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Sample records for 10-year four-country nutrition

  1. nutritionDay: 10 years of growth.

    PubMed

    Schindler, Karin; Pichard, Claude; Sulz, Isabella; Volkert, Dorothee; Streicher, Melanie; Singer, Pierre; Ljungqvist, Olle; Van Gossum, Andre; Bauer, Peter; Hiesmayr, Michael

    2017-10-01

    Despite high prevalence at hospital admission, disease related malnutrition (DRM) remains under recognized and undertreated. DRM is associated with increased morbidity, hospital readmission rate, and burden for the healthcare system. The compelling need to increase awareness and knowledge through an international survey has triggered the launch of the nutritionDay (ND) concept. ND is a worldwide annual systematic collection and analysis of data in hospital wards, intensive care units and nursing homes. ND is based on questionnaires to systematically collect and analyze the patient's characteristics, food intake and nutrition support, as well as the determinants of their environment (facility, health care personal, etc …). Questionnaires, outcome documentation sheets and step-by-step guidance are available as download in 30 languages. ND has described the nutritional status and behavior of over 150,000 hospitalized patients and nursing home's patients in over 56 participating countries. These data allowed a local, regional, national and international benchmarking at different levels (i.e. type of medical pathologies, care facilities, etc.) and over time. Sixteen peer-reviewed publications have already been released and picture the international scene of DRM. This review presents the 10-year of the ND project development and shows how ND serves all health care professionals to optimize nutrition care and nutrition related structures. ND keeps progressing and is likely to become a standard tool for determining the nutritional status and behavior of hospitalized patients and nursing home's population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  2. A comparative study of the culture of thinness and nutrition transition in university females in four countries.

    PubMed

    Madanat, Hala N; Lindsay, Ryan; Hawks, Steven R; Ding, Ding

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the nutrition transition in four countries with respect to body dissatisfaction and eating styles. The target population for this study was college students in China (n=207), Japan (n=865), Jordan (n=322), and the United States (n=432). A cross-sectional survey was used to assess eating styles, disordered eating attitudes and behaviors, body esteem and dissatisfaction, and media influence. Results indicated that the Chinese sample was in an earlier stage of the nutrition transition, followed by Japan, Jordan, and the US. Interestingly, Jordanian and Chinese students exhibited the lowest level of body dissatisfaction. However, Jordanian students exhibited high levels of restrained eating similar to those seen in the Japanese and American students. The Japanese sample demonstrated a complex relationship between the culture of thinness, body dissatisfaction and eating styles. However the US sample reflected the expected levels of body dissatisfaction, high levels of restrained eating, emotional eating, and disordered eating attitudes and behaviors. Implications and suggestions for further research are discussed.

  3. Design of the South East Asian Nutrition Survey (SEANUTS): a four-country multistage cluster design study.

    PubMed

    Schaafsma, Anne; Deurenberg, Paul; Calame, Wim; van den Heuvel, Ellen G H M; van Beusekom, Christien; Hautvast, Jo; Sandjaja; Bee Koon, Poh; Rojroongwasinkul, Nipa; Le Nguyen, Bao Khanh; Parikh, Panam; Khouw, Ilse

    2013-09-01

    Nutrition is a well-known factor in the growth, health and development of children. It is also acknowledged that worldwide many people have dietary imbalances resulting in over- or undernutrition. In 2009, the multinational food company FrieslandCampina initiated the South East Asian Nutrition Survey (SEANUTS), a combination of surveys carried out in Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam, to get a better insight into these imbalances. The present study describes the general study design and methodology, as well as some problems and pitfalls encountered. In each of these countries, participants in the age range of 0·5-12 years were recruited according to a multistage cluster randomised or stratified random sampling methodology. Field teams took care of recruitment and data collection. For the health status of children, growth and body composition, physical activity, bone density, and development and cognition were measured. For nutrition, food intake and food habits were assessed by questionnaires, whereas in subpopulations blood and urine samples were collected to measure the biochemical status parameters of Fe, vitamins A and D, and DHA. In Thailand, the researchers additionally studied the lipid profile in blood, whereas in Indonesia iodine excretion in urine was analysed. Biochemical data were analysed in certified laboratories. Study protocols and methodology were aligned where practically possible. In December 2011, data collection was finalised. In total, 16,744 children participated in the present study. Information that will be very relevant for formulating nutritional health policies, as well as for designing innovative food and nutrition research and development programmes, has become available.

  4. Maternal Prenatal Nutrition and Birth Outcomes on Malnutrition among 7- to 10-Year-Old Children: A 10-Year Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jing; Zeng, Lingxia; Dang, Shaonong; Pei, Leilei; Gao, Wenlong; Li, Chao; Yan, Hong

    2016-11-01

    To identify postnatal predictors of malnutrition among 7- to 10-year-old children and to assess the long-term effects of antenatal micronutrient supplementation on malnutrition. A follow-up study was conducted to assess the nutritional status of 7- to 10-year-olds (1747 children) whose mothers participated in a cluster-randomized double-blind controlled trial from 2002 to 2006. The rate of malnourished 7- to 10-year-olds was 11.1%. A mixed-effects logistic regression model adjusted for the cluster-sampling design indicated that mothers with low prepregnant midupper arm circumference had boys with an increased risk of thinness (aOR  2.05, 95% CI  1.11, 3.79) and girls who were more likely to be underweight (aOR 2.01, 95% CI 1.05, 3.85). Antenatal micronutrient supplementation was not significantly associated with malnutrition. Low birth weight was significantly associated with increased odds of malnutrition among boys (aOR 4.34, 95% CI 1.82, 10.39) and girls (aOR  7.50, 95% CI 3.48, 16.13). Being small for gestational age significantly increased the odds of malnutrition among boys (aOR 1.75, 95% CI 1.01, 3.04) and girls (aOR 4.20, 95% CI  2.39, 7.39). In addition, household wealth, parental height, being picky eater, and illness frequency also predicted malnutrition. Both maternal prenatal nutrition and adverse birth outcomes are strong predictors of malnutrition among early school-aged children. Currently, available evidence is insufficient to support long-term effects of antenatal micronutrient supplementation on children's nutrition. www.isrctn.com: ISRCTN08850194. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Factors associated with nutritional status of 7-10 year-old schoolchildren: sociodemographic variables, dietary and parental nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Bernardo, Carla de O; Pudla, Kátia J; Longo, Giana Z; de Vasconcelos, Francisco de A G

