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Sample records for 10-second step test

  1. Utility Test Results of a 2-Megawatt, 10-Second Reserve-Power System

    SciTech Connect

    BALL,GREG J.; NORRIS,BENJAMIN L.

    1999-10-01

    This report documents the 1996 evaluation by Pacific Gas and Electric Company of an advanced reserve-power system capable of supporting 2 MW of load for 10 seconds. The system, developed under a DOE Cooperative Agreement with AC Battery Corporation of East Troy, Wisconsin, contains battery storage that enables industrial facilities to ''ride through'' momentary outages. The evaluation consisted of tests of system performance using a wide variety of load types and operating conditions. The tests, which included simulated utility outages and voltage sags, demonstrated that the system could provide continuous power during utility outages and other disturbances and that it was compatible with a variety of load types found at industrial customer sites.

  2. Memory Testing: The Next Step.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Elbert W.

    Neuropsychology combines psychometrics and the study of brain processes. There are two approaches to neuropsychology. The neurologic approach uses brief tests flexibly. The psychometric approach uses standardized graded scales in a set battery. Cortical testing in the form of intellectual abilities testing is 70 years old, yet psychometric…

  3. Satellite Test of the Equivalence Principle (STEP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Worden, Paul

    1994-01-01

    This grant provided support for the STEP (Satellite Test of the Equivalence Principle) program between October 1991 and September 1993. STEP, previously supported by NASA under Grant NAG8-837 'A Satellite Test of the Equivalence Principle,' was selected by the European Space Agency for a Phase A study as a candidate for ESA's next medium size mission (M2). STEP was conceived as a joint NASA/ESA mission with equal participation by both agencies. ESA's contribution to the program would be the spacecraft; NASA would provide the launcher and half of the instrument, while the other half of the instrument would be provided by various European agencies. STEP was in competition with three other programs, INTEGRAL, PRISMA, and MARSNET. The final selection of a single mission for M2 took place in April 1993. STEP was not selected for M2 but made a very close second. The program is continuing in modified form.

  4. Specificity of a Maximal Step Exercise Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darby, Lynn A.; Marsh, Jennifer L.; Shewokis, Patricia A.; Pohlman, Roberta L.

    2007-01-01

    To adhere to the principle of "exercise specificity" exercise testing should be completed using the same physical activity that is performed during exercise training. The present study was designed to assess whether aerobic step exercisers have a greater maximal oxygen consumption (max VO sub 2) when tested using an activity specific, maximal step…

  5. HIV Testing on Campus: The Next Step.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Joanna

    1994-01-01

    Sees first phase in human immunodeficiency virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) prevention on many campuses to be focused on education. Calls second phase HIV testing for early diagnosis. Explains steps taken to implement HIV testing program on suburban campus and discusses student program evaluation. (Author/NB)

  6. The STEP mission - Satellite test of the equivalence principle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atzei, A.; Swanson, P.; Anselmi, A.

    1992-01-01

    The STEP experiment is a joint ESA/NASA mission candidate for selection as the next medium science project in the ESA scientific program. ESA and NASA have undertaken a joint feasibility study of STEP. The principles of STEP and details of the mission are presented and the mission and spacecraft are described. The primary objective of STEP is to measure differences in the rate of fall of test masses of different compositions to one part in 10 exp 17 of the total gravitational acceleration, a factor of 10 exp 8 improvement in sensitivity over previous experiments. STEP constitutes a comparison of gravitational and inertial mass or a test of the weak equivalence principle (WEP). A test of WEP that is six orders of magnitude more accurate than previous tests will reveal whether the underlying structure of the universe is filled with undiscovered small forces, necessitating a fundamental change in our theories of matter on all scales.

  7. The Satellite Test of the Equivalence Principle (STEP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    STEP will carry concentric test masses to Earth orbit to test a fundamental assumption underlying Einstein's theory of general relativity: that gravitational mass is equivalent to inertial mass. STEP is a 21st-century version of the test that Galileo is said to have performed by dropping a carnon ball and a musket ball simultaneously from the top of the Leaning Tower of Pisa to compare their accelerations. During the STEP experiment, four pairs of test masses will be falling around the Earth, and their accelerations will be measured by superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDS). The extended time sensitivity of the instruments will allow the measurements to be a million times more accurate than those made in modern ground-based tests.

  8. Stepping-Motion Motor-Control Subsystem For Testing Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powers, Charles E.

    1992-01-01

    Control subsystem closed-loop angular-position-control system causing motor and bearing under test to undergo any of variety of continuous or stepping motions. Also used to test bearing-and-motor assemblies, motors, angular-position sensors including rotating shafts, and like. Monitoring subsystem gathers data used to evaluate performance of bearing or other article under test. Monitoring subsystem described in article, "Monitoring Subsystem For Testing Bearings" (GSC-13432).

  9. Making Knowledge Delivery Failsafe: Adding Step Zero in Hypothesis Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Xia; Zhou, Qiang

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of statistical analysis is increasingly important for professionals in modern business. For example, hypothesis testing is one of the critical topics for quality managers and team workers in Six Sigma training programs. Delivering the knowledge of hypothesis testing effectively can be an important step for the incapable learners or…

  10. Step stress testing of receiver/transmitter units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnett, Steve; Huch, David; James, Larry; Mueller, Stephen; Tran, Peggy

    1993-02-01

    This report has been prepared to summarize a test validation effort for an accelerated life testing model which uses a wide parametric Bayesian Analysis Methodology. Step stress testing was performed on seven Joint Tactical Information Distribution System (JTIDS) Class 1 synthesizer detector, radio frequency assemblies. Failure data and analyses are provided. The report addresses issues concerning how to demonstrate high reliability (Mean-Time-Between-Failure values of 10,000 hours or more) on procured Air Force systems without incurring excessive testing costs.

  11. Step stress testing of receiver/transmitter units, part 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnett, Steve; Huch, David; James, Larry; Mueller, Stephen; Tran, Peggy

    1993-02-01

    This report has been prepared to summarize a test validation effort for an accelerated life testing model which uses a wide parametric Bayesian Analysis Methodology. Step stress testing was performed on seven Joint Tactical Information Distribution System (JTIDS) Class 1 synthesizer detector, radio frequency assemblies. Failure-data and analyses are provided. The report addresses issues concerning how to demonstrate high reliability (Mean-Time-Between-Failure values of 10,000 hours or more) on procured Air Force systems without incurring excessive testing costs.

  12. Step-Stress Accelerated Degradation Testing for Solar Reflectors: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, W.; Elmore, R.; Lee, J.; Kennedy, C.

    2011-09-01

    To meet the challenge to reduce the cost of electricity generated with concentrating solar power (CSP) new low-cost reflector materials are being developed including metalized polymer reflectors and must be tested and validated against appropriate failure mechanisms. We explore the application of testing methods and statistical inference techniques for quantifying estimates and improving lifetimes of concentrating solar power (CSP) reflectors associated with failure mechanisms initiated by exposure to the ultraviolet (UV) part of the solar spectrum. In general, a suite of durability and reliability tests are available for testing a variety of failure mechanisms where the results of a set are required to understand overall lifetime of a CSP reflector. We will focus on the use of the Ultra-Accelerated Weathering System (UAWS) as a testing device for assessing various degradation patterns attributable to accelerated UV exposure. Depending on number of samples, test conditions, degradation and failure patterns, test results may be used to derive insight into failure mechanisms, associated physical parameters, lifetimes and uncertainties. In the most complicated case warranting advanced planning and statistical inference, step-stress accelerated degradation (SSADT) methods may be applied.

  13. Test site experiments with a reconfigurable stepped frequency GPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persico, Raffaele; Matera, Loredana; Piro, Salvatore; Rizzo, Enzo; Capozzoli, Luigi

    2016-04-01

    In this contribution, some new possibilities offered by a reconfigurable stepped frequency GPR system are exposed. In particular, results achieved from a prototypal system achieved in two scientific test sites will be shown together with the results achieved in the same test sites with traditional systems. Moreover a novel technique for the rejection of undesired interferences is shown, with the use of interferences caused on purpose. Key words GPR, reconfigurable stepped frequency. Introduction A reconfigurable GPR system is meant as a GPR where some parameter can be changed vs. the frequency (if the system is stepped frequency) or vs. the time (if the system is pulsed) in a programmable way. The programming should then account for the conditions met in the scenario at hand [1]. Within the research project AITECH (http://www.aitechnet.com/ibam.html), the Institute for Archaeological and Monumental Heritage, together with the University of Florence and the IDS corporation have implemented a prototype, that has been used in sites of cultural interest in Italy [2], but also abroad in Norway and Malta. The system is a stepped frequency GPR working in the frequency range 50-1000 MHz, and its reconfigurability consists in three properties. The first one is the fact that the length of the antennas can be modulated by the aperture and closure of two electronic switches present along the arms of the antennas, so that the antennas can become electrically (and electronically) longer or shorter, so becoming more suitable to radiate some frequencies rather than some other. In particular, the system can radiate three different bands in the comprehensive range between 50-1000 MHz, so being suitable for different depth range of the buried targets, and the three bands are gathered in a unique "going through" because for each measurement point the system can sweep the entire frequency range trhee times, one for each configuration of the switchres on the arms. The second property is

  14. Step-Stress Accelerated Degradation Testing (SSADT) for Photovoltaic (PV) Devices and Cells (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.; Elmore, R.; Suh, C.; Jones, W.

    2010-10-01

    Presentation on step-stress accelerated degradation testing (SSADT) for photovoltaics (PV). Developed are a step-stress degradation test (SSADT) for PV reliability tests and a lifetime prediction model for PV products.

  15. Test site experiments with a reconfigurable stepped frequency GPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persico, Raffaele; Matera, Loredana; Piro, Salvatore; Rizzo, Enzo; Capozzoli, Luigi

    2016-04-01

    In this contribution, some new possibilities offered by a reconfigurable stepped frequency GPR system are exposed. In particular, results achieved from a prototypal system achieved in two scientific test sites will be shown together with the results achieved in the same test sites with traditional systems. Moreover a novel technique for the rejection of undesired interferences is shown, with the use of interferences caused on purpose. Key words GPR, reconfigurable stepped frequency. Introduction A reconfigurable GPR system is meant as a GPR where some parameter can be changed vs. the frequency (if the system is stepped frequency) or vs. the time (if the system is pulsed) in a programmable way. The programming should then account for the conditions met in the scenario at hand [1]. Within the research project AITECH (http://www.aitechnet.com/ibam.html), the Institute for Archaeological and Monumental Heritage, together with the University of Florence and the IDS corporation have implemented a prototype, that has been used in sites of cultural interest in Italy [2], but also abroad in Norway and Malta. The system is a stepped frequency GPR working in the frequency range 50-1000 MHz, and its reconfigurability consists in three properties. The first one is the fact that the length of the antennas can be modulated by the aperture and closure of two electronic switches present along the arms of the antennas, so that the antennas can become electrically (and electronically) longer or shorter, so becoming more suitable to radiate some frequencies rather than some other. In particular, the system can radiate three different bands in the comprehensive range between 50-1000 MHz, so being suitable for different depth range of the buried targets, and the three bands are gathered in a unique "going through" because for each measurement point the system can sweep the entire frequency range trhee times, one for each configuration of the switchres on the arms. The second property is

  16. Estimating V0[subscript 2]max Using a Personalized Step Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Carrie; Vehrs, Pat R.; George, James D.; Hager, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a step test with a personalized step rate and step height to predict cardiorespiratory fitness in 80 college-aged males and females using the self-reported perceived functional ability scale and data collected during the step test. Multiple linear regression analysis yielded a model (R = 0.90, SEE = 3.43…

  17. 49 CFR 40.241 - What are the first steps in any alcohol screening test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the first steps in any alcohol screening... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Alcohol Screening Tests § 40.241 What are the first steps in any alcohol screening test? As the BAT or STT you will take the following steps to begin...

  18. Empathy in Preschool Children: The Development of the Southampton Test of Empathy for Preschoolers (STEP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Alexandra; Pit-ten Cate, Ineke M.; Brown, Antony; Hadwin, Julie A.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we investigated a new instrument: the Southampton Test of Empathy for Preschoolers (STEP). The test incorporated 8 video vignettes of children in emotional scenarios, assessing a child's ability to understand (STEP-UND) and share (STEP-SHA) in the emotional experience of a story protagonist. Each vignette included 4 emotions (angry,…

  19. Comparison of the Effects of Three Stepping Cadences on the Criterion-Related Validity of a Step Test in Chinese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hui, Stanley Sai-chuen; Cheung, Peggy Pui-yee

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the criterion-related validity of a 3-min step test using 3 stepping cadences. Chinese children (N = 50; age = 8.92 plus or minus 1.64 years) performed three 3-min bouts of a bench stepping exercise on a 12-in.-high (30.5 cm) bench. Stepping cadences for the 3 step tests were 22, 26, and 30 steps per…

  20. Conducting High Cycle Fatigue Strength Step Tests on Gamma TiAl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerch, Brad; Draper, Sue; Pereira, J. Mike

    2002-01-01

    High cycle fatigue strength testing of gamma TiAl by the step test method is investigated. A design of experiments was implemented to determine if the coaxing effect occurred during testing. Since coaxing was not observed, step testing was deemed a suitable method to define the fatigue strength at 106 cycles.

  1. Just Diagnosed: Next Steps After Testing Positive for HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... HIV baseline evaluation. What is an HIV baseline evaluation? An HIV baseline evaluation includes all the information ... lab tests are included in an HIV baseline evaluation? The following lab tests are included in an ...

  2. 49 CFR 40.251 - What are the first steps in an alcohol confirmation test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What are the first steps in an alcohol confirmation test? 40.251 Section 40.251 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Alcohol Confirmation Tests § 40.251 What are the first steps in an alcohol...

  3. An accelerated step test to assess dancer pre-season aerobic fitness.

    PubMed

    Bronner, Shaw; Rakov, Sara

    2014-03-01

    As the technical performance demands of dance increase, professional companies and pre-professional schools are implementing pre-season screenings that require an efficient, cost effective way to measure dancer aerobic fitness. The aim of this study was to assess an accelerated 3-minute step test (112 beats·min(-1)) by comparing it to the well-studied YMCA step test (96 beats·min(-1)) and a benchmark standard, an incremental treadmill test, using heart rate (HR) and oxygen consumption (VO2) as variables. Twenty-six professional and pre- professional dancers (age 20 ± 2.02 years) were fitted with a telemetric gas analysis system and HR monitor. They were tested in the following order: 96 step, 112 step, and treadmill test, with rest to return to baseline heart rate between each test. The step and treadmill tests were compared using Intra-class Correlation Coefficients [ICC (3, k)] calculated with analysis of variance (p < 0.05). To determine whether there was a relationship between peak and recovery HR (HRpeak, HRrecov) and VO2(VO2peak, VO2recov) variables, Pearson product moment correlations were used. Differences due to gender or group (pre- professionals versus professionals) were explored with MANOVAs for HRpeak, VO2peak, HRrecov, VO2recov, and fitness category. The 112 step test produced higher HRpeak and VO2peak values than the 96 step test, reflecting a greater workload (p < 0.001). For HRpeak, there were high correlations (r = 0.71) and for HRrecov, moderate correlations (r = 0.60) between the 112 step test and treadmill test. For VO2peak and VO2recov, there were moderate correlations between the 112 step test and treadmill test (r = 0.65 and 0.73). No differences between genders for VO2peak values were found for either step test, but males displayed lower HRpeak values for both step tests and higher VO2peak values during the treadmill test (p < 0.001). Recovery HR was lower in males for the 96 and 112 step tests (p < 0.05). This was reflected in higher

  4. Clinical requests for molecular tests: the 3-step evidence check.

    PubMed

    Carter, Alexis B

    2012-12-01

    Laboratory tests performed by molecular methods are increasing in volume and complexity at an unprecedented rate. Molecular tests have a broad set of applications, and most recently have been advocated as the mechanism by which providers can further tailor treatments to the individual patient. As the momentum behind molecular testing continues to increase, pathology practices may find themselves unprepared for the new wave of molecular medicine. This special article has been developed in an effort to provide pathologists who have limited molecular training with a simple and quick algorithm for determining whether a requested molecular test is appropriate for a patient. Additional recommendations for a more intensive and proactive review and management of molecular requests also are included. The principles discussed can easily be applied to requests for any test, including those not using molecular methods, which would be sent to an outside reference laboratory. This special article was developed from a Webinar for the College of American Pathologists targeting education for pathologists about the transformation of pathology practice in the new molecular and digital age. PMID:22480222

  5. 49 CFR 40.251 - What are the first steps in an alcohol confirmation test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the first steps in an alcohol confirmation test? 40.251 Section 40.251 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES... What are the first steps in an alcohol confirmation test? As the BAT for an alcohol confirmation...

  6. Laser-trapped mirrors in space: steps toward laboratory testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labeyrie, Antoine; Fournier, Jean-Marc R.; Stachnik, Robert V.

    2004-10-01

    The prospect of large astronomical mirrors in space, made of a thin trapped membrane or a mono-layer of sub-micron particles, raises appreciable theoretical and technological problems at the frontiers of physics, chemistry and materials science. We explore various approaches towards testing different materials in the laboratory at temperatures matching those of a sun-shielded structure in interplanetary space (80- 100 K). Trap loading and damping are among the issues considered, as well as the pumping of particles towards a central fringe, using polychromatic light.

  7. Transistor step stress testing program for JANTX2N2905A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The effect of power/temperature step stress when applied to the transistor JANTX2N2905A manufactured by Texas Instruments and Motorola is reported. A total of 48 samples from each manufacturer was submitted to the process outlined. In addition, two control sample units were maintained for verification of the electrical parametric testing. All test samples were subjected to the electrical tests outlined in Table 2 after completing the prior power/temperature step stress point.

  8. Surface modification of plasmonic nanostructured materials with thiolated oligonucleotides in 10 seconds using selective microwave heating.

    PubMed

    Abel, Biebele; Aslan, Kadir

    2012-11-01

    This study demonstrates the proof-of-principle of rapid surface modification of plasmonic nanostructured materials with oligonucleotides using low power microwave heating. Due to their interesting optical and electronic properties, silver nanoparticle films (SNFs, 2 nm thick) deposited onto glass slides were used as the model plasmonic nanostructured materials. Rapid surface modification of SNFs with oligonucleotides was carried out using two strategies (1) Strategy 1: for ss-oligonucleotides, surface hybridization and (2) Strategy 2: for ds-oligonucleotides, solution hybridization), where the samples were exposed to 10, 15, 30 and 60 seconds microwave heating. To assess the efficacy of our new rapid surface modification technique, identical experiments carried out without the microwave heating (i.e., conventional method), which requires 24 hours for the completion of the identical steps. It was found that SNFs can be modified with ss- and ds-oligonucleotides in 10 seconds, which typically requires several hours of incubation time for the chemisorption of thiol groups on to the planar metal surface using conventional techniques. PMID:23645933

  9. Research on test of product based on spatial sampling criteria and variable step sampling mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ruihong; Han, Yueping

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents an effective approach for online testing the assembly structures inside products using multiple views technique and X-ray digital radiography system based on spatial sampling criteria and variable step sampling mechanism. Although there are some objects inside one product to be tested, there must be a maximal rotary step for an object within which the least structural size to be tested is predictable. In offline learning process, Rotating the object by the step and imaging it and so on until a complete cycle is completed, an image sequence is obtained that includes the full structural information for recognition. The maximal rotary step is restricted by the least structural size and the inherent resolution of the imaging system. During online inspection process, the program firstly finds the optimum solutions to all different target parts in the standard sequence, i.e., finds their exact angles in one cycle. Aiming at the issue of most sizes of other targets in product are larger than that of the least structure, the paper adopts variable step-size sampling mechanism to rotate the product specific angles with different steps according to different objects inside the product and match. Experimental results show that the variable step-size method can greatly save time compared with the traditional fixed-step inspection method while the recognition accuracy is guaranteed.

  10. Numerical analysis of step-drawdown tests: Parameter identification and uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louwyck, A.; Vandenbohede, A.; Lebbe, L.

    2010-01-01

    SummaryAn inverse, numerical model is presented as an interpretation method for step-drawdown tests. The model consists of an axi-symmetric model to simulate radial flow in a horizontally stratified aquifer, and a nonlinear regression analysis to identify hydraulic parameters and quantify parameter uncertainty. Compared to commonly used methods based on analytical solutions, the inverse model allows a more representative aquifer schematisation, usage of all drawdown observations, and a comprehensive analysis of parameter uncertainty. Data sets from two step-drawdown tests performed in a homogeneous, confined aquifer are interpreted and it is concluded that transmissivity and well loss coefficient are identifiable. Additional data sampled from an observation well are recommended to estimate aquifer storativity. Reliability of parameter estimates decreases with a decrease in the number of steps and therefore it is recommended to conduct step-drawdown tests having at least four steps. Analysis of data from a third test performed in an unconfined, layered aquifer reveals that only the well loss coefficient is identifiable and that prior information about hydraulic parameters of extracted and adjacent layers is required. In general, it is concluded that the inverse, numerical model is a viable interpretation method to identify the well loss coefficient and additional aquifer parameters from step-drawdown test data.

  11. Adult Learners: Relationships of Reading, MCAT, and USMLE Step 1 Test Results for Medical Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haught, Patricia A.; Walls, Richard T.

    This study examined the possible relationship between scores on the Nelson-Denny Reading Test (current forms G and H) and performance on the Medical College Admissions Test (MCAT) and the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 1 examination scores. Participants were 730 medical students at a mid-Atlantic university, and for 572…

  12. Electric-stepping-motor tests for a control-drum actuator of a nuclear reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kieffer, A. W.

    1972-01-01

    Experimental tests were conducted on two stepping motors for application as reactor control-drum actuators. Various control-drum loads with frictional resistances ranging from approximately zero to 40 N-m and inertias ranging from zero to 0.424 kg-sq m were tested.

  13. Stepping test in mice: a reliable approach in determining forelimb akinesia in MPTP-induced Parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Blume, Shannon R; Cass, Daryn K; Tseng, Kuei Y

    2009-09-01

    Currently existing behavioral measures for motor impairments in rodent models with bilateral dopamine depletion have demonstrated to be difficult to assess due to the degree of task complexity. There is clearly a need for a behavioral test that is simplistic in design and does not require the animal to learn a specific task, in particular for mice. Here we adapted the stepping test, originally designed for assessing asymmetric motor deficits in rats (Olsson, M., Nikkhah, G., Bentlage, C., Bjorklund, A., 1995. Forelimb akinesia in the rat Parkinson model: differential effects of dopamine agonists and nigral transplants as assessed by a new stepping test. J. Neurosci. 15, 3863-3875; Schallert, T., De Ryck, M., Whishaw, I.Q., Ramirez, V.D., Teitelbaum, P., 1979. Excessive bracing reactions and their control by atropine and l-DOPA in an animal analog of Parkinsonism. Exp. Neurol. 64, 33-43), into a mouse-friendly version for bilateral dopamine lesion induced by subacute MPTP injection. We found that MPTP-treated mice exhibit a significant and persistent reduction in the number of adjusting steps when compared to saline-treated animals. Typically, MPTP-induced stepping deficit becomes apparent by the fourth MPTP injection. The number of adjusting steps continues to decline throughout the injections, and by day 10 from the last MPTP injection, the stepping deficit observed is associated with approximately 65% TH positive cells loss in the SN. Importantly, L-DOPA administration significantly improved stepping performance in MPTP-treated mice. Thus, stepping test in mice is a reliable and simple behavioral measure for assessing forelimb akinesia induced by systemic MPTP. PMID:19460369

  14. Choice stepping reaction time test using exergame technology for fall risk assessment in older people.

    PubMed

    Ejupi, Andreas; Brodie, Matthew; Gschwind, Yves J; Schoene, Daniel; Lord, Stephen; Delbaere, Kim

    2014-01-01

    Accidental falls remain an important problem in older people. Stepping is a common task to avoid a fall and requires good interplay between sensory functions, central processing and motor execution. Increased choice stepping reaction time has been associated with recurrent falls in older people. The aim of this study was to examine if a sensor-based Exergame Choice Stepping Reaction Time test can successfully discriminate older fallers from non-fallers. The stepping test was conducted in a cohort of 104 community-dwelling older people (mean age: 80.7 ± 7.0 years). Participants were asked to step laterally as quickly as possible after a light stimulus appeared on a TV screen. Spatial and temporal measurements of the lower and upper body were derived from a low-cost and portable 3D-depth sensor (i.e. Microsoft Kinect) and 3D-accelerometer. Fallers had a slower stepping reaction time (970 ± 228 ms vs. 858 ± 123 ms, P = 0.001) and a slower reaction of their upper body (719 ± 289 ms vs. 631 ± 166 ms, P = 0.052) compared to non-fallers. It took fallers significantly longer than non-fallers to recover their balance after initiating the step (2147 ± 800 ms vs. 1841 ± 591 ms, P = 0.029). This study demonstrated that a sensor-based, low-cost and easy to administer stepping test, with the potential to be used in clinical practice or regular unsupervised home assessments, was able to identify significant differences between performances by fallers and non-fallers. PMID:25571596

  15. The Objectivity, Reliability, and Validity of the OSU Step Test for College Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Maria, D. L.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    The O.S.U. Step Test was administered to 68 male university students to determine the objectivity of three methods of monitering heart rate--subjects count, investigator's count, and ECG records--with results indicating that the investigator was significantly more accurate in heart rate determination than were the subjects. (MB)

  16. Step-up procedures for non-inferiority tests with multiple experimental treatments.

    PubMed

    Kwong, Koon Shing; Cheung, Siu Hung; Hayter, Anthony J

    2016-08-01

    Non-inferiority (NI) trials are becoming more popular. The NI of a new treatment compared with a standard treatment is established when the new treatment maintains a substantial fraction of the treatment effect of the standard treatment. A valid NI trial is also required to show assay sensitivity, the demonstration of the standard treatment having the expected effect with a size comparable to those reported in previous placebo-controlled studies. A three-arm NI trial is a clinical study that includes a new treatment, a standard treatment and a placebo. Most of the statistical methods developed for three-arm NI trials are designed for the existence of only one new treatment. Recently, a single-step procedure was developed to deal with NI trials with multiple new treatments with the overall familywise error rate controlled at a specified level. In this article, we extend the single-step procedure to two new step-up procedures for NI trials with multiple new treatments. A comparative study of test power shows that both proposed step-up procedures provide a significant improvement of power when compared to the single-step procedure. One of the two proposed step-up procedures also allows the flexibility of allocating different error rates between the sensitivity hypothesis and the NI hypotheses so that the assignment of fewer patients to the placebo becomes possible when designing NI trials. We illustrate the new procedures using data from a clinical trial. PMID:23531623

  17. Using constant head step tests to determine hydraulic apertures in fractured rock.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Patryk M; Parker, Beth L; Cherry, John A

    2011-09-25

    The initial step in the analysis of contaminant transport in fractured rock requires the consideration of groundwater velocity. Practical methods for estimating the average linear groundwater velocity (v¯) in fractured rock require determination of hydraulic apertures which are commonly calculated by applying the cubic law using transmissivity (T) values and the number of hydraulically active fractures in the test interval. High-resolution, constant-head step injection testing of cored boreholes in a 100 m thick fractured dolostone aquifer was conducted using inflatable packers to isolate specific test intervals from the rest of the borehole. The steps in each test interval were gradually increased from very low to much higher injection rates. At smaller injection rates, the flow rate vs. applied pressure graph projects through the origin and indicates Darcian flow; non Darcian flow is evident at higher injection rates. Non-Darcian flow results in significantly lower calculated T values, which translates to smaller hydraulic aperture values. Further error in the calculated hydraulic aperture stems from uncertainty in the number of hydraulically active fractures in each test interval. This estimate can be inferred from borehole image and core logs, however, all of the fractures identified are not necessarily hydraulically active. This study proposes a method based on Reynolds number calculations aimed at improving confidence in the selection of the number of active fractures in each test interval. PMID:21885152

  18. Reliability and validity of the sideways step test and its correlation with motor function after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Eva Y.F.; Fong, Shirley S.M.; Tse, Mimi M.Y.; Tam, Eric W.C.; Ng, Shamay SM; So, Billy C.L.

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the intra-rater, inter-rater and test-retest reliability of the sideways step test (SST), its correlation with other indicators of stroke-specific impairment, and the cut-off count best discriminating subjects with stroke from their healthy counterparts. [Subjects and Methods] Forty-three subjects with chronic stroke and 41 healthy subjects older than 50 years participated in this study. The SST was administered along with the Fugl-Meyer motor assessment for the lower extremities (FMA-LE), the five-times sit to stand (5TSTS) test, the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), the movement velocity (MVL) by the limits of stability (LOS) test, the ten-metre walk (10mW) test, the timed “Up and Go” (TUG) test and the Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) scale. [Results] The SST showed good to excellent intra-rater, inter-rater and test-retest reliability. The SST counts correlated with 5TSTS times, 10mW times, TUG times, and the FMA-LE and BBS scores. SST counts of 11 for the paretic leg and 14 for the non-paretic leg were found to distinguish the healthy adults from subjects with stroke. [Conclusion] The sideways step test is a reliable clinical test, which correlates with the functional strength, gait speed, and functional balance of people with chronic stroke. PMID:26180332

  19. A Step Towards Electric Propulsion Testing Standards: Pressure Measurements and Effective Pumping Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dankanich, John W.; Swiatek, Michael W.; Yim, John T.

    2012-01-01

    The electric propulsion community has been implored to establish and implement a set of universally applicable test standards during the research, development, and qualification of electric propulsion systems. Existing practices are fallible and result in testing variations which leads to suspicious results, large margins in application, or aversion to mission infusion. Performance measurements and life testing under appropriate conditions can be costly and lengthy. Measurement practices must be consistent, accurate, and repeatable. Additionally, the measurements must be universally transportable across facilities throughout the development, qualification, spacecraft integration and on-orbit performance. A preliminary step to progress towards universally applicable testing standards is outlined for facility pressure measurements and effective pumping speed calculations. The standard has been applied to multiple facilities at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Test results and analyses of universality of measurements are presented herein.

  20. Adaptive time stepping algorithm for Lagrangian transport models: Theory and idealised test cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Syed Hyder Ali Muttaqi; Heemink, Arnold Willem; Gräwe, Ulf; Deleersnijder, Eric

    2013-08-01

    Random walk simulations have an excellent potential in marine and oceanic modelling. This is essentially due to their relative simplicity and their ability to represent advective transport without being plagued by the deficiencies of the Eulerian methods. The physical and mathematical foundations of random walk modelling of turbulent diffusion have become solid over the years. Random walk models rest on the theory of stochastic differential equations. Unfortunately, the latter and the related numerical aspects have not attracted much attention in the oceanic modelling community. The main goal of this paper is to help bridge the gap by developing an efficient adaptive time stepping algorithm for random walk models. Its performance is examined on two idealised test cases of turbulent dispersion; (i) pycnocline crossing and (ii) non-flat isopycnal diffusion, which are inspired by shallow-sea dynamics and large-scale ocean transport processes, respectively. The numerical results of the adaptive time stepping algorithm are compared with the fixed-time increment Milstein scheme, showing that the adaptive time stepping algorithm for Lagrangian random walk models is more efficient than its fixed step-size counterpart without any loss in accuracy.

  1. STEP: Satellite Test of the Equivalence Principle. Report on the phase A study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blaser, J. P.; Bye, M.; Cavallo, G.; Damour, T.; Everitt, C. W. F.; Hedin, A.; Hellings, R. W.; Jafry, Y.; Laurance, R.; Lee, M.

    1993-01-01

    During Phase A, the STEP Study Team identified three types of experiments that can be accommodated on the STEP satellite within the mission constraints and whose performance is orders of magnitude better than any present or planned future experiment of the same kind on the ground. The scientific objectives of the STEP mission are to: test the Equivalence Principle to one part in 10(exp 17), six orders of magnitude better than has been achieved on the ground; search for a new interaction between quantum-mechanical spin and ordinary matter with a sensitivity of the mass-spin coupling constant g(sub p)g(sub s) = 6 x 10(exp -34) at a range of 1 mm, which represents a seven order-of-magnitude improvement over comparable ground-based measurements; and determine the constant of gravity G with a precision of one part in 10(exp 6) and to test the validity of the inverse square law with the same precision, both two orders of magnitude better than has been achieved on the ground.

  2. The four square step test in children with Down syndrome: Reliability and concurrent validity

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Ajai; Samuel, Asir John; Aranha, Vencita Priyanka

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To estimate test-retest reliability, inter-rater reliability and validation of a method for measuring balance by stepping over four squares, four square step test (FSST) in children with Down syndrome (DS). Methods: A sample of 13 children with DS was recruited for the cross-sectional study. They were asked to perform FSST and the time taken was noted. For estimating test-retest reliability, FSST was done by principal investigator twice and Inter-rater reliability was assessed by principal investigator and second investigator with an interval of 7 days. FRT was used as the criterion dynamic balance measure to validate FSST. The data was tabulated and analysed statistically. Results: The test-retest reliability and inter-rater reliability of FSST are ICC(1,1) = 0.70 (0.64-0.90) and ICC(2,1) = 0.78 (0.62-0.91) respectively. The Bland-Altman limits of agreement were also satisfied. Concurrent validity between FRT and FSST with Spearman's ρ = −0.58 (−0.86 to −0.13). Conclusion: FSST has moderate to good concurrent validity and good reliability among the children with Down syndrome. PMID:25624923

  3. Worksite Health Promotion in Six Varied US Sites: Beta Testing as a Needed Translational Step

    PubMed Central

    Elliot, Diane L.; Kuehl, Kerry S.; Goldberg, Linn; DeFrancesco, Carol A.; Moe, Esther L.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Dissemination of health promotion interventions generally has followed an efficacy, effectiveness to full scale paradigm, and most programs have failed to traverse that sequence. Objective. Report national dissemination of a health promotion program and juxtapose sequential case study observations with the current technology transfer literature. Design. Multiple department-level case studies using contact logs, transcribed interactions, augmented with field notes and validated by respondent review; at least two investigators independently generated site summaries, which were compared to formulate a final report. Results. Adoption was facilitated with national partners and designing branded materials. Critical site influences included departmental features, local champions, and liaison relationships. Achieving distal reach and fidelity required sequential process and program revisions based on new findings at each site. Conclusions. Beta testing to redesign program elements and modify process steps appears to be a needed and often ignored translational step between efficacy and more widespread dissemination. PMID:21647356

  4. Bayesian Analysis of Step-Stress Accelerated Life Test with Exponential Distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.; Pan, R.

    2012-04-01

    In this article, we propose a general Bayesian inference approach to the step-stress accelerated life test with type II censoring. We assume that the failure times at each stress level are exponentially distributed and the test units are tested in an increasing order of stress levels. We formulate the prior distribution of the parameters of life-stress function and integrate the engineering knowledge of product failure rate and acceleration factor into the prior. The posterior distribution and the point estimates for the parameters of interest are provided. Through the Markov chain Monte Carlo technique, we demonstrate a nonconjugate prior case using an industrial example. It is shown that with the Bayesian approach, the statistical precision of parameter estimation is improved and, consequently, the required number of failures could be reduced.

  5. Final report on the development of a 2 MW/10 second battery energy storage system for power disturbance protection

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-11

    Voltage sags, swells and momentary power interruptions lasting a few cycles to several seconds are common disturbances on utility power distribution systems. These disturbances are a result of normal utility recloser switching activity due in part to distribution system short circuits from natural causes such as lightning, rodents, traffic accidents, and current overloads. Power disturbances pose serious problems for many customers with critical, voltage sensitive equipment. Faults can interrupt a manufacturing process, cause PLC`s to initialize their programmed logic and restart equipment out of sequence, create computer data errors, interrupt communications, lockup PC keyboards and cause equipment to malfunction. These momentary disturbances result in billions of dollars of lost productivity annually due to downtime, cleanup, lost production and the loss of customer confidence in the business. This report describes prototype development work for a factory assembled 2 MW/10 Second Battery Energy Storage System. The system design includes (1) a modular battery energy storage system comprised of several strings of batteries-each string provided with an integral Power Conversion System (PCS), (2) an Electronic Selector Device (ESD) comprised of a solid state static switch with sensing and power switching controls, and utility interconnection termination bus bars, and (3) a separate isolation transformer to step-up PCS output voltage to interface directly with the distribution transformer serving the industrial or commercial customer. The system monitors the utility distribution system voltage for voltage sags, swells, and interruptions, switches the customer`s critical loads from utility power to the energy stored in the systems batteries and provides up to 2 MVA until the disturbance clears or up to 10 seconds. Once the ESD sensing circuits have confirmed that the utility is again stable, it seamlessly returns the critical load to the utility. 22 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Tank tests of two models of flying-boat hulls to determine the effect of ventilating the step

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, John R

    1937-01-01

    The results of tests made in the N.A.C.A. tank on two models of flying-boat hulls to determine the effect of ventilating the step are given graphically. The step of N.A.C.A. model 11-C was ventilated in several different ways and it was found that the resistance of the normal form is not appreciably affected by artificial ventilation in any of the forms tried. Further tests made with the depth of the step of model 11-C reduced likewise show no appreciable effect on the resistance from ventilation of the step. Tests were made on a model of the hull of the Navy P3M-1 flying-boat hull both with and without ventilation of the step. It was found that the discontinuity which is obtained in the resistance curves of this model is eliminated by ventilating the step.

  7. Single-step genomic evaluation using multitrait random regression model and test-day data.

    PubMed

    Koivula, M; Strandén, I; Pösö, J; Aamand, G P; Mäntysaari, E A

    2015-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the feasibility of use of the test-day (TD) single-step genomic BLUP (ssGBLUP) using phenotypic records of Nordic Red Dairy cows. The critical point in ssGBLUP is how genomically derived relationships (G) are integrated with population-based pedigree relationships (A) into a combined relationship matrix (H). Therefore, we also tested how different weights for genomic and pedigree relationships affect ssGBLUP, validation reliability, and validation regression coefficients. Deregressed proofs for 305-d milk, protein, and fat yields were used for a posteriori validation. The results showed that the use of phenotypic TD records in ssGBLUP is feasible. Moreover, the TD ssGBLUP model gave considerably higher validation reliabilities and validation regression coefficients than the TD model without genomic information. No significant differences were found in validation reliability between the different TD ssGBLUP models according to bootstrap confidence intervals. However, the degree of inflation in genomic enhanced breeding values is affected by the method used in construction of the H matrix. The results showed that ssGBLUP provides a good alternative to the currently used multi-step approach but there is a great need to find the best option to combine pedigree and genomic information in the genomic matrix. PMID:25660739

  8. 49 CFR 40.223 - What steps must be taken to protect the security of alcohol testing sites?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of alcohol testing sites? 40.223 Section 40.223 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Testing Sites, Forms, Equipment and Supplies Used in Alcohol Testing § 40.223 What steps must be taken to protect the security...

  9. Evaluating the fall risk among elderly population by choice step reaction test.

    PubMed

    Wang, Donghai; Zhang, Jian; Sun, Yuliang; Zhu, Wenfei; Tian, Shiliu; Liu, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Falls during daily activities are often associated with injuries and physical disabilities, thereby affecting quality of life among elder adults. Balance control, which is crucial in avoiding falls, is composed of two elements: muscle strength and central nervous system (CNS) control. A number of studies have reported that reduced muscle strength raises the risk of falling. However, to date there has been only limited research focused on the relationship between fall risk and the CNS. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between CNS and risk of falling among the elderly. A total of 140 elderly people (92 females and 48 males) were divided into faller and nonfaller groups based on questionnaire responses concerning falls in their daily life. Participants undertook a choice step reaction test in which they were required to respond to random visual stimuli using foot movements as fast as possible in the left or right directions. Response time was quantified as premotor time (PMT) and motor time (MT). In addition, the participants' electro-myography data were recorded during the choice step reaction test. A maximal isokinetic torque test was also performed. PMT was greater in the fallers than in the nonfallers group. There was a significant difference between fall status and direction on PMT. PMT of the left limb in nonfallers was faster than the right, but in fallers there was no difference between left and right limbs. A similar phenomenon was also observed for MT. There were significant differences between fallers and nonfallers in maximum isokinetic torque at knee and ankle joints. The correct rate of PMT was higher than other variables, such as MT and maximal isokinetic torque, in evaluating elderly fall risk by using logistic regression analyses. The results suggest that PMT in the choice step reaction test could be a useful parameter to assess risk of fall among elder adults. In addition, decreased maximal isokinetic torque was related to greater PMT

  10. Evaluating the fall risk among elderly population by choice step reaction test

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Donghai; Zhang, Jian; Sun, Yuliang; Zhu, Wenfei; Tian, Shiliu; Liu, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Falls during daily activities are often associated with injuries and physical disabilities, thereby affecting quality of life among elder adults. Balance control, which is crucial in avoiding falls, is composed of two elements: muscle strength and central nervous system (CNS) control. A number of studies have reported that reduced muscle strength raises the risk of falling. However, to date there has been only limited research focused on the relationship between fall risk and the CNS. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between CNS and risk of falling among the elderly. A total of 140 elderly people (92 females and 48 males) were divided into faller and nonfaller groups based on questionnaire responses concerning falls in their daily life. Participants undertook a choice step reaction test in which they were required to respond to random visual stimuli using foot movements as fast as possible in the left or right directions. Response time was quantified as premotor time (PMT) and motor time (MT). In addition, the participants’ electro-myography data were recorded during the choice step reaction test. A maximal isokinetic torque test was also performed. PMT was greater in the fallers than in the nonfallers group. There was a significant difference between fall status and direction on PMT. PMT of the left limb in nonfallers was faster than the right, but in fallers there was no difference between left and right limbs. A similar phenomenon was also observed for MT. There were significant differences between fallers and nonfallers in maximum isokinetic torque at knee and ankle joints. The correct rate of PMT was higher than other variables, such as MT and maximal isokinetic torque, in evaluating elderly fall risk by using logistic regression analyses. The results suggest that PMT in the choice step reaction test could be a useful parameter to assess risk of fall among elder adults. In addition, decreased maximal isokinetic torque was related to greater

  11. A novel test of planning ability: great apes can plan step-by-step but not in advance of action.

    PubMed

    Tecwyn, Emma C; Thorpe, Susannah K S; Chappell, Jackie

    2013-11-01

    The ability to identify an appropriate sequence of actions or to consider alternative possible action sequences might be particularly useful during problem solving in the physical domain. We developed a new 'paddle-box' task to test the ability of different ape species to plan an appropriate sequence of physical actions (rotating paddles) to retrieve a reward from a goal location. The task had an adjustable difficulty level and was not dependent on species-specific behaviours (e.g. complex tool use). We investigated the planning abilities of captive orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) and bonobos (Pan paniscus) using the paddle-box. In experiment 1, subjects had to rotate one or two paddles before rotating the paddle with the reward on. Subjects of both species performed poorly, though orangutans rotated more non-food paddles, which may be related to their greater exploratory tendencies and bolder temperament compared with bonobos. In experiment 2 subjects could always rotate the paddle with the reward on first and still succeed, and most subjects of both species performed appropriate sequences of up to three paddle rotations to retrieve the reward. Poor performance in experiment 1 may have been related to subjects' difficulty in inhibiting the prepotent response to act on the reward immediately. PMID:24153327

  12. Lifetime Prediction for Degradation of Solar Mirrors using Step-Stress Accelerated Testing (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.; Elmore, R.; Kennedy, C.; Gray, M.; Jones, W.

    2011-09-01

    This research is to illustrate the use of statistical inference techniques in order to quantify the uncertainty surrounding reliability estimates in a step-stress accelerated degradation testing (SSADT) scenario. SSADT can be used when a researcher is faced with a resource-constrained environment, e.g., limits on chamber time or on the number of units to test. We apply the SSADT methodology to a degradation experiment involving concentrated solar power (CSP) mirrors and compare the results to a more traditional multiple accelerated testing paradigm. Specifically, our work includes: (1) designing a durability testing plan for solar mirrors (3M's new improved silvered acrylic "Solar Reflector Film (SFM) 1100") through the ultra-accelerated weathering system (UAWS), (2) defining degradation paths of optical performance based on the SSADT model which is accelerated by high UV-radiant exposure, and (3) developing service lifetime prediction models for solar mirrors using advanced statistical inference. We use the method of least squares to estimate the model parameters and this serves as the basis for the statistical inference in SSADT. Several quantities of interest can be estimated from this procedure, e.g., mean-time-to-failure (MTTF) and warranty time. The methods allow for the estimation of quantities that may be of interest to the domain scientists.

  13. From Laboratory to the Field: Intermediate Scale Testing, a Necessary Step.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illangasekare, T. H.

    2005-05-01

    Fundamental processes associated with water flow and transport and fate of chemicals, both dissolved and in separate phase, that occur at the microscopic pore scale will affect the large-scale evolution of chemical plumes in the subsurface. However, the ultimate transport and fate that define the spatial and time distribution of plume concentrations are significantly dependent on both the physical and chemical heterogeneity of subsurface formations. In attempting to understand, study and model the field behavior, the question always arises on how to transfer the pore-scale or the representative elementary volume scale observations and characterization data to the large field scales, incorporating the information on multi-dimensional flow fields and heterogeneity. In most cases, field systems are difficult to study due to their inherent complexity, inadequacy of characterization data, expense, and infeasibility in conducting controlled experiments. The author will make an argument that controlled experiments conducted in intermediate-scale laboratory test tanks even though difficult, is a necessary step in up-scaling the information from the laboratory to the field in studying a class of complex subsurface problems. Intermediate scale tank testing offers many advantages over complex and generally expensive field-testing. Testing conducted in two and there-dimensional test tanks in laboratory settings provides for better control, accurate characterization and higher precision achievable in data collection. The art and science of designing successful intermediate scale experiment require in-depth understanding of fundamentals, good engineering, understanding of capabilities and limitations of modeling tools, careful planning and patience. The author will share the knowledge gained and lessons learned from more than twenty years of experience in conducting such experiments involving water flow, solute transport, non-aqueous phase liquid behavior, site characterization

  14. Analysis/test correlation using VAWT-SDS on a step-relaxation test for the rotating Sandia 34 m test bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argueello, J. G.; Dohrmann, C. R.; Carne, T. G.; Veers, P. S.

    The combined analysis/test effort described compares predictions with measured data from a step-relaxation test in the absence of significant wind-driven aerodynamic loading. The process described is intended to illustrate a method for validation of time domain codes for structural analysis of wind turbine structures. Preliminary analyses were performed to investigate the transient dynamic response that the rotating Sandia 34 m Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) would undergo when one of the two blades was excited by step-relaxation. The calculations served two purposes. The first was for pretest planning to evaluate the relative importance of the various forces that would be acting on the structure during the test and to determine if the applied force in the step-relaxation would be sufficient to produce an excitation that was distinguishable from that produced by the aerodynamic loads. The second was to provide predictions that could subsequently be compared to the data from the test. The test was carried out specifically to help in the validation of the time-domain structural dynamics code, VAWT-SDS, which predicts the dynamic response of VAWT's subject to transient events. Post-test comparisons with the data were performed and showed a qualitative agreement between pretest predictions and measured response. However, they also showed that there was significantly more damping in the measurements than included in the predictions. Efforts to resolve this difference, including post-test analyses, were undertaken and are reported. The overall effort described represents a major step in the process of arriving at a validated structural dynamics code.

  15. Analysis/test correlation using VAWT-SDS on a step-relaxation test for the rotating Sandia 34 m test bed

    SciTech Connect

    Argueello, J.G.; Dohrmann, C.R.; Carne, T.G.; Veers, P.S.

    1993-11-01

    The combined analysis/test effort described in this paper compares predictions with measured data from a step-relaxation test in the absence of significant wind-driven aerodynamic loading. The process described here is intended to illustrate a method for validation of time domain codes for structural analysis of wind turbine structures. Preliminary analyses were performed to investigate the transient dynamic response that the rotating Sandia 34 m Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) would undergo when one of the two blades was excited by step-relaxation. The calculations served two purposes. The first was for pretest planning to evaluate the relative importance of the various forces that would be acting on the structure during the test and to determine if the applied force in the step-relaxation would be sufficient to produce an excitation that was distinguishable from that produced by the aerodynamic loads. The second was to provide predictions that could subsequently be compared to the data from the test. The test was carried out specifically to help in the validation of the time-domain structural dynamics code, VAWT-SDS, which predicts the dynamic response of VAWTs subject to transient events. Post-test comparisons with the data were performed and showed a qualitative agreement between pretest predictions and measured response. However, they also showed that there was significantly more damping in the measurements than included in the predictions. Efforts to resolve this difference, including post-test analyses, were undertaken and are reported herein. The overall effort described in this paper represents a major step in the process of arriving at a validated structural dynamics code.

  16. Testing the model of oblique transpression with oblique extrusion in two natural cases: Steps and consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, Carlos; Czeck, Dyanna M.; Díaz-Azpiroz, Manuel

    2013-09-01

    Kinematic models of various types of transpression have been used to explain fabric features and strain in many natural deformation studies. Here, a mathematical model that encompasses all monoclinic and triclinic transpressional deformations including triclinic deformation with inclined simple shear (ϕ) and/or inclined extrusion orientations (υ) can be tested using a step-by-step approach with available field evidence. Two cases are presented. The first case from the Wabigoon-Quetico boundary in the Archean Superior Province utilizes both fabric orientation and quantified strain data. The best fit of the field evidence to the model indicates that deformation likely took place along subvertical shear zones via transpression with subhorizontal simple shear (ϕ = 0-20°) and variable inclined extrusion direction (extrusion can be either east or west and υ typically indicates extrusion orientations between 0 and 50° from vertical). The second case of the South Iberian shear zone has fabric orientation data, but no quantifiable strain possibilities. The best fit of the field evidence to the model indicates that deformation likely took place along a moderately inclined shear zone via transpression with subhorizontal simple shear (ϕ = 0-20°) and variable inclined extrusion direction (υ values between 0° and 80° from the true dip of the shear zone). Using this protocol in other examples of natural deformation will allow further constraints to be applied to kinematic models.

  17. Application of step-drawdown test for planning agricultural groundwater well maintenance in S. Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Sung-Ho; Lee, Byung-Sun

    2015-04-01

    Well efficiency decreases with time after development and the pumping rate is reduced sharply at a certain point. However, the rapid decrease of the efficiency definitely depends upon the physical characteristics of the aquifer, chemical properties of groundwater, pore clogging by adsorptive/precipitable materials, and use of groundwater well. In general, it is expected that an adequate and ongoing maintenance for the well is effective in extension of operating periods because major maintenance frequency requirement at municipal wells placed in the crystalline rock aquifer is known to be relatively longer. The proportion of agricultural wells (583,748) against the total groundwater ones (1,380,715) is 42.3% in 2011, S. Korea. Groundwater use accounts for 1.9 billion m3/year which indicates 48.9% of total amount available groundwater resources. Approximate 69% of the total agricultural public wells placed in crystalline rock aquifer have passed more than 10 years after development. In this study, the increase of well efficiency before and after the well disinfection/cleaning for agricultural groundwater wells in the mountains, plains, and coastal aquifer with the data of step-drawdown test was evaluated, respectively. With the concept of critical yield, the increase of available amount of groundwater was quantitatively analyzed after treatment. From the results, well efficiency increased approximately 1.5 to 4 times depending on pumping rate when the proper disinfection/cleaning methods to the wells were applied. In addition, it showed that the pumping rate of approximate 4-8% with the critical yield from step-drawdown test increased and these effects were the highest in wells which are more than 10 years elapsed. Therefore, it would be concluded that the well disinfection/cleaning methods for the purpose of increasing the efficiency are more effective for the wells that are older than 10 years.

