A.; Burns, Jonathan K

    2015-01-01

    The apartheid regime that governed South Africa from 1948 – 1994 established spatial segregation that is understood to have contributed to the magnitude of neighborhood social disorder in the post-apartheid era. Although a number of neighborhood social disorder characteristics, such as perceived violence and crime in the community, are prominent issues in South Africa, the extent to which these perceived spatial attributes are linked to depression is unknown at the population-level. Multilevel modeling of data from the second wave of the South African National Income Dynamics Study (SA-NIDS) was utilized to examine the relationship between depressive symptomatology and neighborhood social disorder as indicated by the perceived frequency of violent, criminal and illicit activities in the community. Depressive symptomatology was assessed using the 10-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. A cut off score of ten or higher was used to indicate the presence of significant depressive symptomatology. Results showed that perception of neighborhood social disorder was independently associated with significant levels of depressive symptomatology. Gender, race/ethnicity, perceived health status, and education were significant for individual-level covariates of depression. Community intervention strategies that reduce the risk of neighborhood disorganization and emphasize positive social norms in the neighborhood are warranted. Taking into account the residential de-racialization of a country transitioning from apartheid to non-racial democracy, a longitudinal spatial study design assessing the dynamics between depression and the aforementioned perceptions of neighborhood attributes may also be warranted. PMID:25642654

  17. Factor structure of the Athens Insomnia Scale and its associations with demographic characteristics and depression in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; King, Bryan H; Chang, Yu-Ping

    2010-03-01

    The eight-item Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS-8) is an instrument that has been used frequently to assess insomnia problems. Previous research on adults has found that the AIS-8 functioned as a sole component. This study aimed to examine the prevalence rates of insomnia problems on the AIS-8, the factor structure of the AIS-8 in adolescents and its associations with demographic characteristics and depression in adolescents. A total of 8319 adolescent students (4334 girls and 3985 boys, mean age = 14.7 years, standard deviation = 1.7 years) in southern Taiwan were recruited into this study and completed the AIS-8. We performed an exploratory factor analysis to examine the factor structure of the AIS-8, and used the parallel analysis for making decisions regarding factor retention. We also used multiple regression analysis models to determine the associations between insomnia and demographic characteristics and depression. The results found that a high proportion of adolescents had insomnia problems as measured by the AIS-8. The AIS-8 was composed of two different factors when used among a large adolescent population, including insomnia symptoms (factor 1) and subjective sleep and daytime distress (factor 2). While being male, being younger, and having depression were associated positively with the severity of insomnia symptoms (factor 1), being older, living in urban areas, and having depression were associated positively with the severity of subjective sleep and daytime distress (factor 2). Clinicians and researchers should consider the different meanings of the two factors of the AIS-8 when using this tool to assess insomnia problems in adolescents.

  18. Personality traits, gender differences and symptoms of anhedonia: What does the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) measure in nonclinical settings?

    PubMed

    Langvik, Eva; Hjemdal, Odin; Nordahl, Hans M

    2016-04-01

    In healthy populations men report more depressive symptoms than women when depression is measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). This study aims to investigate the role of neuroticism and extroversion in symptom reporting by men and women and whether anhedonia can explain these reversed gender differences in depression observed when using HADS. HADS, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) and NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO FFI) were administered twice to a sample of university students. Number of subjects at T1 was 372 and 160 at T2, measured two months apart. Men had a higher average score on depressive symptoms measured by HADS-D compared to women (p = 0.029). Women scored higher than men on HADS-A (p = 0.012), neuroticism (p < 0.001) and PANAS-negative affect (p < 0.029). No significant gender differences were observed in extroversion and positive affect. Test-retest stabilities on HADS-A and HADS-D were high. Neuroticism predicted HADS-A at Time 2. Gender, extroversion, and neuroticism predicted HADS-D at Time 2. The anhedonic content in HADS may be a plausible explanation of reversed gender differences in the HADS depression scale. HADS-D represents a specific anhedonic subtype of depression where symptom reporting reflects dispositional tendencies related specifically to extroversion.

  19. Presentation and validation of the multiple sclerosis depression rating scale: a test specifically devised to investigate affective disorders in multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Quaranta, Davide; Marra, Camillo; Zinno, Massimiliano; Patanella, Agata Katia; Messina, Maria Josè; Piccininni, Chiara; Batocchi, Anna Paola; Gainotti, Guido

    2012-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of depression in patients affected by MS is important, as it may be a cause of reduced quality of life and increased suicide risk. We present a new scale, the Multiple Sclerosis Depression Rating Scale (MSDRS), and assess its diagnostic accuracy in comparison to the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). A total of 94 MS participants were classified as non-depressed (N = 44) or affected by mood disorder associated to MS with depressive manifestations (MSD-MDDM; N = 37) or with a major depression-like episode (MSD-MDL; N = 13). Each participant underwent a psychiatric interview, MSDRS, and BDI; diagnostic accuracy was evaluated using area under the ROC curve (AROC). The diagnostic accuracy of MSDRS and BDI was comparable when diagnosing both MSD-MDDM and MSD-MDL (AROC respectively 0.8998 and 0.8659); the MSDRS showed higher accuracy for the diagnosis of MSD-MDL (AROC respectively 0.9278 and 0.8314; p = .038). The MSDRS may be a reliable tool for the diagnosis of depression in MS.

  20. Use of the soil and water assessment tool to scale sediment delivery from field to watershed in an agricultural landscape with topographic depressions.

    PubMed

    Almendinger, James E; Murphy, Marylee S; Ulrich, Jason S

    2014-01-01

    For two watersheds in the northern Midwest United States, we show that landscape depressions have a significant impact on watershed hydrology and sediment yields and that the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) has appropriate features to simulate these depressions. In our SWAT models of the Willow River in Wisconsin and the Sunrise River in Minnesota, we used Pond and Wetland features to capture runoff from about 40% of the area in each watershed. These depressions trapped considerable sediment, yet further reductions in sediment yield were required for calibration and achieved by reducing the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) cropping-practice (P) factor to 0.40 to 0.45. We suggest terminology to describe annual sediment yields at different conceptual spatial scales and show how SWAT output can be partitioned to extract data at each of these scales. These scales range from plot-scale yields calculated with the USLE to watershed-scale yields measured at the outlet. Intermediate scales include field, upland, pre-riverine, and riverine scales, in descending order along the conceptual flow path from plot to outlet. Sediment delivery ratios, when defined as watershed-scale yields as a percentage of plot-scale yields, ranged from 1% for the Willow watershed (717 km) to 7% for the Sunrise watershed (991 km). Sediment delivery ratios calculated from published relations based on watershed area alone were about 5 to 6%, closer to pre-riverine-scale yields in our watersheds.

  1. Problems in Cross-Cultural Use of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale: “No Butterflies in the Desert”

    PubMed Central

    Maters, Gemma A.; Sanderman, Robbert; Kim, Aimee Y.; Coyne, James C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) is widely used to screen for anxiety and depression. A large literature is citable in support of its validity, but difficulties are increasingly being identified, such as inexplicably discrepant optimal cutpoints and inconsistent factor-structures. This article examines whether these problems could be due to the construction of the HADS that poses difficulties for translation and cross-cultural use. Methods Authors’ awareness of difficulties translating the HADS were identified by examining 20% of studies using the HADS, obtained by a systematic literature search in Pubmed and PsycINFO in May 2012. Reports of use of translations and validation studies were recorded for papers from non-English speaking countries. Narrative and systematic reviews were examined for how authors dealt with different translations. Results Of 417 papers from non-English speaking countries, only 45% indicated whether a translation was used. Studies validating translations were cited in 54%. Seventeen reviews, incorporating data from diverse translated versions, were examined. Only seven mentioned issues of language and culture, and none indicated insurmountable problems in integrating results from different translations. Conclusion Initial decisions concerning item content and response options likely leave the HADS difficult to translate, but we failed to find an acknowledgment of problems in articles involving its translation and cross-cultural use. Investigators’ lack of awareness of these issues can lead to anomalous results and difficulties in interpretation and integration of these results. Reviews tend to overlook these issues and most reviews indiscriminately integrate results from studies performed in different countries. Cross-culturally valid, but literally translated versions of the HADS may not be attainable, and specific cutpoints may not be valid across cultures and language. Claims about rates of anxiety and

  2. Depression, disability and functional status among community dwelling older adults in South Africa: Evidence from the first South African National Income Dynamics Study

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, Andrew; Burns, Jonathan K

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study examined the relationship between depression and functional status among a community-dwelling elderly population of 65 years and older in South Africa. Method Data from the first wave of the South African National Income Dynamics Study (SA-NIDS) was used, this being the first longitudinal panel survey of a nationally representative sample of households. The study focused on the data for resident adults 65 years and older (n=1,429). Depression was assessed using the 10-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Functional status, pertaining to both difficulty and dependency in activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), and physical functioning and mobility (PFM), were assessed using 11 items. Results Functional challenges were generally higher in the older age group. There was a significant association between depression and functional dependency in ADL (adjusted OR=2.57 [CI: 1.03-6.41]), IADL (adjusted OR=2.76 [CI: 1.89-4.04]) and PFM (adjusted OR=1.66 [CI: 1.18-2.33]) but the relationship between depression and functional status, particularly PFM, appeared weaker in older age. Conclusion The relationship between depression symptoms and function is complex. Functional characteristics between older and younger older populations are diverse, and caution is indicated against overgeneralizing the challenges related to depression and function among this target population. PMID:23512338

  3. Impact of a high Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score on obstetric and perinatal outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Navaratne, Pathmila; Foo, Xin Y; Kumar, Sailesh

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to characterise intrapartum and neonatal outcomes in women with an antenatally recorded Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Score (EPDS) ≤ 9 compared with women with a score of ≥12 at a major Australian tertiary maternity hospital. Women with scores ≥12 are at particularly high risk of major depressive symptomatology. There were 20512 (78.6%) women with a score ≤ 9 and 2708 (10.4%) had a score ≥ 12. Category 1 caesarean sections where there was immediate threat to life (maternal or fetal) were more common in women with EPDS scores ≥12 (5.2% vs. 4.3%, OR 1.24 95% CI 1.03–1.49, p = 0.024). Pre-term birth (<37 weeks) was also more common (11.7% vs. 8.6%, OR 1.38 95% CI 1.21–1.57, p < 0.001). Women with high scores had higher rates of babies with birth weights <5th centile (6.2% vs. 4.4%, p < 0.001). Apgar score < 7 at 5 minutes were more frequent in the high EPDS group (3.1% vs. 2%, OR 1.52 95% CI 1.18–1.93, p < 0.001). Resuscitation at birth (34.4% vs. 30.6%, p < 0.001) and neonatal death (0.48% vs. 0.13%, OR 2.52 95% CI 1.2–5.0, p < 0.001) were higher in babies of these women. These results suggest poorer intrapartum and neonatal outcomes for women with high EPDS scores. PMID:27658526

  4. How to compare scores from different depression scales: equating the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) and the ICD-10-Symptom Rating (ISR) using Item Response Theory.

    PubMed

    Fischer, H Felix; Tritt, Karin; Klapp, Burghard F; Fliege, Herbert

    2011-12-01

    A wide range of questionnaires for measuring depression are available. Item Response Theory models can help to evaluate the questionnaires exceeding the boundaries of Classical Test Theory and provide an opportunity to equate the questionnaires. In this study after checking for unidimensionality, a General Partial Credit Model was applied to data from two different depression scales [Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and ICD-10-Symptom Rating (ISR)] obtained in clinical settings from a consecutive sample, including 4517 observations from a total of 2999 inpatients and outpatients of a psychosomatic clinic. The precision of each questionnaire was compared and the model was used to transform scores based on the assumed underlying latent trait. Both instruments were constructed to measure the same construct and their estimates of depression severity are highly correlated. Our analysis showed that the predicted scores provided by the conversion tables are similar to the observed scores in a validation sample. The PHQ-9 and ISR depression scales measure depression severity across a broad range with similar precision. While the PHQ-9 shows advantages in measuring low or high depression severity, the ISR is more parsimonious and also suitable for clinical purposes. Furthermore, the equation tables derived in this study enhance the comparability of studies using either one of the instruments, but due to substantial statistical spread the comparison of individual scores is imprecise.

  5. Evaluation of anhedonia with the Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS) in adult outpatients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Nakonezny, Paul A; Morris, David W; Greer, Tracy L; Byerly, Matthew J; Carmody, Thomas J; Grannemann, Bruce D; Bernstein, Ira H; Trivedi, Madhukar H

    2015-06-01

    Anhedonia or inability to experience pleasure not only is a core symptom of major depressive disorder (MDD), but also is identified as an important component of the positive valence system in the NIMH Research Domain Criteria. The Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS) has been developed for the assessment of hedonic experience or positive valence, but has not been well-studied in depressed outpatient populations. The current study examined the reliability and validity of the SHAPS using a sample of adult outpatients with treatment resistant MDD. Data for the current study were obtained from 122 adult outpatients with a diagnosis of MDD and non-response to adequate treatment with an SSRI and who participated in Project TReatment with Exercise Augmentation for Depression (TREAD). A Principal Components Analysis was used to define the dimensionality of the SHAPS. Convergent and discriminant validity were evaluated via correlations of the SHAPS total score with "gold standard" measures of depression severity and quality of life. The SHAPS was found to have high internal consistency (Cronbach's coefficient α = .82). A Principal Components Analysis suggests that the SHAPS is mainly "unidimensional" and limited to hedonic experience among adult outpatients with MDD. Convergent and discriminant validity were assessed by examining the Spearman rank-order correlation coefficient between the SHAPS total score and the HRSD17 (rs = 0.22, p < .03), IDS-C30 (rs = 0.26, p < .01), IDS-SR30 (rs = 0.23, p < .02), QIDS-C16 (rs = 0.22, p < .03), QIDS-SR16 (rs = 0.17, p < .10), QLES-Q (rs = -0.32, p < .002), and the pleasure/enjoyment item (sub-item 21) of the IDS-C (rs = 0.44, p < .0001) and IDS-SR (rs = 0.38, p < .0002). The self-administered SHAPS showed modest sensitivity (76%) and specificity (54%) with the self-administered pleasure/enjoyment single item (sub-item 21) of IDS-SR30. The current study shows that the SHAPS is a reliable and valid

  6. Psychometric evaluation and normative data for the depression, anxiety, and stress scales-21 (DASS-21) in a nonclinical sample of U.S. adults.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Samuel Justin; Siefert, Caleb J; Slavin-Mulford, Jenelle M; Stein, Michelle B; Renna, Megan; Blais, Mark A

    2012-09-01

    Health care professionals are coming under increased pressure to empirically monitor patient outcomes across settings as a means of improving clinical practice. Within the psychiatric and primary care communities, many have begun utilizing brief psychometric measures of psychological functioning to accomplish these goals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties and clinical utility of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales-21-item version (DASS-21), and contribute normative data to facilitate interpretation using a sample of U.S. adults (N = 503). Item-scale convergence was generally supported, although assumptions of item-scale divergence were not met. Only 86%, 50%, and 43% of Depression, Anxiety, and Stress items, respectively, correlated significantly greater with their hypothesized scales than other scales. Internal consistency reliability was acceptable for all scales and comparable to existing research (αs = .91, .80, and .84 for Depression, Anxiety, and Stress, respectively). Scale-level correlations were greater than what has been reported elsewhere (range of rs = .68 to .73), and principal components analysis supported the extraction of only one component accounting for 47% of the item-level variance. However, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) favored a three-factor structure when compared to a one-factor model. The implications for the health care professions are discussed.

  7. Feasibility, Reliability and Validity of the Dutch Translation of the Anxiety, Depression and Mood Scale in Older Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermans, Heidi; Jelluma, Naftha; van der Pas, Femke H.; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The informant-based Anxiety, Depression And Mood Scale was translated into Dutch and its feasibility, reliability and validity in older adults (aged greater than or equal to 50 years) with intellectual disabilities (ID) was studied. Method: Test-retest (n = 93) and interrater reliability (n = 83), and convergent (n = 202 and n = 787),…

  8. Food Insufficiency, Depression, and the Modifying Role of Social Support: Evidence from a Population-Based, Prospective Cohort of Pregnant Women in Peri-Urban South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Alexander C.; Tomlinson, Mark; Comulada, W. Scott; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Food insecurity has emerged as an important, and potentially modifiable, risk factor for depression. Few studies have brought longitudinal data to bear on investigating this association in sub-Saharan Africa. Objective To estimate the association between food insufficiency and depression symptom severity, and to determine the extent to which any observed associations are modified by social support. Methods and Results We conducted a secondary analysis of population-based, longitudinal data collected from 1,238 pregnant women during a three-year cluster-randomized trial of a home visiting intervention in Cape Town, South Africa. Surveys were conducted at baseline, 6 months, 18 months, and 36 months (85% retention). A validated, single-item food insufficiency measure inquired about the number of days of hunger in the past week. Depression symptom severity was measured using the Xhosa version of the 10-item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. In multivariable regression models with cluster-correlated robust estimates of variance, lagged food insufficiency had a strong and statistically significant association with depression symptom severity (β=0.70; 95% CI, 0.46-0.94), suggesting a 6.5% relative difference in depression symptom severity per day of hunger. In stratified analyses, food insufficiency had a statistically significant association with depression among women with low levels of instrumental support. Using quantile regression, we found that the adverse impacts of food insufficiency were experienced to a greater degree by women in the upper end of the conditional distribution of depression symptom severity. Estimates from fixed-effects regression and fixed-effects quantile regression, accounting for unobserved confounding by time-invariant characteristics, were similar. Conclusions Food insufficiency was associated with depression symptom severity, particularly for women in the upper end of the conditional depression distribution. Instrumental

  9. Large-Scale Mass Spectrometry Imaging Investigation of Consequences of Cortical Spreading Depression in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Migraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carreira, Ricardo J.; Shyti, Reinald; Balluff, Benjamin; Abdelmoula, Walid M.; van Heiningen, Sandra H.; van Zeijl, Rene J.; Dijkstra, Jouke; Ferrari, Michel D.; Tolner, Else A.; McDonnell, Liam A.; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M. J. M.

    2015-06-01

    Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is the electrophysiological correlate of migraine aura. Transgenic mice carrying the R192Q missense mutation in the Cacna1a gene, which in patients causes familial hemiplegic migraine type 1 (FHM1), exhibit increased propensity to CSD. Herein, mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) was applied for the first time to an animal cohort of transgenic and wild type mice to study the biomolecular changes following CSD in the brain. Ninety-six coronal brain sections from 32 mice were analyzed by MALDI-MSI. All MSI datasets were registered to the Allen Brain Atlas reference atlas of the mouse brain so that the molecular signatures of distinct brain regions could be compared. A number of metabolites and peptides showed substantial changes in the brain associated with CSD. Among those, different mass spectral features showed significant ( t-test, P < 0.05) changes in the cortex, 146 and 377 Da, and in the thalamus, 1820 and 1834 Da, of the CSD-affected hemisphere of FHM1 R192Q mice. Our findings reveal CSD- and genotype-specific molecular changes in the brain of FHM1 transgenic mice that may further our understanding about the role of CSD in migraine pathophysiology. The results also demonstrate the utility of aligning MSI datasets to a common reference atlas for large-scale MSI investigations.

  10. Does the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) measure anxiety symptoms consistently across adolescence? The TRAILS study.

    PubMed

    Mathyssek, Christina M; Olino, Thomas M; Hartman, Catharina A; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C; Van Oort, Floor V A

    2013-03-01

    We assessed if the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) measures anxiety symptoms similarly across age groups within adolescence. This is crucial for valid comparison of anxiety levels between different age groups. Anxiety symptoms were assessed biennially in a representative population sample (n = 2226) at three time points (age range 10-17 years) using the RCADS anxiety subscales (generalized anxiety disorder [GAD], obsessive-compulsive disorder [OCD], panic disorder [PD], separation anxiety [SA], social phobia [SP]). We examined longitudinal measurement invariance of the RCADS, using longitudinal confirmatory factor analysis, by examining the factor structure (configural invariance), factor loadings (metric invariance) and thresholds (strong invariance). We found that all anxiety subtypes were configural invariant. Metric invariance held for items on the GAD, OCD, PD and SA subscales; yet, for the SP subscale three items showed modest longitudinal variation at age 10-12. Model fit decreased modestly when enforcing additional constraints across time; however, model fit for these models was still adequate to excellent. We conclude that the RCADS measures anxiety symptoms similarly across time in a general population sample of adolescents; hence, measured changes in anxiety symptoms very likely reflect true changes in anxiety levels. We consider the instrument suitable to assess anxiety levels across adolescence.

  11. Evaluation of a computer-adaptive test for the assessment of depression (D-CAT) in clinical application.

    PubMed

    Fliege, Herbert; Becker, Janine; Walter, Otto B; Rose, Matthias; Bjorner, Jakob B; Klapp, Burghard F

    2009-01-01

    In the past, a German Computerized Adaptive Test, based on Item Response Theory (IRT), was developed for purposes of assessing the construct depression [Computer-adaptive test for depression (D-CAT)]. This study aims at testing the feasibility and validity of the real computer-adaptive application.The D-CAT, supplied by a bank of 64 items, was administered on personal digital assistants (PDAs) to 423 consecutive patients suffering from psychosomatic and other medical conditions (78 with depression). Items were adaptively administered until a predetermined reliability (r > or = 0.90) was attained. For validation purposes, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) scale, and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were administered. Another sample of 114 patients was evaluated using standardized diagnostic interviews [Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI)].The D-CAT was quickly completed (mean 74 seconds), well accepted by the patients and reliable after an average administration of only six items. In 95% of the cases, 10 items or less were needed for a reliable score estimate. Correlations between the D-CAT and the HADS, CES-D, and BDI ranged between r = 0.68 and r = 0.77. The D-CAT distinguished between diagnostic groups as well as established questionnaires do.The D-CAT proved an efficient, well accepted and reliable tool. Discriminative power was comparable to other depression measures, whereby the CAT is shorter and more precise. Item usage raises questions of balancing the item selection for content in the future.

  12. Defining biotypes for depression and anxiety based on large-scale circuit dysfunction: a theoretical review of the evidence and future directions for clinical translation.

    PubMed

    Williams, Leanne M

    2017-01-01

    Complex emotional, cognitive and self-reflective functions rely on the activation and connectivity of large-scale neural circuits. These circuits offer a relevant scale of focus for conceptualizing a taxonomy for depression and anxiety based on specific profiles (or biotypes) of neural circuit dysfunction. Here, the theoretical review first outlines the current consensus as to what constitutes the organization of large-scale circuits in the human brain identified using parcellation and meta-analysis. The focus is on neural circuits implicated in resting reflection (default mode), detection of "salience," affective processing ("threat" and "reward"), "attention," and "cognitive control." Next, the current evidence regarding which type of dysfunctions in these circuits characterize depression and anxiety disorders is reviewed, with an emphasis on published meta-analyses and reviews of circuit dysfunctions that have been identified in at least two well-powered case:control studies. Grounded in the review of these topics, a conceptual framework is proposed for considering neural circuit-defined "biotypes." In this framework, biotypes are defined by profiles of extent of dysfunction on each large-scale circuit. The clinical implications of a biotype approach for guiding classification and treatment of depression and anxiety is considered. Future research directions will develop the validity and clinical utility of a neural circuit biotype model that spans diagnostic categories and helps to translate neuroscience into clinical practice in the real world.

  13. Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale Perfectionism: A Predictor and Partial Mediator of Acute Treatment Outcome among Clinically Depressed Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Rachel H.; Silva, Susan G.; Reinecke, Mark A.; Curry, John F.; Ginsburg, Golda S.; Kratochvil, Christopher J.; March, John S.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of perfectionism on acute treatment outcomes was explored in a randomized controlled trial of 439 clinically depressed adolescents (12-17 years of age) enrolled in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS) who received cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), fluoxetine, a combination of CBT and FLX, or pill placebo. Measures…

  14. Factorial validity and invariance of the center for epidemiologic studies depression (CES-D) scale in a sample of black and white adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Hales, Derek P; Dishman, Rod K; Motl, Robert W; Addy, Cheryl L; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Pate, Russell R

    2006-01-01

    Meaningful comparison of depression symptoms requires that the measurement instrument has equivalent measurement properties among racial and ethnic groups. We tested the factorial validity and invariance of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) Scale among Black (n=610) and White (n=452) adolescent girls in the 12th grade. The invariance analyses were conducted by using LISREL 8.70 with maximum likelihood estimation and Satorra-Bentler scaled chi-square statistics and standard errors. The hypothesized second-order model (first-order factors: depressed affect, somatic and retarded activity, interpersonal, and positive affect; second-order factor: depression) demonstrated good overall fit in both groups. Comparison of nested models supported the between-group invariance of the overall factor structure, first- and second-order factor loadings, first-order factor variances, and the second-order factor variance. Item uniquenesses were not invariant. Our results support the hypothesis that a meaningful comparison of composite CES-D scores can be made between Black and White girls in the 12th grade.

  15. Depression - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - depression ... Depression is a medical condition. If you think you may be depressed, see a health care provider. ... following organizations are good sources of information on depression : American Psychological Association -- www.apa.org/topics/depress/ ...

  16. Validation of cross-cultural child mental health and psychosocial research instruments: adapting the Depression Self-Rating Scale and Child PTSD Symptom Scale in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The lack of culturally adapted and validated instruments for child mental health and psychosocial support in low and middle-income countries is a barrier to assessing prevalence of mental health problems, evaluating interventions, and determining program cost-effectiveness. Alternative procedures are needed to validate instruments in these settings. Methods Six criteria are proposed to evaluate cross-cultural validity of child mental health instruments: (i) purpose of instrument, (ii) construct measured, (iii) contents of construct, (iv) local idioms employed, (v) structure of response sets, and (vi) comparison with other measurable phenomena. These criteria are applied to transcultural translation and alternative validation for the Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS) and Child PTSD Symptom Scale (CPSS) in Nepal, which recently suffered a decade of war including conscription of child soldiers and widespread displacement of youth. Transcultural translation was conducted with Nepali mental health professionals and six focus groups with children (n = 64) aged 11-15 years old. Because of the lack of child mental health professionals in Nepal, a psychosocial counselor performed an alternative validation procedure using psychosocial functioning as a criterion for intervention. The validation sample was 162 children (11-14 years old). The Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (K-SADS) and Global Assessment of Psychosocial Disability (GAPD) were used to derive indication for treatment as the external criterion. Results The instruments displayed moderate to good psychometric properties: DSRS (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.82, sensitivity = 0.71, specificity = 0.81, cutoff score ≥ 14); CPSS (AUC = 0.77, sensitivity = 0.68, specificity = 0.73, cutoff score ≥ 20). The DSRS items with significant discriminant validity were "having energy to complete daily activities" (DSRS.7), "feeling that life is not worth living" (DSRS.10), and "feeling

  17. Validity and Acceptability of Kimberley Mum’s Mood Scale to Screen for Perinatal Anxiety and Depression in Remote Aboriginal Health Care Settings

    PubMed Central

    Kotz, Jayne; Engelke, Catherine; Williams, Melissa; Stephen, Donna; Coutinho, Sudha; Trust, Stephanie K.

    2017-01-01

    Background The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) is widely recommended for perinatal anxiety and depression screening. However, many Aboriginal women find EPDS language complex and confusing, and providers find using it with Aboriginal women challenging. The two part Kimberley Mum’s Mood Scale (KMMS) was developed to improve screening: Part 1 is a Kimberley version of EPDS; Part 2 is a psychosocial tool that enables contextualisation of Part 1 scores. We aimed to determine if KMMS is a valid and acceptable method of identifying Kimberley Aboriginal perinatal women at risk of anxiety or depressive disorders compared to a semi-structured clinical interview. Methods Across 15 sites in the Kimberley, Western Australia, 97 Aboriginal women aged 16 years and older who intended to continue with their pregnancy or had a baby within the previous 12 months were administered the KMMS by trained healthcare providers who provided an overall assessment of no, low, moderate or high risk; 91 participants were then independently assessed by a blinded clinical expert using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition criteria. A qualitative approach was used to determine KMMS’ acceptability. Results Part 1 had high internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha, 0.89), and overall KMMS risk equivalence for screening for anxiety or depressive disorders was moderate (sensitivity, 83%; specificity, 87%; positive predictive value, 68%). Participants found the process easy and useful, and healthcare providers found KMMS more useful than EPDS. Part 2 allowed healthcare providers to ask questions that gave participants an opportunity to express themselves, resulting in a deeper understanding between them. Conclusion KMMS is an effective tool for identifying Kimberley Aboriginal perinatal women at risk of anxiety and depressive disorders. Adoption of KMMS with culturally safe training and support is likely to improve screening processes, and with further

  18. Depressive symptoms, antidepressant use, and brain volumes on MRI in a population-based cohort of old persons without dementia.

    PubMed

    Geerlings, Mirjam I; Brickman, Adam M; Schupf, Nicole; Devanand, Davangere P; Luchsinger, José A; Mayeux, Richard; Small, Scott A

    2012-01-01

    We examined whether late-life depression, including depressive symptoms and antidepressant use, was associated with smaller total brain volume, smaller hippocampal volume, and larger white matter hyperintensity (WMH) volume in a large community-based cohort of old persons without dementia. Within the Washington/Hamilton Height-Inwood Columbia Aging Project (WHICAP), a community-based cohort study in northern Manhattan, 630 persons without dementia (mean age 80 years, SD = 5) had volumetric measures of the total brain, hippocampus, and WMH at 1.5 Tesla MRI and data on current depression, defined as a score of 4 or higher on the 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale, or use of antidepressants. Multiple linear regression analyses adjusted for age, gender, ethnicity, education, cardiovascular disease history, and MRI parameters showed that subjects with current depression had smaller relative total brain volume (B = -0.86%; 95% CI -1.68 to -0.05%; p < 0.05), smaller relative hippocampal volume (B = -0.07 ml; 95% CI -0.14 to 0.00 ml; p = 0.05), and larger relative WMH volume (natural logtransformed B = 0.19 ml; 95% CI 0.02 to 0.35 ml; p < 0.05). When examined separately, antidepressant use was significantly associated with smaller total brain, smaller hippocampal, and larger WMH volume, while high CES-D scores were not significantly associated with any of the brain measures, although the direction of association was similar as for antidepressant use. With the caveat that analyses were cross-sectional and we had no formal diagnosis of depression, our findings suggest that in this community-based sample of old persons without dementia, late-life depression is associated with more brain atrophy and more white matter lesions, which was mainly driven by antidepressant use.

  19. Self-Compassion Scale (SCS): Psychometric Properties of The French Translation and Its Relations with Psychological Well-Being, Affect and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Kotsou, Ilios; Leys, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few years, the topic of self-compassion has attracted increasing attention from both scientific and clinical fields. The Self-Compassion Scale (SCS) was created to specifically capture this way of being kind and understanding towards oneself in moments of turmoil. In this article, we present a French adaptation of the SCS. We first explore the psychometric properties of this adaptation and then investigate its relation to psychological well-being. As in the original version of the SCS, the French adaptation has a strong 6-factor structure but a weaker hierarchical second order structure. However the bi-factor model yields a good omega index suggesting the relevance of a single score accounting for self-compassion. Moreover, there was a relation between the SCS and classical outcomes such as a positive relation with psychological well-being and negative relation with depressive symptoms. We then hypothesized that self-compassion would have a moderating role on the relation between affect and depression. This hypothesis was confirmed: expressing negative affect is correlated with depressive symptoms; however, being kind with oneself lowers depressive symptoms even when expressing negative affect. In conclusion, this research presents a valid self-compassion measure for French-speaking researchers and clinicians and outlines the need for further research on the concept of self-compassion. PMID:27078886

  20. Using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) to assess suicidal ideation among pregnant women in Lima, Peru.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Qiu-Yue; Gelaye, Bizu; Rondon, Marta B; Sánchez, Sixto E; Simon, Gregory E; Henderson, David C; Barrios, Yasmin V; Sánchez, Pedro Mascaro; Williams, Michelle A

    2015-12-01

    We sought to examine the concordance of two suicidal ideation items from the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), to evaluate the prevalence of suicidal ideation among pregnant women, and to assess the co-occurrence of suicidal ideation with antepartum depressive symptoms. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1,517 pregnant women attending prenatal care clinics in Lima, Peru. Item 9 of the PHQ-9 assesses suicidal ideation over the last 14 days while item 10 of the EPDS assesses suicidal ideation in the past 7 days. The two suicidal ideation items have a high concordance rate (84.2 %) but a moderate agreement (the Cohen's kappa = 0.42). Based on the PHQ-9 and the EPDS, 15.8 and 8.8 % of participants screened positive for suicidal ideation, respectively. Assessed by the PHQ-9, 51 % of participants with suicidal ideation had probable depression. In prenatal care clinics, screening for suicidal ideation is needed for women with and without depressive symptoms. Future studies are needed to identify additional predictors of antepartum suicidality, determine the appropriate duration of reporting period for suicidal ideation screening, and assess the percentage of individuals with positive responses to the two suicidal ideation items at high risk of planning and attempting suicide.

  1. Self-Compassion Scale (SCS): Psychometric Properties of The French Translation and Its Relations with Psychological Well-Being, Affect and Depression.

    PubMed

    Kotsou, Ilios; Leys, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few years, the topic of self-compassion has attracted increasing attention from both scientific and clinical fields. The Self-Compassion Scale (SCS) was created to specifically capture this way of being kind and understanding towards oneself in moments of turmoil. In this article, we present a French adaptation of the SCS. We first explore the psychometric properties of this adaptation and then investigate its relation to psychological well-being. As in the original version of the SCS, the French adaptation has a strong 6-factor structure but a weaker hierarchical second order structure. However the bi-factor model yields a good omega index suggesting the relevance of a single score accounting for self-compassion. Moreover, there was a relation between the SCS and classical outcomes such as a positive relation with psychological well-being and negative relation with depressive symptoms. We then hypothesized that self-compassion would have a moderating role on the relation between affect and depression. This hypothesis was confirmed: expressing negative affect is correlated with depressive symptoms; however, being kind with oneself lowers depressive symptoms even when expressing negative affect. In conclusion, this research presents a valid self-compassion measure for French-speaking researchers and clinicians and outlines the need for further research on the concept of self-compassion.

  2. An Item Response Theory (IRT) analysis of the Short Inventory of Problems-Alcohol and Drugs (SIP-AD) among non-treatment seeking men-who-have-sex-with-men: evidence for a shortened 10-item SIP-AD.

    PubMed

    Hagman, Brett T; Kuerbis, Alexis N; Morgenstern, Jon; Bux, Donald A; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Heidinger, Bram E

    2009-11-01

    The Short Inventory of Problems-Alcohol and Drugs (SIP-AD) is a 15-item measure that assesses concurrently negative consequences associated with alcohol and illicit drug use. Current psychometric evaluation has been limited to classical test theory (CTT) statistics, and it has not been validated among non-treatment seeking men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM). Methods from Item Response Theory (IRT) can improve upon CTT by providing an in-depth analysis of how each item performs across the underlying latent trait that it is purported to measure. The present study examined the psychometric properties of the SIP-AD using methods from both IRT and CTT among a non-treatment seeking MSM sample (N=469). Participants were recruited from the New York City area and were asked to participate in a series of studies examining club drug use. Results indicated that five items on the SIP-AD demonstrated poor item misfit or significant differential item functioning (DIF) across race/ethnicity and HIV status. These five items were dropped and two-parameter IRT analyses were conducted on the remaining 10 items, which indicated a restricted range of item location parameters (-.15 to -.99) plotted at the lower end of the latent negative consequences severity continuum, and reasonably high discrimination parameters (1.30 to 2.22). Additional CTT statistics were compared between the original 15-item SIP-AD and the refined 10-item SIP-AD and suggest that the differences were negligible with the refined 10-item SIP-AD indicating a high degree of reliability and validity. Findings suggest the SIP-AD can be shortened to 10 items and appears to be a non-biased reliable and valid measure among non-treatment seeking MSM.

  3. An Item Response Theory (IRT) Analysis of the Short Inventory of Problems-Alcohol and Drugs (SIP-AD) among non-treatment seeking Men-Who-Have-Sex-With-Men: Evidence for a shortened 10-item SIP-AD

    PubMed Central

    Hagman, Brett T.; Kuerbis, Alexis N.; Morgenstern, Jon; Bux, Donald A.; Parsons, Jeffrey T.; Heidinger, Bram E.

    2009-01-01

    The Short Inventory of Problems-Alcohol and Drugs (SIP-AD) is a 15-item measure that assesses concurrently negative consequences associated with alcohol and illicit drug use. Current psychometric evaluation has been limited to classical test theory (CTT) statistics, and it has not been validated among non-treatment seeking men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM). Methods from Item Response Theory (IRT) can improve upon CTT by providing an in-depth analysis of how each item performs across the underlying latent trait that it is purported to measure. The present study examined the psychometric properties of the SIP-AD using methods from both IRT and CTT among a non-treatment seeking MSM sample (N = 469). Participants were recruited from the New York City area and were asked to participate in a series of studies examining club drug use. Results indicated that five items on the SIP-AD demonstrated poor item misfit or significant differential item functioning (DIF) across race/ethnicity and HIV status. These five items were dropped and two-parameter IRT analyses were conducted on the remaining 10 items, which indicated a restricted range of item location parameters (−.15 to −.99) plotted at the lower end of the latent negative consequences severity continuum, and reasonably high discrimination parameters (1.30 to 2.22). Additional CTT statistics were compared between the original 15-item SIP-AD and the refined 10-item SIP-AD and suggest that the differences were negligible with the refined 10-item SIP-AD indicating a high degree of reliability and validity. Findings suggest the SIP-AD can be shortened to 10 items and appears to be a non-biased reliable and valid measure among non-treatment seeking MSM. PMID:19564078

  4. Hopelessness, Depression, Suicidal Ideation, and Clinical Diagnosis of Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Aaron T.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined relevance of clinical diagnosis of depression for explaining discrepant relationships of hopelessness and depression with suicidal ideation. Administered Beck Depression Inventory, Hopelessness Scale, and Scale for Suicide Ideation to 1,306 patients with mood disorder and 488 patients without mood disorder. Found that hopelessness was 1.3…

  5. Personality and endogenous/major depression: an empirical approach to typus melancholicus. 2. Validation of typus melancholicus core-properties by personality inventory scales.

    PubMed

    Mundt, C; Backenstrass, M; Kronmiller, K T; Fiedler, P; Kraus, A; Stanghellini, G

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to objectify some of the personality dimensions of the typus melancholicus (TM) personality formation in endogenous depressives and to compare the consistency of the term used in questionnaires with the original concept as delineated in our preceding paper. The prevalence of TM in endogenous-depressive inpatients was 51% for patients with clearly salient TM features. In addition 25% of the sample showed TM features to a minor extent. These findings are consistent with the literature. MMPI and MPI could not separate TM and non-typus melancholicus (NTM) in univariate analyses. However, the Munich Personality Test (MPT) contributes to validating the TM concept. TM depressives scored significantly higher in MPT subscales rigidity and norm orientation. According to its item structure the MPT rigidity subscore can be considered to conceptually encompass hypernomia, i.e. the patient's incapacity to change the norms that were once adopted. Based on the characteristics of item formulations in the MPT subscore norm orientation it was hypothesized that this subscore corresponds to the concept of heteronomia, i.e. conformism towards externally determined and uncritically followed social norms. Since MPT norm orientation in TM does not covariate with control scales of the other inventories used in this study, it is likely that MPT norm orientation refers to the TM patient's sincere commitment to social norms rather than to a sham reaction in the sense of a lie scale. There was no consistent indication that TM shows lower neuroticism scores than NTM.

