Science.gov

Sample records for 10-m avnir multispectral

  1. Preliminary radiometric calibration assessment of ALOS AVNIR-2

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bouvet, M.; Goryl, P.; Chander, G.; Santer, R.; Saunier, S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarizes the activities carried out in the frame of the data quality activities of the Advanced Visible and Near Infrared Radiometer type 2 (AVNIR-2) sensor onboard the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS). Assessment of the radiometric calibration of the AVNIR-2 multi-spectral imager is achieved via three intercomparisons to currently flying sensors over the Libyan desert, during the first year of operation. AU three methodologies indicate a slight underestimation of AVNIR-2 in band 1 by 4 to 7% with respect to other sensors radiometric scale. Band 2 does not show any obvious bias. Results for band 3 are affected by saturation due to inappropriate gain setting. Two methodologies indicate no significant bias in band 4. Preliminary results indicate possible degradations of the AVNIR-2 channels, which, when modeled as an exponentially decreasing functions, have time constants of respectively 13.2 %.year-1, 8.8%.year-1 and 0.1%.year-1 in band 1, 2 and 4 (with respect to the radiometric scale of the MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer, MERIS). Longer time series of AVNIR-2 data are needed to draw final conclusions. ?? 2007 IEEE.

  2. Coastal ocean atmospheric correction for AVNIR-2 high resolution images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Hiroshi; Dupouy, Cécile

    2010-10-01

    Coastal ocean-color estimation needs to retrieve not only molecular and aerosol scattering (ρa), but also high spatial resolution sea-surface reflectance (ρa) because ρg has fine temporal and spatial scales due to variable winds and air-sea stability caused by the coastal geographical structure. Murakami and Frouin 2008 showed a possibility of ρg correction by using near infrared (NIR) and shortwave infrared (SWIR) channels of MODIS 500m observations. This study investigated the correction of the atmospheric and sea-surface reflectance on the southwest of New Caledonia lagoon using AVNIR-2 which has 10-m resolution but doesn't have SWIR. After corrections of gas absorption and molecule scattering, we estimated ρa+ρg and water-leaving reflectance iteratively through IOPs retrieved from visible bands. Spectral slope of ρa+ρg was assumed uniform within our small target area (60km×40km). We tested sensitivity to several possible IOP spectra (total absorption of particle and dissolved matter and back-scattering coefficients) with comparison to in-situ IOP measurements. The AVNIR-2 derived remote sensing reflectance agreed well to the MODIS one (rootmean square difference / average of Rrs 443nm was 43%), and AVNIR-2 IOPs agreed well to in-situ IOP measurements (correlation coefficients more than 0.9) when we used the IOP spectra modeled by in-situ measurements around the New Caledonia. Chlorophyll-a (Chla) calculated by the AVNIR-2 IOPs showed better agreement to in-situ Chla in the lagoon areas where traditional blue/green algorithms overestimated.

  3. Radiometric, geometric, and image quality assessment of ALOS AVNIR-2 and PRISM sensors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saunier, S.; Goryl, P.; Chander, G.; Santer, R.; Bouvet, M.; Collet, B.; Mambimba, A.; Kocaman, Aksakal S.

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) was launched on January 24, 2006, by a Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) H-IIA launcher. It carries three remote-sensing sensors: 1) the Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer type 2 (AVNIR-2); 2) the Panchromatic Remote-Sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping (PRISM); and 3) the Phased-Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR). Within the framework of ALOS Data European Node, as part of the European Space Agency (ESA), the European Space Research Institute worked alongside JAXA to provide contributions to the ALOS commissioning phase plan. This paper summarizes the strategy that was adopted by ESA to define and implement a data verification plan for missions operated by external agencies; these missions are classified by the ESA as third-party missions. The ESA was supported in the design and execution of this plan by GAEL Consultant. The verification of ALOS optical data from PRISM and AVNIR-2 sensors was initiated 4 months after satellite launch, and a team of principal investigators assembled to provide technical expertise. This paper includes a description of the verification plan and summarizes the methodologies that were used for radiometric, geometric, and image quality assessment. The successful completion of the commissioning phase has led to the sensors being declared fit for operations. The consolidated measurements indicate that the radiometric calibration of the AVNIR-2 sensor is stable and agrees with the Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus and the Envisat MEdium-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer calibration. The geometrical accuracy of PRISM and AVNIR-2 products improved significantly and remains under control. The PRISM modulation transfer function is monitored for improved characterization. ?? 2006 IEEE.

  4. Improving Spatial Resolution of Agricultural Water Use Estimation Using ALOS AVNIR-2 Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandridis, T. K.; Chemin, Y.; Cherif, I.; Tsakoumis, G.; Galanis, G.; Arampatzis, G.; Zalidis, G. C.; Silleos, N. G.; Stavrinos, E.

    2008-11-01

    Estimating agricultural water use is an issue of primary importance in the Mediterranean. At the same time, several advanced algorithms have been developed, which couple Earth Observation data in thermal, visible and near-infrared wavelengths with a few meteorological measurements to provide a close approximation to the actual water use. However, due to the detailed cropping pattern of the Greek agricultural landscape, higher resolution satellite imagery is necessary, a demand which may not be met by the available thermal infrared imagery (Landsat 5 TM and Terra/ASTER). This study investigates the contribution of ALOS AVNIR-2 images to estimate agricultural water consumption in high spatial resolution. Two methods were tested, the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land and the remote sensing crop coefficient method. The results were compared against similar products derived with Terra/MODIS and Landsat TM images, used as reference. Comparisons were based on a pixel level, with a random dataset for pixel to pixel comparison and on a canal command area level, with statistical comparison of the water use estimations. Merging of the two datasets was based on the modified Brovey technique, which has the advantage of maintaining the original values, but redistributes them in a higher resolution space. Concluding, ALOS AVNIR-2 significantly underestimated agricultural water use with the crop coefficient method, but was successful in providing the element of high spatial detail to the MODIS derived result, proving to be a useful input in modelling water use of irrigated Greek basins.

  5. Multispectral Photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Model II Multispectral Camera is an advanced aerial camera that provides optimum enhancement of a scene by recording spectral signatures of ground objects only in narrow, preselected bands of the electromagnetic spectrum. Its photos have applications in such areas as agriculture, forestry, water pollution investigations, soil analysis, geologic exploration, water depth studies and camouflage detection. The target scene is simultaneously photographed in four separate spectral bands. Using a multispectral viewer, such as their Model 75 Spectral Data creates a color image from the black and white positives taken by the camera. With this optical image analysis unit, all four bands are superimposed in accurate registration and illuminated with combinations of blue green, red, and white light. Best color combination for displaying the target object is selected and printed. Spectral Data Corporation produces several types of remote sensing equipment and also provides aerial survey, image processing and analysis and number of other remote sensing services.

  6. Extracting Features of Acacia Plantation and Natural Forest in the Mountainous Region of Sarawak, Malaysia by ALOS/AVNIR2 Image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadaei, H.; Ishii, R.; Suzuki, R.; Kendawang, J.

    2013-12-01

    The remote sensing technique has provided useful information to detect spatio-temporal changes in the land cover of tropical forests. Land cover characteristics derived from satellite image can be applied to the estimation of ecosystem services and biodiversity over an extensive area, and such land cover information would provide valuable information to global and local people to understand the significance of the tropical ecosystem. This study was conducted in the Acacia plantations and natural forest situated in the mountainous region which has different ecological characteristic from that in flat and low land area in Sarawak, Malaysia. The main objective of this study is to compare extract the characteristic of them by analyzing the ALOS/AVNIR2 images and ground truthing obtained by the forest survey. We implemented a ground-based forest survey at Aacia plantations and natural forest in the mountainous region in Sarawak, Malaysia in June, 2013 and acquired the forest structure data (tree height, diameter at breast height (DBH), crown diameter, tree spacing) and spectral reflectance data at the three sample plots of Acacia plantation that has 10 x 10m area. As for the spectral reflectance data, we measured the spectral reflectance of the end members of forest such as leaves, stems, road surface, and forest floor by the spectro-radiometer. Such forest structure and spectral data were incorporated into the image analysis by support vector machine (SVM) and object-base/texture analysis. Consequently, land covers on the AVNIR2 image were classified into three forest types (natural forest, oil palm plantation and acacia mangium plantation), then the characteristic of each category was examined. We additionally used the tree age data of acacia plantation for the classification. A unique feature was found in vegetation spectral reflectance of Acacia plantations. The curve of the spectral reflectance shows two peaks around 0.3μm and 0.6 - 0.8μm that can be assumed to

  7. Chlorophyll and suspended sediment mapping to the Caribbean Sea from rivers in the capital city of the Dominican Republic using ALOS AVNIR-2 data.

    PubMed

    Sakuno, Yuji; Miño, Esteban R; Nakai, Satoshi; Mutsuda, Hidemi; Okuda, Tetsuji; Nishijima, Wataru; Castro, Rolando; García, Amarillis; Peña, Rosanna; Rodríguez, Marcos; Depratt, G Conrado

    2014-07-01

    This study aims to study the distribution of contaminants in rivers that flow into the Caribbean Sea using chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) and suspended sediment (SS) as markers and ALOS AVNIR-2 satellite sensor data. The Haina River (HN) and Ozama and Isabela Rivers (OZ-IS) that flow through the city of Santo Domingo, the capital of the Dominican Republic, were chosen. First, in situ spectral reflectance/Chl-a and SS datasets obtained from these rivers were acquired in March 2011 (case A: with no rain influence) and June 2011 (case B: with rain influence), and the estimation algorithm of Chl-a and SS using AVNIR-2 data was developed from the datasets. Moreover, the developed algorithm was applied to AVNIR-2 data in November 2010 for case A and August 2010 for case B. Results revealed that for Chl-a and SS estimations under cases A and B conditions, the reflectance ratio of AVNIR-2 band 4 and band 3 (AV4/AV3) and the reflectance of AVNIR-2 band 4 (AV4) were effective. The Chl-a and SS mapping results obtained using AVNIR-2 data corresponded with the field survey results. Finally, an outline of the distribution of contaminants at the mouth of the river that flows into the Caribbean Sea was obtained for both rivers in cases A and B.

  8. Comparative performance of ALOS PALSAR polarization bands and its combination with ALOS AVNIR-2 data for land cover classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sim, C. K.; Abdullah, K.; MatJafri, M. Z.; Lim, H. S.

    2014-02-01

    Microwave Remote Sensing data have been widely used for land cover classification in our environment. In this study, ALOS PALSAR polarization bands were used to identify land cover features in three study areas in Malaysia. The study area consists of Penang, Perak and Kedah. The aims of this research are to investigate the performance of ALOS PALSAR datasets which are assessed independently and combination of these data with ALOS AVNIR-2 for land cover classification. Standard supervised classification method Maximum Likelihood Classifier (MLC) was applied. Various land cover classes were identified and assessed using the Transformed Divergence (TD) separability measures. The PALSAR data training areas were chosen based on the information obtained from ALOS AVNIR-2 datasets. The original data gave very poor results in identifying land cover classes due to the presence of immense speckle. The extraction and use of mean texture measures was found to be very advantageous when evaluating the separability among the different land covers. Hence, mean texture was capable to provide higher classification accuracies as compared to the original radar. The highest overall accuracy was achieved by combining the radar mean texture with ALOS AVNIR-2 data. This study proved that the land cover of Penang, Perak, and Kedah can be mapped accurately using combination of optical and radar data.

  9. A 10m telescope for submillimetre astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baars, J. W. M.; Mezger, P. G.

    1982-08-01

    Several atmospheric transmission windows between 350 micro m and 3 mm wavelength which allow astronomical observations from a sufficiently high and dry mountain site are examined. The design of a telescope for themm wavelength region, which will exhibit full performance at 350 micro m is outlined. The diameter of the reflector is approximately 10 m, the surface accuracy is 15 micro m and the pointing accuracy 1". Extensive use of carbon fiber reinforced plastic enables a light and stiff construction without significant thermal deformations.

  10. The AEI 10 m prototype interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goßler, S.; Bertolini, A.; Born, M.; Chen, Y.; Dahl, K.; Gering, D.; Gräf, C.; Heinzel, G.; Hild, S.; Kawazoe, F.; Kranz, O.; Kühn, G.; Lück, H.; Mossavi, K.; Schnabel, R.; Somiya, K.; Strain, K. A.; Taylor, J. R.; Wanner, A.; Westphal, T.; Willke, B.; Danzmann, K.

    2010-04-01

    A 10 m prototype interferometer facility is currently being set up at the AEI in Hannover, Germany. The prototype interferometer will be housed inside a 100 m3 ultra-high vacuum envelope. Seismically isolated optical tables inside the vacuum system will be interferometrically interconnected via a suspension platform interferometer. Advanced isolation techniques will be used, such as inverted pendulums and geometrical anti-spring filters in combination with multiple-cascaded pendulum suspensions, containing an all-silica monolithic last stage. The light source is a 35 W Nd:YAG laser, geometrically filtered by passing it through a photonic crystal fibre and a rigid pre-modecleaner cavity. Laser frequency stabilisation will be achieved with the aid of a high finesse suspended reference cavity in conjunction with a molecular iodine reference. Coating thermal noise will be reduced by the use of Khalili cavities as compound end mirrors. Data acquisition and control of the experiments is based on the AdvLIGO digital control and data system. The aim of the project is to test advanced techniques for GEO 600 as well as to conduct experiments in macroscopic quantum mechanics. Reaching standard quantum-limit sensitivity for an interferometer with 100 g mirrors and subsequently breaching this limit, features most prominently among these experiments. In this paper we present the layout and current status of the AEI 10 m Prototype Interferometer project.

  11. Multispectral photography for earth resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenderoth, S.; Yost, E.; Kalia, R.; Anderson, R.

    1972-01-01

    A guide for producing accurate multispectral results for earth resource applications is presented along with theoretical and analytical concepts of color and multispectral photography. Topics discussed include: capabilities and limitations of color and color infrared films; image color measurements; methods of relating ground phenomena to film density and color measurement; sensitometry; considerations in the selection of multispectral cameras and components; and mission planning.

  12. Multispectral imaging for biometrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, Robert K.; Corcoran, Stephen P.; Nixon, Kristin A.; Ostrom, Robert E.

    2005-03-01

    Automated identification systems based on fingerprint images are subject to two significant types of error: an incorrect decision about the identity of a person due to a poor quality fingerprint image and incorrectly accepting a fingerprint image generated from an artificial sample or altered finger. This paper discusses the use of multispectral sensing as a means to collect additional information about a finger that significantly augments the information collected using a conventional fingerprint imager based on total internal reflectance. In the context of this paper, "multispectral sensing" is used broadly to denote a collection of images taken under different polarization conditions and illumination configurations, as well as using multiple wavelengths. Background information is provided on conventional fingerprint imaging. A multispectral imager for fingerprint imaging is then described and a means to combine the two imaging systems into a single unit is discussed. Results from an early-stage prototype of such a system are shown.

  13. Multispectral imaging probe

    DOEpatents

    Sandison, David R.; Platzbecker, Mark R.; Descour, Michael R.; Armour, David L.; Craig, Marcus J.; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    1999-01-01

    A multispectral imaging probe delivers a range of wavelengths of excitation light to a target and collects a range of expressed light wavelengths. The multispectral imaging probe is adapted for mobile use and use in confined spaces, and is sealed against the effects of hostile environments. The multispectral imaging probe comprises a housing that defines a sealed volume that is substantially sealed from the surrounding environment. A beam splitting device mounts within the sealed volume. Excitation light is directed to the beam splitting device, which directs the excitation light to a target. Expressed light from the target reaches the beam splitting device along a path coaxial with the path traveled by the excitation light from the beam splitting device to the target. The beam splitting device directs expressed light to a collection subsystem for delivery to a detector.

  14. Multispectral imaging probe

    DOEpatents

    Sandison, D.R.; Platzbecker, M.R.; Descour, M.R.; Armour, D.L.; Craig, M.J.; Richards-Kortum, R.

    1999-07-27

    A multispectral imaging probe delivers a range of wavelengths of excitation light to a target and collects a range of expressed light wavelengths. The multispectral imaging probe is adapted for mobile use and use in confined spaces, and is sealed against the effects of hostile environments. The multispectral imaging probe comprises a housing that defines a sealed volume that is substantially sealed from the surrounding environment. A beam splitting device mounts within the sealed volume. Excitation light is directed to the beam splitting device, which directs the excitation light to a target. Expressed light from the target reaches the beam splitting device along a path coaxial with the path traveled by the excitation light from the beam splitting device to the target. The beam splitting device directs expressed light to a collection subsystem for delivery to a detector. 8 figs.

  15. Shot Noise Thermometry down to 10 mK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spietz, Lafe; Schoelkopf, Robert

    2007-03-01

    We report measurements of the Shot Noise Thermometer (SNT), a primary thermometer based on the electronic noise from a tunnel junction, in the range from 10 mK to 200 mK. We demonstrate operation of the SNT down to 10 mK with 10% accuracy at the lowest measured temperature. At 10 mK, where for a measurement frequency of f=450 MHz, hf=2.5kBT, we demonstrate that, provided that quantum corrections are taken into account, the SNT continues to be a practical thermometer. We also show that self-heating is not a measurable problem and demonstrate a simplified readout of the SNT.

  16. Shot noise thermometry down to 10 mK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spietz, Lafe; Schoelkopf, R. J.; Pari, Patrick

    2006-10-01

    The authors report measurements of the shot noise thermometer (SNT), a primary thermometer based on the electronic noise from a tunnel junction, in the range from 10to200mK. They demonstrate operation of the SNT down to 10mK with 10% accuracy at the lowest measured temperature. At 10mK, where for a measurement frequency of f =450MHz, hf =2.5kBT, the authors demonstrate that provided that quantum corrections are taken into account, the SNT continues to be a practical thermometer. They also show that self-heating is not a measurable problem and demonstrate a simplified readout of the SNT.

  17. Polarimetric Multispectral Imaging Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, L.-J.; Chao, T.-H.; Dowdy, M.; Mahoney, C.; Reyes, G.

    1993-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is developing a remote sensing technology on which a new generation of compact, lightweight, high-resolution, low-power, reliable, versatile, programmable scientific polarimetric multispectral imaging instruments can be built to meet the challenge of future planetary exploration missions. The instrument is based on the fast programmable acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) of tellurium dioxide (TeO2) that operates in the wavelength range of 0.4-5 microns. Basically, the AOTF multispectral imaging instrument measures incoming light intensity as a function of spatial coordinates, wavelength, and polarization. Its operation can be in either sequential, random access, or multiwavelength mode as required. This provides observation flexibility, allowing real-time alternation among desired observations, collecting needed data only, minimizing data transmission, and permitting implementation of new experiments. These will result in optimization of the mission performance with minimal resources. Recently we completed a polarimetric multispectral imaging prototype instrument and performed outdoor field experiments for evaluating application potentials of the technology. We also investigated potential improvements on AOTF performance to strengthen technology readiness for applications. This paper will give a status report on the technology and a prospect toward future planetary exploration.

  18. Multispectral multisensor image fusion using wavelet transforms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lemeshewsky, George P.

    1999-01-01

    Fusion techniques can be applied to multispectral and higher spatial resolution panchromatic images to create a composite image that is easier to interpret than the individual images. Wavelet transform-based multisensor, multiresolution fusion (a type of band sharpening) was applied to Landsat thematic mapper (TM) multispectral and coregistered higher resolution SPOT panchromatic images. The objective was to obtain increased spatial resolution, false color composite products to support the interpretation of land cover types wherein the spectral characteristics of the imagery are preserved to provide the spectral clues needed for interpretation. Since the fusion process should not introduce artifacts, a shift invariant implementation of the discrete wavelet transform (SIDWT) was used. These results were compared with those using the shift variant, discrete wavelet transform (DWT). Overall, the process includes a hue, saturation, and value color space transform to minimize color changes, and a reported point-wise maximum selection rule to combine transform coefficients. The performance of fusion based on the SIDWT and DWT was evaluated with a simulated TM 30-m spatial resolution test image and a higher resolution reference. Simulated imagery was made by blurring higher resolution color-infrared photography with the TM sensors' point spread function. The SIDWT based technique produced imagery with fewer artifacts and lower error between fused images and the full resolution reference. Image examples with TM and SPOT 10-m panchromatic illustrate the reduction in artifacts due to the SIDWT based fusion.

  19. Demonstration of a 10-m Solar Sail System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, David M.; Macy, Brian D.; Gaspar, James L.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA In-Space Propulsion (ISP) program has been sponsoring system design development and hardware demonstration activities of solar sail technology over the past 16 months. Efforts to validate by test a moderate-scale (10-m) 1/4 symmetry ground demonstration sail system are nearly complete. Results of testing and analytical model validation of component and assembly functional, strength, stiffness, shape, and dynamic behavior are discussed.

  20. 10-m platform array telescope design for the AMIBA project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Robert N.; Kingsley, Jeffrey S.

    2000-07-01

    We present a unique hexapod platform array for the new Taiwanese AMIBA project. AMIBA is a 90 GHz radio interferometric array consisting of 19 elements mounted on a roughly 10 m diameter platform. A hexapod mount is used to steer this platform. The resulting design is lightweight in comparison to a more conventional mount. The design goals of pointing stability, platform accuracy and reduced cost can be met with this design. A metrology system for pointing is proposed for inclusion in the design.

  1. MULTISPECTRAL THERMAL IMAGER - OVERVIEW

    SciTech Connect

    P. WEBER

    2001-03-01

    The Multispectral Thermal Imager satellite fills a new and important role in advancing the state of the art in remote sensing sciences. Initial results with the full calibration system operating indicate that the system was already close to achieving the very ambitious goals which we laid out in 1993, and we are confident of reaching all of these goals as we continue our research and improve our analyses. In addition to the DOE interests, the satellite is tasked about one-third of the time with requests from other users supporting research ranging from volcanology to atmospheric sciences.

  2. Multispectral thermal imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, P.G.; Bender, S.C.; Borel, C.C.; Clodius, W.B.; Smith, B.W.; Garrett, A.; Pendergast, M.M.; Kay, R.R.

    1998-12-01

    Many remote sensing applications rely on imaging spectrometry. Here the authors use imaging spectrometry for thermal and multispectral signatures measured from a satellite platform enhanced with a combination of accurate calibrations and on-board data for correcting atmospheric distortions. The approach is supported by physics-based end-to-end modeling and analysis, which permits a cost-effective balance between various hardware and software aspects. The goal is to develop and demonstrate advanced technologies and analysis tools toward meeting the needs of the customer; at the same time, the attributes of this system can address other applications in such areas as environmental change, agriculture, and volcanology.

  3. Multispectral Thermal Imager: overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, W. Randy; Weber, Paul G.

    2001-08-01

    The Multispectral Thermal Imager, MTI, is a research and development project sponsored by the United States Department of Energy. The primary mission is to demonstrate advanced multispectral and thermal imaging from a satellite, including new technologies, data processing and analysis techniques. The MTI builds on the efforts of a number of earlier efforts, including Landsat, NASA remote sensing missions, and others, but the MTI incorporates a unique combination of attributes. The MTI satellite was launched on 12 March 2000 into a 580 km x 610 km, sun-synchronous orbit with nominal 1 am and 1 pm equatorial crossing times. The Air Force Space Test Program provided the Orbital Sciences Taurus launch vehicle. The satellite has a design lifetime of a year, with the goal of three years. The satellite and payload can typically observe six sites per day, with either one or two observations per site from nadir and off-nadir angles. Data are stored in the satellite memory and down-linked to a ground station at Sandia National Laboratory. Data are then forwarded to the Data Processing and Analysis Center at Los Alamos National Laboratory for processing, analysis and distribution to the MTI team and collaborators. We will provide an overview of the Project, a few examples of data products, and an introduction to more detailed presentations in this special session.

  4. Multispectral imaging and image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Julie

    2014-02-01

    The color accuracy of conventional RGB cameras is not sufficient for many color-critical applications. One of these applications, namely the measurement of color defects in yarns, is why Prof. Til Aach and the Institute of Image Processing and Computer Vision (RWTH Aachen University, Germany) started off with multispectral imaging. The first acquisition device was a camera using a monochrome sensor and seven bandpass color filters positioned sequentially in front of it. The camera allowed sampling the visible wavelength range more accurately and reconstructing the spectra for each acquired image position. An overview will be given over several optical and imaging aspects of the multispectral camera that have been investigated. For instance, optical aberrations caused by filters and camera lens deteriorate the quality of captured multispectral images. The different aberrations were analyzed thoroughly and compensated based on models for the optical elements and the imaging chain by utilizing image processing. With this compensation, geometrical distortions disappear and sharpness is enhanced, without reducing the color accuracy of multispectral images. Strong foundations in multispectral imaging were laid and a fruitful cooperation was initiated with Prof. Bernhard Hill. Current research topics like stereo multispectral imaging and goniometric multispectral measure- ments that are further explored with his expertise will also be presented in this work.

  5. Multispectral scanner optical system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stokes, R. C.; Koch, N. G. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An optical system for use in a multispectral scanner of the type used in video imaging devices is disclosed. Electromagnetic radiation reflected by a rotating scan mirror is focused by a concave primary telescope mirror and collimated by a second concave mirror. The collimated beam is split by a dichroic filter which transmits radiant energy in the infrared spectrum and reflects visible and near infrared energy. The long wavelength beam is filtered and focused on an infrared detector positioned in a cryogenic environment. The short wavelength beam is dispersed by a pair of prisms, then projected on an array of detectors also mounted in a cryogenic environment and oriented at an angle relative to the optical path of the dispersed short wavelength beam.

  6. Multispectral Resource Sampler Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The utility of the multispectral resource sampler (MRS) was examined by users in the following disciplines: agriculture, atmospheric studies, engineering, forestry, geology, hydrology/oceanography, land use, and rangelands/soils. Modifications to the sensor design were recommended and the desired types of products and number of scenes required per month were indicated. The history, design, capabilities, and limitations of the MRS are discussed as well as the multilinear spectral array technology which it uses. Designed for small area inventory, the MRS can provide increased temporal, spectral, and spatial resolution, facilitate polarization measurement and atmospheric correction, and test onboard data compression techniques. The advantages of using it along with the thematic mapper are considered.

  7. Multispectral imaging radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porcello, L. J.; Rendleman, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    A side-looking radar, installed in a C-46 aircraft, was modified to provide it with an initial multispectral imaging capability. The radar is capable of radiating at either of two wavelengths, these being approximately 3 cm and 30 cm, with either horizontal or vertical polarization on each wavelength. Both the horizontally- and vertically-polarized components of the reflected signal can be observed for each wavelength/polarization transmitter configuration. At present, two-wavelength observation of a terrain region can be accomplished within the same day, but not with truly simultaneous observation on both wavelengths. A multiplex circuit to permit this simultaneous observation has been designed. A brief description of the modified radar system and its operating parameters is presented. Emphasis is then placed on initial flight test data and preliminary interpretation. Some considerations pertinent to the calibration of such radars are presented in passing.

  8. Multispectral Microimager for Astrobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellar, R. Glenn; Farmer, Jack D.; Kieta, Andrew; Huang, Julie

    2006-01-01

    A primary goal of the astrobiology program is the search for fossil records. The astrobiology exploration strategy calls for the location and return of samples indicative of environments conducive to life, and that best capture and preserve biomarkers. Successfully returning samples from environments conducive to life requires two primary capabilities: (1) in situ mapping of the mineralogy in order to determine whether the desired minerals are present; and (2) nondestructive screening of samples for additional in-situ testing and/or selection for return to laboratories for more in-depth examination. Two of the most powerful identification techniques are micro-imaging and visible/infrared spectroscopy. The design and test results are presented from a compact rugged instrument that combines micro-imaging and spectroscopic capability to provide in-situ analysis, mapping, and sample screening capabilities. Accurate reflectance spectra should be a measure of reflectance as a function of wavelength only. Other compact multispectral microimagers use separate LEDs (light-emitting diodes) for each wavelength and therefore vary the angles of illumination when changing wavelengths. When observing a specularly-reflecting sample, this produces grossly inaccurate spectra due to the variation in the angle of illumination. An advanced design and test results are presented for a multispectral microimager which demonstrates two key advances relative to previous LED-based microimagers: (i) acquisition of actual reflectance spectra in which the flux is a function of wavelength only, rather than a function of both wavelength and illumination geometry; and (ii) increase in the number of spectral bands to eight bands covering a spectral range of 468 to 975 nm.

  9. MSS D Multispectral Scanner System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauletta, A. M.; Johnson, R. L.; Brinkman, K. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The development and acceptance testing of the 4-band Multispectral Scanners to be flown on LANDSAT D and LANDSAT D Earth resources satellites are summarized. Emphasis is placed on the acceptance test phase of the program. Test history and acceptance test algorithms are discussed. Trend data of all the key performance parameters are included and discussed separately for each of the two multispectral scanner instruments. Anomalies encountered and their resolutions are included.

  10. Multispectral bilateral video fusion.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Eric P; Mason, John L; McMillan, Leonard

    2007-05-01

    We present a technique for enhancing underexposed visible-spectrum video by fusing it with simultaneously captured video from sensors in nonvisible spectra, such as Short Wave IR or Near IR. Although IR sensors can accurately capture video in low-light and night-vision applications, they lack the color and relative luminances of visible-spectrum sensors. RGB sensors do capture color and correct relative luminances, but are underexposed, noisy, and lack fine features due to short video exposure times. Our enhanced fusion output is a reconstruction of the RGB input assisted by the IR data, not an incorporation of elements imaged only in IR. With a temporal noise reduction, we first remove shot noise and increase the color accuracy of the RGB footage. The IR video is then normalized to ensure cross-spectral compatibility with the visible-spectrum video using ratio images. To aid fusion, we decompose the video sources with edge-preserving filters. We introduce a multispectral version of the bilateral filter called the "dual bilateral" that robustly decomposes the RGB video. It utilizes the less-noisy IR for edge detection but also preserves strong visible-spectrum edges not in the IR. We fuse the RGB low frequencies, the IR texture details, and the dual bilateral edges into a noise-reduced video with sharp details, correct chrominances, and natural relative luminances. PMID:17491451

  11. Multispectral imaging method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Sandison, D.R.; Platzbecker, M.R.; Vargo, T.D.; Lockhart, R.R.; Descour, M.R.; Richards-Kortum, R.

    1999-07-06

    A multispectral imaging method and apparatus are described which are adapted for use in determining material properties, especially properties characteristic of abnormal non-dermal cells. A target is illuminated with a narrow band light beam. The target expresses light in response to the excitation. The expressed light is collected and the target's response at specific response wavelengths to specific excitation wavelengths is measured. From the measured multispectral response the target's properties can be determined. A sealed, remote probe and robust components can be used for cervical imaging. 5 figs.

  12. Multispectral imaging method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Sandison, David R.; Platzbecker, Mark R.; Vargo, Timothy D.; Lockhart, Randal R.; Descour, Michael R.; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    1999-01-01

    A multispectral imaging method and apparatus adapted for use in determining material properties, especially properties characteristic of abnormal non-dermal cells. A target is illuminated with a narrow band light beam. The target expresses light in response to the excitation. The expressed light is collected and the target's response at specific response wavelengths to specific excitation wavelengths is measured. From the measured multispectral response the target's properties can be determined. A sealed, remote probe and robust components can be used for cervical imaging

  13. Multispectral Landsat images of Antartica

    SciTech Connect

    Lucchitta, B.K.; Bowell, J.A.; Edwards, K.L.; Eliason, E.M.; Fergurson, H.M.

    1988-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has a program to map Antarctica by using colored, digitally enhanced Landsat multispectral scanner images to increase existing map coverage and to improve upon previously published Landsat maps. This report is a compilation of images and image mosaic that covers four complete and two partial 1:250,000-scale quadrangles of the McMurdo Sound region.

  14. Multispectral fluorescence imaging of atherosclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Davenport, C.M.C.

    1992-01-01

    Multispectral fluorescence imaging is a new diagnostic technique with the potential to provide improved detection and classification of atherosclerotic disease. This technique involves imaging the fluorescence response of a tissue region through a tunable band-pass filtering device. The result is a set of image in which each individual image is composed of the fluorescence emission within a specified band of wavelengths. Multispectral imaging combined with angioscopic technology allows direct access to important spectral information and spatial attributes providing the potential for more informed clinical decisions about which, if any, treatment modality is indicated. In this dissertation, the system requirements for an angioscopic system with multispectral imaging capability are identified. This analysis includes a description of the necessary optical components and their characteristics as well as the experimental determination of spectral radiance values for the fluorescence response of human aorta specimens and the estimation of anticipated signal-to-noise ratios for the spectral images. Other issues investigated include the number of spectral images required to provide good classification potential and the best normalization method to be utilized. Finally, the potential utility of the information contained within a multispectral data set is demonstrated. Two methods of utilizing the multispectral data are presented. The first method involves generating a ratio-image from the ratio of the intensities of two spectrally filtered images. The second method consists of using histologically verified training data to train a projector and then applying that projector to a set of spectral images. The result provides improved contrast image. White-light images (generated using an incandescent light source), total-fluorescence images (the fluorescence response without spectral filtering), ratio-images, and optimized contrast images are compared. T

  15. Multispectral polarized scene projector (MPSP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Haiping; Wei, Hong; Guo, Lei; Wang, Shenggang; Li, Le; Lippert, Jack R.; Serati, Steve; Gupta, Neelam; Carlen, Frank R.

    2011-06-01

    This newly developed prototype Multispectral Polarized Scene Projector (MPSP), configured for the short wave infrared (SWIR) regime, can be used for the test & evaluation (T&E) of spectro-polarimetric imaging sensors. The MPSP system generates both static and video images (up to 200 Hz) with 512×512 spatial resolution with active spatial, spectral, and polarization modulation with controlled bandwidth. It projects input SWIR radiant intensity scenes from stored memory with user selectable wavelength (850-1650 nm) and bandwidth (12-100 nm), as well as polarization states (six different states) controllable on a pixel by pixel basis. The system consists of one spectrally tunable liquid crystal filter with variable bandpass, and multiple liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS) spatial light modulators (SLMs) for intensity control and polarization modulation. In addition to the spectro-polarimetric sensor test, the instrument also simulates polarized multispectral images of military scenes/targets for hardware-in-the loop (HIL) testing.

  16. Gimbaled multispectral imaging system and method

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Kevin H.; Crollett, Seferino; Henson, Tammy D.; Napier, Matthew; Stromberg, Peter G.

    2016-01-26

    A gimbaled multispectral imaging system and method is described herein. In an general embodiment, the gimbaled multispectral imaging system has a cross support that defines a first gimbal axis and a second gimbal axis, wherein the cross support is rotatable about the first gimbal axis. The gimbaled multispectral imaging system comprises a telescope that fixed to an upper end of the cross support, such that rotation of the cross support about the first gimbal axis causes the tilt of the telescope to alter. The gimbaled multispectral imaging system includes optics that facilitate on-gimbal detection of visible light and off-gimbal detection of infrared light.

  17. A multispectral sorting device for wheat kernels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A low-cost multispectral sorting device was constructed using three visible and three near-infrared light-emitting diodes (LED) with peak emission wavelengths of 470 nm (blue), 527 nm (green), 624 nm (red), 850 nm, 940 nm, and 1070 nm. The multispectral data were collected by rapidly (~12 kHz) blin...

  18. Sandia multispectral analyst remote sensing toolkit (SMART).

    SciTech Connect

    Post, Brian Nelson; Smith, Jody Lynn; Geib, Peter L.; Nandy, Prabal; Wang, Nancy Nairong

    2003-03-01

    This remote sensing science and exploitation work focused on exploitation algorithms and methods targeted at the analyst. SMART is a 'plug-in' to commercial remote sensing software that provides algorithms to enhance the utility of the Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) and other multispectral satellite data. This toolkit has been licensed to 22 government organizations.

  19. Multispectral determination of vegetative cover in corn crop canopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoner, E. R.; Baumgardner, M. F.

    1972-01-01

    The relationship between different amounts of vegetative ground cover and the energy reflected by corn canopies was investigated. Low altitude photography and an airborne multispectral scanner were used to measure this reflected energy. Field plots were laid out, representing four growth stages of corn. Two plot locations were chosen-on a very dark and a very light surface soil. Color and color infrared photographs were taken from a vertical distance of 10 m. Estimates of ground cover were made from these photographs and were related to field measurements of leaf area index. Ground cover could be predicted from leaf area index measurements by a second order equation. Microdensitometry and digitzation of the three separated dye layers of color infrared film showed that the near infrared dye layer is most valuable in ground cover determinations. Computer analysis of the digitized photography provided an accurate method of determining precent ground cover.

  20. Multispectral Image Processing for Plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miles, Gaines E.

    1991-01-01

    The development of a machine vision system to monitor plant growth and health is one of three essential steps towards establishing an intelligent system capable of accurately assessing the state of a controlled ecological life support system for long-term space travel. Besides a network of sensors, simulators are needed to predict plant features, and artificial intelligence algorithms are needed to determine the state of a plant based life support system. Multispectral machine vision and image processing can be used to sense plant features, including health and nutritional status.

  1. Fast application multispectral camouflage appliques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meeker, David L.; Hall, Kenneth G.

    1995-05-01

    With reconnaissance surveillance, and target acquisition systems becoming increasingly sophisticated in both sensor performance and processing capabilities, there exists a requirement to increase the camoufleur's ability to control and manipulate target signatures beyond those currently available. To assist in accomplishing this, a hybrid technology is required: one that combines the features of multispectral signature control, rapid deployment, and low cost. The WES fixed-facility CCD team is developing a suite of signature controlling materials termed 'Multispectral Camouflage Appliques' (MCSs). Due to the nature of this material, the spectral characteristics (e.g. emmissivity, radar scattering properties, UV-NIR reflectance, color) can be controlled with great latitude by the designer, by adding underlying material layers or external coatings. It is the ability of the designer to manipulate the fundamental characteristics of the MCA material that allows its uniqueness and maximum utility. THe first series of MCAs are composed of an adhesive-backed metal foil overlaid with a visual color coating that is transparent in the thermal IR wavelengths. The effect is that of a visual camouflage combined with a thermal mirror that reflects emissions of the natural surroundings. The 'peel and stick' adhesive backing provides a rapid method of applying MCAs to fixed and semimobile assets that would be beneficial to bare base and force projection msisions. Dual uses of this material include drug and border aerial surveillance as position markers that are visually disguised from ground observation but provide high contrast in thermal IR imaging systems by reflecting cold sky temperatures.

  2. Cucumber disease diagnosis using multispectral images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jie; Li, Hongning; Shi, Junsheng; Yang, Weiping; Liao, Ningfang

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, multispectral imaging technique for plant diseases diagnosis is presented. Firstly, multispectral imaging system is designed. This system utilizes 15 narrow-band filters, a panchromatic band, a monochrome CCD camera, and standard illumination observing environment. The spectral reflectance and color of 8 Macbeth color patches are reproduced between 400nm and 700nm in the process. In addition, spectral reflectance angle and color difference is obtained through measurements and analysis of color patches using spectrometer and multispectral imaging system. The result shows that 16 narrow-bands multispectral imaging system realizes good accuracy in spectral reflectance and color reproduction. Secondly, a horticultural plant, cucumber' familiar disease are the researching objects. 210 multispectral samples are obtained by multispectral and are classified by BP artificial neural network. The classification accuracies of Sphaerotheca fuliginea, Corynespora cassiicola, Pseudoperonospora cubensis are 100%. Trichothecium roseum and Cladosporium cucumerinum are 96.67% and 90.00%. It is confirmed that the multispectral imaging system realizes good accuracy in the cucumber diseases diagnosis.

  3. Multispectral Scanner for Monitoring Plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gat, Nahum

    2004-01-01

    A multispectral scanner has been adapted to capture spectral images of living plants under various types of illumination for purposes of monitoring the health of, or monitoring the transfer of genes into, the plants. In a health-monitoring application, the plants are illuminated with full-spectrum visible and near infrared light and the scanner is used to acquire a reflected-light spectral signature known to be indicative of the health of the plants. In a gene-transfer- monitoring application, the plants are illuminated with blue or ultraviolet light and the scanner is used to capture fluorescence images from a green fluorescent protein (GFP) that is expressed as result of the gene transfer. The choice of wavelength of the illumination and the wavelength of the fluorescence to be monitored depends on the specific GFP.

  4. Commercial Applications Multispectral Sensor System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birk, Ronald J.; Spiering, Bruce

    1993-01-01

    NASA's Office of Commercial Programs is funding a multispectral sensor system to be used in the development of remote sensing applications. The Airborne Terrestrial Applications Sensor (ATLAS) is designed to provide versatility in acquiring spectral and spatial information. The ATLAS system will be a test bed for the development of specifications for airborne and spaceborne remote sensing instrumentation for dedicated applications. This objective requires spectral coverage from the visible through thermal infrared wavelengths, variable spatial resolution from 2-25 meters; high geometric and geo-location accuracy; on-board radiometric calibration; digital recording; and optimized performance for minimized cost, size, and weight. ATLAS is scheduled to be available in 3rd quarter 1992 for acquisition of data for applications such as environmental monitoring, facilities management, geographic information systems data base development, and mineral exploration.

  5. Multispectral sensing of moisture stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, C. E., Jr.

    1970-01-01

    Laboratory reflectance data, and field tests with multispectral remote sensors provide support for this hypotheses that differences in moisture content and water deficits are closely related to foliar reflectance from woody plants. When these relationships are taken into account, automatic recognition techniques become more powerful than when they are ignored. Evidence is increasing that moisture relationships inside plant foliage are much more closely related to foliar reflectance characteristics than are external variables such as soil moisture, wind, and air temperature. Short term changes in water deficits seem to have little influence on foliar reflectance, however. This is in distinct contrast to significant short-term changes in foliar emittance from the same plants with changing wind, air temperature, incident radiation, or water deficit conditions.

  6. Galileo multispectral imaging of Earth.

    PubMed

    Geissler, P; Thompson, W R; Greenberg, R; Moersch, J; McEwen, A; Sagan, C

    1995-08-25

    Nearly 6000 multispectral images of Earth were acquired by the Galileo spacecraft during its two flybys. The Galileo images offer a unique perspective on our home planet through the spectral capability made possible by four narrowband near-infrared filters, intended for observations of methane in Jupiter's atmosphere, which are not incorporated in any of the currently operating Earth orbital remote sensing systems. Spectral variations due to mineralogy, vegetative cover, and condensed water are effectively mapped by the visible and near-infrared multispectral imagery, showing a wide variety of biological, meteorological, and geological phenomena. Global tectonic and volcanic processes are clearly illustrated by these images, providing a useful basis for comparative planetary geology. Differences between plant species are detected through the narrowband IR filters on Galileo, allowing regional measurements of variation in the "red edge" of chlorophyll and the depth of the 1-micrometer water band, which is diagnostic of leaf moisture content. Although evidence of life is widespread in the Galileo data set, only a single image (at approximately 2 km/pixel) shows geometrization plausibly attributable to our technical civilization. Water vapor can be uniquely imaged in the Galileo 0.73-micrometer band, permitting spectral discrimination of moist and dry clouds with otherwise similar albedo. Surface snow and ice can be readily distinguished from cloud cover by narrowband imaging within the sensitivity range of Galileo's silicon CCD camera. Ice grain size variations can be mapped using the weak H2O absorption at 1 micrometer, a technique which may find important applications in the exploration of the moons of Jupiter. The Galileo images have the potential to make unique contributions to Earth science in the areas of geological, meteorological and biological remote sensing, due to the inclusion of previously untried narrowband IR filters. The vast scale and near global

  7. Galileo multispectral imaging of Earth.

    PubMed

    Geissler, P; Thompson, W R; Greenberg, R; Moersch, J; McEwen, A; Sagan, C

    1995-08-25

    Nearly 6000 multispectral images of Earth were acquired by the Galileo spacecraft during its two flybys. The Galileo images offer a unique perspective on our home planet through the spectral capability made possible by four narrowband near-infrared filters, intended for observations of methane in Jupiter's atmosphere, which are not incorporated in any of the currently operating Earth orbital remote sensing systems. Spectral variations due to mineralogy, vegetative cover, and condensed water are effectively mapped by the visible and near-infrared multispectral imagery, showing a wide variety of biological, meteorological, and geological phenomena. Global tectonic and volcanic processes are clearly illustrated by these images, providing a useful basis for comparative planetary geology. Differences between plant species are detected through the narrowband IR filters on Galileo, allowing regional measurements of variation in the "red edge" of chlorophyll and the depth of the 1-micrometer water band, which is diagnostic of leaf moisture content. Although evidence of life is widespread in the Galileo data set, only a single image (at approximately 2 km/pixel) shows geometrization plausibly attributable to our technical civilization. Water vapor can be uniquely imaged in the Galileo 0.73-micrometer band, permitting spectral discrimination of moist and dry clouds with otherwise similar albedo. Surface snow and ice can be readily distinguished from cloud cover by narrowband imaging within the sensitivity range of Galileo's silicon CCD camera. Ice grain size variations can be mapped using the weak H2O absorption at 1 micrometer, a technique which may find important applications in the exploration of the moons of Jupiter. The Galileo images have the potential to make unique contributions to Earth science in the areas of geological, meteorological and biological remote sensing, due to the inclusion of previously untried narrowband IR filters. The vast scale and near global

  8. Study on multispectral imaging detection and recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Wang; Na, Ding; Gao, Jiaobo; Yu, Hu; Jun, Wu; Li, Junna; Zheng, Yawei; Fei, Gao; Sun, Kefeng

    2009-07-01

    Multispectral imaging detecting technology use target radiation character in spectral spatial distribution and relation between spectral and image to detect target and remote sensing measure. Its speciality is multi channel, narrow bandwidth, large amount of information, high accuracy. The ability of detecting target in environment of clutter, camouflage, concealment and beguilement is improved. At present, spectral imaging technology in the range of multispectral and hyperspectral develop greatly. The multispectral imaging equipment of unmanned aerial vehicle can be used in mine detection, information, surveillance and reconnaissance. Spectral imaging spectrometer operating in MWIR and LWIR has already been applied in the field of remote sensing and military in the advanced country. The paper presents the technology of multispectral imaging. It can enhance the reflectance, scatter and radiation character of the artificial targets among nature background. The targets among complex background and camouflage/stealth targets can be effectively identified. The experiment results and the data of spectral imaging is obtained.

  9. Remote sensing of clouds by multispectral sensors.

    PubMed

    Lindner, B L; Isaacs, R G

    1993-05-20

    A multispectral minimization approach that uses the wavelength dependence of the radiance rather than the magnitude of the radiance is advocated for the retrieval of cloud optical thickness, phase, and particle size by future sensors.

  10. Multispectral imaging with vertical silicon nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyunsung; Crozier, Kenneth B.

    2013-01-01

    Multispectral imaging is a powerful tool that extends the capabilities of the human eye. However, multispectral imaging systems generally are expensive and bulky, and multiple exposures are needed. Here, we report the demonstration of a compact multispectral imaging system that uses vertical silicon nanowires to realize a filter array. Multiple filter functions covering visible to near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths are simultaneously defined in a single lithography step using a single material (silicon). Nanowires are then etched and embedded into polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), thereby realizing a device with eight filter functions. By attaching it to a monochrome silicon image sensor, we successfully realize an all-silicon multispectral imaging system. We demonstrate visible and NIR imaging. We show that the latter is highly sensitive to vegetation and furthermore enables imaging through objects opaque to the eye. PMID:23955156

  11. Multispectral palmprint recognition using a quaternion matrix.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xingpeng; Guo, Zhenhua; Song, Changjiang; Li, Yafeng

    2012-01-01

    Palmprints have been widely studied for biometric recognition for many years. Traditionally, a white light source is used for illumination. Recently, multispectral imaging has drawn attention because of its high recognition accuracy. Multispectral palmprint systems can provide more discriminant information under different illuminations in a short time, thus they can achieve better recognition accuracy. Previously, multispectral palmprint images were taken as a kind of multi-modal biometrics, and the fusion scheme on the image level or matching score level was used. However, some spectral information will be lost during image level or matching score level fusion. In this study, we propose a new method for multispectral images based on a quaternion model which could fully utilize the multispectral information. Firstly, multispectral palmprint images captured under red, green, blue and near-infrared (NIR) illuminations were represented by a quaternion matrix, then principal component analysis (PCA) and discrete wavelet transform (DWT) were applied respectively on the matrix to extract palmprint features. After that, Euclidean distance was used to measure the dissimilarity between different features. Finally, the sum of two distances and the nearest neighborhood classifier were employed for recognition decision. Experimental results showed that using the quaternion matrix can achieve a higher recognition rate. Given 3000 test samples from 500 palms, the recognition rate can be as high as 98.83%. PMID:22666049

  12. Multispectral Palmprint Recognition Using a Quaternion Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xingpeng; Guo, Zhenhua; Song, Changjiang; Li, Yafeng

    2012-01-01

    Palmprints have been widely studied for biometric recognition for many years. Traditionally, a white light source is used for illumination. Recently, multispectral imaging has drawn attention because of its high recognition accuracy. Multispectral palmprint systems can provide more discriminant information under different illuminations in a short time, thus they can achieve better recognition accuracy. Previously, multispectral palmprint images were taken as a kind of multi-modal biometrics, and the fusion scheme on the image level or matching score level was used. However, some spectral information will be lost during image level or matching score level fusion. In this study, we propose a new method for multispectral images based on a quaternion model which could fully utilize the multispectral information. Firstly, multispectral palmprint images captured under red, green, blue and near-infrared (NIR) illuminations were represented by a quaternion matrix, then principal component analysis (PCA) and discrete wavelet transform (DWT) were applied respectively on the matrix to extract palmprint features. After that, Euclidean distance was used to measure the dissimilarity between different features. Finally, the sum of two distances and the nearest neighborhood classifier were employed for recognition decision. Experimental results showed that using the quaternion matrix can achieve a higher recognition rate. Given 3000 test samples from 500 palms, the recognition rate can be as high as 98.83%. PMID:22666049

  13. Multispectral Imaging from Mars PATHFINDER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrand, William H.; Bell, James F., III; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Bishop, Janice L.; Morris, Richard V.

    2007-01-01

    The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was a mast-mounted instrument on the Mars Pathfinder lander which landed on Mars Ares Vallis floodplain on July 4, 1997. During the 83 sols of Mars Pathfinders landed operations, the IMP collected over 16,600 images. Multispectral images were collected using twelve narrowband filters at wavelengths between 400 and 1000 nm in the visible and near infrared (VNIR) range. The IMP provided VNIR spectra of the materials surrounding the lander including rocks, bright soils, dark soils, and atmospheric observations. During the primary mission, only a single primary rock spectral class, Gray Rock, was recognized; since then, Black Rock, has been identified. The Black Rock spectra have a stronger absorption at longer wavelengths than do Gray Rock spectra. A number of coated rocks have also been described, the Red and Maroon Rock classes, and perhaps indurated soils in the form of the Pink Rock class. A number of different soil types were also recognized with the primary ones being Bright Red Drift, Dark Soil, Brown Soil, and Disturbed Soil. Examination of spectral parameter plots indicated two trends which were interpreted as representing alteration products formed in at least two different environmental epochs of the Ares Vallis area. Subsequent analysis of the data and comparison with terrestrial analogs have supported the interpretation that the rock coatings provide evidence of earlier martian environments. However, the presence of relatively uncoated examples of the Gray and Black rock classes indicate that relatively unweathered materials can persist on the martian surface.

  14. Multi-spectral IR reflectography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontana, Raffaella; Bencini, Davide; Carcagnì, Pierluigi; Greco, Marinella; Mastroianni, Maria; Materazzi, Marzia; Pampaloni, Enrico; Pezzati, Luca

    2007-07-01

    A variety of scientific investigation methods applied to paintings are, by now, an integral part of the repair process, both to plan the restoration intervention and to monitor its various phases. Optical techniques are widely diffused and extremely well received in the field of painting diagnostics because of their effectiveness and safety. Among them infrared reflectography is traditionally employed in non-destructive diagnostics of ancient paintings to reveal features underlying the pictorial layer thanks to transparency characteristics to NIR radiation of the materials composing the paints. High-resolution reflectography was introduced in the 90s at the Istituto Nazionale di Ottica Applicata, where a prototype of an innovative scanner was developed, working in the 900-1700 nm spectral range. This technique was recently improved with the introduction of an optical head, able to acquire simultaneously the reflectogram and the color image, perfectly superimposing. In this work we present a scanning device for multi-spectral IR reflectography, based on contact-less and single-point measurement of the reflectance of painted surfaces. The back-scattered radiation is focused on square-shaped fiber bundle that carries the light to an array of 14 photodiodes equipped with pass-band filters so to cover the NIR spectral range from 800 to 2500 nm

  15. CXCL10 mRNA expression predicts response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy in rectal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Li, Cong; Wang, Zhimin; Liu, Fangqi; Zhu, Ji; Yang, Li; Cai, Guoxiang; Zhang, Zhen; Huang, Wei; Cai, Sanjun; Xu, Ye

    2014-10-01

    Chemoradiotherapy has been commonly used as neoadjuvant therapy for rectal cancer to allow for less aggressive surgical approaches and to improve quality of life. In cancer, it has been reported that CXCL10 has an anti-tumor function. However, the association between CXCL10 and chemoradiosensitivity has not been fully investigated. We performed this study to investigate the relationship between CXCL10 expression and chemoradiosensitivity in rectal cancer patients. Ninety-five patients with rectal cancer who received neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NCRT) were included. Clinical parameters were compared with the outcome of NCRT and CXCL10 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression between the pathological complete response (pCR) group and non-pathological complete response (npCR) group. CXCL10 mRNA and protein expressions between groups were analyzed using the Student's t test and chi-square test. The mean mRNA level of CXCL10 in the pCR group was significantly higher than that in the npCR group (p = 0.010). In the pCR group, 73.7 % of the patients had high CXCL10 mRNA expression, and 61.4 % of the patients in the npCR group had low CXCL10 mRNA expression. Subjects with high CXCL10 mRNA expression demonstrated a higher sensitivity to NCRT (p = 0.011). The receiver operating characteristic curve showed that the diagnostic performance of CXCL10 mRNA expression had an area under the curve of 0.720 (95 % confidence interval, 0.573-0.867). There were no differences between the pCR and npCR groups in CXCL10 protein expression (p > 0.05). High CXCL10 mRNA expression is associated with a better tumor response to NCRT in rectal cancer patients and may predict the outcome of NCRT in this malignancy.

  16. Unsupervised classification of remote multispectral sensing data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, M. Y.

    1972-01-01

    The new unsupervised classification technique for classifying multispectral remote sensing data which can be either from the multispectral scanner or digitized color-separation aerial photographs consists of two parts: (a) a sequential statistical clustering which is a one-pass sequential variance analysis and (b) a generalized K-means clustering. In this composite clustering technique, the output of (a) is a set of initial clusters which are input to (b) for further improvement by an iterative scheme. Applications of the technique using an IBM-7094 computer on multispectral data sets over Purdue's Flight Line C-1 and the Yellowstone National Park test site have been accomplished. Comparisons between the classification maps by the unsupervised technique and the supervised maximum liklihood technique indicate that the classification accuracies are in agreement.

  17. High-speed multispectral confocal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carver, Gary E.; Locknar, Sarah A.; Morrison, William A.; Farkas, Daniel L.

    2013-02-01

    A new approach for generating high-speed multispectral images has been developed. The central concept is that spectra can be acquired for each pixel in a confocal spatial scan by using a fast spectrometer based on optical fiber delay lines. This concept merges fast spectroscopy with standard spatial scanning to create datacubes in real time. The spectrometer is based on a serial array of reflecting spectral elements, delay lines between these elements, and a single element detector. The spatial, spectral, and temporal resolution of the instrument is described, and illustrated by multispectral images of laser-induced autofluorescence in biological tissues.

  18. High-speed multispectral confocal biomedical imaging

    PubMed Central

    Carver, Gary E.; Locknar, Sarah A.; Morrison, William A.; Krishnan Ramanujan, V.; Farkas, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. A new approach for generating high-speed multispectral confocal images has been developed. The central concept is that spectra can be acquired for each pixel in a confocal spatial scan by using a fast spectrometer based on optical fiber delay lines. This approach merges fast spectroscopy with standard spatial scanning to create datacubes in real time. The spectrometer is based on a serial array of reflecting spectral elements, delay lines between these elements, and a single element detector. The spatial, spectral, and temporal resolution of the instrument is described and illustrated by multispectral images of laser-induced autofluorescence in biological tissues. PMID:24658777

  19. Coastal and estuarine applications of multispectral photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, E.; Wenderoth, S.

    1972-01-01

    An evaluation of multispectral photographic techniques for optical penetration of water in the northeastern United States and the Gulf of Mexico coastal waters is presented. The spectral band (493 to 543 nanom), when exposed to place the water mass at about unit density on the photographic emulsion, was found to provide the best water penetration, independent of altitude or time of day, as long as solar glitter from the surface of the water is avoided. An isoluminous color technique was perfected, which eliminates the dimension of brightness from a multispectral color presentation.

  20. Optical positions of ICRF sources from CTIO 1.0m data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacharias, M. I.; Berghea, C.; Dieck, C.; Dudik, R.; Hennessy, G.; Veillette, D.; Zacharias, N.

    2015-10-01

    As part of the USNO radio-optical reference frame link project, data were taken with the CTIO 1.0 m telescope in 2009. First position results of 5 ICRF sources are presented as part of this primarily photometric investigation of optical counterparts.

  1. Multispectral Photography: the obscure becomes the obvious

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polgrean, John

    1974-01-01

    Commonly used in map making, real estate zoning, and highway route location, aerial photography planes equipped with multispectral cameras may, among many environmental applications, now be used to locate mineral deposits, define marshland boundaries, study water pollution, and detect diseases in crops and forests. (KM)

  2. Multispectral imaging using a single bucket detector

    PubMed Central

    Bian, Liheng; Suo, Jinli; Situ, Guohai; Li, Ziwei; Fan, Jingtao; Chen, Feng; Dai, Qionghai

    2016-01-01

    Existing multispectral imagers mostly use available array sensors to separately measure 2D data slices in a 3D spatial-spectral data cube. Thus they suffer from low photon efficiency, limited spectrum range and high cost. To address these issues, we propose to conduct multispectral imaging using a single bucket detector, to take full advantage of its high sensitivity, wide spectrum range, low cost, small size and light weight. Technically, utilizing the detector’s fast response, a scene’s 3D spatial-spectral information is multiplexed into a dense 1D measurement sequence and then demultiplexed computationally under the single pixel imaging scheme. A proof-of-concept setup is built to capture multispectral data of 64 pixels × 64 pixels × 10 wavelength bands ranging from 450 nm to 650 nm, with the acquisition time being 1 minute. The imaging scheme holds great potentials for various low light and airborne applications, and can be easily manufactured as production-volume portable multispectral imagers. PMID:27103168

  3. Estimating noise and information for multispectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiazzi, Bruno; Alparone, Luciano; Barducci, Alessandro; Baronti, Stefano; Pippi, Ivan

    2002-03-01

    We focus on reliably estimating the information conveyed to a user by multispectral image data. The goal is establishing the extent to which an increase in spectral resolution can increase the amount of usable information. As a matter of fact, a trade- off exists between spatial and spectral resolution, due to physical constraints of sensors imaging with a prefixed SNR. After describing some methods developed for automatically estimating the variance of the noise introduced by multispectral imagers, lossless data compression is exploited to measure the useful information content of the multispectral data. In fact, the bit rate achieved by the reversible compression process takes into account both the contribution of the 'observation' noise, i.e., information regarded as statistical uncertainty, whose relevance is null to a user, and the intrinsic information of hypothetically noise free multispectral data. An entropic model of the image source is defined and, once the standard deviation of the noise, assumed to be white and Gaussian, has been preliminarily estimated, such a model is inverted to yield an estimate of the information content of the noise-free source from the code rate. Results of both noise and information assessment are reported and discussed on synthetic noisy images and on Landsat thematic mapper (TM) data.

  4. Multispectral laser imaging for advanced food analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senni, L.; Burrascano, P.; Ricci, M.

    2016-07-01

    A hardware-software apparatus for food inspection capable of realizing multispectral NIR laser imaging at four different wavelengths is herein discussed. The system was designed to operate in a through-transmission configuration to detect the presence of unwanted foreign bodies inside samples, whether packed or unpacked. A modified Lock-In technique was employed to counterbalance the significant signal intensity attenuation due to transmission across the sample and to extract the multispectral information more efficiently. The NIR laser wavelengths used to acquire the multispectral images can be varied to deal with different materials and to focus on specific aspects. In the present work the wavelengths were selected after a preliminary analysis to enhance the image contrast between foreign bodies and food in the sample, thus identifying the location and nature of the defects. Experimental results obtained from several specimens, with and without packaging, are presented and the multispectral image processing as well as the achievable spatial resolution of the system are discussed.

  5. Multispectral imaging using a single bucket detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Liheng; Suo, Jinli; Situ, Guohai; Li, Ziwei; Fan, Jingtao; Chen, Feng; Dai, Qionghai

    2016-04-01

    Existing multispectral imagers mostly use available array sensors to separately measure 2D data slices in a 3D spatial-spectral data cube. Thus they suffer from low photon efficiency, limited spectrum range and high cost. To address these issues, we propose to conduct multispectral imaging using a single bucket detector, to take full advantage of its high sensitivity, wide spectrum range, low cost, small size and light weight. Technically, utilizing the detector’s fast response, a scene’s 3D spatial-spectral information is multiplexed into a dense 1D measurement sequence and then demultiplexed computationally under the single pixel imaging scheme. A proof-of-concept setup is built to capture multispectral data of 64 pixels × 64 pixels × 10 wavelength bands ranging from 450 nm to 650 nm, with the acquisition time being 1 minute. The imaging scheme holds great potentials for various low light and airborne applications, and can be easily manufactured as production-volume portable multispectral imagers.

  6. Sharpening advanced land imager multispectral data using a sensor model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lemeshewsky, G.P.; ,

    2005-01-01

    The Advanced Land Imager (ALI) instrument on NASA's Earth Observing One (EO-1) satellite provides for nine spectral bands at 30m ground sample distance (GSD) and a 10m GSD panchromatic band. This report describes an image sharpening technique where the higher spatial resolution information of the panchromatic band is used to increase the spatial resolution of ALI multispectral (MS) data. To preserve the spectral characteristics, this technique combines reported deconvolution deblurring methods for the MS data with highpass filter-based fusion methods for the Pan data. The deblurring process uses the point spread function (PSF) model of the ALI sensor. Information includes calculation of the PSF from pre-launch calibration data. Performance was evaluated using simulated ALI MS data generated by degrading the spatial resolution of high resolution IKONOS satellite MS data. A quantitative measure of performance was the error between sharpened MS data and high resolution reference. This report also compares performance with that of a reported method that includes PSF information. Preliminary results indicate improved sharpening with the method reported here.

  7. Design of the 10 m AEI prototype facility for interferometry studies. A brief overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westphal, T.; Bergmann, G.; Bertolini, A.; Born, M.; Chen, Y.; Cumming, A. V.; Cunningham, L.; Dahl, K.; Gräf, C.; Hammond, G.; Heinzel, G.; Hild, S.; Huttner, S.; Jones, R.; Kawazoe, F.; Köhlenbeck, S.; Kühn, G.; Lück, H.; Mossavi, K.; Pöld, J. H.; Somiya, K.; van Veggel, A. M.; Wanner, A.; Willke, B.; Strain, K. A.; Goßler, S.; Danzmann, K.

