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Sample records for 10-year absolute risk

  1. Corresponding waist circumference and body mass index values based on 10-year absolute type 2 diabetes risk in an Australian Aboriginal community

    PubMed Central

    Adegbija, Odewumi; Hoy, Wendy E; Wang, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Objective There is a lack of waist circumference (WC) thresholds to identify Aboriginal individuals at high risk of type 2 diabetes. We generated gender-specific WC values with equivalent 10-year absolute risk of type 2 diabetes as body mass index (BMI) points in an Australian Aboriginal community to contribute to guidelines needed for establishing WC cut-off points for Aboriginals. Research design and methods A cohort of 803 adult participants free from type 2 diabetes in an Aboriginal community was followed up for up to 20 years. We derived WC values with absolute risks equivalent for the development of type 2 diabetes as BMI values (20–35 kg/m2) using the Weibull accelerated failure-time model. Results After a mean follow-up of 15.7 years, 110 participants developed type 2 diabetes. Absolute risk of type 2 diabetes increased as WC increased, ranging from 3.52% (WC=77.5 cm) to 14.14% (WC=119.9 cm) in males, and 5.04% (WC=79.5 cm) to 24.25% (WC=113.7 cm) in females. In males, WC values with same absolute risks of type 2 diabetes as BMI values were 77.5 cm for BMI=20 kg/m2, 91.5 cm for BMI=25 kg/m2 (overweight threshold), 105.7 cm for BMI=30 kg/m2 (obesity threshold) and 119.9 cm for BMI=35 kg/m2. In females, WC values were 79.5 cm for BMI=20 kg/m2, 90.9 cm for BMI=25 kg/m2, 102.3 cm for BMI=30 kg/m2 and 113.7 cm for BMI=35 kg/m2. Interaction between WC and gender was not statistically significant (p=0.53). Conclusions The absolute risk of type 2 diabetes increased with higher WC measured at baseline screening. Males were not significantly different from females in the association between WC and type 2 diabetes. Our findings are useful contributions for future establishment of WC cut-off points for identifying high-risk individuals in Aboriginal people. PMID:26405557

  2. Prediction of absolute risk of fragility fracture at 10 years in a Spanish population: validation of the WHO FRAX ™ tool in Spain

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Age-related bone loss is asymptomatic, and the morbidity of osteoporosis is secondary to the fractures that occur. Common sites of fracture include the spine, hip, forearm and proximal humerus. Fractures at the hip incur the greatest morbidity and mortality and give rise to the highest direct costs for health services. Their incidence increases exponentially with age. Independently changes in population demography, the age - and sex- specific incidence of osteoporotic fractures appears to be increasing in developing and developed countries. This could mean more than double the expected burden of osteoporotic fractures in the next 50 years. Methods/Design To assess the predictive power of the WHO FRAX™ tool to identify the subjects with the highest absolute risk of fragility fracture at 10 years in a Spanish population, a predictive validation study of the tool will be carried out. For this purpose, the participants recruited by 1999 will be assessed. These were referred to scan-DXA Department from primary healthcare centres, non hospital and hospital consultations. Study population: Patients attended in the national health services integrated into a FRIDEX cohort with at least one Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurement and one extensive questionnaire related to fracture risk factors. Measurements: At baseline bone mineral density measurement using DXA, clinical fracture risk factors questionnaire, dietary calcium intake assessment, history of previous fractures, and related drugs. Follow up by telephone interview to know fragility fractures in the 10 years with verification in electronic medical records and also to know the number of falls in the last year. The absolute risk of fracture will be estimated using the FRAX™ tool from the official web site. Discussion Since more than 10 years ago numerous publications have recognised the importance of other risk factors for new osteoporotic fractures in addition to low BMD. The extension of a

  3. Blood pressure targets and absolute cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Odutayo, Ayodele; Rahimi, Kazem; Hsiao, Allan J; Emdin, Connor A

    2015-08-01

    In the Eighth Joint National Committee guideline on hypertension, the threshold for the initiation of blood pressure-lowering treatment for elderly adults (≥60 years) without chronic kidney disease or diabetes mellitus was raised from 140/90 mm Hg to 150/90 mm Hg. However, the committee was not unanimous in this decision, particularly because a large proportion of adults ≥60 years may be at high cardiovascular risk. On the basis of Eighth Joint National Committee guideline, we sought to determine the absolute 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease among these adults through analyzing the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2005-2012). The primary outcome measure was the proportion of adults who were at ≥20% predicted absolute cardiovascular risk and above goals for the Seventh Joint National Committee guideline but reclassified as at target under the Eighth Joint National Committee guideline (reclassified). The Framingham General Cardiovascular Disease Risk Score was used. From 2005 to 2012, the surveys included 12 963 adults aged 30 to 74 years with blood pressure measurements, of which 914 were reclassified based on the guideline. Among individuals reclassified as not in need of additional treatment, the proportion of adults 60 to 74 years without chronic kidney disease or diabetes mellitus at ≥20% absolute risk was 44.8%. This corresponds to 0.8 million adults. The proportion at high cardiovascular risk remained sizable among adults who were not receiving blood pressure-lowering treatment. Taken together, a sizable proportion of reclassified adults 60 to 74 years without chronic kidney disease or diabetes mellitus was at ≥20% absolute cardiovascular risk. PMID:26056340

  4. Predicted 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease is influenced by the risk equation adopted: a cross-sectional analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Benjamin J; Bracken, Richard M; Turner, Daniel; Morgan, Kerry; Mellalieu, Stephen D; Thomas, Michael; Williams, Sally P; Williams, Meurig; Rice, Sam; Stephens, Jeffrey W

    2014-01-01

    Background Validated risk equations are currently recommended to assess individuals to determine those at ‘high risk’ of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, there is no longer a risk ‘equation of choice’. Aim This study examined the differences between four commonly-used CVD risk equations. Design and setting Cross-sectional analysis of individuals who participated in a workplace-based risk assessment in Carmarthenshire, south Wales. Method Analysis of 790 individuals (474 females, 316 males) with no prior diagnosis of CVD or diabetes. Ten-year CVD risk was predicted by entering the relevant variables into the QRISK2, Framingham Lipids, Framingham BMI, and JBS2 risk equations. Results The Framingham BMI and JBS2 risk equations predicted a higher absolute risk than the QRISK2 and Framingham Lipids equations, and CVD risk increased concomitantly with age irrespective of which risk equation was adopted. Only a small proportion of females (0–2.1%) were predicted to be at high risk of developing CVD using any of the risk algorithms. The proportion of males predicted at high risk ranged from 5.4% (QRISK2) to 20.3% (JBS2). After age stratification, few differences between isolated risk factors were observed in males, although a greater proportion of males aged ≥50 years were predicted to be at ‘high risk’ independent of risk equation used. Conclusions Different risk equations can influence the predicted 10-year CVD risk of individuals. More males were predicted at ‘high risk’ using the JBS2 or Framingham BMI equations. Consideration should also be given to the number of isolated risk factors, especially in younger adults when evaluating CVD risk. PMID:25267049

  5. Antipsychotic effects on estimated 10 year coronary heart disease risk in the CATIE Schizophrenia Study

    PubMed Central

    Daumit, Gail L.; Goff, Donald C.; Meyer, Jonathan M.; Davis, Vicki G.; Nasrallah, Henry A.; McEvoy, Joseph P.; Rosenheck, Robert; Davis, Sonia M.; Hsiao, John K.; Stroup, T. Scott; Lieberman, Jeffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Persons with schizophrenia die earlier than the general population, in large part due to cardiovascular disease. The study objective was to examine effects of different antipsychotic treatments on estimates of 10 year coronary heart disease (CHD) risk calculated by the Framingham Heart Study formula. Method Change in ten-year risk for CHD was compared between treatment groups in 1125 patients followed for 18 months or until treatment discontinuation in the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) Schizophrenia Trial. Results The covariate-adjusted mean change in 10-year CHD risk differed significantly between treatments. Olanzapine was associated with a 0.5% (SE 0.3) increase and quetiapine, a 0.3% (SE 0.3) increase; whereas risk decreased in patients treated with perphenazine, −0.5% (SE 0.3), risperidone, −0.6% (SE 0.3), and ziprasidone −0.6% (SE 0.4). The difference in 10-year CHD risk between olanzpaine and risperidone was statistically significant (p=0.004). Differences in estimated 10 year CHD risk between drugs were most marked in the tertile of subjects with a baseline CHD risk of at least 10%. Among individual CHD risk factors used in the Framingham formula, only total and HDL cholesterol levels differed between treatments. Conclusions These results indicate that the impact on 10-year CHD risk differs significantly between antipsychotic agents, with olanzapine producing the largest elevation in CHD risk of the agents studied in CATIE. PMID:18775645

  6. Sheepskin effects of education in the 10-year Framingham risk of coronary heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Sze Yan; Buka, Stephen L.; Kubzansky, Laura D.; Kawachi, Ichiro; Gilman, Stephen E.; Loucks, Eric B.

    2014-01-01

    While the association between education and adult health is well documented, it is unclear whether quantity (i.e. years of schooling) or credentials (i.e. degrees) drive this association. Individuals with degrees may have better health than their non-credentialed counterparts given similar years of schooling, the so-called “sheepskin” effect. This paper contributes to this line of inquiry by examining associations of educational degree and years of schooling with the Framingham Risk Score, a measure of 10-year risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), using data from a unique birth cohort (the New England Family Study; participants mean age 42 years) with prospective information on childhood health and intelligence quotient (IQ). According to our results, years of schooling were inversely associated with 10-year CHD risk in the unadjusted model but not in the fully adjusted models that included degree attainment. By contrast, associations between degree attainment and 10-year CHD risk remained significant in the fully adjusted models that included years of schooling. College degree holders had 10-year CHD risk 19% (95% CI: −33%, −2%) lower than individuals with HS degrees or less in the fully adjusted models. Subanalyses evaluating sheepskin effects on the individual components of the 10-year CHD risk algorithm showed the expected education gradient was generally noted for each of the individual components, with decreasing prevalence of “high risk” values associated with higher degree credentials. Our results suggest educational credentials provide an additional benefit to risk of coronary heart disease beyond schooling. PMID:23415589

  7. The 10-Year Risk of Verified Motor Vehicle Crashes in Relation to Physiologic Sleepiness

    PubMed Central

    Drake, Christopher; Roehrs, Timothy; Breslau, Naomi; Johnson, Eric; Jefferson, Catherine; Scofield, Holly; Roth, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the risk of DMV documented crashes as a function of physiological sleepiness in a population-based sample. Design: 24-hour laboratory assessment (nocturnal polysomnogram and daytime MSLT) and 10-year crash rate based on DMV obtained accident records. Participants: 618 individuals (mean age = 41.6 ± 12.8; 48.5% male) were recruited from the general population of southeastern Michigan using random-digit dialing techniques. Results: Subjects were divided into 3 groups based on their average MSLT latency (in minutes) as follows: excessively sleepy, 0.0 to ≤ 5.0 (n = 69); moderately sleepy, 5.0 to ≤ 10.0 (n = 204); and alert, > 10 (n = 345). Main outcome measures were DMV data on accidents from 1995-2005. Rates for all accidents in the 3 MSLT groups were: excessively sleepy = 59.4%, moderately sleepy = 52.5%, alert = 47.3%. Excessively sleepy subjects were at significantly greater risk of an accident over the 10-year period compared to alert subjects. A similar relation was observed when we limited the database to those accident victims with severe injury (excessively sleepy = 4.3%, moderately sleepy = 0.5%, alert = 0.6%; P = 0.028). When the victim was the only occupant of the car, subjects in the lowest MSLT group (highest sleepiness) had the greatest crash rate compared with alert individuals (excessively sleepy = 52.2%, moderately sleepy = 42.2%, alert = 37.4%; P = 0.022). Interventions: N/A Conclusions: These data demonstrate that the MSLT, a physiological measure of sleepiness, is predictive of an increased risk of DMV documented automotive crashes in the general population. Citation: Drake C; Roehrs T; Breslau N; Johnson E; Jefferson C; Scofield H; Roth T. The 10-year risk of verified motor vehicle crashes in relation to physiologic sleepiness. SLEEP 2010;33(6):745-752. PMID:20550014

  8. The risk of losing 10 years of life put in perspective: views of college student smokers.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Shu-Hui; Huang, Song-Lih

    2015-03-01

    Health messages have limited effects on young smokers. The health effects typically have long latent periods, and the appreciation of risk depends on the meaning given to longevity. This study aims to understand how college student smokers interpreted the risks of losing 10 years of life because of smoking. In-depth semistructured interviews were conducted with 23 male smokers from a relatively low-achieving college in southern Taiwan. The participants had vague ideas about the future; were not expecting a successful life, thought life was stressful and boring; and expressed that there was no need to live too long. Many believed that removing the stress and having a composed lifestyle was the way to becoming healthy, which could be achieved only by people with economic success. They would quit had they been rich. Empowerment to help young smokers gain control over their life events may be the key to tobacco control. PMID:23695539

  9. Risk Assessment Tool for Estimating Your 10-Year Risk of Having a Heart Attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cardiovascular Risk: Systematic Evidence Review from the Risk Assessment Work Group The Evidence Report Full Report Accessible ... MB) Printer-friendly version (2 MB) Study Quality Assessment Tools Clinical Practice Guideline: Developed Under NHLBI Partnership ...

  10. Personality Disorder Risk Factors for Suicide Attempts over 10 Years of Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Ansell, Emily B.; Wright, Aidan G.C.; Markowitz, John C.; Sanislow, Charles A.; Hopwood, Christopher J.; Zanarini, Mary C.; Yen, Shirley; Pinto, Anthony; McGlashan, Thomas H.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Identifying personality disorder (PD) risk factors for suicide attempts is an important consideration for research and clinical care alike. However, most prior research has focused on single PDs or categorical PD diagnoses without considering unique influences of different PDs, or severity (sum) of PD criteria on the risk for suicide related outcomes. This has usually been done in cross-sectional or retrospective assessment methods. Rarely are dimensional models of PDs examined in longitudinal, naturalistic prospective designs. In addition, it is important to consider divergent risk factors in predicting the risk of ever making a suicide attempt versus making an increasing number of attempts within the same model. Method This study examined 431 participants who were followed for 10 years in the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study (CLPS). Baseline assessments of personality disorder criteria were summed as dimensional counts of personality pathology and examined as predictors of suicide attempts reported at annual interviews throughout the ten-year follow-up. We employed univariate and multivariate zero-inflated Poisson regression models to simultaneously evaluate PD risk factors for ‘ever attempt’ and for increasing numbers of attempts among attempters. Results Consistent with prior research, borderline PD was uniquely associated with ever attempting. However, only narcissistic PD was uniquely associated with an increasing number of attempts. Conclusion These findings highlight the relevance of both borderline and narcissistic personality pathology as unique contributors to suicide related outcomes. PMID:25705977

  11. Predicted 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease among Canadian adults using modified Framingham Risk Score in association with dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Setayeshgar, Solmaz; Whiting, Susan J; Pahwa, Punam; Vatanparast, Hassanali

    2015-10-01

    Initial risk assessment to estimate 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is completed by Framingham Risk Score (FRS). In 2012 2 modifications were added to FRS by the Canadian Cardiovascular Society: FRS is doubled in subjects aged 30-59 years who have CVD present in a first-degree relative before 55 years of age for men and 65 years of age for women; and cardiovascular age is calculated for each individual. Our aim was to implement these modifications and evaluate differences compared with traditional FRS. Further, we evaluated the association between dietary intake and 10-year risk. The Canadian Health Measures Survey data cycle 1 was used among participants aged 30-74 years (n = 2730). Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were conducted using STATA SE 11. Using modified FRS for predicting 10-year risk of CVD significantly increased the estimated risk compared with the traditional approach, 8.66% ± 0.35% versus 6.06% ± 0.18%, respectively. Greater impact was observed with the "cardiovascular age" modification in men versus women. The distribution of Canadians in low- (<10%) and high-risk (≥20%) categories of CVD show a significant difference between modified and traditional FRS: 67.4% versus 79.6% (low risk) and 13.7% versus 4.5% (high risk), respectively. The odds of having risk ≥10% was significantly greater in low-educated, abdominally obese individuals or those with lower consumption of breakfast cereal and fruit and vegetable and greater potato and potato products consumption. In conclusion, the traditional FRS method significantly underestimates CVD risk in Canadians; thus, applying modified FRS is beneficial for screening. Additionally, fibre consumption from fruit and vegetable or breakfast cereals might be beneficial in reducing CVD risks. PMID:26417841

  12. Prevalence of 10-Year Risk of Cardiovascular Diseases and Associated Risks in Canadian Adults: The Contribution of Cardiometabolic Risk Assessment Introduction

    PubMed Central

    Setayeshgar, Solmaz; Whiting, Susan J.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in adult Canadians. Cardiometabolic risk (CMR) derived from 10-year risk of cardiovascular diseases and metabolic syndrome (MetS) needs to be evaluated in Canadian adults. Objective. To determine CMR among Canadian adults by sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics. Subjects and Methods. Data from the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS), Cycle 1, 2007–2009, was used. Framingham Risk Score (FRS) was implemented to predict 10-year risk of CVD, and metabolic syndrome was identified using the most recent criteria. The 10-year risk of CVD was multiplied by 1.5 in individuals with MetS to obtain CMR. Data were weighted and bootstrapped to be able to generalize the results nationally. Results and Conclusion. CMR gave more accurate estimation of 10-year risk of CVD in Canadian adults from 30 to 74 years than using only FRS. The 10-year risk of CVD in Canadian adults significantly increased when CMR was taken into account from 8.10% to 9.86%. The CVD risk increased by increase in age, decrease in education, and decrease in physical activity and in smokers. Canadians with medium risk of CVD consumed significantly less fruit and vegetable juice compared to Canadians with low risk. No other dietary differences were found. PMID:23738053

  13. Prevalence of 10-year risk of cardiovascular diseases and associated risks in canadian adults: the contribution of cardiometabolic risk assessment introduction.

    PubMed

    Setayeshgar, Solmaz; Whiting, Susan J; Vatanparast, Hassanali

    2013-01-01

    Background. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in adult Canadians. Cardiometabolic risk (CMR) derived from 10-year risk of cardiovascular diseases and metabolic syndrome (MetS) needs to be evaluated in Canadian adults. Objective. To determine CMR among Canadian adults by sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics. Subjects and Methods. Data from the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS), Cycle 1, 2007-2009, was used. Framingham Risk Score (FRS) was implemented to predict 10-year risk of CVD, and metabolic syndrome was identified using the most recent criteria. The 10-year risk of CVD was multiplied by 1.5 in individuals with MetS to obtain CMR. Data were weighted and bootstrapped to be able to generalize the results nationally. Results and Conclusion. CMR gave more accurate estimation of 10-year risk of CVD in Canadian adults from 30 to 74 years than using only FRS. The 10-year risk of CVD in Canadian adults significantly increased when CMR was taken into account from 8.10% to 9.86%. The CVD risk increased by increase in age, decrease in education, and decrease in physical activity and in smokers. Canadians with medium risk of CVD consumed significantly less fruit and vegetable juice compared to Canadians with low risk. No other dietary differences were found. PMID:23738053

  14. Work stress, sleep deficiency and predicted 10-year cardiometabolic risk in a female patient care worker population

    PubMed Central

    Jacobsen, Henrik Børsting; Reme, Silje Endresen; Sembajwe, Grace; Hopcia, Karen; Stiles, Tore C.; Sorensen, Glorian; Porter, James H.; Marino, Miguel; Buxton, Orfeu M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the longitudinal effect of work-related stress, sleep deficiency and physical activity on 10-year cardiometabolic risk among an all-female worker population. Methods Data on patient care workers (n=99) was collected two years apart. Baseline measures included: job stress, physical activity, night work and sleep deficiency. Biomarkers and objective measurements were used to estimate 10-year cardiometabolic risk at follow-up. Significant associations (P<0.05) from baseline analyses were used to build a multivariable linear regression model. Results The participants were mostly white nurses with a mean age of 41 years. Adjusted linear regression showed that having sleep maintenance problems, a different occupation than nurse, and/or not exercising at recommended levels at baseline increased the 10-year cardiometabolic risk at follow-up. Conclusions In female workers prone to work-related stress and sleep deficiency, maintaining sleep and exercise patterns had a strong impact on modifiable 10-year cardiometabolic risk. PMID:24809311

  15. Assessing absolute changes in breast cancer risk due to modifiable risk factors.

    PubMed

    Quante, Anne S; Herz, Julia; Whittemore, Alice S; Fischer, Christine; Strauch, Konstantin; Terry, Mary Beth

    2015-07-01

    Clinical risk assessment involves absolute risk measures, but information on modifying risk and preventing cancer is often communicated in relative terms. To illustrate the potential impact of risk factor modification in model-based risk assessment, we evaluated the performance of the IBIS Breast Cancer Risk Evaluation Tool, with and without current body mass index (BMI), for predicting future breast cancer occurrence in a prospective cohort of 665 postmenopausal women. Overall, IBIS's accuracy (overall agreement between observed and assigned risks) and discrimination (AUC concordance between assigned risks and outcomes) were similar with and without the BMI information. However, in women with BMI > 25 kg/m(2), adding BMI information improved discrimination (AUC = 63.9 % and 61.4 % with and without BMI, P < 0.001). The model-assigned 10-year risk difference for a woman with high (27 kg/m(2)) versus low (21 kg/m(2)) BMI was only 0.3 % for a woman with neither affected first-degree relatives nor BRCA1 mutation, compared to 4.5 % for a mutation carrier with three such relatives. This contrast illustrates the value of using information on modifiable risk factors in risk assessment and in sharing information with patients of their absolute risks with and without modifiable risk factors. PMID:26012643

  16. Overeating and Binge Eating in Emerging Adulthood: 10-Year Stability and Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldschmidt, Andrea B.; Wall, Melanie M.; Zhang, Jun; Loth, Katie A.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2016-01-01

    Overeating (eating an unusually large amount of food) and binge eating (overeating with loss of control [LOC]) predict adverse health consequences in adolescence. We aimed to characterize the stability of and risk factors for these distinct but interrelated constructs during critical developmental transitions. We used a population-based sample (n…

  17. Overeating and binge eating in emerging adulthood: 10-year stability and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Wall, Melanie M; Zhang, Jun; Loth, Katie A; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2016-03-01

    Overeating (eating an unusually large amount of food) and binge eating (overeating with loss of control [LOC]) predict adverse health consequences in adolescence. We aimed to characterize the stability of and risk factors for these distinct but interrelated constructs during critical developmental transitions. We used a population-based sample (n = 1,902) that completed surveys at 5-year intervals spanning adolescence and young adulthood. The trajectories of no overeating, overeating, binge eating, and binge eating disorder (BED; recurrent binge eating with associated distress) were characterized using cross-tabulations. Body mass index, depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and body satisfaction were examined as risk factors for no overeating, overeating, and binge eating (including BED) 5-years later using multinomial logistic regression. We found that all overeating categories tended to remit to no overeating at 5-year follow-up. Although overeating had the lowest remittance rates at each time-point, binge eating and BED showed higher rates of persistence or worsening of symptoms during the transition from late adolescence/early young adulthood to early/middle young adulthood. Overeating and binge eating had similar risk factors, although for females, depressive symptoms, body satisfaction, and self-esteem in late adolescence/early young adulthood differentially predicted binge eating versus overeating in early/middle young adulthood (ps < .05). While overeating with or without LOC tends to remit over time, problematic eating persists for a subset of individuals. Greater psychosocial problems in late adolescence/early young adulthood predicted greater odds of binge eating relative to overeating in early/middle young adulthood among females, indicating that poorer psychosocial functioning in this developmental stage portends more severe eating-related psychopathology later in life. PMID:26689758

  18. Change in risk factors for coronary heart disease during 10 years of a community intervention programme (North Karelia project).

    PubMed Central

    Puska, P; Salonen, J T; Nissinen, A; Tuomilehto, J; Vartiainen, E; Korhonen, H; Tanskanen, A; Rönnqvist, P; Koskela, K; Huttunen, J

    1983-01-01

    A comprehensive community based programme to control cardiovascular diseases was started in North Karelia, Finland, in 1972. Reductions in smoking, serum cholesterol concentrations, and blood pressure were among the central intermediate objectives. The effect of the programme during the 10 year period 1972-82 was evaluated by examining independent random population samples at the outset (1972) and five (1977) and 10 (1982) years later both in the programme and in a matched reference area. Over 10 000 subjects were studied in 1972 and 1977 (participation rate about 90%) and roughly 8000 subjects in 1982 (participation rate about 80%). Analyses were conducted of the estimated effect of the programme on the risk factor population means by comparing the baseline and five year and 10 year follow up results in the age range 30-59 years. The effect of the programme (net reduction in North Karelia) at 10 years among the middle aged male population was estimated to be a 28% reduction in smoking (p less than 0.001), a 3% reduction in mean serum cholesterol concentration (p less than 0.001), a 3% fall in mean systolic blood pressure (p less than 0.001), and a 1% fall in mean diastolic blood pressure (p less than 0.05). Among the female population the reductions were respectively, 14% (NS), 1% (NS), 5% (p less than 0.001), and 2% (p less than 0.05). During the first five years of the project (1972-7) the programme effectively reduced the population mean values of the major coronary risk factors. At 10 years the effects had persisted for serum cholesterol concentrations and blood pressure and were increased for smoking. PMID:6423038

  19. Association between the Family Nutrition and Physical Activity screening tool and cardiovascular disease risk factors in 10-year old children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yee, Kimbo Edward

    Purpose. To examine the association of the Family Nutrition and Physical Activity (FNPA) screening tool, a behaviorally based screening tool designed to assess the obesogenic family environment and behaviors, with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in 10-year old children. Methods. One hundred nineteen children were assessed for body mass index (BMI), percent body fat (%BF), waist circumference (WC), total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and resting blood pressure. A continuous CVD risk score was created using total cholesterol to HDL-cholesterol ratio (TC:HDL), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and WC. The FNPA survey was completed by parents. The associations between the FNPA score and individual CVD risk factors and the continuous CVD risk score were examined using correlation analyses. Results. Approximately 35% of the sample were overweight (19%) or obese (16%). The mean FNPA score was 24.6 +/- 2.5 (range 18 to 29). Significant correlations were found between the FNPA score and WC (r = -.35, p<.01), BMI percentile (r = -.38, p<.01), %BF (r = -.43, p<.01), and the continuous CVD risk score (r = -.22, p = .02). No significant association was found between the FNPA score and TC:HDL (r=0.10, p=0.88) or MAP (r=-0.12, p=0.20). Conclusion. Children from a high-risk, obesogenic family environment as indicated with a lower FNPA score have a higher CVD risk factor profile than children from a low-risk family environment.

  20. A Novel Risk Score to the Prediction of 10-year Risk for Coronary Artery Disease Among the Elderly in Beijing Based on Competing Risk Model

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Long; Tang, Zhe; Li, Xia; Luo, Yanxia; Guo, Jin; Li, Haibin; Liu, Xiangtong; Tao, Lixin; Yan, Aoshuang; Guo, Xiuhua

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The study aimed to construct a risk prediction model for coronary artery disease (CAD) based on competing risk model among the elderly in Beijing and develop a user-friendly CAD risk score tool. We used competing risk model to evaluate the risk of developing a first CAD event. On the basis of the risk factors that were included in the competing risk model, we constructed the CAD risk prediction model with Cox proportional hazard model. Time-dependent receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and time-dependent area under the ROC curve (AUC) were used to evaluate the discrimination ability of the both methods. Calibration plots were applied to assess the calibration ability and adjusted for the competing risk of non-CAD death. Net reclassification index (NRI) and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) were applied to quantify the improvement contributed by the new risk factors. Internal validation of predictive accuracy was performed using 1000 times of bootstrap re-sampling. Of the 1775 participants without CAD at baseline, 473 incident cases of CAD were documented for a 20-year follow-up. Time-dependent AUCs for men and women at t = 10 years were 0.841 [95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.806–0.877], 0.804 (95% CI: 0.768–0.839) in Fine and Gray model, 0.784 (95% CI: 0.738–0.830), 0.733 (95% CI: 0.692–0.775) in Cox proportional hazard model. The competing risk model was significantly superior to Cox proportional hazard model on discrimination and calibration. The cut-off values of the risk score that marked the difference between low-risk and high-risk patients were 34 points for men and 30 points for women, which have good sensitivity and specificity. A sex-specific multivariable risk factor algorithm-based competing risk model has been developed on the basis of an elderly Chinese cohort, which could be applied to predict an individual's risk and provide a useful guide to identify the groups at a high risk for CAD among the Chinese

  1. Trends in Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factor Prevalence and Estimated 10-Year Cardiovascular Risk Scores in a Large Untreated French Urban Population: The CARVAR 92 Study

    PubMed Central

    Karam, Carma; Beauchet, Alain; Czernichow, Sebastien; de Roquefeuil, Florence; Bourez, Alain; Mansencal, Nicolas; Dubourg, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Background Surveys measuring effectiveness of public awareness campaigns in reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence have yielded equivocal findings. The aim of this study was to describe cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) changes over the years in an untreated population-based study. Methods Between 2007 and 2012, we conducted a screening campaign for CVRFs in men aged 40 to 65 yrs and women aged 50 to 70 yrs in the western suburbs of Paris. Data were complete for 20,324 participants of which 14,709 were untreated. Results The prevalence trend over six years was statistically significant for hypertension in men from 25.9% in 2007 to 21.1% in 2012 (p=0.002) and from 23% in 2007 to 12.7% in 2012 in women (p<0.0001). The prevalence trend of tobacco smoking decreased from 38.6% to 27.7% in men (p=0.0001) and from 22.6% to 16.8% in women (p=0.113). The Framingham 10-year risk for CVD decreased from 13.3 ± 8.2 % in 2007 to 11.7 ± 9.0 % in 2012 in men and from 8.0 ± 4.1 % to 5.9 ± 3.4 % in women. The 10-year risk of fatal CVD based on the European Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) decreased in men and in women (p <0.0001). Conclusions Over a 6-year period, several CVRFs have decreased in our screening campaign, leading to decrease in the 10-year risk for CVD and the 10-year risk of fatal CVD. Cardiologists should recognize the importance of community prevention programs and communication policies, particularly tobacco control and healthier diets to decrease the CVRFs in the general population. PMID:25906186

  2. Physical activity assessed with three different methods and the Framingham Risk Score on 10-year coronary heart disease risk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physical activity (PA) protects against coronary heart disease (CHD) by favorably altering several CHD risk factors. In order to best understand the true nature of the relationship between PA and CHD, the impact different PA assessment methods have on the relationships must first be clarified. The p...

  3. Population-based absolute risk estimation with survey data.

    PubMed

    Kovalchik, Stephanie A; Pfeiffer, Ruth M

    2014-04-01

    Absolute risk is the probability that a cause-specific event occurs in a given time interval in the presence of competing events. We present methods to estimate population-based absolute risk from a complex survey cohort that can accommodate multiple exposure-specific competing risks. The hazard function for each event type consists of an individualized relative risk multiplied by a baseline hazard function, which is modeled nonparametrically or parametrically with a piecewise exponential model. An influence method is used to derive a Taylor-linearized variance estimate for the absolute risk estimates. We introduce novel measures of the cause-specific influences that can guide modeling choices for the competing event components of the model. To illustrate our methodology, we build and validate cause-specific absolute risk models for cardiovascular and cancer deaths using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Our applications demonstrate the usefulness of survey-based risk prediction models for predicting health outcomes and quantifying the potential impact of disease prevention programs at the population level. PMID:23686614

  4. HIGH PREVALENCE OF SUBCLINICAL ATHEROSCLEROSIS BY CAROTID ULTRASOUND AMONG MEXICAN AMERICANS: DISCORDANCE WITH 10-YEAR RISK ASSESSMENT USING THE FRAMINGHAM RISK SCORE

    PubMed Central

    Laing, Susan T.; Smulevitz, Beverly; Vatcheva, Kristina P.; Rentfro, Anne R.; McPherson, David D.; Fisher-Hoch, Susan P.; McCormick, Joseph B.

    2012-01-01

    Background Framingham Risk Scores (FRS) were validated in a mostly Caucasian population. Evaluation of subclinical atherosclerosis by carotid ultrasound may improve ascertainment of risk in non-White populations. This study aimed to evaluate carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and carotid plaquing among Mexican Americans, and to correlate these markers with coronary risk factors and the FRS. Methods/Results Participants (n=141) were drawn from the Cameron County Hispanic Cohort. Carotid artery ultrasound was performed and cIMT measured. Carotid plaque was defined as areas of thickening >50% of the thickness of the surrounding walls. Mean age was 53.1±11.7 years (73.8% female). Most were overweight or obese (88.7%) and more than half (53.2%) had the metabolic syndrome. One third (34.8%) had abnormal carotid ultrasound findings (either cIMT ≥75th percentile for gender and age or presence of plaque). Among those with abnormal carotid ultrasound, the majority were classified as being at low 10-year risk for cardiovascular events. Carotid ultrasound reclassified nearly a third of the cohort as being at high risk. This discordance between 10-year FRS and carotid ultrasound was noted whether risk was assessed for hard coronary events or global risk. Concordance between FRS and carotid ultrasound findings was best when long-term (30-year) risk was assessed and no subject with an abnormal carotid ultrasound was categorized as low risk by the 30-year FRS algorithm. Conclusions Integration of carotid ultrasound findings to coronary risk assessments and use of longer term prediction models may provide better risk assessment in this minority population, with earlier initiation of appropriate therapies. PMID:22747630

  5. Comparative assessment of absolute cardiovascular disease risk characterization from non-laboratory-based risk assessment in South African populations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background All rigorous primary cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention guidelines recommend absolute CVD risk scores to identify high- and low-risk patients, but laboratory testing can be impractical in low- and middle-income countries. The purpose of this study was to compare the ranking performance of a simple, non-laboratory-based risk score to laboratory-based scores in various South African populations. Methods We calculated and compared 10-year CVD (or coronary heart disease (CHD)) risk for 14,772 adults from thirteen cross-sectional South African populations (data collected from 1987 to 2009). Risk characterization performance for the non-laboratory-based score was assessed by comparing rankings of risk with six laboratory-based scores (three versions of Framingham risk, SCORE for high- and low-risk countries, and CUORE) using Spearman rank correlation and percent of population equivalently characterized as ‘high’ or ‘low’ risk. Total 10-year non-laboratory-based risk of CVD death was also calculated for a representative cross-section from the 1998 South African Demographic Health Survey (DHS, n = 9,379) to estimate the national burden of CVD mortality risk. Results Spearman correlation coefficients for the non-laboratory-based score with the laboratory-based scores ranged from 0.88 to 0.986. Using conventional thresholds for CVD risk (10% to 20% 10-year CVD risk), 90% to 92% of men and 94% to 97% of women were equivalently characterized as ‘high’ or ‘low’ risk using the non-laboratory-based and Framingham (2008) CVD risk score. These results were robust across the six risk scores evaluated and the thirteen cross-sectional datasets, with few exceptions (lower agreement between the non-laboratory-based and Framingham (1991) CHD risk scores). Approximately 18% of adults in the DHS population were characterized as ‘high CVD risk’ (10-year CVD death risk >20%) using the non-laboratory-based score. Conclusions We found a high level of

  6. Long-Term (>10 Years) Prognostic Value of Dobutamine Stress Echocardiography in a High-Risk Cohort.

    PubMed

    van der Sijde, Johannes N; Boiten, Henk J; van Domburg, Ron T; Schinkel, Arend F L

    2016-04-01

    The prognostic value of dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) at >10-year follow-up is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the very long-term prognostic value of DSE in a high-risk cohort of patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease. This prospective, single-center study included 3,381 patients who underwent DSE from January 1990 to January 2003. Two-dimensional echocardiographic images were acquired at rest, during dobutamine stress, and during recovery. Follow-up events were collected and included overall mortality, cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and revascularization. The incremental value of DSE in the prediction of selected end points was evaluated using multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis. During a mean follow-up of 13 ± 3.2 years (range 7.3 to 20.5 years), there were 1,725 deaths (51%), of which 1,128 (33%) were attributed to cardiac causes. Patients with an abnormal DSE had a higher mortality rate (44% vs 35% at 15-year follow-up, p <0.001) than those with a normal DSE. When comparing echocardiographic variables at rest to variables at maximum dose dobutamine, the chi-square of the test improved from 842 to 870 (p <0.0001) and from 684 to 740 (p <0.0001) for all-cause mortality and cardiac death, respectively. DSE provided incremental value in predicting all-cause mortality, cardiac death, and hard cardiac events. There seems, however, to be a "warranty period" of approximately 7 years, when the survival curves of a normal and abnormal DSE no longer diverge. PMID:26839054

  7. Absolute Risk Aversion and the Returns to Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunello, Giorgio

    2002-01-01

    Uses 1995 Italian household income and wealth survey to measure individual absolute risk aversion of 1,583 married Italian male household heads. Uses this measure as an instrument for attained education in a standard-log earnings equation. Finds that the IV estimate of the marginal return to schooling is much higher than the ordinary least squares…

  8. Distribution of Coronary Artery Calcium Scores by Framingham 10-Year Risk Strata in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA): Potential Implications for Coronary Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Okwuosa, Tochi M.; Greenland, Philip; Ning, Hongyan; Liu, Kiang; Bild, Diane E.; Burke, Gregory L.; Eng, John; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives By examining the distribution of CAC across FRS strata in a large, multi-ethnic, community-based sample of men and women, we sought to determine if lower risk persons could potentially benefit from CAC screening. Background The 10-year Framingham risk scores (FRS) and coronary artery calcium (CAC) are predictors of coronary heart disease (CHD). CAC ≥300 is associated with the highest risk for CHD even in low risk (FRS <10%) persons; however expert groups have suggested CAC screening only in intermediate risk (FRS 10–20%) groups. Methods We included 5660 MESA participants. The number needed to screen [number of people that need to be screened to detect one person with CAC above the specified cut-point (NNS)] was used to assess the yield of screening for CAC. CAC prevalence was compared across FRS strata using chi-square tests. Results CAC >0, ≥100 and ≥300 were present in 46.4%, 20.6% and 10.1% of participants, respectively. Prevalence and amount of CAC increased with higher FRS. CAC ≥300 was observed in 1.7% and 4.4% of those with FRS 0–2.5% and 2.6–5%, respectively (NNS =59.7 and 22.7). Likewise, CAC ≥300 was observed in 24% and 30% of those with FRS 15.1–20% and >20%, respectively (NNS =4.2 and 3.3). Trends were similar when stratified by age, gender and race/ethnicity. Conclusions Our study suggests that in very low risk individuals (FRS ≤5%), the yield of screening and probability of identifying persons with clinically significant levels of CAC is low, but becomes greater in low and intermediate risk persons (FRS 5.1–20%). PMID:21527159

  9. Joint association of physical activity/screen time and diet on CVD risk factors in 10-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Carlson, Joseph J; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Eisenmann, Joey C

    2012-12-01

    The increasing prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity has been associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). While several studies examined the effect of single behaviors such as physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior or diet on CVD risk, there is a lack of research on combined associations, specifically in children. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the joint association of PA or screen time (ST) and diet on CVD risk factors in children. PA, STand diet were assessed via questionnaire in 210 fifth grade students (age: 10.6 ± 0.4 years). The healthy eating index (HEI) was subsequently calculated as indicator for diet quality. Height, weight, % body fat, and resting blood pressure were measured according to standard procedures and blood samples obtained via fingerprick were assayed for blood lipids. Total cholesterol HDL ratio (TC:HDL), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and % body fat were used as indicators of CVD risk. 55% of children did not meet current PA recommendations on at least 5 days/week and 70% exceeded current recommendations for ST. Further, only 2.5% possessed a "good" diet (HEI> 80). There was no significant association of PA or STand diet on CVD risk score. Neither TC:HDL, MAP, and % body fat nor the total CVD risk score was significantly correlated with diet, PA, or ST. Children in the high PA group, however, had significantly better diet scores. Despite the fact that self-reported PA, ST, or dietary intake were not directly related to CVD risk in this sample, higher activity levels were associated with a healthier diet and lower ST indicating an overall healthier lifestyle of this subgroup. PMID:23224418

  10. The Relationship between 10-Year Cardiovascular Risk Calculated Using the Pooled Cohort Equation and the Severity of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeong In; Kim, Min Chul; Moon, Byung Sub; Song, Young Seok; Han, Eun Na; Lee, Hyo Sun; Son, Yoonjeong; Kim, Jihyun; Han, Eun Jin; Park, Hye-Jeong; Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol-Young; Lee, Won-Young; Oh, Ki-Won; Park, Sung-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Background We investigated the association between the severity of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and the estimated 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) calculated by Pooled Cohort Equation (PCE) and Framingham risk score (FRS). Methods A total of 15,913 participants (mean age, 46.3 years) in a health screening program were selected for analysis. The presence and severity of fatty liver was assessed by abdominal ultrasonogram. Subjects who drank alcohol more than three times a week were excluded from the study. Results Among the participants, 57.6% had no NAFLD, 35.4% had grade I, 6.5% had grade II, and 0.5% had grade III NAFLD. Mean estimated 10-year CVD risk was 2.59%, 3.93%, 4.68%, and 5.23% calculated using the PCE (P for trend <0.01) and 4.55%, 6.39%, 7.33%, and 7.13% calculated using FRS, according to NAFLD severity from none to severe (P for trend <0.01). The odds ratio for ≥7.5% estimated CVD risk calculated using the PCE showed a higher correlation with increasing severity of NAFLD even after adjustment for conventional CVD risk factors (1.52, 2.56, 3.35 vs. the no NAFLD group as a reference, P<0.01) compared with calculated risk using FRS (1.65, 1.62, 1.72 vs. no NAFLD group as a reference, P<0.01). Conclusion In our study of apparently healthy Korean adults, increasing severity of NAFLD showed a higher correlation with estimated 10-year CVD risk when calculated using the PCE than when calculated using FRS. PMID:26754585

  11. Psychiatric Disorders in Norwegian 8- to 10-Year-Olds: An Epidemiological Survey of Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Service Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiervang, Einar; Stormark, Kjell M.; Lundervold, Astri J.; Heimann, Mikael; Goodman, Robert; Posserud, Maj-Britt; Ullebo, Anne K.; Plessen, Kerstin J.; Bjelland, Ingvar; Lie, Stein A.; Gillberg, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The Bergen Child Study is a longitudinal study of child mental health from the city of Bergen, Norway. We present methods and results from the first wave of the study, focusing on prevalence of disorders, associations with risk factors, and the use of services. Method: The target population included all 9,430 children attending grades 2…

  12. Dairy Intakes at Age 10 Years Do Not Adversely Affect Risk of Excess Adiposity at 13 Years123

    PubMed Central

    Bigornia, Sherman J.; LaValley, Michael P.; Moore, Lynn L.; Northstone, Kate; Emmett, Pauline; Ness, Andy R.; Newby, P. K.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence of an association between milk intake and childhood adiposity remains inconsistent, with few data available regarding the effects of the amount of dairy fat consumed. This study examined the relation between dairy consumption (total, full, and reduced fat) at age 10 y on risk of excess adiposity at age 13 y in participants of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; n = 2455). Intakes were assessed by 3-d dietary records. Total body fat mass (TBFM) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was examined at 13 y. Outcomes included excess TBFM (top quintile of TBFM), overweight, and change in body mass index (BMI). The highest vs. lowest quartile of total dairy consumers (g/d) at age 10 y did not have an increased risk of excess TBFM (OR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.46, 1.16; P-trend = 0.28) or overweight (OR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.41, 1.15; P = 0.24) at age 13 y. Children in the highest quartile of full-fat dairy intakes vs. those in the lowest quartile had a reduced risk of excess TBFM (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.41, 1.00; P = 0.04) and a suggestion of a reduction in overweight (OR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.40, 1.06; P = 0.19) at age 13 y. Furthermore, the highest vs. lowest consumers of full-fat products had smaller gains in BMI during follow-up [2.5 kg/m2 (95% CI: 2.2, 2.7) vs. 2.8 kg/m2 (95% CI: 2.5, 3.0); P < 0.01]. Associations with reduced-fat dairy consumption did not attain statistical significance. In this study, dairy consumption was not related to excess fat accumulation during late childhood. Estimates had wide confidence limits but generally showed inverse relations between dairy intakes and risk of excess adiposity. Additional prospective research is warranted to confirm the effects of dairy intake on obesity in children. PMID:24744312

  13. Dairy intakes at age 10 years do not adversely affect risk of excess adiposity at 13 years.

    PubMed

    Bigornia, Sherman J; LaValley, Michael P; Moore, Lynn L; Northstone, Kate; Emmett, Pauline; Ness, Andy R; Newby, P K

    2014-07-01

    Evidence of an association between milk intake and childhood adiposity remains inconsistent, with few data available regarding the effects of the amount of dairy fat consumed. This study examined the relation between dairy consumption (total, full, and reduced fat) at age 10 y on risk of excess adiposity at age 13 y in participants of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; n = 2455). Intakes were assessed by 3-d dietary records. Total body fat mass (TBFM) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was examined at 13 y. Outcomes included excess TBFM (top quintile of TBFM), overweight, and change in body mass index (BMI). The highest vs. lowest quartile of total dairy consumers (g/d) at age 10 y did not have an increased risk of excess TBFM (OR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.46, 1.16; P-trend = 0.28) or overweight (OR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.41, 1.15; P = 0.24) at age 13 y. Children in the highest quartile of full-fat dairy intakes vs. those in the lowest quartile had a reduced risk of excess TBFM (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.41, 1.00; P = 0.04) and a suggestion of a reduction in overweight (OR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.40, 1.06; P = 0.19) at age 13 y. Furthermore, the highest vs. lowest consumers of full-fat products had smaller gains in BMI during follow-up [2.5 kg/m² (95% CI: 2.2, 2.7) vs. 2.8 kg/m² (95% CI: 2.5, 3.0); P < 0.01]. Associations with reduced-fat dairy consumption did not attain statistical significance. In this study, dairy consumption was not related to excess fat accumulation during late childhood. Estimates had wide confidence limits but generally showed inverse relations between dairy intakes and risk of excess adiposity. Additional prospective research is warranted to confirm the effects of dairy intake on obesity in children. PMID:24744312

  14. Assessment of the 10-year risk of coronary heart disease events for Qatar Petroleum's firefighters and non-firefighter staff in Qatar.

    PubMed

    Mochtar, I; Hooper, R W

    2012-02-01

    Coronary heart disease is a major public health problem worldwide and firefighters may be at particular occupational risk. In a cross-sectional study in Ras Laffan Industrial City, Qatar, we assessed the 10-year risk of coronary heart disease events for 369 Qatar Petroleum staff at their periodic medical examination. The subjects of the study (all males) were divided into firefighters and non-firefighters groups. Based on the Framingham risk score calculations, 69.9% of the subjects were categorized as low risk, 27.1% as intermediate risk and 2.9% as high risk. None of the firefighters was categorized as high risk, 15.5% were intermediate and the rest were low risk. In the whole group, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was the most prevalent risk factor (68.8%), followed by hypertension (32.0%) and smoking (15.4%). The mean risk of developing coronary heart disease in firefighters [6.5% (SD 3.7%)] was significantly lower than in non-firefighters 19.5% (SD 6.5%)]. PMID:22571088

  15. 10-Year Survival and Quality of Life in Patients With High-Risk {sub P}N{sub 0} Prostate Cancer Following Definitive Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, Arne Lilleby, Wolfgang; Bruland, Oyvind Sverre; Fossa, Sophie Dorothea

    2007-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate long-term overall survival (OS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), clinical progression-free survival (cPFS), and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) following definitive radiotherapy (RT) given to T{sub 1-4p}N{sub 0}M{sub 0} prostate cancer patients provided by a single institution between 1989 and 1996. Methods and Materials: We assessed outcome among 203 patients who had completed three-dimensional conformal RT (66 Gy) without hormone treatment and in whom staging by lymphadenectomy had been performed. OS was compared with an age-matched control group from the general population. A cross-sectional, self-report survey of HRQoL was performed among surviving patients. Results: Median observation time was 10 years (range, 1-16 years). Eighty-one percent had high-risk tumors defined as T{sub 3-4} or Gleason score (GS) {>=}7B (4+3). Among these, 10-year OS, CSS, and cPFS rates were 52%, 66%, and 39%, respectively. The corresponding fractions in low-risk patients (T{sub 1-2} and GS {<=}7A [3+4]) were 79%, 95%, and 73%, respectively. Both CSS and cPFS were predicted by GS and T-classification; OS was associated with GS only. High-risk, but not low-risk, patients had reduced OS compared with the general population (p < 0.0005). When pelvis-related side effects were included in multivariate analyzes together with physical function and pain, sexual, urinary, and bowel function were not independently associated with self-reported global quality of life. Conclusions: Despite surgically proven {sub p}N{sub 0}, RT with dosage <70 Gy as monotherapy does not give satisfactory CSS rates after 10 years in patients with T{sub 3-4} or GS {>=}7B.

  16. First incident hospitalisation for Australian women aged 70 and beyond: A 10 year examination using competing risks.

    PubMed

    Harris, Melissa L; Dolja-Gore, Xenia; Kendig, Hal; Byles, Julie E

    2016-01-01

    There are increasing concerns regarding high hospital use among older adults and the capacity to manage the economic impact of the ageing population trend on healthcare systems. First hospitalisation in old age may act as a catalyst for ongoing intensification of health problems and acute care use. This study examined factors associated with first incident hospitalisation in women aged over 70, accounting for the health inequalities associated with geographic location. Survey data from 3780 women from the 1921 to 1926 cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health were matched with the Admitted Patients Data Collection and National Death Index. Days to first event (hospitalisation or death) were modelled using competing risks methods. A total of 3065 (80.3%) women had at least one hospital admission. More than half of the top 15 reasons for first hospitalisation were related to cardiovascular disease, with atrial fibrillation the most common. Proportional subdistribution hazards models showed that first hospital admission was driven by enabling and need factors including asthma/bronchitis diagnosis (HR=1.16; p=0.047), private health insurance (HR=1.16; p=0.004) more than two prescribed medications in previous month (HR=1.31; p=0.001), more than four general practitioner visits in previous year (HR=1.50; p=0.034), lower physical functioning (HR=0.99; p<0.001) and living in an inner regional area (HR=1.17; p=0.003). First overnight hospitalisation was primarily related with potentially preventable and treatable chronic diseases. Primary and secondary strategies aimed at chronic disease generally, and better chronic disease management particularly for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, may play a vital role in disease prevention or delay in readmissions among this population. PMID:26952374

  17. Biochemical Control With Radiotherapy Improves Overall Survival in Intermediate and High-Risk Prostate Cancer Patients Who Have an Estimated 10-Year Overall Survival of >90%

    SciTech Connect

    Herbert, Christopher; Liu, Mitchell; Tyldesley, Scott; Morris, W. James; Joffres, Michel; Khaira, Mandip; Kwan, Winkle; Moiseenko, Vitali; Pickles, Thomas

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To identify subgroups of patients with carcinoma of the prostate treated with radical radiotherapy that have improved overall survival when disease is biochemically controlled. Methods and Materials: A cohort of 1,060 prostate cancer patients treated with radical radiotherapy was divided into nine subgroups based on National Comprehensive Cancer Network risk category and estimated 10-year overall survival (eOS 10y) derived from the age adjusted Charlson Comorbidity Index. Patients with and without biochemical control were compared with respect to overall survival. Actuarial estimates of overall survival were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used for analysis of overall survival. Results: Median follow-up was 125 months (range, 51-176 months). Only the subgroups with high or intermediate risk disease and an eOS 10y of >90% had a statistically significantly improved overall survival when prostate cancer was biochemically controlled. In all other groups, biochemical control made no significant difference to overall survival. In the subgroup with high-risk disease and eOS 10y >90%, actuarial overall survival was 86.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] 78.5%-94.1%) and 62.1% (95% CI 52.9%-71.3%) for patients with biochemical control and biochemical relapse respectively (p = 0.002). In the intermediate risk group with eOS >90%, actuarial overall survival was 95.3% (95% CI 89.0%-100%) and 79.8% (95% CI 68.0%-91.6%) for biochemically controlled and biochemically relapsed patients (p = 0.033). On multivariate analysis, National Comprehensive Cancer Network risk group (p = 0.005), biochemical control (p = 0.033) and eOS 10y (p < 0.001) were statistically significant. Conclusion: Biochemical control translates into improved overall survival in patients with high or intermediate risk disease and an estimated 10-year overall survival of >90%.

  18. External Validation of the Garvan Nomograms for Predicting Absolute Fracture Risk: The Tromsø Study

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Luai A.; Nguyen, Nguyen D.; Bjørnerem, Åshild; Joakimsen, Ragnar M.; Jørgensen, Lone; Størmer, Jan; Bliuc, Dana; Center, Jacqueline R.; Eisman, John A.; Nguyen, Tuan V.; Emaus, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Background Absolute risk estimation is a preferred approach for assessing fracture risk and treatment decision making. This study aimed to evaluate and validate the predictive performance of the Garvan Fracture Risk Calculator in a Norwegian cohort. Methods The analysis included 1637 women and 1355 aged 60+ years from the Tromsø study. All incident fragility fractures between 2001 and 2009 were registered. The predicted probabilities of non-vertebral osteoporotic and hip fractures were determined using models with and without BMD. The discrimination and calibration of the models were assessed. Reclassification analysis was used to compare the models performance. Results The incidence of osteoporotic and hip fracture was 31.5 and 8.6 per 1000 population in women, respectively; in men the corresponding incidence was 12.2 and 5.1. The predicted 5-year and 10-year probability of fractures was consistently higher in the fracture group than the non-fracture group for all models. The 10-year predicted probabilities of hip fracture in those with fracture was 2.8 (women) to 3.1 times (men) higher than those without fracture. There was a close agreement between predicted and observed risk in both sexes and up to the fifth quintile. Among those in the highest quintile of risk, the models over-estimated the risk of fracture. Models with BMD performed better than models with body weight in correct classification of risk in individuals with and without fracture. The overall net decrease in reclassification of the model with weight compared to the model with BMD was 10.6% (p = 0.008) in women and 17.2% (p = 0.001) in men for osteoporotic fractures, and 13.3% (p = 0.07) in women and 17.5% (p = 0.09) in men for hip fracture. Conclusions The Garvan Fracture Risk Calculator is valid and clinically useful in identifying individuals at high risk of fracture. The models with BMD performed better than those with body weight in fracture risk prediction. PMID:25255221

  19. Risk factors for the incidence and persistence of suicide-related outcomes: A 10-year follow-up study using the National Comorbidity Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Guilherme; Angst, Jules; Nock, Matthew K.; Ruscio, Ayelet Meron; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2008-01-01

    Background We report prospective associations of baseline risk factors with the first onset and persistence of suicide-related outcomes (SROs; ideation, plans, gestures, and attempts) over a 10-year interval among respondents who participated in both the 1990−02 National Comorbidity Survey (NCS) and the 2000−02 National Comorbidity Survey follow-up (NCS-2). Methods A total of 5001 NCS respondents were re-interviewed (87.6% of baseline sample) in the NCS-2. Three sets of baseline (NCS) risk factors were considered as predictors of the first onset and persistence of SROs: socio-demographics, lifetime DSM-III-R disorders, and SROs. Results New onsets included 6.2% suicide ideation, 2.3% plan, 0.7% gesture, and 0.9% attempts. More than one-third of respondents with a baseline history of suicide ideation continued to have suicide ideation at some time over the intervening decade. Persistence was lower for other SROs. The strongest predictors of later SROs were baseline SROs. Prospective associations of baseline mental disorders with later SROs were largely limited to the onset and persistence of ideation. Limitations Although data were gathered prospectively, they were based on retrospective reports at both baseline and follow-up. Conclusions Baseline history of SROs explained much of the association of mental disorders with later SROs. It is important clinically to note that many of the risk factors known to predict onset of SROs also predict persistence of SROs. PMID:17507099

  20. Adiposity, insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk factors in 9-10-year-old Indian children: relationships with birth size and postnatal growth.

    PubMed

    Krishnaveni, G V; Veena, S R; Wills, A K; Hill, J C; Karat, S C; Fall, C H D

    2010-12-01

    Lower birthweight, and rapid childhood weight gain predict elevated cardiovascular risk factors in children. We examined associations between serial, detailed, anthropometric measurements from birth to 9.5 years of age and cardiovascular risk markers in Indian children. Children (n = 663) born at the Holdsworth Memorial Hospital, Mysore, India were measured at birth and 6-12 monthly thereafter. At 9.5 years, 539 (255 boys) underwent a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test, and blood pressure (BP) and fasting lipid concentrations were measured. Insulin resistance was calculated using the HOMA equation. These outcomes were examined in relation to birth measurements and changes in measurements (growth) during infancy (0-2 years), 2-5 years and 5-9.5 years using conditional s.d. scores. Larger current weight, height and skinfold thickness were associated with higher risk markers at 9.5 years (P < 0.05). Lower weight, smaller length and mid-arm circumference at birth were associated with higher fasting glucose concentrations at 9.5 years (P ⩽ 0.01). After adjusting for current weight/height, there were inverse associations between birthweight and/or length and insulin concentrations, HOMA, systolic and diastolic BP and plasma triglycerides (P < 0.05). Increases in conditional weight and height between 0-2, 2-5 and 5-9.5 years were associated with higher insulin concentrations, HOMA and systolic BP. In conclusion, in 9-10-year-old Indian children, as in other studies, cardiovascular risk factors were highest in children who were light or short at birth but heavy or tall at 9 years. Greater infant and childhood weight and height gain were associated with higher risk markers. PMID:22318657

  1. Adiposity, insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk factors in 9–10-year-old Indian children: relationships with birth size and postnatal growth

    PubMed Central

    Krishnaveni, G. V.; Veena, S. R.; Wills, A. K.; Hill, J. C.; Karat, S. C.; Fall, C. H. D.

    2011-01-01

    Lower birthweight, and rapid childhood weight gain predict elevated cardiovascular risk factors in children. We examined associations between serial, detailed, anthropometric measurements from birth to 9.5 years of age and cardiovascular risk markers in Indian children. Children (n = 663) born at the Holdsworth Memorial Hospital, Mysore, India were measured at birth and 6–12 monthly thereafter. At 9.5 years, 539 (255 boys) underwent a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test, and blood pressure (BP) and fasting lipid concentrations were measured. Insulin resistance was calculated using the HOMA equation. These outcomes were examined in relation to birth measurements and changes in measurements (growth) during infancy (0–2 years), 2–5 years and 5–9.5 years using conditional s.d. scores. Larger current weight, height and skinfold thickness were associated with higher risk markers at 9.5 years (P<0.05). Lower weight, smaller length and mid-arm circumference at birth were associated with higher fasting glucose concentrations at 9.5 years (P≤0.01). After adjusting for current weight/height, there were inverse associations between birthweight and/or length and insulin concentrations, HOMA, systolic and diastolic BP and plasma triglycerides (P<0.05). Increases in conditional weight and height between 0–2, 2–5 and 5–9.5 years were associated with higher insulin concentrations, HOMA and systolic BP. In conclusion, in 9–10-year-old Indian children, as in other studies, cardiovascular risk factors were highest in children who were light or short at birth but heavy or tall at 9 years. Greater infant and childhood weight and height gain were associated with higher risk markers. PMID:22318657

  2. Subclinical Hypothyroidism Is Associated with Increased Risk for Cancer Mortality in Adult Taiwanese—A 10 Years Population-Based Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Fen-Yu; Lin, Wen-Yuan; Li, Chia-Ing; Li, Tsai-Chung; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Huang, Kuo-Chin

    2015-01-01

    Background The association between subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) and cancer mortality is seldom discussed. Methods A total of 115,746 participants without thyroid disease history, aged 20 and above, were recruited from four nationwide health screening centers in Taiwan from 1998 to 1999. SCH was defined as a serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level of 5.0–19.96 mIU/L with normal total thyroxine concentrations. Euthyroidism was defined as a serum TSH level of 0.47–4.9 mIU/L. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to estimate the relative risks (RRs) of death from cancer for adults with SCH during a 10-year follow-up period. Results Among 115,746 adults, 1,841 had SCH (1.6%) and 113,905 (98.4%) had euthyroidism. There were 1,532 cancer deaths during the 1,034,082 person-years follow-up period. Adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, smoking, alcohol drinking, betel nut chewing, physical activity, income, and education level, the RRs (95% confidence interval) of cancer deaths among subjects with SCH versus euthyroid subjects were 1.51 (1.06 to 2.15). Cancer site analysis revealed a significant increased risk of bone, skin and breast cancer among SCH subjects (RR 2.79, (1.01, 7.70)). The risks of total cancer deaths were more prominent in the aged (RR 1.71, (1.02 to 2.87)), in females (RR 1.69 (1.08 to 2.65)), and in heavy smokers (RR 2.24, (1.19 to 4.21)). Conclusions Subjects with SCH had a significantly increased risk for cancer mortality among adult Taiwanese. This is the first report to demonstrate the association between SCH and cancer mortality. PMID:25830770

  3. Disturbed sleep as risk factor for the subsequent onset of bipolar disorder--Data from a 10-year prospective-longitudinal study among adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Philipp S; Höfler, Michael; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Lieb, Roselind; Bauer, Michael; Pfennig, Andrea; Beesdo-Baum, Katja

    2015-09-01

    There is ample data suggesting that individuals with bipolar disorder more frequently suffer from disturbed sleep even when euthymic. Since sleep is a process that is crucial for affective homeostasis, disturbed sleep in healthy individuals may be a risk factor for the subsequent onset of bipolar disorder. Utilizing data from a large cohort of adolescents and young adults, this study tests the hypothesis that disturbed sleep constitutes a risk factor for the later onset of bipolar disorder. A representative community sample of N = 3021 adolescents and young adults (baseline age 14-24) was assessed using the standardized Composite International Diagnostic Interview and followed-up prospectively up to 3 times over up to 10 years. Disturbed sleep at baseline was quantified utilizing the corresponding items from the self-report inventory SCL-90-R. The compound value (insomnia-score) as an ordinal parameter for the severity of sleep disturbances was used to assess associations with the incidence of bipolar disorder among participants free of major mental disorder at baseline (N = 1943) using odds ratios (OR) from logistic regressions. Analyses were adjusted for age, gender, parental mood disorder and lifetime alcohol or cannabis dependence. Poor sleep quality significantly increased the risk for the subsequent development of bipolar disorder (OR = 1.75; p = 0.001). Regarding individual sleep items, trouble falling asleep and early morning awakening were predictive for the subsequent onset of bipolar disorder. Disturbed sleep in persons otherwise free of major mental disorders appears to confer an increased risk for the subsequent onset of bipolar disorder. PMID:26228404

  4. Predicting Absolute Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Using Age and Waist Circumference Values in an Aboriginal Australian Community

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To predict in an Australian Aboriginal community, the 10-year absolute risk of type 2 diabetes associated with waist circumference and age on baseline examination. Method A sample of 803 diabetes-free adults (82.3% of the age-eligible population) from baseline data of participants collected from 1992 to 1998 were followed-up for up to 20 years till 2012. The Cox-proportional hazard model was used to estimate the effects of waist circumference and other risk factors, including age, smoking and alcohol consumption status, of males and females on prediction of type 2 diabetes, identified through subsequent hospitalisation data during the follow-up period. The Weibull regression model was used to calculate the absolute risk estimates of type 2 diabetes with waist circumference and age as predictors. Results Of 803 participants, 110 were recorded as having developed type 2 diabetes, in subsequent hospitalizations over a follow-up of 12633.4 person-years. Waist circumference was strongly associated with subsequent diagnosis of type 2 diabetes with P<0.0001 for both genders and remained statistically significant after adjusting for confounding factors. Hazard ratios of type 2 diabetes associated with 1 standard deviation increase in waist circumference were 1.7 (95%CI 1.3 to 2.2) for males and 2.1 (95%CI 1.7 to 2.6) for females. At 45 years of age with baseline waist circumference of 100 cm, a male had an absolute diabetic risk of 10.9%, while a female had a 14.3% risk of the disease. Conclusions The constructed model predicts the 10-year absolute diabetes risk in an Aboriginal Australian community. It is simple and easily understood and will help identify individuals at risk of diabetes in relation to waist circumference values. Our findings on the relationship between waist circumference and diabetes on gender will be useful for clinical consultation, public health education and establishing WC cut-off points for Aboriginal Australians. PMID:25876058

  5. Is waist-to-height ratio a useful indicator of cardio-metabolic risk in 6-10-year-old children?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity is a public health problem worldwide. Visceral obesity, particularly associated with cardio-metabolic risk, has been assessed by body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference, but both methods use sex-and age-specific percentile tables and are influenced by sexual maturity. Waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) is easier to obtain, does not involve tables and can be used to diagnose visceral obesity, even in normal-weight individuals. This study aims to compare the WHtR to the 2007 World Health Organization (WHO) reference for BMI in screening for the presence of cardio-metabolic and inflammatory risk factors in 6–10-year-old children. Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken with 175 subjects selected from the Reference Center for the Treatment of Children and Adolescents in Campos, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The subjects were classified according to the 2007 WHO standard as normal-weight (BMI z score > −1 and < 1) or overweight/obese (BMI z score ≥ 1). Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), fasting glycemia, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), triglyceride (TG), Homeostatic Model Assessment – Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR), leukocyte count and ultrasensitive C-reactive protein (CRP) were also analyzed. Results There were significant correlations between WHtR and BMI z score (r = 0.88, p < 0.0001), SBP (r = 0.51, p < 0.0001), DBP (r = 0.49, p < 0.0001), LDL (r = 0.25, p < 0.0008, HDL (r = −0.28, p < 0.0002), TG (r = 0.26, p < 0.0006), HOMA-IR (r = 0.83, p < 0.0001) and CRP (r = 0.51, p < 0.0001). WHtR and BMI areas under the curve were similar for all the cardio-metabolic parameters. A WHtR cut-off value of > 0.47 was sensitive for screening insulin resistance and any one of the cardio-metabolic parameters. Conclusions The WHtR was as sensitive as the 2007 WHO BMI in screening for metabolic risk factors in 6-10-year-old children. The public health message “keep your waist to less

  6. Healthy Homes/Healthy Kids: A Randomized Trial of a Pediatric Primary Care Based Obesity Prevention Intervention for At-Risk 5-10 Year Olds

    PubMed Central

    Sherwood, Nancy E.; Levy, Rona L.; Langer, Shelby L.; Senso, Meghan M.; Crain, A. Lauren; Hayes, Marcia G.; Anderson, Julie D.; Seburg, Elisabeth M.; Jeffery, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    Pediatric primary care is an important setting in which to address obesity prevention, yet relatively few interventions have been evaluated and even fewer have been shown to be effective. The development and evaluation of cost-effective approaches to obesity prevention that leverage opportunities of direct access to families in the pediatric primary care setting, overcome barriers to implementation in busy practice settings, and facilitate sustained involvement of parents is an important public health priority. The goal of the Healthy Homes/Healthy Kids (HHHK 5-10) randomized controlled trial is to evaluate the efficacy of a relatively low-cost primary care-based obesity prevention intervention aimed at 5 to 10 year old children who are at risk for obesity. Four hundred twenty one parent/child dyads were recruited and randomized to either the obesity prevention arm or a contact control condition that focuses on safety and injury prevention. The HHHK 5-10 obesity prevention intervention combines brief counseling with a pediatric primary care provider during routine well-child visits and follow-up telephone coaching that supports parents in making home environmental changes to support healthful eating, activity patterns, and body weight. The contact control condition combines the same provider counseling with telephone coaching focused on safety and injury prevention messages. This manuscript describes the study design and baseline characteristics of participants enrolled in the HHHK 5-10 trial. PMID:23816490

  7. A 10-year experience with treatment of high and standard risk Hodgkin disease: six cycles of tailored BEACOPP, with interim scintigraphy, are effective and female fertility is preserved.

    PubMed

    Dann, Eldad J; Blumenfeld, Zeev; Bar-Shalom, Rachel; Avivi, Irit; Ben-Shachar, Menachem; Goor, Odelia; Libster, Diana; Gaitini, Diana; Rowe, Jacob M; Epelbaum, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Therapy of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is designed to prolong survival and minimize toxicity. A total of 124 patients with newly diagnosed HL and adverse prognostic factors were prospectively studied between July, 1999 and August, 2005. Patients with early unfavorable and advanced disease were eligible for the study. Patients were assigned to therapy based on international prognostic score (IPS). Those with IPS ≥ 3 received three cycles of escalated BEACOPP (EB). All others received two cycles of standard BEACOPP (SB). Subsequent therapy was prospectively assigned according to early interim GA(67) or positron emission tomography (PET)/computerized tomography (CT). Four cycles of EB or SB were administered following a positive or negative scan, respectively. Complete remission rate, 10-year progression free (PFS), and overall survival (OS) were 97, 87, and 88%, respectively, at a median follow-up of 89 months (5-144). PFS and OS were similar in both groups. Fertility status was assessed in 38 females aged <40 years; 94% of females younger than 40 years preserved their cyclic ovarian function. Nineteen conceived during follow-up for 30 pregnancies, delivering 24 babies. Deliveries were reported up to 7 years from diagnosis. Predictive value of negative interim Ga(67) or PET/CT was 87 and 93%, respectively. Six cycles of tailored BEACOPP, for patients with adverse prognostic factors, provide encouraging long-term PFS and OS, and fertility is preserved in most females. PMID:21956220

  8. Incidence and risk factors of isolated systolic and diastolic hypertension: a 10 year follow-up of the Tehran Lipids and Glucose Study.

    PubMed

    Asgari, Samaneh; Khalili, Davood; Mehrabi, Yadollah; Kazempour-Ardebili, Sara; Azizi, Fereidoun; Hadaegh, Farzad

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the incidence and risk factors of isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) and isolated diastolic hypertension (IDH) in a Middle Eastern population, during a median follow-up of 9.6 years. In total, 8573 subjects without hypertension, cardiovascular disease and known diabetes were recruited into the study. To calculate the incidence of ISH, those with diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥ 90 mmHg during follow-up, and for calculating IDH those with systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥ 140 mmHg during follow-up, were excluded. During follow-up, 235 new cases of ISH were identified, with a crude incidence rate of 5.7/1000 person-years; the corresponding values for IDH were 470 and 10.9/1000 person-years. Using backward stepwise Cox regression analysis, older age, baseline SBP and body mass index were related to incident ISH. Regarding IDH, younger age, baseline DBP and waist circumference were associated with higher risk, whereas female gender and being married were associated with lower risk (all p < 0.05). The C-statistics for the prediction model were 0.91 for ISH and 0.76 for IDH. In conclusion, after a decade of follow-up of this Iranian population, we found an incidence of about 0.5% and 1% per year for ISH and IDH, respectively. PMID:26643588

  9. Age-dependent fracture risk in hip revisions with radial impaction grafting technique: a 5-10 year medium-term follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Chomrikh, Laila; Gebuhr, Peter; Bierling, Roelf; Lind, Ulla; Zwart, Hendrik J J

    2014-02-01

    Radial impaction grafting (RIG) potentially improves the durability and reliability of cementing the femoral components in revision total hip arthroplasty (THA). In this multicenter, prospective study, 88 revision THAs (87 patients) with RIG technique were performed. The average follow-up time was 7.0 years (range, 5.0-10.2). There were 14 femur fractures: 2 intraoperative, 5 within 3 months after surgery, and 7 later in the postoperative stage (range, 5-84 months). Sixteen patients were lost to follow-up and 20 died without stem re-revision. None of the patients have been re-revised for any reason during follow-up. Age was observed to be a significant factor for determining fracture risk. In conclusion, RIG can be considered a reliable surgical technique, especially for younger patients. PMID:23891061

  10. A 10-year follow-up study of the association between calcium channel blocker use and the risk of dementia in elderly hypertensive patients

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chia-Liang; Wen, Shu-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are widely used for reducing blood pressure of hypertensive patients. Recent reports document the beneficial effects of CCB for preventing dementia; however, the results are controversial. We aim to evaluate the risk of developing dementia among elderly hypertensive patients treated with CCB. We designed a retrospective population-based cohort study using the records of the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan dated from 2000 to 2010. The study cohort comprised 82,107 hypertensive patients of more than 60 years of age, and 4004 propensity score (PS)-matched pairs were selected according to age, sex, year of hypertension diagnosis, and baseline comorbidities. We employed a robust Cox proportional hazard model to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of developing dementia in the PS-matched cohort. The annual incidence of dementia in the CCB-exposure group was significantly lower than that in the comparator group (3.9 vs 6.9 per 1000 person-years, P < 0.01) during the follow-up period (4.4 ± 2.5 years). Based on the PS-matched cohort, the adjusted HR of dementia in the CCB-exposure group was significantly lower than that in comparator group (HR = 0.53, 95% confidence interval: 0.39–0.72, P < 0.01). Sensitivity and subgroup analyses also confirmed similar findings. Our results provided evidence for an association between CCB use and a lower risk of developing dementia among the elderly hypertensive patients. Further studies are required to explore the causal relationship between CCB use and dementia. PMID:27512890

  11. Absolute and Comparative Cancer Risk Perceptions Among Smokers in Two Cities in China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Knowledge about health effects of smoking motivates quit attempts and sustained abstinence among smokers and also predicts greater acceptance of tobacco control efforts such as cigarette taxes and public smoking bans. We examined whether smokers in China, the world’s largest consumer of cigarettes, recognized their heightened personal risk of cancer relative to nonsmokers. Methods: A sample of Chinese people (N = 2,517; 555 current smokers) from 2 cities (Beijing and Hefei) estimated their personal risk of developing cancer, both in absolute terms (overall likelihood) and in comparative terms (relative to similarly aged people). Results: Controlling for demographics, smokers judged themselves to be at significantly lower risk of cancer than did nonsmokers on the comparative measure. No significant difference emerged between smokers and nonsmokers in absolute estimates. Conclusions: Smokers in China did not recognize their heightened personal risk of cancer, possibly reflecting ineffective warning labels on cigarette packs, a positive affective climate associated with smoking in China, and beliefs that downplay personal vulnerability among smokers (e.g., I don’t smoke enough to increase my cancer risk; I smoke high-quality cigarettes that won’t cause cancer). PMID:24668289

  12. Glycation and Carboxymethyllysine Levels in Skin Collagen Predict the Risk of Future 10-Year Progression of Diabetic Retinopathy and Nephropathy in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial and Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications Participants With Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Genuth, Saul; Sun, Wanjie; Cleary, Patricia; Sell, David R.; Dahms, William; Malone, John; Sivitz, William; Monnier, Vincent M.