  6. Embodied intervention reduce depression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Dong-Qing; Bi, Xin; Fu, Ying

    2011-10-01

    To investigate the difference of the selected-rate of undergraduates' depression with respect to time, gender and scales and the intervention effect of embodied exercise, 201 Undergraduates were measured with Self-Rating Depression Scale and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI).The result shows there are significant difference of the selected-rates of undergraduates' depression resulted from long-time interval rather than from short-time interval and gender. After the intervention, the selected-rates are decreased and no significant difference has been found between the embodied groups and the controlled group. Only the embodied groups maintain the better effects of the intervention in the tracking. Also the result shows that only the participants of embodied groups obtain more positive emotional experience. We conclude that there is significant difference of selected-rate of undergraduates' depression on scales, and the embodied exercise can effectively reduce undergraduate's depression.

  7. A Comparison of Self-Rated and Female Partner-Rated Scales in the Assessment of Paternal Prenatal Depression.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Mizuho; Tachibana, Yoshiyuki; Tang, Julian; Takehara, Kenji; Kubo, Takahiko; Hashimoto, Keiji; Kitazawa, Hiroshi; Saito, Hirohisa; Ohya, Yukihiro

    2016-11-01

    Maternal depression has been widely studied but paternal depression is often overlooked. Depression in men is generally more difficult to detect as the symptoms are not apparent. Furthermore, Japanese couples tend to suppress their real emotions to avoid confrontation. We aimed to investigate the reliability and validity of the K6, K10 and PHQ-9 in assessing the mental health status of men when used by their pregnant partners, as well as the prevalence of paternal prenatal depression in a Japanese study sample. A total of 136 couples participated in this study. The prevalence of paternal prenatal depression reported by the men themselves was higher compared to that reported by their female partners (K6, 10.3 %; K10, 6.6 %; PHQ-9, 3.7 % vs. K6-FP, 2.2 %; K10-FP, 1.5 %; PHQ-9-FP, 0 %, respectively). Mental health issues in men may not be accurately rated by their female partners, suggesting the importance of self-rating and direct consultation.

  8. Factor Structure and Psychometric Properties of English and Spanish Versions of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale Among Hispanic Women in a Primary Care Setting

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, Chelsey M.; Barroso, Nicole; Rey, Yasmin; Pettit, Jeremy W.; Bagner, Daniel M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although a number of studies have examined the factor structure of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) in predominately White or African American samples, no published research has reported on the factor structure among Hispanic women who reside in the United States. Objective The current study examined the factor structure of the EPDS among Hispanic mothers in the United States. Method Among 220 Hispanic women, drawn from a pediatric primary care setting, with an infant aged 0 to 10 months, 6 structural models guided by the empirical literature were evaluated using confirmatory factor analysis. Results Results supported a 2-factor model of depression and anxiety as the best fitting model. Multigroup models supported the factorial invariance across women who completed the EDPS in English and Spanish. Conclusion These findings provide initial support for the 2-factor structure of the EPDS among Hispanic women in the United States. PMID:24807217

  9. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale: a pilot study to examine its latent structure and the link between psychological state and symptom severity in transient ischaemic attack patients.

    PubMed

    Spurgeon, Laura; James, Gill; Sackley, Cath

    2016-07-01

    Transient ischaemic attack (TIA) is often associated with anxiety and depression, which may precipitate secondary stroke and interfere with treatment. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) is widely used to assess these states and to inform the management of any associated psychological problems, but there is considerable debate about what it actually measures. The HADS scores from a range of different clinical groups have been reviewed in order to assess its psychometric properties, but so far, no research has examined either its latent structure when used with TIA patients, or the association between symptom severity and the test's validity. The aims of this study, therefore, were to investigate: (a) the underlying structure of the HADS when used with TIA patients; and (b) the impact of symptom severity on the validity of the HADS. The HADS and a functional capacity measure were administered by post to a sample of 542 confirmed TIA patients. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted on the HADS scores to establish its underlying structure for this clinical group, and then, sub-sample correlations were undertaken between the anxiety/depression scores for different levels of functional capacity. Two factors emerged, with 13 of the 14 HADS items loading significantly on both, suggesting there is a common affective state underlying the standard anxiety and depression scales. Further data-exploration indicated that convergence between these affective states increased as functional capacity deteriorated. The results suggest firstly that the HADS measures general subjective distress when used with TIA patients, and secondly that the higher reported symptom severity in this clinical group may be associated with reduced affective differentiation. As the ability to retain clear affective discrimination is associated with health and well-being, this could provide a focus for post-TIA rehabilitation.

  10. Postpartum Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... Crying Reduced concentration Appetite problems Trouble sleeping Postpartum depression symptoms Postpartum depression may be mistaken for baby ... drugs, which can make mood swings worse Postpartum depression Postpartum depression is often treated with psychotherapy (also ...

  11. Atypical Depression

    MedlinePlus

    Diseases and Conditions Atypical depression By Mayo Clinic Staff Any type of depression can make you feel sad and keep you from enjoying life. However, atypical depression — also called depression with atypical features — means that ...

  12. Postpartum Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Postpartum Depression Home For Patients Search FAQs Postpartum Depression Page ... Postpartum Depression FAQ091, December 2013 PDF Format Postpartum Depression Labor, Delivery, and Postpartum Care What are the ...

  13. Childhood Depression: Theories, Antecedents and Supportive Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Laura L.

    Early detection and measurement of the intensity of childhood depression are important concerns for those treating depressed children. To examine issues of childhood depression, a review of the research was conducted which focused on: (1) childhood depression scales and their effectiveness; (2) correlates and antecedents of childhood depression;…

  14. Longitudinal Invariance of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale among Girls and Boys in Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motl, Robert W.; Dishman, Rod K.; Birnbaum, Amanda S.; Lytle, Leslie A.

    2005-01-01

    This study tested the longitudinal factorial invariance of a theoretically consistent, higher-order model for Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) scores among adolescent girls and boys in middle school. Data were collected from 2,416 adolescents who completed a survey containing the CES-D in the fall of 1998, spring of 1999, and…

  15. The Image in the Mirror and the Number on the Scale: Weight, Weight Perceptions, and Adolescent Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisco, Michelle L.; Houle, Jason N.; Martin, Molly A.

    2010-01-01

    Double jeopardy and health congruency theories suggest that adolescents' joint experience of their weight and weight perceptions are associated with depressive symptoms, but each theory offers a different prediction about which adolescents are at greatest risk. This study investigates the proposed associations and the applicability of both…

  16. Dealing with missing data in the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression self-report scale: a study based on the French E3N cohort

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Center for Epidemiologic Studies - Depression scale (CES-D) is a validated tool commonly used to screen depressive symptoms. As with any self-administered questionnaire, missing data are frequently observed and can strongly bias any inference. The objective of this study was to investigate the best approach for handling missing data in the CES-D scale. Methods Among the 71,412 women from the French E3N prospective cohort (Etude Epidémiologique auprès des femmes de la Mutuelle Générale de l’Education Nationale) who returned the questionnaire comprising the CES-D scale in 2005, 45% had missing values in the scale. The reasons for failure to complete certain items were investigated by semi-directive interviews on a random sample of 204 participants. The prevalence of high depressive symptoms (score ≥16, hDS) was estimated after applying various methods for ignorable missing data including multiple imputation using imputation models with CES-D items with or without covariates. The accuracy of imputation models was investigated. Various scenarios of nonignorable missing data mechanisms were investigated by a sensitivity analysis based on the mixture modelling approach. Results The interviews showed that participants were not reluctant to answer the CES-D scale. Possible reasons for nonresponse were identified. The prevalence of hDS among complete responders was 26.1%. After multiple imputation, the prevalence was 28.6%, 29.8% and 31.7% for women presenting up to 4, 10 and 20 missing values, respectively. The estimates were robust to the various imputation models investigated and to the scenarios of nonignorable missing data. Conclusions The CES-D scale can easily be used in large cohorts even in the presence of missing data. Based on the results from both a qualitative study and a sensitivity analysis under various scenarios of missing data mechanism in a population of women, missing data mechanism does not appear to be nonignorable and estimates

  17. Identification of depression in women during pregnancy and the early postnatal period using the Whooley questions and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale: protocol for the Born and Bred in Yorkshire: PeriNatal Depression Diagnostic Accuracy (BaBY PaNDA) study

    PubMed Central

    Littlewood, Elizabeth; Ali, Shehzad; Ansell, Pat; Dyson, Lisa; Gascoyne, Samantha; Hewitt, Catherine; Keding, Ada; Mann, Rachel; McMillan, Dean; Morgan, Deborah; Swan, Kelly; Waterhouse, Bev; Gilbody, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Perinatal depression is well recognised as a mental health condition but <50% of cases are identified by healthcare professionals in routine clinical practice. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) is often used to detect symptoms of postnatal depression in maternity and child services. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) recommends 2 ‘ultra-brief’ case-finding questions (the Whooley questions) to aid identification of depression during the perinatal period, but this recommendation was made in the absence of any validation studies in a perinatal population. Limited research exists on the acceptability of these depression case-finding instruments and the cost-effectiveness of routine screening for perinatal depression. Methods and analysis The diagnostic accuracy of the Whooley questions and the EPDS will be determined against a reference standard (the Client Interview Schedule—Revised) during pregnancy (around 20 weeks) and the early postnatal period (around 3–4 months post partum) in a sample of 379 women. Further outcome measures will assess a range of psychological comorbidities, health-related quality of life and resource utilisation. Women will be followed up 12 months postnatally. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of the Whooley questions and the EPDS will be calculated against the reference standard at 20 weeks pregnancy and 3–4 months post partum. Acceptability of the depression case-finding instruments to women and healthcare professionals will involve in-depth qualitative interviews. An existing decision analytic model will be adapted to determine the cost-effectiveness of routine screening for perinatal depression. Ethics and dissemination This study is considered low risk for participants. Robust protocols will deal with cases where risk of depression, self-harm or suicide is identified. The protocol received favourable ethical opinion from the North East

  18. The effect of logotherapy on the expressions of cortisol, HSP70, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and pain scales in advanced cervical cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Soetrisno; Sulistyowati, Sri; Ardhianto, Adhitya; Hadi, Syamsul

    2017-02-01

    This study aims to analyze the effect of logotherapy on the expression of cortisol, HSP70, and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and to conduct pain assessments in advanced cervical cancer patients. We carried out this research through pretest-posttest control-group design on the expression of cortisol, HSP70, the BDI, and pain scales after a patient receives logotherapy treatment. Based on a comparative test conducted with the two groups before the treatment, there is no significant difference (p > .05). There is a significant difference (p < .05) after the treatment, however, except for on HSP70. This study suggests that logotherapy affects the expression of cortisol, BDI, and pain scales in advanced cervical cancer patients, and that it does not affect the expression of HSP70.

  19. Depression (Major Depressive Disorder)

    MedlinePlus

    ... unrelated to the reason for your appointment Key personal information, including any major stresses or recent life ... accompanied by delusions or hallucinations, which may involve personal inadequacy or other negative themes Catatonia — depression that ...

  20. Empirical Evidence for Childhood Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lachar, David

    Although several theoretical positions deal with the concept of childhood depression, accurate measurement of depression can only occur if valid and reliable measures are available. Current efforts emphasize direct questioning of the child and quantification of parents' observations. One scale used to study childhood depression, the Personality…

  1. Caregiver Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... will not sell or share your name. Caregiver Depression Tweet Bookmark this page | Email | Print Many caregivers ... depression See your doctor Treatment Coping Symptoms of depression Caregiving is hard — and can lead to feelings ...

  2. Postpartum depression

    MedlinePlus

    Depression - postpartum; Postnatal depression; Postpartum psychological reactions ... The exact causes of postpartum depression are unknown. Changes in hormone levels during and after pregnancy may affect a woman's mood. Many non-hormonal factors may also ...

  3. Accurate, large-scale genotyping of 5HTTLPR and flanking SNPs in an association study of depression, anxiety and personality measures

    PubMed Central

    Wray, Naomi R; James, Michael R; Gordon, Scott D; Dumenil, Troy; Ryan, Leanne; Coventry, William L; Statham, Dixie J; Pergadia, Michele L; Madden, Pamela AF; Heath, Andrew C; Montgomery, Grant W; Martin, Nicholas G

    2011-01-01

    Background 5HTTLPR, the length polymorphism repeat in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5HTT renamed SLC6A4) is one of the most studied polymorphisms for association with a range of psychiatric and personality phenotypes. However, the original 5HTTLPR assay is prone to bias toward short allele calling. Methods We designed new assays for the 5HTTLPR suitable for large scale genotyping projects and we genotyped 13 SNPs in a 38kb region around the 5HTTLPR including SNP rs25531, a polymorphism of the 5HTTLPR long allele. Association analysis was conducted for major depression and/or anxiety disorder in unrelated cases (N = 1161) and controls (N = 1051) identified through psychiatric interviews administered to a large population sample of Australian twin families. Participants had been scored for personality traits of neuroticism, extraversion and harm avoidance several years earlier (N ≥ 2643 unrelated individuals). Results Using the linkage disequilibrium (LD) between markers we identified a two SNP haplotype proxy for 5HTTLPR; the CA haplotype of SNPs rs4251417 and rs2020934 is coupled with the short allele of 5HTTLPR (r2 = 0.72). We found evidence for association (p=0.0062, after accounting for multiple testing) for SLC6A4 SNPs rs6354 and rs2020936 (positioned in a different LD block about 15.5kb from 5HTTLPR) with anxiety and/or depression and neuroticism, with the strongest association for recurrent depression with onset in young adulthood (OR = 1.55, 95% CI 1.16–2.06). Conclusions The associated SNPs are in the same LD block as the VNTR STin2, for which association has previously been reported. PMID:19541292

  4. Ethnicity, music experience, and depression.

    PubMed

    Werner, Paul D; Swope, Alan J; Heide, Frederick J

    2009-01-01

    The researchers studied differences in self-reported music experience and depression across ethnic groups, as well as differences in the relationship between music experience and depression across groups. College participants (78 African Americans, 111 Asian Americans, 218 Whites, and 87 in other ethnic groups) completed the Music Experience Questionnaire (MEQ) and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale. Statistically significant differences across groups were found on depression as well as on the MEQ factor for Subjective/Physical Reactions to music and on MEQ scales for Commitment to Music, Affective Reactions, Positive Psychotropic Effects, and Reactive Musical Behavior. A distinctive pattern of relationship was found between music variables and depression in the Asian American group, relative to the White and Other group. In particular, among Asian Americans there were negative correlations between depression and the MEQ Subjective/ Physical Reactions factor as well as the Affective Reactions scale. Implications were discussed for the literature on ethnicity and depression, music experience, and music therapy.

  5. Development and validation of brief scales to measure emotional and behavioural problems among Chinese adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Minxue; Hu, Ming; Sun, Zhenqiu

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To develop and validate brief scales to measure common emotional and behavioural problems among adolescents in the examination-oriented education system and collectivistic culture of China. Setting Middle schools in Hunan province. Participants 5442 middle school students aged 11–19 years were sampled. 4727 valid questionnaires were collected and used for validation of the scales. The final sample included 2408 boys and 2319 girls. Primary and secondary outcome measures The tools were assessed by the item response theory, classical test theory (reliability and construct validity) and differential item functioning. Results Four scales to measure anxiety, depression, study problem and sociality problem were established. Exploratory factor analysis showed that each scale had two solutions. Confirmatory factor analysis showed acceptable to good model fit for each scale. Internal consistency and test–retest reliability of all scales were above 0.7. Item response theory showed that all items had acceptable discrimination parameters and most items had appropriate difficulty parameters. 10 items demonstrated differential item functioning with respect to gender. Conclusions Four brief scales were developed and validated among adolescents in middle schools of China. The scales have good psychometric properties with minor differential item functioning. They can be used in middle school settings, and will help school officials to assess the students’ emotional/behavioural problems. PMID:28062469

  6. Factor structures of a Japanese version of the Geriatric Depression Scale and its correlation with the quality of life and functional ability.

    PubMed

    Imai, Hissei; Yamanaka, Gaku; Ishimoto, Yasuko; Kimura, Yumi; Fukutomi, Eriko; Chen, Wen-ling; Matsuoka, Sachi; Tanaka, Mire; Sakamoto, Ryota; Wada, Taizo; Okumiya, Kiyohito; Otsuka, Kuniaki; Matsubayashi, Kozo

    2014-02-28

    We investigated the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) with regard to its factors and, reproducibility, as well as its relationship to activities of daily living, social factors, medical conditions, and quality of life for community-dwelling elderly people in Japan. The study population consisted of 736 community-dwelling elderly participants aged 65 or older. Exploratory factor analysis of the data and correlation coefficients between factors and activities of daily living, quality of life, social factors, and medical conditions were calculated for two consecutive years. The reproducibility of the results was also evaluated. As the result, GDS-15 had three reproducible factors specified as follows: factor I, "energy loss and pessimistic outlook"; factor II, "positive mental status (reversed)"; and factor III, "empty feeling." Comparing our findings with a review of research in this area, positive items (excluding "feel full of energy") seem to compose an universal factor. Factor I correlated best with quality of life, factor II with activities of daily living, and factor III with subjective cognitive function. These results suggest the GDS-15 can be used to assess the functional ability and quality of life, as well as depressive mood in older adults.

  7. Measuring Mathematics Anxiety: Psychometric Analysis of a Bidimensional Affective Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bai, Haiyan; Wang, LihShing; Pan, Wei; Frey, Mary

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a theoretically and methodologically sound bidimensional affective scale measuring mathematics anxiety with high psychometric quality. The psychometric properties of a 14-item Mathematics Anxiety Scale-Revised (MAS-R) adapted from Betz's (1978) 10-item Mathematics Anxiety Scale were empirically analyzed on a…

  8. [Burnout syndrome of human services professionals--doctors, nurses, caregivers, teachers and clerks (1). Maslach Burnout Inventory: factor structures for samples of human services professionals, and its relation with Zung's Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS)].

    PubMed

    Masuko, E; Yamagishi, M; Kishi, R; Miyake, H

    1989-07-01

    During the past decade, burnout syndrome has been widely discussed not only in the USA but also in Japan. To evaluate the state of "burnout," two major scales are available: the first is the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) developed by C. Maslach and the other is the burnout scale by A. Pines. MBI is suggested to be independent of and incompatible with Pines' burnout scale, but, Pines' burnout scale is predominantly used in Japan, while both are used in the USA. Since hardly any studies of burnout using MBI have been made in Japan, we measured and analyzed MBI to evaluate the burnout state of doctors, nurses, caregivers, teachers and clerks who are engaged in "human services professions." The available data were subjected to factor analysis, reliability analysis and multiple regression analysis using Zung's Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS). The following results were obtained. 1) The factor analysis showed that the factor loading pattern was similar to that of Maslach's, but two different factors were emerged in addition to the standard factors in the intensity subscale. 2) In the relationship with the state of depression, burnout is closely related to depression but simultaneously has its own factors. This suggest that burnout is not a subtype of the depressive state.

  9. Breastfeeding in Depressed Mother-Infant Dyads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Feijo, Larissa

    2002-01-01

    Interviewed depressed and non-depressed mothers on their breastfeeding practices and perceptions of their infants' feeding behavior. Found that, compared to non-depressed mothers, depressed mothers breast fed less often, stopped breastfeeding earlier, and scored lower on a breastfeeding confidence scale. Mothers who breastfed rather than bottle…

  10. Are Death Anxiety and Death Depression Distinct Entities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarado, Katherine A.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Administered Death Anxiety Scale and Death Depression Scale to 200 individuals. Two scales correlated 0.55. Factor analysis of combined 32 items revealed factors: "death anxiety" having highest factor loadings with Death Anxiety Scale, "death depression" having highest factor loadings with Death Depression Scale, "death of…

  11. Scales

    MedlinePlus

    Scales are a visible peeling or flaking of outer skin layers. These layers are called the stratum ... Scales may be caused by dry skin, certain inflammatory skin conditions, or infections. Eczema , ringworm , and psoriasis ...

  12. Seasonal metabolic depression, substrate utilisation and changes in scaling patterns during the first year cycle of tegu lizards (Tupinambis merianae).

    PubMed

    de Souza, Silvia Cristina R; de Carvalho, José Eduardo; Abe, Augusto S; Bicudo, José Eduardo P W; Bianconcini, Marilene S C

    2004-01-01

    .75) to values significantly greater than 1.0 in late autumn and during winter dormancy indicates an allometric effect on the degree of metabolic depression related to the size of the fat stores and suggests greater energy conservation in the smaller young.

  13. The Measurement of Self-Rated Depression: A Multidimensional Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolon, Kevin; Barling, Julian

    1980-01-01

    Investigates the capacity of the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale for providing specific multidimensional descriptors of depressive behavior. Ideational, physiological and behavioral depression factors were evident in data from 96 normal, white university student volunteers. (Author/RH)

  14. Development of a Metaconceptual Awareness and Regulation Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirbulut, Zubeyde Demet; Uzuntiryaki-Kondakci, Esen; Beeth, Michael Edward

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to develop the Metaconceptual Awareness and Regulation Scale (MARS) -- a self-report instrument for measuring the extent to which students realise, monitor, and evaluate their ideas. MARS consists of 10 items scored on a six-point Likert scale for two factors: metaconceptual awareness and metaconceptual regulation. A pilot study…

  15. Teen Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... shown that certain types of talk therapy or psychotherapy can help teens deal with depression. These include ... behaviors, and feelings related to depression, and interpersonal psychotherapy, which focuses on working on relationships. Read more ...

  16. Depression Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... 3286 After hours (404) 639-2888 Contact Media Depression Treatment Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... How Do I Know if I Am Experiencing Depression? The following questions may help you determine if ...

  17. Depression Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Centers Diseases + Condition Centers Mental Health Medical Library Depression Screening (PHQ-9) - Instructions The following questions are ... this tool, there is also text-only version . Depression Screening - Manual Instructions The following questions are a ...

  18. Postpartum Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... do not need treatment. The symptoms of postpartum depression last longer and are more severe. You may ... treatment right away, often in the hospital. Postpartum depression can begin anytime within the first year after ...

  19. Understanding Depression

    PubMed Central

    McNair, F. E.

    1981-01-01

    To understand the effects of depression on a patient's life, the physician must be aware how depression manifests itself. Somatic tension, strategies to relieve discomfort and social withdrawal must be recognized as symptoms of depression. An awareness of life situations which can give rise to these symptoms, as well as the effect of the physician's own reactions to the patient's depression, are helpful. PMID:21289767

  20. Development of a standardized training program for the Hamilton Depression Scale using internet-based technologies: results from a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kobak, Kenneth A; Lipsitz, Joshua D; Feiger, Alan

    2003-01-01

    Poor inter-rater reliability is a major concern, contributing to error variance, which decreases power and increases the risk for failed trials. This is particularly problematic with the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD), due to lack of standardized questions or explicit scoring procedures. Establishing standardized procedures for administering and scoring the HAMD is typically done at study initiation meetings. However, the format and time allotted is usually insufficient, and evaluation of the trainee's ability to actually conduct a clinical interview is limited. To address this problem, we developed a web-based, interactive rater education program for standardized training to diverse sites in multi-center trials. The program includes both didactic training on scoring conventions and live, remote observation of trainees applied skills. The program was pilot tested with nine raters from a single site. Results found a significant increase in didactic knowledge pre-to-post testing, with the mean number of incorrect answers decreasing from 6.5 (S.D.=1.64) to 1.3 (S.D.=1.03), t(5)=7.35, P=0.001 (20 item exam). Seventy-five percent of the trainees' interviews were within two points of the trainer's score. Inter-rater reliability (intraclass correlation) (based on trainees actual interviews) was 0.97, P<0.0001. Results support the feasibility of this methodology for improving rater training. An NIMH funded study is currently underway examining this methodology in a multi-site trial.

  1. A new hypothesis and exploratory model for the formation of large-scale inner-shelf sediment sorting and "rippled scour depressions"

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murray, A.B.; Thieler, E.R.

    2004-01-01

    Recent observations of inner continental shelves in many regions show numerous collections of relatively coarse sediment, which extend kilometers in the cross-shore direction and are on the order of 100m wide. These "rippled scour depressions" have been interpreted to indicate concentrated cross-shelf currents. However, recent observations strongly suggest that they are associated with sediment transport along-shore rather than cross-shore. A new hypothesis for the origin of these features involves the large wave-generated ripples that form in the coarse material. Wave motions interacting with these large roughness elements generate near-bed turbulence that is greatly enhanced relative to that in other areas. This enhances entrainment and inhibits settling of fine material in an area dominated by coarse sediment. The fine sediment is then carried by mean currents past the coarse accumulations, and deposited where the bed is finer. We hypothesize that these interactions constitute a feedback tending to produce accumulations of fine material separated by self-perpetuating patches of coarse sediments. As with many types of self-organized bedforms, small features would interact as they migrate, leading to a better-organized, larger-scale pattern. As an initial test of this hypothesis, we use a numerical model treating the transport of coarse and fine sediment fractions, treated as functions of the local bed composition - a proxy for the presence of large roughness elements in coarse areas. Large-scale sorted patterns exhibiting the main characteristics of the natural features result robustly in the model, indicating that this new hypothesis offers a plausible explanation for the phenomena. ?? 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A new hypothesis and exploratory model for the formation of large-scale inner-shelf sediment sorting and ``rippled scour depressions''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, A. Brad; Thieler, E. Robert

    2004-02-01

    Recent observations of inner continental shelves in many regions show numerous collections of relatively coarse sediment, which extend kilometers in the cross-shore direction and are on the order of 100 m wide. These "rippled scour depressions" have been interpreted to indicate concentrated cross-shelf currents. However, recent observations strongly suggest that they are associated with sediment transport along-shore rather than cross-shore. A new hypothesis for the origin of these features involves the large wave-generated ripples that form in the coarse material. Wave motions interacting with these large roughness elements generate near-bed turbulence that is greatly enhanced relative to that in other areas. This enhances entrainment and inhibits settling of fine material in an area dominated by coarse sediment. The fine sediment is then carried by mean currents past the coarse accumulations, and deposited where the bed is finer. We hypothesize that these interactions constitute a feedback tending to produce accumulations of fine material separated by self-perpetuating patches of coarse sediments. As with many types of self-organized bedforms, small features would interact as they migrate, leading to a better-organized, larger-scale pattern. As an initial test of this hypothesis, we use a numerical model treating the transport of coarse and fine sediment fractions, treated as functions of the local bed composition—a proxy for the presence of large roughness elements in coarse areas. Large-scale sorted patterns exhibiting the main characteristics of the natural features result robustly in the model, indicating that this new hypothesis offers a plausible explanation for the phenomena.

  3. Post adoption depression.

    PubMed

    Fields, Eve S; Meuchel, Jennifer M; Jaffe, Chiara J; Jha, Manish; Payne, Jennifer L

    2010-04-01

    We sought to evaluate the prevalence rate and factors associated with post adoption depression. One hundred and twelve adoptive mothers of infants under 12 months of age were recruited from local and national adoption organizations. A modified Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and a questionnaire collecting medical and psychiatric history, perceived stress, and demographics were administered retrospectively. The rates of significant depressive symptoms (defined as EPDS >or=12) were calculated at three time points post adoption, and associations with specific clinical variables (personal or family psychiatric history, stress, and adjustment difficulty) were assessed. Eighty-six mothers were included. Rates of significant depressive symptoms (EPDS >or=12) were found in 27.9% of subjects at 0-4 weeks, 25.6% at 5-12 weeks, and 12.8% at 13-52 weeks post adoption. Significant depressive symptoms were not associated with personal or family psychiatric history but were associated with stress (p = 0.0011) and adjustment difficulties (p = 0.042) post adoption. Significant depressive symptoms were relatively common in adoptive mothers within the first year after adoption and were associated with environmental stress. Prospective studies are needed to confirm the existence of post adoption depression and the factors associated with it.

  4. Symptom differentiation of anxiety and depression across youth development and clinic-referred/nonreferred samples: An examination of competing factor structures of the Child Behavior Checklist DSM-oriented scales.

    PubMed

    Price, Maggi; Higa-McMillan, Charmaine; Ebesutani, Chad; Okamura, Kelsie; Nakamura, Brad J; Chorpita, Bruce F; Weisz, John

    2013-11-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of the DSM-oriented scales of the Child Behavior Checklist (Achenbach, Dumenci, & Rescorla, 2003) using confirmatory factor analysis to compare the six-factor structure of the DSM-oriented scales to competing models consistent with developmental theories of symptom differentiation. We tested these models on both clinic-referred (N = 757) and school-based, nonreferred (N = 713) samples of youths in order to assess the generalizability of the factorial structures. Although previous research has supported the fit of the six-factor DSM-oriented structure in a normative sample of youths ages 7 to 18 (Achenbach & Rescorla, 2001), tripartite model research indicates that anxiety and depressive symptomology are less differentiated among children compared to adolescents (Jacques & Mash, 2004). We thus examined the relative fit of a six- and a five-factor model (collapsing anxiety and depression) with younger (ages 7-10) and older (ages 11-18) youth subsamples. The results revealed that the six-factor model fit the best in all samples except among younger nonclinical children. The results extended the generalizability of the rationally derived six-factor structure of the DSM-oriented scales to clinic-referred youths and provided further support to the notion that younger children in nonclinical samples exhibit less differentiated symptoms of anxiety and depression.

  5. Personality in recovered depressed elderly.

    PubMed

    Schneider, L S; Zemansky, M F; Bender, M; Sloane, R B

    1992-01-01

    Personality traits in euthymic elderly subjects with and without past histories of major depressive episodes were assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R and the Social Adjustment Scale-SR. Recovered depressed subjects were characterized by significantly more personality traits from DSM-III-R Clusters B and C than controls, and they exhibited differences in social adjustment, as well. Subjects who have recovered from depressive episodes may show significant differences in personality and social adjustment that might represent residua of past depression, a trait characteristic, or a risk factor for recurrence.

  6. Garden walking for depression: a research report.

    PubMed

    McCaffrey, Ruth; Hanson, Claire; McCaffrey, William

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the effect of garden walking and reflective journaling on adults who are 65 years old and older with depression. The Geriatric Depression Scale measured depression. Four themes emerged from the interview data collected from each participant.

  7. Up-scaling clinician assisted internet cognitive behavioural therapy (iCBT) for depression: A model for dissemination into primary care.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Gavin; Williams, Alishia D

    2015-11-01

    Depression is a global health problem but only a minority of people with depression receive even minimally adequate treatment. Internet delivered automated cognitive behaviour therapy (iCBT) which is easily distributed and in which fidelity is guaranteed could be one solution to the problem of increasing coverage. In this review of iCBT for Major Depressive Disorder in adults, we address the concerns of clinicians in utilizing this technology by reviewing the research evidence with reference to efficacy and effectiveness and presenting a model for dissemination and uptake of iCBT into practice. This review includes studies of participants who would meet criteria for major depressive disorder who were supported as they learnt and implemented changes in thoughts, emotions and behaviours by using cognitive behaviour principles. We conclude that this form of treatment is effective and acceptable to both patients and clinicians.

  8. [Depression in the very elderly].

    PubMed

    Linden, M; Kurtz, G; Baltes, M M; Geiselmann, B; Lang, F R; Reischies, F M; Helmchen, H

    1998-01-01

    In the Berlin Aging Study (BASE) an age and gender stratified sample of 516 persons aged 70 to over 100 was assessed by means of the semi-structured GMS-A interview, the CES-D-self-rating scale and the Hamiltion-Depression-observer-rating scale. Prevalence rates were 4.8% for Major Depression, 9.1% for all DSM III-R specified depressive disorders and 26.9% of subthreshold depression was included. There was no increase in prevalence rates with age but an increase in scores on the self rating CES-D. The prevalence rates for DSM III-R specified depression in females was 10.3% and almost double that of men (5.6%). Depressed persons do not show significant cognitive impairment as measured with the MMSE in comparison to controls. As compared to the total sample higher prevalence rates of overall depression were seen in persons with multimorbidity (36.8%) and lower rates in married persons. 13.2% of the elderly talked about feeling tired with life, 7.9% had thoughts about death and 1.2% reported suicidal ideation, which was closely linked to depressive disorders. In 44% of depressed cases undertreatment was observed. Only 6% got Antidepressants but 40% benzodiazepines.

  9. [Memory processes in endogenous depression].

    PubMed

    Radziwiłłowicz, W; Radziwiłłowicz, P

    1998-01-01

    The thesis aims to answer the questions about the profile of mental ability in endogenous depression and to decide whether self-estimation of depressive symptoms influences the results achieved by patients in memory tests. Fifty six patients suffering from endogenous depression have been examined. The following methods have been applied: Mini Mental State Examination, Benton Visual Retention Test, Beck Depression Inventory, hold tests: Vocabulary, Information, Comprehension and Digit Span of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure, Auditory Verbal Learning Test, DCS Weidlich. General status of cognitive functions correlates with the profile of specific kinds of memory results, particularly with delayed memory. Self-estimation of depressive symptoms intensity is mostly influenced by memory capacity, visuomotorial factor, functions of perception and lingual factor. High correlation between verbal and non verbal learning shows uniform influence of depression on the process of learning.

  10. Death Depression and Death Anxiety in HIV-Infected Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hintze, Julie; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Administered Death Anxiety Scale, Death Depression Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Scale, and questionnaire assessing demographic and life-situation variables to 94 human immunodeficiency virus-infected gay men. Higher death anxiety and death depression were most highly correlated with state anxiety, trait anxiety,…

  11. Scales

    ScienceCinema

    Murray Gibson

    2016-07-12

    Musical scales involve notes that, sounded simultaneously (chords), sound good together. The result is the left brain meeting the right brain — a Pythagorean interval of overlapping notes. This synergy would suggest less difference between the working of the right brain and the left brain than common wisdom would dictate. The pleasing sound of harmony comes when two notes share a common harmonic, meaning that their frequencies are in simple integer ratios, such as 3/2 (G/C) or 5/4 (E/C).

  12. Scales

    SciTech Connect

    Murray Gibson

    2007-04-27

    Musical scales involve notes that, sounded simultaneously (chords), sound good together. The result is the left brain meeting the right brain — a Pythagorean interval of overlapping notes. This synergy would suggest less difference between the working of the right brain and the left brain than common wisdom would dictate. The pleasing sound of harmony comes when two notes share a common harmonic, meaning that their frequencies are in simple integer ratios, such as 3/2 (G/C) or 5/4 (E/C).

  13. Perceived Family Support, Depression, and Suicidal Ideation among People Living with HIV/AIDS: A Cross-Sectional Study in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Amiya, Rachel M.; Poudel, Krishna C.; Poudel-Tandukar, Kalpana; Pandey, Basu D.; Jimba, Masamine

    2014-01-01

    Background Depression and suicidal thinking occur frequently alongside HIV/AIDS, triggering profound detrimental impacts on quality of life, treatment adherence, disease progression, and mortality. Yet the psychosocial factors contributing to these psychiatric comorbidities remain underexplored, particularly in the developing country context. This study thus examined different dimensions of perceived family support in relation to depression and suicidal ideation among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Nepal. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 322 adult PLWHA residing in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal was conducted. Data were analyzed using multiple logistic regressions for correlates of Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)-Ia-defined depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation in the past 2 weeks. Perceived family support, measured using the 10-item Nepali Family Support and Difficulty Scale, was entered into separate models, in turn, as a composite score, for each sub-scale (emotional, instrumental, and negative support), and for each individual item. Results Overall, 25.5% of participants registered BDI-Ia-defined depression, with significantly lower rates among those with perceived family support scores in the highest (AOR = 0.19; 95% CI = 0.07, 0.55) and middle (AOR = 0.38; 95% CI = 0.17, 0.86) tertiles relative to those with lowest-tertile scores. Meanwhile, 14.0% reported suicidal thinking, with significantly lower rates among those in the highest perceived family support tertile relative to the lowest (AOR = 0.25; 95% CI = 0.07, 0.91). Broken down by support sub-scale, only negative support (i.e. family difficulty) was significant in its correlations with both outcomes – a trend similarly reflected in the item-wise analyses. Conclusions Our findings highlight an important role for family support in determining experiences of depression and suicidality among PLWHA. Incorporating family counseling and support services – with special

  14. Maternal depression and developmental disability: research critique.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Donald B; Golden, Robert N; Roberts, Jane; Ford, Amy

    2007-01-01

    Maternal depression in families having a child with a disability has been the subject of considerable research over the past 25 years. This review was designed to describe the literature on maternal depression, critique its research methodology, identify consensus findings across studies, and make recommendations for future research. A particular emphasis is on the distinction between exhibiting depressive symptoms and meeting clinical criteria for a depressive disorder, how or whether research studies made this distinction, and implications for our understanding of maternal adaptation to disability in a family member. Of the 42 articles reviewed, only eight were clinically diagnosed depression; most of them used a scale rating depressive symptoms. Across the studies, mothers of children with disabilities generally exhibited a higher than average rate of depressive symptoms and are more at risk for clinical depression, but the incidence may be lower than reported in previous literature. Child behavior problems, maternal stress, coping style, and support were consistently associated with depressive symptoms. We conclude that we know relatively little about clinical depression in mothers of children with disabilities. The distinction between clinical depression and depressive symptoms may be important in conceptualizing how a child with a disability can influence family members and the nature of support that may need to be provided. Future research should incorporate gold standard diagnostic tools and assess history, severity, and type of depression. Research is also needed to study treatments to reduce the occurrence of both depressive symptoms and clinical depression.

  15. Major depression.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Susan M; Pagalilauan, Genevieve L; Simpson, Scott A

    2014-09-01

    Major depression is a common, disabling condition seen frequently in primary care practices. Non-psychiatrist ambulatory providers are increasingly responsible for diagnosing, and primarily managing patients suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD). The goal of this review is to help primary care providers to understand the natural history of MDD, identify practical tools for screening, and a thoughtful approach to management. Clinically challenging topics like co-morbid conditions, treatment resistant depression and pharmacotherapy selection with consideration to side effects and medication interactions, are also covered.