  18. Validation Testing of the Nitric Acid Dissolution Step Within the K Basin Sludge Pretreatment Process

    SciTech Connect

    AJ Schmidt; CH Delegard; KL Silvers; PR Bredt; CD Carlson; EW Hoppe; JC Hayes; DE Rinehart; SR Gano; BM Thornton

    1999-03-24

    The work described in this report involved comprehensive bench-scale testing of nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) dissolution of actual sludge materials from the Hanford K East (KE) Basin to confirm the baseline chemical pretreatment process. In addition, process monitoring and material balance information was collected to support the development and refinement of process flow diagrams. The testing was performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)for the US Department of Energy's Office of Spent Fuel Stabilization (EM-67) and Numatec Hanford Corporation (NHC) to assist in the development of the K Basin Sludge Pretreatment Process. The baseline chemical pretreatment process for K Basin sludge is nitric acid dissolution of all particulate material passing a 1/4-in. screen. The acid-insoluble fraction (residual solids) will be stabilized (possibly by chemical leaching/rinsing and grouting), packaged, and transferred to the Hanford Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). The liquid fraction is to be diluted with depleted uranium for uranium criticality safety and iron nitrate for plutonium criticality safety, and neutralized with sodium hydroxide. The liquid fraction and associated precipitates are to be stored in the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) pending vitrification. It is expected that most of the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), associated with some K Basin sludges, will remain with the residual solids for ultimate disposal to ERDF. Filtration and precipitation during the neutralization step will further remove trace quantities of PCBs within the liquid fraction. The purpose of the work discussed in this report was to examine the dissolution behavior of actual KE Basin sludge materials at baseline flowsheet conditions and validate the.dissolution process step through bench-scale testing. The progress of the dissolution was evaluated by measuring the solution electrical conductivity and concentrations of key species in the dissolver

  19. Annual progress report on the development of a 2 MW/10 second battery energy storage system for power disturbance protection

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-29

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), acting for the US Department of Energy (DOE), contracts for and administers programs for the purpose of promoting the development and commercialization of large scale, transportable battery energy storage systems. Under DOE Co-Op Agreement No. DE-FC04-94AL99852, SNL has contracted for the development and delivery of an initial prototype 250 kW bridge that becomes an integral subsystem of a 2 MW/10 Second System that can be used by utility customers to protect power sensitive equipment from power disturbances. Development work includes field installation and testing of the prototype unit at a participating utility site for extended product testing with subsequent relocation to an industrial or commercial participating utility customer site for additional evaluation. The program described by the referenced document calls for cost sharing with the successful bidder and eventual title transfer to the participating utility. Prototype delivery is scheduled for January of 1996, with a period of two years allowed for field testing. A final report summarizing the test data with conclusions and recommendations is part of the contract.

  20. Safety, Feasibility, and Reliability of the Maximal Step Length, Gait Speed, and Chair Test Measured by Seniors Themselves: The Senior Step Study.

    PubMed

    Bongers, Kim T; Schoon, Yvonne; Graauwmans, Maartje J; Hoogsteen-Ossewaarde, Marlies E; Olde Rikkert, Marcel G M

    2015-07-01

    Self-management of mobility and fall risk might be possible if older adults could use a simple and safe self-test to measure their own mobility, balance, and fall risk at home. The aim of this study was to determine the safety, feasibility, and intraindividual reliability of the maximal step length (MSL), gait speed (GS), and chair test (CT) as potential self-tests for assessing mobility and fall risk. Fifty-six community-dwelling older adults performed MSL, GS, and CT at home once a week during a four-week period, wherein the feasibility, test-retest reliability, coefficients of variation, and linear mixed models with random effects of these three self-tests were determined. Forty-nine subjects (mean age 76.1 years [SD: 4.0], 19 females [42%]) completed the study without adverse effects. Compared with the other self-tests, MSL gave the most often (77.6%) valid measurement results and had the best intraclass correlation coefficients (0.95 [95% confidence interval: 0.91-0.97]). MSL and GS gave no significant training effect, whereas CT did show a significant training effect (p < .01). Community-dwelling older adults can perform MSL safely, correctly, and reliably, and GS safely and reliably. Further research is needed to study the responsiveness and beneficial effects of these self-tests on self-management of mobility and fall risk. PMID:25342646

  1. Laboratory and accelerator test of the charge particle detectors for a satellite instrument "STEP-F"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudnik, O. V.; Goka, T.; Matsumoto, H.; Fujii, M.; Golovash, O. S.; Malykhina, T. V.

    2003-04-01

    The spectrometer-telescope "STEP-F" is aimed for the registration of high-energy charged particle fluxes in the near Earth space. It is planned to install the instrument on board of Russian spacecraft "Coronas-Photon" to study solar cosmic rays and dynamics of the Earth' radiation belts. Its detector system consists of two position-sensitive silicon matrices to determine the direction of the primary particles and two layers of the scintillation detectors that serve for the energy determining of these particles. First laboratory tests of detectors were made with the help of various radioactive sources and imitating signals. Radiophysical characteristics as well as temperature dependence of the energy resolution for silicon matrix element and CsI(Tl) scintillation detector are presented. In order to check the reaction extent of the detectors in high energy range the tests was carried out on the ion cyclotron accelerator of the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN, Japan). We have used a-particle and hydrogen ion H2 beams to determine the response level and real energy range of particles registered by each layer of detectors. Simultaneously a computer simulation of deposited energies and stopping ranges for electrons, protons and alpha-particles has been done. The simulation by Monte Carlo method is made using the Cern GEANT4.2 Code under OS LINUX6.2. The experimental data obtained is in well agreement with results of Monte-Carlo simulation. It has been found, both experimentally and by simulation, that the signals coming from neighboring elements of the position-sensitive silicon matrix are not affected by secondary particles. In particular, the number of albedo secondary particles generated in the scintillator is rather small as compared to the primary particles, so that secondaries do not significantly contribute to the total intensity of recorded primary particles.

  2. The Screening Test for Emotional Problems--Teacher-Report Version (Step-T): Studies of Reliability and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erford, Bradley T.; Butler, Caitlin; Peacock, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The Screening Test for Emotional Problems-Teacher Version (STEP-T) was designed to identify students aged 7-17 years with wide-ranging emotional disturbances. Coefficients alpha and test-retest reliability were adequate for all subscales except Anxiety. The hypothesized five-factor model fit the data very well and external aspects of validity were…

  3. Step Process for Selecting and Testing Surrogates and Indicators of Afrotemperate Forest Invertebrate Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Uys, Charmaine; Hamer, Michelle; Slotow, Rob

    2010-01-01

    Background The diversity and complexity of invertebrate communities usually result in their exclusion from conservation activities. Here we provide a step process for assessing predominantly ground-dwelling Afrotemperate forest invertebrates' (earthworms, centipedes, millipedes, ants, molluscs) potential as surrogates for conservation and indicators for monitoring. We also evaluated sampling methods (soil and litter samples, pitfall traps, active searching quadrats and tree beating) and temporal (seasonal) effects. Methodology/Principal Findings Lack of congruence of species richness across taxa indicated poor surrogacy potential for any of the focus taxa. Based on abundance and richness, seasonal stability, and ease of sampling, molluscs were the most appropriate taxon for use in monitoring of disturbance impacts. Mollusc richness was highest in March (Antipodal late summer wet season). The most effective and efficient methods were active searching quadrats and searching litter samples. We tested the effectiveness of molluscs as indicators for monitoring by contrasting species richness and community structure in burned relative to unburned forests. Both species richness and community structure changed significantly with burning. Some mollusc species (e.g. Macroptychia africana) showed marked negative responses to burning, and these species have potential for use as indicators. Conclusions/Significance Despite habitat type (i.e., Afrotemperate forest) being constant, species richness and community structure varied across forest patches. Therefore, in conservation planning, setting targets for coarse filter features (e.g., habitat type) requires fine filter features (e.g., localities for individual species). This is especially true for limited mobility taxa such as those studied here. Molluscs have high potential for indicators for monitoring, and this requires broader study. PMID:20161757

  4. The Walk on Floor Eyes Closed Tandem Step Test as a Quantitative Measure of Ataxia After Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, E. A.; Reschke, M. F.; Kofman, I. S.; Cerisano, J. M.; Lawrence, E. L.; Peters, B. T.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Harm, D. L.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Posture and locomotion are among the functions most affected by space flight. Postflight ataxia can be quantified easily by using the walk on the floor line test with the eyes closed (WOFEC). Data from a modified WOFEC were obtained as part of an ongoing interdisciplinary pre- and postflight study (Functional Task Test, FTT) designed to evaluate both postflight functional performance of astronauts and related physiological changes. METHODS Five astronauts with flight durations of 12 to 16 days participated in this study. Performance measurements were obtained in 2 preflight sessions, on landing day, and 1, 6, and 30 days after landing. The WOFEC test consisted of walking with the feet placed heel to toe in tandem, arms folded across the chest and eyes closed, for 10 steps. A trial was initiated after the eyes were closed and the front foot was aligned with the rear foot. The performance metric was the average percentage of correct steps completed over 3 trials. A step was not counted as correct if the crewmember sidestepped, opened eyes, or paused for more than 3 seconds between steps. Step accuracy was scored independently by 3 examiners. RESULTS Immediately after landing subjects seemed to be unaware of their foot position relative to their body or the floor. The percentage of correct steps was significantly decreased on landing day. Partial recovery was observed the next day, and full recovery to baseline on the sixth day post landing. CONCLUSION These data clearly demonstrate the sensorimotor challenges facing crewmembers after they return from space flight. Although this simple test is intended to complement the FTT battery of tests, it has some stand-alone value as it provides investigators with a means to quantify vestibular ataxia as well as provide instant feedback on postural stability without the use of complex test equipment.

  5. The Screening Test for Emotional Problems-Parent Report (STEP-P): Studies of Reliability and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erford, Bradley T.; Alsamadi, Silvana C.

    2012-01-01

    Score reliability and validity of parent responses concerning their 10- to 17-year-old students were analyzed using the Screening Test for Emotional Problems-Parent Report (STEP-P), which assesses a variety of emotional problems classified under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act. Score reliability, convergent, and…

  6. Development of a special-purpose test surface guided by uncertainty analysis - Introduction of a new uncertainty analysis step

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, T.; Simon, T. W.

    1988-01-01

    Development of a recent experimental program to investigate the effects of streamwise curvature on boundary layer transition required making a bendable, heated and instrumented test wall, a rather nonconventional surface. The present paper describes this surface, the design choices made in its development and how uncertainty analysis was used, beginning early in the test program, to make such design choices. Published uncertainty analysis techniques were found to be of great value; but, it became clear that another step, one herein called the pre-test analysis, would aid the program development. Finally, it is shown how the uncertainty analysis was used to determine whether the test surface was qualified for service.

  7. Evaluation by step response tests of prototype relief valves designed for YF-12 inlet stability bleed system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dustin, M. O.; Neiner, G. H.

    1975-01-01

    Two stability bleed system relief valves were tested in a special dynamic test facility. These poppet valves are prototypes for a stability bleed system designed for use in a YF-12 flight inlet. One valve is unshielded, while the other has a special shield to eliminate the flow effect pressures on the piston. The tests determined the size of a damping orifice to be used during wind tunnel tests of the bleed system and verified an analog simulation of the valves. The effects of initial pressure level, pressure step size, and spring rate were investigated.

  8. 49 CFR 40.241 - What are the first steps in any alcohol screening test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... greatest extent practicable, ensure that the alcohol test is completed before the urine collection process... test? 40.241 Section 40.241 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Alcohol Screening Tests § 40.241 What are the...

  9. 49 CFR 40.241 - What are the first steps in any alcohol screening test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... greatest extent practicable, ensure that the alcohol test is completed before the urine collection process... test? 40.241 Section 40.241 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Alcohol Screening Tests § 40.241 What are the...

  10. 49 CFR 40.241 - What are the first steps in any alcohol screening test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... greatest extent practicable, ensure that the alcohol test is completed before the urine collection process... test? 40.241 Section 40.241 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Alcohol Screening Tests § 40.241 What are the...

  11. 49 CFR 40.241 - What are the first steps in any alcohol screening test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... greatest extent practicable, ensure that the alcohol test is completed before the urine collection process... test? 40.241 Section 40.241 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Alcohol Screening Tests § 40.241 What are the...

  12. Systematic Pilot Testing as a Step in the Instructional Design Process of Corporate Training and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Bethany S.; Branch, Robert Maribe

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of pilot testing instructional materials focuses on a survey that determined the extent to which pilot tests are conducted in identified corporate training environments and ascertains reasons pilot tests were not implemented. Considers factors that influence the decision to pilot test products and suggest further research. (Author/LRW)

  13. Effective detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile by a two-step algorithm including tests for antigen and cytotoxin.

    PubMed

    Ticehurst, John R; Aird, Deborah Z; Dam, Lisa M; Borek, Anita P; Hargrove, John T; Carroll, Karen C

    2006-03-01

    We evaluated a two-step algorithm for detecting toxigenic Clostridium difficile: an enzyme immunoassay for glutamate dehydrogenase antigen (Ag-EIA) and then, for antigen-positive specimens, a concurrent cell culture cytotoxicity neutralization assay (CCNA). Antigen-negative results were > or = 99% predictive of CCNA negativity. Because the Ag-EIA reduced cell culture workload by approximately 75 to 80% and two-step testing was complete in < or = 3 days, we decided that this algorithm would be effective. Over 6 months, our laboratories' expenses were US dollar 143,000 less than if CCNA alone had been performed on all 5,887 specimens. PMID:16517916

  14. A step-by-step guide to the systematic review and meta-analysis of diagnostic and prognostic test accuracy evaluations.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z; Yao, Z; Li, C; Liu, X; Chen, H; Gao, C

    2013-06-11

    In evidence-based medicine (EBM), systematic reviews and meta-analyses have been widely applied in biological and medical research. Moreover, the most popular application of meta-analyses in this field may be to examine diagnostic (sensitivity and specificity) and prognostic (hazard ratio (HR) and its variance, standard error (SE) or confidence interval (CI)) test accuracy. However, conducting such analyses requires not only a great deal of time but also an advanced professional knowledge of mathematics, statistics and computer science. Regarding the practical application of meta-analyses for diagnostic and prognostic markers, the majority of users are clinicians and biologists, most of whom are not skilled at mathematics and computer science in particular. Hence, it is necessary for these users to have a simplified version of a protocol to help them to quickly conduct meta-analyses of the accuracy of diagnostic and prognostic tests. The aim of this paper is to enable individuals who have never performed a meta-analysis to do so from scratch. The paper does not attempt to serve as a comprehensive theoretical guide but instead describes one rigorous way of conducting a meta-analysis for diagnostic and prognostic markers. Investigators who follow the outlined methods should be able to understand the basic ideas behind the steps taken, the meaning of the meta-analysis results obtained for diagnostic and prognostic markers and the scope of questions that can be answered with Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (SRMA). The presented protocols have been successfully tested by clinicians without meta-analysis experience. PMID:23695015

  15. Revision of OECD Guidelines for Genotoxicity Testing: Current Status and Next Steps

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the past 30 years, assays have been developed to evaluate chemical genotoxicity. OECD Genotoxicity Test Guidelines (TG) describe assay procedures for regulatory safety testing. Since the last OECD TG revision (1997), there has been tremendous scientific and technological pro...

  16. The 5-Step Way to Raise Test Scores: Using the Data to Drive Your Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East, Pam C.

    2005-01-01

    Many teachers look at standardized tests as something to be dreaded. This author and teacher looks at standardized-test scores and sees a tool to bring students learning to new heights. This is a way for teachers to target instruction exactly where it's needed. A way to get students looking forward to end-of-the-year tests (really!) as a way to…

  17. Steps toward More Effective Implementation of the "Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koretz, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    The goal of the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing is to improve testing practices, but their impact on practice appears spotty. Self-regulation clearly fails in some instances. The establishment of an external agency to oversee testing practices and adherence to the Standards would face substantial hurdles, and the ambiguity of…

  18. Multi-step deformations - a stringent test for constitutive models for polymer glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedev, Grigori; Caruthers, James

    A number of constitutive models have been proposed to describe mechanical behavior of polymer glasses, where the focus has been on the stress-strain curve observed in a constant strain rate deformation. The stress-strain curve possesses several prominent features, including yield, post-yield softening, flow, and hardening, which have proven challenging to predict. As a result, both viscoplastic and nonlinear viscoelastic constitutive models have become quite intricate, where a new mechanism is invoked for each bend of the stress-strain curve. We demonstrate on several examples that when the models are used to describe the multi-step deformations vs. the more common single strain rate deformation, they produce responses that are qualitatively incorrect, revealing the existing models to be parameterizations of a single-step curve. A recently developed stochastic constitutive model has fewer problems than the traditional viscoelastic/viscoplastic models, but it also has difficulties. The implications for the mechanics and physics of glassy polymers will be discussed.

  19. A novel two-step laser ranging technique for a precision test of the theory of gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penanen, Konstantin; Chui, Talso

    2003-01-01

    All powered spacecraft experience residual systematic acceleration due to anisotropy of the thermal radiation pressure and fuel leakage. The residual acceleration limits the accuracy of any test of gravity that relies on the precise determination of the spacecraft trajectory. We describe a novel two-step laser ranging technique, which largely eliminates the effects of non-gravity acceleration sources and enables celestial mechanics checks with unprecedented precision.

  20. Computers and Testing: Steps Toward the Inevitable Conquest. Professional Series 76-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Civil Service Commission, Washington, DC. Personnel Research and Development Center.

    This pamphlet reprints three papers and an invited discussion of them, read at a Division 5 Symposium at the 1975 American Psychological Association Convention. The first paper describes a Bayesian tailored testing process and shows how it demonstrates the importance of using test items with high discrimination, low guessing probability, and a…

  1. Cardiorespiratory endurance evaluation using heart rate analysis during ski simulator exercise and the Harvard step test in elementary school students.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyo Taek; Roh, Hyo Lyun; Kim, Yoon Sang

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Efficient management using exercise programs with various benefits should be provided by educational institutions for children in their growth phase. We analyzed the heart rates of children during ski simulator exercise and the Harvard step test to evaluate the cardiopulmonary endurance by calculating their post-exercise recovery rate. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects (n = 77) were categorized into a normal weight and an overweight/obesity group by body mass index. They performed each exercise for 3 minutes. The cardiorespiratory endurance was calculated using the Physical Efficiency Index formula. [Results] The ski simulator and Harvard step test showed that there was a significant difference in the heart rates of the 2 body mass index-based groups at each minute. The normal weight and the ski-simulator group had higher Physical Efficiency Index levels. [Conclusion] This study showed that a simulator exercise can produce a cumulative load even when performed at low intensity, and can be effectively utilized as exercise equipment since it resulted in higher Physical Efficiency Index levels than the Harvard step test. If schools can increase sport durability by stimulating students' interests, the ski simulator exercise can be used in programs designed to improve and strengthen students' physical fitness. PMID:27065556

  2. Cardiorespiratory endurance evaluation using heart rate analysis during ski simulator exercise and the Harvard step test in elementary school students

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyo Taek; Roh, Hyo Lyun; Kim, Yoon Sang

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Efficient management using exercise programs with various benefits should be provided by educational institutions for children in their growth phase. We analyzed the heart rates of children during ski simulator exercise and the Harvard step test to evaluate the cardiopulmonary endurance by calculating their post-exercise recovery rate. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects (n = 77) were categorized into a normal weight and an overweight/obesity group by body mass index. They performed each exercise for 3 minutes. The cardiorespiratory endurance was calculated using the Physical Efficiency Index formula. [Results] The ski simulator and Harvard step test showed that there was a significant difference in the heart rates of the 2 body mass index-based groups at each minute. The normal weight and the ski-simulator group had higher Physical Efficiency Index levels. [Conclusion] This study showed that a simulator exercise can produce a cumulative load even when performed at low intensity, and can be effectively utilized as exercise equipment since it resulted in higher Physical Efficiency Index levels than the Harvard step test. If schools can increase sport durability by stimulating students’ interests, the ski simulator exercise can be used in programs designed to improve and strengthen students’ physical fitness. PMID:27065556

  3. Cavity digital control testing system by Simulink step operation method for TESLA linear accelerator and free electron laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czarski, Tomasz; Romaniuk, Ryszard S.; Pozniak, Krzysztof T.; Simrock, Stefan

    2004-07-01

    The cavity control system for the TESLA -- TeV-Energy Superconducting Linear Accelerator project is initially introduced in this paper. The FPGA -- Field Programmable Gate Array technology has been implemented for digital controller stabilizing cavity field gradient. The cavity SIMULINK model has been applied to test the hardware controller. The step operation method has been developed for testing the FPGA device coupled to the SIMULINK model of the analog real plant. The FPGA signal processing has been verified according to the required algorithm of the reference MATLAB controller. Some experimental results have been presented for different cavity operational conditions.

  4. Now Hiring! Empirically Testing a Three-Step Intervention to Increase Faculty Gender Diversity in STEM

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Jessi L.; Handley, Ian M.; Zale, Alexander V.; Rushing, Sara; Potvin, Martha A.

    2015-01-01

    Workforce homogeneity limits creativity, discovery, and job satisfaction; nonetheless, the vast majority of university faculty in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields are men. We conducted a randomized and controlled three-step faculty search intervention based in self-determination theory aimed at increasing the number of women faculty in STEM at one US university where increasing diversity had historically proved elusive. Results show that the numbers of women candidates considered for and offered tenure-track positions were significantly higher in the intervention groups compared with those in controls. Searches in the intervention were 6.3 times more likely to make an offer to a woman candidate, and women who were made an offer were 5.8 times more likely to accept the offer from an intervention search. Although the focus was on increasing women faculty within STEM, the intervention can be adapted to other scientific and academic communities to advance diversity along any dimension. PMID:26955075

  5. Step 1: Human System Integration Simulation and Flight Test Progress Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The Access 5 Human Systems Integration Work Package produced simulation and flight demonstration planning products for use throughout the program. These included: Test Objectives for Command, Control, Communications; Pilot Questionnaire for Command, Control, Communications; Air Traffic Controller Questionnaire for Command, Control, Communications; Test Objectives for Collision Avoidance; Pilot Questionnaire for Collision Avoidance; Plans for Unmanned Aircraft Systems Control Station Simulations Flight Requirements for the Airspace Operations Demonstration

  6. Yield of stool culture with isolate toxin testing versus a two-step algorithm including stool toxin testing for detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile.

    PubMed

    Reller, Megan E; Lema, Clara A; Perl, Trish M; Cai, Mian; Ross, Tracy L; Speck, Kathleen A; Carroll, Karen C

    2007-11-01

    We examined the incremental yield of stool culture (with toxin testing on isolates) versus our two-step algorithm for optimal detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile. Per the two-step algorithm, stools were screened for C. difficile-associated glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) antigen and, if positive, tested for toxin by a direct (stool) cell culture cytotoxicity neutralization assay (CCNA). In parallel, stools were cultured for C. difficile and tested for toxin by both indirect (isolate) CCNA and conventional PCR if the direct CCNA was negative. The "gold standard" for toxigenic C. difficile was detection of C. difficile by the GDH screen or by culture and toxin production by direct or indirect CCNA. We tested 439 specimens from 439 patients. GDH screening detected all culture-positive specimens. The sensitivity of the two-step algorithm was 77% (95% confidence interval [CI], 70 to 84%), and that of culture was 87% (95% CI, 80 to 92%). PCR results correlated completely with those of CCNA testing on isolates (29/29 positive and 32/32 negative, respectively). We conclude that GDH is an excellent screening test and that culture with isolate CCNA testing detects an additional 23% of toxigenic C. difficile missed by direct CCNA. Since culture is tedious and also detects nontoxigenic C. difficile, we conclude that culture is most useful (i) when the direct CCNA is negative but a high clinical suspicion of toxigenic C. difficile remains, (ii) in the evaluation of new diagnostic tests for toxigenic C. difficile (where the best reference standard is essential), and (iii) in epidemiologic studies (where the availability of an isolate allows for strain typing and antimicrobial susceptibility testing). PMID:17804652

  7. Comprehensive In Vitro Toxicity Testing of a Panel of Representative Oxide Nanomaterials: First Steps towards an Intelligent Testing Strategy.

    PubMed

    Farcal, Lucian; Torres Andón, Fernando; Di Cristo, Luisana; Rotoli, Bianca Maria; Bussolati, Ovidio; Bergamaschi, Enrico; Mech, Agnieszka; Hartmann, Nanna B; Rasmussen, Kirsten; Riego-Sintes, Juan; Ponti, Jessica; Kinsner-Ovaskainen, Agnieszka; Rossi, François; Oomen, Agnes; Bos, Peter; Chen, Rui; Bai, Ru; Chen, Chunying; Rocks, Louise; Fulton, Norma; Ross, Bryony; Hutchison, Gary; Tran, Lang; Mues, Sarah; Ossig, Rainer; Schnekenburger, Jürgen; Campagnolo, Luisa; Vecchione, Lucia; Pietroiusti, Antonio; Fadeel, Bengt

    2015-01-01

    Nanomaterials (NMs) display many unique and useful physico-chemical properties. However, reliable approaches are needed for risk assessment of NMs. The present study was performed in the FP7-MARINA project, with the objective to identify and evaluate in vitro test methods for toxicity assessment in order to facilitate the development of an intelligent testing strategy (ITS). Six representative oxide NMs provided by the EC-JRC Nanomaterials Repository were tested in nine laboratories. The in vitro toxicity of NMs was evaluated in 12 cellular models representing 6 different target organs/systems (immune system, respiratory system, gastrointestinal system, reproductive organs, kidney and embryonic tissues). The toxicity assessment was conducted using 10 different assays for cytotoxicity, embryotoxicity, epithelial integrity, cytokine secretion and oxidative stress. Thorough physico-chemical characterization was performed for all tested NMs. Commercially relevant NMs with different physico-chemical properties were selected: two TiO2 NMs with different surface chemistry - hydrophilic (NM-103) and hydrophobic (NM-104), two forms of ZnO - uncoated (NM-110) and coated with triethoxycapryl silane (NM-111) and two SiO2 NMs produced by two different manufacturing techniques - precipitated (NM-200) and pyrogenic (NM-203). Cell specific toxicity effects of all NMs were observed; macrophages were the most sensitive cell type after short-term exposures (24-72h) (ZnO>SiO2>TiO2). Longer term exposure (7 to 21 days) significantly affected the cell barrier integrity in the presence of ZnO, but not TiO2 and SiO2, while the embryonic stem cell test (EST) classified the TiO2 NMs as potentially 'weak-embryotoxic' and ZnO and SiO2 NMs as 'non-embryotoxic'. A hazard ranking could be established for the representative NMs tested (ZnO NM-110 > ZnO NM-111 > SiO2 NM-203 > SiO2 NM-200 > TiO2 NM-104 > TiO2 NM-103). This ranking was different in the case of embryonic tissues, for which TiO2

  8. Cooperative Collision Avoidance Step 1 - Technology Demonstration Flight Test Report. Revision 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trongale, Nicholas A.

    2006-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Access 5 Project Office sponsored a cooperative collision avoidance flight demonstration program for unmanned aircraft systems (UAS). This flight test was accomplished between September 21st and September 27th 2005 from the Mojave Airport, Mojave, California. The objective of these flights was to collect data for the Access 5 Cooperative Collision Avoidance (CCA) Work Package simulation effort, i.e., to gather data under select conditions to allow validation of the CCA simulation. Subsequent simulation to be verified were: Demonstrate the ability to detect cooperative traffic and provide situational awareness to the ROA pilot; Demonstrate the ability to track the detected cooperative traffic and provide position information to the ROA pilot; Demonstrate the ability to determine collision potential with detected cooperative traffic and provide notification to the ROA pilot; Demonstrate that the CCA subsystem provides information in sufficient time for the ROA pilot to initiate an evasive maneuver to avoid collision; Demonstrate an evasive maneuver that avoids collision with the threat aircraft; and lastly, Demonstrate the ability to assess the adequacy of the maneuver and determine that the collision potential has been avoided. The Scaled Composites, LLC Proteus Optionally Piloted Vehicle (OPV) was chosen as the test platform. Proteus was manned by two on-board pilots but was also capable of being controlled from an Air Vehicle Control Station (AVCS) located on the ground. For this demonstration, Proteus was equipped with cooperative collision sensors and the required hardware and software to place the data on the downlink. Prior to the flight phase, a detailed set of flight test scenarios were developed to address the flight test objectives. Two cooperative collision avoidance sensors were utilized for detecting aircraft in the evaluation: Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System-II (TCAS-II) and

  9. Relationships of Reading, MCAT, and USMLE Step 1 Test Results for Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haught, Patricia; Walls, Richard

    2004-01-01

    Students (N = 730) took the Nelson-Denny Reading Test (current forms G or H) during orientation to medical school. Stepwise regression analyses showed the Nelson-Denny Reading Vocabulary, Comprehension, and Rate were significant predictors of MCAT (taken prior to admission to medical school) verbal reasoning. Reading Vocabulary was a significant…

  10. Step Pultrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langella, A.; Carbone, R.; Durante, M.

    2012-12-01

    The pultrusion process is an efficient technology for the production of composite material profiles. Thanks to this positive feature, several studies have been carried out, either to expand the range of products made using the pultrusion technology, or improve its already high production rate. This study presents a process derived from the traditional pultrusion technology named "Step Pultrusion Process Technology" (SPPT). Using the step pultrusion process, the final section of the composite profiles is obtainable by means of a progressive cross section increasing through several resin cure stations. This progressive increasing of the composite cross section means that a higher degree of cure level can be attained at the die exit point of the last die. Mechanical test results of the manufactured pultruded samples have been used to compare both the traditional and the step pultrusion processes. Finally, there is a discussion on ways to improve the new step pultrusion process even further.

  11. Developing and Testing Twelve-Step Facilitation for Adolescents with Substance Use Disorder: Manual Development and Preliminary Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kelly, John F; Yeterian, Julie D; Cristello, Julie V; Kaminer, Yifrah; Kahler, Christopher W; Timko, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent substance use disorder treatment programs are often based on the 12-step philosophy of Alcoholics Anonymous and/or link adolescents to these free resources. Despite this, no studies have developed and rigorously tested a twelve-step facilitation (TSF) intervention for young people, leaving a significant evidence gap. This study describes the first systematic development of an outpatient adolescent TSF treatment. An integrated twelve-step facilitation (iTSF) treatment incorporated TSF, motivational enhancement therapy, and cognitive behavioral therapy elements and was developed in an iterative manner with weekly feedback provided by 36 adolescents (M age 17 years [SD = 1.4]; 52.8% white) with DSM-IV substance use disorder recruited from the community. Assessments were conducted at baseline and at three and six months. Participants completed 6 of 10 sessions on average (8 participants completed all 10). Notable treatment developments were the inclusion of "in-services" led by Marijuana Anonymous members, including parents in a portion of individual sessions to provide a rationale for TSF, and use of a Socratic therapeutic interaction style. Acceptability and feasibility of the treatment were excellent (treatment satisfaction was 4.29 [SD = 0.59] out of 5). In keeping with TSF theory, the intervention substantially increased 12-step participation, and greater participation related to greater abstinence. iTSF is a replicable manualized treatment that can be implemented and tested in outpatient settings. Given the widespread compatibility of iTSF with the current adolescent treatment, if found efficacious, iTSF could be relatively easily adopted, implemented, and sustained and could provide an evidence-based option that could undergird current practice. PMID:27429548

  12. Developing and Testing Twelve-Step Facilitation for Adolescents with Substance Use Disorder: Manual Development and Preliminary Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, John F.; Yeterian, Julie D.; Cristello, Julie V.; Kaminer, Yifrah; Kahler, Christopher W.; Timko, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent substance use disorder treatment programs are often based on the 12-step philosophy of Alcoholics Anonymous and/or link adolescents to these free resources. Despite this, no studies have developed and rigorously tested a twelve-step facilitation (TSF) intervention for young people, leaving a significant evidence gap. This study describes the first systematic development of an outpatient adolescent TSF treatment. An integrated twelve-step facilitation (iTSF) treatment incorporated TSF, motivational enhancement therapy, and cognitive behavioral therapy elements and was developed in an iterative manner with weekly feedback provided by 36 adolescents (M age 17 years [SD = 1.4]; 52.8% white) with DSM-IV substance use disorder recruited from the community. Assessments were conducted at baseline and at three and six months. Participants completed 6 of 10 sessions on average (8 participants completed all 10). Notable treatment developments were the inclusion of “in-services” led by Marijuana Anonymous members, including parents in a portion of individual sessions to provide a rationale for TSF, and use of a Socratic therapeutic interaction style. Acceptability and feasibility of the treatment were excellent (treatment satisfaction was 4.29 [SD = 0.59] out of 5). In keeping with TSF theory, the intervention substantially increased 12-step participation, and greater participation related to greater abstinence. iTSF is a replicable manualized treatment that can be implemented and tested in outpatient settings. Given the widespread compatibility of iTSF with the current adolescent treatment, if found efficacious, iTSF could be relatively easily adopted, implemented, and sustained and could provide an evidence-based option that could undergird current practice. PMID:27429548

  13. Comprehensive In Vitro Toxicity Testing of a Panel of Representative Oxide Nanomaterials: First Steps towards an Intelligent Testing Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Farcal, Lucian; Torres Andón, Fernando; Di Cristo, Luisana; Rotoli, Bianca Maria; Bussolati, Ovidio; Bergamaschi, Enrico; Mech, Agnieszka; Hartmann, Nanna B.; Rasmussen, Kirsten; Riego-Sintes, Juan; Ponti, Jessica; Kinsner-Ovaskainen, Agnieszka; Rossi, François; Oomen, Agnes; Bos, Peter; Chen, Rui; Bai, Ru; Chen, Chunying; Rocks, Louise; Fulton, Norma; Ross, Bryony; Hutchison, Gary; Tran, Lang; Mues, Sarah; Ossig, Rainer; Schnekenburger, Jürgen; Campagnolo, Luisa; Vecchione, Lucia; Pietroiusti, Antonio; Fadeel, Bengt

    2015-01-01

    Nanomaterials (NMs) display many unique and useful physico-chemical properties. However, reliable approaches are needed for risk assessment of NMs. The present study was performed in the FP7-MARINA project, with the objective to identify and evaluate in vitro test methods for toxicity assessment in order to facilitate the development of an intelligent testing strategy (ITS). Six representative oxide NMs provided by the EC-JRC Nanomaterials Repository were tested in nine laboratories. The in vitro toxicity of NMs was evaluated in 12 cellular models representing 6 different target organs/systems (immune system, respiratory system, gastrointestinal system, reproductive organs, kidney and embryonic tissues). The toxicity assessment was conducted using 10 different assays for cytotoxicity, embryotoxicity, epithelial integrity, cytokine secretion and oxidative stress. Thorough physico-chemical characterization was performed for all tested NMs. Commercially relevant NMs with different physico-chemical properties were selected: two TiO2 NMs with different surface chemistry – hydrophilic (NM-103) and hydrophobic (NM-104), two forms of ZnO – uncoated (NM-110) and coated with triethoxycapryl silane (NM-111) and two SiO2 NMs produced by two different manufacturing techniques – precipitated (NM-200) and pyrogenic (NM-203). Cell specific toxicity effects of all NMs were observed; macrophages were the most sensitive cell type after short-term exposures (24-72h) (ZnO>SiO2>TiO2). Longer term exposure (7 to 21 days) significantly affected the cell barrier integrity in the presence of ZnO, but not TiO2 and SiO2, while the embryonic stem cell test (EST) classified the TiO2 NMs as potentially ‘weak-embryotoxic’ and ZnO and SiO2 NMs as ‘non-embryotoxic’. A hazard ranking could be established for the representative NMs tested (ZnO NM-110 > ZnO NM-111 > SiO2 NM-203 > SiO2 NM-200 > TiO2 NM-104 > TiO2 NM-103). This ranking was different in the case of embryonic tissues, for

  14. Photoacoustic sensor for VOCs: first step towards a lung cancer breath test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, Marcus; Groninga, Hinrich G.; Dressler, Matthias; Harde, Hermann

    2005-08-01

    Development of new optical sensor technologies has a major impact on the progression of diagnostic methods. Specifically, the optical analysis of breath is an extraordinarily promising technique. Spectroscopic sensors for the non-invasive 13C-breath tests (the Urea Breath Test for detection of Helicobacter pylori is most prominent) are meanwhile well established. However, recent research and development go beyond gastroenterological applications. Sensitive and selective detection of certain volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a patient's breath, could enable the diagnosis of diseases that are very difficult to diagnose with contemporary techniques. For instance, an appropriate VOC biomarker for early-stage bronchial carcinoma (lung cancer) is n-butane (C4H10). We present a new optical detection scheme for VOCs that employs an especially compact and simple set-up based on photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS). This method makes use of the transformation of absorbed modulated radiation into a sound wave. Employing a wavelength-modulated distributed feedback (DFB) diode laser and taking advantage of acoustical resonances of the sample cell, we performed very sensitive and selective measurements on butane. A detection limit for butane in air in the ppb range was achieved. In subsequent research the sensitivity will be successively improved to match the requirements of the medical application. Upon optimization, our photoacoustic sensor has the potential to enable future breath tests for early-stage lung cancer diagnostics.

  15. A step towards space-station user operations - An operational test-bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biddis, G. T.; Cornett, K. G.; Frimout, D. D.; Richards, M. L.

    1992-01-01

    A joint ESA/NASA project for researching and evaluating various remote payload operations for Space Station Freedom, using the ATLAS-1 Solar Constant (SOLCON) experiment as a representative payload and the MSFC Payload Operations Center (POCC) command and telemetry system as the base operations system, is described. A basic remote-user-center capability is to be implemented within the Columbus Crew Workstation facility at ESTEC in Noordwijk (NL), to demonstrate the ability to monitor real-time payload operations remotely and allow some command and control functions through the MSFC POCC. After the test-bed system is demonstrated for SOLCON, it is proposed to improve the capability and make it a standard service for Spacelab operations. This paper discusses POCC telemetry, command, and operations issues, NASA communications issues, SOLCON experiment-specific issues, NASA/ESA procedural issues, and system verification issues relating to the project.

  16. A three-step test of phosphate sorption efficiency of potential agricultural drainage filter materials.

    PubMed

    Lyngsie, G; Borggaard, O K; Hansen, H C B

    2014-03-15

    Phosphorus (P) eutrophication of lakes and streams, coming from drained farmlands, is a serious problem in areas with intensive agriculture. Installation of P sorbing filters at drain outlets may be a solution. Efficient sorbents to be used for such filters must possess high P bonding affinity to retain ortho-phosphate (Pi) at low concentrations. In addition high P sorption capacity, fast bonding and low desorption is necessary. In this study five potential filter materials (Filtralite-P(®), limestone, calcinated diatomaceous earth, shell-sand and iron-oxide based CFH) in four particle size intervals were investigated under field relevant P concentrations (0-161 μM) and retentions times of 0-24 min. Of the five materials examined, the results from P sorption and desorption studies clearly demonstrate that the iron based CFH is superior as a filter material compared to calcium based materials when tested against criteria for sorption affinity, capacity and stability. The finest CFH and Filtralite-P(®) fractions (0.05-0.5 mm) were best with P retention of ≥90% of Pi from an initial concentration of 161 μM corresponding to 14.5 mmol/kg sorbed within 24 min. They were further capable to retain ≥90% of Pi from an initially 16 μM solution within 1½ min. However, only the finest CFH fraction was also able to retain ≥90% of Pi sorbed from the 16 μM solution against 4 times desorption sequences with 6 mM KNO3. Among the materials investigated, the finest CFH fraction is therefore the only suitable filter material, when very fast and strong bonding of high Pi concentrations is needed, e.g. in drains under P rich soils during extreme weather conditions. PMID:24275107

  17. Report on errors in pretransfusion testing from a tertiary care center: A step toward transfusion safety

    PubMed Central

    Sidhu, Meena; Meenia, Renu; Akhter, Naveen; Sawhney, Vijay; Irm, Yasmeen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Errors in the process of pretransfusion testing for blood transfusion can occur at any stage from collection of the sample to administration of the blood component. The present study was conducted to analyze the errors that threaten patients’ transfusion safety and actual harm/serious adverse events that occurred to the patients due to these errors. Materials and Methods: The prospective study was conducted in the Department Of Transfusion Medicine, Shri Maharaja Gulab Singh Hospital, Government Medical College, Jammu, India from January 2014 to December 2014 for a period of 1 year. Errors were defined as any deviation from established policies and standard operating procedures. A near-miss event was defined as those errors, which did not reach the patient. Location and time of occurrence of the events/errors were also noted. Results: A total of 32,672 requisitions for the transfusion of blood and blood components were received for typing and cross-matching. Out of these, 26,683 products were issued to the various clinical departments. A total of 2,229 errors were detected over a period of 1 year. Near-miss events constituted 53% of the errors and actual harmful events due to errors occurred in 0.26% of the patients. Sample labeling errors were 2.4%, inappropriate request for blood components 2%, and information on requisition forms not matching with that on the sample 1.5% of all the requisitions received were the most frequent errors in clinical services. In transfusion services, the most common event was accepting sample in error with the frequency of 0.5% of all requisitions. ABO incompatible hemolytic reactions were the most frequent harmful event with the frequency of 2.2/10,000 transfusions. Conclusion: Sample labeling, inappropriate request, and sample received in error were the most frequent high-risk errors. PMID:27011670

  18. The 2-Minute Step Test is Independently Associated with Cognitive Function in Older Adults with Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Alosco, Michael L.; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Raz, Naftali; Cohen, Ronald; Sweet, Lawrence H.; Colbert, Lisa H.; Josephson, Richard; Waechter, Donna; Hughes, Joel; Rosneck, Jim; Gunstad, John

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Cognitive impairment is common in persons with heart failure (HF), and measures like the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) are known to correspond to level of impairment. The 2-minute step test (2MST) has been suggested as a more practical alternative to the 6MWT, though no study has examined whether it is associated with cognitive impairment in persons with HF. This study examined whether the 2MST is associated with cognitive function in older adults with HF. Methods Older adults with HF (N = 145; 68.97±9.31 years) completed the 2MST and a neuropsychological test battery that assessed function in multiple cognitive domains. Results Consistent with past work, HF patients exhibited high rates of cognitive impairment. Hierarchical regression analyses adjusting for demographic and medical characteistics found that the 2MST accounted for unique variance in global cognitive function (ΔR2 = .09, p < .001), executive function (ΔR2 = .03, p < .05), and language (ΔR2 = .10, p < .001). A trend emerged for attention (ΔR2 = .02, p = .09), Follow-up tests indicated that better 2MST performance was significantly correlated with better global, attention, executive, and language test performance. Conclusion The current results indicate that the 2MST is associated with cognitive function in older adults with HF. Further work is needed to clarify underlying mechanisms for this association and the value of implementing the 2MST during routine visits. PMID:22182711

  19. New steps in testing the Tidal Downsizing hypothesis for planet formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayakshin, S.

    2013-09-01

    Broadly speaking, there are two opposite views on how planet formation proceeds. The first of these is the Core Accretion (CA), a well established theory in which assembly of all planets occurs in the bottom-up direction. The second one is a modified gravitational disc in- stability model, which originally was thought to form only giant gaseous planets at large distances from the tar (e.g., Rafikov 2005). Now it emerges that migrating gaseous clumps may form not only giant planets but also terrestrial-like planets if dust sediments into the cores and the clumps' gas is removed by tidal disruption (Boley et al 2010, Nayakshin 2010; also reviewed in the upcoming PPVI by Helled et al 2013). This top-down scenario is referred to as "Tidal Downsizing" (TD) hypothesis. While TD hypothesis may potentially explain all of planet populations at any separation from the parent star (as planets migrate from 100 AU all the way to their disruption at ˜0.1 AU; Nayakshin and Lodato 2012), this scenario is currently in the embryonic state and needs further detailed calculations. Here we present several new calculations aimed at testing the theory with observations of exoplanets and young accreting stars possibly in the process of planet formation. (1) Nayakshin (2011) proposed that young massive "hot jupiters" may actually be tidally disrupted by the gravity of their parent stars if they migrate inward too quickly. If a significant fraction of dust grains managed to sediment into the centres of these gas clumps before they are disrupted, the solid cores are left behind as hot super-Earths and "hot neptunes". The discplanet interaction before and during planet disruption was modelled in detail by Nayakshin and Lodato (2012), who showed that the process of tidal disruption produces FU-Ori like accretion events onto the parent star. This model thus may account for both the hot planets observed and episodic accretion of young stars (Dunham and Vorobyov 2012). Another crucial prediction

  20. Nanoporous silica nanoparticles as biomaterials: evaluation of different strategies for the functionalization with polysialic acid by step-by-step cytocompatibility testing.

    PubMed

    Williams, Sina; Neumann, Anne; Bremer, Imke; Su, Yi; Dräger, Gerald; Kasper, Cornelia; Behrens, Peter

    2015-03-01

    Nanoporous silica materials have become a prominent novel class of biomaterials which are typically applied as nanoparticles or thin films. Their large surface area combined with the rich surface chemistry of amorphous silica affords the possibility to equip this material with variable functionalities, also with several different ones on the same particle or coating. Although many studies have shown that nanoporous silica is apparently non-toxic and basically biocompatible, any surface modification may change the surface properties considerably and, therefore, the modified materials should be checked for their biocompatibility at every step. Here we report on different silane-based functionalization strategies, firstly a conventional succinic anhydride-based linker system and, secondly, copper-catalyzed click chemistry, to bind polysialic acid, a polysaccharide important in neurogenesis, onto nanoporous silica nanoparticles (NPSNPs) of MCM-41 type. At each of the different modification steps, the materials are characterized by cell culture experiments. The results show that polysialic acid can be immobilized on the surface of NPSNPs by using different strategies. The cell culture experiments show that the kind of surface immobilization has a strong influence on the toxicity of the material versus the cells. Whereas most modifications appear inoffensive, NPSNPs modified by click reactions are toxic, probably due to residues of the Cu catalyst used in these reactions. PMID:25690616

  1. Security: Step by Step

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svetcov, Eric

    2005-01-01

    This article provides a list of the essential steps to keeping a school's or district's network safe and sound. It describes how to establish a security architecture and approach that will continually evolve as the threat environment changes over time. The article discusses the methodology for implementing this approach and then discusses the…

  2. A colorimetric probe based on desensitized ionene-stabilized gold nanoparticles for single-step test for sulfate ions.

    PubMed

    Arkhipova, Viktoriya V; Apyari, Vladimir V; Dmitrienko, Stanislava G

    2015-03-15

    Desensitized ionene-stabilized gold nanoparticles have been prepared and applied as a colorimetric probe for the single-step test for sulfate ions at the relatively high concentration level. The approach is based on aggregation of the nanoparticles leading to the change in absorption spectra and color of the solution. These nanoparticles are characterized by the decreased sensitivity due to both electrostatic and steric stabilization, which allows for simple, and rapid direct single-step determination of sulfate at the relatively high concentration level in real water samples without sample pretreatment or dilution. Influence of different factors (the time of interaction, pH, the concentrations of sulfate ions and the nanoparticles) on the aggregation and analytical performance of the procedure was investigated. The method allows for the determination of sulfate ions in the mass range of 0.2-0.4 mg with RSD of 5% from the sample volume of less than 2 mL. It has a sharp dependence of the colorimetric response on the concentration of sulfate, which makes it prospective for indicating deviations of the sulfate concentration regarding some declared value chosen within the above range. The time of the analysis is 2 min. The method was applied to the analysis of mineral water samples. PMID:25574653

  3. A stepped wedge cluster randomized control trial of dried blood spot testing to improve the uptake of hepatitis C antibody testing within UK prisons

    PubMed Central

    Whitaker, Rhiannon; Perrett, Stephanie; Zou, Lu; Hickman, Matthew; Lyons, Marion

    2015-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of hepatitis C (HCV) is elevated within prison populations, yet diagnosis in prisons remains low. Dried blood spot testing (DBST) is a simple procedure for the detection of HCV antibodies; its impact on testing in the prison context is unknown. Methods: We carried out a stepped-wedge cluster-randomized control trial of DBST for HCV among prisoners within five male prisons and one female prison. Each prison was a separate cluster. The order in which the intervention (training in use of DBST for HCV testing and logistic support) was introduced was randomized across clusters. The outcome measure was the HCV testing rate by prison. Imputation analysis was carried out to account for missing data. Planned and actual intervention times differed in some prisons; data were thus analysed by intention to treat (ITT) and by observed step times. Results: There was insufficient evidence of an effect of the intervention on testing rate using either the ITT intervention time (OR: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.68–1.03; P = 0.088) or using the actual intervention time (OR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.71–1.06; P = 0.153). This was confirmed by the pooled results of five imputed data sets. Conclusions: DBST as a stand-alone intervention was insufficient to increase HCV diagnosis within the UK prison setting. Factors such as staff training and allocation of staff time for regular clinics are key to improving service delivery. We demonstrate that prisons can conduct rigorous studies of new interventions, but data collection can be problematic. Trial registration: International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number Register (ISRCTN number ISRCTN05628482). PMID:25061233

  4. A Simple Three-Step Method for Design and Affinity Testing of New Antisense Peptides: An Example of Erythropoietin

    PubMed Central

    Štambuk, Nikola; Manojlović, Zoran; Turčić, Petra; Martinić, Roko; Konjevoda, Paško; Weitner, Tin; Wardega, Piotr; Gabričević, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Antisense peptide technology is a valuable tool for deriving new biologically active molecules and performing peptide–receptor modulation. It is based on the fact that peptides specified by the complementary (antisense) nucleotide sequences often bind to each other with a higher specificity and efficacy. We tested the validity of this concept on the example of human erythropoietin, a well-characterized and pharmacologically relevant hematopoietic growth factor. The purpose of the work was to present and test simple and efficient three-step procedure for the design of an antisense peptide targeting receptor-binding site of human erythropoietin. Firstly, we selected the carboxyl-terminal receptor binding region of the molecule (epitope) as a template for the antisense peptide modeling; Secondly, we designed an antisense peptide using mRNA transcription of the epitope sequence in the 3'→5' direction and computational screening of potential paratope structures with BLAST; Thirdly, we evaluated sense–antisense (epitope–paratope) peptide binding and affinity by means of fluorescence spectroscopy and microscale thermophoresis. Both methods showed similar Kd values of 850 and 816 µM, respectively. The advantages of the methods were: fast screening with a small quantity of the sample needed, and measurements done within the range of physicochemical parameters resembling physiological conditions. Antisense peptides targeting specific erythropoietin region(s) could be used for the development of new immunochemical methods. Selected antisense peptides with optimal affinity are potential lead compounds for the development of novel diagnostic substances, biopharmaceuticals and vaccines. PMID:24865486

  5. A simple three-step method for design and affinity testing of new antisense peptides: an example of erythropoietin.

    PubMed

    Štambuk, Nikola; Manojlović, Zoran; Turčić, Petra; Martinić, Roko; Konjevoda, Paško; Weitner, Tin; Wardega, Piotr; Gabričević, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Antisense peptide technology is a valuable tool for deriving new biologically active molecules and performing peptide-receptor modulation. It is based on the fact that peptides specified by the complementary (antisense) nucleotide sequences often bind to each other with a higher specificity and efficacy. We tested the validity of this concept on the example of human erythropoietin, a well-characterized and pharmacologically relevant hematopoietic growth factor. The purpose of the work was to present and test simple and efficient three-step procedure for the design of an antisense peptide targeting receptor-binding site of human erythropoietin. Firstly, we selected the carboxyl-terminal receptor binding region of the molecule (epitope) as a template for the antisense peptide modeling; Secondly, we designed an antisense peptide using mRNA transcription of the epitope sequence in the 3'→5' direction and computational screening of potential paratope structures with BLAST; Thirdly, we evaluated sense-antisense (epitope-paratope) peptide binding and affinity by means of fluorescence spectroscopy and microscale thermophoresis. Both methods showed similar Kd values of 850 and 816 µM, respectively. The advantages of the methods were: fast screening with a small quantity of the sample needed, and measurements done within the range of physicochemical parameters resembling physiological conditions. Antisense peptides targeting specific erythropoietin region(s) could be used for the development of new immunochemical methods. Selected antisense peptides with optimal affinity are potential lead compounds for the development of novel diagnostic substances, biopharmaceuticals and vaccines. PMID:24865486

  6. Three-dimensional paper-based slip device for one-step point-of-care testing.

    PubMed

    Han, Kwi Nam; Choi, Jong-Soon; Kwon, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we developed a new type of paper-based analytical device (PAD), the three-dimensional (3D) slip-PAD, to detect infectious human norovirus for global healthcare. The 3D configuration of the papers combined with a slip design provides unique features and versatility that overcome the limitations of fluidic manipulation and sensitivity in point-of-care (POC) tests. The assay can be carried out in a single step based on a moveable slip design, making it suitable for unskilled users. The 3D fluidic network developed by layered construction of wax-patterned papers provides different fluidic paths for the sequential delivery of multiple fluids without the need for peripheral equipment. The release and mixing of enhancement reagents on the device improved the sensitivity and detection limit. The assay results could be visualized by naked eye within 10 min, with subsequent amplification of the signal over time (<60 min). The device showed a broad dynamic range of detection and high sensitivity, with a detection limit of 9.5 × 10(4) copies ml(-1) for human norovirus. These results demonstrate that the 3D slip-PAD is a sensitive diagnostic assay for detecting human norovirus infection that is particularly suitable for POC testing in regions where resources are scarce. PMID:27174731

  7. Three-dimensional paper-based slip device for one-step point-of-care testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Kwi Nam; Choi, Jong-Soon; Kwon, Joseph

    2016-05-01

    In this study, we developed a new type of paper-based analytical device (PAD), the three-dimensional (3D) slip-PAD, to detect infectious human norovirus for global healthcare. The 3D configuration of the papers combined with a slip design provides unique features and versatility that overcome the limitations of fluidic manipulation and sensitivity in point-of-care (POC) tests. The assay can be carried out in a single step based on a moveable slip design, making it suitable for unskilled users. The 3D fluidic network developed by layered construction of wax-patterned papers provides different fluidic paths for the sequential delivery of multiple fluids without the need for peripheral equipment. The release and mixing of enhancement reagents on the device improved the sensitivity and detection limit. The assay results could be visualized by naked eye within 10 min, with subsequent amplification of the signal over time (<60 min). The device showed a broad dynamic range of detection and high sensitivity, with a detection limit of 9.5 × 104 copies ml‑1 for human norovirus. These results demonstrate that the 3D slip-PAD is a sensitive diagnostic assay for detecting human norovirus infection that is particularly suitable for POC testing in regions where resources are scarce.