    2009-01-01

    Several mechanistic pathways linking hyperglycemia to diabetes complications, including glycation of proteins and formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), have been proposed. We investigated the hypothesis that skin collagen glycation and AGEs predict the risk of progression of microvascular disease. We measured glycation products in the skin collagen of 211 Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) volunteers in 1992 who continued to be followed in the Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications study for 10 years. We determined whether the earlier measurements of glycated collagen and AGE levels correlated with the risk of progression of retinopathy and nephropathy from the end of the DCCT to 10 years later. In multivariate analyses, the combination of furosine (glycated collagen) and carboxymethyllysine (CML) predicted the progression of retinopathy (χ2 = 59.4, P < 0.0001) and nephropathy (χ2 = 18.2, P = 0.0001), even after adjustment for mean HbA1c (A1C) (χ2 = 32.7, P < 0.0001 for retinopathy) and (χ2 = 12.8, P = 0.0016 for nephropathy). The predictive effect of A1C vanished after adjustment for furosine and CML (χ2 = 0.0002, P = 0.987 for retinopathy and χ2 = 0.0002, P = 0.964 for nephropathy). Furosine explained more of the variation in the 10-year progression of retinopathy and nephropathy than did CML. These results strengthen the role of glycation of proteins and AGE formation in the pathogenesis of retinopathy and nephropathy. Glycation and subsequent AGE formation may explain the risk of these complications associated with prior A1C and provide a rational basis for the phenomenon of “metabolic memory” in the pathogenesis of these diabetes complications. PMID:16249432

  13. Application of two versions of the WHO/international society of hypertension absolute cardiovascular risk assessment tools in a rural Bangladeshi population

    PubMed Central

    Fatema, Kaniz; Zwar, Nicholas Arnold; Milton, Abul Hasnat; Rahman, Bayzidur; Ali, Liaquat

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the absolute cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk burden in a remote rural Bangladeshi population using the ‘With’ and ‘Without’ Cholesterol versions of the WHO/International Society of Hypertension (WHO/ISH) CVD risk assessment chart (particularly suitable for low and middle-income countries due to less reliance on laboratory testing) and to evaluate the agreement between the two approaches. Design Cross-sectional study using data from a large prospective cohort of the North Bengal Non-Communicable Disease Programme (NB-NCDP) of Bangladesh. Setting General rural population from Thakurgaon district of Bangladesh. Participants 563 individuals who were categorised as having ‘no CVDs’ on screening by a questionnaire-based survey using the ‘WHO CVD-Risk Management Package’ developed in 2002. Main outcome measures Absolute CVD risk burden assessed using two versions of the WHO/ISH risk assessment charts for the South-East Asian Region-D. Results 10-year risk (moderate, high and very high) positivity was present among 21.5% and 20.2% of participants, respectively, using with and without cholesterol versions of the tool. The overall concordance rate for the two versions was 89.5% and they did not differ significantly in estimating the proportion of overall participants having higher levels of CVD. The projected drug requirement, however, showed a significant overestimation in the proportion of participants at both the threshold levels (p<0.002) on using ‘without’ as compared to ‘with’ cholesterol versions. Conclusions About one-fifth of the adult population in Bangladesh, even in a remote rural area, seem to be at risk of developing CVDs (25% of them at high risk and 25% at very high risk) within 10 years with males and females being almost equally vulnerable. PMID:26463220

  14. Swift: 10 Years of Discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The conference Swift: 10 years of discovery was held in Roma at La Sapienza University on Dec. 2-5 2014 to celebrate 10 years of Swift successes. Thanks to a large attendance and a lively program, it provided the opportunity to review recent advances of our knowledge of the high-energy transient Universe both from the observational and theoretical sides. When Swift was launched on November 20, 2004, its prime objective was to chase Gamma-Ray Bursts and deepen our knowledge of these cosmic explosions. And so it did, unveiling the secrets of long and short GRBs. However, its multi-wavelength instrumentation and fast scheduling capabilities made it the most versatile mission ever flown. Besides GRBs, Swift has observed, and contributed to our understanding of, an impressive variety of targets including AGNs, supernovae, pulsars, microquasars, novae, variable stars, comets, and much more. Swift is continuously discovering rare and surprising events distributed over a wide range of redshifts, out to the most distant transient objects in the Universe. Such a trove of discoveries has been addressed during the conference with sessions dedicated to each class of events. Indeed, the conference in Rome was a spectacular celebration of the Swift 10th anniversary. It included sessions on all types of transient and steady sources. Top scientists from around the world gave invited and contributed talks. There was a large poster session, sumptuous lunches, news interviews and a glorious banquet with officials attending from INAF and ASI. All the presentations, as well as several conference pictures, can be found in the conference website (http://www.brera.inaf.it/Swift10/Welcome.html). These proceedings have been collected owing to the efforts of Paolo D’Avanzo who has followed each paper from submission to final acceptance. Our warmest thanks to Paolo for all his work. The Conference has been made possible by the support from La Sapienza University as well as from the ARAP

  15. Use of Serogroup B Meningococcal Vaccines in Persons Aged ≥10 Years at Increased Risk for Serogroup B Meningococcal Disease: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, 2015.

    PubMed

    Folaranmi, Temitope; Rubin, Lorry; Martin, Stacey W; Patel, Manisha; MacNeil, Jessica R

    2015-06-12

    In October 2014, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) licensed the first serogroup B meningococcal (MenB) vaccine (MenB-FHbp [Trumenba, Wyeth Pharmaceuticals, Inc.]) as a 3-dose series. In January 2015, FDA licensed a second MenB vaccine (MenB-4C [Bexsero, Novartis Vaccines]) as a 2-dose series. Both vaccines were approved for use in persons aged 10-25 years. Following outbreaks of serogroup B meningococcal disease on two college campuses in 2013, both MenB vaccines were granted Breakthrough Therapy designations, which expedites drug development and review by FDA, and were licensed based on accelerated approval regulations. On February 26, 2015, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended use of MenB vaccines among certain groups of persons aged ≥10 years who are at increased risk for serogroup B meningococcal disease. This report summarizes information on MenB administration and provides recommendations and guidance for use of these vaccines among persons aged ≥10 years in certain groups who are at increased risk for serogroup B meningococcal disease, and reviews the evidence considered by ACIP to make these recommendations. Recommendations for broader use of MenB vaccines in adolescents and college students will be considered separately by ACIP. PMID:26068564

  16. Realized volatility and absolute return volatility: a comparison indicating market risk.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zeyu; Qiao, Zhi; Takaishi, Tetsuya; Stanley, H Eugene; Li, Baowen

    2014-01-01

    Measuring volatility in financial markets is a primary challenge in the theory and practice of risk management and is essential when developing investment strategies. Although the vast literature on the topic describes many different models, two nonparametric measurements have emerged and received wide use over the past decade: realized volatility and absolute return volatility. The former is strongly favored in the financial sector and the latter by econophysicists. We examine the memory and clustering features of these two methods and find that both enable strong predictions. We compare the two in detail and find that although realized volatility has a better short-term effect that allows predictions of near-future market behavior, absolute return volatility is easier to calculate and, as a risk indicator, has approximately the same sensitivity as realized volatility. Our detailed empirical analysis yields valuable guidelines for both researchers and market participants because it provides a significantly clearer comparison of the strengths and weaknesses of the two methods. PMID:25054439

  17. The Ethics of Information: Absolute Risk Reduction and Patient Understanding of Screening

    PubMed Central

    Meslin, Eric M.

    2008-01-01

    Some experts have argued that patients should routinely be told the specific magnitude and absolute probability of potential risks and benefits of screening tests. This position is motivated by the idea that framing risk information in ways that are less precise violates the ethical principle of respect for autonomy and its application in informed consent or shared decision-making. In this Perspective, we consider a number of problems with this view that have not been adequately addressed. The most important challenges stem from the danger that patients will misunderstand the information or have irrational responses to it. Any initiative in this area should take such factors into account and should consider carefully how to apply the ethical principles of respect for autonomy and beneficence. PMID:18421509

  18. Dose Escalation Improves Cancer-Related Events at 10 Years for Intermediate- and High-Risk Prostate Cancer Patients Treated With Hypofractionated High-Dose-Rate Boost and External Beam Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, Alvaro A.; Gonzalez, Jose; Ye Hong; Ghilezan, Mihai; Shetty, Sugandh; Kernen, Kenneth; Gustafson, Gary; Krauss, Daniel; Vicini, Frank; Kestin, Larry

    2011-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the 10-year outcomes of intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer patients treated with a prospective dose escalation hypofractionated trial of pelvic external beam radiation therapy (P-EBRT) with a high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy boost. Methods and Materials: From 1992 to 2007, 472 patients were treated with a HDR boost at William Beaumont Hospital. They had at least one of the following: a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level of >10 ng/ml, a Gleason score of {>=}7, or clinical stage {>=}T2b. Patients received 46-Gy P-EBRT and an HDR boost. The HDR dose fractionation was divided into two dose levels. The prostate biologically equivalent dose (BED) low-dose-level group received <268 Gy, and the high-dose group received >268 Gy . Phoenix biochemical failure (BF) definition was used. Results: Median follow-up was 8.2 years (range, 0.4-17 years). The 10-year biochemical failure rate of 43.1% vs. 18.9%, (p < 0.001), the clinical failure rate of 23.4% vs. 7.7%, (p < 0.001), and the distant metastasis of 12.4% vs. 5.7%, (p = 0.028) were all significantly better for the high-dose level group. On Cox multivariate analysis, higher BED levels (p = 0.017; hazard ratio [HR]= 0.586), pretreatment PSA assays (p < 0.001, HR = 1.022), and Gleason scores (p = 0.004) were significant variables for reduced biochemical failure. Higher dose levels (p, 0.002; HR, 0.397) and Gleason scores (p < 0.001) were significant for clinical failure. Grade 3 genitourinary complications were 2% and 3%, respectively, and grade 3 gastrointestinal complication was <0.5%. Conclusions: This prospective trial using P-EBRT with HDR boost and hypofractionated dose escalation demonstrates a strong dose-response relationship for intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer patients. The improvement at 10 years for locoregional control with higher radiation doses (BED, > 268Gy) has significantly decreased biochemical and clinical failures as well as distant metastasis.

  19. Maximum Urine Flow Rate of Less than 15ml/Sec Increasing Risk of Urine Retention and Prostate Surgery among Patients with Alpha-1 Blockers: A 10-Year Follow Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Yu-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to determine the subsequent risk of acute urine retention and prostate surgery in patients receiving alpha-1 blockers treatment and having a maximum urinary flow rate of less than 15ml/sec. Methods We identified patients who were diagnosed with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and had a maximum uroflow rate of less than 15ml/sec between 1 January, 2002 to 31 December, 2011 from Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database into study group (n = 303). The control cohort included four BPH/LUTS patients without 5ARI used for each study group, randomly selected from the same dataset (n = 1,212). Each patient was monitored to identify those who subsequently developed prostate surgery and acute urine retention. Results Prostate surgery and acute urine retention are detected in 5.9% of control group and 8.3% of study group during 10-year follow up. Compared with the control group, there was increase in the risk of prostate surgery and acute urine retention in the study group (HR = 1.83, 95% CI: 1.16 to 2.91) after adjusting for age, comorbidities, geographic region and socioeconomic status. Conclusions Maximum urine flow rate of less than 15ml/sec is a risk factor of urinary retention and subsequent prostate surgery in BPH patients receiving alpha-1 blocker therapy. This result can provide a reference for clinicians. PMID:27513673

  20. The Influence of Absolute and Comparative Risk Perceptions on Cervical Cancer Screening and the Mediating Role of Cancer Worry.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xinyan; Nan, Xiaoli

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates the interrelationships between cancer risk perceptions (absolute and comparative risk perceptions), cancer worry, and cervical cancer screening. Using a nationally representative survey data set (N = 2,304) from the 2012 Health Information National Trends Survey Circle 1, we found that although neither absolute risk perceptions nor comparative risk perceptions exerted a direct impact on women's compliance with the cervical cancer screening recommendation (i.e., that women ages 21 to 65 obtain Pap smear every 3 years; U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, 2012 ), both types of risk perceptions had an indirect effect on cervical cancer screening through the mediation of cancer worry. These results suggest a primal role of affect in health decision making. Implications of the findings for cancer risk communication are discussed. PMID:26312444

  1. A model for predicting individuals' absolute risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma: Moving toward tailored screening and prevention.

    PubMed

    Xie, Shao-Hua; Lagergren, Jesper

    2016-06-15

    Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is characterized by rapidly increasing incidence and poor prognosis, stressing the need for preventive and early detection strategies. We used data from a nationwide population-based case-control study, which included 189 incident cases of EAC and 820 age- and sex-matched control participants, from 1995 through 1997 in Sweden. We developed risk prediction models based on unconditional logistic regression. Candidate predictors included established and readily identifiable risk factors for EAC. The performance of model was assessed by the area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) with cross-validation. The final model could explain 94% of all case patients with EAC (94% population attributable risk) and included terms for gastro-esophageal reflux symptoms or use of antireflux medication, body mass index (BMI), tobacco smoking, duration of living with a partner, previous diagnoses of esophagitis and diaphragmatic hernia and previous surgery for esophagitis, diaphragmatic hernia or severe reflux or gastric or duodenal ulcer. The AUC was 0.84 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.81-0.87) and slightly lower after cross-validation. A simpler model, based only on reflux symptoms or use of antireflux medication, BMI and tobacco smoking could explain 91% of the case patients with EAC and had an AUC of 0.82 (95% CI 0.78-0.85). These EAC prediction models showed good discriminative accuracy, but need to be validated in other populations. These models have the potential for future use in identifying individuals with high absolute risk of EAC in the population, who may be considered for endoscopic screening and targeted prevention. PMID:26756848

  2. Regular Breakfast Consumption and Type 2 Diabetes Risk Markers in 9- to 10-Year-Old Children in the Child Heart and Health Study in England (CHASE): A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Donin, Angela S.; Nightingale, Claire M.; Owen, Chris G.; Rudnicka, Alicja R.; Perkin, Michael R.; Jebb, Susan A.; Stephen, Alison M.; Sattar, Naveed; Cook, Derek G.; Whincup, Peter H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Regular breakfast consumption may protect against type 2 diabetes risk in adults but little is known about its influence on type 2 diabetes risk markers in children. We investigated the associations between breakfast consumption (frequency and content) and risk markers for type 2 diabetes (particularly insulin resistance and glycaemia) and cardiovascular disease in children. Methods and Findings We conducted a cross-sectional study of 4,116 UK primary school children aged 9–10 years. Participants provided information on breakfast frequency, had measurements of body composition, and gave fasting blood samples for measurements of blood lipids, insulin, glucose, and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c). A subgroup of 2,004 children also completed a 24-hour dietary recall. Among 4,116 children studied, 3,056 (74%) ate breakfast daily, 450 (11%) most days, 372 (9%) some days, and 238 (6%) not usually. Graded associations between breakfast frequency and risk markers were observed; children who reported not usually having breakfast had higher fasting insulin (percent difference 26.4%, 95% CI 16.6%–37.0%), insulin resistance (percent difference 26.7%, 95% CI 17.0%–37.2%), HbA1c (percent difference 1.2%, 95% CI 0.4%–2.0%), glucose (percent difference 1.0%, 95% CI 0.0%–2.0%), and urate (percent difference 6%, 95% CI 3%–10%) than those who reported having breakfast daily; these differences were little affected by adjustment for adiposity, socioeconomic status, and physical activity levels. When the higher levels of triglyceride, systolic blood pressure, and C-reactive protein for those who usually did not eat breakfast relative to those who ate breakfast daily were adjusted for adiposity, the differences were no longer significant. Children eating a high fibre cereal breakfast had lower insulin resistance than those eating other breakfast types (p for heterogeneity <0.01). Differences in nutrient intakes between breakfast frequency groups did not account for

  3. Convergence of Prevalence Rates of Diabetes and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Middle and Low Income Groups in Urban India: 10-Year Follow-Up of the Chennai Urban Population Study

    PubMed Central

    Deepa, Mohan; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Manjula, Datta; Venkat Narayan, KM; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2011-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to look for temporal changes in the prevalence of diabetes and cardiometabolic risk factors in two residential colonies in Chennai. Methods Chennai Urban Population Study (CUPS) was carried out between 1996–1998 in Chennai in two residential colonies representing the middle income group (MIG) and lower income group (LIG), respectively. The MIG had twice the prevalence rate of diabetes as the LIG and higher prevalence rates of hypertension, obesity, and dyslipidemia. They were motivated to increase their physical activity, which led to the building of a park. The LIG was given standard lifestyle advice. Follow-up surveys of both colonies were performed after a period of 10 years. Results In the MIG, the prevalence of diabetes increased from 12.4 to 15.4% (24% increase), while in the LIG, it increased from 6.5 to 15.3% (135% increase, p < .001). In the LIG, the prevalence rates of central obesity (baseline vs follow-up, male: 30.8 vs 50.9%, p < .001; female: 16.9 vs 49.8%, p < .001), hypertension (8.4 vs 20.1%, p < .001), hypercholesterolemia (14.2 vs. 20.4%, p < .05), and hypertriglyceridemia (8.0 vs 23.5%, p < .001) significantly increased and became similar to that seen in the MIG. Conclusion There is a rapid reversal of socioeconomic gradient for diabetes and cardiometabolic risk factors in urban India with a convergence of prevalence rates among people in the MIG and LIG. This could have a serious economic impact on poor people in developing countries such as India. PMID:21880235

  4. Decision-making using absolute cardiovascular risk reduction and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios: a case study

    PubMed Central

    Ker, J A; Oosthuizen, H; Rheeder, P

    2008-01-01

    Summary Background Many clinical guidelines have adopted a multifactorial cardiovascular risk assessment to identify high-risk individuals for treatment. The Framingham risk chart is a widely used risk engine to calculate the absolute cardiovascular risk of an individual. Cost-effective analyses are typically used to evaluate therapeutic strategies, but it is more problematic for a clinician when faced with alternative therapeutic strategies to calculate cost effectiveness. Aim We used a single simulated-patient model to explore the effect of different drug treatments on the calculated absolute cardiovascular risk. Methods The Framingham risk score was calculated on a hypothetical patient, and drug treatment was initiated. After every drug introduced, the score was recalculated. Single-exit pricing of the various drugs in South Africa was used to calculate the cost of reducing predicted cardiovascular risk. Results The cost-effective ratio of an antihypertensive treatment strategy was calculated to be R21.35 per percentage of risk reduction. That of a statin treatment strategy was R22.93 per percentage of risk reduction. Using a high-dose statin, the cost-effective ratio was R12.81 per percentage of risk reduction. Combining the antihypertensive and statin strategy demonstrated a cost-effective ratio of R23.84 per percentage of risk reduction. A combination of several drugs enabled the hypothetical patient to reduce the risk to 14% at a cost-effective ratio of R17.18 per percentage of risk reduction. Conclusion This model demonstrates a method to compare different therapeutic strategies to reduce cardiovascular risk with their cost-effective ratios. PMID:18516355

  5. Easy Absolute Values? Absolutely

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Sharon E.; Mittag, Kathleen Cage

    2015-01-01

    The authors teach a problem-solving course for preservice middle-grades education majors that includes concepts dealing with absolute-value computations, equations, and inequalities. Many of these students like mathematics and plan to teach it, so they are adept at symbolic manipulations. Getting them to think differently about a concept that they…

  6. Long-term Absolute Risk of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 3 or Worse Following Human Papillomavirus Infection: Role of Persistence

    PubMed Central

    Frederiksen, Kirsten; Munk, Christian; Iftner, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Background Infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is the main cause of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cancer. It has been suggested that information about high-risk HPV type–specific infection might make cervical cancer screening more effective. Persistent HPV infection could also be a useful screening marker. We estimated the long-term risk of high-grade CIN after one-time detection of high-risk HPV DNA and after persistent infection with individual high-risk HPV types. Methods A cohort of 8656 women from the general population of Denmark was examined twice, 2 years apart (first study examination: May 15, 1991, to January 31, 1993; second study examination: October 1, 1993, to January 31, 1995). The women underwent a gynecological examination and cervical cytology and had swabs taken for HPV DNA analysis by the Hybrid Capture 2 and line probe assays. The women were followed up through the nationwide Danish Pathology Data Bank for cervical neoplasia for up to 13.4 years. The absolute risk of developing cervical lesions before a given time was estimated as a function of time. Results For women with normal cytological findings who were concurrently HPV16 DNA positive at the second examination, the estimated probability of developing CIN grade 3 (CIN3) or worse within 12 years of follow-up was 26.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 21.1% to 31.8%). The corresponding risks among those infected with HPV18 was 19.1% (95% CI = 10.4% to 27.3%), with HPV31 was 14.3% (95% CI = 9.1% to 19.4%), and with HPV33 was 14.9% (95% CI = 7.9% to 21.1%). The absolute risk of CIN3 or worse after infection with high-risk HPV types other than HPV16, HPV18, HPV31, or HPV33 was 6.0% (95% CI = 3.8% to 8.3%). The estimated absolute risk for CIN3 or cancer within 12 years of the second examination among women who were HPV16 DNA positive at both examinations was 47.4% (95% CI = 34.9% to 57.5%); by contrast, the risk of CIN3 or worse following a negative

  7. Mitochondrial ROS Metabolism: 10 Years Later

    PubMed Central

    Kushnareva, Y. E.; Murphy, A. N.

    2015-01-01

    The role of mitochondria in oxidative stress is well recognized, but many questions are still to be answered. This article is intended to update our comprehensive review in 2005 by highlighting the progress in understanding of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism over the past 10 years. We review the recently identified or re-appraised sources of ROS generation in mitochondria, such as p66shc protein, succinate dehydrogenase, and recently discovered properties of the mitochondrial antioxidant system. We also reflect upon some controversies, disputes, and misconceptions that confound the field. PMID:26071769

  8. Pediatric lung transplantation: 10 years of experience

    PubMed Central

    Camargo, Priscila C. L. B.; Pato, Eduardo Z. S.; Campos, Silvia V.; Afonso, José E.; Carraro, Rafael M.; Costa, André N.; Teixeira, Ricardo H. O. B.; Samano, Marcos N.; Pêgo-Fernandes, Paulo M.

    2014-01-01

    Lung transplantation is a well-established treatment for advanced lung diseases. In children, the diseases that most commonly lead to the need for a transplantation are cystic fibrosis, pulmonary hypertension, and bronchiolitis. However, the number of pediatric lung transplantations being performed is low compared with the number of transplants performed in the adult age group. The objective of this study was to demonstrate our experience with pediatric lung transplants over a 10-year period in a program initially designed for adults. PMID:24860860

  9. Neurology--the next 10 years.

    PubMed

    Baron, Ralf; Ferriero, Donna M; Frisoni, Giovanni B; Bettegowda, Chetan; Gokaslan, Ziya L; Kessler, John A; Vezzani, Annamaria; Waxman, Stephen G; Jarius, Sven; Wildemann, Brigitte; Weller, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Since the launch of our journal as Nature Clinical Practice Neurology in 2005, we have seen remarkable progress in many areas of neurology research, but what does the future hold? Will advances in basic research be translated into effective disease-modifying therapies, and will personalized medicine finally become a reality? For this special Viewpoint article, we invited a panel of Advisory Board members and other journal contributors to outline their research priorities and predictions in neurology for the next 10 years. PMID:26503922

  10. Possible association between ocular chloramphenicol and aplastic anaemia—the absolute risk is very low

    PubMed Central

    Laporte, Joan-Ramon; Vidal, Xavier; Ballarín, Elena; Ibáñez, Luisa

    1998-01-01

    Aims To determine whether topical ocular chloramphenicol increases the risk of aplastic anaemia and to estimate the magnitude of this risk, if any. Methods Population-based prospective case-control surveillance of aplastic anaemia in a community of 4.2 million inhabitants from 1980 to 1995 (67.2 million person-years) plus case-population estimate of the risk, based on sales figures of ocular chloramphenicol in the study area during the study period. Results One hundred and forty-five patients with aplastic anaemia and 1,226 controls were included in the analysis. Three cases (2.1%) and 5 controls (0.4%) had been exposed to ocular chloramphenicol during the relevant etiological period. The adjusted odds ratio was 3.77 (95% confidence interval, 0.84–16.90). Two cases had also been exposed to other known causes of aplastic anaemia. The incidence of aplastic anaemia among users of ocular chloramphenicol was 0.36 cases per million weeks of treatment. The incidence among non users was 0.04 cases per million weeks. Conclusions An association between ocular chloramphenicol and aplastic anaemia cannot be excluded. However, the risk is less than one per million treatment courses. PMID:9723830

  11. The 10-year Incidence of Tinnitus Among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Nondahl, DM; Cruickshanks, KJ; Wiley, TL; Klein, BEK; Klein, R; Chappell, R; Tweed, TS

    2010-01-01

    As part of a population-based study in Beaver Dam, Wisconsin, we estimated the 10-year cumulative incidence of tinnitus and its risk factors. Participants (n = 2922, aged 48–92 years) not reporting tinnitus at baseline (1993–1995) were followed for up to ten years. In addition to audiometric testing and anthropometric measures, data on tinnitus, health and other history were obtained via questionnaire. Potential risk factors were assessed with discrete-time proportional hazards models. The 10-year cumulative incidence of tinnitus was 12.7%. The risk of developing tinnitus was significantly associated with: history of arthritis (Hazard ratio (HR) = 1.37), history of head injury (HR = 1.76), history of ever smoking (HR = 1.40), and among women, hearing loss (HR = 2.59). Alcohol consumption (HR = 0.63 for ≥ 141 grams/week vs. < 15 grams/week), age (among women, HR = 0.90 for each 5-year increase in age), and among men, obesity (HR = 0.55), were associated with decreased risk. The risk of developing tinnitus was high for older adults and associated with modifiable health and behavioral factors. PMID:20560859

  12. The professional code--10 years later.

    PubMed

    Aston-McCrimmon, E

    1986-01-01

    In 1974, following an extensive eight-year review of professional practices in the Province of Quebec, the Professional Code and the 21 professional bills associated with it became operational. Thirty-eight professional corporations encompassing the fields of health, administration, finance, applied sciences and justice were named in the Code, and each was assigned an exclusive mandate to protect the public. The mechanisms outline for controlling professional practice and promoting public service included professional inspection and discipline, as well as regulations regarding ethics, the arbitration of accounts, the keeping of client records, and publicity. This paper discusses the effectiveness of these mechanisms over the past 10-year period. It also looks at the capabilities of the corporations to achieve their mandates in light of the legal status assigned to each--whether that be exclusive right of practice and reserve of title (21 corporations), or reserve of title only (17 corporations). PMID:10275979

  13. Aqua's First 10 Years: An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, Claire L.

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Aqua spacecraft was launched at 2:55 a.m. on May 4, 2002, from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California, into a near-polar, sun-synchronous orbit at an altitude of 705 km. Aqua carries six Earth-observing instruments to collect data on water in all its forms (liquid, vapor, and solid) and on a wide variety of additional Earth system variables (Parkinson 2003). The design lifetime for Aqua's prime mission was 6 years, and Aqua is now well into its extended mission, approaching 10 years of successful operations. The Aqua data have been used for hundreds of scientific studies and continue to be used for scientific discovery and numerous practical applications.

  14. Penile injuries: A 10-year experience

    PubMed Central

    Krishna Reddy, S.V.; Shaik, Ahammad Basha; Sreenivas, K.

    2014-01-01

    We report our 10-year experience with penile injuries. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 156 cases of male external genitalia injuries between May 2002 and December 2012. Of these, only 26 patients presented without urethral injuries and were included in this study. Patients were divided into 4 groups: Group 1 (n = 12) with patients with penile fractures injuries; Group 2 (n = 5) with patients with penile amputation injuries; Group 3 (n = 2) with patients with penile penetrating injuries; and Group 4 (n = 7) with patients with penile soft tissue injuries. Grading of injury was done using the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST)-Organ injury scale of penile injury. Penile injuries without urethral injuries are urological emergencies which require immediate attention. PMID:25295134

  15. Spatial comparison of areas at risk for schistosomiasis in the hilly and mountainous regions in the People's Republic of China: evaluation of the long-term effect of the 10-year World Bank Loan Project.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Jie; Zhu, Rong; Bergquist, Robert; Chen, Dong-Mei; Chen, Yue; Zhang, Li-Juan; Guo, Jia-Gang; Zhao, Fei; Jiang, Qing-Wu

    2012-05-01

    The long-term effectiveness of the mainly chemotherapy-based control strategy of the World Bank Loan Project (WBLP) for schistosomiasis control in Chinese hilly and mountainous regions was evaluated with a view to determine the best road forward. Based on the national database of schistosomiasis prevalence for the periods of 1999-2001 and 2007-2008 in the People's Republic of China, a Bayesian regression model was used for spatial comparison of schistosomiasis risk distribution between two periods taking account of all the potential risk factors simultaneously through two latent components of random effects: spatially correlated heterogeneities (CH) and spatially uncorrelated heterogeneities (UH). Four different types of endemic areas were investigated: those that remained endemic despite control efforts (17 or 37.8%), those that became non-endemic (9 or 20.0%), those that reverted back to endemicity (7 or 15.6%), and those with fluctuating endemicity (12 or 26.7%). The overall prevalence of schistosomiasis was lower in 2007-2008 compared with that in 1999-2001, but the spatial distribution of risk remained similar. Compared to 1999-2001, the magnitude and range of risk even tended to be greater in 2007-2008. UH showed a fluctuating pattern, while CH increased gradually doubling over the two periods. There was no evidence for long-term effectiveness of the WBLP chemotherapy-based control strategy in this region. Controlling the effect of UH is still the main aspect of current schistosomiasis control strategy for the hilly and mountainous regions, but innovative methods are urgently needed for effectively controlling UH. PMID:22639122

  16. Physical activity, obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors in 9- to 10-year-old UK children of white European, South Asian and black African-Caribbean origin: the Child Heart And health Study in England (CHASE)

    PubMed Central

    Nightingale, C. M.; Rudnicka, A. R.; Sattar, N.; Cook, D. G.; Ekelund, U.; Whincup, P. H.

    2010-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Physical inactivity is implicated in unfavourable patterns of obesity and cardiometabolic risk in childhood. However, few studies have quantified these associations using objective physical activity measurements in children from different ethnic groups. We examined these associations in UK children of South Asian, black African-Caribbean and white European origin. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of 2,049 primary school children in three UK cities, who had standardised anthropometric measurements, provided fasting blood samples and wore activity monitors for up to 7 days. Data were analysed using multilevel linear regression and allowing for measurement error. Results Overall physical activity levels showed strong inverse graded associations with adiposity markers (particularly sum of skinfold thicknesses), fasting insulin, HOMA insulin resistance, triacylglycerol and C-reactive protein; for an increase of 100 counts of physical activity per min of registered time, levels of these factors were 12.2% (95% CI 10.2–14.1%), 10.2% (95% CI 7.5–12.8%), 10.2% (95% CI 7.5–12.8%), 5.8% (95% CI 4.0–7.5%) and 19.2% (95% CI 13.9–24.2%) lower, respectively. Similar increments in physical activity levels were associated with lower diastolic blood pressure (1.0 mmHg, 95% CI 0.6–1.5 mmHg) and LDL-cholesterol (0.04 mmol/l, 95% CI 0.01–0.07 mmol/l), and higher HDL-cholesterol (0.02 mmol/l, 95% CI 0.01–0.04 mmol/l). Moreover, associations were broadly similar in strength in all ethnic groups. All associations between physical activity and cardiometabolic risk factors were reduced (albeit variably) after adjustment for adiposity. Conclusions/interpretation Objectively measured physical activity correlates at least as well with obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors in South Asian and African-Caribbean children as in white European children, suggesting that efforts to increase activity levels in such groups would have equally beneficial

  17. High-Intensity Chemotherapy is Associated with Better Prognosis in Young Patients with High-Risk Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma: A 10-Year Single-Center Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiaorong; Xu, Yan; Zhang, Wanggang; Wang, Jin; Cao, Xingmei; Chen, Yinxia; He, Aili; Liu, Jie; Wang, Jianli; Zhao, Wanhong; Yang, Yun

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients <60 years old with high-risk diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) receiving standard RCHOP(E) treatment display high relapse rates. Here, we compared this standard regimen to a high-intensity regimen in terms of recurrence and long-term survival. Material/Methods Newly diagnosed DLBCL patients <60 years old who were treated at the Second Hospital Affiliated with Xi’an Jiaotong University between January 2004 and December 2013 (n=198, 18–60 years) were included in the study. The high-intensity group included 107 patients (54.0%) who received >8 courses of chemotherapy (high-dose CHOP, CHOP-E, EPOCH, MAED, MMED, and HyperCVAD). The control group included 91 patients (46.0%) who received 6–8 courses of CHOP-based treatment. Response rate (RR), survival, relapse, and adverse effects were compared. Results Baseline characteristics of the patients were similar between the 2 groups. Median follow-up was 64.5 months. RR in the high-intensity and control groups was 88.8% and 84.6% (P=0.387), respectively; 5-year overall survival was 66.4% and 36.3% (P<0.001), respectively; 5-year progression-free survival was 56.1% and 28.6% (P<0.001), respectively; 5-year disease-free survival was 54.2% and 24.2% (P<0.001), respectively; and relapse rate during follow-up was 29.5% and 67.5% (P<0.001), respectively. There were no significant differences in adverse effects between the 2 groups. Conclusions High-intensity chemotherapy is associated with better prognosis of patients <60 years old with newly diagnosed high-risk DLBCL. PMID:27232105

  18. High feasibility and antileukemic efficacy of fludarabine, cytarabine, and idarubicin (FLAI) induction followed by risk-oriented consolidation: A critical review of a 10-year, single-center experience in younger, non M3 AML patients.

    PubMed

    Guolo, Fabio; Minetto, Paola; Clavio, Marino; Miglino, Maurizio; Di Grazia, Carmen; Ballerini, Filippo; Pastori, Giordana; Guardo, Daniela; Colombo, Nicoletta; Kunkl, Annalisa; Fugazza, Giuseppina; Rebesco, Barbara; Sessarego, Mario; Lemoli, Roberto Massimo; Bacigalupo, Andrea; Gobbi, Marco

    2016-08-01

    About 105 consecutive acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients treated with the same induction-consolidation program between 2004 and 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. Median age was 47 years. The first induction course included fludarabine (Flu) and high-dose cytarabine (Ara-C) plus idarubicin (Ida), with or without gemtuzumab-ozogamicin (GO) 3 mg/m(2) (FLAI-5). Patients achieving complete remission (CR) received a second course without fludarabine but with higher dose of idarubicin. Patients not achieving CR received an intensified second course. Patients not scheduled for early allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (HSCT) where planned to receive at least two courses of consolidation therapy with Ara-C. Our double induction strategy significantly differs from described fludarabine-containing regimens, as patients achieving CR receive a second course without fludarabine, to avoid excess toxicity, and Ara-C consolidation is administrated at the reduced cumulative dose of 8 g/m(2) per cycle. Toxicity is a major concern in fludarabine containing induction, including the recent Medical Research Council AML15 fludarabine, cytarabine, idaraubicin and G-CSF (FLAG-Ida) arm, and, despite higher anti-leukemic efficacy, only a minority of patients is able to complete the full planned program. In this article, we show that our therapeutic program is generally well tolerated, as most patients were able to receive subsequent therapy at full dose and in a timely manner, with a 30-day mortality of 4.8%. The omission of fludarabine in the second course did not reduce efficacy, as a CR rate of 83% was achieved and 3-year disease-free survival and overall survival (OS) were 49.6% and 50.9%, respectively. Our experience shows that FLAI-5/Ara-C + Ida double induction followed by risk-oriented consolidation therapy can result in good overall outcome with acceptable toxicity. Am. J. Hematol. 91:755-762, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27084986

  19. Absolute quantification of the pretreatment PML-RARA transcript defines the relapse risk in acute promyelocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Albano, Francesco; Zagaria, Antonella; Anelli, Luisa; Coccaro, Nicoletta; Tota, Giuseppina; Brunetti, Claudia; Minervini, Crescenzio Francesco; Impera, Luciana; Minervini, Angela; Cellamare, Angelo; Orsini, Paola; Cumbo, Cosimo; Casieri, Paola; Specchia, Giorgina

    2015-05-30

    In this study we performed absolute quantification of the PML-RARA transcript by droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) in 76 newly diagnosed acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) cases to verify the prognostic impact of the PML-RARA initial molecular burden. ddPCR analysis revealed that the amount of PML-RARA transcript at diagnosis in the group of patients who relapsed was higher than in that with continuous complete remission (CCR) (272 vs 89.2 PML-RARA copies/ng, p = 0.0004, respectively). Receiver operating characteristic analysis detected the optimal PML-RARA concentration threshold as 209.6 PML-RARA/ng (AUC 0.78; p < 0.0001) for discriminating between outcomes (CCR versus relapse). Among the 67 APL cases who achieved complete remission after the induction treatment, those with >209.6 PML-RARA/ng had a worse relapse-free survival (p = 0.0006). At 5-year follow-up, patients with >209.6 PML-RARA/ng had a cumulative incidence of relapse of 50.3% whereas 7.5% of the patients with suffered a relapse (p < 0.0001). Multivariate analysis identified the amount of PML-RARA before induction treatment as the sole independent prognostic factor for APL relapse.Our results show that the pretreatment PML-RARA molecular burden could therefore be used to improve risk stratification in order to develop more individualized treatment regimens for high-risk APL cases. PMID:25944686

  20. Childhood AIDS nephropathy: a 10-year experience.

    PubMed Central

    Rajpoot, D.; Kaupke, C. J.; Vaziri, N. D.; Rao, T. K.; Pomrantz, A.; Fikrig, S.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this study was to define the demographic, immunologic, and clinical characteristics of children with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and AIDS nephropathy, and contrast this with the existing adult data. Data from 62 pediatric patients with AIDS who were treated at SUNY Health Science Center, Brooklyn, New York, between 1983 and 1993 were analyzed. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection was acquired during the neonatal period by vertical transmission (n = 60) or blood transfusion (n = 2). All children with AIDS who exhibited clinical nephropathy died (n = 16), with mean survival of 55.3 months. In contrast, 32 of 56 AIDS patients (70%) who did not manifest nephropathy were alive at the end of the study period. Patients with nephropathy were noted to have significantly lower CD4+ lymphocyte counts than those without nephropathy. These observations suggest that the predominant renal lesion in pediatric patients who acquired HIV infection during the perinatal period is focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, although a variety of other histological lesions were present. As in adults, the survival in children is dismal following the onset of clinical renal disease. In contrast to the adult population in whom multiple risk factors can potentially contribute to AIDS-associated nephropathy, occurrence of nephropathy in children with vertical HIV transmission provides convincing evidence for the pathogenetic role of HIV infection. PMID:8803430

  1. Methodology to predict long-term cancer survival from short-term data using Tobacco Cancer Risk and Absolute Cancer Cure models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mould, R. F.; Lederman, M.; Tai, P.; Wong, J. K. M.

    2002-11-01

    Three parametric statistical models have been fully validated for cancer of the larynx for the prediction of long-term 15, 20 and 25 year cancer-specific survival fractions when short-term follow-up data was available for just 1-2 years after the end of treatment of the last patient. In all groups of cases the treatment period was only 5 years. Three disease stage groups were studied, T1N0, T2N0 and T3N0. The models are the Standard Lognormal (SLN) first proposed by Boag (1949 J. R. Stat. Soc. Series B 11 15-53) but only ever fully validated for cancer of the cervix, Mould and Boag (1975 Br. J. Cancer 32 529-50), and two new models which have been termed Tobacco Cancer Risk (TCR) and Absolute Cancer Cure (ACC). In each, the frequency distribution of survival times of defined groups of cancer deaths is lognormally distributed: larynx only (SLN), larynx and lung (TCR) and all cancers (ACC). All models each have three unknown parameters but it was possible to estimate a value for the lognormal parameter S a priori. By reduction to two unknown parameters the model stability has been improved. The material used to validate the methodology consisted of case histories of 965 patients, all treated during the period 1944-1968 by Dr Manuel Lederman of the Royal Marsden Hospital, London, with follow-up to 1988. This provided a follow-up range of 20- 44 years and enabled predicted long-term survival fractions to be compared with the actual survival fractions, calculated by the Kaplan and Meier (1958 J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 53 457-82) method. The TCR and ACC models are better than the SLN model and for a maximum short-term follow-up of 6 years, the 20 and 25 year survival fractions could be predicted. Therefore the numbers of follow-up years saved are respectively 14 years and 19 years. Clinical trial results using the TCR and ACC models can thus be analysed much earlier than currently possible. Absolute cure from cancer was also studied, using not only the prediction models which

  2. Administrative Reinstatement Interlock Programs: Florida, a 10-Year Study

    PubMed Central

    Voas, Robert B.; Tippetts, A. Scott; Grosz, Milton

    2013-01-01

    Background Interlocks reduce driving-under-the-influence (DUI) recidivism by 64%, but offenders resist installing them, preferring to risk driving while their driver’s licenses are revoked. One method of motivating offenders to install an interlock is require it for reinstatement of their driver’s license. This report updates an earlier evaluation of the administrative reinstatement interlock program (ARIP) procedure implemented in Florida in 2002. Method Driver records and interlock program records covering 120,000 DUI offenders were followed over 10 years. The flow through the sanction system—conviction, reinstatement, interlock program, and postinterlock period—is described. Logistical regression was used to identify the characteristics of offenders who installed interlocks, and survival analysis was used to evaluate the recidivism of offenders in the various stages in the ARIP. Results At any given time, approximately one third of the convicted offenders were serving their license-revocation periods. Half of the offenders who completed their revocation periods remain unqualified for reinstatement because they do not fulfill other requirements. ARIP offenders who do qualify for reinstatement and install interlocks have lower recidivism rates while the devices are on their vehicles. Conclusions After 10 years, Florida’s ARIP is a mature system that succeeds in forcing all offenders in the program who qualify for reinstatement to install an interlock for at least 6 months. However, half of all offenders who complete their mandatory revocation period are either unable to, or choose not to, qualify for reinstatement. PMID:23442206

  3. Nutrient intakes of 2- to 10-year-old American children: 10-year trends.

    PubMed

    Albertson, A M; Tobelmann, R C; Engstrom, A; Asp, E H

    1992-12-01

    Nutrient intakes of American children aged 2 to 10 years were compared for the years 1978 and 1988 using a unique nutrient assessment system designed and developed by the Nutrition Department at General Mills. This system integrated data from three sources: 14-day food consumption diaries collected from 4,000 households in the Market Research Corporation of America Menu Census panel surveys; serving-size data from the spring 1977 Nationwide Food Consumption Survey; and nutrient data from the Michigan State University Nutrient Data Bank. The results indicate that energy and macronutrient intakes remained fairly constant over the 10-year period. Average daily vitamin and mineral intakes were lower in 1988 than in 1978 for the majority of those studied; however, most nutrient levels remained over 100% of the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs). For more than 50% of the population, the intakes of calcium, vitamin B-6, and zinc were below the RDAs. Our findings indicate the need for continued monitoring of the impact of changing food consumption patterns on the diets of American children. PMID:1452963

  4. High post-treatment absolute monocyte count predicted hepatocellular carcinoma risk in HCV patients who failed peginterferon/ribavirin therapy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tsung-Ming; Lin, Chun-Che; Huang, Pi-Teh; Wen, Chen-Fan

    2016-06-01

    Salient studies have investigated the association between host inflammatory response and cancer. This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that peripheral absolute monocyte counts (AMC) could impart an increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients after a failed peginterferon/ribavirin (PR) combination therapy. A total of 723 chronic HCV-infected patients were treated with PR, of which 183 (25.3 %) patients did not achieve a sustained virological response (non-SVR). Post-treatment AMC values were measured at 6 months after end of PR treatment. Fifteen (2.8 %) of 540 patients with an SVR developed HCC during a median follow-up period of 41.4 months, and 14 (7.7 %) of 183 non-SVR patients developed HCC during a median follow-up of 36.8 months (log rank test for SVR vs. non-SVR, P = 0.002). Cox regression analysis revealed that post-treatment AFP level (HR 1.070; 95 % CI = 1.024-1.119, P = 0.003) and post-treatment aspartate aminotransferase (AST)-to-platelet ratio index (APRI) ≥0.5 (HR 4.401; 95 % CI = 1.463-13.233, P = 0.008) were independent variables associated with HCC development for SVR patients. For non-SVR patients, diabetes (HR 5.750; 95 % CI = 1.387-23.841, P = 0.016), post treatment AMC ≥370 mm(-3) (HR 5.805; 95 % CI = 1.268-26.573, P = 0.023), and post-treatment APRI ≥1.5 (HR 10.905; 95 % CI = 2.493-47.697, P = 0.002) were independent risks associated with HCC. In conclusion, post-treatment AMC has a role in prognostication of HCC development in HCV-infected patients who failed to achieve an SVR after PR combination therapy. PMID:26662957

  5. The academic occupational physician as consultant. A 10-year perspective.

    PubMed

    McCunney, R J

    1994-04-01

    The academic community has long served the private sector in a consultant capacity in engineering and in the sciences. With respect to occupational medicine, physicians, when working for industry, have generally practiced in a health care setting. Within the past 10 years, however, the business sector has placed more attention on the health implications of its operations as a result of regulations, liability, and rising health care costs. These issues, which go beyond traditional clinical responsibilities, have furthered the need for businesses to receive strategic medical advice to effectively operate and to maintain a competitive edge. One particular business sector, the chemical industry, has been challenged seriously because of legitimate as well as perceived health risks associated with the production and use of its products. This paper describes the professional experiences over a 10-year period (1983 to 1993) of an occupational physician working as a consultant to an international chemical company. Services have related to epidemiology, health policy, toxicology, plant oversight as well as serving as a health advisor on matters involving the relation between business and health. An academic affiliation with an occupational medicine residency program has facilitated access to related occupational health professionals to assist in problem solving and research. Opportunities for consulting in occupational medicine will depend upon the nature of the organization as well as the personal and professional characteristics of the physician. Requests for these types of services, however, are likely to expand in the near future, primarily as a result of wider awareness of the implications of work on health, increased litigation, and government regulations. PMID:8014716

  6. Absolute Zero

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnelly, Russell J.; Sheibley, D.; Belloni, M.; Stamper-Kurn, D.; Vinen, W. F.

    2006-12-01

    Absolute Zero is a two hour PBS special attempting to bring to the general public some of the advances made in 400 years of thermodynamics. It is based on the book “Absolute Zero and the Conquest of Cold” by Tom Shachtman. Absolute Zero will call long-overdue attention to the remarkable strides that have been made in low-temperature physics, a field that has produced 27 Nobel Prizes. It will explore the ongoing interplay between science and technology through historical examples including refrigerators, ice machines, frozen foods, liquid oxygen and nitrogen as well as much colder fluids such as liquid hydrogen and liquid helium. A website has been established to promote the series: www.absolutezerocampaign.org. It contains information on the series, aimed primarily at students at the middle school level. There is a wealth of material here and we hope interested teachers will draw their student’s attention to this website and its substantial contents, which have been carefully vetted for accuracy.

  7. Language Disorders: A 10-Year Research Update Review

    PubMed Central

    TOPPELBERG, CLAUDIO O.; SHAPIRO, THEODORE

    2012-01-01

    Objective To review the past 10 years of research in child language or communication disorders, which are highly prevalent in the general population and comorbid with childhood psychiatric disorders. Method A literature search of 3 major databases was conducted. The child language literature, describing the domains of language development—phonology, grammar, semantics, and pragmatics—is reviewed. Results Disorders of grammar, semantics, and pragmatics, but not phonology, overlap significantly with childhood psychiatric disorders. Receptive language disorders have emerged as high-risk indicators, often undiagnosed. Language disorders and delays are psychiatric risk factors and have implications for evaluation, therapy, and research. However, they are often undiagnosed in child mental health and community settings. The research has focused mostly on monolingual English-speaking children. Conclusion Awareness of basic child language development, delay, and deviance is crucial for the practicing child and adolescent psychiatrist, who must diagnose and refer relevant cases for treatment and remediation. Future research needs to address the growing language diversity of our clinical populations. PMID:10673823

  8. Absolute Summ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Alfred, Jr.

    Summ means the entirety of the multiverse. It seems clear, from the inflation theories of A. Guth and others, that the creation of many universes is plausible. We argue that Absolute cosmological ideas, not unlike those of I. Newton, may be consistent with dynamic multiverse creations. As suggested in W. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, and with the Anthropic Principle defended by S. Hawking, et al., human consciousness, buttressed by findings of neuroscience, may have to be considered in our models. Predictability, as A. Einstein realized with Invariants and General Relativity, may be required for new ideas to be part of physics. We present here a two postulate model geared to an Absolute Summ. The seedbed of this work is part of Akhnaton's philosophy (see S. Freud, Moses and Monotheism). Most important, however, is that the structure of human consciousness, manifest in Kenya's Rift Valley 200,000 years ago as Homo sapiens, who were the culmination of the six million year co-creation process of Hominins and Nature in Africa, allows us to do the physics that we do. .

  9. Circles South East: the first 10 years 2002-2012.

    PubMed

    Bates, Andrew; Williams, Dominic; Wilson, Chris; Wilson, Robin J

    2014-07-01

    This article describes the first 10 years of the implementation of Circles of Support and Accountability (Circles) in the management of sexual offenders in South-East England by Circles South East (CSE). The Circles of 71 core members are reviewed in detail, with reference to demographic data, offense and sentencing histories, risk assessment data, and considerations regarding Multi-Agency Public Protection Arrangements. A group of 71 comparison subjects who were referred to CSE and deemed suitable for but did not receive the service was identified. Follow-up behaviors of both groups are examined (including all forms of reconviction, breach of orders, and prison recall). Over a comparable follow-up period of 55 months, the incidence of violent and contact sexual reconviction in the comparison group was significantly higher than for the Circles cohort. Comparisons are made between expected and actual levels of sexual reconviction, with the Circles cohort showing lower than expected rate of sexual reconviction but not to a statistically significant degree. PMID:23615793

  10. PCC characteristics at rest in 10-year memory decliners.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Charlotte; Dilharreguy, Bixente; Helmer, Catherine; Chanraud, Sandra; Amieva, Hélène; Dartigues, Jean-François; Allard, Michèle; Catheline, Gwénaëlle

    2015-10-01

    The present research sought to characterize the intrinsic functional networks associated with a 10-year episodic memory decline in elderly using data from a longitudinal population-based cohort (Bordeaux-3City). Complementary measures of whole-brain resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging investigations were combined to compare functional architecture of brain networks both at connectional and topological levels in 22 decliners to 22 nondecliners; episodic memory decline being assessed through a multiple time point Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test. The decliners presented differences in functional architecture centered on the posterior cingulate cortex, characterized by a significant decrease of connectivity intensity, a significant increased centrality. In accordance, a decrease of the functional connectivity inside the default mode network was observed in the decliners. Our results highlight the central role of the posterior cingulate cortex in a slow but reliable memory decline in elderly. Because functional alterations of this region are currently described in Alzheimer's disease, this functional signature could constitute a risk for Alzheimer's disease. PMID:26234756

  11. 10 years of surveillance of human tularaemia in France.

    PubMed

    Mailles, A; Vaillant, V

    2014-01-01

    Tularaemia has been mandatorily notifiable in France since October 2002. The surveillance aims to detect early any infection possibly due to bioterrorism and to follow up disease trends. We report the results of national surveillance from 2002 to 2012. A case is defined as a patient with clinical presentation suggestive of tularaemia and biological confirmation of infection or an epidemiological link with a biologically confirmed case. Clinical, biological and epidemiological data are collected using a standardised notification form. From 2002 to 2012, 433 cases were notified, with a median age of 49 years (range 2 to 95 years) and a male–female sex ratio of 1.8. Most frequent clinical presentations were glandular tularaemia (n=200; 46%) and ulceroglandular tularaemia (n=113; 26%). Most frequent at-risk exposures were handling hares (n=179; 41%) and outdoor leisure exposure to dust aerosols (n=217; 50%). Tick bites were reported by 82 patients (19%). Ten clusters (39 cases) were detected over the 10-year period, as well as a national outbreak during winter 2007/2008. The tularaemia surveillance system is able to detect small clusters as well as major outbreaks. Surveillance data show exposure to dust aerosols during outdoor leisure activities to be a major source of contamination in France. PMID:25411688

  12. Eating With Your Heart In Mind: 7 to 10 Year Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Heart, Lung, and Blood Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    The purpose of this brightly illustrated guide is to teach 7-10 year old children that all healthy Americans, 2 years of age or older, should eat in a way that is low in saturated fat and cholesterol so as to help reduce the risk of heart disease. The theme reflected throughout the manual is that changes in eating patterns help lower blood…

  13. Impact of Adolescent Alcohol and Drug Use on Neuropsychological Functioning in Young Adulthood: 10-Year Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Karen L.; Medina, Krista Lisdahl; Padula, Claudia B.; Tapert, Susan F.; Brown, Sandra A.

    2011-01-01

    Because of ongoing neuromaturation, youth with chronic alcohol/substance use disorders (AUD/SUD) are at risk for cognitive decrements during young adulthood. We prospectively examined cognition over 10 years based on AUD/SUD history. Youth (N = 51) with no AUD/SUD history (n = 14), persisting AUD/SUD (n = 18), or remitted AUD/SUD (n = 19) were…

  14. Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement 10-Year Plan, 1990--1999

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    In 1988 Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) began work on this Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement 10-Year Plan to develop a levelized program that would assure high system reliability. During the Programs in Perspective (PIP) meetings in the later summer and fall of 1988, many of the concerns to be addressed in an Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement Plan were identified. Following these PIP meetings BPA established internal work groups. During the winter and spring of 1989, these work groups developed technical background and issue papers on topics that ranged from substation maintenance to environmental protection. In addition, a customer forum group was established and met on several occasions to review work on the plan, to offer ideas and points of view, and to assure that BPA understood customer concerns. Based on recommendations from the work group reports and customer input, BPA's O M Management Team developed the draft Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement 10-Year Plan that was released for public comment during the spring of 1990. During the public review period, BPA received a number of written comments from customers and the interested public. In addition, special meetings were held with interested customers. This final Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement 10-year Plan reflects BPA's response to customers and interested public on each topic discussed in the 10-Year Plan. The plan is a distillation of BPA's strategies to achieve a levelized program over 10 years.

  15. Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement 10-Year Plan, 1990 -1999.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1990-08-01

    In 1988 Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) began work on this Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement 10-Year Plan to develop a levelized program that would assure high system reliability. During the Programs in Perspective (PIP) meetings in the late summer and fall of 1988, many of the concerns to be addressed in an Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement Plan were identified. Following these PIP meetings BPA established internal work groups. During the winter and spring of 1989, these work groups developed technical background and issue papers on topics that ranged from substation maintenance to environmental protection. In addition, a customer forum group was established and met on several occasions to review work on the plan, to offer ideas and points of view, and to assure that BPA understood customer concerns. Based on recommendations from the work group reports and customer input, BPA's O M Management Team developed the draft Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement 10-Year Plan that was released for public comment during the spring of 1990. During the public review period, BPA received a number of written comments from customers and the interested public. In addition, special meetings were held with interested customers. This final Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement 10-Year Plan reflects BPA's response to customers and interested public on each topic discussed in the 10-Year Plan. The plan is a distillation of BPA's strategies to achieve a levelized program over 10 years.

  16. Looking forward, looking back-10 years in urology.

    PubMed

    Albersen, Maarten; Cartwright, Rufus; Choyke, Peter; Goldenberg, S Larry; Goldman, Howard; Lawrentschuk, Nathan; Linehan, W Marston; Murphy, Declan; Nagler, Harris; Scardino, Peter; Shortliffe, Linda; Stenzl, Arnulf; Theodorescu, Dan

    2014-11-01

    When Nature Reviews Urology launched in 2004, the field of urology was vastly different to that which we work in today, and the past 10 years have seen the field change immensely. As a specialty on the forefront of cutting-edge innovation, urologists are often the first to embrace new technologies and ideas. In this Viewpoint, members of the Nature Reviews Urology advisory board were asked what they thought was the most important change, issue or innovation in urology in the past 10 years, and what they expected to be the most important in the next decade. Here are their opinions. PMID:25348169

  17. "JPBI" 10 Years Later: Trends in Research Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Dell, Sean M.; Vilardo, Brigid A.; Kern, Lee; Kokina, Anastasia; Ash, Allison N.; Seymour, Kimberly J.; Castrantas, Lauren M.; Kollar, Rachel B.; Wagner, Andrea M.; Bartholomew, Audrey; Thomas, Lisa B.

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, the "Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions" ("JPBI") celebrated 10 years in publication. As the flagship journal of positive behavior support (PBS), it is important to periodically examine the research published in "JPBI" to determine whether it reflects the basic principles of PBS, to explore the ways in which PBS is being…

  18. 10 Years of Media Literacy Education in K-12 Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daunic, Rhys

    2011-01-01

    When the author started working with teachers and students on classroom multimedia productions a little over 10 years ago, he had not yet encountered the term "media literacy", nor did he realize he had joined a long standing international movement of media literacy educators. Serendipitous exposure to "old-media" texts by Neil Postman and Noam…

  19. Smart Start: Celebrating 10 Years, 1993-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina Partnership for Children, Raleigh.

    Smart Start, a public-private initiative celebrating 10 years of operation, invests in high quality early care and education services for all children, birth to age five, and their families in North Carolina. The initiative funds programs to improve the quality, affordability, and availability of child care as well as children's health and family…

  20. The Mathematical Abilities of Dyslexic 10-Year-Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, T. R.; Haslum, M. N.; Wheeler, T. J.

    2001-01-01

    Seventy-two items testing various aspects of mathematics were given to 12,131 10-year-old British children. Despite the absence of difference in intelligence level, the mean scores on the mathematics test for children with dyslexia was not only lower than that of normal achievers, but also lower than that of underachievers. (Contains references.)…

  1. Interrogating the Subject: Queering Elementary Education, 10 Years On

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sears, James T.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the contributions to this special issue in the context of a wider argument about the notion of queering elementary education. When "Queering Elementary Education" was published 10 years ago there was very little writing or research on matters related to primary education, and just finding experienced educators to…

  2. Highlights of 10-Year Remote Sensing Industry Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabin, Ron

    2002-01-01

    A background and highlights of a 10 year remote sensing industry analysis are provided.Included are the following:Training, educational analysis, staff levels, and end-users analysis, market drivers, market segments,application areas, spatial resolution needs, use of image types.

  3. Headshaking in a 10-year-old Thoroughbred mare

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Abstract A 10-year-old Thoroughbred mare was presented with a 2.5-week history of headshaking. Based on a thorough physical examination, blood analysis, and a fine needle aspirate of an enlarged thyroid gland, a tentative diagnosis of seasonal idiopathic headshaking was made. Treatment with cyproheptadine was attempted. PMID:15025153

  4. Duodenal adenocarcinoma in a 10-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Zouari; Habib, Bouthour; Rabia, Ben Abdallah; Youssef, Hlel; Riath, Ben Malek; Youssef, Gharbi; Nejib, Kaabar

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal malignancies are extremely rare in the paediatric population and duodenal cancers represent an even more unusual entity. It represents 0.3-1% of all gastrointestinal tumours. A case report of a 10-year-old boy with duodenal adenocarcinoma is reported and the difficulties of diagnosing and treating this rare tumour are discussed. PMID:24647303

  5. Flowerpot sequestrum of the Humerus Neglect for 10 years!!

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Rakesh

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Neglected cases of osteomyelitis are not uncommon. We present a case of humerus osteomyelitis neglected for 10 years and presented with a sequestrum protruding out of the arm in the shape of a flowerpot. Such a long duration of neglect and a startling presentation are rare and have implications not only on healthcare but also reflect the socio-economic and cultural fabric of the society. Case Report: 22 year old lady presented with history of bone jutting out of right arm since last 10 years. She had a trivial injury to the arm 10 years back followed by pain and fever. She was treated by local osteopath and ‘registered’ doctors but developed wound over the arm with purulent discharge. On and off treatment with dressing was continued with symptomatic relief but in few weeks bone fragment started protruding out of the wound. The size of bone protruding from the wound increased gradually with on and off history of discharge since 10 years. Clinically a flowerpot shaped sequestrum was seen protruding from the arm. Radiographs showed a defined diaphyseal sequestrum of the humerus with continuity of the bone maintained by new bone formation. Sequestrectomy was done and at one year follow up patient was fine with no recurrence of infection Conclusions: Lack of health infrastructure, ignorance, and other social and cultural factors lead to such bad wounds. Even with such long history a single surgery for debridement and sequestrectomy was all that was needed for healing the patient.

  6. Technology for Distance Education: A 10 Year Prospective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, A. W.

    This paper provides an overview of new technologies likely to be widely available within the next 10 years for teaching in Europe. It begins by presenting a framework which draws distinctions between different technologies based on their educational applications, i.e., for teaching or operational purposes, for communicating within or between…

  7. The EnviSAT ASAR Mission: A Look Back At 10 Years Of Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, N.; Rosich, B.; Meadows, P. J.; Haria, K.; Small, D.; Schubert, A.; Lavalle, M.; Collard, F.; Johnsen, H.; Guarnieri, A. Monti; D'Aria, D.

    2013-12-01

    The Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) on- board Envisat operated successfully for just over 10 years until the failure of Envisat in April 2012. ASAR was ESA's very first deployment of a C-band phased- array antenna, allowing extended imaging capacity in comparison to its ERS SAR predecessors. As such it operated in various acquisition modes - Image (IM), Alternating Polarisation (AP), Wide Swath (WS), Global Monitoring (GM), and Wave (WV). For IM and AP modes there was a selection of 7 swaths with swath width from 100 km to 56 km: IM was single- polarisation, while AP was dual-pol, offering a choice from HH&VV, HH&HV, or VV&VH. WS and GM modes had a total swath width of 405 km based on the combination of 5 sub-swaths. WV acquired imagettes of 10 km by 10 km every 100 km along the satellite track. This paper is a look back to the 10 years of ASAR operations, covering topics such as the ASAR Instrument (characteristics, acquisition modes, product tree and observation scenario), Instrument Calibration and Performance Verification (including instrument stability, internal calibration, external calibration, absolute radiometric calibration, localisation accuracy, absolute geolocation accuracy, performance verification and product calibration), ASAR specific missions (wave and polarimetric), particular ASAR events such as antenna resets, burst synchronisation, AP swath modifications and the Envisat orbit change in October 2010.

  8. Highlights of 10 years of immunology in Nature Reviews Immunology

    PubMed Central

    Medzhitov, Ruslan; Shevach, Ethan M.; Trinchieri, Giorgio; Mellor, Andrew L.; Munn, David H.; Gordon, Siamon; Libby, Peter; Hansson, Göran K.; Shortman, Ken; Dong, Chen; Gabrilovich, Dmitry; Gabryšová, Leona; Howes, Ashleigh; O’Garra, Anne

    2013-01-01

    As Nature Reviews Immunology reaches its 10th anniversary, we’ve asked the authors of one of the top-cited articles of each year to look back on the state of research at the time their Review was published, to consider why the article has had the impact it has and to discuss the future directions of their field. This Viewpoint article provides an interesting snapshot of some of the fundamental advances in the field of immunology over the past 10 years — including Toll-like receptor signalling, immune regulation mediated by regulatory T cells, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, myeloid-derived suppressor cells and interleukin-10, the development and heterogeneity of macrophages, dendritic cells and T helper cells, and the immune processes involved in diseases such as atherosclerosis — and looks forward to what the next 10 years may bring. PMID:21941295

  9. Optogenetics: 10 years of microbial opsins in neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Deisseroth, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, the development and convergence of microbial opsin engineering, modular genetic methods for cell-type targeting and optical strategies for guiding light through tissue have enabled versatile optical control of defined cells in living systems, defining modern optogenetics. Despite widespread recognition of the importance of spatiotemporally precise causal control over cellular signaling, for nearly the first half (2005–2009) of this 10-year period, as optogenetics was being created, there were difficulties in implementation, few publications and limited biological findings. In contrast, the ensuing years have witnessed a substantial acceleration in the application domain, with the publication of thousands of discoveries and insights into the function of nervous systems and beyond. This Historical Commentary reflects on the scientific landscape of this decade-long transition. PMID:26308982

  10. Primary Nasal Tuberculosis in a 10-Year-Old Girl

    PubMed Central

    Özer, Murat; Özsurekçi, Yasemin; Cengiz, Ali Bülent; Özçelik, Uğur; Yalçın, Ebru; Gököz, Özay

    2016-01-01

    Nasal tuberculosis is a rare clinical entity which mainly presents in elderly people. Nasal tuberculosis has always been considered to be secondary to tuberculosis of the lungs, and in rare instances it is a primary infection, usually when mycobacteria are inhaled. We describe the case of a 10-year-old girl who was successfully treated for primary nasal tuberculosis. This patient is one of the very few children who have been reported to have primary nasal tuberculosis. PMID:27366187

  11. Hypopigmented mycosis fungoides in a 10-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Manzur, A; Zaidi, S T H

    2006-01-01

    Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) presenting with hypopigmented lesions is an uncommon clinical variant of the disease, usually described in dark-skinned patients. We report a case of hypopigmented CTCL in a 10-year-old boy. The disease has responded favorably to narrowband UVB therapy. This case illustrates the importance of clinical suspicion for mycosis fungoides in patients with widespread hypopigmentation. PMID:17083901

  12. 10-year evapotranspiration estimates in a Bornean tropical rainforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kume, T.; Tanaka, N.; Komatsu, H.; Yoshifuji, N.; Saitoh, T. M.; Suzuki, M.; Kumagai, T.

    2010-12-01

    This study was undertaken to quantify 10-year evapotranspiration (ET) in a tropical rainforest, Sarawak, Malaysia. To this aim, a simplified big-leaf model was formulated, which can consider transpiration (Et) and rainfall interception (Ei). The model was independently validated using eddy covariance fluxes, rainfall interception based on throughfall and stemflow measurements, and sap flow measurements conducted for more than two years. Consequently, our big-leaf model could successfully reproduce Et and Ei. By using the model and a 10-year meteorological data set, Et, Ei, and ET was estimated in the period between 2000 and 2009. The annual Et , Ei, and ET averaged over 10 years were estimated as 1114, 209, and 1323 mm, respectively, with the small seasonal fluctuations. The derived estimations for 10 years showed conservative year-to-year variations in Et, Ei, and ET (CV = 5-7%) against considerable year-to-year variations in annual rainfall (CV = 11%). Specific rainfall characteristics in this site could be a reason for conservative year-to-year variations in Ei. Small interannual variations in meteorological conditions and no occurrence of unusually severe drought in this study period could be a reason for the small year-to-year variations in Et. As well, we compared ET, Ei at this site with those of other tropical forests. Our forest ET was smaller than global maximum value of ET estimated in other tropical forests because of the smaller Ei, relative to annual rainfall at this site. Based on the derived characteristics of ET, we also discussed possible changes in ET, Et, and Ei in response to changes in rainfall regime at this site.

  13. Avian response to bottomland hardwood reforestation: the first 10 years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, D.J.; Wilson, R.R.; Henne-Kerr, J.L.; Grosshuesch, D.A.

    2002-01-01

    Bttomland hardwood forests were planted on agricultural fields in Mississippi and Louisiana using either predominantly Quercus species (oaks) or Populus deltoides (eastern cottonwood). We assessed avian colonization of these reforested sites between 2 and 10 years after planting. Rapid vertical growth of cottonwoods (circa 2 - 3 m / yr) resulted in sites with forest structure that supported greater species richness of breeding birds, increased Shannon diversity indices, and supported greater territory densities than on sites planted with slower-growing oak species. Grassland birds (Spiza americana [Dickcissel], and Sturnella magna [Eastern Meadowlark]) were indicative of species breeding on oak-dominated reforestation # 10 years old. Agelaius phoeniceus (Red-winged Blackbird) and Colinus virginianus (Northern Bobwhite) characterized cottonwood reforestation # 4 years old, whereas 14 species of shrub-scrub birds (e.g., Passerina cyanea [Indigo Bunting]) and early-successional forest birds (e.g., Vireo gilvus [Warbling Vireo]) typified cottonwood reforestation 5 to 9 years after planting. Rates of daily nest survival did not differ between reforestation strategies. Nest parasitism increased markedly in older cottonwood stands, but was overwhelmed by predation as a cause of nest failure. Based on Partners in Flight prioritization scores and territory densities, the value of cottonwood reforestation for avian conservation was significantly greater than that of oak reforestation during their first 10 years. Because of benefits conferred on breeding birds, we recommend reforestation of bottomland hardwoods include a high proportion of fast-growing, early successional species such as cottonwood.

  14. MMI's Metadata and Vocabulary Solutions: 10 Years and Growing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graybeal, J.; Gayanilo, F.; Rueda-Velasquez, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    The Marine Metadata Interoperability project (http://marinemetadata.org) held its public opening at AGU's 2004 Fall Meeting. For 10 years since that debut, the MMI guidance and vocabulary sites have served over 100,000 visitors, with 525 community members and continuous Steering Committee leadership. Originally funded by the National Science Foundation, over the years multiple organizations have supported the MMI mission: "Our goal is to support collaborative research in the marine science domain, by simplifying the incredibly complex world of metadata into specific, straightforward guidance. MMI encourages scientists and data managers at all levels to apply good metadata practices from the start of a project, by providing the best guidance and resources for data management, and developing advanced metadata tools and services needed by the community." Now hosted by the Harte Research Institute at Texas A&M University at Corpus Christi, MMI continues to provide guidance and services to the community, and is planning for marine science and technology needs for the next 10 years. In this presentation we will highlight our major accomplishments, describe our recent achievements and imminent goals, and propose a vision for improving marine data interoperability for the next 10 years, including Ontology Registry and Repository (http://mmisw.org/orr) advancements and applications (http://mmisw.org/cfsn).

  15. Perceived Partner Responsiveness Predicts Diurnal Cortisol Profiles 10 Years Later

    PubMed Central

    Slatcher, Richard B.; Selcuk, Emre; Ong, Anthony D.

    2015-01-01

    Several decades of research have demonstrated that marital relationships have a powerful influence on physical health. However, surprisingly little is known about how marriage affects health—both in terms of psychological processes and biological ones. We investigated the associations between perceived partner responsiveness—the extent to which people feel understood, cared for and appreciated by their romantic partner—and diurnal cortisol over a 10-year period in a large sample of married and cohabitating couples in the U.S. Partner responsiveness predicted higher wakeup cortisol values and steeper (“healthier”) cortisol slopes at the 10-year follow-up, and these associations remained strong after controlling for demographic factors, depressive symptoms, agreeableness, and other positive and negative relationship factors. Further, declines in negative affect over the 10-year period mediated the prospective association between responsiveness and cortisol slope. These findings suggest that diurnal cortisol may be a key biological pathway through which social relationships impact long-term health. PMID:26015413

  16. Low absolute lymphocyte count and addition of rituximab confer high risk for interstitial pneumonia in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Chung; Liu, Chia-Jen; Liu, Chun-Yu; Pai, Jih-Tung; Hong, Ying-Chung; Teng, Hao-Wei; Hsiao, Liang-Tsai; Chao, Ta-Chung; Gau, Jyh-Pyng; Liu, Jin-Hwang; Hsu, Hui-Chi; Chiou, Tzeon-Jye; Chen, Po-Min; Yu, Yuan-Bin; Tzeng, Cheng-Hwai

    2011-10-01

    Several small-scale studies have reported pulmonary toxicity among patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) receiving rituximab-containing chemotherapy, though whether the use of rituximab predisposes to interstitial pneumonia (IP) remains unclear. This retrospective study was intended to identify the characteristics and risk factors of IP in patients with DLBCL. Between 2000 and 2009, 529 consecutive patients with DLBCL receiving first-line tri-weekly COP- or CHOP-based chemotherapy with or without rituximab were enrolled as subjects. IP was defined as diffuse pulmonary interstitial infiltrates found on computed tomography scans in conjunction with respiratory symptoms. IP was observed in 26 patients (4.9%), six of whom were confirmed with Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia. The median number of chemotherapy courses before IP was four cycles. Using multivariate analysis, absolute lymphocyte count less than 1×10(9)/l at diagnosis [odds ratio (OR) 2.75, p=0.014] and the addition of rituximab to chemotherapy (OR 4.56, p=0.003) were identified as independent risk factors for IP. In conclusion, the incidence of IP is increased in patients with DLBCL receiving rituximab-containing chemotherapy. Specific subgroups with lymphopenia at diagnosis may justify close scrutiny to detect pulmonary complications. PMID:21647583

  17. CAM research in Britain: the last 10 years.

    PubMed

    Ernst, E; Schmidt, K; Wider, B

    2005-02-01

    Research into complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is not as new as it might appear from a U.K. perspective. Most continental European countries have a long tradition in CAM research. Many studies of homoeopathy, for instance, were published decades ago in languages other than English [The trials of homeopathy. Origins, structure and development. Stiftung: Essen, Karl und Veronica Carstens, 2004]. However, it is probably true to say that, in the English speaking world and particularly in the U.K., CAM has become a respectable area of scientific investigation only during the last decade. In this article, we review the 10 years of CAM research in Britain. PMID:15984219

  18. OPEC: 10 years after the Arab oil boycott

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, M.H.

