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Sample records for 10-n-nonyl acridine orange

  1. ACRIDINE ORANGE BINDING BY MICROCOCCUS LYSODEIKTICUS

    PubMed Central

    Beers, Roland F.

    1964-01-01

    Beers, Roland F., Jr. (Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md). Acridine orange binding by Micrococcus lysodeikticus. J. Bacteriol. 88:1249–1256. 1964.—Micrococcus lysodeikticus cells bind acridine orange (AO) reversibly. The adsorption isotherm is consistent with a highly cooperative-type binding similar to that observed with polyadenylic acid. The cells exhibit a strong buffering action on the concentration of free AO which remains constant (1 μg/ml) over a range from 5 to 95% saturation of the cells by AO. The cells stain either fluorescent orange or green. The fraction stained orange is directly proportional to the quantity of dye adsorbed, indicating that these cells bind a fixed amount of AO (10% of dry weight). The green-stained cells contain less than 1% of the AO bound to orange-stained cells. The results suggest that the abrupt increase in amount of AO bound by the orange-stained cells occurs when the concentration of free AO reaches a threshold concentration. Similar results were obtained with Bacillus cereus. Mg increases the free AO concentration and the extent of binding capacity of the cells. PMID:14234778

  2. Acridine orange as a biosensitive photovoltaic material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharifi, Faranak; Bauld, Reg; Fanchini, Giovanni

    2013-10-01

    Acridine orange (AO), a biosensitive molecule that is customarily used for labeling nucleic acids including DNA and RNA, is here investigated as a cost effective, water soluble, and photoactive material for the fabrication of potentially biosensitive organic photovoltaics. The electronic energy levels of AO are determined using Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy (KPFM) and UV-Visible spectroscopy. The effect of anticrystallization agents, as well as low-temperature annealing, on the work function of AO is investigated: amorphous AO films are shown to possess a significantly higher work function than microcrystalline AO films and the work function also increases by annealing. Photo-induced processes in AO films are investigated by considering the changes of the KPFM signal under illumination. We demonstrate that acridine orange is able to photogenerate electron-hole pairs at rates comparable to the most commonly used solar-grade photovoltaic materials, including polythiophenes. In addition, the effect of the morphology of different types of AO thin films spun from different solvents is studied in bilayer photovoltaic devices fabricated from stacks of AO and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester thin films.

  3. Clinical results with acridine orange using a novel confocal laparoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanbakuchi, Anthony A.; Rouse, Andrew R.; Hatch, Kenneth D.; Gmitro, Arthur F.

    2009-02-01

    We previously reported on the development of a multi-spectral confocal laparoscope for clinical imaging. In this paper we present current results using the system to image ovaries with a new laparoscope design using the contrast agent acridine orange. This new laparoscope integrates computer controlled systems for focus, depth scans, and localized contrast agent delivery. Precise axial position control is accomplished with tiny stepper motors integrated inside the laparoscope handle. Ergonomic handle controls allow for data acquisition, deliver of contrast agents, and adjustment of imaging depth during procedures by the surgeon. We have approval to use acridine orange in our clinical trials to image ovaries in vivo during oophorectomies. We present in vivo results using both acridine orange and fluorescein as the topically administered contrast agent.

  4. Effects of Acridine Orange on the Growth of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Southwick, Frederick S.; Carr, Howard S.; Carden, George A.; D'Alisa, Rose M.; Rosenkranz, Herbert S.

    1972-01-01

    Exposure of Escherichia coli to critical acridine orange (AO) concentrations did not result in loss of viability. However, the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of cells exposed to such agents was rapidly degraded and repolymerized. On the other hand, a bacterium deficient in DNA repair (pol A1−, lacking DNA polymerase) was sensitive to the action of AO. The DNA of such cells was also degraded but it was not repaired. PMID:4553001

  5. Aggregation of acridine orange: crystal structure of acridine orange tetrachlorozincate 2C17H19N3-2HCl-ZnCl2-CH3COOH.

    PubMed

    Obendorf, S K; Pickworth Glusker, J; Hansen, P R; Berman, H M; Carrell, H L

    1976-01-01

    The crystal structure of the biological stain, "acridine orange," has been determined. This compound, when crystallized from ethanol, is shown to be a zinc chloride double salt of acridine orange, containing, in addition, acetic acid of crystallization. These additional components are residuals from the method of preparation of acridine orange. This complex, 2 acridine orange-2HCl-ZnCl2-CH3COOH, (2C17H19N3-2HCl-ZnCl2-CH3COOH) crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21, a = 9.965 (2), b = 21.507 (6), c = 9.645 (2) A, beta = 113.98 degrees (2), V = 1888.7 (8) A3, FW = 800.0, Z = 2, DX = 1.41 g-cm-3, Dobs = 1.43 (9) g-cm-3. Three-dimensional diffraction data were collected with CuKalpha radiation, and the structure refined to R = 0.065 for 1885 observed reflections. In the crystal structure hydrogen bonds are formed, via the protonated nitrogen atom of the central rings of two acridine orange cations, to two chloride ions in a ZnCl42- tetrahedral grouping. These two acridine orange molecules are stacked in parallel planes, approximately 3.4 A apart, with the long axes of the ring systems inclined at 26.5 to each other. Thus an apparent dimerization of the acridine, orange is facilitated by the anions present, resulting in the complex studied. The two -N(CH3)2 groups of each acridine orange molecule are not protonated in this crystalline form. The mode of molecular packing found here may be relevant to models for the external stacking of acridine orange around a DNA molecule. The importance of removing any zinc salt from acridine orange preparations prior to aggregation studies is stressed.

  6. Interactions of hypericin with a model mutagen - Acridine orange analyzed by light absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietrzak, Monika; Szabelski, Mariusz; Kasparek, Adam; Wieczorek, Zbigniew

    2017-02-01

    The present study was designed to estimate the ability of hypericin to interact with a model mutagen - acridine orange. The hetero-association of hypericin and acridine orange was investigated with absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy methods in aqueous solution of DMSO. The data indicate that hypericin forms complexes with acridine orange and that the association constants are relatively high and depend on DMSO concentration. The absorption spectra of the hypericin - acridine orange complexes were examined as well. Owing to its ability to interact with flat aromatic compounds, hypericin may potentially be used as an interceptor molecule.

  7. DYNAMICS OF ACRIDINE ORANGE-CELL INTERACTION. II. DYE-INDUCED ULTRASTRUCTURAL CHANGES IN MULTIVESICULAR BODIES (ACRIDINE ORANGE PARTICLES).

    PubMed

    ROBBINS, E; MARCUS, P I; GONATAS, N K

    1964-04-01

    The brilliantly fluorescent cytoplasmic particles that accumulate in HeLa cells treated with acridine orange, previously referred to as acridine orange particles, are shown to represent acid phosphatase positive multivesicular bodies (MVB). Dynamic changes in the ultrastructure of these organelles may be induced by varying the concentration of extracellular dye and the length of exposure to the dye. Low concentrations of dye for long intervals of time lead to marked hypertrophy of the MVB and accumulation of myelin figures within them, the acid phosphatase activity being retained. High concentrations of dye for short time intervals lead initially to a diffuse distribution of dye through out the cytoplasm (cytoplasmic reddening) as viewed in the fluorescence microscope. When cells are stained in this way and incubated in a dye-free medium, the diffusely distributed dye is segregated into MVB within 1 hour. Ultrastructurally, these MVB show dilatation but no myelin figures. The process of dye segregation is energy dependent and will not occur in starved cells. This energy dependence and the occurrence of segregation via dilatation of the MVB rather than ultrastructural transformation, i.e. formation of new binding sites, suggests that the process involves an active transport mechanism. Of the various energy sources supplied to starved cells, only glucose, mannose, and pyruvate are fully effective in supporting dye segregation. Blockage of the tricarboxylic acid cycle with malonate inhibits the effects of pyruvate but not of glucose, demonstrating the efficacy of both the tricarboxylic acid and glycolytic cycles in supplying energy for the process.

  8. Advanced oxidation of acridine orange by aqueous alkaline iodine.

    PubMed

    Azmat, Rafia; Qamar, Noshab; Naz, Raheela; Khursheed, Anum

    2016-11-01

    The advanced oxidation process is certainly used for the dye waste water treatment. In this continuation a new advanced oxidation via aqueous alkaline iodine was developed for the oxidation of acridine orange (AO) {3, 6 -bis (dimethylamino) acridine zinc chloride double salt}. Oxidation Kinetics of AO by alkaline solution of iodine was investigated spectrophotometrically at λmax 491 nm. The reaction was monitored at various operational parameters like several concentrations of dye and iodine, pH, salt electrolyte and temperature. The initial steps of oxidation kinetics followed fractional order reaction with respect to the dye while depend upon the incremental amount of iodine to certain extent whereas maximum oxidation of AO was achieved at high pH. Decline in the reaction rate in the presence of salt electrolyte suggested the presence of oppositely charged species in the rate determining step. Kinetic data revealed that the de-colorization mechanism involves triodate (I3(-)) species, instead of hypoidate (OI(-)) and hypiodous acid (HOI), in alkaline medium during the photo-excitation of hydrolyzed AO. Alleviated concentration of alkali result in decreasing of rate of reaction, clearly indicate that the iodine species are active oxidizing species instead of OH radical. Activation parameters at elevated temperatures were determined which revealed that highly solvated state of dye complex existed into solution. Reaction mixture was subjected to UV/Visible and GC mass spectrum analysis that proves the secondary consecutive reaction was operative in rate determining step and finally dye complex end into smaller fragments.

  9. Ratiometric analysis of Acridine Orange staining in the study of acidic organelles and autophagy.

    PubMed

    Thomé, Marcos P; Filippi-Chiela, Eduardo C; Villodre, Emilly S; Migliavaca, Celina B; Onzi, Giovana R; Felipe, Karina B; Lenz, Guido

    2016-12-15

    Acridine Orange is a cell-permeable green fluorophore that can be protonated and trapped in acidic vesicular organelles (AVOs). Its metachromatic shift to red fluorescence is concentration-dependent and, therefore, Acridine Orange fluoresces red in AVOs, such as autolysosomes. This makes Acridine Orange staining a quick, accessible and reliable method to assess the volume of AVOs, which increases upon autophagy induction. Here, we describe a ratiometric analysis of autophagy using Acridine Orange, considering the red-to-green fluorescence intensity ratio (R/GFIR) to quantify flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy data of Acridine-Orange-stained cells. This method measured with accuracy the increase in autophagy induced by starvation or rapamycin, and the reduction in autophagy produced by bafilomycin A1 or the knockdown of Beclin1 or ATG7. Results obtained with Acridine Orange, considering R/GFIR, correlated with the conversion of the unlipidated form of LC3 (LC3-I) into the lipidated form (LC3-II), SQSTM1 degradation and GFP-LC3 puncta formation, thus validating this assay to be used as an initial and quantitative method for evaluating the late step of autophagy in individual cells, complementing other methods. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Removal of acridine orange from water by graphene oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiallos, D. Coello; Gómez, C. Vacacela; Usca, G. Tubón; Pérez, D. Cid; Tavolaro, P.; Martino, G.; Caputi, L. S.; Tavolaro, A.

    2015-02-01

    Dyes are usually used in textile manufacturing and are one of the major contaminations in water. Thus, from an environmental point of view, the removal of dyes is of great concern, and recent applications using carbon-based materials showed high adsorption ability. In this work we use graphene oxide (GO) produced by improved Hummer's method, for adsorption of acridine orange dye (AO) in water. GO is a material containing functional groups such as carboxyl, epoxy, ketone, and hydroxyl, that can adsorb cationic dyes. Factors such as initial concentration of dye, the amount of GO, temperature and contact time were evaluated. Results show that the adsorption equilibrium, with the removal of 40% of the dye, is reached in approximately 1 hour, and that the adsorption capacity increases at higher initial concentrations. The highest value of AO adsorbed was 229.8 mg/g equivalent to 92% removal percentage by using AO initial concentration 0.10 mg/mL. FT-IR analysis of GO with adsorbed AO shows changes in the stretching vibrational bands, which corroborate the AO/GO interaction due to the functional groups present in GO. Furthermore, AO adsorbed on GO does not desorb back into water. Our results show that GO is an effective adsorbent and could be used to treat effluents contaminated with dyes.

  11. Acridine orange inhibits pulmonary metastasis of mouse osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Satonaka, Haruhiko; Kusuzaki, Katsuyuki; Akeda, Koji; Tsujii, Masaya; Iino, Takahiro; Uemura, Takeshi; Matsubara, Takao; Nakamura, Tomoki; Asanuma, Kunihiro; Matsumine, Akihiko; Sudo, Akihiro

    2011-12-01

    Although the survival of patients with osteosarcoma has improved following development of chemotherapy and surgery, the presence of pulmonary metastases indicate a poor prognosis. We developed photodynamic and radiodynamic therapies with acridine orange (AO-PDT and AO-RDT) for minimally invasive surgery to treat musculoskeletal sarcomas and reported a good clinical outcome of local control and limb function. We investigated the effect of AO-PDT using flash-wave light (FWL) on pulmonary metastasis of mouse osteosarcoma. In in vitro and in vivo studies, AO alone and AO-PDT significantly inhibited cell invasion and the growth of pulmonary metastases from primary mouse osteosarcoma. AO may have a specific metastasis-inhibitory effect, different from the effect of AO-PDT. The fluorovisualization effect on pulmonary metastases following intravenous AO administration showed that pulmonary metastases localized on the lung surface were recognized as brilliant green lesions. In conclusion, AO-PDT using FWL inhibited cell invasion and pulmonary metastases in mouse osteosarcoma; therefore, this treatment modality might be applicable for treating pulmonary metastasis from malignant musculoskeletal tumors in humans.

  12. Energy transfer from thiacyanine to acridine orange facilitated by DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Jimut Kanti; Mandal, Anil Kumar; Pal, Medini Kanta

    1999-08-01

    The drastic enhancement of the fluorescence of 3,3'-diethyl thiacyanine iodide (THIA) in the presence of DNA is mainly due to the reduction of skeleton vibration of the dye on its binding to DNA, as inferred from the enhancement of fluorescence of THIA with increasing the solvent viscosity by sucrose, glycerol or poly-(vinyl alcohol), or by freezing a methanolic solution of the dye. Energy transfer from THIA to acridine orange (AO), both bound to DNA has been observed and characterised by the enhancement of AO fluorescence at 524 nm with congruent reduction of DNA-THIA fluorescence. Energy transfer between the two dyes in the absence of polymer has also been observed but to a minor extent. Keeping DNA and AO concentrations fixed when the concentration of THIA is increased, the fluorescence peak of AO shifts from 524 to 560 nm indicating the formation of an exciplex. Time resolved fluorescence spectroscopy gives characteristic evidence for the energy transfer and also for the exciplex formation.

  13. Polyploidization induced by acridine orange in mouse osteosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kusuzaki, K; Takeshita, H; Murata, H; Gebhardt, M C; Springfield, D S; Mankin, H J; Ashihara, T; Hirasawa, Y

    2000-01-01

    This study was undertaken to clarify the in vitro effect of acridine orange (AO) on the cell kinetics of mouse osteosarcoma cells, as well as the mechanism of cell growth inhibition induced by AO. A mouse osteosarcoma cell line (MOS), established from a radiation-induced mouse osteosarcoma, was cultured under exposure to 0.05, 0.5, 5, and 50 micrograms/ml of AO, either continuously or for 10 minutes. The cell kinetic analysis was performed using the following parameters: tumor cell growth by trypan blue exclusion test, mitotic activity, DNA synthetic activity by BrdU labeling and DNA ploidy by cytofluorometry. The results showed that continuous exposure to 5 and 50 micrograms/ml of AO or 10 minute exposure to 50 micrograms/ml of AO quickly killed the tumor cells within 12 hours, whereas continuous exposure to 0.5 microgram/ml of AO or 10 minute exposure to 5 micrograms/ml of AO gradually inhibited tumor cell growth. Under the latter conditions, mitotic activity was rapidly and completely inhibited within 48 hours but DNA synthetic activity was not completely inhibited even after 96 hours. DNA ploidy analysis demonstrated that most of the tumor cells arrested at the S-G2 phase after 12 hours, followed by G2 phase arrest after 24 hours and progressive DNA synthesis to a higher DNA ploidy class after 48 to 96 hours. We therefore concluded that a high concentration of AO has a strong cytocidal effect due to cytotoxicity whilst a moderate concentration of AO induces progressive and synchronous polyploidization by mitotic inhibition without DNA damage in MOS cells. We presume that this in vitro effect on MOS cells may be caused by protein synthetic inhibition after transfer RNA inactivation caused by AO binding.

  14. Probe for intracellular concentrations of drugs: delayed fluorescence from acridine orange

    SciTech Connect

    Wardman, P.; Dennis, M.F.; White, J.

    1989-04-01

    The aim of this work is to develop fluorescent probes that will indicate effective concentrations of therapeutic agents, or endogenous protectors, at important cellular sites. Acridine orange associates with nucleic acids and emits a 'delayed' fluorescence signal. This signal is quenched by oxidants such as oxygen, nitroaryl radiosensitizers, adriamycin and mitomycin-c, and reductants such as thiols, ascorbate and other radioprotectors. The quenching of the acridine orange delayed fluorescence reflects the effective concentration of these therapeutically-important oxidants and reductants near DNA. The relative concentration of basic radiosensitizers such as pimonidazole (Ro 03-8799) near the DNA is greater than that of misonidazole. Thiols quench the delayed fluorescence signal according to the degree of ionization of the thiol function; this may model the reactivity of thiols with guanine radical sites in DNA. Ascorbate and aminopyrine do not quench the delayed fluorescence from cells stained with acridine orange as these compounds are taken up by cells very inefficiently.

  15. Acridine Orange Indicates Early Oxidation of Wood Cell Walls by Fungi

    Treesearch

    Carl J. Houtman; Peter Kitin; Jon C. D. Houtman; Kenneth E. Hammel; Christopher G. Hunt

    2016-01-01

    Colonization of wood blocks by brown and white rot fungi rapidly resulted in detectable wood oxidation, as shown by a reduced phloroglucinol response, a loss of autofluorescence, and acridine orange (AO) staining. This last approach is shown to provide a novel method for identifying wood oxidation. When lignin was mildly oxidized, the association between AO and lignin...

  16. [Determining the relative content of cisplatin in cells by acridine orange fluorescence intensity].

    PubMed

    Goroshinskaia, I A; Tarnopol'skaia, O V; Kachesova, P S

    2014-01-01

    The fluorescence intensity of acridine orange (AO) dye bound to living human leukocytes, rat leukocytes, and Pliss lymphosarcoma cells of rat has been studied by fluorescence microscopy. The cell suspension of each test was divided into two parts, to one of which the drug cisplatin was added to a final concentration of 0.1 μg/mL and the mixture was incubated for 20 - 60 min. Acridine orange was then added and the average intensity of red and green fluorescence of cells was determined. The brightness of AO in the green region of the spectrum was reduced approximately 3-fold (p = 0.001) in cells with cisplatin. In the red region of the fluorescence, differences in the brightness of cells with and without cisplatin were not observed. These data indicate that a decrease in the brightness of green fluorescence of AO can be a test for the presence of cisplatin in cells.

  17. Nonlinear phenomena of acridine orange in inorganic glasses at nanosecond scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaponenko, S. V.; Gribkovskii, V. P.; Zimin, L. G.; Lebed, V. Yu.; Malinovskii, I. E.; Graham, S.; Klingshirn, C.; Eyal, M.; Brusilovsky, D.; Reisfeld, R.

    1993-04-01

    Nonlinear optical behavior of acridine orange dye has been studied in lead-tin-flouride glass. We found that this material possess nonlinear saturable absorption and power-dependent lifetimes, both on nanosecond time scale. This short response is explained by an efficient S-T transfer induced by the heavy atoms of the glass. The glass has a good potential as a nonlinear material on a nanosecond time scale.

  18. Spectral characteristics and nonlinear studies of acridine orange dye [rapid communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sindhu Sukumaran, V.; Ramalingam, A.

    2005-06-01

    Solid-state dye-doped polymer is an attractive alternative to the conventional liquid dye solution. In this Letter the spectral characteristics and the nonlinear optical properties of the dye acridine orange are studied. The nonlinear refractive index of the dye in n-butyl acetate (nBA) and dye-doped polymer film were measured using z-scan technique [IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26 (4) (1990) 760]. The dye shows a negative nonlinear refractive index.

  19. Altered Sporulation and Respiratory Patterns in Mutants of Bacillus subtilis Induced by Acridine Orange

    PubMed Central

    Bott, K. F.; Davidoff-Abelson, R.

    1966-01-01

    Bott, K. F. (The University of Chicago, Chicago, Ill.), and R. Davidoff-Abelson. Altered sporulation and respiratory patterns in mutants of Bacillus subtilis induced by acridine orange. J. Bacteriol. 92:229–240. 1966.—The addition of acridine orange to vegetative cultures of Bacillus subtilis induces the formation of sporulation mutants at a frequency of 20% or greater. These mutants are grouped into seven categories which reflect their different morphological properties. They are altered in their vegetative metabolism, as indicated by abnormal growth on synthetic media. Sporulation of these mutants is impaired at several levels, all of which are stable upon repeated subculturing. The initial stages of sporulation which require no increased metabolic activity (proteolytic enzyme activity and antibiotic production) are functional in all strains, but glucose dehydrogenase activity, an enzyme associated with early synthetic functions in spore synthesis, is significantly reduced. Reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide oxidase is slightly depressed. It is suggested that acridine orange interacts with a cellular constituent controlling respiration and consequently prevents an increased metabolic activity that may be associated with normal spore synthesis. Images PMID:4957434

  20. Binding of acridine orange to DNA in situ of cells from patients with acute leukemia.

    PubMed

    Walle, A J; Wong, G Y

    1989-07-01

    Fluorescence flow cytometry was used to generate DNA histograms of acridine orange stained leukemic cell populations in G0-G1 phase of the cell cycle. Complexes of the intercalating agent, acridine orange, with double-stranded DNA in situ, emit green fluorescence upon excitation with blue laser light. The histograms were evaluated by first determining the standard deviation of the fluorescence intensity relative to the mean channel of fluorescence, i.e., the coefficient of variation, and then dividing the coefficient of variation of a patient's sample by that of a control sample (rCV). The mean rCV of cell populations of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (31 patients) differed significantly from that of nonlymphoblastic leukemia (21 patients). When cells were treated with a solution of citric acid and magnesium sulfate prior to their staining with acridine orange, the mean rCV of cell populations of acute lymphoblastic leukemia increased while that of acute nonlymphoblastic leukemia decreased compared to their respective pretreatment values. The mean difference of rCVs between untreated and treated cells (rCVD) within each disease category was statistically significant. A logistic regression model, based on rCVD, confirmed the conventional classification of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and acute nonlymphoblastic leukemia cells in 90% of the cases.

  1. Comparison of acridine orange and Gram stains for detection of microorganisms in cerebrospinal fluid and other clinical specimens.

    PubMed Central

    Lauer, B A; Reller, L B; Mirrett, S

    1981-01-01

    Acridine orange, a fluorochrome strain, is potentially superior to the Gram stain in the direct microscopic examination of clinical specimens because it gives striking differential staining between bacteria and background cells and debris. Its value in clinical laboratories was evaluated by testing 209 cerebrospinal fluids and 288 other body fluids, tissues, and exudates by both techniques. Smears were made in duplicate, fixed with methanol, stained, and examined without knowledge of the result of the companion smear or culture. Overall, acridine orange was slightly more sensitive than the Gram stain (acridine orange, 59.9%; Gram stain, 55.8%) and equally specific in detecting microorganisms. One smear was falsely positive by the Gram stain; none was falsely positive by the acridine orange stain. We conclude that acridine orange staining is a sensitive method for screening clinical specimens and reviewing selected specimens that are purulent, but negative by the Gram stain. Bloody fluids, thick exudates, and other normally difficult-to-read specimens were easily and quickly examined. We recommend, however, that positive smears be reexamined with the Gram stain to confirm the result and determine the Gram reaction of the microorganisms. PMID:6168652

  2. Acridine orange staining for diagnosis of Mycoplasma bovis infection in cow milk.

    PubMed Central

    Jasper, D E; Rosendal, S; Barnum, D A

    1984-01-01

    Mycoplasma organisms were readily recognized in samples of milk or udder secretions from cows with clinical Mycoplasma bovis mastitis when these samples were stained with 0.01% acridine orange at pH 3.0. Samples could be stored at -4 degrees C for several days or subjected to repeated freezing and thawing without loss of staining or fluorescence properties. Use of this procedure in diagnostic laboratories on suspect samples from cows with clinical mastitis could hasten inauguration of control measures against this highly contagious disease by several days; however, definitive diagnosis still requires standard culture methods. PMID:6208217

  3. Damage by Visible Light to the Acridine Orange-DNA Complex

    PubMed Central

    Freifelder, David; Davison, Peter F.; Geiduschek, E. Peter

    1961-01-01

    Salmon DNA has been irradiated with visible light in the presence of acridine orange. If the dye is bound to the DNA, there results: (a) a decrease in sedimentation coefficient, (b) a lowering of viscosity, and (c) a decrease in the thermal denaturation temperature. CsCl banding experiments show that the first two effects reflect depolymerization of the DNA. Depolymerization apparently occurs by single-strand scission although some double-strand scission is not excluded. The destabilization of secondary structure results probably from chemical attack on the components of the individual strands. PMID:13701685

  4. Giemsa versus acridine orange staining in the fish micronucleus assay and validation for use in water quality monitoring.

    PubMed

    Polard, T; Jean, S; Merlina, G; Laplanche, C; Pinelli, E; Gauthier, L

    2011-01-01

    This study concerns a comparative analysis of the acridine orange and Giemsa staining procedures for the fish erythrocyte micronucleus assay. The goal was to optimize the assay in the context of field water monitoring. Fish (Carassius carassius) were exposed to a reference genotoxic agent, cyclophosphamide monohydrate 5 mg l(-1) for 2, 4, and 6 days before testing. Slides from each individual were scored using the two procedures. The results show that the assay was more sensitive when acridine orange was used. When slides were Giemsa stained, the presence of ambiguous artefacts, leading to false positives and increasing random variance, reduced the contrast between exposed and control samples. Acridine Orange staining was then applied in the context of water quality monitoring. Fish were exposed for 4 days to water sampled in two hydrological contexts: basal flow and spring flood. The results show that exposure to spring flood water in an agricultural stream can induce mutagenicity.

  5. Gram and acridine orange staining for diagnosis of septic arthritis in different patient populations.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Gregory; Seghrouchni, Khalid; Ruffieux, Etienne; Vaudaux, Pierre; Gayet-Ageron, Angèle; Cherkaoui, Abdessalam; Godinho, Eduardo; Lew, Daniel; Hoffmeyer, Pierre; Uçkay, Ilker

    2014-06-01

    The sensitivity of Gram staining is known to be suboptimal for the diagnosis of native joint septic arthritis. We lack information about the accuracy of Gram compared to other microscopic staining techniques for predicting infection in different patient populations. This was a cohort study with cost evaluations at the Orthopaedic Service of Geneva University Hospitals (January 1996-October 2012). Among 500 episodes of arthritis (196 with immunosuppression, 227 with underlying arthroplasties and 69 with gout or other crystals in synovial fluid), Gram staining revealed pathogens in 146 episodes (146/500, 29 %) or in 146 of the 400 culture-positive episodes (37 %). Correlation between the Gram and acridine staining of the same sample was good (Spearman 0.85). Overall, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of Gram stain for rapid diagnosis of septic arthritis was 0.37, 0.99, 0.99 and 0.28, respectively, compared to microbiological cultures. Quite similar values were recorded across the different patient subpopulations, in particular for sensitivity values that were 0.33 for patients with prosthetic joint infections, 0.40 for immunosuppressed patients, 0.36 for patients under antibiotic administration and 0.52 for patients with concomitant crystalline disease. The sensitivity of Gram or acridine orange staining for a rapid diagnosis of episodes of septic arthritis is suboptimal compared to microbiological culture, regardless of underlying conditions, immunosuppression or antibiotic therapy. The sensitivity in the presence of synovial fluid crystals is moderate. Acridine orange and Gram stains are equivalent.

  6. Acridine orange fluorescent microscopy is more sensitive than India ink light microscopy in the rapid detection of cryptococcosis among CrAg positive HIV patients.

    PubMed

    Kwizera, Richard; Akampurira, Andrew; Williams, Darlisha; Boulware, David R; Meya, David B

    2017-01-01

    India ink microscopy on cerebrospinal fluid is still utilized in resource limited settings for the diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis despite its poor sensitivity. We hypothesized that staining fungal nucleic acids with fluorescent dyes instead of the capsule with India ink might improve sensitivity for the diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis. We enrolled 96 HIV-infected participants with cryptococcal meningitis who provided 194 CSF specimens at serial time points in Kampala, Uganda. Cryptococcosis was diagnosed by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) test and only positive samples were included. We stained CSF with India ink and acridine orange. We cultured the same samples on standard fungal media. We compared acridine orange to CrAg, India ink and CSF culture. Acridine orange was more sensitive (96%) than India ink (79%) with reference to CSF CrAg. Acridine orange and India ink had a statistically significant difference (P<0.001) with a 25% correlation for detection of Cryptococcus yeasts. India ink had more negative results (22%) than acridine orange (4%). The sensitivity for India ink increased (86%) while that of acridine orange did not change (97%) when compared to CSF culture. However, both India ink and acridine orange had poor predictive values with reference to culture. Acridine orange is a better alternative to India ink in the rapid detection of cryptococcosis among CrAg positive HIV patients.

  7. Binding of fluorescent acridine dyes acridine orange and 9-aminoacridine to hemoglobin: Elucidation of their molecular recognition by spectroscopy, calorimetry and molecular modeling techniques.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Sabyasachi; Kumar, Gopinatha Suresh

    2016-06-01

    The molecular interaction between hemoglobin (HHb), the major human heme protein, and the acridine dyes acridine orange (AO) and 9-aminoacridine (9AA) was studied by various spectroscopic, calorimetric and molecular modeling techniques. The dyes formed stable ground state complex with HHb as revealed from spectroscopic data. Temperature dependent fluorescence data showed the strength of the dye-protein complexation to be inversely proportional to temperature and the fluorescence quenching was static in nature. The binding-induced conformational change in the protein was investigated using circular dichroism, synchronous fluorescence, 3D fluorescence and FTIR spectroscopy results. Circular dichroism data also quantified the α-helicity change in hemoglobin due to the binding of acridine dyes. Calorimetric studies revealed the binding to be endothermic in nature for both AO and 9AA, though the latter had higher affinity, and this was also observed from spectroscopic data. The binding of both dyes was entropy driven. pH dependent fluorescence studies revealed the existence of electrostatic interaction between the protein and dye molecules. Molecular modeling studies specified the binding site and the non-covalent interactions involved in the association. Overall, the results revealed that a small change in the acridine chromophore leads to remarkable alteration in the structural and thermodynamic aspects of binding to HHb.

  8. Determination of sex by exfoliative cytology using acridine orange confocal microscopy: A short study

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, D Shyam Prasad; Sherlin, Herald J; Ramani, Pratibha; Prakash, P Ajay

    2012-01-01

    Context: Establishing individuality is an imperative aspect in any investigation procedure. Sometimes, in identifying an individual, it becomes necessary to determine the sex of that particular individual. Combining rapidity with reliability, an innovative idea has been put forward using a confocal microscope in exfoliative cytology. In the present study, we have determined the sex of the individual from buccal mucosal scrapings. The exfoliative cells were observed for Barr bodies under a confocal microscope, and the percentage of Barr-body-positive cells was determined. Aims: The main objective of this study is to assess confocal microscopy for the determination of sex by observing Barr bodies in the exfoliative cells of both men and women. Settings and Design: Samples of buccal mucosa smears were made followed by acridine orange staining. The stained slides were observed under a confocal microscope and the data obtained was subjected for statistical analysis, especially for mean and standard deviation. Materials and Methods: Samples of buccal mucosa smears from 20 men and 20 women were obtained by scraping with flat wooden sticks (exfoliative cytology). The smears were fixed in 100% alcohol for 15 min, followed by acridine orange (AO) staining as described by Von Bertalanffy et al. Smears stained with AO were examined under a confocal microscope and the percentage of Barr-body-positive cells was determined. Statistical Analysis Used: Data obtained was subjected for statistical analysis, especially for mean and standard deviation. Results: Two non-overlapping ranges for the percentage of Barr-body-positive cells have been obtained for men and women. It was observed that in the male samples, the percentage of Barr-body-positive cells ranged from 0-3%. In the female samples, the percentage of Barr-body-positive cells ranged from 18-72%, and all the females showed the presence of Barr bodies. Conclusion: The study showed that the presence of Barr body in buccal

  9. Acridine Orange Indicates Early Oxidation of Wood Cell Walls by Fungi

    DOE PAGES

    Houtman, Carl J.; Kitin, Peter; Houtman, Jon C. D.; ...

    2016-07-25

    Colonization of wood blocks by brown and white rot fungi rapidly resulted in detectable wood oxidation, as shown by a reduced phloroglucinol response, a loss of autofluorescence, and acridine orange (AO) staining. This last approach is shown to provide a novel method for identifying wood oxidation. When lignin was mildly oxidized, the association between AO and lignin was reduced such that stained wood sections emitted less green light during fluorescence microscopy. This change was detectable after less than a week, an interval that past work has shown to be too short for significant delignification of wood. Although fungal hyphae weremore » observed in only a few wood lumina, oxidation was widespread, appearing relatively uniform over regions several hundred micrometers from the hyphae. As a result, this observation suggests that both classes of fungi release low molecular weight mild oxidants during the first few days of colonization.« less

  10. Acridine Orange Indicates Early Oxidation of Wood Cell Walls by Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Houtman, Carl J.; Kitin, Peter; Houtman, Jon C. D.; Hammel, Kenneth E.; Hunt, Christopher G.

    2016-01-01

    Colonization of wood blocks by brown and white rot fungi rapidly resulted in detectable wood oxidation, as shown by a reduced phloroglucinol response, a loss of autofluorescence, and acridine orange (AO) staining. This last approach is shown to provide a novel method for identifying wood oxidation. When lignin was mildly oxidized, the association between AO and lignin was reduced such that stained wood sections emitted less green light during fluorescence microscopy. This change was detectable after less than a week, an interval that past work has shown to be too short for significant delignification of wood. Although fungal hyphae were observed in only a few wood lumina, oxidation was widespread, appearing relatively uniform over regions several hundred micrometers from the hyphae. This observation suggests that both classes of fungi release low molecular weight mild oxidants during the first few days of colonization. PMID:27454126

  11. Acridine Orange Indicates Early Oxidation of Wood Cell Walls by Fungi.

    PubMed

    Houtman, Carl J; Kitin, Peter; Houtman, Jon C D; Hammel, Kenneth E; Hunt, Christopher G

    2016-01-01

    Colonization of wood blocks by brown and white rot fungi rapidly resulted in detectable wood oxidation, as shown by a reduced phloroglucinol response, a loss of autofluorescence, and acridine orange (AO) staining. This last approach is shown to provide a novel method for identifying wood oxidation. When lignin was mildly oxidized, the association between AO and lignin was reduced such that stained wood sections emitted less green light during fluorescence microscopy. This change was detectable after less than a week, an interval that past work has shown to be too short for significant delignification of wood. Although fungal hyphae were observed in only a few wood lumina, oxidation was widespread, appearing relatively uniform over regions several hundred micrometers from the hyphae. This observation suggests that both classes of fungi release low molecular weight mild oxidants during the first few days of colonization.

  12. Spectral studies of N-nonyl acridine orange in anionic, cationic and neutral surfactants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiosetek-Reske, Agnieszka M.; Wysocki, Stanisław

    2006-08-01

    The spectroscopic and photophysical properties of N-nonyl acridine orange - a metachromatic dye useful as a mitochondrial probe in living cells - are reported in water and microheterogeneous media: anionic sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS), cationic cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and neutral octylophenylpolyoxyethylene ether (TX-100). The spectral changes of N-nonyl acridine orange were observed in the presence of varying amount of SDS, CTAB and TX-100 and indicated formation of a dye-surfactant complex. The spectral changes were also regarded to be caused by the incorporation of dye molecules to micelles. It was proved by calculated values Kb and f in the following order: Kb TX-100 > Kb CTAB > Kb SDS and fTX-100 > fCTAB > fSDS. NAO binds to the micelle regardless the micellar charge. There are two types of interactions between NAO and micelles: hydrophobic and electrostatic. The hydrophobic interactions play a dominant role in binding of the dye to neutral TX-100. The unexpected fact of the binding NAO to cationic CTAB can be explained by a dominant role of hydrophobic interactions over electrostatic repulsion. Therefore, the affinity of NAO to CTAB is smaller than TX-100. Electrostatic interactions play an important role in binding of NAO to anionic micelles SDS. We observed a prolonged fluorescence lifetime after formation of the dye-surfactant complex τSDS > τTX-100 > τCTAB > τwater, the dye being protected against water in this environment. TX-100 is found to stabilize the excited state of NAO which is more polar than the ground state. Spectroscopic and photophysical properties of NAO will be helpful for a better understanding of the nature of binding and distribution inside mammalian cells.

  13. Dissipation of pH gradients in tonoplast vesicles and liposomes by mixtures of acridine orange and anions. [Avena sativa L. ; Beta vulgaris

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, A.J.; Leigh, R.A. )

    1988-04-01

    Acridine orange altered the response to anions of both ATP and inorganic pyrophosphate-dependent pH gradient formation in tonoplast vesicles isolated from oat (Avena sativa L.) roots and red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) storage tissue. When used as a fluorescent pH probe in the presence of I{sup {minus}}, ClO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, Br{sup {minus}}, or SCN{sup {minus}}, acridine orange reported lower pH gradients than either quinacrine or ({sup 14}C)methylamine. Acridine orange, but not quinacrine, reduced ({sup 14}C)methylamine accumulation when NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} was present indicating that the effect was due to a real decrease in the size of the pH gradient, not a misreporting of the gradient by acridine orange. Other experiments indicated that acridine orange and NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} increased the rate of pH gradient collapse both in tonoplast vesicles and in liposomes of phosphatidylcholine and that the effect in tonoplast vesicles was greater at 24{degree}C than at 12{degree}C. It is suggested that acridine orange and certain anions increase the permeability of membranes to H{sup +}, possibly because protonated acridine orange and the anions form a lipophilic ion pair within the vesicle which diffuses across the membrane thus discharging the pH gradient.

  14. Acridine orange--its use in the specific staining of DNA in mammalian tissue sections.

    PubMed

    Dutt, M K

    1981-01-01

    This paper reports on a new method for the use of acridine orange (AO) in an aqueous solution at pH 4.5 for staining DNA of rat tissue sections from which RNA has been extracted selectively with cold phosphoric acid. Not only this, AO can also be used as dye-SO2 reagent, prepared with NHCl and potassium metabisulphite, for staining DNA-aldehyde molecules of acid-hydrolysed tissue sections. AO samples, manufactured by the National Aniline Division as well as by G. T. Gurr have been used with equal success. Studies of stained sections under light microscope reveal the presence of specifically stained yellowish-orange nuclei. Those sections under fluorescent microscope with proper exciter and barrier filters reveal nuclei of maroon colour. The in situ absorption spectra of nuclei stained with AO-SO2 following acid-hydrolysis of tissue sections as well as those of nuclei stained with an aqueous solution of the dye following extraction of RNA have been presented herein. The mode of binding in the former case has been considered to be due to binding of the teritary amino group of the dye molecules with the DNA-aldehyde molecules and in the latter case to be due to electrostatic binding between the positively charged dye molecules with negatively charged phosphate groups of DNA. Implications of all these findings have been discussed.

  15. Acridine orange staining reaction as an index of physiological activity in Escherichia coli

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McFeters, G. A.; Singh, A.; Byun, S.; Callis, P. R.; Williams, S.

    1991-01-01

    The assumption that the acridine orange (AO) color reaction may be used as an index of physiological activity was investigated in laboratory grown Escherichia coli. Spectrofluorometric observations of purified nucleic acids, ribosomes and the microscopic color of bacteriophage-infected cells stained with AO confirmed the theory that single-stranded nucleic acids emit orange to red fluorescence while those that are double-stranded fluoresce green in vivo. Bacteria growing actively in a rich medium could be distinguished from cells in stationary phase by the AO reaction. Cells from log phase appeared red, whereas those in stationary phase were green. However, this differentiation was not seen when the bacteria were grown in a minimal medium or when a variation of the staining method was used. Also, shifting bacteria in stationary phase to starvation conditions rapidly changed their AO staining reaction. Boiling and exposure to lethal concentrations of azide and formalin resulted in stationary-phase cells that appeared red after staining but bacteria killed with chlorine remained green. These findings indicate that the AO staining reaction may be suggestive of physiological activity under defined conditions. However, variables in staining and fixation procedures as well as uncertainties associated with mixed bacterial populations in environmental samples may produce results that are not consistent with the classical interpretation of this reaction. The importance of validating the putative physiological implications of this staining reaction is stressed.

  16. Acridine orange staining reaction as an index of physiological activity in Escherichia coli

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McFeters, G. A.; Singh, A.; Byun, S.; Callis, P. R.; Williams, S.

    1991-01-01

    The assumption that the acridine orange (AO) color reaction may be used as an index of physiological activity was investigated in laboratory grown Escherichia coli. Spectrofluorometric observations of purified nucleic acids, ribosomes and the microscopic color of bacteriophage-infected cells stained with AO confirmed the theory that single-stranded nucleic acids emit orange to red fluorescence while those that are double-stranded fluoresce green in vivo. Bacteria growing actively in a rich medium could be distinguished from cells in stationary phase by the AO reaction. Cells from log phase appeared red, whereas those in stationary phase were green. However, this differentiation was not seen when the bacteria were grown in a minimal medium or when a variation of the staining method was used. Also, shifting bacteria in stationary phase to starvation conditions rapidly changed their AO staining reaction. Boiling and exposure to lethal concentrations of azide and formalin resulted in stationary-phase cells that appeared red after staining but bacteria killed with chlorine remained green. These findings indicate that the AO staining reaction may be suggestive of physiological activity under defined conditions. However, variables in staining and fixation procedures as well as uncertainties associated with mixed bacterial populations in environmental samples may produce results that are not consistent with the classical interpretation of this reaction. The importance of validating the putative physiological implications of this staining reaction is stressed.

  17. A study of osteoclasts on calvaria of normal and osteopetrotic (mi/mi) mice by vital staining with acridine orange.

    PubMed Central

    Green, P. M.; Marshall, M. J.; Nisbet, N. W.

    1986-01-01

    A novel staining procedure for enumerating osteoclasts on neonatal mouse calvaria with the vital fluorescent dye acridine orange is described. It has the advantage over Barnicot's neutral-red method in that the nuclei and cytoplasm of the osteoclast are stained differentially. The osteopetrotic calvarium (mi/mi) has fewer multinucleate osteoclasts than its normal counterpart (mi/+) and they are differently distributed. The osteopetrotic calvarium has more mononucleate cells which stain like osteoclasts with acridine orange than the normal calvarium and these cells also are differently distributed. These mononuclear cells may be mononuclear osteoclasts or their precursors. These observations suggest that the defect resulting in this osteopetrosis lies with osteoclast differentiation. Images Fig. 1 p[88]-a PMID:2418863

  18. In vitro cytophotometry evaluation of gamma-radiation effects on human sperm cell by acridine orange staining.

    PubMed

    Roux, C; Neveux, Y; Dadoune, J P

    1990-01-01

    Effects of gamma-radiations on human sperm nuclei in vitro were studied by cytophotometrical quantification on fixed smears stained by acridine orange some of which had undergone heat-treatment. Following irradiations at different doses (0.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 gy) using a cobalt source, changes in distribution of acridine orange fluorescences emitted by nuclei (total fluorescence greater than 515 nm versus green fluorescence = 525 nm) appeared to be dose-dependent. Heat-treatment of irradiated heads was confirmed to be a complementary procedure necessary for a good evaluation of the initial degree in chromatin compactness. Chromatin alterations related to changes in emitted fluorescence could be due to the initial fragility of the DNA-nucleoprotein complex. These preliminary results suggest that the normality of sperm chromatin could be used as a biologic dosimeter.

  19. Comparison of acridine orange, methylene blue, and Gram stains for blood cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Mirrett, S; Lauer, B A; Miller, G A; Reller, L B

    1982-01-01

    Direct microscopic screening of blood cultures by Gram stain or methylene blue stain is time consuming and frequently insensitive. Therefore, we evaluated a fluorescent-staining procedure that uses acridine orange (AO) at pH 3.5 and compared it with the methylene blue and Gram stain procedures. All smears were prepared within 24 h of receiving the culture, fixed with methanol, and examined without the results of the companion smears being known. AO-stained smears were examined with incident-light fluorescence at 600 x magnification and confirmed at 1,500x magnification. All bottles macroscopically positive within 24 h were excluded from the study. Of 2,946 cultures entered into the study, 204 (6.9%) were positive within 3 days. The sensitivity and specificity of AO based on these culture results were 52 and 98%, respectively, compared with 38% sensitivity and 99% specificity by methylene blue and Gram stains. The AO staining procedure is a simple, sensitive, screening technique for the early detection of positive blood cultures. PMID:6175656

  20. A comparative study of spermatozoal chromatin using acridine orange staining and flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Lewin, L M; Golan, R; Freidlin, P; Shochat, L

    1999-10-01

    Spermatozoa obtained from fish (Clarias gariepinus), human (Homo sapiens), turkeys (Meleagris gallapova), rats (Rattus norvegicus), hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus), and monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were stained with acridine orange before measuring fluorescence by flow cytometry. These mature sperm from various species produced different intensities of fluorescence while displaying similar ratios of red/green fluorescence. Comparison of the green fluorescence values for the various species showed the sequence (descending order of fluorescence values) human, turkey, monkey, hamster, rat and fish. The DNA complement (as base pairs in the haploid genome) of the various species did not increase in direct proportion to the fluorescence values. This suggests that the DNA was not equally accessible to the dye in the different species tested. The similarity in ratios of red/green fluorescence suggests that the structure of DNA in the chromatin is similar in the different species but abnormal 'satellite' populations of cells that show higher red/green fluorescence ratios than the parent population have been found in sperm samples from monkeys and from some infertile men. Their high red fluorescence intensities were not caused by RNA because treatment with RNAse did not alter the red fluorescence. It is possible that these cells contain larger amounts of denatured (single stranded) DNA.

  1. Rapid Diagnosis of Brugia malayi and Wuchereria bancrofti Filariasis by an Acridine Orange/Microhematocrit Tube Technique

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    cyte monophenol oxida uviN in mos- thme laboratory biology and mai nance of-ti-des quitoescexposed to microfil ac ofiof’ aria mm. fri vilfofus. Mosquito...h aaie r detected in samples diluted to alevel ofappr-dmately 18;Rcmne l,18) h aaie r 50/mI. K \\/i )’c cl stained by the acridine orange dye and can...Ridley, Department of ratory Medicin, College of teninary Medicine; *Division of Biology and ji~epartment of Anatomy anid Phys , College of Veterinary

  2. Metal complex mediated conjugation of peptides to nucleus targeting acridine orange: a modular concept for dual-modality imaging agents.

    PubMed

    Zelenka, Karel; Borsig, Lubor; Alberto, Roger

    2011-05-18

    To target the nucleus of specific cells, trifunctional radiopharmaceuticals are required. We have synthesized acridine orange derivatives which comprise an imidazole-2-carbaldehyde function for coordination to the [Re(CO)₃](+) or [(99m)Tc(CO)₃](+) core. Upon coordination, this aldehyde is activated and rapidly forms imines with amines from biological molecules. This metal-mediated imine formation allows for the conjugation of a nuclear targeting portion with a specific cell receptor binding function directly on the metal. With this concept, we have conjugated the acridine orange part to a bombesin peptide directly on the (99m)Tc core and in one step. In addition, a linker containing an integrated disulfide has been coupled to bombesin. LC/MS study showed that the disulfide was reductively cleaved with a 60 min half-life time. This concept enables the combination of a nucleus targeting agent with a specific cell receptor molecule directly on the metal without the need of separate conjugation prior to labeling, thus, a modular approach. High uptake of the BBN conjugate into PC-3 cells was detected by fluorescence microscopy, whereas uptake into B16BL6 cells was negligible.

  3. Acridine Orange and Flow Cytometry: Which Is Better to Measure the Effect of Varicocele on Sperm DNA Integrity?

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Essam-Elden M; Mosad, Eman; Zahran, Asmaa M; Hameed, Diaa A; Taha, Emad A; Mohamed, Mohamed A

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of varicocelectomy on semen parameters and levels of sperm DNA damage in infertile men. A total of 75 infertile men with varicocele and 40 fertile men (controls) were included in this study. Semen analysis and sperm DNA damage expressed as the DNA fragmentation index using acridine orange staining and chromatin condensation test by flow cytometry were assessed before and 6 months after varicocelectomy. The patients were also followed up for 1 year for pregnancy outcome. Semen parameters were significantly lower in varicocele patients compared to controls (P < 0.05). Mean percentages of sperm DNA fragmentation and sperm DNA chromatin condensation in patients were significantly higher than those in controls (P < 0.05). After varicocelectomy, sperm DNA fragmentation improved significantly, whereas sperm chromatin condensation was not significantly changed. In 15 out of 75 varicocele patients, clinical pregnancy was diagnosed; those with positive pregnancy outcome had significant improvement in sperm count, progressive sperm motility, and sperm DNA fragmentation, but there was no significant difference in sperm DNA condensation compared to negative pregnancy outcome patients. We concluded from this study that acridine orange stain is more reliable method than flow cytometry in the evaluation of sperm DNA integrity after varicocelectomy.

  4. Acridine Orange and Flow Cytometry: Which Is Better to Measure the Effect of Varicocele on Sperm DNA Integrity?

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Essam-Elden M.; Mosad, Eman; Zahran, Asmaa M.; Hameed, Diaa A.; Taha, Emad A.; Mohamed, Mohamed A.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of varicocelectomy on semen parameters and levels of sperm DNA damage in infertile men. A total of 75 infertile men with varicocele and 40 fertile men (controls) were included in this study. Semen analysis and sperm DNA damage expressed as the DNA fragmentation index using acridine orange staining and chromatin condensation test by flow cytometry were assessed before and 6 months after varicocelectomy. The patients were also followed up for 1 year for pregnancy outcome. Semen parameters were significantly lower in varicocele patients compared to controls (P < 0.05). Mean percentages of sperm DNA fragmentation and sperm DNA chromatin condensation in patients were significantly higher than those in controls (P < 0.05). After varicocelectomy, sperm DNA fragmentation improved significantly, whereas sperm chromatin condensation was not significantly changed. In 15 out of 75 varicocele patients, clinical pregnancy was diagnosed; those with positive pregnancy outcome had significant improvement in sperm count, progressive sperm motility, and sperm DNA fragmentation, but there was no significant difference in sperm DNA condensation compared to negative pregnancy outcome patients. We concluded from this study that acridine orange stain is more reliable method than flow cytometry in the evaluation of sperm DNA integrity after varicocelectomy. PMID:26681938

  5. Determination of dipole moment in the ground and excited state by experimental and theoretical methods of N-nonyl acridine orange.

    PubMed

    Wiosetek-Reske, Agnieszka M; Wysocki, Stanisław; Bak, Grzegorz W

    2005-12-01

    The absorption and fluorescence spectra of N-nonyl acridine orange are determined at room temperature (298 K) in cyclohexane, benzene, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, chlorobenzene and dichloromethane. The ground state of dipole moment was obtained by impedance measurements using Guggenheim-Debeye's method. The experimental excited state dipole moment of N-nonyl acridine orange was determined using Bakhshiev's and Kawski-Chamma-Viallet's formulae and solvent polarity parameter proposed by Reichardt. These experimental results were completed with theoretical results using quantum chemical methods. The experimental (muexp=10.76 D) and theoretical (mucal=9.9 D) dipole moments in the ground and excited state (muexp*=14.56 D) were compared.

  6. A comparison between the responses of neutral red and acridine orange: acridine orange should be preferential and alternative to neutral red as a dye for the monitoring of contaminants by means of biological sensors.

    PubMed

    Manente, Sabrina; De Pieri, Silvia; Iero, Alessandra; Rigo, Chiarafrancesca; Bragadin, Marcantonio

    2008-12-15

    The acridine orange (AO) and neutral red (NR) dyes, commonly used as probes to measure the internal pH in acidic vesicles, are compared in this article. The comparison between the two dyes (arising from calculations taking into account their analytical constants) illustrated that the use of AO is preferential to that of NR because the AO response is sensitive over the whole pH range between 4.0 and 7.4, whereas the NR response is effective only between pHs 4.0 and 6.0. In addition, it became evident from the mitochondrial respiration response that NR, unlike AO, is a protonophore. When taken into consideration, these two properties suggest that AO is more suitable than NR as an indicator of toxicity measurements in water samples because the environmental toxic compounds induce pH changes in the acidic vesicles of biological structures that are used as environmental biosensors.

  7. Test Characteristics of Acridine Orange, Gram, and May-Grünwald-Giemsa Stains for Enumeration of Intracellular Organisms in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid

    PubMed Central

    De Brauwer, Els; Jacobs, Jan; Nieman, Fred; Bruggeman, Cathrien; Drent, Marjolein

    1999-01-01

    For enumeration of intracellular organisms (ICO) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples, the May-Grünwald-Giemsa (MGG) stain displayed higher interobserver agreement than the acridine orange and Gram stains. The MGG stain offered a reliable enumeration of ICO when 200 cells were counted by one observer. PMID:9889233

  8. DNA binding studies of hematoxylin-Dy(ш) complex by spectrometry using acridine orange as a probe.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Xiaoli; Huang, Jianhang; Wang, Xingming

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of a hematoxylin(HE)-Dy(Ш) complex with herring sperm DNA(hsDNA) was studied using acridine orange(AO) as a probe by UV-vis absorption, circular dichroism(CD), fluorescence spectroscopy and viscosity measurements. From the results of the probe experiment, we found that the HE-Dy(Ш) complex could compete with AO for intercalating into hsDNA. The binding constants of the HE-Dy(Ш) complex to hsDNA was obtained by the double reciprocal method and indicated that the affinity between hsDNA and the complex is weaker than that between hsDNA and classical intercalators. The thermodynamic parameters(ΔH°, ΔG°, ΔS°) were calculated from the UV-vis absorption data measured at two different temperatures. Further experimental results suggested that there exist groove binding and partial intercalation binding between hsDNA and HE-Dy(Ш) complex.

  9. Determination of dipole moment in the ground and excited state by experimental and theoretical methods of N-nonyl acridine orange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiosetek-Reske, Agnieszka M.; Wysocki, Stanisław; Bąk, Grzegorz W.