  16. Development and Validation of a Teaching Practice Scale (TISS) for Instructors of Introductory Statistics at the College Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassad, Rossi A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the teaching practices of 227 college instructors of introductory statistics (from the health and behavioral sciences). Using primarily multidimensional scaling (MDS) techniques, a two-dimensional, 10-item teaching practice scale, TISS (Teaching of Introductory Statistics Scale), was developed and validated. The two dimensions…

  17. Trajectories of depressive symptoms after hip fracture

    PubMed Central

    Cristancho, P.; Lenze, E. J.; Avidan, M. S.; Rawson, K. S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Hip fracture is often complicated by depressive symptoms in older adults. We sought to characterize trajectories of depressive symptoms arising after hip fracture and examine their relationship with functional outcomes and walking ability. We also investigated clinical and psychosocial predictors of these trajectories. Method We enrolled 482 inpatients, aged ≥60 years, who were admitted for hip fracture repair at eight St Louis, MO area hospitals between 2008 and 2012. Participants with current depression diagnosis and/or notable cognitive impairment were excluded. Depressive symptoms and functional recovery were assessed with the Montgomery–Asberg Depression Rating Scale and Functional Recovery Score, respectively, for 52 weeks after fracture. Health, cognitive, and psychosocial variables were gathered at baseline. We modeled depressive symptoms using group-based trajectory analysis and subsequently identified correlates of trajectory group membership. Results Three trajectories emerged according to the course of depressive symptoms, which we termed ‘resilient’, ‘distressed’, and ‘depressed’. The depressed trajectory (10% of participants) experienced a persistently high level of depressive symptoms and a slower time to recover mobility than the other trajectory groups. Stressful life events prior to the fracture, current smoking, higher anxiety, less social support, antidepressant use, past depression, and type of implant predicted membership of the depressed trajectory. Conclusions Depressive symptoms arising after hip fracture are associated with poorer functional status. Clinical and psychosocial variables predicted membership of the depression trajectory. Early identification and intervention of patients in a depressive trajectory may improve functional outcomes after hip fracture. PMID:27032698

  18. Depressive symptoms and cognitive performance in older adults.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Hiroyuki; Park, Hyuntae; Makizako, Hyuma; Doi, Takehiko; Lee, Sangyoon; Suzuki, Takao

    2014-10-01

    Many longitudinal studies have found that older adults with depressive symptoms or depression have increased risk of cognitive impairment. We investigated the relationships between depressive symptoms or depression, cognitive function, serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and volumetric MRI measurements in older adults. A total of 4352 individuals aged 65 years or older (mean age 72 years) participated in the study. We investigated medical history and geriatric depression scale-15 (GDS-15) items to determine depression and depressive symptoms. Cognitive tests included the mini-mental state examination (MMSE), story memory, word list memory, trail-making tests, and the symbol digit substitution task. Of the 4352 participants, 570 (13%) fulfilled the criteria for depressive symptoms (GDS-15: 6 + points) and 87 (2%) were diagnosed with depression. All cognitive tests showed significant differences between the 'no depressive symptoms', 'depressive symptoms', and 'depression' groups. The 'depressive symptoms' and 'depression' groups showed lower serum BDNF (p < 0.001) concentrations than the 'no depressive symptoms' group. The 'depressive symptoms' group exhibited greater atrophy of the right medial temporal lobe than did the 'no depressive symptoms' group (p = 0.023). These results suggest that memory, executive function, and processing speed examinations are useful to identify cognitive decline in older adults who have depressive symptoms and depression. Serum BDNF concentration and atrophy of the right medial temporal lobe may in part mediate the relationships between depressive symptoms and cognitive decline.

  19. [Pediatric depression].

    PubMed

    Eggers, C

    1988-12-01

    In 12 children between 6 and 12 years of age who were treated as inpatients for depression (diagnosed according to the Weinberg-criteria, a child-adapted modification of DSM-III-criteria), a close relationship was found between family pathology, psychodynamics and depression. The conflicts in the interactions between the depressed children and their caregivers became evident in the children's drawings, in the Scenotest and in play therapy. In play therapy the repressed feelings of powerlessness, helplessness, disappointment, resignation and anger came to light. The children had a pseudo-stabilizing function in the family that placed too heavy demands on them, with the result that they became dependent and helpless and tended to despair. A situation developed that can be characterized as "learned helplessness" and that is a useful behavioral-physiological and neurobiological model of depression for different age groups.

  20. Adolescent Depression

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Mary N.; Peterson, John; Sheldon, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Depression in adolescence and adulthood is common, afflicting up to 20 percent of these populations. It represents a significant public health concern and is associated with considerable suffering and functional impairment. Adolescent-onset depression tends to be a particularly malignant and recalcitrant condition, increasing the likelihood of recurrence and chronicity in adulthood. Clinical presentations for various medical and psychiatric conditions, as well as reactions to psychosocial stressors, can mimic or confound the picture of depression in adolescents. Therefore, careful assessment and differential diagnosis is essential. Effective treatments, both pharmacological and psychosocial in nature, exist, and so early detection and intervention is paramount. This article presents an overview of optimal prevention, assessment, and clinical decision-making strategies for managing depression in adolescents. PMID:19855857

  1. Postpartum Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... It's important for new mothers — and those who love them — to understand the symptoms of postpartum depression ... Once she's receiving the care she needs, support, love, and friendship are good medicine, too. Here are ...

  2. Relationship between religiosity and psychopathology in patients with depression

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Swapnil; Avasthi, Ajit; Kumar, Suresh

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare the psychopathology between depressed patients with low religiosity and those with high religiosity and to correlate the level of religiosity with the psychopathology in the psychiatric clinic of a general hospital in Chandigarh, North India. Materials and Methods: Thirty depressed patients with low religiosity and 30 patients with high religiosity were assessed on the Religiosity Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Beck Hopelessness Scale and Suicidal Intent Questionnaire. Results: In the patients with depression, hopelessness and suicidal intent correlated negatively with the level of religiosity. Conclusion: In depressed patients, hopelessness and suicidal intent are inversely related to the level of religiosity. PMID:22303042

  3. Adolescents and Young Adults with Down Syndrome Presenting to a Medical Clinic with Depression: Phenomenology and Characterization Using the Reiss Scales and Aberrant Behavior Checklist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capone, George T.; Aidikoff, Jenna M.; Goyal, Parag

    2011-01-01

    Caretakers of adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome (DS) may report the onset of a depressive illness in previously mentally well individuals. However, the behavioral phenomenology of these conditions has not been well characterized. We ascertained a cohort of DS patient-subjects presenting to a specialty clinic with medical and/or…

  4. The Diagnostic Drawing Series and the Tree Rating Scale: An Isomorphic Representation of Multiple Personality Disorder, Major Depression, and Schizophrenic Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Maureen Batza

    1995-01-01

    The tree drawings of 80 subjects, who were diagnosed with either multiple personality disorder, schizophrenia, or major depression, and a control group, were rated. Patterns were examined and graphs were used to depict results. Certain features were found to distinguish each category. The descriptive statistical findings were both consistent and…

  5. Outcomes of Depression in Black Single Mothers.

    PubMed

    Atkins, Rahshida L

    2016-02-24

    Despite suggestions in the literature that depression has serious consequences, few studies have examined specific health and psychosocial outcomes of depression in Black single mothers. The purpose of this study was to estimate paths in a just-identified theoretical model of outcomes of depression for Black single mothers based on theoretical propositions and empirical findings. The model included the variables, depressive cognitions, depressive symptomatology, perceived social support, and positive health practices. Five direct and two indirect hypothesized relationships were estimated using structural equation modeling. A nonprobability sample of convenience of 159 Black single mothers aged 18 to 45 years was recruited for the study. This study used a cross-sectional correlational design. The participants responded in person or via the U.S. mail to the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale, the Depressive Cognition Scale, the Personal Resource Questionnaire 85-Part 2, and the Personal Lifestyle Questionnaire. Beta and Gamma path coefficients were statistically significant for four out of five hypothesized direct relationships within the model (p < .01). The direct path between depressive cognitions and positive health practices was not supported (Gamma = -.11, p > .05). The two indirect paths were weak but statistically significant (p < .01). Depressive symptoms and perceived social support were outcomes of depressive cognitions. Positive health practices was not a direct outcome of depressive cognitions. Perceived social support and positive health practices were outcomes of depressive symptoms.

  6. Shared genetic factors in migraine and depression

    PubMed Central

    Stam, A H.; de Vries, B; Janssens, A C.J.W.; Vanmolkot, K R.J.; Aulchenko, Y S.; Henneman, P; Oostra, B A.; Frants, R R.; van den Maagdenberg, A M.J.M.; Ferrari, M D.; van Duijn, C M.; Terwindt, G M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the co-occurrence of migraine and depression and assess whether shared genetic factors may underlie both diseases. Methods: Subjects were 2,652 participants of the Erasmus Rucphen Family genetic isolate study. Migraine was diagnosed using a validated 3-stage screening method that included a telephone interview. Symptoms of depression were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale and the depression subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D). The contribution of shared genetic factors in migraine and depression was investigated by comparing heritability estimates for migraine with and without adjustment for symptoms of depression, and by comparing the heritability scores of depression between migraineurs and controls. Results: We identified 360 migraine cases: 209 had migraine without aura (MO) and 151 had migraine with aura (MA). Odds ratios for depression in patients with migraine were 1.29 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.98–1.70) for MO and 1.70 (95% CI 1.28–2.24) for MA. Heritability estimates were significant for all migraine (0.56), MO (0.77), and MA (0.96), and decreased after adjustment for symptoms of depression or use of antidepressant medication, in particular for MA. Comparison of the heritability scores for depression between patients with migraine and controls showed a genetic correlation between HADS-D score and MA. Conclusions: There is a bidirectional association between depression and migraine, in particular migraine with aura, which can be explained, at least partly, by shared genetic factors. GLOSSARY CES-D = Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale; CI = confidence interval; ERF = Erasmus Rucphen Family; HADS-D = Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; IHS = International Headache Society; MA = migraine with aura; MO = migraine without aura; OR = odds ratio. PMID:20071666

  7. [Are Depressed People Aggressive People? Differences Between General Population and Depressive Patients].

    PubMed

    Otte, Stefanie; Lang, Fabian U; Vasic, Nenad; Shenar, Riad; Rasche, Katharina; Ramb, Charlotte; Dudeck, Manuela; Streb, Judith

    2017-01-01

    IntroductionThe study aimed to investigate the relationship between depression and aggression. Material and Methods681 depressive and non-depressive subjects of the general population as well as 132 depressive patients completed the Beck Depression Inventory Revised (BDI-II) as well as the Short Questionnaire for Gathering Factors of Aggressiveness (K-FAF). ResultsDepressive patients and depressive subjects of the general population did not merely report the highest levels of self-aggressiveness but also reached the highest scores on the scales of reactive and proactive aggression, indicating a high level of externalizing aggressiveness. DiscussionThe results support the neurobiological approach of the etiology of depressive disorders. Conclusions For future research of depressive disorders and aggression the investigation of the mediating roles of a low serotonin-level is recommended.

  8. Acculturation and Depression among Puerto Ricans in the Mainland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Blanca M.

    2005-01-01

    The relationship between acculturation and depression in a sample of 1,510 Puerto Ricans residing in the U.S. was examined. Acculturation was measured by assessing subjects' spoken, preferred, read, and written language. Depression was evaluated by the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. The scale yielded a three-factor structure…

  9. Relationship between dietary patterns and depressive symptoms: difference by gender, and unipolar and bipolar depression.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Rituna; Hiraoka, Mami; Watanabe, Yoshinori; Kagawa, Yasuo

    2013-01-01

    Although several studies have reported associations of depressive state with specific nutrients and foods, few have examined the associations with dietary patterns in adults. We investigated the association between major dietary patterns and depressive symptoms in Japanese patients with depression. Subjects were 166 Japanese patients (104 men and 62 women), aged 22-74 y, who were treated at a hospital psychiatry clinic in Tokyo. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Himorogi Self-rating Depression Scale (H-SDS) and Himorogi Self-rating Anxiety Scale (H-SAS). We categorized depressive symptoms into 3 types: physical, psychiatric, and anxiety symptoms. Dietary patterns were derived using principal component analysis of the consumption of 59 food and beverage items, which was assessed by a validated brief diet history questionnaire. Three dietary patterns were identified: 1) "plant foods and fish products," 2) "fish," and 3) "Western/meat." We calculated the correlation coefficients for the relationship between each dietary pattern score and depressive symptom score in unipolar depression vs. bipolar depression and in men vs. women. In bipolar depression, the plant foods and fish products pattern showed an inverse relationship with physical and psychiatric symptoms, and in men, this pattern showed an inverse relationship with psychiatric symptoms. The fish pattern and Western/meat pattern were not significantly associated with the 3 types of depressive symptoms. In conclusion, we identified 3 dietary patterns and found that associations between these patterns and depressive symptoms were observed only in bipolar depression and only in men.

  10. Depression and Caregiving

    MedlinePlus

    ... FCA - A A + A You are here Home Depression and Caregiving Order this publication Printer-friendly version ... a more serious depression over time. Symptoms of Depression People experience depression in different ways. Some may ...

  11. Depression and Multiple Sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Symptoms Depression Share this page Facebook Twitter Email Depression Depression Fatigue Walking (Gait) Difficulties Numbness or Tingling ... away from addictive substances such as alcohol. Clinical depression It’s important to distinguish between mild, everyday “blues” — ...

  12. Older Adults and Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... find more information? Reprints Share Older Adults and Depression Download PDF Download ePub Order a free hardcopy ... depression need treatment to feel better. Types of Depression There are several types of depression. The most ...

  13. Depression, Depression Treatment, and Insulin Sensitivity in Adults at Risk for Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Julie; Allen, Nancy A.; Swalley, Leah M.; Melkus, Gail D.; Whittemore, Robin

    2009-01-01

    Aims To compare insulin sensitivity (Si) in adults at risk for type 2 diabetes (T2DM) who were categorized as non-depressed, treated for depression and untreated depression after controlling for PA (PA). Methods Baseline data was analyzed from individuals enrolled in a diabetes prevention program (n=56). Si was calculated using the whole body insulin sensitivity method. The Centers for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD) was used to assess depressive symptoms and depressed cases were identified using a cutoff of ≥16. Depression treatment was identified using a self-report form validated by medical chart review. The PA subscale of the Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile was used to determine PA levels. Results One third of participants had elevated depressive symptoms; 19% were taking antidepressant medication. Mean Si was 3.0 (±1.9). In ANOVA, depressed individuals (M=1.79±0.91) showed significantly lower Si than non-depressed individuals (M=3.39±1.78). However, individuals taking antidepressant medications had Si similar to non-depressed individuals (M=3.10±1.86: p=.63). In ANCOVA this association remained after controlling for PA. Conclusions These data suggest that in adults at high risk for T2DM, depression treatment may improve insulin resistance observed in depression. Healthcare practitioners are encouraged to screen, treat, or refer their patients with depression for treatment. PMID:19720419

  14. Computerised cognitive behaviour therapy (cCBT) as treatment for depression in primary care (REEACT trial): large scale pragmatic randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Littlewood, Elizabeth; Hewitt, Catherine; Brierley, Gwen; Tharmanathan, Puvan; Araya, Ricardo; Barkham, Michael; Bower, Peter; Cooper, Cindy; Gask, Linda; Kessler, David; Lester, Helen; Lovell, Karina; Parry, Glenys; Richards, David A; Andersen, Phil; Brabyn, Sally; Knowles, Sarah; Shepherd, Charles; Tallon, Debbie; White, David

    2015-01-01

    Study question How effective is supported computerised cognitive behaviour therapy (cCBT) as an adjunct to usual primary care for adults with depression? Methods This was a pragmatic, multicentre, three arm, parallel randomised controlled trial with simple randomisation. Treatment allocation was not blinded. Participants were adults with symptoms of depression (score ≥10 on nine item patient health questionnaire, PHQ-9) who were randomised to receive a commercially produced cCBT programme (“Beating the Blues”) or a free to use cCBT programme (MoodGYM) in addition to usual GP care. Participants were supported and encouraged to complete the programme via weekly telephone calls. Control participants were offered usual GP care, with no constraints on the range of treatments that could be accessed. The primary outcome was severity of depression assessed with the PHQ-9 at four months. Secondary outcomes included health related quality of life (measured by SF-36) and psychological wellbeing (measured by CORE-OM) at four, 12, and 24 months and depression at 12 and 24 months. Study answer and limitations Participants offered commercial or free to use cCBT experienced no additional improvement in depression compared with usual GP care at four months (odds ratio 1.19 (95% confidence interval 0.75 to 1.88) for Beating the Blues v usual GP care; 0.98 (0.62 to 1.56) for MoodGYM v usual GP care). There was no evidence of an overall difference between either programme compared with usual GP care (0.99 (0.57 to 1.70) and 0.68 (0.42 to 1.10), respectively) at any time point. Commercially provided cCBT conferred no additional benefit over free to use cCBT or usual GP care at any follow-up point. Uptake and use of cCBT was low, despite regular telephone support. Nearly a quarter of participants (24%) had dropped out by four months. The study did not have enough power to detect small differences so these cannot be ruled out. Findings cannot be generalised to cCBT offered with a

  15. A Practical Measure of Student Motivation: Establishing Validity Evidence for the Expectancy-Value-Cost Scale in Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosovich, Jeff J.; Hulleman, Chris S.; Barron, Kenneth E.; Getty, Steve

    2015-01-01

    We present validity evidence for the Expectancy-Value-Cost (EVC) Scale of student motivation. Using a brief, 10-item scale, we measured middle school students' expectancy, value, and cost for their math and science classes in the Fall and Winter of the same academic year. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the three-factor structure of the EVC…

  16. Labor Supply of Poor Residents in Metropolitan Miami, Florida: The Role of Depression and the Co-Morbid Effects of Substance Use.

    PubMed

    Alexandre, Pierre K.; French, Michael T.

    2001-12-01

    use and problem drinking as defined by the 10-item Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST-10). Based on criteria defined in the MAST-10, 26 percent of the depressed individuals were problematic alcohol users (PAUs) compared to about 16 percent of the non-depressed sample.METHODS: The labor supply measures included employment in the past 30 days and number of weeks worked in the past 12 months. The analysis estimated a univariate probit model of employment as well as a bivariate probit model of depression and employment, which accounted for the possible correlation between the unobserved determinants of depression and employment. The annual weeks worked specification was estimated by a standard Tobit model as well as an instrumental variable (IV) Tobit model, which, in addition to the censoring of the observations, accounted for the possible endogeneity of depression. The stability of the estimated effects of depression to comorbid illicit drug and alcohol use was assessed, by controlling for CDU and PAU in these models. RESULTS: Results from both the univariate probit and the bivariate probit models indicate that depression significantly decreased the probability of being employed. Specifically, depression reduced the probability of employment by an average of 19 percentage points in both models, from a sample average of 43 percent for the non- depressed to 24 percent for the depressed. Estimates from the Tobit models revealed that depression also significantly reduced the number of weeks worked. Conditional on being employed, depressed individuals worked an average of 7 fewer annual weeks than the non-depressed sample in the univariate Tobit model and 8 fewer weeks in the IV Tobit. The findings also showed that the effects of depression on employment and annual weeks worked may be over-estimated if the analysis does not account for the comorbid influence of substance use. IMPLICATIONS FOR HEALTH CARE PROVISION AND USE: The results suggest that prevention and

  17. A Psychometric Evaluation of the CDRS and MADRS in Assessing Depressive Symptoms in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jain, Shailesh; Carmody, Thomas J.; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Hughes, Carroll; Bernstein, Ira H.; Morris, David W.; Emslie, Graham J.; Rush, A. John

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study compared the psychometric properties of the Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R) and the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) in children with major depressive disorder. Method: Children (N = 96; ages 8 to 11 years inclusive) with nonpsychotic major depressive disorder were enrolled. Participants…

  18. Parental Depression and Divorce and Adult Children's Well-Being: The Role of Family Unpredictability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Lisa Thomson; Wynne, Stacie

    2010-01-01

    We examined how parental depression and divorce are associated with anxiety and depression among college students (N = 126; 83% female; 89% Caucasian). Participants provided retrospective recollections of their parents' depression, and they completed The Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale and portions of the Trait Anxiety Scale. In…

  19. Screening for Depression Patients in Family Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Alic, Alma; Pranjic, Nurka; Selmanovic, Senada; Alibasic, Esad; Alic, Fahrudin; Ramic, Enisa; Spahic-Sarajlic, Selvedina

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Goal: The aims are to establish the prevalence of newfound, unidentified cases of depressive disorder by screening with the Becks Depression scale; To establish a comparative relationship with self-identified cases of depression in the patients in the family medicine; To assess the significance of the BDI in screening practice of family medicine. Patients and methods: A prospective study was conducted anonymously by Beck's Depression scale (Beck Depression Questionnaire org.-BDI) and specially created short questionnaire. The study included 250 randomly selected patients (20-60 years), users of services in family medicine in “Dom Zdravlja” Zenica, and the final number of respondents with included in the study was 126 (51 male, 75 female; response or response rate 50.4%). Exclusion factor was previously diagnosed and treated mental disorder. Participation was voluntary and respondents acknowledge the validity of completing the questionnaire. BDI consists of 21 items. Answers to questions about symptoms were ranked according to the Likert type scale responses from 0-4 (from irrelevant to very much). Respondents expressed themselves on personal perception of depression, whether are or not depressed. Results: Depression was observed in 48% of patients compared to 31% in self estimate depression analyzed the questionnaires. The negative trend in the misrecognition of depression is -17% (48:31). Depression was significantly more frequent in unemployed compared to employed respondents (p=0.001). The leading symptom in both sexes is the perception of lost hope (59% of cases). Conclusion: All respondents in family medicine care in Zenica showed a high percentage of newly detected (17%) patients with previously unrecognized depression. BDI is a really simple and effective screening tool for the detection and identification of persons with symptoms of depression. PMID:24783910

  20. Apathy and depression in Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Oguru, Miyako; Tachibana, Hisao; Toda, Kazuo; Okuda, Bungo; Oka, Nobuyuki

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and clinical correlates of apathy and depression in Parkinson disease (PD), and to clarify whether apathy can be dissociated from depression. One hundred fifty patients with PD completed the Beck Depression Inventory Second Edition (BDI-II), Starkstein's Apathy Scale (AS), and a quality of life (QOL) battery. Hoehn and Yahr (HY) staging, the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) were performed on the same day. Apathy (AS score > or = 16) was diagnosed in 60% of patients and depression (BDI-II score > or = 14) in 56%. Apathy coexisted with depression in 43% of patients, compared with depression without apathy in 13% and apathy without depression in 17%. Apathy scale score was significantly correlated with UPDRS scores, HY stage, and age, whereas BDI-II score was correlated only with UPDRS scores. Both AS and BDI-II scores were negatively correlated with QOL. However, multiple regression analysis revealed that depression was strongly and negatively associated with emotional well-being and communication, whereas apathy was mainly associated with cognition and stigma. These findings suggest that apathy and depression may be separable in PD, although both are common in patients with PD and are associated with QOL.

  1. Screening for depression in a primary care setting in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Nguyen-Lan D; Hunt, D Daniel; Scott, Craig S

    2005-02-01

    A Vietnamese Depression Scale (VDS) was developed in 1982 in the United States and has been used as a screening tool for depression and as the basis for a standardized interview to assess depression in the Vietnamese refugee populations. In this current study, the VDS was used in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, to assess depression in patients who were already diagnosed with depression by Vietnamese psychiatrists and in patients presenting at a local primary care clinic. Of the 177 primary care clinic patients, 8.4% met the criteria for clinical depression based on the VDS. Results indicate a higher risk for depression among married and/or less than high school educated individuals. Discrepancies were found between the depression diagnosis by Vietnamese psychiatrists and VDS screening results. Among the participants interviewed who met the VDS criteria for depression, culture-specific phrases such as "desperate," "going crazy," and "low spirited and bored" were highly associated with symptoms of depression.

  2. Validation of the worry about sexual outcomes scale for use in STI/HIV prevention interventions for adolescent females

    PubMed Central

    Sales, Jessica M.; Spitalnick, Josh; Milhausen, Robin R.; Wingood, Gina M.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Salazar, Laura F.; Crosby, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of a new scale to measure adolescents’ worry regarding outcomes of risky sexual behavior (i.e. sexually transmitted infections, including HIV [STI/HIV], and unintended pregnancy). The 10-item worry about sexual outcomes (WASO) scale, resulting in two subscales STI/HIV worry and pregnancy worry, was administered to a sample of 522 African-American female adolescents ranging in age from 14 to 18, residing in the southeast United States and participating in a sexual risk reduction intervention. The WASO demonstrated internal consistency across multiple administrations and yielded satisfactory construct validity. Worry was found to negatively correlate with sexual communication self-efficacy (with a new male partner and a steady male partner), frequency of sexual communication with male partner, attitudes about condom use and social support; worry was positively correlated with perceived barriers to condom use, condom negotiation, locus of control and depression. Overall, the results indicate that the WASO is a reliable and valid measure of assessing adolescents’ worry about STIs, HIV and pregnancy. The WASO represents a brief self-administered instrument that can be easily integrated into sexual risk reduction assessments and interventions. Future studies employing the WASO might consider testing it with more diverse samples in terms of gender, race/ethnicity, age and sexual orientation. PMID:18353760

  3. Spouses and depressive symptoms in older adulthood.

    PubMed

    Pradeep, Neeti; Sutin, Angelina R

    2015-02-26

    Depressive symptoms may co-occur within couples and follow similar trajectories, but relatively little is known about this process in old age. This study thus examined the association between some spousal characteristics (spouse's depressive symptoms, age difference between spouses) and the trajectory of depressive symptoms in older adults. Participants ≥ 65 years old were drawn from the Health and Retirement Study (N = 12,010; Mean age = 70.60 and 69.16 for target husbands and wives, respectively). Depressive symptoms were measured with a short form of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) scale. Hierarchical Linear Modeling was used to model up to 9 assessments of depressive symptoms of target spouses (Mean number of CESD assessments per target spouse = 3, range 1-9). Depressive symptoms between spouses were correlated; convergence over time was modest. For both husbands and wives, having a younger spouse was associated with more depressive symptoms at age 65. These results suggest that there is concordance between spouses' depressive symptoms and that the age difference between spouses contribute to depressive symptoms as couples enter old age. The association between spouses' depressive symptoms is nearly as strong as the effect of each decade increase in age.

  4. Refining the Attitudes toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help Scale: Factorial Invariance across Two Asian Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ang, Rebecca P.; Lau, Shun; Tan, Ai-Girl; Lim, Kam Ming

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the validation and refinement of the short, 10-item version of the Attitudes Toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help (E. H. Fischer & J. L. Turner, 1970) scale using 2 separate samples. Confirmatory factor analyses results provided evidence of factorial invariance across both samples, thus supporting the…

  5. A Measurement Invariance Analysis of the General Self-Efficacy Scale on Two Different Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teo, Timothy; Kam, Chester

    2014-01-01

    The 10-item General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES) was developed to assess an individual's beliefs to cope with a variety of situations in life. Despite the GSES being used in numerous research from researchers in different countries and presented in different languages, little is known about the use of its validity in an Asian culture. The aim of the…

  6. RSE-40: An Alternate Scoring System for the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Gaylen R.

    The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory (RSE) is a 10-item scale purporting to measure self-esteem using self-acceptance and self-worth statements. This analysis covers concerns about the degree to which the RSE items represent a particular content universe, the RSE's applicability, factor analytic methods used, and the RSE's reliability and validity.…

  7. Effects of Eating on Depressed Moods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grenier, Victoria; And Others

    Research has found that depressed moods increase eating among persons who are dieting and among those characterized by high levels of weight fluctuation. To determine whether eating improves depressed moods among persons who score high on the weight fluctuation factor on the Restraint Scale (Herman, et al, 1978), 72 college women consumed either a…

  8. Depression and Related Problems in University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Pelaez, Martha; Deeds, Osvelia; Delgado, Jeannette

    2012-01-01

    Method: Depression and related problems were studied in a sample of 283 university students. Results: The students with high depression scores also had high scores on anxiety, intrusive thoughts, controlling intrusive thoughts and sleep disturbances scales. A stepwise regression suggested that those problems contributed to a significant proportion…

  9. Depression, anxiety, hostility and hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Ewalds-Kvist, S Béatrice M; Hirvonen, Toivo; Kvist, Mårten; Lertola, Kaarlo; Niemelä, Pirkko

    2005-09-01

    Sixty-five women (aged 32 - 54 yrs) were assessed at 2 months before to 8 months after total abdominal hysterectomy on four separate occasions. Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI), Taylor's Manifest Anxiety Scale (TMAS), the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory (BDHI), Measurement of Masculinity-Femininity (MF), Likert scales and semantic differentials for psychological, somatic and sexual factors varied as assessment tools. High-dysphoric and low-dysphoric women were compared with regard to hysterectomy outcomes. Married nulliparae suffered from enhanced depression post-surgery. Pre-surgery anxiety, back pain and lack of dyspareunia contributed to post-surgery anxiety. Pre-surgery anxiety was related to life crises. Pre- and post-surgery hostility occurred in conjunction with poor sexual gratification. Post-hysterectomy health improved, but quality of sexual relationship was impaired. Partner support and knowledge counteracted hysterectomy aftermath. Post-hysterectomy symptoms constituted a continuum to pre-surgery signs of depression, anxiety or hostility.

  10. Helping your teen with depression

    MedlinePlus

    Teen depression - helping; Teen depression - talk therapy; Teen depression - medicine ... teen the most. The most effective treatments for depression are: Talk therapy Antidepressant medicines If your teen ...

  11. Depression: What We Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobel, Brana; Hirschfeld, Robert M. A.

    This booklet is concerned with the area of clinical depression. Questions about clinical depression are briefly answered in an overview section and are examined in greater detail in the five chapters that follow. In chapter 1, depression is defined and various types of depression are identified. The origins of depression are explored in the second…

  12. Major depression, dysthymia and depressive personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Hirschfeld, R M

    1994-12-01

    The separation of persistent depression into meaningful and useful subcategories, including major depression, dysthymia, recurrent brief depression, and depressive personality disorder, is the subject of much debate. Depressions can be grouped on the basis of their type and severity of symptoms, aetiology, clinical course, or their association with other psychiatric illnesses. Several investigators have conducted epidemiologic and family studies to evaluate the prevalence of depressive disorders, their diagnostic stability over time, and the amount of overlap among the disorders. Although progress has been made toward a better understanding of the different disorders, insufficient evidence exists to support the hypothesis that these disorders are separate and distinct from one another. However, preliminary data suggest that depressive personality disorder is separate from the other disorders. Additionally, several questions have been raised, particularly the extent to which differentiation between the depressive disorders, specifically major depression and dysthymia, has an impact on treatment decisions.

  13. Adolescent Depression and Risk Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Sanders, Christopher

    2001-01-01

    Seventy-nine high school seniors were administered the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), as well as a questionnaire on parent relationships; peer relationships; positive and negative feelings including suicidal thoughts; and lifestyle variables including academic performance, exercise, and drug use. Results are discussed…

  14. Bilingual Computerized Speech Recognition Screening for Depression Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Gerardo; Carter, Colby; Blanes, Erika

    2007-01-01

    The Voice-Interactive Depression Assessment System (VIDAS) is a computerized speech recognition application for screening depression based on the Center for Epidemiological Studies--Depression scale in English and Spanish. Study 1 included 50 English and 47 Spanish speakers. Study 2 involved 108 English and 109 Spanish speakers. Participants…

  15. Age and sex differences in somatic complaints associated with depression.

    PubMed

    Berry, J M; Storandt, M; Coyne, A

    1984-07-01

    Following the procedure used by Zemore and Eames (1979) with the Beck Depression Inventory, the 20 items of the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale were categorized as either somatic or psychological symptoms of depression. Scores of 179 college students and 462 community-dwelling older adults revealed significant, though small, age differences in somatic complaints. Somatic complaints were especially prominent in older women. Age differences in psychological symptoms of depression were not significant. Diagnosis of depression in later life, especially in women, may be confounded by the use of physical symptoms of depression that are comparable to physical changes that accompany the aging process.

  16. An Emerging Best Practice Model for Perinatal Depression Care

    PubMed Central

    Sit, Dorothy K. Y.; Flint, Cheryl; Svidergol, Donald; White, Joanne; Wimer, Michelle; Bish, Bettina; Wisner, Katherine L.

    2009-01-01

    Perinatal depression is a significant health problem, especially among inner-city women. The authors explored the feasibility of an innovative model that integrated depression screening and treatment within an agency for maternal-child health. The team conducted depression screening with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale; they confirmed the primary diagnosis with the PRIME-MD instrument for 29 women with positive screens. Most participants had moderate or severe major depressive disorder. Women contended with multiple treatment barriers. Colocated depression care was highly acceptable and enabled evidence-based care delivery for at-risk mothers. PMID:19880455

  17. Implementation and evaluation of a depression care model for homebound elderly.

    PubMed

    Madden-Baer, Rose; McConnell, Eleanor; Rosati, Robert J; Rosenfeld, Peri; Edison, Ilaina

    2013-01-01

    Depression affects 14% to 46% of homebound elderly and is costly and disabling. Home health agencies face significant challenges delivering effective depression care. In response, an evidence-based depression care model was developed in a home health agency. Twelve-month program evaluation data demonstrated a 2.99 mean reduction in depression scores (P < .0001) on the Geriatric Depression Scale and confirmed that a clinically effective, operationally feasible, and financially sustainable depression care model can be implemented in home health care.

  18. Alcoholism & depression.

    PubMed

    Hall, Mellisa

    2012-10-01

    One out of 2 Americans report drinking on a routine basis, making the excessive consumption of alcohol the third leading cause of preventable death in America (). Alcoholism and depression are common comorbidities that home healthcare professionals frequently encounter. To achieve the best patient outcomes, alcoholism should be addressed initially. Although all age groups are at risk, alcoholism and depression occur in more than 8 percent of older adults. Prevention through identifying alcohol use early in adolescence is vital to reduce the likelihood of alcohol dependence. This article provides an overview of the long-term effects of alcohol abuse, including alcoholic cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy. The diagnostic criteria for substance dependence and ideas for nonthreatening screening questions to use with patients who are adolescent or older are discussed. While providing patient care, home healthcare nurses share the patient's intimate home environment. This environment is perceived as a safe haven by the patient and home care nurses can take advantage of counseling and treatment opportunities in this nonthreatening environment.

  19. Assessment of depression in medical patients: A systematic review of the utility of the Beck Depression Inventory-II

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuan-Pang; Gorenstein, Clarice

    2013-01-01

    To perform a systematic review of the utility of the Beck Depression Inventory for detecting depression in medical settings, this article focuses on the revised version of the scale (Beck Depression Inventory-II), which was reformulated according to the DSM-IV criteria for major depression. We examined relevant investigations with the Beck Depression Inventory-II for measuring depression in medical settings to provide guidelines for practicing clinicians. Considering the inclusion and exclusion criteria seventy articles were retained. Validation studies of the Beck Depression Inventory-II, in both primary care and hospital settings, were found for clinics of cardiology, neurology, obstetrics, brain injury, nephrology, chronic pain, chronic fatigue, oncology, and infectious disease. The Beck Depression Inventory-II showed high reliability and good correlation with measures of depression and anxiety. Its threshold for detecting depression varied according to the type of patients, suggesting the need for adjusted cut-off points. The somatic and cognitive-affective dimension described the latent structure of the instrument. The Beck Depression Inventory-II can be easily adapted in most clinical conditions for detecting major depression and recommending an appropriate intervention. Although this scale represents a sound path for detecting depression in patients with medical conditions, the clinician should seek evidence for how to interpret the score before using the Beck Depression Inventory-II to make clinical decisions. PMID:24141845

  20. Depression increases the risk for uncontrolled hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Rubio-Guerra, Alberto Francisco; Rodriguez-Lopez, Leticia; Vargas-Ayala, German; Huerta-Ramirez, Saul; Serna, David Castro; Lozano-Nuevo, Jose Juan

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Because hypertension and depression share common pathways, it is possible that each disease has an impact on the natural history of the other. OBJECTIVE: To determinate whether depression influences blood pressure control in hypertensive patients. METHODS: Forty hypertensive patients undergoing antihypertensive treatment, excluding beta-blockers and central-acting agents, self-measured their blood pressure several times a day for three days using a validated, commercially available device. All patients also completed the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale survey for depression. Associations between the results of the blood pressure and depression tests were determined using the Spearman correlation coefficient; RR was also measured. RESULTS: Of the 40 patients, 23 were depressed, and 21 of these 23 had poor control of their blood pressure. The RR for uncontrolled hypertension in depressed patients was 15.5. A significant correlation between systolic (r=0.713) and diastolic (r=0.52) blood pressure values and depression was found. CONCLUSION: Depression is common in patients with uncontrolled hypertension and may interfere with blood pressure control. Screening for depression in hypertensive patients is a simple and cost-effective tool that may improve outcomes. PMID:24294029

  1. Sadness and Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... What Happens in the Operating Room? Sadness and Depression KidsHealth > For Kids > Sadness and Depression A A ... big difference in your life. When Sadness Is Depression When you're in a sad mood, it ...

  2. Men and Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... in crisis? For more information Share Men and Depression Download PDF Download ePub Order a free hardcopy ... If so, you may have depression. What is depression? Everyone feels sad or irritable sometimes, or has ...

  3. Sadness and Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Sadness and Depression KidsHealth > For Kids > Sadness and Depression Print A ... big difference in your life. When Sadness Is Depression When you're in a sad mood, it ...

  4. Depression Strikes…Anyone

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Depression Depression Strikes… Anyone Winter 2017 Table of Contents Anyone can suffer from depression. And almost everyone has a friend or family ...

  5. Depression and College Students

    MedlinePlus

    ... depression and other mental health issues? Reference Share Depression and College Students Download PDF Download ePub Order ... Answers to college students’ frequently asked questions about depression Feeling moody, sad, or grouchy? Who doesn’t ...

  6. Postpartum Depression Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Where can I find more information? Share Postpartum Depression Facts Download PDF Download ePub Download Mobi Order ... for herself or her family. What is postpartum depression? Postpartum depression is a mood disorder that can ...

  7. Depression (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... make negative thinking worse. previous continue Depression Can Go Unrecognized People with depression may not realize they ... themselves or who have eating disorders or who go through extreme mood changes may have unrecognized depression. ...

  8. Persistent depressive disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... But, symptoms are not as severe as with major depression . Persistent depressive disorder used to be called dysthymia. ... with PDD will also have an episode of major depression at some point in their lives. Older people ...

  9. [Depressive symptoms and sexuality].

    PubMed

    Porto, Robert

    2014-10-01

    The mutually reinforcing dyad of depressive symptoms and erectile dysfunction is scientifically established. The cure of depression improves sexual dysfunction (SD) and the treatment of SD induces improvement of depression. Most of anti-depressants induce negative sexual side effects that lead to non-compliance of these treatments. The knowledge of interrelation between depression, anti-depressants and sexuality is of great importance in clinical practice.

  10. Diabetes mellitus in people with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder: a systematic review and large scale meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Vancampfort, Davy; Correll, Christoph U; Galling, Britta; Probst, Michel; De Hert, Marc; Ward, Philip B; Rosenbaum, Simon; Gaughran, Fiona; Lally, John; Stubbs, Brendon

    2016-06-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is highly predictive of cardiovascular diseases and can have particularly deleterious health impacts in people with severe mental illness (SMI), i.e. schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or major depressive disorder. This meta-analysis aimed: a) to describe pooled frequencies of T2DM in people with SMI; b) to analyze the influence of demographic, illness and treatment variables as well as T2DM assessment methods; and c) to describe T2DM prevalence in studies directly comparing persons with each specific SMI diagnosis to general population samples. The trim and fill adjusted pooled T2DM prevalence among 438,245 people with SMI was 11.3% (95% CI: 10.0%-12.6%). In antipsychotic-naïve participants, the prevalence of T2DM was 2.9% (95% CI: 1.7%-4.8%). There were no significant diagnostic subgroup differences. A comparative meta-analysis established that multi-episode persons with SMI (N=133,470) were significantly more likely to have T2DM than matched controls (N=5,622,664): relative risk, RR=1.85, 95% CI: 1.45-2.37, p<0.001. The T2DM prevalence was consistently elevated in each of the three major diagnostic subgroups compared to matched controls. Higher T2DM prevalences were observed in women with SMI compared to men (RR=1.43, 95% CI: 1.20-1.69, p<0.001). Multi-episode (versus first-episode) status was the only significant predictor for T2DM in a multivariable meta-regression analysis (r(2) =0.52, p<0.001). The T2DM prevalence was higher in patients prescribed antipsychotics, except for aripriprazole and amisulpride. Routine screening and multidisciplinary management of T2DM is needed. T2DM risks of individual antipsychotic medications should be considered when making treatment choices.