    1983-09-23

    OPEC's dominance over world oil markets is waning 10 years after precipitating world-wide energy and economic crises. The 1979 revolution in Iran and the start of the Iranian-Iraqi war in 1980 introduced a second shock that caused oil importers to seek non-OPEC supplies and emphasize conservation. No breakup of the cartel is anticipated, however, despite internal disagreements over production and price levels. Forecasters see OPEC as the major price setter as an improved economy increases world demand for oil. Long-term forecasts are even more optimistic. 24 references, 2 figures, 2 tables. (DCK)

  19. Brain imaging of multiple sclerosis: the next 10 years.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Paul M

    2009-02-01

    MR imaging has had a major impact on understanding the dynamic neuropathologic findings of multiple sclerosis (MS), early diagnosis of the disease, and clinical trial conduct. The next 10 years can be expected to see further advances with a greater emphasis on large multicenter studies, new techniques and hardware allowing greater imaging sensitivity and resolution, and the exploitation of positron emission tomography molecular imaging for MS. The impact should be felt with a new emphasis on gray matter disease and processes of repair. With new ways of monitoring the disease, new treatment targets should become practical, helping to translate advances in the understanding of immunology and regenerative medicine into novel therapies. PMID:19064203

  20. Vesical Calculus 10 Years Post Missing Intrauterine Contraceptive Device

    PubMed Central

    Abdulwahab-Ahmed, Abdullahi; Ogunleye, Oluwagbemiga Olabisi

    2013-01-01

    Intravesical migration of intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) is rare. Early diagnosis of this rare entity is difficult because of its non-specific manifestations and very low index of suspicion. We present this case of bladder stone following intravesical migration of IUCD found to have been missing since insertion 10 years earlier. Lower abdominal discomfort and a missing vaginal string may be the only pointer to this unfortunate event in the immediate post insertion period. It is pertinent to consider the possibility of an intravesical migration of a missing IUCD in a patient presenting with lower abdominal discomfort, urinary frequency, and missing IUCD string on vaginal examination. PMID:24470853

  1. NASA Administrator Dan Goldin greets 10-year-old VIP.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    NASA Administrator Dan Goldin (left) shares a light moment during his meeting with 10-year-old Jonathan Pierce (right), who is garbed in a protective cooling suit designed by NASA. Behind Goldin is astronaut Doug Wheelock; behind Jonathan is his mother, Penny. Jonathan suffers from erythropoietic protoporphyria, a rare condition that makes his body unable to withstand ultraviolet rays. The suit allows him to be outside during the day, which would otherwise be impossible. Jonathan's trip was funded by the Make-A-Wish Foundation and included a visit to Disney World. He and his family were among a dozen VIPs at KSC to view the launch of STS-99.

  2. Developing of 10-year EEZ seafloor mapping and research program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lockwood, M.; Hill, G.W.

    1988-01-01

    The intent of expanding the exploration already begun on the outer continental shelf to the frontier of the EEZ (Exclusive Economic Zone) is to determine the "characteristics' and resource potential of this region. To coordinate this exploration, a Joint Office for Mapping and Research (JOMAR) has been established by the US Geological Survey (in the Department of the Interior) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (in the Department of Commerce). JOMAR's main purpose is to help direct and coordinate ongoing and planned seafloor related activities in the EEZ and prepare a 10-year plan for mapping and research. -from Authors

  3. Lithium ion secondary batteries; past 10 years and the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishi, Yoshio

    Technologies of lithium ion secondary batteries (LIB) were pioneered by Sony. Since the introduction of LIB on the market first in the world in 1991, the LIB has been applied to consumer products as diverse as cellular phones, video cameras, notebook computers, portable minidisk players and others. Years of assiduous efforts and researches to improve LIB performances enabled LIB to play a leading role in the portable secondary battery market. In this article, the past 10 years' technological achievement is traced and future possibilities are discussed.

  4. Motor Speech Disorders: Where Will We Be in 10 Years?

    PubMed

    Duffy, Joseph R

    2016-08-01

    Research and practice in the area of motor speech disorders (MSDs) will change in the next 10 years, most likely in evolutionary rather revolutionary ways. We are likely to see an increase in the understanding of the underpinnings of MSDs and refinements in assessment and diagnosis. Management approaches probably will be refined, as will how outcomes are measured. The evidence base for treatment efficacy will grow. Technology and changes in the health care system will have strong and overarching, but not easily predicted, influences. This article provides a broad overview of these and related issues, with some cautious predictions. PMID:27232096

  5. Teaching Absolute Value Meaningfully

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Angela

    2012-01-01

    What is the meaning of absolute value? And why do teachers teach students how to solve absolute value equations? Absolute value is a concept introduced in first-year algebra and then reinforced in later courses. Various authors have suggested instructional methods for teaching absolute value to high school students (Wei 2005; Stallings-Roberts…

  6. Patterns and Predictors of Late-Life Drinking Trajectories: A 10-Year Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Penny L.; Schutte, Kathleen K.; Moos, Rudolf H.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the extent of group-level and intra-individual decline in alcohol consumption among adults as they traverse a 10-year interval spanning late-middle to early-old age. Further, it identifies key baseline predictors of these adults' 10-year drinking trajectories. Community residents (n=1,291; age 55 to 65 at baseline) were assessed at 4 points over a 10-year interval on demographic and health characteristics, coping responses, social context, and alcohol consumption. Descriptive cross-wave statistics, and multilevel regression analyses, indicated that in the sample overall, participants' 10-year patterns of alcohol consumption were relatively stable. However, men's patterns, and those of individuals drinking beyond recommended alcohol consumption guidelines at baseline, were more variable and showed steeper rates of decline, than did those of women and individuals drinking within recommended levels. Contrary to expectation, baseline use of substances to reduce tension and heavier reliance on avoidance coping predicted faster rate of decline in alcohol consumption. Post-hoc prospective mediation analyses suggested that this may have occurred because these and other baseline predictors heighten risk of developing new health problems which, in turn, motivate reduced alcohol consumption. PMID:20565151

  7. Draft 1992 : Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement 10-Year Plan.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-05-01

    Two years ago, BPA released its first-ever Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement (OM&R) 10-Year Plan. That effort broke new ground and was an extensive look at the condition of Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement on BPA`s power system. This document -- the 1992 OM&R 10-Year Plan -- uses that original plan as its foundation. It takes a look at how well BPA has accomplished the challenging task set out in the 1990 Plan. The 1992 Plan also introduces the Construction Program. Construction`s critical role in these programs is explored, and the pressures of construction workload -- such as the seasonal nature of the work and the broad swings in workload between projects and years -- are discussed. The document then looks at how situations may have changed with issues explored initially in the 1990 Plan. Importantly, this Plan also surfaces and explains some new issues that threaten to impact BPA`s ability to accomplish its OM&R workload. Finally, the document focuses on the revised strategies for Operations, Maintenance, Replacement, Construction, and Environment for the 1992 to 2001 time period, including the financial and human resources needed to accomplish those strategies.

  8. Draft 1992 : Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement 10-Year Plan.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-05-01

    Two years ago, BPA released its first-ever Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement (OM R) 10-Year Plan. That effort broke new ground and was an extensive look at the condition of Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement on BPA's power system. This document -- the 1992 OM R 10-Year Plan -- uses that original plan as its foundation. It takes a look at how well BPA has accomplished the challenging task set out in the 1990 Plan. The 1992 Plan also introduces the Construction Program. Construction's critical role in these programs is explored, and the pressures of construction workload -- such as the seasonal nature of the work and the broad swings in workload between projects and years -- are discussed. The document then looks at how situations may have changed with issues explored initially in the 1990 Plan. Importantly, this Plan also surfaces and explains some new issues that threaten to impact BPA's ability to accomplish its OM R workload. Finally, the document focuses on the revised strategies for Operations, Maintenance, Replacement, Construction, and Environment for the 1992 to 2001 time period, including the financial and human resources needed to accomplish those strategies.

  9. Citations to Australian Astronomy: 5- and 10-Year Benchmarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenyon, Katherine H.; Paramasivam, Arjun; Tu, Jiachin; Zhang, Albert; Graham, Alister W.

    2012-03-01

    Expanding upon Pimbblet's 2011 analysis of career h-indices for members of the Astronomical Society of Australia, we provide additional citation metrics which are geared to quantifying the current performance of all professional astronomers in Australia. We have trawled the staff web-pages of Australian Universities, Observatories and Research Organisations hosting professional astronomers, and identified 384 PhD-qualified, research-active, astronomers in the nation. 132 of these are not members of the Astronomical Society of Australia. Using the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System, we provide the three following common metrics based on publications in the first decade of the 21st century (2001-2010): h-index, author-normalised citation count and lead-author citation count. We additionally present a somewhat more inclusive analysis, applicable for many early-career researchers, that is based on publications from 2006-2010. Histograms and percentiles, plus top-performer lists, are presented for each category. Finally, building on Hirsch's empirical equation, we find that the (10-year) h-index and (10-year) total citation count T can be approximated by the relation AS12011_IE1.gif for h>~5.

  10. A methodological survey of the analysis, reporting and interpretation of Absolute Risk ReductiOn in systematic revieWs (ARROW): a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Clinicians, providers and guideline panels use absolute effects to weigh the advantages and downsides of treatment alternatives. Relative measures have the potential to mislead readers. However, little is known about the reporting of absolute measures in systematic reviews. The objectives of our study are to determine the proportion of systematic reviews that report absolute measures of effect for the most important outcomes, and ascertain how they are analyzed, reported and interpreted. Methods/design We will conduct a methodological survey of systematic reviews published in 2010. We will conduct a 1:1 stratified random sampling of Cochrane vs. non-Cochrane systematic reviews. We will calculate the proportion of systematic reviews reporting at least one absolute estimate of effect for the most patient-important outcome for the comparison of interest. We will conduct multivariable logistic regression analyses with the reporting of an absolute estimate of effect as the dependent variable and pre-specified study characteristics as the independent variables. For systematic reviews reporting an absolute estimate of effect, we will document the methods used for the analysis, reporting and interpretation of the absolute estimate. Discussion Our methodological survey will inform current practices regarding reporting of absolute estimates in systematic reviews. Our findings may influence recommendations on reporting, conduct and interpretation of absolute estimates. Our results are likely to be of interest to systematic review authors, funding agencies, clinicians, guideline developers and journal editors. PMID:24330779

  11. 10 Years of Height Resolved, Cloud-Track, Vector Winds from MISR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garay, M. J.; Mueller, K. J.; Moroney, C. M.; Jovanovic, V.; Wu, D. L.; Diner, D. J.

    2009-12-01

    By utilizing multiple camera views and fast image matching algorithms to identify common features and determine feature motion, the MISR instrument on NASA’s Terra satellite has now collected nearly 10 years of height-resolved, cloud-track, vector winds using a single, globally consistent algorithm. The MISR cloud-track winds are reported globally on mesoscale domains of 70.4 km × 70.4 km and referenced to stereoscopically derived heights above the earth ellipsoid, which have a nominal vertical resolution of approximately 500 m. Importantly, from the standpoint of climate research, the stereo height assignment and wind retrieval are largely insensitive to instrument calibration changes because the pattern matcher relies only on relative brightness values, rather than the absolute magnitude of the brightness. We will describe comparisons with other wind datasets, including geostationary cloud drift winds, scatterometer surface winds, and reanalysis model winds, that demonstrate the quality of the MISR winds. We will also show the coverage and resolution advantages that MISR provides relative to these other datasets. Additionally, because the global winds are driven primarily by the global (im)balance of heating, monitoring variations in the winds over 10 years promises to yield important insights into the processes related to the hydrologic cycle and transport of heat and water vapor, such as the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) and the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO).

  12. 10 years of NICE: still growing and still controversial.

    PubMed

    Littlejohns, Peter; Garner, Sarah; Doyle, Nick; Macbeth, Fergus; Barnett, David; Longson, Carole

    2009-04-01

    The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) will have existed for 10 years on April 1, 2009. Over the past decade, the institute's methodological approach to the development of guidance and assessment of the value of health-care interventions has received international interest and acclaim. Furthermore, individual decisions, in particular those made on new cancer drugs, have generated enormous controversy. An early example was the appraisal of irinotecan and oxaliplatin for colorectal cancer in 2002. In 2003, NICE described the rationale behind its decision making. The 10th anniversary of the institute provides an opportunity to review some of the key issues affecting cancer appraisals and to explain the development of other NICE guidance programmes relevant to the provision of cancer services. PMID:19341973

  13. Parathyroid Carcinoma in a 10 Years Old Female Child.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M M; Karim, S S; Joarder, A I; Mubin, S; Abir, M M; Morshed, M S

    2015-07-01

    Parathyroid carcinoma (PC) is a rare cause of hypercalcaemia in children. Only 7 cases of PC have been reported so far in the world journal. The authors report the 8th case of parathyroid carcinoma in children less than 16 years of age. A 10 year old girl presented with difficulty in walking, dorsiflexion and ulnar deviation of both wrist joints and occasional pain in the central abdomen of about two years duration. Biochemical investigations revealed serum calcium 12.2 mg/dL (normal 9-11 mg/dL), serum alkaline phosphate 4992 U/L (normal 50-136 U/L), PTH (parathyroid hormone) 2217 pg/ml (normal 9-80 pg/ml). Parathyroid scintigraphy localized the lesion in the left parathyroid gland. X-ray showed bilateral coxa vera, genu valgus deformity and multiple stress fractures in both wrist joints. Histopathology confirmed PC with capsular and vascular invasion. PMID:26329966

  14. 1992 Resource Program, 10 Year Plan : Draft II.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-05-01

    The Resource Program is the Bonneville Power Administration`s primary process for deciding how to meet future electricity resource needs, how much new resources to develop, which types of resources to acquire or option and how to go about acquiring them, and how much BPA will have to spend for these resources. Recognizing that BPA must make a long-term commitment to acquiring conservation effectively, the 1992 Resource Program outlines a 10-year plan. Draft 2 of the 1992 Resource Program provides a framework for discussing the funding levels proposed in the Programs in Perspective (PIP) process. Previous final resource programs have been released prior to the PIP process. This version of the Resource Program recognizes that the PIP discussions are an integral part of the resource decision-making process and, therefore, it will be finalized after PIP.

  15. 1992 Resource Program, 10 Year Plan : Draft II.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-05-01

    The Resource Program is the Bonneville Power Administration's primary process for deciding how to meet future electricity resource needs, how much new resources to develop, which types of resources to acquire or option and how to go about acquiring them, and how much BPA will have to spend for these resources. Recognizing that BPA must make a long-term commitment to acquiring conservation effectively, the 1992 Resource Program outlines a 10-year plan. Draft 2 of the 1992 Resource Program provides a framework for discussing the funding levels proposed in the Programs in Perspective (PIP) process. Previous final resource programs have been released prior to the PIP process. This version of the Resource Program recognizes that the PIP discussions are an integral part of the resource decision-making process and, therefore, it will be finalized after PIP.

  16. A 10-year study of homosexually transmitted infection.

    PubMed Central

    Fluker, J L

    1976-01-01

    A 10-year survey is presented of male cases of homosexually acquired infection seen between 1962 and 1971 at Charing Cross Hospital (West London Branch). Tables showing the number of cases of syphilis, gonorrhea, and other conditions in homosexual and heterosexual males and in females are considered. Tables of other relevant data are also presented. The reasons underlying the changes illustrated, including the Act legalizing homosexual practices between consenting adult males, which became effective in 1968, are discussed. Certain pathological conditions apparently connected with homosexual practices, such as serum hepatitis, local rectal disease, and mucous colitis, are included and also some relevant manifestations of herpes genitalis and genitral warts. Homosexually acquired infection in prisoners is described. Some of the psychiatric effects of homosexuality on clinic patients and also their fears of treatment at clinics are considered, as well as the behavioral differences in response to infection between exclusively homosexuals, bi-sexuals, and married homosexuals. PMID:946948

  17. The Troubling Trichotomy 10 Years Later: Where Are We Now?

    PubMed

    Barrocas, Albert

    2016-06-01

    A decade ago, "Nutrition Support and The Troubling Trichotomy: A Call To Action" was published in this journal, identifying existing conflicts among technological, ethical, and legal aspects of nutrition support therapy, particularly in terminal or end-of-life situations. Over the past 10 years, the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition and others have responded to the action call. A "state of the trichotomy" reveals that while much has been achieved, differences in all 3 aspects will continue to exist due to their dynamic and ever-changing states. The technology arena has made it possible to increase the delivery of nutrition support in alternative settings with the use of telemedicine and social media. Critical/crucial conversations and earlier declarations of individual wishes for care and treatment while having decision-making capacity have been enhanced with the focus on patient-centered and family-centered care. The definition of death as brain death has been challenged in at least one instance. Conflicts between the state's interests and the individual's interests have added to recent legal controversies. Notwithstanding the progress made over the past 10 years, several challenges remain. The future challenges presented by the Troubling Trichotomy can be best confronted if we ACT-Accountability, Communication, and Teamwork. The focus of teamwork should move from multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary teams to transdisciplinary teams, reflecting the shift to function rather than form presented by the new healthcare environment. The transdisciplinary team will be able address the opportunities of the Troubling Trichotomy in the next decade by incorporating the 12 Cs, as detailed in the article. PMID:26941110

  18. Impact of Adolescent Alcohol and Drug Use on Neuropsychological Functioning in Young Adulthood: 10-Year Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Karen L.; Medina, Krista Lisdahl; Padula, Claudia B.; Tapert, Susan F.; Brown, Sandra A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Alcohol and other substance use disorders (AUD/SUD) are common among youth and often continue into adulthood; therefore, the neurocognitive effects of substance use are of great concern. Because neuromaturation continues into young adulthood, youth with AUD/SUD may be at risk for lasting cognitive decrements. This study prospectively examines neuropsychological functioning over 10 years as a function of AUD/SUD history and outcomes. Methods The 51 participants consisted of 18 youth with persisting AUD/SUD, 19 youth with remitted AUD/SUD, and 14 community youth with no AUD/SUD history followed over 10 years (ages 16 to 27 on average) with neuropsychological testing and substance use interviews on 8 occasions. Neuropsychological performance from baseline to 10-year follow-up was compared between the three groups. Results Despite scoring higher than controls at intake, both AUD/SUD groups showed a relative decline in visuospatial construction at 10-year follow-up (p=.001). Regressions showed that alcohol use (β=−.33, p < .01) and drug withdrawal symptoms (β=−.31, p<.05) over follow-up were predictive of year 10 visuospatial function. Alcohol use also predicted verbal learning and memory (β=−.28, p<.05), while stimulant use predicted visual learning and memory function (β=−.33, p=.01). More recent substance use was associated with poorer executive function (β=.28, p<.05). Discussion These findings confirm prior studies suggesting that heavy, chronic alcohol and other substance use persisting from adolescence to young adulthood may produce cognitive disadvantages, primarily in visuospatial and memory abilities. Youth who chronically consume heavy quantities of alcohol and/or experience drug withdrawal symptoms may be particularly at risk for cognitive deterioration by young adulthood. PMID:21532924

  19. ESO and Chile: 10 Years of Productive Scientific Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-06-01

    ESO and the Government of Chile launched today the book "10 Years Exploring the Universe", written by the beneficiaries of the ESO-Chile Joint Committee. This annual fund provides grants for individual Chilean scientists, research infrastructures, scientific congresses, workshops for science teachers and astronomy outreach programmes for the public. In a ceremony held in Santiago on 19 June 2006, the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere (ESO) and the Chilean Ministry of Foreign Affairs marked the 10th Anniversary of the Supplementary Agreement, which granted to Chilean astronomers up to 10 percent of the total observing time on ESO telescopes. This agreement also established an annual fund for the development of astronomy, managed by the so-called "ESO-Chile Joint Committee". ESO PR Photo 21/06 ESO PR Photo 21/06 Ten Years ESO-Chile Agreement Ceremony The celebration event was hosted by ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky, and the Director of Special Policy for the Chilean Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ambassador Luis Winter. "ESO's commitment is, and always will be, to promote astronomy and scientific knowledge in the country hosting our observatories", said ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky. "We hope Chile and Europe will continue with great achievements in this fascinating joint adventure, the exploration of the universe." On behalf of the Government of Chile, Ambassador Luis Winter outlined the historical importance of the Supplementary Agreement, ratified by the Chilean Congress in 1996. "Such is the magnitude of ESO-Chile Joint Committee that, only in 2005, this annual fund represented 8 percent of all financing sources for Chilean astronomy, including those from Government and universities", Ambassador Winter said. The ESO Representative and Head of Science in Chile, Dr. Felix Mirabel, and the appointed Chilean astronomer for the ESO-Chile Joint Committee, Dr. Leonardo Bronfman, also took part in the

  20. Eosinophil count - absolute

    MedlinePlus

    Eosinophils; Absolute eosinophil count ... the white blood cell count to give the absolute eosinophil count. ... than 500 cells per microliter (cells/mcL). Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Talk ...

  1. 10 years of Terra Outreach over the Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuen, K.; Riebeek, H.; Chambers, L. H.

    2009-12-01

    1 Author Yuen, Karen JPL (818) 393-7716 2 Author Riebeek, Holli Sigma Space Corporation (department) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (Institution), Greenbelt, Maryland 3 Author Chambers, Lin NASA Abstract: Since launch, Terra has returned about 195 gigabytes (level 0) of data per day or 1 terabyte every 5 days. Few outlets were able to accommodate and quickly share that amount of information as well as the Internet. To honor the 10-year anniversary of the launch of Terra, we would like to highlight the education and outreach efforts of the Terra mission on the Internet and its reach to the science attentive public. The Internet or web has been the primary way of delivering Terra content to different groups- from formal and informal education to general public outreach. Through the years, many different web-based projects have been developed, and they were of service to a growing population of the science attentive public. One of Terra’s original EPO activities was the Earth Observatory. It was initially dedicated to telling the remote sensing story of Terra, but quickly grew to include science and imagery from other sensors. The web site allowed for collaboration across NASA centers, universities and other organizations by exchanging and sharing of story ideas, news and images. The award winning Earth Observatory helped pave the way for the more recently funded development of the Climate Change website. With its specific focus on climate change studies, once again, Terra stories and images are shared with an even more specific audience base. During the last 10 years, Terra as a mission has captured the imagination of the public through its visually stunning and artistically arresting images. With its five instruments of complementary but unique capabilities, the mission gave the world not just pretty pictures, but scientific data-based images. The world was able to see from space everything from calving icebergs to volcanic eruption plumes and the eye of a

  2. METEONETWORK: 2002-2012, 10 years of activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazza, Edoardo

    2013-04-01

    The role of citizen-scientists in collecting data and observations has been increasingly crucial in the last 10 years of atmospheric sciences. Meteonetwork is a non-profit organization founded by citizen scientists in 2002, in Lombardia, with the aim of raising public awareness about meteorological and climatological issues. Throughout the years the organization, besides the continuous holding of events such as meeting, conferences and talks, has been standing out because of its forum and its wide network of weather stations. Meteonetwork's forum is, in this field, the most read and followed in the country and with its 8459 members and over 4,217,505 posts turns out to be the 17th forum over the entire country. Its network is operated in cooperation with Centro Epson Meteo and collects amateur semi-professional stations distributed all over the Italian territory, providing real-time and daily data. It consists of 706 stations, among which more than 400 regularly updated; volunteers constantly work to perform quality control and ensure data reliability. Meteonetwork has also developed several collaborations with private and public institutions, among which DRIHM - Cima Research Foundation, Centro Epson Meteo di Milano, Arpa Veneto, Arpa Emilia-Romagna, Arpa Lombardia, Arpa Friuli - Venezia Giulia, Servizio Glaciologico Lombardo, C. N. R. - C. I. S. A, Università di Pisa, Università di Milano, University of Aberdeen, Protezione Civile - Regione Lombardia, Protezione Civile - Regione Piemonte stand out. As WMO emphasized in 2001 World Meteorological Day "Volunteers for the weather, climate and water" the contribution of citizen-scientists to scientific studies is remarkable. In this perspective Meteonetwork and the University of Milan, in April 2011, started a project of technical and scientific cooperation called Weatherness. The university is provided with data gathered by Meteoneonetwork's stations with the aim of improving the knowledge of the impact that heat

  3. The Cryptophlebia Leucotreta Granulovirus—10 Years of Commercial Field Use

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Sean D.; Kirkman, Wayne; Richards, Garth I.; Stephen, Peter R.

    2015-01-01

    In the last 15 years, extensive work on the Cryptophlebia leucotreta granulovirus (CrleGV) has been conducted in South Africa, initially in the laboratory, but subsequently also in the field. This culminated in the registration of the first CrleGV-based biopesticide in 2004 (hence, the 10 years of commercial use in the field) and the second one three years later. Since 2000, more than 50 field trials have been conducted with CrleGV against the false codling moth, Thaumatotibia leucotreta, on citrus in South Africa. In a representative sample of 13 field trials reported over this period, efficacy (measured by reduction in larval infestation of fruit) ranged between 30% and 92%. Efficacy was shown to persist at a level of 70% for up to 17 weeks after application of CrleGV. This only occurred where the virus was applied in blocks rather than to single trees. The addition of molasses substantially and sometimes significantly enhanced efficacy. It was also established that CrleGV should not be applied at less than ~2 × 1013 OBs per ha in order to avoid compromised efficacy. As CrleGV-based products were shown to be at least as effective as chemical alternatives, persistent and compatible with natural enemies, their use is recommended within an integrated program for control of T. leucotreta on citrus and other crops. PMID:25809025

  4. Alopecia Areata in the Elderly: A 10-Year Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Yong Hyun; Park, Kyung Hea; Kim, Sang Lim; Lim, Hyun Jung; Lee, Weon Ju; Lee, Seok-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Background Alopecia areata (AA) is an organ-specific autoimmune disease that typically occurs in young adults. AA in the elderly is relatively rare, thus little data have been reported. Objective This study aimed to understand the clinical characteristics of AA in the elderly. Methods We performed a 10-year retrospective study of AA in the elderly who visited our dermatologic clinic from January 2002 to December 2011. A clinical review of medical records and telephone interviews were performed by two dermatologists. Results Among 1,761 patients with newly diagnosed AA, 61 (3.5%) were older than 60 years at the first visit. Among those who completed a telephone interview, 74.3% (26/35) had less than 50% of scalp-localized hair loss. There was no association between the extent of AA and hair graying (p=0.679). Favorable therapeutic response was observed in 62.9% (22/35) of cases. Conclusion AA in the elderly shows mild disease severity and favorable treatment response. There is no association between graying and the extent of AA. However, the influence of aging on the pathogenesis of AA in the elderly deserves further investigation. PMID:26273157

  5. Biliary complications following orthotopic liver transplantation: a 10-year audit

    PubMed Central

    Gunawansa, Nalaka; McCall, John L; Holden, Andrew; Plank, Lindsay; Munn, Stephen R

    2011-01-01

    Background Biliary complications following liver transplantation result in major morbidity. We undertook a 10-year audit of the incidence, management and outcomes of post-transplant biliary complications at the New Zealand Liver Transplant Unit. Methods Prospectively collected data on 348 consecutive liver transplants performed between February 1998 and October 2008 were reviewed. The minimum follow-up was 6 months. Results A total of 309 adult and 39 paediatric transplants were performed over the study period. Of these, 296 (85%) were whole liver grafts and 52 (15%) were partial liver grafts (24 split-liver, eight reduced-size and 20 live-donor grafts). There were 80 biliary complications, which included 63 (18%) strictures and 17 (5%) bile leaks. Partial graft, a paediatric recipient and a Roux-en-Y biliary anastomosis were independent predictors of biliary strictures. Twenty-five (40%) strictures were successfully managed non-operatively and 38 (60%) required surgery (31 biliary reconstructions, three segmental resections and four retransplants). Seven (41%) bile leaks required surgical revision and 10 (59%) were managed non-operatively. There was no mortality related directly to biliary complications. Conclusions Biliary complications affected one in five transplant recipients. Paediatric status, partial graft and Roux-en-Y anastomosis were independently associated with the occurrence of biliary strictures. Over half of the affected patients required surgical revision, but no mortality resulted from biliary complications. PMID:21609371

  6. In Brief: Chandra Observatory marks 10 years in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-08-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, originally envisioned as a 5-year mission, was deployed into an elliptical orbit around Earth 10 years ago, on 23 July 1999. The most powerful X-ray telescope yet, Chandra has provided a peak into the high-energy universe and has independently confirmed the existence of dark energy. Martin Weisskopf, Chandra project scientist at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala., said discoveries made possible by the observatory “have made dramatic changes to our understanding of the universe and its constituents.” “The Great Observatories program—of which Chandra is a major part—shows how astronomers need as many tools as possible to tackle the big questions out there,” said Ed Weiler, associate administrator of NASA's Science Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters in Washington. The Hubble Space Telescope, Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, and Spitzer Space Telescope are NASA's other Great Observatories. For more information, visit http://chandra.harvard.edu/ten/ and http://chandra.nasa.gov.

  7. Dissociative recombination of H3+: 10 years in retrospect

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, Mats

    2012-01-01

    The dissociative recombination of has been an intriguing problem for more than half a century. The early experiments on during the first 20 years were carried out without mass analysis in decaying plasma afterglows, and thus the measured rates pertained to an uncontrolled mixture of and impurity ions. When mass analysis was used, the rate coefficient was determined to be an uneventful value of about 10−7 cm3 s−1, a very common rate coefficient for many molecular ions. But this was not the end of the story, not even the beginning of the end; it marked only the end of the beginning. The story I will tell in this article started about 10 years ago, when the dissociative recombination of was approaching its deepest crisis. Today, owing to an extensive experimental and theoretical effort, the state of affairs has reached a historically unique level of harmony, although there still remains many things to sort out. PMID:23028159

  8. Competition, resources, and vegetation during 10 years in native grassland.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Scott D

    2007-12-01

    A 10-year experiment tested for variation in competition intensity over time in a natural grassland at the northern edge of the Great Plains. Growing-season precipitation varied fivefold during the study. All ecosystem-level variables varied significantly among years, and most covaried in expected ways. The covers of all common grasses possessing the C3 photosynthetic pathway varied significantly among years; in contrast, all common species with traits associated with drought tolerance (a C4 grass, a lichen, a spikemoss, and a subshrub) did not vary. Annual transplant experiments measured the competitive effects of neighbors on the growth of individuals of the native grass Bouteloua gracilis. A significant interaction between year and competition showed that competition intensity varied among years. The size of this effect, however, was small (eta2 = 0.074) relative to the size of the direct effect of competition (eta2 = 0.20) or the year in which the experiment was conducted (eta2 = 0.51). Further, competition intensity was not significantly related to any variable describing standing crop or resources, or species richness. Species richness was highest in years with high precipitation, standing crop, and individual growth, due to the recruitment of rare species that were absent from dry years. In summary, variation in competition intensity was statistically significant but had small effects relative to the direct effects of climate. PMID:18229830

  9. Presentation of endometriosis to general surgeons: a 10-year experience.

    PubMed

    Singh, K K; Lessells, A M; Adam, D J; Jordan, C; Miles, W F; Macintyre, I M; Greig, J D

    1995-10-01

    The presentation and management of 24 patients with endometriosis (median age 34 (range 21-68)years) presenting to general surgeons over a period of 10 years (1985-1994) was reviewed. Patients presented with an abdominal wall swelling related to a previous Pfannenstiel incision (seven patients), umbilical swelling (four), inguinal canal swelling (two), incidentally following appendicectomy (five), terminal ileal obstruction (two), rectal bleeding (two) and urinary symptoms (two). Endometriosis was not suspected in most patients but was confirmed by surgical excision or resection with minimal morbidity. No recurrence occurred during a median follow-up of 53 (range 9-113) months. Endometriosis is a disease rarely seen by general surgeons and is often diagnosed incidentally or on histological examination. Cyclical symptoms associated with menstruation are present in 50 per cent of patients and should suggest the diagnosis in those presenting with scar-related and/or subcutaneous swellings. Simple excision or resection of the presenting lesion provides adequate treatment but, since pelvic endometriosis may be present, referral to a gynaecologist is recommended in every case. PMID:7489161

  10. Evaluation of fire-safety programs that use 10-year smoke alarms.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Mark; Wilson, Jonathan; Akoto, Judith; Dixon, Sherry; Jacobs, David E; Ballesteros, Michael F

    2010-10-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention began funding a Smoke Alarm Installation and Fire Safety Education (SAIFE) program in 1998. This program involves the installation of lithium-powered "10-year" smoke alarms in homes at high risk for fires and injuries. This study aimed to (1) determine among original SAIFE homes if the lithium-powered alarms were still present and functional 8-10 years after installation and (2) understand factors related to smoke alarm presence and functionality. Data on a total of 384 homes and 601 smoke alarms in five states were collected and analyzed. Only one-third of alarms were still functional; 37% of installed alarms were missing; and 30% of alarms were present, but not functioning. Alarms were less likely to be functioning if they were installed in the kitchen and if homes had a different resident at follow-up. Of the 351 alarms that were present and had a battery at the time of the evaluation, only 21% contained lithium-powered batteries. Of these, 78% were still functioning. Programs that install lithium-powered alarms should use units that have sealed-in batteries and "hush" buttons. Additionally, education should be given on smoke alarm maintenance that includes a message that batteries in these alarms should not be replaced. Lithium-powered smoke alarms should last up to 10 years if maintained properly. PMID:20177753

  11. Endometrial stem/progenitor cells: the first 10 years

    PubMed Central

    Gargett, Caroline E.; Schwab, Kjiana E.; Deane, James A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The existence of stem/progenitor cells in the endometrium was postulated many years ago, but the first functional evidence was only published in 2004. The identification of rare epithelial and stromal populations of clonogenic cells in human endometrium has opened an active area of research on endometrial stem/progenitor cells in the subsequent 10 years. METHODS The published literature was searched using the PubMed database with the search terms ‘endometrial stem cells and menstrual blood stem cells' until December 2014. RESULTS Endometrial epithelial stem/progenitor cells have been identified as clonogenic cells in human and as label-retaining or CD44+ cells in mouse endometrium, but their characterization has been modest. In contrast, endometrial mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) have been well characterized and show similar properties to bone marrow MSCs. Specific markers for their enrichment have been identified, CD146+PDGFRβ+ (platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta) and SUSD2+ (sushi domain containing-2), which detected their perivascular location and likely pericyte identity in endometrial basalis and functionalis vessels. Transcriptomics and secretomics of SUSD2+ cells confirm their perivascular phenotype. Stromal fibroblasts cultured from endometrial tissue or menstrual blood also have some MSC characteristics and demonstrate broad multilineage differentiation potential for mesodermal, endodermal and ectodermal lineages, indicating their plasticity. Side population (SP) cells are a mixed population, although predominantly vascular cells, which exhibit adult stem cell properties, including tissue reconstitution. There is some evidence that bone marrow cells contribute a small population of endometrial epithelial and stromal cells. The discovery of specific markers for endometrial stem/progenitor cells has enabled the examination of their role in endometrial proliferative disorders, including endometriosis, adenomyosis and Asherman

  12. 10-year ionospheric equivalent current statistics from the ECLAT project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauristie, Kirsti; Vanhamäki, Heikki; Viljanen, Ari; Van de Kamp, Max; Juusola, Liisa; Partamies, Noora; Amm, Olaf; Zivkovic, Tatjana; Ågren, Karin; Opgenoorth, Hermann

    2013-04-01

    The ECLAT (European Cluster Assimilation Technology,) is an EU FP7 project which develops value added data products to support the Cluster Active Archive (CAA). The supporting data set will include 10 years of spatial maps of ionospheric equivalent currents (Jeq) calculated from the data of the magnetometers in the MIRACLE network operated in the Fennoscandian mainland and extending poleward until Svalbard. The Jeq database combined with the other data in Cluster Active Archive will offer a unique opportunity to conduct statistical studies on ionospheric current systems and their linkage with different magnetospheric processes. In this presentation we will introduce the process used to generate the Jeq data base, demonstrate how Jeq data can be browsed with an on-line tool and show some examples how the data can be used in magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling studies. In particular, we will show results from a preliminary study where Jeq recorded during 2003 are used to study the spatial distribution of Jeq and its curl (which in certain conditions can be used as a proxy for field-aligned currents) in different geophysical conditions. With this example we want to emphasize that the ECLAT Jeq database, in contrast to previously used data bases (e.g. from LEO satellites), is constructed from a 2-dimensional magnetometer network, which allows statistical studies on the horizontal gradients of Jeq in both latitudinal and longitudinal directions simultaneously. More information about ECLAT and the associated data archives is available from the following links: http://www.space.irfu.se/ECLAT/eclat-web/eclat_detail.html; http://caa.estec.esa.int/; http://www.space.fmi.fi/MIRACLE/; http://www.space.fmi.fi/image/.

  13. Anaerobic bacteraemia: a 10-year retrospective epidemiological survey.

    PubMed

    De Keukeleire, Steven; Wybo, Ingrid; Naessens, Anne; Echahidi, Fedoua; Van der Beken, Mieke; Vandoorslaer, Kristof; Vermeulen, Stefan; Piérard, Denis

    2016-06-01

    In order to identify current trends in anaerobic bacteraemia, a 10-year retrospective study was performed in the University Hospital Brussel, Belgium. All clinically relevant bacteraemia detected from 2004 until 2013 were included. Medical records were reviewed in an attempt to define clinical parameters that might be associated with the occurrence of anaerobic bacteraemia. 437 of the isolated organisms causing anaerobic bacteraemia were thawed, subcultured and reanalyzed using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF). There were an average of 33 cases of anaerobic bacteraemia per year during 2004-2008 compared to an average of 27 cases per year during 2009-2013 (P = 0.017), corresponding to a decrease by 19% between the first and the latter period. Also, the total number of cases of anaerobic bacteraemia per 100,000 patient days decreased from 17.3 in the period from 2004 to 2008 to 13.7 in the period 2009 to 2013 (P = 0.023). Additionally, the mean incidence of anaerobic bacteraemia decreased during the study period (1.27/1000 patients in 2004 vs. 0.94/1000 patients in 2013; P = 0.008). In contrast, the proportion of isolated anaerobic bacteraemia compared to the number of all bacteraemia remained stable at 5%. Bacteroides spp. and Parabacteroides spp. accounted for 47.1% of the anaerobes, followed by 14.4% Clostridium spp., 12.6% non-spore-forming Gram-positive rods, 10.5% anaerobic cocci, 8.2% Prevotella spp. and other Gram-negative rods and 7.1% Fusobacterium spp. The lower gastrointestinal tract (47%) and wound infections (10%) were the two most frequent sources for bacteraemia, with the origin remaining unknown in 62 cases (21%). The overall mortality rate was 14%. Further studies focusing on the antimicrobial susceptibility and demographic background of patients are needed to further objectify the currently observed trends. PMID:26923749

  14. Almotriptan: a review of 10 years' clinical experience.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Julio; Vila, Carlos; McGown, Caroline C

    2010-10-01

    Almotriptan, a serotonin 5-HT 1B/1D agonist, was developed for the acute treatment of migraine with or without aura and has been available for 10 years. This article evaluates the wealth of experience that has been obtained with almotriptan, including large randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and post-marketing studies that more closely reflect everyday clinical practice. Initial RCTs required patients to take almotriptan when migraine pain was of moderate or severe intensity, and found that 12.5 mg provided optimal outcomes for both pain relief and tolerability. Almotriptan effectively improved 2-h pain-relief, reduced migraine-associated symptoms and demonstrated low recurrence rates. These findings were also shown in patient subgroups, such as adolescents and menstrual migraineurs. A secondary finding in these trials was that patients who took almotriptan early, when the pain was still mild, achieved better outcomes. This prompted the initiation of studies designed to assess the effect of almotriptan in early intervention. Open-label trials reported improvements in pain-free end points (2 h, 24 h), and subsequent RCTs confirmed these findings. Pharmacovigilance data from more than 100 million tablets dispensed worldwide have confirmed that almotriptan is associated with a low occurrence of adverse effects, which, in clinical trials, has been shown to be similar to that observed with placebo. The clinical evidence obtained and comparisons made over a decade of use have demonstrated that almotriptan is one of the more effective and fast-acting triptans available, with a placebo-like tolerability profile. This suggests that almotriptan is an excellent choice for patients requiring specific acute migraine treatment. PMID:20945537

  15. [Multicenter retrospective analysis of the patients with sarcoidosis with a 10 year interval in observations].

    PubMed

    Vizel', I Iu; Shmelev, E I; Baranova, O P; Barlamov, P N; Borodina, G L; Denisova, O A; Dobin, V L; Kulbaisov, A M; Kupaev, V I; Listopadova, M V; Ovsiannikov, N V; Os'kin, D N; Petrov, D V; Solov'ev, K I; Shul'zhenko, L V; Vizel', A A

    2014-01-01

    Comparison of the state of 83 patients with histologically confirmed sarcoidosis observed with a 10 year interval revealed remission in 47% of the cases. The main factors having negative effect on prognosis of the disease included extrapulmonary symptoms, the use ofcorticosteroids (at all stages, especially at stage I and in Lofgren syndrome) and antituberculosis drugs, positive TB test. Risk factors of relapses were stage II sarcoidosis, the use of systemic corticosteroids in patients with Lofgren syndrome and antituberculosis drugs, initially low FEV1/FVLC ratio and the number of lymphocytes in peripheral blood. PMID:25799827

  16. The GLOBE Program 10 Years On: Challenges and Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blurton, C.

    2004-12-01

    ). This session will examine what was accomplished during GLOBE's first 10 years as a Federal program, what challenges the Program faces, and what plans are afoot for GLOBE's next ten years under UCAR's leadership.

  17. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2012-05-15

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  18. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  19. Prospective Predictors of Body Dissatisfaction in Young Adults: 10-year Longitudinal Findings

    PubMed Central

    Quick, Virginia; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Bucchianeri, Michaela M.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    This study identified longitudinal risk factors for body dissatisfaction (BD) over a 10-year period from adolescence to young adulthood. Participants (N = 2134; age at baseline: M =15.0, SD =1.6 years) provided two waves of survey data. A 6-step hierarchical linear regression analysis examined the predictive contribution of Time 1 BD, weight status, demographics, family and peer environmental factors, and psychological factors. Among females, Asian race/ethnicity, low self-esteem, greater BD, and higher body mass index during adolescence contributed significantly to predicting greater BD at 10-year follow up (R2 = 0.27). Among males, demographics (i.e., Asian, other-mixed ethnicity, education attainment), depressive symptoms, greater BD, higher body mass index, more parent communication, and less peer weight teasing during adolescence contributed to BD at follow-up (R2 = 0.27). Findings indicate who may be at greatest risk for BD in young adulthood and the types of factors that should be addressed during adolescence. PMID:25045599

  20. Mining injuries in Serbian underground coal mines -- a 10-year study.

    PubMed

    Stojadinović, Saša; Svrkota, Igor; Petrović, Dejan; Denić, Miodrag; Pantović, Radoje; Milić, Vitomir

    2012-12-01

    Mining, especially underground coal mining, has always been a dangerous occupation. Injuries, unfortunately, even those resulting in death, are one of the major occupational risks that all miners live with. Despite the fact that all workers are aware of the risk, efforts must be and are being made to increase the safety of mines. Injury monitoring and data analysis can provide us with valuable data on the causes of accidents and enable us to establish a correlation between the conditions in the work environment and the number of injuries, which can further lead to proper preventive measures. This article presents the data on the injuries in Serbian coal mines during a 10-year period (2000-2009). The presented results are only part of an ongoing study whose aim is to assess the safety conditions in Serbian coal mines and classify them according to that assessment. PMID:21920518

  1. The Next 10 Years in Voice Evaluation and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Barkmeier-Kraemer, Julie M; Patel, Rita R

    2016-08-01

    Voice disorders are thought to affect approximately one third of all individuals within the United States during their lifetime. Individuals who require the use of their voice as part of their occupations are at highest risk for developing voice problems. Unfortunately, efficient diagnosis and effective management of voice disorders can be challenged by difficulty accessing professionals with the necessary expertise to diagnose and treat voice problems efficiently. Within the next decade, technological advancements show promise for improving the efficiency and effectiveness of intervention for voice disorders. Exciting developments in laryngeal imaging, modeling of patient-specific vocal patterns, and implementation of smart mobile technology and telehealth will greatly improve the accuracy of diagnosing voice problems and enhance implementation and carryover of effective voice treatment methods to daily communication demands. PMID:27232091

  2. Female bisexuality from adolescence to adulthood: results from a 10-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Lisa M

    2008-01-01

    Debates persist over whether bisexuality is a temporary stage of denial or transition, a stable "3rd type" of sexual orientation, or a heightened capacity for sexual fluidity. The present study uses 5 waves of longitudinal data collected from 79 lesbian, bisexual, and "unlabeled" women to evaluate these models. Both the "3rd orientation" and "fluidity" models had support, but the "transitional stage" model did not. Over 10 years, 2/3 of women changed the identity labels they had claimed at the beginning of the study, and 1/3 changed labels 2 or more times. Yet, contrary to the "transitional stage" model, more women adopted bisexual/unlabeled identities than relinquished these identities; few bisexual/unlabeled women ended up identifying as lesbian or heterosexual. Overall, the most commonly adopted identity was "unlabeled." Bisexual/unlabeled women had stable overall distributions of same-sex/other-sex attractions but greater absolute fluctuations in attractions from assessment to assessment than lesbians. All women reported declines in their ratio of same-sex to other-sex behavior over time. These findings demonstrate that the distinction between lesbianism and bisexuality is a matter of degree rather than kind. PMID:18194000

  3. VARIABILITY OF LUMINOUS STARS IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD USING 10 YEARS OF ASAS DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Szczygiel, D. M.; Stanek, K. Z.; Bonanos, A. Z.; Pojmanski, G.; Pilecki, B.; Prieto, J. L. E-mail: kstanek@astronomy.ohio-state.ed E-mail: gp@astrouw.edu.p E-mail: jose@obs.carnegiescience.ed

    2010-07-15

    Motivated by the detection of a recent outburst of the massive luminous blue variable LMC-R71, which reached an absolute magnitude M{sub V} = -9.3 mag, we undertook a systematic study of the optical variability of 1268 massive stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud, using a recent catalog by Bonanos et al. as the input. The ASAS All Star Catalog provided well-sampled light curves of these bright stars spanning 10 years. Combining the two catalogs resulted in 599 matches, on which we performed a variability search. We identified 117 variable stars, 38 of which were not known before, despite their brightness and large amplitude of variation. We found 13 periodic stars that we classify as eclipsing binary (EB) stars, 8 of which are newly discovered bright massive EBs composed of OB-type stars. The remaining 104 variables are either semi- or non-periodic, the majority (85) being red supergiants (RSGs). Most (26) of the newly discovered variables in this category are also RSGs with only three B and four O stars.

  4. Graft survival rate of renal transplantation during a period of 10 years in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Shahbazi, Fatemeh; Ranjbaran, Mehdi; Karami-far, Simin; Soori, Hamid; Manesh, Hadi Jafari

    2015-01-01

    Background: Kidney transplantation is a preferred treatment for many patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and is far more profitable than hemodialysis. Analyzing renal transplantation data can help to evaluate the effectiveness of transplantation interventions. The aim of this study was to determine the organ survival rate after kidney transplantation during a period of 10 years (March 2001-March 2011) among transplanted patients in Arak, Markazi Province, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this historical cohort study, all recipients of kidney transplantation from Arak, Markazi Province, Iran who had medical records in Valiasr Hospital and “charity for kidney patients” of Arak, Markazi Province, Iran during a period of 10 years from March 2001 to March 2011 were included. Data collected by using checklists were completed from patients’ hospital records. Kaplan-Meier method was used to determine the graft cumulative survival rate, log-rank test to compare survival curves in subgroups, and Cox regression model to define the hazard ratio and for ruling out the intervening factors. Statistical analysis was conducted by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) 20 and Stata 11. Results: Mean duration of follow-up was 55.43 ± 42.02 months. By using the Kaplan-Meier method, the cumulative probability of graft survival at 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 years was 99.1, 97.7, 94.3, 85.7, and 62.1%, respectively. The number of dialysis by controlling the effect of other variables had a significant association with the risk of graft failure [hazard ratios and 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.47 (1.02-2.13)]. Conclusion: This study showed that the graft survival rate was satisfactory in this community and was similar to the results of single-center studies in the world. Dialysis time after transplantation was a significant predictor of survival in the recipients of kidney transplantation that should be considered. PMID:26941807

  5. Capsule endoscopy in pediatrics: A 10-years journey

    PubMed Central

    Oliva, Salvatore; Cohen, Stanley A; Di Nardo, Giovanni; Gualdi, Gianfranco; Cucchiara, Salvatore; Casciani, Emanuele

    2014-01-01

    Video capsule endoscopy (CE) for evaluation the esophagus (ECE), small bowel (SBCE) and the colon (CCE) is particularly useful in pediatrics, because this imaging modality does not require ionizing radiation, deep sedation or general anesthesia. The risk of capsule retention appears to be dependent on indication rather than age and parallels the adult experience by indication, making SBCE a relatively safe procedure with a significant diagnostic yield. The newest indication, assessment of mucosal change, greatly enhances and expands its potential benefit. The diagnostic role of CE extends beyond the SB. The use of ECE also may enhance our knowledge of esophageal disease and assist patient care. Colon CCE is a novel minimally invasive and painless endoscopic technique allowing exploration of the colon without need for sedation, rectal intubation and gas insufflation. The limited data on ECE and CCE in pediatrics does not yet allow the same conclusions regarding efficacy; however, both appear to provide safe methods to assess and monitor mucosal change in their respective areas with little discomfort. Moreover, although experience has been limited, the patency capsule may help lessen the potential of capsule retention; and newly researched protocols for bowel cleaning may further enhance CE’s diagnostic yield. However, further research is needed to optimize the use of the various CE procedures in pediatric populations. PMID:25469028

  6. Trends and predictors of asthma costs: results from a 10-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Tan, Ngiap Chuan; Nguyen, Hai V; Lye, Weng Kit; Sankari, Usha; Nadkarni, Nivedita V

    2016-03-01

    Research on asthma costs often focuses on estimating average asthma costs. Trends in asthma costs and patterns of medication use, especially for those who have been followed up and under treatment, have received much less attention. This study's objective was to document asthma costs over time for asthma patients who are enrolled in an asthma care programme in Singapore and to identify its predictors, using a 10-year longitudinal dataset.The study population comprised different cohorts of 939 asthma patients entering the programme at different times during 2004-2013. Average asthma costs were estimated and the trends over time examined graphically, within and across patient cohorts. Regression analyses were conducted to examine cost predictors, with a focus on the relationship between risk factors at programme enrolment and subsequent asthma costs.The results indicate that 10-year average annual asthma cost was GBP 341 per patient. The main drivers of costs were asthma medications and consultation fees. Use of combined inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting β-agonist medications increased over time, but this was accompanied by declines in controller drug use, doctor visits and total asthma drug costs. Obesity, smoking and asthma severity were the main predictors of subsequent asthma costs, especially for females. PMID:26647437

  7. Fishes and fisheries in tropical estuaries: The last 10 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaber, S. J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Since 2002 there has been an increase in knowledge of many aspects of the biology and ecology of tropical estuarine fishes, as well as significant changes to many estuarine fisheries. Analyses of literature databases (2002-2012) show that: of the c. 600 relevant papers, 52% are primarily related to ecology, 11% to conservation, 11% to anthropogenic and pollution effects on fishes, 9% to fisheries, 7% to aquaculture, 4% to study techniques, and 1% each to fish larvae, effects of fishing, taxonomy, climate change, evolution and genetics. In terms of geographic spread 17% are from North America, 15% from south Asia, 14% from the Caribbean, 13% from Australasia, 12% from Africa and 9% each from South America and SE Asia. Research papers came from 50 countries of which the dominant were USA (15%), India (12%), Australia (11%) and Brazil (7%). Increasing numbers of studies in West Africa, SE and South Asia and South America have increased basic knowledge of the ecology of estuarine fish faunas. Increases in understanding relate to: roles of salinity, turbidity and habitat diversity; connectivity between habitats; water flow; ecological drivers of spatial variability; scale dependent variation; thermal tolerances; movement patterns; food webs; larval adaptations; and the viability of areas heavily impacted by human activities. New reviews both challenge and support different aspects of the estuarine dependence paradigm - still perhaps one of the main research issues - and the protective function of estuaries and mangroves for juvenile fishes has received attention in relation to e.g. predation risks and fisheries. There have also been significant advances in the use of guilds and biodiversity models. Fishing pressures have continued unabated in most tropical estuaries and are summarised and management issues discussed. Understanding of the relationships between fisheries production and mangroves has advanced and significant differences have emerged between Indo

  8. Emergency Peripartum Hysterectomies at a District General Hospital in United Kingdom: 10-Year Review of Practice

    PubMed Central

    Chester, J.; Sidhu, P.; Sharma, S.; Israfil-Bayli, F.

    2016-01-01

    Peripartum haemorrhage is an obstetric emergency which requires effective and timely management. A retrospective analysis was conducted at a single centre district hospital, over a 10-year period to describe factors that would lead to a peripartum hysterectomy. We sought to establish intraoperative and postoperative risks and review outcomes and complications associated with the procedure. A total of 29 cases (incidence 0.8 per 1000) were reviewed over 2001–2011. The mean parity was 1.8 and the mean maternal age was 33 years. Uterine atony was the most common indication for hysterectomy (12/29) followed by placenta praevia and accreta (4/29 and 5/29 cases, resp.). The commonest postoperative complications were sepsis and paralytic ileus. EPH most commonly occurs due to uterine atony but remains difficult to predict. Hospitals should continue to have robust systems and the necessary resources available to perform EPH where clinically indicated. PMID:27190690

  9. Prospects for emerging infections in East and southeast Asia 10 years after severe acute respiratory syndrome.

    PubMed

    Horby, Peter W; Pfeiffer, Dirk; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2013-06-01

    It is 10 years since severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) emerged, and East and Southeast Asia retain a reputation as a hot spot of emerging infectious diseases. The region is certainly a hot spot of socioeconomic and environmental change, and although some changes (e.g., urbanization and agricultural intensification) may reduce the probability of emerging infectious diseases, the effect of any individual emergence event may be increased by the greater concentration and connectivity of livestock, persons, and products. The region is now better able to detect and respond to emerging infectious diseases than it was a decade ago, but the tools and methods to produce sufficiently refined assessments of the risks of disease emergence are still lacking. Given the continued scale and pace of change in East and Southeast Asia, it is vital that capabilities for predicting, identifying, and controlling biologic threats do not stagnate as the memory of SARS fades. PMID:23738977

  10. Prospects for Emerging Infections in East and Southeast Asia 10 Years after Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, Dirk; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2013-01-01

    It is 10 years since severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) emerged, and East and Southeast Asia retain a reputation as a hot spot of emerging infectious diseases. The region is certainly a hot spot of socioeconomic and environmental change, and although some changes (e.g., urbanization and agricultural intensification) may reduce the probability of emerging infectious diseases, the effect of any individual emergence event may be increased by the greater concentration and connectivity of livestock, persons, and products. The region is now better able to detect and respond to emerging infectious diseases than it was a decade ago, but the tools and methods to produce sufficiently refined assessments of the risks of disease emergence are still lacking. Given the continued scale and pace of change in East and Southeast Asia, it is vital that capabilities for predicting, identifying, and controlling biologic threats do not stagnate as the memory of SARS fades. PMID:23738977

  11. Absolute biological needs.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Stephen

    2014-07-01

    Absolute needs (as against instrumental needs) are independent of the ends, goals and purposes of personal agents. Against the view that the only needs are instrumental needs, David Wiggins and Garrett Thomson have defended absolute needs on the grounds that the verb 'need' has instrumental and absolute senses. While remaining neutral about it, this article does not adopt that approach. Instead, it suggests that there are absolute biological needs. The absolute nature of these needs is defended by appeal to: their objectivity (as against mind-dependence); the universality of the phenomenon of needing across the plant and animal kingdoms; the impossibility that biological needs depend wholly upon the exercise of the abilities characteristic of personal agency; the contention that the possession of biological needs is prior to the possession of the abilities characteristic of personal agency. Finally, three philosophical usages of 'normative' are distinguished. On two of these, to describe a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' is to describe it as value-dependent. A description of a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' in the third sense does not entail such value-dependency, though it leaves open the possibility that value depends upon the phenomenon or upon the truth of the claim. It is argued that while survival needs (or claims about them) may well be normative in this third sense, they are normative in neither of the first two. Thus, the idea of absolute need is not inherently normative in either of the first two senses. PMID:23586876

  12. Healthcare-associated Pneumonia: Clinical Features and Retrospective Analysis Over 10 Years

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Fei; Zhang, Guo-Xin; She, Dan-Yang; Liang, Zhi-Xin; Wang, Ren-Tao; Yang, Zhen; Chen, Liang-An; Cui, Jun-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Background: Healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP) is associated with drug-resistant pathogens and high mortality, and there is no clear evidence that this is due to inappropriate antibiotic therapy. This study was to elucidate the clinical features, pathogens, therapy, and outcomes of HCAP, and to clarify the risk factors for drug-resistant pathogens and prognosis. Methods: Retrospective observational study among hospitalized patients with HCAP over 10 years. The primary outcome was 30-day all-cause hospital mortality after admission. Demographics (age, gender, clinical features, and comorbidities), dates of admission, discharge and/or death, hospitalization costs, microbiological results, chest imaging studies, and CURB-65 were analyzed. Antibiotics, admission to Intensive Care Unit (ICU), mechanical ventilation, and pneumonia prognosis were recorded. Patients were dichotomized based on CURB-65 (low- vs. high-risk). Results: Among 612 patients (mean age of 70.7 years), 88.4% had at least one comorbidity. Commonly detected pathogens were Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and coagulase-negative staphylococci. Initial monotherapy with β-lactam antibiotics was the most common initial therapy (50%). Mean age, length of stay, hospitalization expenses, ICU admission, mechanical ventilation use, malignancies, and detection rate for P. aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus were higher in the high-risk group compared with the low-risk group. CURB-65 ≥3, malignancies, and mechanical ventilation were associated with an increased mortality. Logistic regression analysis showed that cerebrovascular diseases and being bedridden were independent risk factors for HCAP. Conclusion: Initial treatment of HCAP with broad-spectrum antibiotics could be an appropriate approach. CURB-65 ≥3, malignancies, and mechanical ventilation may result in an increased mortality. PMID:26481734

  13. Wave height analysis from 10 years of observations in the Norwegian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xiangbo; Tsimplis, M. N.; Quartly, G. D.; Yelland, M. J.

    2014-01-01

    Large waves pose risks to ships, offshore structures, coastal infrastructure and ecosystems. This paper analyses 10 years of in-situ measurements of significant wave height (Hs) and maximum wave height (Hmax) from the ocean weather ship Polarfront in the Norwegian Sea. During the period 2000 to 2009, surface elevation was recorded every 0.59 s during sampling periods of 30 min. The Hmax observations scale linearly with Hs on average. A widely-used empirical Weibull distribution is found to estimate average values of Hmax/Hs and Hmax better than a Rayleigh distribution, but tends to underestimate both for all but the smallest waves. In this paper we propose a modified Rayleigh distribution which compensates for the heterogeneity of the observed dataset: the distribution is fitted to the whole dataset and improves the estimate of the largest waves. Over the 10-year period, the Weibull distribution approximates the observed Hs and Hmax well, and an exponential function can be used to predict the probability distribution function of the ratio Hmax/Hs. However, the Weibull distribution tends to underestimate the occurrence of extremely large values of Hs and Hmax. The persistence of Hs and Hmax in winter is also examined. Wave fields with Hs>12 m and Hmax>16 m do not last longer than 3 h. Low-to-moderate wave heights that persist for more than 12 h dominate the relationship of the wave field with the winter NAO index over 2000-2009. In contrast, the inter-annual variability of wave fields with Hs>5.5 m or Hmax>8.5 m and wave fields persisting over ~2.5 days is not associated with the winter NAO index.

  14. Injuries in a Professional Ballet Dance Company: A 10-year Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Ramkumar, Prem N; Farber, Joseph; Arnouk, Johnny; Varner, Kevin E; Mcculloch, Patrick C

    2016-03-01

    Ballet dancers are high-performance athletes who are particularly susceptible to a wide variety of musculoskeletal injuries. However, they are relatively understudied, and data on their injury rates are lacking. This retrospective study features the largest aggregate data on professional ballet dancers to date and aims to identify the most common diagnoses and areas of injury in this unique population to better direct preventative and clinical practices. The study encompassed a 10-year period from January 2000 to December 2010 of dancers from a single company. Data regarding the dancers' age, gender, location of injury, and diagnosis were collected from workers' compensation claims, company records, and medical records maintained by the treating doctors. These were analyzed to determine metrics on injury incidence, frequency, and diagnosis. Over the 10-year span, 574 injuries occurred. There were approximately 52 dancers per year for a total of 153 who danced at least one complete season during the study period. The average age was 27, and 53% were female. Given turnover with retirement and replacements, the total number of dancer-years was 520, indicating an injury incidence per annum of 1.10 (574 injuries per 520 dancer-years). The most common locations of injury were foot and ankle and the lumbar spine, with the three most common diagnoses making up greater than a third (37%) of the total. As the current largest study in professional ballet, the findings set the benchmark metrics for musculoskeletal injury to the foot, ankle, and lumbar spine sites. Future studies should aim to identify injury risk factors and modalities for prevention of these injuries. PMID:27025450

  15. The absolute path command

    2012-05-11

    The ap command traveres all symlinks in a given file, directory, or executable name to identify the final absolute path. It can print just the final path, each intermediate link along with the symlink chan, and the permissions and ownership of each directory component in the final path. It has functionality similar to "which", except that it shows the final path instead of the first path. It is also similar to "pwd", but it canmore » provide the absolute path to a relative directory from the current working directory.« less

  16. The absolute path command

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, A.

    2012-05-11

    The ap command traveres all symlinks in a given file, directory, or executable name to identify the final absolute path. It can print just the final path, each intermediate link along with the symlink chan, and the permissions and ownership of each directory component in the final path. It has functionality similar to "which", except that it shows the final path instead of the first path. It is also similar to "pwd", but it can provide the absolute path to a relative directory from the current working directory.

  17. Testing different formats for communicating colorectal cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Lipkus, I M; Crawford, Y; Fenn, K; Biradavolu, M; Binder, R A; Marcus, A; Mason, M

    1999-01-01

    This study assessed the extent to which different formats of informing men and women age 50 and over of the risks of colorectal cancer (CRC) affected their perceptions of their absolute and comparative (self versus other) 10-year and lifetime risks; emotional reactions about getting CRC; and screening intentions. Forty-four men and 78 women received information about the absolute lifetime risk of getting CRC. In addition, participants either did or did not receive information about (1) lifetime risk of getting CRC compared with other cancers, and (2) risk factors for CRC (age and polyps). Participants who received risk factors information were more likely to increase their perceived absolute 10-year and lifetime risks of getting CRC compared with participants who did not receive risk factors information. In addition, participants who received risk factors information were more likely to believe age was related to getting CRC and felt at greater risk for having polyps compared with participants who did not receive this information. None of the experimental conditions affected how worried, anxious, and fearful participants felt about getting CRC, nor did they affect screening intentions. Independent of experimental condition, participants tended to increase their intentions to get screened for CRC in the next year or two. Intention to be screened was more pronounced among participants who had been screened via a fecal occult blood test (FOBT) or sigmoidoscopy (SIG). Implications for the design of interventions involving the communication of CRC risks are discussed. PMID:10790787

  18. Cancer incidence and mortality due to alcohol: an analysis of 10-year data.

    PubMed

    Laffoy, M; McCarthy, T; Mullen, L; Byrne, D; Martin, J

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is causally related to cancer of the upper aero-digestive tract, liver, colon, rectum, female breast and pancreas. The dose response relationship varies for each site. We calculated Ireland's cancer incidence and mortality attributable to alcohol over a 10-year period. Between 2001 and 2010, 4,585 (4.7%) male and 4,593 (4.2%) female invasive cancer diagnoses were attributable to alcohol. The greatest risk was for the upper aero-digestive tract where 2,961 (52.9%) of these cancers in males and 866 (35.2%) in females were attributable to alcohol. Between 2001 and 2010, 2,823 (6.7%) of male cancer deaths and 1,700 (4.6%) of female cancer deaths were attributable to alcohol. Every year approximately 900 new cancers and 500 cancer deaths are attributable to alcohol. Alcohol is a major cause of cancer after smoking, obesity and physical inactivity. Public awareness of risk must improve. Over half of alcohol related cancers are preventable by adhering to Department of Health alcohol consumption guidelines. PMID:24579406

  19. Duodenal cancer in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP): results of a 10 year prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Groves, C J; Saunders, B P; Spigelman, A D; Phillips, R K S

    2002-01-01

    Background: Duodenal cancer is one of the leading causes of death in familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) patients. An endoscopic surveillance programme was therefore initiated in 1988, the outcome of which is described in this paper. Methods: We report the 10 year follow up of 114 patients with FAP who were prospectively screened for the presence and severity of duodenal adenomas. Results: Six of 114 patients (median age 67 years) developed duodenal adenocarcinoma. Four of these were from 11 patients who originally had Spigelman stage IV disease (advanced duodenal polyposis), which gives a 36% risk within this group of developing cancer. One case of duodenal cancer arose from 41 patients who originally had stage III disease (2%) and one cancer arose from 44 patients with original stage II disease (2%). All six patients have died: five were inoperable and one had recurrence three years after a pancreaticoduodenectomy. There was no association between duodenal cancer and site of germline mutation of the APC gene. Conclusions: Surveillance for duodenal adenocarcinoma and subsequent early referral for curative surgery has not been effective. Selection of patients with advanced but benign (Spigelman stage IV) duodenal polyposis for prophylactic pancreaticoduodenectomy should therefore be considered and can now be justified on the basis of these results. More comprehensive endoscopic surveillance of high risk (stage III and IV) patients is needed in an attempt to avoid underestimating the severity of duodenal polyposis, and to evaluate the role of endoscopic therapy in preventing advanced disease. PMID:11950808

  20. Patterns and Predictors of Language and Literacy Abilities 4-10 Years in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children

    PubMed Central

    Zubrick, Stephen R.; Taylor, Catherine L.; Christensen, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Aims Oral language is the foundation of literacy. Naturally, policies and practices to promote children’s literacy begin in early childhood and have a strong focus on developing children’s oral language, especially for children with known risk factors for low language ability. The underlying assumption is that children’s progress along the oral to literate continuum is stable and predictable, such that low language ability foretells low literacy ability. This study investigated patterns and predictors of children’s oral language and literacy abilities at 4, 6, 8 and 10 years. The study sample comprised 2,316 to 2,792 children from the first nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC). Six developmental patterns were observed, a stable middle-high pattern, a stable low pattern, an improving pattern, a declining pattern, a fluctuating low pattern, and a fluctuating middle-high pattern. Most children (69%) fit a stable middle-high pattern. By contrast, less than 1% of children fit a stable low pattern. These results challenged the view that children’s progress along the oral to literate continuum is stable and predictable. Findings Multivariate logistic regression was used to investigate risks for low literacy ability at 10 years and sensitivity-specificity analysis was used to examine the predictive utility of the multivariate model. Predictors were modelled as risk variables with the lowest level of risk as the reference category. In the multivariate model, substantial risks for low literacy ability at 10 years, in order of descending magnitude, were: low school readiness, Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander status and low language ability at 8 years. Moderate risks were high temperamental reactivity, low language ability at 4 years, and low language ability at 6 years. The following risk factors were not statistically significant in the multivariate model: Low maternal consistency, low family income, health care card

  1. Recommendations for Serogroup B Meningococcal Vaccine for Persons 10 Years and Older.

    PubMed

    2016-09-01

    This policy statement provides recommendations for the prevention of serogroup B meningococcal disease through the use of 2 newly licensed serogroup B meningococcal vaccines: MenB-FHbp (Trumenba; Wyeth Pharmaceuticals, a subsidiary of Pfizer, Philadelphia, PA) and MenB-4C (Bexsero; Novartis Vaccines, Siena, Italy). Both vaccines are approved for use in persons 10 through 25 years of age. MenB-FHbp is licensed as a 2- or 3-dose series, and MenB-4C is licensed as a 2-dose series for all groups. Either vaccine is recommended for routine use in persons 10 years and older who are at increased risk of serogroup B meningococcal disease (category A recommendation). Persons at increased risk of meningococcal serogroup B disease include the following: (1) persons with persistent complement component diseases, including inherited or chronic deficiencies in C3, C5-C9, properdin, factor D, or factor H or persons receiving eculizumab (Soliris; Alexion Pharmaceuticals, Cheshire, CT), a monoclonal antibody that acts as a terminal complement inhibitor by binding C5 and inhibiting cleavage of C5 to C5A; (2) persons with anatomic or functional asplenia, including sickle cell disease; and (3) healthy persons at increased risk because of a serogroup B meningococcal disease outbreak. Both serogroup B meningococcal vaccines have been shown to be safe and immunogenic and are licensed by the US Food and Drug Administration for individuals between the ages of 10 and 25 years. On the basis of epidemiologic and antibody persistence data, the American Academy of Pediatrics agrees with the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention that either vaccine may be administered to healthy adolescents and young adults 16 through 23 years of age (preferred ages are 16 through 18 years) to provide short-term protection against most strains of serogroup B meningococcal disease (category B recommendation). PMID:27573083

  2. Employment and social benefits up to 10 years after breast cancer diagnosis: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Paalman, C H; van Leeuwen, F E; Aaronson, N K; de Boer, A G E M; van de Poll-Franse, L; Oldenburg, H S A; Schaapveld, M

    2016-01-01

    Background: Little is known about employment outcomes after breast cancer (BC) beyond the first years after treatment. Methods: Employment outcomes were compared with a general population comparison group (N=91 593) up to 10 years after BC for 26 120 patients, diagnosed before age 55 between 2000–2005, with income and social benefits data from Statistics Netherlands. Treatment effects were studied in 14 916 patients, with information on BC recurrences and new cancer events. Results: BC survivors experienced higher risk of losing paid employment (Hazard Ratio (HR): 1.6, 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI) 1.4–1.8) or any work-related event up to 5–7 years (HR 1.5, 95% CI 1.3–1.6) and of receiving disability benefits up to 10 years after diagnosis (HR 2.0, 95% CI 1.6–2.5), with higher risks for younger patients. Axillary lymph node dissection increased risk of disability benefits (HR 1.5, 95% CI 1.4–1.7) or losing paid employment (HR 1.3, 95% CI 1.2–1.5) during the first 5 years of follow-up. Risk of disability benefits was increased among patients receiving mastectomy and radiotherapy (HR 1.2; 95% CI 1.1–1.3) and after chemotherapy (HR 1.7; 95% CI 1.5–1.9) during the first 5 years after diagnosis. Conclusions: BC treatment at least partly explains the increased risk of adverse employment outcomes up to 10 years after BC. PMID:26757424

  3. Natural History of Thyroid Function in Adults with Down Syndrome--10-Year Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasher, V.; Gomez, G.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The natural history of thyroid function in adults with Down syndrome (DS) is unknown. Method: This study investigated annual thyroid function tests in 200 adults with DS over a 10-year period. Results: Transient and persistent thyroid dysfunction was common. The 5- and 10-year incidence of definite hypothyroidism was 0.9%-1.64% and…

  4. 7 CFR 625.9 - 10-year restoration cost-share agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false 10-year restoration cost-share agreements. 625.9... restoration cost-share agreements. (a) The restoration plan developed under § 625.13 forms the basis for the... agreement will: (1) Incorporate all portions of a restoration plan; (2) Be for a period of 10 years;...

  5. 7 CFR 625.9 - 10-year restoration cost-share agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false 10-year restoration cost-share agreements. 625.9... restoration cost-share agreements. (a) The restoration plan developed under § 625.13 forms the basis for the... agreement will: (1) Incorporate all portions of a restoration plan; (2) Be for a period of 10 years;...

  6. Effects of Two Modes of Exercise Training on Physical Fitness of 10 Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribeiro, Ligia G. dos Santos Chaves; Portal, Maria de Nazare Dias; da Silva, Joao Bittencourt; Saraiva, Alan; da Cruz Monte, Gerson, Jr.; Dantas, Estelio H. M.

    2010-01-01

    Study aim: To compare two exercise training modes on the physical fitness of 10 year-old children. Material and methods: A sample of 60 schoolboys aged 10 years were randomly divided into 3 groups: Traditional (TG), trained according to the Brazilian national curricular parameters, Maturational (MG), in which the degree of difficulty of the…

  7. The Career Trap. Breaking through the 10-Year Barrier To Get the Job You Really Want.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Jeffrey G.

    This book, which is intended for individuals who have been in a job for a decade and feel that their career development has stalled, explains how to break through the 10-year career barrier and get a desired job. The following topics are discussed in the book's 15 chapters: career stalls and their causes; the 10-year career barrier; the legality…

  8. Self-Esteem during University Studies Predicts Career Characteristics 10 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2007-01-01

    To examine how self-esteem measured during university studies would impact on the characteristics of the work career 10 years later, 297 university students completed the Rosenberg's self-esteem inventory four times while at university and various career-related questionnaires 10 years later. Latent Growth Curve Modeling showed that a high overall…

  9. Changes in the Capacity of Visual Working Memory in 5- to 10-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggs, Kevin J.; McTaggart, James; Simpson, Andrew; Freeman, Richard P. J.