    2012-09-01

    To estimate the prevalence of overweight / obesity in schoolchildren, and to investigate its association with parents' nutritional status, socioeconomic factors and food consumption. Cross-sectional study with 1,223 schoolchildren, 7 to 10 years old from Florianópolis, SC. We collected anthropometric measures directly and dietary intake of previous day; parents' data were collected from a socioeconomic and self-reported anthropometric questionnaire. Schoolchildren's nutritional status was defined using the Body Mass Index (BMI) for age and sex according to the reference data of the World Health Organization (2007), and parents' nutritional status was defined according to the World Health Organization BMI cutoff points (1995). We performed bivariate and multivariate analysis using Poisson regression. Prevalence of overweight/obesity was 36.2% in boys and 32.7% among girls. The prevalence was 56.3% and 27.5% in fathers and mothers, respectively. In the final model, mother's (p = 0.001) and father's nutritional status (p = 0.050) remained directly associated with schoolchildren's overweight/obesity. The prevalence of overweight/obesity was 1.58 times higher in schoolchildren with overweight/obese mothers, and 1.41 times higher in schoolchildren with overweight/obese fathers, compared to mothers and fathers without the condition. There was a high prevalence of overweight/obesity among schoolchildren, which was associated with the nutritional status of mothers and fathers. These results confirm the need to prevent overweight/obesity in schoolchildren with actions that also involve the family environment in order to reduce obesity in this population.

  6. National nutrition objectives and 10-year targets: Perspectives on their basis and evolution

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    For three decades, Healthy People initiatives have provided a comprehensive set of science- and evidence-based objectives with ten-year targets to guide efforts to improve the nation’s health. In each of these initiatives, nutrition-related objectives have remained a critical topic area, given the ...

  7. Nutritional Status Predicts 10-Year Mortality in Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease on Hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Kang, Shin Sook; Chang, Jai Won; Park, Yongsoon

    2017-04-18

    Protein-energy wasting (PEW) is associated with mortality in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on maintenance hemodialysis. The correct diagnosis of PEW is extremely important in order to predict clinical outcomes. However, it is unclear which parameters should be used to diagnose PEW. Therefore, this retrospective observational study investigated the relationship between mortality and nutritional parameters in ESRD patients on maintenance hemodialysis. A total of 144 patients were enrolled. Nutritional parameters, including body mass index, serum albumin, dietary intake, normalized protein catabolic rate (nPCR), and malnutrition inflammation score (MIS), were measured at baseline. Fifty-three patients died during the study. Survivors had significantly higher nPCR (1.10 ± 0.24 g/kg/day vs. 1.01 ± 0.21 g/kg/day; p = 0.048), energy intake (26.7 ± 5.8 kcal/kg vs. 24.3 ± 4.2 kcal/kg; p = 0.009) and protein intake (0.91 ± 0.21 g/kg vs. 0.82 ± 0.24 g/kg; p = 0.020), and lower MIS (5.2 ± 2.3 vs. 6.1 ± 2.1, p = 0.039). In multivariable analysis, energy intake <25 kcal/kg (HR 1.860, 95% CI 1.018-3.399; p = 0.044) and MIS > 5 (HR 2.146, 95% CI 1.173-3.928; p = 0.013) were independent variables associated with all-cause mortality. These results suggest that higher MIS and lower energy intake are harmful to ESRD patients on maintenance hemodialysis. Optimal energy intake could reduce mortality in these patients.

  8. Have the Answers to Common Legal Questions Concerning Nutrition Support Changed Over the Past Decade? 10 Questions for 10 Years.

    PubMed

    Barrocas, Albert; Cohen, Michael L

    2016-06-01

    Clinical nutrition specialists (CNSs) are often confronted with technological, ethical, and legal questions, that is, what can be done technologically, what should be done ethically, and what must be done legally, which conflict at times. The conflict represents a "troubling trichotomy" as discussed in the lead article of this issue of Nutrition in Clinical Practice (NCP). During Clinical Nutrition Week in 2006, a symposium covering these 3 topics was presented, and later that year, an article covering the same topic was published in NCP In this article, we revisit several legal questions/issues that were raised 10 years ago and discuss current answers and approaches. Some of the answers remain unchanged. Other answers have been modified by additional legislation, court decisions, or regulations. In addition, new questions/issues have arisen. Some of the most common questions regarding nutrition support involve the following: liability, informed consent, medical decisional incapacity vs legal competence, advance directive specificity, surrogate decision making, physician orders for life-sustaining treatment and electronic medical orders for life-sustaining treatment, legal definition of death, patient vs family decision making, the noncompliant patient, and elder abuse obligations. In the current healthcare environment, these questions and issues are best addressed via a transdisciplinary team that focuses on function rather than form. The CNS can play a pivotal role in dealing with these challenges by applying the acronym ACT: being Accountable and Communicating with all stakeholders while actively participating as an integral part of the transdisciplinary Team.

  9. Acquisition of visuomotor abilities and intellectual quotient in children aged 4-10 years: relationship with micronutrient nutritional status.