  11. A new ten-item questionnaire for assessing sensitive skin: the Sensitive Scale-10.

    PubMed

    Misery, Laurent; Jean-Decoster, Catherine; Mery, Sophie; Georgescu, Victor; Sibaud, Vincent

    2014-11-01

    Sensitive skin is common but until now there has been no scale for measuring its severity. The Sensitive Scale is a new scale with a 14-item and a 10-item version that was tested in 11 countries in different languages on 2,966 participants. The aim of this study was to validate the pertinence of using the Sensitive Scale to measure the severity of sensitive skin. The internal consistency was high. Correlations with the dry skin type, higher age, female gender, fair phototypes and Dermatology Life Quality Index were found. Using the 10-item version appeared to be preferable because it was quicker and easier to complete, with the same internal consistency and the 4 items that were excluded were very rarely observed in patients. The mean initial scores were around 44/140 and 37/100. The use of a cream for sensitive skin showed the pertinence of the scale before and after treatment.

  12. Gullied Depression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    26 February 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows gullies formed in the wall of a depression located on the floor of Rabe Crater west of the giant impact basin, Hellas Planitia. Gullies such as these are common features on Mars, but the process by which they are formed is not fully understood. The debate centers on the role and source of fluids in the genesis of these features.

    Location near: 44.1oS, 325.9oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer

  13. Diabetes mellitus in people with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder: a systematic review and large scale meta‐analysis

    PubMed Central

    Vancampfort, Davy; Correll, Christoph U.; Galling, Britta; Probst, Michel; De Hert, Marc; Ward, Philip B.; Rosenbaum, Simon; Gaughran, Fiona; Lally, John; Stubbs, Brendon

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is highly predictive of cardiovascular diseases and can have particularly deleterious health impacts in people with severe mental illness (SMI), i.e. schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or major depressive disorder. This meta‐analysis aimed: a) to describe pooled frequencies of T2DM in people with SMI; b) to analyze the influence of demographic, illness and treatment variables as well as T2DM assessment methods; and c) to describe T2DM prevalence in studies directly comparing persons with each specific SMI diagnosis to general population samples. The trim and fill adjusted pooled T2DM prevalence among 438,245 people with SMI was 11.3% (95% CI: 10.0%‐12.6%). In antipsychotic‐naïve participants, the prevalence of T2DM was 2.9% (95% CI: 1.7%‐4.8%). There were no significant diagnostic subgroup differences. A comparative meta‐analysis established that multi‐episode persons with SMI (N=133,470) were significantly more likely to have T2DM than matched controls (N=5,622,664): relative risk, RR=1.85, 95% CI: 1.45‐2.37, p<0.001. The T2DM prevalence was consistently elevated in each of the three major diagnostic subgroups compared to matched controls. Higher T2DM prevalences were observed in women with SMI compared to men (RR=1.43, 95% CI: 1.20‐1.69, p<0.001). Multi‐episode (versus first‐episode) status was the only significant predictor for T2DM in a multivariable meta‐regression analysis (r2=0.52, p<0.001). The T2DM prevalence was higher in patients prescribed antipsychotics, except for aripriprazole and amisulpride. Routine screening and multidisciplinary management of T2DM is needed. T2DM risks of individual antipsychotic medications should be considered when making treatment choices. PMID:27265707

  14. The development and validation of the Workplace Ostracism Scale.

    PubMed

    Ferris, D Lance; Brown, Douglas J; Berry, Joseph W; Lian, Huiwen

    2008-11-01

    This article outlines the development of a 10-item measure of workplace ostracism. Using 6 samples (including multisource and multiwave data), the authors developed a reliable scale with a unidimensional factor structure that replicated across 4 separate samples. The scale possessed both convergent and discriminant validity, and criterion-related validity was demonstrated through the scale's relation with basic needs, well-being, job attitudes, job performance, and withdrawal. Overall, the present study suggests that the Workplace Ostracism Scale is a reliable and valid measure and that the workplace ostracism construct has important implications for both individuals and organizations.

  15. The association between Diabetes mellitus and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Bădescu, SV; Tătaru, C; Kobylinska, L; Georgescu, EL; Zahiu, DM; Zăgrean, AM; Zăgrean, L

    2016-01-01

    Depression occurrence is two to three times higher in people with diabetes mellitus, the majority of the cases remaining under-diagnosed. The purpose of this review was to show the links between depression and diabetes, point out the importance of identifying depression in diabetic patients and identify the possible ways to address both diseases. Possible common pathophysiological mechanisms as stress and inflammation were explained, while emphasis was made on screening for depression in diabetic patients. An important aspect for the diabetic specialist would be the understanding of the common origins of diabetes and depression and the awareness of this quite common comorbidity, in order to improve the outcomes of both diseases. Abbreviations: DALYS = disability adjusted life years, DSM-5 = American Psychiatric Association Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, DM1 = Type 1 diabetes mellitus, DM2 = Type 2 diabetes mellitus, HPA-axis = hypothalamus – pituitary – adrenal axis, SNS = sympathetic nervous system, BDI = Beck Depression Inventory, CES-D = Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, HADS = Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, PHQ = Patient Health Questionnaire. PMID:27453739

  16. Comorbidity of Anxiety-Depression among Australian University Students: Implications for Student Counsellors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitsika, Vicki; Sharpley, Christopher F.

    2012-01-01

    The incidence, factor structure and scale item differences in anxiety-depression comorbidity were investigated in a sample of Australian university students defined according to the presence of anxiety and/or depression. The incidence of anxiety-depression comorbidity was over 32%, about four times that for anxiety or depression alone.…

  17. The effect of dance over depression.

    PubMed

    Akandere, Mehibe; Demir, Banu

    2011-09-01

    Dance and movement therapy are consisted of music, easy exercises and sensorial stimulus and provide drugless treatment for the depression on low rates. In this study, it has been aimed to examine the effect of dance over the depression. A total of 120 healthy male and female conservatory students ranged from 20 and 24 ages volunteered to participate in this study. They were divided randomly into 1 of 2 groups: dance training group (DTG; N = 60) and control group (CG; N = 60). A dance training program was applied to the subjects three days a week (Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday) during 12 weeks. The subjects in the control group did not participate in the training and participated only in the pre and post test measurements. Beck Depression Scale was used for the pre and post test measurements of subjects. 12 weeks of dance training has been found to be effective on the depression levels of the subjects participating in the research as the training group (p < 0.05). The depression level of males and females before training has meaningfully decreased after 12 weeks of dance training (p < 0.05). When the depression levels of the subjects participated in research as the control group were separately evaluated for males and females, no meaningful change has been found in the depression levels during 12 weeks (p > 0.05). In conclusion, it has been seen that dance affects the depression levels of university students positively and decreases their depression levels.

  18. Family dynamics and postnatal depression.

    PubMed

    Tammentie, T; Tarkka, M-T; Astedt-Kurki, P; Paavilainen, E; Laippala, P

    2004-04-01

    Research has shown that postnatal depression (PND) affects 10-15% of mothers in Western societies. PND is not easily identified and therefore it often remains undetected. Untreated depression has a detrimental effect on the mother and child and the entire family. The purpose of this study was to ascertain the state of family dynamics after delivery and whether the mother's PND was associated with family dynamics. The study used a survey covering the catchment area of one Finnish university hospital. Both primi- and multiparas took part and data were collected using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) for mothers and the Family Dynamics Measure II (FDM II) for both mothers and fathers. The data were analysed using SPSS statistical programme and frequency and percentage distributions, means and standard deviations were examined. Correlations were analysed using Spearman's correlation coefficients. The significance of any differences between mothers' and fathers' scores was determined with a paired t-test. Of the families participating in the study (373 mothers and 314 partners), 13% of the mothers suffered from PND symptoms (EPDS score of 13 or more). As a whole, family dynamics in the families participating in the study were reported to be rather good. However, mothers having depressive symptoms reported more negative family dynamics compared with other families. With the exception of individuation, mothers having depressive symptoms reported more negative family dynamics than their partners. With the exception of role reciprocity, non-depressed mothers reported more positive family dynamics than their partners. Knowledge of the association of mothers' PND with family dynamics could help to develop nursing care at maternity and child welfare clinics and maternity hospitals. Depressed mothers and their families need support to be able to make family dynamics as good as possible.

  19. Breast cancer and depression.

    PubMed

    Somerset, Wendy; Stout, Steven C; Miller, Andrew H; Musselman, Dominique

    2004-07-01

    Major depression and depressive symptoms, although commonly encountered in patients with medical illnesses, are frequently underdiagnosed and undertreated in women with breast cancer. Depression and its associated symptoms diminish quality of life, adversely affect compliance with medical therapies, and reduce survival. Treatment of depression in women with breast cancer improves their dysphoria and other depressive symptoms, enhances quality of life, and may increase longevity. In this review, studies that investigate pathophysiologic alterations in patients with cancer and comorbid depression are discussed, and the few studies on treatment of depression and related symptoms in women with breast cancer are examined.

  20. Glutamatergic synapses are structurally and biochemically complex because of multiple plasticity processes: long-term potentiation, long-term depression, short-term potentiation and scaling.

    PubMed

    Lisman, John

    2017-03-05

    Synapses are complex because they perform multiple functions, including at least six mechanistically different forms of plasticity. Here, I comment on recent developments regarding these processes. (i) Short-term potentiation (STP), a Hebbian process that requires small amounts of synaptic input, appears to make strong contributions to some forms of working memory. (ii) The rules for long-term potentiation (LTP) induction in CA3 have been clarified: induction does not depend obligatorily on backpropagating sodium spikes but, rather, on dendritic branch-specific N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) spikes. (iii) Late LTP, a process that requires a dopamine signal (and is therefore neoHebbian), is mediated by trans-synaptic growth of the synapse, a growth that occurs about an hour after LTP induction. (iv) LTD processes are complex and include both homosynaptic and heterosynaptic forms. (v) Synaptic scaling produced by changes in activity levels are not primarily cell-autonomous, but rather depend on network activity. (vi) The evidence for distance-dependent scaling along the primary dendrite is firm, and a plausible structural-based mechanism is suggested.Ideas about the mechanisms of synaptic function need to take into consideration newly emerging data about synaptic structure. Recent super-resolution studies indicate that glutamatergic synapses are modular (module size 70-80 nm), as predicted by theoretical work. Modules are trans-synaptic structures and have high concentrations of postsynaptic density-95 (PSD-95) and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor. These modules function as quasi-independent loci of AMPA-mediated transmission and may be independently modifiable, suggesting a new understanding of quantal transmission.This article is part of the themed issue 'Integrating Hebbian and homeostatic plasticity.'

  1. The effects of gender and depression severity on the association between alpha asymmetry and depression across four brain regions.

    PubMed

    Jesulola, Emmanuel; Sharpley, Christopher F; Agnew, Linda L

    2017-03-15

    Data describing the association between EEG asymmetry and depression status have been equivocal. Effects from brain regions involved, depression severity, and the generalisability of findings across genders, have been inconsistently examined and/or verified. This study investigated these issues within a community sample to potentially expand the asymmetry hypothesis to non-severe depression participants. The singular effects of brain region and electrode site, gender, and depression severity, plus the interaction between gender and depression severity across brain regions were investigated in a study of alpha asymmetry among 46 males and 54 females (M age=32.5 yr, SD=14.13 yr) using the Self-rating Depression Scale (Zung, 1973). There was no significant difference across genders or age for depression severity. Dichotomous classification of depressed state produced similar but slightly different results from analysis of the whole range of depression status, although the frontal region was the only area where depression was consistently significantly associated with EEG asymmetry, and then only for females. However, the direction of those differences for females was opposite of that predicted by the EEG asymmetry-depression hypothesis. Several methodological issues that may have contributed to these findings are discussed, with suggestions made for future research that focusses upon individual depression symptom profiles rather than dichotomous or total depression scores in order to assist in developing a clinically-relevant model of EEG asymmetry in depressed persons.

  2. Prenatal Depression Effects on Pregnancy Feelings and Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany; Yando, Regina; Bendell, Debra; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Diego, Miguel A.; Vera, Yanexy; Gil, Karla

    2007-01-01

    Depressed (n = 110) and nondepressed (n = 104) mothers were given a set of self-report measures, including the CES-D (depression), the STAI (anxiety), the STAXI (anger), the Perinatal Anxieties and Attitudes Scale, a questionnaire on substance use and the Feelings About Pregnancy and Delivery Scale that was designed for this study and that…

  3. Family moves and depression among Coast Guard wives.

    PubMed

    McGarigal, Alyssa; Jablonski, Jessica; Ferri, Christine; Lester, David

    2009-12-01

    A comparison of 78 Coast Guard wives' and 30 firefighters' wives' scores on Zung's self-rating scale for depression showed no differences, but the Coast Guard wives had more often been prescribed antidepressants. Scores on a scale to assess the negative effects of moving were positively associated with current depression for the Coast Guard wives.

  4. Assessing the Cognitive Regulation of Emotion in Depressed Stroke Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Margaret A.; Andrewes, David G.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the psychometric properties of a simple scale for measuring positive interpersonal attitudes of depressed stroke patients, with regard to their cognitive limitations. Two versions of the Attitudes Towards Relationships Scale were developed and administered to depressed stroke (n = 48) and control rheumatic/orthopaedic (n = 45)…

  5. Vilazodone in the treatment of major depressive disorder: efficacy across symptoms and severity of depression

    PubMed Central

    Sambunaris, Angelo; Edwards, John; Ruth, Adam; Robinson, Donald S.

    2014-01-01

    Vilazodone is a potent selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and serotonin 1A receptor partial agonist approved for the treatment of major depressive disorder in adults. To assess the efficacy of vilazodone across a range of symptoms and severities of depression, data from two phase III, 8-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials were pooled for analysis. Overall improvement in depressive symptoms measured using the Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale was statistically significant (P<0.05) for vilazodone treatment compared with placebo as early as Week 1 and continued throughout double-blind treatment. Vilazodone treatment compared with placebo showed significant improvement on all 10 individual MADRS symptom items at end of treatment (P<0.01). Rates of response and remission were significantly greater in the vilazodone group relative to the placebo group, with numbers needed to treat ranging from eight to nine for response and 12–17 for remission. Between-group treatment differences in MADRS and the other outcome measures were similar among all depression subgroups, with no consistent pattern associated with depression severity. These findings support the efficacy of vilazodone across a broad range of depressive symptoms and severities for the treatment of major depressive disorder. PMID:24247740

  6. Vilazodone in the treatment of major depressive disorder: efficacy across symptoms and severity of depression.

    PubMed

    Khan, Arif; Sambunaris, Angelo; Edwards, John; Ruth, Adam; Robinson, Donald S

    2014-03-01

    Vilazodone is a potent selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and serotonin 1A receptor partial agonist approved for the treatment of major depressive disorder in adults. To assess the efficacy of vilazodone across a range of symptoms and severities of depression, data from two phase III, 8-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials were pooled for analysis. Overall improvement in depressive symptoms measured using the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale was statistically significant (P<0.05) for vilazodone treatment compared with placebo as early as Week 1 and continued throughout double-blind treatment. Vilazodone treatment compared with placebo showed significant improvement on all 10 individual MADRS symptom items at end of treatment (P<0.01). Rates of response and remission were significantly greater in the vilazodone group relative to the placebo group, with numbers needed to treat ranging from eight to nine for response and 12-17 for remission. Between-group treatment differences in MADRS and the other outcome measures were similar among all depression subgroups, with no consistent pattern associated with depression severity. These findings support the efficacy of vilazodone across a broad range of depressive symptoms and severities for the treatment of major depressive disorder.

  7. Thyroid hormones association with depression severity and clinical outcome in patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Berent, Dominika; Zboralski, Krzysztof; Orzechowska, Agata; Gałecki, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    The clinical implications of thyroid hormones in depression have been studied extensively and still remains disputable. Supplementation of thyroid hormones is considered to augment and accelerate antidepressant treatment. Studies on the role of thyroid hormones in depression deliver contradictory results. Here we assess theirs impact on depression severity and final clinical outcome in patients with major depression. Thyrotropin, free thyroxine (FT4), and free triiodothyronine (FT3) concentrations were measured with automated quantitative enzyme immunoassay. Depression severity and final clinical outcome were rated with 17-itemic Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression [HDRS(17)] and Clinical Global Impression Scales for severity and for improvement (CGIs, CGIi). FT3 and FT4 concentrations were significantly positively correlated with clinical improvement evaluated with CGIi (R = 0.38, P = 0.012; R = 0.33, P = 0.034, respectively). There was a significant correlation between FT4 concentrations and depression severity assessed in HDRS(17) (R = 0.31, P = 0.047). Male patients presented significantly higher FT3 serum levels (Z = 2.34, P = 0.018) and significantly greater clinical improvement (Z = 2.36, P = 0.018) when compared to female patients. We conclude that free thyroid hormones concentrations are associated with depression severity and have an impact on final clinical outcome. It can be more efficient to augment and accelerate the treatment of major depressive disorder with triiodothyronine instead of levothyroxine because of individual differences in thyroid hormones metabolism.

  8. Altered cardiac autonomic nervous function in depression

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Depression is an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease. Autonomic instability may play a mediating or moderating role in this relationship; however this is not well understood. The objective of this study was to explore cardiac autonomic function and cardiac arrhythmia in depression, the correlation between depression severity and Heart Rate Variability (HRV) related indices, and the prevalence of arrhythmia. Methods Individuals (n = 53) with major depression as assessed by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, who had a Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD) score ≥20 and a Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale score > 53 were compared to 53 healthy individuals, matched for age and gender. Multichannel Electrocardiograph ECG-92C data were collected over 24 hours. Long-term changes in HRV were used to assess the following vagally mediated changes in autonomic tone, expressed as time domain indices: Standard deviation of the NN intervals (SDNN), standard deviation of 5 min averaged NN intervals (SDANN), Root Mean Square of the Successive Differences (RMSSD) and percentage of NN intervals > 50 ms different from preceding interval (pNN50). Pearson’s correlations were conducted to explore the strength of the association between depression severity (using the SDS and HRV related indices, specifically SDNN and low frequency domain / high frequency domain (LF/HF)). Results The values of SDNN, SDANN, RMSSD, PNN50 and HF were lower in the depression group compared to the control group (P<.05). The mean value of the LF in the depression group was higher than the in control group (P<.05). Furthermore the ratio of LF/HF was higher among the depression group than the control group (P<.05). A linear relationship was shown to exist between the severity of the depression and HRV indices. In the depression group, the prevalence of arrhythmia was significantly higher than in the control group (P<.05), particularly

  9. Assessing the risk factors for difficult-to-treat depression and treatment-resistant depression.

    PubMed

    Gaynes, Bradley

    2016-02-01

    Depression is the leading cause of disability among people across the globe, according to the World Health Organization. Among those who have been diagnosed, many fail to achieve remission after following recommended antidepressant medication and psychosocial therapies. In particular, difficult-to-treat and treatment-resistant depression may cause severe impairments for patients, including diminished cognitive functioning, increased medical bills, and decreased workplace performance, as well as an increased risk of developing comorbid illnesses. However, many tools are available to clinicians for identifying treatment-resistant depression, including rating scales such as the 9-question Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR16), as well as clinical evidence related to risk factors for difficult-to-treat or treatment-resistant depression. Accurately identifying treatment-resistant depression is the first step toward changing treatment regimens to help patients achieve remission.

  10. Effects of music on major depression in psychiatric inpatients.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wei-Chi; Lai, Hui-Ling

    2004-10-01

    The study was to assess the effectiveness of soft music for treatment of major depressive disorder inpatients in Kaohsiung City, Taiwan. A pretest-posttest with a two-group repeated measures design was used. Patients with major depressive disorder were recruited through referred by the psychiatric physicians. Subjects listened to their choice of music for 2 weeks. Depression was measured with the Zung's Depression Scale before the study and at two weekly posttests. Using repeated measures ANCOVA, music resulted in significantly better depressive scores, as well as significantly better subscores of depression compared with controls. Depression improved weekly, indicating a cumulative dose effect. The findings provide evidence for psychiatric nurses to use soft music as an empirically based intervention for depressed inpatients.

  11. Coping Styles, Aggression and Interpersonal Conflicts among Depressed and Non-Depressed People

    PubMed Central

    Nazir, Amber; Mohsin, Humaira

    2013-01-01

    Background: The present study compared people with depressive symptoms and people without depressive symptoms with reference to their coping styles, level of aggression and interpersonal conflicts. Methods: A purposive sample of 128 people (64 depressed and 64 normal controls)was selected from four different teaching hospitals of Lahore. Both the groups were matched on four demographic levels i.e. age, gender, education and monthly income. Symptom Checklist-R was used to screen out depressed and non-depressed people. The Brief COPE, the Aggression Questionnaire and the Bergen Social Relationship Scale were used to assess coping styles, aggression and interpersonal conflicts respectively. The Independent t-test was used to compare the groups. Binary logistic Regression was also carried out to predict the role of research variables in causing depression. Results: The results showed that level of aggression and interpersonal conflict was significantly more in people with depressive symptoms as compared to control group. On the other hand control group was using more adaptive coping styles than people with depressive symptoms but no difference was found in the use of maladaptive coping styles. Conclusion: The present findings revealed that coping styles, aggression and interpersonal conflicts play important role in depression. Therefore, these dimensions must be considered while dealing with the depressive patients. Implications for preventive work are also discussed in the light of previous researches. PMID:24688956

  12. 17 CFR 229.10 - (Item 10) General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... management must have the option to present in Commission filings its good faith assessment of a registrant's... Corporate governance. Item 503 Prospectus summary, risk factors, and ratio of earnings to fixed...

  13. 17 CFR 229.10 - (Item 10) General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... management must have the option to present in Commission filings its good faith assessment of a registrant's... persons, promoters and certain control persons. Item 407 Corporate governance. Item 503 Prospectus...

  14. 17 CFR 229.10 - (Item 10) General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... management must have the option to present in Commission filings its good faith assessment of a registrant's... Corporate governance. Item 503 Prospectus summary, risk factors, and ratio of earnings to fixed...

  15. 17 CFR 229.10 - (Item 10) General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... management must have the option to present in Commission filings its good faith assessment of a registrant's... Corporate governance. Item 503 Prospectus summary, risk factors, and ratio of earnings to fixed...

  16. 17 CFR 229.10 - (Item 10) General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... management must have the option to present in Commission filings its good faith assessment of a registrant's... persons, promoters and certain control persons. Item 407 Corporate governance. Item 503 Prospectus...

  17. Job characteristics: their relationship to job satisfaction, stress and depression.

    PubMed

    Steyn, Renier; Vawda, Naseema

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the influences of job characteristics on job satisfaction, stress and depression among South African white collar workers. Participants were managers in full-time employment with large organisations. They completed the Job Diagnostic Survey, the Perceived Stress Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory. A regression approach was used to predict job satisfaction, stress and depression from job characteristics. Job characteristics (skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy and feedback) predicted job satisfaction, as well as stress and depression. Job characteristics are weak predictors of perceived stress and depression. Work related factors, such as interpersonal relations and organisational culture, may better predict mental health in work settings.

  18. Electrodermal activity in depression: clinical and biochemical correlates.

    PubMed

    Mirkin, A M; Coppen, A

    1980-07-01

    Electrodermal activity was measured in a group of depressive patients and normal controls. Those patients classified as endogenous on the Newcastle Scale had significantly lower skin conductance levels than either the non-endogenous patients or controls. The endogenous depressives also contained significantly more non-responders to the experimental stimuli. The lack of responsiveness to external stimulation in non-responders is associated with a significantly lower rate of blood platelet 5-hydroxytryptamine uptake, suggesting that endogenous depressives have biological characteristics that distinguish them from other depressive groups and that electrodermal measures may be useful in the classification of depressive illness.

  19. Depression, stress, emotional support, and self-esteem among baccalaureate nursing students in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ross, Ratchneewan; Zeller, Richard; Srisaeng, Pakvilai; Yimmee, Suchawadee; Somchid, Sujidra; Sawatphanit, Wilaiphan

    2005-01-01

    Nursing students are valuable human resources. Detection of potential depression among nursing students is crucial since depression can lead to low productivity, minimized quality of life, and suicidal ideas. Identifying factors affecting depression among students can help nursing educators to find ways to decrease depression. The purpose of this study was to examine rates of depression and the associations between depression and stress, emotional support, and self-esteem among baccalaureate nursing students in Thailand. This correlational, cross-sectional study recruited 331 baccalaureate Thai nursing students. Students completed three instruments that had been translated into Thai: The Center for Epidemiology Studies Depression Scale, Perceived Stress Questionnaire, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Another instrument created in Thai was used to measure emotional support. Results revealed that, when using the standard definition, 50.1% of the students were depressed. Stress was positively related to depression, whereas emotional support and self-esteem were negatively related to depression.

  20. General Medical Drugs Associated with Depression

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Drug-induced depression has been the focus of intense scrutiny by the US Food and Drug Administration and has serious clinical and medicolegal implications. “Gold standard” studies of drug-induced depression—involving randomized, placebo-controlled design and direct assessment of depressive symptoms—are lacking. Based on the available literature, our review suggests that only a few types of drugs are strongly linked with induction of depression. However, the potential for idiosyncratic reactions—not necessarily detected in large-scale studies—suggests that particular caution and careful monitoring are warranted with several types of drugs, including isotretinoin, rimonabant, and alpha interferons. PMID:19724774

  1. Lifestyle and Depression among Hong Kong Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Teris; Yip, Paul S.F.

    2016-01-01

    Recent longitudinal data suggest a close association between depression and lifestyle. Little work to date has estimated the prevalence of depression in the nursing workforce in China, nor considered what lifestyle factors might be correlated with it—a gap filled by the present study. The study’s web-based cross-sectional survey solicited data from qualified nurses aged between 21 and 65 registered with the Hong Kong Nursing Council. The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale 21 was used to measure 850 nurses for depression, anxiety and symptoms of stress; a generalized linear regression model examined associations between lifestyle factors and depression. Mean depression symptom scores show a downward linear trend for male and female participants. Gender and age, however, did not emerge as significant predictors of depression. Three lifestyles factors (sleep, entertainment and hobbies) showed a significant association with depression. Nurses should make therapeutic lifestyle changes to improve their work-life balance and safeguard their functioning at work and personal well-being. PMID:26784216

  2. Depression, cytokines, and pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Breitbart, William; Rosenfeld, Barry; Tobias, Kristen; Pessin, Hayley; Ku, Geoffrey Y.; Yuan, Jianda; Gibson, Christopher; Wolchok, Jedd

    2014-01-01

    Background To examine the relationships between cytokines, depression, and pancreatic cancer. Method 75 individuals were recruited from two New York City hospitals (a cancer center and a psychiatric hospital) and comprised 4 subgroups: patients with adenocarcinoma of the pancreas who did (n=17) and did not (n=26) have a diagnosis of Major Depressive Episode (MDE), and healthy participants with (n=7) and without (n=25) MDE. All individuals completed a battery of self-report measures. Sera was assayed using Meso Scale Discovery techniques to measure the following pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines: IL-1beta, IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p70, IFN-gamma, TGF-beta, and TNF-alpha; we also calculated the IL-2/IL-4 ratio. Results Pancreatic cancer patients had significantly higher levels of IL-6 and IL-10, and significantly lower TGF-beta levels than healthy participants. When the sample was divided into those with and without MDE, the groups only differed with regard to serum IL-6 levels. No significant cancer×depression interaction effect was observed. Severity of depressive symptoms was also significantly correlated with IL-6, rs=.28, p=.02, while hopelessness was associated with IFN-alpha, rs=.34, p=.006. Pain, fatigue and sleep disturbance were associated with several of the cytokines assayed including IL-1beta (pain intensity), IL-4 (pain intensity and overall sleep quality), IL-12p70 (pain intensity), TGF-beta (fatigue intensity), but anxiety was not associated with any of the cytokines assayed. Conclusions This study demonstrated an association between depression and IL-6, but not with other cytokines. Moreover, IL-6 was not significantly associated with other measures of psychological distress (anxiety, hopelessness) or with symptom distress (pain, fatigue, sleep quality), although some cytokines assayed were associated with specific symptoms. The implications of these findings for the etiology and treatment of depression in pancreatic cancer

  3. Evaluating the Measurement Structure of the Abbreviated HIV Stigma Scale in a Sample of African Americans Living with HIV/AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Eboneé T.; Yaghmaian, Rana A.; Best, Andrew; Chan, Fong; Burrell, Reginald, Jr.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to validate the 10-item version of the HIV Stigma Scale (HSS-10) in a sample of African Americans with HIV/AIDS. Method: One hundred and ten African Americans living with HIV/AIDS were recruited from 3 case management agencies in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Measurement structure of the HSS-10 was evaluated using…

  4. Clinical correlates of depressive symptoms in familial Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Pankratz, Nathan; Marder, Karen S; Halter, Cheryl A; Rudolph, Alice; Shults, Cliff W; Nichols, William C; Foroud, Tatiana

    2008-11-15

    Depression is one of the most common nonmotor complications of Parkinson's disease (PD) and has a major impact on quality of life. Although several clinical factors have been associated with depression in PD, the relationship between depression and stage of illness as well as between depression and degree of disability remains controversial. We have collected clinical data on 1,378 PD cases from 632 families, using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) Parts II (activities of daily living) & III (motor), the Mini-Mental State Exam, the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), and the Blessed Functional Activity Scale (Blessed). Analyses were performed using the 840 individuals with verified PD and without evidence of cognitive decline. Logistic regression was used to identify study variables that individually and collectively best predicted the presence of depressive symptoms (GDS >or= 10). After correcting for multiple tests, depressive symptoms were significantly associated with Hoehn and Yahr stage and other clinical measures but not with any genetic variant (parkin, LRRK2, APOE). The Blessed score, education, presence of a first degree relative with signs of depression, and UPDRS Part II were found to best predict depressive symptomatology (R(2) = 0.33; P = 4 x 10(-48)). Contrary to several reports, the results from this large study indicate that stage of illness, motor impairment, and functional disability are strongly correlated with depressive symptoms.

  5. Risk factors associated with depressive symptoms among undergraduate students.

    PubMed

    Besharat, Mohammad Ali; Issazadegan, Ali; Etemadinia, Mahin; Golssanamlou, Safar; Abdolmanafi, Atefe

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship of several cognitive and emotional variables including perfectionism, rumination, and attachment quality with depressive symptoms in a sample of Iranian undergraduate students. Two hundred and ninety nine undergraduate students (144 males, 156 females) from Urmia University of Technology, Urmia University, and Urmia University of Medical Sciences participated in this study. Participants were asked to complete Tehran Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (TMPS), Ruminative Responses Scale (RRS), Revised Adult Attachment Scale (RAAS), and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). The results demonstrated that insecurity of attachment, socially prescribed perfectionism, and rumination could significantly predict the depressive symptoms in undergraduate students. Confirming predictive risk factors of depressive symptoms, results of the present study can produce an empirical basis for designing educational and health programs for people at risk. Accordingly, proper assessment of the risk factors of depressive symptoms in health care settings may provide invaluable information for prevention and management programs.

  6. Factor structure of the Perceived Stress Scale-10 (PSS) across English and Spanish language responders in the HCHS/SOL Sociocultural Ancillary Study.

    PubMed

    Perera, Marisa J; Brintz, Carrie E; Birnbaum-Weitzman, Orit; Penedo, Frank J; Gallo, Linda C; Gonzalez, Patricia; Gouskova, Natalia; Isasi, Carmen R; Navas-Nacher, Elena L; Perreira, Krista M; Roesch, Scott C; Schneiderman, Neil; Llabre, Maria M

    2017-03-01

    Despite widespread use, psychometric investigation of the original English and translated Spanish versions of the 10-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS; Cohen, Kamarck, & Mermelstein, 1983) has been limited among the U.S. Hispanic/Latino population. The present study examined the factor structure, factorial invariance, and reliability and validity of PSS scores from English and Spanish versions using data from 5,176 Hispanics/Latinos who participated in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Sociocultural Ancillary Study. The total sample and language multigroup confirmatory factor analyses supported a bifactor model with all 10 PSS items loading on a general perceived stress factor, and the 4 reverse-worded items also loading on a reverse-worded factor. Internal consistency ranged from .68 to .78, and it was indicated that reliable variance exists beyond the general perceived stress factor. The model displayed configural, metric, scalar, and residual invariance across language groups. Convergent validity analyses indicated that both the general perceived stress factor and the reverse-worded factor were related to scores of depression, anxiety, and anger in the expected directions. The reverse-worded factor added to the validity of the PSS beyond the general perceived stress factor. The total computed score of the PSS can be recommended for use with Hispanics/Latinos in the United States that complete the measure in English or Spanish and the reverse-worded factor can enhance prediction. (PsycINFO Database Record

  7. A significant risk factor for poststroke depression: the depression-related subnetwork

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Songran; Hua, Ping; Shang, Xinyuan; Cui, Zaixu; Zhong, Suyu; Gong, Gaolang; Humphreys, Glyn W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite being one of the direct causes of depression, whether stroke-induced neuroanatomical deterioration actually plays an important role in the onset of poststroke depression (PSD) is controversial. We assessed the structural basis of PSD, particularly with regard to white matter connectivity. Methods We evaluated lesion index, fractional anisotropy (FA) reduction and brain structural networks and then analyzed whole brain voxel-based lesions and FA maps. To understand brain damage in the context of brain connectivity, we used a graph theoretical approach. We selected nodes whose degree correlated with the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression score (p < 0.05, false discovery rate–corrected), after controlling for age, sex, years of education, lesion size, Mini Mental State Examination score and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score. We used Poisson regression with robust standard errors to assess the contribution of the identified network toward poststroke major depression. Results We included 116 stroke patients in the study. Fourteen patients (12.1%) had diagnoses of major depression and 26 (22.4%) had mild depression. We found that lesions in the right insular cortex, left putamen and right superior longitudinal fasciculus as well as FA reductions in broader areas were all associated with major depression. Seventeen nodes were selected to build the depression-related subnetwork. Decreased local efficiency of the subnetwork was a significant risk factor for poststroke major depression (relative risk 0.84, 95% confidence interval 0.72–0.98, p = 0.027). Limitations The inability of DTI tractography to process fibre crossings may have resulted in inaccurate construction of white matter networks and affected statistical findings. Conclusion The present study provides, to our knowledge, the first graph theoretical analysis of white matter networks linked to poststroke major depression. These findings provide new insights into the

  8. Differences in depressive symptoms between Korean and American outpatients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Hong Jin; Walker, Rosemary S; Inamori, Aya; Hong, Jin Pyo; Cho, Maeng Je; Baer, Lee; Clain, Alisabet; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David

    2014-05-01

    Previous epidemiologic studies have revealed that East-Asian populations experience fewer depressive symptoms than American populations do. However, it is unclear whether this difference applies to clinical patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). This present study included 1592 Korean and 3744 American outpatients who were 18 years of age or older and met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. criteria for single or recurrent episodes of nonpsychotic MDD, and evaluated their symptoms of depression using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire Short Form. Korean patients scored significantly lower for guilt and depressed mood items, and higher for hypochondriasis and suicidality items than American patients did, after adjusting for total Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scores. Conversely, no significant differences were found in quality and function of daily life between groups. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that Korean patients experienced less frequent depressed mood and guilt, including verbal and nonverbal expression of depressed mood [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.08-0.23] and feelings of punishment (AOR = 0.036, 95% CI 0.025-0.054) when compared with Americans after adjusting for age and sex. Conversely, Korean patients experienced more frequent suicidality and hypochondriasis, including suicidal ideas or gestures (AOR = 2.10, 95% CI 1.60-2.76) and self-absorption of hypochondriasis (AOR = 1.94, 95% CI 1.70-2.20). In conclusion, decreased expression of depressed mood and guilt may cause underdiagnosis of MDD in Korean patients. Early diagnosis of and intervention for depression and suicide may be delayed because of this specific cross-cultural difference in depression symptoms.

  9. Depression in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stickle, Fred; Onedera, Jill D.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to address selected aspects of depression in older adults. Specifically, symptoms, risk factors, diagnosis, and interventions for depression in older adults are reviewed.

  10. Depression and HIV disease.

    PubMed

    Valente, Sharon M

    2003-01-01

    Depressive disorders are common among 20% to 32% of people with HIV disease but are frequently unrecognized. Major depression is a recurring and disabling illness that typically responds to medications, cognitive psychotherapy, education, and social support. A large percentage of the emotional distress and major depression associated with HIV disease results from immunosuppression, treatment, and neuropsychiatric aspects of the disease. People with a history of intravenous drug use also have increased rates of depressive disorders. Untreated depression along with other comorbid conditions may increase costly clinic visits, hospitalizations, substance abuse, and risky behaviors and may reduce adherence to treatment and quality of life. HIV clinicians need not have psychiatric expertise to play a major role in depression. Screening tools improve case finding and encourage early treatment. Effective treatments can reduce major depression in 80% to 90% of patients. Clinicians who mistake depressive signs and symptoms for those of HIV disease make a common error that increases morbidity and mortality.

  11. Major Depression Among Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... on NIMH’s depression page . NEXT Statistical Methods and Measurement Caveats Diagnostic Assessment: Modules related to major depressive ... apartments, condominiums; civilians living in housing on military bases, etc.) and persons in non-institutional group quarters ( ...

  12. Treatment-Resistant Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... health condition, such as bipolar disorder, which can cause or worsen depression and may require different treatment; dysthymia, a mild ... better Consider physical health conditions that can sometimes cause or worsen depression, such as thyroid disorders, chronic pain or heart ...

  13. Depression in Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Myths About Mental Illness Support an Employee Workplace Bullying & Violence Signs of a Healthy Workplace Clifford Beers ... higher healthcare costs than non-depressed seniors. [5] Suicide Depression is a significant predictor of suicide in ...

  14. Depression in the Workplace

    MedlinePlus

    ... Myths About Mental Illness Support an Employee Workplace Bullying & Violence Signs of a Healthy Workplace Clifford Beers ... those suffering from severe depression will die by suicide vi . Employees' Attitudes Towards Depression Often times a ...

  15. Depression and Suicide Risk

    MedlinePlus

    Depression and Suicide Risk (2014) Definition: A mood disorder that causes a persistent feeling of sadness and ... i Prevalence: 1. Ranges of lifetime risk for depression: from 6.7% overall to 40% in men, ...

  16. Screening for Depression

    MedlinePlus

    Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance Crisis Hotline Information Coping with a Crisis Suicide Prevention Information Psychiatric Hospitalization ... sign-up Education info, training, events Mood Disorders Depression Bipolar Disorder Anxiety Screening Center Co-occurring Illnesses/ ...