    2006-01-01

    Using the Luck and Vogel change detection paradigm, we sought to investigate the capacity of visual working memory in 5-, 7-, and 10-year-olds. We found that performance on the task improved significantly with age and also obtained evidence that the capacity of visual working memory approximately doubles between 5 and 10 years of age, where it…

  10. Uric Acid Levels Can Predict Metabolic Syndrome and Hypertension in Adolescents: A 10-Year Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hai-Lun; Pei, Dee; Lue, Ko-Huang; Chen, Yen-Lin

    2015-01-01

    The relationships between uric acid and chronic disease risk factors such as metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and hypertension have been studied in adults. However, whether these relationships exist in adolescents is unknown. We randomly selected 8,005 subjects who were between 10 to 15 years old at baseline. Measurements of uric acid were used to predict the future occurrence of metabolic syndrome, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes. In total, 5,748 adolescents were enrolled and followed for a median of 7.2 years. Using cutoff points of uric acid for males and females (7.3 and 6.2 mg/dl, respectively), a high level of uric acid was either the second or third best predictor for hypertension in both genders (hazard ratio: 2.920 for males, 5.222 for females; p<0.05). However, uric acid levels failed to predict type 2 diabetes mellitus, and only predicted metabolic syndrome in males (hazard ratio: 1.658; p<0.05). The same results were found in multivariate adjusted analysis. In conclusion, a high level of uric acid indicated a higher likelihood of developing hypertension in both genders and metabolic syndrome in males after 10 years of follow-up. However, uric acid levels did not affect the occurrence of type 2 diabetes in both genders. PMID:26618358

  11. Uric Acid Levels Can Predict Metabolic Syndrome and Hypertension in Adolescents: A 10-Year Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hai-Lun; Pei, Dee; Lue, Ko-Huang; Chen, Yen-Lin

    2015-01-01

    The relationships between uric acid and chronic disease risk factors such as metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and hypertension have been studied in adults. However, whether these relationships exist in adolescents is unknown. We randomly selected 8,005 subjects who were between 10 to 15 years old at baseline. Measurements of uric acid were used to predict the future occurrence of metabolic syndrome, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes. In total, 5,748 adolescents were enrolled and followed for a median of 7.2 years. Using cutoff points of uric acid for males and females (7.3 and 6.2 mg/dl, respectively), a high level of uric acid was either the second or third best predictor for hypertension in both genders (hazard ratio: 2.920 for males, 5.222 for females; p<0.05). However, uric acid levels failed to predict type 2 diabetes mellitus, and only predicted metabolic syndrome in males (hazard ratio: 1.658; p<0.05). The same results were found in multivariate adjusted analysis. In conclusion, a high level of uric acid indicated a higher likelihood of developing hypertension in both genders and metabolic syndrome in males after 10 years of follow-up. However, uric acid levels did not affect the occurrence of type 2 diabetes in both genders. PMID:26618358

  12. Gender-related affecting factors of prediabetes on its 10-year outcome

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xiaomin; Qiu, Miaoyan; Zhang, Xuan'e; Wang, Haiyan; Tong, Wenxin; Ju, Liping; Gu, Lei; Sun, Siming; Zhang, Hongli; Wang, Weiqing; Tian, Jingyan

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the gender-related affecting factors of prediabetes on its 10-year outcome, in a longitudinal study. Methods and results This longitudinal population-based study was performed in the Ping Liang community, Yangpu district, Shanghai, between November 2002 and October 2014. There were 334 participants with prediabetes enrolled in the final analysis. While a certain proportion of the prediabetic population progress to diabetes, the majority remain at the same level or even revert to normal glucose regulation. No gender difference was observed in the change of glucose regulation. However, results from an adjusted logistic regression analysis in males showed that physical activity was significantly associated with both elevated odds of reverting to normal glucose regulation (active vs inactive, OR 3.00, 95% CI 1.09 to 8.30) and developing diabetes (OR 0.34, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.92). Age, baseline 2 h glucose, triglycerides and smoking status were also risk factors significantly associated with diabetes development; while for females, waist circumference played a key role in the outcome. Every unit elevation of waist circumference was associated with lower odds of reverting to normal glucose regulation (OR, 0.94; 95% CI 0.89 to 0.98) and higher odds of progressing to diabetes (OR, 1.05; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.10). Baseline hypertension and family history of diabetes carried higher risk for developing diabetes as well. Conclusions Physical activity in males and waist circumference in females are important factors predicting both progression to diabetes and regression to normal glucose regulation, indicating that more exercise for males and lower waist circumference for females are beneficial for prediabetes to achieve reversion. PMID:27239315

  13. Electronic Absolute Cartesian Autocollimator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B.

    2006-01-01

    An electronic absolute Cartesian autocollimator performs the same basic optical function as does a conventional all-optical or a conventional electronic autocollimator but differs in the nature of its optical target and the manner in which the position of the image of the target is measured. The term absolute in the name of this apparatus reflects the nature of the position measurement, which, unlike in a conventional electronic autocollimator, is based absolutely on the position of the image rather than on an assumed proportionality between the position and the levels of processed analog electronic signals. The term Cartesian in the name of this apparatus reflects the nature of its optical target. Figure 1 depicts the electronic functional blocks of an electronic absolute Cartesian autocollimator along with its basic optical layout, which is the same as that of a conventional autocollimator. Referring first to the optical layout and functions only, this or any autocollimator is used to measure the compound angular deviation of a flat datum mirror with respect to the optical axis of the autocollimator itself. The optical components include an illuminated target, a beam splitter, an objective or collimating lens, and a viewer or detector (described in more detail below) at a viewing plane. The target and the viewing planes are focal planes of the lens. Target light reflected by the datum mirror is imaged on the viewing plane at unit magnification by the collimating lens. If the normal to the datum mirror is parallel to the optical axis of the autocollimator, then the target image is centered on the viewing plane. Any angular deviation of the normal from the optical axis manifests itself as a lateral displacement of the target image from the center. The magnitude of the displacement is proportional to the focal length and to the magnitude (assumed to be small) of the angular deviation. The direction of the displacement is perpendicular to the axis about which the

  14. Trend in Prevalence of Hepatitis C Virus Infection among β-thalassemia Major Patients: 10 Years of Experience in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Jafroodi, Maryam; Davoudi-Kiakalayeh, Ali; Mohtasham-Amiri, Zahra; Pourfathollah, Ali Akbar; Haghbin, Azade

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the leading cause of transfusion transmitted infections (TTIs) among patients with β-thalassemia major. A high prevalence of HCV was reported among these patients. The aim of this study is seeking the trend of the prevalence of HCV infection among the patients with b-thalassemia major in Guilan province, Northern Iran over a 10-year period. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on 1113 patients with b-thalassemia major in the Guilan province, northern Iran from 2002 to 2012, using multiple data sources. A blood sample was taken from each patient, and a questionnaire regarding demographic data and risk factors was completed for them. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and recombinant immunoblot assay for HCV were performed in all cases. A stepwise forward logistic regression analysis was done. Results: The prevalence of hepatitis C infection among β-thalassemia major patients was 13.6%. The risk of hepatitis C among β-thalassemia major patients was greater before screening program for HCV (odds ratio = 9.6, 95% confidence interval: 2.3–40.5). In addition, the prevalence of anti-HCV seropositivity was decreased dramatically among patients who have received transfusions after implementation of blood donor screening for HCV. There were no positive HCV cases in the patients younger than 10 years. Conclusions: The risk of TTIs including HCV can be reduced by implementing screening program for healthy blood. PMID:26445636

  15. ABSOLUTE POLARIMETRY AT RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    OKADA; BRAVAR, A.; BUNCE, G.; GILL, R.; HUANG, H.; MAKDISI, Y.; NASS, A.; WOOD, J.; ZELENSKI, Z.; ET AL.

    2007-09-10

    Precise and absolute beam polarization measurements are critical for the RHIC spin physics program. Because all experimental spin-dependent results are normalized by beam polarization, the normalization uncertainty contributes directly to final physics uncertainties. We aimed to perform the beam polarization measurement to an accuracy Of {Delta}P{sub beam}/P{sub beam} < 5%. The absolute polarimeter consists of Polarized Atomic Hydrogen Gas Jet Target and left-right pairs of silicon strip detectors and was installed in the RHIC-ring in 2004. This system features proton-proton elastic scattering in the Coulomb nuclear interference (CNI) region. Precise measurements of the analyzing power A{sub N} of this process has allowed us to achieve {Delta}P{sub beam}/P{sub beam} = 4.2% in 2005 for the first long spin-physics run. In this report, we describe the entire set up and performance of the system. The procedure of beam polarization measurement and analysis results from 2004-2005 are described. Physics topics of AN in the CNI region (four-momentum transfer squared 0.001 < -t < 0.032 (GeV/c){sup 2}) are also discussed. We point out the current issues and expected optimum accuracy in 2006 and the future.

  16. Acute respiratory distress syndrome in a 10-year-old dog.

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, T L

    2001-01-01

    A 10-year-old shih tzu was presented with lethargy, anorexia, coughing, and dyspnea of 2 days' duration. Despite treatment with parenteral fluids, corticosteroids, antibiotics, and diuretics, the dog died. Acute respiratory distress syndrome was diagnosed histologically. PMID:11565374

  17. PLANT POISONING IN THAILAND: A 10-YEAR ANALYSIS FROM RAMATHIBODI POISON CENTER.

    PubMed

    Sriapha, Charuwan; Tongpoo, Achara; Wongvisavakorn, Sunun; Rittilert, Panee; Trakulsrichai, Satariya; Srisuma, Sahaphume; Wananukul, Winai

    2015-11-01

    Plant poisoning is not uncommon in Thailand. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence, type, clinical manifestations, severity and outcomes of plant poisoned patients in Thailand over a 10-year period. We retrospectively reviewed data from the Ramathibodi Poison Center Toxic Exposure Surveillance System for 2001-2010. A total of 2,901 poisonous plant exposure cases were identified, comprising 3.1% of the 92,392 poison cases recorded during the study period. This was the fifth most common type of poisoning recorded. Children aged < 13 years comprised the largest percent (69.8%) of the cases. The major type of exposure was unintentional ingestion. Ninety-nine types of poisonous plants were recorded as the causative agents among 99.1%of the cases. Gastrointestinal symptoms were reported in 72.0% of cases with Jatropha curcas (physic nut) comprising 54.1% of these. Most patients had only minor signs and symptoms. The mortality rate among the total plant poisoning cases was 0.9%, with 26 deaths. Thirteen deaths occurred in children aged < 13 years. The greatest number of fatalities were due to ingestion of Manihot esculenta (cassava), primarily due to multi-system organ failure. Children aged < 13 years are at the greatest risk for plant poisoning in Thailand; mostly unintentional. Most cases were minor and the mortality rate was low. Jatropha curcas was the most common cause of poisoning and Manihot esculenta was the most common cause of death. Public education is important to minimize these poisonings. PMID:26867365

  18. Decreases in human immunodeficiency virus infection rates in Kombolcha, Ethiopia: a 10-year data review

    PubMed Central

    Shiferaw, Melashu Balew; Gebregergs, Gebremedhin Berhe; Sinishaw, Mulusew Alemneh; Yesuf, Yohannes Amede

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is one of the most serious public health and development challenges in sub-Saharan Africa, including Ethiopia. A particular challenge for prevention strategies has been the emergence of hotspot areas. Therefore, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome programs should not be based on national level statistics, but need to be more focused geographically. Kombolcha is one of the high spot areas with different projects and development corridors. Hence, the aim of this study is to assess the trend of HIV infection rates among patients who visited Africa Service Committee clinic from 2005 to 2014. Methods An institutional-based cross-sectional study was conducted from January 1 to January 30, 2016. All records of new patients enrolled from February 8, 2005 to December 31, 2014 were reviewed. Data on sociodemographic information, risky sexual behavior, and HIV test result were collected from each study participant using data collection format. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to identify risk factors of HIV infection. Results The overall HIV infection was 10.8% (2,233/20,674). The rate of infection varied from 13.3% in 2005 to 4.5% in 2014, and its trend had significantly declined from 2008 to 2014. Urban residence (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 2.53; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.22–5.25), patients who ever had intercourse with penetration (AOR: 5.62; 95% CI: 1.11–28.57), and those who had marriage experience (AOR: 11.65; 95% CI: 4.2–32.3) were more infected with HIV. Conclusion The trend of HIV infection significantly reduced in the last 10 years in Kombolcha area. However, the HIV infection still remains high (4.5%) that needs intervention of those who had marriage experience, risky sexual behavior, and urban dwellers. PMID:27462177

  19. Hip arthroscopy in the warrior athlete: 2 to 10 year outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Byrd, J. W. Thomas; Jones, Kay S.; Schmitz, LtCol Matthew R.; Doner, Geoffrey P.

    2016-01-01

    Hip disorders are increasingly recognized among athletic populations. The rigors of military service expose individuals to the same risks as those participating in competitive sports, compounded by potential exposure to violent macrotrauma. This is a retrospective review of prospectively collected data among 62 active duty military personnel (64 hips) with 2–10-year follow-up. Follow-up averaged 47 months (range 24–120 months). The average age was 30 years (range 17–53 years) with 45 males and 17 females; 37 right and 27 left hips. Duration of symptoms prior to arthroscopy averaged 28 months (range 6–168 months). The average improvement was 22 points (pre-op 63; post-op 85) using the 100-point modified Harris hip score and was statistically significant (P <  0.001). Patients were improved after 60 of 64 procedures (94%) and returned to active duty following 52 (80%) and an average of 5 months (range 1 week–15 months). Forty-six (72%) underwent correction of FAI including 27 combined, 17 cam and two pincer lesions. Overall diagnoses and procedures are detailed. One patient underwent repeat arthroscopy and remained improved at 2-year follow-up; none were converted to total hip arthroplasty. There were two minor complications, a transient ulnar nerve neurapraxia and superficial sensory dysesthesias of the foot, both of which resolved within a few days. This is a heterogeneous cohort of pathology, but illustrates that hip disorders may exist among active duty military personnel and may benefit from arthroscopic intervention. A sense of awareness is important for accurate diagnosis and timely treatment. PMID:27026823

  20. Hip arthroscopy in the warrior athlete: 2 to 10 year outcomes.

    PubMed

    Byrd, J W Thomas; Jones, Kay S; Schmitz, LtCol Matthew R; Doner, Geoffrey P

    2016-04-01

    Hip disorders are increasingly recognized among athletic populations. The rigors of military service expose individuals to the same risks as those participating in competitive sports, compounded by potential exposure to violent macrotrauma. This is a retrospective review of prospectively collected data among 62 active duty military personnel (64 hips) with 2-10-year follow-up. Follow-up averaged 47 months (range 24-120 months). The average age was 30 years (range 17-53 years) with 45 males and 17 females; 37 right and 27 left hips. Duration of symptoms prior to arthroscopy averaged 28 months (range 6-168 months). The average improvement was 22 points (pre-op 63; post-op 85) using the 100-point modified Harris hip score and was statistically significant (P <  0.001). Patients were improved after 60 of 64 procedures (94%) and returned to active duty following 52 (80%) and an average of 5 months (range 1 week-15 months). Forty-six (72%) underwent correction of FAI including 27 combined, 17 cam and two pincer lesions. Overall diagnoses and procedures are detailed. One patient underwent repeat arthroscopy and remained improved at 2-year follow-up; none were converted to total hip arthroplasty. There were two minor complications, a transient ulnar nerve neurapraxia and superficial sensory dysesthesias of the foot, both of which resolved within a few days. This is a heterogeneous cohort of pathology, but illustrates that hip disorders may exist among active duty military personnel and may benefit from arthroscopic intervention. A sense of awareness is important for accurate diagnosis and timely treatment. PMID:27026823

  1. Implants as absolute anchorage.

    PubMed

    Rungcharassaeng, Kitichai; Kan, Joseph Y K; Caruso, Joseph M

    2005-11-01

    Anchorage control is essential for successful orthodontic treatment. Each tooth has its own anchorage potential as well as propensity to move when force is applied. When teeth are used as anchorage, the untoward movements of the anchoring units may result in the prolonged treatment time, and unpredictable or less-than-ideal outcome. To maximize tooth-related anchorage, techniques such as differential torque, placing roots into the cortex of the bone, the use of various intraoral devices and/or extraoral appliances have been implemented. Implants, as they are in direct contact with bone, do not possess a periodontal ligament. As a result, they do not move when orthodontic/orthopedic force is applied, and therefore can be used as "absolute anchorage." This article describes different types of implants that have been used as orthodontic anchorage. Their clinical applications and limitations are also discussed. PMID:16463910

  2. Absolute Equilibrium Entropy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shebalin, John V.

    1997-01-01

    The entropy associated with absolute equilibrium ensemble theories of ideal, homogeneous, fluid and magneto-fluid turbulence is discussed and the three-dimensional fluid case is examined in detail. A sigma-function is defined, whose minimum value with respect to global parameters is the entropy. A comparison is made between the use of global functions sigma and phase functions H (associated with the development of various H-theorems of ideal turbulence). It is shown that the two approaches are complimentary though conceptually different: H-theorems show that an isolated system tends to equilibrium while sigma-functions allow the demonstration that entropy never decreases when two previously isolated systems are combined. This provides a more complete picture of entropy in the statistical mechanics of ideal fluids.

  3. EDTA-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia: a clinical and epidemiological study of 112 cases, with 10-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Bizzaro, N

    1995-10-01

    In the past 10 years, we have observed 112 cases of EDTA-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia (PTCP) due to in vitro platelet clumping at room temperature. 93 patients had antiplatelet antibodies (48 IgM, 30 IgG, 3 IgA, and 12 had two different isotypes concomitantly). In 20% of patients, the presence of IgM antibodies characteristically accompanied platelet agglutination also at 37 degrees C, and in citrated blood. The phenomenon was not age or sex related, nor was it associated with any particular pathology or use of specific drugs, and was present in both healthy subjects and patients with various diseases. Flow cytofluorimetric analysis of CD5-positive B cells, which are responsible for autoantibody production, did not demonstrate any changes in the percentage and absolute number of this lymphocyte subset. Average follow-up was 5 years (6 months-10 years); however, previous clinical records disclosed that PTCP was present for more than 15 years in four cases, and more than 20 years in three others, with no clinical manifestation of disease. This study confirms that EDTA-dependent PTCP is a phenomenon related to the presence of natural autoantibodies with antiplatelet activity, devoid of pathological significance. Its clinical interest resides in the need for its prompt and certain recognition in order to avoid unnecessary examinations and therapeutic interventions. The best and most rapid technique for obtaining accurate platelet counts in PTCP subjects is to collect and examine EDTA blood at 37 degrees C; however, clumping will still be present in about 20% of these cases, and even in citrated blood. To obviate this phenomenon, blood should be collected in ammonium oxalate, and platelets counted in a Burker chamber. PMID:7572988

  4. Serum Lipid Levels and Dyslipidaemia Prevalence among 2–10 Year-Old Northern Mexican Children

    PubMed Central

    Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Salas, Rogelio; Novelo, Hilda I.; Villarreal, Jesús Z.; Sureda, Antoni; Tur, Josep A.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims The increase in overweight and obese children may be linked to increased rates of dyslipidaemia. The aim was to assess the prevalence of dyslipidaemia and associated risk factors among the Northern Mexican child population. Methods and Results Four hundred and fifty-one subjects aged between 2 and 10 (47.5% girls) took part in the Nuevo León State Survey of Nutrition and Health 2011–2012. According to the 2011 Expert Panel on Integrated Guidelines for Cardiovascular Health and Risk Reduction in Children and Adolescents, serum lipid levels (mg/dL) were categorized into three subgroups (acceptable, borderline-high/low or high/low) as follows: TChol: acceptable <170, borderline-high 170–199, high ≥200; LDL-chol: acceptable <110, borderline-high 110–129, high ≥130; non-HDL-chol: acceptable <120, borderline-high 120–144, high ≥145; HDL-chol: acceptable >45, borderline-low 40–45, low <40; and TG: acceptable <75, borderline-high 75–99, high ≥100 in ≤9 year-old children, and acceptable <90, borderline-high 90–129, and high ≥130 in 10 year-old children. The overall prevalence of borderline-high + high TG, non-HDL-chol, TChol, and LDL-chol was 63.0%, 44.1%, 43.5%, and 29.9%, respectively. The overall prevalence of borderline-low + low HDL-chol was 46.3%. The overall frequency of dyslipidaemia was 54.3%. Thirteen children (2.9%) had all five symptoms of dyslipidaemia. The most common dyslipidaemia was high TG in combination (26.2%) and in isolation (10.6%). Conclusions Half of the children had at least one abnormal lipid concentration. A high TG level was the most frequent dyslipidaemia. Obesity was associated with the occurrence of at least one abnormal lipid level. These findings emphasize the need to pay further attention to the prevention of cardiovascular disease and obesity from an early age. PMID:25793380

  5. Anatomical and functional graft survival, 10 years after epikeratoplasty in keratoconus

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Anita; Gupta, Anoop K; Sharma, Namrata; Nindrakrishna, Sasikala; Vajpayee, Rasik

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To report outcomes of epikeratoplasty in keratoconus (KC), utilizing manually-prepared plano donor lenticules in terms of flattening of the cone, reduction in astigmatism and improvement in the visual acuity. Materials and Methods: Patients with KC, having visual acuity <20/200, astigmatism >12 diopters (D) but without corneal opacity underwent epikeratoplasty, using manually prepared plano donor lenticules from fresh or M.K preserved corneas, between 1990 - 2000 and followed for 10 years, were included in this report. Visual acuity slit-lamp-biomicroscopy, keratometry, and refraction were performed at 8 weeks, 12 weeks, and 6 months for all 59 patients. The same were carried out at 1 year, 5 years, and 10 years depending upon the availability of the patient for that period. Results: Of the 59 patients, only 26 were available for follow-up after 10 years. At 3 months, 1 year and 5 years, best corrected visual acuity of (BCVA) ≥20/60 were achieved in 84.7%, 84.4% and 80.3% of eyes, respectively. BCVA was 73% at 10-year follow- up, which was due to the presence of posterior subcapsular cataract (PSC). The average keratometric astigmatism and average flattening in diopters stabilized at the end of 3 months, which remained constant at 1, 5, and 10-year follow-up. The average diopter of myopia was stabilized by 1 year, which was almost same at 10 year. Graft was clear in all but 1 eye at 10 year follow-up. Conclusion: Epikeratoplasty is a useful technique for keratoconic eyes without apical scarring who fail or unable to use contact lenses. PMID:23275216

  6. Increasing Prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes in a Rural Bangladeshi Population: A Population Based Study for 10 Years

    PubMed Central

    Afsana, Faria; My Diep, Lien; Binte Munir, Sanjida; Wright, Erica; Mahmood, Sharif; Khan, A. K. Azad; Hussain, Akhtar

    2013-01-01

    Background To observe changes in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and its associated risk factors in a rural Bangladeshi population over a 10-year period. Methods Three cross-sectional studies were undertaken in a rural community (aged ≥20 years) in 1999, 2004, and 2009. Structured questionnaires including sociodemographic parameters, anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, and blood glucose values were recorded. DM and IFG were diagnosed using 1999 World Health Organization criteria. Results Age standardized prevalence of DM increased significantly (P<0.001) from 1999 to 2009 (2.3%, 6.8%, and 7.9% in 1999, 2004, and 2009, respectively). The prevalence of IFG increased significantly (P=0.011) from 4.6% to 5.8% between 1999 and 2004 but then decreased from 5.8% to 5.3% during 2004 to 2009. Significant linear trends were shown in both sexes for general and central obesity as indicated by body mass index, waist circumference, and waist hip ratio (WHR). Increasing age and systolic blood pressure were significant risk factors for DM in all three studies. WHR for males was also significantly associated with the risk of DM in all three studies. WHR for females was only significantly associated with DM in 2009. Conclusion A significant rise in the prevalence of DM was observed in this population over 10 years. This increase was seen in both sexes, and in all age groups. A significant increase in the prevalence of the associated risk factors of general and central obesity was observed in both sexes. PMID:23439676

  7. Prediction of the 10-year probability of gastric cancer occurrence in the Japanese population: the JPHC study cohort II.

    PubMed

    Charvat, Hadrien; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Inoue, Manami; Iwasaki, Motoki; Sawada, Norie; Shimazu, Taichi; Yamaji, Taiki; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2016-01-15

    Gastric cancer is a particularly important issue in Japan, where incidence rates are among the highest observed. In this work, we provide a risk prediction model allowing the estimation of the 10-year cumulative probability of gastric cancer occurrence. The study population consisted of 19,028 individuals from the Japanese Public Health Center cohort II who were followed-up from 1993 to 2009. A parametric survival model was used to assess the impact on the probability of gastric cancer of clinical and lifestyle-related risk factors in combination with serum anti-Helicobacter pylori antibody titres and pepsinogen I and pepsinogen II levels. Based on the resulting model, cumulative probability estimates were calculated and a simple risk scoring system was developed. A total of 412 cases of gastric cancer occurred during 270,854 person-years of follow-up. The final model included (besides the biological markers) age, gender, smoking status, family history of gastric cancer and consumption of highly salted food. The developed prediction model showed good predictive performance in terms of discrimination (optimism-corrected c-index: 0.768) and calibration (Nam and d'Agostino's χ(2) test: 14.78; p values = 0.06). Estimates of the 10-year probability of gastric cancer occurrence ranged from 0.04% (0.02, 0.1) to 14.87% (8.96, 24.14) for men and from 0.03% (0.02, 0.07) to 4.91% (2.71, 8.81) for women. In conclusion, we developed a risk prediction model for gastric cancer that combines clinical and biological markers. It might prompt individuals to modify their lifestyle habits, attend regular check-up visits or participate in screening programmes. PMID:26219435

  8. Absolute neutrino mass measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Joachim

    2011-10-01

    The neutrino mass plays an important role in particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. In recent years the detection of neutrino flavour oscillations proved that neutrinos carry mass. However, oscillation experiments are only sensitive to the mass-squared difference of the mass eigenvalues. In contrast to cosmological observations and neutrino-less double beta decay (0v2β) searches, single β-decay experiments provide a direct, model-independent way to determine the absolute neutrino mass by measuring the energy spectrum of decay electrons at the endpoint region with high accuracy. Currently the best kinematic upper limits on the neutrino mass of 2.2eV have been set by two experiments in Mainz and Troitsk, using tritium as beta emitter. The next generation tritium β-experiment KATRIN is currently under construction in Karlsruhe/Germany by an international collaboration. KATRIN intends to improve the sensitivity by one order of magnitude to 0.2eV. The investigation of a second isotope (137Rh) is being pursued by the international MARE collaboration using micro-calorimeters to measure the beta spectrum. The technology needed to reach 0.2eV sensitivity is still in the R&D phase. This paper reviews the present status of neutrino-mass measurements with cosmological data, 0v2β decay and single β-decay.

  9. Absolute neutrino mass measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Joachim

    2011-10-06

    The neutrino mass plays an important role in particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. In recent years the detection of neutrino flavour oscillations proved that neutrinos carry mass. However, oscillation experiments are only sensitive to the mass-squared difference of the mass eigenvalues. In contrast to cosmological observations and neutrino-less double beta decay (0v2{beta}) searches, single {beta}-decay experiments provide a direct, model-independent way to determine the absolute neutrino mass by measuring the energy spectrum of decay electrons at the endpoint region with high accuracy.Currently the best kinematic upper limits on the neutrino mass of 2.2eV have been set by two experiments in Mainz and Troitsk, using tritium as beta emitter. The next generation tritium {beta}-experiment KATRIN is currently under construction in Karlsruhe/Germany by an international collaboration. KATRIN intends to improve the sensitivity by one order of magnitude to 0.2eV. The investigation of a second isotope ({sup 137}Rh) is being pursued by the international MARE collaboration using micro-calorimeters to measure the beta spectrum. The technology needed to reach 0.2eV sensitivity is still in the R and D phase. This paper reviews the present status of neutrino-mass measurements with cosmological data, 0v2{beta} decay and single {beta}-decay.

  10. Hepatitis C virus recurrence after liver transplantation: A 10-year evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Gitto, Stefano; Belli, Luca Saverio; Vukotic, Ranka; Lorenzini, Stefania; Airoldi, Aldo; Cicero, Arrigo Francesco Giuseppe; Vangeli, Marcello; Brodosi, Lucia; Panno, Arianna Martello; Di Donato, Roberto; Cescon, Matteo; Grazi, Gian Luca; De Carlis, Luciano; Pinna, Antonio Daniele; Bernardi, Mauro; Andreone, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the predictors of 10-year survival of patients with hepatitis C recurrence. METHODS: Data from 358 patients transplanted between 1989 and 2010 in two Italian transplant centers and with evidence of hepatitis C recurrence were analyzed. A χ2, Fisher’s exact test and Kruskal Wallis’ test were used for categorical and continuous variables, respectively. Survival analysis was performed at 10 years after transplant using the Kaplan-Meier method, and a log-rank test was used to compare groups. A P level less than 0.05 was considered significant for all tests. Multivariate analysis of the predictive role of different variables on 10-year survival was performed by a stepwise Cox logistic regression. RESULTS: The ten-year survival of the entire population was 61.2%. Five groups of patients were identified according to the virological response or lack of a response to antiviral treatment and, among those who were not treated, according to the clinical status (mild hepatitis C recurrence, “too sick to be treated” and patients with comorbidities contraindicating the treatment). While the 10-year survival of treated and untreated patients was not different (59.1% vs 64.7%, P = 0.192), patients with a sustained virological response had a higher 10-year survival rate than both the “non-responders” (84.7% vs 39.8%, P < 0.0001) and too sick to be treated (84.7% vs 0%, P < 0.0001). Sustained virological responders had a survival rate comparable to patients untreated with mild recurrence (84.7% vs 89.3%). A sustained virological response and young donor age were independent predictors of 10-year survival. CONCLUSION: Sustained virological response significantly increased long-term survival. Awaiting the interferon-free regimen global availability, antiviral treatment might be questionable in selected subjects with mild hepatitis C recurrence. PMID:25852276

  11. Traumatic flap dislocation 10 years after LASIK. Case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Khoueir, Z; Haddad, N M; Saad, A; Chelala, E; Warrak, E

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of traumatic partial flap dislocation 10 years after uneventful laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). The patient was treated bilaterally for hyperopia and astigmatism with LASIK. A superior-hinged corneal flap was created using the Moria M2 microkeratome (Moria SA, Antony, France) and the surgery was uneventful. Ten years later, partial flap dislocation was diagnosed after mild trauma. This case suggests that flap dislocations can occur during recreational activities up to 10 years after surgery. Full visual recovery is achievable if the case is managed promptly. Further studies should evaluate the potential protective role of an inferior hinge during LASIK. PMID:23219507

  12. Changes in Active Commuting to School in Czech Adolescents in Different Types of Built Environment across a 10-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Dygrýn, Jan; Mitáš, Josef; Gába, Aleš; Rubín, Lukáš; Frömel, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Active commuting (AC) to school represents a great opportunity to incorporate walking or cycling into adolescents’ everyday routine. The objective of the study was to describe changes in AC in Czech adolescents across a 10-year period in different built environments. Data from the 2001 and 2011 Czech Census of Population and Housing were used to examine the mode of transportation taken to school in 6236 adolescents. Changes in AC over time were analyzed for low and high walkable areas separately in two Czech regional cities, Olomouc and Hradec Králové. Between 2001 and 2011, the proportion of adolescents actively commuting to school decreased by 47%, from an absolute rate of 49.1% to 26%. The proportion of active commuters fell in low walkable areas by 61% and in high walkable areas by 39%. The results indicated that adolescents in 2011 were 2.7 times less (OR = 0.365, p < 0.001) likely to actively commute than in 2001. The AC behavior in Czech adolescents has a negative tendency to replicate travel-to-school patterns in adolescents previously described in more developed countries. The findings might serve as a recommendation for municipal policy. PMID:26501304

  13. Changes in Active Commuting to School in Czech Adolescents in Different Types of Built Environment across a 10-Year Period.

    PubMed

    Dygrýn, Jan; Mitáš, Josef; Gába, Aleš; Rubín, Lukáš; Frömel, Karel

    2015-10-01

    Active commuting (AC) to school represents a great opportunity to incorporate walking or cycling into adolescents' everyday routine. The objective of the study was to describe changes in AC in Czech adolescents across a 10-year period in different built environments. Data from the 2001 and 2011 Czech Census of Population and Housing were used to examine the mode of transportation taken to school in 6236 adolescents. Changes in AC over time were analyzed for low and high walkable areas separately in two Czech regional cities, Olomouc and Hradec Králové. Between 2001 and 2011, the proportion of adolescents actively commuting to school decreased by 47%, from an absolute rate of 49.1% to 26%. The proportion of active commuters fell in low walkable areas by 61% and in high walkable areas by 39%. The results indicated that adolescents in 2011 were 2.7 times less (OR = 0.365, p < 0.001) likely to actively commute than in 2001. The AC behavior in Czech adolescents has a negative tendency to replicate travel-to-school patterns in adolescents previously described in more developed countries. The findings might serve as a recommendation for municipal policy. PMID:26501304

  14. Incidence Rates of Clinically Significant Tinnitus: 10-Year Trend From a Cohort Study in England

    PubMed Central

    Wallenhorst, Christopher; McFerran, Don; Hall, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the incidence of tinnitus that burdens the health service in England. Design: This was an observational study of 4.7 million residents of England under 85 years of age who were at risk for developing clinically significant tinnitus (sigT). SigT was defined by a discharge from hospital with a primary diagnosis of tinnitus, or a primary care recording of tinnitus with subsequent related medical follow-up within 28 days. The database used was the Clinical Practice Research Datalink and individual records were linked to additional data from the Hospital Episode Statistics. The observational period was from January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2011. Age-, gender-, and calendar year-specific incidence rates for and cumulative incidences of sigT were estimated and a projection of new cases of sigT between 2012 and 2021 was performed. Results: There were 14,303 incident cases of sigT identified among 26.5 million person-years of observation. The incidence rate was 5.4 new cases of sigT per 10,000 person-years (95% confidence interval: 5.3 to 5.5). The incidence rate did not depend on gender but increased with age, peaking at 11.4 per 10,000 in the age group 60 to 69 years. The annual incidence rate of sigT increased from 4.5 per 10,000 person-years in 2002 to 6.6 per 10,000 person-years in 2011. The 10-year cumulative incidence of sigT was 58.4 cases (95% confidence interval: 57.4 to 59.4) per 10,000 residents. Nearly 324,000 new cases of sigT are expected to occur in England between 2012 and 2021. Conclusions: Tinnitus presents a burden to the health care system that has been rising in recent years. Population-based studies provide crucial underpinning evidence; highlighting the need for further research to address issues around effective diagnosis and clinical management of this heterogeneous condition. PMID:25470370

  15. Long Term Clinical Prognostic Factors in Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis: Insights from a 10-Year Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Ehling, Rainer; Lutterotti, Andreas; Hegen, Harald; Di Pauli, Franziska; Auer, Michael; Deisenhammer, Florian; Reindl, Markus; Berger, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) has a highly heterogenic course making prediction of long term outcome very difficult. Objective The objective was to evaluate current and identify additional clinical factors that are linked to long term outcome of relapsing-remitting MS assessed by disability status 10 years after disease onset. Methods This observational study included 793 patients with relapsing-remitting MS. Clinical factors hypothesized to influence long term outcome measured by EDSS scores 10 years after disease onset were analysed by Kaplan-Meier-estimates. Multinomial logistic regression models regarding mild (EDSS ≤2.5), moderate (EDSS 3.0–5.5) or severe (EDSS ≥6.0) disability were calculated to correct for confounders. Results Secondary progression was the strongest predictor of severe disability (Hazard ratio [HR] 503.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 160.0–1580.1); p<0.001). Complete remission of neurological symptoms at onset reduced the risk of moderate disability (HR 0.42; CI 0.23–0.77; p = 0.005), while depression (HR 3.59; CI 1.14–11.24; p = 0.028) and cognitive dysfunction (HR 4.64; CI 1.11–19.50; p = 0.036) 10 years after disease onset were associated with severe disability. Oligoclonal bands and pregnancy were not correlated with disability. Conclusion We were able to identify clinically apparent chronic depression and cognitive dysfunction to be associated with adverse long term outcome in MS and to confirm that pregnancy has no negative impact. Additionally, we emphasize the positive predictive value of complete remission of initial symptoms. PMID:27391947

  16. 10-year stroke prevention after successful carotid endarterectomy for asymptomatic stenosis (ACST-1): a multicentre randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Halliday, Alison; Harrison, Michael; Hayter, Elizabeth; Kong, Xiangling; Mansfield, Averil; Marro, Joanna; Pan, Hongchao; Peto, Richard; Potter, John; Rahimi, Kazem; Rau, Angela; Robertson, Steven; Streifler, Jonathan; Thomas, Dafydd

    2010-01-01

    Summary Background If carotid artery narrowing remains asymptomatic (ie, has caused no recent stroke or other neurological symptoms), successful carotid endarterectomy (CEA) reduces stroke incidence for some years. We assessed the long-term effects of successful CEA. Methods Between 1993 and 2003, 3120 asymptomatic patients from 126 centres in 30 countries were allocated equally, by blinded minimised randomisation, to immediate CEA (median delay 1 month, IQR 0·3–2·5) or to indefinite deferral of any carotid procedure, and were followed up until death or for a median among survivors of 9 years (IQR 6–11). The primary outcomes were perioperative mortality and morbidity (death or stroke within 30 days) and non-perioperative stroke. Kaplan-Meier percentages and logrank p values are from intention-to-treat analyses. This study is registered, number ISRCTN26156392. Findings 1560 patients were allocated immediate CEA versus 1560 allocated deferral of any carotid procedure. The proportions operated on while still asymptomatic were 89·7% versus 4·8% at 1 year (and 92·1% vs 16·5% at 5 years). Perioperative risk of stroke or death within 30 days was 3·0% (95% CI 2·4–3·9; 26 non-disabling strokes plus 34 disabling or fatal perioperative events in 1979 CEAs). Excluding perioperative events and non-stroke mortality, stroke risks (immediate vs deferred CEA) were 4·1% versus 10·0% at 5 years (gain 5·9%, 95% CI 4·0–7·8) and 10·8% versus 16·9% at 10 years (gain 6·1%, 2·7–9·4); ratio of stroke incidence rates 0·54, 95% CI 0·43–0·68, p<0·0001. 62 versus 104 had a disabling or fatal stroke, and 37 versus 84 others had a non-disabling stroke. Combining perioperative events and strokes, net risks were 6·9% versus 10·9% at 5 years (gain 4·1%, 2·0–6·2) and 13·4% versus 17·9% at 10 years (gain 4·6%, 1·2–7·9). Medication was similar in both groups; throughout the study, most were on antithrombotic and antihypertensive therapy. Net benefits

  17. Personnel Needs in School Psychology: A 10-Year Follow-Up Study on Predicted Personnel Shortages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castillo, Jose M.; Curtis, Michael J.; Tan, Sim Yin

    2014-01-01

    Concerns regarding whether a sufficient supply of school psychologists exists have been evident for decades. Studies have predicted that school psychology would face a critical personnel shortage that would peak in 2010, but continue into the foreseeable future. The current study is a 10-year follow-up investigation based on previously published…

  18. Educational Attainment of 10-Year-Old Children with Treated and Untreated Visual Defects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart-Brown, Sarah; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Children with visual impairments who participated in a 10-year survey were compared with peers on measures of intelligence, reading, mathematics, and sporting ability. Results are consistent with earlier findings of increased intelligence among Ss with myopia and slightly reduced intelligence among Ss with amblyopia. It was concluded that the…

  19. Clinical and Radiographic Evaluation of a Resin-Based Root Canal Sealer: 10-Year Recall Data

    PubMed Central

    Zmener, Osvaldo; Pameijer, Cornelis H.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. This retrospective clinical and radiographical study evaluated the 10-year outcome of one-visit endodontic treatment with gutta-percha and a methacrylate resin-based sealer. Methods. From an initial sample size of 180 patients, 89 patients with 175 root canals responded to a recall. Treatment outcome was based on predetermined clinical and radiographic criteria. Results. Root canals had been adequately filled to the working length in 80 teeth (89.88%), short in 6 instances (6.74%), while 3 (3.37%) with extrusion immediate postoperatively, showed no sealer in periradicular tissues. The difference in the outcomes of treatments with respect to age, gender, preoperative pulp or periapical status, the size of periapical lesions and the type of permanent restorations were not statistically significantly different (P > 0.05). Overall, 7 (7.86%) cases were considered clinically and radiographically a failure. A life table analysis showed a cumulative probability of success of 92.13% after 10 years with a 95% confidence interval of 83.0 to 94.0. Conclusions. The results of this retrospective clinical and radiographical study suggest that the tested methacrylate-resin based sealer used with gutta-percha performed similarly to other root canal sealers over a period 10 years. Clinical Implications. Considering the success rate after 10 years of this methacrylate resin-based sealer can be recommended as an alternative to other commonly used root canal sealers. PMID:22654909

  20. Childhood Reactions to Terrorism-Induced Trauma: A Review of the Past 10 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fremont, Wanda P.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To summarize the literature about the clinical presentation and treatment interventions of childhood reactions to terrorism-induced trauma. Method: The literature on children's responses to terrorist activities was reviewed. Results: Over the past 10 years, more research has emerged on the subject of terrorism in children. Many of the…

  1. A 10-Year Assessment of Information and Communication Technology Tasks Required in Undergraduate Agriculture Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgar, Leslie D.; Johnson, Donald M.; Cox, Casandra

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to assess required information and communication technology (ICT) tasks in selected undergraduate agriculture courses in a land-grant university during a 10-year period. Selected agriculture faculty members in the fall 1999 (n = 63), 2004 (n = 55), and 2009 (n = 64) semesters were surveyed to determine the ICT tasks they required…

  2. Learning Benefits of Self-Controlled Knowledge of Results in 10-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiviacowsky, Suzete; Wulf, Gabriele; Laroque de Medeiros, Franklin; Kaefer, Angelica; Tani, Go

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the learning benefits of self-controlled knowledge of results (KR) would generalize to children. Specifically, the authors chose 10-year-old children representative of late childhood. The authors used a task that required the children to toss beanbags at a target. One group received KR…

  3. Self-Controlled Feedback in 10-Year-Old Children: Higher Feedback Frequencies Enhance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiviacowsky, Suzete; Wulf, Gabriele; de Medeiros, Franklin Laroque; Kaefer, Angelica; Wally, Raquel

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine whether learning in 10-year-old children--that is, the age group for which the Chiviacowsky et al. (2006) study found benefits of self-controlled knowledge of results (KR)--would differ depending on the frequency of feedback they chose. The authors surmised that a relatively high feedback frequency…

  4. Eastern Michigan University's Automated Storage and Retrieval System: 10 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullard, Rita; Wrosch, Jackie

    2009-01-01

    Automated storage/retrieval systems (ASRSs) are playing an integral part in today's library operations and collections management. Eastern Michigan University installed an ASRS as part of the new Halle Library, which opened in May 1998, to provide "storage" for up to 800,000 items. Over the past 10 years our policies and procedures have been…

  5. 7 CFR 625.9 - 10-year restoration cost-share agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 10-year restoration cost-share agreements. 625.9 Section 625.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES HEALTHY FORESTS RESERVE PROGRAM § 625.9...

  6. Anticipatory Action Planning Increases from 3 to 10 Years of Age in Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jongbloed-Pereboom, Marjolein; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W. G.; Saraber-Schiphorst, Nicole; Craje, Celine; Steenbergen, Bert

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to assess the development of action planning in a group of typically developing children aged 3 to 10 years (N = 351). The second aim was to assess reliability of the action planning task and to relate the results of the action planning task to results of validated upper limb motor performance tests. Participants…

  7. Public School Voice Clinics, Part II: Diagnosis and Recommendations--A 10-Year Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Sandra Q.; Madison, Charles L.

    1984-01-01

    In 10 years of school district voice clinics, 249 cases were reviewed. Vocal nodules, chronic laryngitis and thickened cords were frequently noted. One-third of the cases had concomitant allergies, ear, and/or upper respiratory problems. Direct voice therapy was recommended for 65 percent of attendees. (Author/CL)

  8. Effect of meteorology and soil condition on metolachlor and atrazine volatilization over a 10 year period

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 10-year study was conducted to focus on the impact of soil and climatic factors governing herbicide volatilization from an agricultural field. For the first 5 years, metolachlor [2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N-(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl) acetamide] and atrazine [6-chloro-N-ethyl-N’-(1-methyl...

  9. Effect of meteorology and soil condition on metolachlor and atrazine volatilization over a 10 year period

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Volatilization of pesticides can detrimentally affect the environment by contaminating soil and surface waters far away from where the pesticides were applied. A 10-year study was conducted to focus on the impact of soil and climatic factors governing herbicide volatilization from an agricultural f...

  10. Is the Party Over? Cannabis and Juvenile Psychiatric Disorder: The Past 10 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rey, Joseph M.; Martin, Andres; Krabman, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To critically review cannabis research during the past 10 years in relation to rates of use, behavioral problems, and mental disorders in young people. Method: Studies published in English between 1994 and 2004 were identified through systematic searches of literature databases. The material was selectively reviewed focusing on child…

  11. Relationship between Motor Skill and Body Mass Index in 5- to 10-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Hondt, Eva; Deforche, Benedicte; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate gross and fine motor skill in overweight and obese children compared with normal-weight peers. According to international cut-off points for Body Mass Index (BMI) from Cole et al. (2000), all 117 participants (5-10 year) were classified as being normal-weight, overweight, or obese. Level of motor skill…

  12. Psychiatric Aspects of Child and Adolescent Obesity: A Review of the Past 10 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zametkin, Alan J.; Zoon, Christine K.; Klein, Hannah W.; Munson, Suzanne

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To review the past 10 years of published research on psychiatric aspects of child and adolescent obesity and highlight information mental health professionals need for preventing obesity in youths and diagnosing and treating it. Method: Researchers performed computerized and manual searches of the literature and summarized the most…

  13. Early Predictors of Career Development: A 10-Year Follow-up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferreira, Joaquim Armando; Santos, Eduardo J. R.; Fonseca, Antonio C.; Haase, Richard F.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents empirical findings from a 10-year longitudinal study of the educational and occupational socialization of 445 participants who were about 7 years old when first tested, and about 17 years old at the fourth time of measurement. In addition to collecting psychological measurements from the participants, behavioral reports were…

  14. Physical Activity Patterns During School Recess: A Study in Children 6 to 10 Years Old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopes, Victor; Vasques, Catarina Margarida Silva; de Oliveira Pereira, Maria Beatriz Ferreira Leite

    2006-01-01

    The aims of this study were to characterize the spontaneous physical activity of children during school recess, and to estimate variation in physical activity associated with gender and age. A MTI actigraph (Model 7164) was used with a sample of 140 boys and 131 girls, 6 to 10 years of age. MTI counts were converted to METs using a regression…

  15. Childhood Peer Reputation as a Predictor of Competence and Symptoms 10 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gest, Scott D.; Sesma, Arturo, Jr.; Masten, Ann S.; Tellegen, Auke

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the differential developmental significance of multiple domains of peer reputation in childhood for current and future competence and symptoms. Participants were 205 children from a normative school cohort who completed assessments in grades 3-6 and then again 10 years later. Through re-analysis of original data from the…

  16. 7 CFR 625.9 - 10-year restoration cost-share agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... restoration cost-share agreements. (a) The restoration plan developed under § 625.13 forms the basis for the... agreement will: (1) Incorporate all portions of a restoration plan; (2) Be for a period of 10 years; (3... implementation of the approved conservation treatment identified in the restoration plan; and (8) Include...

  17. 7 CFR 625.9 - 10-year restoration cost-share agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... restoration cost-share agreements. (a) The restoration plan developed under § 625.13 forms the basis for the... agreement will: (1) Incorporate all portions of a restoration plan; (2) Be for a period of 10 years; (3... implementation of the approved conservation treatment identified in the restoration plan; and (8) Include...

  18. [Irritable bowel syndrome in the light of Rome consensus III (2006): 10 years later].

    PubMed

    Parfenov, A I; Albulova, E A; Ruchkina, I N

    2016-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most common diagnosis in gastroenterology. Over 10 years after Rome consensus III (2006), there has been much new information on the pathogenesis of IBS and its therapy options. The paper analyzes basic investigations that have contributed to the theory of this disease and to a better quality of life in patients. PMID:27135104

  19. 24 CFR 203.203 - Issuance and nature of insured 10-year protection plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Issuance and nature of insured 10-year protection plans. 203.203 Section 203.203 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to... Underwriting Procedures Insured Ten-Year Protection Plans (plan) § 203.203 Issuance and nature of insured...

  20. Gasoline Abuse in a 10-Year-Old Child with Mental Retardation: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Mohit; Vankar, GK

    2015-01-01

    Inahalant abuse is of increasing interest in India. The age of onset is typically during adolescence. Gasoline inhalant use is rarely reported in adolescents with intellectual deficit. We report a case of petrol dependence in a 10-year-old child with mental retardation. Possible effect of petrol huffing on behavior and cognition is discussed. PMID:25733844

  1. 77 FR 11651 - Hybrid III 10-Year-Old Child Test Dummy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... certification requirements for a new test dummy representative of a 10- year-old child (70 FR 40281, July 13... published July 13, 2005 (70 FR 40281). The agency is concurrently publishing in this issue of the Federal... we published an NPRM to adopt the HIII-10C into FMVSS No. 213.\\1\\ \\1\\ 70 FR 51720 (August 31,...

  2. 24 CFR 203.203 - Issuance and nature of insured 10-year protection plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Issuance and nature of insured 10-year protection plans. 203.203 Section 203.203 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to... Underwriting Procedures Insured Ten-Year Protection Plans (plan) § 203.203 Issuance and nature of insured...

  3. 24 CFR 203.203 - Issuance and nature of insured 10-year protection plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Issuance and nature of insured 10-year protection plans. 203.203 Section 203.203 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to... Underwriting Procedures Insured Ten-Year Protection Plans (plan) § 203.203 Issuance and nature of insured...

  4. 24 CFR 203.203 - Issuance and nature of insured 10-year protection plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Issuance and nature of insured 10-year protection plans. 203.203 Section 203.203 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to... Underwriting Procedures Insured Ten-Year Protection Plans (plan) § 203.203 Issuance and nature of insured...

  5. 24 CFR 203.203 - Issuance and nature of insured 10-year protection plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Issuance and nature of insured 10-year protection plans. 203.203 Section 203.203 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to... Underwriting Procedures Insured Ten-Year Protection Plans (plan) § 203.203 Issuance and nature of insured...

  6. Optimism, Pessimism, Mutuality, and Gender: Predicting 10-Year Role Strain in Parkinson's Disease Spouses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Karen S.; Stewart, Barbara J.; Archbold, Patricia G.; Carter, Julie H.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: There is wide variability in how spouses providing care respond to their care situations. Few studies focus on the roles of both intra- and interpersonal factors in long-term spousal care, particularly in the context of Parkinson's disease (PD). The current study uses longitudinal data over a 10-year period to examine the roles of…

  7. Motor Skills in Children Aged 7-10 Years, Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whyatt, Caroline P.; Craig, Cathy M.

    2012-01-01

    This study used the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC2) to assess motor skills in children aged 7-10 years with autism (n = 18) in comparison to two groups of age-matched typically developing children; a receptive vocabulary matched group (n = 19) and a nonverbal IQ matched group (n = 22). The results supported previous work, as…

  8. Running Training, Instruction on Running Technique, and Running Economy in 10-year-old Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petray, Clayre K.; Krahenbuhl, Gary S.

    1985-01-01

    This study attempted to determine the effects of running training, instruction on running techniques, or a combination of instruction and training on the running economy of 10-year-old children. No significant alterations in running economy or technique were produced as a result of the various regimens. (Author/MT)

  9. If We Could Plan the Next 10 Years in Science Education...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansell, Warwick

    2013-01-01

    Two major sessions at the 2013 ASE Summer Celebration Conference in Hatfield offered teachers (and other educators) the chance to debate and define the key issues facing science education over the next 10 years. Participants were asked to suggest the important issues. Then those with similar proposals were put into groups to develop the idea ready…

  10. Individual Oral Exams in Mathematics Courses: 10 Years of Experience at the Air Force Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boedigheimer, Ralph; Ghrist, Michelle; Peterson, Dale; Kallemyn, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Over the last 10 years faculty members in the Department of Mathematical Sciences at the United States Air Force Academy have incorporated individual oral exams into mathematics courses. We have experimented with various approaches, shared results and ideas with other department members, and refined our techniques. We have found that this…

  11. 7 CFR Exhibit L to Subpart A of... - Insured 10-Year Home Warranty Plan Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Insured 10-Year Home Warranty Plan Requirements L Exhibit L to Subpart A of Part 1924 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... Construction and Other Development Pt. 1924, Subpt. A, Exh. L Exhibit L to Subpart A of Part 1924—Insured...

  12. 7 CFR Exhibit L to Subpart A of... - Insured 10-Year Home Warranty Plan Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Insured 10-Year Home Warranty Plan Requirements L Exhibit L to Subpart A of Part 1924 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... Construction and Other Development Pt. 1924, Subpt. A, Exh. L Exhibit L to Subpart A of Part 1924—Insured...

  13. 7 CFR Exhibit L to Subpart A of... - Insured 10-Year Home Warranty Plan Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Insured 10-Year Home Warranty Plan Requirements L Exhibit L to Subpart A of Part 1924 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... Construction and Other Development Pt. 1924, Subpt. A, Exh. L Exhibit L to Subpart A of Part 1924—Insured...

  14. 7 CFR Exhibit L to Subpart A of... - Insured 10-Year Home Warranty Plan Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Insured 10-Year Home Warranty Plan Requirements L Exhibit L to Subpart A of Part 1924 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... Construction and Other Development Pt. 1924, Subpt. A, Exh. L Exhibit L to Subpart A of Part 1924—Insured...

  15. 7 CFR Exhibit L to Subpart A of... - Insured 10-Year Home Warranty Plan Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insured 10-Year Home Warranty Plan Requirements L Exhibit L to Subpart A of Part 1924 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... Construction and Other Development Pt. 1924, Subpt. A, Exh. L Exhibit L to Subpart A of Part 1924—Insured...

  16. Parent-Child Relations and Adolescent Self-Image Following Divorce: A 10-Year Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlop, Rosemary; Burns, Ailsa; Bermingham, Suzanne

    2001-01-01

    Explored links between self-image, family structure (divorced or intact), parent-child relations, and gender at 3 intervals over 10 years during adolescence to early adulthood. Results suggest a consistent relationship between high parental care, low overprotective control, and better self-image scores with a stronger effect among subjects from…

  17. Case Report: Homicide by a 10-Year-Old Girl with Autistic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukaddes, Nahit Motavalli; Topcu, Zerrin

    2006-01-01

    This case study presents a 10-year-old girl with a diagnosis of Autistic Disorder, who killed her 6-month-old sister by throwing her out of a window. Her aggressive-impulsive behavior had a persistent pattern. She had a history of epilepsy, and was frequently exposed to physical abuse. She never attended a structured treatment program. Here, we…

  18. Students as Teachers: Effectiveness of a Peer-Led STEM Learning Programme over 10 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drane, Denise; Micari, Marina; Light, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Peer-led small-group learning has been used quite extensively in the US to enhance performance and retention of undergraduate students in science, math, and engineering classes. This study presents the results from an evaluation of a peer-led small-group programme at a research university in the US over a 10-year period across five disciplines…

  19. Effortful Control, Executive Attention, and Emotional Regulation in 7-10-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonds, Jennifer; Kieras, Jessica E.; Rueda, M. Rosario; Rothbart, Mary K.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, self-regulation was investigated in 7- to 10-year-old children using three different measures: (1) parent and child report questionnaires measuring temperamental effortful control, (2) a conflict task assessing efficiency of executive attention, and (3) the mistaken gift paradigm assessing social smiling in response to an…

  20. Psychopathy and Offending From Adolescence to Adulthood: A 10-Year Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gretton, Heather M.; Hare, Robert D.; Catchpole, Rosalind E. H.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the predictive validity of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV; A. E. Forth, D. S. Kosson, & R. D. Hare, 2003) from adolescence to early adulthood. The authors coded the PCL:YV using file information and collected criminal record information over a 10-year follow-up period on 157 boys, ages 12 through 18,…

  1. Psychosocial Family Treatment for a 10-Year-Old with Schizoaffective Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klaus, Nicole M.; Fristad, Mary A.; Malkin, Catherine; Mackinaw-Koons, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Schizophrenia spectrum disorders are rare in childhood and little is known about their psychosocial treatment. Relevant findings from the adult and child literature are reviewed. The case of 10-year-old "Michael" is presented, who participated in a randomized clinical trial of a psychoeducational family treatment for mood disorders. Following…

  2. Getting an Early Start: Communication about Sexuality among Mothers and Children 6-10 Years Old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pluhar, Erika; Jennings, Tanya; DiIorio, Colleen

    2006-01-01

    Little information exists on communication about sexuality between parents and preadolescent children. This study collected qualitative data on family sexuality communication from 3 focus groups conducted with African American mothers of 6-10 year old children. Two broad themes emerged from the data: "Beyond the Birds and the Bees" and "Let's Talk…

  3. A Content Analysis of 10 Years of Clinical Supervision Articles in Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard, Janine M.; Luke, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    This content analysis follows Borders's (2005) review of counseling supervision literature and includes 184 counselor supervision articles published over the past 10 years. Articles were coded as representing 1 of 3 research types or 1 of 3 conceptual types. Articles were then analyzed for main topics producing 11 topic categories.

  4. A Model Job Rotation Plan: A 10-Year Follow-up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Daniel C.; Delbridge-Parker, Linda

    1991-01-01

    Describes model job rotation plan in a college student affairs division in which a staff member (intern) rotates among departments as a staff development opportunity. A 10-year follow-up evaluation underscored the success of the program. Concludes job rotation is not just learning experience, but it is also sharing experience. (Author/ABL)

  5. Frontal Electroencephalogram Activation Asymmetry, Emotional Intelligence, and Externalizing Behaviors in 10-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santesso, L. Diane; Dana, L. Reker; Schmidt, Louis A.; Segalowitz, Sidney J.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relations among resting frontal brain electrical activity (EEG) (hypothesized to reflect a predisposition to positive versus negative affect and ability to regulate emotions), emotional intelligence, and externalizing behaviors in a sample of non-clinical 10-year-old children. We found that boys…

  6. Handedness in Swedish 10-year-olds, Some Background and Associated Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillberg, Christopher; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Aims to obtain prevalence figures for left-handedness among 10-year-old Swedish children; to replicate some findings concerning Bishop's (1980) extended pathological left-handedness hypothesis; to evaluate the influence of factors such as the child's sex and reduced optimality in the pre-, peri-, and neonatal period; and to determine the…

  7. Educational Expectations, Parental Social Class, Gender, and Postsecondary Attainment: A 10-Year Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andres, Lesley; Adamuti-Trache, Maria; Yoon, Ee-Seul; Pidgeon, Michelle; Thomsen, Jens Peter

    2007-01-01

    The authors employ a unique longitudinal data set of British Columbia high school graduates that followed respondents 1, 5, and 10 years after graduation to examine the extent to which educational expectations change over time in relation to parental socioeconomic status and eventual postsecondary attainment. Using the method of correspondence…

  8. Adolescent Drug Trafficking Trends in the United Kingdom--A 10-Year Retrospective Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vale, Ellen Louise Eva; Kennedy, Patrick John

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports data from HM Customs and Excise (HMCE) of recorded cases of adolescent drug trafficking through all sea and air points of entry into the UK over a 10-year period (May 1992-May 2002). We report the characteristics of 38 cases of mixed gender and nationality ranging in age between 13 and 18 years who have been apprehended by HMCE…

  9. Education status determines 10-year (2002-2012) survival from cardiovascular disease in Athens metropolitan area: the ATTICA study, Greece.

    PubMed

    Panagiotakos, Demosthenes; Georgousopoulou, Ekavi; Notara, Venetia; Pitaraki, Evangelia; Kokkou, Eleni; Chrysohoou, Christina; Skoumas, Yannis; Metaxa, Vassiliki; Pitsavos, Christos; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2016-05-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and educational level seems to be an important determinant of the disease occurrence. The aim of this work was to investigate the association between education status and 10-year incidence of CVD, controlling for various socio-demographic lifestyle and clinical factors. From May 2001 to December 2002, 1514 men and 1528 women (>18 years) without any clinical evidence of CVD or any other chronic disease, at baseline, living in greater Athens area, Greece, were enrolled. In 2011-2012, the 10-year follow-up was performed in 2583 participants (15% of the participants were lost to follow-up). Incidence of fatal or non-fatal CVD was defined according to WHO-ICD-10 criteria. Education status was measured in years of schooling. The 10-year incidence of CVD was 15.7% [95% confidence intervals (CI) 14.1%-17.4%], 19.7% in men and 11.7% in women (Pgender < 0.001). Age-and gender-adjusted analyses revealed that those with low education (<9 years of schooling) were 1.52 times more likely (95% CI 1.03-2.23%) to have CVD compared with those with high education (>12 years of schooling). People in the low education group had higher prevalence of hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidaemias, were more likely to be smokers and sedentary, had less healthy dietary habits, as compared with those in the high education group. When controlling for participants' medical history, smoking, dietary and lifestyle habits, low education was no longer significantly associated with CVD, illustrating the mediating effect of clinical and behavioural factors in the link between education and disease. It was of interest that low education status interacted with alcohol drinking, enhancing the adverse effect of low education on CVD risk (relative risk 1.44, 95% CI 0.94%-2.20%), after various adjustments made. In this study, it was concluded that low educational level was associated with increased CVD risk. This was

  10. Who is maintaining weight in a middle-aged population in Sweden? A longitudinal analysis over 10 years

    PubMed Central

    Nafziger, Anne N; Lindvall, Kristina; Norberg, Margareta; Stenlund, Hans; Wall, Stig; Jenkins, Paul L; Pearson, Thomas A; Weinehall, Lars

    2007-01-01

    Background Obesity has primarily been addressed with interventions to promote weight loss and these have been largely unsuccessful. Primary prevention of obesity through support of weight maintenance may be a preferable strategy although to date this has not been the main focus of public health interventions. The aim of this study is to characterize who is not gaining weight during a 10 year period in Sweden. Methods Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies were conducted in adults aged 30, 40, 50 and 60 years during the Västerbotten Intervention Programme in Sweden. Height, weight, demographics and selected cardiovascular risk factors were collected on each participant. Prevalences of obesity were calculated for the 40, 50 and 60 year olds from the cross-sectional studies between 1990 and 2004. In the longitudinal study, 10-year non-gain (lost weight or maintained body weight within 3% of baseline weight) or weight gain (≥ 3%) was calculated for individuals aged 30, 40, or 50 years at baseline. A multivariate logistic regression model was built to predict weight non-gain. Results There were 82,927 adults included in the cross-sectional studies which had an average annual participation rate of 63%. Prevalence of obesity [body mass index (BMI) in kg/m2 ≥ 30] increased from 9.4% in 1990 to 17.5% in 2004, and 60 year olds had the highest prevalence of obesity. 14,867 adults with a BMI of 18.5–29.9 at baseline participated in the longitudinal surveys which had a participation rate of 74%. 5242 adults (35.3%) were categorized as non-gainers. Older age, being female, classified as overweight by baseline BMI, later survey year, baseline diagnosis of diabetes, and lack of snuff use increased the chances of not gaining weight. Conclusion Educational efforts should be broadened to include those adults who are usually considered to be at low risk for weight gain – younger individuals, those of normal body weight, and those without health conditions (e.g. diabetes

  11. A Longitudinal Examination of 10-year Change in Vocational and Educational Activities for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Julie Lounds; Center, Vanderbilt Kennedy; Mailick, Marsha R.

    2014-01-01

    The transition from adolescence to adulthood has been shown to be a time of amplified risk for individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). It is unknown, however, whether problems in educational attainment and employment in the years after high school exit represent “momentary perturbations” in development or a “turning point” with long-lasting effects throughout adulthood. The present study addressed this question by examining 10-year trajectories of vocational and educational activities for adults with ASD, as well as the personal characteristics and environmental resources that predicted these activities. Participants were 161 adults with ASD (ages 18-52 at the start of the study, M=30.9 years) who were part of a larger longitudinal study. Data were collected at 6 time points over a 10-year period. Results indicated significant declines in the level of independence and engagement in vocational/educational activities over the study period, particularly for women. Greater independence in vocational activities was found for those with more independence in activities of daily living. Net of personal characteristics, receipt of more services was marginally related to greater improvement in vocational independence. PMID:24001150

  12. A longitudinal examination of 10-year change in vocational and educational activities for adults with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Julie Lounds; Mailick, Marsha R

    2014-03-01

    The transition from adolescence to adulthood has been shown to be a time of amplified risk for individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). It is unknown, however, whether problems in educational attainment and employment in the years after high school exit represent momentary perturbations in development or a turning point with long-lasting effects throughout adulthood. The present study addressed this question by examining 10-year trajectories of vocational and educational activities for adults with ASD, as well as the personal characteristics and environmental resources that predicted these activities. Participants were 161 adults with ASD (ages 18-52 years at the start of the study; M = 30.9) who were part of a larger longitudinal study. Data were collected at 6 time points over a 10-year period. Results indicated significant declines in the level of independence and engagement in vocational/educational activities over the study period, particularly for women. Greater independence in vocational activities was found for those with more independence in activities of daily living. After controlling for personal characteristics, receipt of more services was marginally related to greater improvement in vocational independence. PMID:24001150

  13. Absolute Identification by Relative Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Neil; Brown, Gordon D. A.; Chater, Nick

    2005-01-01

    In unidimensional absolute identification tasks, participants identify stimuli that vary along a single dimension. Performance is surprisingly poor compared with discrimination of the same stimuli. Existing models assume that identification is achieved using long-term representations of absolute magnitudes. The authors propose an alternative…

  14. Be Resolute about Absolute Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Margaret L.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores how conceptualization of absolute value can start long before it is introduced. The manner in which absolute value is introduced to students in middle school has far-reaching consequences for their future mathematical understanding. It begins to lay the foundation for students' understanding of algebra, which can change…

  15. Clinicopathological Characteristics of Mucinous Breast Cancer: A Retrospective Analysis of a 10-Year Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bo; Chen, Zhanhong; Wang, Xiaojia

    2016-01-01

    Background Mucinous breast carcinoma (MC) is a special type of breast cancer that presents with a large amount of extracellular mucin. MC comprises approximately 4% of all invasive breast cancers. This type of tumor has a better prognosis and higher incidence in peri- and post-menopausal patients. Pathologically, there are two main subtypes of MC: pure and mixed. In this study, we describe 10 years of experience with MC at the Zhejiang Cancer Hospital in China, specifically, clinical data, histological findings and immunohistochemical features. Methods We identified MC patients who were diagnosed as operable and completed clinical treatment from January 2001 to January 2011. The clinicopathological data included the age at diagnosis, tumor size, TNM stage, presence and number of lymph node (LN) metastases, estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) status and p53 expression. If the tumor was defined as mixed mucinous carcinoma (MMC), IHC was performed on a non-mucinous part, such as invasive ductal and lobular cancer. We evaluated the clinical characteristics of all MC patients using chi-square, one-way ANOVA and LSD tests. We also studied the correlations between all of the clinical parameters and LN metastasis in a binary logistic regression analysis. We used ten consecutive years of data that were collected at Zhejiang Cancer Hospital. Results We identified 48 cases of pure mucinous carcinoma (PMC) and 77 cases of MMC. The 48 PMC cases consisted of 38 PMC-A and 10 PMC-B subtypes. The MMCs were divided into two groups, those with partial mixed mucinous breast carcinoma (pMMC, 58 cases) and those with main mixed mucinous breast carcinoma (mMMC, 19 cases). pMMC was defined by tumors with less than 50% mucinous components, while mMMC was defined by tumors where the mucinous component accounted for 50% to 90% of the tumor. No significant differences in the clinicopathological characteristics were noted

  16. Burden of morbidity in 10+ year survivors of hematopoietic cell transplantation: a report from the Bone Marrow Transplant Survivor Study

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Can-Lan; Kersey, John H.; Francisco, Liton; Armenian, Saro H.; Baker, K. Scott; Weisdorf, Daniel J.; Forman, Stephen J.; Bhatia, Smita

    2013-01-01

    Long-term morbidity after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is unknown. The risk of physical and psychological health in 324 patients who had survived 10 or more years after HCT, and a sibling comparison group (n=309) was evaluated. Using the CTCAE v3.0, the 15-year cumulative incidence of severe/life-threatening/fatal conditions was 41% (95%CI, 34–48%). HCT survivors were 5.7 times as likely to develop a severe/life-threatening condition (p<0.001), and 2.7 times as likely to report somatic distress (p<0.001) compared with siblings. Compared with allogeneic HCT recipients with no chronic GvHD, those with active chronic GvHD were at a 1.8-fold higher risk of severe/life-threatening health conditions (p=0.006), and 4.5-fold higher risk of somatic distress (p=0.04); allogeneic HCT recipients with resolved chronic GvHD were not at increased risk of morbidity compared with those with no chronic GvHD. Only 27% of the HCT survivors returned to the transplant center for their cancer-related care. The burden of long-term physical and emotional morbidity borne by survivors remains substantial, even beyond 10 years after HCT; however, specialized healthcare is underutilized. Patients, families and healthcare providers need to be made aware of the high burden, such that they can plan for post-HCT care, even many years after HCT. PMID:23583827

  17. Community Cardiovascular Disease Risk From Cross-Sectional General Practice Clinical Data: A Spatial Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gilmour, Bridget; McRae, Ian; Konings, Paul; Dawda, Paresh; Del Fante, Peter; van Weel, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cardiovascular disease (CVD) continues to be a leading cause of illness and death among adults worldwide. The objective of this study was to calculate a CVD risk score from general practice (GP) clinical records and assess spatial variations of CVD risk in communities. Methods We used GP clinical data for 4,740 men and women aged 30 to 74 years with no history of CVD. A 10-year absolute CVD risk score was calculated based on the Framingham risk equation. The individual risk scores were aggregated within each Statistical Area Level One (SA1) to predict the level of CVD risk in that area. Finally, the pattern of CVD risk was visualized to highlight communities with high and low risk of CVD. Results The overall 10-year risk of CVD in our sample population was 14.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 14.3%–14.9%). Of the 4,740 patients in our study, 26.7% were at high risk, 29.8% were at moderate risk, and 43.5% were at low risk for CVD over 10 years. The proportion of patients at high risk for CVD was significantly higher in the communities of low socioeconomic status. Conclusion This study illustrates methods to further explore prevalence, location, and correlates of CVD to identify communities of high levels of unmet need for cardiovascular care and to enable geographic targeting of effective interventions for enhancing early and timely detection and management of CVD in those communities. PMID:25719216

  18. Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) in Hungary; The First 10 Years.

    PubMed

    Varga, Endre; Endre, Endre; Kószó, Balázs; Pető, Zoltán; Ágoston, Zsuzsanna; Gyura, Erika; Nardai, Gábor; Boa, Kristóf; Süveges, Gábor

    2016-01-01

    Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) programs are recognized as the standard educational trauma program worldwide. Data suggest that ATLS has a positive impact on the value of trauma care. The ATLS Hungary program has been started in 2005, celebrating its 10-year anniversary this year. In the present brief communication a brief overview is provided on the program.Student evaluation and statistical data about the participants were collected throughout the 10-year history of the Hungarian program.Student evaluation shows a high level of satisfaction amongst the participating doctors. Most participants are working in higher level centers. The Hungarian program shows good quality according to the participants. Establishing at least one new center is crucial to be able to provide the course for every professional interested in it or required to take it. PMID:27162927

  19. Physical aggression, compromised social support, and 10-year marital outcomes: Testing a relational spillover model.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Kieran T; Pasch, Lauri A; Lawrence, Erika; Bradbury, Thomas N

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to test a relational spillover model of physical aggression whereby physical aggression affects marital outcomes due to its effects on how spouses ask for and provide support to one another. Newlywed couples (n = 172) reported levels of physical aggression over the past year and engaged in interactions designed to elicit social support; marital adjustment, and stability were assessed periodically over the first 10 years of marriage. Multilevel modeling revealed that negative support behavior mediated the relationship between physical aggression and 10-year marital adjustment levels whereas positive support behavior mediated the relationship between physical aggression and divorce status. These findings emphasize the need to look beyond conflict when explaining how aggression affects relationships and when working with couples with a history of physical aggression who are seeking to improve their relationships. PMID:26168263

  20. Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) in Hungary; The First 10 Years

    PubMed Central

    Varga, Endre; Endre, Endre; Kószó, Balázs; Pető, Zoltán; Ágoston, Zsuzsanna; Gyura, Erika; Nardai, Gábor; Boa, Kristóf; Süveges, Gábor

    2016-01-01

    Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) programs are recognized as the standard educational trauma program worldwide. Data suggest that ATLS has a positive impact on the value of trauma care. The ATLS Hungary program has been started in 2005, celebrating its 10-year anniversary this year. In the present brief communication a brief overview is provided on the program.Student evaluation and statistical data about the participants were collected throughout the 10-year history of the Hungarian program.Student evaluation shows a high level of satisfaction amongst the participating doctors. Most participants are working in higher level centers. The Hungarian program shows good quality according to the participants. Establishing at least one new center is crucial to be able to provide the course for every professional interested in it or required to take it. PMID:27162927

  1. Incidence of, and reasons for, tooth mortality among mentally retarded adults during a 10-year period.

    PubMed

    Gabre, P; Martinsson, T; Gahnberg, L

    1999-02-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the reasons for, and incidence of, tooth mortality over a 10-year period in mentally retarded adults receiving regular dental care. The number of teeth present in 115 individuals (mean age in 1984 was 41.0, range 19-83 years) was registered in 1984 and 1994. The reasons for tooth mortality, medication utilization, frequency of dental care visits and cooperation during dental treatment were registered and related to tooth loss. The average incidence of tooth mortality was 3.72 teeth during the 10-year period. The mean number of dental care visits per year was 6.6. Most of the 428 teeth (58%) were lost due to periodontal disease. The preventive dental care given was not sufficient to arrest oral diseases. The data indicate, however, that achievement of cooperation in dental care situations not only makes dental treatment possible, but also leads to a decreased incidence of tooth mortality. PMID:10207537

  2. Rugby injuries to the cervical spine and spinal cord: a 10-year review.

    PubMed

    Scher, A T

    1998-01-01

    A 10-year review (1987-1996) of injuries sustained to the spine and spinal cord in rugby players with resultant paralysis has been undertaken. This article reviews that the incidence of serious rugby spine and spinal cord injuries in South Africa has increased over the 10-year period reviewed, despite stringent new rules instituted in an attempt to decrease the incidence of these injuries. The mechanisms of injury, as previously reported, remain the same as well as the phases of game responsible for injury of the tight scrum, tackle, rucks, and mauls. Two new observations are reported: the first is related to the occurrence of spinal cord concussion with transient paralysis, and the second is related to the increased incidence of osteoarthritis of the cervical spine in rugby players. PMID:9475983

  3. Weight Suppression Predicts Maintenance and Onset of Bulimic Syndromes at 10-Year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Keel, Pamela K.; Heatherton, Todd F.