    2005-12-01

    The absorption and fluorescence spectra of N-nonyl acridine orange are determined at room temperature (298 K) in cyclohexane, benzene, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, chlorobenzene and dichloromethane. The ground state of dipole moment was obtained by impedance measurements using Guggenheim-Debeye's method. The experimental excited state dipole moment of N-nonyl acridine orange was determined using Bakhshiev's and Kawski-Chamma-Viallet's formulae and solvent polarity parameter proposed by Reichardt. These experimental results were completed with theoretical results using quantum chemical methods. The experimental ( μexp = 10.76 D) and theoretical ( μcal = 9.9 D) dipole moments in the ground and excited state ( μexp*=14.56 D) were compared.

  10. Sensitive and selective turn-on fluorescence method for cetyltrimethylammonium bromide determination based on acridine orange-polystyrene sulfonate complex.

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Hao, Xia; Kang, Bei Hua; Li, Nian Bing; Luo, Hong Qun

    2016-06-01

    This work proposed a rapid and novel fluorescence-sensing system using a complex of acridine orange (AO) and polystyrene sulfonate (PSS) to sensitively recognize and monitor cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) in an aqueous medium. AO can interact with PSS and a complex is formed via electrostatic attraction and hydrophobic interaction. The fluorescence of AO is greatly quenched after the introduction of PSS. Upon its subsequent addition, CTAB can interact and form a complex with PSS because the electrostatic attraction between CTAB and PSS is much stronger than that between AO and PSS, which results in significant fluorescence recovery. Interestingly, the proposed method can be applied for the discrimination and detection of surfactants with different hydrocarbon chain lengths due to their different binding affinity toward PSS. The detection limit for CTAB is as low as 0.2 µg/mL and the linear range is from 0.5 to 3.5 µg/mL. Moreover, we applied the sensor to the successful detection of CTAB in water samples. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. In vivo genotoxicity of mercury chloride and lead acetate: Micronucleus test on acridine orange stained fish cells.

    PubMed

    Cavaş, Tolga

    2008-01-01

    The genotoxic effects of mercury chloride and lead acetate were evaluated in vivo using the micronucleus (MN) assay on acridine-orange (AO) stained peripheral blood erythrocytes, gill and fin epithelial cells of Carassius auratus auratus. Fish were exposed to three different concentrations of mercury chloride (MC) (1 microg/, 5 microg/L and 10 microg/L) and lead acetate (LA) (10 microg/L, 50 microg/L and 100 microg/L) for 2, 4 and 6 days. A single dose of 5 mg/L cyclophosphamide was used as a positive control. In addition to micronuclei, nuclear buds (NBs) were assessed in the erythrocytes. The ratio of polychromatic and normochromatic erythrocytes (PCE/NCE) in peripheral blood was also evaluated to assess cytotoxicity. MN frequencies in all three tissues were elevated in fish exposed to both LA and MC. However, NBs showed different sensitivity to metal treatments. MN frequencies in both control and treated fish were highest in gill cells and generally lower in erythrocytes and fin cells. PCE/NCE rations decreased in relation to MC and LA treatments. The results of this study indicate that LA and MC have genotoxic and cytotoxic damage in fish and confirmed that AO staining is a suitable technique for in vivo MN test in fish.

  12. Unique spectral signatures of the nucleic acid dye acridine orange can distinguish cell death by apoptosis and necroptosis.

    PubMed

    Plemel, Jason R; Caprariello, Andrew V; Keough, Michael B; Henry, Tyler J; Tsutsui, Shigeki; Chu, Tak H; Schenk, Geert J; Klaver, Roel; Yong, V Wee; Stys, Peter K

    2017-03-06

    Cellular injury and death are ubiquitous features of disease, yet tools to detect them are limited and insensitive to subtle pathological changes. Acridine orange (AO), a nucleic acid dye with unique spectral properties, enables real-time measurement of RNA and DNA as proxies for cell viability during exposure to various noxious stimuli. This tool illuminates spectral signatures unique to various modes of cell death, such as cells undergoing apoptosis versus necrosis/necroptosis. This new approach also shows that cellular RNA decreases during necrotic, necroptotic, and apoptotic cell death caused by demyelinating, ischemic, and traumatic injuries, implying its involvement in a wide spectrum of tissue pathologies. Furthermore, cells with pathologically low levels of cytoplasmic RNA are detected earlier and in higher numbers than with standard markers including TdT-mediated dUTP biotin nick-end labeling and cleaved caspase 3 immunofluorescence. Our technique highlights AO-labeled cytoplasmic RNA as an important early marker of cellular injury and a sensitive indicator of various modes of cell death in a range of experimental models.

  13. Interaction between tryptophan-Sm(III) complex and DNA with the use of a acridine orange dye fluorophor probe.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Xiao Li; Zhao, Na; Wang, Xing Ming

    2016-02-01

    The interaction of the Trp-Sm(III) complex with herring sperm DNA (hs-DNA) was investigated with the use of acridine orange (AO) dye as a spectral probe for UV-vis spectrophotometry and fluorescence spectroscopy. The results showed that the both the Trp-Sm(III) complex and the AO molecule could intercalate into the double helix of the DNA. The Sm(III)-(Trp)3 complex was stabilized by intercalation into the DNA with binding constants: K(Ө)25°C  = 7.14 × 10(5)  L·mol(-1) and K(Ө) 37°C  = 5.28 × 10(4)  L·mol(-1), and it could displace the AO dye from the AO-DNA complex in a competitive reaction. Computation of the thermodynamic functions demonstrates that Δr Hm (Ө) is the primary driving power of the interaction between the Sm(III)(Trp)3 complex and the DNA. The results from Scatchard and viscometry methods suggested that the interaction mode between the Sm(III)(Trp)3 complex and the hs-DNA is groove binding and weak intercalation binding. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Spermatozoa bound to solid state hyaluronic acid show chromatin structure with high DNA chain integrity: an acridine orange fluorescence study.

    PubMed

    Yagci, Artay; Murk, William; Stronk, Jill; Huszar, Gabor

    2010-01-01

    During human spermiogenesis, the elongated spermatids undergo a plasma membrane remodeling step that facilitates formation of the zona pellucida and hyaluronic acid (HA) binding sites. Various biochemical sperm markers indicated that human sperm bound to HA exhibit attributes similar to that of zona pellucida-bound sperm, including minimal DNA fragmentation, normal shape, and low frequency of chromosomal aneuploidies. In this work, we tested the hypothesis that HA-bound sperm would be enhanced in sperm of high DNA chain integrity and green acridine orange fluorescence (AOF) compared with the original sperm in semen. Sperm DNA integrity in semen and in their respective HA-bound sperm fractions was studied in 50 men tested for fertility. In the semen samples, the proportions of sperm with green AOF (high DNA integrity) and red AOF (DNA breaks) were 54.9% ± 2.0% and 45.0% ± 1.9%, whereas in the HA-bound sperm fraction, the respective proportions were 99% and 1.0%, respectively. The data indeed demonstrated that HA shows a high degree of selectivity for sperm with high DNA integrity. These findings are important from the points of view of human sperm DNA integrity, sperm function, and the potential efficacy of HA-mediated sperm selection for intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

  15. Photo-induced biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous extract of Erigeron bonariensis and its catalytic activity against Acridine Orange.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vijay; Singh, Devendra K; Mohan, Sweta; Hasan, Syed Hadi

    2016-02-01

    The green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has reduced the pollution load in the environment to a greater extent by avoiding the use of hazardous chemicals. In the present work we have developed an ecofriendly and zero cost approach for the green synthesis of more stable and spherical AgNPs using aqueous extract of Erigeron bonariensis (AEE) which act as both reducing and stabilizing agent. The reaction of AEE and AgNO3 was carried out in direct sunlight for the instant biosynthesis of AgNPs within minutes. The biosynthesis was monitored by UV-vis spectroscopy which exhibited a sharp SPR band at 442 nm and 435 nm after 5 and 35 min of sunlight exposure. The optimum conditions for biosynthesis of AgNPs were found to be 2.5mM AgNO3 concentration, 1.5% (v/v) of AEE inoculum dose and 35 min of sunlight exposure. Presence of spherical AgNPs with average size 13 nm was confirmed by SEM and TEM analysis. The XRD and SAED analysis confirmed the crystalline nature of the AgNPs where the Bragg's diffraction pattern at (111), (200), (220) and (311) corresponded to face centered cubic crystal lattice of metallic silver. The average roughness of the synthesized AgNPs was 3.21 nm which was confirmed by AFM analysis. FTIR analysis was recorded between 4000 and 400 cm(-1) which confirmed the involvement of various functional groups in the synthesis of AgNPs. The AgNPs thus obtained showed catalytic activity towards degradation of Acridine Orange (AO) without involvement of any hazardous reducing agent. The concentration dependent catalytic activity of the synthesized AgNPs was also monitored using 1, 2 and 3 mL of silver colloids and was found that the degradation of AO followed pseudo first-order kinetics.

  16. Highly sensitive flow-biosensor for toxic phenolic compounds using tyrosinase and acridine orange-adsorbed carbon felt.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue; Hasebe, Yasushi

    2009-01-01

    Tyrosinase (TYR, EC 1.14.18.1) was physically adsorbed onto a carbon felt (CF) together with acridine orange (AO). Coadsorption of AO was essential to prevent the denaturation of the TYR at the CF surface. The resulting TYR and AO-coadsorbed CF (TYR/AO-CF) was successfully utilized as a detection unit of novel and highly sensitive amperometric flow-biosensor for toxic chlorophenol compounds. Standard solutions of phenolic compounds (200 μL) were injected, and the cathodic peak currents due to the reduction current of o-quinones produced by the TYR-catalyzed oxidation (phenolase activity) were detected at the applied potential of -50 mV vs. Ag/AgCl. In this reaction, the electrochemically generated catechol compounds from o-quinones are re-oxidized repeatedly by catecholase activity of the TYR, leading to a sufficient amplified signal. The TYR/AO-CF exhibited much higher selectivity toward p-chlorophenol as compared with other chlorophenol compounds. When 0.1 mol/L phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) was used as a carrier at flow rate of 3.0 mL/min, cathodic peaks for p-chlorophenol was linear in the concentration range between 0.1 and 10 μmol/L (sensitivity: 1.41(mA·L)/mmol) with sampling rate (30 samples/h), and the detection limit of p-chlorophenol was found to be 2.13 × 10(8) mol/L (S/N = 3. The ratio of signal and noise is 3). The TYR/AO-CF kept more than 80% of original activity after the storage in 0.1 mol/L phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) containing 0.2 mmol/L AO at 4°C.

  17. Evaluation of chromatin integrity in human sperm using acridine orange staining with different fixatives and after cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Chohan, K R; Griffin, J T; Carrell, D T

    2004-10-01

    Staining of cells with acridine orange (AO) has been widely accepted as a predictor of DNA damage in many cell types. Because of variability of protocols used in previous studies, the AO staining technique has not been widely accepted as a screening test to predict DNA damage in human sperm. In order to further validate the use of AO staining, sperm were evaluated using numerous variations in the staining protocol. This study also elucidated the effects of cryopreservation on sperm DNA. Sperm fixation in Carnoy's solution showed significantly (P < 0.05) more DNA damage (29.9 +/- 4.5%) than 2% glutaraldehyde (14.4 +/- 2.1%), 4% paraformaldehyde (5.5 +/- 1.7%), no fixation (15.8 +/- 4.3%) but did not differ from Diff Quik solution (19.2 +/- 5.8%). No difference was observed for sperm DNA damage assessment using a 0.2 m (15.5 +/- 3.2%) or 0.3 m (14.9 +/- 3.3%) concentration of Na(2)HPO(4).7H(2)O in the AO staining solution. Frozen-thawed semen samples showed increased damage to sperm DNA under both Carnoy's (fresh: 10.9 +/- 1.3%; frozen: 30.8 +/- 2.9%; P < 0.05) and Diff Quik fixation (fresh: 6.2 +/- 0.8; frozen: 17.1 +/- 2.5%P < 0.05). Present data also showed that spermatozoa from some individuals are more prone to DNA damage after freezing and thawing procedures than others. In conclusion, Carnoy's fixative provides a better predictive value for DNA damage to sperm using AO staining. Additionally, cryopreservation increased damage to the sperm DNA.

  18. Real-time imaging of exocytotic mucin release and swelling in Calu-3 cells using acridine orange.

    PubMed

    Shumilov, Dmytro; Popov, Alexander; Fudala, Rafal; Akopova, Irina; Gryczynski, Ignacy; Borejdo, Julian; Gryczynski, Zygmunt; Grygorczyk, Ryszard

    2014-03-15

    Mucus secretion is the first-line of defence against the barrage of irritants inhaled into human lungs, but abnormally thick and viscous mucus results in many respiratory diseases. Understanding the processes underlying mucus pathology is hampered, in part, by lack of appropriate experimental tools for labeling and studying mucin granule secretion from live cells with high sensitivity and temporal resolution. In this report we present original spectroscopic properties of acridine orange (AO) which could be utilized to study granule release and mucin swelling with various advanced fluorescence imaging approaches. Low concentration (<200 μM) AO solutions presented absorption maximum at 494 nm, emission maximum at 525 nm and only ∼1.76 ns fluorescence lifetime. By contrast at high concentrations (4-30 mM) favoring formation of AO aggregates, a very different absorption with maximum at ∼440 nm, dramatically red-shifted emission with maximum at 630 nm, and over 10-fold increased fluorescence lifetime (∼20 ns) was observed. To verify potential utility of AO for real-time imaging we have performed confocal, total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) and fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) of AO-stained Calu-3 cells. We found similar red-shifted fluorescence spectra and long fluorescence lifetime in intracellular granules as compared to that in the cytoplasm consistent with granular AO accumulation. Mechanical stimulation of Calu-3 cells resulted in multiple exocytotic secretory events of AO-stained granules followed by post-exocytotic swelling of their fluorescently-labeled content that was seen in single-line TIRF images as rapidly-expanding bright-fluorescence patches. The rate of their size expansion followed first-order kinetics with diffusivity of 3.98±0.07×10(-7)c m(2)/s, as expected for mucus gel swelling. This was followed by fluorescence decrease due to diffusional loss of AO that was ∼10-fold slower in the secreted mucus compared to bulk aqueous

  19. A double-blinded comparison of in situ TUNEL and aniline blue versus flow cytometry acridine orange for the determination of sperm DNA fragmentation and nucleus decondensation state index.

    PubMed

    Hamidi, Jamal; Frainais, Christophe; Amar, Edouard; Bailly, Eric; Clément, Patrice; Ménézo, Yves

    2015-08-01

    The impact of sperm DNA fragmentation on assisted reproductive technology (ART) successes, in terms of outcome, is now established. High levels of DNA strand breaks severely affect the probability of pregnancy. The importance of sperm nucleus condensation in early embryogenesis and, subsequently, on the quality of the conceptus is now emerging. In this article we have compared in situ analyses with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) (for DNA fragmentation) with aniline blue (AB) (for nucleus decondensation), versus flow cytometry (FC) after acridine orange staining, in a double-blinded analysis. In our hands, TUNEL and acridine orange give perfectly comparable results. For decondensation the results are also comparable, but the double-stranded green fluorescence obtained with acridine orange seems to slightly underestimate the decondensation status obtained with AB.

  20. Synthesis of modified maghemite nanoparticles and its application for removal of Acridine Orange from aqueous solutions by using Box-Behnken design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagheban Shahri, Fatemeh; Niazi, Ali

    2015-12-01

    In this study, sodium dodecyl sulfate-coated maghemite nanoparticles (SDS-coated γ-Fe2O3 NPs), was used for removal of cationic dye Acridine Orange from water samples. The γ-Fe2O3 NPs were synthesized by co-precipitation method and were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) to examine their size and magnetic moment. The adsorption experiments were performed using the batch system. The prepared magnetic adsorbent was well dispersed in water and easily separated magnetically from the medium after loaded with adsorbate. Four most important operating variables including initial pH of the solution, dosage of adsorbent, concentration of dye and contact time was studied and optimized by response surface methodology (RSM), involving Box-Behnken design matrix. Twenty-seven experiments were performed to investigate the effect of these parameters on removal of the dye. The results showed that initial pH of the solution was the most effective parameter in comparison with others. Also, experimental parameters were optimized and chose the best conditions by determination of effective factors. The optimized conditions for dye removal were at initial pH 5.1 0.8 g L-1 of adsorbent, 30.0 mg L-1 dye and 43 min adsorption time. The experimental data were analyzed by the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models. The maximum predicted adsorption capacities for Acridine Orange was 285.82 mg g-1.

  1. Blood culture gram stain, acridine orange stain and direct sensitivity-based antimicrobial therapy of bloodstream infection in patients with trauma.

    PubMed

    Behera, B; Mathur, P; Gupta, B

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain if the simple practice of Gram stain, acridine orange stain and direct sensitivity determination of positive blood culture bottles could be used to guide early and appropriate treatment in trauma patients with clinical suspicion of sepsis. The study also aimed to evaluate the error in interpreting antimicrobial sensitivity by direct method when compared to standard method and find out if specific antibiotic-organism combination had more discrepancies. Findings from consecutive episodes of blood stream infection at an Apex Trauma centre over a 12-month period are summarized. A total of 509 consecutive positive blood cultures were subjected to Gram staining. AO staining was done in BacT/ALERT-positive Gram-stain negative blood cultures. Direct sensitivity was performed from 369 blood culture broths, showing single type of growth in Gram and acridine orange staining. Results of direct sensitivity were compared to conventional sensitivity for errors. No 'very major' discrepancy was found in this study. About 5.2 and 1.8% minor error rates were noted in gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, respectively, while comparing the two methods. Most of the discrepancies in gram-negative bacteria were noted in beta lactam - beta lactamase inhibitor combinations. Direct sensitivity testing was not reliable for reporting of methicillin and vancomycin resistance in Staphylococci. Gram stain result together with direct sensitivity testing is required for optimizing initial antimicrobial therapy in trauma patients with clinical suspicion of sepsis. Gram staining and AO staining proved particularly helpful in the early detection of candidaemia.

  2. PHOTOSENSITIZATION OF ARBOVIRUSES BY ACRIDINE DYES

    DTIC Science & Technology

    This paper describes the photodynamic action of proflavine and acridine orange on eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) and Venezuelan equine...encephalitis (VEE) viruses. The viruses were more sensitive to the photodynamic action of acridine orange than to that of proflavine . VEE virus was slightly more

  3. Evaluation of Acridine Orange Derivatives as DNA-Targeted Radiopharmaceuticals for Auger Therapy: Influence of the Radionuclide and Distance to DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Edgar; Do Quental, Letícia; Palma, Elisa; Oliveira, Maria Cristina; Mendes, Filipa; Raposinho, Paula; Correia, Isabel; Lavrado, João; di Maria, Salvatore; Belchior, Ana; Vaz, Pedro; Santos, Isabel; Paulo, António

    2017-02-01

    A new family of 99mTc(I)- tricarbonyl complexes and 125I-heteroaromatic compounds bearing an acridine orange (AO) DNA targeting unit was evaluated for Auger therapy. Characterization of the DNA interaction, performed with the non-radioactive Re and 127I congeners, confirmed that all compounds act as DNA intercalators. Both classes of compounds induce double strand breaks (DSB) in plasmid DNA but the extent of DNA damage is strongly dependent on the linker between the Auger emitter (99mTc or 125I) and the AO moiety. The in vitro evaluation was complemented with molecular docking studies and Monte Carlo simulations of the energy deposited at the nanometric scale, which corroborated the experimental data. Two of the tested compounds, 125I-C5 and 99mTc-C3, place the corresponding radionuclide at similar distances to DNA and produce comparable DSB yields in plasmid and cellular DNA. These results provide the first evidence that 99mTc can induce DNA damage with similar efficiency to that of 125I, when both are positioned at comparable distances to the double helix. Furthermore, the high nuclear retention of 99mTc-C3 in tumoral cells suggests that 99mTc-labelled AO derivatives are more promising for the design of Auger-emitting radiopharmaceuticals than the 125I-labelled congeners.

  4. Microbial quality of lamb carcasses during processing and the acridine orange direct count technique (a modified DEFT) for rapid enumeration of total viable counts.

    PubMed

    Sierra, M L; Sheridan, J J; McGuire, L

    1997-04-29

    This study was designed to set up a hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) system for sheep slaughtering operations at four different plants in Ireland and to determine the differences between plants in terms of microbial contamination. A single carcass area, the abdomen, was examined by swabbing and a microbiological profile was determined at different stages along the slaughter line. The level of contamination was assessed from the total bacteria counts, Enterobacteriaceae and Listeria spp. For the total counts, a modified direct epifluorescent filter technique (acridine orange direct count technique (AODC)) was developed and tested. No significant differences were found among plants in the levels of bacterial contamination. This was observed for all groups of organisms. The rapid direct technique (AODC) was found to be very successful. A correlation coefficient of 0.87 was obtained for this method and the standard plate count. Each test could be carried out in about 10-15 min and could be used to predict the standard plate count.

  5. Considerations for point-of-care diagnostics: evaluation of acridine orange staining and postprocessing methods for a three-part leukocyte differential test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powless, Amy J.; Conley, Roxanna J.; Freeman, Karan A.; Muldoon, Timothy J.

    2017-03-01

    There exists a broad range of techniques that can be used to classify and count white blood cells in a point-of-care (POC) three-part leukocyte differential test. Improvements in lenses, light sources, and cameras for image-based POC systems have renewed interest in acridine orange (AO) as a contrast agent, whereby subpopulations of leukocytes can be differentiated by colorimetric analysis of AO fluorescence emission. We evaluated the effect on test accuracy using different AO staining and postprocessing methods in the context of an image-based POC colorimetric cell classification scheme. Thirty blood specimens were measured for percent cell counts using our POC system and a conventional hematology analyzer for comparison. Controlling the AO concentration used during whole-blood staining, the incubation time with AO, and the colorimetric ratios among the three population of leukocytes yielded a percent deviation of 0.706%, -1.534%, and -0.645% for the lymphocytes, monocytes, and granulocytes, respectively. Overall, we demonstrated that a redshift in AO fluorescence was observed at elevated AO concentrations, which lead to reproducible inaccuracy of cell counts. This study demonstrates there is a need for a strict control of the AO staining and postprocessing methods to improve test accuracy in these POC systems.

  6. Evaluation of Acridine Orange Derivatives as DNA-Targeted Radiopharmaceuticals for Auger Therapy: Influence of the Radionuclide and Distance to DNA

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Edgar; do Quental, Letícia; Palma, Elisa; Oliveira, Maria Cristina; Mendes, Filipa; Raposinho, Paula; Correia, Isabel; Lavrado, João; Di Maria, Salvatore; Belchior, Ana; Vaz, Pedro; Santos, Isabel; Paulo, António

    2017-01-01

    A new family of 99mTc(I)- tricarbonyl complexes and 125I-heteroaromatic compounds bearing an acridine orange (AO) DNA targeting unit was evaluated for Auger therapy. Characterization of the DNA interaction, performed with the non-radioactive Re and 127I congeners, confirmed that all compounds act as DNA intercalators. Both classes of compounds induce double strand breaks (DSB) in plasmid DNA but the extent of DNA damage is strongly dependent on the linker between the Auger emitter (99mTc or 125I) and the AO moiety. The in vitro evaluation was complemented with molecular docking studies and Monte Carlo simulations of the energy deposited at the nanometric scale, which corroborated the experimental data. Two of the tested compounds, 125I-C5 and 99mTc-C3, place the corresponding radionuclide at similar distances to DNA and produce comparable DSB yields in plasmid and cellular DNA. These results provide the first evidence that 99mTc can induce DNA damage with similar efficiency to that of 125I, when both are positioned at comparable distances to the double helix. Furthermore, the high nuclear retention of 99mTc-C3 in tumoral cells suggests that 99mTc-labelled AO derivatives are more promising for the design of Auger-emitting radiopharmaceuticals than the 125I-labelled congeners. PMID:28211920

  7. Layer-by-layer films and colloidal dispersions of graphene oxide nanosheets for efficient control of the fluorescence and aggregation properties of the cationic dye acridine orange.

    PubMed

    Hansda, Chaitali; Chakraborty, Utsav; Hussain, Syed Arshad; Bhattacharjee, Debajyoti; Paul, Pabitra Kumar

    2016-03-15

    Chemically derived graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets have received great deal of interest for technological application such as optoelectronic and biosensors. Aqueous dispersions of GO become an efficient template to induce the association of cationic dye namely Acridine Orange (AO). Interactions of AO with colloidal GO was governed by both electrostatic and π-π stacking cooperative interactions. The type of dye aggregations was found to depend on the concentration of GO in the mixed ensemble. Spectroscopic calculations revealed the formation of both H and J-type dimers, but H-type aggregations were predominant. Preparation of layer-by-layer (LbL) electrostatic self-assembled films of AO and GO onto poly (allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) coated quartz substrate is also reported in this article. UV-Vis absorption, steady state and time resolve fluorescence and Raman spectroscopic techniques have been employed to explore the detail photophysical properties of pure AO, AO/GO mixed solution and AO/GO LbL films. Scanning electron microscopy was also used for visual evidence of the synthesized nanodimensional GO sheets. The fluorescence quenching of AO in the presence of GO in aqueous solution was due to the interfacial photoinduced electron transfer (PET) from photoexcited AO to GO i.e. GO acts as an efficient quenching agent for the fluorescence emission of AO. The quenching is found to be static in nature. Raman spectroscopic results also confirmed the interaction of AO with GO and the electron transfer. The formation of AO/GO complex via very fast excited state electron transfer mechanism may be proposed as to prepare GO-based fluorescence sensor for biomolecular detection without direct labeling the biomolecules by fluorescent probe.

  8. Layer-by-layer films and colloidal dispersions of graphene oxide nanosheets for efficient control of the fluorescence and aggregation properties of the cationic dye acridine orange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansda, Chaitali; Chakraborty, Utsav; Hussain, Syed Arshad; Bhattacharjee, Debajyoti; Paul, Pabitra Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Chemically derived graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets have received great deal of interest for technological application such as optoelectronic and biosensors. Aqueous dispersions of GO become an efficient template to induce the association of cationic dye namely Acridine Orange (AO). Interactions of AO with colloidal GO was governed by both electrostatic and π-π stacking cooperative interactions. The type of dye aggregations was found to depend on the concentration of GO in the mixed ensemble. Spectroscopic calculations revealed the formation of both H and J-type dimers, but H-type aggregations were predominant. Preparation of layer-by-layer (LbL) electrostatic self-assembled films of AO and GO onto poly (allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) coated quartz substrate is also reported in this article. UV-Vis absorption, steady state and time resolve fluorescence and Raman spectroscopic techniques have been employed to explore the detail photophysical properties of pure AO, AO/GO mixed solution and AO/GO LbL films. Scanning electron microscopy was also used for visual evidence of the synthesized nanodimensional GO sheets. The fluorescence quenching of AO in the presence of GO in aqueous solution was due to the interfacial photoinduced electron transfer (PET) from photoexcited AO to GO i.e. GO acts as an efficient quenching agent for the fluorescence emission of AO. The quenching is found to be static in nature. Raman spectroscopic results also confirmed the interaction of AO with GO and the electron transfer. The formation of AO/GO complex via very fast excited state electron transfer mechanism may be proposed as to prepare GO-based fluorescence sensor for biomolecular detection without direct labeling the biomolecules by fluorescent probe.

  9. Statistical optimization and artificial neural network modeling for acridine orange dye degradation using in-situ synthesized polymer capped ZnO nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Dhiman, Nitesh; Markandeya; Singh, Amrita; Verma, Neeraj K; Ajaria, Nidhi; Patnaik, Satyakam

    2017-05-01

    ZnO NPs were synthesized by a prudent green chemistry approach in presence of polyacrylamide grafted guar gum polymer (pAAm-g-GG) to ensure uniform morphology, and functionality and appraised for their ability to degrade photocatalytically Acridine Orange (AO) dye. These ZnO@pAAm-g-GG NPs were thoroughly characterized by various spectroscopic, XRD and electron microscopic techniques. The relative quantity of ZnO NPs in polymeric matrix has been estimated by spectro-analytical procedure; AAS and TGA analysis. The impact of process parameters viz. NP's dose, contact time and AO dye concentration on percentage photocatalytic degradation of AO dyes were evaluated using multivariate optimizing tools, Response Surface Methodology (RSM) involving Box-Behnken Design (BBD) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). Congruity of the BBD statistical model was implied by R(2) value 0.9786 and F-value 35.48. At RSM predicted optimal condition viz. ZnO@pAAm-g-GG NP's dose of 0.2g/L, contact time of 210min and AO dye concentration 10mg/L, a maximum of 98% dye degradation was obtained. ANOVA indicated appropriateness of the model for dye degradation owing to "Prob.>F" less than 0.05 for variable parameters. We further, employed three layers feed forward ANN model for validating the BBD process parameters and suitability of our chosen model. The evaluation of Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm (ANN1) and Gradient Descent with adaptive learning rate (ANN2) model employed to scrutinize the best method and found experimental values of AO dye degradation were in close to those with predicated value of ANN 2 modeling with minimum error. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Antigenotoxic and Apoptotic Activity of Green Tea Polyphenol Extracts on Hexavalent Chromium-Induced DNA Damage in Peripheral Blood of CD-1 Mice: Analysis with Differential Acridine Orange/Ethidium Bromide Staining

    PubMed Central

    García-Rodríguez, María del Carmen; Carvente-Juárez, Megumi Monserrat; Altamirano-Lozano, Mario Agustín

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the modulating effects of green tea polyphenols on genotoxic damage and apoptotic activity induced by hexavalent chromium [Cr (VI)] in CD-1 mice. Animals were divided into the following groups: (i) injected with vehicle; (ii) treated with green tea polyphenols (30 mg/kg) via gavage; (iii) injected with CrO3 (20 mg/kg) intraperitoneally; (iv) treated with green tea polyphenols in addition to CrO3. Genotoxic damage was evaluated by examining micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MN-PCEs) obtained from peripheral blood at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h after treatment. Induction of apoptosis and cell viability were assessed by differential acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) staining. Treatment of green tea polyphenols led to no significant changes in the MN-PCEs. However, CrO3 treatment significantly increased MN-PCEs at 24 and 48 h after injection. Green tea polyphenols treatment prior to CrO3 injection led to a decrease in MN-PCEs compared to the group treated with CrO3 only. The average of apoptotic cells was increased at 48 h after treatment compared to control mice, suggesting that apoptosis could contribute to eliminate the DNA damaged cells induced by Cr (VI). Our findings support the proposed protective effects of green tea polyphenols against the genotoxic damage induced by Cr (VI). PMID:24363823

  11. A survey of malarial infection in endemic areas of Savannakhet province, Lao PDR and comparative diagnostic efficiencies of Giemsa staining, acridine orange staining, and semi-nested multiplex PCR.

    PubMed

    Khaminsou, Naly; Kritpetcharat, Onanong; Daduang, Jureerut; Kritpetcharat, Panutas

    2008-06-01

    Malaria remains one of the most important parasitic diseases in Lao PDR, especially in forested rural areas. Knowing the rate of infection using highly sensitive and specific methods, and the factors related to malarial infection, may be helpful in reducing the infection and mortality rates. We aimed to study the malarial infection rate by comparing three detection methods, i.e., Giemsa staining, acridine orange (AO) staining and semi-nested multiplex PCR. The study also included some factors related to malarial infection in the endemic areas of Savannakhet province, Lao PDR. The respective malarial infection rates by Giemsa staining, AO staining and semi-nested multiplex PCR in Houy Jang vs. Keng Thong villages were 13.1 vs. 20.8, 16.2 vs. 25.4 and 20.8 vs. 30.8%. The infection rate among children not over 10 years of age was higher than infection rate among the older ages (p=0.002, Z-test for two proportions). The higher infection rates by semi-nested multiplex PCR over Giemsa and AO staining suggest the existence of many subclinical cases with low level parasitemia, undetected by microscopic techniques. We found no mixed infections using Giemsa or AO staining, but using semi-nested multiplex PCR we found 1.2% (3/260) mixed P. falciparum and P. vivax infections, suggesting that semi-nested multiplex PCR is suitable for detecting malarial infection from endemic areas whose cases may have low parasitemia and/or mixed infection. The factors significantly related to malarial infection from 260 questionnaires were: (1) children and young adults, (2) not having lived in the area more than 5 years, and (3) not using a mosquito net over the bed, indicating an increased risk of new residents of contracting malaria and a need to promote bed nets.

  12. Antibacterial efficacy of acridine derivatives conjugated with gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Piyali; Chakraborty, Prabal Kumar; Saha, Partha; Ray, Pulak; Basu, Samita

    2014-10-01

    Adsorption of acridine derivatives viz. 9-aminoacridine hydrochloride hydrate (9AA-HCl), acridine yellow (AY), acridine orange (AO), and proflavine (Pro) on citrate stabilized gold nanoparticle surface were studied using different analytical techniques like UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The amine moiety of acridine derivative binds strongly to the gold nanoparticles as confirmed by spectroscopic studies. The plasmon band observed for the wine red colloidal gold at 525 nm in the UV-vis spectrum is characteristic of gold nanoparticles. However, with the addition of acridine derivatives the intensity of the absorption band at 525 nm decreases and a new peak emerges at red-end region - a signature of formation of gold-drug complex. The TEM images show the average size of citrate stabilized gold nanoparticles as 15-20 nm, which becomes larger in the presence of various drugs due to aggregation. From the thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) we have measured the number of drug molecules attached per gold nanoparticle (AuNP). These gold nanoparticles are very important as drug delivery vehicles and for clinical applications it is necessary to understand their activity in vivo. The antibacterial efficacy of drugs coated gold nanoparticles were studied against various strains of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. Among the four drugs, 9AA-HCl and AO showed antibacterial activity and for both of them the AuNP conjugated drug showed better antibacterial efficacy than the bare drug. Because of the high penetrating power and large surface area of Au(0), a single gold nanoparticle can adsorb multiple drug molecules, hence this total entity acts as a single group against the bacteria. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Oxygen radicals mediate cell inactivation by acridine dyes, fluorescein, and lucifer yellow CH.

    PubMed

    Martin, J P; Logsdon, N

    1987-07-01

    , protected E. coli B against photodynamic inactivation by acridine orange. The results implicate O2, H2O2, and the hydroxyl radical (OH) as underlying molecular agents of the phototoxicity mediated by acridine orange, acridine yellow, fluorescein and lucifer yellow CH.

  14. Agent Orange

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index Agent Orange Agent Orange Home Facts about Herbicides Veterans' Diseases Birth Defects Benefits Exposure Locations Provider ... Orange Parkinson’s Awareness Month Were you exposed to herbicides during service and have Parkinson’s disease? You may ...

  15. Surface enhanced Raman scattering of a lipid Langmuir monolayer at the air-water interface.

    PubMed

    Mangeney, C; Dupres, V; Roche, Y; Felidj, N; Levi, G; Aubard, J; Bernard, S

    Surface enhanced Raman spectra were recorded from a phospholipid monolayer directly at the air-water interface. We used an organized monolayer of negatively charged tetramyristoyl cardiolipins as a template for the electrochemical generation of silver deposits. This two-dimensional electrodeposition of silver under potentiostatic control was the substrate for enhancement of Raman spectra. We report the optimized conditions for the Raman enhancement, the microscopic observations of the deposits, and their characterization by atomic force microscopy. Laser excitation at 514.5 nm leads to intense and reproducible surface enhanced Raman scattering spectra recorded in situ from one monolayer of cardiolipin, using 0.5 mol % of 10N nonyl acridine orange or 5 mol % of acridine in the film, and demonstrates the possibility of estimating the pH at the metal/phospholipidic film interface.

  16. Targeted gene correction with 5' acridine-oligonucleotide conjugates.

    PubMed

    de Piédoue, G; Andrieu-Soler, C; Concordet, J P; Maurisse, R; Sun, J-S; Lopez, B; Kuzniak, I; Leboulch, P; Feugeas, J-P

    2007-01-01

    Single-stranded oligonucleotides (SSOs) mediate gene repair of punctual chromosomal mutations at a low frequency. We hypothesized that enhancement of DNA binding affinity of SSOs by intercalating agents may increase the number of corrected cells. Several biochemical modifications of SSOs were tested for their capability to correct a chromosomally integrated and mutated GFP reporter gene in human 293 cells. SSOs of 25 nucleotide length conjugated with acridine at their 5' end increased the efficiency of gene correction up to 10-fold compared to nonmodified SSOs. Acridine and psoralen conjugates were both evaluated, and acridine-modified SSOs were the most effective. Conjugation with acridine at the 3' end of the SSO inhibited gene correction, whereas flanking the SSO by acridine on both sides provided an intermediate level of correction. These results suggest that increasing the stability of hybridization between SSO and its target without hampering a 3' extension improves gene targeting, in agreement with the "annealing-integration" model of DNA repair.

  17. Differential life-stage susceptibility of Acheta domesticus to acridine

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, B.T.

    1980-02-01

    The toxicity of acridine to Acheta domesticus (L.) was determined to evaluate the potential for this pollutant from synthetic fuels production to affect insect populations. Acridine was highly toxic to cricket eggs but not toxic to nymphs or adults. An LD/sub 50/ for eggs = 7.4 ..mu..g/g was calculated from the LC/sub 50/ = 15.1 +- 0.61 ppM. The 24-h LD/sub 10/ of acridine to nymphal crickets was > 332 ..mu..g/g. Male and female crickets consumed up to 1.0% of their weight in acridine over an 18-day period with no significant effect on mortality, weight gain, digestibility of food, or fecundity. Percent hatch of eggs from treated crickets (81.0 +- 6.7) was not significantly different from controls (77.2 +- 5.1).

  18. Differential life-stage susceptibility of Acheta domesticus to acridine

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, B.T.

    1980-02-01

    The toxicity of acridine to Acheta domesticus (L.) was determined to evaluate the potential for this pollutant from synthetic fuels production to affect insect populations. Acridine was highly toxic to cricket eggs but not toxic to nymphs or adults. An LD/sub 50/ for eggs = 7.4 ..mu..g/g was calculated from the LC/sub 50/ = 15.1 +- 0.61 ppM. The 24-h LD/sub 10/ of acridine to nymphal crickets was >332 ..mu..g/g. Male and female crickets consumed up to 1.0% of their weight in acridine over an 18-day period with no significant effect on mortality, weight gain, digestibility of food, or fecundity. Percent hatch of eggs from treated crickets (81.0 +- 6.7) was not significantly different from controls (77.2 +- 5.1).

  19. Picosecond studies of temperature and solvent effects on the fluorescence from coumarin 102 and acridine

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, S.L.; Winn, K.R.

    1980-01-01

    Hydrogen bonding characteristics of acridine and coumarin 102 are studied in different solutions. Coumarin 102 upon excitation forms a complex in alcoholic solutions, whereas excited acridine relaxes in aprotic and protic solvents by a process involving an activation energy.

  20. Sulfur containing acridine derivatives in preclinical studies with cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Othman, Salem; Mária, Kožurková

    2017-04-14

    The possible use of acridines as anticancer agents was first considered in the 1920´s. Since then, a large number of acridine drugs have been tested as antitumour agents, including compounds containing sulphur on the acridine chromophore. In this review, we will discuss recent studies which have investigated the anticancer activity of this class of acridine derivatives. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. Chemical structures and biological activities of bis- and tetrakis-acridine derivatives: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, Katarzyna

    2017-10-01

    A review of the literature on the biological activity of bis-acridines (diacridines) and tetrakis-acridines (tetra-acridines) is presented. Chemical structures of the most active derivatives are provided. In particular, the last decade's literature on the subject is discussed.

  2. 40 CFR 721.10040 - Substituted acridine naphtha substituted benzamide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted acridine naphtha... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10040 Substituted acridine naphtha substituted... substance identified generically as a substituted acridine naphtha substituted benzamide (PMN P-02-522) is...

  3. Dimethyl 2-[(acridin-9-yl)methyl­idene]malonate

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Sinara M. V.; Pitta, Ivan R.; de Lima, Maria do Carmo A.; Mendonça Junior, Francisco J. B.; de Simone, Carlos A.

    2013-01-01

    In the title compound, C19H15NO4, the acridine system is essentially planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.015 Å). The crystal packing exhibits π–π inter­actions between pairs of centrosymmetric mol­ecules, one of them between the central heterocyclic rings and others between the outer benzene rings of the acridine systems, with centroid–centroid distances of 3.692 (1) and 3.754 (1) Å, respectively. These pairs are further linked by additional π–π inter­actions along the a-axis direction through one of the two outer benzene ring of neighboring mol­ecules, with a centroid–centroid distance of 3.642 (2) Å. PMID:23424505

  4. Potent inhibition of scrapie prion replication in cultured cells by bis-acridines

    PubMed Central

    May, Barnaby C. H.; Fafarman, Aaron T.; Hong, Septima B.; Rogers, Michael; Deady, Leslie W.; Prusiner, Stanley B.; Cohen, Fred E.

    2003-01-01

    Prion diseases are characterized by an accumulation of PrPSc, a misfolded isoform of the normal cellular prion protein, PrPC. We previously reported the bioactivity of acridine-based compounds against PrPSc replication in scrapie-infected neuroblastoma cells and now report the improved potency of bis-acridine compounds. Bis-acridines are characterized by a dimeric motif, comprising two acridine heterocycles tethered by a linker. A library of bis-(6-chloro-2-methoxy-acridin-9-yl) and bis-(7-chloro-2-methoxy-benzo[b][1,5]naphthyridin-10-yl) analogs was synthesized to explore the effect of structurally diverse linkers on PrPSc replication in scrapie-infected neuroblastoma cells. Structure–activity analysis revealed that linker length and structure are important determinants for inhibition of prion replication in cultured scrapied cells. Three bis-acridine analogs, (6-chloro-2-methoxy-acridin-9-yl)-(3-{4-[3-(6-chloro-2-methoxy-acridin-9-ylamino)-propyl]-piperazin-1-yl}-propyl)-amine, N,N′-bis-(6-chloro-2-methoxy-acridin-9-yl)-1,8-diamino-3,6-dioxaoctane, and (1-{[4-(6-chloro-2-methoxy-acridin-9-ylamino)-butyl]-[3-(6-chloro-2-methoxy-acridin-9-ylamino)-propyl]-carbamoyl}-ethyl)-carbamic acid tert-butyl ester, showed half-maximal inhibition of PrPSc formation at 40, 25, and 30 nM, respectively, and were not cytotoxic to uninfected neuroblastoma cells at concentrations of 500 nM. Our data suggest that bis-acridine analogs may provide a potent alternative to the acridine-based compound quinacrine, which is currently under clinical evaluation for the treatment of prion disease. PMID:12626750

  5. Photocatalytic Water Splitting with the Acridine Chromophore: A Computational Study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaojun; Karsili, Tolga N V; Sobolewski, Andrzej L; Domcke, Wolfgang

    2015-08-20

    The hydrogen-bonded acridine-water complex is considered as a model system for the exploration of photochemical reactions which can lead to the splitting of water into H(•) and OH(•) radicals. The vertical excitation energies of the lowest singlet and triplet excited states of the complex were calculated with the CASSCF/CASPT2 and ADC(2) ab initio electronic-structure methods. In addition to the well-known excited states of the acridine chromophore, excited states of charge-transfer character were identified, in which an electron is transferred from the p orbital of the H2O molecule to the π* orbital of acridine. The low-energy barriers which separate these reactive charge-transfer states from the spectroscopic states of the acridine-water complex have been characterized by the calculation of two-dimensional relaxed potential-energy surfaces as functions of the H atom-transfer coordinate and the donor (O)-acceptor (N) distance. When populated, these charge-transfer states drive the transfer of a proton from the water molecule to acridine, which results in the acridinyl-hydroxyl biradical. The same computational methods were employed to explore the photochemistry of the (N-hydrogenated) acridinyl radical. The latter possesses low-lying (about 3.0 eV) ππ* excited states with appreciable oscillator strengths in addition to a low-lying dark ππ* excited state. The bound potential-energy functions of the ππ* excited states are predissociated by the potential-energy function of an excited state of πσ* character which is repulsive with respect to the NH stretching coordinate. The dissociation threshold of the πσ* state is about 2.7 eV and thus below the excitation energies of the bright ππ* states. The conical intersections of the πσ* state with the ππ* excited states and with the electronic ground state provide a mechanism for the direct and fast photodetachment of the H atom from the acridinyl radical. These computational results indicate that the H2

  6. Acridin-9-yl exchange: a proposal for the action of some 9-aminoacridine drugs.

    PubMed

    Sebestík, Jaroslav; Safarík, Martin; Stibor, Ivan; Hlavácek, Jan

    2006-01-01

    The finding that several derivatives of 9-aminoacridine were deacridinylated in the presence of primary aliphatic amines during the solid phase synthesis of acridine-peptide conjugates prompted us to investigate the acridin-9-yl moiety transfer from a relatively low-molecular acridine source to a high-molecular carrier. The hydrophobic polymer was used as a model of hydrophobic core of biologically active proteins. While the alpha-amino group in the peptide was found to play the role of weak acridine acceptor, the epsilon-amino group of lysine appeared to serve as a moderate acceptor of acridine moiety. The covalent modification of the lysine residues side chain in the hydrophobic core of prion protein aggregates could thus explain the discrepancy between the ability of the acridine drug quinacrine to reduce efficiently the incidence of prion protein in cell culture and its weak prion binding affinity. (c) 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Adsorption of acridine on silver electrode: SERS spectra potential dependence as a probe of adsorbate state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solovyeva, Elena V.; Myund, Liubov A.; Dem'yanchuk, Evgeniya M.; Makarov, Artiom A.; Denisova, Anna S.

    2013-02-01

    This work investigates acridine adsorption on the silver electrode surface. The dependence of the acridine SERS spectra on the electrode potential proved to be quite different for azaheterocycle molecules, while the pH effect as expected. The changes in the acridine SERS spectrum caused by the double electric layer (DEL) rearrangement can be explained by sorption/desorption rather than the adsorbate molecule reorientation. The presence of chloride anions close to the silver surface is important not only for the SERS-active properties but for the formation of the stabilised surface complexes of the protonated acridine as well.

  8. Pharmacodynamic behavior of (/sup 14/C)acridine in the cricket Acheta domesticus (L. )

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, B.T.; Maggart, E.F. Jr.

    1981-11-01

    Cuticular and gastrointestinal penetration, in vivo metabolism, and excretion of (/sup 14/C)acridine were investigated in the nymphal cricket Acheta domesticus (L.) to find a pharmacodynamic basis for this insect's differential susceptibility to acridine at different life stages. Topically applied (/sup 14/C)acridine readily penetrated the cuticular exoskeleton of nymphs (half-time of penetration, 48 min). Radiolabeled compounds appeared in the hemolymph within 0.5 h after ingestion of (/sup 14/C)acridine and continued to move across the gut wall for 7.5 h. The biological half-time was 18 h and the rate constant for elimination was 0.039 h/sup -1/ after ingestion. Within 5 d after dosing, 97% of the dose was excreted. Several metabolites were present in the feces of nymphs fed (/sup 14/C)acridine, and less than 13% of the extractable radioactivity was parent compound. The cuticule and the gastrointestinal tract proved to be ineffective barriers to acridine entry in A. domesticus. However, the ability to readily metabolize and excrete acridine probably contributes to the higher acridine tolerance observed in the nymphs and adults than in the eggs, which are susceptible to toxic effects. Acridine is found in many coal and synthetic fuel by-products.

  9. Optically enhanced nuclear cross polarization in acridine-doped fluorene

    SciTech Connect

    Oshiro, C.M.

    1982-06-01

    The objective of this work has been to create large polarizations of the dilute /sup 13/C nuclei in the solid state. The idea was to create /sup 1/H polarizations larger than Boltzmann and to use the proton enhanced nuclear induction spectroscopy cross polarization technique to then transfer this large polarization to the /sup 13/C spin system. Optical Nuclear Polarization (ONP) of acridine-doped fluorene single crystals was studied. In addition, ONP of powdered samples of the acridine-doped fluorene was studied. In general, many compounds do not crystallize easily or do not form large crystals suitable for NMR experiments. Powdered, amorphous and randomly dispersed samples are generally far more readily available than single crystals. One objective of this work has been to (first) create large /sup 1/H polarizations. Although large optical proton polarizations in single crystals have been reported previously, optically generated polarizations in powdered samples have not been reported. For these reasons, ONP studies of powdered samples of the acridine-doped fluorene were also undertaken. Using ONP in combination with the proton enhanced nuclear induction spectroscopy experiment, large /sup 13/C polarizations have been created in fluorene single crystals. These large /sup 13/C polarizations have permitted the determination of the seven incongruent chemical shielding tensors of the fluorene molecule. Part 2 of this thesis describes the proton enhanced nuclear induction spectroscopy experiment. Part 3 describes the ONP experiment. Part 4 is a description of the experimental set-up. Part 5 describes the data analysis for the determination of the chemical shielding tensors. Part 6 presents the results of the ONP experiments performed in this work and the chemical shielding tensors determined.

  10. Synthesis of spirocyclic carbazole- and acridine-lactams.

    PubMed

    Würdemann, Martina; Christoffers, Jens

    2010-04-21

    Spirocyclic carbazole- and acridine-lactams were prepared by Fischer-indole or Friedländer-quinoline synthesis starting from spirocyclic ketones with a lactam ring. All annulation products were obtained as mixtures of separable regioisomers, which differ only in the position of one methyl group. The starting materials were prepared from 2-pyrrolidone and 2-piperidone by a sequence of protection (by N-allylation), alpha-acylation, iron-catalyzed Michael reaction followed by Robinson-annulation, palladium-catalyzed N-deprotection and catalytic hydrogenation. The overall yields of this six-step sequence are 13 and 17%, respectively, and the racemic ketones are obtained as single diastereoisomers.

  11. Differential selection of acridine resistance mutations in human DNA topoisomerase IIbeta is dependent on the acridine structure.

    PubMed

    Leontiou, Chrysoula; Watters, Gary P; Gilroy, Kathryn L; Heslop, Pauline; Cowell, Ian G; Craig, Kate; Lightowlers, Robert N; Lakey, Jeremy H; Austin, Caroline A

    2007-04-01

    Type II DNA topoisomerases are targets of acridine drugs. Nine mutations conferring resistance to acridines were obtained by forced molecular evolution, using methyl N-(4'-(9-acridinylamino)-3-methoxy-phenyl) methane sulfonamide (mAMSA), methyl N-(4'-(9-acridinylamino)-2-methoxy-phenyl) carbamate hydrochloride (mAMCA), methyl N-(4'-(9-acridinylamino)-phenyl) carbamate hydrochloride (AMCA), and N-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]acridines-4-carboxamide (DACA) as selection agents. Mutations betaH514Y, betaE522K, betaG550R, betaA596T, betaY606C, betaR651C, and betaD661N were in the B' domain, and betaG465D and betaP732L were not. With AMCA, four mutations were selected (betaE522K, betaG550R, betaA596T, and betaD661N). Two mutations were selected with mAMCA (betaY606C and betaR651C) and two with mAMSA (betaG465D and betaP732L). It is interesting that there was no overlap between mutation selection with AMCA and mAMSA or mAMCA. AMCA lacks the methoxy substituent present in mAMCA and mAMSA, suggesting that this motif determines the mutations selected. With the fourth acridine DACA, five mutations were selected for resistance (betaG465D, betaH514Y, betaG550R, betaA596T, and betaD661N). betaG465D was selected with both DACA and mAMSA, and betaG550R, betaA596T, and betaD661N were selected with both DACA and AMCA. DACA lacks the anilino motif of the other three drugs but retains the acridine ring motif. The overlap in selection with DACA and mAMSA or AMCA suggests that altered recognition of the acridine moiety may be involved in these mutations. We used restriction fragment length polymorphisms and heteroduplex analysis to demonstrate that some mutations were selected multiple times (betaG465D, betaE522K, betaG550R, betaA596T, and betaD661N), whereas others were selected only once (betaH514Y, betaY606C, betaR651C, and betaP732L). Here, we compare the drug resistance profile of all nine mutations and report the biochemical characterization of three, betaG550R, betaY606C, and betaD661

  12. Effect of linkage geometry on biological activity in thiourea- and guanidine-substituted acridines and platinum–acridines

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zhidong; Saluta, Gilda; Kucera, Gregory L.

    2008-01-01

    Novel thiourea- and guanidine-modified acridine-4-carboxamides (4, 7) and a corresponding platinum–intercalator conjugate (4′) have been synthesized and evaluated as cytotoxic agents in human promyelocytic leukemia, HL-60, and a non-small cell lung cancer, NCI-H460. Modification of thiourea sulfur in derivative 4 with a DNA platinating moiety, giving 4′, resulted in a pronounced cytotoxic enhancement, and the conjugate proved to be the most active of the newly synthesized compounds in NCI-H460 cells. Conjugate 4′ represents a new chemotype with potential applications in the treatment of chemoresistant tumors. PMID:18515101

  13. Imidazolium tagged acridines: Synthesis, characterization and applications in DNA binding and anti-microbial activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raju, Gembali; Vishwanath, S.; Prasad, Archana; Patel, Basant K.; Prabusankar, Ganesan

    2016-03-01

    New water soluble 4,5-bis imidazolium tagged acridines have been synthesized and structurally characterized by multinuclear NMR and single crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. The DNA binding and anti-microbial activities of these acridine derivatives were investigated by fluorescence and far-UV circular dichroism studies.

  14. Fluorescence of acridinic dyes in anionic surfactant solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Robson Valentim; Gehlen, Marcelo Henrique

    2005-10-01

    The interaction of the cationic dyes acridine, 9-aminoacridine (9AA), and proflavine, with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was studied by electronic absorption, steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopies. The dyes interact with SDS in the pre-micellar region leading in two cases to dimerization in dye-surfactant aggregates, but with distinct molecular arrangements. For proflavine, the observed red shift of the electronic absorption band indicates the presence of J-aggregate, which are nonfluorescent. In the case of 9AA, the aggregates were characterized as nonspecific (neither J- nor H-type is spectroscopically observed). The time-resolved emission spectra gives evidences of the presence of weakly bound dimers by the recovery of three defined decay times by global analysis: dye monomer ( τ1 = 16.4 ns), dimer ( τ2 = 7.1 ns), and a faster component ( τ3 = 2.1 ns) ascribed to intracluster energy migration between monomer and dimer. Acridine has a weak interaction with SDS forming only an ion pair without further self-aggregation of the dye.

  15. Fluorescence of acridinic dyes in anionic surfactant solution.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Robson Valentim; Gehlen, Marcelo Henrique

    2005-10-01

    The interaction of the cationic dyes acridine, 9-aminoacridine (9AA), and proflavine, with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was studied by electronic absorption, steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopies. The dyes interact with SDS in the pre-micellar region leading in two cases to dimerization in dye-surfactant aggregates, but with distinct molecular arrangements. For proflavine, the observed red shift of the electronic absorption band indicates the presence of J-aggregate, which are nonfluorescent. In the case of 9AA, the aggregates were characterized as nonspecific (neither J- nor H-type is spectroscopically observed). The time-resolved emission spectra gives evidences of the presence of weakly bound dimers by the recovery of three defined decay times by global analysis: dye monomer (tau1 = 16.4 ns), dimer (tau2 = 7.1 ns), and a faster component (tau3 = 2.1 ns) ascribed to intracluster energy migration between monomer and dimer. Acridine has a weak interaction with SDS forming only an ion pair without further self-aggregation of the dye.