  8. Three-dimensional paper-based slip device for one-step point-of-care testing

    PubMed Central

    Han, Kwi Nam; Choi, Jong-Soon; Kwon, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we developed a new type of paper-based analytical device (PAD), the three-dimensional (3D) slip-PAD, to detect infectious human norovirus for global healthcare. The 3D configuration of the papers combined with a slip design provides unique features and versatility that overcome the limitations of fluidic manipulation and sensitivity in point-of-care (POC) tests. The assay can be carried out in a single step based on a moveable slip design, making it suitable for unskilled users. The 3D fluidic network developed by layered construction of wax-patterned papers provides different fluidic paths for the sequential delivery of multiple fluids without the need for peripheral equipment. The release and mixing of enhancement reagents on the device improved the sensitivity and detection limit. The assay results could be visualized by naked eye within 10 min, with subsequent amplification of the signal over time (<60 min). The device showed a broad dynamic range of detection and high sensitivity, with a detection limit of 9.5 × 104 copies ml−1 for human norovirus. These results demonstrate that the 3D slip-PAD is a sensitive diagnostic assay for detecting human norovirus infection that is particularly suitable for POC testing in regions where resources are scarce. PMID:27174731

  9. One-step 2-minute test to detect typhoid-specific antibodies based on particle separation in tubes.

    PubMed

    Lim, P L; Tam, F C; Cheong, Y M; Jegathesan, M

    1998-08-01

    Typhoid fever is caused by Salmonella typhi. Detection of anti-S. typhi antibodies in the patient is a useful diagnostic aid. Among the various methods developed over the years for this purpose, the Widal test, based on bacterial agglutination, has remained the most widely used, even though it is neither specific nor sensitive. Its popularity stems from the fact that it is simple to use and inexpensive. We describe a new test which also uses a simple one-step procedure but is more rapid and accurate than the Widal. The new test (TUBEX) detects anti-Salmonella O9 (both immunoglobulin M [IgM] and IgG) antibodies in patients by inhibiting the binding between an anti-O9 IgM monoclonal antibody (MAb) conjugated to colored latex particles and S. typhi lipopolysaccharide (LPS) conjugated to magnetic latex particles. The reactants are mixed in a specially designed microtube for 2 min, and the result is read based on the resultant color of the supernatant following forced sedimentation of the magnetic beads. In the absence of inhibitory antibodies, there is a color change (from blue to red) due to cosedimentation of the indicator particles with the magnetic particles, whereas if these antibodies are present, they prevent such a change to a degree dependent on their concentration. Preliminary examination of TUBEX using the anti-O9 MAb and irrelevant MAbs as inhibitors revealed the test to be specific and reproducible, with an analytical sensitivity of 16 micrograms per ml of antibody. The reagents remained stable for at least 9 months when kept at 4 degrees C. In the examination of 16 stored sera obtained from 14 patients with proven cases of typhoid fever and 78 serum samples from 75 subjects without typhoid fever, TUBEX was found to be 100% sensitive and 100% specific. The nontyphoid group comprised 26 healthy blood donors, 30 antinuclear antibody (ANA)-negative patients, 9 ANA-positive patients, of whom 1 was positive for anti-DNA antibody, 4 typhus patients, and 6

  10. Understanding Solar Eruptions with SDO/HMI Measuring Photospheric Flows, Testing Models, and Steps Towards Forecasting Solar Eruptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuck, Peter W.; Linton, Mark; Muglach, Karin; Welsch, Brian; Hageman, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    The imminent launch of Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) will carry the first full-disk imaging vector magnetograph, the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI), into an inclined geosynchronous orbit. This magnetograph will provide nearly continuous measurements of photospheric vector magnetic fields at cadences of 90 seconds to 12 minutes with I" resolution, precise pointing, and unfettered by atmospheric seeing. The enormous data stream of 1.5 Terabytes per day from SDO will provide an unprecedented opportunity to understand the mysteries of solar eruptions. These ground-breaking observations will permit the application of a new technique, the differential affine velocity estimator for vector magnetograms (DAVE4VM), to measure photospheric plasma flows in active regions. These measurements will permit, for the first time, accurate assessments of the coronal free energy available for driving CMEs and flares. The details of photospheric plasma flows, particularly along magnetic neutral-lines, are critical to testing models for initiating coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and flares. Assimilating flows and fields into state-of-the art 3D MHD simulations that model the highly stratified solar atmosphere from the convection zone to the corona represents the next step towards achieving NASA's Living with a Star forecasting goals of predicting "when a solar eruption leading to a CME will occur." This talk will describe these major science and predictive advances that will be delivered by SDO /HMI.

  11. The association between loss of ankle dorsiflexion range of movement, and hip adduction and internal rotation during a step down test.

    PubMed

    Bell-Jenje, T; Olivier, B; Wood, W; Rogers, S; Green, A; McKinon, W

    2016-02-01

    A pattern of excessive hip adduction and internal rotation with medial deviation of the knee has been associated with numerous musculo-skeletal dysfunctions. Research into the role that ankle dorsiflexion (DF) range of motion (ROM) play in lower limb kinematics is lacking. The objective of this cross-sectional, observational study was to investigate the relationship between ankle DF ROM, and hip adduction and hip internal rotation during a step-down test with and without heel elevation in a healthy female population. Hip and ankle ROM was measured kinematically using a ten-camera Optitrack motion analysis system. Thirty healthy female participants (mean age = 20.4 years; SD = 0.9 years) first performed a step-down test with the heel of the weight bearing foot flat on the step and then with the heel elevated on a platform. Ankle DF, hip adduction and hip internal rotation were measured kinematically for the supporting leg. Participants who had 17° or less of ankle DF ROM displayed significantly more hip adduction ROM (p = 0.001; Cohen's d effect size = 1.2) than the participants with more than 17° of DF during the step-down test. Participants with limited DF ROM showed a significant reduction in hip adduction ROM during the elevated-heel step-down test (p = 0.008). Hip internal rotation increased in both groups during the EHSD compared to the step-down test (p > 0.05) Reduced ankle DF ROM is associated with increased hip adduction utilised during the step-down test. Ankle DF should be taken into account when assessing patients with aberrant frontal plane lower limb alignment. PMID:26432547

  12. A logical progression of steps for implementation and testing of the 7-equation, two-phase model into a computational framework

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, R. A.

    2013-07-01

    A seven-step progression is given for the implementation of the seven-equation model, employed in the new RELAP-7 thermal hydraulics system analysis code, within the MOOSE-compatible framework. The model is well-posed and treats both phases as compressible flow in a one-dimensional, variable cross-sectional area duct/pipe/component. Some appropriate tests are also outlined to benchmark the model/implementation for each step of the progression. (authors)

  13. Next Step for STEP

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Claire; Bremner, Brenda

    2013-08-09

    The Siletz Tribal Energy Program (STEP), housed in the Tribe’s Planning Department, will hire a data entry coordinator to collect, enter, analyze and store all the current and future energy efficiency and renewable energy data pertaining to administrative structures the tribe owns and operates and for homes in which tribal members live. The proposed data entry coordinator will conduct an energy options analysis in collaboration with the rest of the Siletz Tribal Energy Program and Planning Department staff. An energy options analysis will result in a thorough understanding of tribal energy resources and consumption, if energy efficiency and conservation measures being implemented are having the desired effect, analysis of tribal energy loads (current and future energy consumption), and evaluation of local and commercial energy supply options. A literature search will also be conducted. In order to educate additional tribal members about renewable energy, we will send four tribal members to be trained to install and maintain solar panels, solar hot water heaters, wind turbines and/or micro-hydro.

  14. Stability of CIGS Solar Cells and Component Materials Evaluated by a Step-Stress Accelerated Degradation Test Method: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Pern, F. J.; Noufi, R.

    2012-10-01

    A step-stress accelerated degradation testing (SSADT) method was employed for the first time to evaluate the stability of CuInGaSe2 (CIGS) solar cells and device component materials in four Al-framed test structures encapsulated with an edge sealant and three kinds of backsheet or moisture barrier film for moisture ingress control. The SSADT exposure used a 15oC and then a 15% relative humidity (RH) increment step, beginning from 40oC/40%RH (T/RH = 40/40) to 85oC/70%RH (85/70) as of the moment. The voluminous data acquired and processed as of total DH = 3956 h with 85/70 = 704 h produced the following results. The best CIGS solar cells in sample Set-1 with a moisture-permeable TPT backsheet showed essentially identical I-V degradation trend regardless of the Al-doped ZnO (AZO) layer thickness ranging from standard 0.12 μm to 0.50 μm on the cells. No clear 'stepwise' feature in the I-V parameter degradation curves corresponding to the SSADT T/RH/time profile was observed. Irregularity in I-V performance degradation pattern was observed with some cells showing early degradation at low T/RH < 55/55 and some showing large Voc, FF, and efficiency degradation due to increased series Rs (ohm-cm2) at T/RH ≥ 70/70. Results of (electrochemical) impedance spectroscopy (ECIS) analysis indicate degradation of the CIGS solar cells corresponded to increased series resistance Rs (ohm) and degraded parallel (minority carrier diffusion/recombination) resistance Rp, capacitance C, overall time constant Rp*C, and 'capacitor quality' factor (CPE-P), which were related to the cells? p-n junction properties. Heating at 85/70 appeared to benefit the CIGS solar cells as indicated by the largely recovered CPE-P factor. Device component materials, Mo on soda lime glass (Mo/SLG), bilayer ZnO (BZO), AlNi grid contact, and CdS/CIGS/Mo/SLG in test structures with TPT showed notable to significant degradation at T/RH ≥ 70/70. At T/RH = 85/70, substantial blistering of BZO layers on CIGS

  15. Stability of CIGS solar cells and component materials evaluated by a step-stress accelerated degradation test method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pern, F. J.; Noufi, R.

    2012-10-01

    A step-stress accelerated degradation testing (SSADT) method was employed for the first time to evaluate the stability of CuInGaSe2 (CIGS) solar cells and device component materials in four Al-framed test structures encapsulated with an edge sealant and three kinds of backsheet or moisture barrier film for moisture ingress control. The SSADT exposure used a 15°C and then a 15% relative humidity (RH) increment step, beginning from 40°C/40%RH (T/RH = 40/40) to 85°C/70%RH (85/70) as of the moment. The voluminous data acquired and processed as of total DH = 3956 h with 85/70 = 704 h produced the following results. The best CIGS solar cells in sample Set-1 with a moisture-permeable TPT backsheet showed essentially identical I-V degradation trend regardless of the Al-doped ZnO (AZO) layer thickness ranging from standard 0.12 μm to 0.50 μm on the cells. No clear "stepwise" feature in the I-V parameter degradation curves corresponding to the SSADT T/RH/time profile was observed. Irregularity in I-V performance degradation pattern was observed with some cells showing early degradation at low T/RH < 55/55 and some showing large Voc, FF, and efficiency degradation due to increased series Rs (ohm-cm2) at T/RH >= 70/70. Results of (electrochemical) impedance spectroscopy (ECIS) analysis indicate degradation of the CIGS solar cells corresponded to increased series resistance Rs (ohm) and degraded parallel (minority carrier diffusion/recombination) resistance Rp, capacitance C, overall time constant Rp*C, and "capacitor quality" factor (CPE-P), which were related to the cells' p-n junction properties. Heating at 85/70 appeared to benefit the CIGS solar cells as indicated by the largely recovered CPE-P factor. Device component materials, Mo on soda lime glass (Mo/SLG), bilayer ZnO (BZO), AlNi grid contact, and CdS/CIGS/Mo/SLG in test structures with TPT showed notable to significant degradation at T/RH >= 70/70. At T/RH = 85/70, substantial blistering of BZO layers on CIGS

  16. Evaluation of RELAP5 MOD 3.1.1 code with GIRAFFE Test Facility: Phase 1, Step 2 nitrogen venting tests

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, B.D.; Slovik, G.C.; Rohatgl, U.S.

    1995-11-01

    The Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR) proposed by General Electric (GE) is an advanced light water reactor (ALWR) design that utilizes passive safety systems. The PCCS is a series of heat exchangers submerged in water and open to the containment. Since the containment is inerted with nitrogen during normal operation, the PCCS must condense the steam in the presence of noncondensable gases during an accident. To model the transient behavior of the SBWR with a system code, the code should properly simulate the expected phenomena. To validate the applicability of RELAP5 MOD 3.1.1, the data from three Phase 1, Step 2 nitrogen venting tests at Toshiba`s Gravity-Driven Integral Full-Height Test for Passive Heat Removal facility and RELAP5 calculations of these tests were compared. The comparison of the GIRAFFE data against the results from the RELAP5 calculations showed that it can predict condensation and gas purging phenomena occurring in the long-term decay heat rejection phase. In this phase of the transient, condensation in the PCCS is the only means to reject heat from the SBWR containment. In the two tests where the nitrogen purge vent line was at its deepest submergence in the Suppression Pool (SIP), the RELAP5 results mirrored the behavior of the containment pressures and of the water levels in the Horizontal Vent (HV) and the nitrogen purge line tube of the GIRAFFE data. However, in the test with the shallowest purge line submergence, there was appreciable direct contact condensation on the pool surface of the HV despite modeling efforts to deter these phenomena. This surface condensation, unobserved in the GIRAFFE tests, was a major cause of RELAP5 predicting early containment depressurization and the subsequent early rise in HV and nitrogen purge line water levels. The present RELAP5 MOD3.1.1 interfacial heat and mass transfer model does not properly degrade direct contact steam condensation in the presence of noncondensable gases sitting on a pool.

  17. Validation of a single-stage fixed-rate step test for the prediction of maximal oxygen uptake in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Dominique; Jacobs, Nele; Thijs, Herbert; Dendale, Paul; Claes, Neree

    2016-09-01

    Healthcare professionals with limited access to ergospirometry remain in need of valid and simple submaximal exercise tests to predict maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max ). Despite previous validation studies concerning fixed-rate step tests, accurate equations for the estimation of VO2max remain to be formulated from a large sample of healthy adults between age 18-75 years (n > 100). The aim of this study was to develop a valid equation to estimate VO2max from a fixed-rate step test in a larger sample of healthy adults. A maximal ergospirometry test, with assessment of cardiopulmonary parameters and VO2max , and a 5-min fixed-rate single-stage step test were executed in 112 healthy adults (age 18-75 years). During the step test and subsequent recovery, heart rate was monitored continuously. By linear regression analysis, an equation to predict VO2max from the step test was formulated. This equation was assessed for level of agreement by displaying Bland-Altman plots and calculation of intraclass correlations with measured VO2max . Validity further was assessed by employing a Jackknife procedure. The linear regression analysis generated the following equation to predict VO2max (l min(-1) ) from the step test: 0·054(BMI)+0·612(gender)+3·359(body height in m)+0·019(fitness index)-0·012(HRmax)-0·011(age)-3·475. This equation explained 78% of the variance in measured VO2max (F = 66·15, P<0·001). The level of agreement and intraclass correlation was high (ICC = 0·94, P<0·001) between measured and predicted VO2max . From this study, a valid fixed-rate single-stage step test equation has been developed to estimate VO2max in healthy adults. This tool could be employed by healthcare professionals with limited access to ergospirometry. PMID:26046474

  18. The Sagebrush Steppe Treatment Evaluation Project (SageSTEP): A test of state-and-transition theory

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Sagebrush Steppe Treatment Evaluation Project (SageSTEP) is a comprehensive, integrated, long-term study that evaluates the ecological effects of fire and fire surrogate treatments designed to reduce fuel and to restore sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) communities of the Great Basin and surrounding ar...

  19. Tank tests of three models of flying-boat hulls of the pointed-step type with different angles of dead rise - NACA model 35 series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, John R

    1936-01-01

    The results of tank tests of three models of flying-boat hulls of the pointed-step type with different angles of dead rise are given in charts and are compared with results from tests of more conventional hulls. Increasing the angle of dead rise from 15 to 25 degrees: had little effect on the hump resistance; increased the resistance throughout the planning range; increased the best trim angle; reduced the maximum positive trimming moment required to obtain best trim angle; and had but a slight effect on the spray characteristics. For approximately the same angles of dead rise the resistance of the pointed-step hulls were considerably lower at high speeds than those of the more conventional hulls.

  20. Model predictive control of two-step nitrification and its validation via short-cut nitrification tests.

    PubMed

    Sui, Jun; Luo, Fan; Li, Jie

    2016-10-01

    Short-cut nitrification (SCN) is shown to be an attractive technology due to its savings in aeration and external carbon source addition cost. However, the shortage of excluding nitrite nitrogen as a model state in an Activated Sludge Model limits the model predictive control of biological nitrogen removal via SCN. In this paper, a two-step kinetic model was developed based on the introduction of pH and temperature as process controller, and it was implemented in an SBR reactor. The simulation results for optimizing operating conditions showed that with increasing of dissolved oxygen (DO) the rate of ammonia oxidation and nitrite accumulation firstly increased in order to achieve a SCN process. By further increasing DO, the SCN process can be transformed into a complete nitrification process. In addition, within a certain range, increasing sludge retention time and aeration time are beneficial to the accumulation of nitrite. The implementation results in the SBR reactor showed that the data predicted by the kinetic model are in agreement with the data obtained, which indicate that the two-step kinetic model is appropriate to simulate the ammonia removal and nitrite production kinetics. PMID:26901147

  1. Test Equity for People Who Are Deaf or Hard-of-Hearing: Commission on Rehabilitation Counselor Certification Steps for Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saladin, Shawn P.; Reid, Christine; Shiels, John

    2011-01-01

    The Commission on Rehabilitation Counselor Certification (CRCC) has taken a proactive stance on perceived test inequities of the Certified Rehabilitation Counselor (CRC) exam as it relates to people who are prelingually deaf and hard of hearing. This article describes the process developed and implemented by the CRCC to help maximize test equity…

  2. PHOEBE - step by step manual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zasche, P.

    2016-03-01

    An easy step-by-step manual of PHOEBE is presented. It should serve as a starting point for the first time users of PHOEBE analyzing the eclipsing binary light curve. It is demonstrated on one particular detached system also with the downloadable data and the whole procedure is described easily till the final trustworthy fit is being reached.

  3. A Two-Step Lyssavirus Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Using Degenerate Primers with Superior Sensitivity to the Fluorescent Antigen Test

    PubMed Central

    Nazé, Florence; Francart, Aurélie; Lamoral, Sophie; De Craeye, Stéphane; Kalai, Michael

    2014-01-01

    A generic two-step lyssavirus real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), based on a nested PCR strategy, was validated for the detection of different lyssavirus species. Primers with 17 to 30% of degenerate bases were used in both consecutive steps. The assay could accurately detect RABV, LBV, MOKV, DUVV, EBLV-1, EBLV-2, and ABLV. In silico sequence alignment showed a functional match with the remaining lyssavirus species. The diagnostic specificity was 100% and the sensitivity proved to be superior to that of the fluorescent antigen test. The limit of detection was ≤1 50% tissue culture infectious dose. The related vesicular stomatitis virus was not recognized, confirming the selectivity for lyssaviruses. The assay was applied to follow the evolution of rabies virus infection in the brain of mice from 0 to 10 days after intranasal inoculation. The obtained RNA curve corresponded well with the curves obtained by a one-step monospecific RABV-qRT-PCR, the fluorescent antigen test, and virus titration. Despite the presence of degenerate bases, the assay proved to be highly sensitive, specific, and reproducible. PMID:24822188

  4. A New Step towards Understanding Embedded Figures Test Performance in the Autism Spectrum: The Radial Frequency Search Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almeida, Renita A.; Dickinson, J. Edwin; Maybery, Murray T.; Badcock, Johanna C.; Badcock, David R.

    2010-01-01

    The Embedded Figure Test (EFT) requires locating a simple shape embedded within a background of overlapping target-irrelevant scene elements. Observers with autism, or those with high levels of autistic-like traits, typically outperform matched comparison groups on the EFT. This research investigated the critical visual properties which give rise…

  5. Male and female characteristics in vestibular testing: a step toward the selection of the best participants for space flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aust, G.; Hordinsky, J. R.; Schmelzer, B.

    1980-11-01

    Vestibular disturbances in connection with space flight were reported by a majority of participating astronauts and cosmonauts. These include motion sickness symptoms in the first few days of the space flight, as well as standing, gait and orientation disturbances after the return to Earth.The Aerospace Medical Community has been trying to select those people that are particularly adapted to the above stresses or that can be further adapted through training programs. As the circle of selectees extends to women, the problem arises as to whether differences between men and women exist under the conditions of space flight.In seeking answers to this question we studied a group of 42 women and 44 men, who were further subdivided according to their subjective motion sickness sensitivity, as determined by a questionnaire. Using this material, 26 men and 22 women were designated as motion sickness resistant, and 18 men and 20 women were designated as nonresistant.The vestibular test battery given these test subjects consisted of caloric, rotatory, optokinetic, vestibulo-spinal and vestibulo-vegetative testing.Because of the mixed orthostatic and vestibular problems seen after space flights, we also studied the response of the vestibular apparatus during peripheral blood pooling as induced by lower body negative pressure.The collected historical and test data are analyzed in this paper with emphasis on the relationship to motion sickness tendency.

  6. Male and female characteristics in vestibular testing: a step toward the selection of the best participants for space flight.

    PubMed

    Aust, G; Hordinsky, J R; Schmelzer, B

    1980-11-01

    Vestibular disturbances in connection with space flight were reported by a majority of participating astronauts and cosmonauts. These include motion sickness symptoms in the first few days of the space flight, as well as standing, gait and orientation disturbances after the return to Earth. The Aerospace Medical Community has been trying to select those people that are particularly adapted to the above stresses or that can be further adapted through training programs. As the circle of selectees extends to women, the problem arises as to whether differences between men and women exist under the conditions of space flight. In seeking answers to this question we studied a group of 42 women and 44 men, who were further subdivided according to their subjective motion sickness sensitivity, as determined by a questionnaire. Using this material, 26 men and 22 women were designated as motion sickness resistant, and 18 men and 20 women were designated as nonresistant. The vestibular test battery given these test subjects consisted of caloric, rotatory, optokinetic, vestibulo-spinal and vestibulo-vegetative testing. Because of the mixed orthostatic and vestibular problems seen after space flights, we also studied the response of the vestibular apparatus during peripheral blood pooling as induced by lower body negative pressure. The collected historical and test data are analyzed in this paper with emphasis on the relationship to motion sickness tendency. PMID:11541655

  7. Routine two-step skin testing for tuberculosis in the staff of a geriatric hospital in Israel: booster and conversion rates.

    PubMed

    Srour-Fihmi, S; Weiler-Ravell, D; Kitzes, R; Chemtob, D

    2000-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of positive skin tests amongst the staff of a 200 bed geriatric hospital in Haifa, Israel. By comparing the findings with those of a study performed five years previously, we hoped to ascertain the number of conversions which had occurred in the period studied. This was undertaken in order to assess a new policy from the Israel Ministry of Health regarding skin testing for health care workers. We also hoped to decide upon the frequency of skin testing required and to compare data from recent immigrants from countries with a high prevalence of TB. In 1997, we performed two-step skin testing (TSST) on 318 health care workers. We ascertained the number of positive reactions on the first and second testing and calculated the number of subjects who showed significant boosting. We also compared the results to those obtained in a study in 1992 and calculated the rate of conversion. We used multivariate analysis to examine the effects of age, gender, country of origin, years in Israel, previous BCG vaccination, previous exposure to contagious TB, work site and area of residence in the city, on the response to TSST. Between 1990 and 1996, 655 000 immigrants from the former USSR arrived; 'recent immigration' was defined from that date onward. The final number of positive reactions out of 282 subjects, who were either positive or negative on step 1 and presented for step 2, was 171 (60%). Booster effect was not significantly associated with any of the variables examined. The size of reaction in TSST was related to country of origin and recent immigration. The 83 recent immigrants from the former USSR had more frequent (61%) and larger reactions (mean (sd): 9.0 (6.46) mm) than the 114 native-born Israelis with 39% positive reactions (6.2 (5.89) P= 0.009). Comparison with 1992 revealed 26 (31%) of previous negatives as positive. Conversion was associated with age. All conversions save one were in individuals younger

  8. Reputation strength as a determinant of faculty employment: a test of the step-down thesis among clinical psychology doctoral programs.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Michael C; Ilardi, Stephen S; Johnson, Rebecca J

    2006-07-01

    This study tested the folkloristic belief that doctoral degree recipients who pursue academic careers typically wind up at institutions ranked lower in prestige than the institutions at which they trained (the step-down thesis). We used a database of faculty members in 150 clinical psychology doctoral programs accredited by the American Psychological Association, and compared each faculty member's training institution with the current employing institution on three distinct reputation ranking systems: The Center (University of Florida, Gainesville) for overall university reputation, the National Research Council (Washington, DC) for doctoral degree department reputation, and the news magazine, U.S. News and World Report ranking for clinical psychology training program reputation. Although support for the step-down thesis was found across all three ranking systems, a disproportionately large number of professors were also observed to move laterally in terms of their employing institution's reputation. PMID:16541384

  9. A comparison of the relation between oxygen uptake and heart rate during different styles of aerobic dance and a traditional step test in women.

    PubMed

    Bell, J M; Bassey, E J

    1994-01-01

    The oxygen uptake and heart rate in various styles of dance and in a graded step test have been compared in ten healthy women aged [mean (SD)] 34 (5) years. Dance was choreographed into progressively more energetic sequences typical of community classes, and videotaped. Oxygen uptake was assessed using a respirometer carried in a back-pack. Each of the two tests (dance and step) took 15-20 min and measurements were made in randomised balanced order on the same day. The mean oxygen costs of dance ranged from 1.29 l.min-1 for low impact style to 1.83 l.min-1 for high impact style with arm work; mean heart rates were 135 and 174 beats.min-1 respectively. Low impact dance raised heart rates above 60% of predicted maximum and so would provide training; during high impact dance recorded heart rates sometimes exceeded recommended safe limits. The addition of arm work significantly increased heart rates in both high and low impact dance but when oxygen pulses for each style of dance were compared no significant differences attributable to arm work were found. Moreover calculated differences between oxygen uptakes in stepping and dance at the same heart rates (those recorded during dance) were not significant for any of the four styles. Analysis of variance confirmed that neither arm work nor impact contributed significantly to the differences, so there was no evidence that these forms of dance change the normal relation between heart rate and oxygen uptake found in dynamic activities with large muscle groups such as stepping. PMID:8162917

  10. One-step immunochromatographic dipstick tests for rapid detection of Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139 in stool samples.

    PubMed

    Nato, F; Boutonnier, A; Rajerison, M; Grosjean, P; Dartevelle, S; Guénolé, A; Bhuiyan, N A; Sack, D A; Nair, G B; Fournier, J M; Chanteau, S

    2003-05-01

    We describe the development and evaluation of a rapid diagnostic test for Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139 based on lipopolysaccharide detection using gold particles. The specificity ranged between 84 and 100%. The sensitivity of the dipsticks ranged from 94.2 to 100% when evaluated with stool samples obtained in Madagascar and Bangladesh. The dipstick can provide a simple tool for epidemiological surveys. PMID:12738652

  11. Utilization of the QuantiFERON-TB Gold Test in a Two-Step Process with the Tuberculin Skin Test To Evaluate Health Care Workers for Latent Tuberculosis▿

    PubMed Central

    Abdalhamid, Baha; Hinrichs, Steven H.; Garrett, Jodi L.; O'Neill, Jean M.; Hansen-Cain, Kristine M.; Armbrust, Amy A.; Iwen, Peter C.

    2010-01-01

    A cost analysis of combining a tuberculin skin test (TST) and the QuantiFERON-TB Gold test (QFT-GT) to detect latent tuberculosis in newly hired health care workers was performed. An approximately 50% reduction in the cost of additional care was realized when workers with positive TST results were subsequently screened using the QFT-GT. PMID:20573876

  12. First-Step Results of Children Presenting with Bleeding Symptoms or Abnormal Coagulation Tests in an Outpatient Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Yıldız, İsmail; Ünüvar, Ayşegül; Kamer, İbrahim; Karaman, Serap; Uysalol, Ezgi; Kılıç, Ayşe; Oğuz, Fatma; Ünüvar, Emin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Mild bleeding symptoms are commonly seen in the general population. The aim of this study was to determine the final clinical and laboratory features of children referred for a first evaluation with a suspected bleeding disorder in the pediatric outpatient clinic of İstanbul University. Materials and Methods: The medical records of 26,737 outpatients who were admitted to the Division of Ambulatory Pediatrics between 31 October 2011 and 31 October 2012 were evaluated retrospectively. Ninety-nine patients were initially diagnosed as having probable bleeding disorders and were followed up. The symptoms of bleeding in addition to coagulation tests were analyzed. Results: Of the 99 patients, 52 (52.5%) were male and 47 were female, and the mean age of the entire study group was 9.1±4.1 years (minimum-maximum: 2-18 years). Major bleeding symptoms were epistaxis in 36 patients (36.4%), easy bruising in 32 (32.3%), and menorrhagia in 6 (6.1%). After initial tests ordered by the pediatrician, 36 of 99 patients (36.4%) were diagnosed as having bleeding disorders that included von Willebrand disease in 12 (12.1%), hemophilia A or B in 9 (9.1%), and other rare factor deficiencies in 9 (9.1%). Six patients (6.1%) were found to have combined deficiencies. Seven of 36 patients had a family history of bleeding. Conclusion: Among the patients referred for bleeding disorders, 36.4% were diagnosed with a bleeding disorder with the help of primary screening tests ordered in the outpatient clinic. PMID:26377979

  13. A step forward in the quality control testing of inactivated rabies vaccines - extensive evaluation of European vaccines by using alternative methods to the in vivo potency tests.

    PubMed

    Servat, Alexandre; Kempff, Sébastien; Brogat, Valère; Litaize, Estelle; Schereffer, Jean-Luc; Cliquet, Florence

    2015-03-01

    The mouse challenge test still remains the reference method for the potency determination of human and animal inactivated rabies vaccines, and it is still widely used throughout the world. This test suffers from many disadvantages - it is expensive and time consuming, uses a large number of mice, causes significant animal distress, and suffers from high variability. Recently, the European Pharmacopoeia has recognised the use of a serological potency assay (SPA) as an alternative method to the challenge test. This new test is based on the determination of rabies neutralising antibody titres in vaccinated mice, by using the modified Rapid Fluorescent Focus Inhibition Test (mRFFIT). With the objective of adopting this new method for the batch release of inactivated rabies vaccines, we evaluated its performance on a large collection of rabies vaccines currently assessed in our laboratory. The Fluorescent Antibody Virus Neutralisation test (FAVNt) was used in parallel with the mRFFIT, and the results were compared to the mouse challenge test. Our results demonstrate that the SPA is capable of estimating the potency of vaccines formulated with a potency margin well above the minimum of 1IU/dose. For low potency vaccines, this new method demonstrated some limitations, due to the recurrent invalidation of the assay. We have also demonstrated the superior sensitivity of the FAVNt when compared to the mRFFIT, and the importance of minimising the risk of detecting non-responders in vaccinated mice. PMID:25802995

  14. Single molecule measurements of DNA helicase activity with magnetic tweezers and t-test based step-finding analysis.

    PubMed

    Seol, Yeonee; Strub, Marie-Paule; Neuman, Keir C

    2016-08-01

    Magnetic tweezers is a versatile and easy to implement single-molecule technique that has become increasingly prevalent in the study of nucleic acid based molecular motors. Here, we provide a description of the magnetic tweezers instrument and guidelines for measuring and analyzing DNA helicase activity. Along with experimental methods, we describe a robust method of single-molecule trajectory analysis based on the Student's t-test that accommodates continuous transitions in addition to the discrete transitions assumed in most widely employed analysis routines. To illustrate the single-molecule unwinding assay and the analysis routine, we provide DNA unwinding measurements of Escherichia coli RecQ helicase under a variety of conditions (Na+, ATP, temperature, and DNA substrate geometry). These examples reveal that DNA unwinding measurements under various conditions can aid in elucidating the unwinding mechanism of DNA helicase but also emphasize that environmental effects on DNA helicase activity must be considered in relation to in vivo activity and mechanism. PMID:27131595

  15. Implementation of 3DPTV for turbulence analysis and subgrid-scale stress model testing of a backward-facing step flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dona, Nicholas

    Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) is a constantly-expanding field with many new applications and models being introduced on a regular basis. The active nature of this field establishes the need for high-resolution, 3-dimensional experimental data for assessment and development of Subgrid-Scale (SGS) Models. An experimental technique well-suited to this application is Three-Dimensional Particle Tracking Velocimetry (3DPTV) utilizing the epipolar line triangulation method is an accepted method of quantifying volumes of 3-Dimension 3-Component (3D3C) velocity vector fields. This study adapted the epipolar line search triangulation methodology, as it was applied in micro-scale systems, to a backward-facing step flow in a small-scale water tunnel testing facility. The camera system, consisting of three 4008 x 2672 CCDs, was aligned and calibrated using a custom grid and dot target plate mounted on a purpose-built rig, containing a precision single-axis translation stage. Dual-pulsed, Nd:YAG lasers at 532 nm, 120mJ/pulse, illuminated the 28 mm x 18 mm x 4.5 mm volume of interest, located downstream of a 2.858 cm step in a 15.24 cm x 30.48 cm cross-section water tunnel. The turbulent flow, uin = 22cm/s, Reh=6274, Rlambda ≈ 130, and ER=1.208 was seeded with TiO2 particles, <5mum diameter, to maintain one-way coupling. The resulting 3DPTV system was shown to have uncertainty comparable to that of previous experimentation. Utilizing the acquired data, a priori testing of universally notable LES SGS Models, including the Smagorinsky, Similarity, Mixed, Coherent Structures, and Dynamic Models was accomplished and results are presented and discussed. This application of 3DPTV to a turbulent, backward-facing step flow and the results presented herein not only establish the technique as a promising source of experimental data in the development of LES, it lays a foundation for future study of the phenomena-rich backward-facing step flow and the testing and development of new LES SGS

  16. A new step towards understanding Embedded Figures Test performance in the autism spectrum: the radial frequency search task.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Renita A; Dickinson, J Edwin; Maybery, Murray T; Badcock, Johanna C; Badcock, David R

    2010-01-01

    The Embedded Figure Test (EFT) requires locating a simple shape embedded within a background of overlapping target-irrelevant scene elements. Observers with autism, or those with high levels of autistic-like traits, typically outperform matched comparison groups on the EFT. This research investigated the critical visual properties which give rise to this improved performance. The EFT is a search task and so here a radial frequency (RF) search task was created to directly explore efficacy of visual search and also the influence of element overlap on performance. In all conditions, the task was to detect whether the target RF3 (a triangular shape chosen for its visual properties) was present among a number of distracter RF4 (a square shape) patterns. The conditions employed were: 'singles', where all the patterns were spatially discrete, 'pairs', where two overlapping elements formed each cluster, and 'quads', comprising four overlapping elements per cluster. Compared to students scoring low on the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ; n=27), those scoring high on the AQ (n=23) were faster on the EFT and also significantly less influenced by increasing set size of the stimulus array in all RF search task conditions. However, the group difference in RF search performance was unaffected by the amount of stimulus overlap. Thus a simple search task is sufficient to detect a performance advantage associated with higher levels of autistic traits and has the advantages of a solid footing in visual theory and being readily repeatable for the purpose of assessing performance variability and change with interventions. PMID:19786040

  17. System Response Testing of HEAF Kevex 130kV Microfocus Source and Thales Flashscan Panel I. Step-wedge Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, C

    2009-03-20

    In the Small Sample DR Testing series, a few questions have arisen when comparing modeled results to experimental data. It is necessary to evaluate these questions in order to validate the modeling assumptions and to ensure the validity of the test procedure in the Small Sample DR Testing. Open Questions: (1) The decay time of the scintillator elements is unknown. (2) The thickness of the Beryllium window on the source is unknown. (3) The residual effects of beam angle and scattering within the detector assembly are unknown. (4) The spectral response of the scintillator and digitizing panel are not known. (5) The spectral content of the source is unknown. Item 1 will be addressed in separate tests by measuring the output of the panel at various intervals after the source has stopped illuminating the panel. Item 2 will be determined by finding the manufacturer specifications. Item 3 will be addressed in separate tests. We cannot easily address items 4 and 5 independently. Measuring the spectral responsivity of the detector directly would require the use of a calibrated reference source, which we lack. Similarly, measuring the spectral content of the source requires spectrally and spatially calibrated detectors, which we also lack. However, we can address the combination of items 1 and 2 to deduce the product of source intensity times detector response. By measuring the X-ray transmittance of samples of known thickness, material composition and density (step wedges), we can infer the desired product and so validate and improve computer models of our system.

  18. STEP Experiment Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brumfield, M. L. (Compiler)

    1984-01-01

    A plan to develop a space technology experiments platform (STEP) was examined. NASA Langley Research Center held a STEP Experiment Requirements Workshop on June 29 and 30 and July 1, 1983, at which experiment proposers were invited to present more detailed information on their experiment concept and requirements. A feasibility and preliminary definition study was conducted and the preliminary definition of STEP capabilities and experiment concepts and expected requirements for support services are presented. The preliminary definition of STEP capabilities based on detailed review of potential experiment requirements is investigated. Topics discussed include: Shuttle on-orbit dynamics; effects of the space environment on damping materials; erectable beam experiment; technology for development of very large solar array deployers; thermal energy management process experiment; photovoltaic concentrater pointing dynamics and plasma interactions; vibration isolation technology; flight tests of a synthetic aperture radar antenna with use of STEP.

  19. Usability Testing and Piloting of the Mums Step It Up Program - A Team-Based Social Networking Physical Activity Intervention for Women with Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Kernot, Jocelyn; Olds, Tim; Lewis, Lucy K.; Maher, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Background Women’s physical activity levels decline during their transition to parenthood. Facebook is widely used by Australian mothers and provides the opportunity to target social networks in order to maintain and increase physical activity. Method This mixed method study aimed to pilot and assess the usability of the Mums Step It Up Facebook app, a new team-based physical activity intervention for mothers with young children. A purposive sample of five “Captain” women with young children, were recruited through personal contacts. These women used the app to recruit 3–7 Facebook friends (with children under 5) to join their respective teams (total n = 25). The app encourages women to take 10,000 steps a day measured by a pedometer. Women used the app for 28 days to log steps, interact with team mates and monitor progress. Physical activity was assessed at two time points (baseline and final week) using the Active Australia Survey. Usability testing with the five “Captain” women took place over two one hour face-to-face sessions. A questionnaire seeking feedback on the app was completed at time point two. Results Participants’ total physical activity increased by an average of 177 minutes per week (p = 0.01). The complexity of the team forming process and issues using the Facebook environment, where a variety of devices and software platforms are used, was highlighted. Discussion A team-based Facebook app shows considerable promise for the recruitment and retention of participants to a social network-based physical activity intervention. A randomised controlled trial to further evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention is warranted. PMID:25272039

  20. Stepped Hydraulic Geometry in Stepped Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comiti, F.; Cadol, D. D.; Wohl, E.

    2007-12-01

    Steep mountain streams typically present a stepped longitudinal profile. Such stepped channels feature tumbling flow, where hydraulic jumps represent an important source of channel roughness (spill resistance). However, the extent to which spill resistance persists up to high flows has not been ascertained yet, such that a faster, skimming flow has been envisaged to begin at those conditions. In order to analyze the relationship between flow resistance and bed morphology, a mobile bed physical model was developed at Colorado State University (Fort Collins, USA). An 8 m-long, 0.6 m-wide flume tilted at a constant 14% slope was used, testing 2 grain-size mixtures differing only for the largest fraction. Experiments were conducted under clear water conditions. Reach-averaged flow velocity was measured using salt tracers, bed morphology and flow depth by a point gage, and surface grain size using commercial image-analysis software. Starting from an initial plane bed, progressively higher flow rates were used to create different bed structures. After each bed morphology was stable with its forming discharge, lower-than-forming flows were run to build a hydraulic geometry curve. Results show that even though equilibrium slopes ranged from 8.5% to 14%, the reach-averaged flow was always sub-critical. Steps formed through a variety of mechanisms, with immobile clasts playing a dominant role by causing local scouring and/or trapping moving smaller particles. Overall, step height, step pool steepness, relative pool area and volume increased with discharge up to the threshold when the bed approached fully- mobilized conditions. For bed morphologies surpassing a minimum profile roughness, a stepped velocity- discharge relationship is evident, with sharp rises in velocity correlated with the disappearance of rollers in pools at flows approaching the formative discharge for each morphology. Flow resistance exhibits an opposite pattern, with drops in resistance being a function

  1. Stepped nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Sutton, G.P.

    1998-07-14

    An insert is described which allows a supersonic nozzle of a rocket propulsion system to operate at two or more different nozzle area ratios. This provides an improved vehicle flight performance or increased payload. The insert has significant advantages over existing devices for increasing nozzle area ratios. The insert is temporarily fastened by a simple retaining mechanism to the aft end of the diverging segment of the nozzle and provides for a multi-step variation of nozzle area ratio. When mounted in place, the insert provides the nozzle with a low nozzle area ratio. During flight, the retaining mechanism is released and the insert ejected thereby providing a high nozzle area ratio in the diverging nozzle segment. 5 figs.

  2. Stepped nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Sutton, George P.

    1998-01-01

    An insert which allows a supersonic nozzle of a rocket propulsion system to operate at two or more different nozzle area ratios. This provides an improved vehicle flight performance or increased payload. The insert has significant advantages over existing devices for increasing nozzle area ratios. The insert is temporarily fastened by a simple retaining mechanism to the aft end of the diverging segment of the nozzle and provides for a multi-step variation of nozzle area ratio. When mounted in place, the insert provides the nozzle with a low nozzle area ratio. During flight, the retaining mechanism is released and the insert ejected thereby providing a high nozzle area ratio in the diverging nozzle segment.

  3. A novel 3D label-free monitoring system of hES-derived cardiomyocyte clusters: a step forward to in vitro cardiotoxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Jahnke, Heinz-Georg; Steel, Daniella; Fleischer, Stephan; Seidel, Diana; Kurz, Randy; Vinz, Silvia; Dahlenborg, Kerstin; Sartipy, Peter; Robitzki, Andrea A

    2013-01-01

    Unexpected adverse effects on the cardiovascular system remain a major challenge in the development of novel active pharmaceutical ingredients (API). To overcome the current limitations of animal-based in vitro and in vivo test systems, stem cell derived human cardiomyocyte clusters (hCMC) offer the opportunity for highly predictable pre-clinical testing. The three-dimensional structure of hCMC appears more representative of tissue milieu than traditional monolayer cell culture. However, there is a lack of long-term, real time monitoring systems for tissue-like cardiac material. To address this issue, we have developed a microcavity array (MCA)-based label-free monitoring system that eliminates the need for critical hCMC adhesion and outgrowth steps. In contrast, feasible field potential derived action potential recording is possible immediately after positioning within the microcavity. Moreover, this approach allows extended observation of adverse effects on hCMC. For the first time, we describe herein the monitoring of hCMC over 35 days while preserving the hCMC structure and electrophysiological characteristics. Furthermore, we demonstrated the sensitive detection and quantification of adverse API effects using E4031, doxorubicin, and noradrenaline directly on unaltered 3D cultures. The MCA system provides multi-parameter analysis capabilities incorporating field potential recording, impedance spectroscopy, and optical read-outs on individual clusters giving a comprehensive insight into induced cellular alterations within a complex cardiac culture over days or even weeks. PMID:23861955

  4. A Novel 3D Label-Free Monitoring System of hES-Derived Cardiomyocyte Clusters: A Step Forward to In Vitro Cardiotoxicity Testing

    PubMed Central

    Jahnke, Heinz-Georg; Steel, Daniella; Fleischer, Stephan; Seidel, Diana; Kurz, Randy; Vinz, Silvia; Dahlenborg, Kerstin; Sartipy, Peter; Robitzki, Andrea A.

    2013-01-01

    Unexpected adverse effects on the cardiovascular system remain a major challenge in the development of novel active pharmaceutical ingredients (API). To overcome the current limitations of animal-based in vitro and in vivo test systems, stem cell derived human cardiomyocyte clusters (hCMC) offer the opportunity for highly predictable pre-clinical testing. The three-dimensional structure of hCMC appears more representative of tissue milieu than traditional monolayer cell culture. However, there is a lack of long-term, real time monitoring systems for tissue-like cardiac material. To address this issue, we have developed a microcavity array (MCA)-based label-free monitoring system that eliminates the need for critical hCMC adhesion and outgrowth steps. In contrast, feasible field potential derived action potential recording is possible immediately after positioning within the microcavity. Moreover, this approach allows extended observation of adverse effects on hCMC. For the first time, we describe herein the monitoring of hCMC over 35 days while preserving the hCMC structure and electrophysiological characteristics. Furthermore, we demonstrated the sensitive detection and quantification of adverse API effects using E4031, doxorubicin, and noradrenaline directly on unaltered 3D cultures. The MCA system provides multi-parameter analysis capabilities incorporating field potential recording, impedance spectroscopy, and optical read-outs on individual clusters giving a comprehensive insight into induced cellular alterations within a complex cardiac culture over days or even weeks. PMID:23861955

  5. Serological diagnosis of autoimmune bullous skin diseases: Prospective comparison of the BIOCHIP mosaic-based indirect immunofluorescence technique with the conventional multi-step single test strategy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Various antigen-specific immunoassays are available for the serological diagnosis of autoimmune bullous diseases. However, a spectrum of different tissue-based and monovalent antigen-specific assays is required to establish the diagnosis. BIOCHIP mosaics consisting of different antigen substrates allow polyvalent immunofluorescence (IF) tests and provide antibody profiles in a single incubation. Methods Slides for indirect IF were prepared, containing BIOCHIPS with the following test substrates in each reaction field: monkey esophagus, primate salt-split skin, antigen dots of tetrameric BP180-NC16A as well as desmoglein 1-, desmoglein 3-, and BP230gC-expressing human HEK293 cells. This BIOCHIP mosaic was probed using a large panel of sera from patients with pemphigus vulgaris (PV, n = 65), pemphigus foliaceus (PF, n = 50), bullous pemphigoid (BP, n = 42), and non-inflammatory skin diseases (n = 97) as well as from healthy blood donors (n = 100). Furthermore, to evaluate the usability in routine diagnostics, 454 consecutive sera from patients with suspected immunobullous disorders were prospectively analyzed in parallel using a) the IF BIOCHIP mosaic and b) a panel of single antibody assays as commonly used by specialized centers. Results Using the BIOCHIP mosaic, sensitivities of the desmoglein 1-, desmoglein 3-, and NC16A-specific substrates were 90%, 98.5% and 100%, respectively. BP230 was recognized by 54% of the BP sera. Specificities ranged from 98.2% to 100% for all substrates. In the prospective study, a high agreement was found between the results obtained by the BIOCHIP mosaic and the single test panel for the diagnosis of BP, PV, PF, and sera without serum autoantibodies (Cohen’s κ between 0.88 and 0.97). Conclusions The BIOCHIP mosaic contains sensitive and specific substrates for the indirect IF diagnosis of BP, PF, and PV. Its diagnostic accuracy is comparable with the conventional multi-step approach. The highly

  6. Sticky steps inhibit step motions near equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akutsu, Noriko

    2012-12-01

    Using a Monte Carlo method on a lattice model of a vicinal surface with a point-contact-type step-step attraction, we show that, at low temperature and near equilibrium, there is an inhibition of the motion of macrosteps. This inhibition leads to a pinning of steps without defects, adsorbates, or impurities (self-pinning of steps). We show that this inhibition of the macrostep motion is caused by faceted steps, which are macrosteps that have a smooth side surface. The faceted steps result from discontinuities in the anisotropic surface tension (the surface free energy per area). The discontinuities are brought into the surface tension by the point-contact-type step-step attraction. The point-contact-type step-step attraction also originates “step droplets,” which are locally merged steps, at higher temperatures. We derive an analytic equation of the surface stiffness tensor for the vicinal surface around the (001) surface. Using the surface stiffness tensor, we show that step droplets roughen the vicinal surface. Contrary to what we expected, the step droplets slow down the step velocity due to the diminishment of kinks in the merged steps (smoothing of the merged steps).

  7. Leading Change Step-by-Step: Tactics, Tools, and Tales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiro, Jody

    2010-01-01

    "Leading Change Step-by-Step" offers a comprehensive and tactical guide for change leaders. Spiro's approach has been field-tested for more than a decade and proven effective in a wide variety of public sector organizations including K-12 schools, universities, international agencies and non-profits. The book is filled with proven tactics for…

  8. Micromachine Wedge Stepping Motor

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, J.J.; Schriner, H.K.

    1998-11-04

    A wedge stepping motor, which will index a mechanism, has been designed and fabricated in the surface rnicromachine SUMMiT process. This device has demonstrated the ability to index one gear tooth at a time with speeds up to 205 teeth/see. The wedge stepper motor has the following features, whi:h will be useful in a number of applications. o The ability to precisely position mechanical components. . Simple pulse signals can be used for operation. o Only 2 drive signals are requixed for operation. o Torque and precision capabilities increase with device size . The device to be indexed is restrained at all times by the wedge shaped tooth that is used for actuation. This paper will discuss the theory of operation and desi=m of the wedge stepping motor. The fabrication and testing of I he device will also be presented.

  9. Transverse injection into Mach 2 flow behind a rearward-facing step - A 3-D, compressible flow test case for hypersonic combustor CFD validation

    SciTech Connect

    Mcdaniel, J.C.; Fletcher, D.G.; Hartfield, R.J.; Hollo, S.D. NASA, Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA )

    1991-12-01

    A spatially-complete data set of the important primitive flow variables is presented for the complex, nonreacting, 3D unit combustor flow field employing transverse injection into a Mach 2 flow behind a rearward-facing step. A unique wind tunnel facility providing the capability for iodine seeding was built specifically for these measurements. Two optical techniques based on laser-induced-iodine fluorescence were developed and utilized for nonintrusive, in situ flow field measurements. LDA provided both mean and fluctuating velocity component measurements. A thermographic phosphor wall temperature measurement technique was developed and employed. Data from the 2D flow over a rearward-facing step and the complex 3D mixing flow with injection are reported. 25 refs.

  10. Stepped sinewave inverter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appelbaum, J.; Gabbay, D.

    1984-11-01

    A stepped sinewave dc/ac inverter was analyzed for an inductive load with respect to load current and voltage, harmonics, power factor, and efficiency. This special inverter of high efficiency and low harmonic content is constructed by synthesizing the sinusoidal output by discrete voltage sources, such as storage batteries, solar cell, etc., with electronic switching of the sources at specific time intervals. The switching times are determined for the condition of minimum distortion of the synthesized wave. A 50 W inverter was built and tested to demonstrate this approach.