  17. Learning about depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000325.htm Learning about depression To use the sharing features on this page, ... trigger or reason. What are the Signs of Depression? You may notice some or all of the ...

  18. Heart disease and depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000790.htm Heart disease and depression To use the sharing features on this page, ... a heart attack or heart surgery Signs of Depression It is pretty common to feel down or ...

  19. Depression and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... best live chat Live Help Fact Sheets Share Depression Thursday, 01 September 2016 In every pregnancy, a ... risk. This sheet talks about whether exposure to depression may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  20. Depression - stopping your medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000570.htm Depression - stopping your medicines To use the sharing features ... prescription medicines you may take to help with depression, anxiety, or pain. Like any medicine, there are ...

  1. [Multiple mechanisms of depression].

    PubMed

    Liu, Chun-Lin; Ruan, Ke-Feng; Gao, Jun-Wei; Wu, Fei; Zhang, Ji-Quan

    2013-08-01

    Depression is a grievous mental disease with an increasing high morbidity year by year and a serious social harm. The pathogenesises of depression is complicated and involves with multi-mechanisms and multi-organs. Recent studies demondtrate that in the nerval system and endocrine system there are many types of neurotransmitters and hormones, as well as their receptors, involved in depression. This paper reviews the research progress of depression in recent years.

  2. Method of treating depression

    DOEpatents

    Henn, Fritz [East Patchogue, NY

    2012-01-24

    Methods for treatment of depression-related mood disorders in mammals, particularly humans are disclosed. The methods of the invention include administration of compounds capable of enhancing glutamate transporter activity in the brain of mammals suffering from depression. ATP-sensitive K.sup.+ channel openers and .beta.-lactam antibiotics are used to enhance glutamate transport and to treat depression-related mood disorders and depressive symptoms.

  3. Method of treating depression

    DOEpatents

    Henn, Fritz

    2013-04-09

    Methods for treatment of depression-related mood disorders in mammals, particularly humans are disclosed. The methods of the invention include administration of compounds capable of enhancing glutamate transporter activity in the brain of mammals suffering from depression. ATP-sensitive K.sup.+ channel openers and .beta.-lactam antibiotics are used to enhance glutamate transport and to treat depression-related mood disorders and depressive symptoms.

  4. Depressive symptoms and major depressive disorder in patients affected by subclinical hypothyroidism: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Demartini, Benedetta; Ranieri, Rebecca; Masu, Annamaria; Selle, Valerio; Scarone, Silvio; Gambini, Orsola

    2014-08-01

    The relationship between subclinical hypothyroidism and depression is still controversial. Our objective was to compare the prevalence of depressive symptoms and major depressive disorder in a population of patients affected by subclinical hypothyroidism and a control group without thyroid disease. The authors enrolled 123 consecutive outpatients affected by subclinical hypothyroidism undergoing follow-up at the endocrinology department of San Paolo Hospital in Milan and 123 controls without thyroid disease under the charge of general physicians.All patients and controls underwent an evaluation by means of a psychiatric interview; Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D); Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS); and serum thyroid stimulating hormone, free T4, and free T3 levels. Patients were also screened for thyroid peroxidase antibodies and thyroglobulin antibodies. Patients affected by subclinical hypothyroidism had a prevalence of depressive symptoms of 63.4% at HAM-D and 64.2% at MADRS; 22 patients (17.9%) had a diagnosis of depressive episode (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision criteria). The control group had a prevalence of depressive symptoms of 27.6% at HAM-D and 29.3% at MADRS, and only seven controls had a diagnosis of depressive episode. The prevalence of depressive symptoms between these two groups was statistically different. This study underlines a strong association between subclinical hypothyroidism and depressive symptoms, which could have some important diagnostic and therapeutic implications in the clinical practice.

  5. The Depression Inventory Development Workgroup: A Collaborative, Empirically Driven Initiative to Develop a New Assessment Tool for Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Kenneth R.; Kalali, Amir H.; Kennedy, Sidney H.; Engelhardt, Nina; Frey, Benicio N.; Greist, John H.; Kobak, Kenneth A.; Lam, Raymond W.; MacQueen, Glenda; Milev, Roumen; Placenza, Franca M.; Ravindran, Arun V.; Sheehan, David V.; Sills, Terrence; Williams, Janet B.W.

    2016-01-01

    The Depression Inventory Development project is an initiative of the International Society for CNS Drug Development whose goal is to develop a comprehensive and psychometrically sound measurement tool to be utilized as a primary endpoint in clinical trials for major depressive disorder. Using an iterative process between field testing and psychometric analysis and drawing upon expertise of international researchers in depression, the Depression Inventory Development team has established an empirically driven and collaborative protocol for the creation of items to assess symptoms in major depressive disorder. Depression-relevant symptom clusters were identified based on expert clinical and patient input. In addition, as an aid for symptom identification and item construction, the psychometric properties of existing clinical scales (assessing depression and related indications) were evaluated using blinded datasets from pharmaceutical antidepressant drug trials. A series of field tests in patients with major depressive disorder provided the team with data to inform the iterative process of scale development. We report here an overview of the Depression Inventory Development initiative, including results of the third iteration of items assessing symptoms related to anhedonia, cognition, fatigue, general malaise, motivation, anxiety, negative thinking, pain and appetite. The strategies adopted from the Depression Inventory Development program, as an empirically driven and collaborative process for scale development, have provided the foundation to develop and validate measurement tools in other therapeutic areas as well. PMID:27974997

  6. The Depression Inventory Development Workgroup: A Collaborative, Empirically Driven Initiative to Develop a New Assessment Tool for Major Depressive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Vaccarino, Anthony L; Evans, Kenneth R; Kalali, Amir H; Kennedy, Sidney H; Engelhardt, Nina; Frey, Benicio N; Greist, John H; Kobak, Kenneth A; Lam, Raymond W; MacQueen, Glenda; Milev, Roumen; Placenza, Franca M; Ravindran, Arun V; Sheehan, David V; Sills, Terrence; Williams, Janet B W

    2016-01-01

    The Depression Inventory Development project is an initiative of the International Society for CNS Drug Development whose goal is to develop a comprehensive and psychometrically sound measurement tool to be utilized as a primary endpoint in clinical trials for major depressive disorder. Using an iterative process between field testing and psychometric analysis and drawing upon expertise of international researchers in depression, the Depression Inventory Development team has established an empirically driven and collaborative protocol for the creation of items to assess symptoms in major depressive disorder. Depression-relevant symptom clusters were identified based on expert clinical and patient input. In addition, as an aid for symptom identification and item construction, the psychometric properties of existing clinical scales (assessing depression and related indications) were evaluated using blinded datasets from pharmaceutical antidepressant drug trials. A series of field tests in patients with major depressive disorder provided the team with data to inform the iterative process of scale development. We report here an overview of the Depression Inventory Development initiative, including results of the third iteration of items assessing symptoms related to anhedonia, cognition, fatigue, general malaise, motivation, anxiety, negative thinking, pain and appetite. The strategies adopted from the Depression Inventory Development program, as an empirically driven and collaborative process for scale development, have provided the foundation to develop and validate measurement tools in other therapeutic areas as well.

  7. Depression and disease progression in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: A comprehensive meta-regression analysis.

    PubMed

    Pagnini, Francesco; Manzoni, Gian Mauro; Tagliaferri, Aurora; Gibbons, Chris J

    2015-08-01

    Depression in people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, a fatal and progressive neurodegenerative disorder, is a serious issue with important clinical consequences. However, physical impairment may confound the diagnosis when using generic questionnaires. We conducted a comprehensive review of literature. Mean scores from depression questionnaires were meta-regressed on study-level mean time since onset of symptoms. Data from 103 studies (3190 subjects) indicate that the Beck Depression Inventory and, to a lesser degree, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale are influenced by the time since symptom onset, strongly related to physical impairment. Our results suggest that widely used depression scales overestimate depression due to confounding with physical symptoms.

  8. Borderline personality features in depressed or anxious patients.

    PubMed

    Distel, Marijn A; Smit, Johannes H; Spinhoven, Philip; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2016-07-30

    Anxiety and depression frequently co-occur with borderline personality disorder. Relatively little research examined the presence of borderline personality features and its main domains (affective instability, identity problems, negative relationships and self-harm) in individuals with remitted and current anxiety and depression. Participants with current (n=597) or remitted (n=1115) anxiety and/or depression and healthy controls (n=431) were selected from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. Assessments included the Personality Assessment Inventory - Borderline Features Scale and several clinical characteristics of anxiety and depression. Borderline personality features were more common in depression than in anxiety. Current comorbid anxiety and depression was associated with most borderline personality features. Anxiety and depression status explained 29.7% of the variance in borderline personality features and 3.8% (self-harm) to 31% (identity problems) of the variance in the four domains. A large part of the variance was shared between anxiety and depression but both disorders also explained a significant amount of unique variance. The severity of anxiety and depression and the level of daily dysfunctioning was positively associated with borderline personality features. Individuals with a longer duration of anxiety and depression showed more affective instability and identity problems. These findings suggest that patients with anxiety and depression may benefit from an assessment of personality pathology as it may have implications for psychological and pharmacological treatment.

  9. Platelet serotonin concentration and depressive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Peitl, Vjekoslav; Vidrih, Branka; Karlović, Zoran; Getaldić, Biserka; Peitl, Milena; Karlović, Dalibor

    2016-05-30

    Depressive symptoms seem to be frequent in schizophrenia, but so far they have received less attention than other symptom domains. Impaired serotonergic neurotransmission has been implicated in the pathogenesis of depression and schizophrenia. The objectives of this study were to investigate platelet serotonin concentrations in schizophrenic patients with and without depressive symptoms, and to investigate the association between platelet serotonin concentrations and symptoms of schizophrenia, mostly depressive symptoms. A total of 364 patients were included in the study, 237 of which had significant depressive symptoms. Significant depressive symptoms were defined by the cut-off score of 7 or more on Calgary Depression Rating Scale (CDSS). Platelet serotonin concentrations were assessed by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Prevalence of depression in patients with schizophrenia was 65.1%. Schizophrenic patients with depressive symptoms showed lower platelet serotonin concentrations (mean±SD; 490.6±401.2) compared to schizophrenic patients without depressive symptoms (mean±SD; 660.9±471.5). An inverse correlation was established between platelet serotonin concentration and depressive symptoms, with more severe symptoms being associated with lower platelet serotonin concentrations. Depressive symptoms in schizophrenic patients may be associated with reduced concentrations of platelet serotonin.

  10. Self-stigma in depressive patients: Association of cognitive schemata, depression, and self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Shimotsu, Sakie; Horikawa, Naoshi

    2016-12-01

    Many empirical studies have indicated that various psychosocial and psychiatric variables are correlated with levels of self-stigma. Treatment methods for reducing self-stigma have been investigated in recent years, especially those examining the relationship between negative cognitive schemata and self-stigma. This study examined the relationship of self-stigma with cognitive schemata, depression, and self-esteem in depressive patients. Furthermore, structural equation modeling (SEM) was conducted to evaluate three hypothetical models. Study participants were 110 patients with depression (54 men, 56 women; mean age=45.65years, SD=12.68; 83 diagnosed with mood disorders; 22 with neurotic, stress-related, or somatoform disorders; and 5 with other disorders) attending a psychiatric service. Outcomes were measured using the Japanese versions of the Devaluation-Discrimination Scale, Dysfunctional Attitude Scale, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, and Rosenberg's Self Esteem Scale. The analysis indicated a better fit of the model that assumed self-stigma as mediator, suggesting that cognitive schemata influence self-stigma, while self-stigma affects depression and self-esteem. The tested models using SEM indicated that (1) self-stigma has the potential to mediate the relationship between cognitive schemata and depression, and (2) depression and self-stigma have a similar influence on self-esteem. Although low self-esteem is considered one of the symptoms of depression, when we aim to recover self-esteem, we do not only observe improvement in depressive symptoms; thus, approaches that focus on the reduction of self-stigma are probably valid.

  11. Association between depression and survival in Chinese amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Wei, Qianqian; Zheng, Zhenzhen; Guo, Xiaoyan; Ou, Ruwei; Chen, Xueping; Huang, Rui; Yang, Jing; Shang, Huifang

    2016-04-01

    To determine the prevalence of depression, to identify correlated factors for depression, and to explore the impact on the progression or survival of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) by depression in a Chinese population. A total of 166 ALS patients were recruited. Diagnosis of depression disorders and the severity of depression were established by using the fourth diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-24 items (HDRS-24) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Major depression was found in 15 patients (9.6 %). The multiple regression analysis showed that a lower ALS Functional Rating Scale-Revised (ALSFRS-R) score was correlated with increasing HDRS scores and BDI scores (P = 0.018 and P = 0.012). No significant difference in the median survival time between ALS patients with and without depression was revealed by Kaplan-Meier analysis (log-rank P = 0.282). Cox hazard model showed that the presence of depression in ALS was unrelated to the survival, while the severity of depression in ALS was correlated with the survival. The presence and severity of depression in ALS did not correlate with the progression of ALS. Major depression in ALS is uncommon. Depression evaluation should be given to ALS patients, especially those with lower ALSFRS-R score. The severity of depression may be associated with the survival; however, depression does not worse the progression of ALS.

  12. Longitudinal associations between depression and problematic substance use in the Youth Partners in Care study.

    PubMed

    McKowen, James W; Tompson, Martha C; Brown, Timothy A; Asarnow, Joan R

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale treatment studies suggest that effective depression treatment and reduced depression are associated with improved substance use outcomes. Yet information is limited regarding the longitudinal association between depressive symptoms and problematic substance use and its predictors, particularly in real-world practice settings. Using latent growth modeling, we examined the (a) longitudinal association between depressive symptoms and problematic substance use, (b) impact of depressive symptoms on problematic substance use, (c) impact of problematic substance use on depressive symptoms, and (d) role of co-occurring symptoms on depression and problematic substance use. Participants were part of the Youth Partners in Care study, an effectiveness trial evaluating a quality improvement intervention for youth depression through primary care. This ethnically diverse sample included youths aged 13 to 21 years screening positive for depression from 5 health care organizations. Participants were followed 4 times over an 18-month period and assessed for both depressive symptoms and problematic substance use. Both depressive symptoms and problematic substance use declined over time. Higher baseline depressive symptoms predicted a slower decline in problematic substance use, but baseline problematic substance use did not predict changes in depressive symptoms. These prospective associations remained robust controlling for co-occurring symptoms. Results support prior large-scale depression studies indicating depression burden negatively impacts substance use outcome and extends these findings to real-world practice settings. Findings underscore the importance of addressing depression severity in youth with concurrent substance use problems, even in the context of comorbid symptoms of anxiety, delinquency, and aggression.

  13. Depression and Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Marshall, Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Contains four articles related to depression and aging. Compares normal adults with those having a major depressive disorder. Focuses on life satisfaction in the elderly, describing an individualized measure of life satisfaction. Describes similarities and differences between grief and depression. Contains a psychometric analysis of the Zung…

  14. Depression (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Depression KidsHealth > For Parents > Depression Print A A A ... to Help en español Comprender la depresión About Depression It's normal for kids to feel sad, down, ...

  15. Depression (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Depression KidsHealth > For Teens > Depression Print A A A ... Help Yourself en español Depresión Regular Sadness vs. Depression It's natural to feel sad, down, or discouraged ...

  16. Handling Depression | Smokefree 60+

    Cancer.gov

    Everyone feels blue now and then. It's a part of life. But if your feelings last more than few days and interfere with your normal daily activities, you may be suffering from depression. On this page: Symptoms of depression Who gets depressed and why?

  17. Importance of Depression in Diabetes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lustman, Patrick J.; Clouse, Ray E.; Anderson, Ryan J.

    Depression doubles the likelihood of comorbid depression, which presents as major depression in 11% and subsyndromal depression in 31% of patients with the medical illness. The course of depression is chronic, and afflicted patients suffer an average of one episode annually. Depression has unique importance in diabetes because of its association…

  18. Hope and expectancies for future events in depression

    PubMed Central

    Thimm, Jens C.; Holte, Arne; Brennen, Tim; Wang, Catharina E. A.

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated prospective cognition with the Hope scale (Snyder et al., 1991) and the Unrealistic Optimism Scale (Weinstein, 1980) in clinically depressed (CD; n = 61), previously depressed (PD; n = 42), and never depressed controls (ND; n = 46). In line with previous research, significant negative correlations between hope and symptoms of depression were found. Previously depressed reported lower levels of hope than NDs, but were more hopeful than CDs. In addition, relationships between depressive symptoms, dysfunctional attitudes, and expectations for the future were examined. As hypothesized, the CDs estimated their probability of experiencing positive events in the future as lower and their probability of experiencing negative events as higher than the two other groups. The PDs differed not from the NDs in their probability estimates. Implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:23898314

  19. Antidepressant treatment of depression in rural nursing home residents.

    PubMed

    Kerber, Cindy Sullivan; Dyck, Mary J; Culp, Kennith R; Buckwalter, Kathleen

    2008-09-01

    Under-diagnosis and under-treatment of depression are major problems in nursing home residents. The purpose of this study was to determine antidepressant use among nursing home residents who were diagnosed with depression using three different methods: (1) the Geriatric Depression Scale, (2) Minimum Data Set, and (3) primary care provider assessments. As one would expect, the odds of being treated with an antidepressant were about eight times higher for those diagnosed as depressed by the primary care provider compared to the Geriatric Depression Scale or the Minimum Data Set. Men were less likely to be diagnosed and treated with antidepressants by their primary care provider than women. Depression detected by nurses through the Minimum Data Set was treated at a lower rate with antidepressants, which generates issues related to interprofessional communication, nursing staff communication, and the need for geropsychiatric role models in nursing homes.

  20. Depression, burnout, and perceptions of control in hospital nurses.

    PubMed

    Glass, D C; McKnight, J D; Valdimarsdottir, H

    1993-02-01

    Depression, burnout, and perceived job control (PJC) were assessed in 162 nurses. Depression accounted for over 19% of the variance associated with emotional exhaustion--an index of burnout--and PJC accounted for another 6%. Factor analysis of the scales used to measure depression and burnout documented their discriminant validity. Perceptions of uncontrollability were significantly related to higher levels of depression and burnout. Structural equations modeling suggested that perceived uncontrollability is associated with burnout, which, in turn, is related to depressive affect. Against a criterion of actual job control, non-burned-out subjects overestimated their control, whereas burned-out subjects approached complete agreement with criterion. Despite evidence for a "depressive realism effect," greater perceptual accuracy was not attributable to depression among the more burned-out nurses.

  1. The expression of depression among Javanese patients with major depressive disorder: a concept mapping study.

    PubMed

    Brintnell, E Sharon; Sommer, Ryan W; Kuncoro, Bambang; Setiawan, G Pandu; Bailey, Patricia

    2013-08-01

    In this study, we explored the presentation of clinical depression in Java, Indonesia. Interviews were conducted with 20 Javanese patients (male and female) with major depressive disorder from both lower and higher socioeconomic levels. The recruited participants came from provincial and private mental health hospitals in the cities of Solo, Yogykarta (Jogja), Jakarta, and Malang on the island of Java, Indonesia. Concept mapping methodology using multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analysis was used to identify underlying themes in the expression of depressive phenomena in this Indonesian population. The results identified themes that grouped into six clusters: interpersonal relationships, hopelessness, physical/somatic, poverty of thought, discourage, and defeat. Findings give support to the view that culture influences the expression of Indonesian depressive phenomenology, which nevertheless has some common roots with Western clinical pictures of the disorder. Cultural influences may mask symptoms of the disorder to clinicians. Diagnostic and assessment tools must be carefully selected to ensure they address culturally specific expressions of depression.

  2. Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Depression

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Yashika; Kuhad, Anurag

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Background Depression is the most debilitating neuropsychiatric disorder with significant impact on socio-occupational and well being of individual. The exact pathophysiology of depression is still enigmatic though various theories have been put forwarded. There are evidences showing that mitochondrial dysfunction in various brain regions is associated with depression. Recent findings have sparked renewed appreciation for the role of mitochondria in many intracellular processes coupled to synaptic plasticity and cellular resilience. New insights in depression pathophysiology are revolving around the impairment of neuroplasticity. Mitochondria have potential role in ATP production, intracellular Ca2+ signalling to establish membrane stability, reactive oxygen species (ROS) balance and to execute the complex processes of neurotransmission and plasticity. So understanding the various concepts of mitochondrial dysfunction in pathogenesis of depression indubitably helps to generate novel and more targeted therapeutic approaches for depression treatment. Objective The review was aimed to give a comprehensive insight on role of mitochondrial dysfunction in depression. Result Targeting mitochondrial dysfunction and enhancing the mitochondrial functions might act as potential target for the treatment of depression. Conclusion Literature cited in this review highly supports the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in depression. As impairment in the mitochondrial functions lead to the generation of various insults that exaggerate the pathogenesis of depression. So, it is useful to study mitochondrial dysfunction in relation to mood disorders, synaptic plasticity, neurogenesis and enhancing the functions of mitochondria might show promiscuous effects in the treatment of depressed patients. PMID:26923778

  3. Improving Australians' depression literacy.

    PubMed

    Parslow, Ruth A; Jorm, Anthony F

    2002-10-07

    Community awareness and understanding of depression ("depression literacy") underpins successful implementation of prevention, early intervention and treatment programs. Improving depression literacy is a major goal of beyondblue: the national depression initiative. Although other countries have previously attempted to address this issue, there is little evidence to indicate that those attempts have achieved their aims. Work in other areas of health promotion, such as the widely used PRECEDE model, offers a useful framework from which to develop effective depression literacy initiatives in Australia. This model proposes that effective health promotion strategies should focus not on health actions per se, but on the knowledge and attitudes that encourage or impede individuals from taking such actions. We identify the goals of an effective depression literacy campaign and a range of educational strategies for achieving change in each of these areas. Applying these strategies may give a stronger basis for improving depression literacy than previous initiatives.

  4. [Depression and neurological diseases].

    PubMed

    Piber, D; Hinkelmann, K; Gold, S M; Heesen, C; Spitzer, C; Endres, M; Otte, C

    2012-11-01

    In many neurological diseases a depressive syndrome is a characteristic sign of the primary disease or is an important comorbidity. Post-stroke depression, for example, is a common and relevant complication following ischemic brain infarction. Approximately 4 out of every 10 stroke patients develop depressive disorders in the course of the disease which have a disadvantageous effect on the course and the prognosis. On the other hand depression is also a risk factor for certain neurological diseases as was recently demonstrated in a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies which revealed a much higher stroke risk for depressive patients. Furthermore, depression plays an important role in other neurological diseases with respect to the course and quality of life, such as Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis and epilepsy. This article gives a review of the most important epidemiological, pathophysiological and therapeutic aspects of depressive disorders as a comorbidity of neurological diseases and as a risk factor for neurological diseases.

  5. Postpartum depression among women with unintended pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Cynthia Nunes de Oliveira; Alves, Sandra Valongueiro; Ludermir, Ana Bernarda; de Araújo, Thália Velho Barreto

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the association between unintended pregnancy and postpartum depression. METHODS This is a prospective cohort study conducted with 1,121 pregnant aged 18 to 49 years, who attended the prenatal program devised by the Brazilian Family Health Strategy, Recife, PE, Northeastern Brazil, between July 2005 and December 2006. We interviewed 1,121 women during pregnancy and 1,057 after childbirth. Unintended pregnancy was evaluated during the first interview and postpartum depression symptoms were assessed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Screening Scale. The crude and adjusted odds ratios for the studied association were estimated using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS The frequency for unintended pregnancy was 60.2%; 25.9% presented postpartum depression symptoms. Those who had unintended pregnancies had a higher likelihood of presenting this symptoms, even after adjusting for confounding variables (OR = 1.48; 95%CI 1.09;2.01). When the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20) variable was included, the association decreased, however, remained statistically significant (OR = 1.42; 95%CI 1.03;1.97). CONCLUSIONS Unintended pregnancy showed association with subsequent postpartum depressive symptoms. This suggests that high values in Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Screening Scale may result from unintended pregnancy. PMID:26083941

  6. Depressive symptoms in institutionalized older adults

    PubMed Central

    Santiago, Lívia Maria; Mattos, Inês Echenique

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of depressive symptoms among institutionalized elderly individuals and to analyze factors associated with this condition. METHODS This was a cross-sectional study involving 462 individuals aged 60 or older, residents in long stay institutions in four Brazilian municipalities. The dependent variable was assessed using the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale. Poisson’s regression was used to evaluate associations with co-variables. We investigated which variables were most relevant in terms of presence of depressive symptoms within the studied context through factor analysis. RESULTS Prevalence of depressive symptoms was 48.7%. The variables associated with depressive symptoms were: regular/bad/very bad self-rated health; comorbidities; hospitalizations; and lack of friends in the institution. Five components accounted for 49.2% of total variance of the sample: functioning, social support, sensory deficiency, institutionalization and health conditions. In the factor analysis, functionality and social support were the components which explained a large part of observed variance. CONCLUSIONS A high prevalence of depressive symptoms, with significant variation in distribution, was observed. Such results emphasize the importance of health conditions and functioning for institutionalized older individuals developing depression. They also point to the importance of providing opportunities for interaction among institutionalized individuals. PMID:24897042

  7. Personality and risk for postpartum depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Iliadis, S I; Koulouris, P; Gingnell, M; Sylvén, S M; Sundström-Poromaa, I; Ekselius, L; Papadopoulos, F C; Skalkidou, A

    2015-06-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a common childbirth complication, affecting 10-15 % of newly delivered mothers. This study aims to assess the association between personality factors and PPD. All pregnant women during the period September 2009 to September 2010, undergoing a routine ultrasound at Uppsala University Hospital, were invited to participate in the BASIC study, a prospective study designed to investigate maternal well-being. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) while the Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS) was used as a diagnostic tool for major depression. Personality traits were evaluated using the Swedish Universities Scale of Personality (SSP). One thousand thirty-seven non-depressed pregnant women were included in the study. Non-depressed women reporting high levels of neuroticism in late pregnancy were at high risk of developing postpartum depressive symptoms (PPDSs) at 6 weeks and 6 months after delivery, even after adjustment for confounders (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 3.4, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.8-6.5 and adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 3.9, 95 % CI 1.9-7.9). The same was true for a DSRS-based diagnosis of major depression at 6 months postpartum. Somatic trait anxiety and psychic trait anxiety were associated with increased risk for PPDS at 6 weeks (aOR = 2.1, 95 % CI 1.2-3.5 and aOR = 1.9, 95 % CI 1.1-3.1), while high scores of mistrust were associated with a twofold increased risk for PPDS at 6 months postpartum (aOR 1.9, 95 % CI 1.1-3.4). Non-depressed pregnant women with high neuroticism scores have an almost fourfold increased risk to develop depressive symptoms postpartum, and the association remains robust even after controlling for most known confounders. Clinically, this could be of importance for health care professionals working with pregnant and newly delivered women.

  8. Acculturation, discrimination and depressive symptoms among Korean immigrants in New York City.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Kunsook Song; Park, So-Youn; Shin, Jinah; Cho, Sunhee; Park, Yeddi

    2011-02-01

    Immigrant mental health issues, especially depression in relation to discrimination and acculturation, are reported to be serious problems in the United States. The current study examines the prevalence of depressive symptoms among Korean immigrants in New York City (NYC) and its relation to self-reported discrimination and acculturation. A sample of 304 Korean immigrants residing in NYC completed a survey utilizing the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale-Korean version, Discrimination Scale, and Acculturation Stress Scale. Results indicated that 13.2% of the sample population demonstrated some symptoms of depression and that variable such as living alone, marital status, education, years in US and income impact high depression scores. Results also indicate that higher self-reported exposure to discrimination and lower self-reported language proficiency were related to higher depressive symptoms. In a regression analysis, discrimination and English language proficiency were significant predictors of depression, but acculturation stress was not significantly related to depression.

  9. Effect of social support on depression of internet addicts and the mediating role of loneliness

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Many studies have determined the existence of an extremely close association between Internet addiction and depression. However, the reasons for the depression of Internet addicts have not been fully investigated. Aim This cross-sectional study aims to explore the factors that influence depression among Internet addicts. Methods A total of 162 male Internet addicts completed the Emotional and Social Loneliness Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and Self-Rating Depression Scale. Results Loneliness and lack of social support are significantly correlated with depression among Internet addicts. Structural Equation Modeling results indicate that social support partially mediates loneliness and depression. Conclusions Both social support and loneliness were negatively associated with depression of Internet addicts whereas loneliness plays a mediating role between social support and depression. PMID:25147581

  10. Unique contributions of metacognition and cognition to depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Adviye Esin; Gençöz, Tülin; Wells, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    This study attempts to examine the unique contributions of "cognitions" or "metacognitions" to depressive symptoms while controlling for their intercorrelations and comorbid anxiety. Two-hundred-and-fifty-one university students participated in the study. Two complementary hierarchical multiple regression analyses were performed, in which symptoms of depression were regressed on the dysfunctional attitudes (DAS-24 subscales) and metacognition scales (Negative Beliefs about Rumination Scale [NBRS] and Positive Beliefs about Rumination Scale [PBRS]). Results showed that both NBRS and PBRS individually explained a significant amount of variance in depressive symptoms above and beyond dysfunctional schemata while controlling for anxiety. Although dysfunctional attitudes as a set significantly predicted depressive symptoms after anxiety and metacognitions were controlled for, they were weaker than metacognitive variables and none of the DAS-24 subscales contributed individually. Metacognitive beliefs about ruminations appeared to contribute more to depressive symptoms than dysfunctional beliefs in the "cognitive" domain.

  11. Depressive Symptoms Among Older Adults in Mexico City

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Fernando A.; Sánchez-Garcia, Sergio; Juárez-Cedillo, Teresa; Espinel-Bermúdez, Claudia; García-Gonzalez, José Juan; Gallegos-Carrillo, Katia; Franco-Marina, Francisco; Gallo, Joseph J.

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Ageing and depression are associated with disability and have significant consequences for health systems in many other developing countries. Depression prevalence figures among the elderly are scarce in developing countries. OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of depressive symptoms and their cross-sectional association with selected covariates in a community sample of Mexico City older adults affiliated to the main healthcare provider. DESIGN Cross-sectional, multistage community survey. PARTICIPANTS A total of 7,449 persons aged 60 years and older. MEASUREMENTS Depression was assessed using the 30-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS); cognitive impairment, using the Mini-Mental State Examination; and health-related quality of life with the SF-36 questionnaire. MAIN RESULTS The prevalence of significant depressive symptoms was estimated to be 21.7%, and 25.3% in those aged 80 and older. After correcting for GDS sensitivity and specificity, major depression prevalence was estimated at 13.2%. Comparisons that follow are adjusted for age, sex, education and stressful life events. The prevalence of cognitive impairment was estimated to be 18.9% in depressed elderly and 13.7% in non-depressed. SF-36 overall scores were 48.0 in depressed participants and 68.2 in non-depressed (adjusted mean difference = −20.2, 95% CI = −21.3, −19.1). Compared to non-depressed elderly, the odds of healthcare utilization were higher among those depressed, both for any health problem (aOR 1.4, 95% CI = 1.1, 1.7) and for emotional problems (aOR 2.7, 95% CI = 2.2, 3.2). CONCLUSIONS According to GDS estimates, one of every eight Mexican older adults had major depressive symptoms. Detection and management of older patients with depression should be a high priority in developing countries. PMID:18818976

  12. Does Personality Predict Depression and Use of an Internet-Based Intervention for Depression among Adolescents?

    PubMed Central

    Vangberg, Hans Christian B.; Lillevoll, Kjersti R.; Waterloo, Knut; Eisemann, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Background. Focus upon depression and prevention of its occurrence among adolescents is increasing. Novel ways of dealing with this serious problem have become available especially by means of internet-based prevention and treatment programs of depression and anxiety. The use of Internet-based intervention programs among adolescents has revealed some difficulties in implementation that need to be further elucidated. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between personality and adolescent depression and the characteristics of users of an Internet-based intervention program. Method. The Junior Temperament and Character Inventory (JTCI), the General Self-Efficacy scale (GSE) and the Centre for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale (CES-D) have been administered to a sample (n = 1234) of Norwegian senior high-school students. Results. Multiple regression analysis revealed associations between depression and gender, and several JTCI domains and facets. In line with previous findings in adults, high Harm Avoidance and low Self-Directedness emerged as the strongest predictors of adolescent depressive symptoms. Further, in logistic regression analysis with the covariates JTCI, GSE and CES-D, the only significant variables predicting use/non-use were the CES-D and the temperament domain Reward Dependence. Conclusion. The results in this study revealed level of depressive symptoms as the strongest predictor of the use of the Internet based intervention and that personality might provide useful information about the users. PMID:22928095

  13. Effects of Qigong on Depression: A Systemic Review

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Byeongsang; Choi, Sun Mi; Inamori, Aya; Rosenthal, David; Yeung, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Physical exercises and relaxation have been found to be beneficial for depression. However, there is little evidence on the use of Qigong, a mind-body practice integrating gentle exercise and relaxation, in the management of depression. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the effects of Qigong on depression. The paper examined clinical trials measuring the effect of Qigong on depression within six large-scale medical research databases (PubMed, Medline, ProQuest, Science Direct, EMBASE, and PsycInfo) till October 2011. Key words “Qigong,” “depression,” and “mood” were used. Ten studies were identified as original randomized controlled trial (RCT) studies investigating the effect of Qigong on depression as primary (n = 2) or secondary outcome (n = 8). Four studies reported positive results of the Qigong treatment on depression; two reported that Qigong effect on depression was as effective as physical exercise. One study reported that Qigong was comparable to a conventional rehabilitation program, but the remaining three studies found no benefits of Qigong on depression. While the evidence suggests the potential effects of Qigong in the treatment of depression, the review of the literature shows inconclusive results. Further research using rigorous study designs is necessary to investigate the effectiveness of Qigong in depression. PMID:23533461

  14. Life expectancy without depression increases among Brazilian older adults

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Flávia Cristina Drumond; Wu, Fan; Lebrão, Maria Lúcia; Duarte, Yeda Aparecida de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate life expectancy with and without depressive symptoms in older adults for the years 2000 and 2010. METHODS We evaluated individuals aged 60 years or older (n = 1,862 in 2000 and n = 1,280 in 2010), participants of the Saúde, Bem-Estar e Envelhecimento (SABE – Health, Wellbeing and Aging) study in in Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. Depression was measured using the shorter version of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15); respondents scoring ≥ 6 were classified as having depression. Estimates of life expectancy with and without depression were obtained using the Sullivan method. RESULTS Data from 2000 indicate that 60-year-old men could expect to live, on average, 14.7 years without depression and 60-year-old women could expect to live 16.5 years without depression. By 2010, life expectancy without depression had increased to 16.7 years for men and 17.8 years for women. Expected length of life with depression differed by sex, with women expected to live more years with depression than men. CONCLUSIONS Between 2000 and 2010, life expectancy without depression in Sao Paulo increased. However, older adults in Brazil, especially older women, still face a serious burden of mental illness. PMID:27143612

  15. Effects of qigong on depression: a systemic review.

    PubMed

    Oh, Byeongsang; Choi, Sun Mi; Inamori, Aya; Rosenthal, David; Yeung, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Physical exercises and relaxation have been found to be beneficial for depression. However, there is little evidence on the use of Qigong, a mind-body practice integrating gentle exercise and relaxation, in the management of depression. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the effects of Qigong on depression. The paper examined clinical trials measuring the effect of Qigong on depression within six large-scale medical research databases (PubMed, Medline, ProQuest, Science Direct, EMBASE, and PsycInfo) till October 2011. Key words "Qigong," "depression," and "mood" were used. Ten studies were identified as original randomized controlled trial (RCT) studies investigating the effect of Qigong on depression as primary (n = 2) or secondary outcome (n = 8). Four studies reported positive results of the Qigong treatment on depression; two reported that Qigong effect on depression was as effective as physical exercise. One study reported that Qigong was comparable to a conventional rehabilitation program, but the remaining three studies found no benefits of Qigong on depression. While the evidence suggests the potential effects of Qigong in the treatment of depression, the review of the literature shows inconclusive results. Further research using rigorous study designs is necessary to investigate the effectiveness of Qigong in depression.

  16. Reduced Venous Blood Basophil Count and Anxious Depression in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Ji Hyun; Kim, Hee-Jin; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Papakostas, George I; Nierenberg, Andrew; Heo, Jung-Yoon

    2016-01-01

    Objective Anxious depression has a distinct neurobiology, clinical course and treatment response from non-anxious depression. Role of inflammation in anxious depression has not been examined. As an exploratory study to characterize the role of inflammation on a development of anxious depression, we aimed to determine the relationship between white blood cell (WBC) subset counts and anxiety in individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods A total of 709 patients who were newly diagnosed with MDD were recruited. Anxiety levels of participants were evaluated using the Anxiety/ Somatization subitem of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. The association between WBC subset fraction and anxiety was evaluated. Results Basophil and eosinophil sub-fractions showed significant negative correlations with HAM-D anxiety/somatization factor scores (basophils: r=-0.092, p=0.014 and eosinophils: r=-0.075, p=0.046). When an anxiety score (a sum of somatic and psychic anxiety) was entered as a dependent variable, only basophils showed significant negative association with the anxiety scores after adjusting for all other WBC subset counts and demographic factors (t=-2.57, p=0.010). Conclusion This study showed that anxious depression had a decreased basophil subfraction, which might be associated with involvement of inflammation in development of anxious depression. PMID:27247599

  17. The depressive situation

    PubMed Central

    A. Jacobs, Kerrin

    2013-01-01

    From a naturalistic perspective on mental illness, depression is often described in terms of biological dysfunctions, while a normative perspective emphasizes the lived experience of depression as a harmful condition. The paper relates a conceptual analysis of “depressive situation” to an analysis of the lived experience of depression. As such, it predominantly aims to specify depression as a harmful condition in lights of normative perspective on mental disorder, but partially refers to empirical research, i.e., naturalistic perspective on depression, to exemplarily stress on the methodological merits and limits of relating phenomenological considerations closer to empirical research. The depressive situation is further specified with an examination of the evaluative dynamics by which individuals meaningfully relate to themselves, others and the world. These evaluative dynamics emerge out of the interplay of pre-reflective and reflective processes, which are significantly altered in depression. Such alterations of the evaluative structure are inextricably intertwined with significant distortions of practical sense in depression. From a phenomenological perspective, these distortions of practical sense show in characteristic experiences of evaluative incoherence and impairments of agency. Finally, this paper focuses on an examination of “evaluative incapacity,” which has the integrative potential to capture a range of typical changes of meaningful relatedness that determine the depressive situation. PMID:23882238

  18. Anxiety, Depression, Hostility and General Psychopathology: An Arabian Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibrahim, Abdel-Sattar; Ibrahim, Radwa M.