    2012-03-01

    The AEI 10 m prototype interferometer facility is currently being constructed at the Albert Einstein Institute in Hannover, Germany. It aims to perform experiments for future gravitational wave detectors using advanced techniques. Seismically isolated benches are planned to be interferometrically interconnected and stabilized, forming a low-noise testbed inside a 100 m3 ultra-high vacuum system. A well-stabilized high-power laser will perform differential position readout of 100 g test masses in a 10 m suspended arm-cavity enhanced Michelson interferometer at the crossover of measurement (shot) noise and back-action (quantum radiation pressure) noise, the so-called Standard Quantum Limit (SQL). Such a sensitivity enables experiments in the highly topical field of macroscopic quantum mechanics. In this article we introduce the experimental facility and describe the methods employed; technical details of subsystems will be covered in future papers.

  8. DISSOLUTION OF PLUTONIUM METAL IN 8-10 M NITRIC ACID

    SciTech Connect

    Rudisill, T.; Pierce, R.

    2012-02-21

    The H-Canyon facility will be used to dissolve Pu metal for subsequent purification and conversion to plutonium dioxide (PuO{sub 2}) using Phase II of HB-Line. To support the new mission, the development of a Pu metal dissolution flowsheet which utilizes concentrated (8-10 M) nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) solutions containing potassium fluoride (KF) is required. Dissolution of Pu metal in concentrated HNO{sub 3} is desired to eliminate the need to adjust the solution acidity prior to purification by anion exchange. The preferred flowsheet would use 8-10 M HNO{sub 3}, 0.015-0.07 M KF, and 0.5-1.0 g/L Gd to dissolve the Pu up to 6.75 g/L. An alternate flowsheet would use 8-10 M HNO{sub 3}, 0.1-0.2 M KF, and 1-2 g/L B to dissolve the Pu. The targeted average Pu metal dissolution rate is 20 mg/min-cm{sup 2}, which is sufficient to dissolve a 'standard' 2250-g Pu metal button in 24 h. Plutonium metal dissolution rate measurements showed that if Gd is used as the nuclear poison, the optimum dissolution conditions occur in 10 M HNO{sub 3}, 0.04-0.05 M KF, and 0.5-1.0 g/L Gd at 112 to 116 C (boiling). These conditions will result in an estimated Pu metal dissolution rate of {approx}11-15 mg/min-cm{sup 2} and will result in dissolution times of 36-48 h for standard buttons. The recommended minimum and maximum KF concentrations are 0.03 M and 0.07 M, respectively. The maximum KF concentration is dictated by a potential room-temperature Pu-Gd-F precipitation issue at low Pu concentrations. The purpose of the experimental work described in this report was two-fold. Initially a series of screening experiments was performed to measure the dissolution rate of Pu metal as functions of the HNO{sub 3}, KF, and Gd or B concentrations. The objective of the screening tests was to propose optimized conditions for subsequent flowsheet demonstration tests. Based on the rate measurements, this study found that optimal dissolution conditions in solutions containing 0.5-1.0 g/L Gd occurred in 8-10

  9. Recent Observations of IC443 with the Whipple 10m Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Holder, J.; Badran, H.M.; Blaylock, G.; Bond, I.H.; Boyle, P.J.; Bradbury, S.M.; Buckley, J.H.; Byrum, K.; Carter-Lewis, D.A.; Celik, O.; Cogan, P.; Cui, W.; Calle Perez, I. de la; Daniel, M.K.; Duke, C.; Falcone, A.; Fegan, D.J.; Fegan, S.J.; Finley, J.P.; Fortson, L.F.

    2005-02-21

    We present here the results of recent observations made with the Whipple 10m imaging Cherenkov telescope of the region of the supernova remnant IC443. No evidence for gamma-ray emission was found, and we obtain an upper limit above 500 GeV (99.9% confidence) of 0.6 x 10-7 ph m-2 s-1 (0.11 Crab) at the location of the recently identified X-ray plerion nebula and 0.8 x 10-7 ph m-2 s-1 (0.14 Crab) at the site of the OH maser at the densest part of the molecular cloud.

  10. Investigation related to multispectral imaging systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nalepka, R. F.; Erickson, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    A summary of technical progress made during a five year research program directed toward the development of operational information systems based on multispectral sensing and the use of these systems in earth-resource survey applications is presented. Efforts were undertaken during this program to: (1) improve the basic understanding of the many facets of multispectral remote sensing, (2) develop methods for improving the accuracy of information generated by remote sensing systems, (3) improve the efficiency of data processing and information extraction techniques to enhance the cost-effectiveness of remote sensing systems, (4) investigate additional problems having potential remote sensing solutions, and (5) apply the existing and developing technology for specific users and document and transfer that technology to the remote sensing community.

  11. Information extraction techniques for multispectral scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malila, W. A.; Crane, R. B.; Turner, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    The applicability of recognition-processing procedures for multispectral scanner data from areas and conditions used for programming the recognition computers to other data from different areas viewed under different measurement conditions was studied. The reflective spectral region approximately 0.3 to 3.0 micrometers is considered. A potential application of such techniques is in conducting area surveys. Work in three general areas is reported: (1) Nature of sources of systematic variation in multispectral scanner radiation signals, (2) An investigation of various techniques for overcoming systematic variations in scanner data; (3) The use of decision rules based upon empirical distributions of scanner signals rather than upon the usually assumed multivariate normal (Gaussian) signal distributions.

  12. Multispectral device for help in diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delporte, Céline; Ben Chouikha, Mohamed; Sautrot, Sylvie; Viénot, Françoise; Alquié, Georges

    2012-03-01

    In order to build biological tissues spectral characteristics database to be used in a multispectral imaging system a tissues optical characterization bench is developed and validated. Several biological tissue types have been characterized in vitro and ex vivo with our device such as beef, turkey and pork muscle and beef liver. Multispectral images obtained have been analyzed in order to study the dispersion of biological tissues spectral luminance factor. Tissue internal structure inhomogeneity was identified as a phenomenon contributing to the dispersion of spectral luminance factor. This dispersion of spectral luminance factor could be a characteristic of the tissue. A method based on envelope technique has been developed to identify and differentiate biological tissues in the same scene. This method applied to pork tissues containing muscle and fat gives detection rates of 59% for pork muscle and 14% for pork fat.

  13. Atmospheric effects in multispectral remote sensor data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    The problem of radiometric variations in multispectral remote sensing data which occur as a result of a change in geometric and environmental factors is studied. The case of spatially varying atmospheres is considered and the effect of atmospheric scattering is analyzed for realistic conditions. Emphasis is placed upon a simulation of LANDSAT spectral data for agricultural investigations over the United States. The effect of the target-background interaction is thoroughly analyzed in terms of various atmospheric states, geometric parameters, and target-background materials. Results clearly demonstrate that variable atmospheres can alter the classification accuracy and that the presence of various backgrounds can change the effective target radiance by a significant amount. A failure to include these effects in multispectral data analysis will result in a decrease in the classification accuracy.

  14. Multi-spectral photoacoustic elasticity tomography

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yubin; Yuan, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this work was to develop and validate a spectrally resolved photoacoustic imaging method, namely multi-spectral photoacoustic elasticity tomography (PAET) for quantifying the physiological parameters and elastic modulus of biological tissues. We theoretically and experimentally examined the PAET imaging method using simulations and in vitro experimental tests. Our simulation and in vitro experimental results indicated that the reconstructions were quantitatively accurate in terms of sizes, the physiological and elastic properties of the targets. PMID:27699101

  15. Investigations in adaptive processing of multispectral data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kriegler, F. J.; Horwitz, H. M.

    1973-01-01

    Adaptive data processing procedures are applied to the problem of classifying objects in a scene scanned by multispectral sensor. These procedures show a performance improvement over standard nonadaptive techniques. Some sources of error in classification are identified and those correctable by adaptive processing are discussed. Experiments in adaptation of signature means by decision-directed methods are described. Some of these methods assume correlation between the trajectories of different signature means; for others this assumption is not made.

  16. Multi-spectral photoacoustic elasticity tomography

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yubin; Yuan, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this work was to develop and validate a spectrally resolved photoacoustic imaging method, namely multi-spectral photoacoustic elasticity tomography (PAET) for quantifying the physiological parameters and elastic modulus of biological tissues. We theoretically and experimentally examined the PAET imaging method using simulations and in vitro experimental tests. Our simulation and in vitro experimental results indicated that the reconstructions were quantitatively accurate in terms of sizes, the physiological and elastic properties of the targets.

  17. Coastal survey with a multispectral video system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedrauer, Terren M.

    1991-09-01

    Xybion Corporation has developed an airborne multispectral measurement system (AMMS) as part of a small business innovative research contract with the Department of Commerce. The AMMS is a low-cost portable system that can provide multispectral data suitable for frequent measurement and mapping. It has been used for measurement of estuarine concentrations of chlorophyll and suspended sediments and mapping of submerged aquatic vegetation fields. Other applications include the identification of tree and plant species, the detection of crop stress, and the detection of man-made objects in a background of vegetation. The AMMS provides high spatial resolution multispectral image data in six user-defined bands in the 400- 900 nm wavelength region. The AMMS includes a highly innovative, computer-controlled, intensified, multispectral video camera (IMC), a spectroradiometer, a S-VHS VCR, and a portable IBM-PC-compatible computer system. An airborne trial over Cheseapeake Bay in June 1990 showed its ability to detect variations in water parameters. Simultaneous measurements from a ship provided sea-surface data, including continuous fluorometer readings, and discrete samples of chlorophyll, suspended sediments, and several other water parameters. Two spectroradiometers were included in the airborne equipment. One pointed downward to provide a high-resolution spectrum of a large water area under the plane. The other spectroradiometer measured downwelling irradiance. This allowed for conversion of the upwelling radiances measured by the IMC into reflectances. Calibrations for the IMC and the spectroradiometers were done before and after the trials. The results of this airborne trial are presented.

  18. Airborne multispectral detection of regrowth cotton fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westbrook, John K.; Suh, Charles P.-C.; Yang, Chenghai; Lan, Yubin; Eyster, Ritchie S.

    2015-01-01

    Effective methods are needed for timely areawide detection of regrowth cotton plants because boll weevils (a quarantine pest) can feed and reproduce on these plants beyond the cotton production season. Airborne multispectral images of regrowth cotton plots were acquired on several dates after three shredding (i.e., stalk destruction) dates. Linear spectral unmixing (LSU) classification was applied to high-resolution airborne multispectral images of regrowth cotton plots to estimate the minimum detectable size and subsequent growth of plants. We found that regrowth cotton fields can be identified when the mean plant width is ˜0.2 m for an image resolution of 0.1 m. LSU estimates of canopy cover of regrowth cotton plots correlated well (r2=0.81) with the ratio of mean plant width to row spacing, a surrogate measure of plant canopy cover. The height and width of regrowth plants were both well correlated (r2=0.94) with accumulated degree-days after shredding. The results will help boll weevil eradication program managers use airborne multispectral images to detect and monitor the regrowth of cotton plants after stalk destruction, and identify fields that may require further inspection and mitigation of boll weevil infestations.

  19. Perceptual evaluation of color transformed multispectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toet, Alexander; de Jong, Michael J.; Hogervorst, Maarten A.; Hooge, Ignace T. C.

    2014-04-01

    Color remapping can give multispectral imagery a realistic appearance. We assessed the practical value of this technique in two observer experiments using monochrome intensified (II) and long-wave infrared (IR) imagery, and color daylight (REF) and fused multispectral (CF) imagery. First, we investigated the amount of detail observers perceive in a short timespan. REF and CF imagery yielded the highest precision and recall measures, while II and IR imagery yielded significantly lower values. This suggests that observers have more difficulty in extracting information from monochrome than from color imagery. Next, we measured eye fixations during free image exploration. Although the overall fixation behavior was similar across image modalities, the order in which certain details were fixated varied. Persons and vehicles were typically fixated first in REF, CF, and IR imagery, while they were fixated later in II imagery. In some cases, color remapping II imagery and fusion with IR imagery restored the fixation order of these image details. We conclude that color remapping can yield enhanced scene perception compared to conventional monochrome nighttime imagery, and may be deployed to tune multispectral image representations such that the resulting fixation behavior resembles the fixation behavior corresponding to daylight color imagery.

  20. Development of a multispectral camera system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiura, Hiroaki; Kuno, Tetsuya; Watanabe, Norihiro; Matoba, Narihiro; Hayashi, Junichiro; Miyake, Yoichi

    2000-05-01

    A highly accurate multispectral camera and the application software have been developed as a practical system to capture digital images of the artworks stored in galleries and museums. Instead of recording color data in the conventional three RGB primary colors, the newly developed camera and the software carry out a pixel-wise estimation of spectral reflectance, the color data specific to the object, to enable the practical multispectral imaging. In order to realize the accurate multispectral imaging, the dynamic range of the camera is set to 14 bits or over and the output bits to 14 bits so as to allow capturing even when the difference in light quantity between the each channel is large. Further, a small-size rotary color filter was simultaneously developed to keep the camera to a practical size. We have developed software capable of selecting the optimum combination of color filters available in the market. Using this software, n types of color filter can be selected from m types of color filter giving a minimum Euclidean distance or minimum color difference in CIELAB color space between actual and estimated spectral reflectance as to 147 types of oil paint samples.

  1. Image processing of underwater multispectral imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zawada, D.G.

    2003-01-01

    Capturing in situ fluorescence images of marine organisms presents many technical challenges. The effects of the medium, as well as the particles and organisms within it, are intermixed with the desired signal. Methods for extracting and preparing the imagery for analysis are discussed in reference to a novel underwater imaging system called the low-light-level underwater multispectral imaging system (LUMIS). The instrument supports both uni- and multispectral collections, each of which is discussed in the context of an experimental application. In unispectral mode, LUMIS was used to investigate the spatial distribution of phytoplankton. A thin sheet of laser light (532 nm) induced chlorophyll fluorescence in the phytoplankton, which was recorded by LUMIS. Inhomogeneities in the light sheet led to the development of a beam-pattern-correction algorithm. Separating individual phytoplankton cells from a weak background fluorescence field required a two-step procedure consisting of edge detection followed by a series of binary morphological operations. In multispectral mode, LUMIS was used to investigate the bio-assay potential of fluorescent pigments in corals. Problems with the commercial optical-splitting device produced nonlinear distortions in the imagery. A tessellation algorithm, including an automated tie-point-selection procedure, was developed to correct the distortions. Only pixels corresponding to coral polyps were of interest for further analysis. Extraction of these pixels was performed by a dynamic global-thresholding algorithm.

  2. The Multispectral Imaging Science Working Group. Volume 3: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, S. C. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    The status and technology requirements for using multispectral sensor imagery in geographic, hydrologic, and geologic applications are examined. Critical issues in image and information science are identified.

  3. DISSOLUTION OF PLUTONIUM METAL IN 8-10 M NITRIC ACID

    SciTech Connect

    Rudisill, T. S.; Pierce, R. A.

    2012-07-02

    The H-Canyon facility will be used to dissolve Pu metal for subsequent purification and conversion to plutonium dioxide (PuO{sub 2}) using Phase II of HB-Line. To support the new mission, the development of a Pu metal dissolution flowsheet which utilizes concentrated (8-10 M) nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) solutions containing potassium fluoride (KF) is required. Dissolution of Pu metal in concentrated HNO{sub 3} is desired to eliminate the need to adjust the solution acidity prior to purification by anion exchange. The preferred flowsheet would use 8-10 M HNO{sub 3}, 0.015-0.07 M KF, and 0.5-1.0 g/L Gd to dissolve the Pu up to 6.75 g/L. An alternate flowsheet would use 8-10 M HNO{sub 3}, 0.05-0.2 M KF, and 1-2 g/L B to dissolve the Pu. The targeted average Pu metal dissolution rate is 20 mg/min-cm{sup 2}, which is sufficient to dissolve a “standard” 2250-g Pu metal button in 24 h. Plutonium metal dissolution rate measurements showed that if Gd is used as the nuclear poison, the optimum dissolution conditions occur in 10 M HNO{sub 3}, 0.04-0.05 M KF, and 0.5-1.0 g/L Gd at 112 to 116 °C (boiling). These conditions will result in an estimated Pu metal dissolution rate of ~11-15 mg/min-cm{sup 2} and will result in dissolution times of 36-48 h for standard buttons. The recommended minimum and maximum KF concentrations are 0.03 M and 0.07 M, respectively. The data also indicate that lower KF concentrations would yield dissolution rates for B comparable to those observed with Gd at the same HNO{sub 3} concentration and dissolution temperature. To confirm that the optimal conditions identified by the dissolution rate measurements can be used to dissolve Pu metal up to 6.75 g/L in the presence of representative concentrations of Fe and Gd or B, a series of experiments was performed to demonstrate the flowsheets. In three of the five experiments, the offgas generation rate during the dissolution was measured and samples were analyzed for hydrogen gas (H{sub 2}). The use of

  4. Constraining the Bulk Density of 10m-Class Near-Earth Asteroid 2012 LA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mommert, Michael; Hora, Joseph; Farnocchia, Davide; Trilling, David; Chesley, Steve; Harris, Alan; Mueller, Migo; Smith, Howard

    2016-08-01

    The physical properties of near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) provide important hints on their origin, as well as their past physical and orbital evolution. Recent observations seem to indicate that small asteroids are different than expected: instead of being monolithic bodies, some of them instead resemble loose conglomerates of smaller rocks, so called 'rubble piles'. This is surprising, since self-gravitation is practically absent in these bodies. Hence, bulk density measurements of small asteroids, from which their internal structure can be estimated, provide unique constraints on asteroid physical models, as well as models for asteroid evolution. We propose Spitzer Space Telescope observations of 10 m-sized NEA 2012 LA, which will allow us to constrain the diameter, albedo, bulk density, macroporosity, and mass of this object. We require 30 hrs of Spitzer time to detect our target with a minimum SNR of 3 in CH2. In order to interpret our observational results, we will use the same analysis technique that we used in our successful observations and analyses of tiny asteroids 2011 MD and 2009 BD. Our science goal, which is the derivation of the target's bulk density and its internal structure, can only be met with Spitzer. Our observations will produce only the third comprehensive physical characterization of an asteroid in the 10m size range (all of which have been carried out by our team, using Spitzer). Knowledge of the physical properties of small NEAs, some of which pose an impact threat to the Earth, is of importance for understanding their evolution and estimating the potential of destruction in case of an impact, as well as for potential manned missions to NEAs for either research or potential commercial uses.

  5. A multispectral method of determining sea surface temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shenk, W. E.

    1972-01-01

    A multispectral method for determining sea surface temperatures is discussed. The specifications of the equipment and the atmospheric conditions required for successful multispectral data acquisition are described. Examples of data obtained in the North Atlantic Ocean are presented. The differences between the actual sea surface temperatures and the equivalent blackbody temperatures as determined by a radiometer are plotted.

  6. D Land Cover Classification Based on Multispectral LIDAR Point Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Xiaoliang; Zhao, Guihua; Li, Jonathan; Yang, Yuanxi; Fang, Yong

    2016-06-01

    Multispectral Lidar System can emit simultaneous laser pulses at the different wavelengths. The reflected multispectral energy is captured through a receiver of the sensor, and the return signal together with the position and orientation information of sensor is recorded. These recorded data are solved with GNSS/IMU data for further post-processing, forming high density multispectral 3D point clouds. As the first commercial multispectral airborne Lidar sensor, Optech Titan system is capable of collecting point clouds data from all three channels at 532nm visible (Green), at 1064 nm near infrared (NIR) and at 1550nm intermediate infrared (IR). It has become a new source of data for 3D land cover classification. The paper presents an Object Based Image Analysis (OBIA) approach to only use multispectral Lidar point clouds datasets for 3D land cover classification. The approach consists of three steps. Firstly, multispectral intensity images are segmented into image objects on the basis of multi-resolution segmentation integrating different scale parameters. Secondly, intensity objects are classified into nine categories by using the customized features of classification indexes and a combination the multispectral reflectance with the vertical distribution of object features. Finally, accuracy assessment is conducted via comparing random reference samples points from google imagery tiles with the classification results. The classification results show higher overall accuracy for most of the land cover types. Over 90% of overall accuracy is achieved via using multispectral Lidar point clouds for 3D land cover classification.

  7. Multispectral data compression through transform coding and block quantization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ready, P. J.; Wintz, P. A.

    1972-01-01

    Transform coding and block quantization techniques are applied to multispectral aircraft scanner data, and digitized satellite imagery. The multispectral source is defined and an appropriate mathematical model proposed. The Karhunen-Loeve, Fourier, and Hadamard encoders are considered and are compared to the rate distortion function for the equivalent Gaussian source and to the performance of the single sample PCM encoder.

  8. Reproducible high-resolution multispectral image acquisition in dermatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duliu, Alexandru; Gardiazabal, José; Lasser, Tobias; Navab, Nassir

    2015-07-01

    Multispectral image acquisitions are increasingly popular in dermatology, due to their improved spectral resolution which enables better tissue discrimination. Most applications however focus on restricted regions of interest, imaging only small lesions. In this work we present and discuss an imaging framework for high-resolution multispectral imaging on large regions of interest.

  9. Multispectral Airborne Laser Scanning for Automated Map Updating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matikainen, Leena; Hyyppä, Juha; Litkey, Paula

    2016-06-01

    During the last 20 years, airborne laser scanning (ALS), often combined with multispectral information from aerial images, has shown its high feasibility for automated mapping processes. Recently, the first multispectral airborne laser scanners have been launched, and multispectral information is for the first time directly available for 3D ALS point clouds. This article discusses the potential of this new single-sensor technology in map updating, especially in automated object detection and change detection. For our study, Optech Titan multispectral ALS data over a suburban area in Finland were acquired. Results from a random forests analysis suggest that the multispectral intensity information is useful for land cover classification, also when considering ground surface objects and classes, such as roads. An out-of-bag estimate for classification error was about 3% for separating classes asphalt, gravel, rocky areas and low vegetation from each other. For buildings and trees, it was under 1%. According to feature importance analyses, multispectral features based on several channels were more useful that those based on one channel. Automatic change detection utilizing the new multispectral ALS data, an old digital surface model (DSM) and old building vectors was also demonstrated. Overall, our first analyses suggest that the new data are very promising for further increasing the automation level in mapping. The multispectral ALS technology is independent of external illumination conditions, and intensity images produced from the data do not include shadows. These are significant advantages when the development of automated classification and change detection procedures is considered.

  10. Extraction of topographic and spectral albedo information from multispectral images.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eliason, P.T.; Soderblom, L.A.; Chavez, P.A., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    A technique has been developed to separate and extract spectral-reflectivity variations and topographic informaiton from multispectral images. The process is a completely closed system employing only the image data and can be applied to any digital multispectral data set. -from Authors

  11. Astronaut Jack Lousma works at Multispectral camera experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Jack R. Lousma, Skylab 3 pilot, works at the S190A multispectral camera experiment in the Multiple Docking Adapter (MDA), seen from a color television transmission made by a TV camera aboard the Skylab space station cluster in Earth orbit. Lousma later used a small brush to clean the six lenses of the multispectral camera.

  12. Measurement of water depth by multispectral ratio techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polcyn, F. C.

    1970-01-01

    The technique for measuring the depth of water using a multispectral scanner is discussed. The procedure takes advantage of the absorption properties of different wavelengths of light. Making use of the property of the selected transmission of light at different wavelengths, an equation was developed relating the outputs of at least two channels of multispectral scanner to measure water depth.

  13. Fingerprint enhancement using a multispectral sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, Robert K.; Nixon, Kristin A.

    2005-03-01

    The level of performance of a biometric fingerprint sensor is critically dependent on the quality of the fingerprint images. One of the most common types of optical fingerprint sensors relies on the phenomenon of total internal reflectance (TIR) to generate an image. Under ideal conditions, a TIR fingerprint sensor can produce high-contrast fingerprint images with excellent feature definition. However, images produced by the same sensor under conditions that include dry skin, dirt on the skin, and marginal contact between the finger and the sensor, are likely to be severely degraded. This paper discusses the use of multispectral sensing as a means to collect additional images with new information about the fingerprint that can significantly augment the system performance under both normal and adverse sample conditions. In the context of this paper, "multispectral sensing" is used to broadly denote a collection of images taken under different illumination conditions: different polarizations, different illumination/detection configurations, as well as different wavelength illumination. Results from three small studies using an early-stage prototype of the multispectral-TIR (MTIR) sensor are presented along with results from the corresponding TIR data. The first experiment produced data from 9 people, 4 fingers from each person and 3 measurements per finger under "normal" conditions. The second experiment provided results from a study performed to test the relative performance of TIR and MTIR images when taken under extreme dry and dirty conditions. The third experiment examined the case where the area of contact between the finger and sensor is greatly reduced.

  14. Multispectral rock-type separation and classification.

    SciTech Connect

    Moya, Mary M.; Fogler, Robert Joseph; Paskaleva, Biliana; Hayat, Majeed M.

    2004-06-01

    This paper explores the possibility of separating and classifying remotely-sensed multispectral data from rocks and minerals onto seven geological rock-type groups. These groups are extracted from the general categories of metamorphic, igneous and sedimentary rocks. The study is performed under ideal conditions for which the data is generated according to laboratory hyperspectral data for the members, which are, in turn, passed through the Multi-spectral Thermal Imager (MTI) filters yielding 15 bands. The main challenge in separability is the small size of the training data sets, which initially did not permit direct application of Bayesian decision theory. To enable Bayseian classification, the original training data is linearly perturbed with the addition minerals, vegetation, soil, water and other valid impurities. As a result, the size of the training data is significantly increased and accurate estimates of the covariance matrices are achieved. In addition, a set of reduced (five) linearly-extracted canonical features that are optimal in providing the most important information about the data is determined. An alternative nonlinear feature-selection method is also employed based on spectral indices comprising a small subset of all possible ratios between bands. By applying three optimization strategies, combinations of two and three ratios are found that provide reliable separability and classification between all seven groups according to the Bhattacharyya distance. To set a benchmark to which the MTI capability in rock classification can be compared, an optimization strategy is performed for the selection of optimal multispectral filters, other than the MTI filters, and an improvement in classification is predicted.

  15. Multispectral fingerprint imaging for spoof detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nixon, Kristin A.; Rowe, Robert K.

    2005-03-01

    Fingerprint systems are the most widespread form of biometric authentication. Used in locations such as airports and in PDA's and laptops, fingerprint readers are becoming more common in everyday use. As they become more familiar, the security weaknesses of fingerprint sensors are becoming better known. Numerous websites now exist describing in detail how to create a fake fingerprint usable for spoofing a biometric system from both a cooperative user and from latent prints. While many commercial fingerprint readers claim to have some degree of spoof detection incorporated, they are still generally susceptible to spoof attempts using various artificial fingerprint samples made from gelatin or silicone or other materials and methods commonly available on the web. This paper describes a multispectral sensor that has been developed to collect data for spoof detection. The sensor has been designed to work in conjunction with a conventional optical fingerprint reader such that all images are collected during a single placement of the finger on the sensor. The multispectral imaging device captures sub-surface information about the finger that makes it very difficult to spoof. Four attributes of the finger that are collected with the multispectral imager will be described and demonstrated in this paper: spectral qualities of live skin, chromatic texture of skin, sub-surface image of live skin, and blanching on contact. Each of these attributes is well suited to discriminating against particular kinds of spoofing samples. A series of experiments was conducted to demonstrate the capabilities of the individual attributes as well as the collective spoof detection performance.

  16. Wavelength, temperature, and voltage dependent calibration of a nematic liquid crystal multispectral polarization generating device

    SciTech Connect

    Baba, Justin S; Boudreaux, Philip R

    2007-01-01

    Rapid calibration of liquid crystal variable retarder (LCVR) devices is critical for successful clinical implementation of a LC-based Mueller matrix imaging system being developed for noninvasisve skin cancer detection. For multispectral implementation of such a system, the effect of wavelength (), temperature (T), and voltage (V) on the retardance () required to generate each desired polarization state needs to be clearly understood. Calibration involves quantifying this interdependence such that for a given set of system input variables, T, the appropriate voltage is applied across a LC cell to generate a particular retardance. This paper presents findings that elucidate the dependence of voltage, for a set retardance, on the aforementioned variables for a nematic LC cell: 253 mv100 nm-dependence andd 10 mVC T-dependence. Additionally, an empirically derived model is presented that enables initial voltage calibration of retardance for any desired input wavelength within the calibration range of 460-905 nm. copyright 2007 Optical Society of America

  17. Size-frequency distribution of boulders ≥10 m on comet 103P/Hartley 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pajola, Maurizio; Lucchetti, Alice; Bertini, Ivano; Marzari, Francesco; A'Hearn, Michael F.; La Forgia, Fiorangela; Lazzarin, Monica; Naletto, Giampiero; Barbieri, Cesare

    2016-01-01

    Aims: We derive the size-frequency distribution of boulders on comet 103P/Hartley 2, which are computed from the images taken by the Deep Impact/HRI-V imaging system. We indicate the possible physical processes that lead to these boulder size distributions. Methods: We used images acquired by the High Resolution Imager-Visible CCD camera on 4 November 2010. Boulders ≥10 m were identified and manually extracted from the datasets with the software ArcGIS. We derived the global size-frequency distribution of the illuminated side of the comet (~50%) and identified the power-law indexes characterizing the two lobes of 103P. The three-pixel sampling detection, together with the shadowing of the surface, enables unequivocally detection of boulders scattered all over the illuminated surface. Results: We identify 332 boulders ≥10 m on the imaged surface of the comet, with a global number density of nearly 140/km2 and a cumulative size-frequency distribution represented by a power law with index of -2.7 ± 0.2. The two lobes of 103P show similar indexes, i.e., -2.7 ± 0.2 for the bigger lobe (called L1) and -2.6+ 0.2/-0.5 for the smaller lobe (called L2). The similar power-law indexes and similar maximum boulder sizes derived for the two lobes both point toward a similar fracturing/disintegration phenomena of the boulders as well as similar lifting processes that may occur in L1 and L2. The difference in the number of boulders per km2 between L1 and L2 suggests that the more diffuse H2O sublimation on L1 produce twice the boulders per km2 with respect to those produced on L2 (primary activity CO2 driven). The 103P comet has a lower global power-law index (-2.7 vs. -3.6) with respect to 67P. The global differences between the two comets' activities, coupled with a completely different surface geomorphology, make 103P hardly comparable to 67P. A shape distribution analysis of boulders ≥30 m performed on 103P suggests that the cometary boulders show more elongated shapes

  18. Size-Frequency Distribution of Boulders ≥ 10 m on Comet 103P/Hartley 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pajola, M.; Lucchetti, A.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Bertini, I.; Marzari, F.; La Forgia, F.; Lazzarin, M.; Naletto, G.; Barbieri, C.

    2015-12-01

    We present the first size-frequency distribution of boulders ≥ 10 m identified on comet 103P/Hartley 2, computed from the images taken by the Deep Impact/High Resolution Imager - Visible CCD camera on 4 November 2010. We derived the size-frequency distribution of the illuminated side of the comet (˜ 50%), as well as identified the power-law indexes characterizing the two lobes of 103P. 332 boulders larger than 10 m were identified on the imaged surface of the comet, with a global number density of nearly 140/km2 and a cumulative size-frequency distribution represented by a power-law with index of -2.7 ± 0.2. The two lobes of 103P show close indexes, i.e. -2.7 ± 0.2 for the bigger lobe (L1) and -2.6 +0.2/-0.5 for the smaller one (L2). Both the similar power-law indexes and the similar maximum boulder sizes derived for the two lobes point towards a similar fracturing/disintegration phenomena of the boulders as well as similar lifting processes that may occur in L1 and L2. Nonetheless, the significative difference in the number of boulders per km2 between the two lobes suggests that the more diffuse H2O sublimation on the bigger lobe produce twice the boulders per km2 with respect to those produced on the small lobe (primary activity CO2 driven). If we compare the boulder distribution of the hyperactive 103P comet with similar studies performed on 67P (67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, i.e. the comet studied by Rosetta spacecraft), we derive that 103P shows a lower global power-law index (-2.7 vs -3.6). The size-frequency boulder trend of 103P is somehow closer to the -2.2 value measured on the neck region of 67P, i.e. the most active region of the northern hemisphere of 67P; nevertheless the hyperactivity of 103P works in a very different way than the normal activity of 67P in the neck/Hapi area. In addition to the global differences between the two comets' activities, the absence of cliffs and walls on 103P show a completely different surface geomorphology between

  19. Digital rectification of ERTS multispectral imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rifman, S. S.

    1973-01-01

    Rectified ERTS multispectral imagery have been produced utilizing all digital techniques, as the first step toward producing precision corrected imagery. Errors arising from attitude and ephemeris sources have been corrected, and the resultant image is represented in a meter/meter mapping utilizing an intensity resampling technique. Early results from available data indicate negligible degradation of the photometric and resolution properties of the source data as a consequence of the geometric correction process. Work utilizing ground control points to produce precision rectified imagery, and including photometric corrections resulting from available sensor calibration data, is currently in progress.

  20. SWNT Imaging Using Multispectral Image Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blades, Michael; Pirbhai, Massooma; Rotkin, Slava V.

    2012-02-01

    A flexible optical system was developed to image carbon single-wall nanotube (SWNT) photoluminescence using the multispectral capabilities of a typical CCD camcorder. The built in Bayer filter of the CCD camera was utilized, using OpenCV C++ libraries for image processing, to decompose the image generated in a high magnification epifluorescence microscope setup into three pseudo-color channels. By carefully calibrating the filter beforehand, it was possible to extract spectral data from these channels, and effectively isolate the SWNT signals from the background.

  1. Multispectral imaging for diagnosis and treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carver, Gary E.; Locknar, Sarah A.; Morrison, William A.; Farkas, Daniel L.

    2014-03-01

    A new approach for generating high-speed multispectral images has been previously reported by our team. The central concept is that spectra can be acquired for each pixel in a confocal spatial laser scan by using a fast spectrometer based on optical fiber delay lines. This method merges fast spectroscopy with standard spatial scanning to create image datacubes in real time. The datacubes can be analyzed to define regions of interest (ROIs) containing diseased tissue. Firmware and software have been developed for selectively scanning these ROIs with increased optical power. This enables real time image-guided laser treatment with a spatial resolution of a few microns.

  2. Wavelet-based multispectral face recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dian-Ting; Zhou, Xiao-Dan; Wang, Cheng-Wen

    2008-09-01

    This paper proposes a novel wavelet-based face recognition method using thermal infrared (IR) and visible-light face images. The method applies the combination of Gabor and the Fisherfaces method to the reconstructed IR and visible images derived from wavelet frequency subbands. Our objective is to search for the subbands that are insensitive to the variation in expression and in illumination. The classification performance is improved by combining the multispectal information coming from the subbands that attain individually low equal error rate. Experimental results on Notre Dame face database show that the proposed wavelet-based algorithm outperforms previous multispectral images fusion method as well as monospectral method.

  3. Multispectral scanner imagery for plant community classification.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driscoll, R. S.; Spencer, M. M.

    1973-01-01

    Optimum channel selection among 12 channels of multispectral scanner imagery identified six as providing the best information for computerized classification of 11 plant communities and two nonvegetation classes. Intensive preprocessing of the spectral data was required to eliminate bidirectional reflectance effects of the spectral imagery caused by scanner view angle and varying geometry of the plant canopy. Generalized plant community types - forest, grassland, and hydrophytic systems - were acceptably classified based on ecological analysis. Serious, but soluble, errors occurred with attempts to classify specific community types within the grassland system. However, special clustering analyses provided for improved classification of specific grassland communities.

  4. Lossless compression algorithm for multispectral imagers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladkova, Irina; Grossberg, Michael; Gottipati, Srikanth

    2008-08-01

    Multispectral imaging is becoming an increasingly important tool for monitoring the earth and its environment from space borne and airborne platforms. Multispectral imaging data consists of visible and IR measurements from a scene across space and spectrum. Growing data rates resulting from faster scanning and finer spatial and spectral resolution makes compression an increasingly critical tool to reduce data volume for transmission and archiving. Research for NOAA NESDIS has been directed to finding for the characteristics of satellite atmospheric Earth science Imager sensor data what level of Lossless compression ratio can be obtained as well as appropriate types of mathematics and approaches that can lead to approaching this data's entropy level. Conventional lossless do not achieve the theoretical limits for lossless compression on imager data as estimated from the Shannon entropy. In a previous paper, the authors introduce a lossless compression algorithm developed for MODIS as a proxy for future NOAA-NESDIS satellite based Earth science multispectral imagers such as GOES-R. The algorithm is based on capturing spectral correlations using spectral prediction, and spatial correlations with a linear transform encoder. In decompression, the algorithm uses a statistically computed look up table to iteratively predict each channel from a channel decompressed in the previous iteration. In this paper we present a new approach which fundamentally differs from our prior work. In this new approach, instead of having a single predictor for each pair of bands we introduce a piecewise spatially varying predictor which significantly improves the compression results. Our new algorithm also now optimizes the sequence of channels we use for prediction. Our results are evaluated by comparison with a state of the art wavelet based image compression scheme, Jpeg2000. We present results on the 14 channel subset of the MODIS imager, which serves as a proxy for the GOES-R imager. We

  5. Simultaneous multispectral imaging using lenslet arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinnrichs, Michele; Jensen, James

    2013-03-01

    There is a need for small compact multispectral and hyperspectral imaging systems that simultaneously images in many spectral bands across the infrared spectral region from short to long-wave infrared. This is a challenge for conventional optics and usually requires large, costly and complex optical systems. However, with the advances in materials and photolithographic technology, Micro-Optical-Electrical-Machine-Systems (MOEMS) can meet these goals. In this paper Pacific Advanced Technology and ECBC will present the work that we are doing under a SBIR contract to the US Army using a MOEMS based diffractive optical lenslet array to perform simultaneous multispectral and hyperspectral imaging with relatively high spatial resolution. Under this program we will develop a proof of concept system that demonstrates how a diffractive optical (DO) lenslet array can image 1024 x 1024 pixels in 16 colors every frame of the camera. Each color image has a spatial resolution of 256 x 256 pixels with an IFOV of 1.7 mrads and FOV of 25 degrees. The purpose of this work is to simultaneously image multiple colors each frame and reduce the temporal changes between colors that are apparent in sequential multispectral imaging. Translating the lenslet array will collect hyperspectral image data cubes as will be explained later in this paper. Because the optics is integrated with the detector the entire multispectral/hyperspectral system can be contained in a miniature package. The spectral images are collected simultaneously allowing high resolution spectral-spatial-temporal information each frame of the camera. Thus enabling the implementation of spectral-temporal-spatial algorithms in real-time with high sensitivity for the detection of weak signals in a high background clutter environment with low sensitivity to camera motion. Using MOEMS actuation the DO lenslet array is translated along the optical axis to complete the full hyperspectral data cube in just a few frames of the

  6. Mapping soil types from multispectral scanner data.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kristof, S. J.; Zachary, A. L.

    1971-01-01

    Multispectral remote sensing and computer-implemented pattern recognition techniques were used for automatic ?mapping' of soil types. This approach involves subjective selection of a set of reference samples from a gray-level display of spectral variations which was generated by a computer. Each resolution element is then classified using a maximum likelihood ratio. Output is a computer printout on which the researcher assigns a different symbol to each class. Four soil test areas in Indiana were experimentally examined using this approach, and partially successful results were obtained.

  7. Multispectral imaging system for contaminant detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poole, Gavin H. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An automated inspection system for detecting digestive contaminants on food items as they are being processed for consumption includes a conveyor for transporting the food items, a light sealed enclosure which surrounds a portion of the conveyor, with a light source and a multispectral or hyperspectral digital imaging camera disposed within the enclosure. Operation of the conveyor, light source and camera are controlled by a central computer unit. Light reflected by the food items within the enclosure is detected in predetermined wavelength bands, and detected intensity values are analyzed to detect the presence of digestive contamination.

  8. Multispectral-image fusion using neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagel, Joseph H.; Platt, C. A.; Donaven, T. W.; Samstad, Eric A.

    1990-08-01

    A prototype system is being developed to demonstrate the use of neural network hardware to fuse multispectral imagery. This system consists of a neural network IC on a motherboard a circuit card assembly and a set of software routines hosted by a PC-class computer. Research in support of this consists of neural network simulations fusing 4 to 7 bands of Landsat imagery and fusing (separately) multiple bands of synthetic imagery. The simulations results and a description of the prototype system are presented. 1.

  9. Multispectral image fusion using neural networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kagel, J. H.; Platt, C. A.; Donaven, T. W.; Samstad, E. A.

    1990-01-01

    A prototype system is being developed to demonstrate the use of neural network hardware to fuse multispectral imagery. This system consists of a neural network IC on a motherboard, a circuit card assembly, and a set of software routines hosted by a PC-class computer. Research in support of this consists of neural network simulations fusing 4 to 7 bands of Landsat imagery and fusing (separately) multiple bands of synthetic imagery. The simulations, results, and a description of the prototype system are presented.

  10. Multispectral analysis of ocean dumped materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. W.

    1977-01-01

    Remotely sensed data were collected in conjunction with sea-truth measurements in three experiments in the New York Bight. Pollution features of primary interest were ocean dumped materials, such as sewage sludge and acid waste. Sewage-sludge and acid-waste plumes, including plumes from sewage sludge dumped by the 'line-dump' and 'spot-dump' methods, were located, identified, and mapped. Previously developed quantitative analysis techniques for determining quantitative distributions of materials in sewage sludge dumps were evaluated, along with multispectral analysis techniques developed to identify ocean dumped materials. Results of these experiments and the associated data analysis investigations are presented and discussed.

  11. Multispectral analysis of ocean dumped materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. W.

    1977-01-01

    Experiments conducted in the Atlantic coastal zone indicated that plumes resulting from ocean dumping of acid wastes and sewage sludge have unique spectral characteristics. Remotely sensed wide area synoptic coverage provided information on these pollution features that was not readily available from other sources. Aircraft remotely sensed photographic and multispectral scanner data were interpreted by two methods. First, qualitative analyses in which pollution features were located, mapped, and identified without concurrent sea truth and, second, quantitative analyses in which concurrently collected sea truth was used to calibrate the remotely sensed data and to determine quantitative distributions of one or more parameters in a plume.

  12. Design and fabrication of multispectral optics using expanded glass map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayya, Shyam; Gibson, Daniel; Nguyen, Vinh; Sanghera, Jasbinder; Kotov, Mikhail; Drake, Gryphon; Deegan, John; Lindberg, George

    2015-06-01

    As the desire to have compact multispectral imagers in various DoD platforms is growing, the dearth of multispectral optics is widely felt. With the limited number of material choices for optics, these multispectral imagers are often very bulky and impractical on several weight sensitive platforms. To address this issue, NRL has developed a large set of unique infrared glasses that transmit from 0.9 to > 14 μm in wavelength and expand the glass map for multispectral optics with refractive indices from 2.38 to 3.17. They show a large spread in dispersion (Abbe number) and offer some unique solutions for multispectral optics designs. The new NRL glasses can be easily molded and also fused together to make bonded doublets. A Zemax compatible glass file has been created and is available upon request. In this paper we present some designs, optics fabrication and imaging, all using NRL materials.

  13. Deformation twinning in Ni–Mn–Ga micropillars with 10M martensite

    PubMed Central

    Reinhold, M.; Kiener, D.; Knowlton, W. B.; Dehm, G.; Müllner, P.

    2009-01-01

    The maximum actuation frequency of magnetic shape-memory alloys (MSMAs) significantly increases with decreasing size of the transducer making MSMAs interesting candidates for small scale actuator applications. To study the mechanical properties of Ni–Mn–Ga single crystals on small length scales, two single-domain micropillars with dimensions of 10×15×30 μm3 were fabricated from a Ni–Mn–Ga monocrystal using dual beam focused ion beam machining. The pillars were oriented such that the crystallographic c direction was perpendicular to the loading direction. The pillars were compressed to maximum stresses of 350 and 50 MPa, respectively. Atomic force microscopy and magnetic force microscopy were performed prior to fabrication of the pillars and following the deformation experiments. Both micropillars were deformed by twinning as evidenced by the stress-strain curve. For one pillar, a permanent deformation of 3.6% was observed and ac twins (10M martensite) were identified after unloading. For the other pillar, only 0.7% remained upon unloading. No twins were found in this pillar after unloading. The recovery of deformation is discussed in the light of pseudoelastic twinning and twin-substrate interaction. The twinning stress was higher than in similar macroscopic material. However, further studies are needed to substantiate a size effect. PMID:19859577

  14. Invited review article: A 10 mK scanning probe microscopy facility.

    PubMed

    Song, Young Jae; Otte, Alexander F; Shvarts, Vladimir; Zhao, Zuyu; Kuk, Young; Blankenship, Steven R; Band, Alan; Hess, Frank M; Stroscio, Joseph A

    2010-12-01

    We describe the design, development and performance of a scanning probe microscopy (SPM) facility operating at a base temperature of 10 mK in magnetic fields up to 15 T. The microscope is cooled by a custom designed, fully ultra-high vacuum (UHV) compatible dilution refrigerator (DR) and is capable of in situ tip and sample exchange. Subpicometer stability at the tip-sample junction is achieved through three independent vibration isolation stages and careful design of the dilution refrigerator. The system can be connected to, or disconnected from, a network of interconnected auxiliary UHV chambers, which include growth chambers for metal and semiconductor samples, a field-ion microscope for tip characterization, and a fully independent additional quick access low temperature scanning tunneling microscope (STM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) system. To characterize the system, we present the cooling performance of the DR, vibrational, tunneling current, and tip-sample displacement noise measurements. In addition, we show the spectral resolution capabilities with tunneling spectroscopy results obtained on an epitaxial graphene sample resolving the quantum Landau levels in a magnetic field, including the sublevels corresponding to the lifting of the electron spin and valley degeneracies.

  15. High Resolution Imaging of Satellites with Ground-Based 10-m Astronomical Telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Marois, C

    2007-01-04

    High resolution imaging of artificial satellites can play an important role in current and future space endeavors. One such use is acquiring detailed images that can be used to identify or confirm damage and aid repair plans. It is shown that a 10-m astronomical telescope equipped with an adaptive optics system (AO) to correct for atmospheric turbulence using a natural guide star can acquire high resolution images of satellites in low-orbits using a fast shutter and a near-infrared camera even if the telescope is not capable of tracking satellites. With the telescope pointing towards the satellite projected orbit and less than 30 arcsec away from a guide star, multiple images of the satellite are acquired on the detector using the fast shutter. Images can then be shifted and coadded by post processing to increase the satellite signal to noise ratio. Using the Keck telescope typical Strehl ratio and anisoplanatism angle as well as a simple diffusion/reflection model for a satellite 400 km away observed near Zenith at sunset or sunrise, it is expected that such system will produced > 10{sigma} K-band images at a resolution of 10 cm inside a 60 arcsec diameter field of view. If implemented, such camera could deliver the highest resolution satellite images ever acquired from the ground.

  16. Radiometric Characterization of IKONOS Multispectral Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagnutti, Mary; Ryan, Robert E.; Kelly, Michelle; Holekamp, Kara; Zanoni, Vicki; Thome, Kurtis; Schiller, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    A radiometric characterization of Space Imaging's IKONOS 4-m multispectral imagery has been performed by a NASA funded team from the John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC), the University of Arizona Remote Sensing Group (UARSG), and South Dakota State University (SDSU). Both intrinsic radiometry and the effects of Space Imaging processing on radiometry were investigated. Relative radiometry was examined with uniform Antarctic and Saharan sites. Absolute radiometric calibration was performed using reflectance-based vicarious calibration methods on several uniform sites imaged by IKONOS, coincident with ground-based surface and atmospheric measurements. Ground-based data and the IKONOS spectral response function served as input to radiative transfer codes to generate a Top-of-Atmosphere radiance estimate. Calibration coefficients derived from each vicarious calibration were combined to generate an IKONOS radiometric gain coefficient for each multispectral band assuming a linear response over the full dynamic range of the instrument. These calibration coefficients were made available to Space Imaging, which subsequently adopted them by updating its initial set of calibration coefficients. IKONOS imagery procured through the NASA Scientific Data Purchase program is processed with or without a Modulation Transfer Function Compensation kernel. The radiometric effects of this kernel on various scene types was also investigated. All imagery characterized was procured through the NASA Scientific Data Purchase program.

  17. [Multispectral image compression algorithms for color reproduction].

    PubMed

    Liang, Wei; Zeng, Ping; Luo, Xue-mei; Wang, Yi-feng; Xie, Kun

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve multispectral images compression efficiency and further facilitate their storage and transmission for the application of color reproduction and so on, in which fields high color accuracy is desired, WF serial methods is proposed, and APWS_RA algorithm is designed. Then the WF_APWS_RA algorithm, which has advantages of low complexity, good illuminant stability and supporting consistent coior reproduction across devices, is presented. The conventional MSE based wavelet embedded coding principle is first studied. And then color perception distortion criterion and visual characteristic matrix W are proposed. Meanwhile, APWS_RA algorithm is formed by optimizing the. rate allocation strategy of APWS. Finally, combined above technologies, a new coding method named WF_APWS_RA is designed. Colorimetric error criterion is used in the algorithm and APWS_RA is applied on visual weighted multispectral image. In WF_APWS_RA, affinity propagation clustering is utilized to exploit spectral correlation of weighted image. Then two-dimensional wavelet transform is used to remove the spatial redundancy. Subsequently, error compensation mechanism and rate pre-allocation are combined to accomplish the embedded wavelet coding. Experimental results show that at the same bit rate, compared with classical coding algorithms, WF serial algorithms have better performance on color retention. APWS_RA preserves least spectral error and WF APWS_RA algorithm has obvious superiority on color accuracy.

  18. Multispectral observations of the surf zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoonmaker, Jon S.; Dirbas, Joseph; Gilbert, Gary

    2003-09-01

    Airborne multispectral imagery was collected over various targets on the beach and in the water in an attempt to characterize the surf zone environment with respect to electro-optical system capabilities and to assess the utility of very low cost, small multispectral systems in mine counter measures (MCM) and intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance applications. The data was collected by PAR Government Systems Corporation (PGSC) at the Army Corps of Engineers Field Research Facility at Duck North Carolina and on the beaches of Camp Pendleton Marine Corps Base in Southern California. PGSC flew the first two of its MANTIS (Mission Adaptable Narrowband Tunable Imaging Sensor) systems. Both MANTIS systems were flown in an IR - red - green - blue (700, 600, 550, 480 nm) configuration from altitudes ranging from 200 to 700 meters. Data collected has been lightly analyzed and a surf zone index (SZI) defined and calculated. This index allows mine hunting system performance measurements in the surf zone to be normalized by environmental conditions. The SZI takes into account water clarity, wave energy, and foam persistence.

  19. Multi-spectral imaging of oxygen saturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savelieva, Tatiana A.; Stratonnikov, Aleksander A.; Loschenov, Victor B.

    2008-06-01

    The system of multi-spectral imaging of oxygen saturation is an instrument that can record both spectral and spatial information about a sample. In this project, the spectral imaging technique is used for monitoring of oxygen saturation of hemoglobin in human tissues. This system can be used for monitoring spatial distribution of oxygen saturation in photodynamic therapy, surgery or sports medicine. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy in the visible range is an effective and extensively used technique for the non-invasive study and characterization of various biological tissues. In this article, a short review of modeling techniques being currently in use for diffuse reflection from semi-infinite turbid media is presented. A simple and practical model for use with a real-time imaging system is proposed. This model is based on linear approximation of the dependence of the diffuse reflectance coefficient on relation between absorbance and reduced scattering coefficient. This dependence was obtained with the Monte Carlo simulation of photon propagation in turbid media. Spectra of the oxygenated and deoxygenated forms of hemoglobin differ mostly in the red area (520 - 600 nm) and have several characteristic points there. Thus four band-pass filters were used for multi-spectral imaging. After having measured the reflectance, the data obtained are used for fitting the concentration of oxygenated and free hemoglobin, and hemoglobin oxygen saturation.

  20. Multispectral imaging with type II superlattice detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariyawansa, Gamini; Duran, Joshua M.; Grupen, Matt; Scheihing, John E.; Nelson, Thomas R.; Eismann, Michael T.

    2012-06-01

    Infrared (IR) focal plane arrays (FPAs) with multispectral detector elements promise significant advantages for airborne threat warning, surveillance, and targeting applications. At present, the use of type II superlattice (T2SL) structures based on the 6.1Å-family materials (InAs, GaSb, and AlSb) has become an area of interest for developing IR detectors and their FPAs. The ability to vary the bandgap in the IR range, suppression of Auger processes, prospective reduction of Shockley-Read-Hall centers by improved material growth capabilities, and the material stability are a few reasons for the predicted dominance of the T2SL technology over presently leading HgCdTe and quantum well technologies. The focus of the work reported here is on the development of T2SL based dual-band IR detectors and their applicability for multispectral imaging. A new NpBPN detector designed for the detection of IR in the 3-5 and 8-12 μm atmospheric windows is presented; comparing its advantages over other T2SL based approaches. One of the key challenges of the T2SL dual-band detectors is the spectral crosstalk associated with the LWIR band. The properties of the state-of-the-art T2SLs (i.e., absorption coefficient, minority carrier lifetime and mobility, etc.) and the present growth limitations that impact spectral crosstalk are discussed.

  1. Airborne system for testing multispectral reconnaissance technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Dirk-Roger; Doergeloh, Heinrich; Keil, Heiko; Wetjen, Wilfried

    1999-07-01

    There is an increasing demand for future airborne reconnaissance systems to obtain aerial images for tactical or peacekeeping operations. Especially Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) equipped with multispectral sensor system and with real time jam resistant data transmission capabilities are of high interest. An airborne experimental platform has been developed as testbed to investigate different concepts of reconnaissance systems before their application in UAVs. It is based on a Dornier DO 228 aircraft, which is used as flying platform. Great care has been taken to achieve the possibility to test different kinds of multispectral sensors. Hence basically it is capable to be equipped with an IR sensor head, high resolution aerial cameras of the whole optical spectrum and radar systems. The onboard equipment further includes system for digital image processing, compression, coding, and storage. The data are RF transmitted to the ground station using technologies with high jam resistance. The images, after merging with enhanced vision components, are delivered to the observer who has an uplink data channel available to control flight and imaging parameters.

  2. Realization of a 10M/100Mbps CMOS monolithic optical receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Huangping; Li, Jifang; Cheng, Xiang; Lu, Jing; Huang, Yuanqing; Chen, Chao

    2009-11-01

    A monolithic optical receiver fabricated in standard 0.5μm CMOS process is presented. The fingered doublephotodetector with structure of P+/N-well and N-well/P-substrate is designed. Some critical characteristics of doublephotodetector are analyzed in detail. At 2.5V reverse voltage, the maximum dark current is 10 pA. The intrinsic cut-off frequency is above 100MHz. The measured and simulated responsivity is 0.04A/W and 0.03A/W at 850nm wavelength, respectively. In the testing of double-photodetector, the minimum and maximum of rise time is 2.67ns and 7.11ns while the minimum and maximum of fall time is 2.67ns and 31.78ns. A Spice model of DPD is established for the compatibledesign of OEIC. In simulation of pre-amplifier circuit, the pass-band gain is approximate 18.8 KΩ. The lower cut-off frequency is 7KHz while the upper cut-off frequency is 700MHz. The simulated eye diagram of OEIC at 100Mbps is featured of clear trace, wide eye-opening and small zero-crossing distortion. The small signal bandwidth of OEIC is about 54MHz. The eye diagram at 50Mbps and 250Mbps has some distortion due to direct current malajustment. In the point-to-point optical interconnection, the transmission bit rate of 72Mbps is achieved. The monolithic optical receiver can be applied in 10M/100Mbps optical data transmission.

  3. Radial velocities with CRIRES. Pushing precision down to 5-10 m/s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueira, P.; Pepe, F.; Melo, C. H. F.; Santos, N. C.; Lovis, C.; Mayor, M.; Queloz, D.; Smette, A.; Udry, S.

    2010-02-01

    With the advent of high-resolution infrared spectrographs, radial relocity (RV) searches enter into a new domain. As of today, the most important technical question to address is which wavelength reference is the most suitable for high-precision RV measurements. In this work we use atmospheric absorption features as wavelength reference on CRIRES data obtained on two programs and three different targets. We analyzed the data from the TW Hya campaign again, reaching a dispersion of about 6 m/s on the RV standard on a time scale of roughly 1 week. We confirm that there is a low-amplitude RV signal on TW Hya itself, with an amplitude roughly 3 times smaller than the one reported at visible wavelengths. We present RV measurements of Gl 86 as well, showing that our approach is capable of detecting the signal induced by a planet and correctly quantifying it. Our data show that CRIRES is capable of reaching an RV precision of less than 10 m/s on a time scale of one week. The limitations of this particular approach are discussed, along with the limiting factors on RV precision in the IR in a general way. The implications of this work on the design of future dedicated IR spectrographs are addressed as well. Based on observations taken at the VLT (Paranal), under programs 280.C-5064(A) and 60.A-9051(A), and with the CORALIE spectrograph at the Euler Swiss telescope (La Silla). Tables 2 and 3 are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/511/A55

  4. Study on airborne multispectral imaging fusion detection technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Na; Gao, Jiaobo; Wang, Jun; Cheng, Juan; Gao, Meng; Gao, Fei; Fan, Zhe; Sun, Kefeng; Wu, Jun; Li, Junna; Gao, Zedong; Cheng, Gang

    2014-11-01

    The airborne multispectral imaging fusion detection technology is proposed in this paper. In this design scheme, the airborne multispectral imaging system consists of the multispectral camera, the image processing unit, and the stabilized platform. The multispectral camera can operate in the spectral region from visible to near infrared waveband (0.4-1.0um), it has four same and independent imaging channels, and sixteen different typical wavelengths to be selected based on the different typical targets and background. The related experiments were tested by the airborne multispectral imaging system. In particularly, the camouflage targets were fused and detected in the different complex environment, such as the land vegetation background, the desert hot background and underwater. In the spectral region from 0.4 um to 1.0um, the three different characteristic wave from sixteen typical spectral are selected and combined according to different backgrounds and targets. The spectral image corresponding to the three characteristic wavelengths is resisted and fused by the image processing technology in real time, and the fusion video with typical target property is outputted. In these fusion images, the contrast of target and background is greatly increased. Experimental results confirm that the airborne multispectral imaging fusion detection technology can acquire multispectral fusion image with high contrast in real time, and has the ability of detecting and identification camouflage objects from complex background to targets underwater.

  5. Lattice algebra approach to multispectral analysis of ancient documents.

    PubMed

    Valdiviezo-N, Juan C; Urcid, Gonzalo

    2013-02-01

    This paper introduces a lattice algebra procedure that can be used for the multispectral analysis of historical documents and artworks. Assuming the presence of linearly mixed spectral pixels captured in a multispectral scene, the proposed method computes the scaled min- and max-lattice associative memories to determine the purest pixels that best represent the spectra of single pigments. The estimation of fractional proportions of pure spectra at each image pixel is used to build pigment abundance maps that can be used for subsequent restoration of damaged parts. Application examples include multispectral images acquired from the Archimedes Palimpsest and a Mexican pre-Hispanic codex.

  6. Multispectral Filter Arrays: Recent Advances and Practical Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Lapray, Pierre-Jean; Wang, Xingbo; Thomas, Jean-Baptiste; Gouton, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Thanks to some technical progress in interferencefilter design based on different technologies, we can finally successfully implement the concept of multispectral filter array-based sensors. This article provides the relevant state-of-the-art for multispectral imaging systems and presents the characteristics of the elements of our multispectral sensor as a case study. The spectral characteristics are based on two different spatial arrangements that distribute eight different bandpass filters in the visible and near-infrared area of the spectrum. We demonstrate that the system is viable and evaluate its performance through sensor spectral simulation. PMID:25407904

  7. Eliminate background interference from latent fingerprints using ultraviolet multispectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wei; Xu, Xiaojing; Wang, Guiqiang

    2014-02-01

    Fingerprints are the most important evidence in crime scene. The technology of developing latent fingerprints is one of the hottest research areas in forensic science. Recently, multispectral imaging which has shown great capability in fingerprints development, questioned document detection and trace evidence examination is used in detecting material evidence. This paper studied how to eliminate background interference from non-porous and porous surface latent fingerprints by rotating filter wheel ultraviolet multispectral imaging. The results approved that background interference could be removed clearly from latent fingerprints by using multispectral imaging in ultraviolet bandwidth.

  8. Analysis of multispectral signatures of the shot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastek, Mariusz; Dulski, Rafał; Piątkowski, Tadeusz; Madura, Henryk; Bareła, Jarosław; Polakowski, Henryk

    2011-06-01

    The paper presents some practical aspects of sniper IR signature measurements. Description of particular signatures for sniper shot in typical scenarios has been presented. We take into consideration sniper activities in the open area as well as in urban environment. The measurements were made at field test ground. High precision laboratory measurements were also performed. Several infrared cameras were used during measurements to cover all measurement assumptions. Some of the cameras are measurement-class devices with high accuracy and frame rates. The registrations were simultaneously made in UV, NWIR, SWIR and LWIR spectral bands. The infrared cameras have possibilities to install optical filters for multispectral measurement. An ultra fast visual camera was also used for visible spectra registration. Exemplary sniper IR signatures for typical situation were presented. LWIR imaging spectroradiometer HyperCam was also used during the laboratory measurements and field experiments. The signatures collected by HyperCam were useful for the determination of spectral characteristics of shot.

  9. Multispectral tissue characterization for intestinal anastomosis optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, Jaepyeong; Shademan, Azad; Le, Hanh N. D.; Decker, Ryan; Kim, Peter C. W.; Kang, Jin U.; Krieger, Axel

    2015-10-01

    Intestinal anastomosis is a surgical procedure that restores bowel continuity after surgical resection to treat intestinal malignancy, inflammation, or obstruction. Despite the routine nature of intestinal anastomosis procedures, the rate of complications is high. Standard visual inspection cannot distinguish the tissue subsurface and small changes in spectral characteristics of the tissue, so existing tissue anastomosis techniques that rely on human vision to guide suturing could lead to problems such as bleeding and leakage from suturing sites. We present a proof-of-concept study using a portable multispectral imaging (MSI) platform for tissue characterization and preoperative surgical planning in intestinal anastomosis. The platform is composed of a fiber ring light-guided MSI system coupled with polarizers and image analysis software. The system is tested on ex vivo porcine intestine tissue, and we demonstrate the feasibility of identifying optimal regions for suture placement.

  10. Multispectral Mapping of the Moon by Clementine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eliason, Eric M.; McEwen, Alfred S.; Robinson, M.; Lucey, Paul G.; Duxbury, T.; Malaret, E.; Pieters, Carle; Becker, T.; Isbell, C.; Lee, E.