  16. From amsacrine to DACA (N-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]acridine-4-carboxamide): selectivity for topoisomerases I and II among acridine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Finlay, G J; Riou, J F; Baguley, B C

    1996-04-01

    A number of acridine derivatives, including the clinical antileukaemia agent amsacrine and the experimental agent DACA (N-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]acridine-4-carboxamide), target the enzyme topoisomerase II. We demonstrate here that DACA induces DNA cleavage in the presence of topoisomerase I as well as of topoisomerase II. We also investigate a series of acridine derivatives which link amsacrine to DACA in terms of DNA binding, topoisomerase poisoning and biological activity. The presence of an acridine 4-linked N-2-(dimethylamino)ethyl group provides both a pronounced G-C preference for DNA binding and activity towards topoisomerase I. The removal of the anilino side chain of amsacrine, in combination with the presence of the N-2-(dimethylamino)ethyl group, provides in vitro biological activity against "atypical" multidrug resistant leukaemia lines with low topoisomerase II activity. Among these compounds, suppression of the ionisation of the acridine nitrogen to produce the compound DACA is associated with experimental activity against solid tumours. The addition of an acridine 2-chloro substituent to DACA suppresses the stimulation of topoisomerase II-dependent DNA cleavage but increases stimulation of topoisomerase I cleavage. 2-Substitution also increases activity against the "atypical" multidrug resistant cell lines. Overall, the results suggest that augmentation of topoisomerase I-dependent activity in this series by appropriate chemical substitution in this series leads to circumvention of topoisomerase II-mediated multidrug resistance.

  17. Dynamics of the binding of acridine dyes to DNA investigated by triplet excited state probe techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Geacintov, N.E.; Waldmeyer, J.; Kuzmin, V.A.; Kolubayev, T.

    1981-11-26

    The binding of the polynuclear aromatic dyes acridine orange (AO) and proflavin (PF) to DNA in aqueous phosphate buffer solution at 25 +- 1/sup 0/C has been studied by measuring the properties of the triplet excited states of these dyes. The triplet lifetimes can be measured either by triplet-triplet absorption flash photolysis techniques or by delayed fluorescence methods. The triplet lifetimes of AO vary from about 0.5 ms with no DNA present to 20 to 35 ms at DNA concentration above 10/sup -3/M expressed in concentration of DNA phosphate (P), or at (P)/(D) ratios above 1000 ((D) is the dye concentration). At all DNA concentrations the decay profiles are exponential, except at high excitation intensities where nonexponentialities, attributed to triplet-triplet annihilation, become apparent. Similar results are observed with PF-DNA solutions. The exponentiality of the triplet decay at all DNA concentrations is attributed to rapid association and dissociation of the dye-DNA complexes on the time scales of the triplet lifetimes. A simplified one-step binding model is utilized to describe this effect. A dissociation rate of AO-DNA complexes greater than or equal to 10/sup 3/s/sup -1/ has been estimated from these results. It is shown that a detailed study of the triplet lifetime vs. DNA concentration provides a novel method for the estimation of the apparent equilibrium association constant K* for dye molecules in the triplet excited state and DNA. For AO, K* approx. = 10/sup 5/ M/sup -1/, while for PF it is approx. = 3 x 10/sup 4/ M/sup -1/. These values are of the same order of magnitude as the ground-state dye-DNA equilibrium association constants measured by others.

  18. Philadelphus L.: mock orange

    Treesearch

    Nancy L. Shaw; Emerenciana G. Hurd; Peter F. Stickney

    2008-01-01

    The mock oranges - Philadelphus spp. - have been placed in several families: Saxifragaceae (Harrington 1954), Hydrangeaceae (Hitchcock and others 1961), and more recently, the Philadelphaceae (Hickman 1993). Hydrangeaceae, however, is the most widely accepted placement (Cronquist and others 1997; USDA NRCS 2001). There are about 50 to 65 species of mock orange,...

  19. Infrared spectroscopy of matrix-isolated neutral polycyclic aromatic nitrogen heterocycles: The acridine series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattioda, A. L.; Bauschlicher, C. W.; Ricca, A.; Bregman, J.; Hudgins, D. M.; Allamandola, L. J.

    2017-06-01

    The matrix-isolated, mid-infrared spectra of seven acridine-based polycyclic aromatic nitrogen heterocycles (PANHs) have been measured and compared to their non-nitrogen containing parent molecule. The acridine species investigated include acridine, benz[a]acridine, benz[c]acridine, dibenz[a,j]acridine, dibenz[c,h]acridine, dibenz[a,h]acridine and dibenz[a,c]acridine. The previously reported results for 1 and 2-azabenz[a]anthracenes are included for comparison. The experimentally determined band frequencies and intensities are compared with their B3LYP/6-31G(d) values. The overall agreement between experimental and theoretical values is good and in line with our previous investigations. Shifts, typically to the blue, are noted for the C-H out-of-plane (CHoop) motions upon insertion of a nitrogen atom. The formation of a bay region upon addition of additional benzene rings to the anthracene/acridine structure splits the solo hydrogen motions into a bay region solo and an external solo hydrogen, with the bay region solo hydrogen coupling to the quartet hydrogen motions and the external solo hydrogen coupling with the duo hydrogen motions resulting in an extreme decrease in intensity for the CHoop solo hydrogen band when the external hydrogen is replaced by a nitrogen atom. The C-C and C-H in-plane region of this acridine series exhibits the characteristic two fold increase in intensity, noted previously for PANHs. The strong ≈1400 cm-1 band, which was identified in the previous PANH study, is noted in several molecular species as well as another strong PANH feature between 1480 and 1515 cm-1 for several molecules. The presence of these strong bands appear to be primarily responsible for the two-fold increase in the C-H in-plane region's (1100-1600 cm-1) intensity. The C-H stretching region can be characterized by contributions from the solo (bay or external), duo and quartet hydrogens, similar to what was observed in the dibenzopolyacene compounds.

  20. Infrared spectroscopy of matrix-isolated neutral polycyclic aromatic nitrogen heterocycles: The acridine series.

    PubMed

    Mattioda, A L; Bauschlicher, C W; Ricca, A; Bregman, J; Hudgins, D M; Allamandola, L J

    2017-06-15

    The matrix-isolated, mid-infrared spectra of seven acridine-based polycyclic aromatic nitrogen heterocycles (PANHs) have been measured and compared to their non-nitrogen containing parent molecule. The acridine species investigated include acridine, benz[a]acridine, benz[c]acridine, dibenz[a,j]acridine, dibenz[c,h]acridine, dibenz[a,h]acridine and dibenz[a,c]acridine. The previously reported results for 1 and 2-azabenz[a]anthracenes are included for comparison. The experimentally determined band frequencies and intensities are compared with their B3LYP/6-31G(d) values. The overall agreement between experimental and theoretical values is good and in line with our previous investigations. Shifts, typically to the blue, are noted for the C-H out-of-plane (CHoop) motions upon insertion of a nitrogen atom. The formation of a bay region upon addition of additional benzene rings to the anthracene/acridine structure splits the solo hydrogen motions into a bay region solo and an external solo hydrogen, with the bay region solo hydrogen coupling to the quartet hydrogen motions and the external solo hydrogen coupling with the duo hydrogen motions resulting in an extreme decrease in intensity for the CHoop solo hydrogen band when the external hydrogen is replaced by a nitrogen atom. The C-C and C-H in-plane region of this acridine series exhibits the characteristic two fold increase in intensity, noted previously for PANHs. The strong ≈1400cm(-1) band, which was identified in the previous PANH study, is noted in several molecular species as well as another strong PANH feature between 1480 and 1515cm(-1) for several molecules. The presence of these strong bands appear to be primarily responsible for the two-fold increase in the C-H in-plane region's (1100-1600cm(-1)) intensity. The C-H stretching region can be characterized by contributions from the solo (bay or external), duo and quartet hydrogens, similar to what was observed in the dibenzopolyacene compounds. Published

  1. THE INHIBITORY EFFECT OF ACRIDINE ON THE SPOROGONY OF A COCCIDIUM (EIMERIA STIEDAE).

    PubMed

    Lewis, P A

    1924-07-31

    The development or ripening of the oocyst of the coccidium of the rabbit is prevented by acridine hydrochloride provided that the cysts are exposed to the action of the chemical before development has started. After sporoblasts are formed acridine does not prevent further development. Many other substances, some of them known to be active against certain protozoan parasites, have no influence on the ripening of the oocysts of the coccidium.

  2. THE INHIBITORY EFFECT OF ACRIDINE ON THE SPOROGONY OF A COCCIDIUM (EIMERIA STIEDÆ)

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Paul A.

    1924-01-01

    The development or ripening of the oocyst of the coccidium of the rabbit is prevented by acridine hydrochloride provided that the cysts are exposed to the action of the chemical before development has started. After sporoblasts are formed acridine does not prevent further development. Many other substances, some of them known to be active against certain protozoan parasites, have no influence on the ripening of the oocysts of the coccidium. PMID:19868914

  3. Nonlinear optical effects on the surface of acridine yellow-doped lead-tin fluorophosphate glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    He, K. X.; Bryant, William; Venkateswarlu, Putcha

    1991-01-01

    The second- and third-order nonlinear optical properties of acridine yellow-doped lead-tin fluorophosphate (LTF) glass have been directly studied by measurement of surface enhanced second harmonic generation and third harmonic generation. The three photon excitation fluorescence is also observed. Based on these results, the large nonlinearities of the acridine LTF system which is a new nonlinear optical material are experimentally demonstrated.

  4. Nonlinear optical effects on the surface of acridine yellow-doped lead-tin fluorophosphate glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    He, K. X.; Bryant, William; Venkateswarlu, Putcha

    1991-01-01

    The second- and third-order nonlinear optical properties of acridine yellow-doped lead-tin fluorophosphate (LTF) glass have been directly studied by measurement of surface enhanced second harmonic generation and third harmonic generation. The three photon excitation fluorescence is also observed. Based on these results, the large nonlinearities of the acridine LTF system which is a new nonlinear optical material are experimentally demonstrated.

  5. UV absorbance dependent toxicity of acridine to the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum.

    PubMed

    Wiegman, Saskia; Termeer, Joost A G; Verheul, Tommie; Kraak, Michiel H S; De Voogt, Pim; Laane, Remi W P M; Admiraal, Wim

    2002-03-01

    The present study seeks quantitative measures for photoenhanced toxicity under natural light regimes by comparing the effects of an aromatic compound under natural and laboratory light. To this purpose, the influence of light irradiance and spectral composition on the extent of photoenhanced toxicity of acridine, a three-ringed azaarene, to the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum was analyzed. Under laboratory light containing ultraviolet radiation (UV), the 72-h EC50 growth value for acridine was 1.55 microM. Under natural light, a 72-h EC50 value for acridine below the lowest test concentration (0.44 microM) was observed. Under both laboratory and natural light, the toxicity of acridine was equally enhanced by total UV (UV-A and UV-B) and UV-A radiation, while in the absence of UV no enhancement of toxicity was observed. Hence, the UV-A region of light was dominant in the photoenhanced toxicity of acridine to P. tricornutum, in accordance with its absorption spectrum in the UV-A region. Therefore, the total amount of UV radiation absorbed by aqueous acridine was calculated for each separate treatment. The amount of UV absorbed by acridine effectively described the effect of acridine on the growth of P. tricornutum in a dose-response-dependent manner. It is concluded that photoenhanced toxicity of aromatic compounds expressed as a function of the actually absorbed UV may circumvent some of the variability between studies using different concentrations of the phototoxic compounds and light sources. The UV quantity absorbed by these compounds allows a comparison with the absorption characteristics of natural waters and, thus, is a key parameter to determine the role of photoenhanced toxicity in water.

  6. Comparison of petite induction in yeast by acridines, ethidium and their photoaffinity probes.

    PubMed

    Fukunaga, M; Yielding, L W; Firth, W J; Yielding, K L

    1981-06-01

    The production of petite mutations by different acridine analogs was studied in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Compounds with amino substituents at the 2 and 3 positions of the acridine nucleus and methylation at position 10 were effective for petite induction in growing cells but not in resting cells, while those with chloro, nitro and methoxy substituents were not effective in either resting or growing cells. Photosensitive azido derivatives of the acridines were tested to evaluate the role of covalent drug attachment for mutagenesis in resting cells. Photolysis of resting cells with 9-axido, 3-azido-6-amino-, 9-azido-10-methyl-, or 3-azido-6-amino-10-methyl-acridine was highly toxic. 3-Azido-6-amino-acridine, and especially 3-azido-10-methyl-, and 3-azido-6-amino-10-methyl-acridine, were effective petite inducers in resting cells. Thus, the photosensitive (azido) group at position 9 produced only cell killing while the azido group at position 3 and/or 6 led to effective petite induction in resting cells. In contrast, petite induction was observed only for growing cells, for dark control experiments with these compounds or with the monoazide precursor compounds.

  7. Proton-transfer reactions of acridine in water-containing ionic-liquid-rich mixtures.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vinod; Pandey, Ashish; Pandey, Siddharth

    2013-12-02

    To assess the potential of ionic liquids (ILs) as a solubilizing media that facilitates proton-transfer reactions, acridine prototropism is investigated using UV/Vis molecular absorbance as well as steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence with different ILs in the presence of a small amount of dilute acid or base. It is found that protonation and deprotonation of acridine, when dissolved in different ILs, can be triggered by the addition of a small amount of dilute aqueous HCl and NaOH, respectively, in both the ground and excited states, irrespective of the identity of the IL. However, the amount of dilute acid/base needed to protonate/deprotonate acridine dissolved in different ILs is found to vary from one IL to another. Steady-state fluorescence measurements also imply the presence of interactions between the acidic proton(s) of IL cation and excited acridine. The interconversion of neutral and protonated acridine, as well as the presence of a weakly fluorescent complex between excited acridine and the acidic proton(s) of the IL cation, is further corroborated by the parameters recovered from the fitting of the excited-state intensity-decay data. It is established that ILs as solubilizing media readily support facile proton transfer in both ground and excited states.

  8. Synthesis and biological evaluation of acridine derivatives as antimalarial agents.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-Min; Ramiandrasoa, Florence; Guetzoyan, Lucie; Pradines, Bruno; Quintino, Edgar; Gadelle, Daniele; Forterre, Patrick; Cresteil, Thierry; Mahy, Jean-Pierre; Pethe, Stéphanie

    2012-04-01

    New N-alkylaminoacridine derivatives attached to nitrogen heterocycles were synthesized, and their antimalarial potency was examined. They were tested in vitro against the growth of Plasmodium falciparum, including chloroquine (CQ)-susceptible and CQ-resistant strains. This biological evaluation has shown that the presence of a heterocyclic ring significantly increases the activity against P. falciparum. The best compound shows a nanomolar IC(50) value toward parasite proliferation on both CQ-susceptible and CQ-resistant strains. The antimalarial activity of these new acridine derivatives can be explained by the two mechanisms studied in this work. First, we showed the capacity of these compounds to inhibit heme biocrystallization, a detoxification process specific to the parasite and essential for its survival. Second, in our search for alternative targets, we evaluated the in vitro inhibitory activity of these compounds toward Sulfolobus shibatae topoisomerase VI-mediated DNA relaxation. The preliminary results obtained reveal that all tested compounds are potent DNA intercalators, and significantly inhibit the activity of S. shibatae topoisomerase VI at concentrations ranging between 2.0 and 2.5 μM.

  9. Hazy Orange Orb

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-04-02

    Titan atmosphere makes Saturn largest moon look like a fuzzy orange ball in this natural color view from NASA Cassini spacecraft. Titan north polar hood is visible at top, and a faint blue haze also can be detected above the south pole at bottom.

  10. 21 CFR 146.135 - Orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Orange juice. 146.135 Section 146.135 Food and....135 Orange juice. (a) Orange juice is the unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges of the... name of the food is “orange juice”. The name “orange juice” may be preceded on the label by...

  11. 21 CFR 146.135 - Orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice. 146.135 Section 146.135 Food and....135 Orange juice. (a) Orange juice is the unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges of the... name of the food is “orange juice”. The name “orange juice” may be preceded on the label by...

  12. 21 CFR 146.135 - Orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Orange juice. 146.135 Section 146.135 Food and....135 Orange juice. (a) Orange juice is the unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges of the... name of the food is “orange juice”. The name “orange juice” may be preceded on the label by...

  13. 21 CFR 146.135 - Orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Orange juice. 146.135 Section 146.135 Food and....135 Orange juice. (a) Orange juice is the unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges of the... name of the food is “orange juice”. The name “orange juice” may be preceded on the label by...

  14. 21 CFR 146.135 - Orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Orange juice. 146.135 Section 146.135 Food and....135 Orange juice. (a) Orange juice is the unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges of the... name of the food is “orange juice”. The name “orange juice” may be preceded on the label by...

  15. New spiro tria(thia)zolidine-acridines as topoisomerase inhibitors, DNA binders and cytostatic compounds.

    PubMed

    Salem, Othman M; Vilková, Mária; Janočková, Jana; Jendželovský, Rastislav; Fedoročko, Peter; Žilecká, Eva; Kašpárková, Jana; Brabec, Viktor; Imrich, Ján; Kožurková, Mária

    2016-05-01

    Three new diphenylsubstituted spirotriazolidine- and thiazolidinone-acridines were prepared and their interaction with calf thymus DNA investigated with UV-vis, fluorescence, circular dichroism spectroscopy and viscometry. The binding constants K were estimated to range from 0.34 to 0.93 × 10(4) M(-1). UV-vis, fluorescence and circular dichroism measurements indicated that the compounds act as effective DNA-interacting agents. Electrophoretic separation proved that ligands inhibited topoisomerase I and II. The biological activity of compounds 3, 5 &6 at several different concentrations (10, 20 and 50 μM) was evaluated both 48 h and 72 h following their addition to HL-60 cancer cells. The results were analysed using various different techniques (MMP detection, changes in metabolic activity/viability and analysis of cell cycle distribution). Acridine was also used as the positive control in these assays. The results from MMP analysis demonstrate the strong effect of 3-diphenylamino-2-(acridin-9-yl)imino-1,3-thiazolidin-4-one (5) on mitochondrial physiology. Cell viability analysis showed that acridine derivatives 3 and 6 were less effective than derivative 5 and the acridine control.

  16. Biochemical characterization of blood orange, sweet orange, lemon, bergamot and bitter orange.

    PubMed

    Moufida, Saïdani; Marzouk, Brahim

    2003-04-01

    This paper reports on the composition of aroma compounds and fatty acids and some physico-chemical parameters (juice percentage, acidity and total sugars) in five varieties of citrus: blood orange, sweet orange, lemon, bergamot and bitter orange. Volatile compounds and methyl esters have been analyzed by gas chromatography. Limonene is the most abundant compound of monoterpene hydrocarbons for all of the examined juices. Eighteen fatty acids have been identified in the studied citrus juices, their quantification points out that unsaturated acids predominate over the saturated ones. Mean concentration of fatty acids varies from 311.8 mg/l in blood orange juice to 678 mg/l in bitter orange juice.

  17. Facile Synthesis of Unsymmetrical Acridines and Phenazines by a Rhodium(III)-Catalyzed Amination, Cyclization and Aromatization Cascade

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Yajing; Hummel, Joshua R.; Bergman, Robert G.; Ellman, Jonathan A.

    2013-01-01

    New formal [3 + 3] annulations have been developed to obtain acridines and phenazines from aromatic azides and aromatic imines and azobenzenes, respectively. These transformations proceed through a cascade process of Rh(III)-catalyzed amination followed by intramolecular electrophilic aromatic substitution and aromatization. Acridines can be directly prepared from aromatic aldehydes by in situ imine formation using catalytic benzylamine. PMID:23957711

  18. Facile synthesis of unsymmetrical acridines and phenazines by a Rh(III)-catalyzed amination/cyclization/aromatization cascade.

    PubMed

    Lian, Yajing; Hummel, Joshua R; Bergman, Robert G; Ellman, Jonathan A

    2013-08-28

    We report formal [3 + 3] annulations of aromatic azides with aromatic imines and azobenzenes to give acridines and phenazines, respectively. These transformations proceed through a cascade process of Rh(III)-catalyzed amination followed by intramolecular electrophilic aromatic substitution and aromatization. Acridines can be directly prepared from aromatic aldehydes by in situ imine formation using catalytic benzylamine.

  19. Synthesis and G-Quadruplex-Binding Properties of Defined Acridine Oligomers

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Rubén; Aviñó, Anna; Pérez-Tomás, Ricardo; Gargallo, Raimundo; Eritja, Ramon

    2010-01-01

    The synthesis of oligomers containing two or three acridine units linked through 2-aminoethylglycine using solid-phase methodology is described. Subsequent studies on cell viability showed that these compounds are not cytotoxic. Binding to several DNA structures was studied by competitive dialysis, which showed a clear affinity for DNA sequences that form G-quadruplexes and parallel triplexes. The fluorescence spectra of acridine oligomers were affected strongly upon binding to DNA. These spectral changes were used to calculate the binding constants (K). Log K were found to be in the order of 4–6. PMID:20725626

  20. Mechanisms of Inhibition of Pyrimidine Dimer Formation in Deoxyribonucleic Acid by Acridine Dyes

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, B. M.; Sutherland, J. C.

    1969-01-01

    The ultraviolet (UV)-induced formation of cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimers in Escherichia coli deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in vitro has been investigated in terms of the mechanism of inhibition by acridine dyes, the effect on dimer yield of specific singlet and triplet quenchers, and the mechanism of dimer formation. Our results indicate that (a) energy transfer is important in dimer reduction by acridines, (b) this transfer occurs from the singlet (S1) of DNA, and (c) at room temperature triplet quenchers do not reduce dimer yield in DNA. PMID:4888976

  1. Potent antitumor 9-anilinoacridines and acridines bearing an alkylating N-mustard residue on the acridine chromophore: synthesis and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Su, Tsann-Long; Lin, Yi-Wen; Chou, Ting-Chao; Zhang, Xiuguo; Bacherikov, Valeriy A; Chen, Ching-Huang; Liu, Leroy F; Tsai, Tsong-Jen

    2006-06-15

    A series of 9-anilinoacridine and acridine derivatives bearing an alkylating N-mustard residue at C4 of the acridine chromophore were synthesized. The N-mustard pharmacophore was linked to the C4 of the acridine ring with an O-ethyl (O-C(2)), O-propyl (O-C(3)), or O-butyl (O-C(4)) spacer. It revealed that all newly synthesized compounds were very potent cytotoxic agents against human leukemia and various solid tumors in vitro. These agents did not exhibit cross-resistance against vinblastine-resistant (CCRF-CEM/VBL) or taxol-resistant (CCRF-CEM/taxol) cells. It also showed that these agents were DNA cross-linking agents rather than topoisomerase II inhibitors. Of these agents, compounds 27a and 27c were shown to have potent antitumor activity in nude mice bearing the human breast carcinoma MX-1 xenograft. The therapeutic efficacies of these two agents are comparable to that of taxol.

  2. Supra-molecular inter-actions in a 1:1 co-crystal of acridine and 3-chloro-thio-phene-2-carb-oxy-lic acid.

    PubMed

    Prajina, Olakkandiyil; Thomas Muthiah, Packianathan; Perdih, Franc

    2016-05-01

    In the title co-crystal, C5H3ClO2S·C13H9N, the components inter-act with each other via an O-H⋯N hydrogen bond. Acridine-acridine stacking, thio-phene-thio-phene stacking and acridine-thio-phene C-H⋯π inter-actions also occur in the crystal.

  3. Synthesis, DNA Binding, and Antiproliferative Activity of Novel Acridine-Thiosemicarbazone Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Sinara Mônica Vitalino; Lafayette, Elizabeth Almeida; Gomes da Silva, Lúcia Patrícia Bezerra; Amorim, Cézar Augusto da Cruz; de Oliveira, Tiago Bento; Gois Ruiz, Ana Lucia Tasca; de Carvalho, João Ernesto; de Moura, Ricardo Olímpio; Beltrão, Eduardo Isidoro Carneiro; de Lima, Maria do Carmo Alves; de Carvalho Júnior, Luiz Bezerra

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the acridine nucleus was used as a lead-compound for structural modification by adding different substituted thiosemicarbazide moieties. Eight new (Z)-2-(acridin-9-ylmethylene)-N-phenylhydrazinecarbothioamide derivatives (3a–h) were synthesized, their antiproliferative activities were evaluated, and DNA binding properties were performed with calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) by electronic absorption and fluorescence spectroscopies. Both hyperchromic and hypochromic effects, as well as red or blue shifts were demonstrated by addition of ctDNA to the derivatives. The calculated binding constants ranged from 1.74 × 104 to 1.0 × 106 M−1 and quenching constants from −0.2 × 104 to 2.18 × 104 M−1 indicating high affinity to ctDNA base pairs. The most efficient compound in binding to ctDNA in vitro was (Z)-2-(acridin-9-ylmethylene)-N-(4-chlorophenyl) hydrazinecarbothioamide (3f), while the most active compound in antiproliferative assay was (Z)-2-(acridin-9-ylmethylene)-N-phenylhydrazinecarbothioamide (3a). There was no correlation between DNA-binding and in vitro antiproliferative activity, but the results suggest that DNA binding can be involved in the biological activity mechanism. This study may guide the choice of the size and shape of the intercalating part of the ligand and the strategic selection of substituents that increase DNA-binding or antiproliferative properties. PMID:26068233

  4. Click modification of diazido acridine intercalators: a versatile route towards decorated DNA nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Moradpour Hafshejani, Shahrbanou; Watson, Scott M D; Tuite, Eimer M; Pike, Andrew R

    2015-09-01

    Diazido derivatives of 3,6-diamino acridine (proflavine) intercalate into DNA and undergo functionalization through click chemistry to form 1D nanostructures with redox active, conductive nanowire, and fluorescent properties. This two-step approach, intercalation followed by click modification allows for the controlled decoration of DNA nanostructures.

  5. Synthesis, spectral characterization and larvicidal activity of acridin-1(2H)-one analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subashini, R.; Bharathi, A.; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Rajakumar, G.; Abdul Rahuman, A.; Gullanki, Pavan Kumar

    Acridin-1(2H)-one analogue of 7-chloro-3,4-dihydro-9-phenyl-2-[(pyridine-2yl) methylene] acridin-1(2H)-one, 5 was prepared by using 7-chloro-3,4-dihydro-9-phenylacridin-1(2H)-one, 3 and picolinaldehyde, 4 in the presence of KOH at room temperature. These compounds were characterized by analytical and spectral analyses. The purpose of the present study was to assess the efficacy of larvicidal and repellent activity of synthesized 7-chloro-3,4-dihydro-9-phenyl-acridin-1(2H)-one analogues such as compounds 3 and 5 against the early fourth instar larvae of filariasis vector, Culex quinquefasciatus and Japanese encephalitis vector, Culex gelidus (Diptera: Culicidae). The compound exhibited high larvicidal effects at 50 mg/L against both the mosquitoes with LC50 values of 25.02 mg/L (r2 = 0.998) and 26.40 mg/L (r2 = 0.988) against C. quinquefasciatus and C. gelidus, respectively. The 7-chloro-3,4-dihydro-9-phenyl-acridin-1(2H)-one analogues that are reported for the first time to our best of knowledge can be better explored for the control of mosquito population. This is an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of Japanese encephalitis vectors, C. quinquefasciatus and C. gelidus.

  6. Synthesis, DNA Binding, and Antiproliferative Activity of Novel Acridine-Thiosemicarbazone Derivatives.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Sinara Mônica Vitalino; Lafayette, Elizabeth Almeida; da Silva, Lúcia Patrícia Bezerra Gomes; Amorim, Cézar Augusto da Cruz; de Oliveira, Tiago Bento; Ruiz, Ana Lucia Tasca Gois; de Carvalho, João Ernesto; de Moura, Ricardo Olímpio; Beltrão, Eduardo Isidoro Carneiro; de Lima, Maria do Carmo Alves; de Carvalho Júnior, Luiz Bezerra

    2015-06-09

    In this work, the acridine nucleus was used as a lead-compound for structural modification by adding different substituted thiosemicarbazide moieties. Eight new (Z)-2-(acridin-9-ylmethylene)-N-phenylhydrazinecarbothioamide derivatives (3a-h) were synthesized, their antiproliferative activities were evaluated, and DNA binding properties were performed with calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) by electronic absorption and fluorescence spectroscopies. Both hyperchromic and hypochromic effects, as well as red or blue shifts were demonstrated by addition of ctDNA to the derivatives. The calculated binding constants ranged from 1.74 × 10(4) to 1.0 × 10(6) M(-1) and quenching constants from -0.2 × 10(4) to 2.18 × 10(4) M(-1) indicating high affinity to ctDNA base pairs. The most efficient compound in binding to ctDNA in vitro was (Z)-2-(acridin-9-ylmethylene)-N- (4-chlorophenyl) hydrazinecarbothioamide (3f), while the most active compound in antiproliferative assay was (Z)-2-(acridin-9-ylmethylene)-N-phenylhydrazinecarbothioamide (3a). There was no correlation between DNA-binding and in vitro antiproliferative activity, but the results suggest that DNA binding can be involved in the biological activity mechanism. This study may guide the choice of the size and shape of the intercalating part of the ligand and the strategic selection of substituents that increase DNA-binding or antiproliferative properties.

  7. New spiro-acridines: DNA interaction, antiproliferative activity and inhibition of human DNA topoisomerases.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Sinara Mônica Vitalino de; Lafayette, Elizabeth Almeida; Silva, Willams Leal; Lima Serafim, Vanessa de; Menezes, Thais Meira; Neves, Jorge Luiz; Ruiz, Ana Lucia Tasca Gois; Carvalho, João Ernesto de; Moura, Ricardo Olímpio de; Beltrão, Eduardo Isidoro Carneiro; Carvalho Júnior, Luiz Bezerra de; Lima, Maria do Carmo Alves de

    2016-11-01

    Two new spiro-acridines were synthesized by introducing cyano-N-acylhydrazone between the acridine and phenyl rings followed by spontaneous cyclization. The final compounds (E)-1'-(benzylideneamino)-5'-oxo-1',5'-dihydro-10H-spiro[acridine-9,2'-pyrrole]-4'-carbonitrile (AMTAC-01) and (E)-1'-((4-methoxybenzylidene)amino)-5'-oxo-1',5'-dihydro-10H-spiro[acridine-9,2'-pyrrole]-4'-carbonitrile (AMTAC-02) were evaluated for their interactions with calf thymus DNA, antiproliferative and human topoisomerase I and IIα inhibitory activities. Both compounds presented ability to bind DNA. The binding constant determined by UV-vis spectroscopy was found to be 10(4)M(-1). Antiproliferative assay demonstrated that AMTAC-01 and AMTAC-02 were most active against prostate and melanoma tumor cell lines, respectively. The compound did not present Topo I inhibitory activity. However, both derivatives displayed topoisomerase IIα inhibitory activity comparable to amsacrine, and AMTAC-02 was more potent than AMTAC-01 with methoxy substituent group on phenyl ring. This study demonstrates that the new derivatives are promising molecules with topoisomerase IIα inhibitory and antiproliferative activities.

  8. Synthesis, spectral characterization and larvicidal activity of acridin-1(2H)-one analogues.

    PubMed

    Subashini, R; Bharathi, A; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Rajakumar, G; Abdul Rahuman, A; Gullanki, Pavan Kumar

    2012-09-01

    Acridin-1(2H)-one analogue of 7-chloro-3,4-dihydro-9-phenyl-2-[(pyridine-2yl) methylene] acridin-1(2H)-one, 5 was prepared by using 7-chloro-3,4-dihydro-9-phenylacridin-1(2H)-one, 3 and picolinaldehyde, 4 in the presence of KOH at room temperature. These compounds were characterized by analytical and spectral analyses. The purpose of the present study was to assess the efficacy of larvicidal and repellent activity of synthesized 7-chloro-3,4-dihydro-9-phenyl-acridin-1(2H)-one analogues such as compounds 3 and 5 against the early fourth instar larvae of filariasis vector, Culex quinquefasciatus and Japanese encephalitis vector, Culex gelidus (Diptera: Culicidae). The compound exhibited high larvicidal effects at 50mg/L against both the mosquitoes with LC(50) values of 25.02 mg/L (r(2)=0.998) and 26.40 mg/L (r(2)=0.988) against C. quinquefasciatus and C. gelidus, respectively. The 7-chloro-3,4-dihydro-9-phenyl-acridin-1(2H)-one analogues that are reported for the first time to our best of knowledge can be better explored for the control of mosquito population. This is an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of Japanese encephalitis vectors, C. quinquefasciatus and C. gelidus.

  9. Structural considerations on acridine/acridinium derivatives: Synthesis, crystal structure, Hirshfeld surface analysis and computational studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wera, Michał; Storoniak, Piotr; Serdiuk, Illia E.; Zadykowicz, Beata

    2016-02-01

    This article describes a detailed study of the molecular packing and intermolecular interactions in crystals of four derivatives of acridine, i.e. 9-methyl-, 9-ethyl, 9-bromomethyl- and 9-piperidineacridine (1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively) and three 10-methylacridinium salts containing the trifluoromethanesulphonate anion and 9-vinyl-, 9-bromomethyl, and 9-phenyl-10-methylacridinium cations (5, 6 and 7, respectively). The crystal structures of all of the compounds are stabilized by long-range electrostatic interactions, as well as by a network of short-range C-HṡṡṡO (in hydrates and salts 3 and 5-7, respectively), C-Hṡṡṡπ, π-π, C-Fṡṡṡπ and S-Oṡṡṡπ (in salts 5-7) interactions. Hirshfeld surface analysis shows that various intermolecular contacts play an important role in the crystal packing, graphically exhibiting the differences in spatial arrangements of the acridine/acridinium derivatives under scrutiny here. Additionally, computational methods have been used to compare the intermolecular interactions in the crystal structures of the investigated compounds. Computations have confirmed the great contribution of dispersive interactions for crystal lattice stability in the case of 9-substituted acridine and electrostatic interactions for the crystal lattice stability in the case of 9-substituted 10-methylacridinium trifluoromethanesulphonates. The value of crystal lattice energy and the electrostatic contribution in the crystal lattice energy of monohydrated acridine derivatives have confirmed that these compounds have behave as acridinium derivatives.

  10. Mouse testis cell sorting according to DNA and mitochondrial changes during spermatogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Petit, J.M.; Ratinaud, M.H.; Cordelli, E.; Spano, M.; Julien, R.

    1995-04-01

    Flow cytometry can measure variations in DNA content and chromatin structure as well as dramatic changes in the mitochondria of germ cells during maturation from spermatogonia to elongated spermatids. Using 10-N nonyl acridine orange (NAO), an inner mitochondrial membrane dye, it is easy to follow mitochondria rearrangements. Mouse testis cells stained with the DNA fluorescent probe propidium iodide (PI) and analyzed by flow cytometry can be discriminated on the basis of their ploidy levels into five main regions corresponding to elongated spermatids, round spermatids, diploid, S-phase, and tetraploid cells. The simultaneous use of PI and NAO demonstrated the presence of cells having low and high mitochondrial content in the haploid, diploid, and tetraploid compartments. Eleven sorting windows were selected from the bivariate analysis (PI/NAO) and the corresponding cells were identified by microscopic observation. Cells were also discriminated by two parameter analysis of DNA content vs. cell diameter. The definition of seven different regions allowed us to determine NAO or rhodamine 123 (Rh 123) uptakes in each compartment. We observed that the ratio (Rh 123/NAO) dramatically changed according to the progression of cell differentiation which occurs during spermatogenesis. 45 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Analysis of mitochondria isolated from single cells.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Ryan D; Navratil, Marian; Poe, Bobby G; Xiong, Guohua; Olson, Karen J; Ahmadzadeh, Hossein; Andreyev, Dmitry; Duffy, Ciarán F; Arriaga, Edgar A

    2007-01-01

    Bulk studies are not suitable to describe and study cell-to-cell variation, which is of high importance in biological processes such as embryogenesis, tissue differentiation, and disease. Previously, capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection (CE-LIF) was used to measure the properties of organelles isolated from millions of cells. As such, these bulk measurements reported average properties for the organelles of cell populations. Similar measurements for organelles released from single cells would be highly relevant to describe the subcellular variations among cells. Toward this goal, here we introduce an approach to analyze the mitochondria released from single mammalian cells. Osteosarcoma 143B cells are labeled with either the fluorescent mitochondrion-specific 10-N-nonyl acridine orange (NAO) or via expression of the fluorescent protein DsRed2. Subsequently, a single cell is introduced into the CE-LIF capillary where the organelles are released by a combined treatment of digitonin and trypsin. After this treatment, an electric field is applied and the released organelles electromigrate toward the LIF detector. From an electropherogram, the number of detected events per cell, their individual electrophoretic mobilities, and their individual fluorescence intensities are calculated. The results obtained from DsRed2 labeling, which is retained in intact mitochondria, and NAO labeling, which labels all mitochondria, are the basis for discussion of the strengths and limitations of this single-cell approach.

  12. Synthesis of new acridines and hydrazones derived from cyclic beta-diketone for cytotoxic and antiviral evaluation.

    PubMed

    el-Sabbagh, Osama I; Rady, Hanaa M

    2009-09-01

    Cyclic beta-diketone namely, dimedone was utilized to prepare different chemical entities whether cyclic such as acridines, thiadiazole and triazole or acyclic systems as hydrazide, hydrazones, thiosemicarbazide and semicarbazide. The structures of the novel compounds were determined using elemental analyses and various spectroscopic methods. Most acyclic derivatives especially semicarbazide 19, hydrazide 9 and thiosemicarbazide 16 showed a higher in vitro cytotoxic activity against hepatoma cell line (HepG2) than the cyclized acridine derivatives. The antiviral activity of the new compounds against Hepatitis A Virus (HAV) using the plague infectivity reduction assay revealed that the acridine 4 and the hydrazone 12 were more active than the reference drug amantadine.

  13. Orange River, Africa

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-01-20

    STS072-738-036 (11-20 Jan. 1996) --- The astronauts used a 70mm handheld camera to expose this frame of the west-flowing Orange River, which constitutes the international boundary between Namibia and the Republic of South Africa. The railroad and highway connecting the two countries is seen as a ribbon crossing the corner of the view. The broad color difference between strong browns/reds in the northern half of the view and lighter yellows in the southern corresponds to two land surfaces. The darker is a higher, flat land surface developed on horizontal Nama Sandstone’s, with rock surfaces widely coated with a dark manganese stain, typical of desert regions. This region is known as Namaqualand and borders the Namib Desert. Where rivers have cut down into this surface, the lighter underlying rock and soil colors show up.

  14. Dimethyl-2-[(acridin-9-yl)methylidene]-malonate as fluorescent probe for histochemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Sinara Mônica Vitalino; Silva, Lúcia Patrícia Bezerra Gomes; Lima, Luiza Rayanna Amorim; Botelho, Sandra Paula Sarinho; Lima, Maria do Carmo; Pitta, Ivan da Rocha; Beltrão, Eduardo Isidoro Carneiro; Carvalho Júnior, Luiz Bezerra

    2017-06-01

    Fluorescent compounds have been widely used for biomolecule labeling in cytochemistry and histochemistry analysis. Here, it is described the optical properties of dimethyl 2-[(acridin-9-yl)methylidene]-malonate (LPSF/IP-81), an acridine derivative. This compound was conjugated to Concanavalin A (Con A) lectin and applied as sugar probe in lectin histochemistry. Evaluation of luminescent properties showed that LPSF/IP-81 is photoluminescent with excitation at 360 nm and emission at 428 nm. Con A hemagglutinating activity and LPSF/IP81 photoluminescence were unaltered after conjugation. Circular dichroism of Con A-LPSF/IP81 conjugate showed the maintenance of the Con A structure. Lectin histochemistry with Con A-LPSF/IP81 conjugate demonstrated different pattern recognition studying normal, fibroadenoma, and invasive ductal carcinoma of human breast. These findings indicate that LPSF/IP-81 can be proposed as an alternative probe for histochemical analysis. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. 3-[(E)-(acridin-9‧-ylmethylidene)amino]-1-substituted thioureas and their biological activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bečka, Michal; Vilková, Mária; Salem, Othman; Kašpárková, Jana; Brabec, Viktor; Kožurková, Mária

    2017-06-01

    This paper describes the synthesis of a novel series of acridine thiosemicarbazones through a two-step reaction between various isothiocyanates and hydrazine followed by treatment with acridin-9-carbaldehyde. The properties of this series of seven new derivatives are studied using NMR and biochemical techniques, and the DNA-binding properties of the compounds are determined using spectrophotometric studies (UV-vis absorption, fluorescence, and circular/linear dichroism) and viscometry. The binding constants K are estimated as being in the range of 2.2 to 7.8 × 104 M- 1 and the percentage of hypochromism was found to be 22.11-49.75% (from UV-vis spectral titration). Electrophoretic experiments prove that the novel compounds demonstrate moderate inhibitory effects against Topo I activity at a concentration of 60 × 10- 6 M.

  16. An acridine derivative, [4,5-bis{(N-carboxy methyl imidazolium)methyl}acridine] dibromide, shows anti-TDP-43 aggregation effect in ALS disease models

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Archana; Raju, Gembali; Sivalingam, Vishwanath; Girdhar, Amandeep; Verma, Meenakshi; Vats, Abhishek; Taneja, Vibha; Prabusankar, Ganesan; Patel, Basant K.

    2016-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease associated with aggregation of TAR DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43) in neuronal cells and manifests as motor neuron dysfunction & muscle atrophy. The carboxyl-terminal prion-like domain of TDP-43 can aggregate in vitro into toxic β-sheet rich amyloid-like structures. So far, treatment options for ALS are very limited and Riluzole, which targets glutamate receptors, is the only but highly ineffective drug. Therefore, great interest exists in developing molecules for ALS treatment. Here, we have examined certain derivatives of acridine containing same side chains at position 4 & 5, for inhibitory potential against TDP-43 aggregation. Among several acridine derivatives examined, AIM4, which contains polar carboxyl groups in the side arms, significantly reduces TDP-43-YFP aggregation in the powerful yeast model cell and also abolishes in vitro amyloid-like aggregation of carboxyl terminal domain of TDP-43, as observed by AFM imaging. Thus, AIM4 can be a lead molecule potentiating further therapeutic research for ALS. PMID:28000730

  17. [Study on the inclusion behavior of p-sulphonatocalix[4]arene with acridine by spectrofluorometric titrations].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yun-You; Lu, Qin; Liu, Chun; She, Shi-Ke; Yang, Xu-Lai; Wang, Lun

    2006-09-01

    p-sulphonatocalix[4] arene (1) was prepared according to the literature, and spectrofluorometric titrations were performed to investigate the inclusion behavior of (1) and acridine in citrate buffer solution (pH 5.92, 0.1 mol x L(-1)) at different temperatures. It was found that in definite concentration range, the emission peak of acridine exhibited a slight red shift and th fluorescence intensity decreased when (1) was added. They form stable host-guest complex, and the stoichiometry of the inclusion complex is 1 : 1. The stability constants of the inclusion complex at 15.0 degrees C, 20.0, 25.0 and 30.0 degrees C were determined as 3.08 x 10(5), 4.45 x 10(4), 2.58 x 10(4) and 8.90 x 10(3), respectively. The thermodynamic parameters of inclusion process, deltaG, deltaH and deltaS, were determined. The experimental results indicated that the inclusion process was an exothermic and enthalpy-driven process. It was found that the stability constants descended when temperature rose. The most probable pattern of the inclusion complex between (1) and acridine was proposed as: acridine partially goes into the cavity of (1), and the protonated N atom and the negatively charged sulphonyl group bond firmly owing to strong electrostatic interaction. With the main contribution of electrostatic interaction and the assistance of Van de Waals and hydrophobic interaction, the host and the guest molecules form 1 : 1 supramolecular complex.

  18. Comparative toxicity of copper and acridine to fish, Daphnia and algae

    SciTech Connect

    Blaylock, B.G.; Frank, M.L.; McCarthy, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    A comparison was made of the sensitivity of fish, Daphnia and algae to the toxic effects of copper and acridine. A series of toxicity tests was conducted with these organisms, and the following biological endpoints determined: LC50s for fish, LC50s and effects on reproduction of Daphnia and 50% inhibition of the growth rate of algae. The 96-h LCO50s for bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) and Daphnia magna exposed to copper were 2.2 and 0.13 mg/L, respectively. A chronic exposure to 0.03 mg/L of copper for 14 d significantly decreased reproduction in Daphnia. Exposure to 0.4 and 0.2 mg/L copper inhibited the growth rate of Selenastrum capricornutum and Chlorella vulgaris, respectively, by 50%. The 96-h LC50s for fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and D. magna exposed to acridine were 2.3 and 3.1 mg/L, respectively. A chronic exposure to 1.25 mg/L acridine for 14 d significantly inhibited reproduction in Daphnia, and an exposure to 0.9 mg/L inhibited the growth rate of S. capricornutum by 50%. Based on the biological endpoints determined in these tests, Daphnia were more sensitive to copper than were fish or algae. In contrast, the most sensitive biological endpoint in tests with acridine was the inhibition of algal growth. Comparison of these test results indicates that short-term toxicity tests used for screening toxicants for possible environmental effects should include both plant and animal species. 16 references, 4 figures, 4 tables.

  19. The role of ultraviolet-adaptation of a marine diatom in photoenhanced toxicity of acridine.

    PubMed

    Wiegman, Saskia; Barranguet, Christiane; Spijkerman, Elly; Kraak, Michiel Harm Steven; Admiraal, Wim

    2003-03-01

    Cultures of the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum were grown under laboratory light with a different fraction of ultraviolet radiation (UV) to study the potential role of photoadaptation in determining the sensitivity to photoenhanced toxicity of acridine. In short-term experiments, a higher acridine concentration was needed to inhibit the photosynthetic electron flux, monitored with chlorophyll a fluorescence, in algae exposed to fluorescent light (low UV) than to mercury light (high UV), consistent with the expected role of UV. The two types of light in long-term exposures led to changes in the pigment composition and photosystem I (PS I) to photosystem II (PS II) stoichiometry to optimize the utilization of fluorescent and mercury light. Despite the adaptation of the photosynthetic apparatus to a small fraction of UV, long-term exposure to mercury light did show a constant sensitivity of the photosynthetic efficiency of P. tricornutum to the phototoxic acridine. It is concluded that the prime receptor of photoenhanced toxicity may be unrelated to the photosynthetic machinery.

  20. Growing Oranges. People on the Farm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. Office of Governmental and Public Affairs.

    This booklet, one in a series about life on modern farms, describes the daily lives of three orange growers in Florida and one in California. Two of the Florida orange growers also have other jobs, one as manager of a citrus cooperative and the other as a citrus insurance salesman. The operations of orange groves, the care and picking of oranges,…

  1. 21 CFR 74.250 - Orange B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Orange B. 74.250 Section 74.250 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Foods § 74.250 Orange B. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive Orange B is.... (2) The diluents in color additive mixtures for food use containing Orange B are limited to those...

  2. 21 CFR 74.250 - Orange B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Orange B. 74.250 Section 74.250 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Foods § 74.250 Orange B. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive Orange B is.... (2) The diluents in color additive mixtures for food use containing Orange B are limited to those...

  3. 21 CFR 74.250 - Orange B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Orange B. 74.250 Section 74.250 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Foods § 74.250 Orange B. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive Orange B is.... (2) The diluents in color additive mixtures for food use containing Orange B are limited to those...

  4. 21 CFR 74.250 - Orange B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Orange B. 74.250 Section 74.250 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Foods § 74.250 Orange B. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive Orange B is.... (2) The diluents in color additive mixtures for food use containing Orange B are limited to those...

  5. AL Amyloidosis and Agent Orange

    MedlinePlus

    ... for survivors' benefits . Research on AL amyloidosis and herbicides The Health and Medicine Division (formally known as ... to the compounds of interest found in the herbicide Agent Orange and AL amyloidosis." VA made a ...

  6. Peripheral Neuropathy and Agent Orange

    MedlinePlus

    ... ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Peripheral Neuropathy and Agent Orange VA presumes Veterans' early-onset ... percent disabling by VA's rating regulations. About peripheral neuropathy Peripheral neuropathy is a condition of the peripheral ...

  7. "Long-range" metal-ligand cooperation in H2 activation and ammonia-promoted hydride transfer with a ruthenium-acridine pincer complex.

    PubMed

    Gunanathan, Chidambaram; Gnanaprakasam, Boopathy; Iron, Mark A; Shimon, Linda J W; Milstein, David

    2010-10-27

    The acridine-based pincer complex 1 exhibits an unprecedented mode of metal-ligand cooperation involving a "long-range" interaction between the distal acridine C9 position and the metal center. Reaction of 1 with H(2)/KOH results in H(2) splitting between the Ru center and C9 with concomitant dearomatization of the acridine moiety. DFT calculations show that this process involves the formation of a Ru dihydride intermediate bearing a bent acridine ligand in which C9 is in close proximity to a hydride ligand followed by through-space hydride transfer. Ammonia induces transfer of a hydride from the Ru center of 1 to C9 of the flexible acridine pincer ligand, forming an unusual dearomatized fac-acridine PNP complex.

  8. Investigations on the binding of human hemoglobin with orange I and orange II.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Qing; Zhang, Hong-Mei

    2012-08-01

    The interactions between human hemoglobin and orange I (or orange II) were investigated by UV/vis absorption, circular dichroism, fluorescence spectra techniques, and molecular modeling method. Orange I and orange II effectively quenched the intrinsic fluorescence of human hemoglobin by static quenching. The processes of the binding orange I and orange II on human hemoglobin were spontaneous molecular interaction procedure with hydrogen bonds, van der Waals force, hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions according to van't Hoff equation and molecular modeling. There is a single class of binding site of orange I (orange II) in human hemoglobin and the molecular modeling study shows that orange I and orange II are dipped into α(2) chain. The results of CD, synchronous fluorescence and three-dimensional fluorescence spectra indicated a small loss of α-helical secondary structure of human hemoglobin induced by orange I and orange II.

  9. Bis-Acridines as Lead Antiparasitic Agents: Structure-Activity Analysis of a Discrete Compound Library In Vitro▿

    PubMed Central

    Caffrey, Conor R.; Steverding, Dietmar; Swenerton, Ryan K.; Kelly, Ben; Walshe, Deirdre; Debnath, Anjan; Zhou, Yuan-Min; Doyle, Patricia S.; Fafarman, Aaron T.; Zorn, Julie A.; Land, Kirkwood M.; Beauchene, Jessica; Schreiber, Kimberly; Moll, Heidrun; Ponte-Sucre, Alicia; Schirmeister, Tanja; Saravanamuthu, Ahilan; Fairlamb, Alan H.; Cohen, Fred E.; McKerrow, James H.; Weisman, Jennifer L.; May, Barnaby C. H.

    2007-01-01

    Parasitic diseases are of enormous public health significance in developing countries—a situation compounded by the toxicity of and resistance to many current chemotherapeutics. We investigated a focused library of 18 structurally diverse bis-acridine compounds for in vitro bioactivity against seven protozoan and one helminth parasite species and compared the bioactivities and the cytotoxicities of these compounds toward various mammalian cell lines. Structure-activity relationships demonstrated the influence of both the bis-acridine linker structure and the terminal acridine heterocycle on potency and cytotoxicity. The bioactivity of polyamine-linked acridines required a minimum linker length of approximately 10 Å. Increasing linker length resulted in bioactivity against most parasites but also cytotoxicity toward mammalian cells. N alkylation, but less so N acylation, of the polyamine linker ameliorated cytotoxicity while retaining bioactivity with 50% effective concentration (EC50) values similar to or better than those measured for standard drugs. Substitution of the polyamine for either an alkyl or a polyether linker maintained bioactivity and further alleviated cytotoxicity. Polyamine-linked compounds in which the terminal acridine heterocycle had been replaced with an aza-acridine also maintained acceptable therapeutic indices. The most potent compounds recorded low- to mid-nanomolar EC50 values against Plasmodium falciparum and Trypanosoma brucei; otherwise, low-micromolar potencies were measured. Importantly, the bioactivity of the library was independent of P. falciparum resistance to chloroquine. Compound bioactivity was a function of neither the potential to bis-intercalate DNA nor the inhibition of trypanothione reductase, an important drug target in trypanosomatid parasites. Our approach illustrates the usefulness of screening focused compound libraries against multiple parasite targets. Some of the bis-acridines identified here may represent

  10. Antitumour polycyclic acridines. Palladium(0) mediated syntheses of quino[4,3,2-kl]acridines bearing peripheral substituents as potential telomere maintenance inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Heald, Robert A; Stevens, Malcolm F G

    2003-10-07

    Pd(0) mediated couplings between substituted 2-(pivaloylamino)benzeneboronic acids and 3,6-disubstituted-10-methylacridones 13 bearing a bromo or trifluoromethylsulfonyloxy substituent in the 1-position yield intermediate 1-arylacridones 16 which can be can be cyclised to new 8-methylquino[4,3,2-kl]acridines 17 with phosphorus oxychloride or 6 M HCI in EtOH. Heck reactions between triflate-substituted substrates 17 and acrylic acid derivatives afforded quinoacridines with unsaturated side-chains in the 6-position. Alkylboranes, prepared by interaction of 9-borabicyclo[3,3,1]nonane (9-BBN) and allyl acetate or N-allyltrifluoroacetamide, participated in Suzuki-Miyaura reactions with chloro-substituted 8-methylquinoacridines to form derivatives bearing functionalised propyl groups in the 6- and 10-positions. Representative 8-methylquinoacridines were methylated with methyl iodide to yield telomerase-inhibitory 8,13-dimethylquinoacridinium iodides 24.

  11. Redesigning the DNA-Targeted Chromophore in Platinum–Acridine Anticancer Agents: A Structure–Activity Relationship Study

    PubMed Central

    Pickard, Amanda J.; Liu, Fang; Bartenstein, Thomas F.; Haines, Laura G.; Levine, Keith E.; Kucera, Gregory L.; Bierbach, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Platinum–acridine hybrid agents show low-nanomolar potency in chemoresistant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but high systemic toxicity in vivo. To reduce the promiscuous genotoxicity of these agents and improve their pharmacological properties, a modular build–click–screen approach was used to evaluate a small library of twenty hybrid agents containing truncated and extended chromophores of varying basicities. Selected derivatives were resynthesized and tested in five NSCLC cell lines representing large cell, squamous cell, and adenocarcinomas. 7-Aminobenz[c]acridine was identified as a promising scaffold in a hybrid agent (P1–B1) that maintained submicromolar activity in several of the DNA-repair proficient and p53-mutant cancer models, while showing improved tolerability in mice by 32-fold compared to the parent platinum–acridine (P1–A1). The distribution and DNA/RNA adduct levels produced by the acridine- and benz[c]acridine-based analogues in NCI-H460 cells (confocal microscopy, ICP-MS), and their ability to bind G-quadruplex forming DNA sequences (CD spectroscopy, HR-ESMS) were studied. P1–B1 emerges as a less genotoxic, more tolerable, and potentially more target-selective hybrid agent than P1–A1. PMID:25302716

  12. Symmetry considerations for solid-state photochemical hydrogen-abstraction reactions. Applications to fluorene doped with acridine and related systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colpa, J. P.; Stehlik, D.