    2010-01-01

    Conflicting results have emerged regarding the prognostic significance of weight suppression for maintenance of bulimic symptoms. This study examined whether the magnitude of weight suppression would predict bulimic syndrome maintenance and onset in college-based samples of men (n=369) and women (n=968) at 10-year follow-up. Data come from a longitudinal study of body weight and disordered eating with high retention (80%). Among those with a bulimic syndrome at baseline, greater weight suppression significantly predicted maintenance of the syndrome, and, among those without a bulimic syndrome at baseline, greater weight suppression predicted onset of a bulimic syndrome at 10-year follow-up in multivariate models that included baseline body mass index, diet frequency, and weight perception. Future research should address mechanisms that could account for the effects of weight suppression over a long duration of follow-up. PMID:20455599

  4. The Future of Federated Search, or What Will the World Look like in 10 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Rich

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author contends that in 10 years, federated search--or search of any kind for that matter--won't exist. He elaborates that the "function" of search will exist--but not in a context with which anyone is familiar today. So if "search" doesn't exist in 2018, how will people find the information that they need across vast volumes…

  5. Changes in Pulmonary Function Up to 10 Years After Locoregional Breast Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Erven, Katrien; Weltens, Caroline; Nackaerts, Kristiaan; Fieuws, Steffen; Decramer, Marc; Lievens, Yolande

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the long-term impact of locoregional breast radiotherapy (RT) on pulmonary function tests (PFTs). Methods and Materials: This study included 75 women who underwent postoperative locoregional breast RT. PFTs were performed before RT and 3, 6, and 12 months and 8 to 10 years after RT. By use of univariate and multivariate analyses, the impact of treatment- and patient-related factors on late changes in PFTs was evaluated. Results: During the first year after RT, all PFTs significantly worsened at 3 to 6 months after RT (p < 0.05). At 12 months, forced vital capacity (FVC), vital capacity (VC), and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV{sub 1}) recovered almost to baseline values, whereas total lung capacity (TLC) and diffusion capacity of carbon monoxide (DL{sub CO}) recovered only slightly and were still found to be decreased compared with baseline (p < 0.05). At 8 to 10 years after RT, mean reductions in FEV{sub 1} of 4% (p = 0.03) and in VC, DL{sub CO}, and TLC of 5%, 9%, and 11% (all p < 0.0001), respectively, were observed compared with pre-RT values. On multivariate analysis, tamoxifen use negatively affected TLC at 8 to 10 years after RT (p = 0.033), whereas right-sided irradiation was associated with a late reduction in FEV{sub 1} (p = 0.027). For FEV{sub 1} and DL{sub CO}, an early decrease was predictive for a late decrease (p = 0.003 and p = 0.0009, respectively). Conclusions: The time course of PFT changes after locoregional RT for breast cancer follows a biphasic pattern. An early reduction in PFTs at 3 to 6 months with a partial recovery at 12 months after RT is followed by a late, more important PFT reduction up to 8 to 10 years after RT. Tamoxifen use may have an impact on this late decline in PFTs.

  6. Examining the 10-Year Rebuilding Dilemma for U.S. Fish Stocks

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, Wesley S.; Cope, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, fishery managers strive to maintain fish stocks at or above levels that produce maximum sustainable yields, and to rebuild overexploited stocks that can no longer support such yields. In the United States, rebuilding overexploited stocks is a contentious issue, where most stocks are mandated to rebuild in as short a time as possible, and in a time period not to exceed 10 years. Opponents of such mandates and related guidance argue that rebuilding requirements are arbitrary, and create discontinuities in the time and fishing effort allowed for stocks to rebuild due to differences in productivity. Proponents, however, highlight how these mandates and guidance were needed to curtail the continued overexploitation of these stocks by setting firm deadlines on rebuilding. Here we evaluate the statements made by opponents and proponents of the 10-year rebuilding mandate and related guidance to determine whether such points are technically accurate using a simple population dynamics model and a database of U.S. fish stocks to parameterize the model. We also offer solutions to many of the issues surrounding this mandate and its implementation by recommending some fishing mortality based frameworks, which meet the intent of the 10-year rebuilding requirement while also providing more flexibility. PMID:25375788

  7. Factors influencing infection in 10 years of battlefield open tibia fractures.

    PubMed

    Penn-Barwell, J G; Bennett, P M; Mortiboy, D E; Fries, C A; Groom, A F G; Sargeant, I D

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise severe open tibial shaft fractures sustained by the UK military personnel over 10 years of combat in Iraq and Afghanistan. The UK military Joint Theatre Trauma Registry was searched for all such injuries, and clinical records were reviewed for all patients. One hundred Gustilo-Anderson III tibia fractures in 89 patients were identified in the 10 year study period; the majority sustained injuries through explosive weapons (63, 68 %) with the remainder being injured from gunshot wounds. Three fractures were not followed up for 12 months and were therefore excluded. Twenty-two (23 %) of the remaining 97 tibial fractures were complicated by infection, with S. aureus being the causative agent in 13/22 infected fractures (59 %). Neither injury severity, mechanism, the use of an external fixator, the need for vascularised tissue transfer nor smoking status was associated with subsequent infection. Bone loss was significantly associated with subsequent infection (p < 0.0001, Fisher's exact test). This study presents 10 years of open tibial fractures sustained in Iraq and Afghanistan. Most infection in combat open tibia fractures is caused by familiar organisms, i.e. S. aureus. While the overall severity of a casualty's injuries was not associated with infection, the degree of bone loss from the fracture was. PMID:26993111

  8. Parental stress and perceived vulnerability at 5 and 10 years after pediatric SCT.

    PubMed

    Vrijmoet-Wiersma, C M J; Egeler, R M; Koopman, H M; Bresters, D; Norberg, A L; Grootenhuis, M A

    2010-06-01

    With the aim of assessing parental stress after SCT, 73 parents of children and adolescents who underwent SCT 5 or 10 years ago responded to questionnaires on general distress (General Health Questionnaire (GHQ)), disease-related stress (Pediatric Inventory for Parents-short form (PIP-SF)) and perceptions of child vulnerability (Child Vulnerability Scale (CVS)). General distress scores were comparable with the reference groups, but 40% of the mothers at 5 years after SCT reported increased stress levels as compared with 26% in the community-based reference group. Disease-related stress was comparable with the reference group of parents of children who were just off cancer treatment, 5 years after SCT. At 10 years after SCT, scores were lower than the reference group. Perceived child vulnerability did diminish over time, but remained high in parents of SCT survivors, compared with parents of healthy children: 96% of the parents at 5 years after SCT and 76% of the parents at 10 years after SCT scored above the cutoff point. Perceived vulnerability was found to be a predictor for parental disease-related stress. To conclude, although most parents of SCT survivors are resilient, the majority of parents perceive their child to be much more vulnerable as compared with parents of healthy children. This perception is associated with disease-related stress and may induce overprotective parenting. PMID:19881554

  9. Factors associated with arterial stiffness in children aged 9-10 years

    PubMed Central

    Batista, Milena Santos; Mill, José Geraldo; Pereira, Taisa Sabrina Silva; Fernandes, Carolina Dadalto Rocha; Molina, Maria del Carmen Bisi

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the factors associated with stiffness of the great arteries in prepubertal children. METHODS This study with convenience sample of 231 schoolchildren aged 9-10 years enrolled in public and private schools in Vitória, ES, Southeastern Brazil, in 2010-2011. Anthropometric and hemodynamic data, blood pressure, and pulse wave velocity in the carotid-femoral segment were obtained. Data on current and previous health conditions were obtained by questionnaire and notes on the child’s health card. Multiple linear regression was applied to identify the partial and total contribution of the factors in determining the pulse wave velocity values. RESULTS Among the students, 50.2% were female and 55.4% were 10 years old. Among those classified in the last tertile of pulse wave velocity, 60.0% were overweight, with higher mean blood pressure, waist circumference, and waist-to-height ratio. Birth weight was not associated with pulse wave velocity. After multiple linear regression analysis, body mass index (BMI) and diastolic blood pressure remained in the model. CONCLUSIONS BMI was the most important factor in determining arterial stiffness in children aged 9-10 years. PMID:25902563

  10. Long-Term Predictors of Social and Leisure Activity 10 Years after Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Norlander, Anna; Carlstedt, Emma; Jönsson, Ann-Cathrin; Lexell, Eva M.; Ståhl, Agneta; Lindgren, Arne; Iwarsson, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Background Restrictions in social and leisure activity can have negative consequences for the health and well-being of stroke survivors. To support the growing number of people who are ageing with stroke, knowledge is needed about factors that influence such activity in a long-term perspective. Aim To identify long-term predictors of the frequency of social and leisure activities 10 years after stroke. Method 145 stroke survivors in Sweden were followed-up at16 months and 10 years after a first-ever stroke. Data representing body functions, activities & participation, environmental factors and personal factors at 16 months after stroke, were used in multiple linear regression analyses to identify predictors of the activity frequency after 10 years, as assessed by the ‘Community, social and civic life’ sub-domain of the Frenchay Activities Index (FAI-CSC). Results At the 10-year follow-up the frequency of social and leisure activities varied considerably among the participants, with FAI-CSC scores spanning the entire score range 0–9 (mean/median 4.9/5.0). Several factors at 16 months post stroke were independently related to the long-term activity frequency. The final regression model included four significant explanatory variables. Driving a car (B = 0.999), ability to walk a few hundred meters (B = 1.698) and extent of social network (B = 1.235) had a positive effect on activity frequency, whereas an age ≥ 75 years had a negative effect (B = -1.657). This model explained 36.9% of the variance in the FAI-CSC (p<0.001). Conclusion Stroke survivors who drive a car, have the ability to walk a few hundred meters and have a wide social network at 16 months after a first-ever stroke are more likely to have a high frequency of social and leisure activities after 10 years, indicating that supporting outdoor mobility and social anchorage of stroke survivors during rehabilitation is important to counteract long-term inactivity. PMID:26901501

  11. Perceived risk of developing diabetes in early adulthood: beliefs about inherited and behavioral risk factors across the life course.

    PubMed

    Dickerson, Justin B; Smith, Matthew Lee; Sosa, Erica; McKyer, E Lisako; Ory, Marcia G

    2012-03-01

    This study aimed to determine how college students perceive their risk of developing diabetes over their life course, with specific emphasis on their beliefs about the influence of inherited versus behavioral risk factors. A bivariate ordered probit regression model was used to simultaneously predict perceived risk for 10-year absolute risk of diabetes and lifetime absolute risk of diabetes. Ten-year and lifetime absolute risk were both increased when the respondent self-identified with a race/ethnicity other than non-Hispanic white (β = 0.42, p < .001 and β = 0.33, p = .004, respectively), and when the respondent had an increasing number of family members with diabetes (β = 0.33, p < .001 and β = 0.45, p < .001, respectively). Beliefs linking behavioral risk factors to perceived risk of developing diabetes across the life course were not statistically significant. The absence of significant association between perceptions of behavioral risk as factors for developing diabetes and perceived risk for diabetes over the life course supports the need for educational interventions about behavioral and genetic causes of diabetes among the college-aged population. PMID:21708872

  12. The Chinese physicians' CardiovAscular Risk Evaluation (CARE) survey: an assessment of physicians' own cardiovascular risks

    PubMed Central

    Hu, D-Y; Yu, J-M; Chen, F; Sun, Y-H; Jiang, Q-W

    2010-01-01

    Objective To estimate the 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD)/coronary heart disease (CHD) in physicians using two models (the Chinese and Framingham models). Methods This was a multicentre, cross-sectional survey, which recruited cardiovascular physicians from 386 medical centres in all 31 provinces and municipalities in China. Cardiovascular risk factors such as body mass index, blood pressure and cholesterol were recorded during enrolment. Control rates (%) of hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia and diabetes were defined according to guidelines. Participants aged ≥35 years completed the Framingham model and participants aged ≤59 years completed the Chinese prediction model. Results A total of 820 (41.5%) women and 1598 (78.7%) men had ≥1 markedly raised CVD risk factors. The Chinese prediction model showed that 22 (1.2%) women and 143 (7.6%) men had a 10-year risk of ischaemic CVD ≥5%, and an above-average level of 10-year ischaemic CVD risk factors was found in 20.6% of women and in 54.6% of men. When the Framingham model was used, 268 (13.6%) women and 724 (35.7%) men had a 10-year absolute risk of CHD ≥5%. Hypertension, diabetes and hypercholesterolaemia were only controlled in 58.2%, 46.6% and 38.5% of participants, respectively. Only 30.3% of physicians with a 10-year risk of CHD ≥10% were using aspirin. Conclusions The results show suboptimal awareness in physicians of their own cardiovascular risks, and low use of prophylactic agents. Improvement of physicians' risk factors in will improve their ability to act as role models in the promotion of primary and secondary prevention initiatives. PMID:27325952

  13. Second primary breast cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers: 10-year cumulative incidence in the Breast Cancer Family Registry.

    PubMed

    Menes, Tehillah S; Terry, Mary Beth; Goldgar, David; Andrulis, Irene L; Knight, Julia A; John, Esther M; Liao, Yuyan; Southey, Melissa; Miron, Alexander; Chung, Wendy; Buys, Saundra S

    2015-06-01

    BReast CAncer genes 1 and 2 (BRCA1 and BRCA2) mutation carriers diagnosed with breast cancer are at increased risk of developing a second primary breast cancer. Data from high-risk clinics may be subject to different biases which can cause both over and underestimation of this risk. Using data from a large multi-institutional family registry we estimated the 10-year cumulative risk of second primary breast cancer including more complete testing information on family members. We prospectively followed 800 women diagnosed with breast cancer from the Breast Cancer Family Registry (BCFR) who were carriers of a BRCA1 or BRCA2 pathogenic mutation or a variant of unknown clinical significance. In order to limit survival and ascertainment bias, cases were limited to those diagnosed with a first primary breast cancer from 1994 to 2001 and enrolled in the BCFR within 3 years after their cancer diagnosis. We excluded women enrolled after being diagnosed with a second breast cancer. We calculated 10-year incidence of second primary breast cancers. The 10-year incidence of a second primary breast cancer was highest in BRCA1 mutation carriers (17 %; 95 % CI 11-25 %), with even higher estimates in those first diagnosed under the age of 40 (21 %; 95 % CI 13-34 %). Lower rates were found in BRCA2 mutation carriers (7 %; 95 % CI 3-15 %) and women with a variant of unknown clinical significance (6 %; 95 % CI 4-9 %). Whereas the cumulative 10-year incidence of second primary breast cancer is high in BRCA1 mutation carriers, the estimates in BRCA2 mutation carriers and women with variants of unknown clinical significance are similar to those reported in women with sporadic breast cancer. PMID:25975955

  14. Second primary breast cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers: 10-year cumulative incidence in the Breast Cancer Family Registry

    PubMed Central

    Menes, Tehillah S.; Terry, Mary Beth; Goldgar, David; Andrulis, Irene L.; Knight, Julia A.; John, Esther M.; Liao, Yuyan; Southey, Melissa; Miron, Alexander; Chung, Wendy; Buys, Saundra S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BReast CAncer genes 1 and 2) mutation carriers diagnosed with breast cancer are at increased risk of developing a second primary breast cancer. Data from high risk clinics may be subject to different biases which can cause both over and underestimation of this risk. Using data from a large multi-institutional family registry we estimated the 10 year cumulative risk of second primary breast cancer including more complete testing information on family members. Patients and Methods We prospectively followed 800 women diagnosed with breast cancer from the Breast Cancer Family Registry (BCFR) who were carriers of a BRCA1 or BRCA2 pathogenic mutation or a variant of unknown clinical significance. In order to limit survival and ascertainment bias, cases were limited to those diagnosed with a first primary breast cancer from 1994 to 2001 and enrolled in the BCFR within 3 years after their cancer diagnosis; We excluded women enrolled after being diagnosed with a second breast cancer. We calculated 10 year incidence of second primary breast cancers. Results The 10-year incidence of a second primary breast cancer was highest in BRCA1 mutation carriers (17%; 95% CI 11-25%), with even higher estimates in those first diagnosed under the age of 40 (21%; 95% CI 13-34%). Lower rates were found in BRCA2 mutation carriers (7%; 95% CI 3-15%) and women with a variant of unknown clinical significance (6%; 95% CI 4-9%). Conclusions Whereas the cumulative 10-year incidence of second primary breast cancer is high in BRCA1 mutation carriers, the estimates in BRCA2 mutation carriers and women with variants of unknown clinical significance are similar to those reported in women with sporadic breast cancer. PMID:25975955

  15. Sharing Telescopes With 10-Year Olds to Celebrate the International Year of Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, Daniel Jonathan; Slater, T. F.; Slater, S. J.; in Astronomy, Cognition; Physics; Earth sciences Research CAPER Team

    2009-05-01

    Precisely four hundred years ago, Italian scientist Galileo's observations of the heavens forever and profoundly altered the way we view our place in the Universe. Throughout 2009, children across Wyoming are joining in a United Nations proclaimed International Year of Astronomy celebration. To commemorate 400 years of the telescope in advancing our understanding of the Universe through astronomy, our goal is that every 10-year old child in Wyoming will experience the excitement and wonder of looking through their very own telescope to observe majestic rings surrounding Saturn, deep craters on the Moon, countless stars lining the Milky Way, brilliant phases of Venus, and orbiting moons of Jupiter. This is being accomplished by a massive, state-wide collaborative effort bringing the collective energy and enthusiasm of professional scientists, amateur astronomers, local teachers, and community outreach enthusiasts together to spark an interest in science among Wyoming's children. Our strategy to bring a telescope to every Wyoming 10-year old child started first with a major year-long fundraising campaign. We estimate the cost of an individual telescope, constructed specifically for the 2009 International Year of Astronomy celebration, to be approximately $13 per child. With 6,489 (in 2007) 10-year old children in Wyoming, this amounts to less than $100,000 as a fund raising goal. University of Wyoming faculty are training teachers in how to use telescopes and how to integrate the excitement of astronomy across the curriculum. To teach children how to use their telescopes, volunteers from around the state are hosting star parties at schools, county fairs, and other regularly scheduled community celebrations.

  16. Sharing the Stars: Bringing Telescopes to 10-year Olds for International Year of Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, S. J.

    2008-12-01

    Precisely four hundred years ago, Italian scientist Galileo's observations of the heavens forever and profoundly altered the way we view our place in the Universe. He dramatically increased our thinking about the size of the known Universe by using his telescope and initiated one of the most important scientific revolutions in history. Throughout 2009, children across Wyoming are joining in a United Nations proclaimed International Year of Astronomy celebration. To commemorate 400 years of the telescope in advancing our understanding of the Universe through astronomy, our goal is that every 10-year old child in Wyoming will experience the excitement and wonder of looking through their very own telescope to observe majestic rings surrounding Saturn, deep craters on the Moon, countless stars lining the Milky Way, brilliant phases of Venus, and orbiting moons of Jupiter. This is being accomplished by a massive, state-wide collaborative effort bringing the collective energy and enthusiasm of professional scientists, amateur astronomers, local teachers, and community outreach enthusiasts together to spark an interest in science among Wyoming's children. Our strategy to bring a telescope to every Wyoming 10-year old child started first with a major year-long fundraising campaign. We estimate the cost of an individual telescope, constructed specifically for the 2009 International Year of Astronomy celebration, to be approximately 13 per child. With 6,489 (in 2007) 10- year old children in Wyoming, this amounts to less than 100,000 as a fund raising goal. University of Wyoming faculty are training teachers in how to use telescopes and how to integrate the excitement of astronomy across the curriculum. To teach children how to use their telescopes, volunteers from around the state are hosting star parties at schools, county fairs, and other regularly scheduled community celebrations.

  17. The Protective Role of Family Meals for Youth Obesity: 10-year Longitudinal Associations

    PubMed Central

    Berge, Jerica M.; Wall, Melanie; Hsueh, Tsun-Fang; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Larson, Nicole; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine whether having family meals as an adolescent protects against becoming overweight or obese 10 years later as a young adult. Study design Data from Project EAT-III, a longitudinal cohort study with emerging young adults, were used. At baseline (1998-1999) adolescents completed surveys in middle or high schools and at 10-year follow-up (2008-2009) surveys were completed online or via mailed surveys. Young adult participants (n=2117) were racially/ethnically and socioeconomically diverse (52% minority; 38% low income) between the ages of 19-31 (mean age=25.3; 55% female). Logistic regression was used to associate weight status at follow-up with family meal frequency 10-years earlier during adolescence, controlling and testing for interactions with demographic characteristics. Results All levels of baseline family meal frequency (i.e., 1-2, 3-4, ≥5 family meals/week) during adolescence were significantly associated with reduced odds of overweight or obesity ten years later in young adulthood as compared with never having family meals as an adolescent. Interactions by race indicated that family meals had a stronger protective effect for obesity in black versus white young adults. Conclusions Family meals during adolescence were protective against the development of overweight and obesity in young adulthood. Professionals who work with adolescents and parents may want to strategize with them how to successfully carry out at least one to two family meals per week in order to protect adolescents from overweight or obesity in young adulthood. PMID:25266343

  18. Oral Hygiene Facilitators and Barriers in Greek 10 Years Old Schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    Kavvadia, Katerina; Oulis, Constantine; Reppa, Christina

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the oral hygiene facilitators and barriers for 10 years old Greek children, via a questionnaire and clinical examination. Materials and methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 266, 10 years old, children recruited from schools in 3 locations in Greece. Data were collected via questionnaires and clinical examination. Questionnaires referred to Children’s oral hygiene knowledge, behavior and attitude as well as parents’ oral hygiene behavior and educational level. Children were clinically examined by two calibrated pediatric dentists using a WHO probe and artificial light to assess dental plaque (hygiene index-HI), gingivitis (simplified gingival index-GIs) and dental caries (DMFT-BASCD criteria). Results: Regarding oral hygiene knowledge, although 80% of the children were literate of the proper means of oral hygiene, only 58.64% brushed their teeth twice daily and 36.84% used dental floss. Children’s oral hygiene knowledge was positively correlated with both parental brushing frequency (ρ = 0.175, p < 0.05) and educational level (ρ = -0.216, p < 0.05). Toothpaste use was reported by 92.11% of the children. Regarding Children’s attitude, 62.28% were concerned whether their teeth were clean, with girls showing greater concern than boys (p < 0.001). Their reported beliefs regarding brushing avoidance were boredom (84.06%), low oral health literacy (73.91%) and forgetfulness (56.52%). Conclusion: Oral hygiene facilitators were found to be the concern about how clean were their teeth, oral health literacy of both children and parents and toothpaste appeal to children. Oral hygiene barriers were Children’s boredom, low oral health literacy, forgetfulness and low socioeconomic level. How to cite this article: Angelopoulou M, Kavvadia K, Oulis C, Reppa C. Oral Hygiene Facilitators and Barriers in Greek 10 Years Old Schoolchildren. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(2):87-93. PMID:26379373

  19. Project Energize: intervention development and 10 years of progress in preventing childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Rush, Elaine; Cairncross, Carolyn; Williams, Margaret Hinepo; Tseng, Marilyn; Coppinger, Tara; McLennan, Steph; Latimer, Kasha

    2016-01-01

    Prevention of childhood obesity is a global priority. The school setting offers access to large numbers of children and the ability to provide supportive environments for quality physical activity and nutrition. This article describes Project Energize, a through-school physical activity and nutrition programme that celebrated its 10-year anniversary in 2015 so that it might serve as a model for similar practices, initiatives and policies elsewhere. The programme was envisaged and financed by the Waikato District Health Board of New Zealand in 2004 and delivered by Sport Waikato to 124 primary schools as a randomised controlled trial from 2005 to 2006. The programme has since expanded to include all 242 primary schools in the Waikato region and 70 schools in other regions, including 53,000 children. Ongoing evaluation and development of Project Energize has shown it to be sustainable (ongoing for >10 years), both effective (lower obesity, higher physical fitness) and cost effective (one health related cost quality adjusted life year between $18,000 and $30,000) and efficient ($45/child/year) as a childhood 'health' programme. The programme's unique community-based approach is inclusive of all children, serving a population that is 42% Māori, the indigenous people of New Zealand. While the original nine healthy eating and seven quality physical activity goals have not changed, the delivery and assessment processes has been refined and the health service adapted over the 10 years of the programme existence, as well as adapted over time to other settings including early childhood education and schools in Cork in Ireland. Evaluation and research associated with the programme delivery and outcomes are ongoing. The dissemination of findings to politicians and collaboration with other service providers are both regarded as priorities. PMID:26809555

  20. Development of 5- and 10-year-old pediatric phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Melo Lima, V. J. de; Cassola, V. F.; Kramer, R.; Oliveira Lira, C. A. B. de; Khoury, H. J.; Vieira, J. W.

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is the development of reference pediatric phantoms for 5- and 10-year-old children to be used for the calculation of organ and tissue equivalent doses in radiation protection. Methods: The study proposes a method for developing anatomically highly sophisticated pediatric phantoms without using medical images. The 5- and 10-year-old male and female phantoms presented here were developed using 3D modeling software applied to anatomical information taken from atlases and textbooks. The method uses polygon mesh surfaces to model body contours, the shape of organs as well as their positions, and orientations in the human body. Organ and tissue masses comply with the corresponding data given by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for the 5- and 10-year-old reference children. Bones were segmented into cortical bone, spongiosa, medullary marrow, and cartilage to allow for the use of micro computer tomographic ({mu}CT) images of trabecular bone for skeletal dosimetry. Results: The four phantoms, a male and a female for each age, and their organs are presented in 3D images and their organ and tissue masses in tables which show the compliance of the ICRP reference values. Dosimetric data, calculated for the reference pediatric phantoms by Monte Carlo methods were compared with corresponding data from adult mesh phantoms and pediatric stylized phantoms. The comparisons show reasonable agreement if the anatomical differences between the phantoms are properly taken into account. Conclusions: Pediatric phantoms were developed without using medical images of patients or volunteers for the first time. The models are reference phantoms, suitable for regulatory dosimetry, however, the 3D modeling method can also be applied to medical images to develop patient-specific phantoms.

  1. A scoring system based on artificial neural network for predicting 10-year survival in stage II A colon cancer patients after radical surgery

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wu; Lu, Shi-Xun; Lu, Zhen-Hai; Li, Pei-Xing; Yun, Jing-Ping; Zhang, Rong-Xin; Pan, Zhi-Zhong; Wan, De-Sen

    2016-01-01

    Nearly 20% patients with stage II A colon cancer will develop recurrent disease post-operatively. The present study aims to develop a scoring system based on Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model for predicting 10-year survival outcome. The clinical and molecular data of 117 stage II A colon cancer patients from Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center were used for training set and test set; poor pathological grading (score 49), reduced expression of TGFBR2 (score 33), over-expression of TGF-β (score 45), MAPK (score 32), pin1 (score 100), β-catenin in tumor tissue (score 50) and reduced expression of TGF-β in normal mucosa (score 22) were selected as the prognostic risk predictors. According to the developed scoring system, the patients were divided into 3 subgroups, which were supposed with higher, moderate and lower risk levels. As a result, for the 3 subgroups, the 10-year overall survival (OS) rates were 16.7%, 62.9% and 100% (P < 0.001); and the 10-year disease free survival (DFS) rates were 16.7%, 61.8% and 98.8% (P < 0.001) respectively. It showed that this scoring system for stage II A colon cancer could help to predict long-term survival and screen out high-risk individuals for more vigorous treatment. PMID:27008710

  2. A Retrospective 10-Year, Single-Institution Study of Carotid Endarterectomy with a Focus on Elderly Patients

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hojong; Kwon, Sun U.; Kang, Dong-Wha; Kim, Jong S.; Chung, Young Soo; Shin, Sung; Han, Youngjin; Cho, Yong-Pil

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose This study evaluated the outcome following surgery for carotid artery stenosis in a single institution during a 10-year period and the relevance of aging to access to surgery. Methods Between January 2001 and December 2010, 649 carotid endarterectomies (CEAs) were performed in 596 patients for internal carotid artery occlusive disease at our institution; 596 patients received unilateral CEAs and 53 patients received bilateral CEAs. Data regarding patient characteristics, comorbidities, stroke, mortality, restenosis, and other surgical complications were obtained from a review of medical records. Since elderly and high-risk patients comprise a significant proportion of the patient group undergoing CEAs, differences in comorbidity and mortality were evaluated according to age when the patients were divided into three age groups: <70 years, 70-79 years, and ≥80 years. Results The mean age of the included patients was 67.5 years, and 88% were men. Symptomatic carotid stenosis was observed in 65.7% of patients. The rate of perioperative stroke and death (within 30 days of the procedure) was 1.84%. The overall mortality rate was higher among patients in the 70-79 years and >80 years age groups than among those in the <70 years age group, but there was no significant difference in stroke-related mortality among these three groups. Conclusions CEA over a 10-year period has yielded acceptable outcomes in terms of stroke and mortality. Therefore, since CEA is a safe and effective strategy, it can be performed in elderly patients with acceptable life expectancy. PMID:26754779

  3. Juvenile sex offender re-arrest rates for sexual, violent nonsexual and property crimes: a 10-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Waite, Dennis; Keller, Adrienne; McGarvey, Elizabeth L; Wieckowski, Edward; Pinkerton, Relana; Brown, Gerald L

    2005-07-01

    We report the results of a 10-year follow-up recidivism study of two sex offender treatment programs for incarcerated juvenile sex offenders (JSOs) in Virginia. The programs vary in environment and intensity. The more intense JSO program ("self-contained") operates in specialized living units that are separate from those of the general juvenile incarcerated population. In the less intense program ("prescriptive"), JSOs remain housed with the general population of juvenile offenders. Arrest and incarceration data through January 2003 were obtained for 261 male JSOs released between 1992 and 2001. The inclusion of adult incarceration data allowed for a more accurate assessment of the actual time at risk for sexual re-offending. Outcomes are re-arrest rates, length of time to re-arrest and type of offense (property, nonsexual assault, sexual) on re-arrest, with analyses using survival curve functions. For both groups, actual re-arrest is most likely to be for a nonsexual person offense (31 and 47%, respectively) and least likely to be for a sexual offense (<5% for both groups). Comparing the nonequivalent groups, the self-contained treatment group has a lower predicted re-arrest rate and a longer mean time to re-arrest, for all types of offenses, than the prescriptive treatment group. In addition, juveniles who indicate high levels of impulsive/antisocial behaviors are significantly more likely to recidivate compared to juveniles with low-levels of impulsive/antisocial behaviors, regardless of treatment type. This is the first 10-year follow-up study of treatment outcomes for a relatively large sample of males who were incarcerated for sexual offenses as juveniles. PMID:16121841

  4. Pattern of Venous Thromboembolism Occurrence in Gynecologic Malignancy: Incidence, Timing, and Distribution a 10-Year Retrospective Single-institutional Study.

    PubMed

    Ye, Shuang; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Jiaxin; Cao, Dongyan; Huang, Huifang; Wu, Ming; Lang, Jinghe; Shen, Keng

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this single-institutional 10-year retrospective study was to investigate the clinical pattern (incidence, type, timing, and location) of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in Chinese patients with gynecologic cancer. Cases were identified by searching institutional Electronic Discharge Database. A comprehensive review of medical documentation was then performed to collect relevant data. The detection of VTE was symptom-triggered. A total of 155 VTE events were identified out of 7562 cases over the past 10-year period in our hospital. The incidence of clinically significant VTE was 2.0% in gynecologic malignancy, with vulvar cancer (3.7%) and ovarian cancer (2.5%) being the high-risk types (P = 0.01, Chi-square test). Perioperative period (35.1%) and preoperation (29.1%) were the 2 incidence peaks. Seventeen cases of pulmonary embolism (PE) occurred prior to surgery. Ovarian cancer patients were more likely to present preoperative PE compared to other site of cancer (76.4%; P = 0.01, Chi-square test). More preoperative VTE cases were complicated by PE than those in the perioperative period (39.5% vs 17.3%, P = 0.02, Chi-square test). Bilateral lower extremity deep vein thrombosis (DVT) accounted for 32.6% and there existed a preponderance of left-sided DVT (47.5% vs 17.0%, ratio 2.79:1). Femoral vein (36.6%) was the most common location for DVT. About 2.0% of the Chinese patients with gynecologic carcinoma developed clinical VTE, mostly during perioperative period and the time of diagnosis. The true incidence might have been under-estimated due to several reasons. The need for increased patient education and awareness of VTE is of importance. PMID:26683971

  5. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis in a 10-year-old girl masquerading as tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Baro, Abhamoni; Shah, Ira; Chandane, Parmarth; Khosla, Indu

    2015-06-01

    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare pulmonary disease. Diagnosis is established by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), which has macroscopic 'milky appearance', and in the presence of typical computed tomography, findings are diagnostic of PAP but, however, the feature of periodic acid-Schiff-positive eosinophilic proteinaceous fluid raises the confidence of the diagnosis. We report late-onset PAP in a 10-year-old girl who had acid fast bacilli on an initial BAL examination, but was subsequently diagnosed as PAP. PMID:26069841

  6. Photodynamic therapy for bronchial carcinoid tumours: complete response over a 10-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Moghissi, Keyvan; Dixon, Kate; Gibbins, Sally

    2013-06-01

    A 63-year old woman diagnosed in September 2001 with a typical bronchial carcinoid of the left upper lobe bronchus extending into the left main stem bronchus is presented. The patient was unsuitable for standard surgical treatment, and the topography was not amenable for a parenchyma-saving bronchoplastic procedure. Two cycles of bronchoscopic photodynamic therapy (PDT) were undertaken at 6 monthly intervals. The patient has now been followed up regularly for over 10 years without signs of recurrence bronchoscopically or radiologically. To our knowledge, this is the first case of a carcinoid tumour treated solely by PDT. PMID:23284100

  7. Maturogenesis of Two Maxillary Central Incisors: A Case Report with 10 Years of Follow Up.

    PubMed

    Ghorbanzadeh, Abdollah; Ghorbanzadeh, Atiyeh

    2015-04-01

    This case report describes the treatment of two immature maxillary central incisors in a 7-year-old female patient. She suffered complicated crown fracture because of trauma, and the root formation was incomplete. White mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) was selected as the pulp-capping material after cervical pulpotomy to preserve the pulp tissue vitality and achieve maturogenesis. Follow-up evaluations showed successful treatment in terms of preservation of pulp vitality and demonstrated marked continuous physiological root development. During 10 years of follow-up, both teeth were clinically asymptomatic, and radiographic evaluations showed apparent root regeneration with apical root-end closure without pulp or periapical pathosis. PMID:26622286

  8. Maturogenesis of Two Maxillary Central Incisors: A Case Report with 10 Years of Follow Up

    PubMed Central

    Ghorbanzadeh, Abdollah

    2015-01-01

    This case report describes the treatment of two immature maxillary central incisors in a 7-year-old female patient. She suffered complicated crown fracture because of trauma, and the root formation was incomplete. White mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) was selected as the pulp-capping material after cervical pulpotomy to preserve the pulp tissue vitality and achieve maturogenesis. Follow-up evaluations showed successful treatment in terms of preservation of pulp vitality and demonstrated marked continuous physiological root development. During 10 years of follow-up, both teeth were clinically asymptomatic, and radiographic evaluations showed apparent root regeneration with apical root-end closure without pulp or periapical pathosis. PMID:26622286

  9. Peroral Endoscopic Myotomy for the Treatment of Achalasia in a 10-Year-Old Male Patient

    PubMed Central

    Filser, Jörg; Dick, Anke; Meyer, Thomas; Germer, Christoph-Thomas; von Rahden, Burkard H.A.

    2014-01-01

    Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is a new endoscopic treatment for achalasia with very good short-term results in adults. Data about POEM in pediatric patients are missing. We present the case of a 10-year-old male patient with type I (classic) achalasia, successfully treated with POEM. The procedure was accomplished in a similar fashion to the technique used in adults. Short-term results were fine, with a complete control of dysphagia and absence of reflux. We suggest that POEM is a suitable option in pediatric patients—similar to adults—but long-term results must be awaited. PMID:26171309

  10. Arthralgia and Osteolytic Lesions Associated with Traumatic Pancreatitis in a 10-Year-Old Girl

    PubMed Central

    Obatake, Masayuki; Yamane, Yusuke; Tokunaga, Takayuki; Taura, Yasuaki; Inamura, Yukio; Nagayasu, Takeshi

    2009-01-01

    A case of traumatic pancreatitis with subsequent joint pain and osteolytic lesions is presented. A 10-year-old girl was admitted to our hospital with abdominal pain caused by blunt epigastric injury. She was diagnosed with traumatic pancreatitis, and multiple pancreatic pseudocysts subsequently developed. Two weeks after admission, she complained of joint pain, and MR revealed osteolytic lesions of both knee joints. On the 58th day, endoscopic transgastric pseudocyst drainage was performed. Joint pain and osteolytic lesions resolved rapidly, in parallel with the decrease in serum amylase level and pseudocyst size. PMID:20041026

  11. Cannabis use and the course of schizophrenia: 10-year follow-up after first hospitalization

    PubMed Central

    Foti, Daniel J.; Kotov, Roman; Guey, Lin T.; Bromet, Evelyn J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The authors examined the relationship between cannabis use and the course of illness in schizophrenia over 10 years following first psychiatric hospitalization. Method We assessed 229 patients with a schizophrenia-spectrum disorder five times: during the first admission, and 6 months, 2 years, 4 years, and 10 years later. Ratings of cannabis use and psychiatric symptoms (psychotic, negative, disorganized, and depressive) were made at each assessment. Results The lifetime rate of cannabis use was 66.2%, and survival analysis revealed that this usage was associated with an earlier onset of psychosis. The rates of current use ranged from 10% to 18% across assessments. Cannabis status was moderately stable, with concordance between waves ranging rtet = 0.48 – 0.78. Mixed-effects logistic regression revealed that changes in cannabis use were associated with changes in psychotic symptoms over time even after gender, age, socio-economic status, other drug use, antipsychotic medication use, and other symptoms were controlled. Structural equation modeling indicated that the association with psychotic symptoms was bi-directional. Conclusions Cannabis use is associated with an adverse course of psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia, and vice versa, even after taking into account other clinical, substance, and demographic variables. The specificity of this relationship suggests that clinical interventions to reduce cannabis use may be best targeted at individuals with prominent psychotic symptoms. PMID:20478874

  12. Functional status and quality of life in patients surviving 10 years after lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, Robert M; Fisher, Andrew J; Hilton, Colin; Forty, Jonathan; Hasan, Asif; Gould, Francis K; Dark, John H; Corris, Paul A

    2005-05-01

    Although many lung allograft recipients achieve long-term survival, there is a lack of published data regarding these patients' functional status and quality of life (QoL). We evaluated all 10-year survivors at our institution and, utilizing the SF-36 questionnaire, compared their QoL to population normative and chronic illness data. Twenty-eight (29%) of 96 patients survived > or =10 years following 11 single, 6 bilateral and 11 heart-lung procedures. At the most recent evaluation, median FEV(1) in single and double lung recipients was predicted to be 54% and 74%, respectively. Five (18%) patients had BOS score 0, 13 (46%) BOS 1, 5 (18%) BOS 2 and 5 (18%) BOS 3 and median time to BOS was 7 years. Four (14%) patients required renal replacement therapy. Three patients (11%) developed symptomatic osteoporosis, 2 (7%) post-transplant lymphoma and 1 (4%) an ischaemic stroke. Scores for physical function, role-physical/emotional and general health, but not mental health and bodily pain, were significantly lower compared to normative and chronic illness data. Energy and social-function scores were significantly lower than normative data alone. Long-term survival after lung transplantation is characterized by an absence or delayed development of BOS, low iatrogenic morbidity and preserved mental, but reduced physical health status. PMID:15816892

  13. Post-Test Analysis of a 10-Year Sodium Heat Pipe Life Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenfeld, John H.; Locci, Ivan E.; Sanzi, James L.; Hull, David R.; Geng, Steven M.

    2011-01-01

    High-temperature heat pipes are being evaluated for use in energy conversion applications such as fuel cells, gas turbine re-combustors, Stirling cycle heat sources; and with the resurgence of space nuclear power both as reactor heat removal elements and as radiator elements. Long operating life and reliable performance are critical requirements for these applications. Accordingly, long-term materials compatibility is being evaluated through the use of high-temperature life test heat pipes. Thermacore, Inc., has carried out a sodium heat pipe 10-year life test to establish long-term operating reliability. Sodium heat pipes have demonstrated favorable materials compatibility and heat transport characteristics at high operating temperatures in air over long time periods. A representative one-tenth segment Stirling Space Power Converter heat pipe with an Inconel 718 envelope and a stainless steel screen wick has operated for over 87,000 hr (10 years) at nearly 700 C. These life test results have demonstrated the potential for high-temperature heat pipes to serve as reliable energy conversion system components for power applications that require long operating lifetime with high reliability. Detailed design specifications, operating history, and post-test analysis of the heat pipe and sodium working fluid are described. Lessons learned and future life test plans are also discussed.

  14. [The National Mental Health Plan in Chile: 10 years of experience].

    PubMed

    Minoletti, Alberto; Zaccaria, Alessandra

    2005-01-01

    Dealing with mental health problems is undoubtedly an increasingly important public health responsibility around the world. In Chile, because of the changes in the epidemiological profile of the population, the lifetime prevalence of mental and behavioral disorders has reached 36%. In response, the Ministry of Health of Chile, through its Mental Health Unit, prepared the National Plan for Mental Health and Psychiatry. The Plan establishes objectives, strategies, and steps to improve the well-being and mental health of Chileans. This piece describes the model of care for mental health and psychiatry used in Chile's public health care system, analyzes the main difficulties encountered and the achievements made in the 10 years that the Plan has been in place, and makes recommendations for improving the Plan. Over the 10-year period, the new model for mental health and psychiatry has managed to make a place for itself in the public health care system. Indicators show that the beneficiaries of the public health care system in Chile now have greater access to mental health services than before the new model of community care was established, have broader health care coverage, and receive better quality services. PMID:16354432

  15. A 10-Year Climatology of Amazonian Rainfall Derived from Passive Microwave Satellite Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Negri, Andrew J.; Anagnostou, Emmanouil N.; Adler, Robert F.

    1998-01-01

    In this study we present and describe a satellite-derived precipitation climatology over northern South America using a passive microwave technique, the Goddard Profiling Algorithm. A period of data slightly longer than 10 years is examined. The climatologies take the form of the mean estimated (adjusted) rainfall for a 10-year (+) period, with sub-divisions by month and meteorological season. For the six-year period 1992-1997, when two satellites were in operation, diurnal variability (to the extent it is discerned by four unequally spaced observations) is presented. We find an alternating pattern of morning and maxima stretching from the northeast (Atlantic coast) clear across the continent to the Pacific. The effects of topography, coastlines and geography (river valleys) on the rainfall patterns are clear. Interannual variability is examined by computing the deviations of yearly and warm season (DJF) rainfall from their respective long-term means. Interannual variability of the diurnal nature of the rainfall is presented, and the strong El Nino event of 1997-1998 is discussed.

  16. Bibliometric Analysis of Orthopedic Literature on Total Knee Arthroplasty in Asian Countries: A 10-year Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Eom, Sang Hwa; Bamne, Ankur B.; Chowdhry, Madhav; Chae, Ihn Seok

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We aimed to determine the quantity and quality of research output of selected Asian countries in the field of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in the last 10 years. Materials and Methods Top 15 Asian countries were selected according to their gross domestic product. The Science Citation Index Expanded database was used to search for the literature published between 2004 and 2013 using "Total Knee Arthroplasty". The numbers of articles, journals and citations and the contribution of each country were analyzed. The articles were classified according to the type of study and the relative proportion of each type was analyzed. Results Asian surgeons have increasingly contributed to orthopedic literature on TKA for the past 10 years, but the dominant contribution came from only a few countries. The total number of articles published by Asian countries increased by 261%, with Japan producing most of the studies and China showing the maximum growth rate. The majority of studies were published in low impact factor journals. Korea published the highest proportion of articles in high impact factor journals. Clinical papers were most frequent. Conclusions Our identification of research productivity pertaining to TKA among Asian countries gives a unique insight into the level of academic research in the field of TKA in these countries. There is a need to improve the quality of research to enhance the publishing power in high impact journals as well as the need for more basic research and epidemiological studies considering the unique differences among Asian patients undergoing TKA. PMID:26389067

  17. Overview of Aqua MODIS 10-year On-orbit Calibration and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, X.; Wenny, B.; Sun, J.; Wu, A.; Chen, H.; Angal, A.; Choi, T.; Madhavan, S.; Geng, X.; Link, D.; Toller, G.; Barnes, W.; Salomonson, V.

    2012-01-01

    Since launch in May 2002, Aqua MODIS has successfully operated for nearly 10 years, continuously collecting global datasets for scientific studies of key parameters of the earth's land, ocean, and atmospheric properties and their changes over time. The quality of these geophysical parameters relies on the input quality of sensor calibrated radiances. MODIS observations are made in 36 spectral bands with wavelengths ranging from visible (VIS) to longwave infrared (LWIR). Its reflective solar bands (RSB) are calibrated using data collected from its on-board solar diffuser and regularly scheduled lunar views. The thermal emissive bands (TEB) are calibrated using an on-board blackbody (BB). The changes in the sensor's spectral and spatial characteristics are monitored by an on-board spectroradiometric calibration assembly (SRCA). This paper presents an overview of Aqua MODIS 10-year on-orbit operation and calibration activities, from launch to present, and summarizes its on-orbit radiometric, spectral, and spatial calibration and characterization performance. In addition, it will illustrate and discuss on-orbit changes in sensor characteristics and corrections applied to continuously maintain the sensor level 1B (L1B) data quality, as well as lessons learned that could benefit future calibration efforts.

  18. Cementless total knee arthroplasty with Profix: a 8- to 10-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Hardeman, François; Vandenneucker, Hilde; Van Lauwe, Johan; Bellemans, Johan

    2006-12-01

    A consecutive series of 115 cementless Profix (Smith and Nephew, Memphis, USA) Total Knee Arthroplasties performed in 113 patients were followed in order to determine the functional results and survivorship at 8 to 10 years. All patients were included in a prospective database and were reviewed annually until final follow-up. Patients overall satisfaction was excellent or good in 91.3% of cases. The mean Knee Society's knee and function scores increased respectively from 49.3 and 36.7 preoperatively to 93.1 and 82.2 postoperatively. The Kaplan-Meier estimate of implant survival at 10 years was 97.1%. Two patients underwent revision and were considered as failures. One patient had a fracture of the medial condyle at 4 days post-surgery, and the other was revised for aseptic loosening of the tibial component at 6 years post-surgery. On the basis of this long-term follow-up study, we can conclude that the Profix Total Knee System is effective and safe. PMID:17064905

  19. Highlights from 10 Years of NASA/KNMI/FMI Collaboration on UV Remote Sensing from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhartia, Pawan K.

    2010-01-01

    The first joint meeting between NASA, KNMI and FMI scientists was held on 13 & 14 June, 2000, almost exactly 10 years ago. NASA had recently selected 14 US scientists to work on instrument calibration, science algorithms, and validation activities related to the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) that we being built by collaboration between the Netherlands and Finland for flight on NASA's EOS Aura satellite. The progress on this project had been remarkable for a space based instrument. Only two years before this meeting my colleague Ernest Hilsenrath and I had visited Netherlands at the invitation of Fokker Space to persuade KNMI management to collaborate with NASA on this mission. And only 4 years after the first science meeting was held OMI was lunched on the Aura spacecraft. Next month will be the 6 th anniversary of this launch and very successful operation of OMI. All this was possible because of the leadership from Dr. Hennie Kelder and KNMI management who in 1998 saw the opportunity for Netherlands in the mission and stepped up to the challenge by creating a young and talented team of scientists at KNMI under the leadership of Dr. Pieterenel Levelt. This vision has now put Netherlands as the leading country in the world in monitoring air quality from space. Recent selection of TROPOMI by ESA attests to the success of this vision. I will present some selected highlights of our very successful collaboration on this project over the past 10 years.

  20. Change in physical mobility over 10 years in post-polio syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bickerstaffe, A; Beelen, A; Nollet, F

    2015-03-01

    Post-polio syndrome is characterised by progressive muscle weakness and other symptoms which can limit physical mobility. We assessed the rate of decline in mobility over 10 years in relation to strength decline; and investigated potential predictors for the rate of decline of walking capacity, a measure of mobility, in 48 patients with post-polio syndrome and proven quadriceps dysfunction at baseline. Average walking capacity and self-reported physical mobility declined over 10 years, by 6 and 14%, respectively. Concomitantly people lost an average of 15% of isometric quadriceps strength. Significantly more people used walking aids offering greater support at follow-up. Notably, there was much individual variation, with 18% of participants losing a substantial amount of walking capacity (27% decline) and concomitant self-reported physical mobility (38% decline). Loss of quadriceps strength only explained a small proportion of the variance of the decline in walking capacity (R = 11%) and the rate of decline could not be predicted from baseline values for strength, walking capacity, self-reported physical mobility or basic demographics. The individual variability, yet lack of predictive factors, underscores the need for personally tailored care based on actual functional decline in patients with post-polio syndrome. PMID:25613808

  1. Skeletal maturation, fundamental motor skills and motor coordination in children 7-10 years.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Duarte L; Lausen, Berthold; Maia, José António; Lefevre, Johan; Gouveia, Élvio Rúbio; Thomis, Martine; Antunes, António Manuel; Claessens, Albrecht L; Beunen, Gaston; Malina, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    Relationships between skeletal maturation and fundamental motor skills and gross motor coordination were evaluated in 429 children (213 boys and 216 girls) 7-10 years. Skeletal age was assessed (Tanner-Whitehouse 2 method), and stature, body mass, motor coordination (Körperkoordinations Test für Kinder, KTK) and fundamental motor skills (Test of Gross Motor Development, TGMD-2) were measured. Relationships among chronological age, skeletal age (expressed as the standardised residual of skeletal age on chronological age) and body size and fundamental motor skills and motor coordination were analysed with hierarchical multiple regression. Standardised residual of skeletal age on chronological age interacting with stature and body mass explained a maximum of 7.0% of the variance in fundamental motor skills and motor coordination over that attributed to body size per se. Standardised residual of skeletal age on chronological age alone accounted for a maximum of 9.0% of variance in fundamental motor skills, and motor coordination over that attributed to body size per se and interactions between standardised residual of skeletal age on chronological age and body size. In conclusion, skeletal age alone or interacting with body size has a negligible influence on fundamental motor skills and motor coordination in children 7-10 years. PMID:25649360

  2. 100% Retention of Snowpack Derived Nitrogen Over 10 Years in High Arctic Tundra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhary, S.; Tye, A. M.; Young, S. D.; West, H. M.; Phoenix, G. K.

    2013-12-01

    Tundra ecosystems are susceptible to atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition, increasing as a result of anthropogenic activities as well as climate change. Depositions that get accumulated within the snowpack during winter months are released in spring during snowmelt, providing a periodic input of reactive N in the melt water to such nutrient limited ecosystems. Identifying ecosystem N retention and allocation and how this change over time is important to understanding the long-term consequences of such N depositions to these ecosystems. We reanalysed 10 years later an atmospheric N deposition study established in Svalbard that in 2001 used 15N isotope tracers to determine the fate of N released from melting snowpack. Applications of 15N (99 atom%) at 0.1 and 0.5 g N m-2 were made immediately after snowmelt in 2001 as either Na15NO3 or 15NH4Cl. These applications were approximately 1 × and 5 × the yearly atmospheric deposition rates. In both the previous short-term (one week to two years after 15N tracer application) and our long-term re-sampling (10 years after 15N tracer application), ~67% of the total applied 15N was retained in the ecosystem, irrespective of the N forms or N dose. This meant the tundra had 100% long-term N retention after initial partitioning, suggesting a highly conservative N cycling. Bryophytes, followed by the organic soil horizon and then the microbial biomass formed the greatest short-term 15N sink. Maximum changes in 15N retention from the short- to long-term were observed in the microbial 15N pools, with ~75% of the 15N in soil located in its biomass during the initial partitioning (July 2001) decreasing to ~17% 10 years later. This indicates significant microbial N turnover mostly into stable humus N. In contrast, vascular plants, particularly Salix polaris, showed significant increases (~60%) in their 15N retention after 10 years, indicating a high capacity for acting as a long-term N sink in this tundra ecosystem. Because the largest

  3. A 10-year Review of the Clinical Presentation and Treatment Outcome of Asherman's Syndrome at a Center with Limited Resources

    PubMed Central

    Takai, IU; Kwayabura, AS; Ugwa, EA; Idrissa, A; Obed, JY; Bukar, M

    2015-01-01

    Background: Many women suffer from some degree of intrauterine adhesions (IUAs) presenting with various clinical symptoms and signs. Hysteroscopy is the mainstay of diagnosis, classification, and treatment of the IUA. Aim: This study was undertaken to review the clinical features and treatment outcome in patients diagnosed with Asherman's syndrome at the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital (UMTH), Maiduguri, over a 10 years period, 1997–2006. Subjects and Methods: This is a retrospective study of cases of Asherman's syndrome managed at the UMTH over a 10-year period, from January 1, 1997 to December 31, 2006. Case records of the patients were retrieved from medical records' Department. Sociodemographic and clinical information relating to clinical presentations, treatment modalities, and outcomes were collated. The data were analyzed using SPSS 16.0 Statistical Computer Package (SPSS Inc., IL, USA 2006). Chi-square and binary logistic regression were used for inferential statistics. Results: Asherman's syndrome constituted 8.1% (81/996) of all gynecological operations in UMTH during the study period. The case records retrieval rate was 96.3% (78/81 folders). Most of the patients, 59% (46/78) were in their third decade and majority 85.9% (67/78) were married. The most common risk factor was pregnancy-associated, accounting for 61.5% (48/78). Infertility and hypomenorrhea were the most common mode of presentations in 55.1% (43/78) and 32.1% (25/78) of cases, respectively. Most of the patients 85.9% (67/78) were treated by blind dilatation and curettage (D/C), Foley's catheter insertion and estrogen-progesterone combination. Correction of menses was seen in 37.2% (29/78) of the patients while the pregnancy rate was 32.1% (25/78). On binary logistic regression age of the respondents, multigravidity, and previous pelvic surgeries for pregnancy (C/S and D/C for abortion) emerged as the only respondent's related risk factors associated with the development of

  4. Neck Circumference and Incidence of Diabetes Mellitus over 10 Years in the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES)

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Nam H.; Oh, Tae Jung; Kim, Kyoung Min; Choi, Sung Hee; Lee, Jae Ho; Park, Kyong Soo; Jang, Hak Chul; Kim, Jong Yeol; Lee, Hong Kyu; Lim, Soo

    2015-01-01

    Neck circumference, a proxy for upper-body fat, may be a unique fat depot that indicates metabolic risk beyond whole body fat. We investigated whether neck circumference is associated with development of diabetes mellitus (DM) in a subset of data with Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (n = 3521, age range = 42–71 years). Nondiabetic subjects at the baseline were categorized into 4 groups (Q1–Q4) according to their neck circumference. Parameters related with β-cell function and insulin resistance including Epworth sleepiness scale and snoring habit were examined. The development of DM was confirmed biannually based on a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. Over the 10 years, 2623 (74.5%) among 3521 subjects were followed-up. Among them, 632 (24.1%) developed DM. The incidence of DM increased from 17.6% in Q1 to 18.2% in Q2, to 25.4% in Q3, and to 36.0% in Q4 (P < 0.001). After adjusting for most risk factors related with DM, the relative risks of DM development were 0.989 (95% confidence interval, 0.638–1.578), 1.660 (1.025–2.687), and 1.746 (1.037–2.942) in men and 0.939 (0.540–1.769), 1.518 (0.808–2.853), and 2.077 (1.068–4.038) in women in Q2, Q3, and Q4, respectively when compared to Q1. This finding indicates negative impact from large neck circumference in the development of DM. PMID:26681338

  5. Acute Cholangitis following Intraductal Migration of Surgical Clips 10 Years after Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Cookson, Natalie E; Mirnezami, Reza; Ziprin, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy represents the gold standard approach for treatment of symptomatic gallstones. Surgery-associated complications include bleeding, bile duct injury, and retained stones. Migration of surgical clips after cholecystectomy is a rare complication and may result in gallstone formation "clip cholelithiasis". Case Report. We report a case of a 55-year-old female patient who presented with right upper quadrant pain and severe sepsis having undergone an uncomplicated laparoscopic cholecystectomy 10 years earlier. Computed tomography (CT) imaging revealed hyperdense material in the common bile duct (CBD) compatible with retained calculus. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) revealed appearances in keeping with a migrated surgical clip within the CBD. Balloon trawl successfully extracted this, alleviating the patient's jaundice and sepsis. Conclusion. Intraductal clip migration is a rarely encountered complication after laparoscopic cholecystectomy which may lead to choledocholithiasis. Appropriate management requires timely identification and ERCP. PMID:25874138

  6. Acute Cholangitis following Intraductal Migration of Surgical Clips 10 Years after Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Cookson, Natalie E.; Mirnezami, Reza; Ziprin, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy represents the gold standard approach for treatment of symptomatic gallstones. Surgery-associated complications include bleeding, bile duct injury, and retained stones. Migration of surgical clips after cholecystectomy is a rare complication and may result in gallstone formation “clip cholelithiasis”. Case Report. We report a case of a 55-year-old female patient who presented with right upper quadrant pain and severe sepsis having undergone an uncomplicated laparoscopic cholecystectomy 10 years earlier. Computed tomography (CT) imaging revealed hyperdense material in the common bile duct (CBD) compatible with retained calculus. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) revealed appearances in keeping with a migrated surgical clip within the CBD. Balloon trawl successfully extracted this, alleviating the patient's jaundice and sepsis. Conclusion. Intraductal clip migration is a rarely encountered complication after laparoscopic cholecystectomy which may lead to choledocholithiasis. Appropriate management requires timely identification and ERCP. PMID:25874138

  7. A 10-year climatology of Northern Hemisphere tropical cloud plumes and their composite flow patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Iskenderian, H.

    1995-06-01

    A 10-year cool season climatology of tropical cloud plumes in the Northern Hemisphere was generated by visual inspection of infrared satellite imagery. The sample included 1062 plume events during the months of October to May for the years 1974 to 1984. The results show that the westerly ducts of the tropical eastern Pacific and central Atlantic are preferred regions for tropical cloud plume development. Composite fields of streamfunction and outgoing longwave radiation for eastern Pacific plumes indicate that both low-latitude westerlies in the planetary-scale basic-state flow and the presence of synoptic-scale transients appear to be favorable for plume formation. With a knowledge of these features, some of the interannual and intraannual variability shown in the climatology can be explained. 14 refs., 6 figs.

  8. A review of Internet pornography use research: methodology and content from the past 10 years.

    PubMed

    Short, Mary B; Black, Lora; Smith, Angela H; Wetterneck, Chad T; Wells, Daryl E

    2012-01-01

    Internet pornography (IP) use has increased over the past 10 years. The effects of IP use are widespread and are both negative (e.g., relationship and interpersonal distress) and positive (e.g., increases in sexual knowledge and attitudes toward sex). Given the possible negative effects of IP use, understanding the definition of IP, the types of IP used, and reasons for IP use is important. The present study reviews the methodology and content of available literature regarding IP use in nondeviant adult populations. The study seeks to determine how the studies defined IP, utilized validated measures of pornography use, examined variables related to IP, and addressed form and function of IP use. Overall, studies were inconsistent in their definitions of IP, measurement, and their assessment of the form and function of IP use. Discussion regarding how methodological differences between studies may impact the results and the ability to generalize findings is provided, and suggestions for future studies are offered. PMID:22032795

  9. Overview of humanistic progress in sickle cell anemia during the past 10 years.

    PubMed

    Nash, K B

    1983-01-01

    Humanistic progress in sickle cell anemia over the past 10 years is described, with a focus on individual, institutional, and societal progress. Accessibility, acceptability, and accountability are examined for humanistic progress in medical care, counseling, education, support services, and public education. Specific dimensions of humanistic progress are noted, including career development, work with schools and employers, establishment of tutorial programs, retraining of health care providers, utilization of the team concept, and increasing awareness of this disease. Constraints, such as funding patterns and the political climate, will be considered as part of the challenge for the next decade. A frame of reference is suggested for meeting the challenges ahead for further humanistic progress. PMID:6670715

  10. Hybrid component fixation in total knee arthroplasty: minimum of 10-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jae-Hyuk; Yoon, Jung-Ro; Oh, Chi-Hun; Kim, Taik-Sun

    2012-06-01

    Hybrid total knee arthroplasty (TKA) (uncemented femur with cemented tibia and patella) was introduced in the late 1980s to gain the theoretical advantage of durable cementless femoral fixation while avoiding the problems noted with cementless tibial fixation. From December 1992 to July 2000, 215 patients (235 knees) who underwent hybrid TKA were enrolled in this study. Five types of prosthesis (AGC, Maxim, LCS-M, LCS-APG, and Scorpio) were used. Revision rate for aseptic loosening was 16 (6.8%) of 235 knees. At 10 and 15 years, survivorship with tibial or femoral revision as the end point was 0.95 and 0.92, respectively. Hybrid TKA provides durable fixation with clinical and radiographic performance at minimum 10 years comparable with cemented series. PMID:22019322

  11. Diagnostic Approach to Childhood-onset Cerebellar Atrophy: A 10-Year Retrospective Study of 300 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Al-Maawali, Almundher; Blaser, Susan; Yoon, Grace

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary ataxias associated with cerebellar atrophy are a heterogeneous group of disorders. Selection of appropriate clinical and genetic tests for patients with cerebellar atrophy poses a diagnostic challenge. Neuroimaging is a crucial initial investigation in the diagnostic evaluation of ataxia in childhood, and the presence of cerebellar atrophy helps guide further investigations. We performed a detailed review of 300 patients with confirmed cerebellar atrophy on magnetic resonance imaging over a 10-year period. A diagnosis was established in 47% of patients: Mitochondrial disorders were most common, followed by the neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses, ataxia telangectasia, and late GM2-gangliosidosis. We review the common causes of cerebellar atrophy in childhood and propose a diagnostic approach based on correlating specific neuroimaging patterns with clinical and genetic diagnoses. PMID:22764178

  12. Spinal dysraphism. A study of patients over the age of 10 years.

    PubMed

    Yamane, T; Shinoto, A; Kamegaya, M; Shinada, Y

    1991-11-01

    Thirty patients over the age of 10 years, exhibiting cutaneous manifestations on the back suspected to be due to spinal dysraphism, and neurologic deficits, were studied to analyze neurologic appearance. Neurologic deficits appeared by age 5 in 26 patients. No patient complained of low-back pain or sciatica. Paralytic deformities of the lower extremities were divided into four grades for evaluation: A = no deformity, with only urinary disturbance (four cases); B = toe-limited deformity (two cases); C = toe and foot-limited deformity (six cases); D = toe, foot, ankle, and lower limb deformity (18 cases). Patients with slight neurologic disturbance, either Grade A or without urinary disturbance, were seen among the patients who had undergone a release operation by age 2, although neurologic appearance in patients in severe grades was not related to the age at release operation. Also, the release operation was thought to be effective in preventing low-back pain or sciatica. PMID:1750003

  13. Perceived neighborhood safety, recovery capital, and successful outcomes among mothers 10 years after substance abuse treatment

    PubMed Central

    Evans, E.; Li, L.; Buoncristiani, S.; Hser, Y.I.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines perceived neighborhood characteristics associated with successful outcome among mothers 10 years after being treated for substance use disorders. Data were obtained from 713 mothers first studied at admission to drug treatment in California in 2000-2002 and followed-up in 2009-2011. At follow-up, 53.6% of mothers had a successful outcome (i.e., no use of illicit drugs and not involved with the criminal justice system). Perceived neighborhood safety almost doubled the odds of success. Perceived neighborhood safety interacted with social involvement, decreasing the odds of success among mothers who reported more versus less neighborhood social involvement. Perceived neighborhood climate is associated with long-term outcomes among mothers with substance use disorders independent of individual-level characteristics, underscoring the need for further efforts to understand its interaction with recovery capital in ways that promote and impede health. PMID:24832914

  14. [Association between Crohn's disease and primary sclerosing cholangitis in a 10 year old girl].

    PubMed

    Muñoz Lozón, Ana; Iglesias Blázquez, Cristina; Menéndez Arias, Cristina; Domínguez Sánchez, Patricia

    2016-06-01

    A 10 year old girl with diarrhea, abdominal pain, weight loss and fever of one month and a half of evolution. Analytical and sonographic findings raised the possibility of inflammatory bowel disease. Endoscopy and histology showed findings consistent with Crohn's disease. Treatment was initiated with mesalazine and exclusive enteral nutrition. Later corticosteroid treatment, immunosuppressive drugs and ursodeoxycholic acid were added due to cholestasis and persistent hypergammaglobulinemia. Magnetic resonance cholangiography and liver biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of concomitant primary sclerosing cholangitis. The association between Crohn's disease and primary sclerosing cholangitis is rare, predominantly in males between 20 and 40 years old and it presents a great clinical variability. The confirmation of the diagnosis requires magnetic resonance cholangiography or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. The prognosis is poor and there is no treatment to slow the progression of the disease. PMID:27164355

  15. Soft tissue aneurysmal bone cyst in a 10-year-old girl

    PubMed Central

    HAO, YONGQIANG; WANG, LEI; YAN, MENGNING; JIN, FANGCHUN; GE, SHENGFANG; DAI, KERONG

    2011-01-01

    We report the case of a 10-year-old girl with a soft tissue aneurysmal bone cyst (STABC) located in the posterior aspect of the left shoulder. Conventional radiography revealed an oblong mass with a calcified rim. On the computed tomography scan, the lesion appeared to have a non-uniform intralesional density with an incomplete rim. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a multi-cavity lesion with fluid-fluid levels. Following pathological examination, the lesion was diagnosed as a STABC. This may be only the twentieth reported case in the English literature of this extremely rare benign tumor occurring in soft tissue. Eight months after surgery the patient was assessed at our outpatient clinic and found to have excellent mobility of her left shoulder and no sign of recurrence. PMID:22740948

  16. Pregnancy outcomes in cystic fibrosis: a 10-year experience from a UK centre

    PubMed Central

    Priestley, L; Bennett, L; Mackillop, L; Chapman, SJ

    2015-01-01

    Background Cystic fibrosis manifests as a multisystem disease, despite this female fertility is relatively preserved with levels approaching that of the non-cystic fibrosis population. We reviewed pregnancies in cystic fibrosis patients over a 10-year period from a UK adult cystic fibrosis centre by considering maternal and fetal outcomes. Methods We conducted a retrospective case-note review of pregnancies during 2003–2013 using respiratory and obstetric records. Results We observed moderate falls in lung function immediately after delivery, which persisted at 12 months postpartum. We found that a decline in lung function at delivery was a marker for further decline in function during the subsequent postpartum period. We found baseline lung function was predictive of gestational age at delivery. We observed a high incidence of haemoptysis. Conclusion Consistent with current guidance we found pregnancy is feasible and well tolerated in the majority of patients with cystic fibrosis. There was a high incidence of haemoptysis, which warrants further study.

  17. Incontinentia Pigmenti; a Rare Multisystem Disorder: Case Report of a 10-Year-Old Girl

    PubMed Central

    Rafatjoo, Rezvan; Taghdisi Kashani, Amene

    2016-01-01

    Incontinentia pigmenti is a rare genodermatosis in which the skin involvement occurs in all patients. Additionally, other ectodermal tissues may be affected such as the central nervous system, eyes, hair, nails and teeth. The disease has an X-linked dominant inheritance pattern. But in our case, there was a mutation in the body cells due to incontinentia pigmenti. The dermatological findings occur in four successive phases. We report the case of a 10-year-old female presented cutaneous, dental and ophthalmic characteristic with 3 years follow-up. Dental anomalies such as hypodontia, peg-shaped anterior teeth, malformed primary and permanent teeth, and delayed eruption were seen in our patient. PMID:27602400

  18. A 10-year plan to study the aquifer system of Indian Wells Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lipinski, Paul; Knochenmus, Darwin D.

    1981-01-01

    Water needs of the population of Indian Wells Valley, Calif., must be met through further development of ground-water resources. Studies show that annual ground-water pumpage there has increased since 1945 and has exceeded mean annual recharge since 1966. Continued and increased stress on the aquifer system of the valley is expected because population in the valley is predicted to double by 1998 and triple by 2020, based on 1977 population figures. The U.S. Geological Survey proposes a 10-year program to develop a data base to aid in evaluation of future water-management alternatives. A study plan has been developed that describes present and potential problems and objectives of the program, and outlines work items to be undertaken in the study area. (USGS)

  19. Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia of the breast in a 10-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Baker, Michael; Chen, Hui; Latchaw, Laurie; Memoli, Vincent; Ornvold, Kim

    2011-08-01

    Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) of the breast is a benign lesion, characterized by a dense proliferation of stromal mesenchymal cells of myofibroblastic origin forming empty, slitlike channels. The development of PASH is subject to hormonal influence and is most commonly seen in premenopausal women. In adolescent patients, PASH is rarely reported. Here we report a case of PASH presenting in a 10-year-old girl. After the presentation and inconclusive radiographic findings, incisional biopsy revealed a soft nodule with histopathologic features characteristic of PASH. Immunoperoxidase studies showed positive immunoreactivity for CD34 and bcl-2 and negative immunoreactivity for CD31 and desmin, supporting the diagnosis of PASH. Because of the benign nature of the lesion, excisional biopsy was deferred to minimize damage to the patient's developing breast. To our knowledge, this case represents the youngest female patient with unequivocal PASH in reported literature. PMID:21843705

  20. Physical therapy management of osteitis pubis in a 10-year-old cricket fast bowler.

    PubMed

    Sudarshan, A

    2013-08-01

    This case report describes a 10-year-old boy who presented with radiating pain (Visual Analog Scale score of 7.2 cm) down his left groin and was eventually diagnosed to have osteitis pubis. History revealed that he was exceeding the workload guidelines of bowling for a fast bowler. Examination findings were left sacro-iliac joint dysfunction, reduced left internal rotation of the hip, tightness of bilateral hip flexors and poor motor control of the lumbo-pelvic muscles. Physical therapy was aimed at correcting the sacro-iliac joint dysfunction, increasing the hip range of motion and muscle length along with exercises aimed at improving the lumbopelvic stability. The patient had complete resolution of pain by the ninth week and returned to fast bowling without any discomfort. PMID:23270404

  1. Incontinentia Pigmenti; a Rare Multisystem Disorder: Case Report of a 10-Year-Old Girl.

    PubMed

    Rafatjoo, Rezvan; Taghdisi Kashani, Amene

    2016-09-01

    Incontinentia pigmenti is a rare genodermatosis in which the skin involvement occurs in all patients. Additionally, other ectodermal tissues may be affected such as the central nervous system, eyes, hair, nails and teeth. The disease has an X-linked dominant inheritance pattern. But in our case, there was a mutation in the body cells due to incontinentia pigmenti. The dermatological findings occur in four successive phases. We report the case of a 10-year-old female presented cutaneous, dental and ophthalmic characteristic with 3 years follow-up. Dental anomalies such as hypodontia, peg-shaped anterior teeth, malformed primary and permanent teeth, and delayed eruption were seen in our patient. PMID:27602400

  2. From Exotic to Mainstream: A 10-year Odyssey from Internet Speed to Boundary Spanning with Scrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskerville, Richard; Pries-Heje, Jan; Madsen, Sabine

    Based on four empirical studies conducted over a 10-year time period from 1999 to 2008 we investigate how local software processes interact with global changes in the software development context. In 1999 companies were developing software at high speed in a desperate rush to be first-to-market. In 2001 a new high speed/quick results development process had become established practice. In 2003 changes in the market created the need for a more balanced view on speed and quality, and in 2008 companies were successfully combining agile and plan driven approaches to achieve the benefits of both. The studies reveal a twostage pattern in which dramatic changes in the market causes disruption of established practices, experimentation, and process adaptations followed by consolidation of lessons learnt into a new (and once again mature) software development process. Limitations, implications, and areas for future research are discussed.