    In Arabian cultures, the psychosocial characteristics of psychopathological trends, including depression, anxiety, and hostility remain largely unknown. Scales measuring depression, anxiety, and hostility were administered to a voluntary sample of 989 Saudi Arabian men and 1,024 Saudi women coming from different social, economical, and educational…

  19. Depressive Symptoms during Adolescence: Do Learning Difficulties Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiuru, Noona; Leskinen, Esko; Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Salmela-Aro, Katariina

    2011-01-01

    To examine whether learning difficulties play a role in depressive symptoms, 658 Finnish adolescents were asked to complete scales for depression three times during the transition to post-comprehensive education. They also reported on their learning difficulties and feelings of inadequacy as a student. The results showed that learning difficulties…

  20. Attributional Style of the Lonely and the Depressed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Craig A.; And Others

    Attribution theory suggests that attributional styles may contribute to the motivational and performance deficits frequently observed in depressed and lonely populations. An Attributional Style Assessment Test (ASAT) was created and administered to college students, along with the Beck Depression Inventory and the UCLA Loneliness Scale.…

  1. The Roles of Sex, Gender, and Coping in Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Cindy Ellen; DiGiuseppe, Raymond; Froh, Jeffrey

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the roles of coping and masculinity in higher rates of depressive symptoms among adolescent girls, as compared to boys. A model was designed and tested through path analysis, which involved the variables of sex, gender, problem-focused coping, rumination, and distraction. The Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale and the Bem…

  2. Benchmarks for Psychotherapy Efficacy in Adult Major Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minami, Takuya; Wampold, Bruce E.; Serlin, Ronald C.; Kircher, John C.; Brown, George S.

    2007-01-01

    This study estimates pretreatment-posttreatment effect size benchmarks for the treatment of major depression in adults that may be useful in evaluating psychotherapy effectiveness in clinical practice. Treatment efficacy benchmarks for major depression were derived for 3 different types of outcome measures: the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression…

  3. Pulsed depressed collector

    DOEpatents

    Kemp, Mark A

    2015-11-03

    A high power RF device has an electron beam cavity, a modulator, and a circuit for feed-forward energy recovery from a multi-stage depressed collector to the modulator. The electron beam cavity include a cathode, an anode, and the multi-stage depressed collector, and the modulator is configured to provide pulses to the cathode. Voltages of the electrode stages of the multi-stage depressed collector are allowed to float as determined by fixed impedances seen by the electrode stages. The energy recovery circuit includes a storage capacitor that dynamically biases potentials of the electrode stages of the multi-stage depressed collector and provides recovered energy from the electrode stages of the multi-stage depressed collector to the modulator. The circuit may also include a step-down transformer, where the electrode stages of the multi-stage depressed collector are electrically connected to separate taps on the step-down transformer.

  4. Vitamin D and depression.

    PubMed

    Howland, Robert H

    2011-02-01

    Vitamin D is an essential nutrient proven to be important for bone health. It has other physiological functions, and there are plausible reasons for investigating vitamin D in depressive disorders. Some cross-sectional clinical and epidemiologic studies, but not all studies, have found that low levels of vitamin D are significantly associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms or with a depression diagnosis. However, cross-sectional studies cannot establish causality, and the methodology of these studies has been criticized. Due to the poor quality of the treatment studies, the effectiveness of vitamin D for depression cannot be adequately assessed. Current evidence does not definitively demonstrate that vitamin D deficiency is a cause of or risk for developing depression or that vitamin D is an effective therapy for depression.

  5. Gender differences in depression.

    PubMed

    Sagud, M; Hotujac, Lj; Mihaljević-Peles, A; Jakovljević, M

    2002-06-01

    Depression is twice as common in women as in men, although some concern has been raised in terms of misdiagnosing depression in men. The incidence of depression in women varies during the life span. The peak incidence during childbearing years appears to be associated with cyclic hormonal changes. Women also present with reproductive -specific mood disorders: pre-menstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), depression in pregnancy, postpartal mood disorder (PDD) and perimenopausal depressive disorder. Gender differences were repeatedly observed in response to antidepressant medication. Premenopausal women appear to respond poorly and to show low tolerability to TCAs, but they tend to show greater responsiveness to the SSRIs. In contrast, men and postmenopausal women can respond equally to the TCAs and SSRIs. These differences are contributed to gender differences in pharmacokinetics of antidepressants and to the influence of menstrual cycle. These findings suggest the need for a gender-specific approach to the evaluation and management of depression.

  6. Tryptophan metabolism in depression

    PubMed Central

    Curzon, G.; Bridges, P. K.

    1970-01-01

    Psychiatric patients suffering from endogenous depression and a control group without endogenous depression were given oral loads of L-tryptophan and urinary excretion determined of the tryptophan metabolites on the pyrrolase pathway: kynurenine, 3-hydroxykynurenine, and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid. Female endogenously depressed subjects excreted significantly more kynurenine and 3-hydroxykynurenine but not the subsequent metabolite 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid than did female control subjects. Variability of excretion of kynurenine and 3-hydroxykynurenine at different times by the same subject was much greater in the endogenously depressed than in the control group. There was no consistent temporal relationship between excretion of metabolites and severity of the depressive illness. The possible significance of the findings in relation to defective tryptophan metabolism in the brain in endogenous depression is commented upon. PMID:5478953

  7. Diagnosing Depression in MS in the Face of Overlapping Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Patten, Sb

    2010-01-01

    Depression is an important problem in multiple sclerosis (MS), but the diagnosis is challenging since symptoms of depression overlap with those of MS. In the past, the main strategy has been to remove physical symptoms from scales assessing depressive symptoms in MS, but these attempts have not been successful. Depression and overlapping MS symptoms may actually share pathophysiological mechanisms, so the strategy of attempting to exclude such symptoms may be fundamentally flawed. Current diagnostic criteria provide a pragmatic solution, but it may be possible to develop improved definitions.

  8. Co-morbid anxiety and depression among pulmonary tuberculosis patients.

    PubMed

    Aamir, Siddiqua; Aisha

    2010-10-01

    The need to recognize and manage psychiatric co-morbidity in tuberculosis (TB) patients in primary care settings in order to improve adherence to the treatment is now well documented. Pulmonary TB patients at the District TB Control Office and TB Centre in Haripur from December 2007 to March 2008 were evalute in order to assess the frequency of anxiety and depression and continuation of treatment. Forty seven out of 65 (72%) TB patients had severe/moderate level of anxiety and depression according to Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Fourteen (22%) TB patients with co-morbid anxiety and depression showed multi drug-resistance (MDR-TB).

  9. Psychosocial, Physical, and Autonomic Correlates of Depression in Korean Adults: Results from a County-Based Depression Screening Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ki Won; Kim, Seok Hyeon; Shin, Jin Ho; Choi, Bo Yul; Nam, Jung Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Objective We aimed to investigate the prevalence and psychosocial and neurophysiological correlates of depression in a large county-based cohort of Korean adults. Methods We recruited 2355 adults from a rural county-based health promotion program. The following psychometric scales were used: the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D) was used to assess depression, the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) was used to evaluate stress, and the Medical Outcome Study Social Support Survey (MOS-SSS) was used to determine perceived social support. Heart rate variability (HRV) was used to assess neurophysiological properties. The psychosocial and neurophysiological variables of adults with depression (CES-D score ≥25) and without depression (CES-D score <25) were statistically compared. A logistic regression model was constructed to identify factors independently associated with depression. Results We estimated that 17.7% of the subjects had depression, which was associated with old age, being female, being single, less religious affiliation, high education, low body mass index (BMI), low levels of aerobic exercise, low social support, and a low HRV triangular index. The explanatory factors of depression included high education, less religious affiliation, low levels of current aerobic exercise, low BMI, and low social support. Conclusion Given the relatively high prevalence of overall depression, subsyndromal depression should also be regarded as an important issue in screening. The independent factors associated with depression suggest that practical psychosocial intervention, including brief psychotherapy, aerobic exercise, and other self-help methods should be considered. In addition, the HRV results suggest that further depression screening accompanied by neurophysiological features would require fine methodological modifications with proactive efforts to prevent depressive symptoms. PMID:25395971

  10. Depression and Smoking

    MedlinePlus

    ... Who Quit Community Helping Someone Quit Stress & Mood Stress & Mood Smoking & Mood Stress Depression Anger Weight Management Weight Management Smoking and Weight Healthy Weight Loss Being Comfortable in ...

  11. Prevalence, work-loss days and quality of life of community dwelling subjects with depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Jee Hoon; Ahn, Seung Hee; Seong, Su Jeong; Ryu, Ji Min; Cho, Maeng Je

    2013-02-01

    The nationwide prevalence of major depressive disorder in Korea is lower than most countries, despite the high suicide rate. To explain this unexpectedly low prevalence, we examined the functional disability and quality of life in community-dwelling subjects with significant depressive symptoms not diagnosable as depressive disorder. A total of 1,029 subjects, randomly chosen from catchment areas, were interviewed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale, Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, WHO Quality of Life scale, and the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule. Those with scores over 21 on the depression scale were interviewed by a psychiatrist for diagnostic confirmation. Among community-dwelling subjects, the 1-month prevalence of major depressive disorder was 2.2%, but the 1-month prevalence of depressive symptoms not diagnosable as depressive disorder was 14.1%. Depressive disorders were the cause of 24.7% of work loss days, while depressive symptoms not diagnosable as depressive disorder were the cause of 17.2% of work loss days. These findings support the dimensional or spectrum approach to depressive disorder in the community and might be the missing link between the apparent low prevalence of depressive disorder and high suicide rate in Korea.

  12. Gender differences in postpartum depression: a longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Artazcoz, Lucía

    2010-01-01

    Background The course of depression from pregnancy to 1 year post partum and risk factors among mothers and fathers are not known. Aims (1) To report the longitudinal patterns of depression from the third trimester of pregnancy to 1 year after childbirth; (2) to determine the gender differences between women and their partners in the effect of psychosocial and personal factors on postpartum depression. Methods A longitudinal cohort study was carried out over a consecutive sample of 769 women in their third trimester of pregnancy and their partners attending the prenatal programme in the Valencian Community (Spain) and follow-up at 3 and 12 months post partum. The outcome variable was the presence of depression at 3 or 12 months post partum measured by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Predictor variables were: psychosocial (marital dissatisfaction, confidant and affective social support) and personal (history of depression, partner's depression and negative life events, depression during the third trimester of pregnancy) variables. Logistic regression models were fitted via generalised estimating equations. Results At 3 and 12 months post partum, 9.3% and 4.4% of mothers and 3.4% and 4.0% of fathers, respectively, were newly diagnosed as having depression. Low marital satisfaction, partner's depression and depression during pregnancy increased the probability of depression during the first 12 months after birth in mothers and fathers. Negative life events increased the risk of depression only among mothers. Conclusions Psychosocial and personal factors were strong predictors of depression during the first 12 months post partum for both mothers and fathers. PMID:20515899

  13. Late-life Depressive Symptoms: Prediction Models of Change

    PubMed Central

    García-Peña, Carmen; Wagner, Fernando A.; Sánchez-García, Sergio; Espinel-Bermúdez, Claudia; Juárez-Cedillo, Teresa; Pérez-Zepeda, Mario; Arango-Lopera, Victoria; Franco-Marina, Francisco; Ramírez-Aldana, Ricardo; Gallo, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Background Depression is a well-recognised problem in the elderly. The aim of this study was to determine the factors associated with predictors of change in depressive symptoms, both in subjects with and without baseline significant depressive symptoms. Methods Longitudinal study of community-dwelling elderly people (>60 years or older), baseline evaluations, and two additional evaluations were reported. Depressive symptoms were measured using a 30-item Geriatric Depression Scale, and a score of 11 was used as cutoff point for significant depressive symptoms in order to stratify the analyses in two groups: with significant depressive symptoms and without significant depressive symptoms. Sociodemographic data, social support, anxiety, cognition, positive affect, control locus, activities of daily living, recent traumatic life events, physical activity, comorbidities, and quality of life were evaluated. Multi-level generalised estimating equation model was used to assess the impact on the trajectory of depressive symptoms. Results 7,882 subjects were assessed, with 29.42% attrition. At baseline assessment, mean age was 70.96 years, 61.15% were women. Trajectories of depressive symptoms had a decreasing trend. Stronger associations in those with significant depressive symptoms, were social support (OR .971, p<.001), chronic pain (OR 2.277, p<.001) and higher locus of control (OR .581, p<.001). In contrast for those without baseline significant depressive symptoms anxiety and a higher locus of control were the strongest associations. Conclusions New insights into late-life depression are provided, with special emphasis in differentiated factors influencing the trajectory when stratifying regarding basal status of significant depressive symptoms. Limitations The study has not included clinical evaluations and nutritional assessments PMID:23731940

  14. Depression and Assessment of Intellectual Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, William H., III; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined relation between Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) and Wilson predictor of premorbid intelligence scores of 27 depressed and 34 nondepressed psychiatric patients. Found no significant difference between WAIS and Wilson predictor of premorbid intelligence scores nor between Verbal and Performance intelligence quotients. (Author/NB)

  15. Attachment Styles, Abuse Experiences and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunduz, Bulent; Capri, Burhan; Akbay, Sinem Evin; Tunc, Aygul

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to examine the relationship between abuse experiences, depression and attachment styles. The data for this study was collected from 251 students (123 females and 128 males) who attend Mersin University. As a part of the data collection, students completed the Experiences in Affiliation Inventory, Childhood Trauma Scale and Brief…

  16. Postnatal Depression and Infant Health Practices among High-Risk Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zajicek-Farber, Michaela L.

    2009-01-01

    Women's postnatal depressive symptoms have been associated with many adverse outcomes for children. The current study examined the frequency association with relative risk between postnatal depressive symptoms and mothers' use of preventative infant health practices. The study used the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and Parental…

  17. The Sensitivity and Specificity of Depression Screening Tools among Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ailey, Sarah H.

    2009-01-01

    This study describes the validity and the sensitivity and specificity of depression screening tools among adults with intellectual and disabilities (ID). Subjects (N = 75) were interviewed with the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) and the Glasgow Depression Scale for People with a Learning Disability (GDS-LD) and also completed a clinical…

  18. On the Factor Structure of the Beck Depression Inventory-II: G Is the Key

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouwer, Danny; Meijer, Rob R.; Zevalkink, Jolien

    2013-01-01

    The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II; Beck, Steer, & Brown, 1996) is intended to measure severity of depression, and because items represent a broad range of depressive symptoms, some multidimensionality exists. In recent factor-analytic studies, there has been a debate about whether the BDI-II can be considered as one scale or whether…

  19. The Factor Structure of the Beck Depression Inventory-II: An Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanheule, Stijn; Desmet, Mattias; Groenvynck, Hans; Rosseel, Yves; Fontaine, Johnny

    2008-01-01

    The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) is a frequently used scale for measuring depressive severity. BDI-II data (404 clinical; 695 nonclinical adults) were analyzed by means of confirmatory factor analysis to test whether the factor structure model with a somatic-affective and cognitive component of depression, formulated by Beck and…

  20. Relations between Suicidal Ideation and Dimensions of Depressive Symptoms in High-School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chabrol, Henri; Rodgers, Rachel; Rousseau, Amelie

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the link between the different dimensions of depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation in adolescents. A sample of 1057 adolescents completed the CES-D (Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale) and three additional items measuring suicidal ideation. The four dimensions of depressive symptoms on the…

  1. Premenstrual depression predicts future major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Graze, K K; Nee, J; Endicott, J

    1990-02-01

    To assess the power of premenstrual changes as a risk factor for future major depressive disorder (MDD), we conducted a follow-up study of 36 women who had volunteered for menstrual cycle studies. Scores on the depressive subscale of the Premenstrual Assessment Form (PAF) at initial evaluation were found to be significantly correlated (r = 0.35) with the occurrence of MDD during the follow-up period. Moreover, multiple regression analysis indicated that the PAF scores had predictive value above and beyond 2 known risk factors for MDD, family history of depression and prior personal history of depression. The Premenstrual Change Index, a score derived from prospective daily self-ratings of severity of dysphoric symptoms, was also correlated with interval MDD, but did not enhance the predictive power of the PAF score. We conclude that the assessment of premenstrual depression has validity in identifying women at risk for future MDD, even when a retrospective instrument, PAF, is utilized for such assessment.

  2. HPA Axis Genetic Variation, Cortisol, and Psychosis in Major Depression

    PubMed Central

    Schatzberg, Alan F.; Keller, Jennifer; Tennakoon, Lakshika; Lembke, Anna; Williams, Gordon; Kraemer, Fredric B.; Sarginson, Jane E.; Lazzeroni, Laura C.; Murphy, Greer M.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic variation underlying hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis over-activity in healthy controls and patients with severe forms of major depression has not been well explored but could explain risk for cortisol dysregulation. 95 participants were studied: 40 patients with psychotic major depression (PMD); 26 patients with nonpsychotic major depression (NPMD); and 29 healthy controls (HC). Collection of genetic material was added one third of the way into a larger study on cortisol, cognition, and psychosis in major depression. Subjects were assessed using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Blood was collected hourly for determination of cortisol from 6pm to 9am and for the assessment of alleles for 6 genes involved in HPA Axis regulation. Two of the 6 genes contributed significantly to cortisol levels, psychosis measures or depression severity. After accounting for age, depression, and psychosis, and medication status, only allelic variation for the glucocorticoid receptor gene (GR) accounted for significant variance for mean cortisol levels from 6pm to 1am (r2=.317) and from 1am to 9am (r2=.194). Interestingly, neither depression severity nor psychosis predicted cortisol variance. In addition, GR and corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRH-R1) contributed significantly to psychosis measures and CRH-R1 contributed significantly to depression severity rating. PMID:24166410

  3. Study of depression among geriatric population in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Khattri, Jai Bahadur; Nepal, Mahendra Kumar

    2006-12-01

    Depression is one of the commonest psychiatric disorders among the elderly patients attending the outpatient department of the tertiary care hospital. The consequence of unrecognized and untreated depression in the elderly population may include excessive use of health care services, decreased treatment compliance and increased morbidity and mortality related to underlying medical illness and from suicide. The aim of the study is to estimate the prevalence of depression according to Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and to find out the association of GDS with ICD-10 Diagnostic Criteria for Research (ICD-10 DCR) among older adults in the Nepalese population. A study group of 100 elderly patients aged 65 years and above were randomly selected from the psychiatry, medicine and general practice outpatient departments of Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital, Nepal. MMSE scale is administered and the patients scoring more then 24 were administered the GDS and clinical diagnosis was made according to ICD-10 DCR. 53.2% of the samples were found to experience depressive illness according to GDS which includes 34.2% of mild and 19% of severe depression. 83.3% of the patients diagnose with probable depression with GDS were also diagnose clinically with ICD-10 DCR (p<0.001). This study concludes that significant number of elderly patients attending OPD of tertiary care hospital suffers from depression and GDS is a reliable tool to screen depression in the Nepalese patients.

  4. Trajectories of parenting behavior and maternal depression.

    PubMed

    Azak, Schale; Raeder, Sabine

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated trajectories of maternal parenting behavior across the infants' first 18 months of life in relation to maternal depression. Furthermore, predictors of the quality of the mother-infant relationship at 18 months were examined. Participants consisted of three types of mother-infant dyads: mothers with comorbid depression and anxiety (n=19), mothers with depression (n=7) and nondepressed mothers (n=24). Maternal behaviors and the quality of relationship were rated on a global scale (NICHD) from video-taped mother-infant interactions. Maternal behaviors rated at six, 12 and 18 months were collapsed into a composite variable maternal style. The quality of the relationship captured as dyadic mutuality was rated at 18 months. Comorbid and depressed mothers showed lower quality in maternal style compared with the nondepressed mothers at six months. Over the follow-up the comorbid mothers were lower in maternal style compared to the nondepressed mothers, but the comorbid mothers increased significantly in maternal style despite elevated depression symptoms. Mean maternal style and infant cognitive skills predicted the quality in relationship at 18 months suggesting that the mother-toddler relationship depends on contributions from the mother and the child. Higher growth in maternal style despite of depression symptoms among comorbid mothers was interpreted against the background that the majority of the comorbid mother-infant dyads received several treatments.

  5. Depression Storage Thresholds in Prairie Hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martz, L. W.

    2012-12-01

    An initial and essential step in hydrologic modeling is to decompose a watershed into its constituent channel and catchment segments and to measure the geometric andenvironmental properties of those segments. TOPAZ (Topographic Parameterization) is a widely used software system that processes digital elevation models todelineate channel and catchment segments and to measure their geometric properties. TOPAZ and similar software are now widely used in meso-scale hydrologic modeling. TOPAZ and similar software assume that surface depressions are errors in the digital elevation data and apply various techniques to fill those depressions and direct flow across the resulting surface. However, it is the case in many low-relief areas of the earth's surface that depressions are real features that function as significant storage reservoirs. These depressions are typically strung together by connecting channels and the filling of depressions represents major thresholds in changing the contributing area of streams. This paper examines some recent advances in digital terrain analysis for hydrologic model parameterization that address the role of depression storage thresholds in producing step-wise and major changes in watershed contributing areas.

  6. Economic Hardship and Depression Among Women in Latino Farmworker Families.

    PubMed

    Pulgar, Camila A; Trejo, Grisel; Suerken, Cynthia; Ip, Edward H; Arcury, Thomas A; Quandt, Sara A

    2016-06-01

    Farmworker family members risk poor mental health due to stressors including poverty, relocation, and documentation status. This paper explores the relationship between farm-work related stressors and depressive symptoms in women of Latino farmworker families. 248 mothers of young children completed fixed-response interviews in Spanish. Measures included the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale, Migrant Farmworker Stress Inventory, and USDA Household Food Security Survey Module. Bivariate analyses indicated greater depressive symptoms with more economic hardship, more farm work-related stressors, greater age, and being unmarried. In multivariable logistic regression, economic hardship remained the only factor associated with depressive symptoms. Greater economic hardship, but not general farm work-related stress, is a main factor associated with depression in women of Latino farmworker families. Maternal depression can have consequences for both mothers and families. Mental health services for women in farmworker families should be targeted to those with the greatest economic challenges.

  7. The roles of sex, gender, and coping in adolescent depression.

    PubMed

    Li, Cindy Ellen; DiGiuseppe, Raymond; Froh, Jeffrey

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the roles of coping and masculinity in higher rates of depressive symptoms among adolescent girls, as compared to boys. A model was designed and tested through path analysis, which involved the variables of sex, gender, problem-focused coping, rumination, and distraction. The Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale and the Bem Sex Role Inventory, as well as a measure of coping with general stressors was completed by 246 adolescents. Results showed that adolescent girls were more depressed than boys, and that girls used more emotion-focused and ruminative coping than did boys. Greater degrees of ruminative coping were related to high levels of depressive symptoms. Problem-focused and distractive coping were positively correlated with masculinity and negatively associated with depression. Surprisingly, girls were more likely to use problem-focused coping. Problem-focused and distractive coping were found to mediate the negative relationship between masculinity and depression.

  8. Economic Hardship and Depression among Women in Latino Farmworker Families

    PubMed Central

    Pulgar, Camila A.; Trejo, Grisel; Suerken, Cynthia; Ip, Edward H.; Arcury, Thomas A.; Quandt, Sara A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Farmworker family members risk poor mental health due to stressors including poverty, relocation, and documentation status. This paper explores the relationship between farm-work related stressors and depressive symptoms in women of Latino farmworker families. Methods 248 mothers of young children completed fixed-response interviews in Spanish. Measures included the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale, Migrant Farmworker Stress Inventory, and USDA Household Food Security Survey Module. Results Bivariate analyses indicated greater depressive symptoms with more economic hardship, more farm work-related stressors, greater age, and being unmarried. In multivariable logistic regression, economic hardship remained the only factor associated with depressive symptoms. Discussion Greater economic hardship, but not general farm work-related stress, is a main factor associated with depression in women of Latino farmworker families. Maternal depression can have consequences for both mothers and families. Mental health services for women in farmworker families should be targeted to those with the greatest economic challenges. PMID:26022147

  9. Nutritional aspects of depression.

    PubMed

    Lang, Undine E; Beglinger, Christoph; Schweinfurth, Nina; Walter, Marc; Borgwardt, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Several nutrition, food and dietary compounds have been suggested to be involved in the onset and maintenance of depressive disorders and in the severity of depressive symptoms. Nutritional compounds might modulate depression associated biomarkers and parallel the development of depression, obesity and diabetes. In this context, recent studies revealed new mediators of both energy homeostasis and mood changes (i.e. IGF-1, NPY, BDNF, ghrelin, leptin, CCK, GLP-1, AGE, glucose metabolism and microbiota) acting in gut brain circuits. In this context several healthy foods such as olive oil, fish, fruits, vegetables, nuts, legumes, poultry, dairy and unprocessed meat have been inversely associated with depression risk and even have been postulated to improve depressive symptoms. In contrast, unhealthy western dietary patterns including the consumption of sweetened beverage, refined food, fried food, processed meat, refined grain, and high fat diary, biscuits, snacking and pastries have been shown to be associated with an increased risk of depression in longitudinal studies. However, it is always difficult to conclude a real prospective causal relationship from these mostly retrospective studies as depressed individuals might also change their eating habits secondarily to their depression. Additionally specific selected nutritional compounds, e.g. calcium, chromium, folate, PUFAs, vitamin D, B12, zinc, magnesium and D-serine have been postulated to be used as ad-on strategies in antidepressant treatment. In this context, dietary and lifestyle interventions may be a desirable, effective, pragmatical and non-stigmatizing prevention and treatment strategy for depression. At last, several medications (pioglitazone, metformin, exenatide, atorvastatin, gram-negative antibiotics), which have traditionally been used to treat metabolic disorders showed a certain potential to treat depression in first randomized controlled clinical trials.

  10. Predictors of Depressive Symptoms Among Hispanic Women in South Florida

    PubMed Central

    Vermeesch, Amber L.; Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa M.; Hall, Rosemary; McCabe, Brian E.; Cianelli, Rosina; Peragallo, Nilda P.

    2013-01-01

    U.S. Hispanics, especially women, experience a disproportionate amount of disease burden for depression. This disparity among Hispanic women necessitates examination of factors associated with depression. The objective of this study was to use an adaptation of the Stress Process Model to test whether self-esteem mediated the relationship between Hispanic stress and depressive symptoms. Data for this secondary analysis were from a previous randomized-control HIV prevention trial. Participants were 548 Hispanic women (19–52 years). Data collection measures included the Center for Epidemiological Studies–Depression Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and Hispanic Stress Scale. The bootstrap method in Mplus 6 was used to test mediation. Results indicated that self-esteem was inversely related to depression, and Hispanic stress was found to be positively related to depression. Self-esteem partially mediated the relationship between stress and depression. Strategies to improve/maintain self-esteem should be considered in future interventions for Hispanic women with depression. PMID:23858067

  11. Burnout in Teachers: Is It Burnout or Is It Depression?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schonfeld, Irvin Sam

    Burnout measures cover the same ground as depressive symptom scales. Problems with burnout scales include their vulnerability to attribution errors. The few studies having both burnout/stress and psychological symptom measures suggest considerable overlap in the scales. Three cross-sectional studies from very different geographic areas reveal high…

  12. Bidirectional influences of anxiety and depression in young children.

    PubMed

    Lavigne, John V; Hopkins, Joyce; Gouze, Karen R; Bryant, Fred B

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety and depression tend to co-occur in children. Studies indicate that higher levels of anxiety are associated with subsequent higher levels of depression, while depression may inhibit subsequent anxiety. It is important to increase our understanding of the temporal sequencing of these disorders and, particularly, to determine if suppression effects account for the inhibitory association. In addition, further information about these relationships in young children is needed. Participants were a diverse (20.4 % Hispanic, 16.7 % African American; 49.1 % boys) community sample of 796 children with data available at ages 4, 5, and 6-7 years. Anxiety and depression symptoms were assessed using the Child Symptom Inventory and symptom count measures from the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-Parent Scale -Young Child version. The results indicated: (a) anxiety and depression were relatively stable over time; (b) anxiety at age 4 and 5 was a significant positive predictor of subsequent depression; (c) while an inhibitory effect of depression on subsequent anxiety was found, that inhibitory effect was due to negative suppression, and higher levels of depression were actually associated with subsequent anxiety; (e) consistent with a significant suppression effect, when depression was included as a predictor, the association between anxiety at ages 4 and 5 and anxiety one year later increases in magnitude. Both anxiety and depression are associated with higher levels of one another in the subsequent year. Implications for prevention are discussed.

  13. Additive genetic contribution to symptom dimensions in major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Rahel; Palmer, Rohan H C; Brick, Leslie A; McGeary, John E; Knopik, Valerie S; Beevers, Christopher G

    2016-05-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a phenotypically heterogeneous disorder with a complex genetic architecture. In this study, genomic-relatedness-matrix restricted maximum-likelihood analysis (GREML) was used to investigate the extent to which variance in depression symptoms/symptom dimensions can be explained by variation in common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a sample of individuals with MDD (N = 1,558) who participated in the National Institute of Mental Health Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) study. A principal components analysis of items from the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) obtained prior to treatment revealed 4 depression symptom components: (a) appetite, (b) core depression symptoms (e.g., depressed mood, anhedonia), (c) insomnia, and (d) anxiety. These symptom dimensions were associated with SNP-based heritability (hSNP2) estimates of 30%, 14%, 30%, and 5%, respectively. Results indicated that the genetic contribution of common SNPs to depression symptom dimensions were not uniform. Appetite and insomnia symptoms in MDD had a relatively strong genetic contribution whereas the genetic contribution was relatively small for core depression and anxiety symptoms. While in need of replication, these results suggest that future gene discovery efforts may strongly benefit from parsing depression into its constituent parts. (PsycINFO Database Record

  14. Overgeneral autobiographical memory at baseline predicts depressive symptoms at follow-up in patients with first-episode depression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yansong; Zhang, Fuquan; Wang, Zhiqiang; Cao, Leiming; Wang, Jun; Na, Aiguo; Sun, Yujun; Zhao, Xudong

    2016-09-30

    Previous studies have shown that overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) is a characteristic of depression. However, there are no studies to explore the association between baseline OGM and depressive symptoms at follow-up in patients with first-episode depression (FE). This study investigated whether baseline OGM predicts depressive symptoms at follow-up in patients with FE. We recruited 125 patients with FE. The participants were divided into remitted group and non-remitted group according to the severity of their depression at 12 months follow-up. The measures consisted of the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Ruminative Response Scale, and Autobiographical Memory Test. Hierarchical linear regression analyses and bootstrap mediation analyses were conducted. The results showed that non-remitted patients had more OGM at baseline. Baseline OGM predicted depressive symptoms at follow-up in patients with FE. Rumination mediated the relationship between baseline OGM and depressive symptoms at follow-up. Our findings highlight OGM as a vulnerability factor involved in the maintenance of depression in patients with FE.

  15. Viscosity Depressants for Coal Liquefaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalfayan, S. H.

    1983-01-01

    Proposed process modification incorporates viscosity depressants to prevent coal from solidifying during liquefaction. Depressants reduce amount of heat needed to liquefy coal. Possible depressants are metallic soaps, such as stearate, and amides, such as stearamide and dimer acid amides.

  16. Prenatal Depression in Women Hospitalized for Obstetric Risk

    PubMed Central

    Brandon, Anna R.; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Hynan, Linda S.; Miltenberger, Paula D.; Labat, Dana Broussard; Rifkin, Jamie B.; Stringer, C. Allen

    2009-01-01

    Objective Little is known about depression during pregnancy in women with high maternal or fetal risk, as this population is often excluded from research samples. The aim of this study was to evaluate depressive symptoms and known risk factors for depression in a group of women hospitalized with severe obstetric risk. Method In the antenatal unit, 129 inpatients completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS), and the Maternal Antenatal Attachment Scale (MAAS) from October 2005 through December 2006. A subset of women were administered the Mood Disorder module of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID) based upon a score of ≥ 11 on the EPDS. Obstetric complications were classified according to the Hobel Risk Assessment for Prematurity. Results Fifty-seven of the 129 women (44.2%) scored 11 or greater on the EPDS, and at least 25/129 (19%) met the DSM-IV criteria for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Mothers reporting high attachment to the fetus on the MAAS reported lower severity of depressive symptoms (rho = −0.33, p < 0.001); those reporting interpersonal relationship dissatisfaction on the DAS endorsed higher depressive severity (rho = −0.21, p = 0.02). Severity of obstetric risk was unrelated to depression but, one complication, incompetent cervix, was positively associated with level of depressive symptomatology. Conclusion Findings indicate a higher prevalence rate of MDD in women with severe obstetric risk than that reported in low-risk pregnancy samples, suggesting the need for routine depression screening to identify those who need treatment. Fewer depressive symptoms were reported by mothers reporting strong maternal fetal attachment andgreater relationship satisfaction. PMID:18312059

  17. Creativity, Depression and Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salby, Andrew Edmund

    1992-01-01

    Considers relationship between suicide and creativity. Presents evidence indicating that depression, suicide, and creativity are related. Posits several hypotheses for relationship. Suggests that some changes in serotonergic system associated with depression and with impulsive suicides and homicides may be responsible for element of risk taking…

  18. Alzheimer's Disease and Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teri, Linda; Wagner, Amy

    1992-01-01

    Reviews research on depression in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Discusses evidence suggesting that depression affects many AD patients and can have profound effects on patient long-term functioning and caregiver well-being. Notes that field is dominated by studies of prevalence, as opposed to studies of etiology, association with other aspects of…

  19. Depression - older adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... slowly than in younger adults. To better manage depression at home: Exercise regularly, if the provider says it is OK. Surround yourself with caring, positive people and do fun activities. ... signs of depression, and know how to react if these occur. ...

  20. Postpartum Depression: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albright, Angela

    1993-01-01

    Occurring in about 12 percent of postpartum women, postpartum depression has been focus of considerable research. Variables that have been correlated with postpartum depression range from biological causes, to lack of social support, to relationship with husband, to attributional styles, to psychodynamic explanations. There is need for more…

  1. [Hashimoto encephalitis and depression].

    PubMed

    Veltman, E M; Rhebergen, D; van Exel, E; Stek, M L

    2015-01-01

    Hashimoto encephalitis (he) is an auto-immune disease, with 40-50% of patients developing psychopathology. This could require targeted treatment. HE and prednison could both cloud the identification of a concurrent depressive disorder. We saw a 78-year-old woman with he and a severe depression, and treated her succesfully with ect.

  2. Depression Begets Depression: Comparing the Predictive Utility of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms to Later Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Kate; Feng, Xin; Hipwell, Alison; Klostermann, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Background: The high comorbidity between depressive and anxiety disorders, especially among females, has called into question the independence of these two symptom groups. It is possible that childhood anxiety typically precedes depression in girls. Comparing of the predictive utility of symptoms of anxiety with the predictive utility of symptoms…

  3. Distinguishing affective and somatic dimensions of pain and depression: a confirmatory factor analytic study.

    PubMed

    Lerman, Sheera F; Rudich, Zvia; Shahar, Golan

    2010-04-01

    In this study, we examined the overlap between pain and depression in a sample of 342 chronic pain patients treated at a specialty pain clinic. Confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to test the differentiation of pain and depression measured as latent factors derived from the subscales of the Short Form McGill Pain Questionnaire and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. The affective pain subscale did not load on latent depression and the somatic depression subscale loaded weakly on latent pain. Although pain and depression are linked, we found that affective pain is distinct from depression, and that somatic depression is distinct from pain. This finding justifies further examination of the casual relationship between pain and depression.

  4. Yoga and massage therapy reduce prenatal depression and prematurity.

    PubMed

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Medina, Lissette; Delgado, Jeannette; Hernandez, Andrea

    2012-04-01

    Eighty-four prenatally depressed women were randomly assigned to yoga, massage therapy or standard prenatal care control groups to determine the relative effects of yoga and massage therapy on prenatal depression and neonatal outcomes. Following 12 weeks of twice weekly yoga or massage therapy sessions (20 min each) both therapy groups versus the control group had a greater decrease on depression, anxiety and back and leg pain scales and a greater increase on a relationship scale. In addition, the yoga and massage therapy groups did not differ on neonatal outcomes including gestational age and birthweight, and those groups, in turn, had greater gestational age and birthweight than the control group.

  5. Depressed REM Sleep Behavior Disorder Patients Are Less Likely to Recall Enacted Dreams than Non-Depressed Ones

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyeong Gon; Choi, Jae Won; Lee, Yu Jin

    2016-01-01

    Objective REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is associated with psychiatric symptoms, such as anxiety and alexithymia. However, only a few studies on the relationship between depression and RBD have been published. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of depression and associated factors in patients with RBD. Methods In total 94 patients (mean age: 61.9±12.7 years, male: 70.2%) diagnosed as RBD were examined using detailed clinical histories, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and nocturnal polysomnography (PSG). Results The mean BDI score of all patients was 12.4±10.3 and 44.7% of RBD patients showed depressed mood (BDI >11 points). Depressed RBD patients were less able to recall enacted dreams than were non-depressed patients (61.9% vs. 86.5%, p=0.008). Logistic regression analysis showed that failure to recall enacted dreams was significantly associated with depression, after controlling for confounding variables including the respiratory disturbance index and a history of psychiatric disorders (odds ratio=0.323, p=0.041). Conclusion In this study, 44.7% of RBD patients were found to suffer from depressed mood. And, depression was found to be associated with reduced ability to recall enacted dreams. We suggest that routine evaluation of depression be performed in RBD patients, particularly when failure to recall enacted dreams is evident. We speculate that such failure may be associated with emotional dysregulation or neurodegeneration. PMID:27081385

  6. [Severe depression : psychoanalysis].

    PubMed

    Bouvet de la Maisonneuve, O

    2009-12-01

    The indication for psychoanalysis in severe depression is not clear. And yet, demands for this type of intervention are increasing, despite the absence of any form of consensus on the subject. Freud considered depression as a failure of analytical efforts and, based on this observation, revised his theory, in particular to include the notions of narcissism and the death drive. Many analysts have been reluctant to follow his teachings on this last point and provide depressed patients with analytical-type therapies aimed at restoring narcissism. Melanie Klein pushed Freud's ideas about depression even further and brought such therapies back to the heart of analytical practice. Jacques Lacan took the debate to another level by proposing an overhaul of the principles on which analysis has been based. Today, while following certain precautionary rules, true psychoanalyses can be proposed to patients with severe depression, whether of the bipolar, recurring or even neurotic type that can reach this level of severity.