    PubMed

    González, Horacio F; Malpeli, Agustina; Etchegoyen, Graciela; Lucero, Lucrecia; Romero, Florencia; Lagunas, Carolina; Lailhacar, Gustavo; Olivares, Manuel; Uauy, Ricardo

    2007-01-01

    Lethargy, poor attention, and the high rate and severity of infections in malnourished children affect their educational achievement. We therefore studied the association between visuomotor abilities and intelligence quotient (IQ) and their relationship with iron, zinc, and copper. A cross-sectional study was carried out on a sample of 89 healthy children (age range, 4-10 years). Evaluations of visuomotor ability and IQ were performed with the Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration (VMI) and the Scale for Measurement of Intelligence for children aged 3-18 years, respectively. Nutritional status was assessed using anthropometry and biochemical assessments, which included serum ferritin, zinc and copper levels, and Hb. The sample was classified as having low or normal VMI scores: 47 children (52.8%, mean age 7 +/- 1.5 years) had low VMI, and 42 (47.2%, mean age 7 +/- 2.06 years) had normal VMI. There were no statistically significant differences in socioeconomic and cultural condition between both groups. We found significantly higher serum copper and ferritin levels in normal as compared to low VMI, but we did not find any differences with zinc. IQ was significantly higher in normal vs low VMI children. The fact that children with abnormal VMI presented low mean serum copper and ferritin concentrations could indicate that copper and iron deficiencies in this sample could be related with visuomotor abilities.

  10. Association between the Family Nutrition and Physical Activity screening tool and cardiovascular disease risk factors in 10-year old children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yee, Kimbo Edward

    Purpose. To examine the association of the Family Nutrition and Physical Activity (FNPA) screening tool, a behaviorally based screening tool designed to assess the obesogenic family environment and behaviors, with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in 10-year old children. Methods. One hundred nineteen children were assessed for body mass index (BMI), percent body fat (%BF), waist circumference (WC), total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and resting blood pressure. A continuous CVD risk score was created using total cholesterol to HDL-cholesterol ratio (TC:HDL), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and WC. The FNPA survey was completed by parents. The associations between the FNPA score and individual CVD risk factors and the continuous CVD risk score were examined using correlation analyses. Results. Approximately 35% of the sample were overweight (19%) or obese (16%). The mean FNPA score was 24.6 +/- 2.5 (range 18 to 29). Significant correlations were found between the FNPA score and WC (r = -.35, p<.01), BMI percentile (r = -.38, p<.01), %BF (r = -.43, p<.01), and the continuous CVD risk score (r = -.22, p = .02). No significant association was found between the FNPA score and TC:HDL (r=0.10, p=0.88) or MAP (r=-0.12, p=0.20). Conclusion. Children from a high-risk, obesogenic family environment as indicated with a lower FNPA score have a higher CVD risk factor profile than children from a low-risk family environment.

  11. [Epidemiological survey on iodine nutrition of 8-10 year old school children in Wuqiao county of Hebei Province].

    PubMed

    Feng, Changlong; Liu, Dianwu; Wang, Xiaopu; Wei, Qun; Wang, Liqin

    2010-03-01

    To assess the nutritional status of iodine in school children of Wuqiao County in Hebei Province. 1209 school children aged 8-12 years were selected by multistage random sampling. Thyroid size estimated by inspection and palpation was graded according to the criteria recommended by WHO. The concentration of urinary iodine and iodine in salt was also measured. There were 74 goiter cases, accounted for 6.1% of total students investigated. The median of urinary iodine was 208 microg/L and the median of iodine intake was 312 microg/d. The excretion of urinary iodine at <100 microg/L, <50 microg/L, 200-300 microg/L and 300 microg/L accounted for 18.5%, 4.6%, 27.2% and 26.5% of total detected samples respectively. The coverage of iodized salt in the area was 77% and the iodine in iodized salt was at a median of 26.96 mg/kg. Goiter is endemic in Wuqiao County of Hebei Provinee. Urinary iodine of school children was more than the optimal range, and the iodine nutrition was excessive in this area.

  12. Changes in nutritional status and patterns of morbidity among free-living elderly persons: a 10-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Vellas, B J; Hunt, W C; Romero, L J; Koehler, K M; Baumgartner, R N; Garry, P J

    1997-06-01

    Nutritional intake appears to be an important factor contributing to aging. In the present study we describe changes in physical health related to nutritional intake among elderly persons in a 10-y longitudinal study. Among 304 healthy elderly participants (median age 72 y on entry into the study in 1980), 97 (34.2%) are still in good health 10 y later in 1990, 74 (26.5%) have become frail or sick, 54 (19.1%) have died, and 57 (20.1%) have dropped out of the study. Women with lower or higher energy intakes (in 1980 and 1981) than the current Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA; between 25 and 30 kcal/kg) were more likely to become frail or sick or to die in 1990 than those with energy intake in the midrange (below RDA, odds ratio (OR) = 3.3, confidence interval (CI) = 1.2-8.6; above RDA, OR = 3.4, CI: 1.1-10.7). Moreover, women with protein intakes greater than the midrange of 0.8-1.2 g/kg of body weight (1.20-1.76 g/kg in 1980 and 1981) tended to have fewer health problems over the next 10 y than those with protein intakes < 0.8 g/kg, suggesting that the mean protein requirement in elderly adults is greater than that established by the 1985 joint World Health Organization/ FAO/UNU Expert Committee. Moreover, a decrease in energy intake was greater in elderly persons who died or dropped out of the study because of illness.