  3. Total knee arthroplasty using cementless keels and cemented tibial trays: 10-year results

    PubMed Central

    Kolisek, Frank R.; Mont, Michael A.; Seyler, Thorsten M.; Marker, David R.; Jessup, Nenette M.; Siddiqui, Junaed A.; Monesmith, Eric

    2008-01-01

    The problem of early mechanical stability of cemented and cementless keels of the tibial component in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is controversial. The purpose of this study was to assess clinical and radiographic outcomes of a cohort of 51 TKAs using a cemented platform with cementless keel fixation. At a mean follow-up of 10.4 years (range, 7 to 14 years), the mean Knee Society Score (KSS) was 93 points (range, 59 to 100 points), and the mean functional score was 73 points (range, 0 to 100 points). Only one patient demonstrated progressive tibial radiolucencies at 13.1 years follow-up, which resolved with a revision with an exchange of components. The results of this study suggest that a proximally cemented tibial tray with a press-fit keel TKA provides excellent mean 10-year outcomes. PMID:18185931

  4. Prevalence of Malocclusion among 6 to 10 Year old Nalgonda School Children

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, E Rajendra; Manjula, M; Sreelakshmi, N; Rani, S Thabitha; Aduri, Rajesh; Patil, B Dharamraj

    2013-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the prevalence of malocclusion among 6 to 10 year old children of Nalgonda District. Materials & Methods: A total of 3000 children were examined, out of which 2135 children (1009 boys and 1126 girls) who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were included. The selected sample was examined for Class I, Class II, Class III molar relationship, lower anterior crowding, cross bite (anterior and posterior), open bite, and pseudo class III [edge to edge bite] discrepancies after obtaining the written consent from the concerned school authorities. The collected data was tabulated and statistically analysed using chi-square test. Results: Among the selected sample, 648 (30.35%) children had minor tooth alignment discrepancies. Angle’s Class I molar relation with and without minor discrepancies was observed in 78.6%, Class II in 13.9%, Class III in 7.8% of the subjects surveyed. Lower anterior crowding in 11.8%, anterior cross bite in 4.5%, posterior cross bite in 3.75%, openbite in 3% and Pseudo class III [edge to edge] in 5.97% was noticed among the studied population. There was no statistical significant difference observed gender wise. Conclusion: In the current study, 52% of the studied population had malocclusion with a higher prevalence of Angle’s Class I molar relation with lower anterior crowding. How to cite this article: Reddy ER, Manjula M, Sreelakshmi N, Rani ST, Aduri R, Patil BD. Prevalence of Malocclusion among 6 to 10 Year old Nalgonda School Children. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(6):49-54 . PMID:24453444

  5. Neurocognition and Duration of Psychosis: A 10-year Follow-up of First-Episode Patients.

    PubMed

    Rund, Bjørn Rishovd; Barder, Helene Eidsmo; Evensen, Julie; Haahr, Ulrik; ten Velden Hegelstad, Wenche; Joa, Inge; Johannessen, Jan Olav; Langeveld, Johannes; Larsen, Tor Ketil; Melle, Ingrid; Opjordsmoen, Stein; Røssberg, Jan Ivar; Simonsen, Erik; Sundet, Kjetil; Vaglum, Per; McGlashan, Thomas; Friis, Svein

    2016-01-01

    A substantial proportion of schizophrenia-spectrum patients exhibit a cognitive impairment at illness onset. However, the long-term course of neurocognition and a possible neurotoxic effect of time spent in active psychosis, is a topic of controversy. Furthermore, it is of importance to find out what predicts the long-term course of neurocognition. Duration of untreated psychosis (DUP), accumulated time in psychosis the first year after start of treatment, relapse rates and symptoms are potential predictors of the long-term course. In this study, 261 first-episode psychosis patients were assessed neuropsychologically on one or more occasions. Patients were tested after remission of psychotic symptoms and reassessed 1, 2, 5, and 10 years after inclusion. The neurocognitive battery consisted of California Verbal Learning Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Controlled Oral Word Association Task, Trail Making A and B, and Finger Tapping. We calculated a composite score by adding the z-scores of 4 tests that were only moderately inter-correlated, not including Finger Tapping. Data were analyzed by a linear mixed model. The composite score was stable over 10 years. No significant relationship between psychosis before (DUP) or after start of treatment and the composite score was found, providing no support for the neurotoxicity hypothesis, and indicating that psychosis before start of treatment has no significant impact on the course and outcome in psychosis. We found no association between symptoms and the neurocognitive trajectory. Stable remission during the first year predicted neurocognitive functioning, suggesting that the early clinical course is a good predictor for the long-term course. PMID:26101305

  6. Treatment of Bilateral Refractive Amblyopia in Children 3 to <10 Years Old

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, David; Chandler, Danielle L.; Beck, Roy W.; Arnold, Robert W.; Bacal, Darron A.; Birch, Eileen E.; Felius, Joost; Frazier, Marcela; Holmes, Jonathan M.; Hoover, Darren; Klimek, Deborah A.; Lorenzana, Ingryd; Quinn, Graham E.; Repka, Michael X.; Suh, Donny W.; Tamkins, Susanna

    2007-01-01

    Purpose To determine the amount and time course of binocular visual acuity improvement during treatment of bilateral refractive amblyopia in children age 3 to <10 years old Design Prospective, multicenter noncomparative intervention Methods 113 children (mean age = 5.1 years) with previously untreated bilateral refractive amblyopia were enrolled at 27 community- and university-based sites and were provided optimal spectacle correction. Bilateral refractive amblyopia was defined as 20/40 to 20/400 best-corrected binocular acuity in the presence of ≥ 4.00 D hypermetropia by spherical equivalent and/or ≥ 2.00 D astigmatism in each eye. Best-corrected binocular and monocular visual acuities were measured at baseline and at 5, 13, 26 and 52 weeks. The primary study outcome was binocular acuity at one year. Results Mean binocular visual acuity improved from 0.50 logMAR (20/63) at baseline to 0.11 logMAR (20/25) at one year (mean improvement 3.9 lines, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.5 to 4.2). Mean improvement at one year for the 84 children with baseline binocular acuity of 20/40 to 20/80 was 3.4 lines (95% CI = 3.2 to 3.7) and for the 16 children with baseline binocular acuity of 20/100 to 20/320 was 6.3 lines (95% CI = 5.1 to 7.5). The cumulative probability of binocular acuity of 20/25 or better was 21% at 5 weeks, 46% at 13 weeks, 59% at 26 weeks, and 74% at 52 weeks. Conclusions Treatment of bilateral refractive amblyopia with spectacle correction improves binocular visual acuity in children age 3 to <10 years old, with most improving to 20/25 or better within one year. PMID:17707330

  7. Cementless porous-coated total knee arthroplasty: 10-year results in a consecutive series.

    PubMed

    Schrøder, H M; Berthelsen, A; Hassani, G; Hansen, E B; Solgaard, S

    2001-08-01

    We report the results of 114 AGC 2000 porous-coated, cementless total knee arthroplasties (TKA) performed consecutively in 102 patients during the period 1984-1986. After 10 years, 58 TKAs in 52 patients were evaluated with patient assessment, Hospital for Special Surgery knee score, weight-bearing radiographs done under fluoroscopic control, and survivorship analysis. All dropouts within the first 9 years were patients dying with a functioning TKA except 1 revision secondary to a supracondylar fracture after 8.5 years. Of the patients, 53 (92%) were satisfied or very satisfied with their TKA, and 55 (95%) of the knees were rated good or excellent. There was no pain in 53 knees, and the median knee flexion was 110 degrees. Six radiolucencies >1 mm were found beneath parts of the tibial component, and 5 radiolucencies were seen beneath the femoral component. None had progressed compared with the 5-year follow-up, and in all cases trabeculae could be seen reaching the prosthetic component. No migrations had occurred since the 5-year follow-up. No obvious joint space reduction was seen. Osteolysis presenting as an isolated cyst was found in 1 knee in the lateral tibial condyle and was not progressive. Two tibial components had been revised because of aseptic loosening and 1 because of septic loosening, all within the first 3 years. No femoral or patellar components were revised. The cumulative prosthesis survival rate after 10 to 11 years was 97%. When pain and radiographic loosening also were considered, the success rate was 87%. Cementless insertion of a nonmodular, porous-coated TKA resulted in a long-term durable bone-prosthesis interface. The flat-on-flat articulation did not result in catastrophic polyethylene wear or osteolysis within the first 10 years. PMID:11503114

  8. [Analysis on characteristics of red tide in Fujian coastal waters during the last 10 years].

    PubMed

    Li, Xue-Ding

    2012-07-01

    There were 161 red tide events collected during the last 10 years from 2001 to 2010 in Fujian coastal waters. Comprehensive analysis was performed using statistical methods and the results indicated the following characteristics of the temporal and spatial distribution of red tide in Fujian coastal waters: (1) Outbreaks of red tide often occurred between April and September, and the peak period was in May and June. Most red tide events lasted for 2 to 4 days, and the affected area was below 50 square kilometers. The first outbreak of red tide tended to occur earlier in recent years, and the lasting time became longer. (2) There were 20 species of organisms causing the red tides in Fujian coastal waters, among which 10 species were Bacillariophyta, 9 species were Dinophyta and 1 species was Protozoa. Prorocentrum donghaiense was the most frequent cause of red tides, followed by Noctiluca scintillans, Skeletonema costatum and Chaetoceros sp.. The species caused red tides obeyed the succession law and there were always new species involved. (2) In terms of spatial distribution, outbreaks of red tides mainly occurred in the coastal waters of Ningde, Fuzhou and Xiamen. The species causing red tides were Prorocentrum donghaiense and Noctiluca in the coastal waters in the north of Pingtan, Fujian Province, Skeletonema costatum and Chaetoceros in the coastal waters in the south of Pingtan, Fujian Province. The comprehensive analysis of the characteristics of red tides during the last 10 years is expected to provide scientific and reasonable basis for the prevention, reduction and forecast of red tides in Fujian coastal waters. PMID:23002593

  9. Student Accomplishments in the Rapid Response Radiotherapy Program: A 10-Year Review.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Rachel; Lechner, Breanne; Pulenzas, Natalie; Bedard, Gillian; Wong, Erin; Holden, Lori; Tsao, May; Barnes, Elizabeth; Szumacher, Ewa; Fenton, Gonenc; Chow, Edward; Popovic, Marko; Danjoux, Cyril

    2015-12-01

    In 1996, the Toronto Sunnybrook Regional Cancer Centre developed the Rapid Response Radiotherapy Program (RRRP). The objective of this clinic is to consult, simulate, plan, and treat patients with palliative radiotherapy on the same day. In 2004, the RRRP initiated a program to provide clinical and research experience to undergraduate students interested in health sciences. The purpose of this study is to review the 10-year (2004-2013) experience of the RRRP and to examine whether the goals of the student program have been met. Students who worked in the RRRP from 2004 to 2013 were contacted to complete a short survey regarding their overall experience with the program and their current endeavors. Student accomplishments were collected from an internal database as well as PubMed. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze results. A total of 54 students from ten postsecondary institutions have worked in the RRRP; 29 were from the University of Waterloo undergraduate co-op program. In total, 214 articles with first authorship from students were published, 93 (43%) of which can be found on PubMed. Other accomplishments include 40 book chapters, 58 invited presentations, and 99 awards cumulatively. Qualitative data regarding student perspectives of their experience in the RRRP were also analyzed. Over the past 10 years, the RRRP has achieved its goal of providing quality medical and research experience to students interested in the health sciences. Using the responses of past and present students, we hope to continue to shape our program and provide unique opportunities to future students. PMID:25370839

  10. Lamont-Doherty's Secondary School Field Research Program: 10 years of field research-based education.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, R.; Vincent, S.; Gribbin, S.; Peteet, D. M.; Sambrotto, R.; Bostick, B. C.; Corbett, E.; Nguyen, K.; Bjornton, J.; Lee, D.; Dubossi, D.; Reyes, N.

    2014-12-01

    This fall marks the 10th year in which we have run a research-project-based educational program for high school students and science teachers at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory. This summer's cohort included 31 teenagers, 7 science teachers, and 16 college students, most of whom are returning to the program to help run the research projects. Nearly all of our students attend non-competitive-entry public schools in NYC or the neighborhoods around the Observatory. Over 80% are from under-served minority populations. Most receive Title I/III assistance. About 60% are young women. During the past 10 years, nearly all of our participants have gone on to 4-year colleges. About half are declaring science and engineering majors. Our students receive scholarship support at rates several times higher than their graduating peers, including 5 Gates Millennium scholars over the past 5 years. Our science is centered on studies of a nearby tidal wetland, where we have expanded from fish collections in year one to include everything from sediment core analysis to soil chemistry to nutrient cycles to the local food web. In this presentation we will look back over 10 years of experience and focus on what lessons can be learned about (1) how to engage teams of young investigators in authentic scientific research; (2) what cultural/organizational structures encourage them to make use of place- and project-based learning and (3) what the participants themselves report as the most useful aspects of our programming. The presentation will include video clips from the students' field experiences and from reflective interviews with "graduates".

  11. Community Structure and Quality After 10 Years in Two Central Ohio Mitigation Bank Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spieles, Douglas J.; Coneybeer, Meagan; Horn, Jonathan

    2006-11-01

    We evaluate two 10-year-old mitigation bank wetlands in central Ohio, one created and one with restored and enhanced components, by analysis of vegetation characteristics and by comparison of the year-10 vegetation and macroinvertebrate communities with reference wetlands. To assess different measures of wetland development, we compare the prevalence of native hydrophytes with an index of floristic quality and we evaluate the predictability of these parameters in year 10, given 5 years of data. Results show that the mitigation wetlands in this study meet vegetation performance criteria of native hydrophyte establishment by year 5 and maintain these characteristics through year 10. Species richness and floristic quality, as well as vegetative similarity with reference wetlands, differ among mitigation wetlands in year 1 and also in their rate of change during the first 10 years. The prevalence of native hydrophytes is reasonably predictable by year 10, but 5 years of monitoring is not sufficient to predict future trends of floristic quality in either the created or restored wetland. By year 10, macroinvertebrate taxa richness does not statistically differ among these wetlands, but mitigation wetlands differ from reference sites by tolerance index and by trophic guild dominance. The created wetland herbivore biomass is significantly smaller than its reference, whereas detritivore biomass is significantly greater in the created wetland and smaller in the restored wetland as compared with respective reference wetlands. These analyses illustrate differences in measures of wetland performance and contrast the monitoring duration necessary for legal compliance with the duration required for development of more complex indicators of ecosystem integrity.

  12. Hot Beverage Scalds in Australian Children: Still Simmering 10 Years On.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Jacqueline D; Kimble, Roy M; Cameron, Cate M; Stockton, Kellie A

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to describe the proportion, mechanism, severity, and outcomes of hot beverage scald injuries in children presenting at a major burns centre in 2013 and to compare these results with data collected at the same centre 10 years before. A cross-sectional trend analysis was performed to determine the differences in proportion, mechanism, severity, and outcomes of hot beverage scalds in 0-year to 14-year old children presenting to the Stuart Pegg Paediatric Burns Centre, Royal Children's Hospital, Brisbane, Australia, between January 1 and December 31, 2013 and compare these data to presentations at the same burns centre between 1999 and 2002. Of the 759 children treated for burns and scald injuries at Stuart Pegg Paediatric Burns Centre in 2013, 133 (18%) were caused by hot beverages. Although there has been no change in the proportion, injury mechanism or age groups affected in the past 10 years, there has been a significant change in the number of children being admitted to hospital (52% vs 11% in 2013, P < .001), requiring split skin grafts (18% vs 5% in 2013, P < .05), and long-term scar management (26% vs 11% in 2013, P < .05). The decrease in admissions, skin grafts, and scar management requirements can be attributed to several factors; moving from silver sulfadiazine to silver-impregnated dressings at SPBBC from 2003, changes in excision and skin grafting practices, modified referral patterns, a move to non-inpatient care for minor burns, and the increased application of first aid. However, what has not changed is hot beverage scalds remain the leading cause of childhood burns making it a major pediatric public health issue. PMID:26132050

  13. Absolute transition probabilities of phosphorus.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, M. H.; Roig, R. A.; Bengtson, R. D.

    1971-01-01

    Use of a gas-driven shock tube to measure the absolute strengths of 21 P I lines and 126 P II lines (from 3300 to 6900 A). Accuracy for prominent, isolated neutral and ionic lines is estimated to be 28 to 40% and 18 to 30%, respectively. The data and the corresponding theoretical predictions are examined for conformity with the sum rules.-

  14. Midline Crossing: Developmental Trend from 3 to 10 Years of Age in a Preferential Card-Reaching Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlier, M.; Doyen, A.-L.; Lamard, C.

    2006-01-01

    We assessed 110 left-handed and 322 right-handed children aged from 3 to 10 years, using Bishop's card-reaching task. Manual body midline crossings were observed. A regular developmental trend was observed from 3 to 10 years: older children crossed the body midline more frequently when reaching for cards than did younger children. The factor age…

  15. Prematures with and without Regressed Retinopathy of Prematurity: Comparison of Long-Term (6-10 Years) Ophthalmological Morbidity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cats, Bernard P.; Tan, Karel E. W. P.

    Reporting long-term ophthalmologic sequelae among ex-prematures at 6 to 10 years of age, this study compares 42 ex-premature infants who had had regressed forms of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) during the neonatal period with 42 matched non-ROP ex-premature controls at 6 to 10 years of age. Subjects were subdivided into four groups: (1) ROP…

  16. Soil profile nutrient distribution following 10 years of poultry litter application in conventional and conservation tillage systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The distribution of pH, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn and Zn within the soil profile was determined following 10 years of poultry litter application to a Cecil sandy loam soil in the Southern Piedmont. During the 10 year period, 95 Mg ha-1 of poultry litter was applied to five cotton crops and five corn crops. ...

  17. Serenoa repens as an Endocrine Disruptor in a 10-Year-Old Young Girl: A New Case Report.

    PubMed

    Morabito, Paolo; Miroddi, Marco; Giovinazzo, Salvatore; Spina, Edoardo; Calapai, Gioacchino

    2015-01-01

    Serenoa repens, commonly known as saw palmetto, is the sole species currently classified in the genus Serenoa. The plant is a low shrubby palm that is native of West Indies, and it grows in the coastal lands of North America and other European mediterranean countries. Its fruits contain high concentrations of fatty acids and phytosterols. S. repens extracts have been studied for the symptomatic treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Recently, they have been proposed to treat androgenic alopecia and other hair disorders. We report a new case of hot flashes in a 10-year-old girl using a food supplement containing the extract of S. repens for the treatment of hirsutism. When the girl discontinued the treatment, the hot flashes stopped. A 'rechallenge' of the supplement was tried and symptoms reappeared. About 4 months after starting therapy, the girl experienced menarche. Exposure to the plant-derived product could be responsible for the appearance of menarche. In our opinion, use of phytotherapeutic agents in pediatric patients should be associated to a better evaluation of benefit/risk profile taking in account the physiological changes that occurs at different ages in this subgroup of population. PMID:26043832

  18. The relationship between childhood adversity and dysphoric inner states among borderline patients followed prospectively for 10 years.

    PubMed

    Reed, Lawrence Ian; Fitzmaurice, Garrett; Zanarini, Mary C

    2015-06-01

    Childhood experiences of abuse and neglect were assessed in relation to dysphoric states among patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) over a 10-year course of prospective follow-up. The Revised Childhood Experiences Questionnaire was administered at baseline to 290 patients meeting DIB-R and DSM-III-R criteria for BPD. The Dysphoric Affect Scale--a 50-item self-report measure of affective and cognitive states thought to be common among and specific to borderline patients--was administered at fives waves of prospective follow-up. Significant predictors of dysphoric states included emotional abuse, verbal abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional withdrawal, inconsistent treatment, denial of patient's feelings, lack of a real relationship, placing patient in parental role, and failure to protect patient. This suggests that abusive and neglectful childhood experiences are significant risk factors for severe affective and cognitive difficulties reported by borderline patients and that sexual abuse is neither necessary nor sufficient for the development of these troubling inner states. PMID:23445475

  19. A 10-Year Prospective Study of Prodromal Patterns for Bipolar Disorder among Amish Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Jon A.; Egeland, Janice A.; Endicott, Jean; Allen, Cleona R.; Hostetter, Abram M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Prospective study of well children at risk of bipolarity to identify the frequency and pattern of potentially prodromal symptoms/behaviors for bipolar disorder type I (BPI) disorder. Method: A total of 110 at-risk children with a BPI parent and 112 children with well parents were studied. Ten-year data collection used structured and…

  20. Long-term Clinical Course of Post-infectious Irritable Bowel Syndrome After Shigellosis: A 10-year Follow-up Study

    PubMed Central

    Youn, Young Hoon; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Lim, Hyun Chul; Park, Jae Jun; Kim, Jie-Hyun; Park, Hyojin

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims A limited number of studies are available regarding the long-term natural history of post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS). We aimed to investigate the long-term clinical course of PI-IBS. Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted from a 2001 shigellosis outbreak in a Korean hospital with about 2000 employees. A cohort of 124 hospital employees who were infected by Shigella sonnei due to contaminated food in the cafeteria, and 105 sex- and age-matched, non-infected, controls were serially followed for their bowel symptoms by questionnaire surveys for 10 years. Results The Shigella-infected cohort showed significantly higher odds ratio for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) at 1-year (11.90; 95% CI, 1.49–95.58) and 3-year (3.93; 95% CI, 1.20–12.86) follow-up, compared to their controls. However, corresponding odds ratio for PI-IBS was not significantly increased at 5-year (1.88; 95% CI, 0.64–5.54) and 8-year (1.87; 95% CI, 0.62–5.19) follow-up. At 10-year follow-up survey, the prevalence of IBS was similar for the Shigella-infected cohort and their controls (23.3% versus 19.7%, P = 0.703). Risk factors which were independently associated with PI-IBS among the Shigella-infected cohort included younger age, previous history of functional bowel disorder, and longer duration of diarrhea at baseline. Conclusions Patients who were infected by Shigella sonnei experienced significantly increased risk of IBS until 3 years after shigellosis, and modestly increased risk until 8 years, but showed similar risk of IBS with uninfected controls at 10 years post-infection. PI-IBS is quite a chronic disorder, and follows a long-term natural course. PMID:26908484

  1. The Remains of the Dam: What Have We Learned From 10 Years of Dam Removals?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, G. E.; O'Connor, J. E.; Major, J. J.

    2012-12-01

    Over the past 10 years in the U.S., dam removal has evolved from an occasionally implemented, rarely studied, and poorly understood intervention to improve rivers, to a much more frequently accomplished and better studied and understood approach to river restoration. Over that same time period, the numbers and sizes of dams and volumes of sediment released have dramatically increased. By some estimates close to 1000 dams have been removed over the last 100 years, with most of those occurring within the last 10. While most of these are small (less than 15 m high) dams, removals of dams up to 70 m high are presently underway. Releases of sediment associated with these removals over the past 10 years have also increased by close to four orders of magnitude; for example removal of the Elwha River dams in Washington is estimated to release almost 107 m3 of sediment into the lower Elwha River. Given a decade's worth of dam removals and, in some cases, well-orchestrated case studies of the effects of removal on the geomorphology and (to a lesser extent) ecology of rivers, what have we learned? More specifically, where do we now stand with respect to being able to predict the consequences of future dam removals? Drawing on both field examples and numerical models of dam removals in the western U.S., several key lessons stand out. Although every dam removal and river are different, removals initiate very rapid upstream river response and reservoir erosion and evacuation of sediment by various mechanisms that are strongly controlled by grain size of the deposit, volumes of residual sediment relative to total reservoir volume, and style of dam removal (instantaneous versus staged). Erosion of sediment accumulations in fully and partially filled (by sediment) reservoirs proceeds by different trajectories and rates, with full reservoirs releasing sediment primarily by upstream knickpoint retreat while erosion and sediment release in partially-filled reservoirs proceeds by

  2. Extending the TIME concept: what have we learned in the past 10 years?(*).

    PubMed

    Leaper, David J; Schultz, Gregory; Carville, Keryln; Fletcher, Jacqueline; Swanson, Theresa; Drake, Rebecca

    2012-12-01

    The TIME acronym (tissue, infection/inflammation, moisture balance and edge of wound) was first developed more than 10 years ago, by an international group of wound healing experts, to provide a framework for a structured approach to wound bed preparation; a basis for optimising the management of open chronic wounds healing by secondary intention. However, it should be recognised that the TIME principles are only a part of the systematic and holistic evaluation of each patient at every wound assessment. This review, prepared by the International Wound Infection Institute, examines how new data and evidence generated in the intervening decade affects the original concepts of TIME, and how it is translated into current best practice. Four developments stand out: recognition of the importance of biofilms (and the need for a simple diagnostic), use of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT), evolution of topical antiseptic therapy as dressings and for wound lavage (notably, silver and polyhexamethylene biguanide) and expanded insight of the role of molecular biological processes in chronic wounds (with emerging diagnostics and theranostics). Tissue: a major advance has been the recognition of the value of repetitive and maintenance debridement and wound cleansing, both in time-honoured and novel methods (notably using NPWT and hydrosurgery). Infection/inflammation: clinical recognition of infection (and non infective causes of persisting inflammation) is critical. The concept of a bacterial continuum through contamination, colonisation and infection is now widely accepted, together with the understanding of biofilm presence. There has been a return to topical antiseptics to control bioburden in wounds, emphasised by the awareness of increasing antibiotic resistance. Moisture: the relevance of excessive or insufficient wound exudate and its molecular components has led to the development and use of a wide range of dressings to regulate moisture balance, and to protect

  3. Estimating Monthly, Annual, and Low 7-Day, 10-Year Streamflows for Ungaged Rivers in Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dudley, Robert W.

    2004-01-01

    Regression equations to estimate monthly, annual, and low 7-day, 10-year (7Q10) streamflows were derived for rivers in Maine. The derived regression equations for estimating mean monthly, mean annual, median monthly, median annual, and low 7Q10 streamflows for ungaged rivers in Maine presented in this report supersede those derived in previous studies. Twenty-six U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations on unregulated, rural rivers in Maine with 10 years or more of recorded streamflow were used to develop the regression equations. Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression techniques were used to select the explanatory variables (basin and climatic characteristics) that would appear in the final regression equations. OLS regression of all possible subsets was done with 62 explanatory variables for each of 27 response variables. Five explanatory variables were chosen for the final regression equations: drainage basin area, areal fraction of the drainage basin underlain by sand and gravel aquifers, distance from the coast to the drainage basin centroid, mean drainage basin annual precipitation, and mean drainage basin winter precipitation (the sum of mean monthly precipitation for December, January, and February). Generalized least-squares regression techniques were used to derive the final coefficients and measures of uncertainty for the regression equations. The forms of many of the derived regression equations indicate some physical, mechanistic processes. Drainage basin area is the most statistically important explanatory variable and appears in all derived regression equations. Monthly streamflows are related inversely to the distance from the coast to the drainage basin centroid during December, January, February, and March; that is, the closer a river basin is to the coast, the higher monthly streamflows are per unit drainage basin area during the winter. The relation reverses in May when higher streamflows are attributed to basins farther from the coast

  4. Energy-water analysis of the 10-year WECC transmission planning study cases.

    SciTech Connect

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Passell, Howard David; Castillo, Cesar; Moreland, Barbara

    2011-11-01

    calculating water withdrawal and consumption for current and planned electric power generation; projected water demand from competing use sectors; and, surface and groundwater availability. WECC's long range planning is organized according to two target planning horizons, a 10-year and a 20-year. This study supports WECC in the 10-year planning endeavor. In this case the water implications associated with four of WECC's alternative future study cases (described below) are calculated and reported. In future phases of planning we will work with WECC to craft study cases that aim to reduce the thermoelectric footprint of the interconnection and/or limit production in the most water stressed regions of the West.

  5. Climatological Analysis of the Exclusive Economic Zone of Mexico Based on 10 Years of Satellite Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez Rodriguez, E.; Trasviña-Castro, A.; Aguirre Bahena, F.

    2013-05-01

    To visualize the variability of inorganic carbon in the waters of the Exclusive Economic Zone of Mexico we analysed over 10 years of monthly data 4-km resolution from the MODIS-AQUA satellite. This sensor provides various types of information and for this discussion we selected particulate organic carbon, sea surface temperature and euphotic zone depth. We constructed climatological maps for each month of the year to show the average, maximum, minimum and standard deviation of the three variables. The result of the average particulate organic carbon climatology indicates that the main areas of inorganic carbon production (> 200 mg m3) are the Gulf of California, the west coast of the peninsula of Baja California, the coast of Colima, the Gulf of Tehuantepec and in the Gulf of Mexico the coasts of Yucatan, Tabasco and Tamaulipas. The months presenting higher production occur between December and April. In comparison, lowest climatological mean sea surface temperature (below 14 oC) occurs on the west coast of the Baja California peninsula and it is observed associated with the highest mean particulate organic carbon (>250 mg m-3). Climatological mean sea surface temperature on the coast of Colima, Yucatan, Tabasco and Tamaulipas are about 25 °C and coincide with high values of particulate organic carbon (> 200 mg m-3). The climatological mean euphotic zone depth show lowest values (<50 m) coincide with the highest mean particulate organic carbon values indicating a clear relationship with a reduction of light penetration in the water column. Inspection of the standard deviation maps shows greatest variability of particulate organic carbon from December to February in the Gulf of California, the coast of Colima and the Gulf of Tehuantepec. In the west coast of the peninsula of Baja California greater variability of particulate organic carbon occurs from June to December. In the oceanic domain beyond the continental shelf, particulate organic carbon values are very

  6. Optomechanics for absolute rotation detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davuluri, Sankar

    2016-07-01

    In this article, we present an application of optomechanical cavity for the absolute rotation detection. The optomechanical cavity is arranged in a Michelson interferometer in such a way that the classical centrifugal force due to rotation changes the length of the optomechanical cavity. The change in the cavity length induces a shift in the frequency of the cavity mode. The phase shift corresponding to the frequency shift in the cavity mode is measured at the interferometer output to estimate the angular velocity of absolute rotation. We derived an analytic expression to estimate the minimum detectable rotation rate in our scheme for a given optomechanical cavity. Temperature dependence of the rotation detection sensitivity is studied.

  7. The Absolute Spectrum Polarimeter (ASP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogut, A. J.

    2010-01-01

    The Absolute Spectrum Polarimeter (ASP) is an Explorer-class mission to map the absolute intensity and linear polarization of the cosmic microwave background and diffuse astrophysical foregrounds over the full sky from 30 GHz to 5 THz. The principal science goal is the detection and characterization of linear polarization from an inflationary epoch in the early universe, with tensor-to-scalar ratio r much greater than 1O(raised to the power of { -3}) and Compton distortion y < 10 (raised to the power of{-6}). We describe the ASP instrument and mission architecture needed to detect the signature of an inflationary epoch in the early universe using only 4 semiconductor bolometers.

  8. Absolute calibration of optical flats

    DOEpatents

    Sommargren, Gary E.

    2005-04-05

    The invention uses the phase shifting diffraction interferometer (PSDI) to provide a true point-by-point measurement of absolute flatness over the surface of optical flats. Beams exiting the fiber optics in a PSDI have perfect spherical wavefronts. The measurement beam is reflected from the optical flat and passed through an auxiliary optic to then be combined with the reference beam on a CCD. The combined beams include phase errors due to both the optic under test and the auxiliary optic. Standard phase extraction algorithms are used to calculate this combined phase error. The optical flat is then removed from the system and the measurement fiber is moved to recombine the two beams. The newly combined beams include only the phase errors due to the auxiliary optic. When the second phase measurement is subtracted from the first phase measurement, the absolute phase error of the optical flat is obtained.

  9. Human Brucellosis in Macedonia – 10 Years of Clinical Experience in Endemic Region

    PubMed Central

    Bosilkovski, Mile; Krteva, Ljiljana; Dimzova, Marija; Vidinic, Ivan; Sopova, Zaklina; Spasovska, Katerina

    2010-01-01

    Aim To present our 10-year clinical experience with brucellosis patients at the University Clinic for Infectious Diseases and Febrile Conditions in Skopje, Republic of Macedonia. Methods A total of 550 patients with brucellosis treated between 1998 and 2007 were retrospectively assessed for their demographic, epidemiological, and clinical characteristics and outcomes. Results Of the 550 patients, 395 (72%) were male. The median age was 34.5 years (range, 1-82). Direct contact with infected animals was recorded in 333 (61%) patients and positive family history in 310 (56%). The most frequently seen symptoms were arthralgia (438, 80%), fever (419, 76%), and sweating (394, 72%). The most common signs were fever and hepatomegaly, which were verified in 357 (65%) and 273 (50%) patients, respectively. Focal brucellosis was found in 362 patients (66%) and osteoarticular in 299 (54%). Therapeutic failures were registered in 37 (6.7%) patients. Of the 453 (82%) patients who completed a follow-up period of at least 6 months, relapses occurred in 60 (13%). Conclusion Due to non-specific clinical manifestation and laboratory parameters, brucellosis should be considered one of the differential diagnoses of any patient suffering from obscure involvement of various organs in a brucellosis-endemic region. High percentage of relapses and therapeutic failures in spite of the use of currently recommended therapeutic regimens indicates the seriousness of this zoonosis and the need to control it. PMID:20718086

  10. Heterotopic ossification: review of histologic findings and tissue distribution in a 10-year experience.

    PubMed

    Liu, Katharine; Tripp, Sheryl; Layfield, Lester J

    2007-01-01

    Heterotopic ossification (HO) within tissues involved by a pathologic process is a well-recognized phenomenon. It is most frequently observed in atherosclerotic plaques, in soft tissue around joints, and in the central nervous system. Less frequently, carcinomas and some benign neoplasms will undergo heterotopic ossification. We performed a retrospective review of our experience with HO over a 10-year period to determine the frequency and tissue site distribution of heterotopic ossification. A computerized review of surgical pathology records of approximately 126,000 reports revealed 85 cases in which heterotopic ossification, ectopic bone or metaplastic bone was specifically mentioned in the surgical pathology diagnosis. Twenty-two cases were neoplasms of non-osseous tissues, and 63 cases were non-neoplastic lesions. Immunohistochemical staining for bone morphogenic proteins (BMP) 1, 4, and 6 was performed. Fourteen cases showed staining for BMP-1, 22 cases showed staining for BMP-4, and five cases showed weak staining for BMP-6. HO is a relatively infrequent finding and is more commonly seen in degenerative and reparative conditions than in neoplasms. PMID:17728073

  11. Diagnosis and management of Duchenne muscular dystrophy in a developing country over a 10-year period.

    PubMed

    Thong, Meow-Keong; Bazlin, R I Raja; Wong, Kum-Thong

    2005-07-01

    Clinical data on Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) are lacking in developing countries. The objective of this study was to delineate the demographic characteristics, investigations, and outcome of 21 Malaysian males diagnosed with DMD over a period of 10 years. Mean age presentation was 3 years 8 months (SD 23mo; range 10 to 84mo), mean duration from first presentation to diagnosis was 3y 7mo (SD 26mo; range 5 to 84) and the mean age for loss of ambulation was 11 years (SD 25mo; range 102 to 168). There was family history of DMD in five of the 21 patients. Muscle biopsy showed confirmatory findings of DMD in the 16 patients tested. Molecular genetic analysis showed dystrophin gene deletions in 11 of these 16 patients. Four and seven of the students stopped schooling and had learning difficulties, respectively; only nine had satisfactory school performances. Eight out of 14 patients evaluated were classified as having severe to total dependency levels on the modified Barthel Index for activities of daily living assessment. DMD is associated with significant medical and social needs for a developing country such as Malaysia. Earlier referral, genetic counselling, and provision of support and rehabilitative services are the main priorities. PMID:15991868

  12. Characteristics of Primary Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma in Iran: A 10-Year Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Fatemi Naeini, Farahnaz; Sadeghiyan, Hamidreza; Pourazizi, Mohsen; Najafian, Jamshid; Abtahi-Naeini, Bahareh

    2014-01-01

    Background. Primary cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCLs) are a group of extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphomas that may be present in the skin without any evidence of extracutaneous disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiological characteristics of primary CTCL in Isfahan, Iran. Method. A total of 95 patients who were diagnosed as having primary CTCL were recruited during a 10-year period (2003–2013) and were classified according to the new WHO-EORTC criteria. Results. The patient group consisted of 43 (44.8%) males and 53 (55.2%) females, which indicated a female predominance (M : F ratio 1 : 1.2). The mean age at the time of diagnosis was 41.78 ± 16.88 years (range: 7–84 years). Prior to diagnosis, the lesions had persisted for a mean of 8.34 ± 4.38 years (range: 0–55 years). The age at peak diagnosis was 20–40 years (43%). The most frequent subtypes were mycosis fungoides (MF) (88.5%). Four patients died from CTCL-related complications. Conclusions. The distinguishing epidemiologic characteristics of primary CTCL, particularly those MF, in Iran, are the absence of a male predominance and lower age at diagnosis. This is likely because of the characteristic ethnic group diversity and increased susceptibility among younger population.

  13. Good stability and minimal osteolysis with a biconical threaded cup at 10 years.

    PubMed

    Zweymüller, Karl A; Steindl, Martin; Schwarzinger, Ulrike

    2007-10-01

    In the literature there is no consensus on the value of threaded cementless cups. We primarily asked whether the newly constructed threaded double-cone cup without additional screw fixation would provide high survival at intermediate followup. We retrospectively reviewed 365 patients (376 hips) who underwent primary total hip arthroplasty using this cup made of pure titanium with ceramic-on-polyethylene articulating surfaces. At a minimum followup of 10.0 years (mean, 10.3 years; range, 10.0-13.1 years), 232 cups (61.7%) were available for analysis. We performed two revisions for early infection and cup breakage. No polyethylene liner was exchanged because of wear or instability. Three of the cup shells were radiographically loose at followup; one had periacetabular osteolysis. The mean liner wear rate was 0.13 mm per year. The Kaplan-Meier 10-year survivorship with revision of the cup shell for any reason was 99.3% (95% confidence interval, 96.9-99.8%) and with revision and radiographic loosening of the cup shell 98.6% (95% confidence interval, 96.0-99.5%). These intermediate results compare favorably with survivorship and periacetabular bone reaction data observed with the best cementless acetabular implant designs. PMID:17960675

  14. A tentative 10-year sediment budget of the lower River Ebro (NE Iberian Peninsula)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tena, A.; Batalla, R. J.; Vericat, D.; López-Tarazón, J. A.

    2009-04-01

    Dams in the Ebro basin alter flow regime and sediment transport of most rivers in the catchment. This fact, together with changes in land use, results in a sustained decrease of the sediment load since the beginning of the 20th century, with special impact on the sediment load of the lower reaches of the river. The aim of this work is to develop a long-term suspended sediment budget for the river reach downstream the largest complex of dams in the basin (Mequinenza-Ribarroja-Flix, impounding around 1.7 km3 of water). As a first step we have estimated the river's sediment load over a 10-year period based on turbidity and water discharge records continuously measured by the Ebro Water Authorities. Turbidity measurements have been calibrated by means of five-hundred manual water samples collected during all flow conditions (i.e. floods and low flows) between 2002 and 2008. Water samples have been collected 28 km downstream from the lowermost Flix Dam, at the Mora d'Ebre Monitoring Section (hereafter MEMS). Discharge at MEMS is estimated by routing the flow hydrographs from the Asc

  15. Stability and change in sexual orientation identity over a 10-year period in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Mock, Steven E; Eibach, Richard P

    2012-06-01

    We examined reports of sexual orientation identity stability and change over a 10-year period drawing on data from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS I and II) and tested for three patterns: (1) heterosexual stability, (2) female sexual fluidity, and (3) bisexual fluidity. Fifty-four percent of the 2,560 participants were female and the average age was approximately 47 years. At Wave 1, 2,494 (97.42%) reported a heterosexual identity, 32 (1.25%) a homosexual identity, and 34 (1.33%) a bisexual identity and somewhat more than 2% reported a different sexual orientation identity at Wave 2. Although some support for each hypothesis was found, initial sexual orientation identity interacted with gender to predict a more complex pattern. For the sample as a whole, heterosexuality was the most stable identity. For women, bisexuality and homosexuality were equally unstable and significantly less stable than heterosexuality, suggesting that sexual orientation identity fluidity is a pattern that applies more to sexual minority women than heterosexual women. For men, heterosexuality and homosexuality were both relatively stable compared to bisexuality, which stood out as a particularly unstable identity. This pattern of results was consistent with previous findings and helps to address methodological limitations of earlier research by showing the characteristics of a population-based sample of heterosexual, homosexual, and bisexual identified men and women over time. PMID:21584828

  16. Conference Experience for Undergraduates in the Division of Nuclear Physics - 10 Years Running

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Warren

    2008-04-01

    The Conference Experience for Undergraduates (CEU), held annually in the APS Division of Nuclear Physics since 1998, has become a valuable addition to the fall DNP meetings. Since its inception 10 years ago, approximately 730 undergraduate students from over 60 colleges and universities from around the country (and a few from abroad) have participated. The goal of the program is to provide students who have conducted undergraduate research in nuclear science a ``capstone'' conference experience, with the goal toward strengthening retention of talented students in the field. In addition to the main conference, the CEU includes extra activities for the students, including the main research poster session, two undergraduate nuclear physics seminars, and a graduate school information session. CEU application materials are considered by an independent review committee, and travel and lodging grants are awarded based on project merit. Financial support is provided by the NSF, DOE, and DNP. At the recent 10^th anniversary CEU, a mini-symposium was organized as part of the DNP conference, at which former CEU students (now graduate students, post-docs, and professors) had opportunity to talk about their research and the influence that undergraduate research and conference participation had on their career paths. Survey and anecdotal data indicating benefits of CEU participation, as well as initial results from career path tracking will be presented.

  17. Aggression and Violence among Iranian Adolescents and Youth: A 10-year Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Saeid; Farajzadegan, Ziba; Kelishadi, Roya; Heidari, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although the overwhelming majority of Iranian adolescents are well-adjusted, a substantial group exhibits high levels of maladjustment and deficient functioning. Escalation of criminal violence among the youth population has become a major public policy issue and a serious public health problem. In reviewing a 10-year literature, this article aimed to describe and propose primary assumptions regarding the correlates of aggressive and violent behaviors in Iranian adolescents and youth. Methods: Bibliographic databases such as PubMed and Google Scholar along with Iranian databases including PubMed, IranMedex, Magiran, Irandoc, Psychoinfo, and Emrofor Scientific Information Database, and Magiran constituted the databases which we searched for the relevant literature. Overall 98 articles met the inclusion criteria, allowing us to initiate the discussion. Results: Reportedly, prevalence of violence and aggression among the Iranian adolescents and youth ranged from 30% to 65.5% while males being 2½ times more affected than females. The role of gender, family environment, family size, socioeconomic status, and victimization in perpetuating the circumstances was apparent. Conclusions: Relatively high prevalence of violence and aggression among Iranian youth and adolescents is a warning sign and a great challenge to the social system. Reviewed studies suffer from certain methodological and conceptual limitations. Undertaking community-based studies to estimate the actual extent of the problem is warranted. PMID:26157572

  18. Effect of Metronidazole on Halitosis of 2 to 10 Years Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Sayedi, Sayed Javad; Modaresi, Mohammad Reza; Saneian, Hosein

    2015-01-01

    Background: Regarding the fact that halitosis has social and personal aspects which can lead to social embarrassment and consequently low self-esteem and self-confidence in subjects suffering from the problem, especially children, its proper treatment is an important issue. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of metronidazole as a nonspecific antimicrobial agent in the treatment of halitosis in children. Materials and Methods: In this study, 2-10 years old children with oral halitosis were enrolled. Children without H. pylori infection and parasitic infection were randomized in two interventional and control groups. Metronidazole was given 5mg/kg/day for one week. Information regarding the demographic characteristics of studied population and halitosis (duration and time of day with more halitosis and its severity) before and after intervention was recorded using a questionnaire Results: 77 children with halitosis were studied in two interventional (40 children) and control (37 children) groups. There was no significant difference between two groups before intervention. After intervention, halitosis improvement rate - according to the reports of mothers of studied children - was higher significantly in intervention group (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The results support the effectiveness of metronidazole in the treatment of halitosis. Moreover, it supports recent findings regarding the participation of specific bacteria specially unculturable ones in the pathogenesis of the disease. PMID:26199692

  19. Lessons from high-throughput protein crystallization screening: 10 years of practical experience

    PubMed Central

    JR, Luft; EH, Snell; GT, DeTitta

    2011-01-01

    Introduction X-ray crystallography provides the majority of our structural biological knowledge at a molecular level and in terms of pharmaceutical design is a valuable tool to accelerate discovery. It is the premier technique in the field, but its usefulness is significantly limited by the need to grow well-diffracting crystals. It is for this reason that high-throughput crystallization has become a key technology that has matured over the past 10 years through the field of structural genomics. Areas covered The authors describe their experiences in high-throughput crystallization screening in the context of structural genomics and the general biomedical community. They focus on the lessons learnt from the operation of a high-throughput crystallization screening laboratory, which to date has screened over 12,500 biological macromolecules. They also describe the approaches taken to maximize the success while minimizing the effort. Through this, the authors hope that the reader will gain an insight into the efficient design of a laboratory and protocols to accomplish high-throughput crystallization on a single-, multiuser-laboratory or industrial scale. Expert Opinion High-throughput crystallization screening is readily available but, despite the power of the crystallographic technique, getting crystals is still not a solved problem. High-throughput approaches can help when used skillfully; however, they still require human input in the detailed analysis and interpretation of results to be more successful. PMID:22646073

  20. Keratin Durability Has Implications for the Fossil Record: Results from a 10 Year Feather Degradation Experiment.

    PubMed

    Moyer, Alison E; Zheng, Wenxia; Schweitzer, Mary H

    2016-01-01

    Keratinous 'soft tissue' structures (i.e. epidermally derived and originally non-biomineralized), include feathers, skin, claws, beaks, and hair. Despite their relatively common occurrence in the fossil record (second only to bone and teeth), few studies have addressed natural degradation processes that must occur in all organic material, including those keratinous structures that are incorporated into the rock record as fossils. Because feathers have high preservation potential and strong phylogenetic signal, in the current study we examine feathers subjected to different burial environments for a duration of ~10 years, using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and in situ immunofluorescence (IF). We use morphology and persistence of specific immunoreactivity as indicators of preservation at the molecular and microstructural levels. We show that feather keratin is durable, demonstrates structural and microstructural integrity, and retains epitopes suitable for specific antibody recognition in even the harshest conditions. These data support the hypothesis that keratin antibody reactivity can be used to identify the nature and composition of epidermal structures in the rock record, and to address evolutionary questions by distinguishing between alpha- (widely distributed) and beta- (limited to sauropsids) keratin. PMID:27384819

  1. Analysis of a single Helicobacter pylori strain over a 10-year period in a primate model.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Fero, Jutta B; Mendez, Melissa; Carpenter, Beth M; Servetas, Stephanie L; Rahman, Arifur; Goldman, Matthew D; Boren, Thomas; Salama, Nina R; Merrell, D Scott; Dubois, Andre

    2015-05-01

    Helicobacter pylori from different individuals exhibits substantial genetic diversity. However, the kinetics of bacterial diversification after infection with a single strain is poorly understood. We investigated evolution of H. pylori following long-term infection in the primate stomach; Rhesus macaques were infected with H. pylori strain USU101 and then followed for 10 years. H. pylori was regularly cultured from biopsies, and single colony isolates were analyzed. At 1-year, DNA fingerprinting showed that all output isolates were identical to the input strain; however, at 5-years, different H. pylori fingerprints were observed. Microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization revealed that long term persistence of USU101 in the macaque stomach was associated with specific whole gene changes. Further detailed investigation showed that levels of the BabA protein were dramatically reduced within weeks of infection. The molecular mechanisms behind this reduction were shown to include phase variation and gene loss via intragenomic rearrangement, suggesting strong selective pressure against BabA expression in the macaque model. Notably, although there is apparently strong selective pressure against babA, babA is required for establishment of infection in this model as a strain in which babA was deleted was unable to colonize experimentally infected macaques. PMID:25804332

  2. Assessment of 10-Year Global Record of Aerosol Products from the OMI Near-UV Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, C.; Torres, O.; Jethva, H. T.

    2014-12-01

    Global observations of aerosol properties from space are critical for understanding climate change and air quality applications. The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) onboard the EOS-Aura satellite provides information on aerosol optical properties by making use of the large sensitivity to aerosol absorption and dark surface albedo in the UV spectral region. These unique features enable us to retrieve both aerosol extinction optical depth (AOD) and single scattering albedo (SSA) successfully from radiance measurements at 354 and 388 nm by the OMI near UV aerosol algorithm (OMAERUV). Recent improvements to algorithms in conjunction with the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) and Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) carbon monoxide data also reduce uncertainties due to aerosol layer heights and types significantly in retrieved products. We present validation results of OMI AOD against space and time collocated Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) measured AOD values over multiple stations representing major aerosol episodes and regimes. We also compare the OMI SSA against the inversion made by AERONET as well as an independent network of ground-based radiometer called SKYNET in Japan, China, South-East Asia, India, and Europe. The outcome of the evaluation analysis indicates that in spite of the "row anomaly" problem, affecting the sensor since mid-2007, the long-term aerosol record shows remarkable sensor stability. The OMAERUV 10-year global aerosol record is publicly available at the NASA data service center web site (http://disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/Aura/data-holdings/OMI/omaeruv_v003.shtml).

  3. Development of a 10-year-old full body geometric dataset for computational modeling.

    PubMed

    Mao, Haojie; Holcombe, Sven; Shen, Ming; Jin, Xin; Wagner, Christina D; Wang, Stewart C; Yang, King H; King, Albert I

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to create a computer-aided design (CAD) geometric dataset of a 10-year-old (10 YO) child. The study includes two phases of efforts. At Phase One, the 10 YO whole body CAD was developed from component computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans of 12 pediatric subjects. Geometrical scaling methods were used to convert all component parts to the average size for a 10 YO child, based on available anthropometric data. Then the component surfaces were compiled and integrated into a complete body. The bony structures and flesh were adjusted as symmetrical to minimize the bias from a single subject while maintaining anthropometrical measurements. Internal organs including the liver, spleen, and kidney were further verified by literature data. At Phase Two, internal characteristics for the cervical spine disc, wrist, hand, pelvis, femur, and tibia were verified with data measured from additional 94 10 YO children. The CAD dataset developed through these processes was mostly within the corridor of one standard deviation (SD) of the mean. In conclusion, a geometric dataset for an average size 10 YO child was created. The dataset serves as a foundation to develop computational 10 YO whole body models for enhanced pediatric injury prevention. PMID:25118667

  4. Gluteal Fascial Advancement for Pilonidal Cyst Disease: A 10-year Review.

    PubMed

    Powell, Benjamin C; Webb, Colin B; Ewing, Joseph A; Smith, Dane E

    2016-07-01

    Elective excision of noninfected pilonidal cysts has historically been plagued by a high rate of complications, such as wound breakdown and recurrence. Debate remains regarding the most effective method of wound closure. We previously reported a small group of patients (n = 17 out of 83 patients) in which a novel technique decreased wound complications and recurrence. The purpose of this article was to build on that prior study by evaluating the utility of the gluteal fascial advancement method to decrease complications over a 10-year period. All patients who underwent elective pilonidal cyst excision from 2008 to 2015 were retrospectively reviewed (n = 150); this was added to the data from 2004 to 2007. Patients were divided into two cohorts: those who underwent elective excision with simple closure (n = 172) and those who underwent bilateral gluteal fascial advancement flaps (n = 61). Primary end points included recurrence and dehiscence. Overall demographic characteristics were statistically comparable between groups. The rate of recurrence was not significantly different between groups. However, wound closure using bilateral gluteal fascial advancement flaps was associated with a significantly lower rate of dehiscence when compared with standard primary closure (12% vs 40%, P < 0.001). The use of bilateral gluteal fascial advancement flaps is a superior method for closing elective pilonidal cyst excisions. PMID:27457861

  5. The paediatric flat foot and general anthropometry in 140 Australian school children aged 7 - 10 years

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Many studies have found a positive relationship between increased body weight and flat foot posture in children. Methods From a study population of 140 children aged seven to 10 years, a sample of 31 children with flat feet was identified by screening with the FPI-6. Basic anthropometric measures were compared between subjects with and without flat feet as designated. Results The results of this study, in contrast to many others, question the association of flat feet and heavy children. A significant relationship between foot posture and weight (FPI (L) r = -0.186 (p < 0.05), FPI(R) r = -0.194 (p < 0.05), waist girth (FPI (L) r = -0.213 (p < 0.05), FPI(R) r = -0.228 (p < 0.01) and BMI (FPI (L) r = -0.243 (p < 0.01), FPI(R) r = -0.263 (p < 0.01) was identified, but was both weak and inverse. Conclusions This study presents results which conflict with those of many previous investigations addressing the relationship between children's weight and foot posture. In contrast to previous studies, the implication of these results is that heavy children have less flat feet. Further investigation is warranted using a standardized approach to assessment and a larger sample of children to test this apparent contradiction. PMID:21513507

  6. Light microscopic hair abnormalities in children: retrospective review of 119 cases in a 10-year period.

    PubMed

    Shao, Lei; Newell, Brandon

    2014-01-01

    Abnormalities in the hair can be congenital or acquired conditions. Examples of genetic disorders with associated hair abnormalities include Menkes syndrome, Netherton syndrome, uncombable hair syndrome, trichothiodystrophy, and loose anagen hair syndrome. Acquired hair abnormalities can be associated with grooming or use of various hair products. There are many patterns of hair abnormalities that can be readily identified under a light microscope. We performed a retrospective review of 129 hair mount samples from 119 patients submitted to the pathology department for microscopic examination over a 10-year span (from January 2002 to December 2011). Of the 119 patients, 63 (53%) had morphologic changes in the hair samples. Thirty-seven patients (31%) showed morphologic changes compatible with specific diagnoses of various genetic conditions, including 25 cases of loose anagen hair syndrome, 6 cases of uncombable hair syndrome, 2 cases of Netherton syndrome, 3 cases of Menkes syndrome, and 1 case of trichothiodystrophy. The other changes were considered nonspecific or nondiagnostic, with trichorrhexis nodosa in 13 patients, presence of loose anagen hairs in 12 patients, and pili torti in 1 patient. We describe the light microscopic patterns of hair abnormalities, clinical findings, and molecular defects related to those genetic conditions. Our study indicates that hair examination can be a 1st-line investigation on various pediatric conditions. PMID:24251687

  7. The Effect of Executive Function on Science Achievement Among Normally Developing 10-Year Olds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lederman, Sheri G.

    Executive function (EF) is an umbrella term used to identify a set of discrete but interrelated cognitive abilities that enable individuals to engage in goal-directed, future-oriented action in response to a novel context. Developmental studies indicate that EF is predictive of reading and math achievement in middle childhood. The purpose of this study was to identify the association between EF and science achievement among normally developing 10 year olds. A sample of fifth grade students from a Northeastern suburban community participated in tests of EF, science, and intelligence. Consistent with adult models of EF, principal components analysis identified a three-factor model of EF organization in middle childhood, including cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibition. Multiple regression analyses revealed that executive function processes of cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibition were all predictive of science performance. Post hoc analyses revealed that high-performing science students differed significantly from low-performing students in both cognitive flexibility and working memory. These findings suggest that complex academic demands specific to science achievement rely on the emergence and maturation of EF components.

  8. Impacts of Natural Hazards on Primary Health Care Facilities of Iran: A 10-Year Retrospective Survey

    PubMed Central

    Ardalan, Ali; Mowafi, Hani; Yousefi, Homa

    2013-01-01

    Public health facilities in Iran are exposed to a wide range of natural hazards. This article presents the first survey of the impacts of such natural hazards on primary health care (PHC) centers in Iran from 2001 to 2011. A retrospective survey was conducted in 25 out of 30 provinces of Iran. Archival reports at provincial public health departments were cross-referenced with key informant interviews. During a 10-year period, 119 natural hazard events were recorded that led to physical damage and/or functional failure in 1,401 health centers, 127 deaths and injury or illness in 644 health staff. Earthquakes accounted for the most physical damage and all health-worker deaths. However, there was an increasing trend of impacts due to hydro-meteorological hazards. Iran’s health system needs to establish a registry to track the impact of natural hazards on health facilities, conduct regular hazard and vulnerability assessments and increase mitigation and preparedness measures. Keywords: Disaster, primary health care, facility, Iran, natural hazard Corresponding author: Ali Ardalan MD, PhD. Iran’s National Institute of Health Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Harvard Humanitarian Initiative. Email: aardalan@tums.ac.ir PMID:23863871

  9. Unilocular radiolucencies of anterior mandible in young patients: A 10 year retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Mohanty, Sujata; Gulati, Ujjwal; Mediratta, Akshat; Ghosh, Sujoy

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Mandibular anterior region is an uncommon site for occurrence of intrabony pathologies. Unilocular presentation of a lesion is again less common than multilocular appearance. Demographically, most lesions occur in middle to elderly age group. The study is designed to review the pathologies manifesting a combination of these rare demographic and radiological criteria. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of patients with anterior unilocular radiolucencies of mandible in young patients was done. Records of past 10 years were searched. There were a total of 17 patients. Their clinical history and radiographs were reviewed from the case files and correlated with histopathological examination of the lesion. Results: Nine different pathologies constituted the sample size of 17. A wide array of lesions was found to manifest similar signs and symptoms and radiographic findings namely ameloblastoma (three), adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT, four), odontogenic keratocyst (OKC, three), ossifying fibroma (OF, two), idiopathic bone cavity (IBC, one), dentigerous cyst (DC, one), radicular cyst (RC, one), central giant cell granuloma (CGCG, one), and calcifying odontogenic cyst (COC, one). Conclusion: Anterior mandible is a rare site for occurrence of intrabony pathologies. Majority of patients are females. Lesions acquire large size before they are detected. Growth occurs more in length than in width. Root resorption is not uncommon and root displacement is almost a consistent feature. PMID:24163555

  10. Bonneville Power Administration, Office of Engineering 10-Year Plan, 1992-2001 : Draft.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration. Office of Engineering.

    1992-05-01

    For over 50 years, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has evolved to supply electric power to more than 170 customer utilities and direct service industries across 14,800 miles of high voltage transmission lines. BPA's Office of Engineering provides the planning, development, and engineering for the required expansion, upgrade, and replacement of the transmission system. The purpose of this 10-Year Plan is to present strategies to maintain a reliable energy delivery system within changing public, business, technological, and environmental climates. The issues and trends discussed in this document and our strategies for addressing them provide the background for the Office of Engineering programs and projects. With a budget in the hundreds of millions annually and increasing public concern, we welcome the opportunity to communicate with our customers. In addition to the factors, trends and issues described in this document are two appendices containing project costs and program and staffing levels. These figures are preliminary with estimates current as of May 13, 1992.

  11. Bonneville Power Administration, Office of Engineering 10-Year Plan, 1992-2001 : Draft.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration. Office of Engineering.

    1992-05-01

    For over 50 years, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has evolved to supply electric power to more than 170 customer utilities and direct service industries across 14,800 miles of high voltage transmission lines. BPA`s Office of Engineering provides the planning, development, and engineering for the required expansion, upgrade, and replacement of the transmission system. The purpose of this 10-Year Plan is to present strategies to maintain a reliable energy delivery system within changing public, business, technological, and environmental climates. The issues and trends discussed in this document and our strategies for addressing them provide the background for the Office of Engineering programs and projects. With a budget in the hundreds of millions annually and increasing public concern, we welcome the opportunity to communicate with our customers. In addition to the factors, trends and issues described in this document are two appendices containing project costs and program and staffing levels. These figures are preliminary with estimates current as of May 13, 1992.

  12. PCDD/Fs in the soils in the province of Trento: 10 years of monitoring.

    PubMed

    Rada, E C; Ragazzi, M; Marconi, M; Chistè, A; Schiavon, M; Fedrizzi, S; Tava, M

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a 10-year overview of the dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) content in soils in the province of Trento (Italy). The aim was to compare the results found in the Valsugana valley where there is a steel-making plant with other locations within the province. During 2002 and from 2005 to 2010, campaigns were carried out in order to obtain a background reference in terms of micropollutants, in view of the possible construction of a municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerator in Trento. In 2009, a campaign was performed for the environmental characterization of the Valsugana valley, the town of Trento and its surroundings, in order to help assess the impact of the steel-making plant. In 2012, another campaign was carried out by the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering of Trento, in order to monitor the soils in the area around the steel mill. All the campaigns showed relatively low concentrations of PCDD/Fs, both in protected areas and in the areas close to the industrial plants. No critical situations were identified, as also confirmed by an estimation of the potential daily PCDD/F intake by children subject to accidental ingestion of soil. PMID:25381582

  13. Soil physical quality changes under different management systems after 10 years in Argentinian Humid Pampa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, J. L.; Aparicio, V. C.; Cerda, A.

    2014-08-01

    The Argentinian Humid Pampa extends over about 60 million ha, 90% of which are agricultural lands. The southeast of the Buenos Aires Province is part of the Humid Pampa (1 206 162 ha). The main crops are wheat, sunflower, corn and soybean. The management systems used in the area are: moldboard plow (MP), chisel plow (CP) and no-till (NT). Excessive soil cultivation under MP causes decreases in the soil organic carbon content (SOC). Adopting NT may reduce the effects of intensive agriculture, through the maintenance and accumulation of SOC. However, the soil compaction under NT causes degradation of the soil structure, reduces the soil water availability and reduces the soil hydraulic conductivity. We evaluated the evolution of the soil physical parameters in three management systems. After 10 years of experiments in four farmers' fields, we found that: soil bulk density was significantly higher under NT. The change in mean weight diameter (CMWD) of aggregates increased as the management system became more intensive. We did not find significant differences in time and management systems in hydraulic conductivity at tension (h)0 cm and h=20 cm. The reduction in total porosity under NT is mainly a product of a reduction in the percentage of mesopores in the soil. Time had no statistically significant effect on the SOC content. The management system did not affect the yields of crop. In this work, the results indicate a modification of some soil physical parameters (porosity, near-saturated hydraulic conductivity, soil structure) due to uninterrupted agricultural production.

  14. Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement 10-Year Plan 1990-1999 : Environmental Strategy. Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1990-09-01

    In operating and maintaining its regional power transmission system, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) must address environmental concerns. Pollution sources and pathways for pollution migration, including potential contamination from hazardous or toxic materials, are present. BPA must develop and follow precautionary measures, respond to emergencies, minimize wastes, redress past problems, alert and train employees to problems and safety needs, constantly evaluate this effort and update the program for improvements and changes in regulations and technology. Part of BPA's mission is to conduct its operation, maintenance, and replacement programs in an environmentally sound manner. BPA recognizes its responsibility to be good stewards of the environment. BPA will meet its environmental obligations as set forth in environmental laws and regulations. BPA intends to make consistent and measurable progress toward meeting these responsibilities. The target for the 10-Year Plan is to achieve environmental compliance and meet the following goals: (1) protect human health and the environment; (2) avoid or limit liability (3) set up an effective internal management structure to maintain compliance; and (4) achieve cost-effective compliance. 6 figs.

  15. Spatiotemporal Trends Analysis of Pyrethroid Sediment Concentrations Spanning 10 Years in a Residential Creek in California.

    PubMed

    Hall, Lenwood W; Anderson, Ronald D; Killen, William D

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to assess temporal and spatial trends for eight pyrethroids monitored in sediment spanning 10 years from 2006 to 2015 in a residential stream in California (Pleasant Grove Creek). The timeframe for this study included sampling 3 years during a somewhat normal non-drought period (2006-2008) and 3 years during a severe drought period (2013-2015). Regression analysis of pyrethroid concentrations in Pleasant Grove Creek for 2006, 2007, 2008, 2012, 2013, 2014, and 2015 using ½ the detection limit for nondetected concentrations showed statistically significant declining trends for cyfluthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, permethrin, and total pyrethoids. Additional trends analysis of the Pleasant Grove Creek pyrethroid data using only measured concentrations, without nondetected values, showed similar statistically significant declining trends for cyfluthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, esfenvalerate, fenpropathrin, permethrin, and total pyrethroids. Spatial trends analysis for the specific creek sites showed that six of the eight pyrethroids had a greater number of sites with statistically significant declining concentrations. Possible reasons for reduced pyrethroid concentrations in the stream bed in Pleasant Grove Creek during this 10-year period are label changes in 2012 that reduced residential use and lack of precipitation during the later severe drought years of 2013-2015. PMID:26643307

  16. A 10-year systematic review of HIV/AIDS mass communication campaigns: Have we made progress?

    PubMed

    Noar, Seth M; Palmgreen, Philip; Chabot, Melissa; Dobransky, Nicole; Zimmerman, Rick S

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to conduct a 10-year systematic review of HIV/AIDS mass communication campaigns focused on sexual behavior, HIV testing, or both (1998-2007) and to compare the results with the last comprehensive review of such campaigns, conducted by Myhre and Flora (2000). A comprehensive search strategy yielded 38 HIV/AIDS campaign evaluation articles published in peer-reviewed journals, representing 34 distinct campaign efforts conducted in 23 countries. The articles were coded on a variety of campaign design and evaluation dimensions by two independent coders. Results indicated that compared with the previous systematic review (1986-1998 period), campaigns increasingly have employed the following strategies: (1) targeted defined audiences developed through audience segmentation procedures; (2) designed campaign themes around behavior change (rather than knowledge change); (3) used behavioral theories; (4) achieved high message exposure; (5) used stronger research designs for outcome evaluation; and (6) included measures of behavior (or behavioral intentions) in outcome assessments. In addition, an examination of 10 campaign efforts that used more rigorous quasi-experimental designs revealed that the majority (8 of 10) demonstrated effects on behavior change or behavioral intentions. Despite these positive developments, most HIV/AIDS campaigns continue to use weak (i.e., preexperimental) outcome evaluation designs. Implications of these results for improved design, implementation, and evaluation of HIV/AIDS campaign efforts are discussed. PMID:19180369

  17. Angiosarcoma of the breast: a clinicopathologic analysis of cases from the last 10 years.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao Yun; Jakowski, Joseph; Tawfik, Ossama W; Thomas, Patricia A; Fan, Fang

    2009-06-01

    Breast angiosarcoma may occur de novo, or as a complication of radiation therapy, or chronic lymphedema secondary to axillary lymph node dissection for mammary carcinoma. In our effort to characterize the clinicopathologic features of breast angiosarcoma, we reviewed all breast angiosarcoma cases in the University of Kansas Medical Center and Ohio State University Medical Center archives from 1997 to 2007. Clinical histories and follow-up data for identified patients were reviewed. The tumors were graded histologically according to Rosen's method. Only 11 angiosarcomas were identified among more than 5000 malignant breast neoplasms (0.1%-0.2% incidence) for the last 10 years. Eight cases (6 high grade, 1 intermediate grade, 1 low grade) were identified as postradiation angiosarcoma (postradiation time interval, 4-12 years), and 3 cases were identified as primary angiosarcomas (1 high grade, 2 low grade). Follow-up (median, 36 months) revealed that 3 cases of postradiation angiosarcoma recurred as skin and/or chest wall lesions and 1 case of primary angiosarcoma developed liver metastases (all high-grade). In conclusion, breast angiosarcoma remains a rare disease. Rosen's method for grading breast angiosarcoma is easy to implement and correlates well with clinical outcome. There are no distinct clinical or histologic differences between primary and postradiation breast angiosarcomas. PMID:19433291

  18. Keratin Durability Has Implications for the Fossil Record: Results from a 10 Year Feather Degradation Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Moyer, Alison E.; Zheng, Wenxia; Schweitzer, Mary H.

    2016-01-01

    Keratinous ‘soft tissue’ structures (i.e. epidermally derived and originally non-biomineralized), include feathers, skin, claws, beaks, and hair. Despite their relatively common occurrence in the fossil record (second only to bone and teeth), few studies have addressed natural degradation processes that must occur in all organic material, including those keratinous structures that are incorporated into the rock record as fossils. Because feathers have high preservation potential and strong phylogenetic signal, in the current study we examine feathers subjected to different burial environments for a duration of ~10 years, using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and in situ immunofluorescence (IF). We use morphology and persistence of specific immunoreactivity as indicators of preservation at the molecular and microstructural levels. We show that feather keratin is durable, demonstrates structural and microstructural integrity, and retains epitopes suitable for specific antibody recognition in even the harshest conditions. These data support the hypothesis that keratin antibody reactivity can be used to identify the nature and composition of epidermal structures in the rock record, and to address evolutionary questions by distinguishing between alpha- (widely distributed) and beta- (limited to sauropsids) keratin. PMID:27384819

  19. Rapid and Complete Remission of Metastatic Adrenocortical Carcinoma Persisting 10 Years After Treatment With Mitotane Monotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Ghorayeb, Nada El; Rondeau, Geneviève; Latour, Mathieu; Cohade, Christian; Olney, Harold; Lacroix, André; Perrotte, Paul; Sabourin, Alexis; Mazzuco, Tania L; Bourdeau, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Mitotane has been used for more than 5 decades as therapy for adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). However its mechanism of action and the extent of tumor response remain incompletely understood. To date no cases of rapid and complete remission of metastatic ACC with mitotane monotherapy has been reported. A 52-year-old French Canadian man presented with metastatic disease 2 years following a right adrenalectomy for stage III nonsecreting ACC. He was started on mitotane which was well tolerated despite rapid escalation of the dose. The patient course was exceptional as he responded to mitotane monotherapy after only few months of treatment. Initiation of chemotherapy was not needed and he remained disease-free with good quality of life on low maintenance dose of mitotane during the following 10 years. A germline heterozygous TP53 exon 4 polymorphism c.215C>G (p. Pro72Arg) was found. Immunohistochemical stainings for IGF-2 and cytoplasmic β-catenin were positive. Advanced ACC is an aggressive disease with poor prognosis and the current therapeutic options remain limited. These findings suggest that mitotane is a good option for the treatment of metastatic ACC and might result in rapid complete remission in selected patients. PMID:27043680

  20. Annual and interannual variations of absorbed solar radiation based on a 10-year data set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. Louis; Charlock, Thomas P.; Bess, T. Dale; Rutan, David

    1990-01-01

    Annual and interannual variations of absorbed solar radiation (ASR) are studied using the 10-year earth radiation budget data set from the Nimbus-6 and Nimbus-7 earth radiation budget instruments in the form of monthly averaged maps of ASR. Empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) are computed for the global distribution of ASR. Six EOFs are found which have physical significance and which account for 97.8 percent of the spatial variance of the data set. The first EOF describes the annual cycle and is primarily a latitudinal variation which is driven by the incident solar radiation. The second and fourth EOFs are semiannual cycles. EOFs 3 through 6 are strongly longitudinally dependent. EOF 3 describes the spring/fall part of the annual cycle, and EOF 4 describes the part of the semiannual cycle which is out of phase with EOF 2. EOF 5 is the response of the ASR to El Nino. The annual cycle and its harmonics account for 97.6 percent of the variance with time. When the data set is deseasonalized, the first two EOFs of the resulting set are found to correspond closely to EOFs 5 and 6 of the data set with season included. As with outgoing longwave radiation, most of the interannual variation is found over the tropical oceans.