  11. Identifying Opportunities to Increase HIV Testing among Mexican Migrants: A Call to Step Up Efforts in Health Care and Detention Settings

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Donate, Ana P.; Rangel, Maria Gudelia; Rhoads, Natalie; Zhang, Xiao; Hovell, Melbourne; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; González-Fagoaga, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    HIV testing and counseling is a critical component of HIV prevention efforts and core element of current “treatment as prevention” strategies. Mobility, low education and income, and limited access to health care put Latino migrants at higher risk for HIV and represent barriers for adequate levels of HIV testing in this population. We examined correlates of, and missed opportunities to increase, HIV testing for circular Mexican migrants in the U.S. We used data from a probability-based survey of returning Mexican migrants (N=1161) conducted in the border city of Tijuana, Mexico. We estimated last 12-months rates of HIV testing and the percentage of migrants who received other health care services or were detained in an immigration center, jail, or prison for 30 or more days in the U.S., but were not tested for HIV. Twenty-two percent of migrants received HIV testing in the last 12 months. In general, utilization of other health care services or detention for 30 or more days in the U.S. was a significant predictor of last 12-months HIV testing. Despite this association, we found evidence of missed opportunities to promote testing in healthcare and/or correctional or immigration detention centers. About 27.6% of migrants received other health care and/or were detained at least 30 days but not tested for HIV. Health care systems, jails and detention centers play an important role in increasing access to HIV testing among circular migrants, but there is room for improvement. Policies to offer opt-out, confidential HIV testing and counseling to Mexican migrants in these settings on a routine and ethical manner need to be designed and pilot tested. These policies could increase knowledge of HIV status, facilitate engagement in HIV treatment among a highly mobile population, and contribute to decrease incidence of HIV in the host and receiving communities. PMID:25860261

  12. Identifying opportunities to increase HIV testing among mexican migrants: a call to step up efforts in health care and detention settings.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Donate, Ana P; Rangel, Maria Gudelia; Rhoads, Natalie; Zhang, Xiao; Hovell, Melbourne; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; González-Fagoaga, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    HIV testing and counseling is a critical component of HIV prevention efforts and core element of current "treatment as prevention" strategies. Mobility, low education and income, and limited access to health care put Latino migrants at higher risk for HIV and represent barriers for adequate levels of HIV testing in this population. We examined correlates of, and missed opportunities to increase, HIV testing for circular Mexican migrants in the U.S. We used data from a probability-based survey of returning Mexican migrants (N=1161) conducted in the border city of Tijuana, Mexico. We estimated last 12-months rates of HIV testing and the percentage of migrants who received other health care services or were detained in an immigration center, jail, or prison for 30 or more days in the U.S., but were not tested for HIV. Twenty-two percent of migrants received HIV testing in the last 12 months. In general, utilization of other health care services or detention for 30 or more days in the U.S. was a significant predictor of last 12-months HIV testing. Despite this association, we found evidence of missed opportunities to promote testing in healthcare and/or correctional or immigration detention centers. About 27.6% of migrants received other health care and/or were detained at least 30 days but not tested for HIV. Health care systems, jails and detention centers play an important role in increasing access to HIV testing among circular migrants, but there is room for improvement. Policies to offer opt-out, confidential HIV testing and counseling to Mexican migrants in these settings on a routine and ethical manner need to be designed and pilot tested. These policies could increase knowledge of HIV status, facilitate engagement in HIV treatment among a highly mobile population, and contribute to decrease incidence of HIV in the host and receiving communities. PMID:25860261

  13. Stepping motor controller

    DOEpatents

    Bourret, S.C.; Swansen, J.E.

    1982-07-02

    A stepping motor is microprocessor controlled by digital circuitry which monitors the output of a shaft encoder adjustably secured to the stepping motor and generates a subsequent stepping pulse only after the preceding step has occurred and a fixed delay has expired. The fixed delay is variable on a real-time basis to provide for smooth and controlled deceleration.

  14. Stepping motor controller

    DOEpatents

    Bourret, Steven C.; Swansen, James E.

    1984-01-01

    A stepping motor is microprocessingly controlled by digital circuitry which monitors the output of a shaft encoder adjustably secured to the stepping motor and generates a subsequent stepping pulse only after the preceding step has occurred and a fixed delay has expired. The fixed delay is variable on a real-time basis to provide for smooth and controlled deceleration.

  15. Analysis of plasticizers in poly(vinyl chloride) medical devices for infusion and artificial nutrition: comparison and optimization of the extraction procedures, a pre-migration test step.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Lise; Cueff, Régis; Bourdeaux, Daniel; Breysse, Colette; Sautou, Valérie

    2015-02-01

    Medical devices (MDs) for infusion and enteral and parenteral nutrition are essentially made of plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The first step in assessing patient exposure to these plasticizers, as well as ensuring that the MDs are free from di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), consists of identifying and quantifying the plasticizers present and, consequently, determining which ones are likely to migrate into the patient's body. We compared three different extraction methods using 0.1 g of plasticized PVC: Soxhlet extraction in diethyl ether and ethyl acetate, polymer dissolution, and room temperature extraction in different solvents. It was found that simple room temperature chloroform extraction under optimized conditions (30 min, 50 mL) gave the best separation of plasticizers from the PVC matrix, with extraction yields ranging from 92 to 100% for all plasticizers. This result was confirmed by supplemented Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflection (FTIR-ATR) and gravimetric analyses. The technique was used on eight marketed medical devices and showed that they contained different amounts of plasticizers, ranging from 25 to 36% of the PVC weight. These yields, associated with the individual physicochemical properties of each plasticizer, highlight the need for further migration studies. PMID:25577357

  16. Control Software for Piezo Stepping Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, Joel F.

    2013-01-01

    A control system has been developed for the Space Interferometer Mission (SIM) piezo stepping actuator. Piezo stepping actuators are novel because they offer extreme dynamic range (centimeter stroke with nanometer resolution) with power, thermal, mass, and volume advantages over existing motorized actuation technology. These advantages come with the added benefit of greatly reduced complexity in the support electronics. The piezo stepping actuator consists of three fully redundant sets of piezoelectric transducers (PZTs), two sets of brake PZTs, and one set of extension PZTs. These PZTs are used to grasp and move a runner attached to the optic to be moved. By proper cycling of the two brake and extension PZTs, both forward and backward moves of the runner can be achieved. Each brake can be configured for either a power-on or power-off state. For SIM, the brakes and gate of the mechanism are configured in such a manner that, at the end of the step, the actuator is in a parked or power-off state. The control software uses asynchronous sampling of an optical encoder to monitor the position of the runner. These samples are timed to coincide with the end of the previous move, which may consist of a variable number of steps. This sampling technique linearizes the device by avoiding input saturation of the actuator and makes latencies of the plant vanish. The software also estimates, in real time, the scale factor of the device and a disturbance caused by cycling of the brakes. These estimates are used to actively cancel the brake disturbance. The control system also includes feedback and feedforward elements that regulate the position of the runner to a given reference position. Convergence time for smalland medium-sized reference positions (less than 200 microns) to within 10 nanometers can be achieved in under 10 seconds. Convergence times for large moves (greater than 1 millimeter) are limited by the step rate.

  17. Steps in Behavior Modividation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straughan, James H.; And Others

    James H. Straughan lists five steps for modifying target behavior and four steps for working with teachers using behavior modification. Grant Martin and Harold Kunzelmann then outline an instructional program for pinpointing and recording classroom behaviors. (JD)

  18. Antimicrobial efficacy of amine fluoride based tooth gels compared to a toothpaste in a phase 2/step 2 in-vitro test model

    PubMed Central

    Schiller, Anne; Großjohann, Beatrice; Welk, Alexander; Hübner, Nils-Olaf; Braun, Dagmar; Assadian, Ojan; Kramer, Axel

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of the present study was to determine the antimicrobial effect of various gel formulations on plaque formation; different tooth gels were compared to a toothpaste containing comparable antimicrobial ingredients with regard to its microbiocidal activity. The study was conducted under the assumption, that a chief requirement for the prevention of plaque formation is the combination of mechanical removal and antimicrobial activity, and not the sole capability of mechanical plaque removal. Methods: Ledermix® fluoride gel as commercially available with preservative, and without preservative and perfume oils, Elmex® gelée, and Meridol® toothpaste were tested in a standardized in-vitro test modification of the quantitative suspension test EN 1040. Instead of testing in a suspension, the respective product was directly placed on a standardized contaminated sterile stainless steel disk without adding any bio-burden. 50% egg yolk in Aqua dest. was used as a neutralizer. Results: Within 1 min, Elmex® gelée showed a RF >5 log10 against S. pyogenes and S. sanguinis. Against S. mutans, a log10 RF of ≥5 was achieved after 2 min, against C. albicans after 5 min, and against P. aeruginosa after 10 min S. aureus was the most difficult organisms to be reduced. After an application time of 10 min, only a log10 RF of 2.4 was achieved. Ledermix exceeded the antimicrobial efficacy of Elmex® gelée against S. mutans and C. albicans and was already effective against these organisms after 1 min, but did not show the same antimicrobial efficacy as Elmex® gelée against P. aeruginosa. Similar to Elmex® gelée, a required reduction of >5 log10 for antimicrobials under no organic challenge was not achieved against S. aureus. Ledermix® fluoride gel without preservatives and Ledermix® fluoride gel without preservatives and perfume oil did not show the antimicrobial efficacy of the standard Ledermix® fluoride gel formulation, indicating that the observed

  19. One Step to Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Carol A.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Described are activities and games incorporating a technique of "one step" which is used with children with learning difficulties. The purpose of "one step" is twofold, to minimize difficulties with typical trouble spots and to keep the step size of the instruction small. (Author/TG)

  20. A Step Circuit Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Susan

    1995-01-01

    Aerobics instructors can use step aerobics to motivate students. One creative method is to add the step to the circuit workout. By incorporating the step, aerobic instructors can accommodate various fitness levels. The article explains necessary equipment and procedures, describing sample stations for cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular strength,…

  1. STEP: A Futurevision, Today

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    STEP (STandard for the Exchange of Product Model Data) is an innovative software tool that allows the exchange of data between different programming systems to occur and helps speed up the designing in various process industries. This exchange occurs easily between those companies that have STEP, and many industries and government agencies are requiring that their vendors utilize STEP in their computer aided design projects, such as in the areas of mechanical, aeronautical, and electrical engineering. STEP allows the process of concurrent engineering to occur and increases the quality of the design product. One example of the STEP program is the Boeing 777, the first paperless airplane.

  2. Cyclic steps on ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokokawa, M.; Izumi, N.; Naito, K.; Parker, G.; Yamada, T.; Greve, R.

    2016-05-01

    Boundary waves often form at the interface between ice and fluid flowing adjacent to it, such as ripples under river ice covers, and steps on the bed of supraglacial meltwater channels. They may also be formed by wind, such as the megadunes on the Antarctic ice sheet. Spiral troughs on the polar ice caps of Mars have been interpreted to be cyclic steps formed by katabatic wind blowing over ice. Cyclic steps are relatives of upstream-migrating antidunes. Cyclic step formation on ice is not only a mechanical but also a thermodynamic process. There have been very few studies on the formation of either cyclic steps or upstream-migrating antidunes on ice. In this study, we performed flume experiments to reproduce cyclic steps on ice by flowing water, and found that trains of steps form when the Froude number is larger than unity. The features of those steps allow them to be identified as ice-bed analogs of cyclic steps in alluvial and bedrock rivers. We performed a linear stability analysis and obtained a physical explanation of the formation of upstream-migrating antidunes, i.e., precursors of cyclic steps. We compared the results of experiments with the predictions of the analysis and found the observed steps fall in the range where the analysis predicts interfacial instability. We also found that short antidune-like undulations formed as a precursor to the appearance of well-defined steps. This fact suggests that such antidune-like undulations correspond to the instability predicted by the analysis and are precursors of cyclic steps.

  3. Chip-based human liver-intestine and liver-skin co-cultures--A first step toward systemic repeated dose substance testing in vitro.

    PubMed

    Maschmeyer, Ilka; Hasenberg, Tobias; Jaenicke, Annika; Lindner, Marcus; Lorenz, Alexandra Katharina; Zech, Julie; Garbe, Leif-Alexander; Sonntag, Frank; Hayden, Patrick; Ayehunie, Seyoum; Lauster, Roland; Marx, Uwe; Materne, Eva-Maria

    2015-09-01

    Systemic repeated dose safety assessment and systemic efficacy evaluation of substances are currently carried out on laboratory animals and in humans due to the lack of predictive alternatives. Relevant international regulations, such as OECD and ICH guidelines, demand long-term testing and oral, dermal, inhalation, and systemic exposure routes for such evaluations. So-called "human-on-a-chip" concepts are aiming to replace respective animals and humans in substance evaluation with miniaturized functional human organisms. The major technical hurdle toward success in this field is the life-like combination of human barrier organ models, such as intestine, lung or skin, with parenchymal organ equivalents, such as liver, at the smallest biologically acceptable scale. Here, we report on a reproducible homeostatic long-term co-culture of human liver equivalents with either a reconstructed human intestinal barrier model or a human skin biopsy applying a microphysiological system. We used a multi-organ chip (MOC) platform, which provides pulsatile fluid flow within physiological ranges at low media-to-tissue ratios. The MOC supports submerse cultivation of an intact intestinal barrier model and an air-liquid interface for the skin model during their co-culture with the liver equivalents respectively at (1)/100.000 the scale of their human counterparts in vivo. To increase the degree of organismal emulation, microfluidic channels of the liver-skin co-culture could be successfully covered with human endothelial cells, thus mimicking human vasculature, for the first time. Finally, exposure routes emulating oral and systemic administration in humans have been qualified by applying a repeated dose administration of a model substance - troglitazone - to the chip-based co-cultures. PMID:25857839

  4. Step-wise temperature decreasing cultivates a biofilm with high nitrogen removal rates at 9°C in short-term anammox biofilm tests.

    PubMed

    Zekker, Ivar; Rikmann, Ergo; Mandel, Anni; Kroon, Kristel; Seiman, Andrus; Mihkelson, Jana; Tenno, Taavo; Tenno, Toomas

    2016-08-01

    The anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) and nitritation-anammox (deammonification) processes are widely used for N-rich wastewater treatment. When deammonification applications move towards low temperature applications (mainstream wastewater has low temperature), temperature effect has to be studied. In current research, in a deammonification moving bed biofilm reactor a maximum total nitrogen removal rate (TNRR) of 1.5 g N m(-2 )d(-1) (0.6 kg N m(-3 )d(-1)) was achieved. Temperature was gradually lowered by 0.5°C per week, and a similar TNRR was sustained at 15°C during biofilm cultivation. Statistical analysis confirmed that a temperature decrease from 20°C down to 15° did not cause instabilities. Instead, TNRR rose and treatment efficiency remained stable at lower temperatures as well. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses showed an increase in Candidatus Brocadia quantities from 5 × 10(3) to 1 × 10(7) anammox gene copies g(-1) total suspended solids (TSS) despite temperature lowered to 15°C. Fluctuations in TNRR were rather related to changes in influent [Formula: see text] concentration. To study the short-term effect of temperature on the TNRR, a series of batch-scale experiments were performed which showed sufficient TNRRs even at 9-15°C (1.24-3.43 mg N g(-1 )TSS h(-1), respectively) with anammox temperature constants (Q10) ranging 1.3-1.6. Experiments showed that a biofilm adapted to 15°C can perform N-removal most sufficiently at temperatures down to 9°C as compared with biofilm adapted to higher temperature. After biomass was adapted to 15°C, the decrease in TNRR in batch tests at 9°C was lower (15-20%) than that for biomass adapted to 17-18°C. PMID:26708295

  5. Golgi-Cox Staining Step by Step

    PubMed Central

    Zaqout, Sami; Kaindl, Angela M.

    2016-01-01

    Golgi staining remains a key method to study neuronal morphology in vivo. Since most protocols delineating modifications of the original staining method lack details on critical steps, establishing this method in a laboratory can be time-consuming and frustrating. Here, we describe the Golgi-Cox staining in such detail that should turn the staining into an easily feasible method for all scientists working in the neuroscience field. PMID:27065817

  6. Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killoran, James, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    This journal issue addresses the issue of testing in the social studies classroom. The first article, "The Role of Testing" (Bragaw), focuses on the need for tests to reflect the objectives of the study completed. The varying functions of pop quizzes, weekly tests, and unit tests are explored. "Testing Thinking Processes" (Killoran, Zimmer, and…

  7. The Twelve Steps Experientially.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horne, Lianne

    Experiential activities provide each participant with the ability to see, feel, and experience whatever therapeutic issue the facilitator is addressing, and usually much more. This paper presents experiential activities to address the 12 steps of recovery adopted from Alcoholics Anonymous. These 12 steps are used worldwide for many other recovery…

  8. Large-scale stepped spillway testing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hazard classifications for many earthen embankment dams have changed due to shifting demographics surrounding the structures. Originally designed to protect agricultural land, these embankments are now surrounded by residential communities and other infrastructure. To meet federal and state dam sa...

  9. Development of the Canadian Home Fitness Test

    PubMed Central

    Shephard, Roy J.; Bailey, Donald A.; Mirwald, Robert L.

    1976-01-01

    The Canadian Home Fitness Test is a self-administered procedure in which the participant steps at an age- and sex-specific rhythm controlled by recorded music, then palpates the pulse immediately following activity. Validation of the test has shown a correlation of 0.72 with the results of a standard submaximum bicycle ergometer test, while the directly measured maximum oxygen intake is correlated even more closely (r = 0.88) with the attained stepping rate, body weight and recovery heart rate. Given modest training, subjects could measure their immediate postexercise heart rate (correlation with electro-cardiographic data, r = 0.94), although 10-second counts underestimated the true rate by an average of 7 beats/min. The safety of the test will be established ultimately by experience in its use in a large population; nevertheless, both theoretical considerations and results of trials in over 14 000 adults suggest the procedure can be self-administered without serious consequences. It is also well accepted by the general public and arouses considerable interest in most homes. The test can thus be recommended as providing an approximate measure of an individual's physical fitness in order to stimulate an increase in personal physical activity. It also has potential as a simple screening procedure that would allow paramedical personnel to record fitness levels and standardized exercise electrocardiograms in large segments of the population. PMID:56979

  10. The Next Giant Step

    NASA Video Gallery

    Artist Robert McCall painted "The Next Giant Step" in 1979 to commemorate the heroism and courage of spaceflight pioneers. Located in the lobby of Johnson's building 2, the mural depicts America's ...

  11. "GIANT" Steps to Create Online Orientations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, Pamela

    2005-01-01

    Online orientation is provided due to the flexibility of online learning. The online orientation consists of the GIANT steps which stands for Get support, Identify your curriculum, Assemble your program, Navigate students through the pilot project and Test students.

  12. Prediction of Cardiorespiratory Fitness by the Six-Minute Step Test and Its Association with Muscle Strength and Power in Sedentary Obese and Lean Young Women: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Bonjorno Junior, José Carlos; de Oliveira, Cláudio Ricardo; Luporini, Rafael Luís; Mendes, Renata Gonçalves; Zangrando, Katiany Thais Lopes; Trimer, Renata; Arena, Ross

    2015-01-01

    Impaired cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is a hallmark characteristic in obese and lean sedentary young women. Peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) prediction from the six-minute step test (6MST) has not been established for sedentary females. It is recognized that lower-limb muscle strength and power play a key role during functional activities. The aim of this study was to investigate cardiorespiratory responses during the 6MST and CPX and to develop a predictive equation to estimate VO2peak in both lean and obese subjects. Additionally we aim to investigate how muscle function impacts functional performance. Lean (LN = 13) and obese (OB = 18) women, aged 20–45, underwent a CPX, two 6MSTs, and isokinetic and isometric knee extensor strength and power evaluations. Regression analysis assessed the ability to predict VO2peak from the 6MST, age and body mass index (BMI). CPX and 6MST main outcomes were compared between LN and OB and correlated with strength and power variables. CRF, functional capacity, and muscle strength and power were lower in the OB compared to LN (<0.05). During the 6MST, LN and OB reached ~90% of predicted maximal heart rate and ~80% of the VO2peak obtained during CPX. BMI, age and number of step cycles (NSC) explained 83% of the total variance in VO2peak. Moderate to strong correlations between VO2peak at CPX and VO2peak at 6MST (r = 0.86), VO2peak at CPX and NSC (r = 0.80), as well as between VO2peak, NSC and muscle strength and power variables were found (p<0.05). These findings indicate the 6MST, BMI and age accurately predict VO2peak in both lean and obese young sedentary women. Muscle strength and power were related to measures of aerobic and functional performance. PMID:26717568

  13. The Role of Glutamate Dehydrogenase (GDH) Testing Assay in the Diagnosis of Clostridium difficile Infections: A High Sensitive Screening Test and an Essential Step in the Proposed Laboratory Diagnosis Workflow for Developing Countries like China.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jing-Wei; Xiao, Meng; Kudinha, Timothy; Xu, Zhi-Peng; Sun, Lin-Ying; Hou, Xin; Zhang, Li; Fan, Xin; Kong, Fanrong; Xu, Ying-Chun

    2015-01-01

    The incidence and severity of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in North America and Europe has increased significantly since the 2000s. However, CDI is not widely recognized in China and other developing countries due to limited laboratory diagnostic capacity and low awareness. Most published studies on laboratory workflows for CDI diagnosis are from developed countries, and thus may not be suitable for most developing countries. Therefore, an alternative strategy for developing countries is needed. In this study, we evaluated the performance of the Glutamate Dehydrogenase (GDH) test and its associated workflow on 416 fecal specimens from suspected CDI cases. The assay exhibited excellent sensitivity (100.0%) and specificity (92.8%), compared to culture based method, and thus could be a good screening marker for C. difficile but not for indication of toxin production. The VIDAS CDAB assay, which can detect toxin A/B directly from fecal specimens, showed good specificity (99.7%) and positive predictive value (97.2%), but low sensitivity (45.0%) and negative predictive value (88.3%), compared with PCR-based toxin gene detection. Therefore, we propose a practical and efficient GDH test based workflow strategy for the laboratory diagnosis of CDI in developing countries like China. By applying this new workflow, the CDI laboratory diagnosis rate was notably improved in our center, yet the increasing cost was kept at a minimum level. Furthermore, to gain some insights into the genetic population structure of C. difficile isolates from our hospital, we performed MLST and PCR toxin gene typing. PMID:26659011

  14. The Role of Glutamate Dehydrogenase (GDH) Testing Assay in the Diagnosis of Clostridium difficile Infections: A High Sensitive Screening Test and an Essential Step in the Proposed Laboratory Diagnosis Workflow for Developing Countries like China

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jing-Wei; Xiao, Meng; Kudinha, Timothy; Xu, Zhi-Peng; Sun, Lin-Ying; Hou, Xin; Zhang, Li; Fan, Xin; Kong, Fanrong; Xu, Ying-Chun

    2015-01-01

    The incidence and severity of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in North America and Europe has increased significantly since the 2000s. However, CDI is not widely recognized in China and other developing countries due to limited laboratory diagnostic capacity and low awareness. Most published studies on laboratory workflows for CDI diagnosis are from developed countries, and thus may not be suitable for most developing countries. Therefore, an alternative strategy for developing countries is needed. In this study, we evaluated the performance of the Glutamate Dehydrogenase (GDH) test and its associated workflow on 416 fecal specimens from suspected CDI cases. The assay exhibited excellent sensitivity (100.0%) and specificity (92.8%), compared to culture based method, and thus could be a good screening marker for C. difficile but not for indication of toxin production. The VIDAS CDAB assay, which can detect toxin A/B directly from fecal specimens, showed good specificity (99.7%) and positive predictive value (97.2%), but low sensitivity (45.0%) and negative predictive value (88.3%), compared with PCR-based toxin gene detection. Therefore, we propose a practical and efficient GDH test based workflow strategy for the laboratory diagnosis of CDI in developing countries like China. By applying this new workflow, the CDI laboratory diagnosis rate was notably improved in our center, yet the increasing cost was kept at a minimum level. Furthermore, to gain some insights into the genetic population structure of C. difficile isolates from our hospital, we performed MLST and PCR toxin gene typing. PMID:26659011

  15. Tank tests to determine the effect of varying design parameters of planing-tail hulls II : effect of varying depth of step, angle of after- body keel, length of afterbody chine, and gross load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, John R; Mckann, Robert; Hay, Elizabeth S

    1946-01-01

    The second part of a series of tests made in Langley tank no. 2 to determine the effect of varying design parameters of planing-tail hulls is presented. Results are given to show the effects on resistance characteristics of varying angle of afterbody keel, depth of step, and length of afterbody chine. The effect of varying the gross load is shown for one configuration. The resistance characteristics of planing-tail hulls are compared with those of a conventional flying-boat hull. The forces on the forebody and afterbody of one configuration are compared with the forces on a conventional hull. Increasing the angle of afterbody keel had small effect on hump resistance and no effect on high-speed resistance but increased free-to-trim resistance at intermediate speeds. Increasing the depth of step increased hump resistance, had little effect on high-speed resistance, and increased free-to-trim resistance at intermediate speeds. Omitting the chines on the forward 25 percent of the afterbody had no appreciable effect on resistance. Omitting 70 percent of the chine length had almost no effect on maximum resistance but broadened the hump and increased spray around the afterbody. Load-resistance ratio at the hump decreased more rapidly with increasing load coefficient for the planing-tail hull than for the representative conventional hull, although the load-resistance ratio at the hump was greater for the planing-tail hull than for the conventional hull throughout the range of loads tested. At speeds higher than hump speed, load-resistance ratio for the planing-tail hull was a maximum at a particular gross load and was slightly less at heavier and lighter gross loads. The planing-tail hull was found to have lower resistance than the conventional hull at both the hump and at high speeds, but at intermediate speeds there was little difference. The lower hump resistance of the planing-tail hull was attributed to the ability of the afterbody to carry a greater percentage of the

  16. Stepped inlet optical panel

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James T.

    2001-01-01

    An optical panel includes stacked optical waveguides having stepped inlet facets collectively defining an inlet face for receiving image light, and having beveled outlet faces collectively defining a display screen for displaying the image light channeled through the waveguides by internal reflection.

  17. Steps Toward Effective Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cope, Carolyn O.

    1996-01-01

    Describes and defines the steps involved in measurement and evaluation: (1) determining an outcome; (2)defining scoring criteria; (3)establishing appropriate assessment tasks; and (4)creating opportunities for learning. Includes a flow chart for a design-down curriculum and an example of a vocal performance rating scale assessment. (MJP)

  18. 2-Step IMAT and 2-Step IMRT in three dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Bratengeier, Klaus

    2005-12-15

    In two dimensions, 2-Step Intensity Modulated Arc Therapy (2-Step IMAT) and 2-Step Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) were shown to be powerful methods for the optimization of plans with organs at risk (OAR) (partially) surrounded by a target volume (PTV). In three dimensions, some additional boundary conditions have to be considered to establish 2-Step IMAT as an optimization method. A further aim was to create rules for ad hoc adaptations of an IMRT plan to a daily changing PTV-OAR constellation. As a test model, a cylindrically symmetric PTV-OAR combination was used. The centrally placed OAR can adapt arbitrary diameters with different gap widths toward the PTV. Along the rotation axis the OAR diameter can vary, the OAR can even vanish at some axis positions, leaving a circular PTV. The width and weight of the second segment were the free parameters to optimize. The objective function f to minimize was the root of the integral of the squared difference of the dose in the target volume and a reference dose. For the problem, two local minima exist. Therefore, as a secondary criteria, the magnitude of hot and cold spots were taken into account. As a result, the solution with a larger segment width was recommended. From plane to plane for varying radii of PTV and OAR and for different gaps between them, different sets of weights and widths were optimal. Because only one weight for one segment shall be used for all planes (respectively leaf pairs), a strategy for complex three-dimensional (3-D) cases was established to choose a global weight. In a second step, a suitable segment width was chosen, minimizing f for this global weight. The concept was demonstrated in a planning study for a cylindrically symmetric example with a large range of different radii of an OAR along the patient axis. The method is discussed for some classes of tumor/organ at risk combinations. Noncylindrically symmetric cases were treated exemplarily. The product of width and weight of

  19. ACSM Fitness Book: A Proven Step-By-Step Program from the Experts. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Coll. of Sports Medicine, Indianapolis, IN.

    This offers advice on the health benefits of regular physical activity. It includes a scientifically proven fitness test to determine one's starting point and monitor ongoing progress, offering step-by-step instructions, sample programs, and insights on nutrition, weight control, motivation, and overcoming setbacks. Seven chapters examine: (1) "An…

  20. New photolithography stepping machine

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, L.; Klingmann, J.; Markle, D.

    1995-03-08

    A joint development project to design a new photolithography steeping machine capable of 150 nanometer overlay accuracy was completed by Ultratech Stepper and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The principal result of the project is a next-generation product that will strengthen the US position in step-and-repeat photolithography. The significant challenges addressed and solved in the project are the subject of this report. Design methods and new devices that have broader application to precision machine design are presented in greater detail while project specific information serves primarily as background and motivation.

  1. SPAR-H Step-by-Step Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    W. J. Galyean; A. M. Whaley; D. L. Kelly; R. L. Boring

    2011-05-01

    This guide provides step-by-step guidance on the use of the SPAR-H method for quantifying Human Failure Events (HFEs). This guide is intended to be used with the worksheets provided in: 'The SPAR-H Human Reliability Analysis Method,' NUREG/CR-6883, dated August 2005. Each step in the process of producing a Human Error Probability (HEP) is discussed. These steps are: Step-1, Categorizing the HFE as Diagnosis and/or Action; Step-2, Rate the Performance Shaping Factors; Step-3, Calculate PSF-Modified HEP; Step-4, Accounting for Dependence, and; Step-5, Minimum Value Cutoff. The discussions on dependence are extensive and include an appendix that describes insights obtained from the psychology literature.

  2. Accuracy of Step Recording in Free-Living Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrens, Timothy K.; Dinger, Mary K.; Vesely, Sara K.; Fields, David A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how accurately free-living adults record their pedometer steps on step logs. Researchers used three different methods to examine the accuracy of participant-recorded steps: tests of equivalence, correlation coefficients, and Bland-Altman plots. Findings indicate that participant-recorded steps…

  3. Stair-stepped Mound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-429, 22 July 2003

    This April 2003 Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a stair-stepped mound of sedimentary rock (right of center) on the floor of a large impact crater in western Arabia Terra near 11.0oN, 4.4oW. Sedimentary rock outcrops are common in the craters of this region. The repeated thickness and uniformity of the layers that make up this mound suggest that their depositional environment was one in which cyclic or episodic events occurred over some period of time. The sediments might have been deposited in a lake, or they may have settled directly out of the atmosphere. Most of the layered material was later eroded away, leaving this circular mound and the other nearby mesas and knobs. The image is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  4. A Few Easy Steps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Tom

    2000-01-01

    Examines tested techniques that can keep a school's carpeting in good condition. Cleaning with hot water extraction, removing spills and spots, handling emergency cleanups, and cleaning soft surface flooring are addressed. (GR)

  5. Green Schools Energy Project: A Step-by-Step Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigley, Gwen

    This publication contains a step-by-step guide for implementing an energy-saving project in local school districts: the installation of newer, more energy-efficient "T-8" fluorescent tube lights in place of "T-12" lights. Eleven steps are explained in detail: (1) find out what kind of lights the school district currently uses; (2) form a group to…

  6. Fermentation guide for potatoes. A step-by-step procedure for small-scale ethanol fuel production

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-01

    This guide describes the steps involved in the successful batch starch conversion and fermentation of potatoes for the production of fuel grade ethanol. The first part of this manual provides an overview of ethanol production from feedstock to fermentation. The second part of the manual is a recipe section that gives step-by-step procedures necessary for successful fermentation. Chapter titles are: major steps in ethanol production; equipment and chemicals; water testing and treatment; feedstock cleaning and crushing; precooking; hydration and dextrinization; cooking; choosing the best enzymes; fermentation; core and cleaning, step-by-step procedure; refinements; and supplies. (DMC)

  7. Analysis Of Stepped Labyrinth Seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scharrer, Joseph K.

    1990-01-01

    Report presents analysis of compressible flow in stepped labyrinth gas seal in turbomachine. Part of continuing effort to understand and suppress self-excited vibrations caused by stepped labyrinth seals. Rotordynamic coefficients derived for compressible flow.

  8. The Stepping Stone Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brumfitt, A.

    Education is a profession in its own right. It has its own parameters, passions and language. Having the responsibility both of educare and educere, education has a focus of delivering specific factual knowledge whilst drawing out the creative mind. Space Science is a special vehicle having the properties of both educare and educere. It has a magic and wonder that touches the very essence of an individual and his place in time and space; it offers the "wow" factor that all teachers strive for. Space Science is the wrapping paper for other elements in the curriculum, e.g. cross-curricula and skill-based activities, such as language development, creativity, etc. as well as the pure sciences which comprise of engineering, physics and other natural sciences from astronomy to chemistry to biology. Each of these spheres of influence are relevant from kindergarten to undergraduate studies and complement, and in addition support informal education in museums, science centers and the world of e-learning. ESA Science Education has devised the "Stepping Stone Approach" to maximize the greatest outreach to all education stakeholders in Europe. In this paper we illustrate how to best reach these target groups with very specific activities to trigger and sustain enthusiasm whilst supporting the pedagogical, subject content and skill-based needs of a prescribed curriculum.

  9. SPAR-H Step-by-Step Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    April M. Whaley; Dana L. Kelly; Ronald L. Boring; William J. Galyean

    2012-06-01

    Step-by-step guidance was developed recently at Idaho National Laboratory for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission on the use of the Standardized Plant Analysis Risk-Human Reliability Analysis (SPAR-H) method for quantifying Human Failure Events (HFEs). This work was done to address SPAR-H user needs, specifically requests for additional guidance on the proper application of various aspects of the methodology. This paper overviews the steps of the SPAR-H analysis process and highlights some of the most important insights gained during the development of the step-by-step directions. This supplemental guidance for analysts is applicable when plant-specific information is available, and goes beyond the general guidance provided in existing SPAR-H documentation. The steps highlighted in this paper are: Step-1, Categorizing the HFE as Diagnosis and/or Action; Step-2, Rate the Performance Shaping Factors; Step-3, Calculate PSF-Modified HEP; Step-4, Accounting for Dependence, and; Step-5, Minimum Value Cutoff.

  10. Multiple stage miniature stepping motor

    DOEpatents

    Niven, William A.; Shikany, S. David; Shira, Michael L.

    1981-01-01

    A stepping motor comprising a plurality of stages which may be selectively activated to effect stepping movement of the motor, and which are mounted along a common rotor shaft to achieve considerable reduction in motor size and minimum diameter, whereby sequential activation of the stages results in successive rotor steps with direction being determined by the particular activating sequence followed.

  11. Powerlessness Reinterpreted: Reframing Step One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Susan L.

    The 12 steps of the well-known mutual help group, Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), begin with Step One, admitting powerlessness. Although Step One has helped many problem drinkers and other addicts, its spiritual concepts have been criticized. The possibility of reconceptualizing powerlessness as empowering, not only within AA and its offshoot programs,…

  12. Step-step interactions on GaAs (110) nanopatterns

    SciTech Connect

    Galiana, B.; Benedicto, M.; Tejedor, P.

    2013-01-14

    The step-step interactions on vicinal GaAs (110) surface patterns have been extracted from the quantitative analysis of the terrace width distribution (TWD). We have specifically studied the interactions in near-equilibrium faceting and kinetics-driven step bunching and meandering formed by spontaneous self-organization or through the modification of GaAs growth kinetics by atomic hydrogen. We show that the experimental TWDs determined from atomic force microscopy measurements can be accurately described by a weighed sum of a generalized Wigner distribution and several Gaussians. The results of our calculations indicate that straight facets are formed during high temperature homoepitaxy due to attractive interactions between [110] steps. At low temperatures, steady state attractive interactions in [110] step bunches are preceded by a transition regime dominated by entropic and energetic repulsions between meandering [11n]-type steps (n {>=} 2), whose population density exceeds that of the [110] bunched steps. In addition, it has been found that atomic H reduces the attractive interactions between [110] bunched steps and enhances entropic and dipole-induced energetic repulsions between H-terminated [11n] steps through the inhibition of As-As bond formation at step edges. Our analysis has evidenced a correlation between the value of the adjustable parameter that accounts in our model for the specific weight of the secondary peaks in the TWD ({beta}) and the extent of transverse meandering on the vicinal surface.

  13. Faceting diagram for sticky steps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akutsu, Noriko

    2016-03-01

    Faceting diagrams for the step-faceting zone, the step droplet zone, and the Gruber-Mullins-Pokrovsky-Talapov (GMPT) zone for a crystal surface are obtained by using the density matrix renormalization group method to calculate the surface tension. The model based on these calculations is the restricted solid-on-solid (RSOS) model with a point-contact-type step-step attraction (p-RSOS model) on a square lattice. The point-contact-type step-step attraction represents the energy gain obtained by forming a bonding state with orbital overlap at the meeting point of the neighboring steps. In the step-faceting zone, disconnectedness in the surface tension leads to the formation of a faceted macrostep on a vicinal surface at equilibrium. The disconnectedness in the surface tension also causes the first-order shape transition for the equilibrium shape of a crystal droplet. The lower zone boundary line (ZBL), which separates the step-faceting zone and the step droplet zone, is obtained by the condition γ 1 = lim n → ∞ γ n / n , where γn is the step tension of the n-th merged step. The upper ZBL, which separates the GMPT zone and the step droplet zone, is obtained by the condition Aq,eff = 0 and Bq,eff = 0, where Aq,eff and Bq,eff represent the coefficients for the | q → | 2 term and the | q → | 3 term, respectively, in the | q → | -expanded form of the surface free energy f eff ( q → ) . Here, q → is the surface gradient relative to the (111) surface. The reason why the vicinal surface inclined in the <101> direction does not exhibit step-faceting is explained in terms of the one-dimensional spinless quasi-impenetrable attractive bosons at absolute zero.

  14. Data Wise: A Step by Step Guide to Using Assessment Results to Improve Teaching and Learning. Revised and Expanded Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudett, Kathryn Parker, Ed.; City, Elizabeth A., Ed.; Murnane, Richard J., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    "Data Wise: A Step-by-Step Guide to Using Assessment Results to Improve Teaching and Learning" presents a clear and carefully tested blueprint for school leaders. It shows how examining test scores and other classroom data can become a catalyst for important schoolwide conversations that will enhance schools' abilities to capture…

  15. Step by Step to Smoke-Free Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanSciver, James H.; Roberts, H. Earl

    1989-01-01

    This ERIC digest discusses ways of effectively banning smoking in schools so that controversies do not continue after implementation of the policy. By advocating a process approach, the document cites steps taken by the Lake Forest School Board to prohibit smoking in and around school grounds. Step one involved committee planning involving…

  16. Step-By-Step Professional Development in Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meltzer, Sarah T.

    2012-01-01

    Don't train your teachers in instructional technology without reading this resource-packed book from Sarah T. Meltzer. Meltzer presents easy-to-follow guidelines for bringing about effective professional development in technology from start to finish. She takes you step-by-step through the process of planning, implementing, and managing…

  17. Step-by-Step Visual Manuals: Design and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urata, Toshiyuki

    2004-01-01

    The types of handouts and manuals that are used in technology training vary. Some describe procedures in a narrative way without graphics; some employ step-by-step instructions with screen captures. According to Thirlway (1994), a training manual should be like a tutor that permits a student to learn at his own pace and gives him confidence for…

  18. Preface, Soil Science: A step-by-step analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book provides step-by-step procedures for soil professionals, without a lot of background theory. Chapters are targeted toward agricultural and environmental consultants, producers, students, teachers, government, and industry. Applied soil scientists gave input through a survey, which guided t...

  19. Comparison of Sorbitol MacConkey Agar and a Two-Step Method Which Utilizes Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Toxin Testing and a Chromogenic Agar To Detect and Isolate Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Novicki, Thomas J.; Daly, Judy A.; Mottice, Susan L.; Carroll, Karen C.

    2000-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) and specifically serotype O157:H7 are a significant cause of hemorrhagic gastrointestinal disease and the hemolytic uremic syndrome. Methods currently used in clinical microbiology labs, such as sorbitol-MacConkey (SMAC) agar, reliably detect only O157:H7. We have evaluated a two-step method that has the potential to identify and isolate all EHEC serotypes, including serotype O157:H7. This method utilizes a chromogenic selective-differential medium for the isolation of E. coli together with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects the Shiga-like toxins Stx1 and Stx2. Both are commercially available and usable in a wide range of clinical microbiology laboratories. Compared to a Vero cell cytotoxic assay, SMAC had sensitivities of 23.5% for the identification of all EHEC serotypes and of 50.0% for the identification of O157:H7 alone. The two-step method had sensitivities of 76.5 and 100%, respectively. The ELISA alone had a sensitivity of 82.4% in the detection of Stx1 and Stx2. The specificity was 100% in all cases. Overall, 14 EHEC isolates were obtained: 8 (58%) O157:H7, 2 (14%) O26, 2 (14%) O111:NM, 1 (7%) O103:H2, and 1 (7%) O121:H19. All but one were isolated during the months of May to September. The two-step method was found to be considerably more expensive than SMAC for both positive and negative samples. PMID:10655343

  20. Grief: Difficult Times, Simple Steps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waszak, Emily Lane

    This guide presents techniques to assist others in coping with the loss of a loved one. Using the language of 9 layperson, the book contains more than 100 tips for caregivers or loved ones. A simple step is presented on each page, followed by reasons and instructions for each step. Chapters include: "What to Say"; "Helpful Things to Do"; "Dealing…

  1. Physical modeling of stepped spillways

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stepped spillways applied to embankment dams are becoming popular for addressing the rehabilitation of aging watershed dams, especially those situated in the urban landscape. Stepped spillways are typically placed over the existing embankment, which provides for minimal disturbance to the original ...

  2. Leidenfrost Drop on a Step

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagubeau, Guillaume; Le Merrer, Marie; Clanet, Christophe; Quere, David

    2008-11-01

    When deposited on a hot plate, a water droplet evaporates quickly. However, a vapor film appears under the drop above a critical temperature, called Leidenfrost temperature, which insulates the drop from its substrate. Linke & al (2006) reported a spontaneous movement of such a drop, when deposited on a ratchet. We study here the case of a flat substrate decorated with a single micrometric step. The drop is deposited on the lower part of the plate and pushed towards the step at small constant velocity. If the kinetic energy of the drop is sufficient, it can climb up the step. In that case, depending on the substrate temperature, the drop can either be decelerated or accelerated by the step. We try to understand the dynamics of these drops, especially the regime where they accelerate. Taking advantage of this phenomenon, we could then build a multiple-step setup, making it possible for a Leidenfrost drop to climb stairs.

  3. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart S of... - Test Procedures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test Procedures B Appendix B to Subpart... Requirements Pt. 51, Subpt. S, App. B Appendix B to Subpart S of Part 51—Test Procedures (I) Idle test (a... begin 10 seconds after the applicable test mode begins. Exhaust gas concentrations shall be analyzed...

  4. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart S of... - Test Procedures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Test Procedures B Appendix B to Subpart... Requirements Pt. 51, Subpt. S, App. B Appendix B to Subpart S of Part 51—Test Procedures (I) Idle test (a... begin 10 seconds after the applicable test mode begins. Exhaust gas concentrations shall be analyzed...

  5. ACT Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page helpful? Also known as: ACT; Activated Coagulation Time Formal name: Activated Clotting Time Related tests: ... in the blood called platelets and proteins called coagulation factors are activated in a sequence of steps ...

  6. Slip-trace-induced vicinal step destabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coupeau, C.; Camara, O.; Drouet, M.; Durinck, J.; Bonneville, J.; Colin, J.; Grilhé, J.

    2016-01-01

    Gold single crystals were deformed by uniaxial compression tests with the help of an experimental apparatus that allows one to characterize in situ, by UHV scanning tunneling microscopy, the evolution of surface structures under stress. It is demonstrated that the slip traces resulting from the emergence of moving dislocations at the free surface highly modify the organization of the vicinal steps. A model based on energetic considerations is proposed and discussed to explain the observed phenomenon.

  7. Step-by-step growth of complex oxide microstructures

    SciTech Connect

    Datskos, Panos G.; Cullen, David A.; Sharma, Jaswinder K.

    2015-06-10

    The synthesis of complex and hybrid oxide microstructures is of fundamental interest and practical applications. However, the design and synthesis of such structures is a challenging task. We developed a solution phase process to synthesize complex silica and silica titania hybrid microstructures by exploiting the emulsion droplet based shape control and step by step growth. The strategy is robust and can be extended to make complex hybrid structures made of two or more materials while each having its own shape.

  8. Two-step electroweak baryogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Satoru; Ovanesyan, Grigory; Ramsey-Musolf, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    We analyze electroweak baryogenesis during a two-step electroweak symmetry-breaking transition, wherein the baryon asymmetry is generated during the first step and preserved during the second. Focusing on the dynamics of C P violation required for asymmetry generation, we discuss general considerations for successful two-step baryogenesis. Using a concrete model realization, we illustrate in detail the viability of this scenario and the implications for present and future electric dipole moment (EDM) searches. We find that C P violation associated with a partially excluded sector may yield the observed baryon asymmetry while evading present and future EDM constraints.

  9. Implementing Service Learning into a Graduate Social Work Course: A Step-by-Step Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Evelyn Marie

    2012-01-01

    Service learning is a powerful pedagogical tool linking community service to academic learning. Several steps are necessary to implement service learning effectively into the curriculum. This study uses a case example as an exploratory study to pilot-test data on how service learning impacts student outcomes. The paper will (1) provide an overview…

  10. Sweat electrolytes test

    MedlinePlus

    Sweat test; Sweat chloride; Iontophoretic sweat test ... No special steps are needed before this test. ... The test is not painful. Some people have a tingling feeling at the site of the electrode. This feeling ...

  11. Dissipating Step Bunches during Crystallization under Transport Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Hong; Yau, S.-T.; Vekilov, Peter, G.

    2003-01-01

    In studies of crystal formation by the generation and spreading of layers, equidistant step trains are considered unstable---bunches and other spatiotemporal patterns of the growth steps are viewed as ubiquitous. We provide an example to the opposite. We monitor the spatiotemporal dynamics of steps and the resulting step patterns during crystallization of the proteins ferritin and apoferritin using the atomic force microscope. The variations in step velocity and density are not correlated, indicating the lack of a long-range attraction between the steps. We show that (i) because of its coupling to bulk transport, nucleation of new layers is chaotic and occurs at the facet edges, where the interfacial supersaturation is higher; (ii) step bunches self-organize via the competition for supply from the solution; and, (iii) bunches of weakly interacting steps decay as they move along the face. Tests by numerical modeling support the conclusions about the mechanisms underlying our observations. The results from these systems suggest that during crystallization controlled by transport, with weakly or noninteracting growth steps, the stable kinetic state of the surface is an equidistant step train, and step bunches only arise during nucleation of new layers. Since nucleation only occurs at a few sites on the surface, the surface morphology may be controllably patterned or smoothened by locally controlling nucleation.

  12. The Multipole Structure of Earth's STEP Signal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nordtvedt, Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    If there is an interaction in physical law which differentially accelerates the test bodies in a STEP satellite, then the di.erent elements that compose the Earth will most likely have source strengths for this interaction which are not proportional to their mass densities. The rotational flattening of Earth and geographical irregularities of our planet's crust then produces a multipole structure for the Equivalence Principle violating force field which differs from the multipole structure of Earth's ordinary gravity field. Measuring these differences yields key information about the new interaction in physical law which is not attainable by solely measuring differences of test body accelerations.

  13. 7 Steps to Aging Well

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issue Past Issues Special Section 7 Steps to Aging Well Past Issues / Winter 2007 Table of Contents ... Exercise: A Guide from the National Institute on Aging is a publication from NIA that has strength, ...

  14. 3. Southeast corner of Building 202, looking northwest from steps ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Southeast corner of Building 202, looking northwest from steps on hillside near water tank. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, GRC Building No. 202, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  15. Step-by-Step Growth of Complex Oxide Microstructures.

    PubMed

    Datskos, Panos; Cullen, David A; Sharma, Jaswinder

    2015-07-27

    The synthesis of complex and hybrid oxide microstructures is of fundamental interest and practical applications. However, the design and synthesis of such structures is a challenging task. A solution-phase process to synthesize complex silica and silica-titania hybrid microstructures was developed by exploiting the emulsion-droplet-based step-by-step growth featuring shape control. The strategy is robust and can be extended to the preparation of complex hybrid structures consisting of two or more materials, with each having its own shape. PMID:26095228

  16. A step-by-step methodology for enterprise interoperability projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalmeta, Ricardo; Pazos, Verónica

    2015-05-01

    Enterprise interoperability is one of the key factors for enhancing enterprise competitiveness. Achieving enterprise interoperability is an extremely complex process which involves different technological, human and organisational elements. In this paper we present a framework to help enterprise interoperability. The framework has been developed taking into account the three domains of interoperability: Enterprise Modelling, Architecture and Platform and Ontologies. The main novelty of the framework in comparison to existing ones is that it includes a step-by-step methodology that explains how to carry out an enterprise interoperability project taking into account different interoperability views, like business, process, human resources, technology, knowledge and semantics.

  17. Writing a Simulation Scenario: A Step-By-Step Guide.

    PubMed

    Bambini, Deborah

    2016-02-01

    Simulation is becoming a widely used method of helping nurses learn and maintain competency in the clinical area for both staff educators in clinical settings and nursing faculty in academic settings. Designing an effective simulation experience requires thoughtful planning, knowledge of educational principles, and knowledge of best practices in both simulation and clinical practice. An evidence-based strategy for writing a simulation scenario for nurses and other health care providers in any setting is described. A step-by-step process is outlined that incorporates best practices. Examples and suggestions are provided to help readers create quality simulation experiences. PMID:26909455

  18. Partial Return Yoke for MICE Step IV and Final Step

    SciTech Connect

    Witte, Holger; Plate, Stephen; Berg, J.Scott; Tarrant, Jason; Bross, Alan

    2015-06-01

    This paper reports on the progress of the design and construction of a retro-fitted return yoke for the international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE). MICE is a proof-of-principle experiment aiming to demonstrate ionization cooling experimentally. In earlier studies we outlined how a partial return yoke can be used to mitigate stray magnetic field in the experimental hall; we report on the progress of the construction of the partial return yoke for MICE Step IV. We also discuss an extension of the Partial Return Yoke for the final step of MICE; we show simulation results of the expected performance.

  19. Partial return yoke for MICE step IV and final step

    SciTech Connect

    Witte, H.; Plate, S.; Berg, J. S.; Tarrant, J.; Bross, A.

    2015-05-03

    This paper reports on the progress of the design and construction of a retro-fitted return yoke for the international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE). MICE is a proof-of-principle experiment aiming to demonstrate ionization cooling experimentally. In earlier studies we outlined how a partial return yoke can be used to mitigate stray magnetic field in the experimental hall; we report on the progress of the construction of the partial return yoke for MICE Step IV. We also discuss an extension of the Partial Return Yoke for the final step of MICE; we show simulation results of the expected performance.