  13. Factors impacting the growth and nutritional status of cystic fibrosis patients younger than 10 years of age who did not undergo neonatal screening

    PubMed Central

    Hortencio, Taís Daiene Russo; Nogueira, Roberto José Negrão; Marson, Fernando Augusto de Lima; Hessel, Gabriel; Ribeiro, José Dirceu; Ribeiro, Antônio Fernando

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate by clinical and laboratory parameters how cystic fibrosis (CF) affects growth and nutritional status of children who were undergoing CF treatment but did not receive newborn screening. METHODS: A historical cohort study of 52 CF patients younger than 10 years of age were followed in a reference center in Campinas, Southeast Brazil. Anthropometric measurements were abstracted from medical records until March/2010, when neonatal screening program was implemented. Between September/2009 and March/2010, parental height of the 52 CF patients were also measured. RESULTS: Regarding nutritional status, four patients had Z-scores ≤-2 for height/age (H/A) and body mass index/age (BMI/A). The following variables were associated with improved H/A ratio: fewer hospitalizations, longer time from first appointment to diagnosis, longer time from birth to diagnosis and later onset of respiratory disease. Forced vital capacity [FVC(%)], forced expiratory flow between 25-75% of FVC [FEF25-75(%)], forced expiratory volume in the first second [FEV1(%)], gestational age, birth weight and early respiratory symptoms were associated with improved BMI/A. CONCLUSIONS: Greater number of hospitalizations, diagnosis delay and early onset of respiratory disease had a negative impact on growth. Lower spirometric values, lower gestational age, lower birth weight, and early onset of respiratory symptoms had negative impact on nutritional status. Malnutrition was observed in 7.7% of cases, but 23% of children had nutritional risk. PMID:25681074

  14. Nutritional status and phytate:zinc and phytate x calcium:zinc dietary molar ratios of lacto-ovo vegetarian Trappist monks: 10 years later.

    PubMed

    Harland, B F; Smith, S A; Howard, M P; Ellis, R; Smith, J C

    1988-12-01

    A nutrition assessment of 16 members of a community of lacto-ovo vegetarian Trappist monks was conducted in 1977. Plasma zinc was found to be low-normal, which was attributed primarily to high intakes of phytate-containing foods. Individual and group counseling were instituted over a 10-year period in an attempt to emphasize the importance of wise food selection within the constraints of lacto-ovo vegetarianism. In 1987, a more comprehensive nutrition assessment of 21 members of the same community was performed. Food composites were analyzed, and 3-day instead of 24-hour dietary records were kept. Intakes of phytate-containing foods had decreased from 4,569 to 972 mg/day; intake of dietary zinc had increased from 7.4 to 9.7 mg/day; and the phytate:zinc molar ratio had decreased from 67 to 14 for the years 1977 and 1987, respectively. An analyzed phytate:zinc molar ratio of 9.8 and an analyzed phytate x calcium:zinc molar ratio of 0.3 were representative of the 1987 community. Both were within normal ranges. Plasma zinc had risen to upper-normal levels. The 1987 nutrition assessment showed that it is possible to be adequately nourished with a lacto-ovo vegetarian diet provided one has proper knowledge of the phytate-containing foods and the methods for compensating with foods of greater mineral density (primarily zinc).

  15. Allergies in high-risk schoolchildren after early intervention with cow's milk protein hydrolysates: 10-year results from the German Infant Nutritional Intervention (GINI) study.

    PubMed

    von Berg, Andrea; Filipiak-Pittroff, Birgit; Krämer, Ursula; Hoffmann, Barbara; Link, Elke; Beckmann, Christina; Hoffmann, Ute; Reinhardt, Dietrich; Grübl, Armin; Heinrich, Joachim; Wichmann, H-Erich; Bauer, Carl-P; Koletzko, Sibylle; Berdel, Dietrich

    2013-06-01

    The long-term effect of nutritional intervention with hydrolysate infant formulas on allergic manifestations in high-risk children is uncertain. We sought to investigate the effect of hydrolysate infant formulas on allergic phenotypes in children with family history of allergies at school age. We analyzed data from participants of the prospective German Infant Nutritional Intervention study after 10 years of follow-up. At birth, children were randomly assigned to receive, for the first 4 months, one of 4 blinded formulas as breast milk substitute, if necessary: partially hydrolyzed whey formula (pHF-W), extensively hydrolyzed whey formula (eHF-W), extensively hydrolyzed casein formula (eHF-C), or standard cow's milk formula. Outcomes were parent-reported, physician-diagnosed allergic diseases. Log-binomial regression models were used for statistical analysis. The relative risk for the cumulative incidence of any allergic disease in the intention-to-treat analysis (n = 2252) was 0.87 (95% CI, 0.77-0.99) for pHF-W, 0.94 (95% CI, 0.83-1.07) for eHF-W, and 0.83 (95% CI, 0.72-0.95) for eHF-C compared with standard cow's milk formula. The corresponding figures for atopic eczema/dermatits (AD) were 0.82 (95% CI, 0.68-1.00), 0.91 (95% CI, 0.76-1.10), and 0.72 (95% CI, 0.58-0.88), respectively. In the per-protocol analysis (n = 988) effects were stronger. The period prevalence of AD at 7 to 10 years was significantly reduced with eHF-C in this analysis, but there was no preventive effect on asthma or allergic rhinitis. The significant preventive effect on the cumulative incidence of allergic diseases, particularly AD, with pHF-W and eHF-C persisted until 10 years without rebound, whereas eHF-W showed no significant risk reduction. There is insufficient evidence of ongoing preventive activity at 7 to 10 years of age. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Factors impacting the growth and nutritional status of cystic fibrosis patients younger than 10 years of age who did not undergo neonatal screening].

    PubMed

    Hortencio, Taís Daiene Russo; Nogueira, Roberto José Negrão; Marson, Fernando Augusto de Lima; Hessel, Gabriel; Ribeiro, José Dirceu; Ribeiro, Antônio Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate by clinical and laboratory parameters how cystic fibrosis (CF) affects growth and nutritional status of children who were undergoing CF treatment but did not receive newborn screening. A historical cohort study of 52 CF patients younger than 10 years of age were followed in a reference center in Campinas, Southeast Brazil. Anthropometric measurements were abstracted from medical records until March/2010, when neonatal screening program was implemented. Between September/2009 and March/2010, parental height of the 52 CF patients were also measured. Regarding nutritional status, four patients had Z-scores ≤ -2 for height/age (H/A) and body mass index/age (BMI/A). The following variables were associated with improved H/A ratio: fewer hospitalizations, longer time from first appointment to diagnosis, longer time from birth to diagnosis and later onset of respiratory disease. Forced vital capacity [FVC(%)], forced expiratory flow between 25-75% of FVC [FEF25-75(%)], forced expiratory volume in the first second [FEV1(%)], gestational age, birth weight and early respiratory symptoms were associated with IMC/A. Greater number of hospitalizations, diagnosis delay and early onset of respiratory disease had a negative impact on growth. Lower spirometric values, lower gestational age, lower birth weight, and early onset of respiratory symptoms had negative impact on nutritional status. Malnutrition was observed in 7.7% of cases, but 23% of children had nutritional risk. Copyright © 2014 Associação de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Association between Blood Cadmium Levels and 10-Year Coronary Heart Disease Risk in the General Korean Population: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2010