  1. An overview of the last 10 years of genetically engineered crop safety research.

    PubMed

    Nicolia, Alessandro; Manzo, Alberto; Veronesi, Fabio; Rosellini, Daniele

    2014-03-01

    The technology to produce genetically engineered (GE) plants is celebrating its 30th anniversary and one of the major achievements has been the development of GE crops. The safety of GE crops is crucial for their adoption and has been the object of intense research work often ignored in the public debate. We have reviewed the scientific literature on GE crop safety during the last 10 years, built a classified and manageable list of scientific papers, and analyzed the distribution and composition of the published literature. We selected original research papers, reviews, relevant opinions and reports addressing all the major issues that emerged in the debate on GE crops, trying to catch the scientific consensus that has matured since GE plants became widely cultivated worldwide. The scientific research conducted so far has not detected any significant hazards directly connected with the use of GE crops; however, the debate is still intense. An improvement in the efficacy of scientific communication could have a significant impact on the future of agricultural GE. Our collection of scientific records is available to researchers, communicators and teachers at all levels to help create an informed, balanced public perception on the important issue of GE use in agriculture. PMID:24041244

  2. Aprepitant and Fosaprepitant: A 10-Year Review of Efficacy and Safety

    PubMed Central

    Carides, Alexandra; Rapoport, Bernardo L.; Schmoll, Hans-Joachim; Zhang, Li; Warr, David

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is a common adverse event associated with anticancer treatment that can have a significant adverse impact on patient health-related quality of life and that can potentially undermine the effectiveness of chemotherapy. Traditional regimens to prevent CINV generally involved a combination of a corticosteroid plus a 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT3) receptor antagonist (RA). In the past 10 years, antiemetic treatment has greatly advanced with the availability of the neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist (NK1 RA) aprepitant and its prodrug fosaprepitant. NK1 RAs have a different mechanism of action in CINV than corticosteroids and 5HT3 RAs, thus their use can complement traditional antiemetic drugs and can enhance control of CINV. This review examined accumulated data regarding the safety and efficacy of aprepitant and fosaprepitant over the decade since the first regulatory approval. Data from key studies of aprepitant and fosaprepitant in the prevention of CINV in patients receiving moderately and highly emetogenic chemotherapy were explored, as were recommendations in currently available guidelines for their use. In addition, their use as antiemetic therapy in special patient populations was highlighted. Future perspectives on potential uses of aprepitant and fosaprepitant for indications other than CINV are presented. PMID:25795636

  3. Gesture Frequency Linked Primarily to Story Length in 4-10-Year Old Children's Stories.

    PubMed

    Nicoladis, Elena; Marentette, Paula; Navarro, Samuel

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that older children gesture more while telling a story than younger children. This increase in gesture use has been attributed to increased story complexity. In adults, both narrative complexity and imagery predict gesture frequency. In this study, we tested the strength of three predictors of children's gesture use in a narrative context: age, narrative complexity (measured by discourse connectors), and use of imagery (measured by story length). French-, Spanish-, and English-speaking children between 4 and 10 years participated in this study. Including these three groups allows us to test for the generalizability of our results and for cross-linguistic differences in gesture frequency. All the children watched cartoons and retold the story. The results showed that the length of the story was a significant predictor of children's gesture rate while age and discourse connectors were not. There were no differences between language groups. One possible in interpretation of these results is that children's gesture frequency is strongly linked to activation of imagery. PMID:25430692

  4. Perceived food hypersensitivity: a review of 10 years of interdisciplinary research at a reference center.

    PubMed

    Lied, Gülen Arslan; Lillestøl, Kristine; Lind, Ragna; Valeur, Jørgen; Morken, Mette Helvik; Vaali, Kirsi; Gregersen, Kine; Florvaag, Erik; Tangen, Tone; Berstad, Arnold

    2011-10-01

    Perceived food hypersensitivity is a prevalent, but poorly understood condition. In this review article, we summarize narratively recent literature including results of our 10 years' interdisciplinary research program dealing with such patients. The patients (more than 400) included in our studies were all adults referred to a university hospital because of gastrointestinal complaints self-attributed to food hypersensitivity. Despite extensive examinations, food allergy was seldom diagnosed. The majority of the patients fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for irritable bowel syndrome. In addition, most suffered from several extra-intestinal health complaints and had considerably impaired quality of life. However, psychological factors could explain only approximately 10% of the variance in the patients' symptom severity and 90% of the variance thus remained unexplained. Intolerance to low-digestible carbohydrates was a common problem and abdominal symptoms were replicated by carbohydrate ingestion. A considerable number of patients showed evidence of immune activation by analyses of B-cell activating factor, dendritic cells and "IgE-armed" mast cells. Multiple factors such as immune activation, disturbed intestinal fermentation, enteric dysmotility, post-infectious changes and "local" allergy in the gut as well as psychological disturbances may play a role in the pathophysiology of perceived food hypersensitivity. Hence, our results support the view that management of these patients should be interdisciplinary. PMID:21679125

  5. Hypotonic hyponatremia by primary polydipsia caused brain death in a 10-year-old boy

    PubMed Central

    Ko, A Ra; Kim, Soo Jung; Jung, Mo Kyung; Kim, Ki Eun; Chae, Hyun Wook; Kim, Duk Hee; Kim, Ho-Seong

    2015-01-01

    Hypotonic hyponatremia by primary polydipsia can cause severe neurologic complications due to cerebral edema. A 10-year-and-4-month-old boy with a psychiatric history of intellectual disability and behavioral disorders who presented with chief complaints of seizure and mental change showed severe hypotonic hyponatremia with low urine osmolality (serum sodium, 101 mmol/L; serum osmolality, 215 mOsm/kg; urine osmolality, 108 mOsm/kg). The patient had been polydipsic for a few months prior, and this had been worse in the previous few days. A diagnosis of hypotonic hyponatremia caused by primary polydipsia was made. The patient was in a coma, and developed respiratory arrest and became brain death shortly after admission, despite the treatment. The initial brain magnetic resonance imaging showed severe brain swelling with tonsillar and uncal herniation, and the patient was declared as brain death. It has been reported that antidiuretic hormone suppression is inadequate in patients with chronic polydipsia, and that this inadequate suppression of antidiuretic hormone is aggravated in patients with acute psychosis. Therefore, hyponatremia by primary polydipsia, although it is rare, can cause serious and life-threatening neurologic complications. PMID:26512354

  6. Wave Resource Characteristics Near Humboldt Bay - Results from a 10-year Hindcast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallman, A.; Neary, V. S.

    2014-12-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) marine and hydrokinetic energy (MHK) Program has identified a need to improve modeling capabilities for near-shore wave climate hind-casting, among other applications. The potential wave energy converter (WEC) test or commercial deployment site offshore of Humboldt Bay, CA was selected to investigate the performance of a nearshore SWAN model and the spatial variability of wave statistics. SNL performed a 10-year hindcast using SWAN (Simulating Waves Nearshore), forced by spectral output from a WAVEWATCH III hindcast. The model was found to be insensitive to bottom friction and whitecapping parameterizations for the locations of interest, which included depths of 40m or greater. Predicted significant wave heights were found to be overbiased due to an overbias in the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) winds used to drive WAVEWATCH III. The spatial variability of the wave statistics calculated from the hindcast simulation were found to vary by season and were affected by the wind direction due to geographic features north of Humboldt Bay. Further details of the model performance along with possible areas of improvement will be discussed.

  7. Annual and interannual variations of Earth-emitted radiation based on a 10-year data set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bess, T. Dale; Smith, G. Louis; Charlock, Thomas P.; Rose, Fred G.

    1989-01-01

    The method of empirical orthogonal functions (EOF) was applied to a 10-year data set of outgoing longwave radiation. Spherical harmonic functions are used as a basis set for producing equal area map results. The following findings are noted. The first EOF accounts for 66 percent of the variance. After that, each EOF accounts for only a small variance, forming a slowly converging series. The first two EOF's describe mainly the annual cycle. The third EOF is primarily the semiannual cycle although many other EOF's also contain significant semiannual parts. These results reaffirm those based on a shorter data set. In addition, a much stronger spring/fall mode was found in the central equatorial Pacific Ocean for the second EOF than was found earlier. This difference is attributed to the use of broadband radiometer data which were available for the present study. The earlier study used data from a window channel instrument which is not as sensitive to water vapor variations. The fourth EOF describes much of the 1976 to 1977 and 1982 to 1983 ENSO phenomena. There is typically a gap in the spectrum between a semiannual peak and the annual cycle for all but the first EOF. A semiannual OLR dipole straddles the Asian-Australian monsoon track.

  8. European Competence Network on Mastocytosis (ECNM): 10-year jubilee, update, and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Valent, Peter; Arock, Michel; Bonadonna, Patrizia; Brockow, Knut; Broesby-Olsen, Sigurd; Escribano, Luis; Gleixner, Karoline V; Grattan, Clive; Hadzijusufovic, Emir; Hägglund, Hans; Hermine, Olivier; Horny, Hans-Peter; Kluin-Nelemans, Hanneke C; Maurer, Marcus; Niedoszytko, Marek; Nedoszytko, Boguslaw; Nilsson, Gunnar; Oude-Elberink, Hanneke N G; Orfao, Alberto; Radia, Deepti; Reiter, Andreas; Siebenhaar, Frank; Sotlar, Karl; Sperr, Wolfgang R; Triggiani, Massimo; VanDoormaal, Jaap J; Várkonyi, Judit; Yavuz, Selim; Hartmann, Karin

    2012-12-01

    The European Competence Network on Mastocytosis (ECNM) was initiated in 2002 as a multidisciplinary and multinational cooperative approach to increase awareness and to improve diagnosis and therapy of mastocytosis. The network is composed of local centers, physicians, and scientists who have dedicated their work to patients with mastocytosis. A strategic goal of the ECNM is to provide the best available information about the disease to patients and physicians. During the past 10 years, the ECNM has expanded to various countries and contributed successfully to the development of markers, definitions, and standards in the field of mastocytosis. Members of the ECNM organized Annual Meetings in Europe and two Working Conferences on Mastocytosis in Vienna (in 2005 and 2010), and initiated and supported several preclinical and clinical trials. In all these activities, representatives of the ECNM cooperate closely with their US colleagues, with patient-organizations in Europe and in the USA, and with other scientific networks. The ECNM also launched a mastocytosis registry that has been activated in 2012. Using the central database of this registry, cooperative multicenter studies, which should include sufficient numbers of patients and robust evaluations, will be conducted. These studies will increase our knowledge about optimal management and therapy of patients with mastocytosis in the future. PMID:23179435

  9. The 10-year experience of an academically affiliated occupational and environmental medicine clinic.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenstock, L; Daniell, W; Barnhart, S; Stover, B; Castorina, J; Mason, S E; Heyer, N J; Hubbard, R; Kaufman, J D; Brodkin, C A

    1992-01-01

    Occupational and environmental diseases are underrecognized. Among the barriers to the successful diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of these conditions are inadequate consultative and information resources. We describe the 10-year clinical and training experiences of an academically affiliated referral center that has as its primary goal the identification of work-related and other environmental diseases. The University of Washington Occupational and Environmental Medicine Program has evaluated 6,048 patients in its diagnostic and screening clinics. Among the 2,841 seen in the diagnostic clinics, 1,553 (55%) had a work-related condition. The most prevalent diagnoses included asbestos-related lung disease (n = 603), toxic encephalopathy (n = 160), asthma (n = 119), other specific respiratory conditions (n = 197), carpal tunnel syndrome (n = 86), and dermatitis (n = 82). The clinics serve as a training site for fellows in the specialty training program, primary care internal medicine residents, residents from other medical specialties, and students in industrial hygiene, toxicology, and occupational health nursing. The program serves two additional important functions: providing consultative services to community physicians and training specialists and other physicians in this underserved area of medicine. PMID:1462536

  10. Medical Malpractice in Wuhan, China: A 10-Year Autopsy-Based Single-Center Study.

    PubMed

    He, Fanggang; Li, Liliang; Bynum, Jennifer; Meng, Xiangzhi; Yan, Ping; Li, Ling; Liu, Liang

    2015-11-01

    Medical disputes in China are historically poorly documented. In particular, autopsy-based evaluation and its impact on medical malpractice claims remain largely unstudied. This study aims to document autopsy findings and medical malpractice in one of the largest cities of China, Wuhan, located in Hubei Province. A total of 519 autopsies were performed by the Department of Forensic Medicine, Wuhan University School of Medicine, Wuhan, China, over a 10-year period between 2004 and 2013. Of these cases, 190 (36.6%) were associated with medical malpractice claims. Joint evaluation by forensic pathologists and clinicians confirmed that 97 (51.1%) of the 190 claims were approved medical malpractice cases. The percentage of approved malpractice cases increased with patient age and varied according to medical setting, physician specialty, and organ system. The clinico-pathological diagnostic discrepancy was significantly different among various physician specialties (P = 0.031) and organ systems (P = 0.000). Of those cases involved in malpractice claims, aortic dissection, coronary heart disease, and acute respiratory infection were most common. Association between incorrect diagnosis and malpractice was significant (P = 0.001). This is the first report on China's medical malpractice and findings at autopsy which reflects the current state of health care services in one of the biggest cities in China. PMID:26559306

  11. Prevalence and geographical distribution of Escherichia coli O157 in India: a 10-year survey.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Rakesh; Kumar, Yashwant; Kumar, Sunil

    2008-04-01

    Escherichia coli colonizes the human gastrointestinal tract and produces a variety of diseases. Escherichia coli O157 is one of the most important pathogenic strains reported from food-borne illnesses leading to enterohemorrhagic colitis. The National Salmonella and Escherichia Centre is a national reference centre for Salmonella and Escherichia for India; it receives samples from research laboratories, hospitals and institutions for serological identification. The present study is an epidemiological survey of E. coli O157 in different regions of India. The data are based on samples received from humans, food items, animals and the environment. A total of 17 093 isolates cultured from samples were received during the 10-year period of which 5678 were from human sources. Thirty (0.5%) human samples were positive for E. coli O157. A significantly high percentage of E. coli O157 were isolated from meat (0.9%, 13/1376), milk and milk products (1.8%, 10/553), seafood (8.4%, 16/190) and water (1.6%, 8/486). The isolates were found to be distributed among domestic and wild animals, and the maximum number of isolates of E. coli O157 was detected in samples received from coastal belt areas. Escherichia coli O157 is widely distributed among humans and animals, food and environment in different geographical regions of India. PMID:18321544

  12. A 10-year review of four academic nurse-managed centers: challenges and survival strategies.

    PubMed

    King, Eunice S

    2008-01-01

    Since 1985, there has been rapid growth in nurse-managed health centers (NMHCs). Many were established by academic schools of nursing, and several have closed. The Independence Foundation undertook this study to identify the challenges and survival strategies employed by four academic nurse-managed center grantees during a 10-year period. Data from Foundation records, interviews with directors and staff from the centers and the National Nursing Centers Consortium, a focus group with center founders, and field notes were analyzed for themes related to the centers' challenges and survival strategies. Although the centers faced many challenges from the sociopolitical environment, the community, and their parent organizations, the most difficult challenge was achieving financial sustainability, which was attainable only by obtaining cost-based reimbursement. Because of existing health policies, that was possible only through organizational restructuring and affiliation with an existing federally qualified health center. The future of nursing centers depends upon favorable health policies, data documenting centers' effectiveness, and adequate preparation of the next generation of nursing center directors and practitioners. PMID:18206838

  13. Nail Psoriasis in Children: Common or Uncommon? Results from a 10-Year Double-Center Study

    PubMed Central

    Piraccini, Bianca Maria; Triantafyllopoulou, Ioanna; Prevezas, Christos; Starace, Michela; Neri, Iria; Patrizi, Annalisa; Caserini, Maurizio; Palmieri, Renata; Rigopoulos, Dimitrios

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the Study Our aim was to perform an extensive search of the literature on the prevalence of nail psoriasis in the pediatric population and to estimate it on our own database. Procedures Searching the most important databases yielded results of 16 papers published in a 40-year period which reported the prevalence of nail psoriasis in children. Furthermore, data gathered between 2004 and 2013 at two centers specialized in nail disorders were analyzed. Results The selected papers encompassed a total of 4,853 psoriatic children, of whom 762 (15.7%) had nail involvement. Concerning our data, a total of 68,839 children were seen in pediatric skin consultation in both clinics over a period of 10 years, 0.11% of which had nail involvement. The rate of psoriatic children presenting nail alterations was 19.4% in the Greek and 15.5% in the Italian patient groups. Conclusions and Message This is the retrospective study including the largest number of cases of nail psoriasis in the pediatric population. Our data are in line with the incidence estimation of the rest of Europe. PMID:27172521

  14. Does gymnastics practice improve vertical jump reliability from the age of 8 to 10 years?

    PubMed

    Marina, Michel; Torrado, Priscila

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to confirm whether gymnastics practice from a young age can induce greater vertical jump reliability. Fifty young female gymnasts (8.84 ± 0.62 years) and 42 females in the control group (8.58 ± 0.92 years) performed the following jump tests on a contact mat: squat jump, countermovement jump, countermovement jump with arm swing and drop jump from heights of 40 and 60 cm. The two testing sessions had three trials each and were separated by one week. A 2 (groups) × 2 (sessions) × 3 (trials) repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and a test-retest correlation analysis were used to study the reliability. There was no systematic source of error in either group for non-plyometric jumps such as squat jump, countermovement jump, and countermovement jump with arm swing. A significant group per trial interaction revealed a learning effect in gymnasts' drop jumps from 40 cm height. Additionally, the test-retest correlation analysis and the higher minimum detectable error suggest that the quick drop jump technique was not fully consolidated in either group. At an introductory level of gymnastics and between the ages of 8-10 years, the condition of being a gymnast did not lead to conclusively higher reliability, aside from better overall vertical jump performance. PMID:23414426

  15. Isolated Myxoma in the External Auditory Canal of a 10-Year-Old Girl.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Hee; Jeong, Su Hee; Kim, Hojong; Shin, Eunhye

    2015-12-01

    Myxoma is a benign connective tissue tumor that is most commonly found in the heart. Because myxoma of the external ear is extremely rare, its diagnosis may be easily delayed or it may be misdiagnosed as another disease. Moreover, because it can be a part of Carney complex (autosomal dominant syndrome), its correct diagnosis is very important. We experienced a 10-year-old girl who had a mass on the posterior surface of the tragus at the entrance of the left ear canal. Fine-needle aspiration revealed mucoid content of the cystic mass, but its cytology did not confirm the diagnosis. The whole mass was surgically removed, and the diagnosis was confirmed as myxoma with a stellate spindle cell proliferation in the hypocellular matrix. Thorough examination failed to determine any presentation of Carney complex, and her final diagnosis was isolated myxoma of the external auditory canal. This is the first reported study regarding myxoma of the external auditory canal in the Korean literature. PMID:26915162

  16. Stunted at 10 Years. Linear Growth Trajectories and Stunting from Birth to Pre-Adolescence in a Rural Bangladeshi Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Svefors, Pernilla; Rahman, Anisur; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte; Khan, Ashraful Islam; Lindström, Emma; Persson, Lars Åke; Ekholm Selling, Katarina

    2016-01-01

    Background Few studies in low-income settings analyse linear growth trajectories from foetal life to pre-adolescence. The aim of this study is to describe linear growth and stunting from birth to 10 years in rural Bangladesh and to analyse whether maternal and environmental determinants at conception are associated with linear growth throughout childhood and stunting at 10 years. Methods and Findings Pregnant women participating in the MINIMat trial were identified in early pregnancy and a birth cohort (n = 1054) was followed with 19 growth measurements from birth to 10 years. Analyses of baseline predictors and mean height-for-age Z-scores (HAZ) over time were modelled using GLMM. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the associations between baseline predictors and stunting (HAZ<-2) at 10 years. HAZ decreased to 2 years, followed by an increase up to 10 years, while the average height-for-age difference in cm (HAD) to the WHO reference median continued to increase up to 10 years. Prevalence of stunting was highest at 2 years (50%) decreasing to 29% at 10 years. Maternal height, maternal educational level and season of conception were all independent predictors of HAZ from birth to pre-adolescence (p<0.001) and stunting at 10 years. The highest probability to be stunted at 10 years was for children born by short mothers (<147.5 cm) (ORadj 2.93, 95% CI: 2.06–4.20), mothers with no education (ORadj 1.74, 95% CI 1.17–2.81) or those conceived in the pre-monsoon season (ORadj 1.94, 95% CI 1.37–2.77). Conclusions Height growth trajectories and prevalence of stunting in pre-adolescence showed strong intergenerational associations, social differentials, and environmental influence from foetal life. Targeting women before and during pregnancy is needed for the prevention of impaired child growth. PMID:26934484

  17. Long-term effects of continuing adjuvant tamoxifen to 10 years versus stopping at 5 years after diagnosis of oestrogen receptor-positive breast cancer: ATLAS, a randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Christina; Pan, Hongchao; Godwin, Jon; Gray, Richard; Arriagada, Rodrigo; Raina, Vinod; Abraham, Mirta; Alencar, Victor Hugo Medeiros; Badran, Atef; Bonfill, Xavier; Bradbury, Joan; Clarke, Michael; Collins, Rory; Davis, Susan R; Delmestri, Antonella; Forbes, John F; Haddad, Peiman; Hou, Ming-Feng; Inbar, Moshe; Khaled, Hussein; Kielanowska, Joanna; Kwan, Wing-Hong; Mathew, Beela S; Müller, Bettina; Nicolucci, Antonio; Peralta, Octavio; Pernas, Fany; Petruzelka, Lubos; Pienkowski, Tadeusz; Rajan, Balakrishnan; Rubach, Maryna T; Tort, Sera; Urrútia, Gerard; Valentini, Miriam; Wang, Yaochen; Peto, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background For women with oestrogen receptor (ER)-positive early breast cancer, treatment with tamoxifen for 5 years substantially reduces the breast cancer mortality rate throughout the first 15 years after diagnosis. We aimed to assess the further effects of continuing tamoxifen to 10 years instead of stopping at 5 years. Methods In the worldwide Adjuvant Tamoxifen: Longer Against Shorter (ATLAS) trial, 12 894 women with early breast cancer who had completed 5 years of treatment with tamoxifen were randomly allocated to continue tamoxifen to 10 years or stop at 5 years (open control). Allocation (1:1) was by central computer, using minimisation. After entry (between 1996 and 2005), yearly follow-up forms recorded any recurrence, second cancer, hospital admission, or death. We report effects on breast cancer outcomes among the 6846 women with ER-positive disease, and side-effects among all women (with positive, negative, or unknown ER status). Long-term follow-up still continues. This study is registered, number ISRCTN19652633. Findings Among women with ER-positive disease, allocation to continue tamoxifen reduced the risk of breast cancer recurrence (617 recurrences in 3428 women allocated to continue vs 711 in 3418 controls, p=0·002), reduced breast cancer mortality (331 deaths vs 397 deaths, p=0·01), and reduced overall mortality (639 deaths vs 722 deaths, p=0·01). The reductions in adverse breast cancer outcomes appeared to be less extreme before than after year 10 (recurrence rate ratio [RR] 0·90 [95% CI 0·79–1·02] during years 5–9 and 0·75 [0·62–0·90] in later years; breast cancer mortality RR 0·97 [0·79–1·18] during years 5–9 and 0·71 [0·58–0·88] in later years). The cumulative risk of recurrence during years 5–14 was 21·4% for women allocated to continue versus 25·1% for controls; breast cancer mortality during years 5–14 was 12·2% for women allocated to continue versus 15·0% for controls (absolute mortality

  18. [Preschool familial environment and academic difficulties: A 10-year follow-up from kindergarten to middle school].

    PubMed

    Câmara-Costa, H; Pulgar, S; Cusin, F; Dellatolas, G

    2016-02-01

    background characteristics at kindergarten were related to later academic outcomes at grade 9. From the original set of family characteristics, parental educational level, family situation, language-based bedtime routines, and type of early childcare significantly predicted later academic achievement at grade 9. Moreover, a multiple risk index score aggregating these specific family characteristics, together with three individual-level factors (gender, medical history, and language delay) was robustly and positively associated with an increased likelihood of school failure at the end of middle school. Unique to our study was the finding relative to the longitudinal association over a 10-year span of language-based bedtime routines with children's academic performance at the end of middle school. These findings underline the importance of including family background information in early surveillance procedures in order to improve the efficient screening of children who might be at risk of academic underachievement. Importantly, some of these contextual factors represent environmental characteristics that can be reversed early in life through appropriate and informed support to families. Moreover, the present work has important implications regarding the early detection of children who are at familial risk of underachievement, allowing the activation and promotion of adequate intervention strategies early in children's educational trajectories. PMID:26727157

  19. Predisposing Factors, Microbial Characteristics, and Clinical Outcome of Microbial Keratitis in a Tertiary Centre in Hong Kong: A 10-Year Experience

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Alex Lap-Ki; To, Kelvin Kai-Wang; Choi, Chile Chi-Lai; Yuen, Leonard Hsu; Yim, Suk-Ming; Chan, Keith Shun-Kit; Lai, Jimmy Shiu-Ming; Wong, Ian Yat-Hin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To study the risk factors, microbial profile, antibiotic susceptibility pattern, and outcome for microbial keratitis over the past 10 years in a tertiary center in Hong Kong. Methods. All cases with corneal scraping performed in Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong from January 2004 to December 2013 were included. Clinical outcome was defined as poor if the final visual acuity (VA) was abnormal or worse than presenting VA, a major complication occurred, or therapeutic keratoplasty was required. Results. 347 scrapes were performed in the 10-year period growing 130 microorganisms (32.3% culture positive rate). Contact lens use was the commonest risk factor. The commonest isolates were coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Fluoroquinolone susceptibility was tested in 47 Gram-negative bacteria with 93.6% susceptibility (100% for Pseudomonas). 90.7% of cases had good visual outcome. Multivariate logistic regression showed age (p = 0.03), trauma (p = 0.006), and ulcer size >3 mm (p = 0.039) to be independently associated with poor outcome. Conclusion. There was no shifting trend in the isolate distribution or emergence of resistant strains in our study. Contact lens wear was the commonest risk factor, with Pseudomonas being the most frequent isolate in this group. It remained 100% susceptible to fluoroquinolones and 97% cases had good visual outcome. PMID:26167295

  20. 10 years with Planet Earth essence in the primary school children drawings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Addezio, Giuliana

    2016-04-01

    "10 years with Planet Earth" is the title of the 2016 INGV calendar for primary schools representing the review of a project conceived as support and complement of 15 years long INGV dissemination activities with schools. We realized 10 calendars together with and for primary schools, every year with a subject related to a World in constant evolution. Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tsunami waves, magnetic storms and other phenomena are manifestations of the complexity and dynamicity, which began more than four billion years ago and never halted. Since the Earth originated to the first presence of water, life and oxygen, the Cambrian explosion of species, the domain of dinosaurs, the great extinctions and glaciations, the surface of our planet experiences continents collisions, mountains and oceans formation and life forms emerging and disappearing. Every year we have launched a competition asking children to send drawings on themes chosen to stimulate learning about Earth Sciences and Planet Earth dynamics. We intended to raise awareness on issues as water resources availability, protection against natural disasters and control of environmental degradation. For each competition, we chose the most significant drawings to be included in the yearly calendar about the Earth. The authors of drawings were awarded by scientists, journalists, artists and science communicators and even by a minister. Besides the competitions, these drawings depict their own impressions and reflections, providing an opportunity to illustrate the children's point of view. From drawings and texts arise a great consideration and respect for the Planet, raising hopes that similar initiatives can contribute to increase the knowledge of the Earth and of the fragile human ecosystem in the hearts and minds of future active citizens. The project was made possible thanks to the teachers and to the wonderful students of more than 200 schools that sent about 10,000 drawings that have intrigued

  1. Acute Splenic Infarction at an Academic General Hospital Over 10 Years

    PubMed Central

    Ami, Schattner; Meital, Adi; Ella, Kitroser; Abraham, Klepfish

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Few case series provide a current, comprehensive, and detailed description of splenic infarction (SI), an uncommon condition. Retrospective chart review complemented by imaging evaluation and patient follow-up. All adult patients with a confirmed diagnosis of acute SI discharged over 10 years from a single academic center were studied. A systematic literature review was done to compile a complete list of SI etiologies. SI was found in 32 patients, 0.016% of admissions. Ages ranged from 18 to 86 (median 64) years. Cardiogenic emboli were the predominant etiology (20/32, 62.5%) and atrial fibrillation was frequent. Other patients had autoimmune disease (12.5%), associated infection (12.5%), or hematological malignancy (6%). Nine of the patients (28%) had been previously healthy or with no recognized morbidity predisposing to SI. In 5 of 9 hitherto silent antiphospholipid syndrome or mitral valve disease had been identified. Two remained cryptogenic. Most patients presented with abdominal pain (84%), often felt in the left upper quadrant or epigastrium. Associated symptoms, leukocytosis or increased serum lactate dehydrogenase occurred inconsistently (∼25% each). Chest X-ray showed suggestive Lt. supra-diaphragmatic findings in 22%. Thus, the typical predisposing factors and/or clinical presentation should suggest SI to the clinician and be followed by early imaging by computed tomography (CT), highly useful also in atypical presentations. Complications were rare and patients were discharged after 6.5 days (median) on anticoagulant treatment. The systematic literature review revealed an extensive list of conditions underlying SI. In some, SI may be the first and presenting manifestation. SI is a rare event but should be considered in predisposed patients or those with any combination of suggestive clinical features, especially abdominal pain CT evaluation is diagnostic and the outcome is good. PMID:26356690

  2. Cognitive function and 10 year mortality in an 85 year-old community-dwelling population

    PubMed Central

    Takata, Yutaka; Ansai, Toshihiro; Soh, Inho; Awano, Shuji; Nakamichi, Ikuo; Akifusa, Sumio; Goto, Kenichi; Yoshida, Akihiro; Fujii, Hiroki; Fujisawa, Ritsuko; Sonoki, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between mortality and impaired cognitive function has not been thoroughly investigated in a very elderly community-dwelling population, and little is known about the association of disease-specific mortality with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) subscale scores. Here we evaluated these data in Japanese community-dwelling elderly. In 2003, 85 year-olds (n=207) were enrolled; 205 completed the MMSE for cognitive function and were followed-up for 10 years, during which time 120 participants died, 70 survived, and 17 were lost to follow-up. Thirty-eight deaths were due to cardiovascular disease, 22 to senility, 21 to respiratory disease, and 16 to cancer. All-cause mortality decreased by 4.3% with a 1-point increase in the global MMSE score without adjustment, and it decreased by 6.3% with adjustment for both sex and length of education. Cardiovascular mortality decreased by 7.6% and senility mortality decreased by 9.2% with a 1-point increase in the global MMSE score with adjustment for sex and education. No association was found between respiratory diseases or cancer mortality and global MMSE score. All-cause mortality also decreased with increases in MMSE subscale scores for time orientation, place orientation, delayed recall, naming objects, and listening and obeying. Cardiovascular mortality was also associated with the MMSE subscale of naming objects, and senility mortality was associated with the subscales of time orientation and place orientation. Thus, we found that impaired cognitive function determined by global MMSE score and some MMSE subscale scores were independent predictors of all-cause mortality or mortality due to cardiovascular disease or senility in 85 year-olds. PMID:25336934

  3. The impact of a 10-year audit cycle on blood usage in a district general hospital.

    PubMed

    James, R M; Brown, S; Parapia, L A; Williams, A T

    2001-10-01

    As clinical governance moves from concept to practice, it is emerging as a realistic strategy to promote and improve quality within the National Health Service, as well as satisfying the demand for external accountability. In the context of blood transfusion, the area of responsibility encompasses product liability, as well as efficient use of blood as a resource and transfusion as an appropriate clinical response. Clinical governance may be a modern catch phrase, but the principles it enshrines have long been established within blood transfusion, and in other aspects of haematology. Here, an audit cycle comprising four audits over a 10-year period to monitor the use of cross-matched blood in a large district general hospital is described. Initially, blood use was considered by hospital site, and by the surgical procedure for which it was requested. Later, the scope of the audit was expanded to consider usage by individual consultant. A standard of efficient use of cross-matched blood was taken to be a cross-match to transfusion ratio of < 1.5. The information was reviewed by the hospital transfusion committee, who have a key role in co-ordinating and assessing the practice of transfusion within a hospital. In this hospital, audit has been one of the main tools for improving practice, in particular by enabling the implementation and continuous revision of a maximum blood order schedule. Further, as the process of audit has developed, problem areas have been highlighted, and strategies to improve usage have been brought in with encouraging results. The audit is now being expanded again to include a greater focus on usage of cross-matched blood in the nonsurgical setting. PMID:11696230

  4. Course of Depression in a 10-year Prospective Study: Evidence for Qualitatively Distinct Subgroups

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Daniel N.; Kotov, Roman

    2016-01-01

    The course of depressive disorders can vary considerable, with some individuals exhibiting a chronic course and poor outcomes, while others have a more episodic course and better outcomes. However it is unclear whether degree of chronicity is continuous or reflects qualitatively distinct subgroups. Using data from a 5-wave, 10-year, naturalistic study of 127 depressed outpatients, we examined whether depression chronicity lies on a continuum or manifests natural boundaries. Spline regression was used to test 7 continuous and discontinuous models of the relationship between depression during the first follow-up interval and multiple outcomes at subsequent follow-ups. In order to further validate the findings, we also created empirically-derived subgroups based on the results of the spline regression analyses and compared them on baseline clinical characteristics and long-term outcomes. There was a clear and consistent discontinuity indicating that for higher levels of chronicity during the first 30 month period, depression was linearly related to outcome; in contrast, for lower levels of chronicity, depression in the initial interval was unrelated to subsequent outcomes. The findings were strikingly consistent across the 4 follow-up evaluations using multiple outcomes and goodness-of-fit indices. In addition, the chronic group--as defined by the first follow-up period--exhibited more baseline chronic depression, anxiety and personality disorders, family history of dysthymia, and childhood adversity, and was more likely to attempt suicide and be hospitalized during follow-up, than the non-chronic group. Results suggest that there are qualitatively distinct classes of patients with more and less chronic depressions, and support the utility of longitudinal course as a means of parsing depression into more homogeneous subgroups. PMID:26845258

  5. Variability and Stability in Daily Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity among 10 Year Old Children.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Sara; Gomes, Thayse Natacha; Borges, Alessandra; Santos, Daniel; Souza, Michele; dos Santos, Fernanda K; Chaves, Raquel N; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Maia, José A R

    2015-08-01

    Day-to-day variability and stability of children's physical activity levels across days of the week are not well understood. Our aims were to examine the day-to-day variability of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), to determine factors influencing the day-to-day variability of MVPA and to estimate stability of MVPA in children. The sample comprises 686 Portuguese children (10 years of age). MVPA was assessed with an accelerometer, and BMI was computed from measured height and weight. Daily changes in MVPA and their correlates (gender, BMI, and maturity) were modeled with a multilevel approach, and tracking was calculated using Foulkes & Davies γ. A total of 51.3% of boys and 26.2% of girls achieved 60 min/day of MVPA on average. Daily MVPA was lower during the weekend (23.6% of boys and 13.6% of girls comply with the recommended 60 min/day of MVPA) compared to weekdays (60.8% and 35.4%, boys and girls, respectively). Normal weight children were more active than obese children and no effect was found for biological maturation. Tracking is low in both boys (γ = 0.59 ± 0.01) and girls (γ = 0.56 ± 0.01). Children's MVPA levels during a week are highly unstable. In summary, boys are more active than girls, maturation does not affect their MVPA, and obese children are less likely to meet 60 min/day of MVPA. These results highlight the importance of providing opportunities for increasing children's daily MVPA on all days of week, especially on the weekend. PMID:26262632

  6. Epidemiological comparison of three Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia epidemics in a single hospital over 10 years

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun-Kyung; Youn, You-Sook; Rhim, Jung-Woo; Shin, Myung-Seok; Kang, Jin-Han

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) pneumonia epidemics have occurred in 3- to 4-year cycles in Korea. We evaluated the epidemiologic characteristics of MP pneumonia in Daejeon, Korea, from 2003 to 2012. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 779 medical records of children (0-15 years of old) with MP pneumonia admitted to our institution and compared the data from 3 recent epidemics. Results In 779 patients, the mean age and male-to-female ratio were 5.0±2.2 years and 1:1, and most cases were observed in autumn. There were three epidemics during the study period, in 2003, 2006-2007, and 2011. In our comparison of the three epidemics, we found no differences in mean age, the male-to-female ratio, hospital stay, or the rate of seroconverters during hospitalization. All three epidemics began in early summer and peaked in September 2003 and 2011 and in October 2006 and then gradually decreased until the next year's spring season, although the 2006 epidemic extended further into 2007. The peak age groups in the children in 2003 and 2006 were 3-6 year-olds (57.5% and 56%, respectively), but in the 2011 epidemic, the peak group was 1-4 year-olds (46.5%). The proportion of the <2 years of age group was 20%, 15.7% and 28.8%, and >10 years of age group was 5.2%, 13.8%, and 14.8% of total patients, respectively. Conclusion MP pneumonia outbreaks occurred every 3-4 years. The pattern of 3 recent epidemics was similar in demographic characteristics and seasonality with some variations in each outbreak. PMID:26124847

  7. Surprises in the Saturn System: 10 Years of Cassini Discoveries and More Excitement to Come

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spilker, L. J.; Altobelli, N.; Edgington, S. G.

    2014-12-01

    Cassini's findings have revolutionized our understanding of Saturn, its complex rings, the amazing assortment of moons and the planet's dynamic magnetic environment. The robotic spacecraft arrived in 2004 after a 7-year flight from Earth, dropped a parachuted probe named Huygens to study the atmosphere and surface of Saturn's big moon Titan, and commenced making astonishing discoveries that continue today. Icy jets shoot from the tiny moon Enceladus; Titan's hydrocarbon lakes and seas are dominated by liquid ethane and methane, and complex pre-biotic chemicals form in the atmosphere and rain to the surface; 3-dimensional structures rise above Saturn's rings, and a giant Saturn storm circled the entire planet. Cassini's findings at Saturn have also fundamentally altered many of our concepts of how planets form around stars. The Solstice Mission continues to provide fundamental new science as Cassini observes seasonal and temporal changes, and addresses new questions that have arisen during the mission thus far. The mission's grand finale occurs in 2017, with 22 inclined orbits between the innermost D ring and the upper portions of Saturn's atmosphere, enabling unique gravity and magnetic field measurements of the planet, unprecedented determination of the ring mass, some of the highest resolution measurements of the rings and Saturn, and in situ observations in a completely new region around the planet. Highlights from 10 years of Cassini's ambitious inquiry at Saturn will be presented along with the remarkable science that will be collected in the next three years. Cassini-Huygens is a cooperative undertaking by NASA, the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Italian space agency (Agenzia Spaziale Italiana, ASI). This work was carried out in part at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with NASA. Copyright 2014 California Institute of Technology. Government sponsorship is acknowledged.

  8. Partial sight and blindness in children of the 1970 birth cohort at 10 years of age.

    PubMed Central

    Stewart-Brown, S L; Haslum, M N

    1988-01-01

    The prevalence and causes of partial sight and blindness (best corrected distant visual acuity of 6/24 or less) have been studied in a nationally representative sample of 15,000 10-year-old children. The prevalence of blindness (acuity less than 6/60) was between 3.4 and 4.0/10,000. All these children had been registered as blind; less than half were in schools for the blind, the remainder were all in other special schools. The prevalence of partial sight (acuity less than or equal to 6/24 greater than or equal to 6/60) was between 5.4 and 8.7/10,000; less than half of these children were in schools for the visually handicapped or partially sighted; most were in ordinary schools; half were neither registered as partially sighted nor ascertained as in need of special education for visual handicap. The most common cause of partial sight or blindness in this cohort was congenital cataract; the second most common was congenital nystagmus. The study identified a number of children whose best acuity on examination was 6/24 or less who had either no ophthalmological diagnosis or who had been diagnosed as suffering from a refractive error. These children have been included in the study because at the time of the survey they had either not been prescribed spectacles or they had spectacles which they were not wearing; the functional visual level of these children was therefore equivalent to that of those defined as partially sighted. PMID:3418281

  9. 10 years after rio-concepts on the contribution of chemistry to a sustainable development.

    PubMed

    Eissen, Marco; Metzger, Jürgen O; Schmidt, Eberhard; Schneidewind, Uwe

    2002-02-01

    The principles of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), held in June 1992 in Rio de Janeiro, and Agenda 21, the comprehensive plan of action for the 21st century, adopted 10 years ago by more than 170 governments, address the pressing problems of today and also aim at preparing the world for the challenges of this century. The conservation and management of resources for development are the main focus of interest, to which the sciences will have to make a considerable contribution. Natural, economic, and social sciences will have to be integrated in order to achieve this aim. In their future programs, the associations of the chemical industries in Europe, Japan, and the USA have explicitly accepted their obligation to foster a sustainable development. In this review we investigate innovations in chemistry exemplarily for such a development with regard to their ecological, economical, and social dimensions from an integrated and interdisciplinary perspective. Since base chemicals are produced in large quantities and important product lines are synthesized from them, their resource-saving production is especially important for a sustainable development. This concept has been shown, amongst others, by the example of the syntheses of propylene oxide and adipic acid. In the long run, renewable resources that are catalytically processed could replace fossil raw materials. Separation methods existing today must be improved considerably to lower material and energy consumption. Chemistry might become the pioneer of an innovative energy technique. The design of chemical products should make possible a sustainable processing and recycling and should prevent their bio-accumulation. Methods and criteria to assess their contribution to a sustainable development are necessary. The time taken to introduce the new more sustainable processes and products has to be diminished by linking their development with operational innovation management and with

  10. Variability and Stability in Daily Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity among 10 Year Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Sara; Gomes, Thayse Natacha; Borges, Alessandra; Santos, Daniel; Souza, Michele; dos Santos, Fernanda K.; Chaves, Raquel N.; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Maia, José A. R.

    2015-01-01

    Day-to-day variability and stability of children’s physical activity levels across days of the week are not well understood. Our aims were to examine the day-to-day variability of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), to determine factors influencing the day-to-day variability of MVPA and to estimate stability of MVPA in children. The sample comprises 686 Portuguese children (10 years of age). MVPA was assessed with an accelerometer, and BMI was computed from measured height and weight. Daily changes in MVPA and their correlates (gender, BMI, and maturity) were modeled with a multilevel approach, and tracking was calculated using Foulkes & Davies γ. A total of 51.3% of boys and 26.2% of girls achieved 60 min/day of MVPA on average. Daily MVPA was lower during the weekend (23.6% of boys and 13.6% of girls comply with the recommended 60 min/day of MVPA) compared to weekdays (60.8% and 35.4%, boys and girls, respectively). Normal weight children were more active than obese children and no effect was found for biological maturation. Tracking is low in both boys (γ = 0.59 ± 0.01) and girls (γ = 0.56 ± 0.01). Children’s MVPA levels during a week are highly unstable. In summary, boys are more active than girls, maturation does not affect their MVPA, and obese children are less likely to meet 60 min/day of MVPA. These results highlight the importance of providing opportunities for increasing children’s daily MVPA on all days of week, especially on the weekend. PMID:26262632

  11. Birth size and physical activity in a cohort of Indian children aged 6-10 years.

    PubMed

    Kehoe, S H; Krishnaveni, G V; Veena, S R; Hill, J C; Osmond, C; Kiran; Coakley, P; Karat, S C; Fall, C H D

    2012-08-01

    There is evidence of a reduction in children's physical activity in India in the last decade. Our objective was to assess whether size and body composition at birth are associated with physical activity in school-aged children. Children from a prospective observational cohort study born in Mysore, South India between 1997 and 1998 (n = 663) had neonatal anthropometric measurements made within 72 h of delivery [weight, mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), chest, abdomen and head circumference, crown-heel, crown-buttock and leg length, triceps and subscapular skinfolds]. At 6-10 years, children (n = 449) were asked to wear AM7164 or GT1M Actigraph accelerometers for 7 days. Body composition was measured within 6 months of activity monitoring. Arm muscle area at birth and time of activity monitoring was calculated from MUAC and skinfold measurements. Activity outcome measures were: mean accelerometer counts per minute (cpm); counts per day and proportion of time spent in moderate and vigorous activity. The mean (S.D.) number of days with ≥500 min of recorded accelerometer data was 7.0 (1.1). Linear regression models showed no significant associations between any of the neonatal anthropometric measures and the activity variables. Body fat percentage at 7.5 years was negatively associated with all activity variables (B = -4.69, CI: -7.31, -2.07 for mean cpm). In conclusion, this study showed no associations between body size and skinfold thickness at birth and objectively measured physical activity in childhood. PMID:24098836

  12. The DOTS strategy in China: results and lessons after 10 years.

    PubMed Central

    Xianyi, Chen; Fengzeng, Zhao; Hongjin, Duanmu; Liya, Wan; Lixia, Wang; Xin, Du; Chin, Daniel P.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse the five-point tuberculosis (TB) strategy, DOTS, 10 years after its implementation in one-half of China's population, and to suggest lessons for future implementation of the DOTS strategy. METHODS: We analysed trends in case-finding and treatment outcome over time following implementation of the DOTS strategy in each county, using routine reporting data from the Infectious and Endemic Disease Control (IEDC) project (1991 - 2000). We also determined the proportion of counties with different levels of case-finding for the fifth and sixth years of DOTS implementation. FINDINGS: From 1991 to 1995, DOTS expanded rapidly to cover more than 90% of target population and counties. By 2000, 8 million TB suspects had received free diagnostic evaluation: 1.8 million TB cases were diagnosed, free treatment was provided to 1.3 million smear-positive cases, and more than 90% were cured. During DOTS implementation, the percentage of previously treated cases decreased among all smear-positive cases and treatment outcomes improved. Despite these achievements, the detection rate for new smear-positive cases in the project was estimated to be only 54% in 1998, and 41.2% of the counties had a below average or low level of case-finding (with substantial variation between provinces). CONCLUSIONS: The IEDC project demonstrated that it is feasible to rapidly expand DOTS on a large scale. The global target of an 85% cure rate was quickly achieved, and the level of drug-resistance was probably reduced by this project. However, case-detection did not reach the 70% global target, and more research is needed on how to enhance this. PMID:12131998

  13. Ciguatera fish poisoning in Hong Kong--a 10-year perspective on the class of ciguatoxins.

    PubMed

    Wong, Chun-Kwan; Hung, Patricia; Lo, Janice Y C

    2014-08-01

    The present study used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to investigate retrospectively ciguatoxin (CTX)-positive samples as determined by mouse bioassay (MBA) in the past 10 years in Hong Kong. The results showed that Pacific CTXs (P-CTX-1, -2 and -3) were the most commonly observed toxins found in the samples, indicating Pacific Ocean areas as the most important origin of ciguatera fish poisoning. Clinical diagnosis from ciguatera patients also revealed the predominance of neurological illnesses in most cases, supporting intoxication of Pacific origin. This study demonstrated the ability of laboratory analysis to identify and quantify Pacific CTXs in suspected fish samples, so as to support the clinical diagnosis of ciguatera. Comparative analysis (Student's t-test and Spearman's rank correlation analysis) on the two CTX detection methods showed approximate linearity for overall P-CTXs (P-CTX-1, -2 and -3)/P-CTX-1 alone as derived by LC-MS/MS and total toxicity levels (P-CTX-1 equivalent) as determined by MBA. The LC-MS/MS method coupled with the rapid extraction method could allow the detection of trace amount of CTXs at levels below the clinically relevant limit, 0.1 ppb P-CTX-1 in fish flesh. For practical application, the adoption of a two-tiered approach for testing, chemical analysis by LC-MS/MS for toxic fish screening, coupled with biological assay by MBA for final toxicity confirmation, was proposed for first-line screening of CTX in potentially contaminated fish samples in the market, with an aim to minimizing the use of laboratory mice and at the same time providing reasonably effective means for routine analysis. PMID:24878373

  14. Future prospect 2012-2025 - How will our business change for the next 10 years -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Sakae

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this lecture is to discuss about the "Future". How our business will change in the next 10 years? I believe the key is 3 mega-trends "Sustainability", "Cloud Computing" and "Life Innovation". With the development of social environment, the required business will change, too. The future would be invisible if you shut yourself up in your single industry. It is important to see various business fields horizontally, and recognize various key changes stereoscopically such as demographics, economy, technology, sense of value and lifestyle, when you develop mid-and-long term strategy. "Cloud" is silent, but the revolution of personal computing. It will bring the drastic changes in every industry. It will make "voice" and "moving image" possible to use as the interface to access your computer. Cloud computing will also make the client device more diversified and spread the application range widely. 15 years ago, the term "IT" was equivalent to "personal computer". Recently, it rather means to use smartphone and tablet device. In the next several years, TV and car-navigation system will be connected to broadband and it will become a part of personal computing. The meaning of personal computing is changing essentially year by year. In near future, the universe of computing will expand to the energy, medical and health-care, and agriculture etc. It passed only 20 years since we use "Computer" in a full scale operation. Recently, computer has start understanding our few words and talking in babble like a baby. The history of computing has just started.

  15. HEMIPELVECTOMY: ERASTO GAERTNER HOSPITAL'S EXPERIENCES WITH 32 CASES IN 10 YEARS

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Rosyane Rena de; Crivellaro, André Luiz Soares; Mello, Glauco José Pauka; Neto, Múrio Armani; Filho, Geraldo de Freitas; Silva, Letícia Viani da

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To show the experience of the Erasto Gaertner Hospital with hemipelvectomy surgery over a 10-year period. Methods: This was a retrospective study on 32 patients who underwent hemipelvectomy at Erasto Gaertner Hospital between 1998 and 2008, assessing clinical and surgical characteristics. Results: Among the 32 patients, 15 were female and 17 were male. The mean age was 37.94 years. Eight cases showed involvement of the neurovascular bundle: three were located in the iliac and extended to the thigh, two were in the acetabulum and extended to the thigh and three were in the acetabulum and pubis. Twenty-three cases presented a neurovascular bundle free from neoplasia: 11 were restricted to the iliac, six were in the acetabular region, two were in the pubic ramus and four extended to the whole hemipelvis bone. One case involved the iliac-femoral vessels: one in the pubic ramus. Seven cases of chondrosarcoma and four cases of Ewing's sarcoma represented the majority. Eight cases underwent external hemipelvectomy and 24 underwent internal hemipelvectomy (11 were type I; four were type II; two were type II + III; three were type III and four were type IV). Of these 24 cases, 13 did not have any reconstruction, 10 had a fibular graft and one had an iliacfemoral vein and artery prosthesis. Twenty-six surgeries were curative and six were palliative. There were 14 deaths. Survival of two and five years was seen in 11 and 10 cases, respectively. For six cases, less than two years had passed since the operation. Three cases were lost during follow-up. Conclusion: This study shows the experiences of an oncology reference service specializing in highly complex surgical treatment. PMID:27022573

  16. Cost savings associated with 10 years of road safety policies in Catalonia, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Suelves, Josep M; Barbería, Eneko

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine whether the road safety policies introduced between 2000 and 2010 in Catalonia, Spain, which aimed primarily to reduce deaths from road traffic collisions by 50% by 2010, were associated with economic benefits to society. Methods A cost analysis was performed from a societal perspective with a 10-year time horizon. It considered the costs of: hospital admissions; ambulance transport; autopsies; specialized health care; police, firefighter and roadside assistance; adapting to disability; and productivity lost due to institutionalization, death or sick leave of the injured or their caregivers; as well as material and administrative costs. Data were obtained from a Catalan hospital registry, the Catalan Traffic Service information system, insurance companies and other sources. All costs were calculated in euros (€) at 2011 values. Findings A substantial reduction in deaths from road traffic collisions was observed between 2000 and 2010. Between 2001 and 2010, with the implementation of new road safety policies, there were 26 063 fewer road traffic collisions with victims than expected, 2909 fewer deaths (57%) and 25 444 fewer hospitalizations. The estimated total cost savings were around €18 000 million. Of these, around 97% resulted from reductions in lost productivity. Of the remaining cost savings, 63% were associated with specialized health care, 15% with adapting to disability and 8.1% with hospital care. Conclusion The road safety policies implemented in Catalonia in recent years were associated with a reduction in the number of deaths and injuries from traffic collisions and with substantial economic benefits to society. PMID:23397348

  17. CT-detected traumatic small artery extremity injuries: surgery, embolize, or watch? A 10-year experience.

    PubMed

    Velez, Erik; Surman, Andrew M; Nanavati, Sujal M; Kumar, Vishal; Lehrman, Evan; Wilson, Mark W; Conrad, Miles B

    2016-02-01

    Advances in computed tomography (CT) angiography have increased the sensitivity and specificity of detecting small branch arterial injuries in the extremities of trauma patients. However, it is unclear whether these patients should undergo surgery, angioembolization, or conservative watchful waiting. We hypothesized that uncomplicated small arterial branch injuries can be managed successfully with watchful waiting. A 10-year retrospective review of extremity CT angiograms with search findings of arterial "active extravasation" or "pseudoaneurysm" was performed at a level 1 county trauma center. Subgroup analysis was performed on those with isolated extremity injury and those with concurrent injuries. A total of 31 patients had CT-detected active extravasation (84 %) or pseudoaneurysm (16 %), 71 % of which were isolated vascular injuries. Of the patients evaluated, 71 % (n = 22) were managed with watchful waiting, 19 % (n = 6) with angioembolization, and 10 % (n = 3) with surgery. Watchful waiting complications included progression to alternative treatment (n = 1) and blood transfusions (n = 2). Complications of surgery included the inability to find active bleeding (n = 1) and postoperative psychosis (n = 1). Complications of angioembolization were limited to a postprocedure blood transfusion (n = 1). Patients with isolated vascular injuries had an average length of stay of 2.9 days, with management averages of the following: 2.7 days with watchful waiting (n = 16), 3.3 days with angioembolization (n = 3), and 3.7 days with surgery (n = 3). CT angiography has greatly increased the reported incidence of traumatic arterial injury in the extremity. We propose that small branch arterial injuries in the extremities can be managed successfully with watchful waiting and do not often require immediate embolization. PMID:26581655

  18. The 10-year Trend of Periprocedural Complication Following Carotid Artery Stenting; Single Center Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Jeong-Ho; Kang, Jihoon; Yeo, Min-Ju; Kim, Beom Joon; Jang, Min Uk; Bae, Hee-Joon; Kwon, O-Ki; Hwang, Gyo Jun; Oh, Chang Wan; Jung, Cheolkyu; Lee, Ji Sung; Han, Moon-Ku

    2015-04-15

    PurposeCarotid endarterectomy and stenting are used to treat carotid stenosis, with the volume of carotid artery procedures increasing over the past decade. We investigated the 10-year trend of periprocedural complications with an increasing procedure volume of carotid stenting at a single tertiary hospital.MethodsWe collected 416 consecutive cases (384 patients) of carotid artery stenting performed for either symptomatic (231 cases, 55.5 %) or asymptomatic (185 cases, 44.5 %) internal carotid artery stenosis at a single center. Periprocedural complication was defined as any stroke, myocardial infarction, or death. Procedure-related outcome included any dissection, hemodynamic event, or periprocedural complication.ResultsThe mean age was 68.8 years (82.8 % males; range of 20–89 years); 23.9 % were older than 75 years. Before the procedure, 99.3 and 56.0 % of patients received antiplatelet and lipid-lowering medication, respectively. The overall periprocedural complication rate was 3.6 % (1.6 and 5.2 % in the asymptomatic and symptomatic group, respectively). The composite outcome of any stroke or death was 3.4 %. Periprocedural complication and procedure-related outcome showed a decremental trend with increasing procedure volume, and this trend remained after adjusting for confounders.ConclusionsOur study suggests that carotid stenting at an experienced center might reduce the periprocedural complications. Our periprocedural complication rate of carotid artery stenting may be comparable to, or somewhat lower than, that reported in other clinical trials.

  19. Acute Splenic Infarction at an Academic General Hospital Over 10 Years: Presentation, Etiology, and Outcome.

    PubMed

    Schattner, Ami; Ami, Schattner; Adi, Meital; Meital, Adi; Kitroser, Ella; Ella, Kitroser; Klepfish, Abraham; Abraham, Klepfish

    2015-09-01

    Few case series provide a current, comprehensive, and detailed description of splenic infarction (SI), an uncommon condition.Retrospective chart review complemented by imaging evaluation and patient follow-up.All adult patients with a confirmed diagnosis of acute SI discharged over 10 years from a single academic center were studied. A systematic literature review was done to compile a complete list of SI etiologies.SI was found in 32 patients, 0.016% of admissions. Ages ranged from 18 to 86 (median 64) years. Cardiogenic emboli were the predominant etiology (20/32, 62.5%) and atrial fibrillation was frequent. Other patients had autoimmune disease (12.5%), associated infection (12.5%), or hematological malignancy (6%). Nine of the patients (28%) had been previously healthy or with no recognized morbidity predisposing to SI. In 5 of 9 hitherto silent antiphospholipid syndrome or mitral valve disease had been identified. Two remained cryptogenic. Most patients presented with abdominal pain (84%), often felt in the left upper quadrant or epigastrium. Associated symptoms, leukocytosis or increased serum lactate dehydrogenase occurred inconsistently (∼25% each). Chest X-ray showed suggestive Lt. supra-diaphragmatic findings in 22%. Thus, the typical predisposing factors and/or clinical presentation should suggest SI to the clinician and be followed by early imaging by computed tomography (CT), highly useful also in atypical presentations. Complications were rare and patients were discharged after 6.5 days (median) on anticoagulant treatment. The systematic literature review revealed an extensive list of conditions underlying SI. In some, SI may be the first and presenting manifestation.SI is a rare event but should be considered in predisposed patients or those with any combination of suggestive clinical features, especially abdominal pain CT evaluation is diagnostic and the outcome is good. PMID:26356690

  20. Birth size and physical activity in a cohort of Indian children aged 6–10 years

    PubMed Central

    Kehoe, S. H.; Krishnaveni, G. V.; Veena, S. R.; Hill, J. C.; Osmond, C.; Kiran; Coakley, P.; Karat, S. C.; Fall, C. H. D.

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence of a reduction in children’s physical activity in India in the last decade. Our objective was to assess whether size and body composition at birth are associated with physical activity in school-aged children. Children from a prospective observational cohort study born in Mysore, South India between 1997 and 1998 (n = 663) had neonatal anthropometric measurements made within 72 h of delivery [weight, mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), chest, abdomen and head circumference, crown–heel, crown–buttock and leg length, triceps and subscapular skinfolds]. At 6–10 years, children (n = 449) were asked to wear AM7164 or GT1M Actigraph accelerometers for 7 days. Body composition was measured within 6 months of activity monitoring. Arm muscle area at birth and time of activity monitoring was calculated from MUAC and skinfold measurements. Activity outcome measures were: mean accelerometer counts per minute (cpm); counts per day and proportion of time spent in moderate and vigorous activity. The mean (S.D.) number of days with ≥500 min of recorded accelerometer data was 7.0 (1.1). Linear regression models showed no significant associations between any of the neonatal anthropometric measures and the activity variables. Body fat percentage at 7.5 years was negatively associated with all activity variables (B = −4.69, CI: −7.31, −2.07 for mean cpm). In conclusion, this study showed no associations between body size and skinfold thickness at birth and objectively measured physical activity in childhood. PMID:24098836

  1. A 10-year longitudinal fMRI study of narrative comprehension in children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Szaflarski, Jerzy P.; Altaye, Mekibib; Rajagopal, Akila; Eaton, Kenneth; Meng, XiangXiang; Plante, Elena; Holland, Scott K.

    2012-01-01

    Comprehension of spoken narratives requires coordination of multiple language skills. As such, for normal children narrative skills develop well into the school years and, during this period, are particularly vulnerable in the face of brain injury or developmental disorder. For these reasons, we sought to determine the developmental trajectory of narrative processing using longitudinal fMRI scanning. 30 healthy children between the ages of 5 and 18 enrolled at ages 5, 6, or 7, were examined annually for up to 10 years. At each fMRI session, children were presented with a set of five, 30s–long, stories containing 9, 10, or 11 sentences designed to be understood by a 5 year old child. FMRI data analysis was conducted based on a hierarchical linear model (HLM) that was modified to investigate developmental changes while accounting for missing data and controlling for factors such as age, linguistic performance and IQ. Performance testing conducted after each scan indicated well above the chance (p < 0.002) comprehension performance. There was a linear increase with increasing age in bilateral superior temporal cortical activation (BA 21 and 22) linked to narrative processing. Conversely, age-related decreases in cortical activation were observed in bilateral occipital regions, cingulate and cuneus, possibly reflecting changes in the default mode networks. The dynamic changes observed in this longitudinal fMRI study support the increasing role of bilateral BAs 21 and 22 in narrative comprehension, involving non-domain-specific integration in order to achieve final story interpretation. The presence of a continued linear development of this area throughout childhood and teenage years with no apparent plateau, indicates that full maturation of narrative processing skills has not yet occurred and that it may be delayed to early adulthood. PMID:22951258

  2. Haiti's progress in achieving its 10-year plan to eliminate cholera: hidden sickness cannot be cured.

    PubMed

    Koski-Karell, Victoria; Farmer, Paul E; Isaac, Benito; Campa, Elizabeth M; Viaud, Loune; Namphy, Paul C; Ternier, Ralph; Ivers, Louise C

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of the cholera epidemic in Haiti 5 years ago, the prevalence of this deadly water-borne disease has fallen far below the initial rates registered during its explosive outset. However, cholera continues to cause extensive suffering and needless deaths across the country, particularly among the poor. The urgent need to eliminate transmission of cholera persists: compared to the same period in 2014, the first 4 months of 2015 saw three times the number of cholera cases. Drawing upon epidemiology, clinical work (and clinical knowledge), policy, ecology, and political economy, and informed by ethnographic data collected in a rural area of Haiti called Bocozel, this paper evaluates the progress of the nation's 10-year Plan for the Elimination of Cholera. Bocozel is a rice-producing region where most people live in extreme poverty. The irrigation network is decrepit, the land is prone to environmental shocks, fertilizer is not affordable, and the government's capacity to assist farmers is undermined by resource constraints. When peasants do have rice to sell, the price of domestically grown rice is twice that of US-imported rice. Canal water is not only used to irrigate thousands of acres of rice paddies and sustain livestock, but also to bathe, wash, and play, while water from wells, hand pumps, and the river is used for drinking, cooking, and bathing. Only one out of the three government-sponsored water treatment stations in the research area is still functional and utilized by those who can afford it. Latrines are scarce and often shared by up to 30 people; open defecation remains common. Structural vulnerabilities cut across all sectors - not just water, sanitation, health care, and education, but agriculture, environment, (global and local) commerce, transportation, and governance as well. These are among the hidden sicknesses that impede Haiti and its partners' capacity to eliminate cholera. PMID:27307774

  3. The genetics of Alzheimer's disease in Brazil: 10 years of analysis in a unique population.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, J R M; Nishimura, A L; Lemos, R R; Zatz, M

    2009-01-01

    Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia among the elderly, with devastating consequences for the patient, their relatives, and caregivers. More than 300 genetic polymorphisms have been involved with AD, demonstrating that this condition is polygenic and with a complex pattern of inheritance. This paper aims to report and compare the results of AD genetics studies in case-control and familial analysis performed in Brazil since our first publication, 10 years ago. They include the following genes/markers: Apolipoprotein E (APOE), 5-hidroxytryptamine transporter length polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR), brain-derived neurotrophin factor (BDNF), monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A), and two simple-sequence tandem repeat polymorphisms (DXS1047 and D10S1423). Previously unpublished data of the interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta) genes are reported here briefly. Results from others Brazilian studies with AD patients are also reported at this short review. Four local families studied with various markers at the chromosome 21, 19, 14, and 1 are briefly reported for the first time. The importance of studying DNA samples from Brazil is highlighted because of the uniqueness of its population, which presents both intense ethnical miscegenation, mainly at the east coast, but also clusters with high inbreeding rates in rural areas at the countryside. We discuss the current stage of extending these studies using high-throughput methods of large-scale genotyping, such as single nucleotide polymorphism microarrays, associated with bioinformatics tools that allow the analysis of such extensive number of genetics variables, with different levels of penetrance. There is still a long way between the huge amount of data gathered so far and the actual application toward the full understanding of AD, but the final goal is to develop precise tools for diagnosis and prognosis, creating new strategies for better treatments based on genetic profile. PMID

  4. Affective dysregulation and reality distortion: a 10-year prospective study of their association and clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    van Rossum, Inge; Dominguez, Maria-de-Gracia; Lieb, Roselind; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; van Os, Jim

    2011-05-01

    Evidence from clinical patient populations indicates that affective dysregulation is strongly associated with reality distortion, suggesting that a process of misassignment of emotional salience may underlie this connection. To examine this in more detail without clinical confounds, affective regulation-reality distortion relationships, and their clinical relevance, were examined in a German prospective cohort community study. A cohort of 2524 adolescents and young adults aged 14-24 years at baseline was examined by experienced psychologists. Presence of psychotic experiences and (hypo)manic and depressive symptoms was assessed at 2 time points (3.5 and up to 10 years after baseline) using the Munich-Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Associations were tested between level of affective dysregulation on the one hand and incidence of psychotic experiences, persistence of these experiences, and psychotic Impairment on the other. Most psychotic experiences occurred in a context of affective dysregulation, and bidirectional dose-response was apparent with greater level of both affective dysregulation and psychotic experiences. Persistence of psychotic experiences was progressively more likely with greater level of (hypo)manic symptoms (odds ratio [OR] trend=1.51, P<.001) and depressive symptoms (OR trend=1.15, P=.012). Similarly, psychotic experiences of clinical relevance were progressively more likely to occur with greater level of affective dysregulation (depressive symptoms: OR trend=1.28, P=.002; (hypo)manic symptoms: OR trend=1.37, P=.036). Correlated genetic liabilities underlying affective and nonaffective psychotic syndromes may be expressed as correlated dimensions in the general population. Also, affective dysregulation may contribute causally to the persistence and clinical relevance of reality distortion, possibly by facilitating a mechanism of aberrant salience attribution. PMID:19793794

  5. Spectrum of Sinonasal Tumors: A 10-year Experience at a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India

    PubMed Central

    Shirazi, Nadia; Bist, Sampan S.; Selvi, Thamarai N.; Harsh, Meena

    2015-01-01

    Objective Sinonasal tumors are a highly heterogeneous group of tumors that account for less than 1% of all cancers. Precise diagnosis is essential because the natural history, treatment, and prognosis vary for different neoplasms. We reviewed 610 cases of sinonasal lesions to understand this entity better. Methods A total of 610 sinonasal biopsies/specimens were received over a period of 10 years (2004–14). All the samples were processed and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Special staining for microorganisms and immunohistochemistry were performed where indicated. Results Benign lesions were 72% with nasal polyp being the most common. Malignant lesions made up 21.2% of lesions with nasopharyngeal carcinoma being the most common while 7.7% cases were inflammatory/non-neoplastic. The most common cause for this was fungal sinusitis. The maxillary sinus was the most frequently involved site in all the lesions (62%). The average age of presentation was 40 years old, and the male to female ratio was 3:1 in those with benign tumors. The average age of presentation in the malignant and inflammatory group were 45 and 43 years, respectively, with an almost equal sex ratio in both categories. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans were done in virtually all cases to assess the extent of the tumor as well as bony destruction. Local recurrence was the most frequent cause of treatment failure. Conclusion Tumors of the nasal cavity are often grouped with those in the paranasal sinuses. Benign tumors constituted approximately 75% of tumors in our hospital. Squamous cell carcinoma was the most common malignancy of this region. These tumors need to be studied closely and accurately because their proximity to vital structures pose significant challenges for their treatment and may be the source of significant patient morbidity. PMID:26674709

  6. Ureteroscopy with conscious sedation for distal ureteric calculi: 10-year experience

    PubMed Central

    Kroczak, Tadeusz J.; Kaler, Kamaljot Singh; Patel, Premal; Al-Essawi, Turki

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Distal ureteroscopy for stone extraction is a common procedure that is generally performed with spinal or general anesthesia. We retrospectively reviewed all distal ureteroscopy performed for ureteric stone extraction with conscious sedation at our institution over a 10-year period to determine its efficacy and safety. Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed of all distal ureteroscopy performed for calculus removal from 2004 to 2014. Patient characteristics, analgesic requirement, tolerability, procedure time, stone size and composition, method of stone extraction, success rate, and complications were collected. Results: Between 2004 and 2014, 314 procedures were performed. Mean age was 53.74 years, with 160 males and 154 females. A success rate of 97% and 10 (3.2%) complications were reported. Mean analgesic requirement was 189 μg of fentanyl (range: 50–400) and 2.79 mg of midazolam (range: 0–8). A total of 263 patients (83.7%) tolerated the procedure well, with only seven (2.2%) having poor tolerability. When comparing females to males, females were found to require less fentanyl (p=0.0001) and midazolam (p=0.0001). When calculi >5 mm were compared to those <5 mm, there was no statistically significant difference in success rate, procedure time, analgesic requirement, tolerability, or complications. Conclusion: Distal ureteroscopy with conscious sedation is safe and efficacious. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating stones >5 mm can be safely and effectively treated with conscious sedation during this procedure. The context of our findings must be understood within the limitations of our retrospective analysis. PMID:26858781

  7. Orbital exenteration: The 10-year Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary experience.

    PubMed

    Nagendran, Sonali T; Lee, N Grace; Fay, Aaron; Lefebvre, Daniel R; Sutula, Francis C; Freitag, Suzanne K

    2016-08-01

    The authors report their experience with orbital exenteration surgery at one academic institution over a 10-year period and review the literature. This retrospective cohort study monitored outcomes of all patients who underwent orbital exenteration surgery at Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary between January 2003 and January 2013. Patients with no follow-up data or survival data were excluded from the study. The main outcome measures were surgical complications, disease status of surgical margins, need for adjuvant treatment, local recurrence, metastases and survival. 23 patients with malignancy and 2 with mucormycosis met inclusion criteria for the study. Surgical procedures included non-lid sparing total exenteration (44%), lid-sparing total exenteration (32%), non-lid sparing partial exenteration (8%) and lid-sparing partial exenteration (16%). 44% underwent additional extra-orbital procedures. Survival rates were 72% at 1 year, 48% at 3 years, and 37% at 5 years. Of patients with malignancies, 48% had clear margins after exenteration. There was no statistically significant difference in survival between patients with negative surgical margins compared to positive margins (p = 0.12). Mortality was highest in patients with melanoma (85.7%) and lowest in patients with non-squamous cell lid malignancies (0%). Our study suggests that the type of disease has a much greater impact on the survival of patients undergoing exenteration surgery than the type of exenteration surgery or the disease status of surgical margins. Patients with non-squamous cell lid malignancies and localized orbital disease have the best prognosis for tumor eradication from this radical and highly disfiguring surgery. PMID:27322708

  8. Course of depression in a 10-year prospective study: Evidence for qualitatively distinct subgroups.

    PubMed

    Klein, Daniel N; Kotov, Roman

    2016-04-01

    The course of depressive disorders can vary considerable, with some individuals exhibiting a chronic course and poor outcomes, while others have a more episodic course and better outcomes. However, it is unclear whether degree of chronicity is continuous or reflects qualitatively distinct subgroups. Using data from a 5-wave, 10-year, naturalistic study of 127 depressed outpatients, we examined whether depression chronicity lies on a continuum or manifests natural boundaries. Spline regression was used to test 7 continuous and discontinuous models of the relationship between depression during the first follow-up interval and multiple outcomes at subsequent follow-ups. In order to further validate the findings, we also created empirically derived subgroups based on the results of the spline regression analyses and compared them on baseline clinical characteristics and long-term outcomes. There was a clear and consistent discontinuity indicating that for higher levels of chronicity during the first 30-month period, depression was linearly related to outcome; in contrast, for lower levels of chronicity, depression in the initial interval was unrelated to subsequent outcomes. The findings were strikingly consistent across the 4 follow-up evaluations using multiple outcomes and goodness-of-fit indices. In addition, the chronic group-as defined by the first follow-up period-exhibited more baseline chronic depression, anxiety and personality disorders, family history of dysthymia, and childhood adversity, and was more likely to attempt suicide and be hospitalized during follow-up, than the nonchronic group. Results suggest that there are qualitatively distinct classes of patients with more and less chronic depressions, and support the utility of longitudinal course as a means of parsing depression into more homogeneous subgroups. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26845258

  9. Objective outcomes analysis following microvascular gracilis transfer for facial reanimation: a review of 10 years' experience.