  7. Late Pregnancy Thyroid-Binding Globulin Predicts Perinatal Depression

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Cort; Leserman, Jane; Garcia, Nacire; Stansbury, Melissa; Meltzer-Brody, Samantha; Johnson, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    Previously we found that late pregnancy total and free thyroxine (TT4, FT4) concentrations were negatively related to greater pre and/or postpartum depressive symptoms. In a much larger cohort, the current study examined whether these thyroid indices measured earlier in the third trimester (31-33 weeks) predict subsequent perinatal depression and anxiety ratings as well as syndromal depression. Thyroid-binding globulin (TBG) concentrations increase markedly during pregnancy and may be an index of sensitivity to elevated estrogen levels. TBG was examined in this study because prior findings suggest that postpartum depression is related to sensitivity to mood destabilization by elevated sex hormone concentrations during pregnancy. Our cohort was 199 euthyroid women recruited from a public health obstetrics clinic (63.8% Hispanic, 21.6% Black). After screening and blood draws for hormone measures at pregnancy weeks 31-33, subjects were evaluated during home visits at pregnancy weeks 35-36 as well as postpartum weeks 6 and 12. Evaluations included psychiatric interviews for current and life-time DSM-IV psychiatric history (M.I.N.I.-Plus), subject self-ratings and interviewer ratings for depression and anxiety (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, Montgomery-Ǻsberg Depression Rating Scale; Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Hamilton Anxiety Inventory), as well as a standardized interview to obtain life-time trauma history. Numerous covariates were included in all regression analyses. Trauma and major depression history were robustly significant predictors of depression and anxiety ratings over the study period when these variables were analyzed individually or in a combined model including FT4 or TBG (p<.001). When analyzed alone, FT4 levels were a less strong but still significant predictor of all depression and anxiety ratings (p<.05) while TBG levels was a significant or nearly significant predictor of most ratings. FT4, TBG and trauma history, but not

  8. Activities on Facebook Reveal the Depressive State of Users

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Jinah

    2013-01-01

    Background As online social media have become prominent, much effort has been spent on identifying users with depressive symptoms in order to aim at early diagnosis, treatment, and even prevention by using various online social media. In this paper, we focused on Facebook to discern any correlations between the platform’s features and users’ depressive symptoms. This work may be helpful in trying to reach and detect large numbers of depressed individuals more easily. Objective Our goal was to develop a Web application and identify depressive symptom–related features from users of Facebook, a popular social networking platform. Methods 55 Facebook users (male=40, female=15, mean age 24.43, SD 3.90) were recruited through advertisement fliers distributed to students in a large university in Korea. Using EmotionDiary, the Facebook application we developed, we evaluated depressive symptoms using the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale. We also provided tips and facts about depression to participants and measured their responses using EmotionDiary. To identify the Facebook features related to depression, correlation analyses were performed between CES-D and participants’ responses to tips and facts or Facebook social features. Last, we interviewed depressed participants (CES-D≥25) to assess their depressive symptoms by a psychiatrist. Results Facebook activities had predictive power in distinguishing depressed and nondepressed individuals. Participants’ response to tips and facts, which can be explained by the number of app tips viewed and app points, had a positive correlation (P=.04 for both cases), whereas the number of friends and location tags had a negative correlation with the CES-D scale (P=.08 and P=.045 respectively). Furthermore, in finding group differences in Facebook social activities, app tips viewed and app points resulted in significant differences (P=.01 and P=.03 respectively) between probably depressed and

  9. A Measure of Depression in a Modern Asian Community: Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Weining C.; Koh, Jessie Bee Kim

    2012-01-01

    The construct validity of two depression measures, Zung's Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS) and the Asian Adolescents Depression Scale (AADS), was investigated. Three studies were conducted using two samples collected in two stages, and the results were used to construct the Asian Depression Scale (ADS). Participants responded to the SDS and AADS in random order of presentation during stage 1; two months later, validation variables were collected. Study 1 found that the SDS is a reliable and valid measure of depression for Singaporean Chinese, but it does not cover the interpersonal dimension found in the AADS. Study 2 combined the two measures and found six factors. One of these factors, negative social self, which was a unique Asian depressive symptom cluster, consisted only of AADS items, while the affective manifestation and psychosomatic symptoms factor primarily consisted of items from the SDS. Study 3 selected high-loading items from the identified factors to construct the ADS, which showed excellent internal reliability, and good convergent and discriminant validity. Incremental predictive validity found on criterion data collected in stage 2, supported the nonspuriousness of the Asian Depression Scale. PMID:23094145

  10. Prevention of Depression in Childhood and Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Mendelson, Tamar; Tandon, S Darius

    2016-04-01

    This article discusses strategies and programs used to prevent depression in children and adolescents. It describes the rationale for depression prevention and discusses prevention approaches in schools and other settings, highlighting examples of programs that have been empirically evaluated. Prevention effects are small but significant, comparable or greater in magnitude than adolescent prevention programs for other issues, including substance use and human immunodeficiency virus. Future research should include rigorous design features, including attention control groups, allocation concealment, larger sample sizes, longer follow-up assessments, and theory-driven tests of moderation and mediation, and should test larger-scale implementation of prevention programs.

  11. Insomnia in relation to depression and somatic symptoms.

    PubMed

    El-Anzi, Freih O

    2006-08-01

    A sample of 358 Kuwaiti volunteer college students responded to the Insomnia Scale, the Somatic Symptoms Inventory, and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale. The only significant sex difference was in somatic symptoms on which women had a higher mean score than the men. Correlations between scores on the Insomnia Scale and both Depression scales were .51 and .54 and for Somatic Symptoms were .53 and .61 (p < .01) among men and women, respectively. The factor analysis of the intercorrelations yielded a highly loaded general factor for Psychological Disorder in both samples.

  12. Personality Factors and Depressive Configurations. An Exploratory Study in an Italian Clinical Sample

    PubMed Central

    Straccamore, Francesca; Ruggi, Simona; Lingiardi, Vittorio; Zanardi, Raffaella; Vecchi, Sara; Oasi, Osmano

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: This study focuses on the relationship between personality configurations and depressive experiences. More specifically, the aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between self-criticism and dependency and personality styles or disorders, exploring the association between personality features and depressive symptoms. The two-configurations model of personality developed by Blatt (2004, 2008) is adopted as a reference point in sharing a valid framework and in understanding the results. Methods: Five instruments are administered to 51 participants with a diagnosis of depressive disorder, in accordance with DSM-IV-TR (American Psychiatric Association, 2000): Self-criticism and dependency dimensions of depression are measured with the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire (DEQ); self-reported depression is assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II); observer-rated depression is assessed with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS); personality is assessed with the Clinical Diagnostic Interview (CDI) and the Shedler Westen Assessment Procedure-200 (SWAP-200). Results: Only self-criticism, and not dependency, is associated with depressive symptoms. In addition, the SWAP Borderline PD Scale and the Dysphoric: Emotionally dysregulated Q-factor emerge as significant in predicting depression. Conclusions: Findings support the assumption that depressive personality configurations can enhance the vulnerability to developing depression. Theoretical and clinical implications of these results are discussed. PMID:28316575

  13. Depression in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Fiske, Amy; Wetherell, Julie Loebach; Gatz, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Depression is less prevalent among older adults than among younger adults but can have serious consequences. Over half of cases represent a first onset in later life. Although suicide rates in the elderly are declining, they are still higher than in younger adults and more closely associated with depression. Depressed older adults are less likely to endorse affective symptoms and more likely to display cognitive changes, somatic symptoms, and loss of interest than are younger adults. Risk factors leading to the development of late life depression likely comprise complex interactions among genetic vulnerabilities, cognitive diathesis, age-associated neurobiological changes, and stressful events. Insomnia is an often overlooked risk factor for late life depression. We suggest that a common pathway to depression in older adults, regardless of which predisposing risks are most prominent, may be curtailment of daily activities. Accompanying self-critical thinking may exacerbate and maintain a depressed state. Offsetting the increasing prevalence of certain risk factors in late life are age-related increases in psychological resilience. Other protective factors include higher education and socioeconomic status, engagement in valued activities, and religious or spiritual involvement. Treatments including behavioral therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, cognitive bibliotherapy, problem-solving therapy, brief psychodynamic therapy, and life review/reminiscence therapy are effective but too infrequently used with older adults. Preventive interventions including education for individuals with chronic illness, behavioral activation, cognitive restructuring, problem-solving skills training, group support, and life review have also received support. PMID:19327033

  14. Depression and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Elderon, Larkin; Whooley, Mary A

    2013-01-01

    Approximately one out of every five patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) suffers from major depressive disorder (MDD). Both MDD and depressive symptoms are risk factors for CVD incidence, severity and outcomes. Great progress has been made in understanding potential mediators between MDD and CVD, particularly focusing on health behaviors. Investigators have also made considerable strides in the diagnosis and treatment of depression among patients with CVD. At the same time, many research questions remain. In what settings is depression screening most effective for patients with CVD? What is the optimal screening frequency? Which therapies are safe and effective? How can we better integrate the care of mental health conditions with that of CVD? How do we motivate depressed patients to change health behaviors? What technological tools can we use to improve care for depression? Gaining a more thorough understanding of the links between MDD and heart disease, and how best to diagnose and treat depression among these patients, has the potential to substantially reduce morbidity and mortality from CVD.

  15. Lesbians' constructions of depression.

    PubMed

    Barnard, Amy

    2009-05-01

    Lesbians are a marginalized group of women living in a heteronormative society. This study describes lesbians' subjective experiences of depression, and identifies the ways that dominant and alternative discourses shaped their understandings of depression and sexuality. Twelve self-identified lesbians participated in up to three in-depth interviews conducted over a 9-month period. Thematic analysis led to themes that explicated their physical and emotional descriptions of depression; identified troubled interpersonal relationships as a primary source of depression; and discussed the means implemented to cope with depression, including taking medication, engaging in therapy, developing social support networks, and discovering their own spirituality. Depression and sexuality were understood within the framework of the dominant discourses of (1) medical model, (2) dysfunctional family, and (3) organized religion; and the alternative discourses of (1) lesbian identity, (2) alternative families, and (3) spirituality. Nurses in clinical practice can assist depressed lesbian clients by bolstering explorations of spirituality and the development of strong support networks within the lesbian and gay communities. Politically, institutionalized heteronormativity must be attacked at every level.

  16. Improving Depression Treatment for Women: Integrating a Collaborative Care Depression Intervention into OB-GYN Care

    PubMed Central

    LaRocco-Cockburn, Anna; Reed, Susan D.; Melville, Jennifer; Croicu, Carmen; Russo, Joan; Inspektor, Michal; Edmondson, Eddie; Katon, Wayne

    2013-01-01

    Background Women have higher rates of depression and often experience depression symptoms during critical reproductive periods, including adolescence, pregnancy, postpartum, and menopause. Collaborative care intervention models for mood disorders in patients receiving care in an OB-GYN clinic setting have not been evaluated. Study design and methodology for a randomized, controlled trial of collaborative care depression management versus usual care in OB-GYN clinics and the details of the adapted collaborative care intervention and model implementation are described in this paper. Methods Women over age 18 years with clinically significant symptoms of depression, as measured by a Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) score ≥10 and a clinical diagnosis of major depression or dysthymia, were randomized to the study intervention or to usual care and were followed for 18 months. The primary outcome assessed was change over time in the SCL-20 depression scale between baseline and 12 months. Baseline Results 205 women were randomized: 57% white, 20% African American, 9% Asian or Pacific Islander, 7% Hispanic, and 6% Native American. Mean age was 39 years. 4.6% were pregnant and 7.5% were within 12 months postpartum. The majority were single, (52%), and 95% had at least the equivalent of a high school diploma. Almost all patients met DSM IV criteria for major depression (99%) and approximately 33% met criteria for dysthymia. Conclusions An OB-GYN collaborative care team including a social worker, psychiatrist and OB-GYN physician who met weekly and used an electronic tracking system for patients were essential elements of the proposed depression care treatment model described here. Further study of models that improve quality of depression care that are adapted to the unique OB-GYN setting are needed. PMID:23939510

  17. Impact of depression, fatigue and disability on quality of life in Chinese patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kelong; Fan, Yongping; Hu, Rui; Yang, Tao; Li, Kangning

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate and analyze the main factors that influence the quality of life (QOL) of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. The QOL (multiple sclerosis impact scale), disability (expanded disability status scale), fatigue (modified fatigue impact scale) and depression (Beck Depression Inventory) were assessed in 100 MS patients. Correlation analysis shows that QOL is positively correlated with disability status, fatigue and depression, i.e., the more severe the disability, fatigue and depression, the worse the QOL. Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that Expanded Disability Status Scale grade and fatigue have important predictive value on the somatic QOL of MS patients. On the other hand, depression and fatigue have important predictive value on the mental QOL of MS patients. The QOL of MS patients is influenced by various factors, nursing care that focuses on patient disability, fatigue and depression should be strengthened.

  18. Work environment stressors, social support, anxiety, and depression among secondary school teachers.

    PubMed

    Mahan, Pamela L; Mahan, Michael P; Park, Na-Jin; Shelton, Christie; Brown, Kathleen C; Weaver, Michael T

    2010-05-01

    Work environment stress, a salient health and safety issue for secondary school teachers, school administrators, parents, and students, was examined in 168 teachers from two urban and five suburban high schools. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between ongoing and episodic stressors and anxiety and depression, as well as the extent to which anxiety and depression may be predicted by stressors and coworker and supervisor support. The Ongoing Stressor Scale (OSS) and the Episodic Stressor Scale (ESS), the Coworker and Supervisor Contents of Communication Scales (COCS), the State Anxiety inventory (S-Anxiety), and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) were used to measure the variables. Ongoing and episodic stressors were significantly and positively associated with anxiety and depression. Ongoing stressors and coworker support were significant in explaining anxiety and depression among secondary school teachers. Coworker support had an inverse relationship to anxiety and depression.

  19. Management of Postpartum Depression

    PubMed Central

    Guille, Constance; Newman, Roger; Fryml, Leah D.; Lifton, Clay K.; Epperson, C. Neill

    2013-01-01

    Postpartum depression, now termed peripartum depression by the DSM-V, is one of the most common complications in the postpartum period and has potentially significant negative consequences for mothers and their families. This article highlights common clinical challenges in the treatment of peripartum depression and reviews the evidence for currently available treatment options. Psychotherapy is the first-line treatment options for women with mild-to-moderate peripartum depression. Antidepressant medication in combination with therapy is recommended for women with moderate-to-severe depression. While pooled case reports and small controlled studies have demonstrated undetectable infant serum levels and no short-term adverse events in infants of mothers breastfeeding while taking sertraline (Zoloft) and paroxetine (Paxil), further research is needed including larger samples and long-term follow-up of infants exposed to antidepressants via breastfeeding with control for maternal depression. Pharmacological treatment recommendations in women who are lactating must include discussion with the patient regarding the benefits of breastfeeding, risks of antidepressant use during lactation and risks of untreated illness. There is a growing evidence base for non-pharmacological interventions including repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) which may offer an attractive option for women who wish to continue to breastfeed and are concerned about exposure of medication to their infant. Among severe cases of peripartum depression with psychosis referral to a psychiatrist or psychiatric APRN is warranted. Suicidal or homicidal ideation with a desire, intent or plan to harm oneself or anyone one else, including the infant, is a psychiatric emergency, and an evaluation by a mental health professional should be conducted immediately. Peripartum depression treatment research is limited by small samples sizes and few controlled studies. Much work is still needed to better

  20. Indicators of depression in elderly and different screening methods

    PubMed Central

    Matias, Amanda Gilvani Cordeiro; Fonsêca, Marília de Andrade; Gomes, Maria de Lourdes de Freitas; Matos, Marcos Antonio Almeida

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To determine the prevalence of depressive symptoms among elderly and correlate the agreement between the screening methods used. Methods A cross-section study of 137 elderly attending the Programa Vivendo a Terceira Idade [Living for the Elderly Program]. Depressive symptoms were screened by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale, by Yesavage. Cohen´s kappa analyzed the degree of agreement of these scales. Results The prevalence of depressive symptoms screened by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 was 62.8% and, by the Geriatric Depression Scale, 52.6%. The Spearman correlation between the results of scales obtained rho=0.387, p<0.000. The Kappa reliability coefficient was 0.41 and significance level of p<0.001. The screening methods showed sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 44%. Conclusion Both scales showed moderate agreement and were useful for detecting a relevant prevalence of the target outcome of depression among the elderly. PMID:27074227

  1. Insomnia and depression.

    PubMed

    Benca, Ruth M; Peterson, Michael J

    2008-09-01

    It is clear that insomnia and depression are intimately related, which may suggest an overlapping neurobiology. Although much progress has been made toward understanding how these disorders relate to each other, the exact neurobiological mechanisms that link them remain elusive. Sleep changes in depression may be associated with abnormal neurotransmission, genetic polymorphisms, HPA overactivity, impaired plasticity, or most likely a combination of factors. It is therefore crucial that sleep assessments go beyond traditional polysomnography to include a more expanded set of objective measures in the hope that these will uncover the common neurobiology that is thought to underlie insomnia and depression.

  2. Postpsychotic depression in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    McGlashan, T H; Carpenter, W T

    1976-02-01

    Several authors have described a severe depression in patients emerging from psychotic states. The clinical picture usually resembles that of a retarded depression with strong neurasthenic and schizoid components. It frequently emerges after a patient has been discharged from the hospital and may often go unnoticed. When manifest, the syndrome is usually stable phenomenologically, is often lengthy, and may be resistant to all modalities of treatment. Postpsychotic depression is a relatively neglected clinical area despite the risk of suicide and prolonged suffering. Therapeutic perseverence purportedly can improve the patient's long-term prognosis, and the phenomenon itself may be favorable prognostic sign. We present here a review and reformulation of this syndrome.

  3. Depression and erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Makhlouf, Antoine; Kparker, Ashay; Niederberger, Craig S

    2007-11-01

    Depression and erectile dysfunction (ED) clearly are associated. Although urologists and psychiatrists have long recognized that antidepressant medications affect erectile function negatively, the interplay between the two conditions remains underappreciated. Psychiatrists may be reluctant to question a patient in detail about ED, and urologists seldom perform a formal assessment of the presence of depression in patients who have ED. This article gives a quick overview of the relationship between these two conditions and provides the clinician with the knowledge required to effectively manage ED with comorbid depression.

  4. Welfare Program Implementation and Parents’ Depression

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Pamela A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines how the frontline practices in welfare offices explain variation in program impacts on parents’ depression. The study uses data from four large-scale experimental studies and conducts multilevel statistical modeling on 6,761 families in 22 local welfare offices. Analyses examine the ways that two program implementation practices (emphasis on quick job entry and personal client attention) are associated with program impacts on parents’ depressive symptoms. Effects vary by the age composition of the parents’ children, such that programmatic emphasis on quick job entry is associated with increases in depression among parents with preschool-age children but not among parents with school-age children. Findings have implications for research, policy, and practice. PMID:22058575

  5. Extreme Thinking in Clinically Depressed Adolescents: Results from the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Rachel H.; Reinecke, Mark A.; Gollan, Jackie K.; Jordan, Neil; Silva, Susan G.; March, John S.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to examine relations between extreme thinking, as measured by the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale, and the maintenance of gains among adolescents who participated in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS). We examine extreme thinking among 327 adolescents (mean age = 14.56, 57% female, 75% White) who received cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), fluoxetine (FLX), or a combination of CBT and FLX (COMB). Among those who met remission status on the Children's Depression Rating Scale – Revised (CDRS-R ≤ 28; 56 at week 12, 79 at week 18) extreme thinking did not predict failure to maintain remission. This is in contrast to findings with depressed adults. Treatment influenced level of extreme thinking, and this appeared to be driven by greater endorsement of positively valenced beliefs as opposed to a decrease in negatively valenced beliefs. Developmental or investigation characteristics may account for the discrepancy in findings. PMID:20843506

  6. Observer-rated depression in long-term care: frequency and risk factors.

    PubMed

    McCusker, Jane; Cole, Martin G; Voyer, Philippe; Monette, Johanne; Champoux, Nathalie; Ciampi, Antonio; Vu, Minh; Dyachenko, Alina; Belzile, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were: (1) to describe the prevalence and 6-month incidence of observer-rated depression in residents age 65 and over of long-term care (LTC) facilities; (2) to describe risk factors for depression, at baseline and over time. A multisite, prospective observational study was conducted in residents aged 65 and over of 7 LTC facilities. The Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD) was completed by nurses monthly for 6 months. We measured demographic, medical, and functional factors at baseline and monthly intervals, using data from research assessments, nurse interviews, and chart reviews. 274 residents were recruited and completed baseline depression assessments. The prevalence of depression (CSDD score of 6+) was 19.0%. The incidence of depression among those without prevalent depression was 73.3 per 100 person-years. A delirium diagnosis, pain, and diabetes were independently associated with prevalent depression. CSDD score at baseline and development of severe cognitive impairment at follow-up were independent risk factors for incident depression. A diagnosis of delirium and uncorrected visual impairment at follow-up occurred concurrently with incident depression. The results of this study have implications for the detection and prevention of depression in LTC. Delirium diagnosis, pain and diabetes at baseline were associated with prevalent depression; depression symptoms at baseline and development of severe cognitive impairment at follow-up were risk factors for incident depression.

  7. Depression in Women with Recurrent Miscarriages - an Exploratory Study.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Ariel Cesar de; Silva, Michele Eugênio da; Matos, Bárbara Magueta; Bottino, Cassio Machado de Campos; Abrahão, Anelise Riedel; Cohrs, Frederico Molina; Bottino, Sara Mota Borges

    2016-12-01

    Objective To assess depression, domestic violence and the use of substances in women with recurrent miscarriages. Methods The Abuse Assessment Screen (AAS), the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) were used to assess violence, depression and the use of substances among women with recurrent miscarriages. The population corresponded to patients receiving prenatal care from June to August 2014. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess the multivariable relationship between depression and sociodemographic, psychosocial and medical characteristics (p < 0,10). Results The prevalence of depression was of 41.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 28.3-55.7%). One third of the pregnant women (32.6%) reported emotional or physical violence, and 13% were classified as abusing or addicted to tobacco according to ASSIST. History of psychiatric diseases was associated with depression (p = 0.005). Violence during life demonstrated a modest association (p = 0.073) with depression, as well as the number of miscarriages (p = 0.071). Conclusion Depression is a frequent disease among pregnant women with recurrent miscarriages. The results of this investigation suggest that a systematic assessment of depression and its associated conditions, such as domestic violence and the use of substances, should be part of the prenatal follow-up visits for women with recurrent miscarriages.

  8. Insufficient treatment of severe depression in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Chavarro, Velina S.; Mealy, Maureen A.; Simpson, Alexandra; Lacheta, Anna; Pache, Florence; Ruprecht, Klemens; Gold, Stefan M.; Brandt, Alexander Ulrich; Levy, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate depression frequency, severity, current treatment, and interactions with somatic symptoms among patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD). Methods: In this dual-center observational study, we included 71 patients diagnosed with NMOSD according to the International Panel for NMO Diagnosis 2015 criteria. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was classified into severe, moderate, or minimal/no depressive state category. We used the Fatigue Severity Scale to evaluate fatigue. Scores from the Brief Pain Inventory and the PainDETECT Questionnaire were normalized to estimate neuropathic pain. Psychotropic, pain, and immunosuppressant medications were tabulated by established classes. Results: Twenty-eight percent of patients with NMOSD (n = 20) had BDI scores indicative of moderate or severe depression; 48% of patients (n = 34) endorsed significant levels of neuropathic pain. Severity of depression was moderately associated with neuropathic pain (r = 0.341, p < 0.004) but this relationship was confounded by levels of fatigue. Furthermore, only 40% of patients with moderate or severe depressive symptoms received antidepressant medical treatment. Fifty percent of those treated reported persistent moderate to severe depressive symptoms under treatment. Conclusions: Moderate and severe depression in patients with NMOSD is associated with neuropathic pain and fatigue and is insufficiently treated. These results are consistent across 2 research centers and continents. Future research needs to address how depression can be effectively managed and treated in NMOSD. PMID:27800532

  9. Emotional support and adult depression in survivors of childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Musliner, Katherine L; Singer, Jonathan B

    2014-08-01

    The goals of this study were to evaluate the effects of emotional support from friends and parents at two time points (adolescence and adulthood) on adult depression in a nationally representative sample of survivors of childhood sexual abuse (CSA), and examine whether the associations were moderated by the identity of the perpetrator (parent/caregiver vs. not). Data were taken from Waves I and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). The study sample included 1,238 Add Health participants with a history of CSA and an equivalently sized comparison group of individuals with no history of CSA. Parental support was measured using four items from each wave that assessed the warmth of participants' relationships with their parents and their satisfaction with those relationships. Friend support in adolescence was measured using participants' perceptions of how much their friends cared about them and in adulthood using participants' self-reported number of close friends. Depression was measured using a 10-item subscale of the CES-D. Logistic regressions showed that support from friends and parents in adulthood were significantly associated with lower odds of adult depression in CSA survivors who reported non-parent/caregiver abuse. Among survivors of parent/caregiver abuse, emotional support was not significantly associated with adult depression regardless of when or by whom it was provided. In conclusion, emotional support in adulthood from friends and parents is associated with reduced odds of adult depression in CSA survivors, but only in cases where the abuse was perpetrated by someone other than a parent or caregiver.

  10. Depression Dimensions: Integrating Clinical Signs and Symptoms from the Perspectives of Clinicians and Patients

    PubMed Central

    Vares, Edgar Arrua; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Spanemberg, Lucas; Caldieraro, Marco Antônio; Fleck, Marcelo P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Several studies have recognized that depression is a multidimensional construct, although the scales that are currently available have been shown to be limited in terms of the ability to investigate the multidimensionality of depression. The objective of this study is to integrate information from instruments that measure depression from different perspectives–a self-report symptomatic scale, a clinician-rated scale, and a clinician-rated scale of depressive signs–in order to investigate the multiple dimensions underlying the depressive construct. Methods A sample of 399 patients from a mood disorders outpatient unit was investigated with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), and the Core Assessment of Psychomotor Change (CORE). Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) were used to investigate underlying dimensions of depression, including item level analysis with factor loadings and item thresholds. Results A solution of six depression dimensions has shown good-fit to the data, with no cross-loading items, and good interpretability. Item-level analysis revealed that the multidimensional depressive construct might be organized into a continuum of severity in the following ascending order: sexual, cognitive, insomnia, appetite, non-interactiveness/motor retardation, and agitation. Conclusion An integration of both signs and symptoms, as well as the perspectives of clinicians and patients, might be a good clinical and research alternative for the investigation of multidimensional issues within the depressive syndrome. As predicted by theoretical models of depression, the melancholic aspects of depression (non-interactiveness/motor retardation and agitation) lie at the severe end of the depressive continuum. PMID:26313556

  11. Do You Have Major Depression?

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Depression Do You Have Major Depression? Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents Simple ... member may have major depression. —NIMH Types of Depression Just like other illnesses, such as heart disease, ...

  12. Depression, Pain, and Pain Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefe, Francis J.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Examined the degree to which depression predicted pain and pain behavior. The Beck Depression Inventory was administered to 207 low back pain patients. Depression and physical findings were the most important predictors of pain and pain behavior. Depression proved significant even after controlling for important demographic and medical status…

  13. Quality of Life, Health Status, and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Pike, Nancy A.; Evangelista, Lorraine S.; Doering, Lynn V.; Eastwood, Jo-Ann; Lewis, Alan B.; Child, John S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Quality of life (QOL) in adolescents and adults who have undergone the Fontan procedure and are living with only 1 ventricle is presumed to be diminished. Objectives This study aimed to compare QOL, health status, and prevalence of depression in adolescents/adults after the Fontan procedure with healthy counterparts and to identify predictors of QOL in the Fontan group. Methods Using a comparative, cross-sectional design, 54 adolescents and adults with single ventricle congenital heart disease who have undergone the Fontan procedure were compared with 66 age-matched healthy counterparts. Quality of life, health status, depression, and social support were measured using the Satisfaction With Life Scale, Short Form Survey Version 2, Patient Health Questionnaire Depression Module, and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Clinical variables were abstracted from medical records. Predictors of QOL were determined using multiple linear regression. Results Adolescents and adults in the Fontan group reported lower physical health status (mean [SD] = 46.5 [9.3] vs mean [SD] = 55.9 [5.1], P < .001) and were more depressed (mean [SD] = 7.3 [5.9] vs mean [SD] = 4.5 [4.3], P < .004) than their healthy counterparts. There were no differences in QOL, mental health status, or social support between the 2 groups. Functional status (New York Heart Association class), depression, and social support accounted for 55% of the variance in QOL in the Fontan group. Conclusions Despite lower levels of physical health, the QOL of Fontan patients was comparable with that of their healthy counterparts; this finding contradicts previous proxy reports, self-reports, and assumptions that QOL is lower in patients with complex single ventricle congenital heart disease. However, because Fontan patients were more depressed than their healthy counterparts, the need for early screening and detection is warranted. PMID:21912272

  14. The psychoneuroimmunology of depression.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Brian E; Myint, Ayemu

    2009-04-01

    Chronic stress, by initiating changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the immune system, acts as a trigger for anxiety and depression. There is experimental and clinical evidence that the rise in the concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokines and glucocorticoids, which occurs in a chronically stressful situation and also in depression, contribute to the behavioural changes associated with depression. A defect in serotonergic function is associated with these hormonal and immune changes. Neurodegenerative changes in the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and amygdalae are the frequent outcome of the changes in the HPA axis and the immune system. Such changes may provide evidence for the link between chronic depression and dementia in later life.

  15. Depression and African Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... in daily life and can even lead to suicide. A common myth about depression is that it is “normal” for certain people to feel depressed—older people, teenagers, new mothers, menopausal women, or those with a ...

  16. Inbreeding depression in Zebu cattle traits.

    PubMed

    Pereira, R J; Santana, M L; Ayres, D R; Bignardi, A B; Menezes, G R O; Silva, L O C; Machado, C H C; Josahkian, L A; Albuquerque, L G

    2016-12-01

    The productivity of herds may be negatively affected by inbreeding depression, and it is important to know how intense is this effect on the livestock performance. We performed a comprehensive analysis involving five Zebu breeds reared in Brazil to estimate inbreeding depression in productive and reproductive traits. Inbreeding depression was estimated for 13 traits by including the individual inbreeding rate as a linear covariate in the standard genetic evaluation models. For all breeds and for almost all traits (no effect was observed on gestation length), the performance of the animals was compromised by an increase in inbreeding. The average inbreeding depression was -0.222% and -0.859% per 1% of inbreeding for linear regression coefficients scaled on the percentage of mean (βm ) and standard deviation (βσ ), respectively. The means for βm (and βσ ) were -0.269% (-1.202%) for weight/growth traits and -0.174% (-0.546%) for reproductive traits. Hence, inbreeding depression is more pronounced in weight/growth traits than in reproductive traits. These findings highlight the need for the management of inbreeding in the respective breeding programmes of the breeds studied here.

  17. Depression and codependency in women.

    PubMed

    Hughes-Hammer, C; Martsolf, D S; Zeller, R A

    1998-12-01

    Seven million American women are depressed, and 40 million Americans, primarily women, have been labeled as codependent. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of codependency in women undergoing treatment for depression, examine the relationship between codependency and depression, and determine which of the symptoms of codependency are most highly predictive of depression scores. Depression and codependency were measured in a sample of 105 depressed women by using the Beck Depression Inventory and the Codependency Assessment Tool. Descriptive statistics, Pearson's Product Moment Correlation, and multiple regression were used for analysis. Of these depressed women, 36% were moderately to severely codependent. Depression and codependency were strongly related, with the significant gamma = .92 (P < .001). Of the codependency subscales, Low Self-Worth and Hiding Self correlate most strongly with depression; Other Focus/Self-Neglect added the least-independent--explanatory power. Thus, future research should be directed toward the relationship of codependency to power, alienation of self, and personality disorders.

  18. Anxiety, depression, and insomnia.

    PubMed

    Larzelere, Michele M; Wiseman, Pamela

    2002-06-01

    Evidence for alternative treatments for depression, anxiety, and insomnia are reviewed in this article. Treatment of depression with St. John's wort, L-tryptophan, 5-hydroxytryptophan, S-adenosylmethionine, dehydroepiandosterone, folate, exercise, acupuncture, and meditation are examined. Evidence for the efficacy of kava kava, exercise, relaxation therapies, and acupuncture in treatment anxiety is reviewed. The use of valerian, melatonin, chamomile, passionflower, exercise, acupuncture, and behavioral therapies (i.e., sleep restriction, stimulus control, relaxation, and sleep hygiene) for insomnia is discussed.

  19. Sex Differences in the Relationship of Anger and Depression: An Empirical Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Jody L.; Gray, Elizabeth A.; Fuqua, Dale R.

    1999-01-01

    A comparison of mean scores on the Beck Depression Inventory and State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory scales revealed that women scored significantly higher than men on depression, whereas there were no significant differences on any of the six anger scales. These findings support further research on functional affective differences between men…

  20. Within-person Changes in Individual Symptoms of Depression Predict Subsequent Depressive Episodes in Adolescents: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Morris, Matthew C.; Garber, Judy

    2015-01-01

    The current longitudinal study examined which individual symptoms of depression uniquely predicted a subsequent Major Depressive Episode (MDE) in adolescents, and whether these relations differed by sex. Adolescents (N=240) were first interviewed in grade 6 (M=11.86 years old; SD = 0.56; 54% female; 81.5% Caucasian) and then annually through grade 12 regarding their individual symptoms of depression as well as the occurrence of MDEs. Individual symptoms of depression were assessed with the Children’s Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R) and depressive episodes were assessed with the Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation (LIFE). Results showed that within-person changes in sleep problems and low self-esteem/excessive guilt positively predicted an increased likelihood of an MDE for both boys and girls. Significant sex differences also were found. Within-person changes in anhedonia predicted an increased likelihood of a subsequent MDE among boys, whereas irritability predicted a decreased likelihood of a future MDE among boys, and concentration difficulties predicted a decreased likelihood of an MDE in girls. These results identified individual depressive symptoms that predicted subsequent depressive episodes in male and female adolescents, and may be used to guide the early detection, treatment, and prevention of depressive disorders in youth. PMID:26105209

  1. [Depression in the workplace].

    PubMed

    Mezerai, Mustapha; Dahane, Abdelkrim; Tachon, Jean-Paul

    2006-05-01

    Depression is the object of a dense literature, and synthesizing it is more of a utopian ideal rather than a concrete possibility. Several specific risk factors for mental health are found in the workplace: work overloads, defective communications, role conflicts, competitive climate, and tolerance of violence. At the same time, few preventive measures have been implemented against mental disorders at work, nor are many protective factors present. One worker in ten suffers from depression, anxiety, stress, or overwork. To be distinguished from "burnout", depressive symptoms must induce clinically significant suffering with substantial deterioration in functioning at work. For depression to be recognized as a workplace accident, the employee must show that it was triggered by an unforeseen and sudden event (or at least one certainly) due to or at work. The causal link between an event at work and the depression must be shown (in particular by expert medical testimony about stress factors and indicators of vulnerability to depression). Its recognition as an occupational disease can be based on the presence of psychosocial factors described by models of workplace stress and on its description by the occupational physician.

  2. Emerging from Depression: Treatment of Adolescent Depression Using the Major Treatment Models of Adult Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Kathleen M.

    Noting that adolescents who commit suicide are often clinically depressed, this paper examines various approaches in the treatment of depression. Major treatment models of adult depression, which can be directly applied to the treatment of the depressed adolescent, are described. Major treatment models and selected research studies are reviewed in…

  3. Acculturation, optimism, and relatively fewer depression symptoms among Mexican immigrants and Mexican Americans.

    PubMed

    González, Patricia; González, Gerardo M

    2008-10-01

    The mental health of individuals of Mexican origin may vary as a function of native status (i.e., Mexican born or U.S.A. born). Some have reported that Mexican Americans tend to display more depressive symptoms than Mexican immigrants. The present goal was to estimate the associations among acculturation and native status, and explore relative deprivation in the prevalence of depression. Participants included 153 individuals of Mexican origin who completed the Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans, the Beck Depression Inventory-II, the Revised Generalized Expectancy for Success Scale, and relative deprivation questions. Analyses indicated women and those scoring low on acculturation were significantly more likely to report depressive symptoms. Participants who felt they had relatively better family happiness than Euro-Americans reported lower depressive symptoms. So participants' sex, acculturation, and relative lack of depressive symptoms allow better understanding of depressive symptoms among these Mexican Americans and Mexican immigrants.

  4. An interdisciplinary approach to dialysis decision-making in the CKD patient with depression.

    PubMed

    Schell, Jane O; Bova-Collis, Renee; Eneanya, Nwamaka D

    2014-07-01

    Depression and depressive symptoms are common in advanced kidney disease and are associated with poor outcomes. For those with CKD not on dialysis, depression may influence how patients cope and prepare for their disease and its management, including decisions about dialysis treatment. Patient self-reported scales exist to better identify depression; how to incorporate these scales into clinical practice and assist with treatment decision-making is less clear. We present a case-based discussion of depressive symptoms in patients with advanced kidney disease not on dialysis. We highlight the contribution of underlying somatic and psychosocial factors in the assessment and management of depression. We further define the role of the interdisciplinary care team, including palliative care and hospice medicine, to assist with symptom management and end-of-life care for CKD patients with depression.

  5. Sleep debt and depression in female college students.

    PubMed

    Regestein, Quentin; Natarajan, Viji; Pavlova, Milena; Kawasaki, Susan; Gleason, Ray; Koff, Elissa

    2010-03-30

    The objective of the study was to evaluate relationships between sleep habits and depressive symptoms. Pilot study data were collected about sleep schedules, related factors and depression in female college students to find whether their sleep schedules correlate with affective symptoms. In the subsequent main study, similar information was collected under more controlled conditions. Depression was measured using the CES-D (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale) and HAM-D-3 (modified Hamilton Depression Rating Scale). Response rates were 31.3% of eligible students for the pilot survey and 71.6% for the main study. Both studies showed that about 20% of students reported weekday sleep debts of greater than 2 h and about 28% reported significantly greater sleep debt and had significantly higher depression scores (P<0.0001) than other students. Melancholic symptoms indicated by high CES-D scores (>24), were observed in 24% of students. Sleep problems explained 13% of the variance for both the CESD scale and the HAM-D-3 scale. Among female college students, those who report a sleep debt of at least 2 h or significant daytime sleepiness have a higher risk of reporting melancholic symptoms than others.

  6. Disentangling the link between depressive symptoms and plasma oxytocin in men: The role of brooding rumination.

    PubMed

    Mohiyeddini, Changiz; Opacka-Juffry, Jolanta

    2015-09-01

    The links between plasma oxytocin and depression are controversial, ranging from negative to positive associations. The present study was conducted to reconcile those conflicting findings; amongst the features of depression, we considered rumination and hypothesised that rumination would function as moderator between depressive symptoms and oxytocin. Seventy five clinically normal adult male volunteers were assessed for depressive characteristics by means of the Ruminative Responses Scale and Beck's Depression Inventory-II; plasma oxytocin was measured by means of competitive enzyme immunoassay. The results demonstrate that high depressive symptoms were negatively associated with oxytocin concentrations at high rumination levels while such an association did not exist at low levels of rumination. The present findings suggest there are complex associations between oxytocin and brooding rumination, the latter being an important feature among depressive symptoms observed in clinically normal individuals. This complexity can underlie the current lack of consensus on the role of oxytocin in depression.