    PubMed Central

    Myong, Jun-Pyo; Kim, Hyoung-Ryoul; Jang, Tae-Won; Lee, Hye Eun; Koo, Jung-Wan

    2014-01-01

    Background Non-occupational heavy metals are considered risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD). Several recent epidemiologic studies have evaluated the relationship between non-occupational cadmium exposure and risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study was designed to investigate the relationship between non-occupational cadmium exposure and risk factors for CHD using the Framingham estimate of 10 year CHD risk. Methods The heavy metal dataset of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 2008 through 2010, a cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of 4,668 non-institutionalized Koreans, was analyzed. Subjects were stratified into seven age groups to minimize the effects of age. The log-transformed blood cadmium concentrations were compared with the Framingham estimate of 10 year CHD risk in each age stratum. Results The Framingham estimate of 10 year CHD risk was significantly associated with the log-transformed blood cadmium concentrations (p<0.05) in all age groups of Korean men, with the lowest regression coefficient (0.254) for men aged 20 to <35 years and the highest (3.354) for men aged 55 to <60 years; similar results, however, were not observed in Korean women. After adjusting for survey year, age, and urinary cotinine concentration, the log-transformed blood cadmium levels among men aged 20 to <35, 40 to <45, 50 to <55, and 60 to <65 years were significantly associated with systolic blood pressure (p<0.05), but not with total and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentrations. Conclusions Cadmium exposure, even at non-occupational levels, may be associated with CHD risk in men. Despite the declines in non-occupational cadmium exposure over the past several decades, more efforts are needed. PMID:25383551

  18. Global positioning system: a new tool to measure the distribution of anemia and nutritional status of children (5-10 years) in a rural area in south India.

    PubMed

    Ramesh Masthi, N R; Sathish Chandra, M R; Undi, Malatesh; Aravind, M; Puthussery, Yannick P

    2012-01-01

    Global positioning system (GPS) is a satellite-based navigation system that is of late being used in health care. The aims of the study were to describe the geographical distribution and assess the prevalence of anemia and malnutrition in children aged 5-10 years with GPS. This exploratory study was conducted over a period of 2 months in the rural field practice area of a medical college situated in Bangalore during June-July 2012. Children aged 5-10 years were the study subjects. GPS was used for describing the geographical distribution of anemia and nutrition status on the Google earth map. The prevalence of anemia in the study subjects was 8.7%. The prevalence of underweight, stunting, thinness, and severe thinness among the study subjects was 52.8%, 28.5%, 23.5%, and 29.1%, respectively; however, overweight and obesity were observed only in 0.9% and 1.2% of the study subjects, respectively. GPS was easy to use and was able to demonstrate the actual distribution of morbidity at the household level in the rural area.

  19. Infant-onset eczema in relation to mental health problems at age 10 years: results from a prospective birth cohort study (German Infant Nutrition Intervention plus).

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Jochen; Apfelbacher, Christian; Chen, Chih-Mei; Romanos, Marcel; Sausenthaler, Stefanie; Koletzko, Sibylle; Bauer, Carl-Peter; Hoffmann, Ute; Krämer, Ursula; Berdel, Dietrich; von Berg, Andrea; Wichmann, H-Erich; Heinrich, Joachim

    2010-02-01

    Cross-sectional studies suggest an association between eczema and mental health problems, but the temporal relationship is unclear. To assess the association between infant-onset eczema and mental health problems in a prospective study. Between 1995 and 1998, a birth cohort study was recruited and followed until age 10 years. Physician-diagnosed eczema, comorbidities, and a broad set of environmental exposures were assessed at age 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 10 years. First, we investigated the association between infant-onset eczema (age 1-2 years) and mental health problems at age 10 years according to the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Second, we analyzed the likelihood of mental health problems at age 10 years in relation to the course of eczema. A total of 2916 infants were eligible for analysis. Compared with participants never diagnosed as having eczema, children with infant-onset eczema had a significantly increased risk for possible/probable mental health problems (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire total score) at age 10 years (odds ratio, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.13-1.96) and for emotional symptoms (odds ratio, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.25-2.09). Eczema limited to infancy predicted a significantly higher risk for conduct problems at age 10 years. The strength of the association between eczema and emotional problems at age 10 years increased with increasing eczema persistence. Infants with eczema are at increased risk for mental health problems at age 10 years. Even if cleared afterward, eczema at age 1 to 2 years may cause persistent emotional and behavioral difficulties. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. 10-year risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and coronary heart disease among Korean adults: findings from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kayoung

    2014-09-20

    This study examined the distribution of the 10-year risk for development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) and coronary heart disease (CHD), and the proportion of participants eligible for lipid management, in the Korean population. The risk was estimated using the Pooled Cohort Equations for non-Hispanic Whites and the Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III equations. Eligibility for lipid-lowering treatment was assessed using the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Blood Cholesterol Guideline and the ATP III recommendation. Complex sampling design and area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) were used. Among 7594 ASCVD-free Korean adults, aged 40-79 years, 31.3% (men, 44.1%; women, 19%) had a 10-year risk for an ASCVD event of ≥ 7.5%, and 27.1% (men, 39.4%; women, 15.2%) had a 10-year risk for a CHD event of ≥ 10%. These proportions differed according to age groups, ranging from 6.1 to 91.9% and 8.7 to 58.7% for patients in their 40s-70s, using the ASCVD and CHD risk estimations, respectively. Overall, 78.7% of individuals remain in the same risk stratum. Those eligible for lipid management included 32.8% of the participants using the ACC/AHA Guideline and 11.9% of those using the ATP III recommendation. In discriminating ASCVD, AUCs for the ASCVD risk assessment method and the CHD risk assessment method were 0.70 and 0.64, respectively (P<0.001). The distribution of 10-year ASCVD and CHD risk was different according to the risk assessment methods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Compliance with the Swiss Society for Nutrition's dietary recommendations in the population of Geneva, Switzerland: a 10-year trend study (1999-2009).