    PubMed

    Bhama, Prabhat K; Weinberg, Julie S; Lindsay, Robin W; Hohman, Marc H; Cheney, Mack L; Hadlock, Tessa A

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Objective assessment of smile outcome after microvascular free gracilis transfer is challenging, and quantification of smile outcomes in the literature is inconsistent. OBJECTIVE To report objective excursion and symmetry outcomes from a series of free gracilis cases and investigate the predictive value of intraoperative measurements on final outcomes. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A retrospective medical chart review was undertaken of all patients who underwent microvascular free gracilis transfer for smile at our institution over the past 10 years. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Outcome measures included the following: smile excursion, angle of smile with respect to the vertical midline, and facial symmetry during repose and with smile. Measurements were obtained using an automated tool for assessment of facial landmarks (FACE-Gram). An exhaustive set of intraoperative parameters including degree of recoil of the gracilis muscle following harvest, the degree to which the muscle foreshortened during stimulation of the obturator nerve, final stretched length of the inset muscle, surgeon assessment of neurorrhaphy and pulse pressure, ischemia time, number of sutures used during neurorrhaphy, nerve used to innervate the flap, and surgeon assessment of oral commissure overcorrection were recorded and placed into a linear regression model to investigate correlations with smile. RESULTS From March 2003 to March 2013, 154 microvascular free gracilis transfers were performed for facial reanimation at our institution, 14 (9%) of which were deemed failures. Of the remaining 140 flaps, 127 fulfilled inclusion criteria and constituted the study cohort. Smile excursion, angle excursion, and symmetry of the oral commissure at repose and with smile all improved following gracilis free flap (P < .05). Associations between selected outcomes measures and intraoperative gracilis measurements were identified. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Facial reanimation using free

  10. Adverse effects reported in the use of gastroesophageal reflux disease treatments in children: a 10 years literature review

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Shlomi; Bueno de Mesquita, Mirjam; Mimouni, Francis B

    2015-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is commonly observed in children, particularly during the first year of life. Pharmacological therapy is mostly reserved for symptomatic infants diagnosed with GER disease (GERD), usually as defined in a recent consensus statement. The purpose of the present article was to review the reported adverse effects of pharmacological agents used in the treatment of paediatric GERD. We conducted this review using the electronic journal database Pubmed and Cochrane database systematic reviews using the latest 10-year period (1 January 2003 to 31 December 2012). Our search strategy included the following keywords: omeprazole, esomeprazole, lansoprazole, pantoprazole, rabeprazole, rantidine, cimetidine, famotidine, nizatidine, domperidone, metoclopramide, betanechol, erythromycin, baclofen, alginate. We used Pubmed’s own filter of: ’child: birth–18 years’. All full articles were reviewed and we only included randomized controlled trials retrieved from our search. We addressed a summary of our search on a drug-by-drug basis with regard to its mechanism of action and clinical applications, and reviewed all of the adverse effects reported and the safety profile of each drug. Adverse effects have been reported in at least 23% of patients treated with histamine H2 receptor antagonists (H2RAs) and 34% of those treated with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), and mostly include headaches, diarrhoea, nausea (H2RAs and PPIs) and constipation (PPIs). Acid suppression may place immune-deficient infants and children, or those with indwelling catheters, at risk for the development of lower respiratory tract infections and nosocomial sepsis. Prokinetic agents have many adverse effects, without major benefits to support their routine use. PMID:25752807

  11. Tracking of leisure-time physical activity during adolescence and young adulthood: a 10-year longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Kjønniksen, Lise; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Wold, Bente

    2008-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to show how participation in leisure-time physical activity changes between ages 13 to 23, and to what extent engaging in specific types of sports tracks into young adulthood. Methods The sample comprised 630 subjects who responded to questionnaires at age 13, with seven follow-ups over a 10-year period in the Norwegian Longitudinal Health Behaviour Study. The associations between adolescent participation in global and specific types of leisure-time physical activity were examined by analyses of variance, regression analysis and growth curve analysis. Results The findings suggest that the transition from adolescence to adulthood is, on average, a period of decline in physical activity, but with the decline levelling off into adulthood. The decline was significantly greater among males than females. There were substantial individual differences in the amount of change, in particular among males. Jogging alone and cycling, recreational activities such as skiing and hiking, and ball games, showed a high degree of tracking from age 15 to 23. The findings indicate low associations between participation in specific types of activities during adolescence and global leisure-time physical activity in young adulthood, while participation in several adolescent physical activities simultaneously was moderately related to later activity. Thus, being involved in various types of physical activity may offer good opportunities for establishing lifelong involvement in physical activity, independent of the specific type of activity. Conclusion The observed variation in change might suggest a need for a more targeted approach, with a focus on subgroups of individuals. The group of inactive youth may be considered as a high risk group, and the findings suggest that adolescent males who are inactive early seem likely to continue to be inactive later. The observed heterogeneity in change highlights the limitation of previous approaches to

  12. Prognostic significance of prospectively detected bone marrow micrometastases in esophagogastric cancer: 10-year follow-up confirms prognostic significance.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Paul; Furlong, Heidi; Murphy, Conleth G; O'Sullivan, Finbarr; Walsh, Thomas N; Shanahan, Fergus; O'Sullivan, Gerald C

    2015-08-01

    We have previously reported that most patients with esophagogastric cancer (EGC) undergoing potentially curative resections have bone marrow micrometastases (BMM). We present 10-year outcome data of patients with EGC whose rib marrow was examined for micrometastases and correlate the findings with treatment and conventional pathologic tumor staging. A total of 88 patients with localized esophagogastric tumors had radical en-bloc esophagectomy, with 47 patients receiving neoadjuvant (5-fluorouracil/cisplatin based) chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and the remainder being treated with surgery alone. Rib marrow was examined for cytokeratin-18-positive cells. Standard demographic and pathologic features were recorded and patients were followed for a mean 10.04 years. Disease recurrences and all deaths in the follow-up period were recorded. No patients were lost to follow-up. 46 EGC-related and 10 non-EGC-related deaths occurred. Multivariate Cox analysis of interaction of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, nodal status, and BMM positivity showed that the contribution of BMM to disease-specific and overall survival is significant (P = 0.014). There is significant interaction with neoadjvant CRT (P < 0.005), and lymph node positivity (P < 0.001) but BMM positivity contributes to increase in risk of cancer-related death in patients treated with either CRT or surgery alone. Bone marrow micrometastases detected at the time of surgery for EGC is a long-term prognostic marker. Detection is a readily available, technically noncomplex test which offers a window on the metastatic process and a refinement of pathologic staging and is worthy of routine consideration. PMID:25914238

  13. Exposure to violence during childhood is associated with telomere erosion from 5 to 10 years of age: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Shalev, I; Moffitt, T E; Sugden, K; Williams, B; Houts, R M; Danese, A; Mill, J; Arseneault, L; Caspi, A

    2013-05-01

    There is increasing interest in discovering mechanisms that mediate the effects of childhood stress on late-life disease morbidity and mortality. Previous studies have suggested one potential mechanism linking stress to cellular aging, disease and mortality in humans: telomere erosion. We examined telomere erosion in relation to children's exposure to violence, a salient early-life stressor, which has known long-term consequences for well-being and is a major public-health and social-welfare problem. In the first prospective-longitudinal study with repeated telomere measurements in children while they experienced stress, we tested the hypothesis that childhood violence exposure would accelerate telomere erosion from age 5 to age 10 years. Violence was assessed as exposure to maternal domestic violence, frequent bullying victimization and physical maltreatment by an adult. Participants were 236 children (49% females; 42% with one or more violence exposures) recruited from the Environmental-Risk Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally representative 1994-1995 birth cohort. Each child's mean relative telomere length was measured simultaneously in baseline and follow-up DNA samples, using the quantitative PCR method for T/S ratio (the ratio of telomere repeat copy numbers to single-copy gene numbers). Compared with their counterparts, the children who experienced two or more kinds of violence exposure showed significantly more telomere erosion between age-5 baseline and age-10 follow-up measurements, even after adjusting for sex, socioeconomic status and body mass index (B=-0.052, s.e.=0.021, P=0.015). This finding provides support for a mechanism linking cumulative childhood stress to telomere maintenance, observed already at a young age, with potential impact for life-long health. PMID:22525489

  14. The AFGL absolute gravity program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, J. A.; Iliff, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    A brief discussion of the AFGL's (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory) program in absolute gravity is presented. Support of outside work and in-house studies relating to gravity instrumentation are discussed. A description of the current transportable system is included and the latest results are presented. These results show good agreement with measurements at the AFGL site by an Italian system. The accuracy obtained by the transportable apparatus is better than 0.1 microns sq sec 10 microgal and agreement with previous measurements is within the combined uncertainties of the measurements.

  15. Non toxic goiter in the adult population of Genoa: 10 years of experience.

    PubMed

    Santaniello, B; Lombardo, I; Niccolardi, M E; Armonino, R

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of non toxic goiter, difuse or nodular, in all Genoa's Country thyroid diseases. The authors have studied one non-random casuistry of 1980 Patients observed from time to time in the last decade in Ambulatory of Nuclear Medicine (Department of Internal Medicine of University of Genoa) working with Section of Hygiene of ASL of Genoa. Of 1980 patients, 1629 (83.63%) were females; 351 (16.37%) were males, aged 14-70 years. The mean age was 42.6 years. First observations regarded only born and old date residents in Genoa never subordinates to surgical. Actinic or pharmacological treatments to the thyroid. All patients have normal circulating hormones and TSH. Every subject was afflicted with un toxic goiter (diffuse, single nodular or multi nodular) assessed by clinical Examination, ultrasonography and thyroid uptake with 99mTc-pertechnetate. This pathology represents now the 66.6% of all thyroid diseases observed. The A.A. emphasized an absolute prevalence of non toxic goiter in females (84.2% of observations). The enclosed tables are created divided the casuistry for age correspondents to the several decades (for the II to VII the wais). By means of the test of Kolmogorov-Smirnov we have shaped two delineating curves the frequencies. Accumulated of feminine and male subjects. The results of our study support a advantage of the Females versus male subjects in the diffuse and in the multi nodular goiter, while in the Struma to Single nodular differences are meaningful absent. PMID:22803312

  16. Immunofluorescence testing in the diagnosis of autoimmune blistering diseases: overview of 10-year experience*

    PubMed Central

    Arbache, Samia Trigo; Nogueira, Tarsila Gasparotto; Delgado, Lívia; Miyamoto, Denise; Aoki, Valéria

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Immunofluorescence testing is an important tool for diagnosing blistering diseases. OBJECTIVE To characterize the immunofluorescence findings in patients diagnosed with autoimmune blistering skin diseases. METHODS We retrospectively analyzed immunofluorescence results encompassing a 10-year period. RESULTS 421 patients were included and divided into 2 groups: group 1- intraepidermal blistering diseases (n=277) and 2- subepidermal blistering diseases (n=144). For group 1, positive DIF findings demonstrated: predominance of IgG intercellular staining (ICS) and C3 for pemphigus foliaceus-PF (94% and 73% respectively), pemphigus vulgaris-PV (91.5%-79.5%) and paraneoplastic pemphigus-PNP (66%-33%); ICS IgA in 100% of IgA pemphigus cases, and IgG deposits in the basement membrane zone (BMZ) along with ICS in one Hailey-Hailey patient. The IIF findings revealed mean titers of 1:2.560 for PV and 1:1.280 for PF. For paraneoplastic pemphigus, IIF was positive in 2 out of 3 cases with rat bladder substrate. In group 2, positive DIF findings included multiple deposits at basement membrane zone for epidermolysis bullosa acquisita-EBA (C3-89%,IgG-79%,IgA-47%,IgM-21%) mucous membrane pemphigoid-MMP (C3,IgG,IgA,IgM-80%) and bullous pemphigoid-BP (C3-91%,IgG-39%,IgA-11%,IgM-6%), and IgA at basement membrane zone for IgA linear disease (99%) and dermatitis herpetiformis-DH (dermal papillae in 84.6%). For lichen planus pemphigoides, there was C3 (100%) and IgG (50%) deposition at basement membrane zone. indirect immunofluorescence positive findings revealed basement membrane zone IgG deposits in 46% of BP patients, 50% for EBA, 15% for IgA linear dermatosis and 50% for LPP. Indirect immunofluorescence positive results were higher for BP and EBA with Salt-Split skin substrate. CONCLUSION Our results confirmed the importance of immunofluorescence assays in diagnosing autoimmune blistering diseases, and higher sensitivity for indirect immunofluorescence when Salt-split skin

  17. Long-term outcomes of direct percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy: a 10-year cohort

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Amanda H.; Schoeman, Mark N.; Nguyen, Nam Q.

    2015-01-01

    Study aim: To assess the clinical outcomes of patients who received direct percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy (DPEJ) for enteral feeding. Materials and methods: This is a 10-year cohort study in a single tertiary center. Main outcome measurements were technical success, and short- and long-term outcomes. DPEJ was attempted in 83 patients (51 men; 55 ± 2 years) for dysphagia (n = 35), gastroparesis with recurrent aspiration (n = 30), and levodopa drug infusion for severe Parkinson’s disease (n = 18). Results: DPEJ was successful in 75 (90 %) patients. All technical failures were related to the inability to find adequate trans-illumination, and were not influenced by BMI, age, gender, or indication. Peri-operative (30-day) adverse events occurred in 11 (13 %) patients, including wound infection (3), leakage around the stoma (4), minor bleeding requiring no intervention (2), and aspiration (1). There was one case (1.2 %) of gastric perforation after PEJ insertion for levodopa drug infusion trial. This 60-year-old woman required an emergency laparotomy with nil complications, and levodopa drug infusion recommenced successfully. One case of intestinal perforation (1.2 %) occurred after jejunostomy tube replacement at 6 months of insertion, which was successfully managed with surgery. There were no peri-operative deaths. Adequate delivery of enteral feeding or Duodopa drug was achieved in 66/73 (90 %) patients, with evidence of weight gain or improvement in Parkinson’s disease. Seven (8 %) continued to have clinical regurgitation but not aspiration. After a median follow-up of 84 months, 27 (33 %) patients died of their underlying diseases. Seven (8 %) had marked improvement in their underlying disease and had PEJ removed after 5 months (range 1 – 8 months). Limitations: Single center study. Conclusions: DPEJ is associated with a high technical success rate (90 %), a relatively low rate of peri-operative adverse events (13

  18. The International Space Station and the Space Debris Environment: 10 Years On

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Nicholas; Klinkrad, Heiner

    2009-01-01

    For just over a decade the International Space Station (ISS), the most heavily protected vehicle in Earth orbit, has weathered the space debris environment well. Numerous hypervelocity impact features on the surface of ISS caused by small orbital debris and meteoroids have been observed. In addition to typical impacts seen on the large solar arrays, craters have been discovered on windows, hand rails, thermal blankets, radiators, and even a visiting logistics module. None of these impacts have resulted in any degradation of the operation or mission of the ISS. Validating the rate of small particle impacts on the ISS as predicted by space debris environment models is extremely complex. First, the ISS has been an evolving structure, from its original 20 metric tons to nearly 300 metric tons (excluding logistics vehicles) ten years later. Hence, the anticipated space debris impact rate has grown with the increasing size of ISS. Secondly, a comprehensive visual or photographic examination of the complete exterior of ISS has never been accomplished. In fact, most impact features have been discovered serendipitously. Further complications include the estimation of the size of an impacting particle without knowing its mass, velocity, and angle of impact and the effect of shadowing by some ISS components. Inadvertently and deliberately, the ISS has also been the source of space debris. The U.S. Space Surveillance Network officially cataloged 65 debris from ISS from November 1998 to November 2008: from lost cameras, sockets, and tool bags to intentionally discarded equipment and an old space suit. Fortunately, the majority of these objects fall back to Earth quickly with an average orbital lifetime of less than two months and a maximum orbital lifetime of a little more than 15 months. The cumulative total number of debris object-years is almost exactly 10, the equivalent of one piece of debris remaining in orbit for 10 years. An unknown number of debris too small to be

  19. A 10-year experience with 290 pancreas transplants at a single institution.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, D E; Dunn, D L; Goetz, F C; Kennedy, W; Ramsay, R C; Steffes, M W; Mauer, S M; Gruessner, R; Moudry-Munns, K C; Morel, P

    1989-09-01

    Since our report at the 1984 American Surgical Association meeting of 100 pancreas transplants from 1966 through 1983, another 190 have been performed. The current series, begun in 1978, now numbers 276 cases, and includes 133 nonuremic recipients of pancreas transplants alone (PTA), 46 simultaneous pancreas/kidney transplants (SPK), and 97 pancreas tranplants after a kidney transplant (PAK). Duct management techniques used were free intraperitoneal drainage in 44 cases, duct occlusion in 44, enteric drainage in 89, and bladder drainage in 128. The 1-year patient and graft survival rates in the entire cohort of 276 were 91% and 42%. One-year patient survival rates were 88% in the first 100, 91% in the second 100, and 92% in the last 76 cases; corresponding 1-year graft survival rates were 28%, 47%, and 56% (p less than 0.05). A prospective comparison of bladder drainage (n = 82) versus enteric drainage (n = 46) in PAK/PTA cases since November 1, 1984 favored bladder drainage (1-year graft survival rates of 52% vs. 41%) because of urinary amylase monitoring. The best results were in recipients of primary SPK bladder-drained transplants (n = 39), with a 1-year pancreas graft survival rate of 75%, kidney graft survival rate of 80%, and patient survival rate of 95%. Logistic regression analysis, with 1-year graft function as the independent variable, showed significant (p less than 0.05) predictors of success (odds ratio) to be technique: bladder drainage (5.8) versus enteric drainage (2.5) versus duct injection (1.0); category: SPK (6.0) versus PAK from same donor (3.2) versus PAK from different donor (1.2) versus PTA (1.0); and donor HLA DR mismatch: 0 (5.0) versus 1 (2.5) versus 2 (1.0) antigens. On April 1, 1989, 90 patients had functioning grafts (60 euglycemic and insulin-free for more than 1 year, 10 for 5 to 10 years); these, along with 24 others whose grafts functioned for 1 to 6 years before failing, are part of an expanding cohort in whom the influence of

  20. Lessons Learned from 10 Years of Delivering Quality Microwave Data to Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. K.; Wentz, F. J.; Hilburn, K. A.; Gentemann, C. L.

    2009-12-01

    DISCOVER (Distributed Information Services: Climate/Ocean Products and Visualization for Earth Research) is a NASA MEaSUREs funded project that delivers ocean surface wind, water vapor, cloud, sea surface temperature and rain products to the scientific community. We have delivered these data to users via the Internet for over 10 years thanks to successive funding (Pathfinder, ESIP, REASoN and now MEaSUREs). Since we are a group of scientists who use the data ourselves in research, our approach to providing DISCOVER data to the user community is based on what we would want; that is, we provide simple file formats that are quick to download and easy to transfer between computer systems, with read routines and files to check whether the data are correct after transfer, and helpful, quick and accurate user support. Web and FTP user metrics collected since 1998 show a continual increase in activity and file downloads. Most importantly, the DISCOVER data are now essential building blocks to other value-added products created by scientists for the research community, such as the CCMP winds (another NASA MEaSUREs funded project). An extensive list of publications presenting results obtained through use of the DISCOVER data demonstrates the demand for and long-term use of the DISCOVER ocean data products by scientists. Our products are generated after extensive intercalibration, algorithm refinement, quality control checks, geolocation and satellite attitude adjustments, along-scan bias corrections, hot load or antenna emissivity corrections, sun glitter and RFI removal and independent validation. In this talk, we will summarize our methods and tools used in producing the various DISCOVER data products, describe the means by which we distribute the data to users and support them in their research, list the types of value-added products available, and present some of the ways in which the data are being used to answer important scientific and climate questions. In addition

  1. Electro interstitial scan system: assessment of 10 years of research and development

    PubMed Central

    Maarek, Albert

    2012-01-01

    (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment response). Conclusion After 10 years of development, the analysis of current scientific knowledge and results of clinical investigations have allowed a better understanding of EIS electrical measurements. PMID:23166454

  2. Prognostic Factors for Fournier’s Gangrene; A 10-year Experience in Southeastern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Sabzi Sarvestani, Amene; Zamiri, Mehdi; Sabouri, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the characteristics and prognostic factors of 28 patients with Fournier’s Gangrene (FG) referred to our medical center at Southeastern Iran. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study including 28 cases of FG that were operated in Surgery department of Zahedan University of Medical Sciences during a 10-year period from April 2002 to March 2012. The study analyzed 9 parameters including the body temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, hematocrit, white blood count (WBC), and serum levels of sodium, potassium, creatininee (twice for 2 for acute renal failure), and bicarbonate for Fournier Gangrene Severity Index (FGSI) score. The aspects taken into account were age, gender, predisposing factors, duration of symptoms, hospitalization period, and number of debridements, disease outcome and the FGSI. Results: All patients were males, aged from 26 to 68 years, with mean age 44.6 ±8.49 years. Statistically significant differences in age (p<0.001), duration of symptoms (p=0.001), number of debridements (p=0.006), hospitalization duration (p<0.001) and FGSI (p<0.001) were found between surviving and dead patients. The mortality rate was 35.7%, and the most common presentation was perianal/scrotal pain (78.6%). Perianal and primary scrotal abscesses were most common causes of FG and were found in 57.14% and 21.42% of patients respectively. The most prevalent predisposing factor was diabetes mellitus in 12 (42.85%) patients. With respect to laboratory findings, statistically significant differences in WBC (p=0.002), creatinine (p<0.001), albumin (p<0.001), calcium (p<0.001) and serum sodium (p=0.035) were found between the surviving and dead patients. Conclusion: Serious outcome of FG was associated with old age, delayed diagnosis and treatment, inadequate surgical debridement, shorter hospitalization and higher FGSI scores. In addition higher WBC, higher creatininee and serum sodium and lower albumin and calcium levels implicated worse prognosis

  3. AMIE SMART-1: review of results and legacy 10 years after launch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josset, Jean-Luc; Souchon, Audrey; Josset, Marie; Foing, Bernard

    2014-05-01

    The Advanced Moon micro-Imager Experiment (AMIE) camera was launched in September 2003 onboard the ESA SMART-1 spacecraft. We review the technical characteristics, scientific objectives and results of the instrument, 10 years after its launch. The AMIE camera is an ultra-compact imaging system that includes a tele-objective with a 5.3° x 5.3° field of view and an imaging sensor of 1024 x 1024 pixels. It is dedicated to spectral imaging with three spectral filters (750, 915 and 960 nm filters), photometric measurements (filter free CCD area), and Laser-link experiment (laser filter at 847 nm). The AMIE camera was designed to acquire high-resolution images of the lunar surface, in white light and for specific spectral bands, under a number of different viewing conditions and geometries. Specifically, its main scientific objectives included: (i) imaging of high latitude regions in the southern hemisphere, in particular the South Pole Aitken basin and the permanently shadowed regions close to the South Pole; (ii) determination of the photometric properties of the lunar surface from observations at different phase angles (physical properties of the regolith); (iii) multi-band imaging for constraining the chemical and mineral composition of the surface; (iv) detection and characterisation of lunar non-mare volcanic units; (v) study of lithological variations from impact craters and implications for crustal heterogeneity. The study of AMIE images enhanced the knowledge of the lunar surface, in particular regarding photometric modelling and surface physical properties of localized lunar areas and geological units. References: http://scholar.google.nl/scholar?q=smart-1+amie We acknowledge ESA, member states, industry and institutes for their contribution, and the members of the AMIE Team: J.-L. Josset, P. Plancke, Y. Langevin, P. Cerroni, M. C. De Sanctis, P. Pinet, S. Chevrel, S. Beauvivre, B.A. Hofmann, M. Josset, D. Koschny, M. Almeida, K. Muinonen, J. Piironen, M. A

  4. [Analytical, toxicological and forensic aspects of drug-facilitated crimes: 10 years of experience].

    PubMed

    Pépin, G

    2010-03-01

    Although being a relatively old phenomenon, drug-facilitated crime has been well described over the past 20 years as being the administration without the knowledge of the victim of a psychoactive substance in criminal purposes (rape, robbery, theft, money extortion, even murder). Drug-facilitated crime involves also mistreatment of older people or children treated by their parents in order to obtain sedation. Drug-facilitated crimes are often difficult to solve mainly due to analytical issues. Since 10 years, we developed and improved specific methods using LC-MS/MS (benzodiazepines, neuroleptics) and GC-MS/MS (GHB, cannabis) to detect the drugs involved in such crimes. After the intake of a low dosage of a particular drug, those methods allow to detect the analyte of interest up to 3-5 days in blood, 10-15 days in urine, and more than 1 year in hair. In drug-facilitated crime cases, blood and urine are frequently collected too late, more than 12 h after the drug intake and in some cases with a delay greater than 48 h after the event. Thus, the most used molecules are undetectable by the techniques classically used in a laboratory of biology. Moreover, a "good" compound that can be used to commit a drug-facilitated crime usually possesses a short elimination half-life and amnesic properties, so that the victim is less able to accurately recall the circumstances under which the offence occurred. The recent progress in analytical toxicology, particularly for laboratories working in the field of forensic toxicology, permits to elucidate many cases of drug-facilitated crimes. Heaven to the introduction of the sequential analysis of hair and the use of sophisticated analytical techniques such as tandem mass-spectrometry for the toxicologist to bring the scientific proof to the applicant authorities in the description of the criminal act and to confuse the offender. The author presents the results of 583 presumed cases of drug-facilitated crimes analyzed by his

  5. The relationship between household income and dietary intakes of 1-10 year old urban Malaysian

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Khor Geok; Sariman, Sarina; Lee, Huang Soo; Siew, Chin Yit; Mohd Yusof, Barakatun Nisak; Mun, Chan Yoke; Mohamad, Maznorila

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Diet plays an important role in growth and development of children. However, dietary intakes of children living in either rural or urban areas can be influenced by household income. This cross-sectional study examined energy, nutrient and food group intakes of 749 urban children (1-10 years old) by household income status. SUBJECTS/METHODS Children's dietary intakes were obtained using food recall and record for two days. Diet adequacy was assessed based on recommended intakes of energy and nutrients and food group servings. RESULTS For toddlers, all nutrients except dietary fiber (5.5 g) exceeded recommended intakes. Among older children (preschoolers and school children), calcium (548 mg, 435 mg) and dietary fiber (7.4 g, 9.4 g) did not meet recommendations while percentage of energy from total fat and saturated fats exceeded 30% and 10%, respectively. The mean sodium intakes of preschoolers (1,684 mg) and school children (2,000 mg) were relatively high. Toddlers in all income groups had similar energy and nutrient intakes and percentages meeting the recommended intakes. However, low income older children had lowest intakes of energy (P < 0.05) and most nutrients (P < 0.05) and highest proportions that did not meet recommended energy and nutrient intakes. For all food groups, except milk and dairy products, all age groups had mean intakes below the recommended servings. Compared to middle and high income groups, low income preschoolers had the lowest mean intake of fruits (0.07 serving), meat/poultry (0.78 serving) and milk/dairy products (1.14 serving) while low income toddlers and school children had the least mean intake of fruits (0.09 serving) and milk/dairy products (0.54 serving), respectively. CONCLUSION Low socioeconomic status, as indicated by low household income, could limit access to adequate diets, particularly for older children. Parents and caregivers may need dietary guidance to ensure adequate quantity and quality of home

  6. Bicycle injury events among older adults in Northern Sweden: a 10-year population based study.

    PubMed

    Scheiman, Simeon; Moghaddas, Hossein S; Björnstig, Ulf; Bylund, Per-Olof; Saveman, Britt-Inger

    2010-03-01

    Bicycles are a common mode of transportation and injured bicyclists cause a substantial burden on the medical sector. In Sweden, about half of fatally injured bicyclists are 65 years or older. This study analyzes the injury mechanisms, injuries, and consequences among bicyclists 65 years or older and compare with younger bicyclists (< or =64) and older adults as passenger car drivers, to give a basis for an injury preventive discussion for this age group. Umeå University Hospital's primary catchments area had 142,000 inhabitants in 2006. Nearly all injured road users in the well-defined geographic area are treated at this hospital and a 10-year data set (N=456) of injured bicyclists aged 65+ from the hospital's continuous injury registration (1997-2006) was analyzed. The results show that the annual injury incidence was 2.4 and 2.2 per 1000 men and women, respectively, aged 65 or older. For men the incidence rate was constant in the three age groups 65-74, 75-84 and 85+, while it decreased strongly for women. The incidence rate for old adults as passenger car drivers and younger bicyclists was 1.0 and 4.6, respectively. Most frequent injury mechanisms were falls when getting on or off a bicycle (20%) and by potholes or irregularities on the ground, edge of a sidewalk, or similar (13%). Only 6% were hit by cars, trucks, or buses. Half of the injured suffered fractures or dislocations, and 10% suffered concussion or more serious intracranial injuries. Getting on or off the bicycle caused most fractures (especially a high fraction of the hip and femur fractures) and resulted in 27% of all inpatient days in hospital. Three individuals died. One-third of the injured were treated as inpatients for a total of 1413 days (on average 9 days), with 69% of the days being caused by fractures. The cost for out- and inpatient acute treatment was approximately USD 4700 (SEK 33,000) per injured. The results merit an interest for this target group; bicycle injuries among older

  7. High mortality by natural and unnatural causes: a 10 year follow up study of patients admitted to a poisoning treatment centre after suicide attempts.

    PubMed Central

    Nordentoft, M; Breum, L; Munck, L K; Nordestgaard, A G; Hunding, A; Laursen Bjaeldager, P A

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To describe mortality by suicide and other causes of death in a group of patients who attempted suicide, and to identify predictive factors. DESIGN--10 year follow up study based on records of suicide attempters in 1980. SETTING--Poisoning treatment centre at a general hospital. SUBJECTS--974 patients aged 15 and over referred to the poisoning treatment centre after deliberate self poisoning. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Death by different causes registered in the Danish death cause register. RESULTS--In 10 years of follow up 306 patients died: 103 by suicide, 131 from natural causes, and 31 by accident; five were murdered, and in 36 cases the cause of death was uncertain. The standard mortality ratio was 550. Cause specific standardised mortality rates were 2960 for suicide, 236 for natural causes, 1256 for accidents, and 5459 for uncertain causes. In a Cox regression analysis, high risk factors for subsequent suicide were: more than one previous suicide attempt (relative risk 2.25), living alone (2.28), and age (1.03 per year). Predictors of death by natural causes were receiving a pension (1.69), drug misuse (2.72), more than one previous suicide attempt (2.25), age (1.06 per year), and male sex (2.49). The group of patients fulfilling at least one high risk criterion for later suicide differed significantly from the rest of the patient group in incidence of suicide, but both sensitivity and specificity were low. CONCLUSIONS--Most patients who attempted suicide were at high risk of succeeding because the risk factors, though significant, are not very specific. A strategy to prevent suicide must be directed toward the majority of those who attempt suicide. PMID:8324430

  8. Epidemiology and clinical outcome of candidaemia among Jordanian newborns over a 10-year period.

    PubMed

    Badran, Eman F; Al Baramki, Jumana H; Al Shamyleh, Abdulqader; Shehabi, Asem; Khuri-Bulos, Najwa

    2008-01-01

    This retrospective study includes all newborn patients with culture proved candidaemia who were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit of Jordan University Hospital through the period January 1995 to June 2006. Among 24 patients included, 13 (54.2%) died. The incidence of candidaemia was 0.27%, the mean age at diagnosis 25.9 d and the mean gestational age at birth 34.6 weeks. Species most frequently isolated were Candida albicans (50%) and C. krusei (20%). Previous gastrointestinal pathology was present in 41.7% of the cases. A comparison of cases due to C. albicans with those due to other species of Candida revealed no statistical differences in terms of demographic factors, age at onset of disease, mortality, clinical manifestations or risk factors. Based on our results, empirical antifungal therapy should be considered in neonates who have gastrointestinal pathology and other risk factors. PMID:17852924

  9. Non-Occupational Post-Exposure Prophylaxis for HIV: 10-Year Retrospective Analysis in Seattle, Washington

    PubMed Central

    McDougal, Sarah J.; Alexander, Jeremiah; Dhanireddy, Shireesha; Harrington, Robert D.; Stekler, Joanne D.

    2014-01-01

    Despite treatment guidelines in place since 2005, non-occupational post-exposure HIV prophylaxis (nPEP) remains an underutilized prevention strategy. We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients presenting to a publicly-funded HIV clinic in Seattle, Washington for nPEP between 2000 and 2010 (N = 360). nPEP prescriptions were provided for 324 (90%) patients; 83% of prescription decisions were appropriate according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines, but only 31% (N = 111/360) of patients were considered “high risk.” In order to use limited resources most efficiently, public health agencies should target messaging for this high-cost intervention to individuals with high-risk HIV exposures. PMID:25140868

  10. Changing the face and practice of dentistry: a 10-year plan.

    PubMed

    Young, Douglas; Ricks, Charles S; Featherstone, John D B; Fontana, Margherita; Fournier, Susan M; Geiermann, Steven P; Hurlbutt, Michelle; Kutsch, V Kim; Loftus, Rolande; Luther, John R; Nový, Brian B; Wolff, Mark S; Wong, Allen

    2011-10-01

    Jan. 7 through 9, 2011, the California Dental Association Foundation hosted a symposium on caries management by risk assessment in which a diverse range of stakeholders from across the nation gathered to discuss current and future status of CAMBRA. The consensus of the group was to develop a national strategic plan for CAMBRA implementation which will chart the course to improve the standard in caries disease management within the next decade. This paper represents the initial start of this living document. PMID:22132587

  11. [Prevalence of metabolic complications after 10 years of antiretroviral treatment in Senegal].

    PubMed

    Diouf, A; Cournil, A

    2014-10-01

    Among the patients of the cohort still followed after a median of 9 years of antiretroviral treatment (ART), 37% had lipodystrophy, 28% had hypertension and 14% presented with diabetes. This study confirms the association between stavudine and lipodystrophy particulary lipoatrophy and shows that a longer duration of ART was associated with the presence of diabetes. These results highlight the need to implement programs for prevention of cardiovascular risk factors in HIV patients from resource-constrained settings. PMID:24683016

  12. Big five personality factors and cigarette smoking: a 10-year study among US adults.

    PubMed

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Taha, Farah; Bono, Amanda; Goodwin, Renee D

    2015-04-01

    The present study examined the relation between the big five personality traits and any lifetime cigarette use, progression to daily smoking, and smoking persistence among adults in the United States (US) over a ten-year period. Data were drawn from the Midlife Development in the US (MIDUS) I and II (N = 2101). Logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between continuously measured personality factors and any lifetime cigarette use, smoking progression, and smoking persistence at baseline (1995-1996) and at follow-up (2004-2006). The results revealed that higher levels of openness to experience and neuroticism were each significantly associated with increased risk of any lifetime cigarette use. Neuroticism also was associated with increased risk of progression from ever smoking to daily smoking and persistent daily smoking over a ten-year period. In contrast, conscientiousness was associated with decreased risk of lifetime cigarette use, progression to daily smoking, and smoking persistence. Most, but not all, associations between smoking and personality persisted after adjusting for demographic characteristics, depression, anxiety disorders, and substance use problems. The findings suggest that openness to experience and neuroticism may be involved in any lifetime cigarette use and smoking progression, and that conscientiousness appears to protect against smoking progression and persistence. These data add to a growing literature suggesting that certain personality factors--most consistently neuroticism--are important to assess and perhaps target during intervention programs for smoking behavior. PMID:25799395

  13. Big five personality factors and cigarette smoking: A 10-year study among US adults

    PubMed Central

    Zvolensky, Michael J.; Taha, Farah; Bono, Amanda; Goodwin, Renee D.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the relation between the big five personality traits and any lifetime cigarette use, progression to daily smoking, and smoking persistence among adults in the United States (US) over a ten-year period. Data were drawn from the Midlife Development in the US (MIDUS) I and II (N=2,101). Logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between continuously measured personality factors and any lifetime cigarette use, smoking progression, and smoking persistence at baseline (1995–1996) and at follow-up (2004–2006). The results revealed that higher levels of openness to experience and neuroticism were each significantly associated with increased risk of any lifetime cigarette use. Neuroticism also was associated with increased risk of progression from ever smoking to daily smoking and persistent daily smoking over a ten-year period. In contrast, conscientiousness was associated with decreased risk of lifetime cigarette use, progression to daily smoking, and smoking persistence. Most, but not all, associations between smoking and personality persisted after adjusting for demographic characteristics, depression, anxiety disorders, and substance use problems. The findings suggest that openness to experience and neuroticism may be involved in any lifetime cigarette use and smoking progression, and that conscientiousness appears to protect against smoking progression and persistence. These data add to a growing literature suggesting that certain personality factors—most consistently neuroticism—are important to assess and perhaps target during intervention programs for smoking behavior. PMID:25799395

  14. Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding And Risk of Gastrointestinal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Viborg, Søren; Søgaard, Kirstine Kobberøe; Farkas, Dóra Körmendiné; Nørrelund, Helene; Pedersen, Lars; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is a well-known symptom of colorectal cancer (CRC). Whether incident GI bleeding is also a marker of other GI cancers remains unclear. METHODS: This nationwide cohort study examined the risk of various GI cancer types in patients with lower GI bleeding. We used Danish medical registries to identify all patients with a first-time hospital diagnosis of lower GI bleeding during 1995–2011 and followed them for 10 years to identify subsequent GI cancer diagnoses. We computed absolute risks of cancer, treating death as a competing risk, and calculated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) by comparing observed cancer cases with expected cancer incidence rates in the general population. RESULTS: Among 58,593 patients with lower GI bleeding, we observed 2,806 GI cancers during complete 10-year follow-up. During the first year of follow-up, the absolute GI cancer risk was 3.6%, and the SIR of any GI cancer was 16.3 (95% confidence interval (CI): 15.6–17.0). Colorectal cancers accounted for the majority of diagnoses, but risks of all GI cancers were increased. During 1–5 years of follow-up, the SIR of any GI cancer declined to 1.36 (95% CI: 1.25–1.49), but risks remained increased for several GI cancers. Beyond 5 years of follow-up, the overall GI cancer risk was close to unity, with reduced risk of rectal cancer and increased risk of liver and pancreatic cancers. CONCLUSIONS: A hospital-based diagnosis of lower GI bleeding is a strong clinical marker of prevalent GI cancer, particularly CRC. It also predicts an increased risk of any GI cancer beyond 1 year of follow-up. PMID:27054580

  15. Postoperative epidural analgesia for patients undergoing pectus excavatum corrective surgery: a 10-year retrospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Asad; Tse, Andrew; Paul, James E; Fitzgerald, Peter; Teh, Bernice

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Managing postoperative pain in patients undergoing minimally invasive pectus excavatum repair (Nuss procedure) is challenging but essential in facilitating ambulation and minimizing the length of stay. Although multiple epidural regimens with varying opioids are presently used for pain management, there is currently no clinical consensus regarding which epidural regimen provides the best analgesia outcomes with the fewest side effects. This 10-year retrospective cohort study was performed to compare the quality of analgesia and the incidence of side effects associated with the three most common epidural regimens used at a tertiary care children’s hospital, in patients undergoing the Nuss procedure. Methods Seventy-two pediatric patients were identified as having been treated with one of three epidural regimens for postoperative pain management following the Nuss procedure: Group A (n=12) received 0.125% bupivacaine and 5 µg/mL fentanyl, Group B (n=21) received 0.125% bupivacaine and 10 µg/mL hydromorphone, and Group C (n=39) received 0.1% ropivacaine and 20 µg/mL hydromorphone. Our primary outcome was maximal daily pain scores (numerical rating scale 0–10), with an analytical focus on postoperative day 1 scores. The primary outcome was analyzed using linear regression. The secondary outcomes included the length of stay, side-effect profiles as reflected by the number of treatments for nausea and pruritus, pain scores according to epidural site insertion, occurrence of breakthrough pain, and presence of severe pain throughout their hospital stay. Secondary outcomes were analyzed using linear or logistic regression adjusted for pain scores at baseline. The criterion for statistical significance was set a priori at alpha =0.05. Results Group A had significantly higher day-1 pain scores (score 5.42/10) than Group B (4.52/10; P=0.030) and Group C (4.49/10; P=0.015) after adjusting for baseline pain and age. No significant difference in maximum daily

  16. Early and delayed rupture after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair in a 10-year multicenter registry

    PubMed Central

    Candell, Leah; Tucker, Lue-Yen; Goodney, Philip; Walker, Joy; Okuhn, Steven; Hill, Bradley; Chang, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Objective Rupture after abdominal endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) is a function of graft maintenance of the seal and fixation. We describe our 10-year experience with rupture after EVAR. Methods From 2000 to 2010, 1736 patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) from 17 medical centers underwent EVAR in a large, regional integrated health care system. Preoperative demographic and clinical data of interest were collected and stored in our registry. We retrospectively identified patients with postoperative rupture, characterized as “early” and “delayed” rupture (≤30 days and >30 days after the initial EVAR, respectively), and identified predictors associated with delayed rupture. Results The overall follow-up rate was 92%, and the median follow-up was 2.7 years (interquartile range, 1.2–4.4 years) in these 1736 EVAR patients. We identified 20 patients with ruptures; 70% were male, the mean age was 79 years, and mean AAA size at the initial EVAR was 6.3 cm. Six patients underwent initial EVAR for rupture (n = 2) or symptomatic presentation (n = 4). Of the 20 post-EVAR ruptures, 25% (five of 20) were early, all occurring within 2 days after the initial EVAR. Of these five patients, four had intraoperative adverse events leading directly to rupture, with one type I and one type III endoleak. Of the five early ruptures, four patients underwent endovascular repair and one received repair with open surgery, resulting in two perioperative deaths. Among the remaining 15 patients, the median time from initial EVAR to rupture was 31.1 months (interquartile range, 13.8–57.3 months). Most of these delayed ruptures (10 of 15) were preceded by AAA sac increases, including three patients with known endoleaks who underwent reintervention. At the time of delayed rupture, nine of 15 patients had new endoleaks. Among all 20 patients, six patients did not undergo repair (all delayed patients) and died, nine underwent repeated EVAR, and five had open repair

  17. The effects of fire severity on black carbon additions to forest soils - 10 years post fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poore, R.; Wessman, C. A.; Buma, B.

    2013-12-01

    horizon and the top 10cm mineral horizon. The soils were sieved to 2mm and their BC content measured using the Kurth-MacKenzie-DeLuca method of digesting labile carbon using nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide at 95C for 20hrs. We integrated both remotely sensed data and field observations. We used the Relative Difference Normalized Burn Ratio (RdNBR) calculated by Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS). This index used Landsat images from July in the years before and after the fire and is based on differences in bands 4 and 7, with the aim of assessing coarse scale changes in soil and vegetation post fire. For each plot we also collected data on tree mortality and organic soil depth. These metrics were chosen from the Composite Burn Index as those that were most reliable even 10 years after the fire. We observed no significant differences in BC totals between high severity fire and unburned plots, although BC increased slightly on burned plots. Early results for low severity sites (analysis still in progress) suggest that BC increased in plots experiencing lower severity fires compared to unburned and high severity plots. Comparing carbon and BC totals on unburned and severely burned plots, and assuming no loss of BC from mineral soil during the fire, we observed a 1.2% conversion of burned biomass to BC, which corresponds with literature estimates of 1-4%.

  18. Changes in the American Interventional Radiology Literature: Comparison over a 10-Year Time Period

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, Charles E. Gupta, Rajan; Blackwell, John

    2006-08-15

    < 0.001), the primary field of investigation, with significant increases noted for primary cancer interventions (6.5% vs. 13.3%; p < 0.001), gynecologic interventions (0.2% vs. 4.5%; p < 0.001), stent-grafts (0 vs. 2.9%; p < 0.001), and spine interventions (0 vs. 1.8%; p < 0.01). Studies receiving funding also demonstrated a significant increase when comparing the early and late data sets (11.3% vs. 23.0%, respectively; p < 0.001). Conclusions. Articles published in the American radiologic literature have changed significantly over the past 10 years. Primary authors are more likely to be nonradiologists and less likely to be American. Investigations dealing primarily with nonvascular interventions are less common; however, some forms of intervention (particularly cancer interventions) are seen more frequently in the literature. The percentage of funded projects has more than doubled in the same time frame.

  19. ESA SMART-1 mission: review of results and legacy 10 years after launch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, Bernard

    2014-05-01

    We review ESA's SMART-1 highlights and legacy 10 years after launch. The SMART-1 mission to the Moon achieved record firsts such as: 1) first Small Mission for Advanced Research and Technology; with spacecraft built and integrated in 2.5 years and launched 3.5 years after mission approval; 2) first mission leaving the Earth orbit using solar power alone with demonstration for future deep space missions such as BepiColombo; 3) most fuel effective mission (60 litres of Xenon) and longest travel (13 month) to the Moon!; 4) first ESA mission reaching the Moon and first European views of lunar poles; 5) first European demonstration of a wide range of new technologies: Li-Ion modular battery, deep-space communications in X- and Ka-bands, and autonomous positioning for navigation; 6) first lunar demonstration of an infrared spectrometer and of a Swept Charge Detector Lunar X-ray fluorescence spectrometer ; 7) first ESA mission with opportunity for lunar science, elemental geochemistry, surface mineralogy mapping, surface geology and precursor studies for exploration; 8) first controlled impact landing on the Moon with real time observations campaign; 9) first mission supporting goals of the ILEWG/COSPAR International Lunar Exploration Working Group in technical and scientific exchange, international collaboration, public and youth engagement; 10) first mission preparing the ground for ESA collaboration in Chandrayaan-1, Chang'E1-2-3 and near-future landers, sample return and human lunar missions. The SMART-1 technology legacy is applicable to geostationary satellites and deep space missions using solar electric propulsion. The SMART-1 archive observations have been used to support scientific research and prepare subsequent lunar missions and exploration. Most recent SMART-1 results are relevant to topics on: 1) the study of properties of the lunar dust, 2) impact craters and ejecta, 3) the study of illumination, 4) observations and science from the Moon, 5) support to

  20. Epidemiology of HEV in the Mediterranean basin: 10-year prevalence in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Lanini, Simone; Garbuglia, Anna Rosa; Lapa, Daniele; Puro, Vincenzo; Navarra, Assunta; Pergola, Catia; Ippolito, Giuseppe; Capobianchi, Maria Rosaria

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The present study is aimed at describing the seroprevalence and exploring potential risk factor(s) for hepatitis E virus (HEV) in participants who voluntarily underwent anti-HIV antibody testing. Study design Seroprevalence study. Setting The HIV prevention unit at the National Institute for Infectious Diseases Lazzaro Spallanzani, serving as a referral centre for HIV infection in Lazio, an Italian Region with about 5.6 million inhabitants. Participants Participants are a random sample of all subjects who receive counselling and undergo serological tests for anti-HIV antibody (Ab) between 2002 and 2011. Risk factors and outcome A set of 16 epidemiological variables (risk factors) were assessed for association with positivity to anti-HEV IgG (outcome). Results Between 2002 and 2011, 27 351 serum specimens and related epidemiological information were collected; of these 1116 were randomly selected and analysed. The overall anti-HEV IgG prevalence was 5.38% (60 out of 1116) with evidence of potential heterogeneity between years of sampling (p=0.055). Multivariate analysis provided evidence that anti-HEV IgG prevalence increases by 4% per year of participants’ age (95% CI 1% to 7%, p=0.002). In addition, men who have sex with men and participants who were born outside Italy have an OR for past HEV infection that is about two times higher than in those who were not (p=0.040 and p=0.027, respectively). Analysis of temporal trend showed that variation of anti-HEV IgG can be well explained by a cubic logistic regression model, which describes the variation of prevalence over time as a fluctuation within a 3-year period (p=0.032). Conclusions This study provides new evidence that besides the orofecal and zoonotic routes, intimate contacts between males may be a significant mode of HEV transmission. PMID:26173715

  1. Body Mass Index and Mortality: A 10-Year Prospective Study in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Bing; Gu, Meng-Jia; Shen, Peng; Huang, Qiu-Chi; Bao, Chen-Zheng; Ye, Zhen-Hua; Wang, You-Qing; Mayila, Mamat; Ye, Ding; Gu, Shi-Tong; Lin, Hong-Bo; Chen, Kun

    2016-01-01

    Although several studies have evaluated the role of body weight as a risk factor for mortality, most studies have been conducted in Western populations and the findings remain controversial. We performed a prospective study to examine the association between body mass index (BMI) and all-cause mortality in Yinzhou District, Ningbo, China. At baseline, 384,533 subjects were recruited through the Yinzhou Health Information System between 2004 and 2009. The final analysis was restricted to 372,793 participants (178,333 men and 194,460 women) aged 18 years and older. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios(HRs) and 95% confidence intervals(CIs). We found an increased risk of all-cause mortality among individuals with BMI levels <22.5-24.9, although several groups were not statistically significant-adjusted HRs for persons with BMIs of <15.0, 15.0-17.4, 17.5-19.9, and 20.0-22.4 were 1.61(95% CI: 1.17-2.23), 1.07(0.94-1.20), 1.04(0.98-1.10), 1.06(1.02-1.11), respectively. In the upper BMI range, subjects with BMIs of 25.0-34.9 had a reduced risk of all-cause mortality. Sensitivity analyses excluding smokers, those with prevalent chronic disease or those with less than four years of follow-up did not materially alter these results. Our findings provide evidence for an inverse association of BMI and mortality in this population. PMID:27546611

  2. Reducing coronary heart disease in the Australian Coalfields: evaluation of a 10-year community intervention.

    PubMed

    Higginbotham, N; Heading, G; McElduff, P; Dobson, A; Heller, R

    1999-03-01

    Coronary heart disease is a leading cause of death in Australia with the Coalfields district of New South Wales having one of the country's highest rates. Identification of the Coalfields epidemic in the 1970's led to the formation of a community awareness program in the late 1980's (the healthy heart support group) followed by a more intense community action program in 1990, the Coalfields Healthy Heartbeat (CHHB). CHHB is a coalition of community members, local government officers, health workers and University researchers. We evaluate the CHHB program, examining both the nature and sustainability of heart health activities undertaken, as well as trends in risk factor levels and rates of coronary events in the Coalfields in comparison with nearby local government areas. Process data reveal difficulties mobilising the community as a whole; activities had to be selected for interested subgroups such as families of heart disease patients, school children, retired people and women concerned with family nutrition and body maintenance. Outcome data show a significantly larger reduction in case fatality for Coalfields men (although nonfatal heart attacks did not decline) while changes in risk factors levels were comparable with surrounding areas. We explain positive responses to the CHHB by schools, heart attack survivors and women interested in body maintenance in terms of the meaning these subgroups find in health promotion discourses based on their embodied experiences. When faced with a threat to one's identity, health discourse suddenly becomes meaningful along with the regimens for health improvement. General public disinterest in heart health promotion is examined in the context of historical patterns of outsiders criticising the lifestyle of miners, an orientation toward communal rather than individual responsibility for health (i.e. community 'owned' emergency services and hospitals) and anger about risks from environmental hazards imposed by industrialists

  3. Body Mass Index and Mortality: A 10-Year Prospective Study in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian-Bing; Gu, Meng-Jia; Shen, Peng; Huang, Qiu-Chi; Bao, Chen-Zheng; Ye, Zhen-Hua; Wang, You-Qing; Mayila, Mamat; Ye, Ding; Gu, Shi-Tong; Lin, Hong-Bo; Chen, Kun

    2016-01-01

    Although several studies have evaluated the role of body weight as a risk factor for mortality, most studies have been conducted in Western populations and the findings remain controversial. We performed a prospective study to examine the association between body mass index (BMI) and all-cause mortality in Yinzhou District, Ningbo, China. At baseline, 384,533 subjects were recruited through the Yinzhou Health Information System between 2004 and 2009. The final analysis was restricted to 372,793 participants (178,333 men and 194,460 women) aged 18 years and older. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios(HRs) and 95% confidence intervals(CIs). We found an increased risk of all-cause mortality among individuals with BMI levels <22.5–24.9, although several groups were not statistically significant—adjusted HRs for persons with BMIs of <15.0, 15.0–17.4, 17.5–19.9, and 20.0–22.4 were 1.61(95% CI: 1.17–2.23), 1.07(0.94–1.20), 1.04(0.98–1.10), 1.06(1.02–1.11), respectively. In the upper BMI range, subjects with BMIs of 25.0–34.9 had a reduced risk of all-cause mortality. Sensitivity analyses excluding smokers, those with prevalent chronic disease or those with less than four years of follow-up did not materially alter these results. Our findings provide evidence for an inverse association of BMI and mortality in this population. PMID:27546611

  4. Smoking, Antioxidant Supplementation and Dietary Intakes among Older Adults with Age-Related Macular Degeneration over 10 Years

    PubMed Central

    Gopinath, Bamini; Flood, Victoria M.; Kifley, Annette; Liew, Gerald; Mitchell, Paul

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to compare the micronutrient usage and other lifestyle behaviors over 10 years among those with and without age-related macular degeneration (AMD). 1612 participants aged 49+ years at baseline were re-examined over 10 years, west of Sydney, Australia. AMD was assessed from retinal photographs. Dietary data were collected using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Smoking status was self-reported. 56 participants had any AMD at baseline, of these 25% quit smoking at 5 years and were still not smoking at 10-year follow-up. Among participants who had below the recommended intake of vitamins A, C or E supplements at baseline, those who did compared to those who did not develop late AMD over 10 years were more likely to report vitamins A (total), C or E supplement intake above the recommended intake at 10-year follow-up: multivariable-adjusted OR 4.21 (95% CI 1.65-10.73); OR 6.52 (95% CI 2.76-15.41); and OR 5.71 (95% CI 2.42-13.51), respectively. Participants with compared to without AMD did not appreciably increase fish, fruit and vegetable consumption and overall diet quality. Adherence to smoking and dietary recommendations was poor among older adults with AMD. However, uptake of antioxidant supplements increased significantly among those with late AMD. PMID:25822372

  5. Cosmology with negative absolute temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, J. P. P.; Byrnes, Christian T.; Lewis, Antony

    2016-08-01

    Negative absolute temperatures (NAT) are an exotic thermodynamical consequence of quantum physics which has been known since the 1950's (having been achieved in the lab on a number of occasions). Recently, the work of Braun et al. [1] has rekindled interest in negative temperatures and hinted at a possibility of using NAT systems in the lab as dark energy analogues. This paper goes one step further, looking into the cosmological consequences of the existence of a NAT component in the Universe. NAT-dominated expanding Universes experience a borderline phantom expansion (w < ‑1) with no Big Rip, and their contracting counterparts are forced to bounce after the energy density becomes sufficiently large. Both scenarios might be used to solve horizon and flatness problems analogously to standard inflation and bouncing cosmologies. We discuss the difficulties in obtaining and ending a NAT-dominated epoch, and possible ways of obtaining density perturbations with an acceptable spectrum.

  6. Corneal infection in Shandong peninsula of China: a 10-year retrospective study on 578 cases

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xiao-Jing; Jiang, Tao; Zhu, Hai; Liu, Peng-Peng; Zhou, Zhan-Yu; Mao, Alexander J.

    2016-01-01

    AIM To determine the epidemiological characteristics, clinical signs, laboratory findings, and outcomes in patients with corneal infection in Shandong peninsula of China. METHODS The medical records of 578 inpatients (578 eyes) with corneal infection were reviewed retrospectively for demographic characteristics, risk factors, seasonal variation, clinical signs, laboratory findings, and treatment strategy. Patient history, ocular examination findings using slit-lamp biomicroscopy, laboratory findings resulted from microbiological cultures, and treatment. RESULTS Fungal keratitis constituted 58.48% of cases of infectious keratitis among the inpatients, followed by herpes simplex keratitis (20.76%), bacterial keratitis (19.03%) and acanthamoeba keratitis (1.73%). The most common risk factor was corneal trauma (71.80%). The direct microscopic examination (338 cases) using potassium hydroxide (KOH) wet mounts was positive in 296 cases (87.57%). Among the 298 fungal culture-positive cases, Fusarium species were the most common isolates (70.47%). A total of 517 cases (89.45%) received surgical intervention, including 255 (44.12%) cases of penetrating keratoplasty, 74 (12.80%) cases of lamellar keratoplasty which has become increasingly popular, and 77 cases (13.32%) of evisceration or enucleation. CONCLUSION At present, infectious keratitis is a primary corneal disease causing blindness in China. With Fusarium species being the most commonly identified pathogens, fungal keratitis is the leading cause of severe infectious corneal ulcers in Shandong peninsula of China. PMID:26949610

  7. Predictability of 1-h postload plasma glucose concentration: A 10-year retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Kuang, Lifen; Huang, Zhimin; Hong, Zhenzhen; Chen, Ailing; Li, Yanbing

    2015-01-01

    Aims/Introduction Elevated 1-h postload plasma glucose concentration (1hPG) during oral glucose tolerance test has been linked to an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and a poorer cardiometabolic risk profile. The present study analyzed the predictability and cut-off point of 1hPG in predicting type 2 diabetes in normal glucose regulation (NGR) subjects, and evaluated the long-term prognosis of NGR subjects with elevated 1hPG in glucose metabolism, kidney function, metabolic states and atherosclerosis. Materials and Methods A total of 116 Han Chinese classified as NGR in 2002 at the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China, were investigated. Follow-up was carried out in 2012 to evaluate the progression of glucose metabolism, kidney function, metabolic syndrome and carotid atherosclerosis. Results The areas under receiver operating characteristic curves were higher for 1hPG than FPG or 2hPG (0.858 vs 0.806 vs 0.746). The cut-off value of 1hPG with the maximal sum of sensitivity and specificity in predicting type 2 diabetes in NGR subjects was 8.85 mmol/L. The accumulative incidence of type 2 diabetes in subjects with 1hPG ≥8.85 mmol/L was higher than those <8.85 mmol/L (46.2% vs 3.3%, P = 0.000; relative risk 13.846, 95% confidence interval 4.223–45.400). On follow up, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and abnormal carotid intima-media thickness in the subjects with 1hPG ≥8.85 mmol/L tended to be higher compared with those <8.85 mmol/L. Conclusions 1hPG is a good predictor of type 2 diabetes in NGR subjects, and the best cut-off point is 8.85 mmol/L. Some tendency indicates that NGR subjects with 1hPG ≥8.85 mmol/L are more prone to metabolic syndrome and carotid atherosclerosis. PMID:26543538

  8. Late Lung Metastasis of a Primary Eccrine Sweat Gland Carcinoma 10 Years after Initial Surgical Treatment: The First Clinical Documentation

    PubMed Central

    Falkenstern-Ge, R. F.; Bode-Erdmann, S.; Ott, G.; Wohlleber, M.; Kohlhäufl, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Sweat gland carcinoma is a rare malignancy with a high metastatic potential seen more commonly in elderly patients. The scalp is the most common site of occurrence and it usually spreads to regional lymph nodes. Liver, lungs, and bones are the most common sites of distant metastasis. Late lung metastasis of sweat gland adenocarcinoma after a time span of 5 years is extremely rare. Aim. We report a patient with late lung metastasis of a primary sweat gland carcinoma 10 years after initial surgical resection. Conclusion. Sweat gland carcinomas are rare cancers with a poor prognosis. Surgery in the form of wide local excision and lymph node dissection is the mainstay of treatment. Late pulmonary metastases with a latency of 10 years have never been reported in the literature. This is the first clinical documentation of late lung metastasis from sweat gland carcinoma with a latency period of 10 years. PMID:23710393

  9. Effect of 10 years of in vitro aging on the flexural properties of fiber-reinforced resin composites.

    PubMed

    Vallittu, Pekka K

    2007-01-01

    This study determined the effect of 10 years of water immersion on the properties of fiber-reinforced resin composites (FRC). E-glass and silica fibers were used to reinforce heat-cured and autopolymerized acrylic resin polymers. Control specimens were unreinforced. Test specimens stored in water for up to 10 years were tested by the 3-point test. The flexural strength and elasticity of the specimens decreased during water immersion (P < .001, analysis of variance). After 10 years, the reductions in flexural strength and modulus of E-glass FRC were 24% and 21%, respectively; for silica FRC, reductions were 47% and 46%, respectively; and for controls, reductions were 24% and 11%, respectively. E-glass FRC showed a smaller reduction in strength than silica FRC. PMID:17319361

  10. Rosetta begins its 10-year journey to the origins of the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-03-01

    Rosetta’s mission began at 08h17 CET (07h17 GMT) on 2 March when a European Ariane 5 launch vehicle liftered off from the Guiana Space Centre, Europe’s spaceport in Kourou, French Guiana. The launcher successfully placed its upper stage and payload into an eccentric coast orbit (200 x 4000 km). About two hours later, at 10h14 CET (09h14 GMT) the upper stage ignited its own engine to reach an escape velocity in order to leave the Earth’s gravity field and enter heliocentric orbit. The Rosetta probe was released about 18 minutes later. “After the recent success of Mars Express, Europe is now heading to deep space with another fantastic mission. We will have to be patient, as the rendezvous with the comet will not take place until ten years from now, but I think it’s worth the wait” said ESA’s Director General Jean-Jacques Dordain witnessing the launch from Kourou. ESA’s Operations Centre (ESOC) in Darmstadt, Germany, has established contact with the probe as it flies away from Earth at a relative speed of about 3.4 km/s. ESOC will be in charge of Rosetta operations and orbit determination throughout the mission. During the next eight months, the spacecraft’s onboard systems will be checked and its science payload will be commissioned. A 10-year odyssey Rosetta will be reactivated for planetary flybys, which will be used to modify its trajectory through gravity assist manoeuvres. During the trip, the probe could also observe one or more asteroids, observation of asteroids being one of the mission's secondary objectives. The first planetary encounter will be in March 2005, as Rosetta flies by the Earth for the first time. The gravity assist will boost Rosetta into an orbit that will take it to Mars two years later. During its close encounter with Mars in February 2007, Rosetta will approach to a distance of about 200 km and conduct science observations. This Martian flyby will be followed by another Earth flyby in November the same year. Both

  11. A personal perspective and update on erosive tooth wear - 10 years on: Part 2 - Restorative management.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, D

    2016-08-26

    The management challenge with erosive tooth wear is that the condition involves erosion and contributions from attrition and abrasion, both of which impact on the longevity of restorations. Severe erosive tooth wear results in visibly shorter teeth, exposure of dentine and adaptive changes which complicate restorative management. There is increasing evidence to suggest if the risk factors, such as reducing the frequency of acidic foods and drinks, are reduced the progression of tooth wear slows and follows a normal pattern of wear. But once teeth become shorter patients often seek advice from dentists on restorative intervention. Composite restorations are successful in some patients but they often involve regular maintenance with repairs and rebuilds, which for some patients is unacceptable. Full coverage crowns, although destructive of tooth tissue, remain an option for restorations. PMID:27561573

  12. Mastitis in sheep--The last 10 years and the future of research.

    PubMed

    Gelasakis, A I; Mavrogianni, V S; Petridis, I G; Vasileiou, N G C; Fthenakis, G C

    2015-12-14

    Bacterial mastitis is a significant welfare and financial problem in sheep flocks. This paper reviews the recently published literature, including publications that highlight the significance and virulence factors of the causal agents, especially Staphylococcus aureus and Mannheimia haemolytica, the primary causes of the disease. Research has also contributed to the understanding of risk factors, including genetic susceptibility of animals to infections, supporting future strategies for sustainable disease control. Pathogenetic mechanisms, including the role of the local defenses in the teat, have also been described and can assist formulation of strategies that induce local immune responses in the teat of ewes. Further to well-established diagnostic techniques, i.e., bacteriological tests and somatic cell counting, advanced methodologies, e.g., proteomics technologies, will likely contribute to more rapid and accurate diagnostics, in turn enhancing mastitis control efforts. PMID:26216457

  13. Clinical course and prognostic factors of childhood immune thrombocytopenia: single center experience of 10 years

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jae Yeob; O, A Rum; Kim, Je Keong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to evaluate the clinical course of childhood immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) and to assess the risk factors for developing chronic ITP. Methods The records of 64 children diagnosed with ITP from November 2005 and December 2014 at single center were retrospectively analyzed. Results The median age at diagnosis and the median platelet count were 1 year (range, 1 month to 15 years) and 9×109/L (range, 0–84×109/L), respectively. No patient experienced severe bleeding. Nineteen children (29.7%) spontaneously recovered their platelet count to ≥100×109/L at a median of 10 days. In total 45 patients (70.3%) received intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) as first-line therapy, and showed platelet recovery at 1 week. The final diagnosis of 55 (85.9%) and 9 patients (14.1%) was acute and chronic ITP, respectively. Older age, absence of prior infection and insidious onset of symptoms were significantly associated with the development of chronic ITP. Among the patients who received IVIG, those with platelet count <45×109/L at 1 month after IVIG showed a significantly higher incidence of chronic ITP compared to those with platelet count ≥45×109/L (88.8% vs. 44.4%, P<0.01). Conclusion In most patients, ITP runs a benign course and approximately 86% of them recover within 1 year of their initial diagnosis. The potential impact of the risk factors of chronic ITP on clinical practice needs to be explored and further studies are warranted to determine whether IVIG influences the course of ITP. PMID:27610182

  14. A 10-Year Retrospective Review of a Nonrandomized Cohort of 458 Patients Undergoing Radical Radiotherapy or Cystectomy in Yorkshire, UK

    SciTech Connect

    Munro, Nicholas P.; Sundaram, Subramnian K.; Weston, Philip; Fairley, Lesley; Harrison, Simon C.W.; Forman, David; Chahal, Rohit

    2010-05-01

    Purpose: We have previously reported on the mortality, morbidity, and 5-year survival of 458 patients who underwent radical radiotherapy or surgery for invasive bladder cancer in Yorkshire from 1993 to 1996. We aim to present the 10-year outcomes of these patients and to reassess factors predicting survival. Methods and Materials: The Northern and Yorkshire Cancer Registry identified 458 patients whose cases were subjected to Kaplan-Meier all-cause survival analyses, and a retrospective casenote analysis was undertaken on 398 (87%) for univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards modeling. Additional proportional hazards regression modeling was used to assess the statistical significance of variables on overall survival. Results: The ratio of radiotherapy to cystectomy was 3:1. There was no significant difference in overall 10-year survival between those who underwent radiotherapy (22%) and radical cystectomy (24%). Univariate analyses suggested that female sex, performance status, hydronephrosis and clinical T stage, were associated with an inferior outcome at 10 years. Patient age, tumor grade, treatment delay, and caseload factors were not significant. Multivariate analysis models were created for 0-2 and 2-10 years after treatment. There were no significant differences in treatment for 0-2 years; however, after 2 years follow-up there was some evidence of increased survival for patients receiving surgery compared with radiotherapy (hazard ratio 0.66, 95% confidence interval: 0.44-1.01, p = 0.06). Conclusions: a 10-year minimum follow-up has rarely been reported after radical treatment for invasive bladder cancer. At 10 years, there was no statistical difference in all-cause survival between surgery and radiotherapy treatment modalities.

  15. Population-based 10-year event-free survival after radical prostatectomy for patients with prostate cancer in British Columbia

    PubMed Central

    Peacock, Michael; Quirt, Jill; James Morris, W.; So, Alan; Sing, Charmaine Kim; Pickles, Tom; Tyldesley, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: We determined (1) the 10-year survival outcomes after radical treatment of prostate cancer and (2) the 10-year event-free survival following radical prostatectomy (RP) at a population-level in British Columbia (BC), Canada. Methods: We identified all men with a new diagnosis of prostate cancer in BC between 1999 and 2000. Those treated with RP, external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) or brachytherapy (BT) were identified. Overall survival, and prostate cancer specific survival (PCSS) were calculated from diagnosis using the Kaplan-Meier method. For those men treated with RP, we calculated the 10-year event-free survival (freedom from salvage EBRT or androgen ablation, or death from prostate cancer). Reasons for initiating androgen therapy were unknown and may include symptomatic metastatic disease or asymptomatic biochemical recurrence. An important limitation was the absence of prostate-specific antigen data for staging or follow-up. Results: Among 6028 incident cases, RP was the curative-intent treatment within 1 year in 1360 (22.6%) patients, EBRT in 1367 (22.7%), and BT in 357 (5.9%). The 10-year PCSS was 98% for RP, 95% for EBRT and 98% for BT (log rank p < 0.0001). The 10-year overall survival was 87%. The 10-year event-free survival for those treated with RP was 79% and varied with Gleason grade: 87%, 74%, and 52% for Gleason 2–6, 7, and 8–10, respectively (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: This population-based study provides outcomes which can inform patient decision-making and provide a benchmark to which other therapies can be compared. Event-free rates for patients treated with RP vary with Gleason score. There is room for improvement in the outcomes of patients with high Gleason score treated with RP. PMID:26788230

  16. Rosetta begins its 10-year journey to the origins of the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-03-01

    Rosetta’s mission began at 08h17 CET (07h17 GMT) on 2 March when a European Ariane 5 launch vehicle liftered off from the Guiana Space Centre, Europe’s spaceport in Kourou, French Guiana. The launcher successfully placed its upper stage and payload into an eccentric coast orbit (200 x 4000 km). About two hours later, at 10h14 CET (09h14 GMT) the upper stage ignited its own engine to reach an escape velocity in order to leave the Earth’s gravity field and enter heliocentric orbit. The Rosetta probe was released about 18 minutes later. “After the recent success of Mars Express, Europe is now heading to deep space with another fantastic mission. We will have to be patient, as the rendezvous with the comet will not take place until ten years from now, but I think it’s worth the wait” said ESA’s Director General Jean-Jacques Dordain witnessing the launch from Kourou. ESA’s Operations Centre (ESOC) in Darmstadt, Germany, has established contact with the probe as it flies away from Earth at a relative speed of about 3.4 km/s. ESOC will be in charge of Rosetta operations and orbit determination throughout the mission. During the next eight months, the spacecraft’s onboard systems will be checked and its science payload will be commissioned. A 10-year odyssey Rosetta will be reactivated for planetary flybys, which will be used to modify its trajectory through gravity assist manoeuvres. During the trip, the probe could also observe one or more asteroids, observation of asteroids being one of the mission's secondary objectives. The first planetary encounter will be in March 2005, as Rosetta flies by the Earth for the first time. The gravity assist will boost Rosetta into an orbit that will take it to Mars two years later. During its close encounter with Mars in February 2007, Rosetta will approach to a distance of about 200 km and conduct science observations. This Martian flyby will be followed by another Earth flyby in November the same year. Both

  17. AB031. Spectrum of IEMs in Vietnamese patients: data from 10 years of selected screening and diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Dung, Vu Chi; Khánh, Nguyễn Ngọc; Mai, Nguyen Chi; Hương, Bùi Thị; Thao, Bui Phuong; Ngoc, Can Thi Bich; Hoan, Nguyen Thi; Hai, Le Thanh; Dung, Khu Thi Khanh; Fukao, Toshiyuki; Yamaguchi, Seiji

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective Vietnam is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia. With an estimated 90 million inhabitants as of 2013, it is the world’s 13th-most-populous country, and the eighth-most-populous Asian country. Congenital anomalies accounted about 22% of causes of deaths in children under-5 [2010]. The first service for IEMs was set up at the Northern referral center of Pediatrics-National Hospital of Pediatrics, Hanoi (NHP) in 2004 officially. The NHP in Hanoi provides services to the population of North Vietnam (~30 million people). The aim of this report is to highlight disease spectrum of tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) target disease in Vietnam. Methods A total of 2,405 high-risk cases with IEMs were studied at NHP during 10 years [2005-2014]. Dry blood and urine samples were analyzed using MS/MS (amino acid & acylcarnitine analysis) & GC/MS (organic acid anaysis) at Shimane University, Japan from 2005. Organic acids analysis for fresh urine samples was performed at NHP using GC/MS at NHP from 2010. Amino acid analysis for plasma samples were performed using HPLC at NHP from 2012. Results Oganic acidemia (OAs), amino acid disorders (AAs), urea cycle disorders (UCDs) and fatty acid oxidation disorders (FAOD) were identified in 235/2,405 cases (9.8%). A total of 118/235 patients (50.2%) were OAs with 12 different disorders: BKT (33 cases), PPA (21 cases), 5-oxoprolinuria (19 cases), MMA (14 cases), Glutaricaciduria type II (GA II) (11 cases), 3-methylglutaconic aciduria (4 cases), isovaleric academia (3 cases), multiple carboxylase deficiency (MCD) (2 cases), 3-methylcrotonylCoA carboxylase deficiency (2 cases). A total of 42/235 patients (17.9%) were amino acid disorders including 35 cases with MSUD, 7 cases with PKU and 1 case with tyrosinemia type 1. The 36/235 patients (15.3%) were UCDs including OTC deficiency (13 cases), citrulinemia type 1 (1 case) and argininosuccinic aciduria (1 case). 39/235 patients (16

  18. Pet ownership, dog types and attachment to pets in 9–10 year old children in Liverpool, UK

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about ethnic, cultural and socioeconomic differences in childhood ownership and attitudes to pets. The objective of this study was to describe the factors associated with living with different pet types, as well as factors that may influence the intensity of relationship or ‘attachment’ that children have to their pet. Data were collected using a survey of 1021 9–10 year old primary school children in a deprived area of the city of Liverpool, UK. Results Dogs were the most common pet owned, most common ‘favourite’ pet, and species most attached to. Twenty-seven percent of dog-owning children (10% of all children surveyed) reported living with a ‘Bull Breed’ dog (which includes Pit Bulls and Staffordshire Bull Terriers), and the most popular dog breed owned was the Staffordshire Bull Terrier. Multivariable regression modelling identified a number of variables associated with ownership of different pets and the strength of attachment to the child’s favourite pet. Girls were more likely to own most pet types, but were no more or less attached to their favourite pet than boys. Children of white ethnicity were more likely to own dogs, rodents and ‘other’ pets but were no more or less attached to their pets than children of non-white ethnicity. Single and youngest children were no more or less likely to own pets than those with younger brothers and sisters, but they showed greater attachment to their pets. Children that owned dogs lived in more deprived areas than those without dogs, and deprivation increased with number of dogs owned. ‘Pit Bull or cross’ and ‘Bull Breed’ dogs were more likely to be found in more deprived areas than other dog types. Non-whites were also more likely to report owning a ‘Pit Bull or cross’ than Whites. Conclusions Gender, ethnicity and socioeconomic status were associated with pet ownership, and sibling status with level of attachment to the pet. These are important to consider when

  19. Systemic Treatments for Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma: 10-Year Experience of Immunotherapy and Targeted Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Han; Park, Weon Seo; Kim, Sun Ho; Joung, Jae Young; Seo, Ho Kyung; Lee, Kang Hyun; Chung, Jinsoo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to compare the outcomes of first-line systemic targeted therapy (TT) and immunotherapy (IT) in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). Materials and Methods This study was a retrospective review of the data of 262 patients treated with systemic IT or TT with tyrosine kinase inhibitors between 2003 and 2013. The objective response rate (ORR), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) were assessed using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumor ver. 1.0 criteria and the Kaplan-Meier method with log-rank test. Results During the median 4.3-month treatment and the 24-month follow-up period, the ORR/PFS/OS of the overall first-line and second-line therapy were 41.9%/8.1 months/16.8 months and 27.5%/6.5 months/15.3 months, respectively. The first-line TT/IT/sequential IT had a PFS of 9.3/6.4/5.7 months and an OS of 15.8/16.5/40.6 months (all p < 0.05). The second-line of TT/IT had a PFS of 7.1/2.1 months (both p < 0.05) and an OS of 16.6/8.6 months (p=0.636), respectively. Pazopanib provided the best median PFS of 11.0 months (p < 0.001) and a quadruple IT regimen had a superior PFS (p=0.522). For OS, sequential treatment with IT and TT was superior compared to treatment with either IT or TT alone (40.6/16.5/15.8 months, p=0.014). The prognosis according to the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center model showed that favorable/intermediate/poor risk groups had a PFS of 8.5/10.4/2.3 months, and an OS of 43.1/20.4/5.6 months, respectively. The prognosis calculated using the Heng model showed that the favorable/intermediate/poor risk groups had a PFS of 9.2/3.9/2.7 months, and an OS of 32.4/16.5/6.1months, respectively (all p < 0.001). Conclusion In patients with mRCC, TT provided a better PFS and OS compared with IT. PMID:26875203

  20. A 10-year retrospective review of pediatric lung abscesses from a single center

    PubMed Central

    Madhani, Kavi; McGrath, Eric; Guglani, Lokesh

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Pediatric lung abscesses can be primary or secondary, and there is limited data regarding response to treatments and patient outcomes. OBJECTIVES: To assess the clinical and microbiologic profile of pediatric patients with lung abscess and assess the differences in outcomes for patients treated with medical therapy or medical plus surgical therapy. METHODS: A retrospective review of all pediatric patients ≤ 18 years of age that were treated as an inpatient for lung abscess between the dates of August 2004 and August 2014 was conducted. Patients were divided into two subgroups based on the need for surgical intervention. RESULTS: A total of 39 patients with lung abscess (30 treated with medical therapy alone, 9 also required surgical interventions) were included. Fever, cough, and emesis were the most common presenting symptoms, and most of the patients had underlying respiratory (31%) or neurologic disorders (15%). Staphylococcus aureus was the most common organism in those that had culture results available, and ceftriaxone with clindamycin was the most common combination of antibiotics used for treatment. Comparison of medical and surgical subgroups identified the duration of fever and abscess size as risk factors for surgical intervention. CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric lung abscesses can be managed with medical therapy alone in most cases. Presence of prolonged duration of fever and larger abscess size may be predictive of the need for surgical intervention. Good clinical response to prolonged therapy with ceftriaxone and clindamycin was noted. PMID:27512508