  20. The CORE study protocol: a stepped wedge cluster randomised controlled trial to test a co-design technique to optimise psychosocial recovery outcomes for people affected by mental illness in the community mental health setting

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Victoria J; Chondros, Patty; Piper, Donella; Callander, Rosemary; Weavell, Wayne; Godbee, Kali; Potiriadis, Maria; Richard, Lauralie; Densely, Konstancja; Herrman, Helen; Furler, John; Pierce, David; Schuster, Tibor; Iedema, Rick; Gunn, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Introduction User engagement in mental health service design is heralded as integral to health systems quality and performance, but does engagement improve health outcomes? This article describes the CORE study protocol, a novel stepped wedge cluster randomised controlled trial (SWCRCT) to improve psychosocial recovery outcomes for people with severe mental illness. Methods An SWCRCT with a nested process evaluation will be conducted over nearly 4 years in Victoria, Australia. 11 teams from four mental health service providers will be randomly allocated to one of three dates 9 months apart to start the intervention. The intervention, a modified version of Mental Health Experience Co-Design (MH ECO), will be delivered to 30 service users, 30 carers and 10 staff in each cluster. Outcome data will be collected at baseline (6 months) and at completion of each intervention wave. The primary outcome is improvement in recovery score using the 24-item Revised Recovery Assessment Scale for service users. Secondary outcomes are improvements to user and carer mental health and well-being using the shortened 8-item version of the WHOQOL Quality of Life scale (EUROHIS), changes to staff attitudes using the 19-item Staff Attitudes to Recovery Scale and recovery orientation of services using the 36-item Recovery Self Assessment Scale (provider version). Intervention and usual care periods will be compared using a linear mixed effects model for continuous outcomes and a generalised linear mixed effects model for binary outcomes. Participants will be analysed in the group that the cluster was assigned to at each time point. Ethics and dissemination The University of Melbourne, Human Research Ethics Committee (1340299.3) and the Federal and State Departments of Health Committees (Project 20/2014) granted ethics approval. Baseline data results will be reported in 2015 and outcomes data in 2017. Trial registration number Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN

  1. One step beyond: Different step-to-step transitions exist during continuous contact brachiation in siamangs

    PubMed Central

    Michilsens, Fana; D'Août, Kristiaan; Vereecke, Evie E.; Aerts, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Summary In brachiation, two main gaits are distinguished, ricochetal brachiation and continuous contact brachiation. During ricochetal brachiation, a flight phase exists and the body centre of mass (bCOM) describes a parabolic trajectory. For continuous contact brachiation, where at least one hand is always in contact with the substrate, we showed in an earlier paper that four step-to-step transition types occur. We referred to these as a ‘point’, a ‘loop’, a ‘backward pendulum’ and a ‘parabolic’ transition. Only the first two transition types have previously been mentioned in the existing literature on gibbon brachiation. In the current study, we used three-dimensional video and force analysis to describe and characterize these four step-to-step transition types. Results show that, although individual preference occurs, the brachiation strides characterized by each transition type are mainly associated with speed. Yet, these four transitions seem to form a continuum rather than four distinct types. Energy recovery and collision fraction are used as estimators of mechanical efficiency of brachiation and, remarkably, these parameters do not differ between strides with different transition types. All strides show high energy recoveries (mean  = 70±11.4%) and low collision fractions (mean  = 0.2±0.13), regardless of the step-to-step transition type used. We conclude that siamangs have efficient means of modifying locomotor speed during continuous contact brachiation by choosing particular step-to-step transition types, which all minimize collision fraction and enhance energy recovery. PMID:23213432

  2. Vanillin as a modulator agent in SMART test: inhibition in the steps that precede N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-, N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea-, ethylmethanesulphonate- and bleomycin-genotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Sinigaglia, Marialva; Lehmann, Maurício; Baumgardt, Paula; do Amaral, Viviane Souza; Dihl, Rafael Rodrigues; Reguly, Maria Luíza; de Andrade, Heloísa Helena Rodrigues

    2006-09-01

    Vanillin (VA), the world's major flavoring compound used in food industry and confectionery products - that has antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic activity against a variety of mutagenic/carcinogenic agents - was tested for the interval between the formation of premutational lesion and it is finalization as a DNA lesion. The overall findings using co-treatment protocols in SMART test suggest that VA can lead to a significant protection against the general genotoxicity of ethylmethanesulphonate (EMS), N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU), N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) and bleomycin sulphate (BLEO). Considering MNU, ENU and EMS the desmutagenic activity observed could result from VA-stimulation of detoxification, via induction of glutathione S-transferase. However, the protector effect related to BLEO could be attributed to its powerful scavenger ability, which has the potential to prevent oxidative damage induced by BLEO. PMID:16777474

  3. Testing of human specimens for the presence of highly pathogenic zoonotic avian influenza virus A(H5N1) in Poland in 2006-2008 - justified or unnecessary steps?

    PubMed

    Romanowska, Magdalena; Nowak, Iwona; Brydak, Lidia; Wojtyla, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    Since 1997, human infections with highly pathogenic zoonotic avian influenza viruses have shown that the risk of influenza pandemic is significant. In Europe, infections caused by the highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H7N7) virus were confirmed in the human population in 2003 in the Netherlands. Moreover, outbreaks of A(H5N1) infections were observed in wild and farm birds in different European regions, including Poland in 2006-2008. This study presents 16 patients in Poland from whom clinical specimens were collected and tested for A(H5N1) highly pathogenic avian influenza. This article shows the results of laboratory tests and discusses the legitimacy of the collection and testing of the specimens. All patients were negative for A(H5N1) infection. Nevertheless, only two patients met clinical and epidemiological criteria from the avian influenza case definition. The conclusion is that there is still a strong necessity for increasing the awareness of medical and laboratory staff, as well as the awareness of some occupational groups about human infections with avian influenza viruses, including the importance of seasonal influenza vaccination. It should also be emphasized that in the case of patients suspected of being infected with avian influenza, the information about clinical symptoms is insufficient and must be accompanied by a wide epidemiological investigation. PMID:20047257

  4. Extrapolated implicit-explicit time stepping.

    SciTech Connect

    Constantinescu, E. M.; Sandu, A.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ.

    2010-01-01

    This paper constructs extrapolated implicit-explicit time stepping methods that allow one to efficiently solve problems with both stiff and nonstiff components. The proposed methods are based on Euler steps and can provide very high order discretizations of ODEs, index-1 DAEs, and PDEs in the method-of-lines framework. Implicit-explicit schemes based on extrapolation are simple to construct, easy to implement, and straightforward to parallelize. This work establishes the existence of perturbed asymptotic expansions of global errors, explains the convergence orders of these methods, and studies their linear stability properties. Numerical results with stiff ODE, DAE, and PDE test problems confirm the theoretical findings and illustrate the potential of these methods to solve multiphysics multiscale problems.

  5. 30 CFR 7.307 - Static pressure test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Static pressure test. 7.307 Section 7.307... pressure test. (a) Test procedure. (1) The enclosure shall be internally pressurized to a minimum of 150 psig and the pressure maintained for a minimum of 10 seconds. (2) Following the pressure hold,...

  6. 30 CFR 7.307 - Static pressure test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Static pressure test. 7.307 Section 7.307... pressure test. (a) Test procedure. (1) The enclosure shall be internally pressurized to a minimum of 150 psig and the pressure maintained for a minimum of 10 seconds. (2) Following the pressure hold,...

  7. 30 CFR 7.307 - Static pressure test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Static pressure test. 7.307 Section 7.307... pressure test. (a) Test procedure. (1) The enclosure shall be internally pressurized to a minimum of 150 psig and the pressure maintained for a minimum of 10 seconds. (2) Following the pressure hold,...

  8. 30 CFR 7.307 - Static pressure test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Static pressure test. 7.307 Section 7.307... pressure test. (a) Test procedure. (1) The enclosure shall be internally pressurized to a minimum of 150 psig and the pressure maintained for a minimum of 10 seconds. (2) Following the pressure hold,...

  9. 30 CFR 7.307 - Static pressure test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Static pressure test. 7.307 Section 7.307... pressure test. (a) Test procedure. (1) The enclosure shall be internally pressurized to a minimum of 150 psig and the pressure maintained for a minimum of 10 seconds. (2) Following the pressure hold,...

  10. A Step-by-Step Guide to Personalize Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bray, Barbara; McClaskey, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    It is known that every learner is unique and that one-size-fits-all instruction does not work for most. How can a classroom environment be created that gives each learner voice and choice? The co-founders of Personalize Learning, LLC, offer a detailed six-step approach. This article provides the background on what is and what is not Personalized…

  11. Step fluctuations and step interactions on Mo(0 1 1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ondrejcek, M.; Swiech, W.; Durfee, C. S.; Flynn, C. P.

    2003-09-01

    Step fluctuations have been studied on Mo(0 1 1) thin single crystal films with various orientations of miscut, in order to determine the step stiffnesses. Effects of unseen defect structures were clearly visible in some data. Measurements of fluctuation amplitudes and relaxation times were made in the temperature range 1100-1680 K. The results show an anisotropic stiffness of about 0.36 eV/nm along [0 1¯ 1] and about 0.15 eV/nm along [1 0 0]. No temperature dependence of the stiffness was detected. The step free energies derived from the stiffnesses average about 0.27 eV/nm and are less anisotropic by about a factor 3. From the temperature dependence of the relaxation rates, an activation energy of 0.8 ± 0.2 eV was determined for the mass diffusion of the mobile defects responsible for the fluctuations. An appendix details an investigation of correlations induced in the motions of neighboring steps by diffusion and by energetic interactions.

  12. Step by Step to Your New Camp Brochure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Bill

    1993-01-01

    Describes steps in developing camp brochures: examining brochures of competing camps; deciding on a message; hiring professional designers and photographers; writing the copy; determining marketing strategies and quantity of brochures needed; reviewing final photo choices; evaluating the brochure; and planning for brochure mailings. (LP)

  13. Writing the Winning Dissertation: A Step-By-Step Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glatthorn, Allan A.

    This book is a practical guide to researching and writing the doctoral dissertation or master's thesis. Part 1 offers seven chapters on preparatory steps: laying the groundwork for the thesis and dissertation; finding a research problem; conducting a focused review of the literature; making a preliminary choice of methodology; organizing and…

  14. Publishing Ethical Research: A Step-by-Step Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wester, Kelly L.

    2011-01-01

    To publish ethical research, one must conduct research responsibly, making ethical choices from the inception of the research idea and throughout the research process. Conducting and publishing ethical research is important because of the impact the results will have on the counseling profession. Steps to consider are discussed.

  15. Cataloging Books Step by Step. CSLA Guide No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ruth S.

    Designed as a beginning, how-to guide, this handbook lists 20 short steps to cataloging library materials for a church or synagogue library. The guide opens with a history and a brief explanation of the Dewey Decimal System, with special attention given to the divisions and subdivisions that fall under the category "Religion." Several references…

  16. From raw material to dish: pasta quality step by step.

    PubMed

    Sicignano, Angelo; Di Monaco, Rossella; Masi, Paolo; Cavella, Silvana

    2015-10-01

    Pasta is a traditional Italian cereal-based food that is popular worldwide because of its convenience, versatility, sensory and nutritional value. The aim of this review is to present a step-by-step guide to facilitate the understanding of the most important events that can affect pasta characteristics, directing the reader to the appropriate production steps. Owing to its unique flavor, color, composition and rheological properties, durum wheat semolina is the best raw material for pasta production. Although pasta is traditionally made from only two ingredients, sensory quality and chemical/physical characteristics of the final product may vary greatly. Starting from the same ingredients, there are a lot of different events in each step of pasta production that can result in the development of varieties of pasta with different characteristics. In particular, numerous studies have demonstrated the importance of temperature and humidity conditions of the pasta drying operation as well as the significance of the choice of raw material and operating conditions on pasta quality. PMID:25783568

  17. Piezoelectric step-motion actuator

    DOEpatents

    Mentesana; Charles P.

    2006-10-10

    A step-motion actuator using piezoelectric material to launch a flight mass which, in turn, actuates a drive pawl to progressively engage and drive a toothed wheel or rod to accomplish stepped motion. Thus, the piezoelectric material converts electrical energy into kinetic energy of the mass, and the drive pawl and toothed wheel or rod convert the kinetic energy of the mass into the desired rotary or linear stepped motion. A compression frame may be secured about the piezoelectric element and adapted to pre-compress the piezoelectric material so as to reduce tensile loads thereon. A return spring may be used to return the mass to its resting position against the compression frame or piezoelectric material following launch. Alternative embodiment are possible, including an alternative first embodiment wherein two masses are launched in substantially different directions, and an alternative second embodiment wherein the mass is eliminated in favor of the piezoelectric material launching itself.

  18. Steps of Reprocessing and Equipments

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yong Kook

    2013-01-01

    With the increasing interest in endoscopy and the rising number of endoscopic examinations in hospitals, the importance of endoscopic reprocessing is also increasing. Cure facilities that are understaffed and ill-equipped are trying to cope with the problems of insufficient cleaning and high infection risks. To prevent endoscopy-associated infection, the endoscope cleaning, and disinfection guidelines prepared by the Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy must be followed. In this review, the steps of endoscopic reprocessing and the equipments required in each step are discussed. PMID:23767039

  19. Illinois, An Educational Step Backward.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Scott

    Conclusions reached by the Illinois State Board of Education Study, released in May 1985, that small schools are inferior and inefficient, that Illinois has too many schools, and that over half its schools should be closed seem to be an educational step backward. Without linking the two concepts, the study implies that school consolidation will…

  20. 10 Steps for Implementing Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsee, Jeff

    2002-01-01

    Offers steps for adapting the change process to institutional culture: align leadership style with organizational culture, don't overuse change missionaries, protect change agents, define the problem, maintain focus when the project drifts, identify and remove barriers before implementing action plans, assign responsibilities to individuals,…

  1. One-Step Coal Liquefaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qader, S. A.

    1984-01-01

    Steam injection improves yield and quality of product. Single step process for liquefying coal increases liquid yield and reduces hydrogen consumption. Principal difference between this and earlier processes includes injection of steam into reactor. Steam lowers viscosity of liquid product, so further upgrading unnecessary.

  2. Design of converging stepped spillways

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Roller compacted concrete (RCC) stepped spillways are growing in popularity for providing overtopping protection for aging watershed dams with inadequate auxiliary spillway capacity and for the construction of new dams. Unobtainable land rights, topographic features, and land use changes caused by ...

  3. Seven Steps to Successful Inclusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitworth, Jerry

    This report highlights the experiences of the Lighthouse Project, which successfully included students with disabilities in elementary, middle, and high school general education classes in a school district in southwest Tennessee. Drawing on findings from the Lighthouse Project, the report describes the following seven steps that must be present…

  4. Evaluation of Florida's STEP Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Health and Rehabilitative Services, Tallahassee.

    Project STEP (Short Term Elective Program) is an outdoor-educational program that, through teaching wilderness survival skills and affording a necessity for their use, provides juvenile delinquents with a feeling of self-reliance and self-worth. The program is designed for committed youths, primarily males, at least 13 to 14 years of age, but…

  5. Initial steps of aerosol growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulmala, M.; Laakso, L.; Lehtinen, K. E. J.; Riipinen, I.; Dal Maso, M.; Anttila, T.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Hõrrak, U.; Vana, M.; Tammet, H.

    2004-12-01

    The formation and growth of atmospheric aerosols depend on several steps, namely nucleation, initial steps of growth and subsequent - mainly condensational - growth. This work focuses on the initial steps of growth, meaning the growth right after nucleation, where the interplay of curvature effects and thermodynamics has a significant role on the growth kinetics. More specifically, we investigate how ion clusters and aerosol particles grow from 1.5 nm to 20 nm (diameter) in atmospheric conditions using experimental data obtained by air ion and aerosol spectrometers. The measurements have been performed at a boreal forest site in Finland. The observed trend that the growth rate seems to increase as a function of size can be used to investigate possible growth mechanisms. Such a growth rate is consistent with a recently suggested nano-Köhler mechanism, in which growth is activated at a certain size with respect to condensation of organic vapors. The results also imply that charge-enhanced growth associated with ion-mediated nucleation plays only a minor role in the initial steps of growth, since it would imply a clear decrease of the growth rate with size. Finally, further evidence was obtained on the earlier suggestion that atmospheric nucleation and the subsequent growth of fresh nuclei are likely to be uncoupled phenomena via different participating vapors.

  6. Initial steps of aerosol growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulmala, O.; Laakso, L.; Lehtinen, K. E. J.; Riipinen, I.; Dal Maso, M.; Anttila, T.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Hõrrak, U.; Vana, M.; Tammet, H.

    2004-09-01

    The formation and growth of atmospheric aerosols depend on several steps, namely nucleation, initial steps of growth and subsequent - mainly condensational - growth. This work focuses on the initial steps of growth, meaning the growth right after nucleation, where the interplay of curvature effects and thermodynamics has a significant role on the growth kinetics. More specifically, we investigate how ion clusters and aerosol particles grow from 1.5 nm to 20 nm in atmospheric conditions using experimental data obtained by air ion and aerosol spectrometers. The measurements have been performed at a boreal forest site in Finland. The observed trend that the growth rate seems to increase as a function of size can be used to investigate possible growth mechanisms. Such a growth rate is consistent with a recently suggested nano-Köhler mechanism, in which growth is activated at a certain size with respect to condensation of organic vapors. The results also imply that charge-enhance growth associated with ion-mediated nucleation plays only a minor role in the initial steps of growth, since it would imply a clear decrease of the growth rate with size. Finally, further evidence was obtained on the earlier suggestion that atmospheric nucleation and the subsequent growth of fresh nuclei are likely to be uncoupled phenomena via different participating vapors.

  7. Next Step Spherical Torus Design Studies

    SciTech Connect

    C. Neumeyer; P. Heitzenroeder; C. Kessel; M. Ono; M. Peng; J. Schmidt; R. Woolley; I. Zatz

    2002-11-08

    Studies are underway to identify and characterize a design point for a Next Step Spherical Torus (NSST) experiment. This would be a ''Proof of Performance'' device which would follow and build upon the successes of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) a ''Proof of Principle'' device which has operated at PPPL since 1999. With the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) nearly completed, the TFTR test cell and facility will soon be available for a device such as NSST. By utilizing the TFTR test cell, NSST can be constructed for a relatively low cost on a short time scale. In addition, while furthering spherical torus (ST) research, this device could achieve modest fusion power gain for short-pulse lengths, a significant step toward future large burning plasma devices now under discussion in the fusion community. The selected design point is Q=2 at HH=1.4, P subscript ''fusion''=60 MW, 5 second pulse, with R subscript ''0''=1.5 m, A=1.6, I subscript ''p''=10vMA, B subscript ''t''=2.6 T, CS flux=16 weber. Most of the research would be conducted in D-D, with a limited D-T campaign during the last years of the program.

  8. Harmonic Ratios: A quantification of step to step symmetry

    PubMed Central

    Roche, J.L; Lowry, K.A; Vanswearingen, J.M; Brach, J.S; Redfern, M.S

    2013-01-01

    The harmonic ratio (HR), derived from Fourier analysis of trunk accelerations, has been described in various ways as a measure of walking smoothness, walking rhythmicity, or dynamic stability. There is increasing interest in applying the HR technique to investigate the impact of various pathologies on locomotion; however, explanation of the method has been limited. The aim hereis to present a clear description of the mathematical basis of HRs and an understanding of their interpretation. We present harmonic theory, the interpretation of the HR using sinusoidal signals, and an exampleusing actual trunk accelerations and harmonic analyses during limb-loading conditions. We suggest that the HR method may be better defined, not as a measure of rhythmicity or stability, but as a measure of step-to-step symmetry within a stride. PMID:23317758

  9. Get Tested for HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... Why Get Tested? 4 of 7 sections Take Action! Take Action: Get Tested Take these steps to protect yourself ... section Testing Options 5 of 7 sections Take Action: Protect Yourself Protect yourself from HIV. The best ...

  10. Stepping Out: An Overview of the STEP Curriculum. Secondary Transition and Employment Project: STEP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumgart, Diane; Anderson, Jane

    The guide, developed by the Secondary Transition and Employment Project (STEP) in Idaho, provides an overview of its sequential vocational curriculum intended to help students with mild, moderate, and severe handicaps to: (1) identify their vocational preferences and aptitudes; (2) use community resources to find out about jobs; (3) observe and…

  11. Segmented Coil Fails In Steps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stedman, Ronald S.

    1990-01-01

    Electromagnetic coil degrades in steps when faults occur, continues to operate at reduced level instead of failing catastrophically. Made in segments connected in series and separated by electrically insulating barriers. Fault does not damage adjacent components or create hazard. Used to control valves in such critical applications as cooling systems of power generators and chemical process equipment, where flammable liquids or gases handled. Also adapts to electrical control of motors.

  12. Meissner-Effect Stepping Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Glen A.

    1991-01-01

    Proposed stepping motor derives torque from diamagnetic repulsion produced by Meissner effect - exclusion of magnetic field from interior of superconductor. Design of motor takes advantage of silver-doped YB2Cu3O and other compounds superconductive at temperatures as high as that of liquid nitrogen. Skin of rotor cooled below its superconducting-transition temperature by liquid nitrogen. O-rings prevent leaks of liquid nitrogen from rotor. Weight, cost, and maintenance reduced.

  13. Stepped frequency ground penetrating radar

    DOEpatents

    Vadnais, Kenneth G.; Bashforth, Michael B.; Lewallen, Tricia S.; Nammath, Sharyn R.

    1994-01-01

    A stepped frequency ground penetrating radar system is described comprising an RF signal generating section capable of producing stepped frequency signals in spaced and equal increments of time and frequency over a preselected bandwidth which serves as a common RF signal source for both a transmit portion and a receive portion of the system. In the transmit portion of the system the signal is processed into in-phase and quadrature signals which are then amplified and then transmitted toward a target. The reflected signals from the target are then received by a receive antenna and mixed with a reference signal from the common RF signal source in a mixer whose output is then fed through a low pass filter. The DC output, after amplification and demodulation, is digitized and converted into a frequency domain signal by a Fast Fourier Transform. A plot of the frequency domain signals from all of the stepped frequencies broadcast toward and received from the target yields information concerning the range (distance) and cross section (size) of the target.

  14. DNA INTERSTRAND CROSSLINK REPAIR IN MAMMALIAN CELLS: STEP BY STEP

    PubMed Central

    Muniandy, Parameswary; Liu, Jia; Majumdar, Alokes; Liu, Su-ting; Seidman, Michael M.

    2009-01-01

    Interstrand DNA crosslinks (ICLs) are formed by natural products of metabolism and by chemotherapeutic reagents. Work in E. coli identified a two cycle repair scheme involving incisions on one strand on either side of the ICL (unhooking) producing a gapped intermediate with the incised oligonucleotide attached to the intact strand. The gap is filled by recombinational repair or lesion bypass synthesis. The remaining monoadduct is then removed by Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER). Despite considerable effort, our understanding of each step in mammalian cells is still quite limited. In part this reflects the variety of crosslinking compounds, each with distinct structural features, used by different investigators. Also, multiple repair pathways are involved, variably operative during the cell cycle. G1 phase repair requires functions from NER, although the mechanism of recognition has not been determined. Repair can be initiated by encounters with the transcriptional apparatus, or a replication fork. In the case of the latter, the reconstruction of a replication fork, stalled or broken by collision with an ICL, adds to the complexity of the repair process. The enzymology of unhooking, the identity of the lesion bypass polymerases required to fill the first repair gap, and the functions involved in the second repair cycle are all subjects of active inquiry. Here we will review current understanding of each step in ICL repair in mammalian cells. PMID:20039786

  15. The USMLE Step 2 CS: Time for a change.

    PubMed

    Alvin, Matthew D

    2016-08-01

    The United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE(®)) Steps are a series of mandatory licensing assessments for all allopathic (MD degree) medical students in their transition from student to intern to resident physician. Steps 1, 2 Clinical Knowledge (CK), and 3 are daylong multiple-choice exams that quantify a medical student's basic science and clinical knowledge as well as their application of that knowledge using a three-digit score. In doing so, these Steps provide a standardized assessment that residency programs use to differentiate applicants and evaluate their competitiveness. Step 2 Clinical Skills (CS), the only other Step exam and the second component of Step 2, was created in 2004 to test clinical reasoning and patient-centered skills. As a Pass/Fail exam without a numerical scoring component, Step 2 CS provides minimal differentiation among applicants for residency programs. In this personal view article, it is argued that the current Step 2 CS exam should be eliminated for US medical students and propose an alternative consistent with the mission and purpose of the exam that imposes less of a burden on medical students. PMID:27007882

  16. 48 CFR 52.214-25 - Step Two of Two-Step Sealed Bidding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Step Two of Two-Step... Clauses 52.214-25 Step Two of Two-Step Sealed Bidding. As prescribed in 14.201-6(t), insert the following provision: Step Two of Two-Step Sealed Bidding (APR 1985) (a) This invitation for bids is issued to...

  17. Adsorption on a stepped substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merikoski, J.; Timonen, J.; Kaski, K.

    1994-09-01

    The effect of substrate steps on the adsorption of particles is considered. The problem is formulated as a lattice-gas model with nearest neighbor interactions and it is studied by a numerical transfer-matrix method. In particular, the influence of the substrate-induced row potential on adsorbed monolayers is discussed. It is found that strong row-transition-like features appear in the presence of a row potential and it is suggested that these may be seen in adsorption on vicinal faces.

  18. Lessons learned in stepped chute research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early research on stepped chutes focused on steep gravity style stepped chutes. Today, the research trend has shifted to stepped chutes applied to more moderate slopes like those for aging embankment dams. Research contributions have been made on hydraulic properties of stepped chutes including ai...

  19. Hydraulic Design of Stepped Spillways Workshop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stepped chutes and spillways are commonly used for routing discharges during flood events. In addition, stepped chutes are used for overtopping protection of earthen embankments. Stepped spillways provide significant energy dissipation due to its stepped feature; as a result, the stilling basin as...

  20. Predictive Quantum Chemistry: A Step Toward ``Chemistry Without Test Tubes''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perera, Ajith

    2007-12-01

    The merits of the claims made in two recent papers entitled "First generation of pentazole (HN5, pentazolic acid), the final azole, and a zinc pentazolate salt in solution: A new N-dearylation of 1-(p-methoxyphenyl) pyrazoles, a 2-(p-methoxyphenyl) tetrazole and application of the methodology to 1-(p-methoxyphenyl) pentazole" (R. N. Butler, J. C. Stephan and L. A. Burke, J. Chem. Commun. 2003, 1016-1017) and "First generation of the pentazolate anion is solution is far from over" (T. Schroer, R. Haiges, S. Schneider and K. O. Christe, Chem. Commun. 2005, 1607-1609) are verified by predictive quality theoretical methods. Knowing whether the CF3OH in HF solution undergoes protonation to form CF3[OH2]+ is critical to the success of the recently proposed synthetic route to form the prototype perfluorinated alcohol, CF3OH. Chirstie and co-workers first considered the 13C and 19F shielding constants to distinguish CF3OH and CF3[OH2]+, but it turns out that they both have similar chemical shifts. Furthermore, they noted that the computed 13C chemical shifts differ by 11 ppm from the measured ones and claimed that "These findings presented a dilemma because either experimental or the calculated shifts has to be seriously flawed and, therefore chemical shifts alone it was impossible to decide whether CF3OH in liquid HF is protonated or not". Instead of chemical shifts, they propose to use 13C-19F NMR spin-spin coupling constants and argue that the observed 20 Hz difference of 1J(13C-19F) to the increase in the covalent character upon protonation. The reported discrepancy in computed and measured chemical shifts is reexamined and the spin-spin coupling constants results are verified by the predicative-level calculations.

  1. Stepped conical zone plate antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiltse, James C.

    2001-07-01

    The Fresnel zone plate lens was invented and developed for optical frequencies. However, fabrication difficulties at the short optical wavelengths have prevented obtain good efficiencies. At longer microwave or millimeter-wavelengths fabrication is easier and phase correcting zone plate antennas have been used to obtain good efficiencies. This paper describes a new type of phase correcting zone plate having even better efficiency, namely a diffraction efficiency of 99 percent compared to a true lens, and an overall efficiency much better than a true lens. For the usual zone plate antenna employed at microwave or millimeter wavelengths, path length adjustment is accomplished by cutting different depths in a dielectric plate or by using two or more dielectrics having different dielectric constants. The new design uses a tilted cut in a dielectric plate, which more accurately matches the shape of a true lens and produces much lower phase error. The construction is still near and can be made for example, by a milling machine with a tilted bit. For a circular zone plate, the lens is a stepped conical or tapered shape. Because the phase steps are small, the far-field antenna pattern is excellent and sidelobe-levels are very low. Analysis of typical configurations will be given, showing that phase errors are small, lower than those for an eighth-wave corrected phase zone plate.

  2. Peyton’s four-step approach: differential effects of single instructional steps on procedural and memory performance – a clarification study

    PubMed Central

    Krautter, Markus; Dittrich, Ronja; Safi, Annette; Krautter, Justine; Maatouk, Imad; Moeltner, Andreas; Herzog, Wolfgang; Nikendei, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Background Although Peyton’s four-step approach is a widely used method for skills-lab training in undergraduate medical education and has been shown to be more effective than standard instruction, it is unclear whether its superiority can be attributed to a specific single step. Purpose We conducted a randomized controlled trial to investigate the differential learning outcomes of the separate steps of Peyton’s four-step approach. Methods Volunteer medical students were randomly assigned to four different groups. Step-1 group received Peyton’s Step 1, Step-2 group received Peyton’s Steps 1 and 2, Step-3 group received Peyton’s Steps 1, 2, and 3, and Step-3mod group received Peyton’s Steps 1 and 2, followed by a repetition of Step 2. Following the training, the first independent performance of a central venous catheter (CVC) insertion using a manikin was video-recorded and scored by independent video assessors using binary checklists. The day after the training, memory performance during delayed recall was assessed with an incidental free recall test. Results A total of 97 participants agreed to participate in the trial. There were no statistically significant group differences with regard to age, sex, completed education in a medical profession, completed medical clerkships, preliminary memory tests, or self-efficacy ratings. Regarding checklist ratings, Step-2 group showed a superior first independent performance of CVC placement compared to Step-1 group (P<0.001), and Step-3 group showed a superior performance to Step-2 group (P<0.009), while Step-2 group and Step-3mod group did not differ (P=0.055). The findings were similar in the incidental free recall test. Conclusion Our study identified Peyton’s Step 3 as being the most crucial part within Peyton’s four-step approach, contributing significantly more to learning success than the previous steps and reaching beyond the benefit of a mere repetition of skills demonstration. PMID:26060417

  3. Wollaston prism phase-stepping point diffraction interferometer and method

    DOEpatents

    Rushford, Michael C.

    2004-10-12

    A Wollaston prism phase-stepping point diffraction interferometer for testing a test optic. The Wollaston prism shears light into reference and signal beams, and provides phase stepping at increased accuracy by translating the Wollaston prism in a lateral direction with respect to the optical path. The reference beam produced by the Wollaston prism is directed through a pinhole of a diaphragm to produce a perfect spherical reference wave. The spherical reference wave is recombined with the signal beam to produce an interference fringe pattern of greater accuracy.

  4. Moral transhumanism: the next step.

    PubMed

    Tennison, Michael N

    2012-08-01

    Although transhumanism offers hope for the transcendence of human biological limitations, it generates many intrinsic and consequential ethical concerns. The latter include issues such as the exacerbation of social inequalities and the exponentially increasing technological capacity to cause harm. To mitigate these risks, many thinkers have initiated investigations into the possibility of moral enhancement that could limit the power disparities facilitated by biotechnological enhancement. The arguments often focus on whether moral enhancement is morally permissible, or even obligatory, and remain largely in the realm of the hypothetical. This paper proposes that psilocybin may represent a viable, practical option for moral enhancement and that its further research in the context of moral psychology could comprise the next step in the development of moral transhumanism. PMID:22855738

  5. Effects of an aft facing step on the surface of a laminar flow glider wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandlin, Doral R.; Saiki, Neal

    1993-01-01

    A motor glider was used to perform a flight test study on the effects of aft facing steps in a laminar boundary layer. This study focuses on two dimensional aft facing steps oriented spanwise to the flow. The size and location of the aft facing steps were varied in order to determine the critical size that will force premature transition. Transition over a step was found to be primarily a function of Reynolds number based on step height. Both of the step height Reynolds numbers for premature and full transition were determined. A hot film anemometry system was used to detect transition.

  6. Redirection of center-of-mass velocity during the step-to-step transition of human walking.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, Peter G; Kuo, Arthur D

    2009-08-01

    Simple dynamic walking models based on the inverted pendulum predict that the human body's center of mass (COM) moves along an arc during each step, with substantial work performed to redirect the COM velocity in the step-to-step transition between arcs. But humans do not keep the stance leg perfectly straight and need not redirect their COM velocity precisely as predicted. We therefore tested a pendulum-based model against a wide range of human walking data. We examined COM velocity and work data from normal human subjects (N=10) walking at 24 combinations of speed (0.75 to 2.0 m s(-1)) and step length. These were compared against model predictions for the angular redirection of COM velocity and the work performed on the COM during redirection. We found that the COM is redirected through angular changes increasing approximately linearly with step length (R(2)=0.68), with COM work increasing with the squared product of walking speed and step length (R(2)=0.82), roughly in accordance with a simple dynamic walking model. This model cannot, however, predict the duration of COM redirection, which we quantified with two empirical measures, one based on angular COM redirection and the other on work. Both indicate that the step-to-step transition begins before and ends after double support and lasts about twice as long - approximately 20-27% of a stride. Although a rigid leg model can predict trends in COM velocity and work, the non-rigid human leg performs the step-to-step transition over a duration considerably exceeding that of double support. PMID:19648412

  7. Electronic properties of copper indium diselenide fabricated by two-step/solid selenium processing

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, L.; Attar, G.; Wu, C.; Morel, D.L. )

    1992-12-01

    Thin-film Copper Indium Diselenide has been deposited using a two-step process with solid selenium as the Se source rather than H[sub 2]Se. Film properties are strongly influenced by the substrate. Borosilicate glass produces more nucleation sites and smoother thin-films, while 1000 A films deposited on soda lime glass may exhibit disconnectedness. Electronic properties are similarly affected, particularly mobilities. Using MOSFET devices as analytical tools electron channel mobilities of up to 45 cm[sup 2]/Vs have been measured. Preliminary results from thin-film transistor dynamics indicate that traps with a trapping time of about 10 seconds are controlling surface properties and limiting solar cell performance.

  8. A Step Towards CO2-Neutral Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brankovic, Andreja; Ryder, Robert C.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Huber, Marcia L.

    2008-01-01

    An approximation method for evaluation of the caloric equations used in combustion chemistry simulations is described. The method is applied to generate the equations of specific heat, static enthalpy, and Gibb's free energy for fuel mixtures of interest to gas turbine engine manufacturers. Liquid-phase fuel properties are also derived. The fuels investigated include JP-8, synthetic fuel, and two blends of JP-8 and synthetic fuel. The complete set of fuel property equations for both phases are implemented into a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) flow solver database, and multiphase, reacting flow simulations of a well-tested liquid-fueled combustor are performed. The simulations are a first step in understanding combustion system performance and operational issues when using alternate fuels, at practical engine operating conditions.

  9. Lotka's Law: A Testing Procedure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pao, Miranda Lee

    1985-01-01

    A step-by-step outline is presented for testing the applicability of Lotka's law of scientific productivity. Steps include the computation of the values of the exponent and constant based on Lotka's method and the test for significance of observed frequency distribution against the estimated theoretical distribution derived from Lotka's formula.…

  10. Effects of Step Rate Manipulation on Joint Mechanics during Running

    PubMed Central

    Heiderscheit, Bryan C.; Chumanov, Elizabeth S.; Michalski, Max P.; Wille, Christa M.; Ryan, Michael B.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this study was to characterize the biomechanical effects of step rate modification during running on the hip, knee and ankle joints, so as to evaluate a potential strategy to reduce lower extremity loading and risk for injury. Methods Three-dimensional kinematics and kinetics were recorded from 45 healthy recreational runners during treadmill running at constant speed under various step rate conditions (preferred, ± 5% and ± 10%). We tested our primary hypothesis that a reduction in energy absorption by the lower extremity joints during the loading response would occur, primarily at the knee, when step rate was increased. Results Less mechanical energy was absorbed at the knee (p<0.01) during the +5% and +10% step rate conditions, while the hip (p<0.01) absorbed less energy during the +10% condition only. All joints displayed substantially (p<0.01) more energy absorption when preferred step rate was reduced by 10. Step length (p<0.01), center of mass vertical excursion (p<0.01), breaking impulse (p<0.01) and peak knee flexion angle (p<0.01) were observed to decrease with increasing step rate. When step rate was increased 10% above preferred, peak hip adduction angle (p<0.01), as well as peak hip adduction (p<0.01) and internal rotation (p<0.01) moments, were found to decrease. Conclusion We conclude that subtle increases in step rate can substantially reduce the loading to the hip and knee joints during running and may prove beneficial in the prevention and treatment of common running-related injuries. PMID:20581720

  11. Step-by-step mark-up of medical guideline documents.

    PubMed

    Svátek, Vojtech; Růzicka, Marek

    2003-07-01

    Approaches to formalization of medical guidelines can be divided into model-centric and document-centric. While model-centric approaches dominate in the development of clinical decision support applications, document-centric, mark-up-based formalization is suitable for application tasks requiring the 'literal' content of the document to be transferred into the formal model. Examples of such tasks are logical verification of the document or compliance analysis of health records. The quality and efficiency of document-centric formalization can be improved using a decomposition of the whole process into several explicit steps. We present a methodology and software tool supporting the step-by-step formalization process. The knowledge elements can be marked up in the source text, refined to a tree structure with increasing level of detail, rearranged into an XML knowledge base, and, finally, exported into the operational representation. User-definable transformation rules enable to automate a large part of the process. The approach is being tested in the domain of cardiology. For parts of the WHO/ISH Guidelines for Hypertension, the process has been carried out through all the stages, to the form of executable application, generated automatically from the XML knowledge base. PMID:12909185

  12. Entropic Step Doubling on W(430).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, Edward H.; Dey, Srijata; West, James; Kiriukhin, Sergei

    1996-03-01

    We present high resolution low energy electron diffraction (LEED) results for the W(430) surface. Unlike every other system studied to date, single atomic height steps on this surface become energetically unfavorable at elevated temperatures. Above 940 K, a two phase mixture of single and double height steps forms. The transition to double height steps is predicted on the basis of a simple model provided that unconventional defect energetics are invoked. Specifically, double height steps cost more than twice as much energy as single height steps, while kinks on the double height steps cost less energy than kinks on single height steps. Recent theoretical calculations independently confirm this energetics hierarchy. (W. Xu, J.B. Adams and T.L. Einstein (to be published).) The existence of the doubling transition sheds new light on previous self diffusion coefficient measurements for other stepped tungsten surfaces. (Y.M. Gong and R. Gomer, J. Chem. Phys. 88), 1359 (1988); 88, 1370 (1988).

  13. Ventilated cavity flow over a backward-facing step

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, B. W.; Brandner, P. A.; Foster, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    Ventilated cavities detaching from a backward facing step (BFS) are investigated for a range of upstream boundary layer thicknesses in a cavitation tunnel. The upstream turbulent boundary layer thickness is varied by artificial thickening of the test section natural boundary layer using an array of transversely injected jets. Momentum thickness Reynolds numbers from 6.6 to 44 x 103 were tested giving boundary layer thickness to step height ratios from 1.25 to 3.8. A range of cavity lengths were obtained by variation of the ventilation flow rate for several freestream Reynolds numbers. Cavity length to step height ratios from 20 to 80 were achieved. Cavity length was found to be linearly dependent on ventilation rate and to decrease with increasing boundary layer thickness and/or Reynolds number. This result may have implications in the practical optimization of these flows which occur in applications such as drag reduction on marine hull forms.

  14. Science teacher enhancement project (STEP)

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, P.P.; Bowman, A.W.

    1994-12-31

    STEP, a National Science Foundation-funded initiative, forms an alliance between the three private Virginia Historically Black Colleges (Hampton University, Virginia Union University, and Saint Paul`s College) and nine school divisions, to increase the capabilities of middle school science teachers. Clearly articulated roles of each partner, and the inclusion of all partners in program planning has been invaluable. A unique feature of this project is the careful tailoring of the program to meet the needs of each school division, effected by ongoing communication between all of the partners. The program effected by ongoing communication between all of the partners. The program includes a Lead Teacher and Teacher Trainee component, and emphasizes science content, using a hands-on approach. In addition to science content, the Lead Teachers receive training in leadership, proposal writing, and pedagogical enrichment responsive to the curriculum change directions in science education, especially as it relates to minority and at-risk students. The enrichment is provided by university scientists and educators, through summer institutes and academic year workshops. Results include: use of new technologies in the classroom, cross-grade communication, use of university scientists as presenters for family science programs, and improved knowledge.

  15. Step-Families. Item 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webber, Ruth P.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes stepfamily life; much of its content is derived from responses of 29 Australian couples who attended a six-session educational program on living in a stepfamily and who completed pre- and post-tests on marital adjustment and self-esteem plus a weekly problem rating scale. While the major part of the study was concerned with…

  16. Accuracy of StepWatch™ and ActiGraph Accelerometers for Measuring Steps Taken among Persons with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Sandroff, Brian M.; Motl, Robert W.; Pilutti, Lara A.; Learmonth, Yvonne C.; Ensari, Ipek; Dlugonski, Deirdre; Klaren, Rachel E.; Balantrapu, Swathi; Riskin, Barry J.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction There has been increased interest in the objective monitoring of free-living walking behavior using accelerometers in clinical research involving persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). The current investigation examined and compared the accuracy of the StepWatch activity monitor and ActiGraph model GT3X+ accelerometer for capturing steps taken during various speeds of prolonged, over-ground ambulation in persons with MS who had mild, moderate, and severe disability. Methods Sixty-three persons with MS underwent a neurological examination for generation of an EDSS score and undertook two trials of walking on the GAITRite electronic walkway. Participants were fitted with accelerometers, and undertook three modified six-minute walk (6MW) tests that were interspersed with 10–15 minutes of rest. The first 6MW was undertaken at a comfortable walking speed (CWS), and the two remaining 6MW tests were undertaken above (faster walking speed; FWS) or below (slower walking speed; SWS) the participant's CWS. The actual number of steps taken was counted through direct observation using hand-tally counters. Results The StepWatch activity monitor (99.8%–99.9%) and ActiGraph model GT3X+ accelerometer (95.6%–97.4%) both demonstrated highly accurate measurement of steps taken under CWS and FWS conditions. The StepWatch had better accuracy (99.0%) than the ActiGraph (95.5%) in the overall sample under the SWS condition, and this was particularly apparent in those with severe disability (StepWatch: 95.7%; ActiGraph: 87.3%). The inaccuracy in measurement for the ActiGraph was associated with alterations of gait (e.g., slower gait velocity, shorter step length, wider base of support). Conclusions This research will help inform the choice of accelerometer to be adopted in clinical trials of MS wherein the monitoring of free-living walking behavior is of particular value. PMID:24714028

  17. Effect of saliva contamination on the microshear bond strength of one-step self-etching adhesive systems to dentin.

    PubMed

    Yoo, H M; Oh, T S; Pereira, P N R

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of saliva contamination and decontamination methods on the dentin bond strength of one-step self-etching adhesive systems. Three commercially available "all-in-one" adhesives (One Up Bond F, Xeno III and Adper Prompt) and one resin composite (Filtek Z-250) were used. Third molars stored in distilled water with 0.5% thymol at 4 degrees C were ground with #600 SiC paper under running water to produce a standardized smear layer. The specimens were randomly divided into groups according to contamination methods: no contamination, which was the control (C); contamination of the adhesive surface with fresh saliva before light curing (A) and contamination of the adhesive surface with fresh saliva after light curing (B). Each contamination group was further subdivided into three subgroups according to the decontamination method: A1-Saliva was removed by a gentle air blast and the adhesive was light-cured; A2-Saliva was rinsed for 10 seconds, gently air-dried and the was adhesive light-cured; A3-Saliva was rinsed and dried as in A2, then the adhesive was re-applied to the dentin surface and light-cured; B1-Saliva was removed with a gentle air blast; B2-Saliva was rinsed and dried; B3-Saliva was rinsed, dried and the adhesive was re-applied and light cured. Tygon tubes filled with resin composite were placed on each surface and light cured. All specimens were stored in distilled water at 37 degrees C for 24 hours. Microshear bond strength was measured using a universal testing machine (EZ test), and data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by the Duncan test to make comparisons among the groups (p<0.05). After debonding, five specimens were selected and examined in a scanning electron microscope to evaluate the modes of fracture. The A2 subgroup resulted in the lowest bond strength. For One Up Bond F and Adper Prompt, there was no significant difference between subgroup A1 and the control, and subgroup A3 and the control (p>0.05). Bond

  18. Ten Steps to Making Evaluation Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sridharan, Sanjeev; Nakaima, April

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes ten steps to make evaluations matter. The ten steps are a combination of the usual recommended practice such as developing program theory and implementing rigorous evaluation designs with a stronger focus on more unconventional steps including developing learning frameworks, exploring pathways of evaluation influence, and…

  19. Ten steps to successful software process improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandt, R. K.

    2003-01-01

    This paper identifies ten steps for managing change that address organizational and cultural issues. Four of these steps are critical, that if not done, will almost guarantee failure. This ten-step program emphasizes the alignment of business goals, change process goals, and the work performed by the employees of an organization.

  20. 7 CFR 60.122 - Production step.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Production step. 60.122 Section 60.122 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Definitions § 60.122 Production step. Production step...

  1. 7 CFR 65.230 - Production step.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Production step. 65.230 Section 65.230 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards..., PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.230 Production step. Production step means,...

  2. Stepping Up to Science and Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldston, Dee

    2004-01-01

    "Stepping Up to Science and Math" invites teachers to step back and rethink the way they teach both of these essential subjects. Then it illustrates how teachers can step up the pace with Standards-based activities that make learning more effective and efficient. (New lessons featuring gummy worms, school buses, or the planet Mars help teachers…

  3. STEPS: Moving from Welfare to Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vail, Ann; Cummings, Merrilyn; Kratzer, Connie; Galindo, Vickie

    Cooperative extension service faculty at New Mexico State University started the Steps to Employment and Personal Success (STEPS) program to help Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) clients qualify for and maintain full-time employment and strengthen their families for long-term success. Clients are referred to STEPS by New Mexico…

  4. CAD for 4-step braided fabric composites

    SciTech Connect

    Pandey, R.; Hahn, H.T.

    1994-12-31

    A general framework is provided to predict thermoelastic properties of three dimensional 4-step braided fabric composites. Three key steps involved are (1) the development of a CAD model for yarn architecture, (2) the extraction of a unit cell (3) the prediction of the thermoelastic properties based on micromechanics. Main features of each step are summarized and experimental correlations are provided in the paper.

  5. 7 CFR 65.230 - Production step.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production step. 65.230 Section 65.230 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards..., PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.230 Production step. Production step means,...

  6. Gradiometry coexperiments to the gravity probe B and step missions

    SciTech Connect

    Tapley, M.; Breakwell, J.; Everitt, C.W.F.; Vanpatten, R.; Worden, P.

    1990-01-01

    The Gravity Probe-B (GP-B) spacecraft, designed to test predictions of general relativity, will fly in the mid 1990s. It will carry four electrostatically suspended gyroscopes in a cryogenic environment and will have a drag-free control system to minimize disturbances on the gyroscopes. The Stanford Test of Equivalence Principle (STEP) spacecraft, to fly later, will carry a set of test masses under very similar conditions. The possibility of using differential measurements of the GP-B gyroscopes suspension forces and the STEP tests mass displacement readout to form single-axis gravity gradiometers is explored. It is shown that the noise in the suspension systems is sufficiently small in the relevant frequency range, and that enough information is collected to compensate for the spacecrafts' attitude motion. Finally, using Breakwell's flat-earth approximation, these experiments are compared to other geodesy experiments and predict the contribution they can make to the knowledge of the Earth's geopotential.

  7. Comparison of normal and phase stepping shearographic NDE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andhee, A.; Gryzagoridis, J.; Findeis, D.

    2005-05-01

    The paper presents results of non-destructive testing of composite main rotor helicopter blade calibration specimens using the laser based optical NDE technique known as Shearography. The tests were performed initially using the already well established near real-time non-destructive technique of Shearography, with the specimens perturbed during testing for a few seconds using the hot air from a domestic hair dryer. Subsequent to modification of the shearing device utilized in the shearographic setup, phase stepping of one of the sheared images to be captured by the CCD camera was enabled and identical tests were performed on the composite main rotor helicopter blade specimens. Considerable enhancement of the images manifesting or depicting the defects on the specimens is noted suggesting that phase stepping is a desirable enhancement technique to the traditional Shearographic setup.

  8. Transistor step stress program for JANTX2N2920

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Data on the effect of power/temperature step stress when applied to the dual transistor JANTX2N2920 manufactured by Fairchild and National Semiconductor are presented. Fifty one (51) samples from Fairchild and 44 from National Semiconductor were submitted to the process outlined. In addition, two control sample units were maintained for verification of the electrical parametric testing.

  9. Three-step labyrinth seal for high-performance turbomachines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.

    1987-01-01

    A three-step labyrinth seal with 12, 11, and 10 labyrinth teeth per step, respectively, was tested under static (nonrotating) conditions. The configuration represented the seal for a high-performance turbopump (e.g., the space shuttle main engine fuel pump). The test data included critical mass flux and pressure profiles over a wide range of fluid conditions at concentric, partially eccentric, and fully eccentric seal positions. The seal mass fluxes (leakage rates) were lower over the entire range of fluid conditions tested than those for data collected for similar straight and three-step cylindrical seals, and this conformed somewhat to expectations. However, the pressure profiles for the eccentric positions indicated little, if any, direct stiffness for this configuration in contrast to significant direct stiffness reported for the straight and three-step cylindrical seals over the range of test conditions. Seal dynamics depend on geometric configuration, inlet and exit parameters, fluid phase, and rotation. The method of corresponding states was applied to the mass flux data, which were found to have a pressure dependency for helium.

  10. Diode step stress program for JANTX1N3893

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Data for the purpose of evaluating the effect of power/temperature step stress on the diode JANTX1N3893 manufactured by Siemens and Motorola is presented. A total of 48 samples from each manufacturer were submitted to the process. In addition, two control sample units were maintained for verification of the electrical parametric testing.

  11. STEP Tether Dynamics Preliminary Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaese, John R.

    2000-01-01

    The General Tethered Object Simulation System (GTOSS) has been successfully converted to the PC environment. GTOSS has been run under Microsoft Windows 95, 98 and NT4.0 with no problems noted. Adaptation to the PC environment and definition of the 3 three body configuration required resizing some of the GTOSS internal data arrays. To allow studies of the tether dynamics accompanying electrodynamic thrust, a tether current flow model has also been developed for GTOSS. This model includes effects due to the earth's magnetic field and ionosphere, tether conductivity, temperature, motion, shape and available power. Sample cases have been defined for a proposed STEP-AIRSEDS (Space Transfer using Electrodynamic Propulsion-The Michigan Technic Corporation proposed tether missions for commercial applications) three body configuration. This required definition of a 6th power scenario for GTOSS. This power scenario allows a user to specify whether orbit raising or orbit lowering is to be performed by selecting the number of the tether. Orbit raising and orbit lowering sample cases have been run successfully. Results from these runs have been included in this report. Results have only been generated so far for a three body configuration. Only point end masses have been represented. No attitude dynamics have been included. Initial results suggest that tether current can have significant and detrimental effects on tether dynamics and provisions will have to be made for control of it. This control will have to be considered in connection with desired target orbits for electrodynamic thrusting, as well as end body attitude control, momentum management of proposed control moment gyros, solar array pointing. All of these items will interact and thus, any system simulation will have to have each of these effects modeled in sufficient detail to display these interactions.

  12. Lunar base - A stepping stone to Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, M. B.; Mendell, W. W.; Roberts, B. B.

    1985-01-01

    Basic elements of technology and programmatic development are identified that appear relevant to the Case for Mars, starting from a base on the moon. The moon is a logical stepping stone toward human exploration of Mars because a lunar base can provide the first test of human ability to use the resources of another planetary body to provide basic materials for life support. A lunar base can provide the first long-term test of human capability to work and live in a reduced (but not zero) gravity field. A lunar base requires creation of the elements of a space transportation system that will be necessary to deliver large payloads to Mars and the space operations capability and experience necessary to carry out a Mars habitation program efficiently and with high reliability. A lunar base is feasible for the first decade of the 21st Century. Scenarios have been studied that provide advanced capability by 2015 within budget levels that are less than historical U.S. space expenditures (Apollo). Early return on the investment in terms of knowledge, practical experience and lunar products are important in gaining momentum for an expanded human exploration of the solar system and the eventual colonization of Mars.

  13. Solar array stepping to minimize array excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhat, Mahabaleshwar K. P. (Inventor); Liu, Tung Y. (Inventor); Plescia, Carl T. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Mechanical oscillations of a mechanism containing a stepper motor, such as a solar-array powered spacecraft, are reduced and minimized by the execution of step movements in pairs of steps, the period between steps being equal to one-half of the period of torsional oscillation of the mechanism. Each pair of steps is repeated at needed intervals to maintain desired continuous movement of the portion of elements to be moved, such as the solar array of a spacecraft. In order to account for uncertainty as well as slow change in the period of torsional oscillation, a command unit may be provided for varying the interval between steps in a pair.