    PubMed

    de Abreu, Daisy; Guessous, Idris; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Marques-Vidal, Pedro

    2014-05-01

    The trends in compliance with the dietary recommendations of the Swiss Society for Nutrition in the Geneva population were assessed for the period from 1999 to 2009 using 10 cross-sectional, population-based surveys (Bus Santé study) with a total of 9,320 participants aged 35 to 75 years (50% women). Dietary intake was assessed using a self-administered, validated, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Trends were assessed by logistic regression adjusting for age, smoking status, education, and nationality using survey year as the independent variable. After excluding participants with extreme intakes, the percentage of participants with a cholesterol intake of <300 mg/day increased from 40.8% in 1999 to 43.6% in 2009 for men (multivariate-adjusted P for trend=0.04) and from 57.8% to 61.4% in women (multivariate-adjusted P for trend=0.06). Calcium intake >1 g/day decreased from 53.3% to 46% in men and from 47.6% to 40.7% in women (multivariate-adjusted P for trend<0.001). Adequate iron intake decreased from 68.3% to 65.3% in men and from 13.3% to 8.4% in women (multivariate-adjusted P for trend<0.001). Conversely, no significant changes were observed for carbohydrates, protein, total fat (including saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids), fiber, and vitamins D and A. We conclude that the quality of the Swiss diet did not improve between 1999 and 2009 and that intakes deviate substantially from expert recommendations for health promotion and chronic disease risk reduction. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Health and nutrition education in primary schools in Crete: 10 years follow-up of serum lipids, physical activity and macronutrient intake.

    PubMed

    Manios, Yannis; Kafatos, Anthony

    2006-03-01

    The current study is a 4-year follow-up after the 6-year-long health and nutrition intervention programme applied in the primary schools of Crete. The aim of the current work was to identify whether the benefits obtained in certain health indices at the end of the intervention period were also present 4 years later. From a representative population of 441 pupils (250 from the intervention schools and 191 from the control schools), biochemical, dietary and physical activity data were obtained at baseline, at the end of the intervention period and after intervention (academic years 1992- 1993, 1997-1998 and 2001-2002, respectively). The findings of the current study revealed that the favourable changes in serum lipids observed at the end of the intervention period were maintained from baseline to after intervention for total cholesterol (-24-3 (SE 1.65) v. -9.70 (SE 2.03) mg/dl; P = 0-001), LDL-cholesterol(-18.6 (SE 1-41) v. -2.49 (SE 1.75) mg/dl; P < 0-001), HDL-cholesterol (-8-34 (SE 0.75) v. -9-60 (SE 1-10) mg/dl; P = 0-014) and total cholesterol :HDL-cholesterol ratio (0.31 (SE 0.06) v. 0.04 (SE 0.05); P = 0001). Similar favourable changes for the intervention group were observed in leisure-time physical activities (38.3 (SE 11-7) v. -13.2 (SE 10.9) min/week; P = 0.038) and BMI (6-05 (SE 0.18) v. 6.67 (SE 0-21) kg/m(2);P = 0.014), whereas no changes were observed in the fitness and dietary indices examined. The findings of the current study are encouraging, indicating maintenance of the favourable changes observed in serum lipids, BMI and physical activity 4 years after the programme had ended.

  3. Snapshot of flexible funding outcomes in four countries.

    PubMed

    Laragy, Carmel

    2010-03-01

    This article reviews social participation outcomes identified in discrete studies of flexible funding programmes across four countries. The outcomes of an Australian flexible funding support programme were studied in 2007; a study tour of independent living programmes was conducted in England and Scotland during 2005; Swedish co-operatives and government administrators providing personal assistance to live independently were visited in 2006 and Australian independent living support groups operating for over 20 years were visited in 2008. Fifty-six interviews were conducted with people with a disability, families, support services, government administrators and researchers. A structured interview schedule was used in the 2007 Australian study and a semi-structured format was used in all other studies. Notes from the interviews were reviewed for themes related to social participation and their contributing factors. Ecological systems theory was used to identify what factors from the micro to the macro system level facilitated or hindered social participation. The key finding is that flexible funding did result in a range of social participation activities in each setting studied. The studies also indicate that social participation increases when people have access to information and support services; can choose their individual workers and move to a new agency if need be; and have adequate resources to meet their needs. The cultural and political context plays a large part in determining these factors. The implications of this study are that adequate resources are needed and the complex systems impacting on flexible funding need to be understood to achieve the intended outcomes.

  4. Perceived Severity of Cyberbullying: Differences and Similarities across Four Countries

    PubMed Central

    Palladino, Benedetta E.; Menesini, Ersilia; Nocentini, Annalaura; Luik, Piret; Naruskov, Karin; Ucanok, Zehra; Dogan, Aysun; Schultze-Krumbholz, Anja; Hess, Markus; Scheithauer, Herbert