    1998-01-01

    One of the chief scientific objectives of the Clementine mission at the Moon was to acquire global multispectral mapping. A global digital map of the Moon in 11 spectral bandpasses and at a scale of 100 m/pixel is being produced at the U.S. Geological Survey in Flagstaff Arizona Near-global coverage was acquired with the UVVIS camera (central wavelengths of 415, 750, 900, 950, and 1000 nm) and the NIR camera (1102, 1248, 1499, 1996, 2620, and 2792 nary). We expect to complete processing of the UVVIS mosaics before the fall of 1998, and to complete the NIR mosaics a year later. The purpose of this poster is to provide an update on the processing and to show examples of the products or perhaps even a wall-sized display of color products from the UVVIS mosaics.

  11. A program system for efficient multispectral classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Åkersten, S. I.

    Pixelwise multispectral classification is an important tool for analyzing remotely sensed imagery data. The computing time for performing this analysis becomes significantly large when large, multilayer images are analyzed. In the classical implementation of the supervised multispectral classification assuming gaussian-shaped multidimensional class-clusters, the computing time is furthermore approximately proportional to the square of the number of image layers. This leads to very appreciable CPU-times when large numbers of multispectral channels are used and/or temporal classification is performed. In order to decrease computer time, a classification program system has been implemented which has the following characteristics: (1) a simple one-dimensional box classifier, (2) a multidimensional box classifier, (3) a class-pivotal "canonical" classifier utilizing full maximum likelihood and making full use of within-class and between-class statistical characteristics, (4) a hybrid classifier (2 and 3 combined), and (5) a local neighbourhood filtering algorithm producing generalized classification results. The heart of the classifier is the class-pivotal canonical classifier. This algorithm is based upon an idea of Dye suggesting the use of linear transformations making possible a simultaneous evaluation of a measure of the pixel being likely not to belong to the candidate class as well as computing its full maximum likelihood ratio. In case it is more likely to be misclassified the full maximum likelihood evaluation can be truncated almost immediately, i.e. the candidate class can often be rejected using only one or two of the available transformed spectral features. The result of this is a classifier with CPU-time which is empirically shown to be linearly dependent upon the number of image layers. The use of the hybrid classifier lowers the CPU-time with another factor of 3-4. Furthermore, for certain problems like classifying water-non water a single spectral band

  12. Band selection procedure for multispectral scanners.

    PubMed

    Price, J C

    1994-05-20

    Advances in high spectral resolution sensors and in data handling capabilities are enabling development of greatly improved remote-sensing devices for resource monitoring, so that design trade-offs are required. A methodology for optimizing selection of spectral bands for multispectral instruments such as those on the LANDSAT series of satellites is described. The method is applied to a collection of laboratory and outdoor spectra of natural and artificial materials. These reflectance spectra represent the visible and near-infrared spectral ranges at high (0.01-μm) spectral resolution. For most natural materials 15-25 spectral bands appear to be sufficient to describe spectral variability, whereas description of minerals and some artificial substances may require double this number of bands.

  13. Analyzing High-Dimensional Multispectral Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Chulhee; Landgrebe, David A.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, through a series of specific examples, we illustrate some characteristics encountered in analyzing high- dimensional multispectral data. The increased importance of the second-order statistics in analyzing high-dimensional data is illustrated, as is the shortcoming of classifiers such as the minimum distance classifier which rely on first-order variations alone. We also illustrate how inaccurate estimation or first- and second-order statistics, e.g., from use of training sets which are too small, affects the performance of a classifier. Recognizing the importance of second-order statistics on the one hand, but the increased difficulty in perceiving and comprehending information present in statistics derived from high-dimensional data on the other, we propose a method to aid visualization of high-dimensional statistics using a color coding scheme.

  14. Common aperture multispectral sensor flight test program

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, R.S.; Kaufman, C.S.

    1996-11-01

    This paper will provide an overview of the Common Aperture Multispectral Sensor (CAMS) Hardware Demonstrator. CAMS is a linescanning sensor that simultaneously collected digital imagery over the Far-IR (8 to 12 {mu}m) and visible spectral (0.55 to 1.1 PM) spectral bands, correlated at the pixel level. CAMS was initially sponsored by the U.S. Naval Air System Commands F/A-18 program office (PMA-265). The current CAMS field tests are under the direction of Northrop-Grumman for the Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) in support of the Follow-On Open Skies Sensor Evaluation Program (FOSEP) and are scheduled to be conducted in April 1996. 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Spatial frequency analysis of multispectral data.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.

    1972-01-01

    This paper presents the definitions of texture dependent features which can be obtained in terms of the spatial frequencies of small sections of remotely sensed multispectral data. The features are made independent of the direction of view by defining them as symmetric functions of the spatial frequencies sensed with various viewing directions. Several textural features are defined and experimental results indicating existence of signatures in these features are presented. Preliminary experiments have been performed on the classification of 60 samples, 10 from each of the following 6 categories - grass, trees, water, staked tomatoes, treated ground tomatoes, and untreated ground tomatoes. Classifications of the training samples using only one feature at a time indicate that several of the features yield classification efficiencies higher than 65%. The efficiency increases considerably when combinations of these features are used.

  16. Temporal analysis of multispectral scanner data.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, A. J.; Wiegand, C. L.; Torline, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    Multispectral scanner reflectance data were sampled for bare soil, cotton, sorghum, corn, and citrus at four dates during a growing season (April, May, June, and July 1969) to develop a time-dependent signature for crop and soil discrimination. Discrimination tests were conducted for single-date and multidate formats using training and test data sets. For classifications containing several crops, the multidate or temporal approach improved discrimination compared with the single-date approach. The multidate approach also preserved recognition accuracy better in going from training fields to test fields than the single-date analysis. The spectral distinctiveness of bare soil versus vegetation resulted in essentially equal discrimination using single-date versus multidate data for those two categories.

  17. Wetlands mapping with spot multispectral scanner data

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E. Jr. ); Jensen, J.R. . Dept. of Geography)

    1989-01-01

    Government facilities such as the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Plant (SRP) near Aiken, South Carolina, often use remote sensing data to assist in environmental management. Airborne multispectral scanner (MSS) data have been acquired at SRP since 1981. Various types of remote sensing data have been used to map and characterize wetlands. Regional Landsat MSS and TM satellite data have been used for wetlands mapping by various government agencies and private organizations. Furthermore, SPOT MSS data are becoming available and provide opportunities for increased spacial resolution and temporal coverage for wetlands mapping. This paper summarizes the initial results from using five dates of SPOT MSS data from April through October, 1987, as a means to monitor seasonal wetland changes in freshwater wetlands of the SRP. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Multispectral image analysis of bruise age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprigle, Stephen; Yi, Dingrong; Caspall, Jayme; Linden, Maureen; Kong, Linghua; Duckworth, Mark

    2007-03-01

    The detection and aging of bruises is important within clinical and forensic environments. Traditionally, visual and photographic assessment of bruise color is used to determine age, but this substantially subjective technique has been shown to be inaccurate and unreliable. The purpose of this study was to develop a technique to spectrally-age bruises using a reflective multi-spectral imaging system that minimizes the filtering and hardware requirements while achieving acceptable accuracy. This approach will then be incorporated into a handheld, point-of-care technology that is clinically-viable and affordable. Sixteen bruises from elder residents of a long term care facility were imaged over time. A multi-spectral system collected images through eleven narrow band (~10 nm FWHM) filters having center wavelengths ranging between 370-970 nm corresponding to specific skin and blood chromophores. Normalized bruise reflectance (NBR)- defined as the ratio of optical reflectance coefficient of bruised skin over that of normal skin- was calculated for all bruises at all wavelengths. The smallest mean NBR, regardless of bruise age, was found at wavelength between 555 & 577nm suggesting that contrast in bruises are from the hemoglobin, and that they linger for a long duration. A contrast metric, based on the NBR at 460nm and 650nm, was found to be sensitive to age and requires further investigation. Overall, the study identified four key wavelengths that have promise to characterize bruise age. However, the high variability across the bruises imaged in this study complicates the development of a handheld detection system until additional data is available.

  19. Use of digital multispectral videography to assess seagrass distribution in San Quintin Bay, Baja California, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, D.H.; Tibbitts, T.L.; Morton, Alexandra; Carrera-Gonzalez, Eduardo; Kempka, R.

    2004-01-01

    Apparent threats to the spatial distribution of seagrass in San Quinti??n Bay prompted us to make a detailed assessment of habitats in the bay. Six coastal habitats and three seagrass subclasses were delineated using airborne digital multispectral videography (DMSV), Eelgrass, Zostera marina, was the predominant seagrass and covered 40% (1949 ha) of the areal extent of the bay in 1999. Eelgrass grew over a wide range of tidal depths from about -3.0 in mean lower low water (MLLW) to about 1.0 m MLLW, but greatest spatial extent occurred in intertidal areas -0.6 m to 1.0 m MLLW. Exposed-continuous (i.e., high density) eelgrass was the most abundant habitat in the bay. Widgeongrass, Ruppia maritima, was the only other seagrass present and covered 3% (136 ha) of the areal extent of the entire bay. Widgeongrass grew in single species stands in the upper intertidal (??? 0.4 MLLW) and intermixed with eelgrass at lower tidal depths. Overall accuracy of the six habitat classes and three subclasses in the DMSV map was relatively high at 84%. Our detailed map of San Quintin Bay can be used in future change detection analyses to monitor the health of seagrasses in the bay.

  20. Pre-Processor for Compression of Multispectral Image Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimesh, Matthew; Kiely, Aaron

    2006-01-01

    A computer program that preprocesses multispectral image data has been developed to provide the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission with a means of exploiting the additional correlation present in such data without appreciably increasing the complexity of compressing the data.

  1. MULTISPECTRAL IDENTIFICATION OF CHLORINE DIOXIDE BYPRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper discusses the identification of organic disinfectant byproducts (DNPS) at a pilot plant in Evansville, IN, that uses chlorine dioxide as a primary disinfectant. nconventional multispectral identification techniques (gas chromatography combined with high- and low-resolu...

  2. MULTISPECTRAL IDENTIFICATION OF CHLORINE DIOXIDE DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper discusses the identification of organic disinfection byproducts (DBPs) at a pilot plant in Evansville, IN, which uses chlorine dioxide as a primary disinfectant. Unconventional multispectral identification techniques (gas chromatography combined with high- and low reso...

  3. Multispectral Imaging for Determination of Astaxanthin Concentration in Salmonids

    PubMed Central

    Dissing, Bjørn S.; Nielsen, Michael E.; Ersbøll, Bjarne K.; Frosch, Stina

    2011-01-01

    Multispectral imaging has been evaluated for characterization of the concentration of a specific cartenoid pigment; astaxanthin. 59 fillets of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, were filleted and imaged using a rapid multispectral imaging device for quantitative analysis. The multispectral imaging device captures reflection properties in 19 distinct wavelength bands, prior to determination of the true concentration of astaxanthin. The samples ranged from 0.20 to 4.34 g per g fish. A PLSR model was calibrated to predict astaxanthin concentration from novel images, and showed good results with a RMSEP of 0.27. For comparison a similar model were built for normal color images, which yielded a RMSEP of 0.45. The acquisition speed of the multispectral imaging system and the accuracy of the PLSR model obtained suggest this method as a promising technique for rapid in-line estimation of astaxanthin concentration in rainbow trout fillets. PMID:21573000

  4. Digital computer processing of peach orchard multispectral aerial photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    Several methods of analysis using digital computers applicable to digitized multispectral aerial photography, are described, with particular application to peach orchard test sites. This effort was stimulated by the recent premature death of peach trees in the Southeastern United States. The techniques discussed are: (1) correction of intensity variations by digital filtering, (2) automatic detection and enumeration of trees in five size categories, (3) determination of unhealthy foliage by infrared reflectances, and (4) four band multispectral classification into healthy and declining categories.

  5. Fast Lossless Compression of Multispectral-Image Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimesh, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    An algorithm that effects fast lossless compression of multispectral-image data is based on low-complexity, proven adaptive-filtering algorithms. This algorithm is intended for use in compressing multispectral-image data aboard spacecraft for transmission to Earth stations. Variants of this algorithm could be useful for lossless compression of three-dimensional medical imagery and, perhaps, for compressing image data in general.

  6. Processing Of Multispectral Data For Identification Of Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Diane L.

    1990-01-01

    Linear discriminant analysis and supervised classification evaluated. Report discusses processing of multispectral remote-sensing imagery to identify kinds of sedimentary rocks by spectral signatures in geological and geographical contexts. Raw image data are spectra of picture elements in images of seven sedimentary rock units exposed on margin of Wind River Basin in Wyoming. Data acquired by Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM), Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS), and NASA/JPL airborne synthetic-aperture radar (SAR).

  7. Application of multispectral systems for the diagnosis of plant diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jie; Liao, Ningfang; Wang, Guolong; Luo, Yongdao; Liang, Minyong

    2008-03-01

    Multispectral imaging technique combines space imaging and spectral detecting. It can obtain the spectral information and image information of object at the same time. Base on this concept, A new method proposed multispectral camera system to demonstrated plant diseases. In this paper, multispectral camera was used as image capturing device. It consists of a monochrome CCD camera and 16 narrow-band filters. The multispectral images of Macbeth 24 color patches are captured under the illumination of incandescent lamp in this experiment The 64 spectral reflectances of each color patches are calculated using Spline interpolation from 400 to 700nm in the process. And the color of the object is reproduced from the estimated spectral reflectance. The result for reproduction is contrast with the color signal using X-rite PULSE spectrophotometer. The average and maximum ΔΕ * ab are 9.23 and 12.81. It is confirmed that the multispectral system realizes the color reproduction of plant diseases from narrow-band multispectral image.

  8. Novel multispectral imaging microscope with applications to biomedicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Libo; Wu, Qiongshui; Ke, Hengyu; Zheng, Hong; Hu, Yaojun; Ding, Yi

    2005-03-01

    This paper describes a novel multispectral imaging microscope that can simultaneously record both spectral and spatial information of a sample, which can take advantage of spatial image processing and spectroscopic analysis techniques. A Liquid Crystal Tunable Filter device is used for fast wavelength selection and a cooled two-dimensional monochrome CCD for image detection. In order to acquire images that are not so dependent on imaging devices, a clever CCD exposure time control and a software based spectral and spatial calibration process is performed to diminish the influence of illumination, optic ununiformity, CCD"s spectral response curve and optic throughput property. A set of multispectral image processing and analysis software package is developed, which covers not only general image processing and analysis functions, and also provides powerful analysis tools for multispectral image data, including multispectral image acquisition, illumination and system response calibration, spectral analysis and etc. The combination of spatial and spectral analysis makes it an ideal tool for the applications to biomedicine. In this paper, two applications in biomedicine are also presented. One is medical image segmentation. Using multispectral imaging techniques, a mass of experiments on both marrow bone and cervical cell images showed that our segmentation results are highly satisfactory while with low computational cost. Another is biological imaging spectroscopic analysis in the study of pollen grains in rice. The results showed that the transmittance analysis of multispectral pollen images can accurately identify the pollen abortion stage of male-sterile rice, and can easily distinguish a variety of male sterile cytoplasm.

  9. Multispectral Stokes polarimetry for dermatoscopic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillejos, Y.; Martínez-Ponce, Geminiano; Mora-Nuñez, Azael; Castro-Sanchez, R.

    2015-12-01

    Most of skin pathologies, including melanoma and basal/squamous cell carcinoma, are related to alterations in external and internal order. Usually, physicians rely on their empirical expertise to diagnose these ills normally assisted with dermatoscopes. When there exists skin cancer suspicion, a cytology or biopsy is made, but both laboratory tests imply an invasive procedure. In this regard, a number of non-invasive optical techniques have been proposed recently to improve the diagnostic certainty and assist in the early detection of cutaneous cancer. Herein, skin optical properties are derived with a multispectral polarimetric dermatoscope using three different illumination wavelength intervals centered at 470, 530 and 635nm. The optical device consist of two polarizing elements, a quarter-wave plate and a linear polarizer, rotating at a different angular velocity and a CCD array as the photoreceiver. The modulated signal provided by a single pixel in the acquired image sequence is analyzed with the aim of computing the Stokes parameters. Changes in polarization state of selected wavelengths provide information about the presence of skin pigments such as melanin and hemoglobin species as well as collagen structure, among other components. These skin attributes determine the local physiology or pathology. From the results, it is concluded that optical polarimetry will provide additional elements to dermatologists in their diagnostic task.

  10. Compressive hyperspectral and multispectral imaging fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espitia, Óscar; Castillo, Sergio; Arguello, Henry

    2016-05-01

    Image fusion is a valuable framework which combines two or more images of the same scene from one or multiple sensors, allowing to improve the resolution of the images and increase the interpretable content. In remote sensing a common fusion problem consists of merging hyperspectral (HS) and multispectral (MS) images that involve large amount of redundant data, which ignores the highly correlated structure of the datacube along the spatial and spectral dimensions. Compressive HS and MS systems compress the spectral data in the acquisition step allowing to reduce the data redundancy by using different sampling patterns. This work presents a compressed HS and MS image fusion approach, which uses a high dimensional joint sparse model. The joint sparse model is formulated by combining HS and MS compressive acquisition models. The high spectral and spatial resolution image is reconstructed by using sparse optimization algorithms. Different fusion spectral image scenarios are used to explore the performance of the proposed scheme. Several simulations with synthetic and real datacubes show promising results as the reliable reconstruction of a high spectral and spatial resolution image can be achieved by using as few as just the 50% of the datacube.

  11. Surface Emissivity Derived From Multispectral Satellite Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minnis, P.; Smith, W. L., Jr.; Young, D. F.

    1998-01-01

    Surface emissivity is critical for remote sensing of surface skin temperature and infrared cloud properties when the observed radiance is influenced by the surface radiation. It is also necessary to correctly compute the longwave flux from a surface at a given skin temperature. Surface emissivity is difficult to determine because skin temperature is an ill-defined parameter. The surface-emitted radiation may arise from a range of surface depths depending on many factors including soil moisture, vegetation, surface porosity, and heat capacity. Emissivity can be measured in the laboratory for pure surfaces. Transfer of laboratory measurements to actual Earth surfaces, however, is fraught with uncertainties because of their complex nature. This paper describes a new empirical approach for estimating surface skin temperature from a combination of brightness temperatures measured at different infrared wavelengths with satellite imagers. The method uses data from the new Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) imager to determine multispectral emissivities from the skin temperatures derived over the ARM Southern Great Plains domain.

  12. Cell metabolism, tumour diagnosis and multispectral FLIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rück, A.; Hauser, C.; Lorenz, S.; Mosch, S.; Rotte, S.; Kessler, M.; Kalinina, S.

    2013-02-01

    Fluorescence guided diagnosis of tumour tissue is in many cases insufficient, because false positive results are interfering with the outcome. Discrimination between tumour and inflammation could be therefore difficult. Improvement of fluorescence diagnosis through observation of cell metabolism could be the solution, which needs a detailed understanding of the origin of autofluorescence. However, a complex combination of fluorophores give rise to the emission signal. Also in PDD (photodynamic diagnosis) different photosensitizer metabolites contribute to the fluorescence signal. Therefore, the fluorescence decay in many cases does not show a simple monoexponential profile. In those cases a considerable improvement could be achieved when time-resolved and spectral-resolved techniques are simultaneously incorporated. The discussion will focus on the detection of NADH, FAD and 5-ALA induced porphyrins. With respect to NADH and FAD the discrimination between protein bound and free coenzyme was investigated with multispectral FLIM in normal oral keratinocytes and squamous carcinoma cells from different origin. The redox ratio, which can be correlated with the fluorescence lifetimes of NADH and FAD changed depending on the state of the cells. Most of the investigations were done in monolayer cell cultures. However, in order to get information from a more realistic in vivo situation additionally the chorioallantoismembrane (CAM) of fertilized eggs was used where tumour cells or biopsies were allowed to grow. The results of theses measurements will be discussed as well.

  13. Semantic segmentation of multispectral overhead imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Lakshman; Pope, Paul A.; Sentz, Kari

    2016-05-01

    Land cover classification uses multispectral pixel information to separate image regions into categories. Image segmentation seeks to separate image regions into objects and features based on spectral and spatial image properties. However, making sense of complex imagery typically requires identifying image regions that are often a heterogeneous mixture of categories and features that constitute functional semantic units such as industrial, residential, or commercial areas. This requires leveraging both spectral classification and spatial feature extraction synergistically to synthesize such complex but meaningful image units. We present an efficient graphical model for extracting such semantically cohesive regions. We employ an initial hierarchical segmentation of images into features represented as nodes of an attributed graph that represents feature properties as well as their adjacency relations with other features. This provides a framework to group spectrally and structurally diverse features, which are nevertheless semantically cohesive, based on user-driven identifications of features and their contextual relationships in the graph. We propose an efficient method to construct, store, and search an augmented graph that captures nonadjacent vicinity relationships of features. This graph can be used to query for semantic notional units consisting of ontologically diverse features by constraining it to specific query node types and their indicated/desired spatial interaction characteristics. User interaction with, and labeling of, initially segmented and categorized image feature graph can then be used to learn feature (node) and regional (subgraph) ontologies as constraints, and to identify other similar semantic units as connected components of the constraint-pruned augmented graph of a query image.

  14. Study of a hybrid multispectral processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, R. E.; Kriegler, F. J.

    1973-01-01

    A hybrid processor is described offering enough handling capacity and speed to process efficiently the large quantities of multispectral data that can be gathered by scanner systems such as MSDS, SKYLAB, ERTS, and ERIM M-7. Combinations of general-purpose and special-purpose hybrid computers were examined to include both analog and digital types as well as all-digital configurations. The current trend toward lower costs for medium-scale digital circuitry suggests that the all-digital approach may offer the better solution within the time frame of the next few years. The study recommends and defines such a hybrid digital computing system in which both special-purpose and general-purpose digital computers would be employed. The tasks of recognizing surface objects would be performed in a parallel, pipeline digital system while the tasks of control and monitoring would be handled by a medium-scale minicomputer system. A program to design and construct a small, prototype, all-digital system has been started.

  15. Multispectral glancing incidence X-ray telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A multispectral glancing incidence X-ray telescope is illustrated capable of broadband, high-resolution imaging of solar and stellar X-ray and extreme ultraviolet radiation sources which includes a primary optical system preferably of the Wolter I type having a primary mirror system (20, 22). The primary optical system further includes an optical axis (24) having a primary focus (F1) at which the incoming radiation is focused by the primary mirrors. A plurality of ellipsoidal mirrors (30a, 30b, 30cand 30d) are carried at an inclination to the optical axis behind the primary focus (F1). A rotating carrier (32) is provided on which the ellipsoidal mirrors are carried so that a desired one of the ellipsoidal mirrors may be selectively positioned in front of the incoming radiation beam (26). In the preferred embodiment, each of the ellipsoidal mirrors has an identical concave surface carrying a layered synthetic microstructure coating tailored to reflect a desired wavelength of 1.5 .ANG. or longer. Each of the identical ellipsoidal mirrors has a second focus (F2) at which a detector (16) is carried. Thus the different wavelength image is focused upon the detector irregardless of which mirror is positioned in front of the radiation beam. In this manner, a plurality of low wavelengths in a wavelength band generally less than 30 angstroms can be imaged with a high resolution.

  16. Mapping of hydrothermally altered rocks using airborne multispectral scanner data, Marysvale, Utah, mining district

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Podwysocki, M.H.; Segal, D.B.; Jones, O.D.

    1983-01-01

    Multispectral data covering an area near Marysvale, Utah, collected with the airborne National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) 24-channel Bendix multispectral scanner, were analyzed to detect areas of hydrothermally altered, potentially mineralized rocks. Spectral bands were selected for analysis that approximate those of the Landsat 4 Thematic Mapper and which are diagnostic of the presence of hydrothermally derived products. Hydrothermally altered rocks, particularly volcanic rocks affected by solutions rich in sulfuric acid, are commonly characterized by concentrations of argillic minerals such as alunite and kaolinite. These minerals are important for identifying hydrothermally altered rocks in multispectral images because they have intense absorption bands centered near a wavelength of 2.2 ??m. Unaltered volcanic rocks commonly do not contain these minerals and hence do not have the absorption bands. A color-composite image was constructed using the following spectral band ratios: 1.6??m/2.2??m, 1.6??m/0.48??m, and 0.67??m/1.0??m. The particular bands were chosen to emphasize the spectral contrasts that exist for argillic versus non-argillic rocks, limonitic versus nonlimonitic rocks, and rocks versus vegetation, respectively. The color-ratio composite successfully distinguished most types of altered rocks from unaltered rocks. Some previously unrecognized areas of hydrothermal alteration were mapped. The altered rocks included those having high alunite and/or kaolinite content, siliceous rocks containing some kaolinite, and ash-fall tuffs containing zeolitic minerals. The color-ratio-composite image allowed further division of these rocks into limonitic and nonlimonitic phases. The image did not allow separation of highly siliceous or hematitically altered rocks containing no clays or alunite from unaltered rocks. A color-coded density slice image of the 1.6??m/2.2??m band ratio allowed further discrimination among the altered units. Areas

  17. The Multispectral Imaging Science Working Group. Volume 2: Working group reports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, S. C. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Summaries of the various multispectral imaging science working groups are presented. Current knowledge of the spectral and spatial characteristics of the Earth's surface is outlined and the present and future capabilities of multispectral imaging systems are discussed.

  18. Multispectral system for perimeter protection of stationary and moving objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szustakowski, Mieczyslaw; Ciurapinski, Wieslaw M.; Zyczkowski, Marek; Palka, Norbert; Kastek, Mariusz; Dulski, Rafal; Bieszczad, Grzegorz; Sosnowski, Tomasz

    2009-09-01

    Introduction of a ground multispectral detection has changed organization and construction of perimeter security systems. The perimeter systems with linear zone sensors and cables have been replaced with a point arrangement of sensors with multispectral detection. Such multispectral sensors generally consist of an active ground radar, which scans the protected area with microwaves or millimeter waves, a thermal camera, which detects temperature contrast and a visible range camera. Connection of these three different technologies into one system requires methodology for selection of technical conditions of installation and parameters of sensors. This procedure enables us to construct a system with correlated range, resolution, field of view and object identification. The second technical problem connected with the multispectral system is its software, which helps couple the radar with the cameras. This software can be used for automatic focusing of cameras, automatic guiding cameras to an object detected by the radar, tracking of the object and localization of the object on the digital map as well as identification and alarming. In this paper two essential issues connected with multispectral system are described. We focus on methodology of selection of sensors parameters. We present usage of a spider-chart, which was adopted to the proposed methodology. Next, we describe methodology of automation of the system regarding an object detection, tracking, identification, localization and alarming.

  19. Personal Authentication Using Multifeatures Multispectral Palm Print Traits.

    PubMed

    Rajagopal, Gayathri; Manoharan, Senthil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Biometrics authentication is an effective method for automatically recognizing a person's identity with high confidence. Multispectral palm print biometric system is relatively new biometric technology and is in the progression of being endlessly refined and developed. Multispectral palm print biometric system is a promising biometric technology for use in various applications including banking solutions, access control, hospital, construction, and forensic applications. This paper proposes a multispectral palm print recognition method with extraction of multiple features using kernel principal component analysis and modified finite radon transform. Finally, the images are classified using Local Mean K-Nearest Centroid Neighbor algorithm. The proposed method efficiently accommodates the rotational, potential deformations and translational changes by encoding the orientation conserving features. The proposed system analyses the hand vascular authentication using two databases acquired with touch-based and contactless imaging setup collected from multispectral Poly U palm print database and CASIA database. The experimental results clearly demonstrate that the proposed multispectral palm print authentication obtained better result compared to other methods discussed in the literature. PMID:26221628

  20. Personal Authentication Using Multifeatures Multispectral Palm Print Traits

    PubMed Central

    Rajagopal, Gayathri; Manoharan, Senthil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Biometrics authentication is an effective method for automatically recognizing a person's identity with high confidence. Multispectral palm print biometric system is relatively new biometric technology and is in the progression of being endlessly refined and developed. Multispectral palm print biometric system is a promising biometric technology for use in various applications including banking solutions, access control, hospital, construction, and forensic applications. This paper proposes a multispectral palm print recognition method with extraction of multiple features using kernel principal component analysis and modified finite radon transform. Finally, the images are classified using Local Mean K-Nearest Centroid Neighbor algorithm. The proposed method efficiently accommodates the rotational, potential deformations and translational changes by encoding the orientation conserving features. The proposed system analyses the hand vascular authentication using two databases acquired with touch-based and contactless imaging setup collected from multispectral Poly U palm print database and CASIA database. The experimental results clearly demonstrate that the proposed multispectral palm print authentication obtained better result compared to other methods discussed in the literature. PMID:26221628

  1. Nondestructive prediction of pork freshness parameters using multispectral scattering images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xiuying; Li, Cuiling; Peng, Yankun; Chao, Kuanglin; Wang, Mingwu

    2012-05-01

    Optical technology is an important and immerging technology for non-destructive and rapid detection of pork freshness. This paper studied on the possibility of using multispectral imaging technique and scattering characteristics to predict the freshness parameters of pork meat. The pork freshness parameters selected for prediction included total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), color parameters (L *, a *, b *), and pH value. Multispectral scattering images were obtained from pork sample surface by a multispectral imaging system developed by ourselves; they were acquired at the selected narrow wavebands whose center wavelengths were 517,550, 560, 580, 600, 760, 810 and 910nm. In order to extract scattering characteristics from multispectral images at multiple wavelengths, a Lorentzian distribution (LD) function with four parameters (a: scattering asymptotic value; b: scattering peak; c: scattering width; d: scattering slope) was used to fit the scattering curves at the selected wavelengths. The results show that the multispectral imaging technique combined with scattering characteristics is promising for predicting the freshness parameters of pork meat.

  2. Low SWaP multispectral sensors using dichroic filter arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dougherty, John; Varghese, Ron

    2015-06-01

    The benefits of multispectral imaging are well established in a variety of applications including remote sensing, authentication, satellite and aerial surveillance, machine vision, biomedical, and other scientific and industrial uses. However, many of the potential solutions require more compact, robust, and cost-effective cameras to realize these benefits. The next generation of multispectral sensors and cameras needs to deliver improvements in size, weight, power, portability, and spectral band customization to support widespread deployment for a variety of purpose-built aerial, unmanned, and scientific applications. A novel implementation uses micro-patterning of dichroic filters1 into Bayer and custom mosaics, enabling true real-time multispectral imaging with simultaneous multi-band image acquisition. Consistent with color image processing, individual spectral channels are de-mosaiced with each channel providing an image of the field of view. This approach can be implemented across a variety of wavelength ranges and on a variety of detector types including linear, area, silicon, and InGaAs. This dichroic filter array approach can also reduce payloads and increase range for unmanned systems, with the capability to support both handheld and autonomous systems. Recent examples and results of 4 band RGB + NIR dichroic filter arrays in multispectral cameras are discussed. Benefits and tradeoffs of multispectral sensors using dichroic filter arrays are compared with alternative approaches - including their passivity, spectral range, customization options, and scalable production.

  3. Corrosion Inhibition of Mild Steel in 1.0 M HCl by Amino Compound: Electrochemical and DFT Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musa, Ahmed Y.; Mohamad, Abu Bakar; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H.; Takriff, Mohd Sobri

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the inhibitory effect of 4-amino-5-methyl-4H-1, 2, 4-triazole-3-thiol (AMTT) on the corrosion of mild steel in 1.0 M HCl solution using weight loss, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and potentiodynamic polarization. The results indicate that AMTT performed as a good mixed-type inhibitor for mild steel corrosion in a 1.0 M HCl solution, and the inhibition efficiencies increased and tend to saturate with inhibitor concentration. Potentiodynamic polarization results showed that AMTT is a mixed-type inhibitor. Adsorption of AMTT molecules is a spontaneous process, and its adsorption behavior obeys Langmuir's adsorption isotherm model. The reactivity of AMTT was analyzed through theoretical calculations based on density functional theory. Results showed that the reactive sites were located on the nitrogen and sulfur (N1, N2, and S) atoms.

  4. Corrosion Inhibition of Mild Steel in 1.0 M HCl by Amino Compound: Electrochemical and DFT Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musa, Ahmed Y.; Mohamad, Abu Bakar; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H.; Takriff, Mohd Sobri

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the inhibitory effect of 4-amino-5-methyl-4H-1, 2, 4-triazole-3-thiol (AMTT) on the corrosion of mild steel in 1.0 M HCl solution using weight loss, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and potentiodynamic polarization. The results indicate that AMTT performed as a good mixed-type inhibitor for mild steel corrosion in a 1.0 M HCl solution, and the inhibition efficiencies increased and tend to saturate with inhibitor concentration. Potentiodynamic polarization results showed that AMTT is a mixed-type inhibitor. Adsorption of AMTT molecules is a spontaneous process, and its adsorption behavior obeys Langmuir's adsorption isotherm model. The reactivity of AMTT was analyzed through theoretical calculations based on density functional theory. Results showed that the reactive sites were located on the nitrogen and sulfur (N1, N2, and S) atoms.

  5. Characteristics of the Landsat Multispectral Data System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taranik, James V.

    1978-01-01

    Landsat satellites were launched into orbit in 1972 and 1975. Additional Landsat satellites are planned for launch in 1978 and 1981. The satellites orbit the Earth at an altitude of approximately 900 km and each can obtain repetitive coverage of cloud-free areas every 18 days. A sun-synchronous orbit is used to insure repeatable illumination conditions. Repetitive satellite coverage allows optimal cover conditions for geologic applications to be identified. Seasonal variations in solar illumination must be analyzed to select the best Landsat data for geologic applications. Landsat data may be viewed in stereo where there is sufficient sidelap and sufficient topographic relief. Landsat-1 ceased operation on January 10, 1978. Landsat-2 detects, only solar radiation that is reflected from the Earth's surface in visible and near-visible wavelengths. The third Landsat will also detect emitted thermal radiation. The multispectral scanner (MSS) was the only sensing instrument used on the first two satellites. The MSS on Landsats-1 and -2 detect radiation which is reflected from a 79 m by 79 m area, and the data are formatted as if the measurement was made from a 56 m by 79 m area. The MSS integrates spectral response from all cover types within the 79 m by 79 m area. The integrated spectral signature often does not resemble the spectral signature from individual cover types, and the integrated signature is also modified by the atmosphere. Landsat-1 and -2 data are converted to 70 mm film and computer compatible tapes (CCT's) at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC); these are shipped to the EROS Data Center (EDC) for duplication and distribution to users. Landsat-C data will be converted to 241 mm-wide film and CCT's at EDC. Landsat-D data will be relayed from the satellite directly to geosynchronous satellites and then to the United States from any location on Earth.

  6. Design of a multispectral digital colposcope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKinnon, N. B.; Cardeno, M.; Au, S.; MacAulay, C. E.; Pikkula, B. M.; Serachitopol, D.; Follen, M.; Park, S. Y.; Richards-Kortum, R.

    2007-02-01

    Measurement quality assurance plans for optical devices should be a mandatory part of grant funding submissions and should explicitly affect scoring during review. These should include calibration strategy, standards selection strategy, performance verification plan, performance validation plan and thorough preclinical performance validation. A multispectral digital colposcope (MDC) has been designed to collect image data from patients as part of an NIH sponsored clinical trial, based on a technology assessment model. Calibration strategy, standards selection and performance verification methods are presented that may be used as a template for smaller groups or more limited studies. With the MDC, red green and blue fluorescence images are captured under ultraviolet light excitation and red and green images are captured under blue light excitation. Red, green and blue reflectance images are captured under broadband white light illumination from a metal halide lamp in three modes - ordinary reflectance, and with polarized illumination in combination with parallel and cross-polarized filtered imaging. The highly automated system was designed to collect images of the cervix prior to and following the application of acetic acid. Three systems have been built and will be operated in clinics in Vancouver, Canada, Houston, Texas and other locations in the developed and developing world including Nigeria. The system is designed with a comprehensive set of calibration and performance verification standards, based on our experience with large scale multi-center spectroscopy clinical trials and measurements are made frequently prior to and following patient measurements. Automated performance verification procedures are being designed based on measurements made during pilot studies to facilitate larger clinical trials.

  7. Multispectral image visualization through first-order fusion.

    PubMed

    Socolinsky, Diego A; Wolff, Lawrence B

    2002-01-01

    We present a new formalism for the treatment and understanding of multispectral images and multisensor imagery based on first-order contrast information. Although little attention has been paid to the utility of multispectral contrast, we develop a theory for multispectral contrast that enables us to produce an optimal grayscale visualization of the first-order contrast of an image with an arbitrary number of bands. We demonstrate how our technique can reveal significantly more interpretive information to an image analyst, who can use it in a number of image understanding algorithms. Existing grayscale visualization strategies are reviewed. A variety of experimental results are presented to support the performance of the new method. PMID:18244686

  8. Changes of multispectral soil patterns with increasing crop canopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kristof, S. J.; Baumgardner, M. F.

    1972-01-01

    Multispectral data and automatic data processing were used to map surface soil patterns and to follow the changes in multispectral radiation from a field of maize (Zea mays L.) during a period from seeding to maturity. Panchromatic aerial photography was obtained in early May 1970 and multispectral scanner missions were flown on May 6, June 30, August 11 and September 5, 1970 to obtain energy measurements in 13 wavelength bands. The orange portion of the visible spectrum was used in analyzing the May and June data to cluster relative radiance of the soils into eight different radiance levels. The reflective infrared spectral band was used in analyzing the August and September data to cluster maize into different spectral categories. The computer-produced soil patterns had a striking similarity to the soil pattern of the aerial photograph. These patterns became less distinct as the maize canopy increased.

  9. Characteristic variogram for land use in Multispectral Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mera, E.; Condal, A.; Rios, C.; Da Silva, L.

    2016-05-01

    In remote sensing is the concept of spectral signature in multispectral imagery to recognize different land uses in the area; This study proposes the existence of a characteristic variogram for land use in multispectral images. To test this idea we proceeded to work with a sector of a scene image of multispectral Landsat 7 ETM +, in 6 of their bands (1- 450nm to 520nm, 2 - 520nm to 600nm, 3 - 630nm to 690nm, 4 - 760nm to 900nm 5 - over 1550nm to 1.750nm and 7 - 2.080nm to 2.350nm), corresponding to two uses of urban land and agricultural, the omnidirectional variogram for each band was analyzed and modal variogram for each land use was established in the stripe set. Of the analyzed claims data for each land use is a model characteristic and modal cross variogram how their wavelengths.

  10. Compact multi-spectral imaging system for dermatology and neurosurgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noordmans, Herke Jan; de Roode, Rowland; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf

    2007-03-01

    A compact multi-spectral imaging system is presented as diagnostic tool in dermatology and neurosurgery. Using an electronically tunable filter, a sensitive high resolution digital camera, 140 spectral images from 400 nm up to 720 nm are acquired in 40 s. Advanced image processing algorithms are used to enable interactive acquisition, viewing, image registration and image analysis. Experiments in the department of dermatology and neurosurgery show that multispectral imaging reveals much more detail than conventional medical photography or a surgical microscope, as images can be reprocessed to enhance the view on e.g. tumor boundaries. Using a hardware-based interactive registration algorithm, multi-spectral images can be aligned to correct for motion occurred during image acquisition or to compare acquisitions from different moments in time. The system shows to be a powerful diagnostics tool for medical imaging in the visual and near IR range.

  11. Filter selection based on light source for multispectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Peng; Xu, Haisong

    2016-07-01

    In multispectral imaging, it is necessary to select a reduced number of filters to balance the imaging efficiency and spectral reflectance recovery accuracy. Due to the combined effect of filters and light source on reflectance recovery, the optimal filters are influenced by the employed light source in the multispectral imaging system. By casting the filter selection as an optimization issue, the selection of optimal filters corresponding to the employed light source proceeds with respect to a set of target samples utilizing one kind of genetic algorithms, regardless of the detailed spectral characteristics of the light source, filters, and sensor. Under three light sources with distinct spectral power distributions, the proposed filter selection method was evaluated on a filter-wheel based multispectral device with a set of interference filters. It was verified that the filters derived by the proposed method achieve better spectral and colorimetric accuracy of reflectance recovery than the conventional one under different light sources.

  12. Structures and Stabilities of the Metal Doped Gold Nano-Clusters: M@Au10 (M = W, Mo, Ru, Co)

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Delwar; Pittman, Charles U.; Gwaltney, Steven R.

    2014-01-01

    The structures and stabilities of a series of endohedral gold clusters containing ten gold atoms M@Au10 (M = W, Mo, Ru, Co) have been determined using density functional theory. The gradient-corrected functional BP86, the Tao-Perdew-Staroverov-Scuseria TPSS meta-GGA functional, and the hybrid density functionals B3LYP and PBE1PBE were employed to calculate the structures, binding energies, adiabatic ionization potentials, and adiabatic electron affinities for these clusters. The LanL2DZ effective core potentials and the corresponding valence basis sets were employed. The M@Au10 (M = W, Mo, Ru, Co) clusters have higher binding energies than an empty Au10 cluster. In addition, the large HOMO–LUMO gaps suggest that the M@Au10 (M = W, Mo, Ru, Co) clusters are all likely to be stable chemically. The ionization potentials and electron affinities for these clusters are very high, and the W@Au10 and Mo@Au10 clusters have electron affinities similar to the super-halogen Al13. PMID:24611036

  13. Structures and Stabilities of the Metal Doped Gold Nano-Clusters: M@Au10 (M = W, Mo, Ru, Co).

    PubMed

    Hossain, Delwar; Pittman, Charles U; Gwaltney, Steven R

    2014-01-01

    The structures and stabilities of a series of endohedral gold clusters containing ten gold atoms M@Au10 (M = W, Mo, Ru, Co) have been determined using density functional theory. The gradient-corrected functional BP86, the Tao-Perdew-Staroverov-Scuseria TPSS meta-GGA functional, and the hybrid density functionals B3LYP and PBE1PBE were employed to calculate the structures, binding energies, adiabatic ionization potentials, and adiabatic electron affinities for these clusters. The LanL2DZ effective core potentials and the corresponding valence basis sets were employed. The M@Au10 (M = W, Mo, Ru, Co) clusters have higher binding energies than an empty Au10 cluster. In addition, the large HOMO-LUMO gaps suggest that the M@Au10 (M = W, Mo, Ru, Co) clusters are all likely to be stable chemically. The ionization potentials and electron affinities for these clusters are very high, and the W@Au10 and Mo@Au10 clusters have electron affinities similar to the super-halogen Al13. PMID:24611036

  14. Noninvasive allograft imaging of acute rejection: evaluation of (131)I-anti-CXCL10 mAb.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Dayan; Sun, Hukui; Liang, Ting; Zhang, Chao; Song, Jing; Hou, Guihua

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of iodine-131-labeled anti-CXCL10 mAb as tracer targeted at CXCL10 to detect acute rejection (AR) with mice model. Expression of CXCL10 was proved by RT-PCR, ELISA, and immunochemistry staining. All groups were submitted to whole-body autoradioimaging and ex vivo biodistribution studies after tail vein injection of (131)I-anti-CXCL10 mAb. The highest concentration/expression of CXCL10 was detected in allograft tissue compared with allograft treated with tacrolimus and isograft control. Tacrolimus could obviously inhibit the rejection of allograft. Allograft could be obviously imaged at all checking points, much clearer than the other two groups. The biodistribution results showed the highest uptake of radiotracer in allograft. T/NT (target/nontarget) ratio was 4.15 ± 0.25 at 72 h, apparently different from allograft treated with tacrolimus (2.29 ± 0.10), P < 0.05. These data suggest that CXCL10 is a promising target for early stage AR imaging and (131)I-CXCL10 mAb can successfully image AR and monitor the effect of immunosuppressant.

  15. Multispectral Microscopic Imager (MMI): Multispectral Imaging of Geological Materials at a Handlens Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmer, J. D.; Nunez, J. I.; Sellar, R. G.; Gardner, P. B.; Manatt, K. S.; Dingizian, A.; Dudik, M. J.; McDonnell, G.; Le, T.; Thomas, J. A.; Chu, K.

    2011-12-01

    The Multispectral Microscopic Imager (MMI) is a prototype instrument presently under development for future astrobiological missions to Mars. The MMI is designed to be a arm-mounted rover instrument for use in characterizing the microtexture and mineralogy of materials along geological traverses [1,2,3]. Such geological information is regarded as essential for interpreting petrogenesis and geological history, and when acquired in near real-time, can support hypothesis-driven exploration and optimize science return. Correlated microtexure and mineralogy also provides essential data for selecting samples for analysis with onboard lab instruments, and for prioritizing samples for potential Earth return. The MMI design employs multispectral light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and an uncooled focal plane array to achieve the low-mass (<1kg), low-cost, and high reliability (no moving parts) required for an arm-mounted instrument on a planetary rover [2,3]. The MMI acquires multispectral, reflectance images at 62 μm/pixel, in which each image pixel is comprised of a 21-band VNIR spectrum (0.46 to 1.73 μm). This capability enables the MMI to discriminate and resolve the spatial distribution of minerals and textures at the microscale [2, 3]. By extending the spectral range into the infrared, and increasing the number of spectral bands, the MMI exceeds the capabilities of current microimagers, including the MER Microscopic Imager (MI); 4, the Phoenix mission Robotic Arm Camera (RAC; 5) and the Mars Science Laboratory's Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI; 6). In this report we will review the capabilities of the MMI by highlighting recent lab and field applications, including: 1) glove box deployments in the Astromaterials lab at Johnson Space Center to analyze Apollo lunar samples; 2) GeoLab glove box deployments during the 2011 Desert RATS field trials in northern AZ to characterize analog materials collected by astronauts during simulated EVAs; 3) field deployments on Mauna Kea

  16. Lossless compression of multispectral images using spectral information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Long; Shi, Zelin; Tang, Xusheng

    2009-10-01

    Multispectral images are available for different purposes due to developments in spectral imaging systems. The sizes of multispectral images are enormous. Thus transmission and storage of these volumes of data require huge time and memory resources. That is why compression algorithms must be developed. A salient property of multispectral images is that strong spectral correlation exists throughout almost all bands. This fact is successfully used to predict each band based on the previous bands. We propose to use spectral linear prediction and entropy coding with context modeling for encoding multispectral images. Linear prediction predicts the value for the next sample and computes the difference between predicted value and the original value. This difference is usually small, so it can be encoded with less its than the original value. The technique implies prediction of each image band by involving number of bands along the image spectra. Each pixel is predicted using information provided by pixels in the previous bands in the same spatial position. As done in the JPEG-LS, the proposed coder also represents the mapped residuals by using an adaptive Golomb-Rice code with context modeling. This residual coding is context adaptive, where the context used for the current sample is identified by a context quantization function of the three gradients. Then, context-dependent Golomb-Rice code and bias parameters are estimated sample by sample. The proposed scheme was compared with three algorithms applied to the lossless compression of multispectral images, namely JPEG-LS, Rice coding, and JPEG2000. Simulation tests performed on AVIRIS images have demonstrated that the proposed compression scheme is suitable for multispectral images.

  17. Compact multispectral photodiode arrays using micropatterned dichroic filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandler, Eric V.; Fish, David E.

    2014-05-01

    The next generation of multispectral instruments requires significant improvements in both spectral band customization and portability to support the widespread deployment of application-specific optical sensors. The benefits of spectroscopy are well established for numerous applications including biomedical instrumentation, industrial sorting and sensing, chemical detection, and environmental monitoring. In this paper, spectroscopic (and by extension hyperspectral) and multispectral measurements are considered. The technology, tradeoffs, and application fits of each are evaluated. In the majority of applications, monitoring 4-8 targeted spectral bands of optimized wavelength and bandwidth provides the necessary spectral contrast and correlation. An innovative approach integrates precision spectral filters at the photodetector level to enable smaller sensors, simplify optical designs, and reduce device integration costs. This method supports user-defined spectral bands to create application-specific sensors in a small footprint with scalable cost efficiencies. A range of design configurations, filter options and combinations are presented together with typical applications ranging from basic multi-band detection to stringent multi-channel fluorescence measurement. An example implementation packages 8 narrowband silicon photodiodes into a 9x9mm ceramic LCC (leadless chip carrier) footprint. This package is designed for multispectral applications ranging from portable color monitors to purpose- built OEM industrial and scientific instruments. Use of an eight-channel multispectral photodiode array typically eliminates 10-20 components from a device bill-of-materials (BOM), streamlining the optical path and shrinking the footprint by 50% or more. A stepwise design approach for multispectral sensors is discussed - including spectral band definition, optical design tradeoffs and constraints, and device integration from prototype through scalable volume production

  18. Spatial arrangement of color filter array for multispectral image acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Raju; Hardeberg, Jon Y.; Khan, Rahat

    2011-03-01

    In the past few years there has been a significant volume of research work carried out in the field of multispectral image acquisition. The focus of most of these has been to facilitate a type of multispectral image acquisition systems that usually requires multiple subsequent shots (e.g. systems based on filter wheels, liquid crystal tunable filters, or active lighting). Recently, an alternative approach for one-shot multispectral image acquisition has been proposed; based on an extension of the color filter array (CFA) standard to produce more than three channels. We can thus introduce the concept of multispectral color filter array (MCFA). But this field has not been much explored, particularly little focus has been given in developing systems which focuses on the reconstruction of scene spectral reflectance. In this paper, we have explored how the spatial arrangement of multispectral color filter array affects the acquisition accuracy with the construction of MCFAs of different sizes. We have simulated acquisitions of several spectral scenes using different number of filters/channels, and compared the results with those obtained by the conventional regular MCFA arrangement, evaluating the precision of the reconstructed scene spectral reflectance in terms of spectral RMS error, and colorimetric ▵E*ab color differences. It has been found that the precision and the the quality of the reconstructed images are significantly influenced by the spatial arrangement of the MCFA and the effect will be more and more prominent with the increase in the number of channels. We believe that MCFA-based systems can be a viable alternative for affordable acquisition of multispectral color images, in particular for applications where spatial resolution can be traded off for spectral resolution. We have shown that the spatial arrangement of the array is an important design issue.

  19. Multi-spectral band selection for satellite-based systems

    SciTech Connect

    Clodius, W.B.; Weber, P.G.; Borel, C.C.; Smith, B.W.

    1998-09-01

    The design of satellite based multispectral imaging systems requires the consideration of a number of tradeoffs between cost and performance. The authors have recently been involved in the design and evaluation of a satellite based multispectral sensor operating from the visible through the long wavelength IR. The criteria that led to some of the proposed designs and the modeling used to evaluate and fine tune the designs will both be discussed. These criteria emphasized the use of bands for surface temperature retrieval and the correction of atmospheric effects. The impact of cost estimate changes on the final design will also be discussed.

  20. Novel high performance multispectral photodetector and its performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuno, Genki; Dutta, Jaydeep; Oduor, Patrick; Dutta, Achyut K.; Dhar, Nibir K.

    2016-05-01

    Banpil Photonics has developed a novel high-performance multispectral photodetector array for Short-Wave Infrared (SWIR) imaging. The InGaAs based device uses a unique micro-nano pillar structure that eliminates surface reflection to significantly increase sensitivity and the absorption spectra compared to its macro-scaled thin film pixels counterpart (non-pillar). We discuss the device structure and highlight fabrication of the novel high performance multispectral image sensor. We also present performance results of the device characterization showing low dark current suitable for high performance imaging applications for the most demanding security, defense, and machine vision applications.

  1. Multispectral Video-Microscope Modified for Skin Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubins, U.; Zaharans, J.; Ļihačova, I.; Spigulis, J.

    2014-12-01

    Commercial DinoLite AD413 digital microscope was modified for skin diagnostics purposes. The original LED ring (4 white and 4 ultraviolet light emitters) of microscope was replaced by a custom-designed 16-LED ring module consisting of four LED groups (450, 545, 660 and 940 nm), and an onboard LED controller with USB hub was added. The video acquisition and LED switching are performed using custom-designed Matlab software which provides real-time spectral analysis of multi-spectral images and calculation of skin chromophore optical density. The developed multispectral video-microscope is mainly meant for diagnostics of skin malformations, e.g. skin cancerous lesions.

  2. Estimating crop acreage from space-simulated multispectral scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nalepka, R. F.; Hyde, P. D.

    1973-01-01

    The need for multispectral data processing methods to permit the estimation of proportions of objects and materials appearing within the instantaneous field of view of a scanning system is discussed. An algorithm developed for proportion estimation is described as well as other supporting processing techniques. Application of this algorithm to space-simulated multispectral scanner data is discussed and some results presented and compared. Results indicate that, for this data set, the true proportions of the various crops contained within this data set are with one exception more closely in agreement with the proportions determined by the proportion estimation algorithm than with the proportions determined by conventional classfication algorithm.

  3. Foreign fiber detecting system based on multispectral technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qi; Han, Shaokun; Wang, Ping; Wang, Liang; Xia, Wenze

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a foreign fiber detecting system based on multi-spectral technique. The absorption rate and the reflectivity of foreign fibers differently under different wavelengths of light so that the characteristics of the image has difference in the different light irradiation. Contrast pyramid image fusion algorithm and adaptive enhancement is improved to extracted the foreign fiber from the cotton background. The experimental results show that the single light source can detect 6 kinds of foreign fiber in cotton and multi-spectral detection can detect eight kinds.

  4. The application of UV multispectral technology in extract trace evdidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jingjing; Xu, Xiaojing; Li, Zhihui; Xu, Lei; Xie, Lanchi

    2015-11-01

    Multispectral imaging is becoming more and more important in the field of examination of material evidence, especially the ultraviolet spectral imaging. Fingerprints development, questioned document detection, trace evidence examination-all can used of it. This paper introduce a UV multispectral equipment which was developed by BITU & IFSC, it can extract trace evidence-extract fingerprints. The result showed that this technology can develop latent sweat-sebum mixed fingerprint on photo and ID card blood fingerprint on steel hold. We used the UV spectrum data analysis system to make the UV spectral image clear to identify and analyse.

  5. Expanded IR glass map for multispectral optics designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayya, Shyam; Gibson, Daniel; Nguyen, Vinh; Beadie, Guy; Sanghera, Jasbinder; Kotov, Mikhail

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents new multispectral IR glasses with transmission from 0.9 to > 14 μm in wavelength and refractive index from 2.38 to 2.17. These new glasses are designed to have comparable glass softening temperatures and compatible coefficients of thermal expansion to allow bonding and co-molding of multilayer optics. With large variation in their Abbe numbers and negative to near-zero dn/dT, optics made from these new glasses can significantly reduce the size/weight or complexity of the multispectral imaging systems for weight sensitive platforms.

  6. Atmospheric transformation of multispectral remote sensor data. [Great Lakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, R. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The effects of earth's atmosphere were accounted for, and a simple algorithm, based upon a radiative transfer model, was developed to determine the radiance at earth's surface free of atmospheric effects. Acutal multispectral remote sensor data for Lake Erie and associated optical thickness data were used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the atmospheric transformation algorithm. The basic transformation was general in nature and could be applied to the large scale processing of multispectral aircraft or satellite remote sensor data.

  7. In vivo simultaneous multispectral fluorescence imaging with spectral multiplexed volume holographic imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Yanlu; Zhang, Jiulou; Zhang, Dong; Cai, Wenjuan; Chen, Nanguang; Luo, Jianwen

    2016-06-01

    A simultaneous multispectral fluorescence imaging system incorporating multiplexed volume holographic grating (VHG) is developed to acquire multispectral images of an object in one shot. With the multiplexed VHG, the imaging system can provide the distribution and spectral characteristics of multiple fluorophores in the scene. The implementation and performance of the simultaneous multispectral imaging system are presented. Further, the system's capability in simultaneously obtaining multispectral fluorescence measurements is demonstrated with in vivo experiments on a mouse. The demonstrated imaging system has the potential to obtain multispectral images fluorescence simultaneously.

  8. Landsat multispectral sharpening using a sensor system model and panchromatic image

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lemeshewsky, G.P.; ,

    2003-01-01

    The thematic mapper (TM) sensor aboard Landsats 4, 5 and enhanced TM plus (ETM+) on Landsat 7 collect imagery at 30-m sample distance in six spectral bands. New with ETM+ is a 15-m panchromatic (P) band. With image sharpening techniques, this higher resolution P data, or as an alternative, the 10-m (or 5-m) P data of the SPOT satellite, can increase the spatial resolution of the multispectral (MS) data. Sharpening requires that the lower resolution MS image be coregistered and resampled to the P data before high spatial frequency information is transferred to the MS data. For visual interpretation and machine classification tasks, it is important that the sharpened data preserve the spectral characteristics of the original low resolution data. A technique was developed for sharpening (in this case, 3:1 spatial resolution enhancement) visible spectral band data, based on a model of the sensor system point spread function (PSF) in order to maintain spectral fidelity. It combines high-pass (HP) filter sharpening methods with iterative image restoration to reduce degradations caused by sensor-system-induced blurring and resembling. Also there is a spectral fidelity requirement: sharpened MS when filtered by the modeled degradations should reproduce the low resolution source MS. Quantitative evaluation of sharpening performance was made by using simulated low resolution data generated from digital color-IR aerial photography. In comparison to the HP-filter-based sharpening method, results for the technique in this paper with simulated data show improved spectral fidelity. Preliminary results with TM 30-m visible band data sharpened with simulated 10-m panchromatic data are promising but require further study.

  9. Nanohole-array-based device for 2D snapshot multispectral imaging

    PubMed Central

    Najiminaini, Mohamadreza; Vasefi, Fartash; Kaminska, Bozena; Carson, Jeffrey J. L.

    2013-01-01

    We present a two-dimensional (2D) snapshot multispectral imager that utilizes the optical transmission characteristics of nanohole arrays (NHAs) in a gold film to resolve a mixture of input colors into multiple spectral bands. The multispectral device consists of blocks of NHAs, wherein each NHA has a unique periodicity that results in transmission resonances and minima in the visible and near-infrared regions. The multispectral device was illuminated over a wide spectral range, and the transmission was spectrally unmixed using a least-squares estimation algorithm. A NHA-based multispectral imaging system was built and tested in both reflection and transmission modes. The NHA-based multispectral imager was capable of extracting 2D multispectral images representative of four independent bands within the spectral range of 662 nm to 832 nm for a variety of targets. The multispectral device can potentially be integrated into a variety of imaging sensor systems. PMID:24005065

  10. The Need for High Spatial Resolution Multispectral Thermal Remote Sensing Data In Urban Heat Island Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.

    2006-01-01

    Although the study of the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect dates back to the early 1800's when Luke Howard discovered London s heat island, it has only been with the advent of thermal remote sensing systems that the extent, characteristics, and impacts of the UHI have become to be understood. Analysis of the UHI effect is important because above all, this phenomenon can directly influence the health and welfare of urban residents. For example, in 1995, over 700 people died in Chicago due to heat-related causes. UHI s are characterized by increased temperature in comparison to rural areas and mortality rates during a heat wave increase exponentially with the maximum temperature, an effect that is exacerbated by the UHI. Aside from the direct impacts of the UHI on temperature, UHI s can produce secondary effects on local meteorology, including altering local wind patterns, increased development of clouds and fog, and increasing rates of precipitation either over, or downwind, of cities. Because of the extreme heterogeneity of the urban surface, in combination with the sprawl associated with urban growth, thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing data have become of significant importance in understanding how land cover and land use characteristics affect the development and intensification of the UHI. TIR satellite data have been used extensively to analyze the surface temperature regimes of cities to help observe and measure the impacts of surface temperatures across the urban landscape. However, the spatial scales at which satellite TIR data are collected are for the most part, coarse, with the finest readily available TIR data collected by the Landsat ETM+ sensor at 60m spatial resolution. For many years, we have collected high spatial resolution (10m) data using an airborne multispectral TIR sensor over a number of cities across the United States. These high resolution data have been used to develop an understanding of how discrete surfaces across the urban environment

  11. Terahertz and multispectral imaging of a Tanda painting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, J. Bianca; Melis, Marcello; Walker, Gillian; Giovannacci, David; Miccoli, Matteo; Martos-Levif, Dominique; Bowen, John; Detalle, Vincent

    2015-06-01

    We systematically examined the mid-20th century Italian painting "After Fishing" (fig. 1) by Ausonio Tanda using multi-spectral (UV, RGB visible, tri-band IR), x-ray and terahertz time-domain spectroscopic imaging. THz-TDSI was performed in both transmission and reflection geometries and the results were compared.

  12. Generic MSFA mosaicking and demosaicking for multispectral cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Lidan; Qi, Hairong; Ramanath, Rajeev

    2006-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate the potential application of the multispectral filter array (MSFA) techniques in multispectral imaging for reasons like low cost, exact registration, and strong robustness. In both human and many animal visual systems, different types of photoreceptors are organized into mosaic patterns. This behavior has been emulated in the industry to develop the so-called color filter array (CFA) in the manufacture of digital color cameras. In this way, only one color component is measured at each pixel, and the sensed image is a mosaic of different color bands. We extend this idea to multispectral imaging by developing generic mosaicking and demosaicking algorithms. The binary tree-driven MSFA design process guarantees that the pixel distributions of different spectral bands are uniform and highly correlated. These spatial features facilitate the design of the generic demosaicking algorithm based on the same binary tree, which considers three interrelated issues: band selection, pixel selection and interpolation. We evaluate the reconstructed images from two aspects: better reconstruction and better target classification. The experimental results demonstrate that the mosaicking and demosaicking process preserves the image quality effectively, which further supports that the MSFA technique is a feasible solution for multispectral cameras.

  13. Detection of IR target by fusing multispectral IR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Liya; Qi, Meng; Gao, Xuhui

    2011-08-01

    Detection of the small target in clutter, usually regarded as singular points in the infrared image, is an important issue in infrared searching and tracking (IRST) system. Because of the far range of the target to the sensor, the stealth technology, the effects of inherent sensor noise and the phenomena of nature, the target is more difficult to be detected. Multispectral sensor system has been proved it could greatly improve detection of the small, hard-to-find targets by multispectral processing techniques (such as sensor or image fusion). Aiming at the problem of multispectral IR Target Detection, a kind method of the multispectral IR target detection is proposed, based on the existed detection systems. In this method, the image registration is done firstly to make the different sensors have a same scene. Then, a fusion rule, named as adaptive weighted voting theory, is developed to combine the target detection results from the different spectral sensors. The adaptive weighted voting theory can give the different weights, based on the different spectral IR characteristics, and these weights decide the detected target is identified as real target or background. The experimental results show that the proposed method can reduce the detection uncertainty and improve the detection performance. Compared with the single spectral detection results and the others fusion detection methods, it can decrease the lost alarm rate and the false alarm rate effectively. The proposed method has been employed in our IR surveillance system, and it is easy to be used in the various circumstances.

  14. MULTISPECTRAL IDENTIFICATION AND CONFIRMATION OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN WASTEWATER EXTRACTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Application of multispectral identification techniques to samples from industrial and POTW wastewaters revealed identities of 63 compounds that had not been identified by empirical matching of mass spectra with spectral libraries. wenty-five of the compounds had not been found in...

  15. The trophic classification of lakes using ERTS multispectral scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackwell, R. J.; Boland, D. H.

    1975-01-01

    Lake classification methods based on the use of ERTS data are described. Preliminary classification results obtained by multispectral and digital image processing techniques indicate satisfactory correlation between ERTS data and EPA-supplied water analysis. Techniques for determining lake trophic levels using ERTS data are examined, and data obtained for 20 lakes are discussed.