    1983-11-01

    The photochemical hydrogen abstraction by acridine doped in fluorene single crystals is discussed in particular, taking into account recent experimental evidence from time-resolved spectroscopic methods that the 3(ππ*) state of acridine is the precursor. In this reaction a "vertical" symmetry plane is conserved, in contrast to the "horizontal" plane introduced by Salem in his classification concept for photochemical reactions. The consequences of the presence or absence of the various symmetry planes are discussed, mainly for reactions with 3(nπ*) and 3(ππ*) precursors. It is shown that in the fluorene crystal an adiabatic reaction to radical pair products is allowed for 3(ππ*) acridine but forbidden for 3(nπ*) benzophenone. It is also found that the rate of hydrogen abstraction by 3(ππ*) acridine from fluorene in a single-crystal matrix is comparable to the abstraction rates by the 3(nπ*) states of benzophenone and pyrazine from ethanol in glass matrix. It appears that there are exceptions to the rule often formulated as knπ* ≫ kππ*. Further aspects of the acridine-fluorene reaction are discussed such as the spin selectivity of formation and decay of the radical pair in the triplet state. The non-adiabatic decay rate of the radical pair to ground-state molecules has to be faster than the rate of the adiabatic formation of the radical pair.

  13. Photo-inducible cytotoxic and clastogenic activities of 3,6-di-substituted acridines obtained by acylation of proflavine.

    PubMed

    Benchabane, Yohann; Di Giorgio, Carole; Boyer, Gérard; Sabatier, Anne-Sophie; Allegro, Diane; Peyrot, Vincent; De Méo, Michel

    2009-06-01

    The cytotoxicity and photo-enhanced cytotoxicity of a series of 18 3,6-di-substituted acridines were evaluated on both tumour CHO cells and human normal keratinocytes, and compared to their corresponding clastogenicity as assessed by the micronucleus assay. Compounds 2f tert-butyl N-[(6-tert-butoxycarbonylamino)acridin-3-yl]carbamate and 2d N-[6-(pivalamino)acridin-3-yl]pivalamide displayed a specific cytotoxicity on CHO cells. These results suggested that the two derivatives could be considered as interesting candidates for anticancer chemotherapy and hypothesized that the presence of 1,1-dimethylethyl substituents was responsible for a strong nonclastogenic cytotoxicity. Compounds 2b and 2c, on the contrary, displayed a strong clastogenicity. They indicated that the presence of nonbranched aliphatic chains on positions 3 and 6 of the acridine rings tended to induce a significant clastogenic effect. Finally, they established that most of the acridine compounds could be photo-activated by UVA-visible rays and focussed on the significant role of light irradiation on their biological properties.

  14. Biological variation in sensitivity to N-heterocyclic PAHs; effects of acridine on seven species of micro-algae.

    PubMed

    Dijkman, N A; Van Vlaardingen, P L; Admiraal, W A

    1997-01-01

    The toxicity of the nitrogen (N) heterocyclic polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) acridine was tested for seven species of microalgae: Scenedesmus acuminatus, Selenastrum capricornutum, Chlamydomonas eugametos, Staurastrum chaetoceras, Staurastrum manfeldtii, Navicula salinarum and Nitzschia sigma. The effect of acridine on the algae was studied in a 96-h growth test, in which growth rates were determined using cell numbers and biovolume. The obtained EC50 values (for growth rates based on cell numbers) ranged from 0.08 mg litre(-1) for N. sigma to 0.78 mg litre(-1) for C. eugametos and N. salinarum. Effect concentrations based on biovolume were slightly higher for most species. Metabolism of acridine was observed for one species (S. capricornutum), but this capacity did not result in a very different tolerance. Acridine toxicity was neither related to taxonomical background (green algae versus diatoms) nor to original habitat of the species (planktonic or benthic, eutrophic or oligo-mesotrophic). The presence of near-UV radiation during the incubation might explain the higher toxicity of acridine than is expected on basis of QSAR derived narcotic toxicity.

  15. National Orange Show Photovoltaic Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Jimenez Sheri Raborn, CPA; Tom Baker

    2008-03-31

    National Orange Show Photovoltaic Demonstration created a 400KW Photovoltaic self-generation plant at the National Orange Show Events Center (NOS). The NOS owns a 120-acre state fairground where it operates an events center and produces an annual citrus fair known as the Orange Show. The NOS governing board wanted to employ cost-saving programs for annual energy expenses. It is hoped the Photovoltaic program will result in overall savings for the NOS, help reduce the State's energy demands as relating to electrical power consumption, improve quality of life within the affected grid area as well as increase the energy efficiency of buildings at our venue. In addition, the potential to reduce operational expenses would have a tremendous effect on the ability of the NOS to service its community.

  16. Comparison of hematin-targeting properties of pynacrine, an acridine analog of the benzonaphthyridine antimalarial pyronaridine.

    PubMed

    Sereekhajornjaru, Narumon; Somboon, Chanat; Rattanajak, Roonglawan; Denny, William A; Wilairat, Prapin; Auparakkitanon, Saranya

    2014-12-01

    The hematin-targeting properties of pynacrine, an acridine analog of the schizontocidal antimalarial drug, pyronaridine, were evaluated to probe the role of the latter's benzonaphthyridine moiety. Pynacrine was as active as pyronaridine in inhibiting glutathione-induced hematin degradation and in enhancing hematin-mediated membrane lysis. It formed a 1:2 complex with hematin but was 50-fold less effective in inhibiting β-hematin formation. However, pynacrine was as potent as pyronaridine in inhibiting intra-erythrocytic Plasmodium falciparum growth in culture, suggesting that it has other off-target(s) effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Alcohol amination with ammonia catalyzed by an acridine-based ruthenium pincer complex: a mechanistic study.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xuan; Plessow, Philipp N; Brinks, Marion K; Schelwies, Mathias; Schaub, Thomas; Rominger, Frank; Paciello, Rocco; Limbach, Michael; Hofmann, Peter

    2014-04-23

    The mechanistic course of the amination of alcohols with ammonia catalyzed by a structurally modified congener of Milstein's well-defined acridine-based PNP-pincer Ru complex has been investigated both experimentally and by DFT calculations. Several key Ru intermediates have been isolated and characterized. The detailed analysis of a series of possible catalytic pathways (e.g., with and without metal-ligand cooperation, inner- and outer-sphere mechanisms) leads us to conclude that the most favorable pathway for this catalyst does not require metal-ligand cooperation.

  18. 15. September, 1968 GARDEN BETWEEN NATHANIEL WOODBURY HOUSE, 22 ORANGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. September, 1968 GARDEN BETWEEN NATHANIEL WOODBURY HOUSE, 22 ORANGE STREET AND SETH FOLGER HOUSE, 26 ORANGE STREET - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  19. 11. August, 1970 ORANGE STREET SIDEWALK IN FRONT OF LEVI ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. August, 1970 ORANGE STREET SIDEWALK IN FRONT OF LEVI STARBUCK HOUSE (MASS-912), 14 ORANGE STREET - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  20. Cytotoxic and DNA-damaging properties of N-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]acridine-4-carboxamide (DACA) and its analogues.

    PubMed

    Pastwa, E; Ciesielska, E; Piestrzeniewicz, M K; Denny, W A; Gniazdowski, M; Szmigiero, L

    1998-08-01

    An antitumor drug N-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]acridine-4-carboxamide (DACA) and its three close structural analogs N-[2-(hydroxyethylamino)ethyl]acridine-4-carboxamide (DACAH), N-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]-9-aminoacridine-4-carboxamide (amino-DACA), and N-[2-(hydroxyethylamino)ethyl]-9-aminoacridine-4-carboxamide (amino-DACAH) were studied for their ability to inhibit RNA synthesis in vitro and to form topoisomerase II-mediated DNA lesions in relation to cell-killing activity. All tested compounds induced chromatin lesions characteristic of topoisomerase II-blocking drugs (DNA breaks and DNA-protein cross-links) in treated cells, but were much less active than reference antileukemic acridine m-AMSA (4'-(9-acridinylamino)-methanesulfon-m-anisidide). The ability to form these lesions was dependent on the structure of the 4-carboxamide side-chain, which seems to be an important factor affecting the drug transport rate through cell membrane. A 4-carboxamide chain with an N-2-(dimethylamino)ethyl moiety resulted in more efficient transport through cell membranes, higher cytotoxicity, and DNA-damaging activity. The mode of action of acridine-4-carboxamides was further elucidated by their incubation with cells in the presence of antitopoisomerase II agents of a known mechanism of inhibition. These were: bisdioxopiperazine (ICRF-187), a catalytic inhibitor of topoisomerase II, and etoposide (VP-16), an inducer of a cleavable complex of the enzyme with DNA. The cytotoxicity of DACA and its analogs was not antagonized by preincubating cells with ICRF-187. All tested acridines protected cells against DNA breakage induced by VP-16, but the extent of protection varied significantly. Amino-DACA, which easily penetrates cell membrane, fully inhibited DNA break formation, whereas other analogs exhibited a low degree of protection when used at high concentration. Our results suggest that the acridine-4-carboxamides discussed here are poor topoisomerase II poisons and that this enzyme

  1. Synthesis and biological activity of ester derivatives of mycophenolic acid and acridines/acridones as potential immunosuppressive agents.

    PubMed

    Cholewinski, Grzegorz; Iwaszkiewicz-Grzes, Dorota; Trzonkowski, Piotr; Dzierzbicka, Krystyna

    2016-12-01

    Improved derivatives of mycophenolic acid (MPA) are necessary to reduce the frequency of adverse effects, this drug exerts in treated patients. In this study, MPA was coupled with N-(ω-hydroxyalkyl)-9-acridone-4-carboxamides or N-(ω-hydroxyalkyl)acridine-4-carboxamides to give respective ester conjugates upon Yamaguchi protocol. This esterification required protection of phenol group in MPA. Designed conjugates revealed higher potency in vitro than parent MPA. Acridine derivatives were more active than acridone analogs and length of the alkyl linker between MPA and heterocyclic units influenced the observed cytotoxicity. Derivatives 2b, 2d, 3a, 3b displayed the most promising immunosuppressive activity.

  2. 76 FR 5822 - Orange Juice From Brazil

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ... COMMISSION Orange Juice From Brazil AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of a five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on certain orange juice from Brazil... antidumping duty order on certain orange juice from Brazil would be likely to lead to continuation...

  3. 21 CFR 74.250 - Orange B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Foods § 74.250 Orange B. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive Orange B is.... (2) The diluents in color additive mixtures for food use containing Orange B are limited to those...

  4. Attenuation of acridine mutagen ICR-191--DNA interactions and DNA damage by the mutagen interceptor chlorophyllin.

    PubMed

    Pietrzak, Monika; Halicka, H Dorota; Wieczorek, Zbigniew; Wieczorek, Jolanta; Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew

    2008-06-01

    We have investigated the ability of chlorophyllin (CHL) to interact with acridine mutagen ICR-191 (2-methoxy-6-chloro-9-(3-(2-chloroethyl)aminopropylamino)acridine) and also its ability to decrease binding of ICR-191 to DNA in a simple three-component competition system: CHL-ICR-DNA. Our data indicate a strong association of ICR-191 with CHL, stronger even than the association of ICR-191 with DNA. Calculations based on the measured affinity data show that a two- to three-fold excess of CHL reduces by about two-fold the concentration of the mutagen-DNA complex. We also exposed human leukemic HL-60 cells to ICR-191 in the absence and presence of CHL and measured the mutagen-induced DNA damage. The extent of DNA damage was assessed by analysis of histone H2AX phosphorylation. While ICR-191 induced significant increase in expression of phosphorylated H2AX (gammaH2AX), particularly in DNA replicating cells, this increase was totally abolished in the cells treated with ICR-191 in the presence of CHL.

  5. Novel tacrine/acridine anticholinesterase inhibitors with piperazine and thiourea linkers.

    PubMed

    Hamulakova, Slavka; Imrich, Jan; Janovec, Ladislav; Kristian, Pavol; Danihel, Ivan; Holas, Ondrej; Pohanka, Miroslav; Böhm, Stanislav; Kozurkova, Maria; Kuca, Kamil

    2014-09-01

    A new series of substituted tacrine/acridine and tacrine/tacrine dimers with aliphatic or alkylene-thiourea linkers was synthesized and the potential of these compounds as novel human acetylcholinesterase (hAChE) and human butyrylcholinesterase (hBChE) inhibitors with nanomolar inhibition activity was evaluated. The most potent AChE inhibitor was found to be homodimeric tacrine derivative 14a, which demonstrated an IC50 value of 2 nM; this value indicates an activity rate which is 250-times higher than that of tacrine 1 and 7500-times higher than 7-MEOTA 15, the compounds which were used as standards in the study. IC50 values of derivatives 1, 9, 10, 14b and 15 were compared with the dissociation constants of the enzyme-inhibitor complex, Ki1, and the enzyme-substrate-inhibitor complex, Ki2, for. A dual binding site is presumed for the synthesized compounds which possess two tacrines or tacrine and acridine as terminal moieties show evidence of dual site binding. DFT calculations of theoretical desolvation free energies, ΔΔGtheor, and docking studies elucidate these suggestions in more detail. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Purple is the new Orange

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Blood orange and Cara cara-like citrus varieties with purple or red fruit color, increased antioxidants and modified flavor could be the next generation of cultivars produced via genetic engineering. These varieties are being developed by enhancing the presence of anthocyanin and lycopene pigments...

  7. Biorefinery of waste orange peel.

    PubMed

    Angel Siles López, José; Li, Qiang; Thompson, Ian P

    2010-03-01

    Up to comparatively recently orange peel and the associated residual remnants of membranes resulting from juice extraction represented a significant disposal problem, especially in those regions where orange cultivation is a major industry. However, recent research has demonstrated that orange peel waste represents a potentially valuable resource that can be developed into high value products. These developments are critically reviewed in this article. This includes a summary of the chemical composition of the substrate and an assessment of the range of applications in which the peel is deployed. Utilization as a substrate to produce animal feed, fertilizer, essential oils, pectin, ethanol, methane, industrial enzymes, and single cell protein is discussed. The applications described together with those that will no doubt be developed in the future, represent great opportunities to harness the economical benefit of this agro-industrial waste and to develop even more efficient and sustainable systems. A scheme of integrated utilization of orange peel in a biorefinery approach is discussed together with some prediction of further necessary research.

  8. 40 CFR 721.10079 - Quino[2,3-b]acridine-7, 14-dione, 5,12-dihydro-2,9-dimethyl-, 4-[(17-substituted-3,6,9,12,15...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Quino acridine-7, 14-dione, 5,12... Quino acridine-7, 14-dione, 5,12-dihydro-2,9-dimethyl-, 4- phenyl derivs., hydrochlorides (generic). (a... generically as quino acridine-7, 14-dione, 5,12-dihydro-2,9-dimethyl-, 4- phenyl derivs., hydrochlorides (PMN...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10130 - Quino[2,3-b]acridine-7,14-dione, 5,12-dihydro-ar-[4-[[2-(sulfooxy)ethyl]substituted]phenyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Quino acridine-7,14-dione, 5,12... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10130 Quino acridine-7,14... significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as quino acridine...

  10. Ultrastructural Assessment of 2-(acridin-9-ylmethylene)-N-phenylhydrazinecarbothioamide activity on human breast adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Sinara Mônica Vitalino; da Silva, Lúcia Patrícia Bezerra Gomes; de Lima, Luiza Rayanna Amorim; Longato, Giovanna Barbarini; Padilha, Rafael José Ribeiro; Alves, Luiz Carlos; Brayner, Fábio André; Ruiz, Ana Lucia Tasca Gois; de Carvalho, João Ernesto; Beltrão, Eduardo Isidoro Carneiro; de Lima, Maria do Carmo Alves; de Carvalho Júnior, Luiz Bezerra

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate ultrastructural changes induced by (Z)-2-(acridin-9-ylmethylene)-N-phenylhydrazinecarbothioamide (APHCA) treatment on human breast adenocarcinoma cancer cells MCF-7, besides the evaluation of phosphatidylserine externalization and DNA fragmentation in treated cells. Cell viability analysis demonstrated concentration and time-manner cytotoxicity. Treated MCF-7 cells did not expose phosphatidylserine residues to the external plasma membrane surface and DNA fragmentation was not visualized by electrophoresis. Light microscopy showed compromised cell density and presence of vacuolization after APHCA treatment with 60μM. Scanning and transmission electron microscopies revealed hallmarks of autophagy, namely the presence of membrane bebbling and autophagosomes, besides shrunken cells and cell debris in treated MCF-7 cells. However, more specific tests such as the quantification of mammalian autophagy proteins are necessary to determine the kind of death that is trigged by APHCA.

  11. Activity and mode of action of acridine compounds against Leishmania donovani.

    PubMed Central

    Mesa-Valle, C M; Castilla-Calvente, J; Sanchez-Moreno, M; Moraleda-Lindez, V; Barbe, J; Osuna, A

    1996-01-01

    In the present work, we have assayed both the in vitro and in vivo action of two acridine compounds against Leishmania donovani. As part of this effort, we have studied the possible action mechanism of these compounds at the ultrastructural and biochemical levels and in relation to the synthesis of macromolecules. The two acridinones inhibit the in vitro growth of the promastigote forms of L. donovani at the highest concentration assayed (100 micrograms/ml). The in vivo results indicate that both compounds reduce the number of amastigotes per gram of spleen, and decrease parasitism, by more than 40%. With respect to the action mechanism, both compounds inhibit the incorporation of [3H]thymidine, inducing alterations at the ultrastructural level in the DNA and mitochondria. Alterations are also caused in the enzymes of the Krebs cycle. PMID:8851593

  12. A multi-state fluorescent switch based on a diarylethene with an acridine unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Zhaoyan; Cui, Shiqiang; Zheng, Chunhong; Pu, Shouzhi

    2017-02-01

    A new asymmetrical fluorescent diarylethene derivative with an acridine unit was synthesized by Schiff base condensation. The derivative was sensitive to lights and special metal ions. Stimulated by UV/vis lights and Zn2 +, distinct changes were observed in UV-vis and fluorescent spectra. Upon addition of Zn2 +, the derivative emission peak was blue-shifted by 34 nm and the emission intensity was enhanced by 16 fold, accompanied by the fluorescent color changed from red to light yellow, due to the formation of a 1:1 metal/ligand complex. The complex exhibited excellent fluorescence switching upon irradiation with UV light. Taking advantage of the lights and Zn2 + stimuli (inputs), and fluorescence intensity at 580 nm (output), a molecular logic gate was constructed. Moreover, a new absorption band centered at 420-450 nm emerged upon exposure to Zn2 +. The dramatic color change of the solution made the 'naked-eyes' detection of Zn2 + possible.

  13. The Crystal Structure and Behavior of Fenamic Acid-Acridine Complex Under High Pressure.

    PubMed

    Jerzykiewicz, Lucjan; Sroka, Adam; Majerz, Irena

    2016-12-01

    The crystal structure of fenamic acid-acridine complex is determined by X-ray diffraction. The strong OHN hydrogen bond linking the complex components and other interactions responsible for packing of the molecules into a crystal are investigated within the Quantum Theory of Atom in Molecule theory. The crystal structure is compared with the structure optimized at B3LYP/6-311++G** level and with the theoretical structures optimized under systematically changed pressure. Analysis of the lattice constants, hydrogen bond lengths, and angles of the inter- and intramolecular hydrogen bond under compression is performed. The structural transformation observed at 5 GPa is connected with a change in the intermolecular OHN hydrogen bond. The proton shifts to acceptor and a new interaction in the crystal appears.

  14. Development of acridine derivatives as selective Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA gyrase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Medapi, Brahmam; Meda, Nikhila; Kulkarni, Pushkar; Yogeeswari, Perumal; Sriram, Dharmarajan

    2016-02-15

    In this study we have designed p-phenylene diamine linked acridine derivative from our earlier reported quinoline-aminopiperidine hybrid MTB DNA gyrase inhibitors with aiming more potency and less cardiotoxicity. We synthesized thirty six compounds using four step synthesis from 2-chloro benzoic acid. Among them compound 4-chloro-N-(4-((2-methylacridin-9-yl)amino)phenyl)benzenesulphonamide (6) was found to be more potent with MTB DNA gyrase super coiling IC50 of 5.21±0.51μM; MTB MIC of 6.59μM and no zHERG cardiotoxicity at 30μM and 11.78% inhibition at 50μM against mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterization of the bisintercalative DNA binding mode of a bifunctional platinum–acridine agent

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, Jayati Roy; Bierbach, Ulrich

    2005-01-01

    The DNA interactions of PT-BIS(ACRAMTU) ([Pt(en)(ACRAMTU)2](NO3)4; ACRAMTU = 1-[2-(acridin-9-ylamino)ethyl]-1,3-dimethylthiourea, en = ethylenediamine), a bifunctional platinum–acridine conjugate, have been studied in native and synthetic double-stranded DNAs and model duplexes using various biophysical techniques. These include ethidium-DNA fluorescence quenching and thermal melting experiments, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and plasmid unwinding assays. In addition, the binding mode was studied in a short octamer by NMR spectroscopy in conjunction with molecular modeling. In alternating copolymers, PT-BIS(ACRAMTU) shows a distinct preference for poly(dA-dT)2, which is ∼3-fold higher than that of ACRAMTU. In the ligand-oligomer complex, d(GCTATAGC)2·PT-BIS(ACRAMTU) (complex I*), PT-BIS(ACRAMTU) increases the thermal stability of the B-form host duplex by ΔTm > 30 K (CD and UV melting experiments). The agent unwinds pSP73 plasmid DNA by 44(±2)° per bound molecule, indicating bisintercalative binding. A 2-D NMR study unequivocally demonstrates that PT-BIS(ACRAMTU)'s chromophores deeply bisintercalate into the 5′-TA/TA base pair steps in I*, while the platinum linker lies in the minor groove. An AMBER model reflecting the NMR results shows that bracketing of the central AT base pairs in a classical nearest neighbor excluded fashion is feasible. PT-BIS(ACRAMTU) inhibits DNA hydrolysis by BstZ17 I at the enzyme's restriction site, GTA↓TAC. Possible consequences for other relevant DNA–protein interactions, such as those involved in TATA-box-mediated transcription initiation and the utility of the platinum-intercalator technology for the design of sequence-specific agents are discussed. PMID:16192574

  16. Complexes of acridine and 9-chloroacridine with I2: formation of unusual I6 chains through charge-transfer interactions involving amphoteric I2.

    PubMed

    Rimmer, E L; Bailey, R D; Hanks, T W; Pennington, W T

    2000-11-17

    Acridine and 9-chloroacridine form charge-transfer complexes with iodine in which the nitrogen-bound I2 molecule is amphoteric; one end serves as a Lewis acid to the heterocyclic donor, while the other end acts as a Lewis base to a second I2 molecule that bridges two acridine.I2 units. In the acridine derivative [(acridine.I2)2.I2, 1], the dimer has a "zigzag" conformation, while in the 9-chloroacridine derivative [(9-Cl-acridine.I2)2.I2, 2], the dimer is "C-shaped". The thermal decomposition of the two complexes is very different. Compound 1 loses one molecule of I2 to form an acridine.I2 intermediate, which has not been isolated. Further decomposition gives acridine as the form II polymorph, exclusively. Decomposition of 2 involves the loss of two molecules of I2 to form a relatively stable intermediate [(9-Cl-acridine)2.I2, 3]. Compound 3 consists of two 9-Cl-acridine molecules bridged through N...I charge-transfer interactions by a single I2 molecule. This compound represents the first known example, in which both ends of an I2 molecule form interactions in a complex that is not stabilized by the extended interactions of an infinite chain structure. The ability of the terminal iodine of an N-bound I2 to act either as an electron donor (complexes 1 and 2) or as an electron acceptor (complex 3) can be understood through a quantum mechanical analysis of the systems. Both electrostatic interactions and the overlap of frontier molecular orbitals contribute to the observed behavior.

  17. Photoconversion in orange and red fluorescent proteins

    PubMed Central

    Kremers, Gert-Jan; Hazelwood, Kristin L.; Murphy, Christopher S.; Davidson, Michael W.; Piston, David W.

    2009-01-01

    We report that photoconversion is fairly common among orange and red fluorescent proteins, as a screen of 12 variants yielded 8 that exhibit photoconversion. Specifically, three red fluorescent proteins can be switched into a green state, and two orange variants can be photoconverted to the far red. The orange highlighters are ideal for dual-probe highlighter applications, and they exhibit the most red-shifted excitation of all fluorescent protein described to date. PMID:19363494

  18. Cryptoxanthin structural isomers in oranges, orange juice, and other fruits.

    PubMed

    Schlatterer, Jörg; Breithaupt, Dietmar E

    2005-08-10

    Citrus fruits contain a wide range of bioactive compounds. Their carotenoid fraction is inter alia dominated by structural cryptoxanthin isomers as beta-cryptoxanthin and zeinoxanthin. Both xanthophylls were identified in saponified citrus fruit extracts by comparison to reference compounds extracted from corn and by their typical fragmentation pattern in LC-(APCI)MS analyses. alpha-Cryptoxanthin, another structural cryptoxanthin isomer usually found in carrot leaves, was not identified in the citrus fruits studied. Cryptoxanthin concentrations of direct orange juices (D) and reconstituted juices (C) were compared. Although the respective mean values [beta-cryptoxanthin, 62 (C) versus 110 microg/100 g (D); zeinoxanthin, 22 (C) versus 37 microg/100 g (D)] were statistically distinguishable (P < 0.05%), a doubtless classification is not possible because the concentration ranges overlap. To identify esters of structural cryptoxanthin isomers in native orange juice extracts, four saturated acyl esters were synthesized. LC-(APCI)MS studies revealed for the first time that the dominant acylation partners of both xanthophylls were C12:0, C14:0, and C16:0 in nearly equal amounts of roughly one-third, whereas C10:0 and C18:1 were present at lower extents of 5-14%; other acylation partners were not identified. The presented method is appropriate to gain deeper insight into the pattern of structural cryptoxanthin isomers of citrus fruits. Knowledge of acylated cryptoxanthin isomers may be important in the evaluation of the bioavailability of individual esters in future human digestion studies.

  19. Volatile Profile Comparison of USDA Sweet-Orange-Like Hybrids and Standard Sweet Oranges

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Volatiles of six hybrids (‘Ambersweet’ orange crossed with one of three different orange hybrids) were analyzed using gas chromatography – mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to compare the volatile profiles with ‘Hamlin’, the most widely grown early sweet orange in Florida, and ‘Ambersweet’. All hybrids are ...

  20. Determination of micronucleus frequency by acridine orange fluorescent staining in peripheral blood reticulocytes of mice treated topically with different lubricant oils and cyclophosphamide.

    PubMed

    Oliveira-Martins, C R; Grisolia, C K

    2007-09-30

    To ascertain whether used and re-refined lubricant oil absorbed through the skin can produce a genotoxic effect or cytotoxicity in mouse bone marrow cells, we examined the induction of micronucleated erythrocytes of peripheral blood after cutaneous application. Both re-refined and used lubricant oils showed a weak but significant induction of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes compared with control, while virgin oil did not show micronucleus induction. Cyclophosphamide (CP) was used not only as positive control but also to compare the sensitivity between intraperitoneal and dermal routes of administration of the test compounds in mice. The efficacy of intraperitoneal injection of CP is well known. On the other hand, dermal exposure is not so common and when CP was diluted in glycerin statistically significant values (P = 0.0036) of micronuclei were also found. Topically applied lubricant oils (virgin, re-refined and used) have the capacity to interfere with mouse bone marrow hematopoiesis evidenced by a statistically significant decrease in the proportion of polychromatic erythrocytes in the peripheral blood. Physical and chemical analysis revealed that used oil is more viscous than other lubricants, suggesting the presence of insoluble compounds, oxidized products and water as well as aromatic hydrocarbons. Used oil differs from other lubricant oils in metal and polyaromatic hydrocarbon content. Re-refined oil revealed a neutral value typical of pure mineral oil. This assay is an important tool to evaluate environmental pollutants that cause genotoxicity and/or cytotoxicity through skin exposure.

  1. 7. August, 1970 9 ORANGE STREET, ADJACENT TO UNITARIAN CHURCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. August, 1970 9 ORANGE STREET, ADJACENT TO UNITARIAN CHURCH (NOT IN STUDY AREA) - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  2. 22. August, 1970 STONE ALLEY, VIEW TO ORANGE STREET FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. August, 1970 STONE ALLEY, VIEW TO ORANGE STREET FROM GARDNER HOUSES - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  3. 6. September, 1968 LOOKING WEST ON ORANGE STREET, UNITARIAN CHURCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. September, 1968 LOOKING WEST ON ORANGE STREET, UNITARIAN CHURCH AT LEFT - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  4. 10. August, 1970 EAST SIDE OF ORANGE STREET LOOKING NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. August, 1970 EAST SIDE OF ORANGE STREET LOOKING NORTH FOM IN FRONT OF THE LEVI STARBUCK HOUSE - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  5. 8. August, 1970 PUMP BEHIND PELEG COGGESHALL HOUSE, 10 ORANGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. August, 1970 PUMP BEHIND PELEG COGGESHALL HOUSE, 10 ORANGE STREET (MASS-1063) - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  6. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SOUTHBOUND LANES AND EXIT RAMP TO ORANGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SOUTHBOUND LANES AND EXIT RAMP TO ORANGE GROVE AVENUE. ORANGE GROVE AVENUE BRIDGE IN REAR. LOOKING 278°W - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Orange Grove Avenue Bridge, Milepost 30.59, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  7. 16. August, 1970 #31 ORANGE STREET & GENERAL VIEW OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. August, 1970 #31 ORANGE STREET & GENERAL VIEW OF WEST SIDE OF STREET - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  8. 2. August, 1970 VIEW LOOKING SOUTH ON ORANGE STREET FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. August, 1970 VIEW LOOKING SOUTH ON ORANGE STREET FROM TOP OF UNITARIAN CHURCH - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  9. 24. August, 1970 STONE ALLEY, LOOKING TOWARD ORANGE STREET FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. August, 1970 STONE ALLEY, LOOKING TOWARD ORANGE STREET FROM HALF-WAY POINT - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  10. Effects of temperature and nutritional state on the toxicity of acridine to the calanoid copepod, Diaptomus clavipes Schacht. [Diaptomus claripes, Daphnia magna

    SciTech Connect

    Cooney, J.D.; Gehrs, C.W.; Bunting, D.L. II

    1983-07-01

    Acute and chronic bioassays were performed on the calanoid copepod, Diaptomus clavipes, using the azaarene, acridine, as the test compound. Tests were performed at three temperatures (16/sup 0/, 21/sup 0/, 26/sup 0/C) and over a range of nutritional conditions. Survival, growth, development, and reproduction were all affected by exposure to acridine. These effects were modified by temperature and nutritional state of the animals.

  11. Synthesis and biological evaluation of benzimidazole acridine derivatives as potential DNA-binding and apoptosis-inducing agents.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chunmei; Li, Bin; Zhang, Bin; Sun, Qinsheng; Li, Lulu; Li, Xi; Chen, Changjun; Tan, Chunyan; Liu, Hongxia; Jiang, Yuyang

    2015-04-15

    The discovery of new effective DNA-targeted antitumor agent is needed because of their clinical significance. As acridines can intercalate into DNA and benzimidazoles have the ability to bind in the DNA minor groove, a series of novel benzimidazole acridine derivatives were designed and synthesized to be new DNA-targeted compounds. MTT assay indicated that most of the synthesized compounds displayed good antiproliferative activity, among which compound 8l demonstrated the highest activity against both K562 and HepG-2 cells. Further experiments showed that 8l displayed good DNA-binding capability and inhibited topoisomerase I activity. Moreover, compound 8l could induce apoptosis in K562 cell lines through mitochondrial pathway. These data suggested that compound 8l might be potential as new DNA-binding and apoptosis-inducing antitumor agents.

  12. Trouble Brewing in Orange County. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    Orange County will soon face enormous budgetary pressures from the growing deficits in public pensions, both at a state and local level. In this policy brief, the author estimates that Orange County faces a total $41.2 billion liability for retiree benefits that are underfunded--including $9.4 billion for the county pension system and an estimated…

  13. 7 CFR 29.1043 - Orange (F).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Orange (F). 29.1043 Section 29.1043 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1043 Orange (F). A reddish yellow. ...

  14. 7 CFR 29.1043 - Orange (F).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Orange (F). 29.1043 Section 29.1043 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1043 Orange (F). A reddish yellow. [42 FR 21092, Apr. 25, 1977. Redesignated at 47 FR...

  15. 7 CFR 29.1043 - Orange (F).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Orange (F). 29.1043 Section 29.1043 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1043 Orange (F). A reddish yellow. ...

  16. 7 CFR 29.1043 - Orange (F).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Orange (F). 29.1043 Section 29.1043 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1043 Orange (F). A reddish yellow. [42 FR 21092, Apr. 25, 1977. Redesignated at 47 FR...

  17. 7 CFR 29.1043 - Orange (F).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Orange (F). 29.1043 Section 29.1043 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1043 Orange (F). A reddish yellow. [42 FR 21092, Apr. 25, 1977. Redesignated at 47 FR...

  18. Polarized absorption spectra of aromatic radicals in stretched polymer film. 3. Radical ions of acridine and phenazine

    SciTech Connect

    Sekigucki, K.; Hiratsuka, H.; Tanizaki, Y.; Hatano, Y.

    1980-02-21

    Radical anions and cations of acridine and phenazine have been prepared in polymer film by ..gamma..-ray irradiation at 77 K. For the preparation of radical anions the sample was incorporated into polyethylene film by sec-butylamine, while for radical cations poly(vinyl chloride) film and sec-butyl chloride were used. Polarized absorption spectra of these radical ions have been measured in stretched polymer film and analyzed qualitatively in terms of molecular orbital calculations.

  19. Quantitative treatment of the solvent effects on the electronic absorption and fluorescence spectra of acridines and phenazines. The ground and first excited singlet-state dipole moments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaron, Jean Jacques; Maafi, Mounir; Párkányi, Cyril; Boniface, Christian

    1995-04-01

    Electronic absorption and fluorescence excitation and emission spectra of four acridines (acridine, Acridine Yellow, 9-aminoacridine and proflavine) and three phenazines (phenazine, neutral Red and safranine) are determined at room temperature (298 K) in several solvents of various polarities (dioxane, chloroform, ethyl ether, ethyl acetate, 1-butanol, 2-propanol, ethanol, methanol, dimethylformamide, acetonitrile and dimethyl sulfoxide). The effect of the solvent upon the spectral characteristics of the above compounds, is studied. In combination with the ground-state dipole moments of these compounds, the spectral data are used to evaluate their first excited singlet-state dipole moments by means of the solvatochromic shift method (Bakhshiev's and Kawski-Chamma-Viallet's correlations). The theoretical ground and excited singlet-state dipole moments for acridines and phenazines are also calculated as a vector sum of the π-component (obtained by the PPP method) and the σ-component (obtained from σ-bond moments). For most acridines and phenazines under study, the experimental excited singlet-state dipole moments are found to be higher than their ground state counterpart. The application of the Kamlet-Abboud-Taft solvatochromic parameters to the solvent effect on spectral properties of acridine and phenazine derivatives is discussed.

  20. Bis(acridine-9-carboxylate)-nitro-europium(III) dihydrate complex a new apoptotic agent through Flk-1 down regulation, caspase-3 activation and oligonucleosomes DNA fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Azab, Hassan A; Hussein, Belal H M; El-Azab, Mona F; Gomaa, Mohamed; El-Falouji, Abdullah I

    2013-01-01

    New bis(acridine-9-carboxylate)-nitro-europium(III) dihydrate complex was synthesized and characterized. In vivo anti-angiogenic activities of bis(acridine-9-carboxylate)-nitro-europium(III) dihydrate complex against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells are described. The newly synthesized complex resulted in inhibition of proliferation of EAC cells and ascites formation. The anti-tumor effect was found to be through anti-angiogenic activity as evident by the reduction of microvessel density in EAC solid tumors. The anti-angiogenic effect is mediated through down-regulation of VEGF receptor type-2 (Flk-1). The complex was also found to significantly increase the level of caspase-3 in laboratory animals compared to the acridine ligand and to the control group. This was also consistent with the DNA fragmentation detected by capillary electrophoresis that proved the apoptotic effect of the new complex. Our complex exhibited anti-angiogenic and apoptotic activity in vivo, a thing that makes it a potential effective chemotherapeutic agent. The interaction of calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA) with bis(acridine-9-carboxylate)-nitro-europium(III) dihydrate complex has been investigated using fluorescence technique. A competitive experiment of the europium(III)-acridine complex with ethidium bromide (EB) to bind DNA revealed that interaction between the europium(III)-acridine and DNA was via intercalation. The interaction of the synthesized complex with tyrosine kinases was also studied using molecular docking simulation to further substantiate its mode of action.

  1. 3,6-bis(3-alkylguanidino)acridines as DNA-intercalating antitumor agents.

    PubMed

    Plsikova, Jana; Janovec, Ladislav; Koval, Jan; Ungvarsky, Jan; Mikes, Jaromir; Jendzelovsky, Rastislav; Fedorocko, Peter; Imrich, Jan; Kristian, Pavol; Kasparkova, Jana; Brabec, Viktor; Kozurkova, Maria

    2012-11-01

    A series of 3,6-bis(3-alkylguanidino) acridines was prepared and the interaction of these novel compounds with calf thymus DNA was investigated with UV-vis, fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopy, in addition to DNA melting techniques. The binding constants K were estimated to range from 1.25 to 5.26 × 10(5) M(-1), and the percentage of hypochromism was found to be 17-42% (from spectral titration). UV-vis, fluorescence and circular dichroism measurements indicated that the compounds act as effective DNA-intercalating agents. Electrophoretic separation proved that ligands 6a-e relaxed topoisomerase I at a concentration of 60 μM, although only those with longer alkyl chains were able to penetrate cell membranes and suppress cell proliferation effectively. The biological activity of novel compounds was assessed using different techniques (cell cycle distribution, phosphatidylserine externalization, caspase-3 activation, changes in mitochondrial membrane potential) and demonstrated mostly transient cytostatic action of the ethyl 6c and pentyl 6d derivatives. The hexyl derivative 6e proved to be the most cytotoxic. Different patterns of cell penetration were also observed for individual derivatives. Principles of molecular dynamics were applied to explore DNA-ligand interactions at the molecular level. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Development of radioiodinated acridine derivatives for in vivo imaging of prion deposits in the brain.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Masao; Fuchigami, Takeshi; Kobashi, Nobuya; Nakagaki, Takehiro; Sano, Kazunori; Atarashi, Ryuichiro; Yoshida, Sakura; Haratake, Mamoru; Nishida, Noriyuki; Nakayama, Morio

    2017-02-01

    Prion diseases are caused by deposition of abnormal prion protein aggregates (PrP(Sc)) in the central nervous system. This study aimed to develop in vivo imaging probes that can detect cerebral PrP(Sc) deposits. We synthesized several quinacrine-based acridine (AC) derivatives with 2,9-substitution and radioiodinated them. The AC derivatives were evaluated as prion-imaging probes using recombinant mouse prion protein (rMoPrP) aggregates and brain sections of mouse-adapted bovine spongiform encephalopathy (mBSE)-infected mice. The distribution of these compounds in mice was also evaluated. The 2-methoxy derivative [(125)I]2 exhibited the highest binding affinity for rMoPrP aggregates with an equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) value of 43.4nM. Fluorescence imaging with 2 showed clear signals at the thioflavin T (ThT)-positive amyloid deposits in the mBSE-infected mouse brain. Although a discrepancy was observed between the in vitro binding of AC derivatives to the aggregates and in vivo distribution of these compounds in the brain and we failed to identify prospective prion-imaging probes in this study, the AC derivatives may be considered a useful scaffold for the development of in vivo imaging probes. Further chemical modification of these AC derivatives may discover clinically applicable prion imaging probes.

  3. Photochemical Tuning of Tris-Bidentate Acridine- and Phenazine-Based Ir(III) Complexes.

    PubMed

    Deraedt, Quentin; Loiseau, Frédérique; Elias, Benjamin

    2016-11-01

    Five new Ir(III) complexes of the type [Ir(ppy)2L](+) (where ppy = 2-phenylpyridine, L = bidentate N^N ligand) bearing linear and elbow-shaped acridine- and phenazine-based extended planar aromatic ligands have been successfully synthesized and characterized. The electrochemical and photochemical studies revealed that all complexes allow emission in the range 589-601 nm from excited states corresponding to a charge transfer between an Ir-ppy fragment and the extended planar ligand. Luminescence quenching occurs in water for [Ir(ppy)2dpac](+) (Ir-DPAC), [Ir(ppy)2dpacF2](+) (Ir-DPACF 2 ), [Ir(ppy)2dpacF4](+) (Ir-DPACF 4 ) and [Ir(ppy)2bdppz](+) (Ir-BDPPZ), while solely partial quenching is observed for [Ir(ppy)2npp](+) (Ir-NPP). This "light-switch" effect has been ascribed to the possible formation of a non-emissive mono-hydrogen-bonded excited state for the four complexes. The "elbow shaped" of Ir-NPP is believed to prevent the non-chelating nitrogen atom of the npp ligand to form H-bond with solvent molecules. The results emphasized the potential of small chemical modifications of the extended planar ligand on the properties of the corresponding Ir(III) complexes. Their tunable properties make them ideal candidates for applications such as DNA photoprobes.

  4. Localization of anionic phospholipids in Escherichia coli cells.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Piercen M; Crooks, John A; Leidl, Mathias; Yoon, Earl J; Saghatelian, Alan; Weibel, Douglas B

    2014-10-01

    Cardiolipin (CL) is an anionic phospholipid with a characteristically large curvature and is of growing interest for two primary reasons: (i) it binds to and regulates many peripheral membrane proteins in bacteria and mitochondria, and (ii) it is distributed asymmetrically in rod-shaped cells and is concentrated at the poles and division septum. Despite the growing number of studies of CL, its function in bacteria remains unknown. 10-N-Nonyl acridine orange (NAO) is widely used to image CL in bacteria and mitochondria, as its interaction with CL is reported to produce a characteristic red-shifted fluorescence emission. Using a suite of biophysical techniques, we quantitatively studied the interaction of NAO with anionic phospholipids under physiologically relevant conditions. We found that NAO is promiscuous in its binding and has photophysical properties that are largely insensitive to the structure of diverse anionic phospholipids to which it binds. Being unable to rely solely on NAO to characterize the localization of CL in Escherichia coli cells, we instead used quantitative fluorescence microscopy, mass spectrometry, and mutants deficient in specific classes of anionic phospholipids. We found CL and phosphatidylglycerol (PG) concentrated in the polar regions of E. coli cell membranes; depletion of CL by genetic approaches increased the concentration of PG at the poles. Previous studies suggested that some CL-binding proteins also have a high affinity for PG and display a pattern of cellular localization that is not influenced by depletion of CL. Framed within the context of these previous experiments, our results suggest that PG may play an essential role in bacterial physiology by maintaining the anionic character of polar membranes.

  5. p21{sup WAF1/CIP1} deficiency induces mitochondrial dysfunction in HCT116 colon cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Ae Jeong; Jee, Hye Jin; Song, Naree; Kim, Minjee; Jeong, Seon-Young; Yun, Jeanho

    2013-01-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer p21{sup -/-} HCT116 cells exhibited an increase in mitochondrial mass. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The expression levels of PGC-1{alpha} and AMPK were upregulated in p21{sup -/-} HCT116 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The proliferation of p21{sup -/-} HCT116 cells in galactose medium was significantly impaired. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer p21 may play a role in maintaining proper mitochondrial mass and respiratory function. -- Abstract: p21{sup WAF1/CIP1} is a critical regulator of cell cycle progression. However, the role of p21 in mitochondrial function remains poorly understood. In this study, we examined the effect of p21 deficiency on mitochondrial function in HCT116 human colon cancer cells. We found that there was a significant increase in the mitochondrial mass of p21{sup -/-} HCT116 cells, as measured by 10-N-nonyl-acridine orange staining, as well as an increase in the mitochondrial DNA content. In contrast, p53{sup -/-} cells had a mitochondrial mass comparable to that of wild-type HCT116 cells. In addition, the expression levels of the mitochondrial biogenesis regulators PGC-1{alpha} and TFAM and AMPK activity were also elevated in p21{sup -/-} cells, indicating that p21 deficiency induces the rate of mitochondrial biogenesis through the AMPK-PGC-1{alpha} axis. However, the increase in mitochondrial biogenesis in p21{sup -/-} cells did not accompany an increase in the cellular steady-state level of ATP. Furthermore, p21{sup -/-} cells exhibited significant proliferation impairment in galactose medium, suggesting that p21 deficiency induces a defect in the mitochondrial respiratory chain in HCT116 cells. Taken together, our results suggest that the loss of p21 results in an aberrant increase in the mitochondrial mass and in mitochondrial dysfunction in HCT116 cells, indicating that p21 is required to maintain proper mitochondrial mass and respiratory function.

  6. Minocycline fails to protect cerebellar granular cell cultures against malonate-induced cell death.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Gomez, F J; Gomez-Lazaro, M; Pastor, D; Calvo, S; Aguirre, N; Galindo, M F; Jordán, J

    2005-11-01

    Experimental and clinical studies support the view that the semisynthetic tetracycline minocycline exhibits neuroprotective roles in several models of neurodegenerative diseases, including ischemia, Huntington, Parkinson diseases, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. However, recent evidence indicates that minocycline does not always present beneficial actions. For instance, in an in vivo model of Huntington's disease, it fails to afford protection after malonate intrastriatal injection. Moreover, it reverses the neuroprotective effect of creatine in nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. This apparent contradiction prompted us to analyze the effect of this antibiotic on malonate-induced cell death. We show that, in rat cerebellar granular cells, the succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor malonate induces cell death in a concentration-dependent manner. By using DFCA, monochlorobimane and 10-N-nonyl-Acridin Orange to measure, respectively, H2O2-derived oxidant species and reduced forms of GSH and cardiolipin, we observed that malonate induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production to an extent that surpasses the antioxidant defense capacity of the cells, resulting in GSH depletion and cardiolipin oxidation. The pre-treatment for 4 h with minocycline (10-100 microM) did not present cytoprotective actions. Moreover, minocycline failed to block ROS production and to abrogate malonate-induced oxidation of GSH and cardiolipin. Additional experiments revealed that minocycline was also unsuccessful to prevent the mitochondrial swelling induced by malonate. Furthermore, malonate did not induce the expression of the iNOS, caspase-3, -8, and -9 genes which have been shown to be up-regulated in several models where minocycline resulted cytoprotective. In addition, malonate-induced down-regulation of the antiapoptotic gene Bcl-2 was not prevented by minocycline, controversially the mechanism previously proposed to explain minocycline protective action. These results suggest that the

  7. 21 CFR 146.146 - Frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Frozen concentrated orange juice. 146.146 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.146 Frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Frozen concentrated orange juice is the food prepared by removing water from the juice of mature oranges as provided in §...

  8. 7 CFR 944.312 - Orange import regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Orange import regulation. 944.312 Section 944.312....312 Orange import regulation. (a) Pursuant to section 8e (7 U.S.C. 608e-1) of the Agricultural... importation into the United States of any oranges is prohibited unless such oranges grade at least U.S. No....

  9. 21 CFR 146.140 - Pasteurized orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurized orange juice. 146.140 Section 146.140... and Beverages § 146.140 Pasteurized orange juice. (a) Pasteurized orange juice is the food prepared from unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges as specified in § 146.135, to which may be...

  10. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned concentrated orange juice. 146.150 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.150 Canned concentrated orange juice. (a) Canned concentrated orange... labeling of ingredients prescribed for frozen concentrated orange juice by § 146.146, except that it is...

  11. 21 CFR 146.146 - Frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Frozen concentrated orange juice. 146.146 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.146 Frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Frozen concentrated orange juice is the food prepared by removing water from the juice of mature oranges as provided in §...

  12. 21 CFR 146.146 - Frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Frozen concentrated orange juice. 146.146 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.146 Frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Frozen concentrated orange juice is the food prepared by removing water from the juice of mature oranges as provided in §...

  13. 21 CFR 146.146 - Frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Frozen concentrated orange juice. 146.146 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.146 Frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Frozen concentrated orange juice is the food prepared by removing water from the juice of mature oranges as provided in §...

  14. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative... of orange juice for manufacturing as provided for in § 146.151, except that a preservative is...

  15. 21 CFR 146.145 - Orange juice from concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice from concentrate. 146.145 Section 146... Juices and Beverages § 146.145 Orange juice from concentrate. (a) Orange juice from concentrate is the food prepared by mixing water with frozen concentrated orange juice as defined in § 146.146 or...

  16. 21 CFR 146.140 - Pasteurized orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pasteurized orange juice. 146.140 Section 146.140... and Beverages § 146.140 Pasteurized orange juice. (a) Pasteurized orange juice is the food prepared from unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges as specified in § 146.135, to which may be...

  17. 7 CFR 944.312 - Orange import regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Orange import regulation. 944.312 Section 944.312....312 Orange import regulation. (a) Pursuant to section 8e (7 U.S.C. 608e-1) of the Agricultural... importation into the United States of any oranges is prohibited unless such oranges grade at least U.S. No....

  18. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative... of orange juice for manufacturing as provided for in § 146.151, except that a preservative is...

  19. 7 CFR 944.312 - Orange import regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Orange import regulation. 944.312 Section 944.312....312 Orange import regulation. (a) Pursuant to section 8e (7 U.S.C. 608e-1) of the Agricultural... importation into the United States of any oranges is prohibited unless such oranges grade at least U.S. No....

  20. 21 CFR 146.145 - Orange juice from concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Orange juice from concentrate. 146.145 Section 146... Juices and Beverages § 146.145 Orange juice from concentrate. (a) Orange juice from concentrate is the food prepared by mixing water with frozen concentrated orange juice as defined in § 146.146 or...

  1. 21 CFR 146.145 - Orange juice from concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Orange juice from concentrate. 146.145 Section 146... Juices and Beverages § 146.145 Orange juice from concentrate. (a) Orange juice from concentrate is the food prepared by mixing water with frozen concentrated orange juice as defined in § 146.146 or...

  2. 7 CFR 944.312 - Orange import regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Orange import regulation. 944.312 Section 944.312....312 Orange import regulation. (a) Pursuant to section 8e (7 U.S.C. 608e-1) of the Agricultural... importation into the United States of any oranges is prohibited unless such oranges grade at least U.S. No....

  3. 21 CFR 146.145 - Orange juice from concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Orange juice from concentrate. 146.145 Section 146... Juices and Beverages § 146.145 Orange juice from concentrate. (a) Orange juice from concentrate is the food prepared by mixing water with frozen concentrated orange juice as defined in § 146.146 or...

  4. 21 CFR 146.145 - Orange juice from concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Orange juice from concentrate. 146.145 Section 146... Juices and Beverages § 146.145 Orange juice from concentrate. (a) Orange juice from concentrate is the food prepared by mixing water with frozen concentrated orange juice as defined in § 146.146 or...

  5. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Canned concentrated orange juice. 146.150 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.150 Canned concentrated orange juice. (a) Canned concentrated orange... labeling of ingredients prescribed for frozen concentrated orange juice by § 146.146, except that it is...

  6. 7 CFR 944.312 - Orange import regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Orange import regulation. 944.312 Section 944.312....312 Orange import regulation. (a) Pursuant to section 8e (7 U.S.C. 608e-1) of the Agricultural... importation into the United States of any oranges is prohibited unless such oranges grade at least U.S. No....

  7. 21 CFR 146.146 - Frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen concentrated orange juice. 146.146 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.146 Frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Frozen concentrated orange juice is the food prepared by removing water from the juice of mature oranges as provided in §...

  8. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Canned concentrated orange juice. 146.150 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.150 Canned concentrated orange juice. (a) Canned concentrated orange... labeling of ingredients prescribed for frozen concentrated orange juice by § 146.146, except that it is...

  9. 21 CFR 146.140 - Pasteurized orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pasteurized orange juice. 146.140 Section 146.140... and Beverages § 146.140 Pasteurized orange juice. (a) Pasteurized orange juice is the food prepared from unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges as specified in § 146.135, to which may be...

  10. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative... of orange juice for manufacturing as provided for in § 146.151, except that a preservative is...

  11. 21 CFR 146.140 - Pasteurized orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pasteurized orange juice. 146.140 Section 146.140... and Beverages § 146.140 Pasteurized orange juice. (a) Pasteurized orange juice is the food prepared from unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges as specified in § 146.135, to which may be...

  12. 21 CFR 146.140 - Pasteurized orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pasteurized orange juice. 146.140 Section 146.140... and Beverages § 146.140 Pasteurized orange juice. (a) Pasteurized orange juice is the food prepared from unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges as specified in § 146.135, to which may be...

  13. 12. July, 1970 EAST SIDE OF ORANGE STREET LOOKING SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. July, 1970 EAST SIDE OF ORANGE STREET LOOKING SOUTH FROM GARDEN (FORMER SITE OF COL. BRAYTON HOUSE) OF #16 TO #18, #20 AND #22 ORANGE STREET - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  14. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative... of orange juice for manufacturing as provided for in § 146.151, except that a preservative is added...

  15. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Canned concentrated orange juice. 146.150 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.150 Canned concentrated orange juice. (a) Canned concentrated orange... labeling of ingredients prescribed for frozen concentrated orange juice by § 146.146, except that it is not...

  16. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative... of orange juice for manufacturing as provided for in § 146.151, except that a preservative is added...

  17. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Canned concentrated orange juice. 146.150 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.150 Canned concentrated orange juice. (a) Canned concentrated orange... labeling of ingredients prescribed for frozen concentrated orange juice by § 146.146, except that it is not...