  14. Directivity pattern of the sound radiated from axisymmetric stepped plates.

    PubMed

    He, Xiping; Yan, Xiuli; Li, Na

    2016-08-01

    For the purpose of optimal design and efficient utilization of the kind of stepped plate radiator in air, in this contribution, an approach for calculation of the directivity pattern of the sound radiated from a stepped plate in flexural vibration with a free edge is developed based on Kirchhoff-Love hypothesis and Rayleigh integral principle. Experimental tests of directivity pattern for a fabricated flat plate and two fabricated plates with one and two step radiators were carried out. It shows that the configuration of the measured directivity patterns by the proposed analytic approach is similar to those of the calculated approach. Comparison of the agreement between the calculated directivity pattern of a stepped plate and its corresponding theoretical piston show that the former radiator is equivalent to the latter, and the diffraction field generated by the unbaffled upper surface may be small. It also shows that the directivity pattern of a stepped radiator is independent of the metallic material but dependent on the thickness of base plate and resonant frequency. The thicker the thickness of base plate, the more directive the radiation is. The proposed analytic approach in this work may be adopted for any other plates with multi-steps. PMID:27586764

  15. Two-step Raman spectroscopy method for tumor diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, V. P.; Bratchenko, I. A.; Kozlov, S. V.; Moryatov, A. A.; Myakinin, O. O.; Artemyev, D. N.

    2014-05-01

    Two-step Raman spectroscopy phase method was proposed for differential diagnosis of malignant tumor in skin and lung tissue. It includes detection of malignant tumor in healthy tissue on first step with identification of concrete cancer type on the second step. Proposed phase method analyze spectral intensity alteration in 1300-1340 and 1640-1680 cm-1 Raman bands in relation to the intensity of the 1450 cm-1 band on first step, and relative differences between RS intensities for tumor area and healthy skin closely adjacent to the lesion on the second step. It was tested more than 40 ex vivo samples of lung tissue and more than 50 in vivo skin tumors. Linear Discriminant Analysis, Quadratic Discriminant Analysis and Support Vector Machine were used for tumors type classification on phase planes. It is shown that two-step phase method allows to reach 88.9% sensitivity and 87.8% specificity for malignant melanoma diagnosis (skin cancer); 100% sensitivity and 81.5% specificity for adenocarcinoma diagnosis (lung cancer); 90.9% sensitivity and 77.8% specificity for squamous cell carcinoma diagnosis (lung cancer).

  16. Two-Step Camera Calibration Method Developed for Micro UAV'S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gašparović, M.; Gajski, D.

    2016-06-01

    The development of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and continuous price reduction of unmanned systems attracted us to this research. Professional measuring systems are dozens of times more expensive and often heavier than "amateur", non-metric UAVs. For this reason, we tested the DJI Phantom 2 Vision Plus UAV. Phantom's smaller mass and velocity can develop less kinetic energy in relation to the professional measurement platforms, which makes it potentially less dangerous for use in populated areas. In this research, we wanted to investigate the ability of such non-metric UAV and find the procedures under which this kind of UAV may be used for the photogrammetric survey. It is important to emphasize that UAV is equipped with an ultra wide-angle camera with 14MP sensor. Calibration of such cameras is a complex process. In the research, a new two-step process is presented and developed, and the results are compared with standard one-step camera calibration procedure. Two-step process involves initially removed distortion on all images, and then uses these images in the phototriangulation with self-calibration. The paper presents statistical indicators which proved that the proposed two-step process is better and more accurate procedure for calibrating those types of cameras than standard one-step calibration. Also, we suggest two-step calibration process as the standard for ultra-wideangle cameras for unmanned aircraft.

  17. Gene Set Analysis: A Step-By-Step Guide

    PubMed Central

    Mooney, Michael A.; Wilmot, Beth

    2015-01-01

    To maximize the potential of genome-wide association studies, many researchers are performing secondary analyses to identify sets of genes jointly associated with the trait of interest. Although methods for gene-set analyses (GSA), also called pathway analyses, have been around for more than a decade, the field is still evolving. There are numerous algorithms available for testing the cumulative effect of multiple SNPs, yet no real consensus in the field about the best way to perform a GSA. This paper provides an overview of the factors that can affect the results of a GSA, the lessons learned from past studies, and suggestions for how to make analysis choices that are most appropriate for different types of data. PMID:26059482

  18. Influence of step length and landing pattern on patellofemoral joint kinetics during running.

    PubMed

    Willson, J D; Ratcliff, O M; Meardon, S A; Willy, R W

    2015-12-01

    Elevated patellofemoral joint kinetics during running may contribute to patellofemoral joint symptoms. The purpose of this study was to test for independent effects of foot strike pattern and step length on patellofemoral joint kinetics while running. Effects were tested relative to individual steps and also taking into account the number of steps required to run a kilometer with each step length. Patellofemoral joint reaction force and stress were estimated in 20 participants running at their preferred speed. Participants ran using a forefoot strike and rearfoot strike pattern during three different step length conditions: preferred step length, long (+10%) step length, and short (-10%) step length. Patellofemoral kinetics was estimated using a biomechanical model of the patellofemoral joint that accounted for cocontraction of the knee flexors and extensors. We observed independent effects of foot strike pattern and step length. Patellofemoral joint kinetics per step was 10-13% less during forefoot strike conditions and 15-20% less with a shortened step length. Patellofemoral joint kinetics per kilometer decreased 12-13% using a forefoot strike pattern and 9-12% with a shortened step length. To the extent that patellofemoral joint kinetics contribute to symptoms among runners, these running modifications may be advisable for runners with patellofemoral pain. PMID:25585589

  19. Step-stress analysis for predicting dental ceramic reliability

    PubMed Central

    Borba, Márcia; Cesar, Paulo F.; Griggs, Jason A.; Bona, Álvaro Della

    2013-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that step-stress analysis is effective to predict the reliability of an alumina-based dental ceramic (VITA In-Ceram AL blocks) subjected to a mechanical aging test. Methods Bar-shaped ceramic specimens were fabricated, polished to 1µm finish and divided into 3 groups (n=10): (1) step-stress accelerating test; (2) flexural strength- control; (3) flexural strength- mechanical aging. Specimens from group 1 were tested in an electromagnetic actuator (MTS Evolution) using a three-point flexure fixture (frequency: 2Hz; R=0.1) in 37°C water bath. Each specimen was subjected to an individual stress profile, and the number of cycles to failure was recorded. A cumulative damage model with an inverse power law lifetime-stress relation and Weibull lifetime distribution were used to fit the fatigue data. The data were used to predict the stress level and number of cycles for mechanical aging (group 3). Groups 2 and 3 were tested for three-point flexural strength (σ) in a universal testing machine with 1.0 s in 37°C water. Data were statistically analyzed using Mann-Whitney Rank Sum test. Results Step-stress data analysis showed that the profile most likely to weaken the specimens without causing fracture during aging (95% CI: 0–14% failures) was: 80 MPa stress amplitude and 105 cycles. The median σ values (MPa) for groups 2 (493±54) and 3 (423±103) were statistically different (p=0.009). Significance The aging profile determined by step-stress analysis was effective to reduce alumina ceramic strength as predicted by the reliability estimate, confirming the study hypothesis. PMID:23827018

  20. 46 CFR 163.003-27 - Production tests and examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... be tested. (d) Independent laboratory. Each production test must be conducted or supervised by an independent laboratory. However, if a test is performed more than 4 different times per year, laboratory... approved. (b) Test No. 1: Steps. Steps must be separated into lots of 100 steps or less. Steps of...

  1. 46 CFR 163.003-27 - Production tests and examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... be tested. (d) Independent laboratory. Each production test must be conducted or supervised by an independent laboratory. However, if a test is performed more than 4 different times per year, laboratory... approved. (b) Test No. 1: Steps. Steps must be separated into lots of 100 steps or less. Steps of...

  2. 46 CFR 163.003-27 - Production tests and examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... be tested. (d) Independent laboratory. Each production test must be conducted or supervised by an independent laboratory. However, if a test is performed more than 4 different times per year, laboratory... approved. (b) Test No. 1: Steps. Steps must be separated into lots of 100 steps or less. Steps of...

  3. 46 CFR 163.003-27 - Production tests and examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... be tested. (d) Independent laboratory. Each production test must be conducted or supervised by an independent laboratory. However, if a test is performed more than 4 different times per year, laboratory... approved. (b) Test No. 1: Steps. Steps must be separated into lots of 100 steps or less. Steps of...

  4. Strangles: taking steps towards eradication.

    PubMed

    Waller, Andrew S

    2013-11-29

    Strangles, caused by the host adapted Lancefield group C bacterium Streptococcus equi sub-species equi (S. equi), is one of the oldest recognised infectious diseases of horses and continues to cause significant welfare and economic cost throughout the world. The ability of S. equi to establish sub-clinical persistent infections primarily in the guttural pouches of convalescent horses has been instrumental to its success. However, the implementation of simple control measures that permit the identification and treatment of persistently infected carriers can prevent further outbreaks of disease at a local level. This review summarises some of the molecular mechanisms exploited by S. equi to cause disease. New qPCR and iELISA diagnostic tests replace culture methodologies as the gold standard for the detection of infected animals. A strategy to maximise the effective application of these tests to direct management methods for the eradication of S. equi infection is presented and the role of preventative vaccines is discussed. In contrast to current understanding, emerging data illustrates the dynamism of the global S. equi population and potential consequences for the effectiveness of currently available vaccines. The ability to use modern vaccines alongside conventional biosecurity and screening procedures will be critical to the large-scale prevention and even eradication of strangles, providing an opportunity to finally break the stranglehold that this disease has on the world's equine industry. PMID:23642414

  5. Access 5 - Step 1: Human Systems Integration Program Plan (HSIPP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the Human System Interface (HSI) analysis, design and test activities that will be performed to support the development of requirements and design guidelines to facilitate the incorporation of High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) Remotely Operated Aircraft (ROA) at or above FL400 in the National Airspace System (NAS). These activities are required to support the design and development of safe, effective and reliable ROA operator and ATC interfaces. This plan focuses on the activities to be completed for Step 1 of the ACCESS 5 program. Updates to this document will be made for each of the four ACCESS 5 program steps.

  6. Short-term Time Step Convergence in a Climate Model

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Hui; Rasch, Philip J.; Taylor, Mark; Jablonowski, Christiane

    2015-02-11

    A testing procedure is designed to assess the convergence property of a global climate model with respect to time step size, based on evaluation of the root-mean-square temperature difference at the end of very short (1 h) simulations with time step sizes ranging from 1 s to 1800 s. A set of validation tests conducted without sub-grid scale parameterizations confirmed that the method was able to correctly assess the convergence rate of the dynamical core under various configurations. The testing procedure was then applied to the full model, and revealed a slow convergence of order 0.4 in contrast to the expected first-order convergence. Sensitivity experiments showed without ambiguity that the time stepping errors in the model were dominated by those from the stratiform cloud parameterizations, in particular the cloud microphysics. This provides a clear guidance for future work on the design of more accurate numerical methods for time stepping and process coupling in the model.

  7. Short-term Time Step Convergence in a Climate Model

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wan, Hui; Rasch, Philip J.; Taylor, Mark; Jablonowski, Christiane

    2015-02-11

    A testing procedure is designed to assess the convergence property of a global climate model with respect to time step size, based on evaluation of the root-mean-square temperature difference at the end of very short (1 h) simulations with time step sizes ranging from 1 s to 1800 s. A set of validation tests conducted without sub-grid scale parameterizations confirmed that the method was able to correctly assess the convergence rate of the dynamical core under various configurations. The testing procedure was then applied to the full model, and revealed a slow convergence of order 0.4 in contrast to themore » expected first-order convergence. Sensitivity experiments showed without ambiguity that the time stepping errors in the model were dominated by those from the stratiform cloud parameterizations, in particular the cloud microphysics. This provides a clear guidance for future work on the design of more accurate numerical methods for time stepping and process coupling in the model.« less

  8. Time scaling relations for step bunches from models with step-step attractions (B1-type models)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasteva, A.; Popova, H.; Akutsu, N.; Tonchev, V.

    2016-03-01

    The step bunching instability is studied in three models of step motion defined in terms of ordinary differential equations (ODE). The source of instability in these models is step-step attraction, it is opposed by step-step repulsion and the developing surface patterns reflect the balance between the two. The first model, TE2, is a generalization of the seminal model of Tersoff et al. (1995). The second one, LW2, is obtained from the model of Liu and Weeks (1998) using the repulsions term to construct the attractions one with retained possibility to change the parameters in the two independently. The third model, MM2, is a minimal one constructed ad hoc and in this article it plays a central role. New scheme for scaling the ODE in vicinal studies is applied towards deciphering the pre-factors in the time-scaling relations. In all these models the patterned surface is self-similar - only one length scale is necessary to describe its evolution (hence B1-type). The bunches form finite angles with the terraces. Integrating numerically the equations for step motion and changing systematically the parameters we obtain the overall dependence of time-scaling exponent β on the power of step-step attractions p as β = 1/(3+p) for MM2 and hypothesize based on restricted set of data that it is β = 1/(5+p) for LW2 and TE2.

  9. Specific test and evaluation plan

    SciTech Connect

    Hays, W.H.

    1998-03-20

    The purpose of this Specific Test and Evaluation Plan (STEP) is to provide a detailed written plan for the systematic testing of modifications made to the 241-AX-B Valve Pit by the W-314 Project. The STEP develops the outline for test procedures that verify the system`s performance to the established Project design criteria. The STEP is a lower tier document based on the W-314 Test and Evaluation Plan (TEP). Testing includes Validations and Verifications (e.g., Commercial Grade Item Dedication activities), Factory Acceptance Tests (FATs), installation tests and inspections, Construction Acceptance Tests (CATs), Acceptance Test Procedures (ATPs), Pre-Operational Test Procedures (POTPs), and Operational Test Procedures (OTPs). It should be noted that POTPs are not required for testing of the transfer line addition. The STEP will be utilized in conjunction with the TEP for verification and validation.

  10. Complexity-Measure-Based Sequential Hypothesis Testing for Real-Time Detection of Lethal Cardiac Arrhythmias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Szi-Wen

    2006-12-01

    A novel approach that employs a complexity-based sequential hypothesis testing (SHT) technique for real-time detection of ventricular fibrillation (VF) and ventricular tachycardia (VT) is presented. A dataset consisting of a number of VF and VT electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings drawn from the MIT-BIH database was adopted for such an analysis. It was split into two smaller datasets for algorithm training and testing, respectively. Each ECG recording was measured in a 10-second interval. For each recording, a number of overlapping windowed ECG data segments were obtained by shifting a 5-second window by a step of 1 second. During the windowing process, the complexity measure (CM) value was calculated for each windowed segment and the task of pattern recognition was then sequentially performed by the SHT procedure. A preliminary test conducted using the database produced optimal overall predictive accuracy of[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]. The algorithm was also implemented on a commercial embedded DSP controller, permitting a hardware realization of real-time ventricular arrhythmia detection.

  11. Elastic cost of silicon step rebonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroy, F.; Garreau, Y.; Cheynis, F.; Croset, B.; Coati, A.; Müller, P.; Prévot, G.

    2016-01-01

    We study by grazing incidence x-ray diffraction the strain field induced by periodic double steps on a Si(1 1 15) surface that is a vicinal of a Si(001) surface misoriented by 5 .4∘ towards the <110 > direction. The best fit of the experimental structure factors is reached on the basis of the rebonded DB step edge model and the displacement field is well characterized assuming that steps are described by parallel rows of extended buried elastic dipoles. The dipole characteristics are the dipole position with respect to the step edge, the dipole amplitude (2.0 ±0.5 nN), and the lever arm Ω =5 .3∘ and force Φ =3 .7∘ orientations. We show that the dipole is dominated by a large stretch component localized between the lower and the upper corners of the step, which we assign to the presence of the rebonded atom at the step.

  12. Control Circuit For Two Stepping Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratliff, Roger; Rehmann, Kenneth; Backus, Charles

    1990-01-01

    Control circuit operates two independent stepping motors, one at a time. Provides following operating features: After selected motor stepped to chosen position, power turned off to reduce dissipation; Includes two up/down counters that remember at which one of eight steps each motor set. For selected motor, step indicated by illumination of one of eight light-emitting diodes (LED's) in ring; Selected motor advanced one step at time or repeatedly at rate controlled; Motor current - 30 mA at 90 degree positions, 60 mA at 45 degree positions - indicated by high or low intensity of LED that serves as motor-current monitor; Power-on reset feature provides trouble-free starts; To maintain synchronism between control circuit and motors, stepping of counters inhibited when motor power turned off.

  13. Random walk with an exponentially varying step

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Torre, A. C.; Maltz, A.; Mártin, H. O.; Catuogno, P.; García-Mata, I.

    2000-12-01

    A random walk with exponentially varying step, modeling damped or amplified diffusion, is studied. Each step is equal to the previous one multiplied by a step factor s (01/s relating different processes. For s<1/2 and s>2, the process is retrodictive (i.e., every final position can be reached by a unique path) and the set of all possible final points after infinite steps is fractal. For step factors in the interval [1/2,2], some cases result in smooth density distributions, other cases present overlapping self-similarity and there are values of the step factor for which the distribution is singular without a density function.

  14. Sage Simulation Model for Technology Demonstration Convertor by a Step-by-Step Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demko, Rikako; Penswick, L. Barry

    2006-01-01

    The development of a Stirling model using the 1-D Saga design code was completed using a step-by-step approach. This is a method of gradually increasing the complexity of the Saga model while observing the energy balance and energy losses at each step of the development. This step-by-step model development and energy-flow analysis can clarify where the losses occur, their impact, and suggest possible opportunities for design improvement.

  15. Surface-Step-Induced Oscillatory Oxide Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Liang; Luo, Langli; Ciston, Jim; Saidi, Wissam A.; Stach, Eric A.; Yang, Judith C.; Zhou, Guangwen

    2014-09-01

    We report in situ atomic-resolution transmission electron microscopy observations of the oxidation of stepped Cu surfaces. We find that the presence of surface steps both inhibits oxide film growth and leads to the oxide decomposition, thereby resulting in oscillatory oxide film growth. Using atomistic simulations, we show that the oscillatory oxide film growth is induced by oxygen adsorption on the lower terrace along the step edge, which destabilizes the oxide film formed on the upper terrace.

  16. Multi-step contrast sensitivity gauge

    SciTech Connect

    Quintana, Enrico C; Thompson, Kyle R; Moore, David G; Heister, Jack D; Poland, Richard W; Ellegood, John P; Hodges, George K; Prindville, James E

    2014-10-14

    An X-ray contrast sensitivity gauge is described herein. The contrast sensitivity gauge comprises a plurality of steps of varying thicknesses. Each step in the gauge includes a plurality of recesses of differing depths, wherein the depths are a function of the thickness of their respective step. An X-ray image of the gauge is analyzed to determine a contrast-to-noise ratio of a detector employed to generate the image.

  17. Revisiting "how many steps are enough?".

    PubMed

    Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Hatano, Yoshiro; Pangrazi, Robert P; Kang, Minsoo

    2008-07-01

    With continued widespread acceptance of pedometers by both researchers and practitioners, evidence-based steps/day indices are needed to facilitate measurement and motivation applications of physical activity (PA) in public health. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to reprise, update, and extend the current understanding of dose-response relationships in terms of pedometer-determined PA. Any pedometer-based PA guideline presumes an accurate and standardized measure of steps; at this time, industry standards establishing quality control of instrumentation is limited to Japan where public health pedometer applications and the 10,000 steps.d slogan are traceable to the 1960s. Adult public health guidelines promote > or =30 min of at least moderate-intensity daily PA, and this translates to 3000-4000 steps if they are: 1) at least moderate intensity (i.e., > or =100 steps.min); 2) accumulated in at least 10-min bouts; and 3) taken over and above some minimal level of PA (i.e., number of daily steps) below which individuals might be classified as sedentary. A zone-based hierarchy is useful for both measurement and motivation purposes in adults: 1) <5000 steps.d (sedentary); 2) 5000-7499 steps.d (low active); 3) 7500-9999 steps.d (somewhat active); 4) > or =10,000-12,499 steps.d (active); and 5) > or =12,500 steps.d (highly active). Evidence to support youth-specific cutoff points is emerging. Criterion-referenced approaches based on selected health outcomes present the potential for advancing evidence-based steps/day standards in both adults and children from a measurement perspective. A tradeoff that needs to be acknowledged and considered is the impact on motivation when evidence-based cutoff points are interpreted by individuals as unattainable goals. PMID:18562971

  18. Intramolecular strain coordinates kinesin stepping behavior along microtubules

    PubMed Central

    Yildiz, Ahmet; Tomishige, Michio; Gennerich, Arne; Vale, Ronald D.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Kinesin advances 8 nm along a microtubule per ATP hydrolyzed, but the mechanism responsible for coordinating the enzymatic cycles of kinesin’s two identical motor domains remains unresolved. Here, we have tested whether such coordination is mediated by intramolecular tension generated by the “neck linkers”, mechanical elements that span between the motor domains. When tension is reduced by extending the neck linkers with artificial peptides, the coupling between ATP hydrolysis and forward stepping is impaired and motor’s velocity decreases as a consequence. However, speed recovers to nearly normal levels when external tension is applied by an optical trap. Remarkably, external load also induces bidirectional stepping of an immotile kinesin that lacks its mechanical element (neck linker) and fuel (ATP). Our results indicate that the kinesin motor domain senses and responds to strain in a manner that facilitates its plus-end-directed stepping and communication between its two motor domains. PMID:18805095

  19. [The six steps necessary in elaborating critically appraised topics].

    PubMed

    García Villar, C

    2014-01-01

    Different types of critically appraised topics (CATs) can be elaborated in diagnostic imaging: comparison of diagnostic tests, evaluation of techniques for early detection (screening), economical analyses, or therapeutic aspects, among others. Their design will vary in function of the question they aim to answer. For example, for treatment evaluation, clinical trials are the best, but if there are secondary studies (systematic reviews or meta-analyses) that synthesize information from several studies, the results will be more important and the scientific conclusions will be more relevant. Regardless of the study design used, the elaboration of a CAT will involve six steps: 1) question; 2) systematic and efficient bibliographic search; 3) levels of evidence (choosing the articles that have the best level); 4) critical reading of the articles chosen; 5) applying conclusions to the context, and 6) recommendations. In this article, we will describe these steps and the nuances for different types of studies in each step. PMID:25092391

  20. The intra-rater reliability and agreement of compensatory stepping thresholds of healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Crenshaw, Jeremy R; Kaufman, Kenton R

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the test-retest, intra-rater reliability and agreement of compensatory stepping thresholds. A protocol was developed to establish anteroposterior single-stepping thresholds, anteroposterior multiple-stepping thresholds, and lateral single-stepping thresholds. Healthy, young subjects stood on a microprocessor-controlled treadmill, and responded to three series of progressively challenging surface translations. Subjects were instructed to "try not to step" when establishing single-stepping thresholds or "try to take only one step" when establishing multiple-stepping thresholds. Stepping thresholds were defined as the minimum disturbance magnitude that consistently elicited a single or second compensatory step. Thresholds were expressed as the ankle torque necessary to maintain upright posture. Thresholds studied included anterior single-stepping thresholds (τ = 273.0 ± 82.3 N m), posterior single-stepping, thresholds (τ = 235.5 ± 98.0 N m), anterior multiple-stepping thresholds (τ = 977.0 ± 416.3 N m), posterior multiple-stepping thresholds (τ = 701.9 ± 237.5 N m), stability-side lateral single-stepping thresholds (τ = 225.7 ± 77.7 Nm), and mobility-side lateral single-stepping thresholds (τ = 236.8 ± 85.4 N m). Based on intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and Bland-Altman plots, all thresholds demonstrated excellent reliability (ICC(2,1) = 0.87-0.97) and agreement. These results suggest that compensatory stepping thresholds have sufficient repeatability to be used in clinical and research-related assessments of fall-risk. Additional study is needed to determine the intra- and inter-rater reliabilities and validity of thresholds specific to the patient populations of interest. PMID:24300837

  1. Diode step stress program for JANTX1N2970b

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Data for the purpose of evaluating the effect of power/temperature step stress was studied when applied to the zener diode JANTX1N2970B manufactured by Siemens and General Semiconductor, Inc. A total of 48 samples from each manufacturer was submitted to the process. In addition, two control sample units were maintained for verification of the electrical parametric testing. The tests for determining power/temperature stresses are described, and test results are discussed. Failure analyses for power stress, and temperature stress are presented.

  2. Time to pause before the next step

    SciTech Connect

    Siemon, R.E.

    1998-12-31

    Many scientists, who have staunchly supported ITER for years, are coming to realize it is time to further rethink fusion energy`s development strategy. Specifically, as was suggested by Grant Logan and Dale Meade, and in keeping with the restructuring of 1996, a theme of better, cheaper, faster fusion would serve the program more effectively than ``demonstrating controlled ignition...and integrated testing of the high-heat-flux and nuclear components required to utilize fusion energy...`` which are the important ingredients of ITER`s objectives. The author has personally shifted his view for a mixture of technical and political reasons. On the technical side, he senses that through advanced tokamak research, spherical tokamak research, and advanced stellarator work, scientists are coming to a new understanding that might make a burning-plasma device significantly smaller and less expensive. Thus waiting for a few years, even ten years, seems prudent. Scientifically, there is fascinating physics to be learned through studies of burning plasma on a tokamak. And clearly if one wishes to study burning plasma physics in a sustained plasma, there is no other configuration with an adequate database on which to proceed. But what is the urgency of moving towards an ITER-like step focused on burning plasma? Some of the arguments put forward and the counter arguments are discussed here.

  3. Space Drive Physics: Introduction and Next Steps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millis, M. G.

    Research toward the visionary goal of propellantless ``space drives'' is introduced, covering key physics issues and a listing of roughly 2-dozen approaches. The targeted advantage of a space drive is to circumvent the propellant constraints of rockets and the maneuvering limits of light sails by using the interactions between the spacecraft and its surrounding space for propulsion. At present, the scientific foundations from which to engineer a space drive have not been discovered and, objectively, might be impossible. Although no propulsion breakthroughs appear imminent, the subject has matured to where the relevant questions have been broached and are beginning to be answered. The critical make-break issues include; conservation of momentum, uncertain sources of reaction mass, and the net-external thrusting requirement. Note: space drives are not necessarily faster- than-light devices. Speed limits are a separate, unanswered issue. Relevant unsolved physics includes; the sources and mechanisms of inertial frames, coupling of gravitation and electromagnetism, and the nature of the quantum vacuum. The propulsion approaches span mostly stages 1 through 3 of the scientific method (defining the problem, collecting data, and articulating hypotheses), while some have matured to stage 4 (testing hypotheses). Nonviable approaches include `stiction drives,' `gyroscopic antigravity,' and `lifters.' No attempt is made to gauge the prospects of the remaining approaches. Instead, a list of next-step research questions is derived from the examination of these goals, unknowns, and concepts.

  4. Simulating stochastic dynamics using large time steps.

    PubMed

    Corradini, O; Faccioli, P; Orland, H

    2009-12-01

    We present an approach to investigate the long-time stochastic dynamics of multidimensional classical systems, in contact with a heat bath. When the potential energy landscape is rugged, the kinetics displays a decoupling of short- and long-time scales and both molecular dynamics or Monte Carlo (MC) simulations are generally inefficient. Using a field theoretic approach, we perform analytically the average over the short-time stochastic fluctuations. This way, we obtain an effective theory, which generates the same long-time dynamics of the original theory, but has a lower time-resolution power. Such an approach is used to develop an improved version of the MC algorithm, which is particularly suitable to investigate the dynamics of rare conformational transitions. In the specific case of molecular systems at room temperature, we show that elementary integration time steps used to simulate the effective theory can be chosen a factor approximately 100 larger than those used in the original theory. Our results are illustrated and tested on a simple system, characterized by a rugged energy landscape. PMID:20365123

  5. Dynamic emotional processing in experiential therapy: two steps forward, one step back.

    PubMed

    Pascual-Leone, Antonio

    2009-02-01

    The study of dynamic and nonlinear change has been a valuable development in psychotherapy process research. However, little advancement has been made in describing how moment-by-moment affective processes contribute to larger units of change. The purpose of this study was to examine observable moment-by-moment sequences in emotional processing as they occurred within productive sessions of experiential therapy. This article further tested A. Pascual-Leone and L. S. Greenberg's (2007) model of emotional processing through a reanalysis of their data sample of 34 sessions in which clients presented with global distress: 17 that ended in poor in-session events and 17 that ended in good in-session events. Current analyses used univariate and bootstrapping statistical methods to examine how dynamic temporal patterns in clients' emotion accumulated moment-by-moment to produce in-session gains in emotional processing. Results show that effective emotional processing was simultaneously associated with steady improvement according to the model as well as increased emotional range. Consequentially, good events were shown to occur in a 2-steps-forward, 1-step-back fashion. Finally, good events were also shown to have progressively shortened emotional collapses, whereas the opposite was true for poor in-session events. PMID:19170458

  6. Scroll wave drift along steps, troughs, and corners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Hua; Zhang, Zhihui; Steinbock, Oliver

    2015-06-01

    Three-dimensional excitable systems can create nonlinear scroll waves that rotate around one-dimensional phase singularities. Recent theoretical work predicts that these filaments drift along step-like height variations. Here, we test this prediction using experiments with thin layers of the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction. We observe that over short distances scroll waves are attracted towards the step and then rapidly commence a steady drift along the step line. The translating filaments always reside on the shallow side of the step near the edge. Accordingly, filaments in the deep domain initially collide with and shorten at the step wall. The drift speeds obey the predicted proportional dependence on the logarithm of the height ratio and the direction depends on the vortex chirality. We also observe drift along the perimeter of rectangular plateaus and find that the filaments perform sharp turns at the corners. In addition, we investigate rectangular troughs for which vortices of equal chirality can drift in different directions. The latter two effects are reproduced in numerical simulations with the Barkley model. The simulations show that narrow troughs instigate scroll wave encounters that induce repulsive interaction and symmetry breaking. Similar phenomena could exist in the geometrically complicated ventricles of the human heart where reentrant vortex waves cause tachycardia and fibrillation.

  7. Magnetically suspended stepping motors for clean room and vacuum environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higuchi, Toshiro

    1994-01-01

    To answer the growing needs for super-clean or contact free actuators for uses in clean rooms, vacuum chambers, and space, innovative actuators which combine the functions of stepping motors and magnetic bearings in one body were developed. The rotor of the magnetically suspended stepping motor is suspended like a magnetic bearing and rotated and positioned like a stepping motor. The important trait of the motor is that it is not a simple mixture or combination of a stepping motor and conventional magnetic bearing, but an amalgam of a stepping motor and a magnetic bearing. Owing to optimal design and feed-back control, a toothed stator and rotor are all that are needed structurewise for stable suspension. More than ten types of motors such as linear type, high accuracy rotary type, two-dimensional type, and high vacuum type were built and tested. This paper describes the structure and design of these motors and their performance for such applications as precise positioning rotary table, linear conveyor system, and theta-zeta positioner for clean room and high vacuum use.

  8. Magnetically suspended stepping motors for clean room and vacuum environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higuchi, Toshiro

    1994-05-01

    To answer the growing needs for super-clean or contact free actuators for uses in clean rooms, vacuum chambers, and space, innovative actuators which combine the functions of stepping motors and magnetic bearings in one body were developed. The rotor of the magnetically suspended stepping motor is suspended like a magnetic bearing and rotated and positioned like a stepping motor. The important trait of the motor is that it is not a simple mixture or combination of a stepping motor and conventional magnetic bearing, but an amalgam of a stepping motor and a magnetic bearing. Owing to optimal design and feed-back control, a toothed stator and rotor are all that are needed structurewise for stable suspension. More than ten types of motors such as linear type, high accuracy rotary type, two-dimensional type, and high vacuum type were built and tested. This paper describes the structure and design of these motors and their performance for such applications as precise positioning rotary table, linear conveyor system, and theta-zeta positioner for clean room and high vacuum use.

  9. Split-step non-paraxial beam propagation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Anurag; Agrawal, Arti

    2004-06-01

    A new method for solving the wave equation is presented, which, being non-paraxial, is applicable to wide-angle beam propagation. It shows very good stability characteristics in the sense that relatively larger step-sizes can be used. It is both faster and easier to implement. The method is based on symmetrized splitting of operators, one representing the propagation through a uniform medium and the other, the effect of the refractive index variation of the guiding structure. The method can be implemented in the FD-BPM, FFT-BPM and collocation schemes. The method is stable for a step size of 1 micron in a graded index waveguide with accuracy better than 0.001 in the field overlap integral for 1000-micron propagation. At a tilt angle of 50°, the method shows an error less than 0.001 with 0.25-micron step. In the benchmark test, the present method shows a relative power of ~0.96 in a 100 micron long waveguide with 1000 propagation steps and 800 sample points, while FD-BPM with Pade(2,2) approximation gives a relative power of 0.95 with 1000 sample points and 2048 propagation steps. Thus, the method requires fewer points, is easier to implement, faster, more accurate and highly stable.

  10. A Step Response Based Mixed-Signal BIST Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Alvernon

    2001-01-01

    A new Mixed-Signal Built-in Self-test approach that is based upon the step response of a reconfigurable (or multifunction) analog block is presented in this paper. The technique requires the overlapping step response of the Circuit Under Test (CUT) for two circuit configurations. Each configuration can be realized by changing the topology of the CUT or by sampling two CUT nodes with differing step responses. The technique can effectively detect both soft and hard faults and does not require an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) and/or digital-to-analog converter( DAC). It also does not require any precision voltage sources or comparators. The approach does not require any additional analog circuits to realize the test signal generator and a two input analog multiplexer for CUT test node sampling. The paper is concluded with the application of the proposed approach to a circuit found in the work of Epstein et a1 and two ITC 97 analog benchmark circuits.

  11. A New Hybrid STEP/Coulomb model for Aftershock Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steacy, S.; Jimenez, A.; Gerstenberger, M.

    2014-12-01

    Aftershock forecasting models tend to fall into two classes - purely statistical approaches based on clustering, b-value, and the Omori-Utsu law; and Coulomb rate-state models which relate the forecast increase in rate to the magnitude of the Coulomb stress change. Recently, hybrid models combining physical and statistical forecasts have begun to be developed, for example by Bach and Hainzl (2012) and Steacy et al. (2013). The latter approach combined Coulomb stress patterns with the STEP (short-term earthquake probability) model by redistributing expected rate from areas with decreased stress to regions where the stress had increased. The chosen 'Coulomb Redistribution Parameter' (CRP) was 0.93, based on California earthquakes, which meant that 93% of the total rate was expected to occur where the stress had increased. The model was tested against the Canterbury sequence and the main result was that the new model performed at least as well as, and often better than, STEP when tested against retrospective data but that STEP was generally better in pseudo-prospective tests that involved data actually available within the first 10 days of each event of interest. The authors suggested that the major reason for this discrepancy was uncertainty in the slip models and, particularly, in the geometries of the faults involved in each complex major event. Here we develop a variant of the STEP/Coulomb model in which the CRP varies based on the percentage of aftershocks that occur in the positively stressed areas during the forecast learning period. We find that this variant significantly outperforms both STEP and the previous hybrid model in almost all cases, even when the input Coulomb model is quite poor. Our results suggest that this approach might be more useful than Coulomb rate-state when the underlying slip model is not well constrained due to the dependence of that method on the magnitude of the Coulomb stress change.

  12. Adaptive time steps in trajectory surface hopping simulations.

    PubMed

    Spörkel, Lasse; Thiel, Walter

    2016-05-21

    Trajectory surface hopping (TSH) simulations are often performed in combination with active-space multi-reference configuration interaction (MRCI) treatments. Technical problems may arise in such simulations if active and inactive orbitals strongly mix and switch in some particular regions. We propose to use adaptive time steps when such regions are encountered in TSH simulations. For this purpose, we present a computational protocol that is easy to implement and increases the computational effort only in the critical regions. We test this procedure through TSH simulations of a GFP chromophore model (OHBI) and a light-driven rotary molecular motor (F-NAIBP) on semiempirical MRCI potential energy surfaces, by comparing the results from simulations with adaptive time steps to analogous ones with constant time steps. For both test molecules, the number of successful trajectories without technical failures rises significantly, from 53% to 95% for OHBI and from 25% to 96% for F-NAIBP. The computed excited-state lifetime remains essentially the same for OHBI and increases somewhat for F-NAIBP, and there is almost no change in the computed quantum efficiency for internal rotation in F-NAIBP. We recommend the general use of adaptive time steps in TSH simulations with active-space CI methods because this will help to avoid technical problems, increase the overall efficiency and robustness of the simulations, and allow for a more complete sampling. PMID:27208937

  13. Adaptive time steps in trajectory surface hopping simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spörkel, Lasse; Thiel, Walter

    2016-05-01

    Trajectory surface hopping (TSH) simulations are often performed in combination with active-space multi-reference configuration interaction (MRCI) treatments. Technical problems may arise in such simulations if active and inactive orbitals strongly mix and switch in some particular regions. We propose to use adaptive time steps when such regions are encountered in TSH simulations. For this purpose, we present a computational protocol that is easy to implement and increases the computational effort only in the critical regions. We test this procedure through TSH simulations of a GFP chromophore model (OHBI) and a light-driven rotary molecular motor (F-NAIBP) on semiempirical MRCI potential energy surfaces, by comparing the results from simulations with adaptive time steps to analogous ones with constant time steps. For both test molecules, the number of successful trajectories without technical failures rises significantly, from 53% to 95% for OHBI and from 25% to 96% for F-NAIBP. The computed excited-state lifetime remains essentially the same for OHBI and increases somewhat for F-NAIBP, and there is almost no change in the computed quantum efficiency for internal rotation in F-NAIBP. We recommend the general use of adaptive time steps in TSH simulations with active-space CI methods because this will help to avoid technical problems, increase the overall efficiency and robustness of the simulations, and allow for a more complete sampling.

  14. Tritium Issues in Next Step Devices

    SciTech Connect

    C.H. Skinner; G. Federici

    2001-09-05

    Tritium issues will play a central role in the performance and operation of next-step deuterium-tritium (DT) burning plasma tokamaks and the safety aspects associated with tritium will attract intense public scrutiny. The orders-of-magnitude increase in duty cycle and stored energy will be a much larger change than the increase in plasma performance necessary to achieve high fusion gain and ignition. Erosion of plasma-facing components will scale up with the pulse length from being barely measurable on existing machines to centimeter scale. Magnetic Fusion Energy (MFE) devices with carbon plasma-facing components will accumulate tritium by co-deposition with the eroded carbon and this will strongly constrain plasma operations. We report on a novel laser-based method to remove co-deposited tritium from carbon plasma-facing components in tokamaks. A major fraction of the tritium trapped in a co-deposited layer during the deuterium-tritium (DT) campaign on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) was released by heating with a scanning laser beam. This technique offers the potential for tritium removal in a next-step DT device without the use of oxidation and the associated deconditioning of the plasma-facing surfaces and expense of processing large quantities of tritium oxide. The operational lifetime of alternative materials such as tungsten has significant uncertainties due to melt layer loss during disruptions. Production of dust and flakes will need careful monitoring and minimization, and control and accountancy of the tritium inventory will be critical issues. Many of the tritium issues in Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) are similar to MFE, but some, for example those associated with the target factory, are unique to IFE. The plasma-edge region in a tokamak has greater complexity than the core due to lack of poloidal symmetry and nonlinear feedback between the plasma and wall. Sparse diagnostic coverage and low dedicated experimental run time has hampered the

  15. Smoothing out step changes of LMP

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Fangxing

    2008-08-15

    The locational marginal pricing methodology may lead to a step change when system load grows, creating higher financial risk, especially for small and medium-sized market participants. A proposed continuous LMP method is a straightforward solution to eliminate these step changes when load grows. (author)

  16. Teachers: Recognize Important Steps to Reduce Cheating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supon, Viola

    2008-01-01

    Teachers must walk the steps and live the steps if reducing cheating is going to occur. Teachers begin this process by being cognizant and vigilant relative to administering means of measurement and assigning written work. This process includes skill acquisition in regards to: (1) acknowledging cheating, (2) purposeful planning, (3) electronic…

  17. 15 CFR 732.1 - Steps overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS STEPS FOR USING THE EAR § 732.1 Steps overview. (a)(1) Introduction. In this part, references to the EAR are references to 15 CFR chapter VII, subchapter C. This part is intended to help you determine your obligations under...

  18. 15 CFR 732.1 - Steps overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS STEPS FOR USING THE EAR § 732.1 Steps overview. (a)(1) Introduction. In this part, references to the EAR are references to 15 CFR chapter VII, subchapter C. This part is intended to help you determine your obligations under...

  19. 15 CFR 732.1 - Steps overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS STEPS FOR USING THE EAR § 732.1 Steps overview. (a)(1) Introduction. In this part, references to the EAR are references to 15 CFR chapter VII, subchapter C. This part is intended to help you determine your obligations under...

  20. 7 CFR 60.122 - Production step.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Definitions § 60.122 Production step. Production step means in the case of: (a) (b) Farm-raised Fish and Shellfish: Hatched, raised, harvested, and processed. (c) Wild Fish and Shellfish: Harvested and processed....

  1. 7 CFR 60.122 - Production step.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Definitions § 60.122 Production step. Production step means in the case of: (a) (b) Farm-raised Fish and Shellfish: Hatched, raised, harvested, and processed. (c) Wild Fish and Shellfish: Harvested and processed....

  2. 7 CFR 60.122 - Production step.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Definitions § 60.122 Production step. Production step means in the case of: (a) (b) Farm-raised Fish and Shellfish: Hatched, raised, harvested, and processed. (c) Wild Fish and Shellfish: Harvested and processed....

  3. Twelve Steps to a Winning First Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Karen

    2009-01-01

    This article offers 12 steps to jumpstart a new school librarian's career. Being the information specialist will be both challenging and rewarding as one undertakes a myriad of activities. These 12 steps will help a new school librarian's first year successful.

  4. 15 CFR 732.1 - Steps overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CFR chapter VII, subchapter C. This part is intended to help you determine your obligations under the..., Iran, and North Korea. For these countries, you may skip Steps 7 through 11 and go directly to Step 12..., Iran, and North Korea), prohibited activities of U.S. persons in support of proliferation of weapons...

  5. 15 CFR 732.1 - Steps overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CFR chapter VII, subchapter C. This part is intended to help you determine your obligations under the..., Iran, and North Korea. For these countries, you may skip Steps 7 through 11 and go directly to Step 12..., Iran, and North Korea), prohibited activities of U.S. persons in support of proliferation of weapons...

  6. The Process of Transformation: Steps toward Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarule, Jill Mattuck

    1980-01-01

    A study of adult learners reveals four steps of transformative change in adult life: diffusion, dissonance, differentiation, and coherence. The educational implications of these steps are explored through case studies, and it is argued that these transformative changes affect not only the individual and the nature of adult education, but the…

  7. Inception point for embankment dam stepped spillways

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stepped spillways applied to embankment dams have become a common design practice with the rehabilitation of aging watershed dams, especially those experiencing a hazard classification change from low to high hazard. Previous research on stepped spillways focused on gravity dams where aerated flow ...

  8. N-Terminus of Cardiac Myosin Essential Light Chain Modulates Myosin Step-Size.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yihua; Ajtai, Katalin; Kazmierczak, Katarzyna; Szczesna-Cordary, Danuta; Burghardt, Thomas P

    2016-01-12

    Muscle myosin cyclically hydrolyzes ATP to translate actin. Ventricular cardiac myosin (βmys) moves actin with three distinct unitary step-sizes resulting from its lever-arm rotation and with step-frequencies that are modulated in a myosin regulation mechanism. The lever-arm associated essential light chain (vELC) binds actin by its 43 residue N-terminal extension. Unitary steps were proposed to involve the vELC N-terminal extension with the 8 nm step engaging the vELC/actin bond facilitating an extra ∼19 degrees of lever-arm rotation while the predominant 5 nm step forgoes vELC/actin binding. A minor 3 nm step is the unlikely conversion of the completed 5 to the 8 nm step. This hypothesis was tested using a 17 residue N-terminal truncated vELC in porcine βmys (Δ17βmys) and a 43 residue N-terminal truncated human vELC expressed in transgenic mouse heart (Δ43αmys). Step-size and step-frequency were measured using the Qdot motility assay. Both Δ17βmys and Δ43αmys had significantly increased 5 nm step-frequency and coincident loss in the 8 nm step-frequency compared to native proteins suggesting the vELC/actin interaction drives step-size preference. Step-size and step-frequency probability densities depend on the relative fraction of truncated vELC and relate linearly to pure myosin species concentrations in a mixture containing native vELC homodimer, two truncated vELCs in the modified homodimer, and one native and one truncated vELC in the heterodimer. Step-size and step-frequency, measured for native homodimer and at two or more known relative fractions of truncated vELC, are surmised for each pure species by using a new analytical method. PMID:26671638

  9. STEP-AIRSEDS System Engineering Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowell, Tom; Taliaferro, Lanny

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes and highlights the activities in support of the Space Transportation using Electrodynamic Propulsion Atmospheric Ionospheric Research Small Expendable Deployer Satellite (STEP-AIRSEDS) Project for the period of May 16, 2000 through September 28, 2001. The Alpha Technology, Inc. was tasked to provide support to the MSFC (Marshall Space Flight Center) in requirements development and in verification activities. Specifically, the Alpha Technology, Inc. task was to: (1) develop and maintain the STEP-AIRSEDS Project System Requirements Database; (2) develop and maintain the STEP-AIRSEDS requirements verification definition and planning support database; (3) perform requirements flow down analysis of STEP-AIRSEDS Project System Requirements to TMTC (The Michigan Technic Corporation) Level IV Requirements; (4) provide system engineering guidance to the Project as needed; (5) provide guidance to TMTC in preparation of Level IV Requirements; and (6) provide support to STEP-AIRSEDS meetings, reviews, and telecons as needed.

  10. Test Reviewing at the Buros Center for Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Janet F.; Geisinger, Kurt F.

    2012-01-01

    The test review process used by the Buros Center for Testing is described as a series of 11 steps: (1) identifying tests to be reviewed, (2) obtaining tests and preparing test descriptions, (3) determining whether tests meet review criteria, (4) identifying appropriate reviewers, (5) selecting reviewers, (6) sending instructions and materials to…

  11. Five questions to consider before conducting a stepped wedge trial.

    PubMed

    Hargreaves, James R; Copas, Andrew J; Beard, Emma; Osrin, David; Lewis, James J; Davey, Calum; Thompson, Jennifer A; Baio, Gianluca; Fielding, Katherine L; Prost, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    Researchers should consider five questions before starting a stepped wedge trial. Why are you planning one? Researchers sometimes think that stepped wedge trials are useful when there is little doubt about the benefit of the intervention being tested. However, if the primary reason for an intervention is to measure its effect, without equipoise there is no ethical justification for delaying implementation in some clusters. By contrast, if you are undertaking pragmatic research, where the primary reason for rolling out the intervention is for it to exert its benefits, and if phased implementation is inevitable, a stepped wedge trial is a valid option and provides better evidence than most non-randomized evaluations. What design will you use? Two common stepped wedge designs are based on the recruitment of a closed or open cohort. In both, individuals may experience both control and intervention conditions and you should be concerned about carry-over effects. In a third, continuous-recruitment, short-exposure design, individuals are recruited as they become eligible and experience either control or intervention condition, but not both. How will you conduct the primary analysis? In stepped wedge trials, control of confounding factors through secular variation is essential. 'Vertical' approaches preserve randomization and compare outcomes between randomized groups within periods. 'Horizontal' approaches compare outcomes before and after crossover to the intervention condition. Most analysis models used in practice combine both types of comparison. The appropriate analytic strategy should be considered on a case-by-case basis. How large will your trial be? Standard sample size calculations for cluster randomized trials do not accommodate the specific features of stepped wedge trials. Methods exist for many stepped wedge designs, but simulation-based calculations provide the greatest flexibility. In some scenarios, such as when the intracluster correlation coefficient is

  12. A laboratory test for the examination of alactic running performance.

    PubMed

    Kibele, Armin; Behm, David

    2005-12-01

    A new testing procedure is introduced to evaluate the alactic running performance in a 10s sprint task with near-maximal movement velocity. The test is performed on a motor-equipped treadmill with inverted polarity that increases mechanical resistance instead of driving the treadmill belt. As a result, a horizontal force has to be exerted against the treadmill surface in order to overcome the resistant force of the engine and to move the surface in a backward direction. For this task, subjects lean with their hands towards the front safety barrier of the treadmill railing with a slightly inclined body posture. The required skill resembles the pushing movement of bobsleigh pilots at the start of a race. Subjects are asked to overcome this mechanical resistance and to cover as much distance as possible within a time period of 10 seconds. Fifteen male students (age: 27.7 ± 4.1 years, body height: 1.82 ± 0.46 m, body mass: 78.3 ± 6.7 kg) participated in a study. As the resistance force was set to 134 N, subjects ran 35.4 ± 2.6 m on the average corresponding to a mean running velocity of 3.52 ± 0.25 m·s(-1). The validity of the new test was examined by statistical inference with various measures related to alactic performance including a metabolic equivalent to estimate alactic capacity (2892 ± 525 mL O2), an estimate for the oxygen debt (2662 ± 315 ml), the step test by Margaria to estimate alactic energy flow (1691 ± 171 W), and a test to measure the maximal strength in the leg extensor muscles (2304 ± 351 N). The statistical evaluation showed that the new test is in good agreement with the theoretical assumptions for alactic performance. Significant correlation coefficients were found between the test criteria and the measures for alactic capacity (r = 0.79, p < 0.01) as well as alactic power (r = 0.77, p < 0.01). The testing procedure is easy to administer and it is best suited to evaluate the alactic capacity for bobsleigh pilots as well as for any other

  13. Influence of Small Steps on Wall Pressure Fluctuation Spectra Measured on Tu-144LL Flying Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Efimtsov, B. M.; Golubev, A. Yu.; Rizzu, S. A.; Andersson, A. O.; Rackl, R. G.; Andrianov, E. V.

    2002-01-01

    Results of analyzing flight-test data of pressure-fluctuation fields in front of forward-facing steps and behind backward-facing steps are presented. The range of dimensionless step heights (normalized by boundary-layer displacement thickness) in the flight test was 0.042-0.236. The flight tests covered a mach-number range from 0.57 to 1.97. In the mach-number ranges covered by wind-tunnel tests (0.57 to 0.78 and 1.5 to 2) data agree very well with the flight data. Very importantly, the flight-test data fill in the gap previously existing for small-step pressure-fluctuations in the range of mach 0.78 to 1.5. Increased pressure-fluctuations were observed in the transonic region.

  14. Diffusion of tungsten on stepped tungsten surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, D. S.; Kim, S. K.; Gomer, R.

    1990-08-01

    Self-diffusion of thermally generated tungsten atoms near (123) and (257), on the zone (011)-(112) and on (023), on the zone (011)-(001) of a tungsten field emitter has been investigated by the field-emission fluctuation method, using a rectangular probe in order to investigate diffusion anisotropy. In agreement with earlier findings of Gong and Gomer [J. Chem. Phys. 88 (1988) 1359, 1370] diffusion of single W atoms along and across (011) terraces separated by (011) steps, i.e. step edges running along [111] is essentially isotropic with Ed = 16 kcal, D0 ≈ 10 -4 cm 2 s -1, while atoms can cross (001) oriented steps only with much activation energy: Ed ≈ 35 kcal, D0 = 10 -2 cm -2 s -1. Slow diffusion parallel to steps attributed previously by Gong Chem. Phys. 88 (1988) 1359, 1370] to kink motion was also seen along the zone (011)-(112) but seems more complicated than previously assumed, with several regimes, which may correspond to motions of different kink configurations. Distinct dips in the slow regime diffusion coefficients occurred at 910 K, somewhat higher than the previously seen onset of dips, 875 K, and may indicate roughening, as previously hypothesized. Slow diffusion perpendicular to steps was also seen in this zone and is not fully understood. It may arise from some step components always perpendicular to the short slit dimensions, or may correspond to more complicated surface configurations than the step and terrace pattern on an ideal emitter surface.

  15. Antibody Blood Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... discovered that people with celiac disease who eat gluten have higher than normal levels of certain antibodies ... rye and barley that are generically known as “gluten.” Antibody Testing: Only A First Step To help ...