  16. Improving performance of real-time multispectral imaging system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A real-time multispectral imaging system can be a science-based tool for fecal and ingesta contaminant detection during poultry processing. For the implementation of this imaging system at commercial poultry processing plant, false positive errors must be removed. For doing this, we tested and imp...

  17. Engineering evaluation of 24 channel multispectral scanner. [from flight tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambeck, P. F.

    1973-01-01

    The results of flight tests to evaluate the performance of the 24 channel multispectral scanner are reported. The flight plan and test site are described along with the time response and channel registration. The gain and offset drift, and moire patterns are discussed. Aerial photographs of the test site are included.

  18. Multispectral flow cytometry: The consequences of increased light collection.

    PubMed

    Feher, Kristen; von Volkmann, Konrad; Kirsch, Jenny; Radbruch, Andreas; Popien, Jan; Kaiser, Toralf

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, multispectral flow cytometry systems have come to attention. They differ from conventional flow cytometers in two key ways: a multispectral flow cytometer collects the full spectral information at the single cell level and the detector configuration is fixed and not explicitly tuned to a particular staining panel. This brings about clear hardware advantages, as a closed system should be highly stable, and ease-of-use should be improved if used in conjunction with custom unmixing software. An open question remains: what are the benefits of multispectral over conventional flow cytometry in terms of sensitivity and resolution? To probe this, we use Q (detection efficiency) and B (background) values and develop a novel "multivariate population overlap factor" to characterize the cytometer performance. To verify the usefulness of our factor, we perform representative experiments and compare our overlap factor to Q and B. Finally, we conclude that the increased light collection of multispectral flow cytometry does indeed lead to increased sensitivity, an improved detection limit, and a higher resolution. © 2016 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. PMID:27295550

  19. Single-Image Super Resolution for Multispectral Remote Sensing Data Using Convolutional Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebel, L.; Körner, M.

    2016-06-01

    In optical remote sensing, spatial resolution of images is crucial for numerous applications. Space-borne systems are most likely to be affected by a lack of spatial resolution, due to their natural disadvantage of a large distance between the sensor and the sensed object. Thus, methods for single-image super resolution are desirable to exceed the limits of the sensor. Apart from assisting visual inspection of datasets, post-processing operations—e.g., segmentation or feature extraction—can benefit from detailed and distinguishable structures. In this paper, we show that recently introduced state-of-the-art approaches for single-image super resolution of conventional photographs, making use of deep learning techniques, such as convolutional neural networks (CNN), can successfully be applied to remote sensing data. With a huge amount of training data available, end-to-end learning is reasonably easy to apply and can achieve results unattainable using conventional handcrafted algorithms. We trained our CNN on a specifically designed, domain-specific dataset, in order to take into account the special characteristics of multispectral remote sensing data. This dataset consists of publicly available SENTINEL-2 images featuring 13 spectral bands, a ground resolution of up to 10m, and a high radiometric resolution and thus satisfying our requirements in terms of quality and quantity. In experiments, we obtained results superior compared to competing approaches trained on generic image sets, which failed to reasonably scale satellite images with a high radiometric resolution, as well as conventional interpolation methods.

  20. Multi-spectral confocal microendoscope for in-vivo imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouse, Andrew Robert

    The concept of in-vivo multi-spectral confocal microscopy is introduced. A slit-scanning multi-spectral confocal microendoscope (MCME) was built to demonstrate the technique. The MCME employs a flexible fiber-optic catheter coupled to a custom built slit-scan confocal microscope fitted with a custom built imaging spectrometer. The catheter consists of a fiber-optic imaging bundle linked to a miniature objective and focus assembly. The design and performance of the miniature objective and focus assembly are discussed. The 3mm diameter catheter may be used on its own or routed though the instrument channel of a commercial endoscope. The confocal nature of the system provides optical sectioning with 3mum lateral resolution and 30mum axial resolution. The prism based multi-spectral detection assembly is typically configured to collect 30 spectral samples over the visible chromatic range. The spectral sampling rate varies from 4nm/pixel at 490nm to 8nm/pixel at 660nm and the minimum resolvable wavelength difference varies from 7nm to 18nm over the same spectral range. Each of these characteristics are primarily dictated by the dispersive power of the prism. The MCME is designed to examine cellular structures during optical biopsy and to exploit the diagnostic information contained within the spectral domain. The primary applications for the system include diagnosis of disease in the gastro-intestinal tract and female reproductive system. Recent data from the grayscale imaging mode are presented. Preliminary multi-spectral results from phantoms, cell cultures, and excised human tissue are presented to demonstrate the potential of in-vivo multi-spectral imaging.

  1. Semiconductor Laser Multi-Spectral Sensing and Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Le, Han Q.; Wang, Yang

    2010-01-01

    Multi-spectral laser imaging is a technique that can offer a combination of the laser capability of accurate spectral sensing with the desirable features of passive multispectral imaging. The technique can be used for detection, discrimination, and identification of objects by their spectral signature. This article describes and reviews the development and evaluation of semiconductor multi-spectral laser imaging systems. Although the method is certainly not specific to any laser technology, the use of semiconductor lasers is significant with respect to practicality and affordability. More relevantly, semiconductor lasers have their own characteristics; they offer excellent wavelength diversity but usually with modest power. Thus, system design and engineering issues are analyzed for approaches and trade-offs that can make the best use of semiconductor laser capabilities in multispectral imaging. A few systems were developed and the technique was tested and evaluated on a variety of natural and man-made objects. It was shown capable of high spectral resolution imaging which, unlike non-imaging point sensing, allows detecting and discriminating objects of interest even without a priori spectroscopic knowledge of the targets. Examples include material and chemical discrimination. It was also shown capable of dealing with the complexity of interpreting diffuse scattered spectral images and produced results that could otherwise be ambiguous with conventional imaging. Examples with glucose and spectral imaging of drug pills were discussed. Lastly, the technique was shown with conventional laser spectroscopy such as wavelength modulation spectroscopy to image a gas (CO). These results suggest the versatility and power of multi-spectral laser imaging, which can be practical with the use of semiconductor lasers. PMID:22315555

  2. Multispectral Focal Plane Assembly for Satellite Remote Sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Rienstra, J.; Ballard, M.

    1997-12-31

    Sandia National Laboratories and several subsystem contractors are developing technologies applicable to multispectral remote sensing from space. A proof of concept multispectral sensor system is under development. The objective of building this sensor is to demonstrate and evaluate multispectral imaging technologies for various applications. The three major subsystems making up the sensor are the focal plane assembly (FPA), the cryocooler, and the telescope. This paper covers the focal plane assembly, which is the basis of the sensor system. The focal plane assembly includes sensor chip assemblies, optical filters, and a vacuum enclosure with cold shielding. Linear detector arrays provide spatial resolution in the cross-track direction for a pushbroom imager configuration. The optical filters define 15 spectral bands in a range from 0.45 microns to 10.7 microns. All the detector arrays are mounted on a single focal plane and are designed to operate at 75 K. No beam splitters are used. The four spectral bands covering the visible to near infrared have roughly 2400 pixels each, and the remaining 11 spectral bands have roughly 600 pixels each. The average total rate of multispectral data from the FPA is approximately 15.4 megapixels per second. At the time this paper is being written, the multispectral focal plane assembly is in the fabrication phase. A thermal/mechanical mockup has been built and tested for the vibration environment and to determine the thermal load. Some of the sensor chip assemblies and filters have been built and tested. Several notable features of the design are covered in the paper as well as preliminary test data.

  3. Utilization of Photo-Cross-Linkable Polymer for Mild Steel Corrosion Inhibition in 1.0 M HCl Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskar, R.; Gopiraman, M.; Kesavan, D.; Subramanian, K.; Gopalakrishnan, S.

    2015-08-01

    Novel biphenyl-based photo-cross-linkable polymers were synthesized and characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Upon UV irradiation, the polymers were cross-linked even in the absence of photo initiator or sensitizers, and the rate of photo-cross-linking was examined and discussed. The effectiveness of both virgin and cross-linked polymers for corrosion resistance on mild steel in 1.0 M hydrochloric acid medium was investigated, using polarization studies, electrochemical impedance measurements as well as by adsorption isotherm and surface analysis. The results clearly indicated a dramatic increase in the efficiency of inhibition of corrosion on mild steel by the photo-cross-linked polymer as compared to virgin polymers.

  4. SIM.EM-K3 Key comparison of 10 mH inductance standards at 1 kHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, J. A.; Côté, M.; Koffman, A.; Castro, B. I.; Vasconcellos, R. de Barros e.; Kyriazis, G.; Cazabat, M.; Izquierdo, D.; Faverio, C.; Slomovitz, D.

    2016-01-01

    A key comparison of 10 mH inductance standards at 1 kHz has been carried out with the participation of seven National Metrology Institutes of the Inter-American Metrology System, within the frame of the International Committee for Weights and Measures Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA), which was piloted by CENAM, Mexico. Three previously characterized commercial inductors, contained in individual enclosures with controlled temperature were used as traveling standards. This document presents the results and technical details of the comparison. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCEM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  5. High Spatial Resolution Airborne Multispectral Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing Data for Analysis of Urban Landscape Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We have used airborne multispectral thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing data collected at a high spatial resolution (i.e., 10m) over several cities in the United States to study thermal energy characteristics of the urban landscape. These TIR data provide a unique opportunity to quantify thermal responses from discrete surfaces typical of the urban landscape and to identify both the spatial arrangement and patterns of thermal processes across the city. The information obtained from these data is critical to understanding how urban surfaces drive or force development of the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect, which exists as a dome of elevated air temperatures that presides over cities in contrast to surrounding non-urbanized areas. The UHI is most pronounced in the summertime where urban surfaces, such as rooftops and pavement, store solar radiation throughout the day, and release this stored energy slowly after sunset creating air temperatures over the city that are in excess of 2-4'C warmer in contrast with non-urban or rural air temperatures. The UHI can also exist as a daytime phenomenon with surface temperatures in downtown areas of cities exceeding 38'C. The implications of the UHI are significant, particularly as an additive source of thermal energy input that exacerbates the overall production of ground level ozone over cities. We have used the Airborne Thermal and Land Applications Sensor (ATLAS), flown onboard a Lear 23 jet aircraft from the NASA Stennis Space Center, to acquire high spatial resolution multispectral TIR data (i.e., 6 bandwidths between 8.2-12.2 (um) over Huntsville, Alabama, Atlanta, Georgia, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, Salt Lake City, Utah, and Sacramento, California. These TIR data have been used to produce maps and other products, showing the spatial distribution of heating and cooling patterns over these cities to better understand how the morphology of the urban landscape affects development of the UHI. In turn, these data have been used

  6. On-line object feature extraction for multispectral scene representation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghassemian, Hassan; Landgrebe, David

    1988-01-01

    A new on-line unsupervised object-feature extraction method is presented that reduces the complexity and costs associated with the analysis of the multispectral image data and data transmission, storage, archival and distribution. The ambiguity in the object detection process can be reduced if the spatial dependencies, which exist among the adjacent pixels, are intelligently incorporated into the decision making process. The unity relation was defined that must exist among the pixels of an object. Automatic Multispectral Image Compaction Algorithm (AMICA) uses the within object pixel-feature gradient vector as a valuable contextual information to construct the object's features, which preserve the class separability information within the data. For on-line object extraction the path-hypothesis and the basic mathematical tools for its realization are introduced in terms of a specific similarity measure and adjacency relation. AMICA is applied to several sets of real image data, and the performance and reliability of features is evaluated.

  7. Demosaicking for multispectral images based on vectorial total variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinoda, Kazuma; Hamasaki, Taisuke; Kawase, Maru; Hasegawa, Madoka; Kato, Shigeo

    2016-08-01

    Multispectral images (MSIs), which consist of more color components than RGB images, can be used in the field of vegetation analysis and medical imaging. A capturing system with multispectral filter array (MSFA) technology has been researched to shorten the capturing time and reduce the cost. In this system, the mosaicked image captured by the MSFA is demosaicked to reconstruct the MSI. We propose a demosaicking method using vectorial total variation (VTV) regularization for an MSI. This process is regarded as inverse problem of the image observation model. The reconstructed image is estimated by minimizing the VTV as a regularization term under the constraint condition. In the experimental results, the reconstructed image quality obtained using the proposed method is better than that of the conventional approaches in terms of both peak signal-to-noise ratio and structural similarity.

  8. Multispectral remote sensing contribution to land surface evaporation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhury, B. J.

    1990-01-01

    The global water cycle is perhaps the most important of all the biogeochemical cycles and evaporation, which is a significant component of the water cycle, is also linked with the energy and carbon cycles. Long-term evaporation over large areas has generally been computed as the difference of precipitation and river runoff. Analysis of short-term evaporation rate and its spatial pattern, however, is extremely complex, and multispectral remotely sensed data could aid in such analysis. Multispectral data considered here are visible and near-infrared reflectances, infrared surface temperature and the 37 GHz brightness temperatures. These observations are found to be not totally independent of each other. A few of their relationships are established and discussed considering physically-based models.

  9. Advances in automatic extraction of information from multispectral scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of automatic multispectral scanner data analysis and interpretation is reviewed. Sources of system variability which tend to obscure the spectral characteristics of the classes under consideration are discussed, and examples of the application of spatial and temporal discrimination bases are given. Automatic processing functions, techniques and methods, and equipment are described with particular attention to those that are applicable to large land surveys using satellite data. The development and characteristics of the Multivariate Interactive Digital Analysis System (MIDAS) for processing aircraft or satellite multispectral scanning data are discussed in detail. The MIDAS system combines the parallel digital implementation capabilities of a low-cost processor with a general purpose PDP-11/45 minicomputer to provide near-real-time data processing. The preprocessing functions are user-selectable. The input subsystem accepts data stored on high density digital tape, computer compatible tape, and analog tape.

  10. Uniqueness in multispectral constant-wave epi-illumination imaging.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Allende, P B; Radrich, K; Symvoulidis, P; Glatz, J; Koch, M; Jentoft, K M; Ripoll, J; Ntziachristos, V

    2016-07-01

    Multispectral tissue imaging based on optical cameras and continuous-wave tissue illumination is commonly used in medicine and biology. Surprisingly, there is a characteristic absence of a critical look at the quantities that can be uniquely characterized from optically diffuse matter by multispectral imaging. Here, we investigate the fundamental question of uniqueness in epi-illumination measurements from turbid media obtained at multiple wavelengths. By utilizing an analytical model, tissue-mimicking phantoms, and an in vivo imaging experiment we show that independent of the bands employed, spectral measurements cannot uniquely retrieve absorption and scattering coefficients. We also establish that it is, nevertheless, possible to uniquely quantify oxygen saturation and the Mie scattering power-a previously undocumented uniqueness condition. PMID:27367111

  11. Nanobolometer: silicon-based uncooled multi-spectral IR detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyesog; Verma, Ravi

    2012-06-01

    By utilizing the band-selective nature of optically resonant nanoparticles, Tanner Research is developing a room temperature multi-spectral IR detection technology termed Nanobolometer. Because the device physics is not based on photodiode/photoconductive (cooled IR detectors) operation, it does not require cooling. It is also not a heat sensing (Microbolometers) scheme and is capable of multi-spectral detection from NIR to LWIR. A nanobolometer is built on a Si substrate for the entire detection bands (NIR-LWIR), which enables low material and fabrication costs, with an added advantage of being able to integrate UV/Vis detector pixels in the same platform. We present the theory and working principle of Tanner's Nanobolomter technology and report a proof-of-concept demonstration that achieved IR detection at 1.5 μm. Tanner's on-going R&D effort aims to extend the detection bands to MWIR/LWIR.

  12. An augmentative gaze directing framework for multi-spectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiao, Libby

    Modern digital imaging techniques have made the task of imaging more prolic than ever and the volume of images and data available through multi-spectral imaging methods for exploitation is exceeding that which can be solely processed by human beings. The researchers proposed and developed a novel eye movement contingent framework and display system through adaption of the demonstrated technique of subtle gaze direction by presenting modulations within the displayed image. The system sought to augment visual search task performance of aerial imagery by incorporating multi-spectral image processing algorithms to determine potential regions of interest within an image. The exploratory work conducted was to study the feasibility of visual gaze direction with the specic intent of extending this application to geospatial image analysis without need for overt cueing to areas of potential interest and thereby maintaining the benefits of an undirected and unbiased search by an observer.

  13. Multi-spectral compressive snapshot imaging using RGB image sensors.

    PubMed

    Rueda, Hoover; Lau, Daniel; Arce, Gonzalo R

    2015-05-01

    Compressive sensing is a powerful sensing and reconstruction framework for recovering high dimensional signals with only a handful of observations and for spectral imaging, compressive sensing offers a novel method of multispectral imaging. Specifically, the coded aperture snapshot spectral imager (CASSI) system has been demonstrated to produce multi-spectral data cubes color images from a single snapshot taken by a monochrome image sensor. In this paper, we expand the theoretical framework of CASSI to include the spectral sensitivity of the image sensor pixels to account for color and then investigate the impact on image quality using either a traditional color image sensor that spatially multiplexes red, green, and blue light filters or a novel Foveon image sensor which stacks red, green, and blue pixels on top of one another. PMID:25969307

  14. Flood-plain delineation using multispectral data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harker, G. R.; Rouse, J. W., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The paper explores the application of a remote sensing technique that may permit the determination of flood-plain areas without the extensive work associated with existing techniques. Multispectral scanner data were simulated by utilizing the density differences in a color-infrared transparency for a section of the Navasota River, Texas. The transparency was taken from a low-flying aircraft and covered an area approximating a square mile. The simulated data were processed by an automatic classification technique previously developed in the remote sensing field. The technique used involves the application of the maximum likelihood rule in order to categorize the data being processed. An attempt was made to distinguish between areas known to be in the flood plain and those outside. A reasonabke correlation was found between boundaries based on computer-processed multispectral data and those produced by techniques currently in use.

  15. Tasseled cap transformation for HJ multispectral remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Ling; Han, Xiaoyong

    2015-12-01

    The tasseled cap transformation of remote sensing data has been widely used in environment, agriculture, forest and ecology. Tasseled cap transformation coefficients matrix of HJ multi-spectrum data has been established through Givens rotation matrix to rotate principal component transform vector to whiteness, greenness and blueness direction of ground object basing on 24 scenes year-round HJ multispectral remote sensing data. The whiteness component enhances the brightness difference of ground object, and the greenness component preserves more detailed information of vegetation change while enhances the vegetation characteristic, and the blueness component significantly enhances factory with blue plastic house roof around the town and also can enhance brightness of water. Tasseled cap transformation coefficients matrix of HJ will enhance the application effect of HJ multispectral remote sensing data in their application fields.

  16. Digital preprocessing and classification of multispectral earth observation data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anuta, P. E.

    1976-01-01

    The development of airborne and satellite multispectral image scanning sensors has generated wide-spread interest in application of these sensors to earth resource mapping. These point scanning sensors permit scenes to be imaged in a large number of electromagnetic energy bands between .3 and 15 micrometers. The energy sensed in each band can be used as a feature in a computer based multi-dimensional pattern recognition process to aid in interpreting the nature of elements in the scene. Images from each band can also be interpreted visually. Visual interpretation of five or ten multispectral images simultaneously becomes impractical especially as area studied increases; hence, great emphasis has been placed on machine (computer) techniques for aiding in the interpretation process. This paper describes a computer software system concept called LARSYS for analysis of multivariate image data and presents some examples of its application.

  17. [In-flight absolute radiometric calibration of UAV multispectral sensor].

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Yan, Lei; Gou, Zhi-Yang; Zhao, Hong-Ying; Liu, Da-Ping; Duan, Yi-Ni

    2012-12-01

    Based on the data of the scientific experiment in Urad Front Banner for UAV Remote Sensing Load Calibration Field project, with the help of 6 hyperspectral radiometric targets with good Lambertian property, the wide-view multispectral camera in UAV was calibrated adopting reflectance-based method. The result reveals that for green, red and infrared channel, whose images were successfully captured, the linear correlation coefficients between the DN and radiance are all larger than 99%. In final analysis, the comprehensive error is no more than 6%. The calibration results demonstrate that the hyperspectral targets equipped by the calibration field are well suitable for air-borne multispectral load in-flight calibration. The calibration result is reliable and could be used in the retrieval of geophysical parameters.

  18. Multi-spectral infrared spectroscopy for robust plastic identification.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Guardado, Abraham; Money, Mason; McKinney, Nathaniel; Chanda, Debashis

    2015-08-20

    The identification and classification of plastics plays an important role in waste management and recycling processes. Present electrical and optical sorting techniques lack the required resolution for accurate identification in a high throughput manner for a diverse set of plastics commonly found in municipal waste. In this work a multi-spectral infrared spectroscopic technique is employed to construct a unique fingerprint library of 12 plastic resin groups that are commonly encountered in municipal waste. We test the proposed method in a blind plastic identification experiment, which shows excellent unbiased identification accuracy. This simple optical technique in combination with the multi-spectral library will enable high throughput and accurate detection of various plastics from recovered solid waste. PMID:26368777

  19. Advanced Multispectral Scanner (AMS) study. [aircraft remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The status of aircraft multispectral scanner technology was accessed in order to develop preliminary design specifications for an advanced instrument to be used for remote sensing data collection by aircraft in the 1980 time frame. The system designed provides a no-moving parts multispectral scanning capability through the exploitation of linear array charge coupled device technology and advanced electronic signal processing techniques. Major advantages include: 10:1 V/H rate capability; 120 deg FOV at V/H = 0.25 rad/sec; 1 to 2 rad resolution; high sensitivity; large dynamic range capability; geometric fidelity; roll compensation; modularity; long life; and 24 channel data acquisition capability. The field flattening techniques of the optical design allow wide field view to be achieved at fast f/nos for both the long and short wavelength regions. The digital signal averaging technique permits maximization of signal to noise performance over the entire V/H rate range.

  20. Multispectral Remote Sensing at the Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Shines, J.E.; Tinney, L.R.; Hawley, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    Aerial Mesurements Operations (AMO) is the remote sensing arm of the Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of AMO is to provide timely, accurate, and cost-effective remote sensing data on a non-interference basis over DOE facilities located around the country. One of the programs administered by AMO is the Comprehensive Integrated Remote Sensing (CIRS) program, which involves the use of a wide range of data acquisition systems - aerial cameras, multispectral and infrared scanners, and nuclear detectors - to acquire data at DOE sites. The data are then processed, analyzed and interpreted to provide useful information, which is then catalogued into a data base for future use. This report describes some of the data acquisition and analysis capabilities of the Multispectral Remote Sensing Department (MRSD) as they relate to the CIRS program. 3 tables.

  1. Acousto-optic tunable filter multispectral imaging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Li-Jen; Chao, Tien-Hsin; Reyes, George

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses recent activities of Jet Propulsion Laboratory in the development of a new type of remote sensing multispectral imaging instruments using acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) as programmable bandpass filter. This remote sensor provides real-time operation; observational flexibility; measurements of spectral, spatial, and polarization information using a single instrument; and compact, solid state structure without moving parts. Two microcomputer-controlled AOTF imaging spectrometer breadboard systems were designed and built. One operates in the wavelength range of 0.48-0.76 micron and the other in the range of 1.2-2.5 micron. Experiments were performed using these two systems to observe geological and botanical objects in laboratory and outdoor environment. Results have demonstrated the feasibility of using the AOTF multispectral imaging system as a real-time versatile remote sensor with operational flexibility for future Army tactical applications.

  2. Implementation of Multispectral Image Classification on a Remote Adaptive Computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figueiredo, Marco A.; Gloster, Clay S.; Stephens, Mark; Graves, Corey A.; Nakkar, Mouna

    1999-01-01

    As the demand for higher performance computers for the processing of remote sensing science algorithms increases, the need to investigate new computing paradigms its justified. Field Programmable Gate Arrays enable the implementation of algorithms at the hardware gate level, leading to orders of m a,gnitude performance increase over microprocessor based systems. The automatic classification of spaceborne multispectral images is an example of a computation intensive application, that, can benefit from implementation on an FPGA - based custom computing machine (adaptive or reconfigurable computer). A probabilistic neural network is used here to classify pixels of of a multispectral LANDSAT-2 image. The implementation described utilizes Java client/server application programs to access the adaptive computer from a remote site. Results verify that a remote hardware version of the algorithm (implemented on an adaptive computer) is significantly faster than a local software version of the same algorithm implemented on a typical general - purpose computer).

  3. Improvements in estimating proportions of objects from multispectral data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horwitz, H. M.; Hyde, P. D.; Richardson, W.

    1974-01-01

    Methods for estimating proportions of objects and materials imaged within the instantaneous field of view of a multispectral sensor were developed further. Improvements in the basic proportion estimation algorithm were devised as well as improved alien object detection procedures. Also, a simplified signature set analysis scheme was introduced for determining the adequacy of signature set geometry for satisfactory proportion estimation. Averaging procedures used in conjunction with the mixtures algorithm were examined theoretically and applied to artificially generated multispectral data. A computationally simpler estimator was considered and found unsatisfactory. Experiments conducted to find a suitable procedure for setting the alien object threshold yielded little definitive result. Mixtures procedures were used on a limited amount of ERTS data to estimate wheat proportion in selected areas. Results were unsatisfactory, partly because of the ill-conditioned nature of the pure signature set.

  4. Multispectral Electrical Impedance Tomography using Optimization over Manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fouchard, A.; Bonnet, S.; David, O.

    2016-10-01

    Electrical impedance tomography under spectral constraints uses a material basis decomposition to combine the different information embedded in the tissue spectra. This approach offers an alternative to static imaging while benefiting from systemic error cancellation using difference data. It suits well cases where no prior solution is known and the contrast lies entirely between frequencies, e.g. to diagnose acute stroke or cancer. In this work, a computational framework is presented to deal with the extra frequency dimensions and the constraints during reconstruction. A fraction volume approach is demonstrated with explicit Euclidean gradient, usage of a finite volume element solver and minimization over the oblique manifold. It is applied to synthetic data. Parameter estimations are compared between a monofrequency inversion and the proposed multispectral implementation. Results suggest that the proposed workflow enables to reduce the computational workload of multispectral inversion while ensuring valid proportions of materials within each control volume.

  5. Automatic target recognition algorithm based on statistical dispersion of infrared multispectral image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Cao, Le-lin; Wu, Chun-feng; Hou, Qing-yu

    2009-07-01

    A novel automatic target recognition algorithm based on statistical dispersion of infrared multispectral images(SDOIMI) is proposed. Firstly, infrared multispectral characteristic matrix of the scenario is constructed based on infrared multispectral characteristic information (such as radiation intensity and spectral distribution etc.) of targets, background and decoys. Then the infrared multispectral characteristic matrix of targets is reconstructed after segmenting image by maximum distance method and fusing spatial and spectral information. Finally, an statistical dispersion of infrared multispectral images(SDOIMI) recognition criteria is formulated in terms of spectral radiation difference of interesting targets. In simulation, nine sub-bands multispectral images of real ship target and shipborne aerosol infrared decoy modulated by laser simulating ship geometry appearance are obtained via using spectral radiation curves. Digital simulation experiment result verifies that the algorithm is effective and feasible.

  6. Perspective of inline control of latent defects and diseases on french fries with multispectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noordam, Jacco C.; van den Broek, Willie H.; Buydens, Lutgarde M.

    2004-03-01

    In this paper, the feasibility is investigated to improve discrimination between different defect and diseases on raw French fries with multispectral imaging. Four different potato cultivars are selected from which French Fries are cut. Both multispectral images and RGB color images are classified with linear Bayes normal classifier and a support vector classifier. The effect of applying different preprocessing techniques on the spectra prior to classification was also investigated. The classification result are compared with both RGB images and the full spectra classification results. Experimental results indicate that the support vector classifier gives the best performance for both multispectral and RGB color images and is less preprocessing dependent. The multispectral image classification results outperform the RGB color classification results with a factor 15 at best. An explorative multispectral analysis also shows that latent defects can be detected with multispectral imaging, in contrast with traditional color imaging.

  7. ADP of multispectral scanner data for land use mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffer, R. M.

    1971-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of various remote sensing instrumentation and analysis techniques are reviewed. The use of multispectral scanner data and the automatic data processing techniques are considered. A computer-aided analysis system for remote sensor data is described with emphasis on the image display, statistics processor, wavelength band selection, classification processor, and results display. Advanced techniques in using spectral and temporal data are also considered.

  8. Study on modeling of multispectral emissivity and optimization algorithm.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chunling; Yu, Yong; Zhao, Dongyang; Zhao, Guoliang

    2006-01-01

    Target's spectral emissivity changes variously, and how to obtain target's continuous spectral emissivity is a difficult problem to be well solved nowadays. In this letter, an activation-function-tunable neural network is established, and a multistep searching method which can be used to train the model is proposed. The proposed method can effectively calculate the object's continuous spectral emissivity from the multispectral radiation information. It is a universal method, which can be used to realize on-line emissivity demarcation.

  9. Analysis of simulated multispectral data from earth resources satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, D. A.; Rouse, J. W., Jr.; Scheel, J. A.

    1971-01-01

    The validity of the applicability assumption was determined through the simulation of ERTS and Skylab data using available aircraft scanner systems. The research techniques compared aircraft multispectral scanner data obtained under nominal conditions at low altitudes. Maximum likelihood decision criteria algorithms implemented on a digital computer were used to classify training set data. Comparisons between percentages of correct classifications were made, along with implications as to the techniques of satellite analysis.

  10. LANDSAT-4 multispectral scanner (MSS) subsystem radiometric characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alford, W. (Editor); Barker, J. (Editor); Clark, B. P.; Dasgupta, R.

    1983-01-01

    The multispectral band scanner (mass) and its spectral characteristics are described and methods are given for relating video digital levels on computer compatible tapes to radiance into the sensor. Topics covered include prelaunch calibration procedures and postlaunch radiometric processng. Examples of current data resident on the MSS image processing system are included. The MSS on LANDSAT 4 is compared with the scanners on earlier LANDSAT satellites.

  11. Color coded data obtained by JPL's Shuttle Multispectral Infrared radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Color coded data obtained from Baja California, Mexico to Texas by JPL's Shuttle Multispectral Infrared radiometer is pictured. The map shows where data was obtained on the 19th orbit of the mission. Yellow and green areas represent water. The first brown segment at left is Baja California, and the second begins at the coast of mainland Mexico and extends into Texas. The dark brown strips at the right are clouds.

  12. The Multispectral Imaging Science Working Group. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, S. C. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Results of the deliberations of the six multispectral imaging science working groups (Botany, Geography, Geology, Hydrology, Imaging Science and Information Science) are summarized. Consideration was given to documenting the current state of knowledge in terrestrial remote sensing without the constraints of preconceived concepts such as possible band widths, number of bands, and radiometric or spatial resolutions of present or future systems. The findings of each working group included a discussion of desired capabilities and critical developmental issues.

  13. Utilizing SAR and Multispectral Integrated Data for Emergency Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havivi, S.; Schvartzman, I.; Maman, S.; Marinoni, A.; Gamba, P.; Rotman, S. R.; Blumberg, D. G.

    2016-06-01

    Satellite images are used widely in the risk cycle to understand the exposure, refine hazard maps and quickly provide an assessment after a natural or man-made disaster. Though there are different types of satellite images (e.g. optical, radar) these have not been combined for risk assessments. The characteristics of different remote sensing data type may be extremely valuable for monitoring and evaluating the impacts of disaster events, to extract additional information thus making it available for emergency situations. To base this approach, two different change detection methods, for two different sensor's data were used: Coherence Change Detection (CCD) for SAR data and Covariance Equalization (CE) for multispectral imagery. The CCD provides an identification of the stability of an area, and shows where changes have occurred. CCD shows subtle changes with an accuracy of several millimetres to centimetres. The CE method overcomes the atmospheric effects differences between two multispectral images, taken at different times. Therefore, areas that had undergone a major change can be detected. To achieve our goals, we focused on the urban areas affected by the tsunami event in Sendai, Japan that occurred on March 11, 2011 which affected the surrounding area, coastline and inland. High resolution TerraSAR-X (TSX) and Landsat 7 images, covering the research area, were acquired for the period before and after the event. All pre-processed and processed according to each sensor. Both results, of the optical and SAR algorithms, were combined by resampling the spatial resolution of the Multispectral data to the SAR resolution. This was applied by spatial linear interpolation. A score representing the damage level in both products was assigned. The results of both algorithms, high level of damage is shown in the areas closer to the sea and shoreline. Our approach, combining SAR and multispectral images, leads to more reliable information and provides a complete scene for

  14. Multi-spectral imaging with mid-infrared semiconductor lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yi; Wang, Yang; Le, Han Q.

    2006-01-01

    Multi-spectral laser imaging can be a useful technology for target discrimination, classification, and identification based on object spectral signatures. The mid-IR region (~3-14 μm) is particularly rich of molecular spectroscopic fingerprints, but the technology has been under utilized. Compact, potentially inexpensive semiconductor lasers may allow more cost-effective applications. This paper describes a development of semiconductor-laser-based multi-spectral imaging for both near-IR and mid-IR, and demonstrates the potential of this technology. The near-IR study employed 7 wavelengths from 0.635-1.55 μm, and used for system engineering evaluation as well as for studying the fundamental aspects of multi-spectral laser imaging. These include issues of wavelength-dependence scattering as a function of incident and receiving angle and the polarization effects. Stokes vector imaging and degree-of-linear-polarization were shown to reveal significant information to characterize the targets. The mid-IR study employed 4 wavelengths from 3.3-9.6 μm, and was applied to diverse targets that consist of natural and man-made materials and household objects. It was shown capable to resolve and distinguish small spectral differences among various targets, thanks to the laser radiometric and spectral accuracy. Colorless objects in the visible were shown with "colorful" signatures in the mid-IR. An essential feature of the study is an advanced system architecture that employs wavelength-division-multiplexed laser beams for high spectral fidelity and resolution. In addition, unlike conventional one-transmitter and one receiver design, the system is based on a scalable CDMA network concept with multiple transmitters and receivers to allow efficient information acquisition. The results suggest that multi-spectral laser imaging in general can be a unique and powerful technology for wide ranging applications.

  15. Calibration of a multispectral camera system using interference filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishi, Shogo; Tominaga, Shoji

    2011-08-01

    The present paper proposes a calibration method of a multispectral camera system using interference filters. A spectral image processing is effective to acquire an inherent information of an object in a general way. However, filter registration error often occurs when the interference filter is used. Therefore, a calibration method is presented for correcting observed images. Moreover, we describe a method for digital archiving of oil paintings based the present imaging system.

  16. Versatile multispectral microscope based on light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brydegaard, Mikkel; Merdasa, Aboma; Jayaweera, Hiran; Ålebring, Jens; Svanberg, Sune

    2011-12-01

    We describe the development of a novel multispectral microscope, based on light-emitting diodes, capable of acquiring megapixel images in thirteen spectral bands from the ultraviolet to the near infrared. The system captures images and spectra in transmittance, reflectance, and scattering modes. We present as examples of applications ground truth measurements for remote sensing and parasitology diagnostics. The system is a general purpose scientific instrument that could be used to develop dedicated simplified instruments with optimal bands and mode selection.

  17. Data processing 1: Advancements in machine analysis of multispectral data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swain, P. H.

    1972-01-01

    Multispectral data processing procedures are outlined beginning with the data display process used to accomplish data editing and proceeding through clustering, feature selection criterion for error probability estimation, and sample clustering and sample classification. The effective utilization of large quantities of remote sensing data by formulating a three stage sampling model for evaluation of crop acreage estimates represents an improvement in determining the cost benefit relationship associated with remote sensing technology.

  18. Retinex Preprocessing for Improved Multi-Spectral Image Classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, B.; Rahman, Z.; Park, S.

    2000-01-01

    The goal of multi-image classification is to identify and label "similar regions" within a scene. The ability to correctly classify a remotely sensed multi-image of a scene is affected by the ability of the classification process to adequately compensate for the effects of atmospheric variations and sensor anomalies. Better classification may be obtained if the multi-image is preprocessed before classification, so as to reduce the adverse effects of image formation. In this paper, we discuss the overall impact on multi-spectral image classification when the retinex image enhancement algorithm is used to preprocess multi-spectral images. The retinex is a multi-purpose image enhancement algorithm that performs dynamic range compression, reduces the dependence on lighting conditions, and generally enhances apparent spatial resolution. The retinex has been successfully applied to the enhancement of many different types of grayscale and color images. We show in this paper that retinex preprocessing improves the spatial structure of multi-spectral images and thus provides better within-class variations than would otherwise be obtained without the preprocessing. For a series of multi-spectral images obtained with diffuse and direct lighting, we show that without retinex preprocessing the class spectral signatures vary substantially with the lighting conditions. Whereas multi-dimensional clustering without preprocessing produced one-class homogeneous regions, the classification on the preprocessed images produced multi-class non-homogeneous regions. This lack of homogeneity is explained by the interaction between different agronomic treatments applied to the regions: the preprocessed images are closer to ground truth. The principle advantage that the retinex offers is that for different lighting conditions classifications derived from the retinex preprocessed images look remarkably "similar", and thus more consistent, whereas classifications derived from the original

  19. Retinal oxygen saturation evaluation by multi-spectral fundus imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoobehi, Bahram; Ning, Jinfeng; Puissegur, Elise; Bordeaux, Kimberly; Balasubramanian, Madhusudhanan; Beach, James

    2007-03-01

    Purpose: To develop a multi-spectral method to measure oxygen saturation of the retina in the human eye. Methods: Five Cynomolgus monkeys with normal eyes were anesthetized with intramuscular ketamine/xylazine and intravenous pentobarbital. Multi-spectral fundus imaging was performed in five monkeys with a commercial fundus camera equipped with a liquid crystal tuned filter in the illumination light path and a 16-bit digital camera. Recording parameters were controlled with software written specifically for the application. Seven images at successively longer oxygen-sensing wavelengths were recorded within 4 seconds. Individual images for each wavelength were captured in less than 100 msec of flash illumination. Slightly misaligned images of separate wavelengths due to slight eye motion were registered and corrected by translational and rotational image registration prior to analysis. Numerical values of relative oxygen saturation of retinal arteries and veins and the underlying tissue in between the artery/vein pairs were evaluated by an algorithm previously described, but which is now corrected for blood volume from averaged pixels (n > 1000). Color saturation maps were constructed by applying the algorithm at each image pixel using a Matlab script. Results: Both the numerical values of relative oxygen saturation and the saturation maps correspond to the physiological condition, that is, in a normal retina, the artery is more saturated than the tissue and the tissue is more saturated than the vein. With the multi-spectral fundus camera and proper registration of the multi-wavelength images, we were able to determine oxygen saturation in the primate retinal structures on a tolerable time scale which is applicable to human subjects. Conclusions: Seven wavelength multi-spectral imagery can be used to measure oxygen saturation in retinal artery, vein, and tissue (microcirculation). This technique is safe and can be used to monitor oxygen uptake in humans. This work

  20. Time-resolved multispectral imaging of combustion reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huot, Alexandrine; Gagnon, Marc-André; Jahjah, Karl-Alexandre; Tremblay, Pierre; Savary, Simon; Farley, Vincent; Lagueux, Philippe; Guyot, Éric; Chamberland, Martin; Marcotte, Fréderick

    2015-05-01

    Thermal infrared imaging is a field of science that evolves rapidly. Scientists have used for years the simplest tool: thermal broadband cameras. This allows to perform target characterization in both the longwave (LWIR) and midwave (MWIR) infrared spectral range. Infrared thermal imaging is used for a wide range of applications, especially in the combustion domain. For example, it can be used to follow combustion reactions, in order to characterize the injection and the ignition in a combustion chamber or even to observe gases produced by a flare or smokestack. Most combustion gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2) selectively absorb/emit infrared radiation at discrete energies, i.e. over a very narrow spectral range. Therefore, temperatures derived from broadband imaging are not reliable without prior knowledge about spectral emissivity. This information is not directly available from broadband images. However, spectral information is available using spectral filters. In this work, combustion analysis was carried out using Telops MS-IR MW camera which allows multispectral imaging at a high frame rate. A motorized filter wheel allowing synchronized acquisitions on eight (8) different channels was used to provide time-resolved multispectral imaging of combustion products of a candle in which black powder has been burnt to create a burst. It was then possible to estimate the temperature by modeling spectral profile derived from information obtained with the different spectral filters. Comparison with temperatures obtained using conventional broadband imaging illustrates the benefits of time-resolved multispectral imaging for the characterization of combustion processes.

  1. Time-resolved multispectral imaging of combustion reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huot, Alexandrine; Gagnon, Marc-André; Jahjah, Karl-Alexandre; Tremblay, Pierre; Savary, Simon; Farley, Vincent; Lagueux, Philippe; Guyot, Éric; Chamberland, Martin; Marcotte, Frédérick

    2015-10-01

    Thermal infrared imaging is a field of science that evolves rapidly. Scientists have used for years the simplest tool: thermal broadband cameras. These allow to perform target characterization in both the longwave (LWIR) and midwave (MWIR) infrared spectral range. Infrared thermal imaging is used for a wide range of applications, especially in the combustion domain. For example, it can be used to follow combustion reactions, in order to characterize the injection and the ignition in a combustion chamber or even to observe gases produced by a flare or smokestack. Most combustion gases, such as carbon dioxide (CO2), selectively absorb/emit infrared radiation at discrete energies, i.e. over a very narrow spectral range. Therefore, temperatures derived from broadband imaging are not reliable without prior knowledge of spectral emissivity. This information is not directly available from broadband images. However, spectral information is available using spectral filters. In this work, combustion analysis was carried out using a Telops MS-IR MW camera, which allows multispectral imaging at a high frame rate. A motorized filter wheel allowing synchronized acquisitions on eight (8) different channels was used to provide time-resolved multispectral imaging of combustion products of a candle in which black powder has been burnt to create a burst. It was then possible to estimate the temperature by modeling spectral profiles derived from information obtained with the different spectral filters. Comparison with temperatures obtained using conventional broadband imaging illustrates the benefits of time-resolved multispectral imaging for the characterization of combustion processes.

  2. Multispectral Analysis of Indigenous Rock Art Using Terrestrial Laser Scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skoog, B.; Helmholz, P.; Belton, D.

    2016-06-01

    Multispectral analysis is a widely used technique in the photogrammetric and remote sensing industry. The use of Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) in combination with imagery is becoming increasingly common, with its applications spreading to a wider range of fields. Both systems benefit from being a non-contact technique that can be used to accurately capture data regarding the target surface. Although multispectral analysis is actively performed within the spatial sciences field, its extent of application within an archaeological context has been limited. This study effectively aims to apply the multispectral techniques commonly used, to a remote Indigenous site that contains an extensive gallery of aging rock art. The ultimate goal for this research is the development of a systematic procedure that could be applied to numerous similar sites for the purpose of heritage preservation and research. The study consisted of extensive data capture of the rock art gallery using two different TLS systems and a digital SLR camera. The data was combined into a common 2D reference frame that allowed for standard image processing to be applied. An unsupervised k-means classifier was applied to the multiband images to detect the different types of rock art present. The result was unsatisfactory as the subsequent classification accuracy was relatively low. The procedure and technique does however show potential and further testing with different classification algorithms could possibly improve the result significantly.

  3. Multi Texture Analysis of Colorectal Cancer Continuum Using Multispectral Imagery

    PubMed Central

    Chaddad, Ahmad; Desrosiers, Christian; Bouridane, Ahmed; Toews, Matthew; Hassan, Lama; Tanougast, Camel

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This paper proposes to characterize the continuum of colorectal cancer (CRC) using multiple texture features extracted from multispectral optical microscopy images. Three types of pathological tissues (PT) are considered: benign hyperplasia, intraepithelial neoplasia and carcinoma. Materials and Methods In the proposed approach, the region of interest containing PT is first extracted from multispectral images using active contour segmentation. This region is then encoded using texture features based on the Laplacian-of-Gaussian (LoG) filter, discrete wavelets (DW) and gray level co-occurrence matrices (GLCM). To assess the significance of textural differences between PT types, a statistical analysis based on the Kruskal-Wallis test is performed. The usefulness of texture features is then evaluated quantitatively in terms of their ability to predict PT types using various classifier models. Results Preliminary results show significant texture differences between PT types, for all texture features (p-value < 0.01). Individually, GLCM texture features outperform LoG and DW features in terms of PT type prediction. However, a higher performance can be achieved by combining all texture features, resulting in a mean classification accuracy of 98.92%, sensitivity of 98.12%, and specificity of 99.67%. Conclusions These results demonstrate the efficiency and effectiveness of combining multiple texture features for characterizing the continuum of CRC and discriminating between pathological tissues in multispectral images. PMID:26901134

  4. Real-time multispectral imaging application for poultry safety inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Bosoon; Lawrence, Kurt C.; Windham, William R.; Snead, Matthew P.

    2006-02-01

    The ARS imaging research group in Athens, Georgia has developed a real-time multispectral imaging system for fecal and ingesta contaminant detection on broiler carcasses for poultry industry. The industrial scale system includes a common aperture camera with three visible wavelength optical trim filters. This paper demonstrates calibration of common aperture multispectral imaging hardware and real-time image processing software. The software design, especially the Unified Modeling Language (UML) design approach was used to develop real-time image processing software for on-line application. The UML models including class, object, activity, sequence, and collaboration diagram were presented. Both hardware and software for a real-time fecal and ingesta contaminant detection were tested at the pilot-scale poultry processing line. The test results of industrial sacle real-time system showed that the multispectral imaging technique performed well for detecting fecal contaminants with a commercial processing speed (currently 140 birds per minute). The accuracy for the detection of fecal and ingesta contaminates was approximately 96%.

  5. Dual multispectral and 3D structured light laparoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clancy, Neil T.; Lin, Jianyu; Arya, Shobhit; Hanna, George B.; Elson, Daniel S.

    2015-03-01

    Intraoperative feedback on tissue function, such as blood volume and oxygenation would be useful to the surgeon in cases where current clinical practice relies on subjective measures, such as identification of ischaemic bowel or tissue viability during anastomosis formation. Also, tissue surface profiling may be used to detect and identify certain pathologies, as well as diagnosing aspects of tissue health such as gut motility. In this paper a dual modality laparoscopic system is presented that combines multispectral reflectance and 3D surface imaging. White light illumination from a xenon source is detected by a laparoscope-mounted fast filter wheel camera to assemble a multispectral image (MSI) cube. Surface shape is then calculated using a spectrally-encoded structured light (SL) pattern detected by the same camera and triangulated using an active stereo technique. Images of porcine small bowel were acquired during open surgery. Tissue reflectance spectra were acquired and blood volume was calculated at each spatial pixel across the bowel wall and mesentery. SL features were segmented and identified using a `normalised cut' algoritm and the colour vector of each spot. Using the 3D geometry defined by the camera coordinate system the multispectral data could be overlaid onto the surface mesh. Dual MSI and SL imaging has the potential to provide augmented views to the surgeon supplying diagnostic information related to blood supply health and organ function. Future work on this system will include filter optimisation to reduce noise in tissue optical property measurement, and minimise spot identification errors in the SL pattern.

  6. Quality assessment of butter cookies applying multispectral imaging.

    PubMed

    Andresen, Mette S; Dissing, Bjørn S; Løje, Hanne

    2013-07-01

    A method for characterization of butter cookie quality by assessing the surface browning and water content using multispectral images is presented. Based on evaluations of the browning of butter cookies, cookies were manually divided into groups. From this categorization, reference values were calculated for a statistical prediction model correlating multispectral images with a browning score. The browning score is calculated as a function of oven temperature and baking time. It is presented as a quadratic response surface. The investigated process window was the intervals 4-16 min and 160-200°C in a forced convection electrically heated oven. In addition to the browning score, a model for predicting the average water content based on the same images is presented. This shows how multispectral images of butter cookies may be used for the assessment of different quality parameters. Statistical analysis showed that the most significant wavelengths for browning predictions were in the interval 400-700 nm and the wavelengths significant for water prediction were primarily located in the near-infrared spectrum. The water prediction model was found to correctly estimate the average water content with an absolute error of 0.22%. From the images it was also possible to follow the browning and drying propagation from the cookie edge toward the center.

  7. Multispectral tissue analysis and classification towards enabling automated robotic surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triana, Brian; Cha, Jaepyeong; Shademan, Azad; Krieger, Axel; Kang, Jin U.; Kim, Peter C. W.

    2014-02-01

    Accurate optical characterization of different tissue types is an important tool for potentially guiding surgeons and enabling automated robotic surgery. Multispectral imaging and analysis have been used in the literature to detect spectral variations in tissue reflectance that may be visible to the naked eye. Using this technique, hidden structures can be visualized and analyzed for effective tissue classification. Here, we investigated the feasibility of automated tissue classification using multispectral tissue analysis. Broadband reflectance spectra (200-1050 nm) were collected from nine different ex vivo porcine tissues types using an optical fiber-probe based spectrometer system. We created a mathematical model to train and distinguish different tissue types based upon analysis of the observed spectra using total principal component regression (TPCR). Compared to other reported methods, our technique is computationally inexpensive and suitable for real-time implementation. Each of the 92 spectra was cross-referenced against the nine tissue types. Preliminary results show a mean detection rate of 91.3%, with detection rates of 100% and 70.0% (inner and outer kidney), 100% and 100% (inner and outer liver), 100% (outer stomach), and 90.9%, 100%, 70.0%, 85.7% (four different inner stomach areas, respectively). We conclude that automated tissue differentiation using our multispectral tissue analysis method is feasible in multiple ex vivo tissue specimens. Although measurements were performed using ex vivo tissues, these results suggest that real-time, in vivo tissue identification during surgery may be possible.

  8. Multispectral image analysis for object recognition and classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viau, C. R.; Payeur, P.; Cretu, A.-M.

    2016-05-01

    Computer and machine vision applications are used in numerous fields to analyze static and dynamic imagery in order to assist or automate decision-making processes. Advancements in sensor technologies now make it possible to capture and visualize imagery at various wavelengths (or bands) of the electromagnetic spectrum. Multispectral imaging has countless applications in various fields including (but not limited to) security, defense, space, medical, manufacturing and archeology. The development of advanced algorithms to process and extract salient information from the imagery is a critical component of the overall system performance. The fundamental objective of this research project was to investigate the benefits of combining imagery from the visual and thermal bands of the electromagnetic spectrum to improve the recognition rates and accuracy of commonly found objects in an office setting. A multispectral dataset (visual and thermal) was captured and features from the visual and thermal images were extracted and used to train support vector machine (SVM) classifiers. The SVM's class prediction ability was evaluated separately on the visual, thermal and multispectral testing datasets.

  9. Fast unmixing of multispectral optoacoustic data with vertex component analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luís Deán-Ben, X.; Deliolanis, Nikolaos C.; Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Razansky, Daniel

    2014-07-01

    Multispectral optoacoustic tomography enhances the performance of single-wavelength imaging in terms of sensitivity and selectivity in the measurement of the biodistribution of specific chromophores, thus enabling functional and molecular imaging applications. Spectral unmixing algorithms are used to decompose multi-spectral optoacoustic data into a set of images representing distribution of each individual chromophoric component while the particular algorithm employed determines the sensitivity and speed of data visualization. Here we suggest using vertex component analysis (VCA), a method with demonstrated good performance in hyperspectral imaging, as a fast blind unmixing algorithm for multispectral optoacoustic tomography. The performance of the method is subsequently compared with a previously reported blind unmixing procedure in optoacoustic tomography based on a combination of principal component analysis (PCA) and independent component analysis (ICA). As in most practical cases the absorption spectrum of the imaged chromophores and contrast agents are known or can be determined using e.g. a spectrophotometer, we further investigate the so-called semi-blind approach, in which the a priori known spectral profiles are included in a modified version of the algorithm termed constrained VCA. The performance of this approach is also analysed in numerical simulations and experimental measurements. It has been determined that, while the standard version of the VCA algorithm can attain similar sensitivity to the PCA-ICA approach and have a robust and faster performance, using the a priori measured spectral information within the constrained VCA does not generally render improvements in detection sensitivity in experimental optoacoustic measurements.

  10. Colorimetric-spectral clustering: a tool for multispectral image compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciprian, R.; Carbucicchio, M.

    2011-11-01

    In this work a new compression method for multispectral images has been proposed: the 'colorimetric-spectral clustering'. The basic idea arises from the well-known cluster analysis, a multivariate analysis which finds the natural links between objects grouping them into clusters. In the colorimetric-spectral clustering compression method, the objects are the spectral reflectance factors of the multispectral images that are grouped into clusters on the basis of their colour difference. In particular two spectra can belong to the same cluster only if their colour difference is lower than a threshold fixed before starting the compression procedure. The performance of the colorimetric-spectral clustering has been compared to the k-means cluster analysis, in which the Euclidean distance between spectra is considered, to the principal component analysis and to the LabPQR method. The colorimetric-spectral clustering is able to preserve both the spectral and the colorimetric information of a multispectral image, allowing this information to be reproduced for all pixels of the image.

  11. Polarization controllable multispectral symmetry-breaking absorberin mid-infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Nan; Pitchappa, Prakash; Ho, Chong Pei; Hasan, Dihan; Kropelnicki, Piotr; Alioto, Massimo; Lee, Chengkuo

    2016-08-01

    The versatility of mid-infrared metamaterial absorbers along with the ease of fabrication has been widely used in thermal imaging, molecule sensing, and many other applications. Controllable multispectral absorption is highly required for small footprint, multi-purpose, and real-time sensing applications. In this paper, we present the polarization control of interchangeable multispectral absorption based on the dual-band metamaterial absorber in split mode. Large modulation depth of absorption is obtained during multi-band transition through polarization control. We perform theoretical and numerical analysis to explain the results by formulating an equivalent circuit for the asymmetric cross resonator. Thermal controllability is also demonstrated to show the reversible and repeatable manipulation of absorption intensity at a given wavelength. Moreover, we characterized the limitation of this device under extreme high temperature. This work offers a design methodology for interchangeable multispectral metamaterial absorber from a new perspective by adopting polarization of incident light as a control mechanism, and this will open up possibilities for many valuable applications in the future.

  12. Solid state high resolution multi-spectral imager CCD test phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The program consisted of measuring the performance characteristics of charge coupled linear imaging devices, and a study defining a multispectral imaging system employing advanced solid state photodetection techniques.

  13. Boric acid flux synthesis, structure and magnetic property of MB12O14(OH)10 (M=Mn, Fe, Zn)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Dingfeng; Cong, Rihong; Gao, Wenliang; Yang, Tao

    2013-05-01

    Three new borates MB12O14(OH)10 (M=Mn, Fe, Zn) have been synthesized by boric acid flux methods, which are isotypic to NiB12O14(OH)10. Single-crystal XRD was performed to determine the crystal structures in detail. They all crystallize in the monoclinic space group P21/c. The size of MO6 (M=Mg, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn) octahedron shows a good agreement with the Shannon effective ionic radii of M2+. Magnetic measurements indicate MnB12O14(OH)10 is antiferromagnetic without a long-range ordering down to 2 K. The values of its magnetic superexchange constants were evaluated by DFT calculations, which explain the observed magnetic behavior. The UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectrum of ZnB12O14(OH)10 suggests a band gap ˜4.6 eV. DFT calculations indicate it has a direct band gap 4.9 eV. The optical band gap is contributed by charge transfers from the occupied O 2p to the unoccupied Zn 4s states.

  14. HST luminosity functions of the globular clusters M10, M22, and M55. A comparison with other clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piotto, G.; Zoccali, M.

    1999-05-01

    From a combination of deep Hubble Space Telescope V and I images with groundbased images in the same bands, we have obtained color-magnitude diagrams of M10, M22, and M55, extending from just above the hydrogen burning limit to the tip of the red giant branch, down to the white dwarf cooling sequence. We have used the color-magnitude arrays to extract main sequence luminosity functions (LFs) from the turnoff to m ~ 0.13m_sun. The LFs of M10 is significantly steeper than that for the other two clusters. The difference cannot be due to a difference in metallicity. A comparison with the LFs from Piotto et al. (1997), shows a large spread in the LF slopes. This spread is also present in the local mass functions (MFs) obtained from the observed LFs using different theoretical mass-luminosity relations. The dispersion in the MF slopes remains also after removing the mass segregation effects by using multimass King-Michie models. The globular cluster MF slopes are also flatter than the MF slope of the field stars and of the Galactic clusters in the same mass interval. We interpret the MF slope dispersion and the MF flatness as an evidence of dynamical evolution which makes the present day globular cluster stellar MFs different from the initial MFs. The slopes of the present day MFs exclude that the low mass star can be dynamically relevant for the Galactic globular clusters. Based on HST observations retrieved from the ESO ST-ECF Archive, and on observations made at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile, and at the JKT telescope at La Palma, Islas Canarias.

  15. B cells expressing IL-10 mRNA modulate memory T cells after DNA-Hsp65 immunization.

    PubMed

    Fontoura, I C; Trombone, A P F; Almeida, L P; Lorenzi, J C C; Rossetti, R A M; Malardo, T; Padilha, E; Schluchting, W; Silva, R L L; Gembre, A F; Fiuza, J E C; Silva, C L; Panunto-Castelo, A; Coelho-Castelo, A A M

    2015-12-01

    In DNA vaccines, the gene of interest is cloned into a bacterial plasmid that is engineered to induce protein production for long periods in eukaryotic cells. Previous research has shown that the intramuscular immunization of BALB/c mice with a naked plasmid DNA fragment encoding the Mycobacterium leprae 65-kDa heat-shock protein (pcDNA3-Hsp65) induces protection against M. tuberculosis challenge. A key stage in the protective immune response after immunization is the generation of memory T cells. Previously, we have shown that B cells capture plasmid DNA-Hsp65 and thereby modulate the formation of CD8+ memory T cells after M. tuberculosis challenge in mice. Therefore, clarifying how B cells act as part of the protective immune response after DNA immunization is important for the development of more-effective vaccines. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms by which B cells modulate memory T cells after DNA-Hsp65 immunization. C57BL/6 and BKO mice were injected three times, at 15-day intervals, with 100 µg naked pcDNA-Hsp65 per mouse. Thirty days after immunization, the percentages of effector memory T (TEM) cells (CD4+ and CD8+/CD44high/CD62Llow) and memory CD8+ T cells (CD8+/CD44high/CD62Llow/CD127+) were measured with flow cytometry. Interferon γ, interleukin 12 (IL-12), and IL-10 mRNAs were also quantified in whole spleen cells and purified B cells (CD43-) with real-time qPCR. Our data suggest that a B-cell subpopulation expressing IL-10 downregulated proinflammatory cytokine expression in the spleen, increasing the survival of CD4+ TEM cells and CD8+ TEM/CD127+ cells. PMID:26397973

  16. B cells expressing IL-10 mRNA modulate memory T cells after DNA-Hsp65 immunization

    PubMed Central

    Fontoura, I. C.; Trombone, A.P.F.; Almeida, L. P.; Lorenzi, J. C. C.; Rossetti, R. A. M.; Malardo, T.; Padilha, E.; Schluchting, W.; Silva, R. L. L.; Gembre, A. F.; Fiuza, J. E. C.; Silva, C. L.; Panunto-Castelo, A.; Coelho-Castelo, A. A. M.

    2015-01-01

    In DNA vaccines, the gene of interest is cloned into a bacterial plasmid that is engineered to induce protein production for long periods in eukaryotic cells. Previous research has shown that the intramuscular immunization of BALB/c mice with a naked plasmid DNA fragment encoding the Mycobacterium leprae 65-kDa heat-shock protein (pcDNA3-Hsp65) induces protection against M. tuberculosis challenge. A key stage in the protective immune response after immunization is the generation of memory T cells. Previously, we have shown that B cells capture plasmid DNA-Hsp65 and thereby modulate the formation of CD8+ memory T cells after M. tuberculosis challenge in mice. Therefore, clarifying how B cells act as part of the protective immune response after DNA immunization is important for the development of more-effective vaccines. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms by which B cells modulate memory T cells after DNA-Hsp65 immunization. C57BL/6 and BKO mice were injected three times, at 15-day intervals, with 100 µg naked pcDNA-Hsp65 per mouse. Thirty days after immunization, the percentages of effector memory T (TEM) cells (CD4+ and CD8+/CD44high/CD62Llow) and memory CD8+ T cells (CD8+/CD44high/CD62Llow/CD127+) were measured with flow cytometry. Interferon γ, interleukin 12 (IL-12), and IL-10 mRNAs were also quantified in whole spleen cells and purified B cells (CD43−) with real-time qPCR. Our data suggest that a B-cell subpopulation expressing IL-10 downregulated proinflammatory cytokine expression in the spleen, increasing the survival of CD4+ TEM cells and CD8+ TEM/CD127+ cells. PMID:26397973

  17. Fusion of LIDAR Data and Multispectral Imagery for Effective Building Detection Based on Graph and Connected Component Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilani, S. A. N.; Awrangjeb, M.; Lu, G.

    2015-03-01

    : Aitkenvale and Hervey Bay, for object-based and pixel-based completeness, correctness, and quality. The proposed technique detects buildings larger than 50 m2 and 10 m2 in the Aitkenvale site with 100% and 91% accuracy, respectively, while in the Hervey Bay site it performs better with 100% accuracy for buildings larger than 10 m2 in area.

  18. Implementation and evaluation of ILLIAC 4 algorithms for multispectral image processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swain, P. H.

    1974-01-01

    Data concerning a multidisciplinary and multi-organizational effort to implement multispectral data analysis algorithms on a revolutionary computer, the Illiac 4, are reported. The effectiveness and efficiency of implementing the digital multispectral data analysis techniques for producing useful land use classifications from satellite collected data were demonstrated.

  19. A multispectral sorting device for isolating single wheat kernels with high protein content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Automated sorting of single wheat kernels according to protein content was demonstrated using two novel multispectral sorting devices with different spectral ranges; 470-1070 nm (silicone based detector) and 910nm-1550 nm (InGaAs based detector). The multispectral data were acquired by rapidly (~12...

  20. A real-time multispectral imaging system for low- or mid-altitude remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Dingrong; Kong, Linghua

    2012-10-01

    Multispectral imaging is a powerful tool in remote sensing applications. Recently a micro-arrayed narrow-band optical mosaic filter was invented and successfully fabricated to reduce the size and cost of multispectral imaging devices in order to meet the requirements for low- or mid- altitude remote sensing. Such a filter with four narrow bands is integrated with an off-shelf CCD camera, resulting in an economic and light-weight multispectral imaging camera with the capacity of producing multiple images at different center wavelengths with a single shot. The multispectral imaging camera is then integrated with a wireless transmitter and battery to produce a remote sensing multispectral imaging system. The design and some preliminary results of a prototyped multispectral imaging system with the potential for remote sensing applications with a weight of only 200 grams are reported. The prototyped multispectral imaging system eliminates the image registration procedure required by traditional multispectral imaging technologies. In addition, it has other advantages such as low cost, being light weight and compact in design.

  1. In-vivo multi-spectral confocal microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouse, Andrew R.; Udovich, Joshua A.; Gmitro, Arthur F.