    2017-01-01

    Cyberbullying is a ubiquitous topic when considering young people and internet and communication technologies (ICTs). For interventional purposes, it is essential to take into account the perspective of adolescents. This is the reason why our main focus is (1) investigating the role of different criteria in the perceived severity of cyberbullying incidents, and (2) examining the differences between countries in the perceived severity of cyberbullying. The sample consisted of 1,964 adolescents (48.2% girls) from middle and high schools of four different countries, i.e., Estonia, Italy, Germany, and Turkey. The participants' age ranged from 12 to 20 years old with a mean age of 14.49 (SD = 1.66) years. To assess perceived severity, participants rated a set of 128 scenarios, which systematically included one or more of five criteria (intentionality, repetition, imbalance of power, public vs. private, and anonymity) and represented four types of cyberbullying behaviors (Written—Verbal, Visual, Exclusion, Impersonation). The role of different criteria was analyzed using the Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling (ESEM). Results showed a similar structure across the four countries (invariant except for the latent factors' means). Further, criteria of imbalance of power and, to a lesser extent, intentionality, anonymity, and repetition always in combination, were found to be the most important criteria to define the severity of cyberbullying. Differences between countries highlighted specific features of Turkish students, who perceived all scenarios as more severe than adolescents from other countries and were more sensitive to imbalance of power. German and Italian students showed an opposite perception of anonymity combined with intentionality. For Italian participants, an anonymous attack was less threatening than for participants of other countries, whereas for German students anonymity caused more insecurity and fear. In addition, Italian adolescents were more

  5. Family Resource Coalition: 10 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Family Resource Coalition Report, 1991

    1991-01-01

    This newsletter issue focuses on the 10 years of leadership provided by the Family Resource Coalition in the support of families. The centerpiece of this anniversary issue is an interview with Coalition founder and President Bernice Weissbourd, exploring how the original ideas of the family resource movement have been implemented over the past 10…

  6. Swift: 10 Years of Discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The conference Swift: 10 years of discovery was held in Roma at La Sapienza University on Dec. 2-5 2014 to celebrate 10 years of Swift successes. Thanks to a large attendance and a lively program, it provided the opportunity to review recent advances of our knowledge of the high-energy transient Universe both from the observational and theoretical sides. When Swift was launched on November 20, 2004, its prime objective was to chase Gamma-Ray Bursts and deepen our knowledge of these cosmic explosions. And so it did, unveiling the secrets of long and short GRBs. However, its multi-wavelength instrumentation and fast scheduling capabilities made it the most versatile mission ever flown. Besides GRBs, Swift has observed, and contributed to our understanding of, an impressive variety of targets including AGNs, supernovae, pulsars, microquasars, novae, variable stars, comets, and much more. Swift is continuously discovering rare and surprising events distributed over a wide range of redshifts, out to the most distant transient objects in the Universe. Such a trove of discoveries has been addressed during the conference with sessions dedicated to each class of events. Indeed, the conference in Rome was a spectacular celebration of the Swift 10th anniversary. It included sessions on all types of transient and steady sources. Top scientists from around the world gave invited and contributed talks. There was a large poster session, sumptuous lunches, news interviews and a glorious banquet with officials attending from INAF and ASI. All the presentations, as well as several conference pictures, can be found in the conference website (http://www.brera.inaf.it/Swift10/Welcome.html). These proceedings have been collected owing to the efforts of Paolo D’Avanzo who has followed each paper from submission to final acceptance. Our warmest thanks to Paolo for all his work. The Conference has been made possible by the support from La Sapienza University as well as from the ARAP

  7. The medical management of menopause: A four country comparison of urban care

    PubMed Central

    Sievert, Lynnette Leidy; Saliba, Matilda; Reher, David; Sahel, Amina; Hoyer, Doris; Deeb, Mary; Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf

    2008-01-01

    Objective To compare the medical management of menopause across urban areas in four countries which differ by level of income and degree of medicalization. Methods Surveys of health providers who advise women on the menopausal transition were carried out in Beirut, Lebanon (n=100), Madrid, Spain (n=60), Worcester, Massachusetts, U.S. (n=59), and Rabat, Morocco (n=50) from 2002 to 2004. Physician characteristics, hormone therapy (HT) prescribing practices, and concerns about the management of menopause were compared across countries using chi-square and logistic regression analyses. Results After controlling for physician specialty and sex, physicians in Madrid (OR 3.228) and Massachusetts (OR 7.641) were more likely to write >5 prescriptions for HT per month compared with physicians in Beirut. Physicians in Massachusetts (OR 3.961) were most likely to recommended HT for 10 years or more. Physicians in Madrid were significantly less likely to talk with patients about menopause for ≥ 15 minutes (OR 0.160), and were less likely to say that the benefit of HT was “very high” for symptom alleviation (OR 0.253) or osteoporosis prevention (OR 0.146). Physicians in Beirut were most likely to obtain a mammogram and an endometrial biopsy prior to treating symptoms. Physicians in Massachusetts (OR 0.298) and Rabat (OR 0.399) were significantly less apt to describe their concern about breast cancer as “serious.” Conclusions Prescription patterns and perceived benefits of HT appear to reflect local medical culture rather than simply physician characteristics. The impact of the WHI study was seen in prescribing patterns and concerns about HT. Physicians in all 4 countries were generally well informed. PMID:18178044

  8. Investigating the Psychometric Properties of the ACEI Global Guidelines Assessment (GGA) in Four Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardin, Belinda J.; Bergen, Doris; Hung, Hsuan-Fang

    2013-01-01

    The ACEI Global Guidelines Assessment (GGA) was developed to provide an international assessment tool that can be used by early childhood educators to develop, assess, and improve program quality worldwide. This pilot study was conducted in four countries to investigate the psychometric properties of the GGA within and across different countries.…

  9. The Anthropology of Online Search Strategy Formation: A Study of Four Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Still, Julie

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the results of a survey sent to online searchers in four countries, the United Kingdom, the United States, Australia, and Canada, to investigate the influence of national culture on information retrieval skills. The survey form provided a sample question and asked searchers to prepare a preliminary search strategy in Sociological…

  10. Vocational Education and Training in Europe. A Four-Country Study in Four Employment Sectors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Further Education Unit, London (England).