  16. Objectives and Preparing Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purohit, Anal A.; Bober, Kenneth F.

    1984-01-01

    The concepts behind, and construction of, specific behavioral objectives are examined as steps that are preliminary to evaluating student performance through tests. A taxonomy of educational objectives and guidelines in preparing them are outlined in detail. (MSE)

  17. Analogue step-by-step DC component eliminator for 24-hour PPG signal monitoring.

    PubMed

    Pilt, Kristjan; Meigas, Kalju; Lass, Jaanus; Rosmann, Mart; Kaik, Jüri

    2007-01-01

    For applications where PPG signal AC component needs to be measured without disturbances in its shape and recorded digitally with high digitalization accuracy, the step-by-step DC component eliminator is developed. This paper describes step-by-step DC component eliminator, which is utilized with analogue comparator and operational amplifier. It allows to record PPG signal without disturbances in its shape in 24-hours PPG signal monitoring system. The experiments with PPG signal have been carried out. PMID:18002130

  18. Phonon scattering in graphene over substrate steps

    SciTech Connect

    Sevinçli, H.; Brandbyge, M.

    2014-10-13

    We calculate the effect on phonon transport of substrate-induced bends in graphene. We consider bending induced by an abrupt kink in the substrate, and provide results for different step-heights and substrate interaction strengths. We find that individual substrate steps reduce thermal conductance in the range between 5% and 47%. We also consider the transmission across linear kinks formed by adsorption of atomic hydrogen at the bends and find that individual kinks suppress thermal conduction substantially, especially at high temperatures. Our analysis show that substrate irregularities can be detrimental for thermal conduction even for small step heights.

  19. Step-by-Step Solution Possibilities in Different Computer Algebra Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonisson, Eno

    This paper compares a number of different Computer Algebra Systems (CAS) in their solution of one-step and multi-step problems. The CAS programs considered include DERIVE, Maple, Mathematica, and MuPAD while the problems are taken from the final examinations of grades 9 and 12 in Estonian schools. The different outputs to one-step problems with…

  20. Macintosh Step by Step: Footsteps To Follow for Learning To Use the Macintosh Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piazza, David J.

    This step by step introductory guide, which is divided into a series of 58 topics that should be familiar to any user of the Macintosh, is intended to aid new users in learning the topics that they will need to know to be successful with the Macintosh. Each topic includes the following: (1) a numbered set of sequential steps to be followed,…

  1. First Steps PLUS: Yakima First Steps Mobilization Project for Pregnant Substance Abusers. An Interim Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordlund, Daniel J.; And Others

    The Yakima First Steps Mobilization Project for Pregnant Substance Abusers, known as First Steps PLUS, is a demonstration project. The project seeks to improve the health outcomes of pregnant substance abusing women and their infants by enhancing existing perinatal services provided through Washington's First Steps Maternity Care Program and by…

  2. 49 CFR 40.61 - What are the preliminary steps in the collection process?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What are the preliminary steps in the collection process? 40.61 Section 40.61 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Urine Specimen Collections § 40.61 What are the preliminary steps in the collection...

  3. INTERACTING EFFECTS OF VARYING STEP-SIZE AND FEEDBACK IN PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GORDON, JOHN M., JR.

    THE FOLLOWING HYPOTHESES WERE TESTED DURING THIS STUDY--(1) PROVIDING KNOWLEDGE OF CORRECT RESPONSE DOES NOT INCREASE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF SMALL STEP-SIZE PROGRAMS FOR STUDENTS AT ALL ACHIEVEMENT LEVELS, (2) PROVIDING KNOWLEDGE OF CORRECT RESPONSE DOES INCREASE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF MODERATE STEP-SIZE PROGRAMS AT ALL ACHIEVEMENT LEVELS, AND (3)…

  4. Take Steps to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... I at Risk? 4 of 9 sections Take Action! Take Action: Talk to Your Doctor Take these steps to ... Previous section Signs 5 of 9 sections Take Action: Cost and Insurance What about cost? Thanks to ...

  5. Reducing Stepping-Motor Power Consumption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, C. J.

    1985-01-01

    Direct-current stepping motors used in computer peripherals, process control, and precision remote-positioning equipment constantly dissipate power and create heat even when not moving. Circuit design energizes stepper motor only when pulses are present on control input.

  6. Five Steps to Safer Health Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Safer Health Care Five Steps to Safer Health Care: Patient Fact Sheet This information is for reference ... safety is one of the Nation's most pressing health care challenges. A 1999 report by the Institute of ...

  7. Seven Steps to Sustainable Change at WPI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grogan, William R.; Vaz, Richard

    2003-01-01

    Describes the seven steps over a course of several years, which enabled Worcester Polytechnic Institute to implement and sustain a reconstruction of undergraduate education to involve no set curriculum, but rather three qualifying projects. (EV)

  8. Quit Smoking: 5 Steps to START

    MedlinePlus

    ... Smoking" Articles You Can Quit Smoking: Here's How / 5 Steps to START / Keep Trying! / Secondhand Smoke/"Light" Tobacco/Smokeless Tobacco / 3 Tools to Help You Quit / Latest NIH Research Winter ...

  9. Next Steps for Credit Availability Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Velazquez, Nydia M. [D-NY-12

    2012-06-08

    07/11/2012 Referred to the Subcommittee on Capital Markets and Government Sponsored Enterprises. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  10. Next Steps for Credit Availability Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Velazquez, Nydia M. [D-NY-12

    2013-01-03

    10/23/2013 Hearings Held by the Subcommittee on Capital Markets and Government Sponsored Enterprises Prior to Referral. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  11. Four Practical Steps to Buying Copiers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturgeon, Julie

    1999-01-01

    Presents practical steps for avoiding overbuying when selecting copiers for university administration. Evaluating copying needs, eliminating excessive features, examining the dealer's capabilities, and being patient for the right price are discussed. (GR)

  12. Take Steps to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... En español Take Steps to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes Browse Sections The Basics Overview Types of Diabetes ... 1 of 9 sections The Basics: Types of Diabetes What is diabetes? Diabetes is a disease. People ...

  13. Social embodiment in directional stepping behavior.

    PubMed

    Stins, John F; Lobel, Adam; Roelofs, Karin; Beek, Peter J

    2014-08-01

    Embodiment theories emphasize the role played by sensory and motor processes in psychological states, such as social information processing. Motivated by this idea, we examined how whole-body postural behaviors couple to social affective cues, viz., pictures of smiling and angry faces. We adopted a Simon-like paradigm, whereby healthy female volunteers were asked to select and initiate a forward or backward step on a force plate in response to the gender of the poser (male/female), regardless of emotion. Detailed analysis of the spatiotemporal unfolding of the body center of pressure during the steps revealed that task-irrelevant emotion had no effect on the initiation times of the steps, i.e., there was no evidence of an affective Simon effect. An unexpected finding was that steps were initiated relatively slow in response to female angry faces. This Stroop-like effect suggests that postural behavior is influenced by whether certain stimulus features match or mismatch. PMID:24362584

  14. Projected-Fringe, Phase-Stepping Profilometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, Carolyn; Beheim, Glenn

    1992-01-01

    Projected-fringe, phase-stepping profilometer is system of optical, electronic, optoelectronic, and electro-optical equipment measuring surface profiles of objects. Projects optical interference pattern onto object and steps phase of pattern to extract phases of interfering beams where they intersect object. Data obtained within seconds. Noncontact, full-field surface profilometer has applications, including inspection of machined and ceramic parts, printed circuit boards, and optical components. Rugged and compact, measures surfaces with variety of sizes and finishes.

  15. The state of genomic health care and cancer. Are we going two steps forward and one step backward?

    PubMed

    Greco, Karen E; Mahon, Suzanne M

    2011-01-01

    As the application of genomic information and technology crosses the horizon of health care into our everyday lives, expanding genomic knowledge continues to affect how health care services are defined and delivered. Genomic discoveries have led to enhanced clinical capabilities to predict susceptibility to common diseases and conditions such as cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and Alzheimer's disease. Hundreds of genetic tests are now available that can identify individuals who carry one or more gene mutations that increase their risk of developing cancer or other common diseases. Increased availability and direct-to-consumer marketing of genetic testing is moving genetic testing away from trained genetics health professionals and into the hands of primary care providers and consumers. Genetic tests available on the Internet are being directly marketed to individuals, who can order these tests and receive a report of their risk for numerous health conditions and diseases. Health care providers are expected to interpret these test results, evaluate their accuracy, address the psychosocial consequences of those distressed by receiving their results, and translate genomic information into effective care. However, as we move two steps forward, we are also moving one step backward because many health care providers are unprepared for this genomic revolution. A number of international education, practice, and policy efforts are underway to address the challenges health care providers face in providing competent genomic health care in the context of unprecedented access to information, technology, and global communication. Efforts to integrate standard of care guidelines into electronic medical records increases health care providers' access to information for individuals at risk fo or diagnosed with a genomic condition. Development of genomic competencie for health care providers has led to increased genomic content in academic pro grams. These and other

  16. Two-step rapid sulfur capture. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-04-01

    The primary goal of this program was to test the technical and economic feasibility of a novel dry sorbent injection process called the Two-Step Rapid Sulfur Capture process for several advanced coal utilization systems. The Two-Step Rapid Sulfur Capture process consists of limestone activation in a high temperature auxiliary burner for short times followed by sorbent quenching in a lower temperature sulfur containing coal combustion gas. The Two-Step Rapid Sulfur Capture process is based on the Non-Equilibrium Sulfur Capture process developed by the Energy Technology Office of Textron Defense Systems (ETO/TDS). Based on the Non-Equilibrium Sulfur Capture studies the range of conditions for optimum sorbent activation were thought to be: activation temperature > 2,200 K for activation times in the range of 10--30 ms. Therefore, the aim of the Two-Step process is to create a very active sorbent (under conditions similar to the bomb reactor) and complete the sulfur reaction under thermodynamically favorable conditions. A flow facility was designed and assembled to simulate the temperature, time, stoichiometry, and sulfur gas concentration prevalent in the advanced coal utilization systems such as gasifiers, fluidized bed combustors, mixed-metal oxide desulfurization systems, diesel engines, and gas turbines.

  17. Free energy of steps using atomistic simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitas, Rodrigo; Frolov, Timofey; Asta, Mark

    The properties of solid-liquid interfaces are known to play critical roles in solidification processes. Particularly special importance is given to thermodynamic quantities that describe the equilibrium state of these surfaces. For example, on the solid-liquid-vapor heteroepitaxial growth of semiconductor nanowires the crystal nucleation process on the faceted solid-liquid interface is influenced by the solid-liquid and vapor-solid interfacial free energies, and also by the free energies of associated steps at these faceted interfaces. Crystal-growth theories and mesoscale simulation methods depend on quantitative information about these properties, which are often poorly characterized from experimental measurements. In this work we propose an extension of the capillary fluctuation method for calculation of the free energy of steps on faceted crystal surfaces. From equilibrium atomistic simulations of steps on (111) surfaces of Copper we computed accurately the step free energy for different step orientations. We show that the step free energy remains finite at all temperature up to the melting point and that the results obtained agree with the more well established method of thermodynamic integration if finite size effects are taken into account. The research of RF and MA at UC Berkeley were supported by the US National Science Foundation (Grant No. DMR-1105409). TF acknowledges support through a postdoctoral fellowship from the Miller Institute for Basic Research in Science.

  18. Model of step propagation and step bunching at the sidewalls of nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filimonov, Sergey N.; Hervieu, Yuri Yu.

    2015-10-01

    Radial growth of vertically aligned nanowires involves formation and propagation of monoatomic steps at atomically smooth nanowire sidewalls. Here we study the step dynamics with a step flow model taking into account the presence of a strong sink for adatoms at top of the nanowire and adatom exchange between the nanowire sidewall and surrounding substrate surface. Analytical expressions for velocities of steps propagating from the nanowire base to the nanowire top are obtained. It is shown that the step approaching the nanowire top will slow down if the top nanowire facet is a stronger sink for adatoms than the sidewall step. This might trigger bunching of the steps at the sidewall resulting in development of the pencil-like shape of nanowires such as observed in, e.g., the Au-assisted MBE growth of InAs.

  19. Trigonometrically fitted two step hybrid method for the numerical integration of second order IVPs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monovasilis, Th.; Kalogiratou, Z.; Simos, T. E.

    2016-06-01

    In this work we consider the numerical integration of second order ODEs where the first derivative is missing. We construct trigonometrically fitted two step hybrid methods. We apply the new methods on the numerical integration of several test problems.

  20. Get Tested for Cervical Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... section Cervical Cancer 3 of 5 sections Take Action! Take Action: Get Tested Take these steps to help prevent ... section Pap Test 4 of 5 sections Take Action: Lower Your Risk Lower your risk of cervical ...

  1. Preservation of intraerythrocytic forms of malarial parasites by one-step and two-step cooling procedures

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, R. J. M.; Farrant, J.; Walter, C. A.

    1977-01-01

    Ring, trophozoite, and schizont stages of Plasmodium knowlesi were cooled in dimethyl sulfoxide either by direct immersion in liquid nitrogen or by a two-step method in which the cells were held at temperatures slightly below 0°C for different lengths of time before they were cooled to -196°C. After the direct plunge treatment, thawed trophozoites and schizonts were found to be extensively damaged. Their survival was markedly increased by holding them at -31°C for 30 min before plunging them into liquid nitrogen. Freeze-substitution showed that cells cooled by the two-step procedure were grossly shrunken and had relatively few intracellular ice cavities. Large amounts of ice formed in trophozoites and schizonts preserved by direct immersion in liquid nitrogen. The two-step protocols investigated did not improve the survival of ring-stage parasites, 25-50% of which survived rapid cooling to -196°C. Infected cell agglutination tests were carried out with frozen and thawed schizonts. Variant specificity was demonstrated with cells that had been plunged directly to -196°C, but cells cooled by the two-step method tended to agglutinate spontaneously. ImagesFig. 4Fig. 6 PMID:412605

  2. Simulating system dynamics with arbitrary time step

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantorovich, L.

    2007-02-01

    We suggest a dynamic simulation method that allows efficient and realistic modeling of kinetic processes, such as atomic diffusion, in which time has its actual meaning. Our method is similar in spirit to widely used kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) techniques; however, in our approach, the time step can be chosen arbitrarily. This has an advantage in some cases, e.g., when the transition rates change with time sufficiently fast over the period of the KMC time step (e.g., due to time dependence of some external factors influencing kinetics such as moving scanning probe microscopy tip or external time-dependent field) or when the clock time is set by some external conditions, and it is convenient to use equal time steps instead of the random choice of the KMC algorithm in order to build up probability distribution functions. We show that an arbitrary choice of the time step can be afforded by building up the complete list of events including the “residence site” and multihop transitions. The idea of the method is illustrated in a simple “toy” model of a finite one-dimensional lattice of potential wells with unequal jump rates to either side, which can be studied analytically. We show that for any choice of the time step, our general kinetics method reproduces exactly the solution of the corresponding master equations for any choice of the time steps. The final kinetics also matches the standard KMC, and this allows better understanding of this algorithm, in which the time step is chosen in a certain way and the system always advances by a single hop.

  3. Development and Validation of an Automated Step Ergometer

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa, Maria do Socorro C.; Aniceto, Rodrigo R.; Neto, Gabriel R.; de Araújo, Ravi C. T.; de Sousa, Juliana B. C.; Costa, José A. D.; Pellegrinotti, Idico L.

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory ergometers have high costs, becoming inaccessible for most of the population, hence, it is imperative to develop affordable devices making evaluations like cardiorespiratory fitness feasible and easier. The objective of this study was to develop and validate an Automated Step Ergometer (ASE), adjusted according to the height of the subject, for predicting VO2max through a progressive test. The development process was comprised by three steps, the theoretical part, the prototype assembly and further validation. The ASE consists in an elevating platform that makes the step at a higher or lower level as required for testing. The ASE validation was obtained by comparing the values of predicted VO2max (equation) and direct gas analysis on the prototype and on a, treadmill. For the validation process 167 subjects with average age of 31.24 ± 14.38 years, of both genders and different degrees of cardiorespiratory fitness, were randomized and divided by gender and training condition, into untrained (n=106), active (n=24) and trained (n=37) subjects. Each participant performed a progressive test on which the ASE started at the same height (20 cm) for all. Then, according to the subject’s height, it varied to a maximum of 45 cm. Time in each stage and rhythm was chosen in accordance with training condition from lowest to highest (60–180 s; 116–160 bpm, respectively). Data was compared with the student’s t test and ANOVA; correlations were tested with Pearson’s r. The value of α was set at 0.05. No differences were found between the predicted VO2max and the direct gas analysis VO2max, nor between the ASE and treadmill VO2max (p= 0.365) with high correlation between ergometers (r= 0.974). The values for repeatability, reproducibility, and reliability of male and female groups measures were, respectively, 4.08 and 5.02; 0.50 and 1.11; 4.11 and 5.15. The values of internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha) among measures were all >0.90. It was verified that

  4. Multi-step wrought processing of TiAl-based alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchs, G.E.

    1997-04-01

    Wrought processing will likely be needed for fabrication of a variety of TiAl-based alloy structural components. Laboratory and development work has usually relied on one-step forging to produce test material. Attempts to scale-up TiAl-based alloy processing has indicated that multi-step wrought processing is necessary. The purpose of this study was to examine potential multi-step processing routes, such as two-step isothermal forging and extrusion + isothermal forging. The effects of processing (I/M versus P/M), intermediate recrystallization heat treatments and processing route on the tensile and creep properties of Ti-48Al-2Nb-2Cr alloys were examined. The results of the testing were then compared to samples from the same heats of materials processed by one-step routes. Finally, by evaluating the effect of processing on microstructure and properties, optimized and potentially lower cost processing routes could be identified.

  5. Incompressible flow in stepped labyrinth seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, G. L.; Chi, D.

    1985-01-01

    A steped labyrinth seal was experimentally investigated to determine the effects of pressure ratio, shaft speed, number of teeth, and tooth/step location upon the leakage through the seal for incompressible flow. The dependence of the flow coefficient upon the number of throttles and pressure ratio are similar to those for straight-through labyrinth seals. It can be noted that the axial location of the throttle with respect to the step had a special effect upon the flow coefficient. That is, the dependency of the flow coefficient upon rotation rate and the number of throttles changes with axial location. It was found that the minimum flow coefficient was obtained when the seal teeth were centered on the step surface. Axial pressure distribution measurements show that when the teeth are centered on the step, the pressure drop from cavity to cavity is almost uniform. It is speculated that the obtaining of this uniform pressure gradient is the cause for the enhanced performance of the stepped labyrinth seal when operated in that configuration.

  6. DEFORMATION DEPENDENT TUL MULTI-STEP DIRECT MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    WIENKE,H.; CAPOTE, R.; HERMAN, M.; SIN, M.

    2007-04-22

    The Multi-Step Direct (MSD) module TRISTAN in the nuclear reaction code EMPIRE has been extended in order to account for nuclear deformation. The new formalism was tested in calculations of neutron emission spectra emitted from the {sup 232}Th(n,xn) reaction. These calculations include vibration-rotational Coupled Channels (CC) for the inelastic scattering to low-lying collective levels, ''deformed'' MSD with quadrupole deformation for inelastic scattering to the continuum, Multi-Step Compound (MSC) and Hauser-Feshbach with advanced treatment of the fission channel. Prompt fission neutrons were also calculated. The comparison with experimental data shows clear improvement over the ''spherical'' MSD calculations and JEFF-3.1 and JENDL-3.3 evaluations.

  7. Stepping in Place While Voluntarily Turning Around Produces a Long-Lasting Posteffect Consisting in Inadvertent Turning While Stepping Eyes Closed

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Training subjects to step in place on a rotating platform while maintaining a fixed body orientation in space produces a posteffect consisting in inadvertent turning around while stepping in place eyes closed (podokinetic after-rotation, PKAR). We tested the hypothesis that voluntary turning around while stepping in place also produces a posteffect similar to PKAR. Sixteen subjects performed 12 min of voluntary turning while stepping around their vertical axis eyes closed and 12 min of stepping in place eyes open on the center of a platform rotating at 60°/s (pretests). Then, subjects continued stepping in place eyes closed for at least 10 min (posteffect). We recorded the positions of markers fixed to head, shoulder, and feet. The posteffect of voluntary turning shared all features of PKAR. Time decay of angular velocity, stepping cadence, head acceleration, and ratio of angular velocity after to angular velocity before were similar between both protocols. Both postrotations took place inadvertently. The posteffects are possibly dependent on the repeated voluntary contraction of leg and foot intrarotating pelvic muscles that rotate the trunk over the stance foot, a synergy common to both protocols. We propose that stepping in place and voluntary turning can be a scheme ancillary to the rotating platform for training body segment coordination in patients with impairment of turning synergies of various origin.

  8. Three-step cylindrical seal for high-performance turbomachines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.

    1987-01-01

    A three-step cylindrical seal configuration representing the seal for a high performance turbopump (e.g., the space shuttle main engine fuel pump) was tested under static (nonrotating) conditions. The test data included critical mass flux and pressure profiles over a wide range of inlet temperatures and pressures for fluid nitrogen and fluid hydrogen with the seal in concentric and fully eccentric positions. The critical mass flux (leakage rate) was 70% that of an equivalent straight cylindrical seal with a correspondingly higher pressure drop based on the same flow areas of 0.3569 sq cm but 85% that of the straight seal based on the third-step flow area of 0.3044 sq cm. The mass flow rates for the three step cylindrical seal in the fully eccentric and concentric positions were essentially the same, and the trends in flow coefficient followed those of a simple axisymmetric inlet configuration. However, for inlet stagnation temperatures less than the thermodynamic critical temperature the pressure profiles exhibited a flat region throughout the third step of the seal, with the pressure magnitude dependent on the inlet stagnation temperature. Such profiles represent an extreme positive direct stiffness. These conditions engendered a crossover in the pressure profile upstream of the postulated choke that resulted in a local negative stiffness. Flat and crossover profiles resulting from choking within the seal are practically unknown to the seal designer. However, they are of critical importance to turbomachine stability and must be integrated into any dynamic analysis of a seal of this configuration. In addition, choking is highly dependent on geometry, inlet-to-backpressure ratio, and inlet temperature and can occur within the seal even though the backpressure is above the critical pressure.

  9. Three-step cylindrical seal for high-performance turbomachines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.

    1987-06-01

    A three-step cylindrical seal configuration representing the seal for a high performance turbopump (e.g., the space shuttle main engine fuel pump) was tested under static (nonrotating) conditions. The test data included critical mass flux and pressure profiles over a wide range of inlet temperatures and pressures for fluid nitrogen and fluid hydrogen with the seal in concentric and fully eccentric positions. The critical mass flux (leakage rate) was 70% that of an equivalent straight cylindrical seal with a correspondingly higher pressure drop based on the same flow areas of 0.3569 sq cm but 85% that of the straight seal based on the third-step flow area of 0.3044 sq cm. The mass flow rates for the three step cylindrical seal in the fully eccentric and concentric positions were essentially the same, and the trends in flow coefficient followed those of a simple axisymmetric inlet configuration. However, for inlet stagnation temperatures less than the thermodynamic critical temperature the pressure profiles exhibited a flat region throughout the third step of the seal, with the pressure magnitude dependent on the inlet stagnation temperature. Such profiles represent an extreme positive direct stiffness. These conditions engendered a crossover in the pressure profile upstream of the postulated choke that resulted in a local negative stiffness. Flat and crossover profiles resulting from choking within the seal are practically unknown to the seal designer. However, they are of critical importance to turbomachine stability and must be integrated into any dynamic analysis of a seal of this configuration. In addition, choking is highly dependent on geometry, inlet-to-backpressure ratio, and inlet temperature and can occur within the seal even though the backpressure is above the critical pressure.

  10. Step-Edge Directed Metal Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qing; Saidi, Wissam A; Yang, Judith C

    2016-07-01

    Metal surface oxidation is governed by surface mass transport processes. Realistic surfaces have many defects such as step edges, which often dictate the oxide growth dynamics and result in novel oxide nanostructures. Here we present a comprehensive and systematic study of the oxidation of stepped (100), (110) and (111) Cu surfaces using a multiscale approach employing density functional theory (DFT) and reactive force field molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We show that the early stages of oxidation of these stepped surfaces can be qualitatively understood from the potential energy surface of single oxygen adatoms, namely, adsorption energies and Ehrlich-Schwöbel barriers. These DFT predictions are then validated using classical MD simulations with a newly optimized ReaxFF force field. In turn, we show that the DFT results can be explained using a simple bond-counting argument that makes our results general and transferable to other metal surfaces. PMID:27299380

  11. Screw-retained crown restorations of single implants: A step-by-step clinical guide

    PubMed Central

    Assaf, Mohammad; Gharbyeh, Alaa’ Z. Abu

    2014-01-01

    This paper shows the clinical steps for preparing a screw-retained crown for the restoration of a single implant. Impression-taking using open-tray technique and delivery of the crown is presented in a step-by-step manner elucidated by detailed photographs. Furthermore, the advantages and disadvantages of screw-retained crowns are discussed in comparison with the cemented restorations. PMID:25512742

  12. Comparative analysis of direct and "step-by-step" Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silenko, A. Ya.

    2013-08-01

    Relativistic methods for the Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation of the "step-by-step" type already at the first step give an expression for the Hamilton operator not coinciding with the exact result determined by the Eriksen method. The methods agree for the zeroth and first orders in the Planck constant terms but do not agree for the second and higher-order terms. We analyze the benefits and drawbacks of various methods and establish their applicability boundaries.

  13. 46 CFR 160.017-27 - Production tests and examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... tested. (d) Independent laboratory. Each production test must be conducted or supervised by an independent laboratory. However, if a test is performed more than 4 different times per year, laboratory... Guard approved. (b) Test #1: Steps. Steps must be separated into lots of 100 steps or less. One...

  14. 46 CFR 160.017-27 - Production tests and examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... tested. (d) Independent laboratory. Each production test must be conducted or supervised by an independent laboratory. However, if a test is performed more than 4 different times per year, laboratory... Guard approved. (b) Test #1: Steps. Steps must be separated into lots of 100 steps or less. One...

  15. 46 CFR 160.017-27 - Production tests and examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... tested. (d) Independent laboratory. Each production test must be conducted or supervised by an independent laboratory. However, if a test is performed more than 4 different times per year, laboratory... Guard approved. (b) Test #1: Steps. Steps must be separated into lots of 100 steps or less. One...

  16. 46 CFR 160.017-27 - Production tests and examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... tested. (d) Independent laboratory. Each production test must be conducted or supervised by an independent laboratory. However, if a test is performed more than 4 different times per year, laboratory... Guard approved. (b) Test #1: Steps. Steps must be separated into lots of 100 steps or less. One...

  17. Magnetostrictive Roller-Drive Stepping Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M.

    1993-01-01

    Proposed motor based on magnetostrictive effect provides stepped angular motion with angular increments of order of 100 microradians. Driven to repeat stepping cycle rapidly enough to achieve maximum speed of about 20 rpm, provides torque an order of magnitude greater than electric motors, and brakes itself when power turned off. Magnetostrictive rods in electromagnet coils push against drive plate, causing it to rotate slightly. This slight rotation jams conical rollers between cam surfaces on outer drive ring and split drum, so rollers transmit rotation to drum. Suitable for precise, high-torque, fail-safe-braking, direct drive of robot joint, without bulk and weight of additional brake mechanism and gear train.

  18. 2D stepping drive for hyperspectral systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endrödy, Csaba; Mehner, Hannes; Grewe, Adrian; Sinzinger, Stefan; Hoffmann, Martin

    2015-07-01

    We present the design, fabrication and characterization of a compact 2D stepping microdrive for pinhole array positioning. The miniaturized solution enables a highly integrated compact hyperspectral imaging system. Based on the geometry of the pinhole array, an inch-worm drive with electrostatic actuators was designed resulting in a compact (1 cm2) positioning system featuring a step size of about 15 µm in a 170 µm displacement range. The high payload (20 mg) as required for the pinhole array and the compact system design exceed the known electrostatic inch-worm-based microdrives.

  19. STEP Accelerometer Response under Non-Equilibrium Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S.; Ambekar, P.; Bayart, C.; Torii, R.; Worden, P.; Debra, D.

    The STEP Satellite Test of the Equivalence Principle accelerometer performance is derived under the assumption that the test mass is properly constrained and positioned 5DOF in the housing cavity test mass is in the operational sweet-spot It is extremely useful to check system response when the mass is outside the sweet-spot Using a 1m long fiber suspended test mass we have made past studies on magnetic suspension forces Fy and Fz and have explored the housing cavity in 3DOF x y and z translation limited by uncertainty in test mass tilt angle qy and qz To address this limitation we have recently constructed a 2-axis cryogenic tilt platform The laboratory version of position readout electronics allow us to measure the test mass position at 4K to a precision of 1 nm and tilt angle to less than 1 arc sec in 100 seconds We will present recent experimental data showing the dynamic response of the capacitance measurement subsystem as a function of test mass position

  20. Specific test and evaluation plan

    SciTech Connect

    Hays, W.H.

    1997-12-09

    The purpose of this Specific Test and Evaluation Plan (STEP) is to provide a detailed written plan for the systematic testing of modifications made to the 241-AN-A Valve Pit by the W-314 Project. The STEP develops the outline for test procedures that verify the system`s performance to the established Project design criteria. The STEP is a ``lower tier`` document based on the W-314 Test and Evaluation Plan (TEP) This STEP encompasses all testing activities required to demonstrate compliance to the project design criteria as it relates to the modifications of the AN-A valve pit. The Project Design Specifications (PDS) identify the specific testing activities required for the Project. Testing includes Validations and Verifications (e.g., Commercial Grade Item Dedication activities), Factory Acceptance Tests (FATs), installation tests and inspections, Construction Acceptance Tests (CATs), Acceptance Test Procedures (ATPs), Pre-Operational Test Procedures (POTPs), and Operational Test Procedures (OTPs). It should be noted that POTPs are not required for testing of the modifications to the 241-AN-A Valve Pit. The STEP will be utilized in conjunction with the TEP for verification and validation.

  1. Webinar: Stepped chute design for embankment dams

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Changing demographics in the vicinity of dams have led to hazard creep in a number of dams worldwide. Many of these dams now have insufficient spillway capacity as a result of these changes in hazard classification from low to significant or high hazard. Stepped chutes applied to the embankment da...

  2. Three Steps to Competency Based Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkett, B. Verner, Jr.; Newton, Alfred F.

    1982-01-01

    The authors offer a plan for a competency-based education program. Teachers need to follow three steps: (1) identify competencies needed by graduates, (2) plan and provide learning activities to develop the competencies identified, and (3) verify acquisition of competencies. (Office of Vocational Education, State Dept. of Education, P.O. Box 1131,…

  3. Stepping Out: Collaborative Research across Disciplines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groen, Janet; Hyland-Russell, Tara

    2016-01-01

    This paper offers the experiences and insights of two faculty members, located in two separate disciplines, as they engaged in collaborative research. While knowledge created by stepping out and reaching across disciplines reflects the reality of an increasingly complex world, their experiences highlight both the benefits of a supportive…

  4. Converging stepped spillways: Simplified momentum analysis approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Roller compacted concrete (RCC) stepped spillways are growing in popularity for providing overtopping protection for aging watershed dams with inadequate auxiliary spillway capacity and for the construction of new dams. Site conditions, such as limited right-of-way, topography, and geological forma...

  5. Seven Steps to Flipped Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conley, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Professional development generally follows a pattern of presentation and review, but flipping the sessions has garnered a positive response from staff members and prompted greater collaboration and engagement. In this article the author describes the seven following steps to follow in order to prepare for a successful staff development meeting:…

  6. Bottleneck Concepts in Psychology: Exploratory First Steps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurung, Regan A. R.; Landrum, R. Eric

    2013-01-01

    The authors take an initial step in identifying potential bottleneck concepts in psychology, that is, concepts that are deceptively difficult, perhaps due to student overconfidence. In order to first identify bottleneck concepts, faculty (n = 65) rated the difficulty of 91 psychological concepts from across the discipline. Students (n = 35) rated…

  7. STEPS: An EPSS Tool for Instructional Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northrup, Pamela Taylor; Pilcher, Janet K.

    Support for Teachers Enhancing Performance in Schools (STEPS) is a World Wide Web and CD-ROM electronic performance support system (EPSS) designed for preK-12 and preservice educators to assist in designing and developing lessons, units, or curricula; this tool was developed around school reform and accountability initiatives in Florida. To…

  8. Nine Steps to a Successful Summer School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornberry, Nancy Ann

    1990-01-01

    The College Station (Texas) Independent School District spent several months improving its summer school programs, but the results have been well worth the effort. The district's first step was to create the new position of "summer school principal" at the elementary, junior high, and senior high levels. This action relieved school-year principals…

  9. 10 Steps to District Performance Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driscoll, Lydia Abell

    In the 1995-96 school year, the Memphis (Tennessee) City Schools released standards for student performance in seven content areas and began laying the foundation for a standards-based curriculum and assessment system. The steps taken to develop and implement this project are outlined as follows: (1) defining the objectives and the project scope;…

  10. Simple Steps Can Keep Lawn Mowing Safe

    MedlinePlus

    ... FAQs Contact Us Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Latest Health News → Article URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158341.html Simple Steps Can Keep Lawn Mowing Safe Before cutting the grass, review these safety tips To use ...

  11. Regulative Loops, Step Loops and Task Loops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanLehn, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    This commentary suggests a generalization of the conception of the behavior of tutoring systems, which the target article characterized as having an outer loop that was executed once per task and an inner loop that was executed once per step of the task. A more general conception sees these two loops as instances of regulative loops, which…

  12. Steps for Launching a Capital Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safranek, Thomas W.; Usyk, Patricia A.

    The capital campaign in the Catholic elementary and secondary school must be viewed as an essential component in the total development program. This document addresses many of the specifics regarding the proper positioning steps and procedures for a capital campaign. The introductory chapter provides a historical overview of the capital campaign.…

  13. Two-step single-ionization mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Boeyen, R. W. van; Doering, J. P.; Watanabe, N.; Cooper, J. W.; Coplan, M. A.; Moore, J. H.

    2006-03-15

    In a recent publication [Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 233202 (2004)] two different electron impact double ionization (e,3e) mechanisms were identified and the way in which two-electron momentum distributions for atoms and molecules could be obtained by triple coincidence (e,3e) measurements was discussed. The apparatus used detected the two ejected electrons both in and out of the scattering plane at an angle of 45 deg. to the momentum transfer direction in triple coincidence with the scattered electron. Ejected electrons detected out of the scattering plane were shown to be a result of two-step double ionization processes. With the same apparatus we have made double coincidence (e,2e) measurements of electron impact single ionization cross sections for ionization of magnesium 3s (valence) and 2p and 2s (inner) shell electrons at incident energies from 400 to 3000 eV in order to obtain more information about two-step ionization. The experimental results were compared with distorted-wave and plane-wave Born approximations carried out to second order. For the experimental conditions, two-step ionization processes involving one ionizing collision and a second elastic collision with the atomic core are the dominant contribution to the measured cross sections. Calculations are in moderate agreement with the data. The angular distributions of the ionized electrons in these two-step ionizations reflect the initial momentum distributions of the target electrons, a result that is analogous with the earlier (e,3e) measurements.

  14. Ten Steps to a Learning Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Peter; Saunders, Bernard

    This guide provides a 10-step process for building a learning organization. It shows any organization how to develop and sustain an environment favorable to learning at every level, to reawaken and stimulate the power of learning in all members of the organization, and to harness the new learning that was generated to produce the maximum benefit…

  15. 5 Steps to a Greener School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hines, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Sometimes all it takes is a little fate to accomplish something great, or in this case, something green. The Broward County Public School (BCPS) District shows how a natural disaster (Hurricane Wilma) inspired a green revolution. This article presents the five steps that the Broward County School District followed in implementing an Environmental…

  16. Tandem mirror next step conceptual design

    SciTech Connect

    Doggett, J.N.; Damm, C.C.; Bulmer, R.H.

    1980-10-14

    A study was made to define the features of the experimental mirror fusion device - The Tandem Mirror Next Step, or TMNS - that will bridge the gap between present mirror confinement experiments and a power-producing reactor. We outline the project goals, describe some initial device parameters, and relate the technological requirements to ongoing development programs.

  17. Seven Steps to On-Time Delivery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konchar, Mark; Sanvido, Victor

    1999-01-01

    Describes seven steps to consider when making project-delivery decisions that include defining the school district's goals and profile, selecting the project-delivery system and procurement method, selecting the project team and contract type, and developing and confirming the facility program. Concluding comments address the district review of…

  18. Four-step reaction for polytriazine elastomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosser, R. W.; Korus, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    Four step imidoylamidine reaction sequence is used to make crosslinked polyperfluoralkyltriazines with superior elastomeric properties, greater molecular weight, and crosslinking control. Polymers can find useful application in fuel tank sealants, o-ring, wire enamels, pneumatic ducts, and many other applications.

  19. Six Easy Steps to Online Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Against his better instincts, the author, an educator at West Texas A&M University, shares his school's recipe for developing a successful online learning program. He discusses six easy steps to online success. These include: (1) clean up one's act; (2) answers in 24 hours; (3) plenty of structure; (4) format phone conferences at midterm; (5) do…

  20. Supplemental Training and Employment Programs (STEP) Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC.

    The handbook provides a thorough description of the philosophy and operating instructions of the Supplemental Training and Employment Program (STEP). It includes the background; purpose and description; sponsorship; project development, review, approval and funding; project duration; eligibility requirements; length of enrollment; participant…

  1. 7 CFR 65.230 - Production step.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Production step. 65.230 Section 65.230 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND...

  2. 7 CFR 65.230 - Production step.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Production step. 65.230 Section 65.230 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND...

  3. 7 CFR 65.230 - Production step.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Production step. 65.230 Section 65.230 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND...

  4. Steps to Success for Academic Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zukowski/Faust, Jean

    2002-01-01

    This article provides eight steps to academic reading success for English language learners, including the following: 1) set a purpose; 2) determine the scope of the reading; 3) fill in the holes; 4) recognize what you know and don't know; 5) integrate your ideas with the reading; 6) determine the author's perspective; 7) think critically; 8)…

  5. Modeling Step-Strain Relaxation and Cyclic Deformations of Elastomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, A.R.; Mead, J. L.

    2000-01-01

    Data for step-strain relaxation and cyclic compressive deformations of highly viscous short elastomer cylinders are modeled using a large strain rubber viscoelastic constitutive theory with a rate-independent friction stress term added. In the tests, both small and large amplitude cyclic compressive strains, in the range of 1% to 10%, were superimposed on steady state compressed strains, in the range of 5% to 20%, for frequencies of 1 and 10 Hz. The elastomer cylinders were conditioned prior to each test to soften them. The constants in the viscoclastic-friction constitutive theory are determined by employing a nonlinear least-squares method to fit the analytical stresses for a Maxwell model, which includes friction, to measured relaxation stresses obtained from a 20% step-strain compression test. The simulation of the relaxation data with the nonlinear model is successful at compressive strains of 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%. Simulations of hysteresis stresses for enforced cyclic compressive strains of 20% +/- 5% are made with the model calibrated by the relaxation data. The predicted hysteresis stresses are lower than the measured stresses.

  6. Cyclic steps incised on experimental bedrock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokokawa, M.; Kyogoku, A.; Kotera, A.; Izumi, N.

    2013-12-01

    In rivers flowing in mountain areas, a series of steps are often observed on bedrock. They are thought to be cyclic steps formed due to erosion of bedrock, which should be driven by abrasion due to bedload sediment transport. We demonstrated a series of flume experiments of the formation of cyclic steps on bedrock by abrasion due to bedload transportation using weak mortar as the model bedrock. We also compared the shapes of the steps reproduced in the experiments with those obtained in the analysis. The experiments were conducted using a 1.5 m long, 2 cm wide, and 20 cm deep flume made of glass in Osaka Institute of Technology. The flume has 10-cm-high weirs at both ends, so that there is a 10-cm-deep reservoir. We put mortar into the reservoir and hardened it. In order to make a highly erodible mortar, we casted the mortar with extremely low amount of cement. The ratio of cement, sand (0.2 mm in diameter), and water is x:150:50 (x ranges 1-3). The flume is tilted by 10 degrees. The water and colored sand is supplied from a head tank to the upstream end of the flume, flows on 'model bedrock' in the flume, and was dropped from the downstream end. We observed morphological changes of the surface of the bedrock by photos. We also used a laser displacement sensor to measure the surface topography of the 'model bedrock' before and after each run. The configuration of steps largely depends on the hardness of model bedrocks. In the case of the softest model bedrock (cement-sand-water ratio is 1:150:50) with small amount of sand, long-drawn potholes tend to be formed. Clear cyclic steps are formed on harder model bedrocks with large cement-sand-water ratios such as 2:150:50 and 3:150:50. When a series of steps are formed on the bed, typical wavelength and wave height are approximately 20 cm, and 2 - 3 cm, respectively. The general shape of a step is characterized by a relatively long downward-inclined slope just upstream of a short upward-inclined slope. The feature of

  7. Fecal immunochemical test (FIT)

    MedlinePlus

    ... will be given the test to use at home. Be sure to follow the instructions provided. Most tests have the following steps: Flush the toilet before having a bowel movement. Put the used toilet paper in the waste bag provided. DO NOT put it into the ...

  8. Primary Essay Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veal, L. Ramon; Biesbrock, Edieann F.

    1971-01-01

    Reports the development of an experimental essay test for use with young children based on the now-obsolete STEP Essay Tests. The child's essay on an assigned topic is rated in comparison with previously rated and scaled essays which serve as performance models. (Author)

  9. Listen to Me Listen to You: A Step-By-Step Guide to Communication Skills Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotzman, Mandy; Kotzman, Anne

    2008-01-01

    This step-by-step guide is a companion to the popular "Listen to Me, Listen to You: A Practical Guide to Self-Awareness, Communication Skills and Conflict Management" (New Expanded Edition, Penguin Books, 2007). It is designed for use by anyone working in communication skills and personal development training. Resource material is grouped under…

  10. A step in the right direction: new flow depth relationships for stepped spillway design

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A common deficiency for embankment dams changing from a low hazard to a high hazard dam is inadequate spillway capacity. Roller compacted concrete (RCC) stepped spillways are a popular method to address this issue. Stepped spillway research has gained momentum in recent years due to the need for d...

  11. Integrated Marketing for Colleges, Universities, and Schools: A Step-by-Step Planning Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevier, Robert A.

    This book offers a step-by-step approach to marketing for educational institutions, especially colleges and universities. The book is organized into three broad sections. Section 1 makes the case for marketing in six chapters which address: (1) challenges which are or will affect colleges and universities; (2) the role of institutional mission,…

  12. Impact of Preadmission Variables on USMLE Step 1 and Step 2 Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleshinski, James; Khuder, Sadik A.; Shapiro, Joseph I.; Gold, Jeffrey P.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the predictive ability of preadmission variables on United States Medical Licensing Examinations (USMLE) step 1 and step 2 performance, incorporating the use of a neural network model. Method: Preadmission data were collected on matriculants from 1998 to 2004. Linear regression analysis was first used to identify predictors of…

  13. The effect of step height on energy dissipation in stepped spillways

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A two-dimensional, physical model was constructed to evaluate the energy dissipation on a 4(H):1(V) slope spillway chute. Step heights of 38 mm (1.5 inches), 76 mm (3.0 inches), and 152 mm (6 inches) were evaluated, and energy losses created by these steps were compared. Model unit discharges rang...

  14. Choosing a College: The Student's Step-by-Step Decision-Making Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Gordon Porter

    This workbook aims to help students make the right choice when selecting a college, by applying a straightforward step-by-step decision-making process. The book uses a variety of questions, self-study inventories, and exercises to assist in: (1) choosing those colleges to which the student will send applications, and (2) deciding where to enroll.…

  15. Strategies for Successful Library Research: A Step-by-Step Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesley, Threasa L.; Werrell, Emily

    Developed by the Instructional Services Department of Northern Kentucky University's W. Frank Steely Library, this self-paced workbook is designed for students who are undertaking library research projects. Based on a five-step search strategy and designed to provide individualized guidance through the fundamental steps in the library research…

  16. An Analysis of Step-In/Step-Out Students at Valencia Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Lula M.

    In order to determine the characteristics, educational motivations, and opinions of "step-in/step-out" students at Valencia Community College (VCC), the author sent questionnaires to 200 persons selected at random from those who had enrolled for less than 12 hours credit between September 1975 and January 1977 and who were eligible to return but…

  17. A Step by Step Guide for Planning a Japanese Cultural Festival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Carole

    Teachers at all academic levels can adapt the design and content of the sixth grade Japanese cultural festival detailed in this learning packet. Material is divided into 2 sections. Section 1 provides a step-by-step guide to planning and conducting the festival. These instructions, based on 5 years of experience, include a detailed planning…

  18. Two Steps Forward, One Step Backward: Must This Be the Future of Diversity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Johnnella E.

    2013-01-01

    Johnnella Butler writes here that the title of this article "Two Steps Forward, One Step Backward," expresses the "wicked problem" of diversity as a concrete goal in higher education. The concept of the "wicked problem," is a term coined in the late 1960s by social planners. Consulting Wikipedia, as so many of our…

  19. Steps Toward Effective Production of Speech (STEPS): No. 7--How to Take Care of Glasses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheeley, Eugene C.; McQuiddy, Doris

    This guide, one of a series of booklets developed by Project STEPS (Steps Toward Effective Production of Speech), presents guidelines for parents of deaf-blind children regarding the care of eyeglasses. Basic concerns with glasses and contact lenses are noted and parents are advised to perform the following daily tasks: checking the frames,…

  20. Steps Toward Effective Production of Speech (STEPS): No. 6--Rewards and How to Use Them.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheeley, Eugene C.; McQuiddy, Doris

    This guide, part of a series of booklets for parents of deaf-blind children developed by Project STEP (Steps Toward Effective Production of Speech), considers the use of rewards in shaping or changing the behavior of deaf-blind children. The types of rewards (e.g., food, drink, touch, action, something to listen to or look at) and selection of…

  1. On the Road towards Child-Centered Education: Step by Step in Moldova

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cincilei, Cornelia

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the outcome of the implementation of the Step by Step child-centered education model in Moldova. The implementation began with 12 classrooms of four-to five-year-old children in five kindergartens. The positive response from parents and teachers received at the end of the first year exceeded all expectations. As a result, 60…

  2. SPSS for Windows Step by Step: A Simple Guide and Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Darren; Mallery, Paul

    This book is designed to give step-by-step instructions necessary to do most major types of data analysis using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). SPSS is a powerful tool that is capable of conducting nearly any type of data analysis used in the social sciences. This book should enable the reader to do 95% of what the program…

  3. Step Frequency and Step Length of 200-m Sprint in Able-bodied and Amputee Sprinters.

    PubMed

    Hobara, H; Sano, Y; Kobayashi, Y; Heldoorn, T A; Mochimaru, M

    2016-02-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the hypothesis that the difference in the 200-m sprint performance of amputee and able-bodied sprinters is due to a shorter step length rather than a lower step frequency. Men's elite-level 200-m races with a total of 16 able-bodied, 13 unilateral transtibial, 5 bilateral transtibial, and 16 unilateral transfemoral amputee sprinters were analyzed from publicly available internet broadcasts. For each run, the average forward velocity, step frequency, and step length over the entire 200-m distance were analyzed for each sprinter. The average forward velocity of able-bodied sprinters was faster than that of the other 3 groups, but there was no significant difference in average step frequency between able-bodied and transtibial amputee sprinters. However, the average step length of able-bodied sprinters was significantly longer than that of the transtibial amputee sprinters. In contrast, the step frequency and step length of transfemoral amputees were significantly lower and shorter than those of the other 3 groups. These results suggest that the differences in 200-m sprint performance between able-bodied and amputee sprinters are dependent on amputation level. PMID:26509370

  4. How to Conduct Surveys: A Step-by-Step Guide. Sixth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Arlene

    2016-01-01

    Packed with new topics that reflect today's challenges, the Sixth Edition of the bestselling "How to Conduct Surveys" guides readers through the process of developing their own rigorous surveys and evaluating the credibility and transparency of surveys created by others. Offering practical, step-by-step advice and written in the same…

  5. Suggested Steps for Planning and Building a New School Building.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    A listing and short descriptions of eleven steps that should be observed in the planning and building of a new school plant. This step-by-step approach was prepared with the inexperienced school board member in mind, and attempts to offer suggestions and advice for each step in the planning, bonding, and building stages. Steps covered are--(1)…

  6. Approximation of the Newton Step by a Defect Correction Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arian, E.; Batterman, A.; Sachs, E. W.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, an optimal control problem governed by a partial differential equation is considered. The Newton step for this system can be computed by solving a coupled system of equations. To do this efficiently with an iterative defect correction process, a modifying operator is introduced into the system. This operator is motivated by local mode analysis. The operator can be used also for preconditioning in Generalized Minimum Residual (GMRES). We give a detailed convergence analysis for the defect correction process and show the derivation of the modifying operator. Numerical tests are done on the small disturbance shape optimization problem in two dimensions for the defect correction process and for GMRES.

  7. Measured effect of step axial location on labyrinth seal leakage

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, G.L.; Rhode, D.L. )

    1992-12-01

    An advanced, finite volume code has been extensively used in a parametric design study of simple stepped seals, in order to ascertain a leakage-minimizing optimal design and test it, in conjunction with the baseline case of the wear-ring seal of a high pressure pump. It is found that a significant leakage effect arises from this shifting of the rotor and stator sealing surfaces; at extremely low rpm, a significant shaft speed effect occurs for the optimized design in some shaft locations. 3 refs.

  8. Measured effect of step axial location on labyrinth seal leakage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, G. L.; Rhode, D. L.

    1992-12-01

    An advanced, finite volume code has been extensively used in a parametric design study of simple stepped seals, in order to ascertain a leakage-minimizing optimal design and test it, in conjunction with the baseline case of the wear-ring seal of a high pressure pump. It is found that a significant leakage effect arises from this shifting of the rotor and stator sealing surfaces; at extremely low rpm, a significant shaft speed effect occurs for the optimized design in some shaft locations.

  9. Measured effect of step axial location on labyrinth seal leakage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, G. L.; Rhode, D. L.

    1992-01-01

    An advanced, finite volume code has been extensively used in a parametric design study of simple stepped seals, in order to ascertain a leakage-minimizing optimal design and test it, in conjunction with the baseline case of the wear-ring seal of a high pressure pump. It is found that a significant leakage effect arises from this shifting of the rotor and stator sealing surfaces; at extremely low rpm, a significant shaft speed effect occurs for the optimized design in some shaft locations.

  10. Computation of turbulent flows over backward-facing step

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mansour, N. N.; Kim, J.; Moin, P.

    1983-01-01

    A numerical method for computing incompressible turbulent flows is presented. The method is tested by calculating laminar recirculating flows and is applied in conjunction with a modified Kappa-epsilon model to compute the flow over a backward-facing step. In the laminar regime, the computational results are in good agreement with the experimental data. The turbulent flow study shows that the reattachment length is underpredicted by the standard Kappa-epsilon model. The addition of a term to the standard model that accounts for the effects of rotation on turbulent flow improves the results in the recirculation region and increases the computed reattachment length.

  11. Examinations of the Chemical Step in Enzyme Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Singh, P; Islam, Z; Kohen, A

    2016-01-01

    Advances in computational and experimental methods in enzymology have aided comprehension of enzyme-catalyzed chemical reactions. The main difficulty in comparing computational findings to rate measurements is that the first examines a single energy barrier, while the second frequently reflects a combination of many microscopic barriers. We present here intrinsic kinetic isotope effects and their temperature dependence as a useful experimental probe of a single chemical step in a complex kinetic cascade. Computational predictions are tested by this method for two model enzymes: dihydrofolate reductase and thymidylate synthase. The description highlights the significance of collaboration between experimentalists and theoreticians to develop a better understanding of enzyme-catalyzed chemical conversions. PMID:27498642

  12. Accurate Monotonicity - Preserving Schemes With Runge-Kutta Time Stepping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suresh, A.; Huynh, H. T.

    1997-01-01

    A new class of high-order monotonicity-preserving schemes for the numerical solution of conservation laws is presented. The interface value in these schemes is obtained by limiting a higher-order polynominal reconstruction. The limiting is designed to preserve accuracy near extrema and to work well with Runge-Kutta time stepping. Computational efficiency is enhanced by a simple test that determines whether the limiting procedure is needed. For linear advection in one dimension, these schemes are shown as well as the Euler equations also confirm their high accuracy, good shock resolution, and computational efficiency.