  18. Cellular uptake of N-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]acridine-4-carboxamide (DACA).

    PubMed

    Haldane, A; Finlay, G J; Hay, M P; Denny, W A; Baguley, B C

    1999-06-01

    N-[2-(Dimethylamino)ethyl]acridine-4-carboxamide (DACA), a DNA intercalating dual topoisomerase I/II poison, has high experimental antitumour activity, is able to overcome several forms of multidrug resistance, and is undergoing clinical trial. We prepared 3H-labelled DACA and investigated its uptake using cultured Lewis lung carcinoma cells (LLTC), P388 leukaemia cells and P/DACT cells that were multidrug resistant. The kinetics of uptake and efflux were very rapid and equilibrium was obtained within seconds of drug addition. Fluorescence microscopy of LLTC cells treated with DACA showed punctate fluorescence in the cytoplasm, consistent with uptake into vesicles. To investigate the role of lipophilicity in drug uptake, a fluorimetric assay was developed to measure uptake of a more hydrophilic derivative, 9-amino-5-sulphonylmethyl-DACA (as-DACA). The calculated n-octanol-water partition coefficient for as-DACA was 20-fold lower than that for DACA. On the other hand, as determined by ethidium displacement from DNA, as-DACA bound DNA 16-fold more strongly than did DACA. Uptake and efflux of DACA and as-DACA were very rapid and the uptake ratios in LLTC cells were 550 for DACA and 54 for as-DACA. At equitoxic concentrations (corresponding to the IC50 values), LLTC cell association was estimated to be approximately 1.6 x 10(8) molecules per cell for DACA and 3.0 x 10(6) molecules per cell for as-DACA. It is argued that DACA binds predominantly to lipophilic sites such as proteins and cellular membranes, while as-DACA associates predominantly with DNA. The high affinity of DACA for membranes may contribute to the rapidity of its uptake and efflux, as well as to its ability to overcome multidrug resistance.

  19. Electronic spectra and excited-state dynamics of acridine and its hydrated clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harthcock, Colin; Zhang, Jie; Kong, Wei; Mitsui, Masaaki; Ohshima, Yasuhiro

    2017-04-01

    We combine results from several different experiments to investigate the photophysics of acridine (Ac) and its hydrated clusters in the gas phase. Our findings are also compared with results from condensed phase studies. Similar to measurements of Ac dissolved in hydrocarbons, the lifetime of the first electronically excited state of isolated Ac in vacuum is too short for typical resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) and laser induced fluorescence (LIF) experiments, hence no signal from REMPI and LIF can be attributed to monomeric Ac. Instead, sensitized phosphorescence emission spectroscopy is more successful in revealing the electronic states of Ac. Upon clustering with water, on the other hand, the lifetimes of the excited states are substantially increased to the nanosecond scale, and with two water molecules attached to Ac, the lifetime of the hydrated cluster is essentially the same as that of Ac in aqueous solutions. Detailed REMPI and ultraviolet-ultraviolet hole-burning experiments are then performed to reveal the structural information of the hydrated clusters. Although the formation of hydrogen bonds results in energy level reversal and energy separation between the first two excited states of Ac, its effect on the internal geometry of Ac is minimal, and all clusters with 1-3 water molecules demonstrate consistent intramolecular vibrational modes. Theoretical calculations reveal just one stable structure for each cluster under supersonic molecular beam conditions. Furthermore, different from mono- and di-water clusters, tri-water clusters consist of a linear chain of three water molecules attached to Ac. Consequently, the fragmentation pattern in the REMPI spectrum of tri-water clusters seems to be dominated by water trimer elimination, since the REMPI spectrum of Ac+.W3 is largely reproduced in the Ac+ mass channel, but not in the Ac+.W1 or Ac+.W2 channel.

  20. Does Agent Orange cause birth defects?

    PubMed

    Friedman, J M

    1984-04-01

    Large quantities of the defoliant, Agent Orange, were sprayed in Vietnam during the war. Agent Orange was composed of two herbicides: 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T, the latter contaminated by small amounts of a highly toxic dioxin (TCDD). The constituents of Agent Orange are capable of producing gene mutations and chromosomal aberrations, at least in some experimental circumstances. TCDD and 2,4,5-T are teratogenic in mice and perhaps in other mammals, but the teratogenicity of these chemicals has not been convincingly demonstrated in humans. There is currently no scientific evidence which indicates that men who were previously exposed to Agent Orange are at increased risk of having children with birth defects, but available data are inadequate to assess this possibility critically.

  1. Porphyria Cutanea Tarda and Agent Orange

    MedlinePlus

    ... survivors' benefits . Research on porphyria cutanea tarda and herbicides The Health and Medicine Division (HMD) (formally known ... on " Veterans and Agent Orange: Health Effects of Herbicides Used in Vietnam " that there was sufficient evidence ...

  2. Soft Tissue Sarcomas and Agent Orange

    MedlinePlus

    ... survivors' benefits . Research on soft tissue sarcoma and herbicides The Health and Medicine Division (formally known as ... report " Veterans and Agent Orange: Health Effects of Herbicides Used in Vietnam " and other updates that there ...

  3. Orange juice and cancer chemoprevention.

    PubMed

    Franke, Silvia Isabel Rech; Guecheva, Temenouga Nikolova; Henriques, João Antonio Pêgas; Prá, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Orange juice (OJ) is among the most consumed fruit juices worldwide, and its chemopreventive action is fairly addressed in the literature. This review critically presents the available evidence linking OJ with cancer chemoprevention and on discussing the putative mechanisms and negative health effects. The chemopreventive action of OJ is related to its effect on metabolic enzymes and its antiinflammatory, cytoprotective/apoptotic, hormonal, cell signaling-modulating, antioxidant, and antigenotoxic effects. Most studies on OJ are in vitro, and few are conducted in vivo. Results from in vitro studies must be interpreted carefully because these findings do not consider in vivo bioavailability. However, such results are useful for studying the impact of different processing and storage methods on OJ's chemopreventive effect. Evidence of OJ's chemoprevention in humans is limited. OJ is antimutagenic in bacteria and antigenotoxic in humans and rodents. Studies using rodent cancer models showed that OJ is cancer chemopreventive, influencing either the induction stage or the promotion stage. The composition and, therefore, the chemopreventive action of OJ might be influenced by different cultivars, climates, extraction methods, packaging, storage temperatures, and shelf lives, among other factors. Epidemiological studies and randomized controlled intervention studies in humans evaluating the chemopreventive effect of OJ, taking into consideration variability in OJ composition, are needed.

  4. Antimatter, clockwork orange, laser divestment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmus, John F.

    2005-06-01

    In 1972 Ente Nazionale Idrocarburi sponsored a program to holographically record the images of Venetian sculptural treasures for archival purposes. At Laboratorio San Gregorio, where the initial holography took place, G. Musumeci and K. Hempel suggested an experiment to determine whether the concentrated beam from the ruby holographic laser could ablate black-patina crusts from decaying marble. Initial success of a laser-divestment test on a Palazzo Ducale capital launched a search for funding to enable a full-scale laser-conservation demonstration. Later, at a Caltech reunion one of the author's physics professors (Carl Anderson, the discoverer of mu mesons and the positron), noting the prominence of the Venice Film Festival suggested our approaching the motion picture industry. Many years earlier Anderson's Caltech classmate, Frank Capra, had supported the research that led to the discovery of cosmic-ray-generated antimatter on Pikes Peak. (After Caltech, Capra had become a director at Columbia Studios.) Anderson's chance comment led to an introduction to producer Jack Warner at a festival screening of his "A Clockwork Orange" in Asolo. He and his friends contributed US$5000 toward the laser conservation of a marble relief of "The Last Supper" in the Porta della Carta of Venice. This work was conducted in 1980 under the direction of Arch. G. Calcagno. In 1981 it was found that the granite veneer or the newly completed Warner Center Tower had been stained during transit from the quarry. The Venice laser successfully restored the veneer, thereby returning the Warner Brothers' favor.

  5. 21 CFR 146.141 - Canned orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned orange juice. 146.141 Section 146.141 Food... Beverages § 146.141 Canned orange juice. (a) Canned orange juice is the food prepared from orange juice as specified in § 146.135 or frozen orange juice as specified in § 146.137, or a combination of both, to...

  6. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food... Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135, except that it is frozen. (b) The name of the food is “Frozen orange juice”. Such name may be preceded...

  7. 21 CFR 146.141 - Canned orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Canned orange juice. 146.141 Section 146.141 Food... Beverages § 146.141 Canned orange juice. (a) Canned orange juice is the food prepared from orange juice as specified in § 146.135 or frozen orange juice as specified in § 146.137, or a combination of both, to...

  8. 21 CFR 146.141 - Canned orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Canned orange juice. 146.141 Section 146.141 Food... Beverages § 146.141 Canned orange juice. (a) Canned orange juice is the food prepared from orange juice as specified in § 146.135 or frozen orange juice as specified in § 146.137, or a combination of both, to...

  9. 21 CFR 146.141 - Canned orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Canned orange juice. 146.141 Section 146.141 Food... Beverages § 146.141 Canned orange juice. (a) Canned orange juice is the food prepared from orange juice as specified in § 146.135 or frozen orange juice as specified in § 146.137, or a combination of both, to...

  10. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food... Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135, except that it is frozen. (b) The name of the food is “Frozen orange juice”. Such name may be preceded...

  11. 21 CFR 146.141 - Canned orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Canned orange juice. 146.141 Section 146.141 Food... Beverages § 146.141 Canned orange juice. (a) Canned orange juice is the food prepared from orange juice as specified in § 146.135 or frozen orange juice as specified in § 146.137, or a combination of both, to...

  12. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food... Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135, except that it is frozen. (b) The name of the food is “Frozen orange juice”. Such name may be preceded on...

  13. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food... Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135, except that it is frozen. (b) The name of the food is “Frozen orange juice”. Such name may be preceded on...

  14. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food... Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135, except that it is frozen. (b) The name of the food is “Frozen orange juice”. Such name may be preceded on...

  15. 5,7-Disubstituted analogues of the mixed topoisomerase I/II poison N-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]acridine-4-carboxamide (DACA): DNA binding and patterns of cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Spicer, J A; Finlay, G J; Baguley, B C; Velea, L; Graves, D E; Denny, W A

    1999-02-01

    DACA is a DNA-intercalating agent and dual topoisomerase (topo) I/II inhibitor currently in clinical trial as an anticancer drug. Substitutions in the acridine ring of DACA have significant effects on biological activity, with 5-substituted analogues being more potent but relatively less active against cell lines that underexpress topo II, and the converse for 7-substituted analogues. A small series of 5,7-disubstituted analogues was therefore prepared and evaluated. The compounds were prepared by CDI-assisted coupling of the appropriate acridine acids. When these contained no or only one halogen atom, they could be prepared by Al/Hg amalgam reduction of the corresponding acridine acids. However, this method could not be used to prepare dihalogen-substituted acridine acids due to substantial dehalogenation, and these intermediates were synthesized via cyclization of the appropriate aldehydes to give the acridines directly. These compounds showed enhanced DNA binding compared with the parent DACA, indicating that the known favourable influence of 5-substituents on DNA binding is retained. Cell line studies showed that the 5,7-disubstituted compounds retained both the broad-spectrum effectiveness of the 7-monosubstituted analogues and the higher cytotoxic potency of the 5-monosubstituted analogues. The 7-chloro-5-methyl and 5-chloro-7-methyl analogues showed comparable in vivo antitumour activity to DACA in the subcutaneous colon 38 model, but were substantially more potent (optimal doses of 60 mg/kg compared with 200 mg/kg for DACA).

  16. Electronic relaxation processes in polyatomic molecules. Progress report, September 1980-August 1981. [Diazanaphthalenes, methyl substituted pyrazines, acridine

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, E.C.

    1981-09-01

    In the past year, our specific aims were to study excited (singlet)-state dynamics of heteraromatic molecules related to proximity effect, spin-sublevel dynamics of the lowest triplet state of diazanaphthalenes and methyl substituted pyrazines, and radiationless transitions in electron donor-acceptor complexes (exciplexes and charge-transfer complexes). In addition to successfully completing several aspects of these objectives, we have carried out pico-second spectral studies of temperature dependence of fluorescence and triplet formation in fluid solutions of acridine, which does not exhibit photophysical properties of molecules with nearby n..pi..* and ..pi pi..* singlet states. The progress on each is discussed.

  17. Acridine dyes and other DNA-intercalating agents induce the luminescence system of luminous bacteria and their dark variants.

    PubMed Central

    Ulitzur, S; Weiser, I

    1981-01-01

    Acridine dyes and other DNA-intercalating agents such as ethidium bromide, theophylline, and caffeine induce luminescence in dark variants (K variants) different luminous species of bacteria, as well as in their wild-type luminous cells, prior to induction. The increase in luminescence appears 10-20 min after addition of these agents and is inhibited by chloramphenicol or rifampicin. Addition of these agents affects the synthesis of both luciferase and aldehyde-synthesizing enzymes. It is hypothesized that these agents, through their intercalation into DNA, cause configurational changes resulting in derepressed transcription of the luminescence operon. PMID:6943543

  18. Orange Is the New Blue

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-04-16

    Measurements from NASA MESSENGER MLA instrument during the spacecraft greater than four-year orbital mission have mapped the topography of Mercury northern hemisphere in great detail. This enhanced color mosaic shows (from left to right) Munch (61 km/38 mi.), Sander (52 km/32 mi.), and Poe (81 km/50 mi.) craters, which lie in the northwest portion of the Caloris basin. The smooth volcanic plains that fill the Caloris basin appear orange in this image. All three craters are superposed on these volcanic plains and have excavated low-reflectance material, which appears blue in this image, from the subsurface. Hollows, typically associated with low-reflectance material, dot the rims of Munch and Poe and cover the floor of Sander. These images were acquired as high-resolution targeted color observations. Targeted color observations are images of a small area on Mercury's surface at resolutions higher than the 1-kilometer/pixel 8-color base map. During MESSENGER's one-year primary mission, hundreds of targeted color observations were obtained. During MESSENGER's extended mission, high-resolution targeted color observations are more rare, as the 3-color base map is covering Mercury's northern hemisphere with the highest-resolution color images that are possible. Date acquired: July 03, 2011, July 04, 2011 Image Mission Elapsed Time (MET): 218204186, 218204190, 218204194, 218246487, 218246491, 218246495 Image ID: 458397, 458398, 458399, 460433, 460434, 460435 Instrument: Wide Angle Camera (WAC) of the Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) Center Latitude: 42° N Center Longitude: 154° E Projection: Equirectangular Resolution: 239 meters/pixel Scale: Munch crater is approximately 61 km (38 mi.) in diameter Incidence Angle: 43°, 42° Emission Angle: 35°, 13° Phase Angle: 79°, 55° http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19421

  19. Design, synthesis, and DNA sequence selectivity of formaldehyde-mediated DNA-adducts of the novel N-(4-aminobutyl) acridine-4-carboxamide.

    PubMed

    Ankers, Elizabeth A; Evison, Benny J; Phillips, Don R; Brownlee, Robert T C; Cutts, Suzanne M

    2014-12-15

    A novel derivative of the anti-tumor agent N-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]acridine-4-carboxamide (DACA) was prepared by reduction of 9-oxoacridan-4-carboxylic acid to acridine-4-carboxylic acid with subsequent conversion to N-(4-aminobutyl)acridine-4-carboxamide (C4-DACA). Molecular modeling studies suggested that a DACA analogue comprising a side chain length of four carbons was optimal to form formaldehyde-mediated drug-DNA adducts via the minor groove. An in vitro transcription assay revealed that formaldehyde-mediated C4-DACA-DNA adducts selectively formed at CpG and CpA dinucleotide sequences, which is strikingly similar to that of formaldehyde-activated anthracenediones such as pixantrone. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Synthesis and antiproliferative activity of 9-benzylamino-6-chloro-2-methoxy-acridine derivatives as potent DNA-binding ligands and topoisomerase II inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Ti; Wang, Ning; Gao, Chunmei; Tan, Chunyan; Liu, Hongxia; Jiang, Yuyang

    2016-06-30

    A series of 9-benzylamino acridine derivatives were synthesized as an extension of our discovery of acridine antitumor agents. Most of these acridine compounds displayed good antiproliferative activity with IC50 values in low micromole range and structure-activity relationships were studied. Topo I- and II- mediated relaxation studies suggested that all of our compounds displayed strong Topo II inhibitory activity at 100 μM, while only four exhibited moderate Topo I inhibitory activity. The typical compound 8p could penetrate A549 cancer cells efficiently. Compound 8p could intercalate within the double-stranded DNA structure and induce DNA damage. Moreover, compound 8p could induce A549 cells apoptosis through caspase-dependent intrinsic pathway and arrest A549 cells at the G2/M phase.

  1. Inhibition of DNA topoisomerases I and II and growth inhibition of HL-60 cells by novel acridine-based compounds.

    PubMed

    Janočková, Jana; Plšíková, Jana; Kašpárková, Jana; Brabec, Viktor; Jendželovský, Rastislav; Mikeš, Jaromír; Kovaľ, Ján; Hamuľaková, Slávka; Fedoročko, Peter; Kuča, Kamil; Kožurková, Mária

    2015-08-30

    HL-60 cancer cells were treated with a series of novel acridine derivatives (derivatives 1-4) in order to test the compounds' ability to inhibit both cancer cell growth and topoisomerase I and II activity. Binding studies of derivatives 1-4 with calf thymus DNA were also performed using a number of techniques (UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy, thermal denaturation, linear dichroism and viscometry) to determine the nature of the interaction between the compounds and ctDNA. The binding constants for the complexes of the studied acridine derivatives with DNA were calculated from UV-Vis spectroscopic titrations (K=3.1×10(4)-2.0×10(3)M(-1)). Some of the compounds showed a strong inhibitory effect against Topo II at the relatively low concentration of 5μM. Topo I/II inhibition mode assays were also performed and verified that the novel compounds are topoisomerase suppressors rather than poisons. The biological activities of derivatives were studied using MTT assay and flow cytometric methods (detection of mitochondrial membrane potential, measurement of cell viability) after 24 and 48h incubation. The ability of derivatives to impair cell proliferation was tested by an analysis of cell cycle distribution.

  2. Calibration of the response of 9-amino acridine fluorescence to transmembrane pH differences in bacterial chromatophores.

    PubMed

    Casadio, R; Melandri, B A

    1985-04-01

    The spectral characteristics of absorption and fluorescence emission of 9-amino acridine are not altered by the interaction with bacterial chromatophores, except for the attenuation of both the absorption and emission following the formation of a protonic gradient. The lifetime of fluorescence of the dye is significantly affected in the presence of membranes, and even more following illumination. The shortening of the lifetime induced by light is reversible and prevented by nigericin and K+. The onset kinetics of the fluorescence quenching following the generation of an artificial transmembrane pH difference is temperature dependent, with an activation energy of 17 +/- 3 kcal/mol. The effect of pH on the rate constants is consistent with a model assuming that the diffusion of the unprotonated species is the limiting step in the quenching phenomenon. The response of 9-amino acridine to artificially imposed delta pH's has been utilized as a calibration method for the measurements of the light-induced protonic gradient. The apparent inner volume of chromatophores, evaluated from the extraplation of the response at delta pH = 0, was found to be much larger (15- to 40-fold) than the true osmotic volume, indicating that most of the dye is bound to the membrane when accumulated into the inner lumen.

  3. Effects of temperature and nutritional state on the acute toxicity of acridine to the calanoid copepod, Diaptomus clavipes Schacht

    SciTech Connect

    Cooney, J.D.; Beauchamp, J.J.; Gehrs, C.W.

    1983-01-01

    Acute toxicity tests were performed on adult males and females of a freshwater calanoid copepod, Diaptomus clavipes Schacht, using the azaarene acridine as the test compound. Tests were performed at three temperatures (16, 21 and 26/sup 0/C) and over a range of nutritional states (fed, starved and stock). Observations on mortality were made at 24-h intervals for 96 h. Analysis of the data was based on comparisons (using different treatment combinations) of the parameters in a logistic survival function used to describe the mortality data. Median lethal concentrations (using 96-h LC/sub 50/ values) were estimated from the logistic survival function as well as from the probit function, for comparative purposes. The LC/sub 50/ values ranged from 1.64 to 6.70 mg/L, depending on temperature, nutritional state of the animals and sex. The LC/sub 50/ values were highest for animals (fed before testing) at 16/sup 0/C. As food availability decreased and temperature increased, toxicity of acridine increased up to fourfold. No significant differences in LC/sub 50/ values were found between the sexes except in starved animals at 26/sup 0/C, when males were more sensitive than females. This difference in toxicity between the sexes at 26/sup 0/C may be due to differences in nutritional stress between the sexes (at this temperature), since control mortality at this temperature was also higher in males than in females.

  4. Nucleic acid specificity of an acridine derivative permits its use for flow cytometric analysis of the cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Jayat-Vignoles, C; Ratinaud, M H

    1997-02-01

    3-amino-6-methoxy-9-(2-hydroxyethylamine) acridine (AMHA) is an acridine derivative, which is easily excited in near ultraviolet and which emits a bright green fluorescence. The dye was preferentially incorporated into nucleic structures as attested by microscopic and cytometric analyses after RNase and DNase treatments. The affinity for RNA seemed low and similar to that observed for propidium iodide. AMHA was quickly accumulated in fixed cells, and in appropriate concentrations (10-50 microM) was a DNA- and RNA-specific dye. AMHA probably exhibits an adenine-thymine specificity, as suggested by its quenching after bromodeoxyuridine uptake: the fluorescence quenching was similar to that obtained for Hoechst 33258. After cell treatment by RNase and in the presence of MgCl2, AMHA staining allowed flow cytometric analysis of the cell-cycle distribution. The resulting histograms were similar to those obtained with propidium iodide (CV near 3.5%, and similar cell cycle distribution). Thus, AMHA is a suitable fluorescent dye for efficient analysis of the cell cycle by flow cytometry.

  5. Attenuation of acridine mutagen ICR-191 — DNA interactions and DNA damage by the mutagen interceptor chlorophyllin

    PubMed Central

    Pietrzak, Monika; Halicka, H. Dorota; Wieczorek, Zbigniew; Wieczorek, Jolanta; Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated the ability of chlorophyllin (CHL) to interact with acridine mutagen ICR-191 (2-methoxy-6-chloro-9-(3-(2-chloroethyl)aminopropylamino)acridine) and also its ability to decrease binding of ICR-191 to DNA in a simple three-component competition system: CHL-ICR–DNA. Our data indicate a strong association of ICR-191 with CHL, stronger even than the association of ICR-191 with DNA. Calculations based on the measured affinity data show that a two- to three-fold excess of CHL reduces by about two-fold the concentration of the mutagen-DNA complex. We also exposed human leukemic HL-60 cells to ICR-191 in the absence and presence of CHL and measured the mutagen-induced DNA damage. The extent of DNA damage was assessed by analysis of histone H2AX phosphorylation. While ICR-191 induced significant increase in expression of phosphorylated H2AX (γH2AX), particularly in DNA replicating cells, this increase was totally abolished in the cells treated with ICR-191 in the presence of CHL. PMID:18423964

  6. Synthesis, Aqueous Reactivity, and Biological Evaluation of Carboxylic Acid Ester-Functionalized Platinum–Acridine Hybrid Anticancer Agents

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Leigh A.; Suryadi, Jimmy; West, Tiffany K.; Kucera, Gregory L.; Bierbach, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    The synthesis of platinum–acridine hybrid agents containing carboxylic acid ester groups is described. The most active derivatives and the unmodified parent compounds showed up to 6-fold higher activity in ovarian cancer (OVCAR-3) and breast cancer (MCF-7, MDA-MB-23) cell lines than cisplatin. Inhibition of cell proliferation at nanomolar concentrations was observed in pancreatic (PANC-1) and non-small cell lung cancer cells (NSCLC, NCI-H460) of 80- and 150-fold, respectively. Introduction of the ester groups did not affect the cytotoxic properties of the hybrids, which form the same monofunctional–intercalative DNA adducts as the parent compounds, as demonstrated in a plasmid unwinding assay. In-line high-performance liquid chromatography and electrospray mass spectrometry (LC-ESMS) shows that the ester moieties undergo platinum-mediated hydrolysis in a chloride concentration-dependent manner to form carboxylate chelates. Potential applications of the chloride-sensitive ester hydrolysis as a self-immolative release mechanism for tumor-selective delivery of platinum–acridines are discussed. PMID:22871158

  7. Orange juice quality with an emphasis on flavor components.

    PubMed

    Kealey, K S; Kinsella, J E

    1978-01-01

    This review studies the chemistry of the flavor of citrus juices with emphasis on the components of the flavor of orange juice and their origin in the different parts of the orange fruit. Citrus processing and the nature of the various products as they affect flavor are discussed. The composition of peel oil, aroma oil, orange juice, orange essence, and orange essence oil is presented. The relationship between flavor and color are discussed and the role of lipid components as they affect flavor stability and off-flavors are described. Spoilage resulting from microbes is briefly treated. The nutritional value of orange juice is cited.

  8. Orange oil and its application to spark ignition engine

    SciTech Connect

    Takeda, S.

    1982-12-01

    Orange oil can be extracted from the peel of citrus. In Japan the production of orange oil is about 2000 tons per year. No orange oil has been however used for any specific purpose. The main ingredient of orange oil consists of d-limonen. About 0.6-1.0% oil can be extracted from the peel of ''Unshu orange'', which is a kind of typical Japanese tangerine. Orange oil has 106-140 research octane number which is good for running the CFR engine. The flash point of orange oil measured by Pensky-Martens method was at 56/sup 0/C. For the use of orange oil only as fuel without blending, there was found to be some difficulty in engine startability under cold conditions.

  9. Synthesis of Heterocycles via Pd-Ligand Controlled Cyclization of 2-Chloro-N-(2-vinyl)aniline: Preparation of Carbazoles, Indoles, Dibenzazepines and Acridines

    PubMed Central

    Tsvelikhovsky, Dmitry; Buchwald, Stephen L.

    2010-01-01

    The Pd-catalyzed condensation of 2-bromostyrene and 2-chloroaniline derivatives yields stable diphenylamine intermediates, which are selectively converted to either 5-, 6-, or 7-membered heteroaromatics (indoles, carbazoles, acridines and dibenzazepines). The selectivity of these intramolecular transformations is uniquely ligand-controlled, and offers efficient routes to four important classes of heterocycles from a common precursor. PMID:20858012

  10. DNA-directed alkylating agents. 3. Structure-activity relationships for acridine-linked aniline mustards: consequences of varying the length of the linker chain.

    PubMed

    Valu, K K; Gourdie, T A; Boritzki, T J; Gravatt, G L; Baguley, B C; Wilson, W R; Wakelin, L P; Woodgate, P D; Denny, W A

    1990-11-01

    Four series of acridine-linked aniline mustards have been prepared and evaluated for in vitro cytotoxicity, in vivo antitumor activity, and DNA cross-linking ability. The anilines were attached to the DNA-intercalating acridine chromophores by link groups (-O-, -CH2-, -S-, and -SO2-) of widely varying electronic properties, providing four series of widely differing mustard reactivity where the alkyl chain linking the acridine and mustard moieties was varied from two to five carbons. Relationships were sought between chain length and biological properties. Within each series, increasing the chain length did not alter the reactivity of the alkylating moiety but did appear to position it differently on the DNA, since cross-linking ability (measured by agarose gel assay) altered with chain length, being maximal with the C4 analogue. The in vivo antitumor activities of the compounds depended to some extent on the reactivity of the mustard, with the least reactive SO2 compounds being inactive. However, DNA-targeting did appear to allow the use of less reactive mustards, since the S-linked acridine mustards showed significant activity whereas the parent S-mustard did not. Within each active series, the most active compound was the C4 homologue, suggesting some relationship between activity and extent of DNA alkylation.

  11. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.154 Concentrated orange juice with preservative. (a) Concentrated orange juice with preservative complies with the requirements for composition and labeling of...

  12. 75 FR 41119 - Special Local Regulations; Sabine River, Orange, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Sabine River, Orange, TX... River, Orange, Texas. This Special Local Regulation is intended to restrict vessels from portions of the..., testing and race in conjunction with the Orange, TX, Thunder on the Sabine boat races. The powerboat...

  13. 76 FR 52563 - Special Local Regulations; Sabine River, Orange, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Sabine River, Orange, TX...) entitled Special Local Regulations; Sabine River, Orange, TX in the Federal Register (76 FR 103). We... Events; Sabine River, Orange, TX. (a) Definitions. As used in this section ``Participant Vessel''...

  14. 77 FR 22343 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ... COMMISSION Certain Orange Juice From Brazil Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... antidumping duty order on certain orange juice from Brazil would not be likely to lead to continuation or... contained in USITC Publication 4311 (April 2012), entitled Certain Orange Juice from Brazil:...

  15. 21 CFR 146.153 - Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.153 Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing is the food that complies with the requirements of composition and...

  16. 21 CFR 146.153 - Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.153 Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing is the food that complies with the requirements of composition and...

  17. 21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.151 Orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Orange juice for manufacturing is the food prepared for further manufacturing use. It is prepared from unfermented juice...

  18. 21 CFR 146.153 - Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.153 Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing is the food that complies with the requirements of composition and...

  19. 21 CFR 146.153 - Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.153 Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing is the food that complies with the requirements of composition and...

  20. 21 CFR 146.153 - Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.153 Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing is the food that complies with the requirements of composition and...

  1. 21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.151 Orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Orange juice for manufacturing is the food prepared for further manufacturing use. It is prepared from unfermented juice...

  2. 21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.151 Orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Orange juice for manufacturing is the food prepared for further manufacturing use. It is prepared from unfermented juice...

  3. 21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.151 Orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Orange juice for manufacturing is the food prepared for further manufacturing use. It is prepared from unfermented juice...

  4. 21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.151 Orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Orange juice for manufacturing is the food prepared for further manufacturing use. It is prepared from unfermented juice...

  5. Inheritance of resistance to orange rust in sugarcane

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Orange rust, caused by Puccinia kuehnii, is an economically important disease in the Florida sugarcane industry. In this study, orange rust reactions of seedlings in progenies originating from 12 crosses between female and male parents with differing resistance to orange rust (three of each category...

  6. Orange peel products can reduce Salmonella populations in ruminants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Salmonella can live undetected in the gut of food animals and be spread to humans directly and indirectly. Diet can impact intestinal populations of foodborne pathogens, including Salmonella spp. Orange juice production results in a waste product, orange peel and orange pulp, which has a high nutr...

  7. Orange rust: A new surgarcane disease in Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Orange rust of sugarcane was observed approximately 5 miles east of Belle Glade, Florida on CP 80-1743 (a complex hybrid of Sacharum L. species) during the lsat week of June 2007. Orange rust pustules are cinnamon-orange in color, oval and smaller than the darker brown elongate rust pustules of the ...

  8. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SOUTHBOUND LANES AND EXIT RAMP TO ORANGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SOUTHBOUND LANES AND EXIT RAMP TO ORANGE GROVE AVENUE. ORANGE GROVE AVENUE BRIDGE IN REAR. NOTE IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE FEATURES AT RIGHT. LOOKING 248°WSW - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Orange Grove Avenue Bridge, Milepost 30.59, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  9. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.154 Concentrated orange juice with preservative. (a) Concentrated orange juice with preservative complies with the requirements for composition and labeling of optional...

  10. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.154 Concentrated orange juice with preservative. (a) Concentrated orange juice with preservative complies with the requirements for composition and labeling of optional...

  11. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.154 Concentrated orange juice with preservative. (a) Concentrated orange juice with preservative complies with the requirements for composition and labeling of optional...

  12. 76 FR 30890 - Special Local Regulations; Sabine River, Orange, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Sabine River, Orange, TX... River, Orange, Texas on September 24-25, 2011. This Special Local Regulation is intended to restrict... race in conjunction with the Orange, TX S.P.O.R.T. boat races. The powerboat race and associated...

  13. 75 FR 55968 - Special Local Regulations, Sabine River; Orange, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations, Sabine River; Orange, TX... temporary Special Local Regulation in the Port Arthur Captain of the Port Zone on the Sabine River, Orange... (NPRM) entitled Special Local Regulations; Sabine River, Orange, TX in the Federal Register (75 FR 41119...

  14. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.154 Concentrated orange juice with preservative. (a) Concentrated orange juice with preservative complies with the requirements for composition and labeling of optional...

  15. Nuclear structure analysis using the Orange Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Regis, J.-M.; Pascovici, Gh.; Christen, S.; Meersschout, T.; Bernards, C.; Fransen, Ch.; Dewald, A.; Braun, N.; Heinze, S.; Thiel, S.; Jolie, J.; Materna, Th.

    2009-01-28

    Recently, an Orange spectrometer, a focusing iron-free magnetic spectrometer, has been installed at a beam line of the 10 MV Tandem accelerator of the IKP of the University of Cologne. The high efficiency of 15% of 4{pi} for the detection of conversion electrons and the energy resolution of 1% makes the Orange spectrometer a powerful instrument. From the conversion electron spectrum, transition multipolarities can be determined using the so called K to L ratio. In combination with an array of germanium and lanthanum bromide detectors, e{sup -}-{gamma}-coincidences can be performed to investigate the level scheme. Moreover, the very fast lanthanum bromide scintillator with an energy resolution of 3% allows e{sup -}-{gamma} lifetime measurements down to 0.3 ns. A second Orange spectrometer can be added to build the Double Orange Spectrometer for e{sup -}-e{sup -}-coincidences. It is indispensable for lifetime measurements of low intensity or nearby lying transitions as often occur in odd-A and odd-odd nuclei. The capabilities are illustrated with several examples.

  16. Orange County Outdoor School: Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orange County Dept. of Education, Santa Ana, CA.

    Divided into six sections, the guide provides helpful information for the teacher to prepare students to attend the Orange County Outdoor School. Pre-camp responsibilities section provides pre-camp preparation checklists for the principal, teacher, parents, school nurse, and outdoor specialist; a checklist for morning departure; discipline policy…

  17. Vitamin C Content of Commercial Orange Juices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddad, Paul

    1977-01-01

    Describes an experiment designed to confirm that newly purchased commercial orange juice contains sufficient ascorbic acid to meet government standards, and to establish the rate of aerial oxidation of this ascorbic acid when the juice is stored in a refrigerator. (MLH)

  18. Vitamin C Content of Commercial Orange Juices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddad, Paul

    1977-01-01

    Describes an experiment designed to confirm that newly purchased commercial orange juice contains sufficient ascorbic acid to meet government standards, and to establish the rate of aerial oxidation of this ascorbic acid when the juice is stored in a refrigerator. (MLH)

  19. 59 FR- Unshu Oranges From Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1994-03-21

    ... Japan AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are amending the regulations governing the importation and interstate movement of Unshu oranges from Japan by... pv. citri (Hasse) Dye. The strain of citrus canker that occurs in Japan infects the twigs,...

  20. Limonoid content of sour orange varieties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Modern Citrus cultivars are thought to have arisen from three parents- the (pummelo), the mandarin, and citron. Taxological and genetic data support that sweet and sour oranges share a common parentage. However, as their name suggests the organoleptic properties of the fruit from these two familie...

  1. Orange County Outdoor School: Cabin Leader's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orange County Dept. of Education, Santa Ana, CA.

    Presented in five sections, the manual furnishes cabin leaders (high school students) with background information concerning philosophy, teaching, objectives, daily schedule, and cabin leader responsibilities in the Orange County Outdoor School program. The welcome section contains the history of the Outdoor School, staff responsibilities,…

  2. Orange County Outdoor School: Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orange County Dept. of Education, Santa Ana, CA.

    Divided into six sections, the guide provides helpful information for the teacher to prepare students to attend the Orange County Outdoor School. Pre-camp responsibilities section provides pre-camp preparation checklists for the principal, teacher, parents, school nurse, and outdoor specialist; a checklist for morning departure; discipline policy…

  3. Osage-orange: a pioneering stewardship species

    Treesearch

    James P. Barnett; James D. Burton

    1997-01-01

    Osage-orange, a small tree with a number of unique characteristics, played an important role in the settlement of the prairies. One of the more significant contributions was in the use of the species for hedges. The thorny, low-spreading crowns provided excellent fencing when properly main tamed. This use, plus its later used in skelterbelts, exert a continuing...

  4. Inheritance of flower color in periwinkle: orange-red corolla and white eye.

    PubMed

    Sreevalli, Y; Kulkarni, R N; Baskaran, K

    2002-01-01

    The commonly found flower colors in periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus)--pink, white, red-eyed, and pale pink center--are reported to be governed by the epistatic interaction between four genes--A, R, W, and I. The mode of inheritance of an uncommon flower color, orange-red corolla and white eye, was studied by crossing an accession possessing this corolla color with a white flowered variety (Nirmal). The phenotype of the F(1) plants and segregation data of F(2) and backcross generations suggested the involvement of two more interacting and independently inherited genes, one (proposed symbol E) determining the presence or absence of red eye and another (proposed symbol O) determining orange-red corolla.

  5. 6-Hydroxypelargonidin glycosides in the orange-red flowers of Alstroemeria.

    PubMed

    Tatsuzawa, Fumi; Saito, Norio; Murata, Naho; Shinoda, Koichi; Shigihara, Atsushi; Honda, Toshio

    2003-04-01

    Two 6-hydroxypelargonidin glycosides were isolated from the orange-red flowers of Alstroemeria cultivars, and determined to be 6-hydroxypelargonidin 3-O-(beta-D-glucopyranoside) and 3-O-[6-O-(alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside], respectively, by chemical and spectroscopic methods. In addition, five known anthocyanidin glycosides, 6-hydroxycyanidin 3-malonylglucoside, 6-hydroxycyanidin 3-rutinoside, cyanidin 3-malonylglucoside, cyanidin 3-rutinoside and pelargonidin 3-rutinoside were identified in the flowers.

  6. Replacement of a thiourea with an amidine group in a monofunctional platinum-acridine antitumor agent. Effect on DNA interactions, DNA adduct recognition and repair.

    PubMed

    Kostrhunova, Hana; Malina, Jaroslav; Pickard, Amanda J; Stepankova, Jana; Vojtiskova, Marie; Kasparkova, Jana; Muchova, Tereza; Rohlfing, Matthew L; Bierbach, Ulrich; Brabec, Viktor

    2011-10-03

    A combination of biophysical, biochemical, and computational techniques was used to delineate mechanistic differences between the platinum-acridine hybrid agent [PtCl(en)(L)](NO(3))(2) (complex 1, en = ethane-1,2-diamine, L = 1-[2-(acridin-9-ylamino)ethyl]-1,3-dimethylthiourea) and a considerably more potent second-generation analogue containing L' = N-[2-(acridin-9-ylamino)ethyl]-N-methylpropionamidine (complex 2). Calculations at the density functional theory level provide a rationale for the binding preference of both complexes for guanine-N7 and the relatively high level of adenine adducts observed for compound 1. A significant rate enhancement is observed for binding of the amidine-based complex 2 with DNA compared with the thiourea-based prototype 1. Studies conducted with chemical probes and on the bending and unwinding of model duplex DNA suggest that adducts of complex 2 perturb B-form DNA more severely than complex 1, however, without denaturing the double strand and significantly less than cisplatin. Circular and linear dichroism spectroscopies and viscosity measurements suggest that subtle differences exist between the intercalation modes and adduct geometries of the two complexes. The adducts formed by complex 2 most efficiently inhibit transcription of the damaged DNA by RNA polymerase II. Not only do complexes 1 and 2 cause less distortion to DNA than cisplatin, they also do not compromise the thermodynamic stability of the modified duplex. This leads to a decreased or negligible affinity of HMG domain proteins for the adducts formed by either Pt-acridine complex. In a DNA repair synthesis assay the lesions formed by complex 2 were repaired less efficiently than those formed by complex 1. These significant differences in DNA adduct formation, structure, and recognition between the two acridine complexes and cisplatin help to elucidate why compound 2 is highly active in cisplatin-resistant, repair proficient cancer cell lines.

  7. Replacement of a Thiourea with an Amidine Group in a Monofunctional Platinum–acridine Antitumor Agent. Effect on DNA Interactions, DNA Adduct Recognition and Repair

    PubMed Central

    Kostrhunova, Hana; Malina, Jaroslav; Pickard, Amanda J.; Stepankova, Jana; Vojtiskova, Marie; Kašpárkova, Jana; Muchova, Tereza; Rohlfing, Matthew L.; Bierbach, Ulrich; Brabec, Viktor

    2011-01-01

    A combination of biophysical, biochemical, and computational techniques was used to delineate mechanistic differences between the platinum–acridine hybrid agent [PtCl(en)(L)](NO3)2 (complex 1, en = ethane-1,2-diamine, L = 1-[2-(acridin-9-ylamino)ethyl]-1,3- dimethylthiourea) and a considerably more potent second-generation analogue containing L′ = N-[2-(acridin-9-ylamino)ethyl]-Nmethylpropionamidine (complex 2). Calculations at the density functional theory level provide a rationale for the binding preference of both complexes for guanine-N7 and the relatively high level of adenine adducts observed for compound 1. A significant rate enhancement is observed for binding of the amidine-based complex 2 with DNA compared with the thiourea-based prototype 1. Studies conducted with chemical probes and on the bending and unwinding of model duplex DNA suggest that adducts of complex 2 perturb B-form DNA more severely than complex 1, however, without denaturing the double strand and significantly less than cisplatin. Circular and linear dichroism spectroscopies and viscosity measurements suggest that subtle differences exist between the intercalation modes and adduct geometries of the two complexes. The adducts formed by complex 2 most efficiently inhibit transcription of the damaged DNA by RNA polymerase II. Not only do complexes 1 and 2 cause less distortion to DNA than cisplatin, they also do not compromise the thermodynamic stability of the modified duplex. This leads to a decreased or negligible affinity of HMG domain proteins for the adducts formed by either Pt-acridine complex. In a DNA repair synthesis assay the lesions formed by complex 2 were repaired less efficiently than those formed by complex 1. These significant differences in DNA adduct formation, structure, and recognition between the two acridine complexes and cisplatin help to elucidate why compound 2 is highly active in cisplatin-resistant, repair proficient cancer cell lines. PMID:21806015

  8. Identification of the major lesion from the reaction of an acridine-targeted aniline mustard with DNA as an adenine N1 adduct.

    PubMed

    Boritzki, T J; Palmer, B D; Coddington, J M; Denny, W A

    1994-01-01

    DNA adducts of two acridine-linked aniline half-mustards have been isolated and identified. The compound where the half-mustard is attached to the DNA-targeting acridine moiety by a short linker chain alkylates both double- and single-stranded DNA exclusively at guanine N7, as do the majority of known aromatic and aliphatic nitrogen mustards. The longer-chain analogue, also containing a more reactive half-mustard, shows a strikingly different pattern, alkylating double-stranded DNA to yield primarily (> 90%) the adenine N1 adduct, together with < 10% of the adenine N3 adduct and only trace amounts of the guanine N7 adduct. In the presence of MgCl2 (which is known not to inhibit the interaction of drugs at minor groove sites), the adenine N3 adduct is the major product. The latter compound is the first known aniline mustard (and apparently the first known alkylating agent of any type) to preferentially alkylate adenine at the N1 position in duplex DNA. These results are consistent with previous work [Prakash et al. (1990) Biochemistry 29, 9799-9807], which showed that the preferred site of DNA alkylation by the corresponding long-chain acridine-linked aniline bis-mustards in general was at major groove sites of adenines and identifies the major site of alkylation as adenine N1 and not N7. This selectivity for adenine N1 alkylation is suggested to result from a preference for the acridine mustard side chain of these compounds to project into the major groove following intercalation of the acridine, coupled with structural distortion of the DNA helix to make the N1 positions of adenines adjacent to the intercalation sites more accessible.

  9. Light-induced transformations of aza-aromatic pollutants adsorbed on models of atmospheric particulate matter: Acridine and 9(10-H) acridone

    PubMed Central

    Negrón-Encarnación, Ideliz; Arce, Rafael

    2007-01-01

    The effect of the characteristics of the surface on the phototransformation of acridine, one of the most abundant azapolycyclic compounds encountered in urban atmospheres, and of one of its principal photoproducts, acridone, was studied when adsorbed onto models of the atmospherice particulate matter. For this purpose, relative photodegradation rates were determined from absorption or emission intensities as a function of irradiation times, and some products were isolated and characterized. The relative photodegradation rates of adsorbed acridine show the tendency (NH4)2 SO4 > MgO > Al2O3 >SiO2. In general, the rates decrease as the fraction of protonated acridine species on the surface increases in MgO, Al2O3, and SiO2, except for (NH4)2 SO4 where a fast surface reaction occurs. Oxygen reduces the photodestruction rates by as much as 40 to 60% when compared to an inert atmosphere, implying the participation of an acrideine triplet state in the transformation processes on all surfaces except on (NH4)2SO4. Acridone, a major product, undergoes a photoinduced tautomerization to 9-hydroxy acridine. The formation of a dihydrodiol, another photoproduct of acridine, is suggested by comparison to reported spectral properties of these compounds. This is formed through a singlet oxygen reaction. Photoproducts showing the absence of the narrow absorption band of 250 nm, characteristic of the π →π* transition in tricyclic aromatics, were detected in small yields but not identified. These results suggest possible photochemical transformation pathways that could lead to the ultimate fate of these pollutants in the environment. PMID:18836521

  10. Pd-catalyzed aerobic oxidative annulation of cyclohexanones and 2-aminophenyl ketones: A direct approach to acridines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Wanlu; Li, Xiaowei; Wang, Longfei; Chen, Yong; Wu, Yanchao

    2017-08-01

    An efficient aerobic oxidative annulation of cyclohexanones and 2-aminophenyl ketones approach to substituted acridines, a structural motif for a large number of pharmaceuticals and functional materials is described. The key feature of this method is the use of oxygen as the sole oxidant and Pd catalyst, which resulting in the high regioselectivity with unsymmetrical meta-substituted cyclohexanones. The electron gap of the global redox condensation process is filled and the reaction efficiency is significantly promoted by O2 as a redox moderator. This protocol possesses many advantages such as using O2 as a cheap and nonhazardous oxidant, high regioselectivity and water as the only by-product, which meet the principle of green chemistry.

  11. Acridine-1, 8-diones - A new class of thermally stable NLOphores: Photophysical, (hyper)polarizability and TD-DFT studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorat, Kishor G.; Tayade, Rajratna P.; Sekar, Nagaiyan

    2016-12-01

    Linear and non-linear optical properties of a series of new acridine-1, 8-dione derivatives are investigated in different solvents by using solvatochromic and computational methods. Values of first-order hyperpolarizabilities (βCT or β0) obtained using solvatochromic and computational methods are compared with the reported values for urea and 3-aminoxanthone. The new materials under study show first hyperpolarizability values 2.3 to 5.6 times larger than that of urea and 2 to 15.6 times more than that of 3-aminoxanthone. The dyes possess very high thermal stabilities. The dyes are prepared using one pot multicomponent reaction between dimedone, various aromatic aldehydes and amino acids, and characterized by spectroscopic techniques.

  12. In Silico Molecular Docking and In Vitro Antidiabetic Studies of Dihydropyrimido[4,5-a]acridin-2-amines

    PubMed Central

    Bharathi, A.; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Vasavi, C. S.; Munusami, Punnagai; Gayathri, G. A.; Gayathri, M.

    2014-01-01

    An in vitro antidiabetic activity on α-amylase and α–glucosidase activity of novel 10-chloro-4-(2-chlorophenyl)-12-phenyl-5,6-dihydropyrimido[4,5-a]acridin-2-amines (3a–3f) were evaluated. Structures of the synthesized molecules were studied by FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, EI-MS, and single crystal X-ray structural analysis data. An in silico molecular docking was performed on synthesized molecules (3a–3f). Overall studies indicate that compound 3e is a promising compound leading to the development of selective inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase. PMID:24991576

  13. PT-ACRAMTU, a platinum–acridine anticancer agent, lengthens and aggregates, but does not stiffen or soften DNA

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Samrat; Snyder, Matthew J.; Rosile, David; Binz, Kristen L.; Roll, Eric H.; Suryadi, Jimmy; Bierbach, Ulrich; Guthold, Martin

    2013-01-01

    We used atomic force microscopy (AFM) to study the dose-dependent change in conformational and mechanical properties of DNA treated with PT-ACRAMTU ([PtCl(en)(ACRAMTU-S)](NO3)2, (en = ethane-1,2-diamine, ACRAMTU = 1-[2-(acridin-9-ylamino)ethyl]-1,3-dimethylthiourea. PT-ACRAMTU is the parent drug of a family of nonclassical platinum-based agents that show potent activity in non-small cell lung cancer in vitro and in vivo. Its acridine moiety intercalates between DNA bases, while the platinum group forms monoadducts with DNA bases. AFM images show that PT-ACRAMTU causes some DNA looping and aggregation at drug-to-base pair ratio (rb) of 0.1 and higher. Very significant lengthening of the DNA was observed with increasing doses of PT-ACRAMTU, and reached saturation at an rb of 0.15. At rb of 0.1, lengthening was 0.6 nm per drug molecule, which is more than one fully stretched base pair stack can accommodate, indicating that ACRAMTU also disturbs the stacking of neighboring base pair stacks. Analysis of the AFM images based on the worm-like chain (WLC) model showed that PT-ACRAMTU did not change the flexibility of (non-aggregated) DNA, despite the extreme lengthening. The persistence length of untreated DNA and DNA treated with PT-ACRAMTU was in the range of 49 to 65 nm. Potential consequences of the perturbations caused by this agent for the recognition and processing of the DNA adducts it forms are discussed. PMID:23636685

  14. Orange County Photovoltaic Project & Educational COmponent

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, Renee

    2016-02-12

    The purpose of this report is to discuss the projects implemented, utilizing Department of Energy grant funds, to support the use and understanding of renewable energy in Orange County, Florida and the Greater Orlando Area. Orange County is located in the State of Florida and is most popularly referred to as Orlando. The greater Orlando area’s current population is 1,225,267 and in 2015 was the first destination to surpass 60 million visitors. Orange County utilized grant funds to add to the growing demand for access to charging stations by installing one level 2 dual NovaCharge CT4021 electric vehicle charging station at the Orange County/University of Florida Cooperative Extension Center. The charging station is considered a “smart” charger connected to a central network operated by a third party. Data collected includes the number of charging sessions, session start and end times, the electricity usage, greenhouse gases saved and other pertinent data used for reporting purposes. Orange County continues to support the use of electric vehicles in Metro Orlando and this project continues to bring awareness to our public regarding using alternative vehicles. Additionally, we offer all visitors to the Orange County/University of Florida Cooperative Extension Center free charges for their electric vehicles 24 hours a day. Since the operation of the charging station there have been 52 unique driver users, a total of 532.2258 kg of greenhouse gas savings and 159.03 gallons of gasoline savings. The installation of the additional electric vehicle charging station is part of a county-wide goal of promoting implementation of renewable energy technologies as well as supporting the use of electric vehicles including the Drive Electric Orlando & Florida programs. http://driveelectricorlando.com/ & ; http://www.driveelectricflorida.org/ . Grant funds were also used for Outreach and Educational efforts. Educational efforts about renewable energy were accomplished through

  15. Flora of the Orange Cliffs of Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Shultz, L.M.; Neely, E.E.; Tuhy, J.S.

    1987-04-30

    The Orange Cliffs area, an area rich in oil sands deposits and defined here as part of the Colorado Plateau floristic province, harbors approximately 209 species in 123 genera and 49 families. Because of the potential of exploitation of the oil sands deposits in the area, a species checklist was made and a discussion of physical and floristic aspects of the region is given here. The flora is compared statistically to the San Rafael Swell flora, which is also a subset of the Colorado Plateau. They define six vegetation types and three edaphic communities; these are described and mapped. Of eleven endemic plant species in the Orange Cliffs, three are local and rare. Sites for Astragalus nidularius, A. moencoppensis, and Xylorhiza glabriuscula var. linearifolia are discussed and mapped. 24 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  16. Call Cultures in Orang-Utans?

    PubMed Central

    Wich, Serge A.; Nater, Alexander; Arora, Natasha; Bastian, Meredith L.; Meulman, Ellen; Morrogh-Bernard, Helen C.; Atmoko, S. Suci Utami; Pamungkas, Joko; Perwitasari-Farajallah, Dyah; Hardus, Madeleine E.; van Noordwijk, Maria; van Schaik, Carel P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Several studies suggested great ape cultures, arguing that human cumulative culture presumably evolved from such a foundation. These focused on conspicuous behaviours, and showed rich geographic variation, which could not be attributed to known ecological or genetic differences. Although geographic variation within call types (accents) has previously been reported for orang-utans and other primate species, we examine geographic variation in the presence/absence of discrete call types (dialects). Because orang-utans have been shown to have geographic variation that is not completely explicable by genetic or ecological factors we hypothesized that this will be similar in the call domain and predict that discrete call type variation between populations will be found. Methodology/Principal Findings We examined long-term behavioural data from five orang-utan populations and collected fecal samples for genetic analyses. We show that there is geographic variation in the presence of discrete types of calls. In exactly the same behavioural context (nest building and infant retrieval), individuals in different wild populations customarily emit either qualitatively different calls or calls in some but not in others. By comparing patterns in call-type and genetic similarity, we suggest that the observed variation is not likely to be explained by genetic or ecological differences. Conclusion/Significance These results are consistent with the potential presence of ‘call cultures’ and suggest that wild orang-utans possess the ability to invent arbitrary calls, which spread through social learning. These findings differ substantially from those that have been reported for primates before. First, the results reported here are on dialect and not on accent. Second, this study presents cases of production learning whereas most primate studies on vocal learning were cases of contextual learning. We conclude with speculating on how these findings might assist in bridging

  17. An endophytic fungus, Gibberella moniliformis from Lawsonia inermis L. produces lawsone, an orange-red pigment.

    PubMed

    Sarang, Hatnagar; Rajani, Pijakala; Vasanthakumari, Madhugiri Mallaiah; Kumara, Patel Mohana; Siva, Ramamoorthy; Ravikanth, Gudasalamani; Uma Shaanker, R

    2017-07-01

    Lawsone (2-hydroxy-1, 4-napthoquinone), also known as hennotannic acid, is an orange red dye used as a popular skin and hair colorant. The dye is produced in the leaves of Lawsonia inermis L, often referred to as the "henna" tree. In this study, we report the production of lawsone by an endophytic fungus, Gibberella moniliformis isolated from the leaf tissues of Lawsonia inermis. The fungus produced the orange-red dye in potato dextrose agar and broth, independent of the host tissue. Presence of lawsone was confirmed spectrometrically using HPLC and ESI-MS/MS analysis. The fragmentation pattern of lawsone was identical to both standard lawsone and that extracted from plant tissue. This is a first report of lawsone being produced by an endophytic fungus, independent of the host tissue. The study opens up interesting questions on the possible biosynthetic pathway through which lawsone is produced by the fungus.

  18. Synthesis and antileishmanial activity of 6-mono-substituted and 3,6-di-substituted acridines obtained by acylation of proflavine.

    PubMed

    Di Giorgio, Carole; Shimi, Kamal; Boyer, Gérard; Delmas, Florence; Galy, Jean-Pierre

    2007-10-01

    Two new series of diaminoacridinic derivatives obtained from proflavine and N-(6-amino-3-acridinyl)acetamide were synthesised and assessed for their cytotoxic and antileishmanial activities. Two compounds, N-[6-(acetylamino)-3-acridinyl]acetamide and N-[6-(benzoylamino)-3-acridinyl]benzamide demonstrated highly specific antileishmanial properties against the intracellular amastigote form of the parasite. Structure-activity relationships established that the antiproliferative activity against human cells was greatly enhanced by the presence of a benzoylamino group in 6-mono-substituted acridines, while the presence of two acetylamino or benzoylamino groups in 3,6-di-substituted acridines strongly increased the specificity of the molecules for Leishmania parasite, suggesting that symmetric conformations could preferentially interfere with Leishmania metabolism.