    2005-03-01

    A multi-spectral confocal microendoscope (MCME) for in-vivo imaging has been developed. The MCME employs a flexible fiber-optic catheter coupled to a slit-scan confocal microscope with an imaging spectrometer. The catheter consists of a fiber-optic imaging bundle linked to a miniature objective and focus assembly. The focus mechanism allows for imaging to a maximum tissue depth of 200 microns. The 3mm diameter catheter may be used on its own or routed though the instrument channel of a commercial endoscope. The confocal nature of the system provides optical sectioning with 3 micron lateral resolution and 30 micron axial resolution. The system incorporates two laser sources and is therefore capable of simultaneous acquisition of spectra from multiple dyes using dual excitation. The prism based multi-spectral detection assembly is typically configured to collect 30 spectral samples over the visible range. The spectral sampling rate varies from 4nm/pixel at 490nm to 8nm/pixel at 660nm and the minimum resolvable wavelength difference varies from 8nm to 16nm over the same spectral range. Each of these characteristics are primarily dictated by the dispersion characteristics of the prism. The MCME is designed to examine cellular structures during optical biopsy and to exploit the diagnostic information contained within the spectral domain. The primary applications for the system include diagnosis of disease in the gastro-intestinal tract and female reproductive system. In-vitro, and ex-vivo multi-spectral results are presented.

  2. Multiplexing with multispectral imaging: from mice to microscopy.

    PubMed

    Levenson, Richard M; Lynch, David T; Kobayashi, Hisataka; Backer, Joseph M; Backer, Marina V

    2008-01-01

    Increasing sophistication in the design and application of biological models as well as the advent of novel fluorescent probes have led to new demands on molecular imaging systems to deliver enhanced sensitivity, reliable quantitation, and the ability to resolve multiple simultaneous signals. Sensitivity is limited, especially in the visible spectral range, by the presence of ubiquitous autofluorescence signals (mostly arising from the skin and gut), which need to be separated from those of targeted fluorophores. Fluorescence-based imaging is also affected by absorbing and scattering properties of tissue in both the visible and to a lesser extent the near-infrared (NIR) regions. However, the small size of typical animal models (usually mice) often permits the detection of enough light arising even from relatively deep locations to allow the capture of signals with an acceptable signal-to-noise ratio. Multispectral imaging, through its ability to separate autofluorescence from label fluorescence, can increase sensitivity as much as 300 times compared to conventional approaches, and concomitantly improve quantitative accuracy. In the NIR region, autofluorescence, while still significant, poses less of a problem. However, the task of disentangling signals from multiple fluorophores remains. Multispectral imaging allows the separation of five or more fluorophores, with each signal quantitated and visualized separately. Preclinical small animal imaging is often accompanied by microscopic analysis, both before and after the in vivo phase. This can involve tissue culture manipulations and/or histological examination of fixed or frozen tissue. Due to the same advantages in sensitivity, quantitation, and multiplexing, microscopy-based multispectral techniques form an excellent complement to in vivo imaging.

  3. A tiny VIS-NIR snapshot multispectral camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geelen, Bert; Blanch, Carolina; Gonzalez, Pilar; Tack, Nicolaas; Lambrechts, Andy

    2015-03-01

    Spectral imaging can reveal a lot of hidden details about the world around us, but is currently confined to laboratory environments due to the need for complex, costly and bulky cameras. Imec has developed a unique spectral sensor concept in which the spectral unit is monolithically integrated on top of a standard CMOS image sensor at wafer level, hence enabling the design of compact, low cost and high acquisition speed spectral cameras with a high design flexibility. This flexibility has previously been demonstrated by imec in the form of three spectral camera architectures: firstly a high spatial and spectral resolution scanning camera, secondly a multichannel snapshot multispectral camera and thirdly a per-pixel mosaic snapshot spectral camera. These snapshot spectral cameras sense an entire multispectral data cube at one discrete point in time, extending the domain of spectral imaging towards dynamic, video-rate applications. This paper describes the integration of our per-pixel mosaic snapshot spectral sensors inside a tiny, portable and extremely user-friendly camera. Our prototype demonstrator cameras can acquire multispectral image cubes, either of 272x512 pixels over 16 bands in the VIS (470-620nm) or of 217x409 pixels over 25 bands in the VNIR (600-900nm) at 170 cubes per second for normal machine vision illumination levels. The cameras themselves are extremely compact based on Ximea xiQ cameras, measuring only 26x26x30mm, and can be operated from a laptop-based USB3 connection, making them easily deployable in very diverse environments.

  4. Monitoring of maize chlorophyll content based on multispectral vegetation indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hong; Li, Minzan; Zheng, Lihua; Zhang, Yane; Zhang, Yajing

    2012-11-01

    In order to estimate the nutrient status of maize, the multi-spectral image was used to monitor the chlorophyll content in the field. The experiments were conducted under three different fertilizer treatments (High, Normal and Low). A multispectral CCD camera was used to collect ground-based images of maize canopy in green (G, 520~600nm), red (R, 630~690nm) and near-infrared (NIR, 760~900nm) band. Leaves of maize were randomly sampled to detect the chlorophyll content by UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The images were processed following image preprocessing, canopy segmentation and parameter calculation: Firstly, the median filtering was used to improve the visual contrast of image. Secondly, the leaves of maize canopy were segmented in NIR image. Thirdly, the average gray value (GIA, RIA and NIRIA) and the vegetation indices (DVI, RVI, NDVI, et al.) widely used in remote sensing were calculated. A new vegetation index, combination of normalized difference vegetation index (CNDVI), was developed. After the correlation analysis between image parameter and chlorophyll content, six parameters (GIA, RIA, NIRIA, GRVI, GNDVI and CNDVI) were selected to estimate chlorophyll content at shooting and trumpet stages respectively. The results of MLR predicting models showed that the R2 was 0.88 and the adjust R2 was 0.64 at shooting stage; the R2 was 0.77 and the adjust R2 was 0.31 at trumpet stage. It was indicated that vegetation indices derived from multispectral image could be used to monitor the chlorophyll content. It provided a feasible method for the chlorophyll content detection.

  5. Improving multispectral satellite image compression using onboard subpixel registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albinet, Mathieu; Camarero, Roberto; Isnard, Maxime; Poulet, Christophe; Perret, Jokin

    2013-09-01

    Future CNES earth observation missions will have to deal with an ever increasing telemetry data rate due to improvements in resolution and addition of spectral bands. Current CNES image compressors implement a discrete wavelet transform (DWT) followed by a bit plane encoding (BPE) but only on a mono spectral basis and do not profit from the multispectral redundancy of the observed scenes. Recent CNES studies have proven a substantial gain on the achievable compression ratio, +20% to +40% on selected scenarios, by implementing a multispectral compression scheme based on a Karhunen Loeve transform (KLT) followed by the classical DWT+BPE. But such results can be achieved only on perfectly registered bands; a default of registration as low as 0.5 pixel ruins all the benefits of multispectral compression. In this work, we first study the possibility to implement a multi-bands subpixel onboard registration based on registration grids generated on-the-fly by the satellite attitude control system and simplified resampling and interpolation techniques. Indeed bands registration is usually performed on ground using sophisticated techniques too computationally intensive for onboard use. This fully quantized algorithm is tuned to meet acceptable registration performances within stringent image quality criteria, with the objective of onboard real-time processing. In a second part, we describe a FPGA implementation developed to evaluate the design complexity and, by extrapolation, the data rate achievable on a spacequalified ASIC. Finally, we present the impact of this approach on the processing chain not only onboard but also on ground and the impacts on the design of the instrument.

  6. Qualitative and quantitative comparisons of multispectral night vision colorization techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yufeng; Dong, Wenjie; Blasch, Erik P.

    2012-08-01

    Multispectral images enable robust night vision (NV) object assessment over day-night conditions. Furthermore, colorized multispectral NV images can enhance human vision by improving observer object classification and reaction times, especially for low light conditions. NV colorization techniques can produce the colorized images that closely resemble natural scenes. Qualitative (subjective) and quantitative (objective) comparisons of NV colorization techniques proposed in the past decade are made and two categories of coloring methods, color fusion and color mapping, are discussed and compared. Color fusion directly combines multispectral NV images into a color-version image by mixing pixel intensities at different color planes, of which a channel-based color fusion method is reviewed. Color-mapping usually maps the color properties of a false-colored NV image (source) onto that of a true-color daylight target picture (reference). Four coloring-mapping methods-statistical matching, histogram matching, joint histogram matching, and look-up table (LUT)-are presented and compared, including a new color-mapping method called joint-histogram matching (JHM). The experimental NV imagery includes visible (Red-Green-Blue), image-intensified, near infrared, and long-wave infrared images. The qualitative evaluations are conducted by visual inspections of the colorized images, whereas the quantitative evaluations are achieved by a newly proposed metric, objective evaluation index. From the experimental results according to both qualitative and quantitative evaluations, the following conclusions can be drawn: the segmentation-based colorization method produces very impressive and realistic colors but requires intense computations; color fusion and LUT-based methods run very fast but with less realistic results; the statistic-matching method always provides acceptable results; histogram matching and joint-histogram matching can generate impressive and vivid colors when the color

  7. Photographic films for the Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.; Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr.; Deforest, Craig E.; Allen, Maxwell J.; Lindblom, Joakim F.; Gilliam, Lou; November, Larry; Brown, Todd; Dewan, Clyde A.

    1992-01-01

    The rocketborne Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array (MSSTA) uses an array of Ritchey-Chretien, Cassegrain, and Herschelian telescopes to produce ultrahigh-resolution full-disk images of the sun within the soft X-ray, EUV, and FUV ranges. Such imaging of the solar disk and corona out to several solar radii placed great demands on the MSSTA's data storage capabilities; in addition, its photographic films required very low outgassing rates. Results are presented from calibration tests conducted on the MSSTA's emulsions, based on measurements at NIST's synchrotron facility.

  8. Agricultural applications for thermal infrared multispectral scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelletier, R. E.; Ochoa, M. C.; Hajek, B. F.

    1985-01-01

    The use of the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) data in agricultural landscapes is discussed. The TIMS allows for narrow-band analysis in the 8.2-11.6 micron range at spatial resolutions down to 5 meters in cell size. A coastal plain region in SE Alabama was studied using the TIMS. The crop/plant vigor, canopy density, and thermal response changes for soils obtained from thermal imagery are examined. The application of TIMS data to hydrologic and topographic issues, inventory and conservation monitoring, and the enhancement and extraction of cartographic features is described.

  9. Lensless multispectral digital in-line holographic microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryle, James P.; McDonnell, Susan; Sheridan, John T.

    2011-12-01

    An compact multispectral digital in-line holographic microscope (DIHM) is developed that emulates Gabor's original holographic principle. Using sources of varying spatial coherence (laser, LED), holographic images of objects, including optical fiber, latex microspheres, and cancer cells, are successfully captured and numerically processed. Quantitative measurement of cell locations and percentage confluence are estimated, and pseudocolor images are also presented. Phase profiles of weakly scattering cells are obtained from the DIHM and are compared to those produced by a commercially available off-axis digital holographic microscope.

  10. Video rate multispectral imaging for camouflaged target detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, Sam

    2015-05-01

    The ability to detect and identify camouflaged targets is critical in combat environments. Hyperspectral and Multispectral cameras allow a soldier to identify threats more effectively than traditional RGB cameras due to both increased color resolution and ability to see beyond visible light. Static imagers have proven successful, however the development of video rate imagers allows for continuous real time target identification and tracking. This paper presents an analysis of existing anomaly detection algorithms and how they can be adopted to video rates, and presents a general purpose semisupervised real time anomaly detection algorithm using multiple frame sampling.

  11. A multispectral method of measuring sea surface temperatures from satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shenk, W. E.; Salomonson, V. V.

    1972-01-01

    A multispectral technique has been developed which independently tests for the presence of clouds before a registered window radiance measurement is accepted as coming from the sea surface and the intervening atmosphere. The spatial resolution of ocean temperature mapping can be the same as that of the radiometer. With the 55 km subsatellite track resolution of the Nimbus 2 MRIR, current boundaries and upwelling areas have been successfully identified. Knowledge of the position of these regions and temperatures within them are important to the detection of areas of high chlorophyll concentrations.

  12. Oil slick studies using photographic and multispectral scanner data.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munday, J. C., Jr.; Macintyre, W. G.; Penney, M. E.; Oberholtzer, J. D.

    1971-01-01

    Field studies of spills of Nos. 6 (Bunker C), 4, and 2 fuel oils and menhaden fish oil in the southern Chesapeake Bay have been supplemented with aerial photographic and multispectral scanner data. Thin films showed best in ultraviolet and blue bands and thick films in the green. Color film was effective for all thicknesses. Thermal infrared imagery provided clear detection, but required field temperature and thickness data to distinguish thickness/emissivity variations from temperature variations. Slick spreading rates agree with the theory of Fay (1969); further study of spreading is in progress.

  13. Design tradeoffs for a Multispectral Linear Array (MLA) instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mika, A. M.

    1982-01-01

    The heart of the multispectral linear array (MLA) design problem is to develop an instrument concept which concurrently provides a wide field-of-view with high resolution, spectral separation with precise band-to band registration, and excellent radiometric accuracy. Often, these requirements have conflicting design implications which can only be resolved by careful tradeoffs that consider performance, cost, fabrication feasibility and development risk. The key design tradeoffs for an MLA instrument are addressed, and elements of a baseline instrument concept are presented.

  14. Analysis of lithology: Vegetation mixes in multispectral images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, J. B.; Smith, M.; Adams, J. D.

    1982-01-01

    Discrimination and identification of lithologies from multispectral images is discussed. Rock/soil identification can be facilitated by removing the component of the signal in the images that is contributed by the vegetation. Mixing models were developed to predict the spectra of combinations of pure end members, and those models were refined using laboratory measurements of real mixtures. Models in use include a simple linear (checkerboard) mix, granular mixing, semi-transparent coatings, and combinations of the above. The use of interactive computer techniques that allow quick comparison of the spectrum of a pixel stack (in a multiband set) with laboratory spectra is discussed.

  15. Surface composition of Mars: A Viking multispectral view

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, John B.; Smith, Milton O.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Dale-Bannister, Mary; Guinness, Edward A.; Singer, Robert; Adams, John B.

    1987-01-01

    A new method of analyzing multispectral images takes advantage of the spectral variation from pixel to pixel that is typical for natural planetary surfaces, and treats all pixels as potential mixtures of spectrally distinct materials. For Viking Lander images, mixtures of only three spectral end members (rock, soil, and shade) are sufficient to explain the observed spectral variation to the level of instrumental noise. It was concluded that a large portion of the Martian surface consists of only two spectrally distinct materials, basalt and palgonitic soil. It is emphasized, however, that as viewed through the three broad bandpasses of Viking Orbiter, other materials cannot be distinguished from the mixtures.

  16. Construction and demonstration of a multispectral tomographic scanning imager (TOSCA).

    PubMed

    Hovland, Harald

    2013-02-25

    This work presents the first experimental demonstrator of an imager based on a tomographic scanning (TOSCA) principle. The device described generates a stream of multispectral images of a scene or target using simple conical scan optics and a simple patterned reticle, followed by collecting optics and one or several single pixel detectors. Tomographic processing techniques are then applied to the one-dimensional signals to reproduce two-dimensional images. Various aspects of the design and construction are described, and resulting images and movies are shown. PMID:23482001

  17. Algorithms for lineaments detection in processing of multispectral images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisova, D.; Jelev, G.; Atanassov, V.; Koprinkova-Hristova, Petia; Alexiev, K.

    2014-10-01

    Satellite remote sensing is a universal tool to investigate the different areas of Earth and environmental sciences. The advancement of the implementation capabilities of the optoelectronic devices which are long-term-tested in the laboratory and the field and are mounted on-board of the remote sensing platforms further improves the capability of instruments to acquire information about the Earth and its resources in global, regional and local scales. With the start of new high-spatial and spectral resolution satellite and aircraft imagery new applications for large-scale mapping and monitoring becomes possible. The integration with Geographic Information Systems (GIS) allows a synergistic processing of the multi-source spatial and spectral data. Here we present the results of a joint project DFNI I01/8 funded by the Bulgarian Science Fund focused on the algorithms of the preprocessing and the processing spectral data by using the methods of the corrections and of the visual and automatic interpretation. The objects of this study are lineaments. The lineaments are basically the line features on the earth's surface which are a sign of the geological structures. The geological lineaments usually appear on the multispectral images like lines or edges or linear shapes which is the result of the color variations of the surface structures. The basic geometry of a line is orientation, length and curve. The detection of the geological lineaments is an important operation in the exploration for mineral deposits, in the investigation of active fault patterns, in the prospecting of water resources, in the protecting people, etc. In this study the integrated approach for the detecting of the lineaments is applied. It combines together the methods of the visual interpretation of various geological and geographical indications in the multispectral satellite images, the application of the spatial analysis in GIS and the automatic processing of the multispectral images by Canny

  18. Component pattern analysis of chemicals using multispectral THz imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawase, Kodo; Ogawa, Yuichi; Watanabe, Yuki

    2004-04-01

    We have developed a novel basic technology for terahertz (THz) imaging, which allows detection and identification of chemicals by introducing the component spatial pattern analysis. The spatial distributions of the chemicals were obtained from terahertz multispectral transillumination images, using absorption spectra previously measured with a widely tunable THz-wave parametric oscillator. Further we have applied this technique to the detection and identification of illicit drugs concealed in envelopes. The samples we used were methamphetamine and MDMA, two of the most widely consumed illegal drugs in Japan, and aspirin as a reference.

  19. Polarization-sensitive multispectral tissue characterization for optimizing intestinal anastomosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, Jaepyeong; Triana, Brian; Shademan, Azad; Krieger, Axel; Kim, Peter C. W.; Kang, Jin U.

    2014-03-01

    A novel imaging system that recommends potential suture placement for anastomosis to surgeons is developed. This is achieved by a multispectral imaging system coupled with polarizers and image analysis software. We performed preliminary imaging of ex vivo porcine intestine to evaluate the system. Vulnerable tissue regions including blood vessels were successfully identified and segmented. Thickness of different tissue areas is visualized. Strategies towards optimal points for suture placements have been discussed. Preliminary data suggest our imaging platform and analysis algorithm may be useful in avoiding blood vessels, identifying optimal regions for suture placements to perform safer operations in possibly reduced time.

  20. Multispectral plasmon induced transparency in coupled meta-atoms.

    PubMed

    Artar, Alp; Yanik, Ahmet A; Altug, Hatice

    2011-04-13

    We introduce an approach enabling construction of a scalable metamaterial media supporting multispectral plasmon induced transparency. The composite multilayered media consist of coupled meta-atoms with radiant and subradiant hybridized plasmonic modes interacting through the structural asymmetry. A perturbative model incorporating hybridization and mode coupling is introduced to explain the observed novel spectral features. The proposed scheme is demonstrated experimentally by developing a lift-off-free fabrication scheme that can automatically register multiple metamaterial layers in the transverse plane. This metamaterial which can simultaneously enhance nonlinear processes at multiple frequency domains could open up new possibilities in optical information processing.

  1. Enhancement of multispectral thermal infrared images - Decorrelation contrast stretching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillespie, Alan R.

    1992-01-01

    Decorrelation contrast stretching is an effective method for displaying information from multispectral thermal infrared (TIR) images. The technique involves transformation of the data to principle components ('decorrelation'), independent contrast 'stretching' of data from the new 'decorrelated' image bands, and retransformation of the stretched data back to the approximate original axes, based on the inverse of the principle component rotation. The enhancement is robust in that colors of the same scene components are similar in enhanced images of similar scenes, or the same scene imaged at different times. Decorrelation contrast stretching is reviewed in the context of other enhancements applied to TIR images.

  2. Snapshot spectral and polarimetric imaging; target identification with multispectral video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, Brent D.; Rodriguez, Mikel D.

    2013-05-01

    As the number of pixels continue to grow in consumer and scientific imaging devices, it has become feasible to collect the incident light field. In this paper, an imaging device developed around light field imaging is used to collect multispectral and polarimetric imagery in a snapshot fashion. The sensor is described and a video data set is shown highlighting the advantage of snapshot spectral imaging. Several novel computer vision approaches are applied to the video cubes to perform scene characterization and target identification. It is shown how the addition of spectral and polarimetric data to the video stream allows for multi-target identification and tracking not possible with traditional RGB video collection.

  3. Modeling space-based multispectral imaging systems with DIRSIG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Scott D.; Sanders, Niek J.; Goodenough, Adam A.; Gartley, Michael

    2011-06-01

    The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) focuses on a next generation global coverage, imaging system to replace the aging Landsat 5 and Landsat 7 systems. The major difference in the new system is the migration from the multi-spectral whiskbroom design employed by the previous generation of sensors to modular focal plane, multi-spectral pushbroom architecture. Further complicating the design shift is that the reflective and thermal acquisition capability is split across two instruments spatially separated on the satellite bus. One of the focuses of the science and engineering teams prior to launch is the ability to provide seamless data continuity with the historic Landsat data archive. Specifically, the challenges of registering and calibrating data from the new system so that long-term science studies are minimally impacted by the change in the system design. In order to provide the science and engineering teams with simulated pre-launch data, an effort was undertaken to create a robust end-to-end model of the LDCM system. The modeling environment is intended to be flexible and incorporate measured data from the actual system components as they were completed and integrated. The output of the modeling environment needs to include not only radiometrically robust imagery, but also the meta-data necessary to exercise the processing pipeline. This paper describes how the Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Image Generation (DIRSIG) model has been utilized to model space-based, multi-spectral imaging (MSI) systems in support of systems engineering trade studies. A mechanism to incorporate measured focal plane projections through the forward optics is described. A hierarchal description of the satellite system is presented including the details of how a multiple instrument platform is described and modeled, including the hierarchical management of temporally correlated jitter that allows engineers to explore impacts of different jitter sources on instrument

  4. The Land Analysis System (LAS) for multispectral image processing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wharton, S. W.; Lu, Y. C.; Quirk, Bruce K.; Oleson, Lyndon R.; Newcomer, J. A.; Irani, Frederick M.

    1988-01-01

    The Land Analysis System (LAS) is an interactive software system available in the public domain for the analysis, display, and management of multispectral and other digital image data. LAS provides over 240 applications functions and utilities, a flexible user interface, complete online and hard-copy documentation, extensive image-data file management, reformatting, conversion utilities, and high-level device independent access to image display hardware. The authors summarize the capabilities of the current release of LAS (version 4.0) and discuss plans for future development. Particular emphasis is given to the issue of system portability and the importance of removing and/or isolating hardware and software dependencies.

  5. Antenna evaluation study for the shuttle multispectral radar, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffey, E. L., III; Carver, K. R.

    1976-01-01

    Critical parameters of the shuttle multispectral radar antenna (SMRA) which most affect antenna performance were identified. A preliminary methematical model is presented for describing SMRA performance under the influence of various physical and environmental factors which might degrade performance. Because user groups have not agreed on optimum frequencies best suited for the broadest range of application, the study incorporates frequencies ranging from 1.2 to 14.5 GHz, as well as a consideration of incidence angles from near nadir to nearly 50 deg.

  6. Multispectral comparison of water ice deposits observed on cometary nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oklay Vincent, Nilda; Sunshine, Jessica M.; Pajola, Maurizio; Pommerol, Antoine; Vincent, Jean-Baptiste; Sierks, Holger; OSIRIS Team

    2016-10-01

    Cometary missions Deep Impact, EPOXI and Rosetta investigated the nuclei of comets 9P/Tempel 1, 103P/Hartley 2 and 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko respectively. Each of these three missions was equipped with multispectral cameras, allowing imaging at various wavelengths from NUV to NIR. In this spectral range, water ice-rich features display bluer spectral slopes than the average surface and some have very flat spectra. Features enriched in water ice are bright in the monochromatic images and are blue in the RGB color composites generated by using images taken in NUV, visible and NIR wavelentghs. Using these properties, water ice-rich features were detected on the nuclei of comets 9P [1], 103P [2] and 67P [3] via multispectral imaging cameras. Moreover, there were visual detections of jets and outbursts associated to some of these water ice-rich features when the right observing conditions were fulfilled [4, 5].We analyzed multispectral properties of different types of water ice-rich features [3] observed via OSIRIS NAC on comet 67P in the wavelength range of 260 nm to 1000 nm and then compared with those observed on comets 9P and 103P. Our multispectral analysis shows that the water ice deposits observed on comet 9P are very similar to the large bright blue clusters observed on comet 67P, while the large water ice deposit observed on comet 103P is similar to the large isolated water ice-rich features observed on comet 67P. The ice-rich deposits on comet 103P are the bluest of any comet, which indicates that the deposits on 103P contain more water ice than the ones observed on comets 9P and 67P [6].[1] Sunshine et al 2006, Science[2] Sunshine et al 2011, LPSC[3] Pommerol et al 2015, A&A[4] Oklay et al 2016, A&A[5] Vincent et al 2016, A&A[6] Oklay et al 2016, submitted

  7. Processing of multispectral thermal IR data for geologic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahle, A. B.; Madura, D. P.; Soha, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    Multispectral thermal IR data were acquired with a 24-channel scanner flown in an aircraft over the E. Tintic Utah mining district. These digital image data required extensive computer processing in order to put the information into a format useful for a geologic photointerpreter. Simple enhancement procedures were not sufficient to reveal the total information content because the data were highly correlated in all channels. The data were shown to be dominated by temperature variations across the scene, while the much more subtle spectral variations between the different rock types were of interest. The image processing techniques employed to analyze these data are described.

  8. A COST EFFECTIVE MULTI-SPECTRAL SCANNER FOR NATURAL GAS DETECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Yudaya Sivathanu; Jongmook Lim; Vinoo Narayanan

    2004-10-25

    The objective of this project is to design, fabricate and field demonstrate a cost effective, multi-spectral scanner for natural gas leak detection in transmission and distribution pipelines. During the first year of the project, a laboratory version of the multi-spectral scanner was designed, fabricated, and tested at En'Urga Inc. The multi-spectral scanner was also evaluated using a blind DoE study at RMOTC. The performance of the scanner was inconsistent during the blind DoE study. However, most of the leaks were outside the view of the multi-spectral scanner. Therefore, a definite evaluation of the capability of the scanner was not obtained. Despite the results, sufficient number of plumes was detected fully confirming the feasibility of the multi-spectral scanner. During the second year, a rugged prototype scanner will be developed and evaluated, both at En'Urga Inc. and any potential field sites.

  9. Viability prediction of Ricinus cummunis L. seeds using multispectral imaging.

    PubMed

    Olesen, Merete Halkjær; Nikneshan, Pejman; Shrestha, Santosh; Tadayyon, Ali; Deleuran, Lise Christina; Boelt, Birte; Gislum, René

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to highlight the use of multispectral imaging in seed quality testing of castor seeds. Visually, 120 seeds were divided into three classes: yellow, grey and black seeds. Thereafter, images at 19 different wavelengths ranging from 375-970 nm were captured of all the seeds. Mean intensity for each single seed was extracted from the images, and a significant difference between the three colour classes was observed, with the best separation in the near-infrared wavelengths. A specified feature (RegionMSI mean) based on normalized canonical discriminant analysis, were employed and viable seeds were distinguished from dead seeds with 92% accuracy. The same model was tested on a validation set of seeds. These seeds were divided into two groups depending on germination ability, 241 were predicted as viable and expected to germinate and 59 were predicted as dead or non-germinated seeds. This validation of the model resulted in 96% correct classification of the seeds. The results illustrate how multispectral imaging technology can be employed for prediction of viable castor seeds, based on seed coat colour.

  10. Visual enhancement of unmixed multispectral imagery using adaptive smoothing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lemeshewsky, G.P.; Rahman, Z.-U.; Schowengerdt, R.A.; Reichenbach, S.E.

    2004-01-01

    Adaptive smoothing (AS) has been previously proposed as a method to smooth uniform regions of an image, retain contrast edges, and enhance edge boundaries. The method is an implementation of the anisotropic diffusion process which results in a gray scale image. This paper discusses modifications to the AS method for application to multi-band data which results in a color segmented image. The process was used to visually enhance the three most distinct abundance fraction images produced by the Lagrange constraint neural network learning-based unmixing of Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus multispectral sensor data. A mutual information-based method was applied to select the three most distinct fraction images for subsequent visualization as a red, green, and blue composite. A reported image restoration technique (partial restoration) was applied to the multispectral data to reduce unmixing error, although evaluation of the performance of this technique was beyond the scope of this paper. The modified smoothing process resulted in a color segmented image with homogeneous regions separated by sharpened, coregistered multiband edges. There was improved class separation with the segmented image, which has importance to subsequent operations involving data classification.

  11. Calibrated and geocoded clutter from an airborne multispectral scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heuer, Markus; Bruehlmann, Ralph; John, Marc-Andre; Schmid, Konrad J.; Hueppi, Rudolph; Koenig, Reto

    1999-07-01

    Robustness of automatic target recognition (ATR) to varying observation conditions and countermeasures is substantially increased by use of multispectral sensors. Assessment of such ATR systems is performed by captive flight tests and simulations (HWIL or complete modeling). Although the clutter components of a scene can be generated with specified statistics, clutter maps directly obtained from measurement are required for validation of a simulation. In addition, urban scenes have non-stationary characteristics and are difficult to simulate. The present paper describes a scanner, data acquisition and processing system used for the generation of realistic clutter maps incorporating infrared, passive and active millimeter wave channels. The sensors are mounted on a helicopter with coincident line-of-sight, enabling us to measure consistent clutter signatures under varying observation conditions. Position and attitude data from GPS and an inertial measurement unit, respectively, are used to geometrically correct the raw scanner data. After sensor calibration the original voltage signals are converted to physical units, i.e. temperatures and reflectivities, describing the clutter independently of the scanning sensor, thus allowing us the use of the clutter maps in tests of a priori unknown multispectral sensors. The data correction procedures are described and results are presented.

  12. Viability Prediction of Ricinus cummunis L. Seeds Using Multispectral Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Olesen, Merete Halkjær; Nikneshan, Pejman; Shrestha, Santosh; Tadayyon, Ali; Deleuran, Lise Christina; Boelt, Birte; Gislum, René

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to highlight the use of multispectral imaging in seed quality testing of castor seeds. Visually, 120 seeds were divided into three classes: yellow, grey and black seeds. Thereafter, images at 19 different wavelengths ranging from 375–970 nm were captured of all the seeds. Mean intensity for each single seed was extracted from the images, and a significant difference between the three colour classes was observed, with the best separation in the near-infrared wavelengths. A specified feature (RegionMSI mean) based on normalized canonical discriminant analysis, were employed and viable seeds were distinguished from dead seeds with 92% accuracy. The same model was tested on a validation set of seeds. These seeds were divided into two groups depending on germination ability, 241 were predicted as viable and expected to germinate and 59 were predicted as dead or non-germinated seeds. This validation of the model resulted in 96% correct classification of the seeds. The results illustrate how multispectral imaging technology can be employed for prediction of viable castor seeds, based on seed coat colour. PMID:25690554

  13. A technique for interpretation of multispectral remote sensor data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, A. N.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station is engaged in a study to detect from ERTS-1 satellite data alterations to the absorption and scattering properties caused by movement of suspended particles and solutes in selected areas of the Chesapeake Bay and to correlate the data to determine the feasibility of delineating flow patterns, flushing action of the estuary, and sediment and pollutant dispersion. As a part of this study, ADP techniques have been developed that permit automatic interpretation of data from any multispectral remote sensor with computer systems which have limited memory capacity and computing speed. The multispectral remote sensor is considered as a reflectance spectrophotometer. The data which define the spectral reflectance characteristics of a scene are scanned pixel by pixel. Each pixel whose spectral reflectance matches a reference spectrum is identified, and the results are shown in a map that identifies the locations where spectrum matches were detected and spectrum that was matched. The interpretation technique is described and an example of interpreted data from ERTS-1 is presented.

  14. Analysis of infrared hyperspectral measurements by the joint multispectral program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocker, Alan D.; Oshagan, Ara; Shaffer, William A.; Surette, Marc R.; McHugh, Martin J.; Schaum, Alan P.; Eismann, Michael T.; Ellis, Kenneth K.; Maxwell, Robert A.; Seldin, John H.

    1995-06-01

    A series of infrared hyperspectral field measurements was made at Wright Patterson Air Force Base and the U.S. Army White Sands Missile Range by the Joint Multispectral Program (JMSP) between November 1993 and June 1994. In these experiments, a highly sensitive Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) was used to collect data from test panels, military and civilian vehicles, and various types of natural backgrounds. Post-collection data analyses are being conducted by the JMSP to assess the potential of thermal multispectral processing for detecting and classifying low-contrast ground targets in natural clutter environments. One target material of special interest is CARC paint, which is currently applied to U.S. Army vehicles in various colors to create woodland and desert camouflage patterns. CARC-painted test panels were observed in a wide variety of backgrounds and weather conditions during all of the JMSP experiments. It is shown here that certain fine-scale spectral features of this paint can support reliable two-color discrimination of CARC-coated test panels in different natural backgrounds, even under low contrast and high clutter conditions. The paper also examines environmental variations in two key parameters that determine spectral detectability; specifically, the observed target-background spectral contrast signature (which provides the required coloring), and the background spectral correlation (which provides for multiband clutter suppression).

  15. Morphological Feature Extraction for Automatic Registration of Multispectral Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plaza, Antonio; LeMoigne, Jacqueline; Netanyahu, Nathan S.

    2007-01-01

    The task of image registration can be divided into two major components, i.e., the extraction of control points or features from images, and the search among the extracted features for the matching pairs that represent the same feature in the images to be matched. Manual extraction of control features can be subjective and extremely time consuming, and often results in few usable points. On the other hand, automated feature extraction allows using invariant target features such as edges, corners, and line intersections as relevant landmarks for registration purposes. In this paper, we present an extension of a recently developed morphological approach for automatic extraction of landmark chips and corresponding windows in a fully unsupervised manner for the registration of multispectral images. Once a set of chip-window pairs is obtained, a (hierarchical) robust feature matching procedure, based on a multiresolution overcomplete wavelet decomposition scheme, is used for registration purposes. The proposed method is validated on a pair of remotely sensed scenes acquired by the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) multispectral instrument and the Hyperion hyperspectral instrument aboard NASA's Earth Observing-1 satellite.

  16. Use of Multispectral Imaging in Varietal Identification of Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Santosh; Deleuran, Lise Christina; Olesen, Merete Halkjær; Gislum, René

    2015-01-01

    Multispectral imaging is an emerging non-destructive technology. In this work its potential for varietal discrimination and identification of tomato cultivars of Nepal was investigated. Two sample sets were used for the study, one with two parents and their crosses and other with eleven cultivars to study parents and offspring relationship and varietal identification respectively. Normalized canonical discriminant analysis (nCDA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to analyze and compare the results for parents and offspring study. Both the results showed clear discrimination of parents and offspring. nCDA was also used for pairwise discrimination of the eleven cultivars, which correctly discriminated upto 100% and only few pairs below 85%. Partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was further used to classify all the cultivars. The model displayed an overall classification accuracy of 82%, which was further improved to 96% and 86% with stepwise PLS-DA models on high (seven) and poor (four) sensitivity cultivars, respectively. The stepwise PLS-DA models had satisfactory classification errors for cross-validation and prediction 7% and 7%, respectively. The results obtained provide an opportunity of using multispectral imaging technology as a primary tool in a scientific community for identification/discrimination of plant varieties in regard to genetic purity and plant variety protection/registration. PMID:25690549

  17. Dual plasmonic gold nanoparticles for multispectral photoacoustic imaging application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghavan, Vijay; Subhash, Hrebesh; Breathnach, Aedán.; Leahy, Martin; Dockery, Peter; Olivo, Malini

    2014-03-01

    Nanoparticle contrast agents for molecular targeted imaging have widespread interest in diagnostic applications with cellular resolution, specificity and selectivity for visualization and assessment of various disease processes. Of particular interest is gold nanoparticle owing to its tunability of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and its relative inertness. Here we present the synthesis of anisotropic multi-branched star shaped gold nanoparticles exhibiting dual-band plasmon absorption peaks and its application as a contrast agent for multispectral photoacoustic imaging. The transverse plasmon absorption peak of the synthesised dual plasmonic gold nanostar (DPGNS) was around 700 nm and that of longitudinal plasmon absorption in the longer wavelength region around 1050-1150 nm. Unlike most reported PA contrast agent with surface plasmon absorption in the range of 700 to 800 nm showing moderate tissue penetration, 1050-1200 nm range lies in the farther region of the optical window of biological tissue where scattering and the intrinsic optical extinction of endogenous chromophores is at its minimum. We also present a proof of principle demonstration of DPGNS as contrast agent for multispectral photoacoustic animal imaging. Our results show that DPGNS are promising for PA imaging with extended-depth imaging applications.

  18. Novel automatic target recognition approach for multispectral data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, Jose S.; Koch, Mark W.; Yocky, David A.

    2002-11-01

    Automating the detection and identification of significant threats using multispectral (MS) imagery is a critical issue in remote sensing. Unlike previous multispectral target recognition approaches, we utilize a three-stage process that not only takes into account the spectral content, but also the spatial information. The first stage applies a matched filter to the calibrated MS data. Here, the matched filter is tuned to the spectral components of a given target and produces an image intensity map of where the best matches occur. The second stage represents a novel detection algorithm, known as the focus of attention (FOA) stage. The FOA performs an initial screening of the data based on intensity and size checks on the matched filter output. Next, using the target's pure components, the third stage performs constrained linear unmixing on MS pixels within the FOA detected regions. Knowledge sources derived from this process are combined using a sequential probability ratio test (SPRT). The SPRT can fuse contaminated, uncertain and disparate information from multiple sources. We demonstrate our approach on identifying a specific target using actual data collected in ideal conditions and also use approximately 35 square kilometers of urban clutter as false alarm data.

  19. Multispectral glass transparent from visible to thermal infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brehault, A.; Calvez, L.; Pain, T.; Adam, P.; Rollin, J.; Zhang, X. H.

    2014-06-01

    The thermal imaging market has experienced a strong growth during the recent years due to continued cost reduction of night vision devices. The development of uncooled focal plane detector arrays is the major reason for the cost reduction. Another reason is the continuous improvement of the optical solution. In this paper, we present a new multispectral material which responds to the increasing demand for optics operating simultaneously in the visible/SWIR (Short Wave InfraRed) and the thermal infrared region. The most important properties of some glasses from the GeS2-Ga2S3- CsCl system are highlighted in this study. A stable composition 15Ga2S3-75GeS2-10CsCl allowed the synthesis of a large glass without crystallization. The refractive index of this glass was precisely measured from 0.6 to 10.4μm by using the Littrow method. The chromatic dispersion was then calculated and compared with other multispectral materials.

  20. RBF network with cylindrical coordinate features for multispectral MRI segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanez-Suarez, Oscar; Valdes-Cristerna, Raquel; Medina, Veronica; Barrios, Fernando A.

    2001-07-01

    Spatial quantification of relevant brain structures, is usually carried out through the analysis of a stack of magnetic resonance (MR) images by means of some image segmentation approach. In this paper, multispectral MR imaging segmentation based on a modified radial-basis function network is presented. Multispectral MR image sets are constructed by collecting data for the same anatomical structures under T1, T2 and FLAIR excitation sequences. Classification features for the network are extended beyond the normalized intensities in each band to also include the cylindrical coordinates of the image pixels. Such coordinates are determined within a reference image space upon which all targets are registered to. The network classifier was designed to differentiate three structures: gray matter, white matter and image background. The classification layer was also modified to accommodate the pixel cylindrical coordinates as inputs. With the designed network, background pixels are correctly classified for all cases, while gray and white matter pixels are misclassified for about 10% of the cases in the validation set. The source of these errors can be traced to smooth transitions in the output nodes for these two classes. Thresholding the outputs of these nodes to include a reject class reduces the misclassification error. The small and simple architecture of the network shows good generalization, and thus good segmentation over unseen stacks.

  1. Online quantitative analysis of multispectral images of human body tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Lisenko, S A

    2013-08-31

    A method is developed for online monitoring of structural and morphological parameters of biological tissues (haemoglobin concentration, degree of blood oxygenation, average diameter of capillaries and the parameter characterising the average size of tissue scatterers), which involves multispectral tissue imaging, image normalisation to one of its spectral layers and determination of unknown parameters based on their stable regression relation with the spectral characteristics of the normalised image. Regression is obtained by simulating numerically the diffuse reflectance spectrum of the tissue by the Monte Carlo method at a wide variation of model parameters. The correctness of the model calculations is confirmed by the good agreement with the experimental data. The error of the method is estimated under conditions of general variability of structural and morphological parameters of the tissue. The method developed is compared with the traditional methods of interpretation of multispectral images of biological tissues, based on the solution of the inverse problem for each pixel of the image in the approximation of different analytical models. (biomedical optics)

  2. Portable multispectral imaging system for oral cancer diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Yao-Fang; Ou-Yang, Mang; Lee, Cheng-Chung

    2013-09-01

    This study presents the portable multispectral imaging system that can acquire the image of specific spectrum in vivo for oral cancer diagnosis. According to the research literature, the autofluorescence of cells and tissue have been widely applied to diagnose oral cancer. The spectral distribution is difference for lesions of epithelial cells and normal cells after excited fluorescence. We have been developed the hyperspectral and multispectral techniques for oral cancer diagnosis in three generations. This research is the third generation. The excited and emission spectrum for the diagnosis are acquired from the research of first generation. The portable system for detection of oral cancer is modified for existing handheld microscope. The UV LED is used to illuminate the surface of oral cavity and excite the cells to produce fluorescent. The image passes through the central channel and filters out unwanted spectrum by the selection of filter, and focused by the focus lens on the image sensor. Therefore, we can achieve the specific wavelength image via fluorescence reaction. The specificity and sensitivity of the system are 85% and 90%, respectively.

  3. Compact multispectral imaging system for contaminant detection on poultry carcass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kise, Michio; Park, Bosoon; Lawrence, Kurt C.; Windham, William R.

    2007-02-01

    The objective of this research was to design and fabricate a compact, cost effective multispectral instrument and to collect and analyze spectra for real-time contaminant detection for poultry processing plants. The prototype system developed in this research consisted of a multispectral imaging system, illumination system and an industrial portable computer. The dual-band spectral imaging system developed in this study was a two-port imaging system that consisted of two identical monochrome cameras, optical system and two narrow bandpass filters whose center of the wavelength are 520 and 560 nm with 10 nm FWHM, respectively. A spectral reflectance from a chicken carcass was collected and split in two directions by an optical system including a beamsplitter and lenses, and then two identical collimated lights were filtered by the narrow bandpass filters and delivered to the cameras. Lens distortions and geometric misalignment of the two cameras were mathematically corrected. The prototype system was tested at the real-time processing line and the preliminary results showed that the dual-band spectral imaging system could effectively detect feces and ingesta on the surface of poultry carcass.

  4. Fuzzy Markov random fields versus chains for multispectral image segmentation.

    PubMed

    Salzenstein, Fabien; Collet, Christophe

    2006-11-01

    This paper deals with a comparison of recent statistical models based on fuzzy Markov random fields and chains for multispectral image segmentation. The fuzzy scheme takes into account discrete and continuous classes which model the imprecision of the hidden data. In this framework, we assume the dependence between bands and we express the general model for the covariance matrix. A fuzzy Markov chain model is developed in an unsupervised way. This method is compared with the fuzzy Markovian field model previously proposed by one of the authors. The segmentation task is processed with Bayesian tools, such as the well-known MPM (Mode of Posterior Marginals) criterion. Our goal is to compare the robustness and rapidity for both methods (fuzzy Markov fields versus fuzzy Markov chains). Indeed, such fuzzy-based procedures seem to be a good answer, e.g., for astronomical observations when the patterns present diffuse structures. Moreover, these approaches allow us to process missing data in one or several spectral bands which correspond to specific situations in astronomy. To validate both models, we perform and compare the segmentation on synthetic images and raw multispectral astronomical data.

  5. Theoretical and experimental investigation of multispectral photoacoustic osteoporosis detection method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberg, Idan; Hershkovich, Hadas Sara; Gannot, Israel; Eyal, Avishay

    2014-03-01

    Osteoporosis is a widespread disorder, which has a catastrophic impact on patients lives and overwhelming related to healthcare costs. Recently, we proposed a multispectral photoacoustic technique for early detection of osteoporosis. Such technique has great advantages over pure ultrasonic or optical methods as it allows the deduction of both bone functionality from the bone absorption spectrum and bone resistance to fracture from the characteristics of the ultrasound propagation. We demonstrated the propagation of multiple acoustic modes in animal bones in-vitro. To further investigate the effects of multiple wavelength excitations and of induced osteoporosis on the PA signal a multispectral photoacoustic system is presented. The experimental investigation is based on measuring the interference of multiple acoustic modes. The performance of the system is evaluated and a simple two mode theoretical model is fitted to the measured phase signals. The results show that such PA technique is accurate and repeatable. Then a multiple wavelength excitation is tested. It is shown that the PA response due to different excitation wavelengths revels that absorption by the different bone constitutes has a profound effect on the mode generation. The PA response is measured in single wavelength before and after induced osteoporosis. Results show that induced osteoporosis alters the measured amplitude and phase in a consistent manner which allows the detection of the onset of osteoporosis. These results suggest that a complete characterization of the bone over a region of both acoustic and optical frequencies might be used as a powerful tool for in-vivo bone evaluation.

  6. Imaging of human skin lesions with the multispectral dermoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapsokalyvas, Dimitrios; Bruscino, Nicola; Alfieri, Domenico; de Giorgi, Vincenzo; Cannarozzo, Giovanni; Lotti, Torello; Pavone, Francesco S.

    2010-02-01

    The Dermoscope is a widespread and essential tool for dermatology. It reveals morphologic characteristics and aid the identification and diagnosis of a skin lesion. The diagnosis though is not always unambiguous and still the use of Dermoscopy doesn't obviate the need for histopathological verification. We report on the development of the Multispectral Dermoscope which employs high luminance LEDs with emission at three distinct spectral regions (470 nm, 530 nm, 625 nm). The illumination is polarized and an analyzer is used for the detection. Subsequent image analysis for enhancing the contrast for single scattered photons, hemoglobin absorption and melanin absorption is performed. Features like the surface texture of the skin, scattering structures in the epidermis, blood vessel morphology even in pigmented lesions and melanin localization have been observed in various skin pathologies. The device has been tested on volunteers and the features revealed have proven to be helpful in the diagnosis of skin lesions. Use of the Multispectral Dermoscope could improve the sensitivity and specificity of Dermoscopy.

  7. Clinical measurements analysis of multi-spectral photoplethysmograph biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asare, Lasma; Kviesis-Kipge, Edgars; Spigulis, Janis

    2014-05-01

    The developed portable multi-spectral photoplethysmograph (MS-PPG) optical biosensor device, intended for analysis of peripheral blood volume pulsations at different vascular depths, has been clinically verified. Multi-spectral monitoring was performed by means of a four - wavelengths (454 nm, 519 nm, 632 nm and 888 nm) light emitted diodes and photodiode with multi-channel signal output processing. Two such sensors can be operated in parallel and imposed on the patient's skin. The clinical measurements confirmed ability to detect PPG signals at four wavelengths simultaneously and to record temporal differences in the signal shapes (corresponding to different penetration depths) in normal and pathological skin. This study analyzed wavelengths relations between systole and diastole peak difference at various tissue depths in normal and pathological skin. The difference between parameters of healthy and pathological skin at various skin depths could be explain by oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin dominance at different wavelengths operated in sensor. The proposed methodology and potential clinical applications in dermatology for skin assessment are discussed.

  8. Fuzzy Markov random fields versus chains for multispectral image segmentation.

    PubMed

    Salzenstein, Fabien; Collet, Christophe

    2006-11-01

    This paper deals with a comparison of recent statistical models based on fuzzy Markov random fields and chains for multispectral image segmentation. The fuzzy scheme takes into account discrete and continuous classes which model the imprecision of the hidden data. In this framework, we assume the dependence between bands and we express the general model for the covariance matrix. A fuzzy Markov chain model is developed in an unsupervised way. This method is compared with the fuzzy Markovian field model previously proposed by one of the authors. The segmentation task is processed with Bayesian tools, such as the well-known MPM (Mode of Posterior Marginals) criterion. Our goal is to compare the robustness and rapidity for both methods (fuzzy Markov fields versus fuzzy Markov chains). Indeed, such fuzzy-based procedures seem to be a good answer, e.g., for astronomical observations when the patterns present diffuse structures. Moreover, these approaches allow us to process missing data in one or several spectral bands which correspond to specific situations in astronomy. To validate both models, we perform and compare the segmentation on synthetic images and raw multispectral astronomical data. PMID:17063681

  9. Recognition of lineaments in Eastern Rhodopes on Landsat multispectral images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisova, Denitsa; Jelev, Georgi; Atanassov, Valentin; Koprinkova-Hristova, Petia; Alexiev, Kiril

    Lineaments usually appear on the multispectral images as lines (edges) or linear formations as a result of the color variations of the surface structures. Lineaments are line features on earth’s surface which reflect geological structure. The basic geometry of a line is orientation, length and curve. Detection of lineaments is an important operation in the exploration for mineral deposits, in the investigation of active fault patterns, water resources, etc. In this study the integrated approach is applied. It comes together the methods of the visual interpretation of various geological and geographical indications in the satellite images, application of spatial analysis in GIS and automatic processing of Landsat multispectral image by Canny algorithm, Directional Filter and Neural Network. Canny algorithm for extracting edges is series of filters (Gaussian, Sobel, etc.) applied to all bands of the image using the free IDL source (http://www.cis.rit.edu/class/simg782/programs/ canny.pro). Directional Filter is applied to sharpen the image in a specific (preferred) direction. Another method is the Neural Network algorithm for recognizing lineaments. Lineaments are effectively extracted using different methods of automatic. The results from above mentioned methods are compared to results derived from visual interpretation of satellite images and from geological map. The rose-diagrams of distribution of lineaments and maps of their density are completed. Acknowledgments: This study is supported by the project DFNI - I01/8 funded by the Bulgarian Science Fund.

  10. Aerosol Remote Sensing Applications for Airborne Multiangle, Multispectral Shortwave Radiometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Bismarck, Jonas; Ruhtz, Thomas; Starace, Marco; Hollstein, André; Preusker, René; Fischer, Jürgen

    2010-05-01

    Aerosol particles have an important impact on the surface net radiation budget by direct scattering and absorption (direct aerosol effect) of solar radiation, and also by influencing cloud formation processes (semi-direct and indirect aerosol effects). To study the former, a number of multispectral sky- and sunphotometers have been developed at the Institute for Space Sciences of the Free University of Berlin in the past two decades. The latest operational developments were the multispectral aureole- and sunphotometer FUBISS-ASA2, the zenith radiometer FUBISS-ZENITH, and the nadir polarimeter AMSSP-EM, all designed for a flexible use on moving platforms like aircraft or ships. Currently the multiangle, multispectral radiometer URMS/AMSSP (Universal Radiation Measurement System/ Airborne Multispectral Sunphotometer and Polarimeter) is under construction for a Wing-Pod of the high altitude research aircraft HALO operated by DLR. The system is expected to have its first mission on HALO in 2011. The algorithms for the retrieval of aerosol and trace gas properties from the recorded multidirectional, multispectral radiation measurements allow more than deriving standard products, as for instance the aerosol optical depth and the Angstrom exponent. The radiation measured in the solar aureole contains information about the aerosol phasefunction and therefore allows conclusions about the particle type. Furthermore, airborne instrument operation allows vertically resolved measurements. An inversion algorithm, based on radiative transfer simulations and additionally including measured vertical zenith-radiance profiles, allows conclusions about the aerosol single scattering albedo and the relative soot fraction in aerosol layers. Ozone column retrieval is performed evaluating measurements from pixels in the Chappuis absorption band. A retrieval algorithm to derive the water-vapor column from the sunphotometer measurements is currently under development. Of the various airborne

  11. Multispectral information hiding in RGB image using bit-plane-based watermarking and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinoda, Kazuma; Watanabe, Aya; Hasegawa, Madoka; Kato, Shigeo

    2015-06-01

    Although it was expected that multispectral images would be implemented in many applications, such as remote sensing and medical imaging, their use has not been widely diffused in these fields. The development of a compact multispectral camera and display will be needed for practical use, but the format compatibility between multispectral and RGB images is also important for reducing the introduction cost and having high usability. We propose a method of embedding the spectral information into an RGB image by watermarking. The RGB image is calculated from the multispectral image, and then, the original multispectral image is estimated from the RGB image using Wiener estimation. The residual data between the original and the estimated multispectral image are compressed and embedded in the lower bit planes of the RGB image. The experimental results show that, as compared with Wiener estimation, the proposed method leads to more than a 10 dB gain in the peak signal-to-noise ratio of the reconstructed multispectral image, while there are almost no significant perceptual differences in the watermarked RGB image.

  12. A multispectral scanner survey of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site and surrounding area, Golden, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Brewster, S.B. Jr.; Brickey, D.W.; Ross, S.L.; Shines, J.E.

    1997-04-01

    Aerial multispectral scanner imagery was collected of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site in Golden, Colorado, on June 3, 5, 6, and 7, 1994, using a Daedalus AADS1268 multispectral scanner and coincident aerial color and color infrared photography. Flight altitudes were 4,500 feet (1372 meters) above ground level to match prior 1989 survey data; 2,000 feet (609 meters) above ground level for sitewide vegetation mapping; and 1,000 feet (304 meters) above ground level for selected areas of special interest. A multispectral survey was initiated to improve the existing vegetation classification map, to identify seeps and springs, and to generate ARC/INFO Geographic Information System compatible coverages of the vegetation and wetlands for the entire site including the buffer zone. The multispectral scanner imagery and coincident aerial photography were analyzed for the detection, identification, and mapping of vegetation and wetlands. The multispectral scanner data were processed digitally while the color and color infrared photography were manually photo-interpreted to define vegetation and wetlands. Several standard image enhancement techniques were applied to the multispectral scanner data to assist image interpretation. A seep enhancement was applied and a color composite consisting of multispectral scanner channels 11, 7, and 5 (thermal infrared, mid-infrared, and red bands, respectively) proved most useful for detecting seeps, seep zones, and springs. The predawn thermal infrared data were also useful in identifying and locating seeps. The remote sensing data, mapped wetlands, and ancillary Geographic Information System compatible data sets were spatially analyzed for seeps.

  13. Development and integration of the Army's Advanced Multispectral Simulation Test Acceptance Resource (AMSTAR) HWIL facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeSueur, Kenneth G.; Lowry, William; Morris, Joe

    2006-05-01

    The Advanced Multispectral Simulation Test Acceptance Resource (AMSTAR) is a suite of state-of-the-art hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) simulation / test capabilities designed to meet the life-cycle testing needs of multi-spectral systems. This paper presents the major AMSTAR facility design concepts and each of the Millimeter Wave (MMW), Infrared (IR), and Semi-Active Laser (SAL) in-band scene generation and projection system designs. The emergence of Multispectral sensors in missile systems necessitates capabilities such as AMSTAR to simultaneous project MMW, IR, and SAL wave bands into a common sensor aperture.

  14. Development and integration of the Army's advanced multispectral simulation test acceptance resource (AMSTAR) HWIL facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeSueur, Kenneth G.; Lowry, William; Morris, Joe

    2005-05-01

    The Advanced Multispectral Simulation Test Acceptance Resource (AMSTAR) is a suite of state-of-the-art Hardware-In-the-Loop (HWIL) simulation / test capabilities designed to meet the life-cycle testing needs of multi-spectral systems. This paper presents the major AMSTAR facility design concepts and each of the Millimeter Wave (MMW), Infrared (IR), and Semi-Active Laser (SAL) in-band scene generation and projection system designs. The emergence of Multispectral sensors in missile systems necessitates capabilities such as AMSTAR to simultaneous project MMW, IR, and SAL wave bands into a common sensor aperture.

  15. Land use classification utilizing remote multispectral scanner data and computer analysis techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leblanc, P. N.; Johannsen, C. J.; Yanner, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    An airborne multispectral scanner was used to collect the visible and reflective infrared data. A small subdivision near Lafayette, Indiana was selected as the test site for the urban land use study. Multispectral scanner data were collected over the subdivision on May 1, 1970 from an altitude of 915 meters. The data were collected in twelve wavelength bands from 0.40 to 1.00 micrometers by the scanner. The results indicated that computer analysis of multispectral data can be very accurate in classifying and estimating the natural and man-made materials that characterize land uses in an urban scene.

  16. Ice Cloud Optical Depth Retrievals from CRISM Multispectral Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klassen, David R.

    2014-11-01

    One set of data from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) is the multispectral survey that measured the visible-through-near-infrared reflectance of the entire planet of Mars at specific wavelengths. The spectral data from several sols were be combined to create multi-spectral maps of Mars. In addition, these maps can be zonally averaged to create a latitude vs season image cube of Mars. All of these image cubes can be fit using a full radiative transfer modeling in order to retrieve ice cloud optical depth—as a map for one of the particular dates, or as a latitude vs season record.To compare the data radiative transfer models, a measure of the actual surface reflectance is needed. There are several possible ways to model this, such as using a nearby region that is "close enough" or by looking at the same region at different times and assuming one of those is the actual surface reflectance. Neither of these is ideal for trying to process an entire map of data because aerosol clouds can be fairly extensive both spatially and temporally.Another technique is to assume that the surface can be modeled as a linear combination of a limited set of intrinsic spectral endmembers. A combination of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Target Transformation (TT) has been used to recover just such a set of spectral endmember shapes. The coefficients in the linear combination then become additional fitting parameters in the radiative transfer modeling of each map point—all parameters are adjusted until the RMS error between the model and the data is minimized. Based on previous work, the PCA of martian spectral image cubes is relatively consistent regardless of season, implying the underlying, large-scale, intrinsic traits that dominate the data variance are relatively constant. These overall PCA results can then be used to create a single set of spectral endmembers that can be used for any of the data

  17. Development of a portable multispectral thermal infrared camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osterwisch, Frederick G.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this research and development effort was to design and build a prototype instrument designated the 'Thermal Infrared Multispectral Camera' (TIRC). The Phase 2 effort was a continuation of the Phase 1 feasibility study and preliminary design for such an instrument. The completed instrument designated AA465 has application in the field of geologic remote sensing and exploration. The AA465 Thermal Infrared Camera (TIRC) System is a field-portable multispectral thermal infrared camera operating over the 8.0 - 13.0 micron wavelength range. Its primary function is to acquire two-dimensional thermal infrared images of user-selected scenes. Thermal infrared energy emitted by the scene is collected, dispersed into ten 0.5 micron wide channels, and then measured and recorded by the AA465 System. This multispectral information is presented in real time on a color display to be used by the operator to identify spectral and spatial variations in the scenes emissivity and/or irradiance. This fundamental instrument capability has a wide variety of commercial and research applications. While ideally suited for two-man operation in the field, the AA465 System can be transported and operated effectively by a single user. Functionally, the instrument operates as if it were a single exposure camera. System measurement sensitivity requirements dictate relatively long (several minutes) instrument exposure times. As such, the instrument is not suited for recording time-variant information. The AA465 was fabricated, assembled, tested, and documented during this Phase 2 work period. The detailed design and fabrication of the instrument was performed during the period of June 1989 to July 1990. The software development effort and instrument integration/test extended from July 1990 to February 1991. Software development included an operator interface/menu structure, instrument internal control functions, DSP image processing code, and a display algorithm coding program. The

  18. Application of multispectral color photography to flame flow visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoffers, G.

    1979-01-01

    For flames of short duration and low intensity of radiation a spectroscopical flame diagnostics is difficult. In order to find some other means of extracting information about the flame structure from its radiation, the feasibility of using multispectral color photography was successfully evaluated. Since the flame photographs are close-ups, there is a considerable parallax between the single images, when several cameras are used, and additive color viewing is not possible. Each image must be analyzed individually, it is advisable to use color film in all cameras. One can either use color films of different spectral sensitivities or color films of the same type with different color filters. Sharp cutting filters are recommended.

  19. Geometric analysis and restitution of digital multispectral scanner data arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, J. R.; Mikhail, E. M.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to define causes of geometric defects within digital multispectral scanner (MSS) data arrays, to analyze the resulting geometric errors, and to investigate restitution methods to correct or reduce these errors. Geometric transformation relationships for scanned data, from which collinearity equations may be derived, served as the basis of parametric methods of analysis and restitution of MSS digital data arrays. The linearization of these collinearity equations is presented. Algorithms considered for use in analysis and restitution included the MSS collinearity equations, piecewise polynomials based on linearized collinearity equations, and nonparametric algorithms. A proposed system for geometric analysis and restitution of MSS digital data arrays was used to evaluate these algorithms, utilizing actual MSS data arrays. It was shown that collinearity equations and nonparametric algorithms both yield acceptable results, but nonparametric algorithms possess definite advantages in computational efficiency. Piecewise polynomials were found to yield inferior results.

  20. Modeling misregistration and related effects on multispectral classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billingsley, F. C.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of misregistration on the multispectral classification accuracy when the scene registration accuracy is relaxed from 0.3 to 0.5 pixel are investigated. Noise, class separability, spatial transient response, and field size are considered simultaneously with misregistration in their effects on accuracy. Any noise due to the scene, sensor, or to the analog/digital conversion, causes a finite fraction of the measurements to fall outside of the classification limits, even within nominally uniform fields. Misregistration causes field borders in a given band or set of bands to be closer than expected to a given pixel, causing additional pixels to be misclassified due to the mixture of materials in the pixel. Simplified first order models of the various effects are presented, and are used to estimate the performance to be expected.

  1. Multispectral change vector analysis for monitoring coastal marine environments

    SciTech Connect

    Michalek, J.L.; Wagner, T.W.; Luczkovich, J.J.; Stoffle, R.W. Michigan Environmental Research Inst., Ann Arbor )

    1993-03-01

    This paper investigates the utility of multispectral Landsat Thematic Mapper satellite data for documenting changes to a Caribbean coastal zone using the change vector analysis processing technique. The area of study was the coastal region near the village of Buen Hombre on the north coast of the Dominican Republic. The change vector analysis techniques uses any number of spectral bands from multidate satellite data to produce change images that yield information about both the magnitude and direction of differences in pixel values (which are proportional to radiance). The final products were created by appending color-coded change pixels onto a black-and-white base map. The advantages and limitations of the technique for coastal inventories are discussed. 9 refs.

  2. Multispectral data acquisition and classification - Statistical models for system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huck, F. O.; Park, S. K.

    1978-01-01

    In this paper we relate the statistical processes that are involved in multispectral data acquisition and classification to a simple radiometric model of the earth surface and atmosphere. If generalized, these formulations could provide an analytical link between the steadily improving models of our environment and the performance characteristics of rapidly advancing device technology. This link is needed to bring system analysis tools to the task of optimizing remote sensing and (real-time) signal processing systems as a function of target and atmospheric properties, remote sensor spectral bands and system topology (e.g., image-plane processing), radiometric sensitivity and calibration accuracy, compensation for imaging conditions (e.g., atmospheric effects), and classification rates and errors.