  7. Youth-Family, Youth-School Relationship, and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Sung Seek; Rao, Uma

    2010-01-01

    This study sought to examine the association between adolescents’ relationship with family and school and depressive symptoms across ethnic/racial groups (White, Black, Hispanic, and Asian), and to test potentially unique explanatory power in youth-family relationship versus youth-school relationship, in a sample of 4,783 adolescents. Depressive symptoms were assessed with a 19-item, modified Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D). The results indicated that youth-family relationship and youth-school relationship were significant predictors of adolescent depression. However, the findings of the study indicated that unique contributions by youth-family relationship and youth-school relationship were different by racial/ethnic groups. These findings elucidate protective factors for adolescent depression and highlight the importance of cultural context of each racial/ethnic group. PMID:20454598

  8. Depressed patients’ preferences for type of psychotherapy: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Yrondi, Antoine; Rieu, Julie; Massip, Claire; Bongard, Vanina; Schmitt, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Background The treatment recommendations for depressed patients by the American Psychiatric Association encourage a focus on the patient’s preferences. The focus of this study was the preference of depressed inpatients for the type of psychotherapy. Methods Twenty-nine subjects of both sexes who were hospitalized with a major depressive episode were interviewed at 5-day intervals with the same questions after the depressive episode resolved, as indicated by a score less than 7 on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS). The selection of items was performed by expert consensus. Results The supportive psychotherapy scores were the highest, followed by psychodynamic psychotherapy and cognitive behavioral therapy. The two sessions conducted at 5-day intervals showed no significant difference, which reflected the stability of choices and preferences of patients. Conclusion In this study, the patients preferred supportive psychotherapy as first-line therapy compared to psychodynamic psychotherapy and cognitive behavioral therapy. PMID:26491265

  9. Reflections on the Silencing the Self Scale and Its Origins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jack, Dana Crowley

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author reflects on the Silencing the Self Scale (STSS) and blends her personal and professional thoughts about self-silencing, gender, and depression. For her, the despair of depression deeply involves questions of value and meaning, culture and freedom. The STSS grew from listening to depressed women's voices. From them, the…

  10. Lifestyle medicine for depression

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of depression appears to have increased over the past three decades. While this may be an artefact of diagnostic practices, it is likely that there are factors about modernity that are contributing to this rise. There is now compelling evidence that a range of lifestyle factors are involved in the pathogenesis of depression. Many of these factors can potentially be modified, yet they receive little consideration in the contemporary treatment of depression, where medication and psychological intervention remain the first line treatments. “Lifestyle Medicine” provides a nexus between public health promotion and clinical treatments, involving the application of environmental, behavioural, and psychological principles to enhance physical and mental wellbeing. This may also provide opportunities for general health promotion and potential prevention of depression. In this paper we provide a narrative discussion of the major components of Lifestyle Medicine, consisting of the evidence-based adoption of physical activity or exercise, dietary modification, adequate relaxation/sleep and social interaction, use of mindfulness-based meditation techniques, and the reduction of recreational substances such as nicotine, drugs, and alcohol. We also discuss other potential lifestyle factors that have a more nascent evidence base, such as environmental issues (e.g. urbanisation, and exposure to air, water, noise, and chemical pollution), and the increasing human interface with technology. Clinical considerations are also outlined. While data supports that some of these individual elements are modifiers of overall mental health, and in many cases depression, rigorous research needs to address the long-term application of Lifestyle Medicine for depression prevention and management. Critically, studies exploring lifestyle modification involving multiple lifestyle elements are needed. While the judicious use of medication and psychological techniques are still

  11. Lifestyle medicine for depression.

    PubMed

    Sarris, Jerome; O'Neil, Adrienne; Coulson, Carolyn E; Schweitzer, Isaac; Berk, Michael

    2014-04-10

    The prevalence of depression appears to have increased over the past three decades. While this may be an artefact of diagnostic practices, it is likely that there are factors about modernity that are contributing to this rise. There is now compelling evidence that a range of lifestyle factors are involved in the pathogenesis of depression. Many of these factors can potentially be modified, yet they receive little consideration in the contemporary treatment of depression, where medication and psychological intervention remain the first line treatments. "Lifestyle Medicine" provides a nexus between public health promotion and clinical treatments, involving the application of environmental, behavioural, and psychological principles to enhance physical and mental wellbeing. This may also provide opportunities for general health promotion and potential prevention of depression. In this paper we provide a narrative discussion of the major components of Lifestyle Medicine, consisting of the evidence-based adoption of physical activity or exercise, dietary modification, adequate relaxation/sleep and social interaction, use of mindfulness-based meditation techniques, and the reduction of recreational substances such as nicotine, drugs, and alcohol. We also discuss other potential lifestyle factors that have a more nascent evidence base, such as environmental issues (e.g. urbanisation, and exposure to air, water, noise, and chemical pollution), and the increasing human interface with technology. Clinical considerations are also outlined. While data supports that some of these individual elements are modifiers of overall mental health, and in many cases depression, rigorous research needs to address the long-term application of Lifestyle Medicine for depression prevention and management. Critically, studies exploring lifestyle modification involving multiple lifestyle elements are needed. While the judicious use of medication and psychological techniques are still advocated

  12. Sleep Disturbances and Risk of Depression in Older Men

    PubMed Central

    Paudel, Misti; Taylor, Brent C.; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Blackwell, Terri; Maglione, Jeanne E.; Stone, Katie; Redline, Susan; Ensrud, Kristine E.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Self-reported sleep disturbances are associated with an increased risk of depression in younger and older adults, but associations between objective assessments of sleep/wake disturbances via wrist actigraphy and risk of depression are unknown. Methods: Depressive symptoms (Geriatric Depression Scale [GDS]), self-reported (questionnaires), and objective (actigraphy) sleep parameters were measured at baseline in 2,510 nondepressed men 67 y or older. Depressive symptoms were reassessed an average of 3.4 ± 0.5 y later. Results: Of the 2,510 men without evidence of depression at baseline, 116 (4.6%) were depressed (GDS ≥ 6) at the follow-up examination. After adjusting for multiple potential confounders, including baseline depressive symptoms (GDS 0-5), there was evidence of an association between poor self-reported sleep quality and higher odds of being depressed at follow-up (multivariable odds ratio [MOR] = 1.53, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00-2.33). In age- and site-adjusted models, objectively measured reduced sleep efficiency (odds ratio [OR] = 1.88, 95% CI 1.13-3.13), prolonged sleep latency (OR = 1.77, 95% CI 1.04-3.00), greater nighttime wakefulness (OR = 1.48, 95% CI 1.01-2.18) and multiple long-wake episodes (OR = 1.69, 95% CI 1.15-2.47) were associated with increased odds of depression at follow-up, but these associations were attenuated and no longer significant after further adjustment for number of depressive symptoms at baseline. Self-reported excessive daytime sleepiness and objectively measured total sleep time were not associated with depression status at follow-up. Excluding baseline antidepressant users from the analyses did not alter the results. Conclusions: Among nondepressed older men, poor self-reported sleep quality was associated with increased odds of depression several years later. Associations between objectively measured sleep disturbances (e.g., reduced sleep efficiency, prolonged sleep latency, greater nighttime

  13. Development and psychometric evaluation of the FACE-Q satisfaction with appearance scale: a new patient-reported outcome instrument for facial aesthetics patients.

    PubMed

    Pusic, Andrea L; Klassen, Anne F; Scott, Amie M; Cano, Stefan J

    2013-04-01

    Satisfaction with appearance and improved quality of life are key outcomes for patients undergoing facial aesthetic procedures. The FACE-Q is a new patient-reported outcome (PRO) instrument encompassing a suite of independently functioning scales designed to measure a range of important outcomes for facial aesthetics patients. FACE-Q scales were developed with strict adherence to international guidelines for PRO instrument development. This article describes the development and psychometric evaluation of the core FACE-Q scale, the Satisfaction with Facial Appearance scale. Both modern and traditional psychometric methods were used to confirm that this new 10-item scale is a reliable, valid, and responsive measure.

  14. Music in depression: Neural correlates of emotional experience in remitted depression

    PubMed Central

    Aust, Sabine; Filip, Karin; Koelsch, Stefan; Grimm, Simone; Bajbouj, Malek

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate neural and behavioral correlates of emotional experiences as potential vulnerability markers in remitted depression. METHODS: Fourteen remitted participants with a history of major depression and fourteen closely matched healthy control participants took part in the study. We used two psychiatric interviews (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale) and one self-report scale (Beck Depression Inventory) to assess remission. Healthy control participants were interviewed by an experienced psychiatrist to exclude those who showed any current or lifetime psychiatric or neurological disorders. To explore psychosocial and cognitive-interpersonal underpinnings of potential vulnerability markers of depression, early life stress, coping styles and alexithymia were also assessed. We induced pleasant and unpleasant emotional states using congruent combinations of music and human emotional faces to investigate neural and behavioral correlates of emotional experiences; neutral stimuli were used as a control condition. Brain responses were recorded using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Behavioral responses of pleasantness, arousal, joy and fear were measured via button-press inside the resonance imaging scanner. RESULTS: The mean age of the sample was 54.9 (± 11.3) years. There were no differences between remitted depressed (RD) (n = 14; 9 females and 5 males) and healthy participants (n = 14; 8 females and 6 males) regarding age, current degree of depression, early life stress, coping styles and alexithymia. On a neural level, RD participants showed reduced activations in the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC) in response to pleasant [parameter estimates: -0.78 vs 0.32; t(26) = -3.41, P < 0.05] and unpleasant [parameter estimates: -0.88 vs 0.56; t(26)= -4.02, P < 0.05] emotional stimuli. Linear regression analysis revealed that pgACC activity was modulated by early life stress [β = -0.48; R2 = 0.23, F(1

  15. Prevalence of depression, anxiety, stress, and anger in Turkish prisoners.

    PubMed

    Unver, Yener; Yuce, Mehmet; Bayram, Nuran; Bilgel, Nazan

    2013-09-01

    In Turkey, prison studies are rare and the mental health status of prisoners has not received proper attention. The purpose of this cross-sectional and descriptive study was to assess the prevalence of depression, anxiety, stress, and anger among a group of Turkish prisoners. Two self-reporting instruments (the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-42 and Multidimensional Anger Scale) were filled out by 685 prisoners. Prisoners in the study group were found to be depressive, anxious, and stressed. Anger symptoms and aggressive behaviors were found to be at a moderate level. Prisoners with a history of being subjected to domestic violence in childhood had higher depression, anxiety, and stress scores than those without such a history. Young prisoners, those who had been previously imprisoned, with substance dependency and higher stress and anxiety levels reported more anger symptoms than others. Psychological support, together with stress and anger management programs, seems to be essential.

  16. Membership in fraternities and sororities, depression, and suicidal ideation.

    PubMed

    Ridgway, Rachael; Tang, Connie; Lester, David

    2014-06-01

    College student membership in fraternities/sororities may have positive or negative effects on their behavior. This study investigated the relationships between fraternity/sorority membership, depression, and suicidal behavior. 293 undergraduate students (232 women, 61 men; M age = 22.6 yr., SD = 1.5, range = 18-24; 127 sorority sisters, 35 fraternity brothers) from a rural state college participated in the study. Depression, self-esteem and perceived social support were measured with the Beck Depression Inventory, the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, respectively. Depression and suicidal ideation correlated negatively with self-esteem and perceived social support, but were not correlated with membership in fraternities/sororities.

  17. The relationship between psoriasis and depression: A multiple mediation model.

    PubMed

    Łakuta, Patryk; Marcinkiewicz, Kamil; Bergler-Czop, Beata; Brzezińska-Wcisło, Ligia

    2016-12-01

    This study examined the relationship between psoriasis and depression, proposing a multiple mediation model to analyse the relationship. A total of 193 patients with psoriasis aged 20-67 years completed the Beck Depression Inventory, the Stigmatization Scale, the Appearance Schemas Inventory-Revised, and the Body Emotions Scale. The Body Surface Area index was used to assess severity of psoriasis. Serial multiple mediation analysis revealed that experiences of stigmatization, maladaptive beliefs about appearance and its salience to one's self-evaluation, and negative emotional attitudes towards the body, jointly, sequentially mediated the relationship between the presence of skin lesions of psoriasis and depressive symptoms. These results highlight the importance of the associations between stigmatization and cognitive and affective aspects of body image in relation to depression in patients with psoriasis. We suggest that prevention and intervention programs for psoriasis patients that target body image enhancement would be worthy of further research.

  18. Scales, scales and more scales.

    PubMed

    Weitzenhoffer, Andre M

    2002-01-01

    This article examines the nature, uses, and limitations of the large variety of existing, so-called, hypnosis scales; that is, instruments that have been proposed for the assessment of hypnotic behavior. Although the major aim of most of the scales ostensively seems to be to assess several aspects of hypnotic states, they are found generally to say little about these and much more about responses to suggestions. The greatest application of these scales is to be found in research, but they also have a limited place in clinical work.

  19. Development and Validation of a Fatigue Assessment Scale for U.S. Construction Workers

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mingzong; Sparer, Emily H.; Murphy, Lauren A.; Dennerlein, Jack T.; Fang, Dongping; Katz, Jeffrey N.; Caban-Martinez, Alberto J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop a fatigue assessment scale and test its reliability and validity for commercial construction workers. Methods Using a two-phased approach, we first identified items for the development of a Fatigue Assessment Scale for Construction Workers (FASCW) through review of existing scales in the scientific literature, key informant interviews (n=11) and focus groups (3 groups with 6 workers each) with construction workers. The second phase included assessment for the reliability, validity and sensitivity of the new scale using a repeated-measures study design with a convenience sample of construction workers (n=144). Results Phase one resulted in a 16-item preliminary scale that after factor analysis yielded a final 10-item scale with two sub-scales (“Lethargy” and “Bodily Ailment”).. During phase two, the FASCW and its subscales demonstrated satisfactory internal consistency (alpha coefficients were FASCW (0.91), Lethargy (0.86) and Bodily Ailment (0.84)) and acceptable test-retest reliability (Pearson Correlations Coefficients: 0.59–0.68; Intraclass Correlation Coefficients: 0.74–0.80). Correlation analysis substantiated concurrent and convergent validity. A discriminant analysis demonstrated that the FASCW differentiated between groups with arthritis status and different work hours. Conclusions The 10-item FASCW with good reliability and validity is an effective tool for assessing the severity of fatigue among construction workers. PMID:25603944

  20. Neuronal Correlates of Depression

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhury, Dipesh; Liu, He; Han, Ming-Hu

    2016-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common psychiatric disorder effecting approximately 121 million people worldwide and recent reports from the World Health Organization (WHO) suggest that it will be the leading contributor to the global burden of diseases. At present the most commonly used treatment strategies are still based on the monoamine hypothesis that has been the predominant theory in the last 60 years. Clinical observations that only a subset of depressed patients exhibits full remission when treated with classical monoamine-based antidepressants together with the fact that patients exhibit multiple symptoms suggest that the pathophysiology leading to mood disorders may differ between patients. Accumulating evidence indicates that depression is a neural circuit disorder and that onset of depression may be located at different regions of the brain involving different transmitter systems and molecular mechanisms. This review synthesizes findings from rodent studies from which emerges a role for different, yet interconnected, molecular systems and associated neural circuits to the etiology of depression. PMID:26542802

  1. [Association between anxiety and depression in allergic illnesses].

    PubMed

    Noriega, Nicolás H

    2013-01-01

    This study aims at determining whether there was an association among anxiety, depression and allergic illnesses. It suggests the proper therapeutic treatment. During a year, our research work team worked with a group of 82 female and male patients (from 13 to 76 years old) who suffered from various types of allergies. Two psychometric scales were used to carry out this study: Hamilton's scale for anxiety whereas Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and Zung's for depression. The association and its percentage were analyzed in patients who reported typical symptoms during their first check-up. They were free of psychopharmacologic drugs and psychotherapies. The presence of anxiety and depression was interpreted as another factor in the development of allergic symptoms. The following results were achieved as regards: for anxiety, an association positive 95 %. For depression, the results showed that there was a positive tendency for the association with an allergic illness. The conclusions showed that there is a positive association between anxiety and allergies. As regards depression and allergic illness, there is only a positive tendency. These final results would raise awareness of how to deal with anxiety and depression in allergic patients, both psychopharmacologically and psychotherapeutically.

  2. Prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms among patients with hypothyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Bathla, Manish; Singh, Manpreet; Relan, Pankaj

    2016-01-01

    Context: The association between depression and thyroid function is well known. Both conditions express many similar symptoms, thus making the diagnosis and treatment difficult. Aims: To find the prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms among patients with hypothyroid. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional study. Materials and Methodology: A total of 100 patients diagnosed as hypothyroidism were evaluated using Hamilton depression rating scale (HDRS) and Hamilton scale for anxiety (HAM-A). Statistical Analysis Used: The data were analyzed using the SPSS for Windows version 17.0 software. The quantitative data were expressed in number and percentage. The results obtained were compared using the Chi-square test. Results: Females constituted 70% of the sample. A total of 60% reported some degree of depression based on HDRS (males – 56.63% and females – 64.29%) whereas about 63% out of the total patients screened showed some degree of anxiety (males –56.66% and females – 65.72%) based on HAM-A. The most common depressive symptom among the males was depressed mood (73.33%) and among females was gastrointestinal somatic symptoms (68.54%). The most common anxiety symptom among the males was depressed mood (70.0%) and among females was anxious mood (92.85%). Conclusions: Psychiatric symptoms/disorders are common in patients with thyroid dysfunction. PMID:27366712

  3. Depression and Associated Factors in Internal Migrant Workers in China

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Peiyuan; Caine, Eric; Yang, Yang; Chen, Quan; Li, Jin; Ma, Xiao

    2011-01-01

    Background Internal migrant workers are a large population in China. Current health related studies among this population mainly focused on infectious disease, maternal health and occupational diseases and injuries. However, very limited studies were paid attention to mental health of migrant workers though it is an important public health issue. Aims The current study aims to understand prevalence of depression symptoms and factors associated with depression among Chinese migrant workers using novel methods to develop a comprehensive sample. Methods Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) was employed to recruit the target population, who are required 1) not to hold a hukou indicative of living in central areas or near suburbs of Chengdu city; 2) to be 16 years or older; 3) not to be a student. The Center for Epidemiologic Depression Scale (CES-D) was used to measure depression symptoms of migrant workers. And then Structural Equation Model (SEM) was applied to explore factors associated with depression among Chinese migrant workers. Results Among 1,180 migrant workers, 23.7% of them had clinically relevant depression symptoms (CES-D score >= 16), and 12.8% were consistent with a clinical diagnosis of depression (CES-D score >= 21). Self-rated economic status, city adaptation status, and self-rated health had negative effects on depression. Social economic status (SES) affected depression, and was mediated by self-rated economic status and self-rated health. City adaptation status was affected by length of residence in the city, satisfaction with one’s job, and the social support that one could obtain while living in the city. Conclusions The findings indicated a higher prevalence of depression symptoms among migrant workers comparing to general population reported by previous studies, identified possible factors associated with depression symptoms, and also explored relationships between these factors. Our study provides a model to understand mental health of Chinese

  4. Depressive Symptoms and Impaired Physical Function after Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Mendez-Tellez, Pedro A.; Dinglas, Victor D.; Shanholtz, Carl; Husain, Nadia; Dennison, Cheryl R.; Herridge, Margaret S.; Pronovost, Peter J.; Needham, Dale M.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: Survivors of acute lung injury (ALI) frequently have substantial depressive symptoms and physical impairment, but the longitudinal epidemiology of these conditions remains unclear. Objectives: To evaluate the 2-year incidence and duration of depressive symptoms and physical impairment after ALI, as well as risk factors for these conditions. Methods: This prospective, longitudinal cohort study recruited patients from 13 intensive care units (ICUs) in four hospitals, with follow-up 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after ALI. The outcomes were Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale depression score greater than or equal to 8 (“depressive symptoms”) in patients without a history of depression before ALI, and two or more dependencies in instrumental activities of daily living (“impaired physical function”) in patients without baseline impairment. Measurements and Main Results: During 2-year follow-up of 186 ALI survivors, the cumulative incidences of depressive symptoms and impaired physical function were 40 and 66%, respectively, with greatest incidence by 3-month follow-up; modal durations were greater than 21 months for each outcome. Risk factors for incident depressive symptoms were education 12 years or less, baseline disability or unemployment, higher baseline medical comorbidity, and lower blood glucose in the ICU. Risk factors for incident impaired physical function were longer ICU stay and prior depressive symptoms. Conclusions: Incident depressive symptoms and impaired physical function are common and long-lasting during the first 2 years after ALI. Interventions targeting potentially modifiable risk factors (e.g., substantial depressive symptoms in early recovery) should be evaluated to improve ALI survivors’ long-term outcomes. PMID:22161158

  5. Norms and Screening Utility of the Dutch Version of the Children's Depression Inventory in Clinical and Nonclinical Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roelofs, Jeffrey; Braet, Caroline; Rood, Lea; Timbremont, Benedikte; van Vlierberghe, Leen; Goossens, Lien; van Breukelen, Gerard

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to (a) assess relationships between the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) and "DSM"-oriented depression and anxiety scales of the Youth Self Report, (b) develop reliable norms for the CDI, and (c) determine CDI cutoff scores for selecting youngsters at risk for depression and anxiety. A total of 3,073 nonclinical and…

  6. Psychometric Properties of the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) among Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Daniel L.; Coolidge, Frederick L.; Cahill, Brian S.; O'Riley, Alisa A.

    2008-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) as a self-administered screening tool for depressive symptoms were examined in a sample of community-dwelling older and younger adults. Participants completed the BDI-II, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, the Coolidge Axis II Inventory, the Perceived…

  7. [Motivational orientation and depressive symptoms in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Altintas, E; Guerrien, A

    2009-04-01

    This article is focused on motivation and depression in later life. For about 20 years, research on the motivation of elders has underlined the importance of the cognitive evaluation of life contexts, notably in terms of self-determination. This cognitive evaluation determines the motivational orientation for daily activities (notably the levels of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation). The purpose of this research was specifically to study the relationships between the existence of four types of motivation (intrinsic, self-determined extrinsic, nonself-determined extrinsic and amotivation) and the consequences for adaptation and well-being. The study, therefore, focused on the possible links between motivation and geriatric-depression level and explored the nature of this link. Forty persons aged 60 or over (31 women: 80.48+/-9.24; nine men: 80.56+/-9.48) who live in nursing homes (20 elderly) or in their own homes (20 elderly) were enrolled. Elderly persons were assessed with specific and standardized tools: the Elderly Motivation Scale (EMS, in the French version: EMPA) and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). For the statistical analyses of the results, correlations and Mann-Whitney test were used. We found that in elderly people, the motivational styles (the four types of motivation) can be reliably measured and are related to geriatric depression. First, significant positive links were noticed between intrinsic motivation and depression scores and between self-determined extrinsic motivation and depression scores. Conversely, significant negative links were noticed between nonself-determined extrinsic motivation and depression scores and between amotivation and depression scores. The most self-determined elders presented low-depression levels, whereas the more nonself-determined elders showed high-depression levels. Moreover, motivational styles significantly differed in the two groups (depressive or not depressive). The most depressive elders showed

  8. Depression and Exercise: A Clinical Review and Management Guideline

    PubMed Central

    Ranjbar, Elaheh; Memari, Amir Hossein; Hafizi, Sina; Shayestehfar, Monir; Mirfazeli, Fatemeh Sadat; Eshghi, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    Context: There is an increasing interest to detect how exercise affects depression symptoms. Although recent findings confirm the positive effect of exercise on depression, there is no clear guideline regarding advice on exercise for patients with depression. The following review aims at presenting the contemporary literature regarding the nature of depression, exercise, the underlying mechanisms and the management of an exercise program in individuals with depression. Evidence Acquisition: We searched electronic databases including Cochrane Library, PubMed, ISI web of knowledge and PsychInfo (from January 2000 to October 2014). We reviewed the systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and large-scale randomized control trials on effects of exercise on depression. Results: Recent evidence has emerged on characteristics of effective exercise programs and those patients with depression that will most benefit from the exercise programs. However due to the methodological weaknesses and inconsistencies of studies, conclusions must be made with caution. Conclusions: We have provided a number of recommendations for clinicians and researchers who plan to use exercise protocols in depression. PMID:26448838

  9. Detecting depression among adolescents in Santiago, Chile: sex differences

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Depression among adolescents is common but most cases go undetected. Brief questionnaires offer an opportunity to identify probable cases but properly validated cut-off points are often unavailable, especially in non-western countries. Sex differences in the prevalence of depression become marked in adolescence and this needs to be accounted when establishing cut-off points. Method This study involved adolescents attending secondary state schools in Santiago, Chile. We compared the self-reported Beck Depression Inventory-II with a psychiatric interview to ascertain diagnosis. General psychometric features were estimated before establishing the criterion validity of the BDI-II. Results The BDI-II showed good psychometric properties with good internal consistency, a clear unidimensional factorial structure, and good capacity to discriminate between cases and non-cases of depression. Optimal cut-off points to establish caseness for depression were much higher for girls than boys. Sex discrepancies were primarily explained by differences in scores among those with depression rather than among those without depression. Conclusions It is essential to validate scales with the populations intended to be used with. Sex differences are often ignored when applying cut-off points, leading to substantial misclassification. Early detection of depression is essential if we think that early intervention is a clinically important goal. PMID:23617306

  10. Dependency and self-criticism in treatments for depression.

    PubMed

    Chui, Harold; Zilcha-Mano, Sigal; Dinger, Ulrike; Barrett, Marna S; Barber, Jacques P

    2016-07-01

    Dependency and self-criticism are vulnerability factors for depression. How these personality factors change with treatment for depression and how they relate to symptom change across different types of treatment require further research. In addition, cultural differences that interact with the dependency/self-criticism-depression relation remain underinvestigated. We randomly assigned 149 adults with major depression to receive active medication (MED; n = 50), supportive-expressive therapy (SET; n = 49), or placebo pill (PBO; n = 50). Participants completed the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire (DEQ; Blatt, D'Afflitti, & Quinlan, 1976) before and after treatment and completed the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (Hamilton, 1967) throughout the course of treatment. Self-criticism as measured on the DEQ decreased with treatment similarly across conditions. DEQ Dependency decreased in MED but remained unchanged in SET and PBO. Higher initial dependency, but not higher initial self-criticism, predicted poor treatment response across conditions. Greater reduction in self-criticism was associated with greater reduction in depressive symptoms, but the effect was weaker for racial minorities (vs. White). Increase in connectedness, an adaptive form of dependency, was associated with symptom improvement in SET but not MED. Hence, different pathways of change seem to be implicated in the treatment of depression depending on culture and type of intervention. Implications for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  11. Long-term prognosis of depression in primary care.

    PubMed Central

    Simon, G. E.

    2000-01-01

    This article uses longitudinal data from a primary care sample to examine long-term prognosis of depression. A sample of 225 patients initiating antidepressant treatment in primary care completed assessments of clinical outcome (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the mood module of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IIIR) 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 months after initiating treatment. The proportion of patients continuing to meet criteria for major depression fell rapidly to approximately 10% and remained at approximately that level throughout follow-up. The proportion meeting criteria for remission (Hamilton Depression score of 7 or less) rose gradually to approximately 45%. Long-term prognosis (i.e. probability of remission at 6 months and beyond) was strongly related to remission status at 3 months (odds ratio 3.65; 95% confidence interval, 2.81-4.76) and only modestly related to various clinical characteristics assessed at baseline (e.g. prior history of recurrent depression, medical comorbidity, comorbid anxiety symptoms). The findings indicate that potentially modifiable risk factors influence the long-term prognosis of depression. This suggests that more systematic and effective depression treatment programmes might have an important effect on long-term course and reduce the overall burden of chronic and recurrent depression. PMID:10885162

  12. Depressive Symptoms and Subclinical Markers of Cardiovascular Disease in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Dietz, Laura J.; Matthews, Karen A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To examine the association between depressive symptoms and subclinical markers of cardiovascular disease (CVD), specifically arterial stiffness, as indexed by pulse wave velocity (PWV), and carotid artery intima thickening (IMT), in a sample of healthy adolescents, and to explore adolescent hostility as a potential moderator of depression on subclinical markers of CVD. Methods One hundred and fifty-seven (n = 157) black and white adolescents between the ages of 16-21 completed a follow-up study of psychosocial stress and cardiovascular risk factors that included measures of PWV and carotid IMT. Psychosocial measures included the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D; divided into tertiles), and the Cook-Medley Hostility Inventory subscales. Linear regression models controlled for sociodemographic variables, health behaviors, blood pressure, body mass index, and heart rate. Results Results show that more severe depressive symptoms were associated with higher levels of PWV (B = 0.17, R2 = 0.30, ΔR2 = 0.03, CI = 2.2 – 47.0, p = .03) but not with higher IMT. Adolescent depression remained a significant predictor of PWV when controlling for adolescent hostility; hostility did not moderate the relationship between adolescent depression and PWV. Conclusions Depression may be important in the development of arterial stiffness in adolescence. Further research is needed to delineate the relationship in adolescence and young adulthood between depressive symptoms and the pathogenesis of CVD. PMID:21575817

  13. [Psychometric evaluation of depression in the elderly subject: which instruments? What are the future perspectives?].

    PubMed

    Bonin-Guillaume, S; Clément, J P; Chassain, A P; Léger, J M

    1995-01-01

    Depression in the elderly is frequent but often unknown (in 30 to 50% of the cases) because of difficulties in detecting or diagnosing it. This is due to the clinical features and prognosis of depression in this kind of population but also to the non-existence of specific diagnostic tests. Most of the authors consider that the most useful diagnostic tests are screening assessments. Some are rating scales that have been validated in general population then secondarily in the elderly: Hamilton Rating Depression Scale (HDRS), Montgomery & Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), Zung Self Rating Depression Scale (Zung SDS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) or Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). They usually involve biases linked to age and more particularly to somatic items; and the educational level required to answer is too high for this population. However, the MADRS is still interesting for measuring change under treatment and the CES-D for detection of depressive elderly. On the other hand, some screening scales are specific of depression in the elderly. The most commonly used is the GDS (Geriatric Depression Scale) with 30 items. Some points have been discussed to increase the achievement of these methods. For example, inventories are better than interviews and should be integrated into semi-standardized interviews which do not last more than 30 minutes. The quotation 'yes' or 'no' is preferable. The instrument have to be short but have to contain specific items for depression in the elderly. Several short forms are already validated or in progress such as GDS with 15 items and, recently, with 4 items, BASDEC, short Zung IDS, BDI with 13 items and DGDS. However, these screening scales loose a part of their validity in the moderate or severe demented elderly. Few instruments can screen depression in a demented population although depression and dementia syndromes are frequently associated. Some of the inventories used are not specific: they

  14. Cognitive and depressive disorders in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Alajbegović, Azra; Loga, Natasa; Tiro, Naida; Alajbegović, Salem; Cindro, Veselin; Hozo, Izet

    2009-03-01

    Among other symptoms, multiple sclerosis can also produce symptoms of affective and cognitive disorders. The majority of patients have certain cognitive dysfunctions, and the' most common affective disorder is reactive depression. The aim of the study was to determine the correlation of the Mini-Mental State (MMS) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) scale scores with the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score in patients with multiple sclerosis treated at University Department of Neurology, Sarajevo University Clinical Center in Sarajevo. We evaluated 50 randomly selected patients with various types of multiple sclerosis using the MMS, BDI and EDSS instruments. The study included 33 women and 17 men (66% : 34%), mean age 40.74 years (SD 9.236). The mean value of EDSS score was 3.98, ranging from 1.0 to 8.5 in women and from 1.0 to 6.5 in men. BDI scale scores showed a mean value of 12.56. The mean MMS score in baseline sample was 26.88. Statistically significant positive correlation was found between age and EDSS score, and negative correlation between EDSS and MMS, as well as between BDI and MMS. Study results indicated older patients with multiple sclerosis to have a higher EDSS score with more pronounced cognitive disturbances. There was no statistically significant correlation between EDSS score and depression.

  15. Disability and Depression.

    PubMed

    Cvetkovich, A; Wilkerson, A

    2016-12-01

    Here, Ann Cvetkovich, interviewed by Abby Wilkerson, brings Cvetkovich's influential cultural studies analysis of depression explicitly into conversation with disability studies. Cvetkovich understands "feeling bad" (a term she prefers to "depression") as a defining affective state under neoliberalism. Drawing on a distinctive historical/cultural archive, she challenges the atomism of the neoliberal medical model that frames depression and affective distress more generally as the result of faulty brain chemistry-individual organisms gone awry. Instead, she traces these common experiences to sociopolitical phenomena ranging from current neoliberal demands for productivity as exemplified in university life, to histories of colonization, slavery, and displacement. The conversation considers the value of disability frameworks for understanding mental health diagnoses and the intersections of social institutions, bodily practices, and everyday affective life.

  16. Risk factors for antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress

    PubMed Central

    Leigh, Bronwyn; Milgrom, Jeannette

    2008-01-01

    Background Given that the prevalence of antenatal and postnatal depression is high, with estimates around 13%, and the consequences serious, efforts have been made to identify risk factors to assist in prevention, identification and treatment. Most risk factors associated with postnatal depression have been well researched, whereas predictors of antenatal depression have been less researched. Risk factors associated with early parenting stress have not been widely researched, despite the strong link with depression. The aim of this study was to further elucidate which of some previously identified risk factors are most predictive of three outcome measures: antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress and to examine the relationship between them. Methods Primipara and multiparae women were recruited antenatally from two major hoitals as part of the beyondblue National Postnatal Depression Program [1]. In this subsidiary study, 367 women completed an additional large battery of validated questionnaires to identify risk factors in the antenatal period at 26–32 weeks gestation. A subsample of these women (N = 161) also completed questionnaires at 10–12 weeks postnatally. Depression level was measured by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Results Regression analyses identified significant risk factors for the three outcome measures. (1). Significant predictors for antenatal depression: low self-esteem, antenatal anxiety, low social support, negative cognitive style, major life events, low income and history of abuse. (2). Significant predictors for postnatal depression: antenatal depression and a history of depression while also controlling for concurrent parenting stress, which was a significant variable. Antenatal depression was identified as a mediator between seven of the risk factors and postnatal depression. (3). Postnatal depression was the only significant predictor for parenting stress and also acted as a mediator for other risk factors

  17. Nedley Depression Hit Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Nedley, Neil; Ramirez, Francisco E.

    2014-01-01

    Depression is often diagnosed using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fifth Edition (DSM-5) criteria. We propose how certain lifestyle choices and non-modifiable factors can predict the development of depression. We identified 10 cause categories (hits or “blows” to the brain) and theorize that four or more active hits could trigger a depression episode. Methods. A sample of 4271 participants from our community-based program (70% female; ages 17-94 years) was assessed at baseline and at the eighth week of the program using a custom test. Ten cause categories were examined as predictors of depression are (1) Genetic, (2)Developmental, (3)Lifestyle, (4)Circadian Rhythm, (5)Addiction, (6)Nutrition, (7)Toxic, (8)Social/Complicated Grief, (9)Medical Condition, and (10)Frontal Lobe. Results. The relationship between the DSM-5 score and a person having four hits categories in the first program week showed a sensitivity of 89.98 % (95% CI: 89.20 % - 90.73%), specificity 48.84% (CI 45.94-51.75) and Matthew Correlation Coefficient (MCC) .41 . For the eight-week test, the results showed a sensitivity 83.6% (CI 81.9-85.5), specificity 53.7% (CI 51.7-55.6) and MCC .38. Overall, the hits that improved the most from baseline after the eighth week were: Nutrition (47%), Frontal lobe (36%), Addiction (24%), Circadian rhythm (24%), Lifestyle (20%), Social (12%) and Medical (10%). Conclusions. The Nedley four-hit hypothesis seems to predict a depressive episode and correlates well with the DSM-5 criteria with good sensitivity and MCC but less specificity. Identifying these factors and applying lifestyle therapies could play an important role in the treatment of depressed individuals. PMID:27885322

  18. Early prediction of major depression in chronic hepatitis C patients during peg-interferon α-2b treatment by assessment of vegetative-depressive symptoms after four weeks

    PubMed Central

    Robaeys, Geert; De Bie, Jozef; Wichers, Marieke C; Bruckers, Liesbeth; Nevens, Frederik; Michielsen, Peter; Van Ranst, Marc; Buntinx, Frank

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To study the predictive value of the vegetative-depressive symptoms of the Zung Depression Rating Scale for the occurrence of depression during treatment with peg-interferon α-2b of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients. METHODS: The predictive value of vegetative-depressive symptoms at 4 wk of treatment for the occurrence of a subsequent diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD) was studied in CHC patients infected after substance use in a prospective, multi-center treatment trial in Belgium. The presence of vegetative-depressive symptoms was assessed using the Zung Scale before and 4 wk after the start of antiviral treatment. RESULTS: Out of 49 eligible patients, 19 (39%) developed MDD. The area under the ROC curve of the vegetative Zung subscale was 0.73, P = 0.004. The sensitivity at a cut-point of > 15/35 was 95% (95% CI: 74-100). The positive predictive value equalled 44% (95% CI: 29-60). CONCLUSION: In this group of Belgian CHC patients infected after substance use, antiviral treatment caused a considerable risk of depression. Seven vegetative-depressive symptoms of the Zung scale at wk 4 of treatment predicted 95% of all emerging depressions, at a price of 56% false positive test results. PMID:17963300

  19. A test of the tripartite model's prediction of anhedonia's specificity to depression: patients with major depression versus patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Joiner, Thomas E; Brown, Jessica S; Metalsky, Gerald I

    2003-08-01

    The tripartite model of depression and anxiety suggests that anhedonia represents a relatively specific marker of depression. A strong version of this view is that anhedonic symptoms would particularly characterize depressed patients, even when compared to another diagnostic group-schizophrenic patients-for whom anhedonic symptoms represent a well-studied feature. This prediction was tested among 102 VA psychiatric inpatients (95 men), ages 21-72 (M=43.56; S.D.=8.47), all of whom received diagnoses of either major depression (n=50) or schizophrenia (n=52) based on structured diagnostic interviews. As predicted, patients with major depression scored significantly higher on the anhedonic symptoms scale of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) than did patients with schizophrenia. However, there was no difference between the two groups on the BDI total score or the BDI non-anhedonic symptoms score. Consistent with the tripartite model, anhedonic symptoms were more related to depressive vs. schizophrenic diagnostic status, whereas non-anhedonic depressive symptoms were not. Within the study's limitations, results were interpreted as relatively strong support for the validity and extension of the tripartite model.

  20. The effect of stress management training on stress and depression in women with depression disorders: Using cognitive-behavioral techniques

    PubMed Central

    Abbasian, Farahzad; Najimi, Arash; Meftagh, Sayyed Davood; Ghasemi, Gholamreza; Afshar, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Background: The present study aimed to investigate the effect of stress management training through cognitive-behavioral techniques on stress, social adaptability and depression in women with depression disorders. Materials and Methods: In this study, 40 patients diagnosed with depression who had referred to psychiatry and consultation clinics of Isfahan were randomly selected and assigned to intervention and control groups (20 patients in each group). The intervention group received eight 90-min sessions of stress training through cognitive–behavioral techniques. Data collection tools included Cooper's stress questionnaire, Bell's social adaptability questionnaire and Hamilton's depression scale questionnaire. The participants completed the questionnaires before the intervention and 1 month after the same. Data analysis was performed using covariance analysis. Results: Based on the results, considering variables of stress, social adaptability and depression, the equal variance hypothesis was confirmed. The relationship between pre- and post-test scores on stress, social adaptability and depression was statistically significant (P < 0.001). The modified mean difference was F = 12.45, P < 0.001 on stress; F = 6.88, P < 0.01 on social adaptability; and F = 5.36, P < 0.02 on depression, all of which were significant. Conclusion: Stress management training through cognitive behavioral techniques can play a main role in depression reduction and development of social adaptability through modifying inappropriate social information-processing patterns. PMID:25077163