  19. Cytotoxic activity of proflavine diureas: synthesis, antitumor, evaluation and DNA binding properties of 1',1''-(acridin-3,6-diyl)-3',3''-dialkyldiureas.

    PubMed

    Kozurková, Mária; Sabolová, Danica; Janovec, Ladislav; Mikes, Jaromír; Koval', Ján; Ungvarský, Ján; Stefanisinová, Miroslava; Fedorocko, Peter; Kristian, Pavol; Imrich, Ján

    2008-04-01

    The synthesis of novel 1',1''-(acridin-3,6-diyl)-3',3''-dialkyldiureas was reported. Their biological activity to inhibit cell proliferation was assessed by a MTT assay on two cell lines, HeLa and HCT-116, at micromolar concentration. 1',1''-(Acridin-3,6-diyl)-3',3''-dihexyldiurea hydrochloride was active on a HCT-116 cell line with an IC(50) value of 3.1 microM. The interaction of these compounds with calf thymus DNA was investigated by a variety of spectroscopic techniques including UV-vis, fluorescence and CD spectroscopy. From spectrofluorimetric titrations, binding constants for the DNA-drug complexes were determined (K=0.9-4.2x10(5) M(-1)). Antiproliferative activity of synthesized derivatives might be related to their intercalation into DNA.

  20. Rh(iii)-Catalyzed bilateral cyclization of aldehydes with nitrosos toward unsymmetrical acridines proceeding with C-H functionalization enabled by a transient directing group.

    PubMed

    Hu, Weiming; Zheng, Qingheng; Sun, Song; Cheng, Jiang

    2017-06-06

    A Rh(iii)-catalyzed bilateral cyclization was developed for the efficient construction of acridines proceeding with C-H functionalization whereby in situ formation and removal of an imino transient directing group in the presence of catalytic amount of BnNH2 are achieved. In this transformation, a sequential Rh(iii)-catalyzed C-H amination, cyclization, and aromatization process was involved.

  1. Antitumor polycyclic acridines. 17. Synthesis and pharmaceutical profiles of pentacyclic acridinium salts designed to destabilize telomeric integrity.

    PubMed

    Cookson, Jennifer C; Heald, Robert A; Stevens, Malcolm F G

    2005-11-17

    Palladium(0)-mediated Suzuki-Miyaura and Heck transformations have been exploited to provide examples of 8-methylquino[4,3,2-kl]acridines and 8,13-dimethylquino[4,3,2-kl]acridinium iodides bearing bulky saturated (3-acetoxy)propyl or (E)-3-(morpholin-4-yl)-3-oxopropenyl substituents variously in the 3-, 6-, or 10-positions of the pentacyclic nucleus. The pharmacological/pharmaceutical properties of four compounds (4, RHPS4), (5, IH383), (6, RHPS16), and (17, RHPS19) were measured to assess their clinical potential as DNA G-quadruplex-stabilizing/telomerase inhibitory agents. The following properties were measured: stability in tissue culture media in the presence of A549 lung and MCF-7 breast tumor cells, metabolic stability when incubated with rat liver microsomes, and rate of uptake and subcellular location in A549 and MCF-7 cells. Compound 17 was unstable in tissue culture media, failed to achieve nuclear access, and was excluded from further consideration. Of the other agents, 4 exhibited the most favorable pharmaceutical profile: the agent has appropriate stability in the presence of tumor cells and rat liver microsomes and achieves rapid ingress into cell nuclei where the putative molecular target is located.

  2. Photoabsorption of acridine yellow and proflavin bound to human serum albumin studied by means of quantum mechanics/molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Aidas, Kęstutis; Olsen, Jógvan Magnus H; Kongsted, Jacob; Ågren, Hans

    2013-02-21

    Attempting to unravel mechanisms in optical probing of proteins, we have performed pilot calculations of two cationic chromophores-acridine yellow and proflavin-located at different binding sites within human serum albumin, including the two primary drug binding sites as well as a heme binding site. The computational scheme adopted involves classical molecular dynamics simulations of the ligands bound to the protein and subsequent linear response polarizable embedding density functional theory calculations of the excitation energies. A polarizable embedding potential consisting of point charges fitted to reproduce the electrostatic potential and isotropic atomic polarizabilities computed individually for every residue of the protein was used in the linear response calculations. Comparing the calculated aqueous solution-to-protein shifts of maximum absorption energies to available experimental data, we concluded that the cationic proflavin chromophore is likely not to bind albumin at its drug binding site 1 nor at its heme binding site. Although agreement with experimental data could only be obtained in qualitative terms, our results clearly indicate that the difference in optical response of the two probes is due to deprotonation, and not, as earlier suggested, to different binding sites. The ramifications of this finding for design of molecular probes targeting albumin or other proteins is briefly discussed.

  3. FLOW BEHAVIOUR OF CONCENTRATED ORANGE JUICE.

    PubMed

    Mizrahi, Shimon; Berk, Zeki

    1970-07-01

    Orange concentrate, at the 60-65° Brix concentration level, is a non-Newtonian fluid with yield stress and time dependent behaviour. While recovery from low-rate shear is reversible, shear at high rate causes irreversible destruction of the viscous structure. Part of this effect is due to disintegration of pulp particles. Pulpless concentrate (serum) is also non-Newtonian, but yield stress and time dependent behaviour are present only when pectin concentration is high. Depectinized serum is Newtonian. The effect of temperature on flow properties of all three types of material was studied.

  4. Blue, green, orange, and red upconversion laser

    DOEpatents

    Xie, P.; Gosnell, T.R.

    1998-09-08

    A laser is disclosed for outputting visible light at the wavelengths of blue, green, orange and red light. This is accomplished through the doping of a substrate, such as an optical fiber or waveguide, with Pr{sup 3+} ions and Yb{sup 3+} ions. A light pump such as a diode laser is used to excite these ions into energy states which will produce lasing at the desired wavelengths. Tuning elements such as prisms and gratings can be employed to select desired wavelengths for output. 11 figs.

  5. Blue, green, orange, and red upconversion laser

    DOEpatents

    Xie, Ping; Gosnell, Timothy R.

    1998-01-01

    A laser for outputting visible light at the wavelengths of blue, green, orange and red light. This is accomplished through the doping of a substrate, such as an optical fiber or waveguide, with Pr.sup.3+ ions and Yb.sup.3+ ions. A light pump such as a diode laser is used to excite these ions into energy states which will produce lasing at the desired wavelengths. Tuning elements such as prisms and gratings can be employed to select desired wavelengths for output.

  6. Chromosomal and mitochondrial DNA variation in orang utans.

    PubMed

    Ryder, O A; Chemnick, L G

    1993-01-01

    Wild-born orang utans held in zoos do not have their geographic origins defined, which has complicated comparisons of the two subspecies of orang utans (Bornean orang utans, Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus, and Sumatran orang utans, P. pygmaeus abelii). The resulting confusion concerning the subspecies identity of individual orang utans and a larger controversy over the desirability of utilizing subspecies designations in orang utan breeding programs has focused attention on the need for a phylogenetic analysis of the species and an examination of the appropriateness of the subspecific designations. Previous studies have suggested that an inversion in the second chromosome pair (PPY2) is a diagnostic subspecies marker and that mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and nuclear genetic markers may also be used to identify the subspecies origin of individual orang utans. In an effort to assist zoological parks in examining the question of genetic divergence of orang utan subspecies, we have studied the chromosomes of 144 orang utans, including 58 wild-born individuals. To gain insight into phylogenetic divisions of these apes, mtDNA restriction cleavage site variation has been investigated in 14 individuals whose karyotypic status was known. These investigations have confirmed the existence of two phylogenetic lineages of orang utans based on mtDNA cleavage patterns and demonstrated that these lineages correspond with the two populations characterized by the G-banded morphology of the second pair of chromosomes. The two orang utan phylogenetic units comprise individuals that generally conform to the recognized allopatric, morphological subspecies. Based on current knowledge, the view that the named orangutan subspecies each constitute a distinct phylogenetic lineage more consistent with species-level divergence is supported.

  7. Highly Simplified Reddish Orange Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Incorporating a Novel Carrier- and Exciton-Confining Spiro-Exciplex-Forming Host for Reduced Efficiency Roll-off.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ting; Zhang, Ye-Xin; Wang, Bo; Huang, Chen-Chao; Murtaza, Imran; Meng, Hong; Liao, Liang-Sheng

    2017-01-25

    A novel exciplex-forming host is applied so as to design highly simplified reddish orange light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with low driving voltage, high efficiency, and an extraordinarily low efficiency roll-off, by combining N,N-10-triphenyl-10H-spiro [acridine-9,9'-fluoren]-3'-amine (SAFDPA) with 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (Bphen) doped with trivalent iridium complex bis(2-methyldibenzo[f,h]quinoxaline) (acetylacetonate)iridium(III) (Ir(MDQ)2(acac)). The reddish orange OLEDs achieve a strikingly high power efficiency (PE) of 31.80 lm/W with an ultralow threshold voltage of 2.24 V which is almost equal to the triplet energy level of the phosphorescent reddish orange emitting dopant. The power efficiency of the device with the exciplex-forming host is enhanced, achieving 36.2% mainly owing to the lower operating voltage by the novel exciplex forming cohost, compared with the reference device (23.54 lm/W). Moreover, the OLEDs show extraordinarily low current efficiency (CE) roll-off to 1.41% at the brightness from 500 to 5000 cd/m(2) with a maximal CE of 32.87 cd/A (EQEmax = 11.01%). The devices display a good reddish orange color (CIE of (0.628, 0.372) at 500 cd/m(2)) nearly without color shift with increasing brightness. Co-host architecture phosphorescent OLEDs show a simpler device structure, lower working voltage, and a better efficiency and stability than those of the reference devices without the cohost architecture, which helps to simplify the OLED structure, lower the cost, and popularize OLED technology.

  8. Spectrophotometric determination of zirconium with xylenol orange

    SciTech Connect

    Antepenko, R J

    1982-05-14

    High purity hydride forming metal films are used as hydrogen isotope occluders and function as electrodes in neutron generator tubes. This use of zirconium occluder films requires reliable analytical methods for routine determination of the zirconium film weight in a production environment. In this study, a spectrophotometric method was evaluated for the determination of zirconium films. The method is based upon the formation of a highly colored zirconium complex with xylenol orange in a dilute perchloric acid medium. Dilute hydrofluoric acid is used in this procedure to selectively dissolve the zirconium film off the substrate. A perchloric acid fuming step is used to remove hydrofluoric acid from the solution. The zirconium solutions are depolymerized before complex formation by heating in 2 N perchloric acid. The zirconium complex exhibits a maximum absorbance in 0.2 to 0.3 M perchloric acid at a wavelength of 531 nanometers. Beer's law is obeyed for zirconium concentrations through 2.1 parts per million. Molybdenum, at concentrations equal to zirconium, does not interfere with the xylenol orange method.

  9. 7 CFR 29.1044 - Orange Red (FR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Orange Red (FR). 29.1044 Section 29.1044 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1044 Orange Red (FR). A yellowish red. ...

  10. 7 CFR 29.1044 - Orange Red (FR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Orange Red (FR). 29.1044 Section 29.1044 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1044 Orange Red (FR). A yellowish red. [42 FR 21092, Apr. 25, 1977. Redesignated at 47 FR...

  11. 7 CFR 29.1044 - Orange Red (FR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Orange Red (FR). 29.1044 Section 29.1044 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1044 Orange Red (FR). A yellowish red. [42 FR 21092, Apr. 25, 1977. Redesignated at 47 FR...

  12. 7 CFR 29.1044 - Orange Red (FR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Orange Red (FR). 29.1044 Section 29.1044 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1044 Orange Red (FR). A yellowish red. [42 FR 21092, Apr. 25, 1977. Redesignated at 47 FR...

  13. 7 CFR 29.1044 - Orange Red (FR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Orange Red (FR). 29.1044 Section 29.1044 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1044 Orange Red (FR). A yellowish red. ...

  14. Orange proteomic fingerprinting: From fruit to commercial juices.

    PubMed

    Lerma-García, María Jesús; D'Amato, Alfonsina; Simó-Alfonso, Ernesto F; Righetti, Pier Giorgio; Fasoli, Elisa

    2016-04-01

    Combinatorial peptide ligand library technology, coupled to mass spectrometry, has been applied to extensively map the proteome of orange pulp and peel and, via this fingerprinting, to detect its presence in commercial orange juices and drinks. The native and denaturing extraction protocols have captured 1109 orange proteins, as identified by LC-MS/MS. This proteomic map has been searched in an orange concentrate, from a Spanish juice manufacturer, as well as in commercial orange juices and soft drinks. The presence of numerous orange proteins in commercial juices has demonstrated the genuineness of these products, prepared by using orange fruits as original ingredients. However, the low number of identified proteins in sparkling beverages has suggested that they were prepared with scarce amounts of fruit extract, thus imparting lower quality to the final products. These findings not only increase the knowledge of the orange proteome but also present a reliable analytical method to assess quality and genuineness of commercial products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Ultrastructural changes in sweet orange with symptoms of huanglongbing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Citrus greening (Huanglongbing [HLB]) is one of the most destructive citrus diseases worldwide. To better understand the ultrastructural changes of sweet orange seedlings in response to infection, anatomical analyses of HLB-infected sweet orange were carried out by light and electron microscopy. A...

  16. The draft genome of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis).

    PubMed

    Xu, Qiang; Chen, Ling-Ling; Ruan, Xiaoan; Chen, Dijun; Zhu, Andan; Chen, Chunli; Bertrand, Denis; Jiao, Wen-Biao; Hao, Bao-Hai; Lyon, Matthew P; Chen, Jiongjiong; Gao, Song; Xing, Feng; Lan, Hong; Chang, Ji-Wei; Ge, Xianhong; Lei, Yang; Hu, Qun; Miao, Yin; Wang, Lun; Xiao, Shixin; Biswas, Manosh Kumar; Zeng, Wenfang; Guo, Fei; Cao, Hongbo; Yang, Xiaoming; Xu, Xi-Wen; Cheng, Yun-Jiang; Xu, Juan; Liu, Ji-Hong; Luo, Oscar Junhong; Tang, Zhonghui; Guo, Wen-Wu; Kuang, Hanhui; Zhang, Hong-Yu; Roose, Mikeal L; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Deng, Xiu-Xin; Ruan, Yijun

    2013-01-01

    Oranges are an important nutritional source for human health and have immense economic value. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of the draft genome of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis). The assembled sequence covers 87.3% of the estimated orange genome, which is relatively compact, as 20% is composed of repetitive elements. We predicted 29,445 protein-coding genes, half of which are in the heterozygous state. With additional sequencing of two more citrus species and comparative analyses of seven citrus genomes, we present evidence to suggest that sweet orange originated from a backcross hybrid between pummelo and mandarin. Focused analysis on genes involved in vitamin C metabolism showed that GalUR, encoding the rate-limiting enzyme of the galacturonate pathway, is significantly upregulated in orange fruit, and the recent expansion of this gene family may provide a genomic basis. This draft genome represents a valuable resource for understanding and improving many important citrus traits in the future.

  17. 76 FR 35886 - Orange Cove Irrigation District, and Friant Power Authority; Notice of Availability of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ...--California] Orange Cove Irrigation District, and Friant Power Authority; Notice of Availability of... Projects has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) regarding Orange Cove Irrigation District's and...

  18. Potent inhibition of telomerase by small-molecule pentacyclic acridines capable of interacting with G-quadruplexes.

    PubMed

    Gowan, S M; Heald, R; Stevens, M F; Kelland, L R

    2001-11-01

    A novel pentacyclic acridine, 3,11-difluoro-6,8,13-trimethyl-8H-quino[4,3,2-kl]acridinium methosulfate (RHPS4), has been identified as a potent inhibitor of telomerase in the cell-free telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP). Modeling and biophysical studies suggest that RHPS4 inhibits telomerase through stabilization of four-stranded G-quadruplex structures formed by single-stranded telomeric DNA. In contrast to G-quadruplex interactive telomerase inhibitors described previously, RHPS4 inhibited telomerase at submicromolar levels (50% inhibition in the TRAP assay at 0.33 +/- 0.13 microM). Moreover, RHPS4 exhibited a wide differential between this potent inhibition of telomerase and acute cellular cytotoxicity (mean IC(50) value of 7.02 microM in 4-day growth inhibition assay). RHPS4, when added to 21NT breast cancer cells at nonacute cytotoxic concentrations (200 nM) every 3 to 4 days, induced a marked cessation in cell growth after 15 days. Similar effects were observed using another cell line possessing relatively short telomeres, A431 human vulval carcinoma cells, but not in a human ovarian carcinoma cell line (SKOV-3) possessing relatively long telomeres. In 21NT cells, growth cessation was accompanied by an increase in cells in the G(2)/M phase of the cell cycle, a reduction in cellular telomerase activity, and a lower expression of the hTERT gene. These effects occurred in the absence of a detectable reduction in telomere length as measured by slot blotting. RHPS4 also induced a cessation of growth of GM847 cells that maintain telomeres by a nontelomerase alternative mechanism for lengthening telomeres (ALT) after 15 days. RHPS4 represents a promising G-quadruplex interactive small molecule that is a potent cell-free inhibitor of human telomerase and induces growth inhibitory effects in human tumor cell lines after prolonged (2-week) exposure to nonacute cytotoxic drug concentrations.

  19. Topoisomerase I/II selectivity among derivatives of N-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]acridine-4-carboxamide (DACA).

    PubMed

    Bridewell, D J; Finlay, G J; Baguley, B C

    2001-12-01

    DACA (N-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]acridine-4-carboxamide dihydrochloride) has high experimental antitumor activity and has completed phase I/II clinical trials. It targets both topoisomerase (topo) I and II, but the roles of each of these enzymes in the antitumour action of DACA are not known. We have used a series of DACA analogues (mainly monosubstituted halogen derivatives) to relate in vitro and in vivo biological activity. We measured topo II selectivity by comparing the inhibition of Jurkat human leukaemia cell lines with high and low topo II content. We determined survival curves following exposure of H460 human lung carcinoma cells for 1 h. We used plasmid DNA to compare the effects of DACA analogues on isolated topo I and II, measuring in particular the inhibition of topo I- and II-mediated DNA relaxation. The results indicate that 5-halogen substituted derivatives are the most active in clonogenic cytotoxicity assays and that this activity is related to their selective activity towards Jurkat cells with high topo II activity. In isolated topo assays, 5-halogen substituted derivatives were also the most potent and in each case the concentration required for inhibition of topo II relaxation was greater than that for inhibition of topo I relaxation. The drug concentration providing efficient cytotoxicity corresponded to that which suppressed the activity of topo I but not of topo II. We hypothesize that DACA analogues act both in vitro and in vivo to simultaneously poison topo II and inhibit topo I catalytic activity, and that this combination contributes to the high antitumour activity of DACA analogues.

  20. Triple helix formation with purine-rich phosphorothioate-containing oligonucleotides covalently linked to an acridine derivative.

    PubMed Central

    Lacoste, J; François, J C; Hélène, C

    1997-01-01

    Purine-rich (GA)- and (GT)-containing oligophosphorothioates were investigated for their triplex-forming potential on a 23 bp DNA duplex target. In our system, GA-containing oligophosphorothioates (23mer GA-PS) were capable of triplex formation with binding affinities lower than (GA)-containing oligophosphodiesters (23mer GA-PO). The orientation of the third strand 23mers GA-PS and GA-PO was antiparallel to the purine strand of the duplex DNA target. In contrast, (GT)-containing oligophosphorothioates (23mer GT-PS) did not support triplex formation in either orientation, whereas the 23mer GT-PO oligophosphodiester demonstrated triplex formation in the antiparallel orientation. GA-PS oligonucleotides, in contrast to GT-PS oligonucleotides, were capable of self-association, but these self-associated structures exhibited lower stabilities than those formed with GA-PO oligonucleotides, suggesting that homoduplex formation (previously described for the 23mer GA-PO sequence by Noonberg et al.) could not fully account for the decrease in triplex stability when phosphorothioate linkages were used. The 23mer GA-PS oligonucleotide was covalently linked via its 5'-end to an acridine derivative (23mer Acr-GA-PS). In the presence of potassium cations, this conjugate demonstrated triplex formation with higher binding affinity than the unmodified 23mer GA-PS oligonucleotide and even than the 23mer GA-PO oligonucleotide. A (GA)-containing oligophosphodiester with two phosphorothioate linkages at both the 5'- and 3'-ends exhibited similar binding affinity to duplex DNA compared with the unmodified GA-PO oligophosphodiester. This capped oligonucleotide was more resistant to nucleases than the GA-PO oligomer and thus represents a good alternative for ex vivo applications of (GA)-containing, triplex-forming oligonucleotides, allowing a higher binding affinity for its duplex target without rapid cellular degradation. PMID:9115367

  1. A novel form of intercalation involving four DNA duplexes in an acridine-4-carboxamide complex of d(CGTACG)2

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Adrienne; Guss, J. Mitchell; Collyer, Charles A.; Denny, William A.; Wakelin, Laurence P. G.

    2000-01-01

    The structures of the complexes formed between 9-amino-[N-(2-dimethyl-amino)butyl]acridine-4-carboxamide and d(CG5BrUACG)2 and d(CGTACG)2 have been solved by X-ray crystallography using MAD phasing methodology and refined to a resolution of 1.6 Å. The complexes crystallised in space group C222. An asymmetric unit in the brominated complex comprises two strands of DNA, one disordered drug molecule, two cobalt (II) ions and 19 water molecules (31 in the native complex). Asymmetric units in the native complex also contain a sodium ion. The structures exhibit novel features not previously observed in crystals of DNA/drug complexes. The DNA helices stack in continuous columns with their central 4 bp adopting a B-like motif. However, despite being a palindromic sequence, the terminal GC base pairs engage in quite different interactions. At one end of the duplex there is a CpG dinucleotide overlap modified by ligand intercalation and terminal cytosine exchange between symmetry-related duplexes. A novel intercalation complex is formed involving four DNA duplexes, four ligand molecules and two pairs of base tetrads. The other end of the DNA is frayed with the terminal guanine lying in the minor groove of the next duplex in the column. The structure is stabilised by guanine N7/cobalt (II) coordination. We discuss our findings with respect to the effects of packing forces on DNA crystal structure, and the potential effects of intercalating agents on biochemical processes involving DNA quadruplexes and strand exchanges. NDB accession numbers: DD0032 (brominated) and DD0033 (native). PMID:11058124

  2. Volatile and nonvolatile flavor chemical evaluation of USDA orange-mandarin hybrids for comparison to sweet orange and mandarin fruit

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Three citrus hybrids, containing 50-75% sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) genome in their pedigrees and similar to sweet orange in fruit size, color and taste, were tested for their potential to be classified as new “sweet orange” cultivars. 'Hamlin', ‘Midsweet’, and three other early to mid-season swe...

  3. Solvent-Switching Gelation and Orange-Red Emission of Ultrasmall Copper Nanoclusters.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinhua; Zhang, Qiang Matthew; Feng, Yong; Zhou, Zhengyuan; Shih, Kaimin

    2016-01-18

    By tuning the Cu⋅⋅⋅Cu and hydrogen-bonding interactions, the small cluster Cu3 L can be selectively synthesized to develop a stable and highly fluorescent material, as confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectroscopy. Further characterizations, including absorbance spectroscopy, XPS, and XRD demonstrate the formation of tiny Cu nanoclusters (NCs). In water, the as-prepared Cu NCs can exhibit high orange fluorescence via solution evaporation to eliminate hydrogen-bonding, and in dimethylformamide, a strong orange fluorescent gel is obtained by solvent induction to enhance the Cu⋅⋅⋅Cu and hydrogen-bonding interactions. More importantly, the Cu NCs in their substantial form exhibit nonlinear optical properties upon two-photon excitation. These results will shed light on Cu and related cluster applications in two-photon biological imaging, optical power limiting, and solar energy conversion.

  4. Polyphosphate gel/methyl orange supramolecular composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galembeck, André; Silva, Sidicleia B. C.; Silva, José Augusto P.; Del Nero, J.

    2004-01-01

    The aims of this work were to investigate theoretically the optical properties of methyl orange (MO) and the synthesis of new supramolecular composites based on the incorporation of this dye in an aluminum polyphosphate gel network. The theoretical methodology was based in semiempirical (AM1 and INDO/S-CI) and ab initio (3-21G*) methods. Our results reveal the existence of different electronic patterns for the acidic and basic forms of these molecules. Also, we present a theoretical spectroscopic study for the molecules including interactions with water molecules. MO was successfully incorporated in its acidic form within the host matrix, leading to pink-red transparent self-standing films. The dye could be converted to its basic form upon exposure to ammonia vapor. The spectrum of MO basic form within the gel network differs from its behavior in aqueous solution.

  5. Nonlinear optical characterization of Disperse Orange 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derkowska-Zielinska, Beata; Fedus, Kamil; Wang, Hongzhen; Cassagne, Christophe; Boudebs, Georges

    2017-10-01

    The nonlinear optical responses of Disperse Orange 3 (DO3) dissolved in tetrahydrofuran (THF) with different concentrations were investigated by Z-scan D4σ technique employing 12 ps and 17 ps pulses of Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm and 1064 nm, respectively. The comparison of the experimental results at both wavelengths demonstrates the strong influence of the resonant phenomena related to the linear absorption on the nonlinear response at 532 nm. In particular, DO3 solution was found to exhibit negative resonant nonlinear refraction with negligible saturable and multi-photon absorption. Moreover, the competition between negative and positive nonlinear refractive indices (n2) of the solute and the solvent was observed at low concentrations. The linear dependence of n2 on the latter quantity allowed to estimate an effective second-order hyperpolarizability of DO3 molecule at 532 nm.

  6. Vitiligo and alopecia areata: apples and oranges?

    PubMed

    Harris, John E

    2013-12-01

    Vitiligo and alopecia areata are common autoimmune diseases of the skin. Vitiligo is caused by the destruction of melanocytes and results in the appearance of white patches on any part of the body, while alopecia areata is characterized by patchy hair loss primarily on the scalp, but may also involve other areas as well. At first glance, the two diseases appear to be quite different, targeting different cell types and managed using different treatment approaches. However, the immune cell populations and cytokines that drive each disease are similar, they are closely associated within patients and their family members, and vitiligo and alopecia areata have common genetic risk factors, suggesting that they share a similar pathogenesis. Like apples and oranges, vitiligo and alopecia areata have some obvious differences, but similarities abound. Recognizing both similarities and differences will promote research into the pathogenesis of each disease, as well as the development of new treatments.

  7. Fluorescence spectroscopy applied to orange trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcassa, L. G.; Gasparoto, M. C. G.; Belasque, J., Jr.; Lins, E. C.; Dias Nunes, F.; Bagnato, V. S.

    2006-05-01

    In this work, we have applied laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy to investigate biological processes in orange trees (Citrus aurantium L.). We have chosen to investigate water stress and Citrus Canker, which is a disease caused by the Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri bacteria. The fluorescence spectroscopy was investigated by using as an excitation source a 442-nm 15-mW HeCd gas multimode discharge laser and a 532-nm 10-mW Nd3+:YAG laser. The stress manifestation was detected by the variation of fluorescence ratios of the leaves at different wavelengths. The fluorescence ratios present a significant variation, showing the possibility to observe water stress by fluorescence spectrum. The Citrus Canker’s contaminated leaves were discriminated from the healthy leaves using a more complex analysis of the fluorescence spectra. However, we were unable to discriminate it from another disease, and new fluorescence experiments are planned for the future.

  8. Oranges or "lemons"? Family farming and product quality in the Spanish orange industry, 1870-1960.

    PubMed

    Garrido, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    In the early twentieth century California became a big exporter of some agricultural products that, until then, had only been grown on a large scale in the mediterranean basin. As a result, exports of those products diminished or stagnated in Mediterranean countries, with important repercussions on their economies. The Spanish orange industry, however, continued to expand, despite the fact that a substantial percentage of Spanish oranges came from farms owned by (often illiterate) small peasants who, in comparison to the California growers, used a great deal of labor, small amounts of capital, and little science. This paper shows that Spanish farmers were in fact capable of growing high-quality oranges at prices that were more competitive than those in California, although interested they often preferred to satisfy the strong demand for middling fruit from Great Britain because it was a more profitable business. This, combined with a deficient use of brand names, gave the Spanish citrus industry serious reputation problems by the 1930s, from which, however, it recovered quickly.

  9. Identification of sensory attributes that drive consumer liking of commercial orange juice products in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mina K; Lee, Young-Jin; Kwak, Han Sub; Kang, Myung-woo

    2013-09-01

    Orange juice is a well-accepted fruit juice, and its consumption increases steadily. Many studies have been conducted to understand the sensory characteristics of orange juice throughout its varying processing steps. Sensory language and consumer likings of food can be influenced by culture. The objective of this study is to evaluate the sensory characteristics of commercially available orange juices in Korea and identify drivers of liking for orange juices in Korea. A quantitative descriptive analysis was conducted using a trained panel (n = 10) to evaluate 7 orange juice samples in triplicates, followed by consumer acceptance tests (n = 103). Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were conducted for data analysis. The sensory characteristics of commercially available orange juice were documented and grouped: group 1 samples were characterized by high in natural citrus flavors such as orange peel, orange flesh, citrus fruit, and grape fruit, whereas group 2 samples were characterized by processed orange-like flavors such as over-ripe, cooked-orange, and yogurt. Regardless of orange flavor types, a high intensity of orange flavor in orange juice was identified as a driver of liking for orange juices in Korea. Three distinct clusters were segmented by varying sensory attributes that were evaluated by likes and dislikes. Overall, many similarities were noticed between Korean market segment and global orange juice market. By knowing the drivers of liking and understanding the distinct consumer clusters present in the Korean orange juice market, the orange juice industry could improve the strategic marketing of its products in Korea.

  10. Synephrine as a Specific Marker for Orange Consumption.

    PubMed

    Bader, Matthias; Lang, Tatjana; Lang, Roman; Hofmann, Thomas

    2017-06-14

    To validate the suitability of synephrine, known to be a highly abundant alkaloid in oranges, as a dietary biomarker for orange consumption, a highly sensitive and robust stable isotope dilution analysis (SIDA) as well as an ECHO method, using the analyte itself as a pseudointernal standard injected into the analysis run to provide an "echo peak" of the analyte, was developed to quantitate synephrine by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in citrus juices and human urine before and after the ingestion of orange juice. A citrus juice screening revealed high synephrine concentrations of 150-420 nmol/mL in orange (n = 11) and tangerine (n = 2) juices, whereas 20-100 times lower levels were found in juice from grapefruit (n = 14), lemon (n = 5), pomelo (n = 2), and lime (n = 4). Application of the SIDA to quantitate synephrine in sulfatase/glucuronidase-treated urine samples (n = 10) after orange juice consumption showed an increase of synephrine from trace levels (0.1 ± 0.1 nmol/mL) in the 2-day washout phase to a maximum concentration of 8.9 (±5.5) nmol/mL found 4 h after ingestion of orange juice. Whereas proline betaine was recently reported as a dietary biomarker indicating the ingestion of any citrus product and Chinese artichoke, synephrine can be used a reliable additional biomarker with high specificity for orange and tangerine.

  11. Apollo 17 "Orange soil" and meteorite impact on liquid lava

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roedder, E.; Weiblen, P.W.

    1973-01-01

    THE 'orange soil' from Shorty Crater differs greatly from ordinary lunar soils in that it consists of ???99% 10-300 ??m smooth shiny spherules and broken fragments of spherules of transparent orange glass, about 20% of which contain partly crystallized to opaque material. The remaining 1 % is chiefly crystalline basalt fragments. Although the colour of the individual orange spherule varies with thickness from yellow-orange to red-brown, all orange glass in our sample (74220, 70; 0.25 g) has a uniform index of refraction (??? 1.712). By contrast, other lunar soils contain spherules ranging from 1.50 to 1.75. The orange glass is also completely free of bubbles, to the limit of resolution of the light microscope, whereas bubbles are present in many other spherule samples. The spherules generally appear spherical in a normal microscope mount, but when viewed from two directions many are found to be oblate spheroids with axial ratios varying from near 1.00 to as low as 0.42 (Fig. 1a). Some have fissioned during free flight1 and all stages of the fission process are found, as described for the Apollo 11 samples. Only a few spherules seem to have been distorted by landing while still soft. One notable exception is the occurrence of small spherules of orange glass conforming and adhering to the surface of larger black spherules (Fig. 1b). ?? 1973 Nature Publishing Group.

  12. Two-face, two-turn α-helix mimetics based on a cross-acridine scaffold: analogues of the Bim BH3 domain.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiangqian; Wang, Ziqian; Feng, Yingang; Song, Ting; Su, Pengchen; Chen, Chengbin; Chai, Gaobo; Yang, Ying; Zhang, Zhichao

    2014-06-16

    The design of a cross-acridine scaffold mimicking the i, i+3, i+5, and i+7 residues distributed over a two-face, two-turn α-helix is described. Docking studies and 2D (1)H, (15)N HSQC NMR spectroscopy provide compelling evidence that compound 3 d accurately reproduces the arrangement of four hotspots in the Bim BH3 peptide to permit binding to the Mcl-1 and Bcl-2 proteins (Ki 0.079 and 0.056 μM, respectively). Furthermore, the hotspot mutation could also be mimicked by individual or multiple deletions of side chains on the scaffold.

  13. Replacement of a Thiourea-S with an Amidine-NH Donor Group in a Platinum–Acridine Antitumor Compound Reduces the Metal's Reactivity with Cysteine Sulfur

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zhidong; Rao, Lu; Bierbach, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    The reactivity of two DNA-targeted platinum–acridine conjugates with cysteine sulfur was studied. The conjugate containing an amidine-NH donor group cis to the chloride leaving group showed considerably reduced reactivity with N-acetylcysteine compared to the prototypical derivative containing a thiourea-S linkage. The opposite scenario has been observed previously in reactions with nucleobase nitrogen. Possible consequences of the unique target-selective tuning of the substitution chemistry for the pharmacodynamic properties and biological activity of these agents are discussed. PMID:19397321

  14. Comparative and demographic analysis of orang-utan genomes.

    PubMed

    Locke, Devin P; Hillier, LaDeana W; Warren, Wesley C; Worley, Kim C; Nazareth, Lynne V; Muzny, Donna M; Yang, Shiaw-Pyng; Wang, Zhengyuan; Chinwalla, Asif T; Minx, Pat; Mitreva, Makedonka; Cook, Lisa; Delehaunty, Kim D; Fronick, Catrina; Schmidt, Heather; Fulton, Lucinda A; Fulton, Robert S; Nelson, Joanne O; Magrini, Vincent; Pohl, Craig; Graves, Tina A; Markovic, Chris; Cree, Andy; Dinh, Huyen H; Hume, Jennifer; Kovar, Christie L; Fowler, Gerald R; Lunter, Gerton; Meader, Stephen; Heger, Andreas; Ponting, Chris P; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Alkan, Can; Chen, Lin; Cheng, Ze; Kidd, Jeffrey M; Eichler, Evan E; White, Simon; Searle, Stephen; Vilella, Albert J; Chen, Yuan; Flicek, Paul; Ma, Jian; Raney, Brian; Suh, Bernard; Burhans, Richard; Herrero, Javier; Haussler, David; Faria, Rui; Fernando, Olga; Darré, Fleur; Farré, Domènec; Gazave, Elodie; Oliva, Meritxell; Navarro, Arcadi; Roberto, Roberta; Capozzi, Oronzo; Archidiacono, Nicoletta; Della Valle, Giuliano; Purgato, Stefania; Rocchi, Mariano; Konkel, Miriam K; Walker, Jerilyn A; Ullmer, Brygg; Batzer, Mark A; Smit, Arian F A; Hubley, Robert; Casola, Claudio; Schrider, Daniel R; Hahn, Matthew W; Quesada, Victor; Puente, Xose S; Ordoñez, Gonzalo R; López-Otín, Carlos; Vinar, Tomas; Brejova, Brona; Ratan, Aakrosh; Harris, Robert S; Miller, Webb; Kosiol, Carolin; Lawson, Heather A; Taliwal, Vikas; Martins, André L; Siepel, Adam; Roychoudhury, Arindam; Ma, Xin; Degenhardt, Jeremiah; Bustamante, Carlos D; Gutenkunst, Ryan N; Mailund, Thomas; Dutheil, Julien Y; Hobolth, Asger; Schierup, Mikkel H; Ryder, Oliver A; Yoshinaga, Yuko; de Jong, Pieter J; Weinstock, George M; Rogers, Jeffrey; Mardis, Elaine R; Gibbs, Richard A; Wilson, Richard K

    2011-01-27

    'Orang-utan' is derived from a Malay term meaning 'man of the forest' and aptly describes the southeast Asian great apes native to Sumatra and Borneo. The orang-utan species, Pongo abelii (Sumatran) and Pongo pygmaeus (Bornean), are the most phylogenetically distant great apes from humans, thereby providing an informative perspective on hominid evolution. Here we present a Sumatran orang-utan draft genome assembly and short read sequence data from five Sumatran and five Bornean orang-utan genomes. Our analyses reveal that, compared to other primates, the orang-utan genome has many unique features. Structural evolution of the orang-utan genome has proceeded much more slowly than other great apes, evidenced by fewer rearrangements, less segmental duplication, a lower rate of gene family turnover and surprisingly quiescent Alu repeats, which have played a major role in restructuring other primate genomes. We also describe a primate polymorphic neocentromere, found in both Pongo species, emphasizing the gradual evolution of orang-utan genome structure. Orang-utans have extremely low energy usage for a eutherian mammal, far lower than their hominid relatives. Adding their genome to the repertoire of sequenced primates illuminates new signals of positive selection in several pathways including glycolipid metabolism. From the population perspective, both Pongo species are deeply diverse; however, Sumatran individuals possess greater diversity than their Bornean counterparts, and more species-specific variation. Our estimate of Bornean/Sumatran speciation time, 400,000 years ago, is more recent than most previous studies and underscores the complexity of the orang-utan speciation process. Despite a smaller modern census population size, the Sumatran effective population size (N(e)) expanded exponentially relative to the ancestral N(e) after the split, while Bornean N(e) declined over the same period. Overall, the resources and analyses presented here offer new

  15. Geology, prospects in Orange basin offshore western South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Muntingh, A. Ltd., Parow )

    1993-01-25

    With the fast changing political situation in South Africa it has become possible for Soekor (Pty.) Ltd. To invite international companies to participate in oil and gas exploration in the South African part of the Orange basin. This paper reports on the Orange basin, which comprises a 130,000 sq km area off western South Africa that extends northwards into Namibia, represents a large frontier basin with known hydrocarbon accumulations and the potential for giant fields. Comprehensive seismic coverage and a recent deep-water seismic survey in the Orange basin indicate exciting opportunities in the form of shallow and deep-water plays.

  16. Synthesis and properties of bioactive 2- and 3-amino-8-methyl-8H-quino[4,3,2-kl]acridine and 8,13-dimethyl-8H-quino[4,3,2-kl]acridinium salts.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Ian; McCarroll, Andrew J; Heald, Robert A; Stevens, Malcolm F G

    2004-01-21

    Cyclisation of 9-(benzotriazol-1-yl)acridine to the pentacycle 8H-quino[4,3,2-kl]acridine in a range of low-boiling solvents is mechanistically distinct from previously published photochemical (carbene) and thermolytic (radical) cyclisations. Fragmentation of the triazole ring of to a diazonium intermediate, and its subsequent heterolysis (-N(2)) and cyclisation is facilitated by solvation of intermediate zwitterionic species. Derivatives of 2- and 3-aminoquinoacridines methylated in the 8-position can be converted to 8,13-dimethylquino[4,3,2-kl]acridinium iodide salts with methyl iodide and were required for biological examination as potential telomerase inhibitors. The chloro group in 3-chloro-8-methyl-8H-quino[4,3,2-kl]acridine can be replaced efficiently by benzylamino, 4-morpholinyl and cyano substituents in palladium(0) mediated reactions.

  17. Pharmacokinetic evaluation of N-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]acridine-4-carboxamide in patients by positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Saleem, A; Harte, R J; Matthews, J C; Osman, S; Brady, F; Luthra, S K; Brown, G D; Bleehen, N; Connors, T; Jones, T; Price, P M; Aboagye, E O

    2001-03-01

    To evaluate tumor, normal tissue, and plasma pharmacokinetics of N-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]acridine-4-carboxamide (DACA). The study aimed to determine the pharmacokinetics of carbon-11-labeled DACA ([11C]DACA) and evaluate the effect of pharmacologic doses of DACA on radiotracer kinetics. [11C]DACA (at 1/1,000 phase I starting dose) was administered to 24 patients with advanced cancer (pre-phase I) or during a phase I trial of DACA in five patients. Positron emission tomography (PET) was performed to assess pharmacokinetics and tumor blood flow. Plasma samples were analyzed for metabolite profile of [11C]DACA. There was rapid systemic clearance of [11C]DACA over 60 minutes (1.57 and 1.46 L x min(-1) x m(-2) in pre-phase I and phase I studies, respectively) with the production of several radiolabeled plasma metabolites. Tumor, brain, myocardium, vertebra, spleen, liver, lung, and kidneys showed appreciable uptake of 11C radioactivity. The area under the time-versus-radioactivity curves (AUC) showed the highest variability in tumors. Of interest to potential toxicity, maximum radiotracer concentrations (Cmax) in brain and vertebra were low (0.67 and 0.54 m(2) x mL(-1), respectively) compared with other tissues. A moderate but significant correlation was observed for tumor blood flow with AUC (r = 0.76; P =.02) and standardized uptake value (SUV) at 55 minutes (r = 0.79; P =.01). A decrease in myocardial AUC ( P =.03) and splenic and myocardial SUV ( P =.01 and.004, respectively) was seen in phase I studies. Significantly higher AUC, SUV, and Cmax were observed in tumors in phase I studies. The distribution of [11C]DACA and its radiolabeled metabolites was observed in a variety of tumors and normal tissues. In the presence of unlabeled DACA, pharmacokinetics were altered in myocardium, spleen, and tumors. These data have implications for predicting activity and toxicity of DACA and support the use of PET early in drug development.

  18. 7 CFR 906.365 - Texas Orange and Grapefruit Regulation 34.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Texas Orange and Grapefruit Regulation 34. 906.365... ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Container and Pack Requirements § 906.365 Texas Orange and Grapefruit Regulation 34. (a) No handler shall handle any variety of oranges or...

  19. 7 CFR 906.365 - Texas Orange and Grapefruit Regulation 34.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Texas Orange and Grapefruit Regulation 34. 906.365... ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Container and Pack Requirements § 906.365 Texas Orange and Grapefruit Regulation 34. (a) No handler shall handle any variety of oranges...

  20. 7 CFR 906.365 - Texas Orange and Grapefruit Regulation 34.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Texas Orange and Grapefruit Regulation 34. 906.365... ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Container and Pack Requirements § 906.365 Texas Orange and Grapefruit Regulation 34. (a) No handler shall handle any variety of oranges...

  1. 76 FR 73996 - Special Local Regulations; Orange Bowl International Youth Regatta, Biscayne Bay, Miami, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-30

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Orange Bowl International..., Florida during the Orange Bowl International Youth Regatta, a series of sailboat races. The Orange Bowl... this rule because the Coast Guard did not receive necessary information about the Orange...

  2. 7 CFR 906.365 - Texas Orange and Grapefruit Regulation 34.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Texas Orange and Grapefruit Regulation 34. 906.365... ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Container and Pack Requirements § 906.365 Texas Orange and Grapefruit Regulation 34. (a) No handler shall handle any variety of oranges...

  3. 75 FR 30012 - Friant Power Authority Orange Cove Irrigation District; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Friant Power Authority Orange Cove Irrigation District; Notice of..., 2010. d. Applicant: Friant Power Authority and Orange Cove Irrigation District. e. Name of Project.... Fergus Morrissey, Orange Cove Irrigation District, 1130 Park Boulevard, Orange Cove, CA 93646; telephone...

  4. Etoposide Induces ATM-Dependent Mitochondrial Biogenesis through AMPK Activation

    PubMed Central

    Lyu, Yi Lisa; Liu, Leroy F.; Qi, Haiyan

    2008-01-01

    Background DNA damage such as double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) has been reported to stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis. However, the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. The major player in response to DSBs is ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated). Upon sensing DSBs, ATM is activated through autophosphorylation and phosphorylates a number of substrates for DNA repair, cell cycle regulation and apoptosis. ATM has been reported to phosphorylate the α subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which senses AMP/ATP ratio in cells, and can be activated by upstream kinases. Here we provide evidence for a novel role of ATM in mitochondrial biogenesis through AMPK activation in response to etoposide-induced DNA damage. Methodology/Principal Findings Three pairs of human ATM+ and ATM- cells were employed. Cells treated with etoposide exhibited an ATM-dependent increase in mitochondrial mass as measured by 10-N-Nonyl-Acridine Orange and MitoTracker Green FM staining, as well as an increase in mitochondrial DNA content. In addition, the expression of several known mitochondrial biogenesis regulators such as the major mitochondrial transcription factor NRF-1, PGC-1α and TFAM was also elevated in response to etoposide treatment as monitored by RT-PCR. Three pieces of evidence suggest that etoposide-induced mitochondrial biogenesis is due to ATM-dependent activation of AMPK. First, etoposide induced ATM-dependent phosphorylation of AMPK α subunit at Thr172, indicative of AMPK activation. Second, inhibition of AMPK blocked etoposide-induced mitochondrial biogenesis. Third, activation of AMPK by AICAR (an AMP analogue) stimulated mitochondrial biogenesis in an ATM-dependent manner, suggesting that ATM may be an upstream kinase of AMPK in the mitochondrial biogenesis pathway. Conclusions/Significance These results suggest that activation of ATM by etoposide can lead to mitochondrial biogenesis through AMPK activation. We propose that ATM-dependent mitochondrial

  5. Instantaneous network RTK in Orange County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, Y.

    2003-04-01

    The Orange County Real Time GPS Network (OCRTN) is an upgrade of a sub-network of SCIGN sites in southern California to low latency (1-2 sec), high-rate (1 Hz) data streaming, analysis, and dissemination. The project is a collaborative effort of the California Spatial Reference Center (CSRC) and the Orange County Public Resource and Facilities Division, with partners from the geophysical community, local and state government, and the private sector. Currently, ten sites are streaming 1 Hz raw data (Ashtech binary MBEN format) by means of dedicated, point-to-point radio modems to a network hub that translates the asynchronous serial data to TCP/IP and onto a PC workstation residing on a local area network. Software residing on the PC allows multiple clients to access the raw data simultaneously though TCP/IP. One of the clients is a Geodetics RTD server that receives and archives (1) the raw 1 Hz network data, (2) estimates of instantaneous positions and zenith tropospheric delays for quality control and detection of ground motion, and (3) RINEX data to decimated to 30 seconds. Data recovery is typically 99-100%. The server also produces 1 Hz RTCM data (messages 18, 19, 3 and 22) that are available by means of TCP/IP to RTK clients with wireless Internet modems. Coverage is excellent throughout the county. The server supports standard RTK users and is compatible with existing GPS instrumentation. Typical latency is 1-2 s, with initialization times of several seconds to minutes OCRTN site spacing is 10-15 km. In addition, the server supports “smart clients” who can retrieve data from the closest n sites (typically 3) and obtain an instantaneous network RTK position with 1-2 s latency. This mode currently requires a PDA running the RTD client software, and a wireless card. Since there is no initialization and re-initialization required this approach is well suited to support high-precision (centimeter-level) dynamic applications such as intelligent transportation

  6. Chronic B-Cell Leukemias and Agent Orange

    MedlinePlus

    ... here Enter ZIP code here Chronic B-cell Leukemias and Agent Orange Veterans who develop chronic B- ... care and disability compensation. About chronic B-cell leukemias Leukemia is a cancer of the blood cells. ...

  7. Dystonia not dystopia: effects of the legal high, 'Clockwork Orange'.

    PubMed

    Mackey, Helen Elizabeth; Hawksley, Oliver

    2015-12-10

    A 27-year-old man presented to hospital after smoking a legal high named 'Clockwork Orange'. He suffered dystonia, acute kidney injury, rhabdomyolysis, lactic acidosis and a troponin rise. He was treated with procyclidine and intravenous fluids.

  8. Chronic B-Cell Leukemias and Agent Orange

    MedlinePlus

    ... here Enter ZIP code here Chronic B-cell Leukemias and Agent Orange Veterans who develop chronic B- ... care and disability compensation. About chronic B-cell leukemias Leukemia is a cancer of the blood cells. ...

  9. Pd-Catalyzed Intramolecular Heck Reaction, C(sp(2))-H Activation, 1,4-Pd Migration, and Aminopalladation: Chemoselective Synthesis of Dihydroindeno[1,2,3-kl]acridines and 3-Arylindoles.

    PubMed

    Gu, Zheng-Yang; Liu, Cheng-Guo; Wang, Shun-Yi; Ji, Shun-Jun

    2016-05-20

    Palladium-catalyzed intramolecular Heck reaction and aminopalladation of N-(2-(1-phenylvinyl)phenyl)aniline for the efficient synthesis of dihydroindeno[1,2,3-kl]acridines and 3-arylindoles via tuning of the phosphine ligands and solvents under two optimized conditions are reported. The reaction follows a 1,4-Pd migration, aminopalladation, C(sp(2))-H activation, as well as five- and six-membered-ring fusion to form different products. The dihydroindeno[1,2,3-kl]acridine derivatives showed higher triplet energy (ET) levels than common blue phosphorescent dopant and may serve as good host candidates for blue triplet emitters.

  10. Synthesis and evaluation of 7-substituted-5,6-dihydrobenzo[c]acridine derivatives as new c-KIT promoter G-quadruplex binding ligands.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qian-Liang; Su, Hua-Fei; Wang, Ning; Liao, Sheng-Rong; Lu, Yu-Ting; Ou, Tian-Miao; Tan, Jia-Heng; Li, Ding; Huang, Zhi-Shu

    2017-04-21

    It has been shown that treatment of cancer cells with c-KIT G-quadruplex binding ligands can reduce their c-KIT expression levels thus inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing cell apoptosis. Herein, a series of new 7-substituted-5,6-dihydrobenzo[c]acridine derivatives were designed and synthesized. Subsequent biophysical evaluation demonstrated that the derivatives could effectively bind to and stabilize c-KIT G-quadruplex with good selectivity against duplex DNA. It was found that 12-N-methylated derivatives with a positive charge introduced at 12-position of 5,6-dihydrobenzo[c]acridine ring had similar binding affinity but lower stabilizing ability to c-KIT G-quadruplex DNA, compared with those of nonmethylated derivatives. Further molecular modeling studies showed possible binding modes of G-quadruplex with the ligands. RT-PCR assay and Western blot showed that compound 2b suppressed transcription and translation of c-KIT gene in K562 cells, which was consistent with the property of an effective G-quadruplex binding ligand targeting c-KIT oncogene promoter. Further biological evaluation showed that compound 2b could induce apoptosis through activation of the caspase-3 cascade pathway.

  11. 1H NMR determination of the self-association of an acridine homodimer and its complexation with ethidium bromide in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evstigneev, M. P.; Evstigneev, V. P.; Davies, D. B.

    2006-02-01

    1H NMR spectroscopy (500 MHz) has been used to investigate the self-association in aqueous buffered solution of a bis-intercalator, acridine homodimer (AcrH), and its hetero-association with the aromatic dye, ethidium bromide (EB). The equilibrium constants and thermodynamical parameters (enthalpy and entropy) of self-association have been determined from the observed concentration and temperature dependences of chemical shifts of AcrH protons and the results are consistent with a model consisting of at least four distinct forms of AcrH molecules in solution: unfolded (U), folded (F), a dimer formed from two folded molecules (F 2) and a trimer formed from three folded molecules (F 3). It has also been shown that ethidium bromide complexes strongly to the dimer form (F 2) of the bis-acridine molecule, AcrH. Comparison of the calculated association parameters of AcrH with the previously studied ethidium homodimer (EBH) revealed a correlation between the effectiveness of complexation and the length of chain connecting the chromophores of a bis-intercalator.

  12. Orange peel products can reduce Salmonella populations in ruminants.

    PubMed

    Callaway, Todd R; Carroll, Jeffery A; Arthington, John D; Edrington, Tom S; Anderson, Robin C; Rossman, Michelle L; Carr, Mandy A; Genovese, Ken J; Ricke, Steve C; Crandall, Phil; Nisbet, David J

    2011-10-01

    Salmonella can live undetected in the gut of food animals and be transmitted to humans. Animal diets can impact intestinal populations of foodborne pathogens, including Salmonella spp. Orange juice production results in a waste product, orange peel and orange pulp, which has a high nutritive value and is often included in cattle diets as a least-cost ration ingredient. Here we show that the inclusion of orange peel products reduced Salmonella Typhimurium populations in the gut of experimentally inoculated sheep. Sheep (n=24) were fed a cracked corn grain-based high grain diet that was supplemented with a 50%/50% (dry matter [DM], w/w) mixture of dried orange pellet and fresh orange peel to achieve a final concentration (DM, basis) of 0%, 10%, or 20% orange product (OP) for 10 days before inoculation with Salmonella Typhimurium. Sheep were experimentally inoculated with 10(10) colony forming units Salmonella Typhimurium, and fecal samples were collected every 24 h after inoculation. Sheep were humanely euthanized at 96 h after oral Salmonella inoculation. Populations of inoculated Salmonella Typhimurium were numerically reduced by OP treatment throughout the gastrointestinal tract, and this reduction only reached significant levels in the cecum (p<0.05) of sheep fed 10% OP diets. Apparent palatability issues decreased the consumption of OP in sheep fed 20% OP to intake levels below that of 10% OP (approximately 7% dry matter intake [DMI]/d feed refusal), thereby reducing the potential effects of OP feeding at this higher level. Our results demonstrate that orange peel and pellets are environmentally friendly and low-cost products that can be used as a pre-harvest intervention as part of an integrated pathogen reduction scheme.

  13. The Signaling State of Orange Carotenoid Protein

    PubMed Central

    Maksimov, Eugene G.; Shirshin, Evgeny A.; Sluchanko, Nikolai N.; Zlenko, Dmitry V.; Parshina, Evgenia Y.; Tsoraev, Georgy V.; Klementiev, Konstantin E.; Budylin, Gleb S.; Schmitt, Franz-Josef; Friedrich, Thomas; Fadeev, Victor V.; Paschenko, Vladimir Z.; Rubin, Andrew B.