  3. Multispectral and hyperspectral advanced characterization of soldier's camouflage equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagueux, Philippe; Kastek, Mariusz; Chamberland, Martin; PiÄ tkowski, Tadeusz; Farley, Vincent; Dulski, Rafał; Trzaskawka, Piotr

    2013-10-01

    The requirements for soldier camouflage in the context of modern warfare are becoming more complex and challenging given the emergence of novel infrared sensors. There is a pressing need for the development of adapted fabrics and soldier camouflage devices to provide efficient camouflage in both the visible and infrared spectral ranges. The Military University of Technology has conducted an intensive project to develop new materials and fabrics to further improve the camouflage efficiency of soldiers. The developed materials shall feature visible and infrared properties that make these unique and adapted to various military context needs. This paper presents the details of an advanced measurement campaign of those unique materials where the correlation between multispectral and hyperspectral infrared measurements is performed.

  4. Design of multispectral reading light for individuals with low vision.

    PubMed

    Ramane, Deepa V; Shaligram, Arvind D

    2012-01-01

    Multicolor multielement LED luminaries have wide applications in decorative, display, and medical domain etc. It can provide light with variable intensity and spectral content. One such application of designing of multispectral reading light for patients having low visual acuities is reported here. Paper describes microcontroller based reading light system for such patients. Mechanical, electronic, and optical assemblies required for the system are explained with more focus on optical assembly. Number of LEDs, their relative placement, spatial and spectral characteristics of individual and source to target plane distance decide spatial and spectral uniformity of illumination. Fabricated luminaire consists of 90 low power LEDs of red, orange, yellow, green, and aqua arranged in six rows. The reading plane can be illuminated with variable intensity and color by changing current through LEDs. These values are adjusted and stored according to comfort level of individual patient.

  5. Earth feature identification for onboard multispectral data editing: Computational experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aherron, R. M.; Arduini, R. F.; Davis, R. E.; Huck, R. O.; Park, S. K.

    1981-01-01

    A computational model of the processes involved in multispectral remote sensing and data classification is developed as a tool for designing smart sensors which can process, edit, and classify the data that they acquire. An evaluation of sensor system performance and design tradeoffs involves classification rates and errors as a function of number and location of spectral channels, radiometric sensitivity and calibration accuracy, target discrimination assignments, and accuracy and frequency of compensation for imaging conditions. This model provides a link between the radiometric and statistical properties of the signals to be classified and the performance characteristics of electro-optical sensors and data processing devices. Preliminary computational results are presented which illustrate the editing performance of several remote sensing approaches.

  6. Determining density of maize canopy. 2: Airborne multispectral scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoner, E. R.; Baumgardner, M. F.; Cipra, J. E.

    1971-01-01

    Multispectral scanner data were collected in two flights over a light colored soil background cover plot at an altitude of 305 m. Energy in eleven reflective wavelength band from 0.45 to 2.6 microns was recorded. Four growth stages of maize (Zea mays L.) gave a wide range of canopy densities for each flight date. Leaf area index measurements were taken from the twelve subplots and were used as a measure of canopy density. Ratio techniques were used to relate uncalibrated scanner response to leaf area index. The ratios of scanner data values for the 0.72 to 0.92 micron wavelength band over the 0.61 to 0.70 micron wavelength band were calculated for each plot. The ratios related very well to leaf area index for a given flight date. The results indicated that spectral data from maize canopies could be of value in determining canopy density.

  7. Monitoring human melanocytic cell responses to piperine using multispectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samatham, Ravikant; Phillips, Kevin G.; Sonka, Julia; Yelma, Aznegashe; Reddy, Neha; Vanka, Meenakshi; Thuillier, Philippe; Soumyanath, Amala; Jacques, Steven

    2011-03-01

    Vitiligo is a depigmentary disease characterized by melanocyte loss attributed most commonly to autoimmune mechanisms. Currently vitiligo has a high incidence (1% worldwide) but a poor set of treatment options. Piperine, a compound found in black pepper, is a potential treatment for the depigmentary skin disease vitiligo, due to its ability to stimulate mouse epidermal melanocyte proliferation in vitro and in vivo. The present study investigates the use of multispectral imaging and an image processing technique based on local contrast to quantify the stimulatory effects of piperine on human melanocyte proliferation in reconstructed epidermis. We demonstrate the ability of the imaging method to quantify increased pigmentation in response to piperine treatment. The quantization of melanocyte stimulation by the proposed imaging technique illustrates the potential use of this technology to quickly assess therapeutic responses of vitiligo tissue culture models to treatment non-invasively.

  8. Precision Viticulture from Multitemporal, Multispectral Very High Resolution Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandylakis, Z.; Karantzalos, K.

    2016-06-01

    In order to exploit efficiently very high resolution satellite multispectral data for precision agriculture applications, validated methodologies should be established which link the observed reflectance spectra with certain crop/plant/fruit biophysical and biochemical quality parameters. To this end, based on concurrent satellite and field campaigns during the veraison period, satellite and in-situ data were collected, along with several grape samples, at specific locations during the harvesting period. These data were collected for a period of three years in two viticultural areas in Northern Greece. After the required data pre-processing, canopy reflectance observations, through the combination of several vegetation indices were correlated with the quantitative results from the grape/must analysis of grape sampling. Results appear quite promising, indicating that certain key quality parameters (like brix levels, total phenolic content, brix to total acidity, anthocyanin levels) which describe the oenological potential, phenolic composition and chromatic characteristics can be efficiently estimated from the satellite data.

  9. Multispectral terahertz sensing with highly flexible ultrathin metamaterial absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahiaoui, Riad; Tan, Siyu; Cong, Longqing; Singh, Ranjan; Yan, Fengping; Zhang, Weili

    2015-08-01

    We report the simulation, fabrication, and experimental characterization of a multichannel metamaterial absorber with the aim to be used as a label-free sensing platform in the terahertz regime. The topology of the investigated resonators deposited on a thin flexible polymer by means of optical lithography is capable of supporting multiple resonances over a broad frequency range due to the individual contribution of each sub-element of the unit cell. In order to explore the performance of the chosen structure in terms of sensing phenomenon, the reflection feature is monitored upon variation of the refractive index and the thickness of the analyte. We achieve numerically maximum frequency sensitivity of about 139.2 GHz/refractive index unit. Measurements carried out using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy show good agreement with the numerical predictions. The results are very promising, suggesting a potential use of the metamaterial absorber in wide variety of multispectral terahertz sensing applications.

  10. A study of techniques for processing multispectral scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crane, R. B.; Richardson, W.; Hieber, R. H.; Malila, W. A.

    1973-01-01

    A linear decision rule to reduce the time required for processing multispectral scanner data is developed. Test results are presented which justify the use of the new rule for digital processing whenever both accuracy and processing time are important. A method of evaluating the performance of the rule is also developed and applied to the problem of choosing a subset of channels. A technique used to find linear combinations of channels is described. The ability to extend signatures throughout a small area of approximately fifty square miles is tested. After preprocessing, signatures derived from the first of seven overlapping data sets are applied to all data sets. The test results show that the average probability of misclassification tends to increase with an increase in the number of data sets over which the signatures are extended.

  11. Optical mesoscopy without the scatter: broadband multispectral optoacoustic mesoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Chekkoury, Andrei; Gateau, Jérôme; Driessen, Wouter; Symvoulidis, Panagiotis; Bézière, Nicolas; Feuchtinger, Annette; Walch, Axel; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2015-01-01

    Optical mesoscopy extends the capabilities of biological visualization beyond the limited penetration depth achieved by microscopy. However, imaging of opaque organisms or tissues larger than a few hundred micrometers requires invasive tissue sectioning or chemical treatment of the specimen for clearing photon scattering, an invasive process that is regardless limited with depth. We developed previously unreported broadband optoacoustic mesoscopy as a tomographic modality to enable imaging of optical contrast through several millimeters of tissue, without the need for chemical treatment of tissues. We show that the unique combination of three-dimensional projections over a broad 500 kHz–40 MHz frequency range combined with multi-wavelength illumination is necessary to render broadband multispectral optoacoustic mesoscopy (2B-MSOM) superior to previous optical or optoacoustic mesoscopy implementations. PMID:26417486

  12. Preliminary analysis of shuttle multispectral radiometer data for Southern Egypt

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowan, L.C.; Goetz, A.F.H.; Kingston, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    The Shuttle Multispectral Infrared Radiometer (SMIRR) is a spectroradiometer covering the region from 0.5 to 2.5 ??m in 10 channels that acquired data from spots 100 m in diameter along the subspacecraft ground track. It was flown aboard the second flight of the space shuttle Columbia, November 12-14, 1981. Data collected during orbit 16 over southern Egypt show that carbonate rocks, kaolinite, and possibly montmorillonite can be identified by their SMIRR spectral signatures and limited knowledge of the lithologic units present. Detailed analysis of SMIRR data for this area indicates that calcite, kaolinite, and montmorillonite rocks give rise to absorption features that result in characteristic 10 channel spectra. ?? 1983.

  13. Estimating proportions of objects from multispectral scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horwitz, H. M.; Lewis, J. T.; Pentland, A. P.

    1975-01-01

    Progress is reported in developing and testing methods of estimating, from multispectral scanner data, proportions of target classes in a scene when there are a significiant number of boundary pixels. Procedures were developed to exploit: (1) prior information concerning the number of object classes normally occurring in a pixel, and (2) spectral information extracted from signals of adjoining pixels. Two algorithms, LIMMIX and nine-point mixtures, are described along with supporting processing techniques. An important by-product of the procedures, in contrast to the previous method, is that they are often appropriate when the number of spectral bands is small. Preliminary tests on LANDSAT data sets, where target classes were (1) lakes and ponds, and (2) agricultural crops were encouraging.

  14. Digital enhancement of multispectral MSS data for maximum image visibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Algazi, V. R.

    1973-01-01

    A systematic approach to the enhancement of images has been developed. This approach exploits two principal features involved in the observation of images: the properties of human vision and the statistics of the images being observed. The rationale of the enhancement procedure is as follows: in the observation of some features of interest in an image, the range of objective luminance-chrominance values being displayed is generally limited and does not use the whole perceptual range of vision of the observer. The purpose of the enhancement technique is to expand and distort in a systematic way the grey scale values of each of the multispectral bands making up a color composite, to enhance the average visibility of the features being observed.

  15. An ERTS multispectral scanner experiment for mapping iron compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, R. K. (Principal Investigator)

    1972-01-01

    There are no author-identified significant results in this report. An experimental plan for enhancing spectral features related to the chemical composition of geological targets in ERTS multispectral scanner data is described. The experiment is designed to produce visible-reflective infrared ratio images from ERTS-1 data. Iron compounds are promising remote sensing targets because they display prominent spectral features in the visible-reflective infrared wavelength region and are geologically significant. The region selected for this ERTS experiment is the southern end of the Wind River Range in Wyoming. If this method proves successful it should prove useful for regional geologic mapping, mineralogical exploration, and soil mapping. It may also be helpful to ERTS users in scientific disciplines other than geology, especially to those concerned with targets composed of mixtures of live vegetation and soil or rock.

  16. Modelling forest ecosystem dynamics using Multitemporal Multispectral Scanner (MSS) data

    SciTech Connect

    Jarvis, C. )

    1994-03-01

    An empirical model of forest succession was developed using Multitemporal Multispectral Scanner (MSS) data. Images from 1976 and 1987 were classified and registered to assess vegetation change. Data were analyzed to determine the proportion of each landscape class that changed, and these proportions were used to develop a Markov Model. The simulation model was run to produce forest cover for 99 years. MSS data were classified into six classes with an overall accuracy of 93 STET. The landscape composition remained relatively constant, but over half the individual units changed, indicating a dynamic equilibrium. Results of the Markov model show a theoretical climax community that stabilized rapidly. Over 60 STET of the area was composed of conifer, supporting the concept of a conifer dominated climax. However, continuous levels of other classes were maintained, indicating an inherently heterogeneous landscape.

  17. Biological tissue identification using a multispectral imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delporte, Céline; Sautrot, Sylvie; Ben Chouikha, Mohamed; Viénot, Françoise; Alquié, Georges

    2013-02-01

    A multispectral imaging system enabling biological tissue identifying and differentiation is presented. The measurement of β(λ) spectral radiance factor cube for four tissue types (beef muscle, pork muscle, turkey muscle and beef liver) present in the same scene was carried out. Three methods for tissue identification are proposed and their relevance evaluated. The first method correlates the scene spectral radiance factor with tissue database characteristics. This method gives detection rates ranging from 63.5 % to 85 %. The second method correlates the scene spectral radiance factor derivatives with a database of tissue β(λ) derivatives. This method is more efficient than the first one because it gives detection rates ranging from 79 % to 89 % with over-detection rates smaller than 0.2 %. The third method uses the biological tissue spectral signature. It enhances contrast in order to afford tissue differentiation and identification.

  18. The new airborne Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahle, A. B.

    1983-01-01

    A new airborne Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) with six bands between 8 and 12 microns is briefly characterized, and some results of remote sensing experiments are reported. The instrument has an instantaneous field of view of 2.5 milliradians, a total field of view of 80 deg, and a NE Delta T of approximately 0.1-0.3 C depending on the band. In the TIMS image of Death Valley, silica-rich rocks were easily separable from the nonsilicates. The Eureka Quartzite stood out in sharp contrast to other Ordovician and Cambrian metasediments, and Tertiary volcanic rocks were easily separable from both. Also distinguishable were various units in the fan gravels.

  19. Multispectral scanner data applications evaluation. Volume 1: User applications study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomson, F. J.; Erickson, J. D.; Nalepka, R. F.; Weber, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    A six-month systems study of earth resource surveys from satellites was conducted and is reported. SKYLAB S-192 multispectral scanner (MSS) data were used as a baseline to aid in evaluating the characteristics of future systems using satellite MSS sensors. The study took the viewpoint that overall system (sensor and processing) characteristics and parameter values should be determined largely by user requirements for automatic information extraction performance in quasi-operational earth resources surveys, the other major factor being hardware limitations imposed by state-of-the-art technology and cost. The objective was to use actual aircraft and spacecraft MSS data to outline parametrically the trade-offs between user performance requirements and hardware performance and limitations so as to allow subsequent evaluation of compromises which must be made in deciding what system(s) to build.

  20. Spatial clustering of pixels of a multispectral image

    SciTech Connect

    Conger, James Lynn

    2014-08-19

    A method and system for clustering the pixels of a multispectral image is provided. A clustering system computes a maximum spectral similarity score for each pixel that indicates the similarity between that pixel and the most similar neighboring. To determine the maximum similarity score for a pixel, the clustering system generates a similarity score between that pixel and each of its neighboring pixels and then selects the similarity score that represents the highest similarity as the maximum similarity score. The clustering system may apply a filtering criterion based on the maximum similarity score so that pixels with similarity scores below a minimum threshold are not clustered. The clustering system changes the current pixel values of the pixels in a cluster based on an averaging of the original pixel values of the pixels in the cluster.

  1. Correlation between multispectral photography and near-surface turbidities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wertz, D. L.; Mealor, W. T.; Steele, M. L.; Pinson, J. W.

    1976-01-01

    Four-band multispectral photography obtained from an aerial platform at an altitude of about 10,000 feet has been utilized to measure near-surface turbidity at numerous sampling sites in the Ross Barnett Reservoir, Mississippi. Correlation of the photographs with turbidity measurements has been accomplished via an empirical mathematical model which depends upon visual color recognition when the composited photographs are examined on either an I squared S model 600 or a Spectral Data model 65 color-additive viewer. The mathematical model was developed utilizing least-squares, iterative, and standard statistical methods and includes a time-dependent term related to sun angle. This model is consistent with information obtained from two overflights of the target area - July 30, 1973 and October 30, 1973 - and now is being evaluated with regard to information obtained from a third overflight on November 8, 1974.

  2. Large-format and multispectral QWIP infrared focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, Arnold C.; Choi, Kwong-Kit; Jhabvala, Murzy; La, Anh; Uppal, Parvez N.; Winn, Michael L.

    2003-09-01

    The next generation of infrared (IR) focal plane arrays (FPAs) will need to be a significant improvement in capability over those used in present-day second generation FLIRs. The Army's Future Combat System requires that the range for target identification be greater than the range of detection for an opposing sensor. To accomplish this mission, the number of pixels on the target must be considerably larger than that possible with 2nd generation FLIR. Therefore, the 3rd generation FLIR will need to be a large format staring FPA with more than 1000 pixels on each side. In addition, a multi-spectral capability will be required to allow operability in challenging ambient environments, discriminate targets from decoys, and to take advantage of the smaller diffraction blur in the MWIR for enhanced image resolution. We report on laboratory measurements of a large format (1024 x 1024 pixels) single-color LWIR IR FPA made using the corrugated quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) structure by the ARL/NASA team. The pixel pitch is 18 μm and the spectral response peaks at 8.8 μm with a 9.2 μm cutoff. We report on recent results using a MWIR/LWIR QWIP FPA to image the boost phase of a launch vehicle for missile defense applications and a LWIR/LWIR FPA designed specifically for detecting the disturbed soil associated with buried land mines. Finally, we report on the fabrication of a new read-out integrated circuit (ROIC) specifically designed for multi-spectral operation.

  3. Satellite multispectral data for improved floodplain roughness modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forzieri, Giovanni; Degetto, Massimo; Righetti, Maurizio; Castelli, Fabio; Preti, Federico

    2011-09-01

    SummaryRiparian vegetation plays a crucial role on affecting the floodplain hydraulic roughness, which in turn significantly influences the dynamics of flood waves. This paper explores the potential accuracies of retrieving vegetation hydrodynamic parameters through satellite multispectral data. The method is focused on estimation of vegetation height ( h g) and flexural rigidity ( MEI) for herbaceous patterns and of plant density ( M), tree height ( h), stem diameter ( Ds), crown base height ( cbh) and crown diameter ( Dc) of high-forest ( hf) and coppice ( cop) consociations for arboreal and shrub patterns. The method is organized in four sequential steps: (1) classification procedure of riparian corridor; (2) land cover-based Principal Component Analysis of spectral channels; (3) explorative analysis of correlation structure between principal components and biomechanical properties and (4) model identification/estimation/validation for floodplain roughness parameterization. To capture the hydrodynamic impacts of stiff/flexible vegetation, a GIS hydrodynamic model has been coupled with a flow resistance external routine that estimates the hydraulic roughness by using simulated water stages and the remote sensing-derived hydrodynamic parameters. The procedure is tested along a 3-km reach of the Avisio river (Trentino Alto Adige, Italy) by comparing extended field surveys and a synchronous SPOT-5 multispectral image acquired on 28/08/2004. Results showed significant correlation values between spectral-derived information and hydrodynamic parameters. Predictive models provided high coefficients of determination, especially for mixed arboreal and shrub land covers. The generated structural parameter maps represent spatially explicit data layers that can be used as inputs to hydrodynamic models to analyze flow resistance effects in different submergence conditions of vegetation. The hydraulic modelling results showed that the new method is able to provide accurate

  4. Retrieval of vegetation hydrodynamic parameters from satellite multispectral data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forzieri, Giovanni; Degetto, Massimo; Righetti, Maurizio; Castelli, Fabio; Preti, Federico

    2013-04-01

    Riparian vegetation plays a crucial role on affecting the floodplain hydraulic roughness, which in turn significantly influences the dynamics of flood waves. This work explores the potential accuracies of retrieving vegetation hydrodynamic parameters through satellite multispectral data. The method is focused on estimation of vegetation height and flexural rigidity for herbaceous patterns and of plant density, tree height, stem diameter, crown base height and crown diameter of high-forest and coppice consociations for arboreal and shrub patterns. The retrieval algorithm performs: (1) classification procedure of riparian corridor; (2) land cover-based Principal Component Analysis of spectral channels; (3) explorative analysis of correlation structure between principal components and biomechanical properties and (4) model identification/estimation/validation for floodplain roughness parameterization. To capture the impacts of stiff/flexible vegetation, a GIS hydrodynamic model has been coupled with a flow resistance external routine that estimates the hydraulic roughness by using simulated water stages and the remote sensing-derived vegetation parameters. The procedure is tested along a 3-km reach of the Avisio river (Trentino Alto Adige, Italy) by comparing extended field surveys and a synchronous SPOT-5 multispectral image acquired on 28/08/2004. Results showed significant correlation values between spectral-derived information and hydrodynamic parameters. Predictive models provided high coefficients of determination, especially for mixed arboreal and shrub land covers. The generated structural parameter maps represent spatially explicit data layers that can be used as inputs to hydrodynamic models to analyze flow resistance effects in different submergence conditions of vegetation. The hydraulic modelling results showed that the new method is able to provide accurate hydraulic output data and to enhance the roughness estimation up to 73% with respect to a

  5. Hyperspectral and multispectral bioluminescence optical tomography for small animal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhari, Abhijit J.; Darvas, Felix; Bading, James R.; Moats, Rex A.; Conti, Peter S.; Smith, Desmond J.; Cherry, Simon R.; Leahy, Richard M.

    2005-12-01

    For bioluminescence imaging studies in small animals, it is important to be able to accurately localize the three-dimensional (3D) distribution of the underlying bioluminescent source. The spectrum of light produced by the source that escapes the subject varies with the depth of the emission source because of the wavelength-dependence of the optical properties of tissue. Consequently, multispectral or hyperspectral data acquisition should help in the 3D localization of deep sources. In this paper, we describe a framework for fully 3D bioluminescence tomographic image acquisition and reconstruction that exploits spectral information. We describe regularized tomographic reconstruction techniques that use semi-infinite slab or FEM-based diffusion approximations of photon transport through turbid media. Singular value decomposition analysis was used for data dimensionality reduction and to illustrate the advantage of using hyperspectral rather than achromatic data. Simulation studies in an atlas-mouse geometry indicated that sub-millimeter resolution may be attainable given accurate knowledge of the optical properties of the animal. A fixed arrangement of mirrors and a single CCD camera were used for simultaneous acquisition of multispectral imaging data over most of the surface of the animal. Phantom studies conducted using this system demonstrated our ability to accurately localize deep point-like sources and show that a resolution of 1.5 to 2.2 mm for depths up to 6 mm can be achieved. We also include an in vivo study of a mouse with a brain tumour expressing firefly luciferase. Co-registration of the reconstructed 3D bioluminescent image with magnetic resonance images indicated good anatomical localization of the tumour.

  6. A Multispectral Micro-Imager for Lunar Field Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nunez, Jorge; Farmer, Jack; Sellar, Glenn; Allen, Carlton

    2009-01-01

    Field geologists routinely assign rocks to one of three basic petrogenetic categories (igneous, sedimentary or metamorphic) based on microtextural and mineralogical information acquired with a simple magnifying lens. Indeed, such observations often comprise the core of interpretations of geological processes and history. The Multispectral Microscopic Imager (MMI) uses multi-wavelength, light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and a substrate-removed InGaAs focal-plane array to create multispectral, microscale reflectance images of geological samples (FOV 32 X 40 mm). Each pixel (62.5 microns) of an image is comprised of 21 spectral bands that extend from 470 to 1750 nm, enabling the discrimination of a wide variety of rock-forming minerals, especially Fe-bearing phases. MMI images provide crucial context information for in situ robotic analyses using other onboard analytical instruments (e.g. XRD), or for the selection of return samples for analysis in terrestrial labs. To further assess the value of the MMI as a tool for lunar exploration, we used a field-portable, tripod-mounted version of the MMI to image a variety of Apollo samples housed at the Lunar Experiment Laboratory, NASA s Johnson Space Center. MMI images faithfully resolved the microtextural features of samples, while the application of ENVI-based spectral end member mapping methods revealed the distribution of Fe-bearing mineral phases (olivine, pyroxene and magnetite), along with plagioclase feldspars within samples. Samples included a broad range of lithologies and grain sizes. Our MMI-based petrogenetic interpretations compared favorably with thin section-based descriptions published in the Lunar Sample Compendium, revealing the value of MMI images for astronaut and rover-mediated lunar exploration.

  7. Estimating alluvial fan surface ages using Landsat 8 multispectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Arcy, Mitch; Mason, Philippa J.; Whittaker, Alexander C.; Roda Boluda, Duna C.

    2015-04-01

    Accurate exposure age models are now essential for geomorphological and stratigraphic field research, and generally depend on laboratory analyses such as radiocarbon, cosmogenic nuclide or luminescence approaches. However, these techniques cannot be deployed in situ in the field, meaning other methods are needed to produce a preliminary age model, map depositional surfaces of different ages, and select sampling sites for the types of laboratory analyses outlined above. With the widespread availability of high-resolution multispectral imagery, a promising approach is to use remotely sensed data to discriminate depositional surfaces with different ages. Here, we use new Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) multispectral imagery to characterise the reflectance of 35 alluvial fan surfaces in the semi-arid Owens Valley, California. These surfaces have been mapped in detail in the field, have similar granitic compositions, and have well-constrained exposure ages ranging from modern to ~ 125 ka, measured using a high density of 10-Be cosmogenic nuclide samples. We identify a clear age signal recorded in the spectral properties of these surfaces. With increasing exposure age, there is a predictable redshift effect in the reflectance of the surfaces across the visible and short-wave infrared spectrum. Simple calculations, such as the brightness ratio of red/blue wavelengths, produce sensitive power law relationships with exposure age for at least 125 ka, meaning Landsat 8 imagery can be used to estimate surface exposure age remotely, at least in this calibrated dryland location. The ability to remotely sense exposure age has useful implications for field mapping, selecting suitable sampling sites for laboratory-based exposure age techniques, and correlating existing age constraints to previously un-sampled surfaces. We present the uncertainties associated with this spectral approach to exposure dating, evaluate its likely physical origins, and discuss its applicability

  8. MULTISPECTRAL IDENTIFICATION OF ALKYL AND CHLOROALKYL PHOSPHATES FROM AN INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multispectral techniques (gas chromatography combined with low and high resolution electron-impact mass spectrometry, low and high resolution chemical ionization mass spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared mass spectroscopy) were used to identify 13 alkyl and chloralkyl pho...

  9. MULTISPECTRAL IDENTIFICATION OF CHLORINE DIOXIDE DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper discusses the identification of organic disinfection by-products (DBPs) at a pilot plant in Evansville, Indiana, that uses chlorine dioxide as a primary disinfectant. nconventional multispectral identification techniques (gas chromatography combined with high and low r...

  10. Multiscale multispectral optoacoustic tomography by a stationary wavelet transform prior to unmixing.

    PubMed

    Taruttis, Adrian; Rosenthal, Amir; Kacprowicz, Marcin; Burton, Neal C; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2014-05-01

    Multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT) utilizes broadband ultrasound detection for imaging biologically-relevant optical absorption features at a range of scales. Due to the multiscale and multispectral features of the technology, MSOT comes with distinct requirements in implementation and data analysis. In this work, we investigate the interplay between scale, which depends on ultrasonic detection frequency, and optical multispectral spectral analysis, two dimensions that are unique to MSOT and represent a previously unexplored challenge. We show that ultrasound frequency-dependent artifacts suppress multispectral features and complicate spectral analysis. In response, we employ a wavelet decomposition to perform spectral unmixing on a per-scale basis (or per ultrasound frequency band) and showcase imaging of fine-scale features otherwise hidden by low frequency components. We explain the proposed algorithm by means of simple simulations and demonstrate improved performance in imaging data of blood vessels in human subjects.

  11. Bolus tracking with nanofilter-based multispectral videography for capturing microvasculature hemodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najiminaini, Mohamadreza; Kaminska, Bozena; St. Lawrence, Keith; Carson, Jeffrey J. L.

    2014-04-01

    Multispectral imaging is a highly desirable modality for material-based analysis in diverse areas such as food production and processing, satellite-based reconnaissance, and biomedical imaging. Here, we present nanofilter-based multispectral videography (nMSV) in the 700 to 950 nm range made possible by the tunable extraordinary-optical-transmission properties of 3D metallic nanostructures. Measurements made with nMSV during a bolus injection of an intravascular tracer in the ear of a piglet resulted in spectral videos of the microvasculature. Analysis of the multispectral videos generated contrast measurements representative of arterial pulsation, the distribution of microvascular transit times, as well as a separation of the venous and arterial signals arising from within the tissue. Therefore, nMSV is capable of acquiring serial multispectral images relevant to tissue hemodynamics, which may have application to the detection and identification of skin cancer.

  12. On-board multispectral classification study. Volume 2: Supplementary tasks. [adaptive control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewalt, D.

    1979-01-01

    The operational tasks of the onboard multispectral classification study were defined. These tasks include: sensing characteristics for future space applications; information adaptive systems architectural approaches; data set selection criteria; and onboard functional requirements for interfacing with global positioning satellites.

  13. Bolus tracking with nanofilter-based multispectral videography for capturing microvasculature hemodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Najiminaini, Mohamadreza; Kaminska, Bozena; St. Lawrence, Keith; Carson, Jeffrey J. L.

    2014-01-01

    Multispectral imaging is a highly desirable modality for material-based analysis in diverse areas such as food production and processing, satellite-based reconnaissance, and biomedical imaging. Here, we present nanofilter-based multispectral videography (nMSV) in the 700 to 950 nm range made possible by the tunable extraordinary-optical-transmission properties of 3D metallic nanostructures. Measurements made with nMSV during a bolus injection of an intravascular tracer in the ear of a piglet resulted in spectral videos of the microvasculature. Analysis of the multispectral videos generated contrast measurements representative of arterial pulsation, the distribution of microvascular transit times, as well as a separation of the venous and arterial signals arising from within the tissue. Therefore, nMSV is capable of acquiring serial multispectral images relevant to tissue hemodynamics, which may have application to the detection and identification of skin cancer. PMID:24759647

  14. [Study on flame temperature measurement of pyrotechnics using multi-spectral thermometer].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhan-ying; Xi, Lan-xia; Chen, Jun; Guo, Chong-xing; Liu, Chun-jian; Liu, Huan-yang

    2010-08-01

    The radiation spectrum of pyrotechnics' burning flame was analyzed using transient spectrum radiometer. The working principle of multi-spectral thermometry was described. Combined with the radiation spectrum of pyrotechnics' burning flame, the multi-spectral thermometer system was designed which had twelve working channels. The tester can choose the right working channels to calculate according to the radiation spectrum of the flame to be tested. The system is composed by optics part, electronic part, data acquisition part and data processing part. In this paper, the emissive power of black powder's flame has been tested using the multi-spectral thermometer system. The burning flame temperature-time curve was showed after iteration calculation Experiments indicate that the multi-spectral thermometer system can be well used to measure the flame temperature of pyrotechnics based on analyzing the emissive power when choosing the right working channels. This method lays a foundation for the research of combustion output characteristics of pyrotechnics.

  15. Trophic classification of Colorado lakes utilizing contact data, Landsat and aircraft-acquired multispectral scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boland, D. H. P.; Blackwell, R. J.

    1978-01-01

    Multispectral scanner data, acquired over several Colorado lakes using Landsat-1 and aircraft, were used in conjunction with National Eutrophication Survey contact-sensed data to determine the feasibility of assessing lacustrine trophic levels. A trophic state index was developed using contact-sensed data for several trophic indicators (chlorophyll a, inverse of Secchi disk transparency, conductivity, total phosphorous, total organic nitrogen, algal assay yield). Relationships between the digitally processed multispectral scanner data, several trophic indicators, and the trophic index were examined using a supervised multispectral classification technique and regression techniques. Statistically significant correlations exist between spectral bands, several of the trophic indicators (chlorophyll a, Secchi disk transparency, total organic nitrogen), and the trophic state index. Color-coded photomaps were generated which depict the spectral aspects of trophic state. Multispectral scanner data acquired from satellite and aircraft platforms can be used to advantage in lake monitoring and survey programs.

  16. Active and passive multispectral scanner for earth resources applications: An advanced applications flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasell, P. G., Jr.; Peterson, L. M.; Thomson, F. J.; Work, E. A.; Kriegler, F. J.

    1977-01-01

    The development of an experimental airborne multispectral scanner to provide both active (laser illuminated) and passive (solar illuminated) data from a commonly registered surface scene is discussed. The system was constructed according to specifications derived in an initial programs design study. The system was installed in an aircraft and test flown to produce illustrative active and passive multi-spectral imagery. However, data was not collected nor analyzed for any specific application.

  17. Application of High Resolution Multispectral Imagery for Levee Slide Detection and Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hossain, A. K. M. Azad; Easson, Greg

    2007-01-01

    The objective is to develop methods to detect and monitor levee slides using commercially available high resolution multispectral imagery. High resolution multispectral imagery like IKONOS and QuickBird are suitable for detecting and monitoring levee slides. IKONOS is suitable for visual inspection, image classification and Tasseled Cap transform based slide detection. Tasseled Cap based model was found to be the best method for slide detection. QuickBird was suitable for visual inspection and image classification.

  18. The use of four band multispectral photography to identify forest cover types

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downs, S. W., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Four-band multispectral aerial photography and a color additive viewer were employed to identify forest cover types in Northern Alabama. The multispectral photography utilized the blue, green, red and near-infrared spectral regions and was made with black and white infrared film. On the basis of color differences alone, a differentiation between conifers and hardwoods was possible; however, supplementary information related to forest ecology proved necessary for the differentiation of various species of pines and hardwoods.

  19. Detecting early stage pressure ulcer on dark skin using multispectral imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Dingrong; Kong, Linghua; Sprigle, Stephen; Wang, Fengtao; Wang, Chao; Liu, Fuhan; Adibi, Ali; Tummala, Rao

    2010-02-01

    We are developing a handheld multispectral imaging device to non-invasively inspect stage I pressure ulcers in dark pigmented skins without the need of touching the patient's skin. This paper reports some preliminary test results of using a proof-of-concept prototype. It also talks about the innovation's impact to traditional multispectral imaging technologies and the fields that will potentially benefit from it.

  20. The use of ERTS-1 multispectral imagery for crop identification in a semi-arid climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stockton, J. G.; Bauer, M. E.; Blair, B. O.; Baumgardner, M. F.

    1975-01-01

    Crop identification using multispectral satellite imagery and multivariate pattern recognition was used to identify wheat accurately in Greeley County, Kansas. A classification accuracy of 97 percent was found for wheat and the wheat estimate in hectares was within 5 percent of the USDA's Statistical Reporting Service estimate for 1973. The multispectral response of cotton and sorghum in Texas was not unique enough to distinguish between them nor to separate them from other cultivated crops.

  1. Utility of multispectral imaging for nuclear classification of routine clinical histopathology imagery

    PubMed Central

    Boucheron, Laura E; Bi, Zhiqiang; Harvey, Neal R; Manjunath, BS; Rimm, David L

    2007-01-01

    Background We present an analysis of the utility of multispectral versus standard RGB imagery for routine H&E stained histopathology images, in particular for pixel-level classification of nuclei. Our multispectral imagery has 29 spectral bands, spaced 10 nm within the visual range of 420–700 nm. It has been hypothesized that the additional spectral bands contain further information useful for classification as compared to the 3 standard bands of RGB imagery. We present analyses of our data designed to test this hypothesis. Results For classification using all available image bands, we find the best performance (equal tradeoff between detection rate and false alarm rate) is obtained from either the multispectral or our "ccd" RGB imagery, with an overall increase in performance of 0.79% compared to the next best performing image type. For classification using single image bands, the single best multispectral band (in the red portion of the spectrum) gave a performance increase of 0.57%, compared to performance of the single best RGB band (red). Additionally, red bands had the highest coefficients/preference in our classifiers. Principal components analysis of the multispectral imagery indicates only two significant image bands, which is not surprising given the presence of two stains. Conclusion Our results indicate that multispectral imagery for routine H&E stained histopathology provides minimal additional spectral information for a pixel-level nuclear classification task than would standard RGB imagery. PMID:17634098

  2. Multispectral band selection and spatial characterization: Application to mitosis detection in breast cancer histopathology.

    PubMed

    Irshad, H; Gouaillard, A; Roux, L; Racoceanu, D

    2014-07-01

    Breast cancer is the second most frequent cancer. The reference process for breast cancer prognosis is Nottingham grading system. According to this system, mitosis detection is one of the three important criteria required for grading process and quantifying the locality and prognosis of a tumor. Multispectral imaging, as relatively new to the field of histopathology, has the advantage, over traditional RGB imaging, to capture spectrally resolved information at specific frequencies, across the electromagnetic spectrum. This study aims at evaluating the accuracy of mitosis detection on histopathological multispectral images. The proposed framework includes: selection of spectral bands and focal planes, detection of candidate mitotic regions and computation of morphological and multispectral statistical features. A state-of-the-art of the methods for mitosis classification is also provided. This framework has been evaluated on MITOS multispectral dataset and achieved higher detection rate (67.35%) and F-Measure (63.74%) than the best MITOS contest results (Roux et al., 2013). Our results indicate that the selected multispectral bands have more discriminant information than a single spectral band or all spectral bands for mitotic figures, validating the interest of using multispectral images to improve the quality of the diagnostic in histopathology.

  3. [Application and prospect of multi-spectral remote sensing in major natural disaster assessment].

    PubMed

    Wang, Fu-tao; Wang, Shi-xin; Zhou, Yi; Wang, Li-tao; Yan, Fu-li

    2011-03-01

    After the occurrence of major natural disasters, it is of great significance that disaster states are assessed timely and accurately for decision-making departments to draw up effective response programs. Multi-spectral remote sensing has a great advantage and potential in disaster assessment, with the characteristics of a wide range of data acquisition, high speed, etc. In several major natural disaster assessments in China, multi-spectral remote sensing technology has played an important role. Firstly, the present paper takes earthquake disasters, floods disasters and drought disasters as examples to summarize the specific applications of major natural disaster assessment based on the multi-spectral remote sensing. Secondly, in these specific applications they suffer from both relative shortage of data sources and limited breadth and depth of application; both of these problems are analyzed. Finally, the future development direction of major natural disaster assessment based on the multi-spectral remote sensing, such as the expansion of multi-spectral remote sensing data acquisition means, the establishment of major natural disasters assessment index system based on remote sensing, and the improvement of the assessment technology system based on multi-spectral remote sensing are also discussed.

  4. Time course and cellular localization of interleukin-10 mRNA and protein expression in autoimmune inflammation of the rat central nervous system.

    PubMed Central

    Jander, S.; Pohl, J.; D'Urso, D.; Gillen, C.; Stoll, G.

    1998-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis of the Lewis rat is a T-cell-mediated autoimmune disease of the central nervous system characterized by a self-limiting monophasic course. In this study, we analyzed the expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-10 at the mRNA and protein level in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis actively induced with the encephalitogenic 68-86 peptide of guinea pig myelin basic protein. Semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction revealed that IL-10 mRNA expression peaked during the acute phase of the disease at days 11 and 13. IL-10 mRNA was synchronously induced with mRNA for the proinflammatory cytokine interferon-gamma. Immunocytochemistry with a monoclonal antibody against rat IL-10 showed that the peak of IL-10 mRNA was accompanied by an abundant expression of IL-10 protein during the acute stage of the disease. Both in situ hybridization and double labeling immunocytochemistry in combination with confocal microscopy identified T cells, macrophages/microglia, and astrocytes as major cellular sources of IL-10 in vivo. The early peak of IL-10 production was unexpected in light of its well-documented anti-inflammatory properties. Additional studies are required to determine whether endogenous IL-10 contributes to rapid clinical remission typical for Lewis rat experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis or if it plays other, yet undefined, roles in central nervous system autoimmunity. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9546358

  5. Investigation on High Performance of 10m Semi Anechoic Chamber by using Open-Top Hollow Pyramidal Hybrid EM Wave Absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurihara, Hiroshi; Saito, Toshifumi; Suzuki, Yoshikazu; Nishikata, Atsuhiro; Hashimoto, Osamu

    The emission radiated from electric and electronic equipments is evaluated through OATS. Recently, it is not fully prepared the environment for OATS because of a variety of communication radiation sources (e.g., digital television broadcast and cellular phone station). Therefore, the EM anechoic chambers are becoming more and more important as EMI test site. On the other hand, the EM anechoic chambers are needed high performance in order to cut down EMI countermeasure cost and calculate the antenna factor. The objective of this paper is mainly to present the EM wave absorber design in order to obtain within ±2dB against the theoretical site attenuation values in the 10m semi anechoic chamber at 30MHz to 300MHz. We get the necessary reflectivity of EM wave absorber by the basic site attenuation equation. We design the open-top hollow pyramidal new hybrid EM wave absorber consisted of 180cm long dielectric loss foam and ferrite tiles. Then, we design the 10m semi anechoic chamber by using the ray-tracing simulation and construct it in the size of L24m×W15.2m×H11.2m. More over, we measure the site attenuation of the constructed 10m semi anechoic chamber by using the broadband calculable dipole antennas. As the result, we confirm the validity of the designed open-top hollow pyramidal new hybrid EM wave absorber.

  6. Terahertz detectors for long wavelength multi-spectral imaging.

    SciTech Connect

    Lyo, Sungkwun Kenneth; Wanke, Michael Clement; Reno, John Louis; Shaner, Eric Arthur; Grine, Albert D.

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop a wavelength tunable detector for Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging. Our approach was to utilize plasmons in the channel of a specially designed field-effect transistor called the grating-gate detector. Grating-gate detectors exhibit narrow-linewidth, broad spectral tunability through application of a gate bias, and no angular dependence in their photoresponse. As such, if suitable sensitivity can be attained, they are viable candidates for Terahertz multi-spectral focal plane arrays. When this work began, grating-gate gate detectors, while having many promising characteristics, had a noise-equivalent power (NEP) of only 10{sup -5} W/{radical}Hz. Over the duration of this project, we have obtained a true NEP of 10{sup -8} W/{radical}Hz and a scaled NEP of 10{sup -9}W/{radical}Hz. The ultimate goal for these detectors is to reach a NEP in the 10{sup -9{yields}-10}W/{radical}Hz range; we have not yet seen a roadblock to continued improvement.

  7. Fourier domain multispectral multiple scattering low coherence interferometry.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Thomas E; Giacomelli, Michael G; Brown, William J; Wax, Adam

    2013-12-01

    We have implemented multispectral multiple scattering low coherence interferometry (ms2/LCI) with Fourier domain data collection. The ms2/LCI system is designed to localize features with spectroscopic contrast with millimeter resolution up to 1 cm deep in scattering samples by using photons that have undergone multiple low-angle (forward) scattering events. Fourier domain detection both increases the data acquisition speed of the system and gives access to rich spectroscopic information, compared to the previous single channel, time-domain implementation. Separate delivery and detection angular apertures reduce collection of the diffuse background signal in order to isolate localized spectral features from deeper in scattering samples than would be possible with traditional spectroscopic optical coherence tomography. Light from a supercontinuum source is used to acquire absorption spectra of chromophores in the visible range within a tissue-like scattering phantom. An intensity modulation and digital lock-in detection scheme is implemented to mitigate relative intensity and spectral noise inherent in supercontinuum sources. The technical parameters of the system and comparative analysis are presented.

  8. Assigning Main Orientation to an EOH Descriptor on Multispectral Images

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yong; Shi, Xiang; Wei, Lijun; Zou, Junwei; Chen, Fang

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes an approach to compute an EOH (edge-oriented histogram) descriptor with main orientation. EOH has a better matching ability than SIFT (scale-invariant feature transform) on multispectral images, but does not assign a main orientation to keypoints. Alternatively, it tends to assign the same main orientation to every keypoint, e.g., zero degrees. This limits EOH to matching keypoints between images of translation misalignment only. Observing this limitation, we propose assigning to keypoints the main orientation that is computed with PIIFD (partial intensity invariant feature descriptor). In the proposed method, SIFT keypoints are detected from images as the extrema of difference of Gaussians, and every keypoint is assigned to the main orientation computed with PIIFD. Then, EOH is computed for every keypoint with respect to its main orientation. In addition, an implementation variant is proposed for fast computation of the EOH descriptor. Experimental results show that the proposed approach performs more robustly than the original EOH on image pairs that have a rotation misalignment. PMID:26140348

  9. Multispectral fundus imaging for early detection of diabetic retinopathy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beach, James M.; Tiedeman, James S.; Hopkins, Mark F.; Sabharwal, Yashvinder S.

    1999-04-01

    Functional imaging of the retina and associated structures may provide information for early assessment of risks of developing retinopathy in diabetic patients. Here we show results of retinal oximetry performed using multi-spectral reflectance imaging techniques to assess hemoglobin (Hb) oxygen saturation (OS) in blood vessels of the inner retina and oxygen utilization at the optic nerve in diabetic patients without retinopathy and early disease during experimental hyperglycemia. Retinal images were obtained through a fundus camera and simultaneously recorded at up to four wavelengths using image-splitting modules coupled to a digital camera. Changes in OS in large retinal vessels, in average OS in disk tissue, and in the reduced state of cytochrome oxidase (CO) at the disk were determined from changes in reflectance associated with the oxidation/reduction states of Hb and CO. Step to high sugar lowered venous oxygen saturation to a degree dependent on disease duration. Moderate increase in sugar produced higher levels of reduced CO in both the disk and surrounding tissue without a detectable change in average tissue OS. Results suggest that regulation of retinal blood supply and oxygen consumption are altered by hyperglycemia and that such functional changes are present before clinical signs of retinopathy.

  10. Optimal out-of-band correction for multispectral remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei

    2012-11-20

    In this paper, an optimal out-of-band (OOB) correction transform (OOBCT) for dealing with onboard Visible/Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) OOB effects is proposed. This paper addresses the OOB response issue without consideration of the impact of other error sources on the correction processing. The OOBCT matrix is derived by minimizing an objective function of error summation between the expected and realistic recovered band-averaged spectral radiances. Using the VIIRS filter transmittance functions for all multiband sensors obtained from prelaunch laboratory measurements and a simulated dataset obtained from Airborne Visible InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) hyperspectral data, the OOBCT matrix is numerically computed. The processing of the OOB correction is straightforward and can be performed by a product between the OOBCT matrix and a measured multispectral image vector. The experimental results with both AVIRIS and Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean datasets demonstrate that the ratios of average errors of recovered band-averaged spectral radiances divided by the measured radiances with the OOB responses are less than 4%. The average values of the relative errors for all pixels and bands indicate that the OOBCT method outperforms the works reported in literature.

  11. Multispectral fluorescence imaging techniques for nondestructive food safety inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Moon S.; Lefcourt, Alan M.; Chen, Yud-Ren

    2004-03-01

    The use of spectral sensing has gained acceptance as a rapid means for nondestructive inspection of postharvest food produce. Current technologies generally use color or a single wavelength camera technology. The applicability and sensitivity of these techniques can be expanded through the use of multiple wavelengths. Reflectance in the Vis/NIR is the prevalent spectral technique. Fluorescence, compared to reflectance, is regarded as a more sensitive technique due to its dynamic responses to subtle changes in biological entities. Our laboratory has been exploring fluorescence as a potential means for detection of quality and wholesomeness of food products. Applications of fluorescence sensing require an understanding of the spectral characteristics emanating from constituents and potential contaminants. A number of factors affecting fluorescence emission characteristics are discussed. Because of relatively low fluorescence quantum yield from biological samples, a system with a powerful pulse light source such as a laser coupled with a gated detection device is used to harvest fluorescence, in the presence of ambient light. Several fluorescence sensor platforms developed in our laboratory, including hyperspectral imaging, and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and steady-state fluorescence imaging systems with multispectral capabilities are presented. We demonstrate the potential uses of recently developed fluorescence imaging platforms in food safety inspection of apples contaminated with animal feces.

  12. Advances in Hyperspectral and Multispectral Image Fusion and Spectral Unmixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanaras, C.; Baltsavias, E.; Schindler, K.

    2015-08-01

    In this work, we jointly process high spectral and high geometric resolution images and exploit their synergies to (a) generate a fused image of high spectral and geometric resolution; and (b) improve (linear) spectral unmixing of hyperspectral endmembers at subpixel level w.r.t. the pixel size of the hyperspectral image. We assume that the two images are radiometrically corrected and geometrically co-registered. The scientific contributions of this work are (a) a simultaneous approach to image fusion and hyperspectral unmixing, (b) enforcing several physically plausible constraints during unmixing that are all well-known, but typically not used in combination, and (c) the use of efficient, state-of-the-art mathematical optimization tools to implement the processing. The results of our joint fusion and unmixing has the potential to enable more accurate and detailed semantic interpretation of objects and their properties in hyperspectral and multispectral images, with applications in environmental mapping, monitoring and change detection. In our experiments, the proposed method always improves the fusion compared to competing methods, reducing RMSE between 4% and 53%.

  13. Simultaneous Fusion and Denoising of Panchromatic and Multispectral Satellite Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragheb, Amr M.; Osman, Heba; Abbas, Alaa M.; Elkaffas, Saleh M.; El-Tobely, Tarek A.; Khamis, S.; Elhalawany, Mohamed E.; Nasr, Mohamed E.; Dessouky, Moawad I.; Al-Nuaimy, Waleed; Abd El-Samie, Fathi E.

    2012-12-01

    To identify objects in satellite images, multispectral (MS) images with high spectral resolution and low spatial resolution, and panchromatic (Pan) images with high spatial resolution and low spectral resolution need to be fused. Several fusion methods such as the intensity-hue-saturation (IHS), the discrete wavelet transform, the discrete wavelet frame transform (DWFT), and the principal component analysis have been proposed in recent years to obtain images with both high spectral and spatial resolutions. In this paper, a hybrid fusion method for satellite images comprising both the IHS transform and the DWFT is proposed. This method tries to achieve the highest possible spectral and spatial resolutions with as small distortion in the fused image as possible. A comparison study between the proposed hybrid method and the traditional methods is presented in this paper. Different MS and Pan images from Landsat-5, Spot, Landsat-7, and IKONOS satellites are used in this comparison. The effect of noise on the proposed hybrid fusion method as well as the traditional fusion methods is studied. Experimental results show the superiority of the proposed hybrid method to the traditional methods. The results show also that a wavelet denoising step is required when fusion is performed at low signal-to-noise ratios.

  14. Multispectral polarimetric glucose detection using a single Pockels cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Timothy W.; Cote, Gerard L.; McNichols, Roger; Goetz, Marcel J.

    1994-08-01

    The preliminary design of a noninvasive glucose sensor developed in this investigation was based on the polarization rotation of light produced by optically active molecules. The polarimeter developed for this investigation was unique when compared to previous investigations in that it utilized a single Pockels cell to both modulate the signal and in that it utilized a single Pockels cell to both modulate the signal and provide feedback within the system. The intended application of this polarimeter is to measure glucose concentrations within the aqueous humor of the eye. The purpose of this investigation was to elucidate whether the theory of superposition and multispectral analysis can be applied to the measurement of glucose in the presence of ascorbic acid and albumin, the most significant rotatory confounders found in the aqueous humor. The results of this investigation indicate that superposition of rotation at different wavelengths due to the above optically active molecules was valid for the in vitro experiments conducted. Utilizing two wavelengths of light, the concentration of hyperglycemic levels of glucose were derived in the presence of physiological concentrations of the optically active confounders ascorbic acid and albumin. It was found, except for one outlier, that the model predicted glucose concentrations to within 23%.

  15. Multispectral digital holographic microscopy with applications in water quality assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazemzadeh, Farnoud; Jin, Chao; Yu, Mei; Amelard, Robert; Haider, Shahid; Saini, Simarjeet; Emelko, Monica; Clausi, David A.; Wong, Alexander

    2015-09-01

    Safe drinking water is essential for human health, yet over a billion people worldwide do not have access to safe drinking water. Due to the presence and accumulation of biological contaminants in natural waters (e.g., pathogens and neuro-, hepato-, and cytotoxins associated with algal blooms) remain a critical challenge in the provision of safe drinking water globally. It is not financially feasible and practical to monitor and quantify water quality frequently enough to identify the potential health risk due to contamination, especially in developing countries. We propose a low-cost, small-profile multispectral (MS) system based on Digital Holographic Microscopy (DHM) and investigate methods for rapidly capturing holographic data of natural water samples. We have developed a test-bed for an MSDHM instrument to produce and capture holographic data of the sample at different wavelengths in the visible and the near Infra-red spectral region, allowing for resolution improvement in the reconstructed images. Additionally, we have developed high-speed statistical signal processing and analysis techniques to facilitate rapid reconstruction and assessment of the MS holographic data being captured by the MSDHM instrument. The proposed system is used to examine cyanobacteria as well as Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts which remain important and difficult to treat microbiological contaminants that must be addressed for the provision of safe drinking water globally.

  16. Multispectral analysis of limestone, dolomite, and granite, Mill Creek, Oklahoma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowan, L. C.; Watson, K.

    1970-01-01

    Spectral reflectance and thermal emission data were collected at the Mill Creek, Oklahoma test site during NASA missions 132 and 133 in June 1970. The data were collected by three aircraft flown several times during the diurnal cycle at altitudes of 150 to 17,000 m above mean terrain. Reflectance of the main rock types (limestone, dolomite, and granite) was determined from the data collected using a 12-channel multispectral scanner during mission 133 and from thermal infrared images recorded during mission 132 on an RS-7 scanner from 17,000 m above terrain. A preliminary rock recognition map was generated automatically using data collected from 900 m above terrain. The discrimination provided by the map is reasonably accurate. Misidentification occurred in areas of unusually high dolomite reflectivity. High altitude thermal infrared (10 to 12 micrometers) images show regional folds and faults distinguished by the presence of thermally contrasting materials. Linear and curvilinear structural features two to three times smaller than the nominal 17 m resolution could be detected.

  17. Critical dimension measurement of transparent film layers by multispectral imaging.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Soonyang; Kim, Namyoon; Jo, Taeyong; Pahk, Heui Jae

    2014-07-14

    An optical microscopy system as a non-destructive method for measuring critical dimension (CD) is widely used for its stability and fastness. In case of transparent thin film measurement, it is hard to recognize the pattern under white light illumination due to its transparency and reflectance characteristics. In this paper, the optical measurement system using multispectral imaging for CD measurement of transparent thin film is introduced. The measurement system utilizes an Acousto-Optic Tunable Filter (AOTF) to illuminate the specimen with various monochromatic lights. The relationship between spectral reflectance and CD measurement are deduced from series of measurement experiments with two kinds of Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) patterned samples. When the difference of spectral reflectance between substrate and thin film layers is large enough to yield a large image intensity difference, the thin film layer can be distinguished from substrate, and it is possible to measure the CD of transparent thin films. This paper analyzes CD measurement of transparent thin film with reflectance theory and shows that the CD measurement of transparent thin film can be performed successfully with the proposed system within a certain wavelength range filtered by AOTF. PMID:25090550

  18. Multispectral variable magnification glancing incidence x ray telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A multispectral, variable magnification, glancing incidence, x-ray telescope capable of broadband, high resolution imaging of solar and stellar x-ray and extreme ultraviolet radiation sources is discussed. The telescope includes a primary optical system which focuses the incoming radiation to a primary focus. Two or more rotatable mirror carriers, each providing a different magnification, are positioned behind the primary focus at an inclination to the optical axis. Each carrier has a series of ellipsoidal mirrors, and each mirror has a concave surface covered with a multilayer (layered synthetic microstructure) coating to reflect a different desired wavelength. The mirrors of both carriers are segments of ellipsoids having a common first focus coincident with the primary focus. A detector such as an x-ray sensitive photographic film is positioned at the second respective focus of each mirror so that each mirror may reflect the image at the first focus to the detector at the second focus. The carriers are selectively rotated to position a selected mirror for receiving radiation from the primary optical system, and at least the first carrier may be withdrawn from the path of the radiation to permit a selected mirror on the second carrier to receive the radiation.

  19. A wavelet-based method for multispectral face recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yufeng; Zhang, Chaoyang; Zhou, Zhaoxian

    2012-06-01

    A wavelet-based method is proposed for multispectral face recognition in this paper. Gabor wavelet transform is a common tool for orientation analysis of a 2D image; whereas Hamming distance is an efficient distance measurement for face identification. Specifically, at each frequency band, an index number representing the strongest orientational response is selected, and then encoded in binary format to favor the Hamming distance calculation. Multiband orientation bit codes are then organized into a face pattern byte (FPB) by using order statistics. With the FPB, Hamming distances are calculated and compared to achieve face identification. The FPB algorithm was initially created using thermal images, while the EBGM method was originated with visible images. When two or more spectral images from the same subject are available, the identification accuracy and reliability can be enhanced using score fusion. We compare the identification performance of applying five recognition algorithms to the three-band (visible, near infrared, thermal) face images, and explore the fusion performance of combing the multiple scores from three recognition algorithms and from three-band face images, respectively. The experimental results show that the FPB is the best recognition algorithm, the HMM yields the best fusion result, and the thermal dataset results in the best fusion performance compared to other two datasets.

  20. Two Levels Fusion Decision for Multispectral Image Pattern Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmannai, H.; Loghmari, M. A.; Naceur, M. S.

    2015-10-01

    Major goal of multispectral data analysis is land cover classification and related applications. The dimension drawback leads to a small ratio of the remote sensing training data compared to the number of features. Therefore robust methods should be associated to overcome the dimensionality curse. The presented work proposed a pattern recognition approach. Source separation, feature extraction and decisional fusion are the main stages to establish an automatic pattern recognizer. The first stage is pre-processing and is based on non linear source separation. The mixing process is considered non linear with gaussians distributions. The second stage performs feature extraction for Gabor, Wavelet and Curvelet transform. Feature information presentation provides an efficient information description for machine vision projects. The third stage is a decisional fusion performed in two steps. The first step assign the best feature to each source/pattern using the accuracy matrix obtained from the learning data set. The second step is a source majority vote. Classification is performed by Support Vector Machine. Experimentation results show that the proposed fusion method enhances the classification accuracy and provide powerful tool for pattern recognition.

  1. Infrared optical coatings for the EarthCARE Multispectral Imager.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Gary; Woods, David; Sherwood, Richard; Djotni, Karim

    2014-10-20

    The Earth Cloud, Aerosol and Radiation Explorer mission (EarthCARE) Multispectral Imager (MSI) is a radiometric instrument designed to provide the imaging of the atmospheric cloud cover and the cloud top surface temperature from a sun-synchronous low Earth orbit. The MSI forms part of a suite of four instruments destined to support the European Space Agency Living Planet mission on-board the EarthCARE satellite payload to be launched in 2016, whose synergy will be used to construct three-dimensional scenes, textures, and temperatures of atmospheric clouds and aerosols. The MSI instrument contains seven channels: four solar channels to measure visible and short-wave infrared wavelengths, and three channels to measure infrared thermal emission. In this paper, we describe the optical layout of the infrared instrument channels, thin-film multilayer designs, the coating deposition method, and the spectral system throughput for the bandpass interference filters, dichroic beam splitters, lenses, and mirror coatings to discriminate wavelengths at 8.8, 10.8, and 12.0 μm. The rationale for the selection of thin-film materials, spectral measurement technique, and environmental testing performance are also presented.

  2. Assessing carotid atherosclerosis by fiber-optic multispectral photoacoustic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Jie; Li, Rui; Wang, Pu; Phillips, Evan; Bruning, Rebecca; Liao, Chien-Sheng; Sturek, Michael; Goergen, Craig J.; Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2015-03-01

    Atherosclerotic plaque at the carotid bifurcation is the underlying cause of the majority of ischemic strokes. Noninvasive imaging and quantification of the compositional changes preceding gross anatomic changes within the arterial wall is essential for diagnosis of disease. Current imaging modalities such as duplex ultrasound, computed tomography, positron emission tomography are limited by the lack of compositional contrast and the detection of flow-limiting lesions. Although high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging has been developed to characterize atherosclerotic plaque composition, its accessibility for wide clinical use is limited. Here, we demonstrate a fiber-based multispectral photoacoustic tomography system for excitation of lipids and external acoustic detection of the generated ultrasound. Using sequential ultrasound imaging of ex vivo preparations we achieved ~2 cm imaging depth and chemical selectivity for assessment of human arterial plaques. A multivariate curve resolution alternating least squares analysis method was applied to resolve the major chemical components, including intravascular lipid, intramuscular fat, and blood. These results show the promise of detecting carotid plaque in vivo through esophageal fiber-optic excitation of lipids and external acoustic detection of the generated ultrasound. This imaging system has great potential for serving as a point-ofcare device for early diagnosis of carotid artery disease in the clinic.

  3. The four- and five-band multispectral scanners for Landsat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansing, J. C., Jr.; Cline, R. W.

    1975-01-01

    The earth resources sensing Multispectral Scanner (MSS) for the Landsat satellite has two versions; one with four spectral bands from 0.5 to 1.1 microns, and one with five bands, the added band being 10.4 to 12.6 microns. This paper describes optical design and performance. The instrument uses a flat, object-space scanning mirror of near-linear motion, with a sensitive optical position monitor to detect mirror angular position. The 22.9-cm aperture telescope images the scene on an array of fiber optics, which dissect and transmit the scene energy to photomultiplier tubes detecting in Bands 1, 2, and 3, and silicon photodiodes detecting Band 4. Band 5 energy passes the fiber optic assembly and is reimaged on a radiatively cooled mercury cadmium telluride (HgCdTe) detector. The orbiting four-band scanner is furnishing data registered to better than 50-m band-to-band and resolving 80-m repetitive pattern over a 185-km swath width from 907-km altitude.

  4. Radiometric Characterization of Hyperspectral Imagers using Multispectral Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCorkel, Joel; Kurt, Thome; Leisso, Nathan; Anderson, Nikolaus; Czapla-Myers, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    The Remote Sensing Group (RSG) at the University of Arizona has a long history of using ground-based test sites for the calibration of airborne and satellite based sensors. Often, ground-truth measurements at these test sites are not always successful due to weather and funding availability. Therefore, RSG has also automated ground instrument approaches and cross-calibration methods to verify the radiometric calibration of a sensor. The goal in the cross-calibration method is to transfer the calibration of a well-known sensor to that of a different sensor, This work studies the feasibility of determining the radiometric calibration of a hyperspectral imager using multispectral a imagery. The work relies on the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (M0DIS) as a reference for the hyperspectral sensor Hyperion. Test sites used for comparisons are Railroad Valley in Nevada and a portion of the Libyan Desert in North Africa. Hyperion bands are compared to MODIS by band averaging Hyperion's high spectral resolution data with the relative spectral response of M0DlS. The results compare cross-calibration scenarios that differ in image acquisition coincidence, test site used for the calibration, and reference sensor. Cross-calibration results are presented that show agreement between the use of coincident and non-coincident image pairs within 2% in most brands as well as similar agreement between results that employ the different MODIS sensors as a reference.