  13. Postural adjustment errors during lateral step initiation in older and younger adults

    PubMed Central

    Sparto, Patrick J.; Fuhrman, Susan I.; Redfern, Mark S.; Perera, Subashan; Jennings, J. Richard; Furman, Joseph M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose was to examine age differences and varying levels of step response inhibition on the performance of a voluntary lateral step initiation task. Seventy older adults (70 – 94 y) and twenty younger adults (21 – 58 y) performed visually-cued step initiation conditions based on direction and spatial location of arrows, ranging from a simple choice reaction time task to a perceptual inhibition task that included incongruous cues about which direction to step (e.g. a left pointing arrow appearing on the right side of a monitor). Evidence of postural adjustment errors and step latencies were recorded from vertical ground reaction forces exerted by the stepping leg. Compared with younger adults, older adults demonstrated greater variability in step behavior, generated more postural adjustment errors during conditions requiring inhibition, and had greater step initiation latencies that increased more than younger adults as the inhibition requirements of the condition became greater. Step task performance was related to clinical balance test performance more than executive function task performance. PMID:25595953

  14. Six steps in quality intervention development (6SQuID).

    PubMed

    Wight, Daniel; Wimbush, Erica; Jepson, Ruth; Doi, Lawrence

    2016-05-01

    Improving the effectiveness of public health interventions relies as much on the attention paid to their design and feasibility as to their evaluation. Yet, compared to the vast literature on how to evaluate interventions, there is little to guide researchers or practitioners on how best to develop such interventions in practical, logical, evidence based ways to maximise likely effectiveness. Existing models for the development of public health interventions tend to have a strong social-psychological, individual behaviour change orientation and some take years to implement. This paper presents a pragmatic guide to six essential Steps for Quality Intervention Development (6SQuID). The focus is on public health interventions but the model should have wider applicability. Once a problem has been identified as needing intervention, the process of designing an intervention can be broken down into six crucial steps: (1) defining and understanding the problem and its causes; (2) identifying which causal or contextual factors are modifiable: which have the greatest scope for change and who would benefit most; (3) deciding on the mechanisms of change; (4) clarifying how these will be delivered; (5) testing and adapting the intervention; and (6) collecting sufficient evidence of effectiveness to proceed to a rigorous evaluation. If each of these steps is carefully addressed, better use will be made of scarce public resources by avoiding the costly evaluation, or implementation, of unpromising interventions. PMID:26573236

  15. Stepped frequency imaging for flaw monitoring: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hildebrand, B.P.

    1988-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of research into the usefulness of stepped frequency imaging (SFI) to nuclear power plant inspection. SFI is a method for producing ultrasonic holographic images without the need to sweep a two-dimensional aperture with the transducer. Instead, the transducer may be translated along a line. At each position of the transducer the frequency is stepped over a finite preselected bandwidth. The frequency stepped data is then processed to synthesize the second dimension. In this way it is possible to generate images in regions that are relatively inaccessible to two-dimensional scanners. This report reviews the theory and experimental work verifying the technique, and then explores its possible applications in the nuclear power industry. It also outlines how this new capability can be incorporated into the SDL-1000 Imaging System previously developed for EPRI. The report concludes with five suggestions for uses for the SFI method. These are: monitoring suspect or repaired regions of feedwater nozzles; monitoring pipe cracks repaired by weld overlay; monitoring crack depth during test block production; imaging flaws where access is difficult; and imaging flaws through cladding without distortion.

  16. Six steps in quality intervention development (6SQuID)

    PubMed Central

    Wight, Daniel; Wimbush, Erica; Jepson, Ruth; Doi, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Improving the effectiveness of public health interventions relies as much on the attention paid to their design and feasibility as to their evaluation. Yet, compared to the vast literature on how to evaluate interventions, there is little to guide researchers or practitioners on how best to develop such interventions in practical, logical, evidence based ways to maximise likely effectiveness. Existing models for the development of public health interventions tend to have a strong social-psychological, individual behaviour change orientation and some take years to implement. This paper presents a pragmatic guide to six essential Steps for Quality Intervention Development (6SQuID). The focus is on public health interventions but the model should have wider applicability. Once a problem has been identified as needing intervention, the process of designing an intervention can be broken down into six crucial steps: (1) defining and understanding the problem and its causes; (2) identifying which causal or contextual factors are modifiable: which have the greatest scope for change and who would benefit most; (3) deciding on the mechanisms of change; (4) clarifying how these will be delivered; (5) testing and adapting the intervention; and (6) collecting sufficient evidence of effectiveness to proceed to a rigorous evaluation. If each of these steps is carefully addressed, better use will be made of scarce public resources by avoiding the costly evaluation, or implementation, of unpromising interventions. PMID:26573236

  17. Sentinel Asia step 2 utilization for disaster management in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moslin, S. I.; Wahap, N. A.; Han, O. W.

    2014-02-01

    With the installation of Wideband InterNetworking engineering test and Demonstration Satellite (WINDS) communication system in the National Space Centre, Banting; officially Malaysia is one of the twelve Sentinel Asia Step2 System Regional Servers in the Asia Pacific region. The system will be dedicated to receive and deliver images of disaster struck areas observed by Asia Pacific earth observation satellites by request of the Sentinel Asia members via WINDS satellite or 'Kizuna'. Sentinel Asia is an initiative of collaboration between space agencies and disaster management agencies, applying remote sensing and web-GIS technologies to assist disaster management in Asia Pacific. When a disaster occurred, participating members will make an Emergency Observation Request (EOR) to the Asian Disaster Reduction Centre (ADRC). Subsequently, the Data Provider Node (DPN) will execute the emergency observation using the participating earth observation satellites. The requested images then will be processed and analysed and later it will be uploaded on the Sentinel Asia website to be utilised for disaster management and mitigation by the requestor and any other international agencies related to the disaster. Although the occurrences of large scale natural disasters are statistically seldom in Malaysia, but we can never be sure with the unpredictable earth climate nowadays. This paper will demonstrate the advantage of using Sentinel Asia Step2 for local disaster management. Case study will be from the recent local disaster occurrences. In addition, this paper also will recommend a local disaster management support system by using the Sentinel Asia Step2 facilities in ANGKASA.

  18. Evaluation of Vitrification Processing Step for Rocky Flats Incinerator Ash

    SciTech Connect

    Wigent, W.L.; Luey, J.K.; Scheele, R.D.; Li, H.

    1999-04-08

    In 1997, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) staff developed a processing option for incinerator ash at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Sites (RFETS). This work was performed with support from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Safe Sites of Colorado (SSOC). A description of the remediation needs for the RFETS incinerator ash is provided in a report summarizing the recommended processing option for treatment of the ash (Lucy et al. 1998). The recommended process flowsheet involves a calcination pretreatment step to remove carbonaceous material followed by a vitrification processing step for a mixture of glass tit and calcined incinerator ash. Using the calcination pretreatment step to remove carbonaceous material reduced process upsets for the vitrification step, allowed for increased waste loading in the final product, and improved the quality of the final product. Figure 1.1 illustrates the flow sheet for the recommended processing option for treatment of RFETS incinerator ash. In 1998, work at PNNL further developed the recommended flow sheet through a series of studies to better define the vitrification operating parameters and to address secondary processing issues (such as characterizing the offgas species from the calcination process). Because a prototypical rotary calciner was not available for use, studies to evaluate the offgas from the calcination process were performed using a benchtop rotary calciner and laboratory-scale equipment (Lucy et al. 1998). This report focuses on the vitrification process step after ash has been calcined. Testing with full-scale containers was performed using ash surrogates and a muffle furnace similar to that planned for use at RFETS. Small-scale testing was performed using plutonium-bearing incinerator ash to verify performance of the waste form. Ash was not obtained from RFETS because of transportation requirements to calcine the incinerator ash prior to shipment of the material. Because part of

  19. Steps toward fault-tolerant quantum chemistry.

    SciTech Connect

    Taube, Andrew Garvin

    2010-05-01

    Developing quantum chemistry programs on the coming generation of exascale computers will be a difficult task. The programs will need to be fault-tolerant and minimize the use of global operations. This work explores the use a task-based model that uses a data-centric approach to allocate work to different processes as it applies to quantum chemistry. After introducing the key problems that appear when trying to parallelize a complicated quantum chemistry method such as coupled-cluster theory, we discuss the implications of that model as it pertains to the computational kernel of a coupled-cluster program - matrix multiplication. Also, we discuss the extensions that would required to build a full coupled-cluster program using the task-based model. Current programming models for high-performance computing are fault-intolerant and use global operations. Those properties are unsustainable as computers scale to millions of CPUs; instead one must recognize that these systems will be hierarchical in structure, prone to constant faults, and global operations will be infeasible. The FAST-OS HARE project is introducing a scale-free computing model to address these issues. This model is hierarchical and fault-tolerant by design, allows for the clean overlap of computation and communication, reducing the network load, does not require checkpointing, and avoids the complexity of many HPC runtimes. Development of an algorithm within this model requires a change in focus from imperative programming to a data-centric approach. Quantum chemistry (QC) algorithms, in particular electronic structure methods, are an ideal test bed for this computing model. These methods describe the distribution of electrons in a molecule, which determine the properties of the molecule. The computational cost of these methods is high, scaling quartically or higher in the size of the molecule, which is why QC applications are major users of HPC resources. The complexity of these algorithms means that

  20. Using the Apple Macintosh and MULTIPLAN Spreadsheet to Analyze Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodrow, Janice E. J.

    1986-01-01

    Describes the use of the Apple Macintosh and MULTIPLAN spreadsheet to record and analyze test data. Provides step-by-step instructions on data entry, item difficulty and discrimination calculations, test reliability, score distribution, and graphing of distributions. (JM)

  1. Four Steps to Manage Your Diabetes for Life

    MedlinePlus

    ... Language URL Español 4 Steps to Manage Your Diabetes for Life Page Content Contents Step 1: Learn ... diabetes care each day. Step 1: Learn about diabetes. What is diabetes? There are three main types ...

  2. 36 CFR 1192.25 - Doors, steps and thresholds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Contrast. All step edges, thresholds, and the boarding edge of ramps or lift platforms shall have a band of color(s) running the full width of the step or edge which contrasts from the step tread and riser,...

  3. Application of a step-by-step fingerprinting identification method on a spilled oil accident in the Bohai Sea area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Peiyan; Gao, Zhenhui; Cao, Lixin; Wang, Xinping; Zhou, Qing; Zhao, Yuhui; Li, Guangmei

    2011-03-01

    In recent years, oil spill accidents occur frequently in the marine area of China. Finding out the spilled oil source is a key step in the relevant investigation. In this paper, a step-by-step fingerprinting identification method was used in a spilled oil accident in the Bohai Sea in 2002. Advanced chemical fingerprinting and data interpretation techniques were used to characterize the chemical composition and determine the possible sources of two spilled oil samples. The original gas chromatography -flame ionization detection (GC-FID) chromatogram of saturated hydrocarbons was compared. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) chromatograms of aromatic hydrocarbons terpane and sterane, n-alkane and poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed. The correlation analysis on diagnostic ratios was performed with Student's t-test. It is found that the oil fingerprinting of the spilled oil (designated as sz1) from the polluted sand beach was identical with the suspected oil (designated as ky1) from a nearby crude oil refinery factory. They both showed the fingerprinting character of mixed oil. The oil fingerprinting of the spilled oil (designated as ms1) collected from the port was significantly different from oil ky1 and oil sz1 and was with a lubricating oil fingerprint character. The identification result not only gave support for the spilled oil investigation, but also served as an example for studying spilled oil accidents.

  4. A 15-step synthesis of (+)-ryanodol.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Kangway V; Xu, Chen; Reisman, Sarah E

    2016-08-26

    (+)-Ryanodine and (+)-ryanodol are complex diterpenoids that modulate intracellular calcium-ion release at ryanodine receptors, ion channels critical for skeletal and cardiac muscle excitation-contraction coupling and synaptic transmission. Chemical derivatization of these diterpenoids has demonstrated that certain peripheral structural modifications can alter binding affinity and selectivity among ryanodine receptor isoforms. Here, we report a short chemical synthesis of (+)-ryanodol that proceeds in only 15 steps from the commercially available terpene (S)-pulegone. The efficiency of the synthesis derives from the use of a Pauson-Khand reaction to rapidly build the carbon framework and a SeO2-mediated oxidation to install three oxygen atoms in a single step. This work highlights how strategic C-O bond constructions can streamline the synthesis of polyhydroxylated terpenes by minimizing protecting group and redox adjustments. PMID:27563092

  5. OPTIMUM PLASMA STATES FOR NEXT STEP TOKAMAKS

    SciTech Connect

    LIN-LIU,YR; STAMBAUGH,RD

    2002-11-01

    OAK A271 OPTIMUM PLASMA STATES FOR NEXT STEP TOKAMAKS. The dependence of the ideal ballooning {beta} limit on aspect ratio, A, and elongation {kappa} is systematically explored for nearly 100% bootstrap current driven tokamak equilibria in a wide range of the shape parameters (A = 1.2-7.0, {kappa} = 1.5-6.0 with triangularity {delta} = 0.5). The critical {beta}{sub N} is shown to be optimal at {kappa} = 3.0-4.0 for all A studied and increases as A decreases with a dependence close to A{sup -0.5}. The results obtained can be used as a theoretical basis for the choice of optimum aspect ratio and elongation of next step burning plasma tokamaks or tokamak reactors.

  6. The 7-Steps of the Data Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terada, Y.; Bamba, A.; Hiraga, J. S.; Isobe, N.; Kubota, A.; Ota, N.; Ranalli, P.; Senda, A.; Suzuki, M.; Tamagawa, T.; Ozaki, M.; Ebisawa, K.; Ishisaki, Y.; Matsumoto, H.; Yamagishi, I.; Tamura, T.; Mukai, K.; Angelini, L.; Hamaguchi, K.; Suzaku Processing Members

    It may seem to be difficult to analyze the Suzaku data, but the datastructure and the tools are rather simple. We have constructed the way to process Suzaku FITS data and ftools for over ten years. We have prepared three kinds of manuals to analyze the data; Seven step manual of the XIS and the HXD for beginners, first step manual to walk through the analyses, and the ABC guide as a full manual. In the actual analyses, we have to be careful about events in operation and the limitations in the calibration of instruments. In this paper, the data structure, tools, and manuals with activities of help desks, current status of processing are summarized.

  7. Early Screening for Risk of Reading Disabilities: Recommendations for a Four-Step Screening System.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Jennifer K; Compton, Donald L; Fuchs, Douglas; Fuchs, Lynn S

    2012-12-01

    Response-to-intervention (RTI) models incorporate a screening process to identify students who appear to be at risk for learning disabilities (LDs). The purpose of this position article is to incorporate what is known about screening into a flexible, yet comprehensive screening system to help school psychologists and other school administrators in establishing school-specific screening procedures. The authors begin by discussing past. research on screening for reading disabilities (RDs) within the RTI framework. Then, they propose a four-step screening system advocating a short screener (Step I), progress monitoring (Step 2), follow-up testing (Step 3), and ongoing revision of procedures and cut scores (Step 4). Their goal is to improve screening within RTI systems with practical procedures to permit schools to implement state-of-the-art screening batteries that accurately and efficiently distinguish students who are at high risk for RD. PMID:24478613

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF A HYDROSTATIC JOURNAL BEARING WITH SLIT-STEP COMPENSATION

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, L C; Donaldson, R R; Castro, C; Chung, C A; Hopkins, D J

    2006-07-28

    This paper describes the mathematical modeling and initial testing of an oil-hydrostatic bearing that derives compensation from both a central radial slit where fluid enters and stepped clearances near each end. Bearings using either a radial slit or stepped clearances for compensation were well studied over forty years ago by Donaldson. These bearings have smooth bores uninterrupted with multiple recesses around the circumference. The present slit-step bearing achieves the best of both types with somewhat higher hydrostatic stiffness than the slit bearing and fluid shear drag lower than the step bearing. This is apparent in TABLE 1, which compares calculated values of initial (i.e., centered) hydrostatic stiffness for each type. The slit-step bearing is one of several types being studied at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for possible use on the Precision Optical Grinder and Lathe (POGAL).

  9. The Effect of Backward-Facing Step Height on Instability Growth and Breakdown in Swept Wing Boundary-Layer Transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eppink, Jenna L.; Wlezien, Richard W.; King, Rudolph A.; Choudhari, Meelan

    2015-01-01

    A low-speed experiment was performed on a swept at plate model with an imposed pressure gradient to determine the effect of a backward-facing step on transition in a stationary-cross flow dominated flow. Detailed hot-wire boundary-layer measurements were performed for three backward-facing step heights of approximately 36, 45, and 49% of the boundary-layer thickness at the step. These step heights correspond to a subcritical, nearly-critical, and critical case. Three leading-edge roughness configurations were tested to determine the effect of stationary-cross flow amplitude on transition. The step caused a local increase in amplitude of the stationary cross flow for the two larger step height cases, but farther downstream the amplitude decreased and remained below the baseline amplitude. The smallest step caused a slight local decrease in amplitude of the primary stationary cross flow mode, but the amplitude collapsed back to the baseline case far downstream of the step. The effect of the step on the amplitude of the primary cross flow mode increased with step height, however, the stationary cross flow amplitudes remained low and thus, stationary cross flow was not solely responsible for transition. Unsteady disturbances were present downstream of the step for all three step heights, and the amplitudes increased with increasing step height. The only exception is that the lower frequency (traveling crossflow-like) disturbance was not present in the lowest step height case. Positive and negative spikes in instantaneous velocity began to occur for the two larger step height cases and then grew in number and amplitude downstream of reattachment, eventually leading to transition. The number and amplitude of spikes varied depending on the step height and cross flow amplitude. Despite the low amplitude of the disturbances in the intermediate step height case, breakdown began to occur intermittently and the flow underwent a long transition region.

  10. A stochastic model for kinesin bidirectional stepping

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Xiaojun; Zheng, Yujun

    2014-02-28

    In this paper, a hand-over-hand stochastic model for the dynamics of the conventional kinesin is constructed. In the model, both forward and backward motions are taken into consideration. First passage time distributions, average velocities, dwell times, and forward/backward step ratios are investigated based on the model. A good agreement between the results of the model and experimental data is achieved under a variety of external loads.

  11. Three step double layers in the laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Andrew, III; Hershkowitz, Noah

    1988-01-01

    A new class of stationary double layer structure, with three or more distinct steps, is demonstrated in the laboratory. A large monotonic potential increase results from a series of smaller double layers. In many respects, these double layer structures resemble those inferred from satellite measurements of auroral double layers. This new class of double layer appears to depend on turbulence for its existence and to be a hybrid structure, intermediate between anomalous resistivity and BGK double layers.

  12. These Shoes Are Made for Walking: Sensitivity Performance Evaluation of Commercial Activity Monitors under the Expected Conditions and Circumstances Required to Achieve the International Daily Step Goal of 10,000 Steps

    PubMed Central

    O’Connell, Sandra; ÓLaighin, Gearóid; Kelly, Lisa; Murphy, Elaine; Beirne, Sorcha; Burke, Niall; Kilgannon, Orlaith; Quinlan, Leo R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Physical activity is a vitally important part of a healthy lifestyle, and is of major benefit to both physical and mental health. A daily step count of 10,000 steps is recommended globally to achieve an appropriate level of physical activity. Accurate quantification of physical activity during conditions reflecting those needed to achieve the recommended daily step count of 10,000 steps is essential. As such, we aimed to assess four commercial activity monitors for their sensitivity/accuracy in a prescribed walking route that reflects a range of surfaces that would typically be used to achieve the recommended daily step count, in two types of footwear expected to be used throughout the day when aiming to achieve the recommended daily step count, and in a timeframe required to do so. Methods Four commercial activity monitors were worn simultaneously by participants (n = 15) during a prescribed walking route reflective of surfaces typically encountered while achieving the daily recommended 10,000 steps. Activity monitors tested were the Garmin Vivofit ™, New Lifestyles’ NL-2000 ™ pedometer, Withings Smart Activity Monitor Tracker (Pulse O2) ™, and Fitbit One ™. Results All activity monitors tested were accurate in their step detection over the variety of different surfaces tested (natural lawn grass, gravel, ceramic tile, tarmacadam/asphalt, linoleum), when wearing both running shoes and hard-soled dress shoes. Conclusion All activity monitors tested were accurate in their step detection sensitivity and are valid monitors for physical activity quantification over the variety of different surfaces tested, when wearing both running shoes and hard-soled dress shoes, and over a timeframe necessary for accumulating the recommended daily step count of 10,000 steps. However, it is important to consider the accuracy of activity monitors, particularly when physical activity in the form of stepping activities is prescribed as an intervention in the

  13. Geometric optimization of a step bearing for a hydrodynamically levitated centrifugal blood pump for the reduction of hemolysis.

    PubMed

    Kosaka, Ryo; Yada, Toru; Nishida, Masahiro; Maruyama, Osamu; Yamane, Takashi

    2013-09-01

    A hydrodynamically levitated centrifugal blood pump with a semi-open impeller has been developed for mechanical circulatory assistance. However, a narrow bearing gap has the potential to cause hemolysis. The purpose of the present study is to optimize the geometric configuration of the hydrodynamic step bearing in order to reduce hemolysis by expansion of the bearing gap. First, a numerical analysis of the step bearing, based on lubrication theory, was performed to determine the optimal design. Second, in order to assess the accuracy of the numerical analysis, the hydrodynamic forces calculated in the numerical analysis were compared with those obtained in an actual measurement test using impellers having step lengths of 0%, 33%, and 67% of the vane length. Finally, a bearing gap measurement test and a hemolysis test were performed. As a result, the numerical analysis revealed that the hydrodynamic force was the largest when the step length was approximately 70%. The hydrodynamic force calculated in the numerical analysis was approximately equivalent to that obtained in the measurement test. In the measurement test and the hemolysis test, the blood pump having a step length of 67% achieved the maximum bearing gap and reduced hemolysis, as compared with the pumps having step lengths of 0% and 33%. It was confirmed that the numerical analysis of the step bearing was effective, and the developed blood pump having a step length of approximately 70% was found to be a suitable configuration for the reduction of hemolysis. PMID:23834855

  14. Criticality Calculations for Step-2 GPHS Modules

    SciTech Connect

    Lipinski, Ronald J.; Hensen, Danielle L.

    2008-01-21

    The Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG) will use an improved version of the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) module as its source of thermal power. This new version, referred to as the Step-2 GPHS Module, has additional and thicker layers of carbon fiber material (Fine Weaved Pierced Fabric) for increased strength over the original GPHS module. The GPHS uses alpha decay of {sup 238}Pu in the oxide form as the primary source of heat, and small amounts of other actinides are also present in the oxide fuel. Criticality calculations have been performed by previous researchers on the original version of the GPHS module (Step 0). This paper presents criticality calculations for the present Step-2 version. The Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended code (MCNPX) was used for these calculations. Numerous configurations of GPHS module arrays surrounded by wet sand and other materials (to reflect the neutrons back into the stack with minimal absorption) were modeled. For geometries with eight GPHS modules (from a single MMRTG) surrounded by wet sand, the configuration is extremely sub-critical; k{sub eff} is about 0.3. It requires about 1000 GPHS modules (from 125 MMRTGs) in a close-spaced stack to approach criticality (k{sub eff} = 1.0) when surrounded by wet sand. The effect of beryllium in the MMRTG was found to be relatively small.

  15. Rotordynamic coefficients for stepped labyrinth gas seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scharrer, Joseph K.

    1989-01-01

    The basic equations are derived for compressible flow in a stepped labyrinth gas seal. The flow is assumed to be completely turbulent in the circumferential direction where the friction factor is determined by the Blasius relation. Linearized zeroth and first-order perturbation equations are developed for small motion about a centered position by an expansion in the eccentricity ratio. The zeroth-order pressure distribution is found by satisfying the leakage equation while the circumferential velocity distribution is determined by satisfying the momentum equations. The first order equations are solved by a separation of variables solution. Integration of the resultant pressure distribution along and around the seal defines the reaction force developed by the seal and the corresponding dynamic coefficients. The results of this analysis are presented in the form of a parametric study, since there are no known experimental data for the rotordynamic coefficients of stepped labyrinth gas seals. The parametric study investigates the relative rotordynamic stability of convergent, straight and divergent stepped labyrinth gas seals. The results show that, generally, the divergent seal is more stable, rotordynamically, than the straight or convergent seals. The results also show that the teeth-on-stator seals are not always more stable, rotordynamically, then the teeth-on-rotor seals as was shown by experiment by Childs and Scharrer (1986b) for a 15 tooth seal.

  16. MIKES’ primary phase stepping gauge block interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byman, V.; Lassila, A.

    2015-08-01

    MIKES’ modernized phase stepping interferometer for gauge block calibration (PSIGB) will be described. The instrument is based on the well-regarded NPL-TESA gauge block interferometer from 1994. The decision to upgrade the instrument resulted from several components, such as the PC and charge-coupled device (CCD) camera, having reached the end of their lifetime. In this paper modernized components, measurement method and analysis will be explained. The lasers are coupled to the instrument using single mode fiber. The instrument uses phase stepping generated by an added optical window on a controllable rotatory table in the reference arm with a recently developed nine-position phase stepping algorithm. Unwrapping is done with a robust path following algorithm. Procedures for adjusting the interferometer are explained. Determination and elimination of wavefront error, coherent noise and analysis of their influence on the results is described. Flatness and variation in length are also important parameters of gauge blocks to be characterized, and the corresponding analysis method is clarified. Uncertainty analysis for the central length, flatness and variation in length is also described. The results are compared against those of the old hardware and software. The standard uncertainty for central length measurement is u = [(9.5 nm)2 + (121 × 10-9 L)2]½, where L is measured length.

  17. Response to a Legal Challenge: Five Steps to Defensible Credentialing Examinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanaugh, Sally Hixon

    1991-01-01

    A lawsuit involving the National Board for Respiratory Therapy illustrates that certification examinations are vulnerable to complaints of discrimination and employers' misuse of test results. The board's five-step process--position-viability study, personnel survey, job analysis, item writing/test development, and criterion-related validity…

  18. Step 1: C3 Flight Demo Data Analysis Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The Data Analysis Plan (DAP) describes the data analysis that the C3 Work Package (WP) will perform in support of the Access 5 Step 1 C3 flight demonstration objectives as well as the processes that will be used by the Flight IPT to gather and distribute the data collected to satisfy those objectives. In addition to C3 requirements, this document will encompass some Human Systems Interface (HSI) requirements in performing the C3 flight demonstrations. The C3 DAP will be used as the primary interface requirements document between the C3 Work Package and Flight Test organizations (Flight IPT and Non-Access 5 Flight Programs). In addition to providing data requirements for Access 5 flight test (piggyback technology demonstration flights, dedicated C3 technology demonstration flights, and Airspace Operations Demonstration flights), the C3 DAP will be used to request flight data from Non- Access 5 flight programs for C3 related data products

  19. MTR MAIN FLOOR. NEUTRON TUNNEL (SPANNED BY STILELIKE STEPS) PROJECTS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR MAIN FLOOR. NEUTRON TUNNEL (SPANNED BY STILE-LIKE STEPS) PROJECTS FROM THE SOUTHEAST CORNER OF THE MTR TOWARD SOUTHEAST CORNER OF BUILDING, WHERE SHIELDING BLOCKS BEGIN TO SURROUND THE TUNNEL AS IT NEARS DETECTING INSTRUMENTS NEAR THE BUILDING WALL. GEAR RELATED TO CRYSTAL NEUTRON SPECTROMETER IS IN FOREGROUND SURROUNDED BY SHIELDING. DATA CONSOLES ARE AT MID-LEVEL OF EAST FACE. OTHER WORK PROCEEDS ON TOP OF AND ELSEWHERE AROUND REACTOR. NOTE TOOLS HANGING AGAINST SOUTHEAST CORNER, USED TO CHANGE FUEL ELEMENTS AND OTHER REACTOR ITEMS DURING REFUELING CYCLES. INL NEGATIVE NO. 10439. Unknown Photographer, 4/20/1954 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  20. Two-step oligoclonal development of male germ cells.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Hiroo; Turnbull, Brit B; Weissman, Irving L

    2009-01-01

    During mouse development, primordial germ cells (PGCs) that give rise to the entire germ line are first identified within the proximal epiblast. However, long-term tracing of the fate of the cells has not been done wherein all cells in and around the germ-cell lineage are identified. Also, quantitative estimates of the number of founder PGCs using different models have come up with various numbers. Here, we use tetrachimeric mice to show that the progenitor numbers for the entire germ line in adult testis, and for the initiating embryonic PGCs, are both 4 cells. Although they proliferate to form polyclonal germ-cell populations in fetal and neonatal testes, germ cells that actually contribute to adult spermatogenesis originate from a small number of secondary founder cells that originate in the fetal period. The rest of the "deciduous" germ cells are lost, most likely by apoptosis, before the reproductive period. The second "actual" founder germ cells generally form small numbers of large monoclonal areas in testes by the reproductive period. Our results also demonstrate that there is no contribution of somatic cells to the male germ cell pool during development or in adulthood. These results suggest a model of 2-step oligoclonal development of male germ cells in mice, the second step distinguishing the heritable germ line from cells selected not to participate in forming the next generation. PMID:19098099

  1. Comparison of IMRT planning with two-step and one-step optimization: a strategy for improving therapeutic gain and reducing the integral dose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abate, A.; Pressello, M. C.; Benassi, M.; Strigari, L.

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency in inverse IMRT planning of one-step optimization with the step-and-shoot (SS) technique as compared to traditional two-step optimization using the sliding windows (SW) technique. The Pinnacle IMRT TPS allows both one-step and two-step approaches. The same beam setup for five head-and-neck tumor patients and dose-volume constraints were applied for all optimization methods. Two-step plans were produced converting the ideal fluence with or without a smoothing filter into the SW sequence. One-step plans, based on direct machine parameter optimization (DMPO), had the maximum number of segments per beam set at 8, 10, 12, producing a directly deliverable sequence. Moreover, the plans were generated whether a split-beam was used or not. Total monitor units (MUs), overall treatment time, cost function and dose-volume histograms (DVHs) were estimated for each plan. PTV conformality and homogeneity indexes and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) that are the basis for improving therapeutic gain, as well as non-tumor integral dose (NTID), were evaluated. A two-sided t-test was used to compare quantitative variables. All plans showed similar target coverage. Compared to two-step SW optimization, the DMPO-SS plans resulted in lower MUs (20%), NTID (4%) as well as NTCP values. Differences of about 15-20% in the treatment delivery time were registered. DMPO generates less complex plans with identical PTV coverage, providing lower NTCP and NTID, which is expected to reduce the risk of secondary cancer. It is an effective and efficient method and, if available, it should be favored over the two-step IMRT planning.

  2. Atomic diffusion on vicinal surfaces: step roughening impact on step permeability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranguelov, B.; Michailov, M.

    2014-12-01

    The problem of mass transport in material science for systems with reduced dimensionality holds special academic and technological attention since the fine diffusion control of adatoms could initiate exotic nanoscale patterning at epitaxial interfaces. The present study brings out important details of the atomic diffusion mechanisms on vicinal surfaces, accounting for the subtle competition between an external field imposed on the migrating adatoms and the roughening of the steps bordering the atomic terraces. The computational model reveals a temperature gap for breakdown of step permeability in the vicinity of the step roughening transition and sheds light on recently observed experimental results for atomic step dynamics on Si surfaces. The present study also demonstrates the extended capability of atomistic models in computer simulations to unravel simultaneous effects, to distinguish between them, and finally to assess their specific contribution to experimentally observed complex physical phenomena.

  3. Ground Reaction Forces of the Lead and Trail Limbs when Stepping Over an Obstacle

    PubMed Central

    Bovonsunthonchai, Sunee; Khobkhun, Fuengfa; Vachalathiti, Roongtiwa

    2015-01-01

    Background Precise force generation and absorption during stepping over different obstacles need to be quantified for task accomplishment. This study aimed to quantify how the lead limb (LL) and trail limb (TL) generate and absorb forces while stepping over obstacle of various heights. Material/Methods Thirteen healthy young women participated in the study. Force data were collected from 2 force plates when participants stepped over obstacles. Two limbs (right LL and left TL) and 4 conditions of stepping (no obstacle, stepping over 5 cm, 20 cm, and 30 cm obstacle heights) were tested for main effect and interaction effect by 2-way ANOVA. Paired t-test and 1-way repeated-measure ANOVA were used to compare differences of variables between limbs and among stepping conditions, respectively. The main effects on the limb were found in first peak vertical force, minimum vertical force, propulsive peak force, and propulsive impulse. Results Significant main effects of condition were found in time to minimum force, time to the second peak force, time to propulsive peak force, first peak vertical force, braking peak force, propulsive peak force, vertical impulse, braking impulse, and propulsive impulse. Interaction effects of limb and condition were found in first peak vertical force, propulsive peak force, braking impulse, and propulsive impulse. Conclusions Adaptations of force generation in the LL and TL were found to involve adaptability to altered external environment during stepping in healthy young adults. PMID:26169293

  4. Investigating the Impact of Preparation Strategies on USMLE Step 1 Performance

    PubMed Central

    Bonasso, Patrick; Lucke-Wold, Brandon; Reed, Zebula; Bozek, John; Cottrell, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Background The USMLE Step 1 score helps differentiate applicants for competitive residency programs. Students frequently ask medical educators how to prepare for this high-stakes exam. Multiple resources exist such as books, training programs, and question banks. The purpose of this study is to provide medical educators with data on which resources correlate with higher exam scores. Methods 164 medical students at West Virginia University School of Medicine were given a survey following the completion of Step 1. The survey contained questions about resources used and exam date. De-identified data was paired with class quartile rankings and Step 1 scores. Average Step 1 scores were calculated for each resource and a student's t-test was used to compare between groups. Test dates were also broken into quintiles and average Step 1 scores were compared between groups. Results Students who used the USMLE World question bank had higher Step 1 scores (M=229, SE=1.4) compared to students who did not use this resource (M=215, SE=4.2). Commercial preparation courses were not associated with improved scores. The timing of when the exam was taken was also not associated with significant differences between scores. Conclusions Interactive study options offer the best choice to improve USMLE Step 1 scores.

  5. Mechanics and energetics of step-to-step transitions isolated from human walking.

    PubMed

    Soo, Caroline H; Donelan, J Maxwell

    2010-12-15

    We isolated step-to-step transitions from other contributors to walking mechanics using a cyclical rocking task and then examined the contribution of individual joints to the total work required to redirect the velocity of the center of mass (COM). Nine participants were instructed to rock backward and forward in the sagittal plane, eliminating the need to swing the legs and progress forward. To systematically increase the required work, we increased step length from 60 to 100% of leg length, keeping rocking frequency constant. The individual limbs method quantified the COM work and the joint power method apportioned the COM work among its various sources. As predicted by a physics-based model, we found that work in rocking was performed mainly during the step-to-step transitions and increased strongly with step length. We also found that increases in the average COM work rate exacted a proportional metabolic cost. The similar patterns of COM work and COM work rate during rocking and walking support the use of rocking to isolate the mechanics of step-to-step transitions. We found that the ankle was the main joint contributing to the positive work required to redirect the COM velocity during forward rocking. At the longest length, it accounted for 88% of the work performed by the trailing leg joints. Interestingly, the summed contribution of ankle, knee and hip joint work accounted for only 39% of the front leg negative COM work during the forward transition, suggesting that most of the collision work is performed by passive tissue. PMID:21113008

  6. IMPROVEMENTS TO THE TIME STEPPING ALGORITHM OF RELAP5-3D

    SciTech Connect

    Cumberland, R.; Mesina, G.

    2009-01-01

    The RELAP5-3D time step method is used to perform thermo-hydraulic and neutronic simulations of nuclear reactors and other devices. It discretizes time and space by numerically solving several differential equations. Previously, time step size was controlled by halving or doubling the size of a previous time step. This process caused the code to run slower than it potentially could. In this research project, the RELAP5-3D time step method was modifi ed to allow a new method of changing time steps to improve execution speed and to control error. The new RELAP5-3D time step method being studied involves making the time step proportional to the material courant limit (MCL), while insuring that the time step does not increase by more than a factor of two between advancements. As before, if a step fails or mass error is excessive, the time step is cut in half. To examine performance of the new method, a measure of run time and a measure of error were plotted against a changing MCL proportionality constant (m) in seven test cases. The removal of the upper time step limit produced a small increase in error, but a large decrease in execution time. The best value of m was found to be 0.9. The new algorithm is capable of producing a signifi cant increase in execution speed, with a relatively small increase in mass error. The improvements made are now under consideration for inclusion as a special option in the RELAP5-3D production code.

  7. Development of Stepped Care Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Salloum, Alison; Scheeringa, Michael S.; Cohen, Judith A.; Storch, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    Young children who are exposed to traumatic events are at risk for developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). While effective psychosocial treatments for childhood PTSD exist, novel interventions that are more accessible, efficient, and cost-effective are needed to improve access to evidence-based treatment. Stepped care models currently being developed for mental health conditions are based on a service delivery model designed to address barriers to treatment. This treatment development article describes how trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy (TF-CBT), a well-established evidence-based practice, was developed into a stepped care model for young children exposed to trauma. Considerations for developing the stepped care model for young children exposed to trauma, such as the type and number of steps, training of providers, entry point, inclusion of parents, treatment components, noncompliance, and a self-correcting monitoring system, are discussed. This model of stepped care for young children exposed to trauma, called Stepped Care TF-CBT, may serve as a model for developing and testing stepped care approaches to treating other types of childhood psychiatric disorders. Future research needed on Stepped Care TF-CBT is discussed. PMID:25411544

  8. Probing attention prioritization during dual-task step initiation: a novel method.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ruopeng; Shea, John B

    2016-04-01

    The present study investigated the attention allocation during reactive stepping using a continuous finger-tapping task. Ten healthy young subjects were recruited to participate in this study. Subjects were required to perform a rapid voluntary step with either left or right leg after hearing an auditory tone while tapping their right index finger on a handhold numeric keypad. Step initiation conditions included simple and choice reaction forward stepping with three variants of continuous tapping task that were: (1) single task-no concurrent finger-tapping task; (2) dual task easy-one-button tapping task; (3) dual task hard-four-button tapping task. Types of anticipatory postural adjustment (APA) were determined by the center of pressure trajectory. Reaction time, APA duration, and stepping latency were compared between APA types and various dual-task conditions. Wavelet analysis was performed on the stimulus-locked finger-tapping data to determine the frequency change of tapping speed related to reactive stepping. Results showed that postural performance was negatively affected only by the high-attention-demanding cognitive task. Significant reduction of finger-tapping speed post-stimulus presentation was observed across all test conditions, indicating attention shift during the execution of a step. In addition, the DTH condition induced early postural prioritization in choice reaction stepping when different motor programs needed to be planned and executed. Error APA also triggered larger deterioration of tapping performance compared to correct APA, indicating the perceived error and the remedial action require additional attentional resources. PMID:26708519

  9. Prediction of gestational diabetes mellitus in the first trimester, comparison of fasting plasma glucose, two-step and one-step methods: a prospective randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Yeral, M Ilkin; Ozgu-Erdinc, A Seval; Uygur, Dilek; Seckin, K Doga; Karsli, M Fatih; Danisman, A Nuri

    2014-08-01

    Our aim was to evaluate and compare the diagnostic performance of three methods commonly used for GDM screening: fasting plasma glucose (FPG), two-step 50 g glucose challenge test (GCT), and 75 g glucose tolerance test (GTT) in a randomized study design to predict GDM in the first trimester and determine the best approach in predicting GDM. In a non-blind, parallel-group prospective randomized controlled study; 736 singleton pregnant women underwent FPG testing in the first trimester and randomly assigned to two groups; two-step 50 g GCT and 75 g GTT. GDM diagnosis was made according to Carpenter-Coustan or ADA (American Diabetes Association) criteria in two-step 50 g GCT and 75 g GTT groups, respectively. Subsequent testing was performed by two-step 50 g GCT at 24-28 weeks for screen negatives. After excluding the women who were lost to follow-up or withdrawn as a result of pregnancy loss, 486 pregnant women were recruited in the study. The FPG, two-step GCT, and one-step GTT methods identified GDM in 25/486 (5.1 %), 15/248 (6.0 %), and 27/238 (11.3 %) women, respectively. Area under ROC curves were 0.623, 0.708, and 0.792, respectively. Sensitivities were 47.17, 68.18, and 87.1 %, respectively. Specificities were 77.37, 100, and 100 %, respectively. Positive predictive values were 20.33, 100, and 100 %, respectively. Negative predictive values were 92.29, 97, and 98.1 %, respectively. Until superior screening alternatives become available, the 75 g GTT may be preferred for GDM screening in the first trimester. PMID:24282036

  10. Stepping stones toward global space exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansdell, M.; Ehrenfreund, P.; McKay, C.

    2011-06-01

    Several nations are currently engaging in or planning for robotic and human space exploration programs that target the Moon, Mars and near-Earth asteroids. These ambitious plans to build new space infrastructures, transport systems and space probes will require international cooperation if they are to be sustainable and affordable. Partnerships must involve not only established space powers, but also emerging space nations and developing countries; the participation of these new space actors will provide a bottom-up support structure that will aid program continuity, generate more active members in the space community, and increase public awareness of space activities in both developed and developing countries. The integration of many stakeholders into a global space exploration program represents a crucial element securing political and programmatic stability. How can the evolving space community learn to cooperate on a truly international level while engaging emerging space nations and developing countries in a meaningful way? We propose a stepping stone approach toward a global space exploration program, featuring three major elements: (1) an international Earth-based field research program preparing for planetary exploration, (2) enhanced exploitation of the International Space Station (ISS) enabling exploration and (3) a worldwide CubeSat program supporting exploration. An international Earth-based field research program can serve as a truly global exploration testbed that allows both established and new space actors to gain valuable experience by working together to prepare for future planetary exploration missions. Securing greater exploitation of the ISS is a logical step during its prolonged lifetime; ISS experiments, partnerships and legal frameworks are valuable foundations for exploration beyond low Earth orbit. Cooperation involving small, low-cost missions could be a major stride toward exciting and meaningful participation from emerging space nations

  11. Vibration Analysis of Stepped Thickness Plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, S. J.; Keane, A. J.; Moshrefi-Torbati, M.

    1997-07-01

    Investigation has been made into various approaches for analyzing the vibration of plates with stepped thicknesses. First, attention has been paid to updating a classical approach for the analysis of such problems, correcting the boundary conditions cited in an earlier paper and dealing with the difficulties that can arise when calculating high order modes. Secondly, contribution has been made to improving the classical finite strip method (FSM) by replacing the "static" shape function of the strip element by a "dynamic" function. This leads to the development of a dynamic finite strip method which improves solution accuracy without compromising model size and which therefore is more efficient than the classical FSM. When compared with the finite element method (FEM), which is also considered here, the advantages of smaller model size and higher accuracy of the dynamic FSM are significant. In order to demonstrate the application of the above approaches, the modes of simply supported plates with uniform and stepped thicknesses have been analyzed. From this numerical study, it is noted that the updated classical approach can be used to obtain a solution for any order mode to any specified accuracy and is the most efficient approach considered in the present study. It is also noted that, compared with the FEM of similar solution accuracy, the dynamic finite strip method normally produces a much smaller model size, so that such calculations are significantly more efficient than for the FEM. The aim of this work is to establish methods for the analysis of stepped plates that might be used in optimization studies where speed of formulation and solution are at a premium. There are, of course, a number of other methods that could be used to tackle such problems, but they lie outside the scope of this work; see for example the papers of Liew and co-authors [1, 2].

  12. Rotary stepping device with memory metal actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jamieson, Robert S. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A rotary stepping device includes a rotatable shaft which is driven by means of a coiled spring clutch which is alternately tightened to grip and rotate the shaft and released to return it to a resting position. An actuator formed of a memory metal is used to pull the spring clutch to tighten it and rotate the shaft. The actuator is activated by heating it above its critical temperature and is returned to an elongated configuration by means of the force of the spring cloth.

  13. Lanczos steps to improve variational wave functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becca, Federico; Hu, Wen-Jun; Iqbal, Yasir; Parola, Alberto; Poilblanc, Didier; Sorella, Sandro

    2015-09-01

    Gutzwiller-projected fermionic states can be efficiently implemented within quantum Monte Carlo calculations to define extremely accurate variational wave functions for Heisenberg models on frustrated two-dimensional lattices, not only for the ground state but also for low-energy excitations. The application of few Lanczos steps on top of these states further improves their accuracy, allowing calculations on large clusters. In addition, by computing both the energy and its variance, it is possible to obtain reliable estimations of exact results. Here, we report the cases of the frustrated Heisenberg models on square and Kagome lattices.

  14. Self-Advancing Step-Tap Drills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettit, Donald R.; Camarda, Charles J.; Penner, Ronald K.; Franklin, Larry D.

    2007-01-01

    Self-advancing tool bits that are hybrids of drills and stepped taps make it possible to form threaded holes wider than about 1/2 in. (about 13 mm) without applying any more axial force than is necessary for forming narrower pilot holes. These self-advancing stepped-tap drills were invented for use by space-suited astronauts performing repairs on reinforced carbon/carbon space-shuttle leading edges during space walks, in which the ability to apply axial drilling forces is severely limited. Self-advancing stepped-tap drills could also be used on Earth for making wide holes without applying large axial forces. A self-advancing stepped-tap drill (see figure) includes several sections having progressively larger diameters, typically in increments between 0.030 and 0.060 in. (between about 0.8 and about 1.5 mm). The tip section, which is the narrowest, is a pilot drill bit that typically has a diameter between 1/8 and 3/16 in. (between about 3.2 and about 4.8 mm). The length of the pilot-drill section is chosen, according to the thickness of the object to be drilled and tapped, so that the pilot hole is completed before engagement of the first tap section. Provided that the cutting-edge geometry of the drill bit is optimized for the material to be drilled, only a relatively small axial force [typically of the order of a few pounds (of the order of 10 newtons)] must be applied during drilling of the pilot hole. Once the first tap section engages the pilot hole, it is no longer necessary for the drill operator to apply axial force: the thread engagement between the tap and the workpiece provides the axial force to advance the tool bit. Like the pilot-drill section, each tap section must be long enough to complete its hole before engagement of the next, slightly wider tap section. The precise values of the increments in diameter, the thread pitch, the rake angle of the tap cutting edge, and other geometric parameters of the tap sections must be chosen, in consideration of

  15. Illusory brightness step in the Chevreul illusion.

    PubMed

    Morrone, M C; Burr, D C; Ross, J

    1994-06-01

    It is well known that a staircase luminance profile is not seen veridically, but appears as the scallopy-like Chevreul illusion. We have shown that adding thin lines (either light or dark) to the centre of each step creates an illusory brightness change at the point of the line. The regions between the added lines and the edges seem to be uniform, with a clear change in brightness at the point where the line was added. The conditions under which the illusion occurred were measured systematically, both by contrast matching and by annulment. One model that can readily account for the illusion is the local-energy model of feature detection (Morrone & Burr, 1988 Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 235, 221-245). Adding the bar to the step creates a peak in local energy at all scales. At the higher scales, the phase of the energy is near zero, the signal for a line; but at the lower scales the phase is near pi/2, the signal for an edge. We propose that the edge signal of the lower scales causes the brightness illusion and that this brightness difference is structured by the feature defined sharply by the higher scales (even though that feature is not an edge). As well as predicting the existence of the illusion, simulations with the energy model predicted quantitatively the apparent contrast of the illusion as a function of stimulus contrast, bar-position and high-pass filter frequency. PMID:7941364

  16. A Step Response Based Mixed-Signal BIST Approach for Continuous-time Linear Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Alvernon; Lala, P. K.

    2001-01-01

    A new Mixed-Signal Built-in self-test approach that is based upon the step response of a reconfigurable (or multifunction) analog block is presented in this paper. The technique requires the overlapping step response of the Circuit Under Test (CUT) for two circuit configurations. Each configuration can be realized by changing the topology of the CUT or by sampling two CUT nodes with differing step responses. The technique can effectively detect both soft and hard faults and does not require an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) and/or digital-to-analog converter(DAC). It also does not require any precision voltage sources or comparators. This approach does not require any additional analog circuits to realize the test signal generator and sample circuits. The paper is concluded with the application of the proposed approach to a circuit found in the work of Epstein et al and two ITC 97 analog benchmark circuits.

  17. Passive walker that can walk down steps: simulations and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ning; Li, Junfeng; Wang, Tianshu

    2008-10-01

    A planar passive walking model with straight legs and round feet was discussed. This model can walk down steps, both on stairs with even steps and with random steps. Simulations showed that models with small moments of inertia can navigate large height steps. Period-doubling has been observed when the space between steps grows. This period-doubling has been validated by experiments, and the results of experiments were coincident with the simulation.

  18. Intentional Spelling: Seven Steps to Eliminate Guessing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newlands, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Making spelling instruction effective, fun, practical, and meaningful is a challenge faced by many teachers. Spelling is traditionally taught with prepackaged word lists using a test-practice-test method, which results in little transfer to independent word use. Because spelling is an important component and gauge of literacy skills, students need…

  19. Experiments on the formation carbonate "cyclic steps" as a model of travertine step-pool morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shitanishi, Tatsuya; Yokokawa, Miwa; Kim, Wonsuck; Izumi, Norihiro; Parker, Gary

    2014-05-01

    A train of steps similar to those observed on the river bed and the ocean floor are sometimes observed on the limestone surface as well. Those cyclic steps are not formed by the interaction between sediment and flow, but formed by boundary instability between flowing water and a limestone substrate associated with precipitation and solution of limestone due to chemical and biological processes. It is suggested that they correspond to "cyclic steps" or "step-pool" morphology observed at the interface between fluid flow and the transportational and/or erosional substrates, such as sand and gravels and/or bedrock repectively, formed by deposition and erosion at the upper-flow regime in the Froude sense. Although field observations of the limestone step configuration are widely known, there have been very few theoretical and experimental study for the formative condition and mechanism of these carbonate steps with flowing fluid. Here we operated flume experiments on the formation of carbonate steps by the precipitation from the flowing fluid. We used a 1.8 m long, 5 cm deep and 2 cm wide flume made of acrylic boards at Osaka Institute of Technology. To give some roughness at the bottom of the flume we pasted the mixture of the acrylic adhesive and sand, 0.2 mm in diameter. To make the "source water" of the experiments, we immerse limestone pebbles into the distilled water, and add the Carbon dioxide by letting dry ice (frozen carbon dioxide) melt in it aiming to dissolve the limestone. In addition, we add the powder of Calcium hydroxide to the source water. The source water was input from the upstream end of the flume and recircurated into the tank of the source water. The values of pH and electric conductivity and the temperature of the source water were monitored, and dry ice, the powder of the calcium hydroxide and the distilled water were added arbitrary to keep the quality of the source water constant. The running time for each day was about 6-7 hours. From about

  20. A step-by-step guide to systematically identify all relevant animal studies

    PubMed Central

    Leenaars, Marlies; Hooijmans, Carlijn R; van Veggel, Nieky; ter Riet, Gerben; Leeflang, Mariska; Hooft, Lotty; van der Wilt, Gert Jan; Tillema, Alice; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel

    2012-01-01

    Before starting a new animal experiment, thorough analysis of previously performed experiments is essential from a scientific as well as from an ethical point of view. The method that is most suitable to carry out such a thorough analysis of the literature is a systematic review (SR). An essential first step in an SR is to search and find all potentially relevant studies. It is important to include all available evidence in an SR to minimize bias and reduce hampered interpretation of experimental outcomes. Despite the recent development of search filters to find animal studies in PubMed and EMBASE, searching for all available animal studies remains a challenge. Available guidelines from the clinical field cannot be copied directly to the situation within animal research, and although there are plenty of books and courses on searching the literature, there is no compact guide available to search and find relevant animal studies. Therefore, in order to facilitate a structured, thorough and transparent search for animal studies (in both preclinical and fundamental science), an easy-to-use, step-by-step guide was prepared and optimized using feedback from scientists in the field of animal experimentation. The step-by-step guide will assist scientists in performing a comprehensive literature search and, consequently, improve the scientific quality of the resulting review and prevent unnecessary animal use in the future. PMID:22037056