    2015-01-01

    Orange carotenoid protein (OCP) is the photoactive protein that is responsible for high light tolerance in cyanobacteria. We studied the kinetics of the OCP photocycle by monitoring changes in its absorption spectrum, intrinsic fluorescence, and fluorescence of the Nile red dye bound to OCP. It was demonstrated that all of these three methods provide the same kinetic parameters of the photocycle, namely, the kinetics of OCP relaxation in darkness was biexponential with a ratio of two components equal to 2:1 independently of temperature. Whereas the changes of the absorption spectrum of OCP characterize the geometry and environment of its chromophore, the intrinsic fluorescence of OCP reveals changes in its tertiary structure, and the fluorescence properties of Nile red indicate the exposure of hydrophobic surface areas of OCP to the solvent following the photocycle. The results of molecular-dynamics studies indicated the presence of two metastable conformations of 3′-hydroxyechinenone, which is consistent with characteristic changes in the Raman spectra. We conclude that rotation of the β-ionylidene ring in the C-terminal domain of OCP could be one of the first conformational rearrangements that occur during photoactivation. The obtained results suggest that the photoactivated form of OCP represents a molten globule-like state that is characterized by increased mobility of tertiary structure elements and solvent accessibility. PMID:26244741

  14. Hydrology of Lake Butler, Orange County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smoot, James L.; Schiffer, Donna M.

    1984-01-01

    Lake Butler is one of the lakes that collectively make up the Butler chain of lakes in the headwaters of the Kissimmee River, Florida. The bottom configuration of the lake is typical of relict karst features formed during lower stages in sea level. The top of the Floridan aquifer is 50 to 100 feet below the land surface. The drainage area of Lake Butler is approximately 14.5 sq mi and is comprised of sub-basins of other lakes in the vicinity. Surface outflow from Lake Butler is generally southward to Cypress Creek, a tributary of the Kissimmee River. The extremes in lake stage for the period 1933-81 are 94.67 ft on June 23, 1981 and 101.78 ft on September 13, 1960. The median lake stage for this period was 99.28 ft above sea level. The quality of water in Lake Butler is excellent, based on studies of physical, chemical, and biological conditions by the Orange County Pollution Control Department. The lake water is slightly acidic and soft (48 mg/L hardness as calcium carbonate). Pesticides in water were below detection levels at two sites sampled in the lake, but were detected in the bottom sediments. (USGS)

  15. Capillary electrophoresis analysis of orange juice pectinesterases.

    PubMed

    Braddock, R J; Bryan, C R; Burns, J K

    2001-02-01

    Pectinesterase (PE) was extracted from orange juice and pulp with 1 M NaCl, desalted, and separated using capillary electrophoresis (CE) gel procedures (CE-SDS-CGE) and isoelectric focusing (CE-IEF). PE resolved as a single peak using noncoated fused silica columns with CE-SDS-CGE. CE-IEF separation of PE required acryloylaminoethoxyethanol-coated columns, which had limited stability. Thermal stability of PE extracts before and after heating at 75 degrees C for 30 min and at 95 degrees C for 5 min established heat labile and heat stabile fractions with identical PE migration times by CE-SDS-CGE or CE-IEF. Peak magnitude decreased to a constant value as heating time increased at 75 degrees C. Regression analysis of CE-SDS-CGE peak migration times of molecular weight (MW) standards estimated both heat labile and heat stable PE at MW approximately 36 900. Traditional SDS-PAGE gel separation of MW standards and active PE isolated by IEF allowed estimation of MW approximately 36 000. CE-SDS-CGE allowed presumptive, but not quantitative, detection of active PE in fresh juice.

  16. Kimberley, Orange Free State, South Africa

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-01-20

    STS072-727-059 (11-20 Jan. 1996) --- Plains of the Orange Free State, South Africa are featured in this 70mm frame exposed from the Space Shuttle Endeavour. If the photograph is oriented with the largest clouds at the top edge, so that the cloud shadows fall to the upper right of each cloud, then north is to the top. The Vaal River flows along the top and through the upper left of the photograph; the reservoir of the Bloemhofdam on the Sand River can be seen between clouds at the upper right of the photograph. Kimberley can be seen as a gray smudge southeast of a contorted set of bends in the Vaal river (upper left center). With high magnification four dark dots, large open-pit mine shafts, can be seen within the gray smudge of the city. Kimberley, the capital of Northern Cape Province, was founded in 1878 after the discovery of diamonds in 1969 - 71, and reached by railway in 1885. Diamond mining and gem cutting remain prominent in the economy. The reddish soil and scattered salt pans (playa lakes) across the plateau suggest the semi-arid climate, suitable for cattle ranching. Reservoirs on most streams now provide water for the towns as well as irrigation for agriculture.

  17. Encapsulation of orange oil in a spray dried double emulsion.

    PubMed

    Edris, A; Bergnståhl, B

    2001-04-01

    Encapsulation is an important technique being used to protect sensitive food materials like flavours from deterioration. The capsule wall isolates them from the atmospheric oxygen, moisture, temperature and light. Encapsulation also masks some objectionable flavours, e.g. fish oil and some bitter antibiotics. In this study orange oil was encapsulated in the inner compartment of a double emulsion belonging to the type O1-W-O2 where O1 is orange oil, W is water and O2 is vegetable oil. In order to make orange oil double emulsion suitable for use in dry mixes, it was secondarily coated with wall materials of lactose and caseinate using spray drying technique. Entrapment of orange oil in such structure is also expected to slow down the release of volatiles and guarantee more protection for orange oil against atmospheric conditions. This method may have a potential application in different types of food or pharmaceutical products where maximum protection for flavours or slow release are required. This study includes detailed preparation of the spray dried double emulsion, evaluation of the encapsulation efficiency using light and scanning electron microscope and calculation of the yield percent of the encapsulated oil. In a separate paper we will examine the efficiency of spray dried double emulsion to control the release of orange oil by GC.

  18. Characterization and luminescence properties of Sr3Gd): Sm3+ orange-red phosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zaifa; Xu, Denghui; Sun, Jiayue; Sun, Yumei; Du, Haiyan

    2015-10-01

    Reddish-orange emitting phosphors, Sr3Gd): Sm3+, were successfully synthesized by a conventional solid-state reaction. The crystal structure of the phosphors was characterized by x-ray diffraction. The excitation spectra and emission spectra were utilized to characterize the luminescence properties of the as-prepared phosphors. The results show that the phosphor consisted of some sharp emission peaks of Sm3+ ions centered at 564, 600, 647, and 707 nm, respectively. The critical distance of Sr3Gd0.93): 0.07Sm3+ was calculated to be 19.18 Å and the lifetime value of the sample was 1.63 ms. The band gap of Sr3Gd) was estimated to be about 2.74 eV from the diffuse reflection spectrum. The optimum doping concentration is 7 mol. % and the quenching occurs via dipole-dipole interaction according to Dexter's theory. The Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage value of Sr3Gd): Sm3+ phosphors presented that it has high color purity. These results indicated that the Sr3Gd): Sm3+ may be a promising reddish-orange emitting phosphor for cost-effective near ultraviolet white light-emitting diodes.

  19. Synthesis and Optical Spectroscopy of YPO4:Eu3+ Orange-Red Phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahiaoui, Z.; Hassairi, M. A.; Dammak, M.

    2017-08-01

    YPO4: x mol.% Eu3+ phosphors with different dopant concentrations ( x = 3, 5, 8, 11, 13) have been synthesized via high-temperature solid-state reaction. X-ray diffraction analysis and Raman and infrared (IR) spectroscopy were applied for detailed structural characterization. Under excitation at wavelength of 395 nm, the photoluminescence spectra displayed the 5D0 → 7F J ( J = 1, 2, 3, 4) intra-4 f shell transitions related to Eu3+ ion. The radiative lifetime was estimated using the Ω 2 and Ω 4 Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters. The highest luminescence intensity was achieved for an optimal europium concentration of 11 mol.%. The critical energy-transfer distance for Eu3+ ions was evaluated to be 10.74 Å. We also studied the temperature-dependent photoluminescence and Commission Internationale de l'Éclairage chromaticity diagram. It was found that Eu3+-doped YPO4 exhibited good thermal stability and its emission intensity decreased slightly above room temperature. In addition, the color purity of this phosphor was as high as 91% for the YPO4:13% Eu3+ sample, making it a potential orange-red phosphor for application in ultraviolet-pumped white light-emitting diodes.

  20. Low temperature solution process-based defect-induced orange-red light emitting diode

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Pranab; Baek, Sung-Doo; Hoon Lee, Sang; Park, Ji-Hyeon; Jeong Lee, Su; Il Lee, Tae; Myoung, Jae-Min

    2015-01-01

    We report low-temperature solution-processed p-CuO nanorods (NRs)/n-ZnO NRs heterojunction light emitting diode (LED), exploiting the native point defects of ZnO NRs. ZnO NRs were synthesized at 90 °C by using hydrothermal method while CuO NRs were synthesized at 100 °C by using microwave reaction system. The electrical properties of newly synthesized CuO NRs revealed a promising p-type nature with a hole concentration of 9.64 × 1018 cm−3. The current-voltage characteristic of the heterojunction showed a significantly high rectification ratio of 105 at 4 V with a stable current flow. A broad orange-red emission was obtained from the forward biased LED with a major peak at 610 nm which was attributed to the electron transition from interstitial zinc to interstitial oxygen point defects in ZnO. A minor shoulder peak was also observed at 710 nm, corresponding to red emission which was ascribed to the transition from conduction band of ZnO to oxygen vacancies in ZnO lattice. This study demonstrates a significant progress toward oxide materials based, defect-induced light emitting device with low-cost, low-temperature methods. PMID:26648420

  1. Synthesis and Optical Spectroscopy of YPO4:Eu3+ Orange-Red Phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahiaoui, Z.; Hassairi, M. A.; Dammak, M.

    2017-03-01

    YPO4:x mol.% Eu3+ phosphors with different dopant concentrations (x = 3, 5, 8, 11, 13) have been synthesized via high-temperature solid-state reaction. X-ray diffraction analysis and Raman and infrared (IR) spectroscopy were applied for detailed structural characterization. Under excitation at wavelength of 395 nm, the photoluminescence spectra displayed the 5D0 → 7F J (J = 1, 2, 3, 4) intra-4f shell transitions related to Eu3+ ion. The radiative lifetime was estimated using the Ω 2 and Ω 4 Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters. The highest luminescence intensity was achieved for an optimal europium concentration of 11 mol.%. The critical energy-transfer distance for Eu3+ ions was evaluated to be 10.74 Å. We also studied the temperature-dependent photoluminescence and Commission Internationale de l'Éclairage chromaticity diagram. It was found that Eu3+-doped YPO4 exhibited good thermal stability and its emission intensity decreased slightly above room temperature. In addition, the color purity of this phosphor was as high as 91% for the YPO4:13% Eu3+ sample, making it a potential orange-red phosphor for application in ultraviolet-pumped white light-emitting diodes.

  2. Nanobiocatalytic Degradation of Acid Orange 7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hastings, Jason

    The catalytic properties of various metal nanoparticles have led to their use in environmental remediation applications. However, these remediation strategies are limited by their ability to deliver catalytic nanoparticles and a suitable electron donor to large treatment zones. Clostridium pasteurianum BC1 cells, loaded with bio-Pd nanoparticles, were used to effectively catalyze the reductive degradation and removal of Acid Orange 7 (AO7), a model azo compound. Hydrogen produced fermentatively by the C. pasteurianum BC1 acted as the electron donor for the process. Pd-free bacterial cultures or control experiments conducted with heat-killed cells showed limited reduction of AO7. Experiments also showed that the in situ biological production of H2 by C. pasteurianum BC1 was essential for the degradation of AO7, which suggests a novel process where the in situ microbial production of hydrogen is directly coupled to the catalytic bio-Pd mediated reduction of AO7. The differences in initial degradation rate for experiments conducted using catalyst concentrations of 1ppm Pd and 5ppm Pd and an azo dye concentration of 100ppm AO7 was 0.39 /hr and 1.94 /hr respectively, demonstrating the importance of higher concentrations of active Pd(0). The degradation of AO7 was quick as demonstrated by complete reductive degradation of 50ppm AO7 in 2 hours in experiments conducted using a catalyst concentration of 5ppm Pd. Dye degradation products were analyzed via Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer (GCMS), High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), UltraViolet-Visible spectrophotometer (UV-Vis) and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization (MALDI) spectrometry. The presence of 1-amino 2-naphthol, one of the hypothesized degradation products, was confirmed using mass spectrometry.

  3. PHOTOMICROGRAPH - SPHERE FRAGMENTS - "ORANGE" SOIL - APOLLO 17 - MSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-01-04

    S73-15171 (4 Jan. 1973) --- These orange glass spheres and fragments are the finest particles ever brought back from the moon. Ranging in size from 20 to 45 microns (about 1/1000 of an inch) the particles are magnified 160 times in this photomicrograph made in the Lunar Receiving Laboratory at the Manned Spacecraft Center. The orange soil was brought back from the Taurus-Littrow landing site by the Apollo 17 crewmen. Scientist-astronaut Harrison H. "Jack" Schmitt discovered the orange soil at Shorty Crater during the second Apollo 17 extravehicular activity (EVA). This lunar material is being studied and analyzed by scientists in the LRL. The orange particles in this photomicrograph, which are intermixed with black and black-speckled grains, are about the same size as the particles that compose silt on Earth. Chemical analysis of the orange soil material has shown the sample to be similar to some of the samples brought back from the Apollo 11 (Sea of Tranquility) site several hundred miles to the southwest. Like those samples, it is rich in titanium (8%) and iron oxide (22%). But unlike the Apollo 11 samples, the orange soil is unexplainably rich in zinc ? an anomaly that has scientists in a quandary. This Apollo 17 sample is not high in volatile elements, nor do the minerals contain substantial amounts of water. These would have provided strong evidence of volcanic activity. On the other hand, the lack of agglutinates (rocks made up of a variety of minerals cemented together) indicates that the orange glass is probably not the product of meteorite impact -- strengthening the argument that the glass was produced by volcanic activity.

  4. Outdoor residential water use trends in Orange County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bijoor, N. S.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Berg, J.; Baum-Haley, M.

    2012-12-01

    Irrigation is required to maintain outdoor landscapes in semi-arid climates, such as in Orange County, California. Landscape water use efficiency is a priority in Orange County, as nearly half the water supply is imported and the region is vulnerable to water shortages. The purpose of this research is to determine whether single family household residents adjust landscape irrigation based on climate or income in Orange County. Specifically, the goals were to (1) estimate the volume of single family residence (SFR) landscape irrigation applied (2) determine the depth (mm) of over- or under-irrigation compared to theoretical need (3) determine the climatic and socioeconomic controls on landscape irrigation. We plan to compare results from agencies with uniform vs. allocation-based rate structures. A research partnership was established between six water retail agencies in Orange County: Huntington Beach Water District, El Toro Water District, Irvine Ranch Water District, East Orange County Water District, City of San Juan Capistrano, and Laguna Beach County Water District. These agencies represent a wide range of climatic and economic conditions and contributed between 3 and 13 years of SFR water use data on a monthly/bimonthly basis. Household water use, climate, and socioeconomic factors were mapped using Arcview GIS. Air temperature (California Irrigation Management Information System), precipitation (Orange County Cooperative Observer System), landscape size, and income (US Census) were evaluated as possible controls on SFR water use. Findings indicate that landscape water use may constitute the majority of household water use. We found over-irrigation relative to plant water demand in areas of Orange County. Domestic landscape water use may depend on climate and/or income. Results suggest a high potential for residential water savings with improved landscape irrigation efficiency. This information would be useful for improving or developing water use efficiency

  5. Linker length in podophyllotoxin-acridine conjugates determines potency in vivo and in vitro as well as specificity against MDR cell lines.

    PubMed

    Rothenborg-Jensen, L; Hansen, H F; Wessel, I; Nitiss, J L; Schmidt, G; Jensen, P B; Sehested, M; Jensen, L H

    2001-12-01

    We have synthesized two podophyllotoxin-acridine conjugates-pACR6 and pACR8. In these compounds an 9-acridinyl moiety is beta linked to the C4 carbon of the four ring system in 4'-demethylepipodophyllotoxin (epiDPT) via eighter an N-6-aminohexanylamide linker (pACR6) or via an N-8-aminooctanylamide linker containing two more carbon atoms (pACR8). The acridine-linker moiety occupies the position where different glucoside moieties, dispensable for activity, are normally linked to epiDPT in the well known epipodophyllotoxins VP-16 and VM-26. As with VP-16 and VM-26, pACR6 and pACR8 show evidence of being topoisomerase II poisons as they stimulate topoisomerase II mediated DNA cleavage in vitro and induce DNA damage in vivo. This in vivo DNA damage, as well as pACR6/pACR8 mediated cytotoxicity, is antagonized by the catalytic topoisomerase II inhibitors ICRF-187 and aclarubicin, demonstrating that topoisomerase II is a functional biological target for these drugs. Despite their structural similarities, pACR6 was more potent than pACR8 in stimulating topoisomerase II mediated DNA cleavage in vitro as well as DNA damage in vivo and pACR6 was accordingly more cytotoxic towards various human and murine cell lines than pACR8. Further, marked cross-resistance to pACR6 was seen among a panel of multidrug-resistant (MDR) cell lines over-expressing the MDR1 (multidrug resistance protein 1) ABC drug transporter, while these cell lines remained sensitive towards pACR8. pACR8 was also capable of circumventing drug resistance among at-MDR (altered topoisomerase II MDR) cell lines not over-expressing drug transporters, while pACR6 was not. Two resistant cell lines, OC-NYH/pACR6 and OC-NYH/pACR8, were developed by exposure of small cell lung cancer (SCLC) OC-NYH cells to gradually increasing concentrations of pACR6 and pACR8, respectively. Here, OC-NYH/pACR6 cells were found to over-express MDR1 and, accordingly, displayed active transport of 3H-labeled vincristine, while OC

  6. Solid state yellow and orange lasers for flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Veena; Karpov, Vladimir; Linton, Claudette; Subach, Fedor V; Verkhusha, Vladislav V; Telford, William G

    2008-06-01

    Diode and DPSS lasers emitting a variety of wavelengths are now commonly incorporated into flow cytometers, greatly increasing our capacity to excite a wide variety of fluorochromes. Until recently, however, virtually no practical technology existed for generating yellow or orange laser light for flow cytometry that was compatible with smaller instrumentation. In this study, we evaluate several new solid state laser systems that emit from the 570 to 600 nm as excitation sources for flow cytometry. DPSS 580, 589, and 592 nm sources were integrated into a cuvette-based flow cytometer (BD LSR II) and a stream-in-air cell sorter (FACSVantage DiVa), and used to excite a variety of yellow, orange, and red excited fluorochromes, including Texas Red, APC, and its tandem conjugates, and the genetically encoded red fluorescent protein HcRed and the more recently developed Katushka. All laser sources were successfully incorporated into the indicated flow cytometry platforms. The yellow and orange sources (particularly 592 nm) were ideal for exciting Texas Red, and provided excitation of APC and its tandems that was comparable to a traditional red laser source, albeit at higher power levels than red sources. Yellow and orange laser light was optimal for exciting HcRed and Katushka. Practical yellow and orange laser sources are now available for flow cytometry. This technology fills an important gap in the laser wavelengths available for flow, now almost any fluorochrome requiring visible light excitation can be accommodated.

  7. Bioavailability of β-cryptoxanthin is greater from pasteurized orange juice than from fresh oranges - a randomized cross-over study.

    PubMed

    Aschoff, Julian K; Rolke, Christa L; Breusing, Nicolle; Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Högel, Josef; Carle, Reinhold; Schweiggert, Ralf M

    2015-10-01

    Orange fruits and products thereof represent important dietary sources of carotenoids, particularly β-cryptoxanthin. Since previous studies reported a positive effect of vegetable processing on carotenoid absorption, our objective was to compare the bioavailability of β-cryptoxanthin from either fresh navel oranges (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) or pasteurized orange juice. The study was designed as a randomized 2-way cross-over study. Twelve volunteers consumed two meals delivering 744 μg of β-cryptoxanthin from either fresh navel oranges or pasteurized orange juice. Eight blood samples were collected over 9.5 h after test meal consumption and analyzed using HPLC-DAD. Additionally, carotenoid bioaccessibility was assessed after in vitro digestion of the same test foods. β-cryptoxanthin bioavailability from pasteurized orange juice was 1.8-fold higher than from fresh oranges (P = 0.011). Similarly, mean absorption of the non-dose adjusted carotenoids lutein (P = 0.301), zeaxanthin (P = 0.216), and zeinoxanthin (P = 0.090) were slightly higher from orange juice, although not reaching statistical significance. The in vitro digestion revealed a 5.3-fold higher bioaccessibility of β-cryptoxanthin from orange juice. Dietary fiber contents in the test foods were inversely associated with carotenoid bioavailability. Orange juice represents a more bioavailable source of β-cryptoxanthin than fresh oranges. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Carbon-11 labelling of the antitumour agent N-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]acridine-4-carboxamide (DACA) and determination of plasma metabolites in man.

    PubMed

    Brady, F; Luthra, S K; Brown, G; Osman, S; Harte, R J; Denny, W A; Baguley, B C; Jones, T; Price, P M

    1997-04-01

    The potential anti-cancer agent N-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl] acridine-4-carboxamide, DACA has been labelled with carbon-11. N-[2-11C-methyl]DACA was produced in 73% radiochemical yield from [11C]iodomethane in 40 min from EOB. The average radiochemical yield was 3.2 GBq with specific radioactivity of 41.5 GBq mumol-1 at EOS, corresponding to 24 micrograms of stable DACA. The position of labelling was confirmed by co-labelling with [11/13C]iodomethane. PET studies in patients have been performed prior to Phase I trial of DACA and during Phase I trial of DACA. Analysis of serial plasma samples showed that the metabolism of N-[2-11C-methyl]DACA is rapid and extensive in patient plasma.

  9. Novel acridine-based N-acyl-homoserine lactone analogs induce endoreduplication in the human oral squamous carcinoma cell line SAS.

    PubMed

    Chai, Hongbo; Hazawa, Masaharu; Hosokawa, Yoichiro; Igarashi, Jun; Suga, Hiroaki; Kashiwakura, Ikuo

    2012-01-01

    The cytotoxicity of novel acridine-based N-acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) analogs was investigated on the human oral squamous carcinoma cell line SAS. One analog induced G2/M phase arrest at 5.3-10.6 µM and induced polyploidy at a higher dose (21.2 µM). Importantly, treatment of SAS cells with a combination of the AHL analog and the Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor, SP600125, prevented mitosis and induced polyploidy. The AHL analog synergized with X-irradiation to inhibit clonogenic survival of SAS cells; however, its radiosensitizing effects were relative to not X-irradiation-induced apoptosis but mitotic failure following enhanced expression of Aurora A and B. These results suggest that the active AHL analog showed growth-suppressive and radiosensitizing effects, which involve polyploidy followed by G2/M accumulation and atypical cell death in the SAS cell line.

  10. Phenylacetic acid co-crystals with acridine, caffeine, isonicotinamide and nicotinamide: Crystal structures, thermal analysis, FTIR spectroscopy and Hirshfeld surface analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amombo Noa, Francoise M.; Jacobs, Ayesha

    2017-07-01

    Co-crystals of phenylacetic acid (PAA) with acridine (ACR), caffeine (CAF), isonicotinamide (INM) and nicotinamide (NAM) have been successfully prepared and characterised by single crystal X-ray diffraction, FTIR spectroscopy, thermal analysis and Hirshfeld surface analysis. The ACR, INM and NAM co-crystals with PAA exhibit the carboxylic acid-pyridine heterosynthon. Furthermore the amide-amide supramolecular homosynthon is observed in the PAA co-crystals with INM and NAM as well as Nsbnd H⋯O interactions between the acid and the respective base. The CAF co-crystal exhibits hydrogen bonding between the imidazole nitrogen and the COOH group of the PAA. The compounds demonstrate different stoichiometries; for PAA·ACR and PAA·INM a 1:1 ratio is displayed, a 2:1 in 2PAA·CAF and a 2:2 in the case of 2PAA·2NAM.

  11. Spectral and Luminescent Properties of Octahydroacridino[4,3-c]acridine-1,9(2H, 5H)dione Derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, N. G.; Zhiharko, Yu. D.; Bondarev, S. L.; Baranovskii, A. V.; Knukshto, V. N.; Basalaeva, L. I.

    2017-07-01

    Octahydroacridino[4,3-c]acridine-1,9(2H,5H)dione derivatives were synthesized via condensation of bisazomethines (N1,N5-di-R-benzylidenenaphthalene-1,5-diamines) with dimedone in butanol-1. The structures of the prepared compounds were confirmed using NMR and IR spectroscopy. Studies of the spectral and luminescent properties of the synthesized compounds in EtOH and DMF at 293 and 77 K showed that the absorption spectra were composed of three electronic transitions Sn ← S0 (n = 1-3) with frequencies of 24,400 and 20,800 cm-1 for the 0-0-transitions from the singlet (S1) and triplet (T1) states, respectively. Fluorescence quenching by EtOH was due to the formation of an H-bonded complex, the lifetime of which was <10-9 s. The naphthalene fragment in the molecule was responsible for phosphorescence in the studied compounds.

  12. Anti-Prion Screening for Acridine, Dextran, and Tannic Acid using Real Time–Quaking Induced Conversion: A Comparison with PrPSc-Infected Cell Screening

    PubMed Central

    Hyeon, Jae Wook; Kim, Su Yeon; Lee, Sol Moe; Lee, Jeongmin; An, Seong Soo A.; Lee, Myung Koo; Lee, Yeong Seon

    2017-01-01

    Prion propagation is mediated by the structural alteration of normal prion protein (PrPC) to generate pathogenic prion protein (PrPSc). To date, compounds for the inhibition of prion propagation have mainly been screened using PrPSc-infected cells. Real time–quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) is one alternative screening method. In this study, we assessed the propagation inhibition effects of known anti-prion compounds using RT-QuIC and compared the results with those from a PrPSc-infected cell assay. Compounds were applied to RT-QuIC reactions at 0 h or 22 h after prion propagation to determine whether they inhibited propagation or reduced amplified aggregates. RT-QuIC reactions in presence of acridine, dextran sulfate sodium (DSS), and tannic acid inhibited seeded aggregation with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease at 0 h. After treatment at 22 h, amplified fluorescence was decreased in wells treated with either acridine or tannic acid. Compound activities were verified by western blot of RT-QuIC products and in a dye-independent conversion assay, the Multimer Detection System. Protease K-resistant PrPSc fragments (PrPres) were reduced by DSS and tannic acid in the PrPSc-infected cell assay. Importantly, these inhibitory effects were similar despite different treatment times (0 h versus 3 days). Consequentially, RT-QuIC enabled the more specific classification of compounds according to action (i.e., inhibition of prion propagation versus reduction of amplified aggregates). RT-QuIC addresses the limitations of cell-based screening methods and can be used to further aid our understanding of the mechanisms of action of anti-prion compounds. PMID:28095474

  13. Extravascular transport of the DNA intercalator and topoisomerase poison N-[2-(Dimethylamino)ethyl]acridine-4-carboxamide (DACA): diffusion and metabolism in multicellular layers of tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Hicks, K O; Pruijn, F B; Baguley, B C; Wilson, W R

    2001-06-01

    There is considerable evidence that DNA intercalating drugs fail to penetrate tumor tissue efficiently. This study used the multicellular layer (MCL) experimental model, in conjunction with computational modeling, to test the hypothesis that a DNA intercalator in phase II clinical trial, N-[2-(dimethylamino)-ethyl]acridine-4-carboxamide (DACA), has favorable extravascular transport properties. Single cell uptake and metabolism of DACA and the related but more basic aminoacridine 9-[3-(dimethylamino)propylamino]acridine (DAPA), and penetration through V79 and EMT6 MCL, were investigated by high-performance liquid chromatography. DACA was accumulated by cells to a lesser extent than DAPA and was metabolized to the previously unreported acridan by V79 but not EMT6 cells. Despite this metabolism, flux of DACA through MCL was much faster than that of DAPA. Modeling MCL transport as diffusion with reaction (metabolism and reversible binding) showed that the faster flux of DACA was due to a 3-fold higher free drug diffusion coefficient and 10-fold lower binding site density. The MCL transport parameters were used to develop a spatially resolved pharmacokinetic model for the extravascular compartment in tumors, which provided a reasonable prediction of measured average tumor concentrations from plasma pharmacokinetics in mice. Area under the curve was essentially independent of distance from blood vessels, although the combined pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model predicted a modest decrease in cytotoxicity (from 1.8 to 1.1 logs of cell kill) across a 125-microm region. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that it is possible to design DNA intercalators that diffuse efficiently in tumor tissue, and that there is little impediment to DACA transport over distances required for its antitumor action.

  14. Analysis of the DNA damage produced by a platinum-acridine antitumor agent and its effects in NCI-H460 lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Xin; Zeitany, Alexandra E; Wright, Marcus W; Essader, Amal S; Levine, Keith E; Kucera, Gregory L; Bierbach, Ulrich

    2012-07-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography in conjunction with electrospray mass spectrometry (LC-ESMS) was used to structurally characterize the adducts formed by the platinum-acridine agent [PtCl(en)(N-(2-(acridin-9-ylamino)ethyl)-N-methylpropionimidamide)](NO(3))(2) (compound 1) in cell-free DNA. Compound 1 forms monofunctional adducts exclusively with guanine, based on the fragments identified in enzymatic digests (dG*, dGMP*, dApG*, and dTpG*, where the asterisk denotes bound drug). The time course of accumulation and DNA adduct formation of compound 1 and the clinical drug cisplatin in NCI-H460 lung cancer cells at physiologically relevant drug concentrations (0.1 μM) was studied by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Compound 1 accumulates rapidly in cells and reaches intracellular levels of up to 60-fold higher than those determined for cisplatin. The hybrid agent shows unusually high DNA binding levels: while cisplatin adducts form at a maximum frequency of 5 adducts per 10(6) nucleotides, compound 1 produces 25 adducts per 10(6) nucleotides after only 3 h of continuous incubation with the lung cancer cells. The high overall levels of compound 1 in the cells and in cellular DNA over the entire 12-h treatment period translate into a rapid decrease in cell viability. Possible implications of these findings for the mechanism of action of compound 1 and the agent's potential to overcome tumor resistance to cisplatin are discussed.

  15. Anti-Prion Screening for Acridine, Dextran, and Tannic Acid using Real Time-Quaking Induced Conversion: A Comparison with PrPSc-Infected Cell Screening.

    PubMed

    Hyeon, Jae Wook; Kim, Su Yeon; Lee, Sol Moe; Lee, Jeongmin; An, Seong Soo A; Lee, Myung Koo; Lee, Yeong Seon

    2017-01-01

    Prion propagation is mediated by the structural alteration of normal prion protein (PrPC) to generate pathogenic prion protein (PrPSc). To date, compounds for the inhibition of prion propagation have mainly been screened using PrPSc-infected cells. Real time-quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) is one alternative screening method. In this study, we assessed the propagation inhibition effects of known anti-prion compounds using RT-QuIC and compared the results with those from a PrPSc-infected cell assay. Compounds were applied to RT-QuIC reactions at 0 h or 22 h after prion propagation to determine whether they inhibited propagation or reduced amplified aggregates. RT-QuIC reactions in presence of acridine, dextran sulfate sodium (DSS), and tannic acid inhibited seeded aggregation with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease at 0 h. After treatment at 22 h, amplified fluorescence was decreased in wells treated with either acridine or tannic acid. Compound activities were verified by western blot of RT-QuIC products and in a dye-independent conversion assay, the Multimer Detection System. Protease K-resistant PrPSc fragments (PrPres) were reduced by DSS and tannic acid in the PrPSc-infected cell assay. Importantly, these inhibitory effects were similar despite different treatment times (0 h versus 3 days). Consequentially, RT-QuIC enabled the more specific classification of compounds according to action (i.e., inhibition of prion propagation versus reduction of amplified aggregates). RT-QuIC addresses the limitations of cell-based screening methods and can be used to further aid our understanding of the mechanisms of action of anti-prion compounds.

  16. pH-Assisted control over the binding and relocation of an acridine guest between a macrocyclic nanocarrier and natural DNA.

    PubMed

    Sayed, Mhejabeen; Pal, Haridas

    2015-04-14

    The differential binding affinity of the hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) macrocycle, a drug delivery vehicle, towards the protonated and deprotonated forms of the well-known DNA binder and model anticancer drug acridine has been exploited as a strategy for dye-drug transportation and pH-responsive delivery to a natural DNA target. From pH-sensitive changes in the ground state absorption and steady-state fluorescence characteristics of the studied acridine dye-HPβCD-DNA ternary system and strongly supported by fluorescence lifetime, fluorescence anisotropy, Job's plots, (1)H NMR and circular dichroism results, it is revealed that in a moderately alkaline solution (pH ∼ 8.5), the dye can be predominantly bound to the HPβCD macrocycle and when the pH is lowered to a moderately acidic region (pH ∼ 4), the dye efficiently detaches from the HPβCD cavity and almost exclusively binds to DNA. In the present study we are thus able to construct a pH-sensitive supramolecular assembly where pH acts as a simple stimulus for controlled uptake and targeted release of the dye-drug. As pH is an essential and sensitive factor in various biological processes, a simple yet reliable pH-sensitive model such as is demonstrated here can have promising applications in the host-assisted delivery of prodrug to the target sites, such as cancer or tumour microenvironments, with an enhanced stability, bioavailability and activity, and also in the design of new fluorescent probes, sensors and smart materials for applications in nano-science.

  17. Malaria of the orang-utan (Pongo pygmaeus) in Borneo.

    PubMed

    Peters, W

    1976-09-28

    The primary objective of this project was to study the life cycle and ecology of Plasmodium pitheci, a malaria parasite of the orang-utan. The field work was based on the orang-utan rehabilitation centre in the Sepilok Forest Reserve of eastern Sabah. Two visits were made to Sepilok, the first in February and March, 1972, and the second (by W.P.) in January 1974. On the first visit two species of "surrogate host" were taken to Sabah, i.e. chimpanzees and Aotus monkeys for experimental work. The arboreal habitat of the orang-utan in the dipterocarp forests of eastern Sabah is described. In the Sepilok Forest Reserve dwell gibbons and leaf-monkeys, in addition to a small population of semi-domesticated and wild, free-ranging orang-utans of various ages. Although numerous species of anopheline mosquitoes have been collected in eastern Sabah, longitudinal studies are not available. Anopheles balabacensis was caught both attracted to orang-utans and to man at Sepilok. This species which is the main vector of human malaria in the north of Borneo, is suspected also of transmitting orang-utan malaria in this part of Sabah. Repeated blood examinations have been made on a number of orang-utans in the centre since 1966 and a high prevalence of infection was recorded with Plasmodium pitheci. In 1966 10 out of 19 animals had demonstrable parasitaemia. Detailed case histories are presented to show the course of parasitaemia in several orang-utans. Infections of P. pitheci were found to run a very chronic course. During the 1972 expedition a second, previously undescribed malaria parasite of the orang-utan was discovered, and was named P. silvaticum. The new parasite was successfully transmitted both by blood inoculation and, later, by sporozoite inoculation, into splenectomized chimpanzees. Although both species of malaria parasite may cause transitory signs of illness, orang-utans in general appear to be little discomforted by the infection. The animals do however suffer from

  18. Fertilisation and pesticides affect mandarin orange nutrient composition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaotian; Breksa, Andrew P; Mishchuk, Darya O; Fake, Cindy E; O'Mahony, Michael A; Slupsky, Carolyn M

    2012-09-15

    The effects of the application of foliar fertilisation and pesticide on nutritional quality of mandarin orange juices were evaluated using (1)H NMR metabolomics. Significant differences between the use of fertiliser and pesticides during fruit formation were observed, and included changes in sugar, amino acid and organic acid composition. To determine whether the difference in sugar concentration was enough for the consumer to detect, a sensory experiment was performed in which two orange juice samples were prepared to resemble the sweet/sour taste balance of juice from mandarin oranges in which foliar fertilisation was either applied or not. In a test using non-trained individuals, 68% could correctly identify which juice had a sourer, or less sweet, taste. The implications of this study could impact citrus growers, and ultimately aid in development of fruit with superior sensory quality. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Orange juice residues as dietary fiber source for foods].

    PubMed

    Sáenz, Carmen; Estévez, Ana María; Sanhueza, Sergio

    2007-06-01

    Food snacks using powdered residues from the orange juice industry as a source of dietary fiber were formulated. Six formulations utilizing powdered orange residues with three different moisture levels (25%, 15% and 10%) were elaborated. There were used two basic blends. The first one was 33.3% of orange dry powder, 33.3% of honey, 16.6% of roasted peanut, 16.6% of raisins; the second one was 28.6% of orange powder, 35.7% of honey, 17.85% of roasted peanut, 17.85% of raisins. Snacks had spherical shape with 2.5 cm diameter and a weight close to 10g. The snack moisture was between 12.6 and 17.4%, and their aw between 0.65 and 0.71. The snack chemical composition, on dry matter basis, was 1.6 and 1.9% of ash; 12.3 and 15.2% of lipids; 6.1 and 7.1% of proteins; and 56.2 to 59.6% of carbohydrates; the caloric contribution (calculated) was between 326.8 and 342.9 kcal/100g. The powdered orange residue had 64% of total dietary fiber, 54% of insoluble dietary fiber and 10% of soluble dietary fiber. In the snack the fiber amount fluctuated between 20 and 26% of total dietary fiber; 18 and 22% of insoluble dietary fiber, and 3.0 and 4.5% of soluble dietary fiber. The snack with the higher content of orange residue presented the higher content of dietary fiber. The snacks were well accepted by a sensory panel, without showing differences among treatments.

  20. Effect of diet orange soda on urinary lithogenicity.

    PubMed

    Sumorok, Nicola T; Asplin, John R; Eisner, Brian H; Stoller, Marshall L; Goldfarb, David S

    2012-06-01

    Studies have shown that certain beverages decrease urinary lithogenicity by increasing urine citrate excretion. Diet Sunkist Orange soda had the highest concentration of citrate and total alkali content among 12 diet sodas previously assayed. We studied the effect of Diet Sunkist Orange soda consumption on urinary chemistry. Nine healthy men and women ages 26-54 years completed the study. During the control period, subjects drank 36 oz of water for 3 days in addition to their own, self-selected diet and recorded a food diary. During the study period, the subjects drank three 12-oz cans of Diet Sunkist Orange soda a day instead of water, and replicated their diets from the control period. In each period, the subjects performed 24-h urine collections on days 2 and 3. Urine chemical analysis was performed, including urinary citrate levels and pH. Diet Sunkist Orange soda increased urinary citrate excretion by 60 mg/day, which was not statistically significant (95% CI -75 to 195, P value 0.34). There was no significant change in pH from the control period to the study period (pH: 6.29-6.21; 95% CI: -0.09 to 0.25, P = 0.30). Urine volumes and creatinine excretions were not significantly different between the control and study periods. Despite the relatively high citrate and total alkali content of Diet Sunkist Orange soda, the volume consumed in this study (36 oz per day) did not provide sufficient potential base to significantly alter urine composition in healthy subjects with normocitraturia. The effect of Diet Sunkist Orange soda on urinary chemistry in patients with hypocitraturia and nephrolithiasis is not likely to have a clinically significant effect to prevent calcium or uric acid stones.

  1. Orange County Government Solar Demonstration and Research Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, Renee; Cunniff, Lori

    2015-05-12

    Orange County Florida completed the construction of a 20 kilowatt Solar Demonstration and Research Facility in March 2015. The system was constructed at the Orange County/University of Florida Cooperative Extension Center whose electric service address is 6021 South Conway Road, Orlando, Florida 32802. The Solar Demonstration and Research Facility is comprised of 72 polycrystalline photovoltaic modules and 3 inverters which convert direct current from the solar panels to alternating current electricity. Each module produces 270 watts of direct current power, for a total canopy production of just under 20,000 watts. The solar modules were installed with a fixed tilt of 5 degrees and face south, toward the equator to maximize the amount of sunlight captures. Each year, the electricity generated by the solar array will help eliminate 20 metric tons of carbon dioxide emissions as well as provide covered parking for staff and visitors vehicles. The solar array is expected to generate 27,000 kilowatt hours of electricity annually equating to an estimated $266 savings in the monthly electric bill, or $3,180 annually for the Orange County/University of Florida Cooperative Extension Center. In addition to reducing the electric bill for the Extension Center, Orange County’s solar array also takes advantage of a rebate incentive offered by the local utility, Orlando Utility Commission, which provided a meter that measures the amount of power produced by the solar array. The local utility company’s Solar Photovoltaic Production Incentive will pay Orange County $0.05 per kilowatt hour for the power that is produced by the solar array. This incentive is provided in addition to Net Metering benefits, which is an effort to promote the use of clean, renewable energy on the electric grid. The Photovoltaic Solar Demonstration and Research Facility also serves an educational tool to the public; the solar array is tied directly into a data logger that provides real time power

  2. Orange juice (poly)phenols are highly bioavailable in humans.

    PubMed

    Pereira-Caro, Gema; Borges, Gina; van der Hooft, Justin; Clifford, Michael N; Del Rio, Daniele; Lean, Michael E J; Roberts, Susan A; Kellerhals, Michele B; Crozier, Alan

    2014-11-01

    We assessed the bioavailability of orange juice (poly)phenols by monitoring urinary flavanone metabolites and ring fission catabolites produced by the action of the colonic microbiota. Our objective was to identify and quantify metabolites and catabolites excreted in urine 0-24 h after the acute ingestion of a (poly)phenol-rich orange juice by 12 volunteers. Twelve volunteers [6 men and 6 women; body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 23.9-37.2] consumed a low (poly)phenol diet for 2 d before first drinking 250 mL pulp-enriched orange juice, which contained 584 μmol (poly)phenols of which 537 μmol were flavanones, and after a 2-wk washout, the procedure was repeated, and a placebo drink was consumed. Urine collected for a 24-h period was analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively by using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 14 metabolites were identified and quantified in urine by using HPLC-MS after orange juice intake. Hesperetin-O-glucuronides, naringenin-O-glucuronides, and hesperetin-3'-O-sulfate were the main metabolites. The overall urinary excretion of flavanone metabolites corresponded to 16% of the intake of 584 μmol (poly)phenols. The GC-MS analysis revealed that 8 urinary catabolites were also excreted in significantly higher quantities after orange juice consumption. These catabolites were 3-(3'-methoxy-4'-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid, 3-(3'-hydroxy-4'-methoxyphenyl)propionic acid, 3-(3'-hydroxy-4'-methoxyphenyl)hydracrylic acid, 3-(3'-hydroxyphenyl)hydracrylic acid, 3'-methoxy-4'-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, hippuric acid, 3'-hydroxyhippuric acid, and 4'-hydroxyhippuric acid. These aromatic acids originated from the colonic microbiota-mediated breakdown of orange juice (poly)phenols and were excreted in amounts equivalent to 88% of (poly)phenol intake. When combined with the 16% excretion of metabolites, this percentage raised the overall urinary excretion to ∼ 100% of

  3. 78 FR 729 - Ellman Battery Superfund Site; Orlando, Orange County, FL; Notice of Settlement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Ellman Battery Superfund Site; Orlando, Orange County, FL; Notice of Settlement AGENCY... concerning a previous Removal Action at the Ellman Battery Superfund Site located in Orlando, Orange...

  4. 77 FR 3326 - Cancellation of Environmental Impact Statement in Orange County, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-23

    ... Environmental Impact Statement in Orange County, NC AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), North... Elizabeth Brady Road Extension between US 70 Business and US 70 Bypass in Orange County, North Carolina. The...

  5. Photocatalytic degradation of wastewater pollutants: titanium dioxide mediated degradation of methyl orange and beta-naphthol orange.

    PubMed

    Antharjanam, Sudhadevi; Philip, Robert; Suresh, Das

    2003-01-01

    The photocatalytic degradation of azo dyes such as methyl orange and beta-naphthol orange in aqueous suspensions of TiO2 has been investigated under a variety of conditions. The kinetics of degradation was studied under different conditions such as reaction pH, substrate and catalyst concentration, and types of titanium dioxide used and in the presence of electron acceptors and electron donors. The degradation rates of the dyes have been found to be strongly influenced by all the above parameters. Carbon dioxide yield measurements indicate that only partial mineralization occurs in the initial phase of oxidation.

  6. Anaerobic digestion of wastewater derived from the pressing of orange peel generated in orange juice production.

    PubMed

    Siles, José Angel; de Los Angeles Martín, María; Martín, Antonio; Raposo, Francisco; Borja, Rafael

    2007-03-07

    A study of the anaerobic digestion of wastewater from the pressing of orange peel generated in orange juice production was carried out in a laboratory-scale completely stirred tank reactor at mesophilic temperature (37 degrees C). Prior to anaerobic treatment the raw wastewater was subjected to physicochemical treatment using aluminum sulfate as a flocculant and to pH reduction using a solution of sulfuric acid. The reactor was batch fed at COD loads of 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, and 5.0 g of COD. The process was very stable for all of the loads studied, with mean pH and alkalinity values of 7.5 and 3220 mg of CaCO3/L, respectively. The anaerobic digestion of this substrate was found to follow a first-order kinetic model, from which the specific rate constants for methane production, K(G), were determined. The K(G) values decreased considerably from 0.0672 to 0.0078 L/(g h) when the COD load increased from 1.5 to 5.0 g of COD, indicating an inhibition phenomenon in the system studied. The proposed model predicted the behavior of the reactor very accurately, showing deviations of <5% between the experimental and theoretical values of methane production. The methane yield coefficient was found to be 295 mL of CH4 STP/g of COD removed, whereas the mean biodegradability of the substrate (TOC) was 88.2%. A first-order kinetic model for substrate (TOC) consumption allowed determination of the specific rate constants for substrate uptake, K(C), which also decreased with increasing loading, confirming the above-mentioned inhibition process. Finally, the evolution of the individual volatile fatty acid concentrations (acetic, C2; propionic, C3; butyric, C4; isobutyric, iC4; valeric, C5; isovaleric, iC5; and caproic, C6) with digestion time for all loads used was also studied. The main acids generated were acetic and propionic for all loads studied, facilitating the conversion into methane.

  7. Educating the Orang Asli Children: Exploring Indigenous Children's Practices and Experiences in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renganathan, Sumathi

    2016-01-01

    The author is concerned with the education available for the Orang Asli, an indigenous minority community in Malaysia. Literature written about Orang Asli and education mostly assumes a deficit perspective where the lack of educational achievement among the Orang Asli children is often attributed to their culture and community. Therefore, rather…

  8. 7 CFR 319.56-44 - Untreated grapefruit, sweet oranges, and tangerines from Mexico for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Untreated grapefruit, sweet oranges, and tangerines... QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-44 Untreated grapefruit, sweet oranges, and tangerines from Mexico for processing. Untreated grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis),...

  9. 7 CFR 319.56-44 - Untreated grapefruit, sweet oranges, and tangerines from Mexico for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Untreated grapefruit, sweet oranges, and tangerines... QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-44 Untreated grapefruit, sweet oranges, and tangerines from Mexico for processing. Untreated grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis),...

  10. 78 FR 32068 - Oranges, Grapefruit, Tangerines, and Tangelos Grown in Florida; Revising Reporting Requirements...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 905 Oranges, Grapefruit, Tangerines, and Tangelos Grown in Florida... marketing order for oranges, grapefruit, tangerines, and tangelos grown in Florida (order). The Citrus... oranges, grapefruit, tangerines, and tangelos grown in Florida, hereinafter referred to as the...

  11. 78 FR 14236 - Oranges, Grapefruit, Tangerines, and Tangelos Grown in Florida; Revising Reporting Requirements...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 905 Oranges, Grapefruit, Tangerines, and Tangelos Grown in Florida... prescribed under the Federal marketing order for oranges, grapefruit, tangerines, and tangelos grown in... handling of oranges, grapefruit, tangerines, and tangelos grown in Florida, hereinafter referred to as...

  12. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice is the food that complies with the requirements for...

  13. 77 FR 23659 - Revocation of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Orange Juice From Brazil

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ... International Trade Administration Revocation of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Orange Juice From Brazil AGENCY... order on certain orange juice (OJ) from Brazil.\\1\\ On April 13, 2012, the International Trade Commission..., 2011) (Initiation Notice). \\2\\ See Certain Orange Juice From Brazil, 77 FR 22343 (Apr. 13, 2012)...

  14. 7 CFR 319.56-44 - Untreated grapefruit, sweet oranges, and tangerines from Mexico for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Untreated grapefruit, sweet oranges, and tangerines... QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-44 Untreated grapefruit, sweet oranges, and tangerines from Mexico for processing. Untreated grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis),...

  15. 78 FR 52079 - Oranges, Grapefruit, Tangerines, and Tangelos Grown in Florida; Relaxing Size and Grade...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-22

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 905 Oranges, Grapefruit, Tangerines, and Tangelos Grown in Florida; Relaxing Size and Grade Requirements on Valencia and Other Late Type Oranges AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA... prescribed under the marketing order for oranges, grapefruit, tangerines, and tangelos grown in...

  16. 7 CFR 319.56-44 - Untreated grapefruit, sweet oranges, and tangerines from Mexico for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Untreated grapefruit, sweet oranges, and tangerines... QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-44 Untreated grapefruit, sweet oranges, and tangerines from Mexico for processing. Untreated grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis),...

  17. 77 FR 30504 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Orange Juice From Brazil: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty... orange juice (OJ) from Brazil for a period of review (POR) of March 1, 2011, through February 29, 2012.\\1....\\2\\ \\2\\ See Revocation of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Orange Juice From Brazil, 77 FR 23659...

  18. Educating the Orang Asli Children: Exploring Indigenous Children's Practices and Experiences in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renganathan, Sumathi

    2016-01-01

    The author is concerned with the education available for the Orang Asli, an indigenous minority community in Malaysia. Literature written about Orang Asli and education mostly assumes a deficit perspective where the lack of educational achievement among the Orang Asli children is often attributed to their culture and community. Therefore, rather…

  19. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice is the food that complies with the requirements for composition...

  20. 76 FR 54375 - Safety Zone; Thunder on the Gulf, Gulf of Mexico, Orange Beach, AL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Thunder on the Gulf, Gulf of Mexico, Orange... establishing a temporary safety zone for a portion of the Gulf of Mexico for the waters off Orange Beach... Mexico, south of Orange Beach, Alabama to occur from October 6, 2011 through October 9, 2011. This event...

  1. 7 CFR 905.306 - Orange, Grapefruit, Tangerine and Tangelo Regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Orange, Grapefruit, Tangerine and Tangelo Regulation... AGRICULTURE ORANGES, GRAPEFRUIT, TANGERINES, AND TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Grade and Size Requirements § 905.306 Orange, Grapefruit, Tangerine and Tangelo Regulation. (a) During the period specified in column (2...

  2. 77 FR 75550 - Special Local Regulations; 2013 Orange Bowl Paddle Championship, Biscayne Bay, Miami, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; 2013 Orange Bowl Paddle... in Miami, FL during the 2013 Orange Bowl Paddle Championship. The event will take place on January 13... purpose of the rule is to provide for the safety of life on navigable waters during the 2013 Orange Bowl...

  3. 78 FR 37779 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Untreated Oranges...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-24

    ... Collection; Untreated Oranges, Tangerines, and Grapefruit From Mexico Transiting the United States to Foreign... approval of an information collection associated with the regulations for the transit of untreated oranges...: For information on the regulations for the transit of untreated oranges, tangerines, and grapefruit...

  4. 7 CFR 905.306 - Orange, Grapefruit, Tangerine and Tangelo Regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Orange, Grapefruit, Tangerine and Tangelo Regulation... AGRICULTURE ORANGES, GRAPEFRUIT, TANGERINES, AND TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Grade and Size Requirements § 905.306 Orange, Grapefruit, Tangerine and Tangelo Regulation. (a) During the period specified in column (2...

  5. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice is the food that complies with the requirements for composition...

  6. 78 FR 4383 - Foreign-Trade Zone 117-Orange, Texas; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Signal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 117--Orange, Texas; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Signal International Texas GP, LLC (Shipbuilding), Orange, TX The Foreign Trade Zone of Southeast... Signal International Texas GP, LLC (Signal), located in Orange, Texas. The notification conforming to the...

  7. 7 CFR 51.691 - Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety. 51..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Oranges (Texas and States Other Than Florida, California, and Arizona) Standard Pack § 51.691 Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety. (a) Fruit...

  8. 7 CFR 905.306 - Orange, Grapefruit, Tangerine and Tangelo Regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Orange, Grapefruit, Tangerine and Tangelo Regulation... AGRICULTURE ORANGES, GRAPEFRUIT, TANGERINES, AND TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Grade and Size Requirements § 905.306 Orange, Grapefruit, Tangerine and Tangelo Regulation. (a) During the period specified in column (2...

  9. 78 FR 28801 - Foreign-Trade Zone 117-Orange, TX, Authorization of Production Activity, Signal International...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 117--Orange, TX, Authorization of Production Activity, Signal International Texas GP, LLC (Shipbuilding), Orange, TX On January 10, 2013, the Foreign Trade Zone of Southeast...-Trade Zones (FTZ) Board on behalf of Signal International Texas GP, LLC, in Orange, Texas. The...

  10. 7 CFR 51.691 - Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety. 51..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Oranges (Texas and States Other Than Florida, California, and Arizona) Standard Pack § 51.691 Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety. (a) Fruit...

  11. 7 CFR 51.691 - Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety. 51... Grades of Oranges (Texas and States Other Than Florida, California, and Arizona) Standard Pack § 51.691 Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety. (a) Fruit shall be fairly uniform in size. When packed in...

  12. 7 CFR 51.691 - Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety. 51..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Oranges (Texas and States Other Than Florida, California, and Arizona) Standard Pack § 51.691 Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety. (a) Fruit...

  13. 7 CFR 905.306 - Orange, Grapefruit, Tangerine and Tangelo Regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Orange, Grapefruit, Tangerine and Tangelo Regulation... AGRICULTURE ORANGES, GRAPEFRUIT, TANGERINES, AND TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Grade and Size Requirements § 905.306 Orange, Grapefruit, Tangerine and Tangelo Regulation. (a) During the period specified in column (2...

  14. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice is the food that complies with the requirements for composition...

  15. 7 CFR 51.691 - Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety. 51... Grades of Oranges (Texas and States Other Than Florida, California, and Arizona) Standard Pack § 51.691 Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety. (a) Fruit shall be fairly uniform in size. When packed in...

  16. 7 CFR 905.306 - Orange, Grapefruit, Tangerine and Tangelo Regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Orange, Grapefruit, Tangerine and Tangelo Regulation... AGRICULTURE ORANGES, GRAPEFRUIT, TANGERINES, AND TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Grade and Size Requirements § 905.306 Orange, Grapefruit, Tangerine and Tangelo Regulation. (a) During the period specified in column (2...

  17. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice is the food that complies with the requirements for composition...

  18. Molecular characterization and transcriptome analysis of orange head Chinese cabbage (brassica rapa L. ssp.pekinensis)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Orange head leaves are a desirable quality trait for Chinese cabbage. Our previous fine mapping identified BrCRTISO as the Br-or candidate gene for the orange Chinese cabbage mutant. Here we examined the BrCRTISO gene from white and orange head Chinese cabbage. While BrCRTISO from the white control ...