  5. High Throughput Multispectral Image Processing with Applications in Food Science.

    PubMed

    Tsakanikas, Panagiotis; Pavlidis, Dimitris; Nychas, George-John

    2015-01-01

    Recently, machine vision is gaining attention in food science as well as in food industry concerning food quality assessment and monitoring. Into the framework of implementation of Process Analytical Technology (PAT) in the food industry, image processing can be used not only in estimation and even prediction of food quality but also in detection of adulteration. Towards these applications on food science, we present here a novel methodology for automated image analysis of several kinds of food products e.g. meat, vanilla crème and table olives, so as to increase objectivity, data reproducibility, low cost information extraction and faster quality assessment, without human intervention. Image processing's outcome will be propagated to the downstream analysis. The developed multispectral image processing method is based on unsupervised machine learning approach (Gaussian Mixture Models) and a novel unsupervised scheme of spectral band selection for segmentation process optimization. Through the evaluation we prove its efficiency and robustness against the currently available semi-manual software, showing that the developed method is a high throughput approach appropriate for massive data extraction from food samples. PMID:26466349

  6. Multispectral imaging fluorescence microscopy for lymphoid tissue analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monici, Monica; Agati, Giovanni; Fusi, Franco; Mazzinghi, Piero; Romano, Salvatore; Pratesi, Riccardo; Alterini, Renato; Bernabei, Pietro A.; Rigacci, Luigi

    1999-01-01

    Multispectral imaging autofluorescence microscopy (MIAM) is used here for the analysis of lymphatic tissues. Lymph node biopsies, from patients with lympthoadenopathy of different origin have been examined. Natural fluorescence (NF) images of 3 micrometers sections were obtained using three filters peaked at 450, 550 and 680 nm with 50 nm bandpass. Monochrome images were combined together in a single RGB image. NF images of lymph node tissue sections show intense blue-green fluorescence of the connective stroma. Normal tissue shows follicles with faintly fluorescent lymphocytes, as expected fro the morphologic and functional characteristics of these cells. Other more fluorescent cells (e.g., plasma cells and macrophages) are evidenced. Intense green fluorescence if localized in the inner wall of the vessels. Tissues coming from patients affected by Hodgkin's lymphoma show spread fluorescence due to connective infiltration and no evidence of follicle organization. Brightly fluorescent large cells, presumably Hodgkin cells, are also observed. These results indicate that MIAM can discriminate between normal and pathological tissues on the basis of their natural fluorescence pattern, and, therefore, represent a potentially useful technique for diagnostic applications. Analysis of the fluorescence spectra of both normal and malignant lymphoid tissues resulted much less discriminatory than MIAM.

  7. High Throughput Multispectral Image Processing with Applications in Food Science.

    PubMed

    Tsakanikas, Panagiotis; Pavlidis, Dimitris; Nychas, George-John

    2015-01-01

    Recently, machine vision is gaining attention in food science as well as in food industry concerning food quality assessment and monitoring. Into the framework of implementation of Process Analytical Technology (PAT) in the food industry, image processing can be used not only in estimation and even prediction of food quality but also in detection of adulteration. Towards these applications on food science, we present here a novel methodology for automated image analysis of several kinds of food products e.g. meat, vanilla crème and table olives, so as to increase objectivity, data reproducibility, low cost information extraction and faster quality assessment, without human intervention. Image processing's outcome will be propagated to the downstream analysis. The developed multispectral image processing method is based on unsupervised machine learning approach (Gaussian Mixture Models) and a novel unsupervised scheme of spectral band selection for segmentation process optimization. Through the evaluation we prove its efficiency and robustness against the currently available semi-manual software, showing that the developed method is a high throughput approach appropriate for massive data extraction from food samples.

  8. Cloud optical parameters as derived from the multispectral cloud radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakajima, Teruyuki; King, Michael D.

    1990-01-01

    Simultaneous measurements of the liquid water content and particle size have assumed an important role in cloud physics as they help elucidate the mechanism of cloud particle formation and the mechanism of air mass-mixing in stratus clouds. Such measurements can reveal the modification of cloud air masses by anthropogenic aerosol particles (Coakley et al. 1987, Durkee 1989). Studies of the climatic impact of these modification processes on cloud microphysics seems to be urgent for understanding mechanisms of climate change. General Circulation Model (GCM) simulations can be improved by introducing a parameterization of cloud optical properties in terms of integrated liquid water content (liquid water path) and particle size (Slingo 1989). Motivated by the above mentioned circumstances, remote sensing techniques were developed for simultaneously retrieving the cloud optical thickness and effective particle radius, from which the liquid water path can be inferred. Statistical features of the cloud optical thickness (or liquid water path) and effective particle size for marine stratocumulus clouds are presented. These results were obtained during 4 days (7, 10, 13, and 16 July 1987) of observations with the Multispectral Cloud Radiometer (ER-2) and the Thematic Mapper (LANDSAT-5) during the First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE).

  9. Design Considerations, Modeling and Analysis for the Multispectral Thermal Imager

    SciTech Connect

    Borel, C.C.; Clodius, W.B.; Cooke, B.J.; Smith, B.W.; Weber, P.G.

    1999-02-01

    The design of remote sensing systems is driven by the need to provide cost-effective, substantive answers to questions posed by our customers. This is especially important for space-based systems, which tend to be expensive, and which generally cannot be changed after they are launched. We report here on the approach we employed in developing the desired attributes of a satellite mission, namely the Multispectral Thermal Imager. After an initial scoping study, we applied a procedure which we call: "End-to-end modeling and analysis (EEM)." We began with target attributes, translated to observable signatures and then propagated the signatures through the atmosphere to the sensor location. We modeled the sensor attributes to yield a simulated data stream, which was then analyzed to retrieve information about the original target. The retrieved signature was then compared to the original to obtain a figure of merit: hence the term "end-to-end modeling and analysis." We base the EEM in physics to ensure high fidelity and to permit scaling. As the actual design of the payload evolves, and as real hardware is tested, we can update the EEM to facilitate trade studies, and to judge, for example, whether components that deviate from specifications are acceptable.

  10. Active multispectral near-IR detection of small surface targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, Arie N.; Winkel, Hans; Roos, Marco J. J.

    2001-10-01

    The detection and identification of small surface targets with Electro-Optical sensors is seriously hampered by ground clutter, leading to false alarms and reduced detection probabilities. Active ground illumination can improve the detection performance of EO sensors compared to passive skylight illumination because of the knowledge of the illumination level and of its temporal stability. Sun and sky cannot provide this due to the weather variability. In addition multispectral sensors with carefully chosen spectral bands ranging from the visual into the near IR from 400-2500 nm wavelength can take benefit of a variety of cheap active light sources, ranging from lasers to Xenon or halogen lamps. Results are presented, obtained with a two- color laser scanner with one wavelength in the chlorophyll absorption dip. Another active scanner is described operating at 4 wavebands between 1400 and 2300 nm, using tungsten halogen lamps. Finally a simple TV camera was used with either a ste of narrow band spectral filters or polarization filters in front of the lamps. The targets consisted of an array of mixed objects, most of them real mines. The results how great promise in enhancing the detection and identification probabilities of EO sensors against small surface targets.

  11. An Expert System For Multispectral Threat Assessment And Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberg, Alan N.

    1987-05-01

    A concept has been defined for an automatic system to manage the self-defense of a combat aircraft. Distinctive new features of this concept include: a. the flexible prioritization of tasks and coordinated use of sensor, countermeasures, flight systems and weapons assets by means of an automated planning function; b. the integration of state-of-the-art data fusion algorithms with event prediction processing; c. the use of advanced Artificial Intelligence tools to emulate the decision processes of tactical EW experts. Threat Assessment functions (a) estimate threat identity, lethality and intent on the basis of multi-spectral sensor data, and (b) predict the time to critical events in threat engagements (e.g., target acquisition, tracking, weapon launch, impact). Response Management functions (a) select candidate responses to reported threat situations; (b) estimate the effects of candidate actions on survival; and (c) coordinate the assignment of sensors, weapons and countermeasures with the flight plan. The system employs Finite State Models to represent current engagements and to predict subsequent events. Each state in a model is associated with a set of observable features, allowing interpretation of sensor data and adaptive use of sensor assets. Defined conditions on state transitions allow prediction of times to critical future states and are used in planning self-defensive responses, which are designed either to impede a particular state transition or to force a transition to a lower threat state.

  12. Different techniques of multispectral data analysis for vegetation fraction retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kancheva, Rumiana; Georgiev, Georgi

    2012-07-01

    Vegetation monitoring is one of the most important applications of remote sensing technologies. In respect to farmlands, the assessment of crop condition constitutes the basis of growth, development, and yield processes monitoring. Plant condition is defined by a set of biometric variables, such as density, height, biomass amount, leaf area index, and etc. The canopy cover fraction is closely related to these variables, and is state-indicative of the growth process. At the same time it is a defining factor of the soil-vegetation system spectral signatures. That is why spectral mixtures decomposition is a primary objective in remotely sensed data processing and interpretation, specifically in agricultural applications. The actual usefulness of the applied methods depends on their prediction reliability. The goal of this paper is to present and compare different techniques for quantitative endmember extraction from soil-crop patterns reflectance. These techniques include: linear spectral unmixing, two-dimensional spectra analysis, spectral ratio analysis (vegetation indices), spectral derivative analysis (red edge position), colorimetric analysis (tristimulus values sum, chromaticity coordinates and dominant wavelength). The objective is to reveal their potential, accuracy and robustness for plant fraction estimation from multispectral data. Regression relationships have been established between crop canopy cover and various spectral estimators.

  13. Spatial Resolution Characterization for AWiFS Multispectral Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blonski, Slawomir; Ryan, Robert E.; Pagnutti, Mary; Stanley, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Within the framework of the Joint Agency Commercial Imagery Evaluation program, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, and the U.S. Geological Survey cooperate in the characterization of high-to-moderate-resolution commercial imagery of mutual interest. One of the systems involved in this effort is the Advanced Wide Field Sensor (AWiFS) onboard the Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) Reourcesat-1 satellite, IRS-P6. Spatial resolution of the AWiFS multispectral images was characterized by estimating the value of the system Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) at the Nyquist spatial frequency. The Nyquist frequency is defined as half the sampling frequency, and the sampling frequency is equal to the inverse of the ground sample distance. The MTF was calculated as a ratio of the Fourier transform of a profile across an AWiFS image of the Lake Pontchartrain Causeway Bridge and the Fourier transform of a profile across an idealized model of the bridge for each spectral band evaluated. The mean MTF value for the AWiFS imagery evaluated was estimated to be 0.1.

  14. Infrared optical coatings for the EarthCARE Multispectral Imager.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Gary; Woods, David; Sherwood, Richard; Djotni, Karim

    2014-10-20

    The Earth Cloud, Aerosol and Radiation Explorer mission (EarthCARE) Multispectral Imager (MSI) is a radiometric instrument designed to provide the imaging of the atmospheric cloud cover and the cloud top surface temperature from a sun-synchronous low Earth orbit. The MSI forms part of a suite of four instruments destined to support the European Space Agency Living Planet mission on-board the EarthCARE satellite payload to be launched in 2016, whose synergy will be used to construct three-dimensional scenes, textures, and temperatures of atmospheric clouds and aerosols. The MSI instrument contains seven channels: four solar channels to measure visible and short-wave infrared wavelengths, and three channels to measure infrared thermal emission. In this paper, we describe the optical layout of the infrared instrument channels, thin-film multilayer designs, the coating deposition method, and the spectral system throughput for the bandpass interference filters, dichroic beam splitters, lenses, and mirror coatings to discriminate wavelengths at 8.8, 10.8, and 12.0 μm. The rationale for the selection of thin-film materials, spectral measurement technique, and environmental testing performance are also presented. PMID:25402784

  15. [Radiometric calibration of LCTF-based multispectral area CCD camera].

    PubMed

    Du, Li-Li; Yi, Wei-Ning; Zhang, Dong-Ying; Huang, Hong-Lian; Qiao, Yan-Li; Zhang, Xie

    2011-01-01

    Multispectral area CCD camera based on liquid crystal tunable filter (LCTF) is a new spectral imaging system, which could record image of one wavelength on the area CCD by utilizing electrically controlled birefringence of liquid-crystal and interference principle of polarized light. Because of the special working principle of LCTF and frame transfer area CCD, the existing radiometric calibration method can not meet the precision need of remote sensing application if it is used for LCTF-camera. An improved radiometric calibration method is proposed, in which the camera performance test and calibration experiment are carried out relying on the devices of integrating sphere and standard detector, and the absolute calibration coefficient is calculated via correcting frame transfer smear and improving data process algorithm. Then the validity of the laboratory calibration coefficient is checked by a field validation experiment. Experimental result indicates that the calibration coefficient is valid, and the radiation information on the ground could be accurately inverted from the calibrated image data. With the resolution of radiometric calibration of LCTF-camera and the improvement of calibration precision, the application field of the image data acquired by the camera would be extended effectively.

  16. Investigation of radiometric properties of the LANDSAT-4 multispectral scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malila, W. A. (Principal Investigator); Rice, D. P.

    1983-01-01

    The radiometric data quality of the LANDSAT 4 multispectral scanner (MSS) was examined using several LANDSAT 4 frames. It was found that LANDSAT 4 MSS produces high-quality data of the caliber experienced with previous LANDSATS. For example, the detector equalization procedure worked well, leaving a residual banding effect of about 0.3 digital counts RMS, close to the theoretical minimum value of quantization error. Nevertheless, artifacts of the data were found, two of which were not experienced in previous MSS data. A low-level coherent noise effect was observed in all bands, with a magnitude of about 0.5 digital counts and a frequency of approximately 28 KHz (representing a wavelength of about 3.6 pixels); a substantial increase in processing complexity would be required to reduce this artifact in the data. Also, a substantial scan-length variation (of up to six pixels) was noted in MSS data when the TM sensor was operating; the LANDSAT 4 correction algorithms being applied routinely by the EROS Data Center to produce a p-type data should remove most of this variation. Between-satellite calibrations were examined in paired LANDSAT 3 and LANDSAT 4 MSS data sets, which were closely matched in acquisition time and place. Radiometric comparisons showed that all bands were highly linear in digital counts, and a well-determined linear transformation between the MSS's was established.

  17. [On-Orbit Multispectral Sensor Characterization Based on Spectral Tarps].

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Zhang, Li-ming; Chen, Hong-yao; Xu, Wei-wei

    2016-03-01

    The multispectral remote sensing technology has been a primary means in the research of biomass monitoring, climate change, disaster prediction and etc. The spectral sensitivity is essential in the quantitative analysis of remote sensing data. When the sensor is running in the space, it will be influenced by cosmic radiation, severe change of temperature, chemical molecular contamination, cosmic dust and etc. As a result, the spectral sensitivity will degrade by time, which has great implication on the accuracy and consistency of the physical measurements. This paper presents a characterization method of the degradation based on man-made spectral targets. Firstly, a degradation model is established in the paper. Then, combined with equivalent reflectance of spectral targets measured and inverted from image, the degradation characterization can be achieved. The simulation and on orbit experiment results showed that, using the proposed method, the change of center wavelength and band width can be monotored. The method proposed in the paper has great significance for improving the accuracy of long time series remote sensing data product and comprehensive utilization level of multi sensor data products. PMID:27400529

  18. Active multispectral imaging system for photodiagnosis and personalized phototherapies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ugarte, M. F.; Chávarri, L.; Briz, S.; Padrón, V. M.; García-Cuesta, E.

    2014-10-01

    The proposed system has been designed to identify dermatopathologies or to apply personalized phototherapy treatments. The system emits electromagnetic waves in different spectral bands in the range of visible and near infrared to irradiate the target (skin or any other object) to be spectrally characterized. Then, an imaging sensor measures the target response to the stimulus at each spectral band and, after processing, the system displays in real time two images. In one of them the value of each pixel corresponds to the more reflected wavenumber whereas in the other image the pixel value represents the energy absorbed at each band. The diagnosis capability of this system lies in its multispectral design, and the phototherapy treatments are adapted to the patient and his lesion by measuring his absorption capability. This "in situ" absorption measurement allows us to determine the more appropriate duration of the treatment according to the wavelength and recommended dose. The main advantages of this system are its low cost, it does not have moving parts or complex mechanisms, it works in real time, and it is easy to handle. For these reasons its widespread use in dermatologist consultation would facilitate the work of the dermatologist and would improve the efficiency of diagnosis and treatment. In fact the prototype has already been successfully applied to pathologies such as carcinomas, melanomas, keratosis, and nevi.

  19. Application of automated multispectral analysis to Delaware's coastal vegetation mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V. (Principal Investigator); Daiber, D.; Bartlett, D. S.; Crichton, O. W.; Fornes, A. O.

    1973-01-01

    There are no author-identified significant results in this report. Overlay maps of Delaware's wetlands have been prepared, showing the dominant species or group of species of vegetation present. Five such categories of vegetation were used indicating marshes dominated by: (1) salt marsh cord grass; (2) salt marsh hay and spike grass; (3) reed grass; (4) high tide bush and sea myrtle; and (5) a group of fresh water species found in impounded areas built to attract water fowl. Fifteen such maps cover Delaware's wetlands from the Pennsylvania to the Maryland borders. The mapping technique employed utilizes the General Electric multispectral data processing system. This system is a hybrid analog-digital system designed as an analysis tool to be used by an operator whose own judgment and knowledge of ground truth can be incorporated at any time into the analyzing process. The result is a high speed, cost effective method for producing enhanced photomaps showing a number of spectral classes, each enhanced spectral class being representative of a vegetative species or group of species.

  20. Retrieval of Aerosol Properties from Multi-Spectral Extinction Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lacis, Andrew A.

    1999-01-01

    The direct-beam spectral extinction of solar radiation contains information on atmospheric composition in a form that is essentially free from the data analysis complexities that often arise from multiple scattering. Ground based Multi-Filter Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) measurements provide such information for the vertical atmospheric column path, while solar occultation measurements from a satellite platform provide horizontal slices through the atmosphere. We describe application of a Multi-Spectral Atmospheric Column Extinction (MACE) analysis technique used to analyze MFRSR data also to occultation measurements made by SAGE II. For analysis, we select the 1985 Nevado del Ruiz volcanic eruption period to retrieve atmospheric profiles of ozone and NO2, and changes in the stratospheric aerosol size and optical depth. The time evolution of volcanic aerosol serves as a passive tracer to study stratospheric dynamics, and changes in particle size put constraints on the sulfur chemistry modeling of volcanic aerosols. Paper presented at The '99 Kyoto Aerosol-Cloud Workshop, held Dec 1-3, 1999, Kyoto, Japan

  1. An orbiting multispectral scanner for overland and oceanographic applications.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peacock, K.; Withrington, R. J.

    1971-01-01

    Description of the major features of a multispectral scanner designed to perform overland and oceanographic surveys from space. The instrument uses an image plane conical scanner and contains independent spectrometers for land and ocean applications. The overland spectrometer has a spatial resolution of 200 ft and has six spectral bands in the atmospheric windows between 0.5 and 2.4 microns. The oceanographic spectrometer has a spatial resolution of 1200 ft and possesses 24 spectral bands equally spaced and in registration over the wavelength range from 0.4 to 0.8 micron. A thermal band of 600-ft resolution is used with a spectral range from 10.5 to 12.6 microns. The swath width of the scan is 100 nautical miles from an altitude of 500 nautical miles. The system has two modes of operation which are selectable by ground command. The six bands of overland data plus the thermal band data can be transmitted, or the 24 bands of oceanographic data plus data from two of the overland bands and the thermal band can be transmitted. The performance is described by the minimum detectable reflectance difference and the effects of sun angle and target reflectivity variations are discussed. The sensitivity is related to the variation of the ocean reflectivity in the presence of chlorophyll and to typical agricultural targets.

  2. High Throughput Multispectral Image Processing with Applications in Food Science

    PubMed Central

    Tsakanikas, Panagiotis; Pavlidis, Dimitris; Nychas, George-John

    2015-01-01

    Recently, machine vision is gaining attention in food science as well as in food industry concerning food quality assessment and monitoring. Into the framework of implementation of Process Analytical Technology (PAT) in the food industry, image processing can be used not only in estimation and even prediction of food quality but also in detection of adulteration. Towards these applications on food science, we present here a novel methodology for automated image analysis of several kinds of food products e.g. meat, vanilla crème and table olives, so as to increase objectivity, data reproducibility, low cost information extraction and faster quality assessment, without human intervention. Image processing’s outcome will be propagated to the downstream analysis. The developed multispectral image processing method is based on unsupervised machine learning approach (Gaussian Mixture Models) and a novel unsupervised scheme of spectral band selection for segmentation process optimization. Through the evaluation we prove its efficiency and robustness against the currently available semi-manual software, showing that the developed method is a high throughput approach appropriate for massive data extraction from food samples. PMID:26466349

  3. Assigning Main Orientation to an EOH Descriptor on Multispectral Images.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong; Shi, Xiang; Wei, Lijun; Zou, Junwei; Chen, Fang

    2015-07-01

    This paper proposes an approach to compute an EOH (edge-oriented histogram) descriptor with main orientation. EOH has a better matching ability than SIFT (scale-invariant feature transform) on multispectral images, but does not assign a main orientation to keypoints. Alternatively, it tends to assign the same main orientation to every keypoint, e.g., zero degrees. This limits EOH to matching keypoints between images of translation misalignment only. Observing this limitation, we propose assigning to keypoints the main orientation that is computed with PIIFD (partial intensity invariant feature descriptor). In the proposed method, SIFT keypoints are detected from images as the extrema of difference of Gaussians, and every keypoint is assigned to the main orientation computed with PIIFD. Then, EOH is computed for every keypoint with respect to its main orientation. In addition, an implementation variant is proposed for fast computation of the EOH descriptor. Experimental results show that the proposed approach performs more robustly than the original EOH on image pairs that have a rotation misalignment.

  4. Whole-body multispectral photoacoustic imaging of adult zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Na; Guo, Heng; Qi, Weizhi; Zhang, Zhiwei; Rong, Jian; Yuan, Zhen; Ge, Wei; Jiang, Huabei; Xi, Lei

    2016-01-01

    The zebrafish, an ideal vertebrate for studying developmental biology and genetics, is increasingly being used to understand human diseases, due to its high similarity to the human genome and its optical transparency during embryonic stages. Once the zebrafish has fully developed, especially wild-type breeds, conventional optical imaging techniques have difficulty in imaging the internal organs and structures with sufficient resolution and penetration depth. Even with established mutant lines that remain transparent throughout their life cycle, it is still challenging for purely optical imaging modalities to visualize the organs of juvenile and adult zebrafish at a micro-scale spatial resolution. In this work, we developed a non-invasive three-dimensional photoacoustic imaging platform with an optimized illumination pattern and a cylindrical-scanning-based data collection system to image entire zebrafish with micro-scale resolutions of 80 μm and 600 μm in the lateral and axial directions, respectively. In addition, we employed a multispectral strategy that utilized excitation wavelengths from 690 nm to 930 nm to statistically quantify the relative optical absorption spectrum of major organs. PMID:27699119

  5. Active multispectral imaging system for photodiagnosis and personalized phototherapies

    SciTech Connect

    Ugarte, M. F. E-mail: sbriz@fis.uc3m.es; Chávarri, L.; Padrón, V. M.; García-Cuesta, E.

    2014-10-15

    The proposed system has been designed to identify dermatopathologies or to apply personalized phototherapy treatments. The system emits electromagnetic waves in different spectral bands in the range of visible and near infrared to irradiate the target (skin or any other object) to be spectrally characterized. Then, an imaging sensor measures the target response to the stimulus at each spectral band and, after processing, the system displays in real time two images. In one of them the value of each pixel corresponds to the more reflected wavenumber whereas in the other image the pixel value represents the energy absorbed at each band. The diagnosis capability of this system lies in its multispectral design, and the phototherapy treatments are adapted to the patient and his lesion by measuring his absorption capability. This “in situ” absorption measurement allows us to determine the more appropriate duration of the treatment according to the wavelength and recommended dose. The main advantages of this system are its low cost, it does not have moving parts or complex mechanisms, it works in real time, and it is easy to handle. For these reasons its widespread use in dermatologist consultation would facilitate the work of the dermatologist and would improve the efficiency of diagnosis and treatment. In fact the prototype has already been successfully applied to pathologies such as carcinomas, melanomas, keratosis, and nevi.

  6. Global multispectral mosaics of the icy Galilean satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, T. V.; Mosher, J. A.; Kupferman, P.; Soderblom, L. A.; Danielson, G. E.; Cook, A. F.

    1983-01-01

    Multispectral mosaics of the three icy Galilean satellites have been produced from low- to moderate-resolution Voyager images. The digital image data have been calibrated using preflight and in-flight calibration data, and reduced to normal albedos for four-color band passes, centered at 0.35, 0.41, 0.48, and 0.59 microns. The individual images have been geometrically corrected, mosaiked, and presented in a normal cylindrical map projection at a uniform scale of 8 km/pixel. Preliminary analysis of the normal albedo data shows that (1) the darkest terrains on the satellites are the dark regions on Callisto, (2) the brightest regions are bright plains regions on Europa and bright, fresh craters on Ganymede, (3) bright craters on Ganymede and its dark, cratered regions are both significantly brighter than comparable terrains on Callisto, and (4) Europa exhibits several distinct spectral units, with regions on the trailing hemisphere having lower relative ultraviolet spectral reflectance than areas on the leading hemisphere. This is consistent with proposals that Io-related plasma impact on Europa's trailing side has altered its optical properties.

  7. Multispectral optical metasurfaces enabled by achromatic phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zeyu; Pu, Mingbo; Gao, Hui; Jin, Jinjin; Li, Xiong; Ma, Xiaoliang; Wang, Yanqin; Gao, Ping; Luo, Xiangang

    2015-10-01

    The independent control of electromagnetic waves with different oscillating frequencies is critical in the modern electromagnetic techniques, such as wireless communications and multispectral imaging. To obtain complete control of different light waves with optical materials, the chromatic dispersion should be carefully controlled, which is however extremely difficult. In this paper, we propose a method to control the behaviors of different light waves through a metasurface which is able to generate achromatic geometric phase. Using this approach, a doughnut-shaped and a solid light spot were achieved at the same focal plane using two light sources with different wavelengths as used in the stimulation emission depletion (STED) microscope system. In order to reveal the full capacity of such method, tight focusing at multiple wavelengths is also represented, where the focal spots of different wavelengths are located at the same position. The results provided here may open a new door to the design of subminiature optical components and integrated optical system operating at multiple wavelengths.

  8. Multispectral optical metasurfaces enabled by achromatic phase transition

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zeyu; Pu, Mingbo; Gao, Hui; Jin, Jinjin; Li, Xiong; Ma, Xiaoliang; Wang, Yanqin; Gao, Ping; Luo, Xiangang

    2015-01-01

    The independent control of electromagnetic waves with different oscillating frequencies is critical in the modern electromagnetic techniques, such as wireless communications and multispectral imaging. To obtain complete control of different light waves with optical materials, the chromatic dispersion should be carefully controlled, which is however extremely difficult. In this paper, we propose a method to control the behaviors of different light waves through a metasurface which is able to generate achromatic geometric phase. Using this approach, a doughnut-shaped and a solid light spot were achieved at the same focal plane using two light sources with different wavelengths as used in the stimulation emission depletion (STED) microscope system. In order to reveal the full capacity of such method, tight focusing at multiple wavelengths is also represented, where the focal spots of different wavelengths are located at the same position. The results provided here may open a new door to the design of subminiature optical components and integrated optical system operating at multiple wavelengths. PMID:26503607

  9. Multispectral optical metasurfaces enabled by achromatic phase transition.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zeyu; Pu, Mingbo; Gao, Hui; Jin, Jinjin; Li, Xiong; Ma, Xiaoliang; Wang, Yanqin; Gao, Ping; Luo, Xiangang

    2015-10-27

    The independent control of electromagnetic waves with different oscillating frequencies is critical in the modern electromagnetic techniques, such as wireless communications and multispectral imaging. To obtain complete control of different light waves with optical materials, the chromatic dispersion should be carefully controlled, which is however extremely difficult. In this paper, we propose a method to control the behaviors of different light waves through a metasurface which is able to generate achromatic geometric phase. Using this approach, a doughnut-shaped and a solid light spot were achieved at the same focal plane using two light sources with different wavelengths as used in the stimulation emission depletion (STED) microscope system. In order to reveal the full capacity of such method, tight focusing at multiple wavelengths is also represented, where the focal spots of different wavelengths are located at the same position. The results provided here may open a new door to the design of subminiature optical components and integrated optical system operating at multiple wavelengths.

  10. Classification of emerald based on multispectral image and PCA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Weiping; Zhao, Dazun; Huang, Qingmei; Ren, Pengyuan; Feng, Jie; Zhang, Xiaoyan

    2005-02-01

    Traditionally, the grade discrimination and classifying of bowlders (emeralds) are implemented by using methods based on people's experiences. In our previous works, a method based on NCS(Natural Color System) color system and sRGB color space conversion is employed for a coarse grade classification of emeralds. However, it is well known that the color match of two colors is not a true "match" unless their spectra are the same. Because metameric colors can not be differentiated by a three channel(RGB) camera, a multispectral camera(MSC) is used as image capturing device in this paper. It consists of a trichromatic digital camera and a set of wide-band filters. The spectra are obtained by measuring a series of natural bowlders(emeralds) samples. Principal component analysis(PCA) method is employed to get some spectral eigenvectors. During the fine classification, the color difference and RMS of spectrum difference between estimated and original spectra are used as criterion. It has been shown that 6 eigenvectors are enough to reconstruct reflection spectra of the testing samples.

  11. Whole-body multispectral photoacoustic imaging of adult zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Na; Guo, Heng; Qi, Weizhi; Zhang, Zhiwei; Rong, Jian; Yuan, Zhen; Ge, Wei; Jiang, Huabei; Xi, Lei

    2016-01-01

    The zebrafish, an ideal vertebrate for studying developmental biology and genetics, is increasingly being used to understand human diseases, due to its high similarity to the human genome and its optical transparency during embryonic stages. Once the zebrafish has fully developed, especially wild-type breeds, conventional optical imaging techniques have difficulty in imaging the internal organs and structures with sufficient resolution and penetration depth. Even with established mutant lines that remain transparent throughout their life cycle, it is still challenging for purely optical imaging modalities to visualize the organs of juvenile and adult zebrafish at a micro-scale spatial resolution. In this work, we developed a non-invasive three-dimensional photoacoustic imaging platform with an optimized illumination pattern and a cylindrical-scanning-based data collection system to image entire zebrafish with micro-scale resolutions of 80 μm and 600 μm in the lateral and axial directions, respectively. In addition, we employed a multispectral strategy that utilized excitation wavelengths from 690 nm to 930 nm to statistically quantify the relative optical absorption spectrum of major organs.

  12. Phase classification by mean shift clustering of multispectral materials images.

    PubMed

    Martins, Diego Schmaedech; Josa, Victor M Galván; Castellano, Gustavo; da Costa, José A T Borges

    2013-10-01

    A mean-shift clustering (MSC) algorithm is introduced as a valuable alternative to perform materials phase classification from multispectral images. As opposed to other multivariate statistical techniques, such as factor analysis or principal component analysis (PCA), clustering techniques directly assign a class label to each pixel, so that their outputs are phase segmented images, i.e., there is no need for an additional segmentation algorithm. On the other hand, as compared to other clustering procedures and classification methods, such as segmentation by thresholding of multiple spectral components, MSC has the advantages of not requiring previous knowledge of the number of data clusters and not assuming any shape for these clusters, i.e., neither the number nor the composition of the phases must be previously known. This makes MSC a particularly useful tool for exploratory research, assisting phase identification of unknown samples. Visualization and interpretation of the results are also simplified, since the information content of the output image does not depend on the particular choice of the content of the color channels.We applied MSC to the analysis of two sets of X-ray maps acquired in scanning electron microscopes equipped with energy-dispersive detection systems. Our results indicate that MSC is capable of detecting additional phases, not clearly identified through PCA or multiple thresholding, with a very low empirical reject rate.

  13. Nightfire method to track volcanic eruptions from multispectral satellite images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trifonov, Grigory; Zhizhin, Mikhail; Melnikov, Dmitry

    2016-04-01

    This work presents the first results of an application of the Nightfire hotspot algorithm towards volcano activity detection. Nightfire algorithm have been developed to play along with a Suomi-NPP polar satellite launched in 2011, which has a new generation multispectral VIIRS thermal sensor on board, to detect gas flares related to the upstream and downstream production of oil and natural gas. Simultaneously using of nighttime data in SWIR, MWIR, and LWIR sensor bands the algorithm is able to estimate the hotspot temperature, size and radiant heat. Four years of non-filtered observations have been accumulated in a spatio-temporal detection database, which currently totals 125 GB in size. The first part of this work presents results of retrospective cross-match of the detection database with the publicly available observed eruptions databases. The second part discusses how an approximate 3D shape of a lava lake could be modeled based on the apparent source size and satellite zenith angle. The third part presents the results of fusion Landsat-8 and Himawari-8 satellites data with the VIIRS Nightfire for several active volcanoes.

  14. Laboratory and field portable system for calibrating airborne multispectral scanners

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhlow, W.W.

    1981-01-01

    Manufacturers of airborne multispectral scanners suggest procedures for calibration and alignment that are usually awkward and even questionable. For example, the procedures may require: separating the scanner from calibration and alignment sources by 100 feet or more, employing folding mirrors, tampering with the detectors after the procedures are finished, etc. Under the best of conditions such procedures require about three hours yielding questionable confidence in the results; under many conditions, however, procedures commonly take six to eight hours, yielding no satisfactory results. EG and G, Inc. has designed and built a calibration and alignment system for airborne scanners which solves those problems, permitting the procedures to be carried out in about two to three hours. This equipment can be quickly disassembled, transported with the scanner in all but the smallest single engine aircraft, and reassembled in a few hours. The subsystems of this equipment are commonly available from manufacturers of optical and electronic equipment. The other components are easily purchased, or fabricated. The scanner discussed is the Model DS-1260 digital line scanner manufactured by Daedalus Enterprises, Inc. It is a dual-sensor system which is operated in one of two combination of sensors: one spectrometer head (which provides simultaneous coverage in ten visible channels) and one thermal infrared detector, or simply two thermal infrared detectors.

  15. Developing a Method to Mask Trees in Commercial Multispectral Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, S. J.; Daughtry, C. S. T.; Jain, D.; Karlekar, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    The US Army has an increasing focus on using automated remote sensing techniques with commercial multispectral imagery (MSI) to map urban and peri-urban agricultural and vegetative features; however, similar spectral profiles between trees (i.e., forest canopy) and other vegetation result in confusion between these cover classes. Established vegetation indices, like the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), are typically not effective in reliably differentiating between trees and other vegetation. Previous research in tree mapping has included integration of hyperspectral imagery (HSI) and LiDAR for tree detection and species identification, as well as the use of MSI to distinguish tree crowns from non-vegetated features. This project developed a straightforward method to model and also mask out trees from eight-band WorldView-2 (1.85 meter x 1.85 meter resolution at nadir) satellite imagery at the Beltsville Agricultural Research Center in Beltsville, MD spanning 2012 - 2015. The study site included tree cover, a range of agricultural and vegetative cover types, and urban features. The modeling method exploits the product of the red and red edge bands and defines accurate thresholds between trees and other land covers. Results show this method outperforms established vegetation indices including the NDVI, Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index, Normalized Difference Water Index, Simple Ratio, and Normalized Difference Red Edge Index in correctly masking trees while preserving the other information in the imagery. This method is useful when HSI and LiDAR collection are not possible or when using archived MSI.

  16. DNA synthesis and microtubule assembly-related events in fertilized Paracentrotus lividus eggs: reversible inhibition by 10 mM procaine.

    PubMed

    Raymond, M N; Foucault, G; Coffe, G; Pudles, J

    1986-04-01

    This report describes the effects of 10 mM procaine on microtubule assembly and on DNA synthesis, as followed by [3H]colchicine binding assays and [3H]thymidine incorporation respectively, in fertilized Paracentrotus lividus eggs. In the absence of microtubule assembly inhibitors, about 25% of the total egg tubulin is submitted to two cycles of polymerization prior to the first cell division, this polymerization process precedes DNA synthesis. If the zygotes are treated with 10 mM procaine in the course of the cell cycle, tubulin polymerization is inhibited or microtubules are disassembled. DNA synthesis is inhibited when procaine treatment is performed 10 min, before the initiation of the S-period. However, when the drug is applied in the course of this synthetic period, the process is normally accomplished, but the next S-period becomes inhibited. Moreover, procaine treatment increases the cytoplasmic pH of the fertilized eggs by about 0.6 to 0.8 pH units. This pH increase precedes microtubule disassembly and inhibition of DNA synthesis. Washing out the drug induces a decrease of the intracellular pH which returns to about the same value as that of the fertilized egg controls. This pH change is then followed by the reinitiation of microtubule assembly, DNA synthesis and cell division. Our results show that the inhibition of both tubulin polymerization and DNA synthesis in fertilized eggs treated with 10 mM procaine, appears to be related to the drug-induced increase in cytoplasmic pH. PMID:3709552

  17. A Cost Effective Multi-Spectral Scanner for Natural Gas Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Yudaya Sivathanu; Jongmook Lim; Vinoo Narayanan; Seonghyeon Park

    2005-12-07

    The objective of this project is to design, fabricate and field demonstrate a cost effective, multi-spectral scanner for natural gas leak detection in transmission and distribution pipelines. During the first year of the project, a laboratory version of the multi-spectral scanner was designed, fabricated, and tested at EnUrga Inc. The multi-spectral scanner was also evaluated using a blind DoE study at RMOTC. The performance of the scanner was inconsistent during the blind DoE study. However, most of the leaks were outside the view of the multi-spectral scanner. Therefore, a definite evaluation of the capability of the scanner was not obtained. Despite the results, sufficient number of plumes was detected fully confirming the feasibility of the multi-spectral scanner. During the second year, the optical design of the scanner was changed to improve the sensitivity of the system. Laboratory tests show that the system can reliably detect small leaks (20 SCFH) at 30 to 50 feet. Electronic and mechanical design of the scanner to make it a self standing sensor was completed during the last six months of the project. The prototype scanner was tested with methane leaks at 15 feet and 30 feet, at a flow rate of 25 SCFH. The prototype scanner successfully detected the leaks. This concluded the project.

  18. A Comparative Study of Land Cover Classification by Using Multispectral and Texture Data

    PubMed Central

    Qadri, Salman; Khan, Dost Muhammad; Ahmad, Farooq; Qadri, Syed Furqan; Babar, Masroor Ellahi; Shahid, Muhammad; Ul-Rehman, Muzammil; Razzaq, Abdul; Shah Muhammad, Syed; Fahad, Muhammad; Ahmad, Sarfraz; Pervez, Muhammad Tariq; Naveed, Nasir; Aslam, Naeem; Jamil, Mutiullah; Rehmani, Ejaz Ahmad; Ahmad, Nazir; Akhtar Khan, Naeem

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to find out the importance of machine vision approach for the classification of five types of land cover data such as bare land, desert rangeland, green pasture, fertile cultivated land, and Sutlej river land. A novel spectra-statistical framework is designed to classify the subjective land cover data types accurately. Multispectral data of these land covers were acquired by using a handheld device named multispectral radiometer in the form of five spectral bands (blue, green, red, near infrared, and shortwave infrared) while texture data were acquired with a digital camera by the transformation of acquired images into 229 texture features for each image. The most discriminant 30 features of each image were obtained by integrating the three statistical features selection techniques such as Fisher, Probability of Error plus Average Correlation, and Mutual Information (F + PA + MI). Selected texture data clustering was verified by nonlinear discriminant analysis while linear discriminant analysis approach was applied for multispectral data. For classification, the texture and multispectral data were deployed to artificial neural network (ANN: n-class). By implementing a cross validation method (80-20), we received an accuracy of 91.332% for texture data and 96.40% for multispectral data, respectively. PMID:27376088

  19. Inverse analysis of non-uniform temperature distributions using multispectral pyrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Tairan; Duan, Minghao; Tian, Jibin; Shi, Congling

    2016-05-01

    Optical diagnostics can be used to obtain sub-pixel temperature information in remote sensing. A multispectral pyrometry method was developed using multiple spectral radiation intensities to deduce the temperature area distribution in the measurement region. The method transforms a spot multispectral pyrometer with a fixed field of view into a pyrometer with enhanced spatial resolution that can give sub-pixel temperature information from a "one pixel" measurement region. A temperature area fraction function was defined to represent the spatial temperature distribution in the measurement region. The method is illustrated by simulations of a multispectral pyrometer with a spectral range of 8.0-13.0 μm measuring a non-isothermal region with a temperature range of 500-800 K in the spot pyrometer field of view. The inverse algorithm for the sub-pixel temperature distribution (temperature area fractions) in the "one pixel" verifies this multispectral pyrometry method. The results show that an improved Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm is effective for this ill-posed inverse problem with relative errors in the temperature area fractions of (-3%, 3%) for most of the temperatures. The analysis provides a valuable reference for the use of spot multispectral pyrometers for sub-pixel temperature distributions in remote sensing measurements.

  20. A Cost Effective Multi-Spectral Scanner for Natural Gas Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Yudaya Sivathanu; Jongmook Lim; Vinoo Narayanan; Seonghyeon Park

    2005-12-07

    The objective of this project is to design, fabricate and demonstrate a cost effective, multi-spectral scanner for natural gas leak detection in transmission and distribution pipelines. During the first year of the project, a laboratory version of the multi-spectral scanner was designed, fabricated, and tested at EnUrga Inc. The multi-spectral scanner was also evaluated using a blind Department of Energy study at the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center. The performance of the scanner was inconsistent during the blind study. However, most of the leaks were outside the view of the multi-spectral scanner that was developed during the first year of the project. Therefore, a definite evaluation of the capability of the scanner was not obtained. Despite the results, sufficient number of plumes was detected fully confirming the feasibility of the multi-spectral scanner. During the second year, the optical design of the scanner was changed to improve the sensitivity of the system. Laboratory tests show that the system can reliably detect small leaks (20 SCFH) at 30 to 50 feet. A prototype scanner was built and evaluated during the second year of the project. Only laboratory evaluations were completed during the second year. The laboratory evaluations show the feasibility of using the scanner to determine natural gas pipeline leaks. Further field evaluations and optimization of the scanner are required before commercialization of the scanner can be initiated.

  1. A Comparative Study of Land Cover Classification by Using Multispectral and Texture Data.

    PubMed

    Qadri, Salman; Khan, Dost Muhammad; Ahmad, Farooq; Qadri, Syed Furqan; Babar, Masroor Ellahi; Shahid, Muhammad; Ul-Rehman, Muzammil; Razzaq, Abdul; Shah Muhammad, Syed; Fahad, Muhammad; Ahmad, Sarfraz; Pervez, Muhammad Tariq; Naveed, Nasir; Aslam, Naeem; Jamil, Mutiullah; Rehmani, Ejaz Ahmad; Ahmad, Nazir; Akhtar Khan, Naeem

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to find out the importance of machine vision approach for the classification of five types of land cover data such as bare land, desert rangeland, green pasture, fertile cultivated land, and Sutlej river land. A novel spectra-statistical framework is designed to classify the subjective land cover data types accurately. Multispectral data of these land covers were acquired by using a handheld device named multispectral radiometer in the form of five spectral bands (blue, green, red, near infrared, and shortwave infrared) while texture data were acquired with a digital camera by the transformation of acquired images into 229 texture features for each image. The most discriminant 30 features of each image were obtained by integrating the three statistical features selection techniques such as Fisher, Probability of Error plus Average Correlation, and Mutual Information (F + PA + MI). Selected texture data clustering was verified by nonlinear discriminant analysis while linear discriminant analysis approach was applied for multispectral data. For classification, the texture and multispectral data were deployed to artificial neural network (ANN: n-class). By implementing a cross validation method (80-20), we received an accuracy of 91.332% for texture data and 96.40% for multispectral data, respectively. PMID:27376088

  2. A Comparative Study of Land Cover Classification by Using Multispectral and Texture Data.

    PubMed

    Qadri, Salman; Khan, Dost Muhammad; Ahmad, Farooq; Qadri, Syed Furqan; Babar, Masroor Ellahi; Shahid, Muhammad; Ul-Rehman, Muzammil; Razzaq, Abdul; Shah Muhammad, Syed; Fahad, Muhammad; Ahmad, Sarfraz; Pervez, Muhammad Tariq; Naveed, Nasir; Aslam, Naeem; Jamil, Mutiullah; Rehmani, Ejaz Ahmad; Ahmad, Nazir; Akhtar Khan, Naeem

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to find out the importance of machine vision approach for the classification of five types of land cover data such as bare land, desert rangeland, green pasture, fertile cultivated land, and Sutlej river land. A novel spectra-statistical framework is designed to classify the subjective land cover data types accurately. Multispectral data of these land covers were acquired by using a handheld device named multispectral radiometer in the form of five spectral bands (blue, green, red, near infrared, and shortwave infrared) while texture data were acquired with a digital camera by the transformation of acquired images into 229 texture features for each image. The most discriminant 30 features of each image were obtained by integrating the three statistical features selection techniques such as Fisher, Probability of Error plus Average Correlation, and Mutual Information (F + PA + MI). Selected texture data clustering was verified by nonlinear discriminant analysis while linear discriminant analysis approach was applied for multispectral data. For classification, the texture and multispectral data were deployed to artificial neural network (ANN: n-class). By implementing a cross validation method (80-20), we received an accuracy of 91.332% for texture data and 96.40% for multispectral data, respectively.

  3. Landsat 8 Multispectral and Pansharpened Imagery Processing on the Study of Civil Engineering Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazaridou, M. A.; Karagianni, A. Ch.

    2016-06-01

    Scientific and professional interests of civil engineering mainly include structures, hydraulics, geotechnical engineering, environment, and transportation issues. Topics included in the context of the above may concern urban environment issues, urban planning, hydrological modelling, study of hazards and road construction. Land cover information contributes significantly on the study of the above subjects. Land cover information can be acquired effectively by visual image interpretation of satellite imagery or after applying enhancement routines and also by imagery classification. The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM - Landsat 8) is the latest satellite in Landsat series, launched in February 2013. Landsat 8 medium spatial resolution multispectral imagery presents particular interest in extracting land cover, because of the fine spectral resolution, the radiometric quantization of 12bits, the capability of merging the high resolution panchromatic band of 15 meters with multispectral imagery of 30 meters as well as the policy of free data. In this paper, Landsat 8 multispectral and panchromatic imageries are being used, concerning surroundings of a lake in north-western Greece. Land cover information is extracted, using suitable digital image processing software. The rich spectral context of the multispectral image is combined with the high spatial resolution of the panchromatic image, applying image fusion - pansharpening, facilitating in this way visual image interpretation to delineate land cover. Further processing concerns supervised image classification. The classification of pansharpened image preceded multispectral image classification. Corresponding comparative considerations are also presented.

  4. A COST EFFECTIVE MULTI-SPECTRAL SCANNER FOR NATURAL GAS DETECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Yudaya Sivathanu; Jongmook Lim; Vinoo Narayanan; Seonghyeon Park

    2005-04-15

    The objective of this project is to design, fabricate and field demonstrate a cost effective, multi-spectral scanner for natural gas leak detection in transmission and distribution pipelines. During the first year of the project, a laboratory version of the multi-spectral scanner was designed, fabricated, and tested at En'Urga Inc. The multi-spectral scanner was also evaluated using a blind DoE study at RMOTC. The performance of the scanner was inconsistent during the blind DoE study. However, most of the leaks were outside the view of the multi-spectral scanner. Therefore, a definite evaluation of the capability of the scanner was not obtained. Despite the results, sufficient number of plumes was detected fully confirming the feasibility of the multi-spectral scanner. During the second year, the optical design of the scanner was changed to improve the sensitivity of the system. Laboratory tests show that the system can reliably detect small leaks (20 SCFH) at 30 to 50 feet. Electronic design of the scanner to make it a self standing sensor is currently in progress. During the last six months of the project, the electronic and mechanical design will be completed and evaluated at En'Urga Inc.

  5. An adaptive regularization parameter choice strategy for multispectral bioluminescence tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Feng Jinchao; Qin Chenghu; Jia Kebin; Han Dong; Liu Kai; Zhu Shouping; Yang Xin; Tian Jie

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Bioluminescence tomography (BLT) provides an effective tool for monitoring physiological and pathological activities in vivo. However, the measured data in bioluminescence imaging are corrupted by noise. Therefore, regularization methods are commonly used to find a regularized solution. Nevertheless, for the quality of the reconstructed bioluminescent source obtained by regularization methods, the choice of the regularization parameters is crucial. To date, the selection of regularization parameters remains challenging. With regards to the above problems, the authors proposed a BLT reconstruction algorithm with an adaptive parameter choice rule. Methods: The proposed reconstruction algorithm uses a diffusion equation for modeling the bioluminescent photon transport. The diffusion equation is solved with a finite element method. Computed tomography (CT) images provide anatomical information regarding the geometry of the small animal and its internal organs. To reduce the ill-posedness of BLT, spectral information and the optimal permissible source region are employed. Then, the relationship between the unknown source distribution and multiview and multispectral boundary measurements is established based on the finite element method and the optimal permissible source region. Since the measured data are noisy, the BLT reconstruction is formulated as l{sub 2} data fidelity and a general regularization term. When choosing the regularization parameters for BLT, an efficient model function approach is proposed, which does not require knowledge of the noise level. This approach only requests the computation of the residual and regularized solution norm. With this knowledge, we construct the model function to approximate the objective function, and the regularization parameter is updated iteratively. Results: First, the micro-CT based mouse phantom was used for simulation verification. Simulation experiments were used to illustrate why multispectral data were used

  6. Multispectral Digital Image Analysis of Varved Sediments in Thin Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jäger, K.; Rein, B.; Dietrich, S.

    2006-12-01

    An update of the recently developed method COMPONENTS (Rein, 2003, Rein & Jäger, subm.) for the discrimination of sediment components in thin sections is presented here. COMPONENTS uses a 6-band (multispectral) image analysis. To derive six-band spectral information of the sediments, thin sections are scanned with a digital camera mounted on a polarizing microscope. The thin sections are scanned twice, under polarized and under unpolarized plain light. During each run RGB images are acquired which are subsequently stacked to a six-band file. The first three bands (Blue=1, Green=2, Red=3) result from the spectral behaviour in the blue, green and red band with unpolarized light conditions, and the bands 4 to 6 (Blue=4, Green=5, Red=6) from the polarized light run. The next step is the discrimination of the sediment components by their transmission behaviour. Automatic classification algorithms broadly used in remote sensing applications cannot be used due to unavoidable variations of sediment particle or thin section thicknesses that change absolute grey values of the sediment components. Thus, we use an approach based on band ratios, also known as indices. By using band ratios, the grey values measured in different bands are normalized against each other and illumination variations (e.g. thickness variations) are eliminated. By combining specific ratios we are able to detect all seven major components in the investigated sediments (carbonates, diatoms, fine clastic material, plant rests, pyrite, quartz and resin). Then, the classification results (compositional maps) are validated. Although the automatic classification and the analogous classification show high concordances, some systematic errors could be identified. For example, the transition zone between the sediment and resin filled cracks is classified as fine clastic material and very coarse carbonates are partly classified as quartz because coarse carbonates can be very bright and spectra are partly

  7. Multispectral Imager With Improved Filter Wheel and Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bremer, James C.

    2007-01-01

    Figure 1 schematically depicts an improved multispectral imaging system of the type that utilizes a filter wheel that contains multiple discrete narrow-band-pass filters and that is rotated at a constant high speed to acquire images in rapid succession in the corresponding spectral bands. The improvement, relative to prior systems of this type, consists of the measures taken to prevent the exposure of a focal-plane array (FPA) of photodetectors to light in more than one spectral band at any given time and to prevent exposure of the array to any light during readout. In prior systems, these measures have included, variously the use of mechanical shutters or the incorporation of wide opaque sectors (equivalent to mechanical shutters) into filter wheels. These measures introduce substantial dead times into each operating cycle intervals during which image information cannot be collected and thus incoming light is wasted. In contrast, the present improved design does not involve shutters or wide opaque sectors, and it reduces dead times substantially. The improved multispectral imaging system is preceded by an afocal telescope and includes a filter wheel positioned so that its rotation brings each filter, in its turn, into the exit pupil of the telescope. The filter wheel contains an even number of narrow-band-pass filters separated by narrow, spoke-like opaque sectors. The geometric width of each filter exceeds the cross-sectional width of the light beam coming out of the telescope. The light transmitted by the sequence of narrow-band filters is incident on a dichroic beam splitter that reflects in a broad shorter-wavelength spectral band that contains half of the narrow bands and transmits in a broad longer-wavelength spectral band that contains the other half of the narrow spectral bands. The filters are arranged on the wheel so that if the pass band of a given filter is in the reflection band of the dichroic beam splitter, then the pass band of the adjacent filter

  8. MA_MISS: Mars Multispectral Imager for Subsurface Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Sanctis, M. C.; Coradini, A.; Ammannito, E.; Boccaccini, A.; Di Iorio, T.; Battistelli, E.; Capanni, A.

    2012-04-01

    A Drilling system, coupled with an in situ analysis package, is installed on the ExoMars Pasteur Rover to perform in situ investigations up to 2m in the Mars soil. Ma_Miss (Mars Multispectral Imager for Subsurface Studies) is a spectrometer devoted to observe the lateral wall of the borehole generated by the Drilling system. The instrument is fully integrated with the Drill and shares its structure and electronics. For the first time in Mars exploration experiments the water/geochemical environment will be investigated as function of depth in the shallow subsurface. Samples from the subsurface of Martian soil are unaltered by weathering process, oxidation and erosion. Subsurface access can be the key to look for signs of present and past environmental conditions, associated to the possibility for life (water, volatiles and weathering process). The analysis of uncontaminated samples by means of instrumented Drill and in situ observations is the solution for unambiguous interpretation of the original environment that leading to the formation of rocks. Ma_Miss experiment is perfectly suited to perform multispectral imaging of the drilled layers. Ma_Miss is a miniaturized near-infrared imaging spectrometer in the range 0.4-2.2 µm with 20nm spectral sampling. The task of illuminating the borehole wall and collecting the diffused light from the illuminated spot on the target requires a transparent window on the Drill tool, which shall prevent the dust contamination of the optical and mechanical elements inside. Hardness of sapphire is the closest to diamond one, thus avoiding the risk of scratches on its surface. The Sapphire window is cylindrical, and bounded such as to realize a continuous auger profile. Ma_Miss Optical Head performs the double task of illuminating the borehole wall with a spot around 1 mm diameter and of collecting the scattered light coming from a 0.1 mm diameter spot of the target. The signal from the Optical Head to the spectrometer is transferred

  9. MESSENGER Multispectral Imaging of the Surface of Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blewett, D. T.; Robinson, M. S.; Denevi, B. W.; Prockter, L. M.; Murchie, S. L.; Gillis-Davis, J. J.; Head, J. W.; Domingue, D. L.; Izenberg, N. R.; McClintock, W. E.; Holsclaw, G. M.; Sprague, A. L.; Vilas, F.

    2008-05-01

    The January 2008 flyby of Mercury by the MESSENGER spacecraft provided the first close-up images of the planet since the Mariner 10 observations of 1974-75. MESSENGER's Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) collected high signal-to-noise-ratio images with two cameras: a high-spatial-resolution broadband visible Narrow Angle Camera (NAC), and a lower-spatial- resolution multispectral Wide Angle Camera (WAC). The WAC has 11 narrow-band color filters with center wavelengths in the range 430 to 1020 nm. A spot spectrometer, the Visible and Infrared Spectrograph (VIRS) component of the Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS), collected spectra over the range 350 to 1450 nm. The MESSENGER observations cover portions of the planet seen by Mariner 10, as well as new regions not previously imaged by spacecraft. Studies of the Moon over the past forty years — via spectral analysis of returned lunar samples, Earth-based telescopic reflectance spectra, and imaging by the Galileo and Clementine spacecraft, along with theoretical work on the interaction of light with a silicate regolith — provide a framework for interpreting spectra of Mercury. Ferrous iron in silicate minerals (primarily pyroxene and olivine) and glasses has a strong influence on lunar reflectance spectra, producing diagnostic absorption features. "Space weathering," the response of a regolith to micrometeorite bombardment and solar-wind sputtering, tends to reduce the contrast of absorption bands and introduces an overall strong positive ("red") slope to the spectrum. These spectral effects are attributed to tiny metallic iron particles created by vapor deposition during space weathering. Spectrally neutral opaque phases are dark with a flat "bluish" spectral slope and lack strong absorptions. Ilmenite, an iron-titanium oxide, is the key opaque phase in lunar samples. The MESSENGER multispectral observations validate and greatly extend the knowledge gained from analysis of Mariner 10

  10. New concepts for designing d10 -M(L)n catalysts: d regime, s regime and intrinsic bite-angle flexibility.

    PubMed

    Wolters, Lando P; van Zeist, Willem-Jan; Bickelhaupt, F Matthias

    2014-09-01

    Our aim is to understand the electronic and steric factors that determine the activity and selectivity of transition-metal catalysts for cross-coupling reactions. To this end, we have used the activation strain model to quantum-chemically analyze the activity of catalyst complexes d(10) -M(L)n toward methane C-H oxidative addition. We studied the effect of varying the metal center M along the nine d(10) metal centers of Groups 9, 10, and 11 (M=Co(-), Rh(-), Ir(-), Ni, Pd, Pt, Cu(+), Ag(+), Au(+)), and, for completeness, included variation from uncoordinated to mono- to bisligated systems (n=0, 1, 2), for the ligands L=NH(3), PH(3), and CO. Three concepts emerge from our activation strain analyses: 1) bite-angle flexibility, 2) d-regime catalysts, and 3) s-regime catalysts. These concepts reveal new ways of tuning a catalyst's activity. Interestingly, the flexibility of a catalyst complex, that is, its ability to adopt a bent L-M-L geometry, is shown to be decisive for its activity, not the bite angle as such. Furthermore, the effect of ligands on the catalyst's activity is totally different, sometimes even opposite, depending on the electronic regime (d or s) of the d(10) -M(L)n complex. Our findings therefore constitute new tools for a more rational design of catalysts. PMID:25081592

  11. Multispectral imaging of organ viability during uterine transplantation surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clancy, Neil T.; Saso, Srdjan; Stoyanov, Danail; Sauvage, Vincent; Corless, David J.; Boyd, Michael; Noakes, David E.; Thum, Meen-Yau; Ghaem-Maghami, Sadaf; Smith, J. R.; Elson, Daniel S.

    2014-02-01

    Uterine transplantation surgery has been proposed as a treatment for permanent absolute uterine factor infertility (AUFI) in the case of loss of the uterus. Due to the complexity of the vasculature correct reanastomosis of the blood supply during transplantation surgery is a crucial step to ensure reperfusion and viability of the organ. While techniques such as fluorescent dye imaging have been proposed to visualise perfusion there is no gold standard for intraoperative visualisation of tissue oxygenation. In this paper results from a liquid crystal tuneable filter (LCTF)-based multispectral imaging (MSI) laparoscope are described. The system was used to monitor uterine oxygen saturation (SaO2) before and after transplantation. Results from surgeries on two animal models (rabbits and sheep) are presented. A feature-based registration algorithm was used to correct for misalignment induced by breathing or peristalsis in the tissues of interest prior to analysis. An absorption spectrum was calculated at each spatial pixel location using reflectance data from a reference standard, and the relative contributions from oxy- and deoxyhaemoglobin were calculated using a least squares regression algorithm with non-negativity constraints. Results acquired during animal surgeries show that cornual oxygenation changes are consistent with those observed in point measurements taken using a pulse oximeter, showing reduced SaO2 following reanastomosis. Values obtained using the MSI laparoscope were lower than those taken with the pulse oximeter, which may be due to the latter's use of the pulsatile arterial blood signal. Future work incorporating immunological test results will help to correlate SaO2 levels with surgical outcomes.

  12. Multispectral mid-infrared imaging using frequency upconversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Nicolai; Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Pedersen, Christian

    2013-03-01

    It has recently been shown that it is possible to upconvert infrared images to the near infrared region with high quantum efficiency and low noise by three-wave mixing with a laser field [1]. If the mixing laser is single-frequency, the upconverted image is simply a band-pass filtered version of the infrared object field, with a bandwidth corresponding given by the acceptance parameter of the conversion process, and a center frequency given by the phase-match condition. Tuning of the phase-matched wavelengths has previously been demonstrated by changing the temperature [2] or angle [3 Keywords: Infrared imaging, nonlinear frequency conversion, diode lasers, upconversion ] of the nonlinear material. Unfortunately, temperature tuning is slow, and angle tuning typically results in alignment issues. Here we present a novel approach where the wavelength of the mixing field is used as a tuning parameter, allowing for fast tuning and hence potentially fast image acquisition, paving the way for upconversion based real time multispectral imaging. In the present realization the upconversion module consists of an external cavity tapered diode laser in a Littrow configuration with a computer controlled feedback grating. The output from a tunable laser is used as seed for a fiber amplifier system, boosting the power to approx. 3 W over the tuning range from 1025 to 1085 nm. Using a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal, the infrared wavelength that can be phase-matched is tunable over more than 200 nm. Using a crystal with multiple poling periods allows for upconversion within the entire transparency range of the nonlinear material.

  13. Multi-spectral data decomposition for rock identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisova, Denitsa; Nikolov, Hristo; Banushev, Banush; Iliev, Ilko

    The spectral reflectance data, recorded by remote sensors (such as Landsat), often result in from of spectral mixture of several "pure" spectral classes, included in the area covered by single pixel. This problem is the so-called mixed pixel problem. It has always been a diffi- culty in multi-spectral data decomposition and classification in deriving accurate proportions of the land cover classes. Including ground-measured data is especially useful with respect to increasing the accuracy of such classifications. This study proposes the use of a spectral linear unmixing or spectral mixture analysis (SMA) for mineral, rock and bare soils identification. If mixing is considered linear, then the resulting pixel reflectance is a linear summation of the individual material reflectance multiplied by the surface fraction they constitute. Besides, the problem of mixed pixels, limited spectral separability among similar minerals and rock types is another problem that causes inaccuracy in identification. Various methods of SMA have been developed to improve the classification of mixed pixels and to detect and identify subpixel components and their proportions. For this reason, additional laboratory and in-situ spectrometric measurements and approaches as well as rock line and ratio indices are applied. In laboratory experiments SPS-1 spectrometric system is used. In-situ measurements are performed using spectrometer TOMS. The rock line method is based on the soil line concept in remote sensing. The ratio indices are chosen considering rock types in the study as follow granite, granodiorite, basalt, limestone and marble samples. The main advantage of the presented technique is that mixed pixels are used during the training phase. Compared to these other techniques, the present one is simple, cheap and objective. The present study was supported by National Science Fund of Bulgaria (NSFB) under Contracts INI-12/05, NZ-1410/04 and MUNZ-1502/05.

  14. Multispectral photoacoustic imaging of nerves with a clinical ultrasound system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mari, Jean Martial; West, Simeon; Beard, Paul C.; Desjardins, Adrien E.

    2014-03-01

    Accurate and efficient identification of nerves is of great importance during many ultrasound-guided clinical procedures, including nerve blocks and prostate biopsies. It can be challenging to visualise nerves with conventional ultrasound imaging, however. One of the challenges is that nerves can have very similar appearances to nearby structures such as tendons. Several recent studies have highlighted the potential of near-infrared optical spectroscopy for differentiating nerves and adjacent tissues, as this modality can be sensitive to optical absorption of lipids that are present in intra- and extra-neural adipose tissue and in the myelin sheaths. These studies were limited to point measurements, however. In this pilot study, a custom photoacoustic system with a clinical ultrasound imaging probe was used to acquire multi-spectral photoacoustic images of nerves and tendons from swine ex vivo, across the wavelength range of 1100 to 1300 nm. Photoacoustic images were processed and overlaid in colour onto co-registered conventional ultrasound images that were acquired with the same imaging probe. A pronounced optical absorption peak centred at 1210 nm was observed in the photoacoustic signals obtained from nerves, and it was absent in those obtained from tendons. This absorption peak, which is consistent with the presence of lipids, provides a novel image contrast mechanism to significantly enhance the visualization of nerves. In particular, image contrast for nerves was up to 5.5 times greater with photoacoustic imaging (0.82 +/- 0.15) than with conventional ultrasound imaging (0.148 +/- 0.002), with a maximum contrast of 0.95 +/- 0.02 obtained in photoacoustic mode. This pilot study demonstrates the potential of photoacoustic imaging to improve clinical outcomes in ultrasound-guided interventions in regional anaesthesia and interventional oncology.