  19. The pharmacokinetics and health benefits of orange peel compounds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Orange peel is a resource rich in phenolic antioxidants, including several classes of flavonoids and hydroxycinnamates. These compounds have been extensively studied for their biological actions particularly against chronic diseases in humans. Yet, full development of these materials as new, commerc...

  20. Determinants of flavor acceptability during the maturation of navel oranges

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Navel oranges of differing maturities were harvested at regular intervals for three successive seasons and evaluated for external color, percent juice, soluble solid content (SSC) and titratable acidity (TA). Fruit from each harvest date were rated by a sensory panel for flavor likeability (hedonic ...

  1. Dropout Prevention Initiatives for Malaysian Indigenous Orang Asli Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nor, Sharifah Md; Roslan, Samsilah; Mohamed, Aminuddin; Hassan, Kamaruddin Hj. Abu; Ali, Mohamad Azhar Mat; Manaf, Jaimah Abdul

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses dropout prevention initiatives by the Malaysian government for the disadvantaged indigenous Orang Asli people in the rural villages of Peninsular Malaysia. The roles of the Ministry of Education (MOE) as well as the Institutes of Teacher Education (ITEs) are highlighted pertaining to efforts at improving the quality of…

  2. Storage temperature effects on blood orange fruit quality.

    PubMed

    Rapisarda, P; Bellomo, S E; Intelisano, S

    2001-07-01

    Orange fruits of two blood varieties (Tarocco and Moro) were stored at 8 degrees C and 22 degrees C for 85 and 106 days, respectively, and analyzed periodically for standard quality parameters (total soluble solids, total acidity, ascorbic acid, juice yield, and rind color) and sensory influencing parameters (anthocyanins, and total and free hydroxycinnamic acids). A decrease in total acidity (TA) and juice yield during storage was observed for both cultivars; total soluble solids (TSS) increased only in the Tarocco oranges stored at 8 degrees C. The increase in TSS observed for Tarocco and the simultaneous decrease in TA in both varieties resulted in a higher maturity index (TSS/TA) for the two cultivars. No loss of vitamin C was noted in Tarocco orange at either temperature, whereas a sharp reduction in vitamin C occurred in the first 50 days of storage for Moro. A significant increase in anthocyanin content was observed in Tarocco and Moro stored at 8 degrees C. Overlong storage induces extensive hydrolysis of hydroxycinnamic derivatives to free acids in Moro orange and these, in turn, could develop the malodorous vinylphenols.

  3. Asian citrus psyllid, huanglongbing and the orange jasmine conundrum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) is an important invasive pest in Florida because it vectors a bacterium ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus’ (LAS) responsible for a devastating citrus disease known as huanglongbing (HLB). Soon after finding HLB in Florida, concerns arose that orange jasmine in urban areas wo...

  4. Formation of Diketopiperazines by Penicillium italicum Isolated from Oranges

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Peter M.; Kennedy, Barry P. C.; Harwig, Joost; Chen, Y-K.

    1974-01-01

    Prolyl-2-(1′,1′-dimethylallyl)tryptophyldiketopiperazine and 12,13-dehydroprolyl-2-(1′,1′-dimethylallyl)tryptophyldiketopiperazine, known metabolites of Aspergillus ustus, were produced in low yield by Penicillium italicum in liquid culture and on unsterilized orange peel. PMID:4441068

  5. The monoterpene limonene in orange peels attracts pests and microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Ana; San Andrés, Victoria; Cervera, Magdalena; Redondo, Ana; Alquézar, Berta; Shimada, Takehiko; Gadea, José; Rodrigo, María; Zacarías, Lorenzo; Palou, Lluís; López, María M; Castañera, Pedro; Peña, Leandro

    2011-11-01

    Plant volatiles include terpenoids, which are generally involved in plant defense, repelling pests and pathogens and attracting insects for herbivore control, pollination and seed dispersal. Orange fruits accumulate the monoterpene limonene at high levels in the oil glands of their fruit peels. When limonene production was downregulated in orange fruits by the transgenic expression of a limonene synthase (CitMTSE1) in the antisense configuration, these fruits were resistant to the fungus Penicillium digitatum (Pers.) Sacc. and the bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri and were less attractive to the medfly pest Ceratitis capitata. These responses were reversed when the antisense transgenic orange fruits were treated with limonene. To gain more insight into the role of the limonene concentration in fruit responses to pests and pathogens, we attempted to overexpress CitMTSE1 in the sense configuration in transgenic orange fruits. Only slight increases in the amount of limonene were found in sense transgenic fruits, maybe due to the detrimental effect that excessive limonene accumulation would have on plant development. Collectively, these results suggest that when limonene reaches peak levels as the fruit develops, it becomes a signal for pest and pathogen attraction, which facilitate access to the fruit for pulp consumers and seed dispersers.

  6. The monoterpene limonene in orange peels attracts pests and microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Ana; Andrés, Victoria San; Cervera, Magdalena; Redondo, Ana; Alquézar, Berta; Shimada, Takehiko; Gadea, José; Rodrigo, María; Zacarías, Lorenzo; Palou, Lluís; López, María M.; Castañera, Pedro; Peña, Leandro

    2011-01-01

    Plant volatiles include terpenoids, which are generally involved in plant defense, repelling pests and pathogens and attracting insects for herbivore control, pollination and seed dispersal. Orange fruits accumulate the monoterpene limonene at high levels in the oil glands of their fruit peels. When limonene production was downregulated in orange fruits by the transgenic expression of a limonene synthase (CitMTSE1) in the antisense configuration, these fruits were resistant to the fungus Penicillium digitatum (Pers.) Sacc. and the bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri and were less attractive to the medfly pest Ceratitis capitata. These responses were reversed when the antisense transgenic orange fruits were treated with limonene. To gain more insight into the role of the limonene concentration in fruit responses to pests and pathogens, we attempted to overexpress CitMTSE1 in the sense configuration in transgenic orange fruits. Only slight increases in the amount of limonene were found in sense transgenic fruits, maybe due to the detrimental effect that excessive limonene accumulation would have on plant development. Collectively, these results suggest that when limonene reaches peak levels as the fruit develops, it becomes a signal for pest and pathogen attraction, which facilitate access to the fruit for pulp consumers and seed dispersers. PMID:22212123

  7. Two Lesser Dystopias: "We" and "A Clockwork Orange."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnsley, John H.

    1984-01-01

    Both the Russian novel "We" and the Anthony Burgess novel "A Clockwork Orange" offer frightening glimpses of a future society. But the contrast between these visions is striking. "We" is concerned with the misuse of technology, Burgess's book with the misuse of psychology. Both warn about the misuse of state power.…

  8. Agent Orange exposure and attributed health effects in Vietnam veterans.

    PubMed

    Young, Alvin L; Cecil, Paul F

    2011-07-01

    Serum dioxin studies of Vietnam (VN) veterans, military historical records of tactical herbicide use in Vietnam, and the compelling evidence of the photodegradation of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and other aspects of environmental fate and low bioavailability of TCDD are consistent with few, if any, ground troop veterans being exposed to Agent Orange. That conclusion, however, is contrary to the presumption by the Department of Veterans Affairs (DVA) that military service in Vietnam anytime from January 9, 1962 to May 7, 1975 is a proxy for exposure to Agent Orange. The DVA assumption is inconsistent with the scientific principles governing determinations of disease causation. The DVA has nonetheless awarded Agent Orange-related benefits and compensation to an increasing number of VN veterans based on the presumption of exposure and the published findings of the Institute of Medicine that there is sufficient evidence of a "statistical association" (a less stringent standard than "causal relationship") between exposure to tactical herbicides or TCDD and 15 different human diseases. A fairer and more valid approach for VN veterans would have been to enact a program of "Vietnam experience" benefits for those seriously ill, rather than benefits based on the dubious premise of injuries caused by Agent Orange.

  9. The Chemical and Educational Appeal of the Orange Juice Clock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelter, Paul B.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes the recent history, chemistry, and educational uses of the Orange Juice Clock demonstration in which a galvanic cell is made from the combination of a magnesium strip, a copper strip, and juice in a beaker. Discusses the chemistry basics, extensions for more advanced students, questions for student/teacher workshop participants, and…

  10. Control of Orange Hawkweed (Hieracium aurantiacum) in Southern Alaska

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Orange hawkweed is a perennial European plant and an escaped ornamental that has colonized roadsides and grasslands in south central and southeast Alaska. This plant is forming near monotypic stands, reducing plant diversity and decreasing pasture productivity. A replicated greenhouse study was cond...

  11. The Chemical and Educational Appeal of the Orange Juice Clock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelter, Paul B.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes the recent history, chemistry, and educational uses of the Orange Juice Clock demonstration in which a galvanic cell is made from the combination of a magnesium strip, a copper strip, and juice in a beaker. Discusses the chemistry basics, extensions for more advanced students, questions for student/teacher workshop participants, and…

  12. Nutrition Program Boosts Dental Health of Orange County Migrant Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotter, Anne; And Others

    1995-01-01

    In Orange County, California, 76 migrant preschool children and 45 parents participated in a 7-week pilot program concerned with preventing dental disease by encouraging good dental habits and healthy food choices. Parent questionnaires revealed that the most remarkable program-related change was a decrease in consumption of sugary foods for over…

  13. Two Lesser Dystopias: "We" and "A Clockwork Orange."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnsley, John H.

    1984-01-01

    Both the Russian novel "We" and the Anthony Burgess novel "A Clockwork Orange" offer frightening glimpses of a future society. But the contrast between these visions is striking. "We" is concerned with the misuse of technology, Burgess's book with the misuse of psychology. Both warn about the misuse of state power.…

  14. Fertilization and pesticides affect mandarin orange nutrient composition

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effects of the application of foliar fertilization and pesticide on nutritional quality of mandarin orange juices were evaluated using 1H NMR metabolomics. Significant differences between the use of fertilizer and pesticides during fruit formation were observed, and included changes in sugar, am...

  15. Regulation of Orange Carotenoid Protein Activity in Cyanobacterial Photoprotection.

    PubMed

    Thurotte, Adrien; Lopez-Igual, Rocio; Wilson, Adjélé; Comolet, Léa; Bourcier de Carbon, Céline; Xiao, Fugui; Kirilovsky, Diana

    2015-09-01

    Plants, algae, and cyanobacteria have developed mechanisms to decrease the energy arriving at reaction centers to protect themselves from high irradiance. In cyanobacteria, the photoactive Orange Carotenoid Protein (OCP) and the Fluorescence Recovery Protein are essential elements in this mechanism. Absorption of strong blue-green light by the OCP induces carotenoid and protein conformational changes converting the orange (inactive) OCP into a red (active) OCP. Only the red orange carotenoid protein (OCP(r)) is able to bind to phycobilisomes, the cyanobacterial antenna, and to quench excess energy. In this work, we have constructed and characterized several OCP mutants and focused on the role of the OCP N-terminal arm in photoactivation and excitation energy dissipation. The N-terminal arm largely stabilizes the closed orange OCP structure by interacting with its C-terminal domain. This avoids photoactivation at low irradiance. In addition, it slows the OCP detachment from phycobilisomes by hindering fluorescence recovery protein interaction with bound OCP(r). This maintains thermal dissipation of excess energy for a longer time. Pro-22, at the beginning of the N-terminal arm, has a key role in the correct positioning of the arm in OCP(r), enabling strong OCP binding to phycobilisomes, but is not essential for photoactivation. Our results also show that the opening of the OCP during photoactivation is caused by the movement of the C-terminal domain with respect to the N-terminal domain and the N-terminal arm.

  16. Risky Business: An Analysis of Orange County's Investment Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augustine, John H.; Fairclough, Scott

    1996-01-01

    The investment strategy of Orange County (California), which led to insolvency of its investment pool, is analyzed and lessons applicable to institutions of higher education are examined. Focus is on two elements: leveraged investment strategy that depended on stable or declining interest rates, and a liquidity crisis. It is concluded that…

  17. Building a Model System of Developmental Services in Orange County

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halfon, Neal; Russ, Shirley; Regalado, Michael

    2004-01-01

    In 1998, California voters passed Proposition 10, the California Children and Families First Act, which provides for an excise tax on tobacco products to fund parent education, health and child care programs that promote early childhood development for 0-5s. Since the adoption of its first Strategic Plan (2000), the Orange County First 5…

  18. Teen Pregnancy Prevention: Grassroots Efforts in Orange County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemenway, Callista Lee

    In 1979, a March of Dimes task force investigation in Orange County, California found a direct correlation between the rising number of low birth weight babies and the rising number of births to teens. Sparked by this investigation, the Coalition Concerned with Adolescent Pregnancy (CCAP), an independent non-profit agency, was formed. CCAP's…

  19. Risky Business: An Analysis of Orange County's Investment Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augustine, John H.; Fairclough, Scott

    1996-01-01

    The investment strategy of Orange County (California), which led to insolvency of its investment pool, is analyzed and lessons applicable to institutions of higher education are examined. Focus is on two elements: leveraged investment strategy that depended on stable or declining interest rates, and a liquidity crisis. It is concluded that…

  20. Hydrogeology and quality of ground water in Orange County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adamski, James C.; German, Edward R.

    2004-01-01

    Ground water is the main source of water supply in central Florida and is critical for aquatic habitats and human consumption. To provide a better understanding for the conservation, development, and management of the water resources of Orange County, Florida, a study of the hydrogeologic framework, water budget, and ground-water quality characteristics was conducted from 1998 through 2002. The study also included extensive analyses of the surface-water resources, published as a separate report. An increase in population from about 264,000 in 1960 to 896,000 in 2000 and subsequent urban growth throughout this region has been accompanied by a substantial increase in water use. Total ground-water use in Orange County increased from about 82 million gallons per day in 1965 to about 287 million gallons per day in 2000. The hydrogeology of Orange County consists of three major hydrogeologic units: the surficial aquifer system, the intermediate confining unit, and the Floridan aquifer system. Data were compiled from 634 sites to construct hydrogeologic maps and sections of Orange County. Water-level elevations measured in 23 wells tapping the surficial aquifer system ranged from about 10.6 feet in eastern Orange County to 123.8 feet above NGVD 29 in northwestern Orange County from March 2000 through September 2001. Water levels also were measured in 14 wells tapping the Upper Floridan aquifer. Water levels fluctuate over time from seasonal and annual variations in rainfall; however, water levels in a number of wells tapping the Upper Floridan aquifer have declined over time. Withdrawal of ground water from the aquifers by pumping probably is causing the declines because the average annual precipitation rate has not changed substantially in central Florida since the 1930s, although yearly rates can vary. A generalized water budget was computed for Orange County from 1991 to 2000. Average rates for the 10-year period for the following budget components were computed based

  1. Alcoholic fermentation induces melatonin synthesis in orange juice.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Pachón, M S; Medina, S; Herrero-Martín, G; Cerrillo, I; Berná, G; Escudero-López, B; Ferreres, F; Martín, F; García-Parrilla, M C; Gil-Izquierdo, A

    2014-01-01

    Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is a molecule implicated in multiple biological functions. Its level decreases with age, and the intake of foods rich in melatonin has been considered an exogenous source of this important agent. Orange is a natural source of melatonin. Melatonin synthesis occurs during alcoholic fermentation of grapes, malt and pomegranate. The amino acid tryptophan is the precursor of all 5-methoxytryptamines. Indeed, melatonin appears in a shorter time in wines when tryptophan is added before fermentation. The aim of the study was to measure melatonin content during alcoholic fermentation of orange juice and to evaluate the role of the precursor tryptophan. Identification and quantification of melatonin during the alcoholic fermentation of orange juice was carried out by UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS. Melatonin significantly increased throughout fermentation from day 0 (3.15 ng/mL) until day 15 (21.80 ng/mL) reaching larger amounts with respect to other foods. Melatonin isomer was also analysed, but its content remained stable ranging from 11.59 to 14.18 ng/mL. The enhancement of melatonin occurred mainly in the soluble fraction. Tryptophan levels significantly dropped from 13.80 mg/L (day 0) up to 3.19 mg/L (day 15) during fermentation. Melatonin was inversely and significantly correlated with tryptophan (r = 0.907). Therefore, the enhancement in melatonin could be due to both the occurrence of tryptophan and the new synthesis by yeast. In summary, the enhancement of melatonin in novel fermented orange beverage would improve the health benefits of orange juice by increasing this bioactive compound.

  2. Variability of Carotenoid Biosynthesis in Orange Colored Capsicum spp.

    PubMed Central

    Guzman, Ivette; Hamby, Shane; Romero, Joslynn; Bosland, Paul W.; O’Connell, Mary A.

    2010-01-01

    Pepper, Capsicum spp., is a worldwide crop valued for heat, nutrition, and rich pigment content. Carotenoids, the largest group of plant pigments, function as antioxidants and as vitamin A precursors. The most abundant carotenoids in ripe pepper fruits are β-carotene, capsanthin, and capsorubin. In this study, the carotenoid composition of orange fruited Capsicum lines was defined along with the allelic variability of the biosynthetic enzymes. The carotenoid chemical profiles present in seven orange pepper varieties were determined using a novel UPLC method. The orange appearance of the fruit was due either to the accumulation of β-carotene, or in two cases, due to only the accumulation of red and yellow carotenoids. Four carotenoid biosynthetic genes, Psy, Lcyb, CrtZ-2, and Ccs were cloned and sequenced from these cultivars. This data tested the hypothesis that different alleles for specific carotenoid biosynthetic enzymes are associated with specific carotenoid profiles in orange peppers. While the coding regions within Psy and CrtZ-2 did not change in any of the lines, the genomic sequence contained introns not previously reported. Lcyb and Ccs contained no introns but did exhibit polymorphisms resulting in amino acid changes; a new Ccs variant was found. When selectively breeding for high provitamin A levels, phenotypic recurrent selection based on fruit color is not sufficient, carotenoid chemical composition should also be conducted. Based on these results, specific alleles are candidate molecular markers for selection of orange pepper lines with high β-carotene and therefore high pro-vitamin A levels. PMID:20582146

  3. Effect of blending Huanglongbing (HLB) disease affected orange juice with juice from healthy oranges on flavor quality

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Huanglongbing, or citrus greening disease, has been a concern for the citrus industry as it progressively damages and ultimately kills citrus trees. While this disease does not affect human health, it is associated with bitter off-flavor for orange juice. The objective of this study was to determine...

  4. Computational study on the color change of 3‧-hydroxyechinenone in the orange carotenoid protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Yukie

    2016-05-01

    The orange carotenoid protein, which contains 3‧-hydroxyechinenone (hECN), changes color from orange to red when irradiated with blue-green light. In this study, the origins of the color change have been investigated. The conformation of hECN in the red form is more planar than that in the orange form; consequently, the absorption band is red-shifted on conversion from the orange form to the red form. Another source of the red shift is that the electrostatic field generated by the protein in the red form stabilizes the excited state better than that generated by the protein in the orange form.

  5. A FRET-facilitated photoswitching using an orange fluorescent protein with the fast photoconversion kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Subach, Oksana M.; Entenberg, David; Condeelis, John S.; Verkhusha, Vladislav V.

    2012-01-01

    Fluorescent proteins photoswitchable with non-cytotoxic light irradiation and spectrally distinct from multiple available photoconvertible green-to-red probes are in high demand. We have developed a monomeric fluorescent protein, called PSmOrange2, which is photoswitchable with blue light from an orange (ex./em. at 546 nm/561 nm) to a far-red (ex./em. at 619 nm/651 nm) form. Compared to another orange-to-far-red photoconvertable variant, PSmOrange2 has blue-shifted photoswitching action spectrum, 9-fold higher photoconversion contrast, and up to 10-fold faster photoswitching kinetics. This results in the 4-fold more PSmOrange2 molecules being photoconverted in mammalian cells. Compared to common orange fluorescent proteins, such as mOrange, the orange form of PSmOrange has substantially higher photostability allowing its use in multicolor imaging applications to track dynamics of multiple populations of intracellular objects. The PSmOrange2 photochemical properties allow its efficient photoswitching with common two-photon lasers and, moreover, via Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) from green fluorescent donors. We have termed the latter effect a FRET-facilitated photoswitching and demonstrated it using several sets of interacting proteins. The enhanced photoswitching properties of PSmOrange2 make it a superior photoconvertable protein tag for flow cytometry, conventional microscopy, and two-photon imaging of live cells. PMID:22900938

  6. Red-fleshed sweet orange juice improves the risk factors for metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Jacqueline Q; Dourado, Grace K Z S; Cesar, Thais B

    2015-01-01

    Orange juice consumption can promote lower levels of oxidative stress and inflammation due to the antioxidant activity of citrus flavonoids and carotenoids. In addition, red-fleshed sweet orange juice (red orange juice) also contains lycopene. This study investigated the effects of red orange juice consumption on risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Volunteers consumed red orange juice daily for 8 weeks, with clinical and biochemical assessments performed at baseline and on the final day. There was no change in the abdominal obesity, but low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, C-reactive protein decreased, while there was an increase of the antioxidant activity in serum after red orange juice consumption. Insulin resistance and systolic blood pressure were reduced in normal-weight volunteers, while diastolic blood pressure decreased in overweight volunteers after intervention. Red orange juice showed anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and lipid-lowering properties that may prevent the development of metabolic syndrome.

  7. Supra­molecular inter­actions in a 1:1 co-crystal of acridine and 3-chloro­thio­phene-2-carb­oxy­lic acid

    PubMed Central

    Prajina, Olakkandiyil; Thomas Muthiah, Packianathan; Perdih, Franc

    2016-01-01

    In the title co-crystal, C5H3ClO2S·C13H9N, the components inter­act with each other via an O—H⋯N hydrogen bond. Acridine–acridine stacking, thio­phene–thio­phene stacking and acridine–thio­phene C—H⋯π inter­actions also occur in the crystal. PMID:27308013

  8. Thermal stability of ricin in orange and apple juices.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Lauren S; Zhang, Zhe; Tolleson, William H

    2010-05-01

    Ricin is a potent protein toxin that could be exploited for bioterrorism. Although ricin may be detoxified using heat, inactivation conditions in foods are not well characterized. Two brands of pulp-free orange juice and 2 brands of single-strength apple juice (one clarified and the other unclarified) containing 100 microg/mL added ricin were heated at 60 to 90 degrees C for up to 2 h. With increasing heating times and temperatures the heat-treated juices exhibited decreasing detectability of ricin by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and cytotoxicity to cultured cells. Z-values for ricin inactivation in orange juices were 14.4 +/- 0.8 degrees C and 17 +/- 4 degrees C using cytotoxicity assays, compared to 13.4 +/- 1.5 degrees C and 14 +/- 2 degrees C determined by ELISA. Although insignificant differences were apparent for z-values measured for the 2 orange juice brands, significant differences were found in the z-values for the 2 brands of apple juice. The z-values for ricin inactivation in the clarified and unclarified apple juices were 21 +/- 4 degrees C and 9.5 +/- 1.1 degrees C, determined by cytotoxicity assays, and 20 +/- 2 degrees C and 11.6 +/- 0.7 degrees C, respectively, using ELISA. Overall, there were no significant differences between results measured with ELISA and cytotoxicity assays. Ricin stability in orange juice and buffer was evaluated at 25 degrees C. Half-lives of 10 +/- 3 d and 4.9 +/- 0.4 d, respectively, indicated that active ricin in juice could reach consumers. These results indicate that ricin in apple and orange juices can remain toxic under some processing and product storage conditions. Ricin is a potent toxin that is abundant in castor beans and is present in the castor bean mash by-product after cold-press extraction of castor oil. U.S. Health and Human Services recognizes that ricin could be used for bioterrorism. This study reports the stability of ricin in apple and orange fruit juices at temperatures ranging from 60 to

  9. Specificity of the cyanobacterial orange carotenoid protein: influences of orange carotenoid protein and phycobilisome structures.

    PubMed

    Jallet, Denis; Thurotte, Adrien; Leverenz, Ryan L; Perreau, François; Kerfeld, Cheryl A; Kirilovsky, Diana

    2014-02-01

    Cyanobacteria have developed a photoprotective mechanism that decreases the energy arriving at the reaction centers by increasing thermal energy dissipation at the level of the phycobilisome (PB), the extramembranous light-harvesting antenna. This mechanism is triggered by the photoactive Orange Carotenoid Protein (OCP), which acts both as the photosensor and the energy quencher. The OCP binds the core of the PB. The structure of this core differs in diverse cyanobacterial strains. Here, using two isolated OCPs and four classes of PBs, we demonstrated that differences exist between OCPs related to PB binding, photoactivity, and carotenoid binding. Synechocystis PCC 6803 (hereafter Synechocystis) OCP, but not Arthrospira platensis PCC 7345 (hereafter Arthrospira) OCP, can attach echinenone in addition to hydroxyechinenone. Arthrospira OCP binds more strongly than Synechocystis OCP to all types of PBs. Synechocystis OCP can strongly bind only its own PB in 0.8 m potassium phosphate. However, if the Synechocystis OCP binds to the PB at very high phosphate concentrations (approximately 1.4 m), it is able to quench the fluorescence of any type of PB, even those isolated from strains that lack the OCP-mediated photoprotective mechanism. Thus, the determining step for the induction of photoprotection is the binding of the OCP to PBs. Our results also indicated that the structure of PBs, at least in vitro, significantly influences OCP binding and the stabilization of OCP-PB complexes. Finally, the fact that the OCP induced large fluorescence quenching even in the two-cylinder core of Synechococcus elongatus PBs strongly suggested that OCP binds to one of the basal allophycocyanin cylinders.

  10. 78 FR 1763 - Oranges and Grapefruit Grown in Lower Rio Grande Valley in Texas; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ....16 per 7/10- bushel carton or equivalent of oranges and grapefruit handled. The Committee locally....16 per 7/10-bushel carton or equivalent of oranges and grapefruit handled. The Texas orange and... expenditures of $1,340,800 and an assessment rate of $0.16 per 7/10-bushel carton or equivalent of oranges and...

  11. Certification of standard reference materials containing bitter orange.

    PubMed

    Sander, L C; Putzbach, K; Nelson, B C; Rimmer, C A; Bedner, M; Thomas, J Brown; Porter, B J; Wood, L J; Schantz, M M; Murphy, K E; Sharpless, K E; Wise, S A; Yen, J H; Siitonen, P H; Evans, R L; Nguyen Pho, A; Roman, M C; Betz, J M

    2008-07-01

    A suite of three dietary supplement standard reference materials (SRMs) containing bitter orange has been developed, and the levels of five alkaloids and caffeine have been measured by multiple analytical methods. Synephrine, octopamine, tyramine, N-methyltyramine, hordenine, total alkaloids, and caffeine were determined by as many as six analytical methods, with measurements performed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology and at two collaborating laboratories. The methods offer substantial independence, with two types of extractions, two separation methods, and four detection methods. Excellent agreement was obtained among the measurements, with data reproducibility for most methods and analytes better than 5% relative standard deviation. The bitter-orange-containing dietary supplement SRMs are intended primarily for use as measurement controls and for use in the development and validation of analytical methods.

  12. Application of 10-ethyl-acridine-3-sulfonyl chloride for HPLC determination of aliphatic amines in environmental water using fluorescence and APCI-MS.

    PubMed

    You, Jinmao; Zhao, Huaixin; Sun, Zhiwei; Xia, Lian; Yan, Tao; Suo, Yourui; Li, Yulin

    2009-05-01

    A simple, sensitive method for the determination of aliphatic amines based on a sulfonylation reaction using 10-ethyl-acridine-3-sulfonyl chloride (EASC) as pre-column labeling reagent with fluorescence detection and APCI-MS identification has been developed. The labeled derivatives exhibited high stability and were enough to be efficiently analyzed by HPLC with an excitation maximum at lambda(ex) 270 nm and an emission maximum at lambda(em) 430 nm. Identification of derivatives was carried out by online post-column MS in positive-ion mode. Comparing with the widely used 5-dimethylaminonaphthalene-1-sulfonylchloride (Dansyl-Cl), EASC-amine derivatives not only exhibited high fluorescence but also exhibited excellent MS ionizable potential. Detection limits obtained from 0.10 pmol injection, at a S/N of 3, were 4.0-12.7 fmol. The mean intra- and inter-assay precision for all aliphatic amine levels were <3.84 and 3.21%, respectively. Excellent linear responses were observed with coefficients of >0.9995.

  13. Spectrophotometric determination of low levels arsenic species in beverages after ion-pairing vortex-assisted cloud-point extraction with acridine red.

    PubMed

    Altunay, Nail; Gürkan, Ramazan; Kır, Ufuk

    2016-01-01

    A new, low-cost, micellar-sensitive and selective spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of inorganic arsenic (As) species in beverage samples. Vortex-assisted cloud-point extraction (VA-CPE) was used for the efficient pre-concentration of As(V) in the selected samples. The method is based on selective and sensitive ion-pairing of As(V) with acridine red (ARH(+)) in the presence of pyrogallol and sequential extraction into the micellar phase of Triton X-45 at pH 6.0. Under the optimised conditions, the calibration curve was highly linear in the range of 0.8-280 µg l(-1) for As(V). The limits of detection and quantification of the method were 0.25 and 0.83 µg l(-1), respectively. The method was successfully applied to the determination of trace As in the pre-treated and digested samples under microwave and ultrasonic power. As(V) and total As levels in the samples were spectrophotometrically determined after pre-concentration with VA-CPE at 494 nm before and after oxidation with acidic KMnO4. The As(III) levels were calculated from the difference between As(V) and total As levels. The accuracy of the method was demonstrated by analysis of two certified reference materials (CRMs) where the measured values for As were statistically within the 95% confidence limit for the certified values.

  14. Influence of heterogeneity of confined water on photophysical behavior of acridine with amines: a time-resolved fluorescence and laser flash photolysis study.

    PubMed

    Sarangi, Manas Kumar; Dey, Debarati; Basu, Samita

    2011-01-20

    The photophysical behavior of acridine (Acr) shows facilitated water-assisted protonation equilibrium between its deprotonted (Acr* ∼ 10 ns) and protonated forms (AcrH(+*) ∼ 28 ns) within confined region of ordered water molecules inside AOT/H(2)O/n-heptane reverse micelles (RMs). The time-resolved-area-normalized-emission spectra confirm both Acr* and AcrH(+*), while time-resolved-emission spectra depict time evolution between them. Quenching of AcrH(+*) with N,N-dimethylaniline (DMA) is a purely diffusion-controlled bimolecular quenching with linear Stern-Volmer (S-V) plot, while nonlinearity arises with triethylamine (TEA) that forms ground state complex with AcrH(+) (AcrH(+)··H(2)O··TEA) indicating both static and dynamic quenching. Transient intermediates, DMA(•+) and AcrH(•) infer photoinduced electron transfer from DMA to Acr, while those from AcrH(+)··H(2)O··TEA complex suggest water mediated excited-state proton transfer (ESPT) between AcrH(+) and TEA. The ESPT becomes faster in larger RMs due to enhanced mobility of hydronium ions in AcrH(+)··H(2)O··TEA, which reduces in smaller RMs as water becomes much more constrained owing to stronger complexation by excess confinement.

  15. Skin Color Variation in Orang Asli Tribes of Peninsular Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Ang, Khai C.; Ngu, Mee S.; Reid, Katherine P.; Teh, Mei S.; Aida, Zamzuraida S.; Koh, Danny XR.; Berg, Arthur; Oppenheimer, Stephen; Salleh, Hood; Clyde, Mahani M.; Md-Zain, Badrul M.; Canfield, Victor A.; Cheng, Keith C.

    2012-01-01

    Pigmentation is a readily scorable and quantitative human phenotype, making it an excellent model for studying multifactorial traits and diseases. Convergent human evolution from the ancestral state, darker skin, towards lighter skin colors involved divergent genetic mechanisms in people of European vs. East Asian ancestry. It is striking that the European mechanisms result in a 10–20-fold increase in skin cancer susceptibility while the East Asian mechanisms do not. Towards the mapping of genes that contribute to East Asian pigmentation there is need for one or more populations that are admixed for ancestral and East Asian ancestry, but with minimal European contribution. This requirement is fulfilled by the Senoi, one of three indigenous tribes of Peninsular Malaysia collectively known as the Orang Asli. The Senoi are thought to be an admixture of the Negrito, an ancestral dark-skinned population representing the second of three Orang Asli tribes, and regional Mongoloid populations of Indo-China such as the Proto-Malay, the third Orang Asli tribe. We have calculated skin reflectance-based melanin indices in 492 Orang Asli, which ranged from 28 (lightest) to 75 (darkest); both extremes were represented in the Senoi. Population averages were 56 for Negrito, 42 for Proto-Malay, and 46 for Senoi. The derived allele frequencies for SLC24A5 and SLC45A2 in the Senoi were 0.04 and 0.02, respectively, consistent with greater South Asian than European admixture. Females and individuals with the A111T mutation had significantly lighter skin (p = 0.001 and 0.0039, respectively). Individuals with these derived alleles were found across the spectrum of skin color, indicating an overriding effect of strong skin lightening alleles of East Asian origin. These results suggest that the Senoi are suitable for mapping East Asian skin color genes. PMID:22912732

  16. Exposure to pesticides residues from consumption of Italian blood oranges.

    PubMed

    Fallico, B; D'Urso, M G; Chiappara, E

    2009-07-01

    This paper reports the results of a 5-year study to evaluate pesticide levels, derived from orchard activities, on Italy's most common orange cultivar (Citrus sinensis, L. Osbeck, cv. Tarocco). Using a Bayesian approach, the study allowed both the qualitative (number) and quantitative distributions (amount) of pesticides to be determined with its own probability value. Multi-residue analyses of 460 samples highlighted the presence of ethyl and methyl chlorpyrifos, dicofol, etofenprox, fenazaquin, fenitrothion, imazalil, malathion and metalaxil-m. A total of 30.5% of samples contained just one pesticide, 2.16% two pesticides and 0.65% of samples had three pesticides present simultaneously. The most common residue was ethyl chlorpyrifos followed by methyl chlorpyrifos. Estimated daily intake (EDI) values for ethyl and methyl chlorpyrifos, as well as the distance from the safety level (non-observed adverse effect level, NOAEL), were calculated. The risk was differentiated (1) to take account of the period of actual citrus consumption (180 days) and (2) to discriminate the risk derived from eating oranges containing a certain level of chlorpyrifos from unspecified pesticides. The most likely EDI values for ethyl chlorpyrifos derived from Italian blood orange consumption are 0.01 and 0.006 mg/day calculated for 180 and 365 days, respectively. Considering the probability of the occurrence of ethyl chlorpyrifos, these EDI values are reduced to 2.6 x 10(-3) and 1.3 x 10(-3) mg/day, respectively. For methyl chlorpyrifos, the most likely EDI values are 0.09 and 0.04 mg/day, respectively; considering the probability of its occurrence, the EDI values decrease to 6.7 x 10(-3) and 3.4 x 10(-3) mg/day, respectively. The results confirmed that levels of pesticides in Italian Tarocco oranges derived from a known controlled chain of production are safe.

  17. In vitro colonic catabolism of orange juice (poly)phenols.

    PubMed

    Pereira-Caro, Gema; Borges, Gina; Ky, Isabelle; Ribas, Aleix; Calani, Luca; Del Rio, Daniele; Clifford, Michael N; Roberts, Susan A; Crozier, Alan

    2015-03-01

    The role of colonic microbiota in the breakdown of hesperetin, naringenin, and ferulic acid, compounds found as glycosides in orange juice, was investigated using an in vitro fermentation model. Test compounds were incubated with human fecal slurries cultured under anaerobic conditions, and the production of phenolic acid catabolites were monitored by GC-MS and HPLC-MS(2) . Hesperetin was converted to 3-(3'-hydroxy-4'-methoxyphenyl)propionic acid, 3-(3',4'-dihydroxyphenyl)propionic acid, and 3-(3'-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid while 3-(phenyl)propionic acid was the major end product derived from naringenin. The data obtained are compared to our previously published data on urinary excretion of phenolic and aromatic acids after acute orange juice consumption (Pereira-Caro et al. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2014, 100, 1385-1391). Catabolism pathways are proposed for events occurring in the colon and those taking place postabsorption into the circulatory system with particular reference to the excretion of 3-(3'-hydroxy-4'-methoxyphenyl)hydracrylic acid, which is not formed in fecal incubations. Ferulic acid was also degraded by the colonic microflora being converted principally to 3-(3'-methoxy-4'-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid, a phenolic acid that appears in urine after orange juice consumption. The study provides novel information on the potential involvement of the colonic microbiota in the overall bioavailability of orange juice (poly)phenols through the production of phenylpropionic acids and subsequent hepatic conversions that lead to hippuric acid and its hydroxylated analogues. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Skin color variation in Orang Asli tribes of Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ang, Khai C; Ngu, Mee S; Reid, Katherine P; Teh, Mei S; Aida, Zamzuraida S; Koh, Danny Xr; Berg, Arthur; Oppenheimer, Stephen; Salleh, Hood; Clyde, Mahani M; Md-Zain, Badrul M; Canfield, Victor A; Cheng, Keith C

    2012-01-01

    Pigmentation is a readily scorable and quantitative human phenotype, making it an excellent model for studying multifactorial traits and diseases. Convergent human evolution from the ancestral state, darker skin, towards lighter skin colors involved divergent genetic mechanisms in people of European vs. East Asian ancestry. It is striking that the European mechanisms result in a 10-20-fold increase in skin cancer susceptibility while the East Asian mechanisms do not. Towards the mapping of genes that contribute to East Asian pigmentation there is need for one or more populations that are admixed for ancestral and East Asian ancestry, but with minimal European contribution. This requirement is fulfilled by the Senoi, one of three indigenous tribes of Peninsular Malaysia collectively known as the Orang Asli. The Senoi are thought to be an admixture of the Negrito, an ancestral dark-skinned population representing the second of three Orang Asli tribes, and regional Mongoloid populations of Indo-China such as the Proto-Malay, the third Orang Asli tribe. We have calculated skin reflectance-based melanin indices in 492 Orang Asli, which ranged from 28 (lightest) to 75 (darkest); both extremes were represented in the Senoi. Population averages were 56 for Negrito, 42 for Proto-Malay, and 46 for Senoi. The derived allele frequencies for SLC24A5 and SLC45A2 in the Senoi were 0.04 and 0.02, respectively, consistent with greater South Asian than European admixture. Females and individuals with the A111T mutation had significantly lighter skin (p = 0.001 and 0.0039, respectively). Individuals with these derived alleles were found across the spectrum of skin color, indicating an overriding effect of strong skin lightening alleles of East Asian origin. These results suggest that the Senoi are suitable for mapping East Asian skin color genes.

  19. STS-81 crew present gift of oranges and grapefruit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-02-20

    STS081-343-014 (12-22 Jan. 1997) --- Oranges and grapefruit brought up from Earth get a popular reception by the Mir-22 crewmembers. Left to right astronauts Peter J. K. (Jeff) Wisoff and John M. Grunsfeld, along with cosmonauts Aleksandr Y. Kaleri and Valeri G. Korzun, Mir-22 flight engineer and commander respectively, view the microgravity behavior of the seasonal gifts. Astronaut Michael A. Baker, mission commander, looks on at frame's right edge.

  20. The curious case of the orange coloured tonsils.

    PubMed

    Ravesloot, M J L; Bril, H; Braamskamp, M J; Wiegman, A; Wong Chung, R P

    2014-12-01

    Tangier disease is an extremely rare and severe form of high density lipoprotein deficiency. Even though there is no specific therapy for patients with Tangier disease, it is important to recognize the clinical presentation as patients are at an increased risk of developing atherosclerosis and subsequent CVD. The case discussed in this report, illustrates the importance of recognizing that orange discoloured tonsils are an indication that the patient could be suffering from Tangier's disease.

  1. Authentication of Concentrated Orange Essential Oils Using Photoacoustic Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López Muñoz, G. A.; Balderas López, J. A.; López González, R. F.

    2012-11-01

    Photoacoustic spectroscopy (PS) was used to study the thermal diffusivity and its relation with the composition in folded (concentrated) cold-pressed Mexican orange essential oils. A linear relation between the amplitude (on a semi-log scale) and phase, as functions of the sample thickness, for PS was obtained through a theoretical model to fit the experimental data for thermal-diffusivity measurements in concentrated orange essential oils. Experimental results showed a linear increase in thermal-diffusivity values with the folding degree: 5-fold, 10-fold, 20-fold, and 35-fold due to a decrease in terpenes (mainly D-limonene) related with the folding process that can be correlated with the thermal diffusivity of the orange essential oils. The obtained values in this study and those previously reported (see Int. J. Thermophys. 32, 1066, 2011) showed the possibility of using this thermal property to make distinctions between citrus oils obtained by different extraction processes and also between concentrated citrus oils. This provides the viability of a new complementary method for this purpose, contrasting with the use of density and refraction index, physical properties commonly used in the authentication of citrus essential oils.

  2. Processing and storage effects on orange juice aroma: a review.

    PubMed

    Perez-Cacho, Pilar Ruiz; Rouseff, Russell

    2008-11-12

    Freshly squeezed orange juice aroma is due to a complex mixture of volatile compounds as it lacks a specific character impact compound. Fresh hand-extracted juice is unstable, and thermal processing is required to reduce enzyme and microbial activity. Heating protocols range from the lightly heated not from concentrate, NFC, to the twice heated, reconstituted from concentrate, RFC, juices. Thermal processing profoundly effects aroma composition. Aroma volatiles are further altered by subsequent time-temperature storage conditions. Heating reduces levels of reactive aroma impact compounds such as neral and geranial, and creates off-flavors or their precursors from Maillard, Strecker, and acid catalyzed hydration reactions. Off-flavors such as 4-vinylguaiacol, p-cymene, and carvone are the products of chemical reactions. Other off-flavors such as butane-2,3-dione, guaiacol, and 2,6-dichlorophenol are indicators of microbial contaminations. Since most orange juice consumed worldwide is processed, the goal of this review is to summarize the widely scattered reports on orange juice aroma differences in the three major juice products and subsequent aroma changes due to packaging, storage, and microbial contamination with special emphasis on results from GC-O studies.

  3. Antioxidant activity of pasteurized and sterilized commercial red orange juices.

    PubMed

    Fiore, Alberto; La Fauci, Luca; Cervellati, Rinaldo; Guerra, Maria Clelia; Speroni, Ester; Costa, Stefano; Galvano, Giacomo; De Lorenzo, Antonino; Bacchelli, Vanessa; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Galvano, Fabio

    2005-12-01

    Blood orange juice is a typical Italian product whose red color is primarily associated with anthocyanin pigments. Two orange-based products are present on the market: pasteurized pure juice with 40 days of shelf life, and sterilized beverage containing minimum 12% of concentrated fruit juice. The aim of the present paper is to verify the relationships between the antioxidant properties and the anthocyanins content in a sampling of pasteurized and sterilized commercial red orange juices. The anthocyanins composition was determined by HPLC-MS/MS, while the antioxidant activity was evaluated by the Briggs-Rauscher reaction, selected in order to acquire information at acid pH values, by three radical scavenging assays (DMPD, 2-2'-azinobis-(3-ethylenbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), DPPH), and by FRAP assay to monitor the ferric reducing power. Results showed that antioxidant activity, particularly when measured by ABTS method, is positively related to the content of anthocyanins and that the reduction of anthocyanins content, typical of commercial long-shelf life juices, leads to a remarkable loss of antioxidant power.

  4. Immunochemical Screening of Pesticides (Simazine and Cypermethrin) in Orange Oil

    PubMed Central

    Nichkova, Mikaela; Fu, Xun; Yang, Zheng; Zhong, Ping; Sanborn, James R.; Chang, Dan; Gee, Shirley J.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2011-01-01

    Pesticide residue analysis in citrus oils is very important for their quality and marketing. This study assessed the reliability and sensitivity of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for simazine and cypermethrin screening in orange oil. Simazine was analyzed after extraction of the oil with methanolic phosphate buffer with a limit of quantitation (LOQ) of 40 µg/L for 1-fold and ~100 µg/L for 10-fold oils. Due to matrix effects the immunoanalysis of cypermethrin required hexane–acetonitrile partitioning followed by silica solid phase extraction. The method detected levels higher than 0.5 ppm (mg/L). This LOQ is lower than the U.S. EPA tolerance level (0.9 ppm) for cypermethrin in citrus oils. A good correlation (r2 0.99) between ELISA and LC-MS/MS was observed for the analysis of both analytes in 1-fold orange oil. Immunochemical screening can be used to reduce instrumental analysis costs by its use in preliminary orange oil screening. PMID:19526986

  5. Trapping characteristic of halloysite lumen for methyl orange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hao; Yan, Hua; Pei, Zhenzhao; Wu, Junyong; Li, Rongrong; Jin, Yanxian; Zhao, Jie

    2015-08-01

    The interaction of clay minerals and dyes is an area of great interest especially in the development of novel adsorbents. In this report, we demonstrated interaction of halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) and an anionic dye, methyl orange (MO), through a electrostatic attraction. Halloysite lumen has a trapping characteristic for methyl orange, which is mainly determined by the positively charged nature of the inner surface of HNTs. XRD results confirmed that intercalation of methyl orange into HNTs did not occur. SEM-EDS and photostability results showed that MO molecules were primarily in HNTs lumen. Adsorption isotherm studies revealed an interesting phenomenon, i.e., a sudden increase of adsorption capacity occurred in the initial dye concentration of about 75 mg/L, which was just the dye concentration corresponding to the onset of dye oligomer formation. This suggested dye aggregation state had a decisive influence to the adsorption behavior of MO on the halloysite. BET results demonstrated at low and high dye concentrations, single MO molecule and aggregation of several dimers through hydrophobic interaction, interacted with Al-OH2+ sites on the inner wall, respectively. Desorption experiments showed that MO in HNTs can be completely removed with deionized water, indicating halloysite is a low-cost and efficient adsorbent for anionic dye.

  6. Synephrine - A potential biomarker for orange honey authenticity.

    PubMed

    Tette, Patrícia A S; Guidi, Letícia R; Bastos, Esther M A F; Fernandes, Christian; Gloria, Maria Beatriz A

    2017-08-15

    A LC-MS/MS method for synephrine as a biomarker for orange honey authenticity was developed and validated. The sample was extracted with 5% TCA and cleaned up with Florisil providing 83.7% recoveries. Ions transitions for quantification and identification were 168→135.0 and 168→107.0, respectively. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.66 and 1.0ng/g, respectively. Synephrine was detected in orange honey at levels from 79.2 to 432.2ng/g, but not in other monofloral honeys. It was also present in some wildflower honeys (9.4-236.5ng/g), showing contribution of citrus to this polyfloral honey. Results were confirmed by qualitative pollen analysis. No citrus pollen was detected in honey containing synephrine levels ≤43.8ng/g, suggesting that synephrine in honey is more sensitive compared to pollen analysis. Synephrine was found in citrus but not in other apiculture flowers. Therefore, synephrine is a botanical marker to differentiate and attest authenticity of orange honey.

  7. Antioxidant activity of oils extracted from orange (Citrus sinensis) seeds.

    PubMed

    Jorge, Neuza; Silva, Ana Carolina da; Aranha, Caroline P M

    2016-05-31

    Due to the increasing production of food in the world with consequent increase of the production of waste, the importance of developing researches for its use is noticed. Thus, the interest in vegetable oils with bioactive compounds, such as the ones extracted from fruit seeds, is growing. Therefore, the present study aims to characterize the oils extracted from seeds of Hamlin, Natal, Pera-rio and Valencia orange varieties (Citrus sinensis), as to the levels of total carotenoids, total phenolic compounds, tocopherols and phytosterols, as well as to determine their antioxidant activity. The orange seed oils presented important content of total carotenoids (19.01 mg/kg), total phenolic compounds (4.43 g/kg), α-tocopherol (135.65 mg/kg) and phytosterols (1304.2 mg/kg). The antioxidant activity ranged from 56.0% (Natal) to 70.2% (Pera-rio). According to the results it is possible to conclude that the orange seed oils can be used as specialty oils in diet, since they contain considerable amounts of bioactive compounds and antioxidants.

  8. Pharmacokinetics of flavanone glycosides after ingestion of single doses of fresh-squeezed orange juice versus commercially processed orange juice in healthy humans

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Orange juice is a rich source of flavonoids known to be beneficial to cardiovascular health in humans. The objective of this study was to analyze the pharmacokinetics of the main flavanone glycosides, hesperidin and narirutin, in humans after the consumption of two types of orange juice, fresh squee...

  9. Consumption of orange fermented beverage reduces cardiovascular risk factors in healthy mice.

    PubMed

    Escudero-López, Blanca; Berná, Genoveva; Ortega, Ángeles; Herrero-Martín, Griselda; Cerrillo, Isabel; Martín, Franz; Fernández-Pachón, María-Soledad

    2015-04-01

    The consumption of fruits prevents the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Alcoholic fermentation has been carried out in fruits resulting in products which provide high concentration of bioactive compounds and variable alcohol content. The aim of this study was to assess the potential beneficial effect of an orange beverage obtained by alcoholic fermentation and pasteurization of orange juice on cardiovascular risk biomarkers. For this purpose, four mice groups (n = 8) ingested orange beverage (equivalent volume to 250 mL/day in human), orange juice, alcoholic solution (at the proportional amount of orange beverage) or water during 12 weeks. The equivalent amount to double serving of orange beverage (500 mL/day) was administered to mice in a subsequent intervention, and a control group was also evaluated. Orange beverage consumption increased levels of glutathione and uric acid, improved lipid profile, decreased oxidized LDL and maintained levels of IL-6 and C-reactive protein. Synergistic effects between the bioactive compounds and the alcohol content of orange beverage may occur. The intake of double serving also increased antioxidant enzyme activities, bilirubin content and plasma antioxidant capacity. These results suggest that orange beverage may produce greater protection against cardiovascular risk factors than orange juice in healthy mice.

  10. Assessing a traceability technique in fresh oranges (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) with an HS-SPME-GC-MS method. Towards a volatile characterisation of organic oranges.

    PubMed

    Cuevas, Francisco Julián; Moreno-Rojas, José Manuel; Ruiz-Moreno, María José

    2017-04-15

    A targeted approach using HS-SPME-GC-MS was performed to compare flavour compounds of 'Navelina' and 'Salustiana' orange cultivars from organic and conventional management systems. Both varieties of conventional oranges showed higher content of ester compounds. On the other hand, higher content of some compounds related with the geranyl-diphosphate pathway (neryl and geranyl acetates) and some terpenoids were found in the organic samples. Furthermore, the partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) achieved an effective classification for oranges based on the farming system using their volatile profiles (90 and 100% correct classification). To our knowledge, it is the first time that a comparative study dealing with farming systems and orange aroma profile has been performed. These new insights, taking into account local databases, cultivars and advanced analytical tools, highlight the potential of volatile composition for organic orange discrimination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of ultrahigh-temperature continuous ohmic heating treatment on fresh orange juice.

    PubMed

    Leizerson, Shirly; Shimoni, Eyal

    2005-05-04

    The scope of this study is the effect of ohmic heating thermal treatment on liquid fruit juice made of oranges. Effects of ohmic heating on the quality of orange juice were examined and compared to those of heat pasteurization at 90 degrees C for 50 s. Orange juice was treated at temperatures of 90, 120, and 150 degrees C for 1.13, 0.85, and 0.68 s in an ohmic heating system. Microbial counts showed complete inactivation of bacteria, yeast, and mold during ohmic and conventional treatments. The ohmic heating treatment reduced pectin esterase activity by 98%. The reduction in vitamin C was 15%. Ohmic-heated orange juice maintained higher amounts of the five representative flavor compounds than did heat-pasteurized juice. Sensory evaluation tests showed no difference between fresh and ohmic-heated orange juice. Thus, high-temperature ohmic-heating treatment can be effectively used to pasteurize fresh orange juice with minimal sensory deterioration.

  12. Electrolytic treatment of methyl orange in aqueous solution using three-dimensional electrode reactor coupling ultrasonics.

    PubMed

    He, Pingting; Wang, Ling; Xue, Jianjun; Cao, Zhibin

    2010-04-01

    The treatment of wastewater containing methyl orange was investigated experimentally using a three-dimensional electrode reactor coupling ultrasonics and the effect of ultrasonics on the degradation was studied. The effects of cell voltage, original concentration of methyl orange, pH value and the concentration of electrolyte on the removal efficiency were considered. The experimental results indicated that the removal rate of methyl orange exceeded 99% and the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD(Cr)) approached 84% under the optimum conditions. Using ultraviolet-visible spectrum analysis, a general degradation pathway for methyl orange was proposed based on the analysis of intermediate compounds. According to the ultraviolet-visible spectral changes during degradation of methyl orange, it can be presumed that the removal of COD(Cr) lags behind the removal of methyl orange because the structure of the benzene ring was more difficult to destroy compared with the azo double bonds.

  13. 21 CFR 74.1261 - D&C Orange No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 11. 74.1261 Section 74.1261 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1261 D&C Orange No. 11. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Orange No. 11 is a mixture consisting principally of the disodium salts of...

  14. 21 CFR 74.1255 - D&C Orange No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 5. 74.1255 Section 74.1255 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1255 D&C Orange No. 5. (a) Identity. (1) the color additive D&C Orange No. 5 is a mixture consisting principally the sodium salt of 4′,5′-dibromofluorescein...

  15. Evaluation for elimination of methylene-orange from aqueous media by using membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuǧrul, A. B.; Altinsoy, N.; Demir, E.; Erentürk, S. Akyıl; Karatepe, N.; Haciyakupoǧlu, S.; Büyük, B.; Baydoǧan, N.; Baytaş, A. F.

    2017-02-01

    Elimination of the methylene orange which are the main sources of environmental pollution from aqueous media were investigated experimentally by using 0.45 µm hydrophilic nylon membran. Removal of the methylene orange were performed with successfully. Furthermore, repetition effect also was examined rationally. With this study, membrane usage for elimination of the methylene orange are convenient for elimination of them from the aqueous media.

  16. 21 CFR 74.1261 - D&C Orange No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 11. 74.1261 Section 74.1261 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1261 D&C Orange No. 11. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Orange No. 11 is a mixture consisting principally of the disodium salts of...

  17. 21 CFR 74.1255 - D&C Orange No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 5. 74.1255 Section 74.1255 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1255 D&C Orange No. 5. (a) Identity. (1) the color additive D&C Orange No. 5 is a mixture consisting principally the sodium salt of 4′,5′-dibromofluorescein...

  18. 21 CFR 74.1260 - D&C Orange No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 10. 74.1260 Section 74.1260 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1260 D&C Orange No. 10. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Orange No. 10 is a mixture consisting principally of 4′,5′-diiodofluorescein,...

  19. 21 CFR 74.1261 - D&C Orange No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 11. 74.1261 Section 74.1261 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1261 D&C Orange No. 11. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Orange No. 11 is a mixture consisting principally of the disodium salts of...

  20. 21 CFR 74.1260 - D&C Orange No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 10. 74.1260 Section 74.1260 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1260 D&C Orange No. 10. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Orange No. 10 is a mixture consisting principally of 4′,5′-diiodofluorescein,...