  15. Band shifting for ocean color multi-spectral reflectance data.

    PubMed

    Mélin, Frédéric; Sclep, Gert

    2015-02-01

    An approach to perform band shifting applied to multi-spectral ocean remote sensing reflectance RRS values in the visible spectral range is presented. The band-shifting scheme aims at expressing RRS at a wavelength not originally part of the spectrum from data at neighboring bands. The scheme relies on the determination of inherent optical properties (IOPs) by a bio-optical model, the calculation of the IOPs at the target wavelength using the spectral shapes assumed for each IOP, and the operation of the bio-optical model in forward mode to express RRS at the target wavelength. The performance of the band-shifting scheme applied to bands typical of satellite missions is assessed with hyper-spectral data sets obtained from radiative transfer simulations or from field measurements. The relative error ε on the conversion factors from 488 to 490 nm is mostly within 1%. Analogous results are obtained for conversions in the red spectral domain (665, 667 and 670 nm) only for synthetic data sets. The range of ε for conversions between green bands (547, 555 and 560 nm) is within 2% to 5% depending on the data set considered. Similar results are obtained when RRS values are computed at 510 nm from data at 488 and 531 nm. In the case of the assessment with simulated data, all band-shifting operations are characterized by an ε range within 2% for all conversions when the concentration of chlorophyll-a is lower than 1 mg m(-3). Applied to satellite data, the band-shifting scheme noticeably improves the agreement between RRS data from different missions.

  16. Bandpass filter arrays patterned by photolithography for multispectral remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, T.; Thome, Heidi; Eisenhammer, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Optical remote sensing of the earth from air and space typically utilizes several channels from visible (VIS), near infrared (NIR) up to the short wave infrared (SWIR) spectral region. Thin-film optical filters are applied to select these channels. Filter wheels and arrays of discrete stripe filters are standard configurations. To achieve compact and light weight camera designs multi-channel filter plates or assemblies can be mounted close to the electronic detectors. Optics Balzers has implemented a micro-structuring process based on a sequence of multiple coatings and photolithography on the same substrate. High-performance band pass filters are applied by plasma assisted evaporation (plasma IAD) with advance plasma source (APS) technology and optical broad-band monitoring (BBM). This technology has already proven for various multi spectral imager (MSI) configurations on fused silica, sapphire and other substrates for remote sensing application. The optical filter design and performance is limited by the maximum coating thickness micro-structurable by photolithographic lift-off processes and by thermal and radiation load on the photoresist mask during the process Recent progress in image resolution and sensor selectivity requires improvements of optical filter performance. Blocking in the UV and NIR and in between the spectral cannels, in-band transmission and filter edge steepness are subject of current development. Technological limits of the IAD coating accuracy can be overcome by more precise coating technologies like plasma assisted reactive magnetron sputtering (PARMS) and combination with optical broadband monitoring (BBM). We present an overview about concepts and technologies for band-pass filter arrays for multi-spectral imaging at Optics Balzers. Recent performance improvements of filter arrays made by micro-structuring will be presented.

  17. A COST EFFECTIVE MULTI-SPECTRAL SCANNER FOR NATURAL GAS DETECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Yudaya Sivathanu; Jongmook Lim; Vinoo Narayanan

    2004-04-01

    The objective of this project is to design, fabricate and field demonstrate a cost effective, multi-spectral scanner for natural gas leak detection in transmission and distribution pipelines. During the first six months of the project, the design for a laboratory version of the multispectral scanner was completed. The optical, mechanical, and electronic design for the scanner was completed. The optical design was analyzed using Zeemax Optical Design software and found to provide sufficiently resolved performance for the scanner. The electronic design was evaluated using a bread board and very high signal to noise ratios were obtained. Fabrication of a laboratory version of the multi-spectral scanner is currently in progress. A technology status report and a research management plan was also completed during the same period.

  18. Influence of photolysis on multispectral photoacoustic measurement of nitrogen dioxide concentration.

    PubMed

    Tian, Guoxun; Moosmüller, Hans; Arnott, W Patrick

    2013-09-01

    Multispectral photoacoustic instruments are commonly used to measure aerosol and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) light absorption coefficients to determine the radiation budget of the atmosphere. Here a new photoacoustic system is developed to explore the effect of photolysis on the measured signal in a multispectral photoacoustic spectrometer In this system, a 405-nm laser is used primarily as light source for photolysis. Additionally, a well-overlapped 532-nm laser, modulated at the resonant frequency of the photoacoustic instrument, is used to probe the NO2 concentration. As a result, the photolysis effect at 405 nm can be observed by the photoacoustic instrument through the 532-nm laser. This work determines an 11% reduction of the photoacoustic signal caused by the photolysis effect for typical conditions, which needs to be taken into account when calibrating multispectral photoacoustic spectrometers with NO2. PMID:24151684

  19. Application of multispectral scanner data to the study of an abandoned surface coal mine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spisz, E. W.

    1978-01-01

    The utility of aircraft multispectral scanner data for describing the land cover features of an abandoned contour-mined coal mine is considered. The data were obtained with an 11 band multispectral scanner at an altitude of 1.2 kilometers. Supervised, maximum-likelihood statistical classifications of the data were made to establish land-cover classes and also to describe in more detail the barren surface features as they may pertain to the reclamation or restoration of the area. The scanner data for the surface-water areas were studied to establish the variability and range of the spectral signatures. Both day and night thermal images of the area are presented. The results of the study show that a high degree of statistical separation can be obtained from the multispectral scanner data for the various land-cover features.

  20. A Comparison of Local Variance, Fractal Dimension, and Moran's I as Aids to Multispectral Image Classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emerson, Charles W.; Sig-NganLam, Nina; Quattrochi, Dale A.

    2004-01-01

    The accuracy of traditional multispectral maximum-likelihood image classification is limited by the skewed statistical distributions of reflectances from the complex heterogenous mixture of land cover types in urban areas. This work examines the utility of local variance, fractal dimension and Moran's I index of spatial autocorrelation in segmenting multispectral satellite imagery. Tools available in the Image Characterization and Modeling System (ICAMS) were used to analyze Landsat 7 imagery of Atlanta, Georgia. Although segmentation of panchromatic images is possible using indicators of spatial complexity, different land covers often yield similar values of these indices. Better results are obtained when a surface of local fractal dimension or spatial autocorrelation is combined as an additional layer in a supervised maximum-likelihood multispectral classification. The addition of fractal dimension measures is particularly effective at resolving land cover classes within urbanized areas, as compared to per-pixel spectral classification techniques.

  1. A novel coarse-to-fine method for registration of multispectral images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Hongbin; Fan, Chunxiao; Li, Yong; Xu, Liangpeng

    2016-07-01

    Due to non-linear intensity changes between multispectral images, the existed descriptors often yield low matching performance. In order to build reliable keypoint mappings on multispectral images, a novel coarse-to-fine method is designed using projective transformation and the information of edge overlap. The method consists of a coarse process and a fine-tuning process. In the coarse process, initial keypoint mappings are built with the descriptors associated with keypoints and the relative distance constraints are employed on them to remove outliers. In the fine-tuning process, the edge overlap information is utilized as similarity metric and an iterative framework is applied to search correct keypoint mappings. The performance of the proposed is investigated with keypoints extracted by speeded-up robust features. The experiment results show that the proposed method can build more reliable keypoint mappings on multispectral images than existed methods.

  2. A new method of multispectral image processing with camouflage effect detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jianghua; Cui, Guangzhen; Qin, Lei

    2015-10-01

    In order to enhance the observability of multispectral image and improve the accuracy of camouflage effect evaluation based on multispectral photographic. A new method for multispectral image processing has been put forward. In the visible band, more spectral images for image fusion which are based on wavelet transformation respectively are chosen. The image information is enhanced. The visible light and near infrared band images are fused and introduced in three-channel of red, green and blue. The true color image is synthetized. While the detail of visible light image is enhanced, near infrared image information which is more interesting in camouflage evaluation is kept. Finally the fusion image are processed through histogram stretching and correlation method. The image color and luminance difference of each part is enhanced. The target recognition and camouflage effect evaluation is more advantageous. The experimental results proved that the method has a good effect.

  3. Benchmarking Deep Learning Frameworks for the Classification of Very High Resolution Satellite Multispectral Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadomanolaki, M.; Vakalopoulou, M.; Zagoruyko, S.; Karantzalos, K.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we evaluated deep-learning frameworks based on Convolutional Neural Networks for the accurate classification of multispectral remote sensing data. Certain state-of-the-art models have been tested on the publicly available SAT-4 and SAT-6 high resolution satellite multispectral datasets. In particular, the performed benchmark included the AlexNet, AlexNet-small and VGG models which had been trained and applied to both datasets exploiting all the available spectral information. Deep Belief Networks, Autoencoders and other semi-supervised frameworks have been, also, compared. The high level features that were calculated from the tested models managed to classify the different land cover classes with significantly high accuracy rates i.e., above 99.9%. The experimental results demonstrate the great potentials of advanced deep-learning frameworks for the supervised classification of high resolution multispectral remote sensing data.

  4. Hybridization of optical plasmonics with terahertz metamaterials to create multi-spectral filters.

    PubMed

    McCrindle, Iain J H; Grant, James; Drysdale, Timothy D; Cumming, David R S

    2013-08-12

    Multi-spectral imaging systems typically require the cumbersome integration of disparate filtering materials in order to work simultaneously in multiple spectral regions. We show for the first time how a single nano-patterned metal film can be used to filter multi-spectral content from the visible, near infrared and terahertz bands by hybridizing plasmonics and metamaterials. Plasmonic structures are well-suited to the visible band owing to the resonant dielectric properties of metals, whereas metamaterials are preferable at terahertz frequencies where metal conductivity is high. We present the simulated and experimental characteristics of our new hybrid synthetic multi-spectral material filters and demonstrate the independence of the metamaterial and plasmonic responses with respect to each other.

  5. Prospecting for Lunar Resources with Global Geochemical and Multispectral Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, C. C.

    1999-01-01

    scale, Fe concentration in the near surface has been estimated from data returned by a variety of spacecraft. Iron was one of several elements measured from near equatorial orbits during the Apollo 15 and 16 missions, using gamma ray spectrometry. These data covered approximately 20% of the lunar surface, with spatial resolutions of about 100 km. An improved gamma ray spectrometer and a neutron spectrometer, flown on the Lunar Prospector spacecraft in a polar orbit, provided Fe abundance data for the entire lunar surface, again at a spatial resolution of about 100 km. A technique for iron assessment based on orbital multispectral imaging has been developed. This method correlates Fe abundance to a parameter derived from reflectance values at 750 and900nm. The authors use data from the Clementine spacecraft to map Fe abundances across nearly the entire lunar surface. These data can support identification of Fe-rich regions as small as a few hundred meters across. Researchers find good agreement between gamma-ray/neutron and multispectral Fe determinations for most areas on the Moon. The H-reduction experiments cited above also showed submillimeter volcanic glass beads could be highly desirable feedstocks for lunar O production. Iron-rich species, represented by glassy (orange) and crystalline (black) beads, promise particularly high O yields. Apollo 17 volcanic glass sample 74220, composed predominantly of orange glass beads with an average diameter of 40 mm, contains 17.8 wt% Fe2+. Reduction of this sample yielded 4.3 wt% O, well above the regression line defined by the experiments on 16 lunar soils. Sample 74001 is dominated by black crystalline beads, the isochemical equivalent of orange glasses. Reduction of 74001 yielded 4.7 wt% O, the highest value for any lunar sample. Extensive areas of the lunar surface covered by volcanic glass beads have been delineated using Earth based data and spacecraft orbital photography. Chemical compositions of the deposits have been

  6. Combined use of LiDAR data and multispectral earth observation imagery for wetland habitat mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapinel, Sébastien; Hubert-Moy, Laurence; Clément, Bernard

    2015-05-01

    Although wetlands play a key role in controlling flooding and nonpoint source pollution, sequestering carbon and providing an abundance of ecological services, the inventory and characterization of wetland habitats are most often limited to small areas. This explains why the understanding of their ecological functioning is still insufficient for a reliable functional assessment on areas larger than a few hectares. While LiDAR data and multispectral Earth Observation (EO) images are often used separately to map wetland habitats, their combined use is currently being assessed for different habitat types. The aim of this study is to evaluate the combination of multispectral and multiseasonal imagery and LiDAR data to precisely map the distribution of wetland habitats. The image classification was performed combining an object-based approach and decision-tree modeling. Four multispectral images with high (SPOT-5) and very high spatial resolution (Quickbird, KOMPSAT-2, aerial photographs) were classified separately. Another classification was then applied integrating summer and winter multispectral image data and three layers derived from LiDAR data: vegetation height, microtopography and intensity return. The comparison of classification results shows that some habitats are better identified on the winter image and others on the summer image (overall accuracies = 58.5 and 57.6%). They also point out that classification accuracy is highly improved (overall accuracy = 86.5%) when combining LiDAR data and multispectral images. Moreover, this study highlights the advantage of integrating vegetation height, microtopography and intensity parameters in the classification process. This article demonstrates that information provided by the synergetic use of multispectral images and LiDAR data can help in wetland functional assessment

  7. A channel-based color fusion technique using multispectral images for night vision enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yufeng

    2011-09-01

    A fused image using multispectral images can increase the reliability of interpretation because it combines the complimentary information apparent in multispectral images. While a color image can be easily interpreted by human users (for visual analysis), and thus improves observer performance and reaction times. We propose a fast color fusion method, termed as channel-based color fusion, which is efficient for real time applications. Notice that the term of "color fusion" means combing multispectral images into a color-version image with the purpose of resembling natural scenes. On the other hand, false coloring technique usually has no intention of resembling natural scenery. The framework of channel-based color fusion is as follows, (1) prepare for color fusion by preprocessing, image registration and fusion; (2) form a color fusion image by properly assigning multispectral images to red, green, and blue channels; (3) fuse multispectral images (gray fusion) using a wavelet-based fusion algorithm; and (4) replace the value component of color fusion in HSV color space with the gray-fusion image, and finally transform back to RGB space. In night vision imaging, there may be two or several bands of images available, for example, visible (RGB), image intensified (II), near infrared (NIR), medium wave infrared (MWIR), long wave infrared (LWIR). The proposed channel-wise color fusions were tested with two-band (e.g., NIR + LWIR, II + LWIR, RGB + LWIR) or three-band (e.g., RGB + NIR + LWIR) multispectral images. Experimental results show that the colors in the fused images by the proposed method are vivid and comparable with that of the segmentation-based colorization. The processing speed of new method is much faster than any segmentation-based method.

  8. Multispectral data acquisition and classification - Computer modeling for smart sensor design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, S. K.; Davis, R. E.; Huck, F. O.; Arduini, R. F.

    1980-01-01

    In this paper a model of the processes involved in multispectral remote sensing and data classification is developed as a tool for designing and evaluating smart sensors. The model has both stochastic and deterministic elements and accounts for solar radiation, atmospheric radiative transfer, surface reflectance, sensor spectral reponses, and classification algorithms. Preliminary results are presented which indicate the validity and usefulness of this approach. Future capabilities of smart sensors will ultimately be limited by the accuracy with which multispectral remote sensing processes and their error sources can be computationally modeled.

  9. Compression of multispectral fluorescence microscopic images based on a modified set partitioning in hierarchal trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansoor, Awais; Robinson, J. Paul; Rajwa, Bartek

    2009-02-01

    Modern automated microscopic imaging techniques such as high-content screening (HCS), high-throughput screening, 4D imaging, and multispectral imaging are capable of producing hundreds to thousands of images per experiment. For quick retrieval, fast transmission, and storage economy, these images should be saved in a compressed format. A considerable number of techniques based on interband and intraband redundancies of multispectral images have been proposed in the literature for the compression of multispectral and 3D temporal data. However, these works have been carried out mostly in the elds of remote sensing and video processing. Compression for multispectral optical microscopy imaging, with its own set of specialized requirements, has remained under-investigated. Digital photography{oriented 2D compression techniques like JPEG (ISO/IEC IS 10918-1) and JPEG2000 (ISO/IEC 15444-1) are generally adopted for multispectral images which optimize visual quality but do not necessarily preserve the integrity of scientic data, not to mention the suboptimal performance of 2D compression techniques in compressing 3D images. Herein we report our work on a new low bit-rate wavelet-based compression scheme for multispectral fluorescence biological imaging. The sparsity of signicant coefficients in high-frequency subbands of multispectral microscopic images is found to be much greater than in natural images; therefore a quad-tree concept such as Said et al.'s SPIHT1 along with correlation of insignicant wavelet coefficients has been proposed to further exploit redundancy at high-frequency subbands. Our work propose a 3D extension to SPIHT, incorporating a new hierarchal inter- and intra-spectral relationship amongst the coefficients of 3D wavelet-decomposed image. The new relationship, apart from adopting the parent-child relationship of classical SPIHT, also brought forth the conditional "sibling" relationship by relating only the insignicant wavelet coefficients of subbands

  10. Remote sensing operations (multispectral scanner and photographic) in the New York Bight, 22 September 1975

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. W.; Hall, J. B., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Ocean dumping of waste materials is a significant environmental concern in the New York Bight. One of these waste materials, sewage sludge, was monitored in an experiment conducted in the New York Bight on September 22, 1975. Remote sensing over controlled sewage sludge dumping included an 11-band multispectral scanner, fiver multispectral cameras and one mapping camera. Concurrent in situ water samples were taken and acoustical measurements were made of the sewage sludge plumes. Data were obtained for sewage sludge plumes resulting from line (moving barge) and spot (stationary barge) dumps. Multiple aircraft overpasses were made to evaluate temporal effects on the plume signature.

  11. A procedure for automated land use mapping using remotely sensed multispectral scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitley, S. L.

    1975-01-01

    A system of processing remotely sensed multispectral scanner data by computer programs to produce color-coded land use maps for large areas is described. The procedure is explained, the software and the hardware are described, and an analogous example of the procedure is presented. Detailed descriptions of the multispectral scanners currently in use are provided together with a summary of the background of current land use mapping techniques. The data analysis system used in the procedure and the pattern recognition software used are functionally described. Current efforts by the NASA Earth Resources Laboratory to evaluate operationally a less complex and less costly system are discussed in a separate section.

  12. Michigan experimental multispectral mapping system: A description of the M7 airborne sensor and its performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasell, P. G., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The development and characteristics of a multispectral band scanner for an airborne mapping system are discussed. The sensor operates in the ultraviolet, visual, and infrared frequencies. Any twelve of the bands may be selected for simultaneous, optically registered recording on a 14-track analog tape recorder. Multispectral imagery recorded on magnetic tape in the aircraft can be laboratory reproduced on film strips for visual analysis or optionally machine processed in analog and/or digital computers before display. The airborne system performance is analyzed.

  13. GIS Meets Airborne MSS: Geospatial Applications of High-Resolution Multispectral Data

    SciTech Connect

    Albert Guber

    1999-07-27

    Bechtel Nevada operates and flies Daedalus multispectral scanners for funded project tasks at the Department of Energy's Remote Sensing Laboratory. Historically, processing and analysis of multispectral data has afforded scientists the opportunity to see natural phenomena not visible to the naked eye. However, only recently has a system, more specifically a Geometric Correction System, existed to automatically geo-reference these data directly into a Geographic Information (GIS) database. Now, analyses, performed previously in a nongeospatial environment, are integrated directly into an Arc/Info GIS. This technology is of direct benefit to environmental and emergency response applications.

  14. Imaging Science Panel. Multispectral Imaging Science Working Group joint meeting with Information Science Panel: Introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of multispectral sensing is reviewed and recommendations for future research and development are proposed. specifically, two generic sensor concepts were discussed. One is the multispectral pushbroom sensor utilizing linear array technology which operates in six spectral bands including two in the SWIR region and incorporates capabilities for stereo and crosstrack pointing. The second concept is the imaging spectrometer (IS) which incorporates a dispersive element and area arrays to provide both spectral and spatial information simultaneously. Other key technology areas included very large scale integration and the computer aided design of these devices.

  15. Multi-spectral pyrometer for narrow space with high ambient temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Shan; Wang, Lixin; Feng, Chi; Xiao, Yihan; Daniel, Ketui

    2015-08-01

    A fiber-optic multi-spectral pyrometer with high spatial and temporal resolution has been applied to measure temperatures of the range from 700 to 1200 K. In a narrow space, the important problems in temperature measurement include the unknown emissivity on target surface and the thermal radiation from the high ambient temperature. This paper analyzed several critical issues affecting the multi-spectral pyrometer and calculated the corresponding model through genetic algorithm. The experiment result showed that this method has high accuracy and the measurement error is 0.44 %.

  16. Compact 10 mW all-solid-state 491 nm laser based on frequency doubling a master oscillator power amplifier laser diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fluck, Daniel; Pliska, Tomas; Günter, Peter

    1996-02-01

    We report on continuous-wave blue-green light generation by direct frequency doubling a monolithically integrated master oscillator power amplifier laser diode in a potassium niobate (KNbO 3) crystal. 10 mW of diffraction limited ( M2 ≤ 1.1) second-harmonic light at 491 nm is generated with a fundamental power of 760 mW incident on a 17 mm long crystal. The blue-green laser radiation is 100% polarised and single-longitudinal mode with a frequency linewidth of ˜33 GHz corresponding to a coherence length of ˜6 mm. The root-mean-square fluctuations of the second-harmonic output power is as low as 0.1% and the power drift is less than 3% over six hours.

  17. An Overview of the MOS Capabilities of the 4-10 m Telescopes at La Palma Observatory for Investigating Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrena, R.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Streblyanska, A.; Ferragamo, A.

    2016-10-01

    La Palma Observatory offers four multi-object spectrographs installed on 4 and 10 m class telescopes. We present an overview of these four instruments. As a scientific case for two of them, we present the optical follow-up of Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) sources undertaken by the Planck collaboration, focused on the detection, redshifts determination and mass estimation of the (SZ) galaxies cluster candidates. After three years of observations we have found optical counterparts for 120 candidates confirmed spectroscopically. We have determined dynamical masses for more than 30 systems with redshifts of z<0.85. Our experience demonstrates that DOLORES (TNG) and OSIRIS (GTC) are the ideal multi-object spectroscopy (MOS) instruments to investigate galaxy clusters at z<0.45 and 0.45

  18. Elucidation of the Corrosion Inhibition of Mild Steel in 1.0 M HCl by Catechin Monomers from Commercial Green Tea Extracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nofrizal, S.; Rahim, Afidah A.; Saad, Bahruddin; Bothi Raja, P.; Shah, Affaizza M.; Yahya, S.

    2012-04-01

    The inhibitive action of commercial green tea extracts on mild steel (MS) in a 1.0 M hydrochloric acid solution was investigated by weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis showed conclusively that of the eight catechin monomers and caffeine found in the original extracts, only four components were responsible for the inhibition of MS. The decreasing adsorption capacity of monomers on MS is related to the stereochemistry of molecules and the number of phenolic groups, and it is as follows: epigallocatechin gallate > epicatechin gallate > epigallocatechin > epicatechin. Adsorption of green tea extract constituent was found to follow Langmuir adsorption isotherm and the calculated Gibb's free energy values indicated the physisorption of inhibitor over MS surface. Physisorption was supported well by the potential zero charge (PZC) and molecular surface energy-level calculations.

  19. Multispectral imaging contributions to global land ice measurements from space

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kargel, J.S.; Abrams, M.J.; Bishop, M.P.; Bush, A.; Hamilton, G.; Jiskoot, H.; Kaab, Andreas; Kieffer, H.H.; Lee, E.M.; Paul, F.; Rau, F.; Raup, B.; Shroder, J.F.; Soltesz, D.; Stainforth, D.; Stearns, L.; Wessels, R.

    2005-01-01

    Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS) is an international consortium established to acquire satellite images of the world's glaciers, analyse them for glacier extent and changes, and assess change data for causes and implications for people and the environment. Although GLIMS is making use of multiple remote-sensing systems, ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and reflection Radiometer) is optimized for many needed observations, including mapping of glacier boundaries and material facies, and tracking of surface dynamics, such as flow vector fields and supraglacial lake development. Software development by GLIMS is geared toward mapping clean-ice and debris-covered glaciers; terrain classification emphasizing snow, ice, water, and admixtures of ice with rock debris; multitemporal change analysis; visualization of images and derived data; and interpretation and archiving of derived data. A global glacier database has been designed at the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC, Boulder, Colorado); parameters are compatible with and expanded from those of the World Glacier Inventory (WGI). These technology efforts are summarized here, but will be presented in detail elsewhere. Our presentation here pertains to one broad question: How can ASTER and other satellite multispectral data be used to map, monitor, and characterize the state and dynamics of glaciers and to understand their responses to 20th and 21st century climate change? Our sampled results are not yet glaciologically or climatically representative. Our early results, while indicating complexity, are generally consistent with the glaciology community's conclusion that climate change is spurring glacier responses around the world (mainly retreat). Whether individual glaciers are advancing or retreating, the aggregate average of glacier change must be climatic in origin, as nonclimatic variations average out. We have discerned regional spatial patterns in glaciological response behavior

  20. Software defined multi-spectral imaging for Arctic sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siewert, Sam; Angoth, Vivek; Krishnamurthy, Ramnarayan; Mani, Karthikeyan; Mock, Kenrick; Singh, Surjith B.; Srivistava, Saurav; Wagner, Chris; Claus, Ryan; Vis, Matthew Demi

    2016-05-01

    Availability of off-the-shelf infrared sensors combined with high definition visible cameras has made possible the construction of a Software Defined Multi-Spectral Imager (SDMSI) combining long-wave, near-infrared and visible imaging. The SDMSI requires a real-time embedded processor to fuse images and to create real-time depth maps for opportunistic uplink in sensor networks. Researchers at Embry Riddle Aeronautical University working with University of Alaska Anchorage at the Arctic Domain Awareness Center and the University of Colorado Boulder have built several versions of a low-cost drop-in-place SDMSI to test alternatives for power efficient image fusion. The SDMSI is intended for use in field applications including marine security, search and rescue operations and environmental surveys in the Arctic region. Based on Arctic marine sensor network mission goals, the team has designed the SDMSI to include features to rank images based on saliency and to provide on camera fusion and depth mapping. A major challenge has been the design of the camera computing system to operate within a 10 to 20 Watt power budget. This paper presents a power analysis of three options: 1) multi-core, 2) field programmable gate array with multi-core, and 3) graphics processing units with multi-core. For each test, power consumed for common fusion workloads has been measured at a range of frame rates and resolutions. Detailed analyses from our power efficiency comparison for workloads specific to stereo depth mapping and sensor fusion are summarized. Preliminary mission feasibility results from testing with off-the-shelf long-wave infrared and visible cameras in Alaska and Arizona are also summarized to demonstrate the value of the SDMSI for applications such as ice tracking, ocean color, soil moisture, animal and marine vessel detection and tracking. The goal is to select the most power efficient solution for the SDMSI for use on UAVs (Unoccupied Aerial Vehicles) and other drop

  1. Multispectral Image Road Extraction Based Upon Automated Map Conflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bin

    Road network extraction from remotely sensed imagery enables many important and diverse applications such as vehicle tracking, drone navigation, and intelligent transportation studies. There are, however, a number of challenges to road detection from an image. Road pavement material, width, direction, and topology vary across a scene. Complete or partial occlusions caused by nearby buildings, trees, and the shadows cast by them, make maintaining road connectivity difficult. The problems posed by occlusions are exacerbated with the increasing use of oblique imagery from aerial and satellite platforms. Further, common objects such as rooftops and parking lots are made of materials similar or identical to road pavements. This problem of common materials is a classic case of a single land cover material existing for different land use scenarios. This work addresses these problems in road extraction from geo-referenced imagery by leveraging the OpenStreetMap digital road map to guide image-based road extraction. The crowd-sourced cartography has the advantages of worldwide coverage that is constantly updated. The derived road vectors follow only roads and so can serve to guide image-based road extraction with minimal confusion from occlusions and changes in road material. On the other hand, the vector road map has no information on road widths and misalignments between the vector map and the geo-referenced image are small but nonsystematic. Properly correcting misalignment between two geospatial datasets, also known as map conflation, is an essential step. A generic framework requiring minimal human intervention is described for multispectral image road extraction and automatic road map conflation. The approach relies on the road feature generation of a binary mask and a corresponding curvilinear image. A method for generating the binary road mask from the image by applying a spectral measure is presented. The spectral measure, called anisotropy-tunable distance (ATD

  2. Multispectral light metering system for cultural heritage diagnosis and conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miccoli, Matteo; Melis, Marcello

    2013-05-01

    In the world of Cultural Heritage the first concern is all about Conservation of the works of art. A piece of art in bad shape is meant to deteriorate to an irreversible stage. To avoid this, quite often it's needed to go through one or more cycles of restoration to clean and consolidate the various elements of the piece. The very second concern, once the work of art is restored and in good and stable shape, is its fruition. At the end of the day why one should do all that restoration work if nobody then can access and view? Yet viewing and enjoying an artwork means that a visitor would be able to see it at its best, and this means, almost always, to have a good lighting system. Today, both restoration and fruition can greatly benefit of all the available technologies, and achieve very high level quality. The goal of this paper is the development of an exposimetric system suitable to be extremely useful as a tool for the the non invasive analysis, as well as for the lighting design and lighting systems monitoring. Many diagnosis techniques that are used before the restoration stage, require a suitable lighting system to allow to extract from the painting the maximum amount of information through the acquisition of images in the range of visible as well as UV and IR light. A standard exposimeter is for its own nature, sensitive only to the visible light, constrained by the standard photometric sensitivity curve V(lambda). A wide band exposimeter would be, on the other hand, an invaluable tool to get higher precision and to speed up multispectral wide band images acquisition, avoiding time wasting fail and try cycles to record the subject under wide spectrum conditions. The same equipment can be used to monitor the quality of the light in a expo lighting system at, for example, a museum or a gallery. The light hitting a piece of art has to allow the visitor to see and appreciate all the color shades, and to appreciate the contrast of dark and bright areas due only to

  3. Multispectral fluorescence image algorithms for detection of frass on mature tomatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A multispectral algorithm derived from hyperspectral line-scan fluorescence imaging under violet LED excitation was developed for the detection of frass contamination on mature tomatoes. The algorithm utilized the fluorescence intensities at five wavebands, 515 nm, 640 nm, 664 nm, 690 nm, and 724 nm...

  4. The method of multispectral image processing of phytoplankton processing for environmental control of water pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petruk, Vasil; Kvaternyuk, Sergii; Yasynska, Victoria; Kozachuk, Anastasia; Kotyra, Andrzej; Romaniuk, Ryszard S.; Askarova, Nursanat

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents improvement of the method of environmental monitoring of water bodies based on bioindication by phytoplankton, which identify phytoplankton particles carried out on the basis of comparison array multispectral images using Bayesian classifier of solving function based on Mahalanobis distance. It allows to evaluate objectively complex anthropogenic and technological impacts on aquatic ecosystems.

  5. Second derivative multispectral algorithm for quantitative assessment of cutaneous tissue oxygenation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jiwei; Zhang, Shiwu; Gnyawali, Surya; Sen, Chandan K.; Xu, Ronald X.

    2015-03-01

    We report a second derivative multispectral algorithm for quantitative assessment of cutaneous tissue oxygen saturation (StO2). The algorithm is based on a forward model of light transport in multilayered skin tissue and an inverse algorithm for StO2 reconstruction. Based on the forward simulation results, a parameter of a second derivative ratio (SDR) is derived as a function of cutaneous tissue StO2. The SDR function is optimized at a wavelength set of 544, 552, 568, 576, 592, and 600 nm so that cutaneous tissue StO2 can be derived with minimal artifacts by blood concentration, tissue scattering, and melanin concentration. The proposed multispectral StO2 imaging algorithm is verified in both benchtop and in vivo experiments. The experimental results show that the proposed multispectral imaging algorithm is able to map cutaneous tissue StO2 in high temporal resolution with reduced measurement artifacts induced by different skin conditions in comparison with other three commercial tissue oxygen measurement systems. These results indicate that the multispectral StO2 imaging technique has the potential for noninvasive and quantitative assessment of skin tissue oxygenation with a high temporal resolution.

  6. Initial clinical testing of a multi-spectral imaging system built on a smartphone platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mink, Jonah W.; Wexler, Shraga; Bolton, Frank J.; Hummel, Charles; Kahn, Bruce S.; Levitz, David

    2016-03-01

    Multi-spectral imaging systems are often expensive and bulky. An innovative multi-spectral imaging system was fitted onto a mobile colposcope, an imaging system built around a smartphone in order to image the uterine cervix from outside the body. The multi-spectral mobile colposcope (MSMC) acquires images at different wavelengths. This paper presents the clinical testing of MSMC imaging (technical validation of the MSMC system is described elsewhere 1 ). Patients who were referred to colposcopy following abnormal screening test (Pap or HPV DNA test) according to the standard of care were enrolled. Multi-spectral image sets of the cervix were acquired, consisting of images from the various wavelengths. Image acquisition took 1-2 sec. Areas suspected for dysplasia under white light imaging were biopsied, according to the standard of care. Biopsied sites were recorded on a clockface map of the cervix. Following the procedure, MSMC data was processed from the sites of biopsied sites. To date, the initial histopathological results are still outstanding. Qualitatively, structures in the cervical images were sharper at lower wavelengths than higher wavelengths. Patients tolerated imaging well. The result suggests MSMC holds promise for cervical imaging.

  7. Land cover classification in multispectral imagery using clustering of sparse approximations over learned feature dictionaries

    DOE PAGES

    Moody, Daniela I.; Brumby, Steven P.; Rowland, Joel C.; Altmann, Garrett L.

    2014-12-09

    We present results from an ongoing effort to extend neuromimetic machine vision algorithms to multispectral data using adaptive signal processing combined with compressive sensing and machine learning techniques. Our goal is to develop a robust classification methodology that will allow for automated discretization of the landscape into distinct units based on attributes such as vegetation, surface hydrological properties, and topographic/geomorphic characteristics. We use a Hebbian learning rule to build spectral-textural dictionaries that are tailored for classification. We learn our dictionaries from millions of overlapping multispectral image patches and then use a pursuit search to generate classification features. Land cover labelsmore » are automatically generated using unsupervised clustering of sparse approximations (CoSA). We demonstrate our method on multispectral WorldView-2 data from a coastal plain ecosystem in Barrow, Alaska. We explore learning from both raw multispectral imagery and normalized band difference indices. We explore a quantitative metric to evaluate the spectral properties of the clusters in order to potentially aid in assigning land cover categories to the cluster labels. In this study, our results suggest CoSA is a promising approach to unsupervised land cover classification in high-resolution satellite imagery.« less

  8. An efficient algorithm for food quality control based on multispectral signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdiviezo-N., Juan C.; Urcid, Gonzalo; Toxqui, Carina; Padilla, Alfonso; Santiago, Cesar

    2013-03-01

    Multispectral imaging has motivated new applications related to quality monitoring for industrial applications due to its capability of analysis based on spectral signatures. In practice, however, a multispectral system used for such purposes is limited because of the large amount of data to be analyzed, being necessary to develop fast methods for the unsupervised classification task. This manuscript introduces a fast and efficient algorithm that is used in combination with a multispectral system for the unsupervised classification of food based on quality. In particular, given two types of fruits previously characterized, we first register a multispectral image from them and perform a dimensionality reduction by taking into account the most representative spectral bands that involve their reflection spectra. From the reduced set, the min-W and max-M lattice associative memories are computed and a subset of their columns are used as centroids of specific clusters. Then, the Euclidean distance computed between each centroid and all spectral vectors in the image allows to subdivide the image in clusters. The achieved results state that the technique is fast, reliable, and non-invasive for food classification.

  9. Uav Multispectral Survey to Map Soil and Crop for Precision Farming Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonaa, Giovanna; Passoni, Daniele; Pinto, Livio; Pagliari, Diana; Masseroni, Daniele; Ortuani, Bianca; Facchi, Arianna

    2016-06-01

    New sensors mounted on UAV and optimal procedures for survey, data acquisition and analysis are continuously developed and tested for applications in precision farming. Procedures to integrate multispectral aerial data about soil and crop and ground-based proximal geophysical data are a recent research topic aimed to delineate homogeneous zones for the management of agricultural inputs (i.e., water, nutrients). Multispectral and multitemporal orthomosaics were produced over a test field (a 100 m x 200 m plot within a maize field), to map vegetation and soil indices, as well as crop heights, with suitable ground resolution. UAV flights were performed in two moments during the crop season, before sowing on bare soil, and just before flowering when maize was nearly at the maximum height. Two cameras, for color (RGB) and false color (NIR-RG) images, were used. The images were processed in Agisoft Photoscan to produce Digital Surface Model (DSM) of bare soil and crop, and multispectral orthophotos. To overcome some difficulties in the automatic searching of matching points for the block adjustment of the crop image, also the scientific software developed by Politecnico of Milan was used to enhance images orientation. Surveys and image processing are described, as well as results about classification of multispectral-multitemporal orthophotos and soil indices.

  10. Diffuse reflectance and fluorescence multispectral imaging system for assessment of skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saknite, Inga; Jakovels, Dainis; Spigulis, Janis

    2014-05-01

    The diffuse reflectance multispectral imaging technique has been used for distant mapping of in vivo skin chromophores (hemoglobin and melanin). The fluorescence multispectral imaging is not so common for skin applications due to complicity of data acquisition and processing, but could provide additional information about skin fluorophores. Both techniques are compatible, and could be combined into a multimodal solution. The multispectral imaging system Nuance based on liquid crystal tunable filters was adapted for diffuse reflectance and fluorescence spectral imaging of in vivo skin. Uniform illumination was achieved by LED ring light. Combination of four LEDs (warm white, 770 nm, 830 nm and 890 nm) was used to support diffuse reflectance mode in spectral range 450-950 nm. 405 nm LEDs were used for excitation of skin autofluorescence. Multispectral imaging system was adapted for spectral working range of 450-950 nm with scanning step of 10 nm and spectral resolution of 15 nm. An average field of view was 50x35 mm in size with spatial resolution 0,05 mm (the pixel size). Due to spectrally different illumination intensity and system sensitivity, various exposure times (from 7…500 ms) were used for each image acquisition. The proposed approach was tested for different skin lesions: benign nevus, hemangioma, basalioma and halo nevus. Spectral image cubes of different skin lesions were acquired and analyzed to test its diagnostic potential.

  11. Information content of data from the LANDSAT 4 Thematic Mapper (TM) and multispectral scanner (MSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    Simultaneous data acquisition by the LANDSAT 4 thematic mapper and the multispectral scanner permits the comparison of the two types of image data with respect to engineering performance and data applications. Progress in the evaluation of information content of matching scenes in agricultural areas is briefly reported.

  12. Digital staining for multispectral images of pathological tissue specimens based on combined classification of spectral transmittance.

    PubMed

    Bautista, Pinky A; Abe, Tokiya; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Yagi, Yukako; Ohyama, Nagaaki

    2005-12-01

    In this study, the digital transformation (digital staining) of the 16-band multispectral image of a hematoxylin and eosin (HE) stained pathological specimen to its Masson's trichrome (MT) stained counterpart is addressed. The digital staining procedure involves the classification of the various H&E-stained tissue components and then the transformation of their transmittance spectra to their equivalent MT-stained transmittance configurations. Combination of transmittance classifiers were designed to classify the various tissue components found in the multispectral images of an HE-stained specimen, e.g. nucleus, cytoplasm, red blood cell (RBC), fibrosis, etc.; while pseudo-inverse method was used to obtain the transformation matrices that would translate the transmittance spectra of the classified HE-stained multispectral pixels to their MT-stained configurations. To generate the digitally stained image, weighting factors, which were based on the classifiers beliefs, were introduced to the generated transformation matrices. Initial results of our experiments on liver specimens show the viability of multispectral imaging (MSI) to implement a digital staining framework in the pathological context.

  13. Multispectral Resource Sampler: Proof of concept. Literature survey of bidirectional reflectance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A bibliography compiled in order to give a comprehensive review of previous work in scene bidirectional reflectance, particularly those studies relevant to the Multispectral Resource Sampler (MRS) is presented. The bibliography contains 124 abstracts. In addition a synthesis of the literature results is given along with background information concerning MRS.

  14. Multispectral filter wheel cameras: modeling aberrations for filters in front of lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Julie; Aach, Til

    2012-01-01

    Aberrations occur in multispectral cameras featuring filter wheels because of color filters with different optical properties being present in the ray path. In order to ensure an exact compensation of these aberrations, a mathematical model of the distortions has to be developed and its parameters have to be calculated using the measured data. Such a model already exists for optical filters placed between the sensor and the lens, but not for bandpass filters placed in front of the lens. For this configuration, the rays are first distorted by the filters and then by the lens. In this paper, we derive a model for aberrations caused by filters placed in front of the lens in multispectral cameras. We compare this model with distortions obtained with simulations as well as with distortions measured during real multispectral acquisitions. In both cases, the difference between modeled and measured aberrations remains low, which corroborates the physical model. Multispectral acquisitions with filters placed between the sensor and the lens or in front of the lens are compared: the latter exhibit smaller distortions and the aberrations in both images can be compensated using the same algorithm.

  15. Choice of computer software for analysis of spectra from the Multi-Spectral Logging System

    SciTech Connect

    Hearst, J.R.

    1994-07-01

    We have investigated the range of software available for determination of elemental concentration from gamma-ray spectra, to learn which are most suitable for use with the Multi-spectral Logging System being developed for the Department of Energy. We believe that the spectrum fitting method will be more satisfactory than the peak-matching method.

  16. Establish keypoint matches on multispectral images utilizing descriptor and global information over entire image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yong; Zou, Junwei; Jing, Jing; Jin, Hongbin; Yu, Hang

    2016-05-01

    This paper proposes an approach to registering multispectral images by establishing keypoint matches. The matching ability of descriptors is characterized by the repeatability and distinctiveness that typically decrease on multispectral images. The decrease of matching ability often yields a set of keypoint matches containing a high rate of incorrect matches, and in this case the outlier matches are very difficult to be removed. To establish reliable keypoint matches, this paper proposes an approach of two stages. Firstly, keypoint matches of smaller descriptor distance are obtained as an initial set. Secondly, complementary information to the local window for computing descriptors is employed to evaluate keypoint matches and find good matches. A smaller descriptor distance for a keypoint match implies a greater probability of being correct and hence the initial set contains a higher rate of correct matches. The global information can be viewed as a means of enhancing the matching ability of descriptors, compensating the decrease of common information between multispectral images. Experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively establish keypoint matches on multispectral images of large spectral difference.

  17. Multispectral medical image fusion in Contourlet domain for computer based diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Bhateja, Vikrant; Moin, Aisha; Srivastava, Anuja; Bao, Le Nguyen; Lay-Ekuakille, Aimé; Le, Dac-Nhuong

    2016-07-01

    Computer based diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease can be performed by dint of the analysis of the functional and structural changes in the brain. Multispectral image fusion deliberates upon fusion of the complementary information while discarding the surplus information to achieve a solitary image which encloses both spatial and spectral details. This paper presents a Non-Sub-sampled Contourlet Transform (NSCT) based multispectral image fusion model for computer-aided diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. The proposed fusion methodology involves color transformation of the input multispectral image. The multispectral image in YIQ color space is decomposed using NSCT followed by dimensionality reduction using modified Principal Component Analysis algorithm on the low frequency coefficients. Further, the high frequency coefficients are enhanced using non-linear enhancement function. Two different fusion rules are then applied to the low-pass and high-pass sub-bands: Phase congruency is applied to low frequency coefficients and a combination of directive contrast and normalized Shannon entropy is applied to high frequency coefficients. The superiority of the fusion response is depicted by the comparisons made with the other state-of-the-art fusion approaches (in terms of various fusion metrics). PMID:27475574

  18. Multispectral remote sensing from unmanned aircraft: image processing workflows and applications for rangeland environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) as remote sensing platforms offers the unique ability for repeated deployment for acquisition of high temporal resolution data at very high spatial resolution. Most image acquisitions from UAS have been in the visible bands, while multispectral remote sensing ap...

  19. Land cover classification in multispectral imagery using clustering of sparse approximations over learned feature dictionaries

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, Daniela I.; Brumby, Steven P.; Rowland, Joel C.; Altmann, Garrett L.

    2014-12-09

    We present results from an ongoing effort to extend neuromimetic machine vision algorithms to multispectral data using adaptive signal processing combined with compressive sensing and machine learning techniques. Our goal is to develop a robust classification methodology that will allow for automated discretization of the landscape into distinct units based on attributes such as vegetation, surface hydrological properties, and topographic/geomorphic characteristics. We use a Hebbian learning rule to build spectral-textural dictionaries that are tailored for classification. We learn our dictionaries from millions of overlapping multispectral image patches and then use a pursuit search to generate classification features. Land cover labels are automatically generated using unsupervised clustering of sparse approximations (CoSA). We demonstrate our method on multispectral WorldView-2 data from a coastal plain ecosystem in Barrow, Alaska. We explore learning from both raw multispectral imagery and normalized band difference indices. We explore a quantitative metric to evaluate the spectral properties of the clusters in order to potentially aid in assigning land cover categories to the cluster labels. In this study, our results suggest CoSA is a promising approach to unsupervised land cover classification in high-resolution satellite imagery.

  20. Improved image classification with neural networks by fusing multispectral signatures with topological data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harston, Craig; Schumacher, Chris

    1992-01-01

    Automated schemes are needed to classify multispectral remotely sensed data. Human intelligence is often required to correctly interpret images from satellites and aircraft. Humans suceed because they use various types of cues about a scene to accurately define the contents of the image. Consequently, it follows that computer techniques that integrate and use different types of information would perform better than single source approaches. This research illustrated that multispectral signatures and topographical information could be used in concert. Significantly, this dual source tactic classified a remotely sensed image better than the multispectral classification alone. These classifications were accomplished by fusing spectral signatures with topographical information using neural network technology. A neural network was trained to classify Landsat mulitspectral signatures. A file of georeferenced ground truth classifications were used as the training criterion. The network was trained to classify urban, agriculture, range, and forest with an accuracy of 65.7 percent. Another neural network was programmed and trained to fuse these multispectral signature results with a file of georeferenced altitude data. This topological file contained 10 levels of elevations. When this nonspectral elevation information was fused with the spectral signatures, the classifications were improved to 73.7 and 75.7 percent.

  1. Results of the spatial resolution simulation for multispectral data (resolution brochures)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The variable information content of Earth Resource products at different levels of spatial resolution and in different spectral bands is addressed. A low-cost brochure that scientists and laymen could use to visualize the effects of increasing the spatial resolution of multispectral scanner images was produced.

  2. Comparison of airborne multispectral and hyperspectral imagery for estimating grain sorghum yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Both multispectral and hyperspectral images are being used to monitor crop conditions and map yield variability, but limited research has been conducted to compare the differences between these two types of imagery for assessing crop growth and yields. The objective of this study was to compare airb...

  3. Joint spatio-spectral based edge detection for multispectral infrared imagery.

    SciTech Connect

    Krishna, Sanjay; Hayat, Majeed M.; Bender, Steven C.; Sharma, Yagya D.; Jang, Woo-Yong; Paskalva, Biliana S.

    2010-06-01

    Image segmentation is one of the most important and difficult tasks in digital image processing. It represents a key stage of automated image analysis and interpretation. Segmentation algorithms for gray-scale images utilize basic properties of intensity values such as discontinuity and similarity. However, it is possible to enhance edge-detection capability by means of using spectral information provided by multispectral (MS) or hyperspectral (HS) imagery. In this paper we consider image segmentation algorithms for multispectral images with particular emphasis on detection of multi-color or multispectral edges. More specifically, we report on an algorithm for joint spatio-spectral (JSS) edge detection. By joint we mean simultaneous utilization of spatial and spectral characteristics of a given MS or HS image. The JSS-based edge-detection approach, termed Spectral Ratio Contrast (SRC) edge-detection algorithm, utilizes the novel concept of matching edge signatures. The edge signature represents a combination of spectral ratios calculated using bands that enhance the spectral contrast between the two materials. In conjunction with a spatial mask, the edge signature give rise to a multispectral operator that can be viewed as a three-dimensional extension of the mask. In the extended mask, the third (spectral) dimension of each hyper-pixel can be chosen independently. The SRC is verified using MS and HS imagery from a quantum-dot in a well infrared (IR) focal plane array, and the Airborne Hyperspectral Imager.

  4. Multispectral televisional measuring control of the ecological state of waterbodies on the characteristics macrophytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petruk, Vasil; Kvaternyuk, Sergii; Kozachuk, Anastasia; Sailarbek, Saltanat; Gromaszek, Konrad

    2015-12-01

    Improved methods for multispectral measuring television monitoring of the ecological state of water bodies on the characteristics of macrophytes groups to assess complex human impact on their environment. Integral assessment of water pollution is based on research products of higher aquatic plants and their communities by optical methods.

  5. Airborne multispectral identification of individual cotton plants using consumer-grade cameras

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although multispectral remote sensing using consumer-grade cameras has successfully identified fields of small cotton plants, improvements to detection sensitivity are needed to identify individual or small clusters of plants. The imaging sensor of consumer-grade cameras are based on a Bayer patter...

  6. An airborne multispectral imaging system based on two consumer-grade cameras for agricultural remote sensing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper describes the design and evaluation of an airborne multispectral imaging system based on two identical consumer-grade cameras for agricultural remote sensing. The cameras are equipped with a full-frame complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) sensor with 5616 × 3744 pixels. One came...

  7. A multispectral scanner survey of the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada. Date of survey: August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Brewster, S.B. Jr.; Howard, M.E.; Shines, J.E.

    1994-08-01

    The Multispectral Remote Sensing Department of the Remote Sensing Laboratory conducted an airborne multispectral scanner survey of a portion of the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada. The survey was conducted on August 21 and 22, 1993, using a Daedalus AADS1268 scanner and coincident aerial color photography. Flight altitudes were 5,000 feet (1,524 meters) above ground level for systematic coverage and 1,000 feet (304 meters) for selected areas of special interest. The multispectral scanner survey was initiated as part of an interim and limited investigation conducted to gather preliminary information regarding historical hazardous material release sites which could have environmental impacts. The overall investigation also includes an inventory of environmental restoration sites, a ground-based geophysical survey, and an aerial radiological survey. The multispectral scanner imagery and coincident aerial photography were analyzed for the detection, identification, and mapping of man-made soil disturbances. Several standard image enhancement techniques were applied to the data to assist image interpretation. A geologic ratio enhancement and a color composite consisting of AADS1268 channels 10, 7, and 9 (mid-infrared, red, and near-infrared spectral bands) proved most useful for detecting soil disturbances. A total of 358 disturbance sites were identified on the imagery and mapped using a geographic information system. Of these sites, 326 were located within the Tonopah Test Range while the remaining sites were present on the imagery but outside the site boundary. The mapped site locations are being used to support ongoing field investigations.

  8. Multispectral image compression based on DSC combined with CCSDS-IDC.

    PubMed

    Li, Jin; Xing, Fei; Sun, Ting; You, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Remote sensing multispectral image compression encoder requires low complexity, high robust, and high performance because it usually works on the satellite where the resources, such as power, memory, and processing capacity, are limited. For multispectral images, the compression algorithms based on 3D transform (like 3D DWT, 3D DCT) are too complex to be implemented in space mission. In this paper, we proposed a compression algorithm based on distributed source coding (DSC) combined with image data compression (IDC) approach recommended by CCSDS for multispectral images, which has low complexity, high robust, and high performance. First, each band is sparsely represented by DWT to obtain wavelet coefficients. Then, the wavelet coefficients are encoded by bit plane encoder (BPE). Finally, the BPE is merged to the DSC strategy of Slepian-Wolf (SW) based on QC-LDPC by deep coupling way to remove the residual redundancy between the adjacent bands. A series of multispectral images is used to test our algorithm. Experimental results show that the proposed DSC combined with the CCSDS-IDC (DSC-CCSDS)-based algorithm has better compression performance than the traditional compression approaches.

  9. Multispectral medical image fusion in Contourlet domain for computer based diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhateja, Vikrant; Moin, Aisha; Srivastava, Anuja; Bao, Le Nguyen; Lay-Ekuakille, Aimé; Le, Dac-Nhuong

    2016-07-01

    Computer based diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease can be performed by dint of the analysis of the functional and structural changes in the brain. Multispectral image fusion deliberates upon fusion of the complementary information while discarding the surplus information to achieve a solitary image which encloses both spatial and spectral details. This paper presents a Non-Sub-sampled Contourlet Transform (NSCT) based multispectral image fusion model for computer-aided diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. The proposed fusion methodology involves color transformation of the input multispectral image. The multispectral image in YIQ color space is decomposed using NSCT followed by dimensionality reduction using modified Principal Component Analysis algorithm on the low frequency coefficients. Further, the high frequency coefficients are enhanced using non-linear enhancement function. Two different fusion rules are then applied to the low-pass and high-pass sub-bands: Phase congruency is applied to low frequency coefficients and a combination of directive contrast and normalized Shannon entropy is applied to high frequency coefficients. The superiority of the fusion response is depicted by the comparisons made with the other state-of-the-art fusion approaches (in terms of various fusion metrics).

  10. Comparison of different detection methods for citrus greening disease based on airborne multispectral and hyperspectral imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus greening or Huanglongbing (HLB) is a devastating disease spread in many citrus groves since first found in 2005 in Florida. Multispectral (MS) and hyperspectral (HS) airborne images of citrus groves in Florida were taken to detect citrus greening infected trees in 2007 and 2010. Ground truthi...

  11. New generation of Fourier optics instruments for fast multispectral BRDF characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boher, Pierre; Leroux, Thierry; Collomb-Patton, Véronique; Bignon, Thibault

    2015-03-01

    A new generation of Fourier optics multispectral instruments that allow rapid full diffused or collimated beam spectral BRDF measurements is presented. Light detection is made simultaneously at all angular locations including the illumination direction. Backscattering effect in the fields of cosmetics and parasitic reflection of mobile displays are reported as examples.

  12. Detection algorithm for cracks on the surface of tomatoes using Multispectral Vis/NIR Reflectance Imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomatoes, an important agricultural product in fresh-cut markets, are sometimes a source of foodborne illness, mainly Salmonella spp. Growth cracks on tomatoes can be a pathway for bacteria, so its detection prior to consumption is important for public health. In this study, multispectral Visible/Ne...

  13. Red to far-red multispectral fluorescence image fusion for detection of fecal contamination on apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research developed a multispectral algorithm derived from hyperspectral line-scan fluorescence imaging under violet/blue LED excitation for detection of fecal contamination on Golden Delicious apples. Using a hyperspectral line-scan imaging system consisting of an EMCCD camera, spectrograph, an...

  14. Spectral stratigraphy: multispectral remote sensing as a stratigraphic tool, Wind River/Big Horn basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, H.R.; Paylor, E.D.

    1987-05-01

    Stratigraphic and structural analyses of the Wind River and Big Horn basins areas of central Wyoming are in progress. One result has been the development of a new approach to stratigraphic and structural analysis that uses photogeologic and spectral interpretation of multispectral image data to remotely characterize the attitude, thickness, and lithology of strata. New multispectral systems that have only been available since 1982 are used with topographic data to map upper paleozoic and Mesozoic strata exposed on the southern margin of the Bighorn Mountains. Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite data together with topographic data are used to map lithologic contacts, measure dip and strike, and develop a stratigraphic column that is correlated with conventional surface and subsurface sections. Aircraft-acquired Airborne Imaging Spectrometer and Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner data add mineralogical information to the TM column, including the stratigraphic distribution of quartz, calcite, dolomite, montmorillonite, and gypsum. Results illustrate an approach that has general applicability in other geologic investigations that could benefit from remotely acquired information about areal variations in attitude, sequence, thickness, and lithology of strata exposed at the Earth's surface. Application of their methods elsewhere is limited primarily by availability of multispectral and topographic data and quality of bedrock exposures.

  15. Second derivative multispectral algorithm for quantitative assessment of cutaneous tissue oxygenation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jiwei; Zhang, Shiwu; Gnyawali, Surya; Sen, Chandan K.; Xu, Ronald X.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. We report a second derivative multispectral algorithm for quantitative assessment of cutaneous tissue oxygen saturation (StO2). The algorithm is based on a forward model of light transport in multilayered skin tissue and an inverse algorithm for StO2 reconstruction. Based on the forward simulation results, a parameter of a second derivative ratio (SDR) is derived as a function of cutaneous tissue StO2. The SDR function is optimized at a wavelength set of 544, 552, 568, 576, 592, and 600 nm so that cutaneous tissue StO2 can be derived with minimal artifacts by blood concentration, tissue scattering, and melanin concentration. The proposed multispectral StO2 imaging algorithm is verified in both benchtop and in vivo experiments. The experimental results show that the proposed multispectral imaging algorithm is able to map cutaneous tissue StO2 in high temporal resolution with reduced measurement artifacts induced by different skin conditions in comparison with other three commercial tissue oxygen measurement systems. These results indicate that the multispectral StO2 imaging technique has the potential for noninvasive and quantitative assessment of skin tissue oxygenation with a high temporal resolution. PMID:25734405

  16. Multimodal tissue perfusion imaging using multi-spectral and thermographic imaging systems applied on clinical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaessens, John H. G. M.; Nelisse, Martin; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf M.; Noordmans, Herke Jan

    2013-03-01

    Clinical interventions can cause changes in tissue perfusion, oxygenation or temperature. Real-time imaging of these phenomena could be useful for surgical strategy or understanding of physiological regulation mechanisms. Two noncontact imaging techniques were applied for imaging of large tissue areas: LED based multispectral imaging (MSI, 17 different wavelengths 370 nm-880 nm) and thermal imaging (7.5 to 13.5 μm). Oxygenation concentration changes were calculated using different analyzing methods. The advantages of these methods are presented for stationary and dynamic applications. Concentration calculations of chromophores in tissue require right choices of wavelengths The effects of different wavelength choices for hemoglobin concentration calculations were studied in laboratory conditions and consequently applied in clinical studies. Corrections for interferences during the clinical registrations (ambient light fluctuations, tissue movements) were performed. The wavelength dependency of the algorithms were studied and wavelength sets with the best results will be presented. The multispectral and thermal imaging systems were applied during clinical intervention studies: reperfusion of tissue flap transplantation (ENT), effectiveness of local anesthetic block and during open brain surgery in patients with epileptic seizures. The LED multispectral imaging system successfully imaged the perfusion and oxygenation changes during clinical interventions. The thermal images show local heat distributions over tissue areas as a result of changes in tissue perfusion. Multispectral imaging and thermal imaging provide complementary information and are promising techniques for real-time diagnostics of physiological processes in medicine.

  17. Evaluating the Potential of Multispectral Airborne LIDAR for Topographic Mapping and Land Cover Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wichmann, V.; Bremer, M.; Lindenberger, J.; Rutzinger, M.; Georges, C.; Petrini-Monteferri, F.

    2015-08-01

    Recently multispectral LiDAR became a promising research field for enhanced LiDAR classification workflows and e.g. the assessment of vegetation health. Current analyses on multispectral LiDAR are mainly based on experimental setups, which are often limited transferable to operational tasks. In late 2014 Optech Inc. announced the first commercially available multispectral LiDAR system for airborne topographic mapping. The combined system makes synchronic multispectral LiDAR measurements possible, solving time shift problems of experimental acquisitions. This paper presents an explorative analysis of the first airborne collected data with focus on class specific spectral signatures. Spectral patterns are used for a classification approach, which is evaluated in comparison to a manual reference classification. Typical spectral patterns comparable to optical imagery could be observed for homogeneous and planar surfaces. For rough and volumetric objects such as trees, the spectral signature becomes biased by signal modification due to multi return effects. However, we show that this first flight data set is suitable for conventional geometrical classification and mapping procedures. Additional classes such as sealed and unsealed ground can be separated with high classification accuracies. For vegetation classification the distinction of species and health classes is possible.

  18. Multispectral Image Compression Based on DSC Combined with CCSDS-IDC

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jin; Xing, Fei; Sun, Ting; You, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Remote sensing multispectral image compression encoder requires low complexity, high robust, and high performance because it usually works on the satellite where the resources, such as power, memory, and processing capacity, are limited. For multispectral images, the compression algorithms based on 3D transform (like 3D DWT, 3D DCT) are too complex to be implemented in space mission. In this paper, we proposed a compression algorithm based on distributed source coding (DSC) combined with image data compression (IDC) approach recommended by CCSDS for multispectral images, which has low complexity, high robust, and high performance. First, each band is sparsely represented by DWT to obtain wavelet coefficients. Then, the wavelet coefficients are encoded by bit plane encoder (BPE). Finally, the BPE is merged to the DSC strategy of Slepian-Wolf (SW) based on QC-LDPC by deep coupling way to remove the residual redundancy between the adjacent bands. A series of multispectral images is used to test our algorithm. Experimental results show that the proposed DSC combined with the CCSDS-IDC (DSC-CCSDS)-based algorithm has better compression performance than the traditional compression approaches. PMID:25110741

  19. Fast Multispectral Imaging by Spatial Pixel-Binning and Spectral Unmixing.

    PubMed

    Pan, Zhi-Wei; Shen, Hui-Liang; Li, Chunguang; Chen, Shu-Jie; Xin, John H

    2016-08-01

    Multispectral imaging system is of wide application in relevant fields for its capability in acquiring spectral information of scenes. Its limitation is that, due to the large number of spectral channels, the imaging process can be quite time-consuming when capturing high-resolution (HR) multispectral images. To resolve this limitation, this paper proposes a fast multispectral imaging framework based on the image sensor pixel-binning and spectral unmixing techniques. The framework comprises a fast imaging stage and a computational reconstruction stage. In the imaging stage, only a few spectral images are acquired in HR, while most spectral images are acquired in low resolution (LR). The LR images are captured by applying pixel binning on the image sensor, such that the exposure time can be greatly reduced. In the reconstruction stage, an optimal number of basis spectra are computed and the signal-dependent noise statistics are estimated. Then the unknown HR images are efficiently reconstructed by solving a closed-form cost function that models the spatial and spectral degradations. The effectiveness of the proposed framework is evaluated using real-scene multispectral images. Experimental results validate that, in general, the method outperforms the state of the arts in terms of reconstruction accuracy, with additional 20× or more improvement in computational efficiency.

  20. Use of multispectral scanner images for assessment of hydrothermal alteration in the Marysvale, Utah, mining area.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Podwysocki, M.H.; Segal, D.B.; Abrams, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    Airborne multispectral scanner. A color composite image was constructed using the following spectral band ratios: 1.6/2.2 mu m, 1.6/0.48 mu m, and 0.67/1.0 mu m. The color ratio composite successfully distinguished most types of altered rocks from unaltered rocks; further division of altered rocks into ferric oxide-rich and -poor types.