    This report provides an overview of vocational education and training systems in major European countries that is useful to practitioners and planners in further education. The first part provides brief descriptions of the vocational education and training systems in four countries: France, Germany, Italy, and the Netherlands. By way of…

  11. Psychosocial Distress and Substance Use among Adolescents in Four Countries: Philippines, China, Chile, and Namibia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Randy M.; Dennis, Megan; Lindsay, Gordon B.; Merrill, Ray M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between adolescent substance use and psychosocial distress indicators among 30,851 adolescents aged 11 to 16 in four countries (Philippines, China, Chile, and Namibia). Global School-Based Student Health Survey data from these countries provided information about frequency and…

  12. Attracting and Integrating Newcomers into Church Life: Research in Four Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterland, Sam; Bellamy, John; Escott, Phillip; Castle, Keith

    2006-01-01

    This article highlights the importance of considering the flow of newcomers into church life and the inadequacy of relying solely upon changes in numbers of attenders in assessing the effectiveness of churches. Drawing upon data collected in four countries, Australia, England, New Zealand and the United States of America, this article looks at the…

  13. Investigating the Psychometric Properties of the ACEI Global Guidelines Assessment (GGA) in Four Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardin, Belinda J.; Bergen, Doris; Hung, Hsuan-Fang

    2013-01-01

    The ACEI Global Guidelines Assessment (GGA) was developed to provide an international assessment tool that can be used by early childhood educators to develop, assess, and improve program quality worldwide. This pilot study was conducted in four countries to investigate the psychometric properties of the GGA within and across different countries.…

  14. Attracting and Integrating Newcomers into Church Life: Research in Four Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterland, Sam; Bellamy, John; Escott, Phillip; Castle, Keith

    2006-01-01

    This article highlights the importance of considering the flow of newcomers into church life and the inadequacy of relying solely upon changes in numbers of attenders in assessing the effectiveness of churches. Drawing upon data collected in four countries, Australia, England, New Zealand and the United States of America, this article looks at the…

  15. Psychosocial Distress and Substance Use among Adolescents in Four Countries: Philippines, China, Chile, and Namibia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Randy M.; Dennis, Megan; Lindsay, Gordon B.; Merrill, Ray M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between adolescent substance use and psychosocial distress indicators among 30,851 adolescents aged 11 to 16 in four countries (Philippines, China, Chile, and Namibia). Global School-Based Student Health Survey data from these countries provided information about frequency and…

  16. Socioeconomic variations in nicotine dependence, self‐efficacy, and intention to quit across four countries: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey

    PubMed Central

    Siahpush, M; McNeill, A; Borland, R; Fong, G T

    2006-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of socioeconomic status (SES) on nicotine dependence, self‐efficacy, and intention to quit. Design setting and participants Data were from the first wave (2002) of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey (ITC‐4), a panel study of over 2000 adult smokers from each of four countries: the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, and Australia. Data were collected via telephone interviews. Main outcome measures Nicotine dependence, intention to quit, and self‐efficacy to quit smoking were the main outcome measures used in this study. Results Lower levels of education were associated with higher nicotine dependence. The effect of lower income on higher heaviness of smoking index (HIS) scores was significant in Canada, the UK, and Australia. Respondents with low education had 35% larger odds of low self‐efficacy than those with high education. Respondents with low education had 40% larger odds of having no intention to quit than those with high education. Respondents with low income had 23% larger odds of having no intention to quit than those with high income. Country was not a moderator of the association of SES with self‐efficacy and intention to quit. Conclusion To the extent that lower SES smokers are more addicted, they are likely to need more intensive support if they are to be successful in their attempts to quit. Given their lower incomes, this places a special responsibility on government to provide or subsidise such services. This should include access to the widest possible range of effective pharmacotherapies complemented with evidence based counselling and support. PMID:16754950

  17. Operational challenges to continuous LLIN distribution: a qualitative rapid assessment in four countries.

    PubMed

    Theiss-Nyland, Katherine; Ejersa, Waqo; Karema, Corine; Koné, Diakalia; Koenker, Hannah; Cyaka, Yves; Lynch, Matthew; Webster, Jayne; Lines, Jo

    2016-03-01

    The World Health Organization recommends that long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) for malaria prevention should be distributed continuously through antenatal care (ANC) and the expanded programme on immunization (EPI) in addition to mass campaigns. Despite these recommendations, the continuous distribution (CD) of LLIN distribution through ANC and EPI is not policy in many countries, and where there is a policy, implementation is incomplete. This study aims to identify the operational strengths and weaknesses of LLINs CD in four country programmes in sub-Saharan Africa. A qualitative rapid assessment process was conducted using semi-structured individual and group interviews at the national, sub-national, and facility level in four countries. Seventy participants were included (23 in Kenya, 13 in Malawi, 18 in Mali and 16 in Rwanda), drawn from malaria programmes, ANC and EPI programmes, government logistics units, and partner organizations. Interviews were structured to identify themes within a health systems approach. Policy and guideline documents and data collection tools were reviewed as a means of triangulation. Data analysis focused on pre-determined and emergent themes. The four countries used a wide variety of management systems for the supply of LLINs to routine services. Issues related to quantification, supply logistics and data collection all contributed to stock-outs at facility level. None of the four countries had guidelines for responding to stock-outs or system enabling local staff to request additional supplies of LLINs. In all four countries, data collection of LLIN distribution was incomplete or absent at facility level, and such data were not used for planning. Training of staff at the facility level was implemented less frequently than national and sub-national staff would have preferred. Logistics systems, independent of other commodities, and in-country partner support strengthened the continuous distribution of LLINs. In these countries

  18. Cigarette purchase patterns in four countries and the relationship with cessation: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey.

    PubMed

    Hyland, A; Laux, F L; Higbee, C; Hastings, G; Ross, H; Chaloupka, F J; Fong, G T; Cummings, K M

    2006-06-01

    Higher cigarette prices result in decreased cigarette consumption, but some smokers may seek lower-taxed cigarette sources. This price avoidance behaviour likely dampens the health impact of higher cigarette prices although it has not been thoroughly studied. To describe the characteristics of smokers who purchase low/untaxed cigarettes and to examine how this behaviour is associated with subsequent changes in smoking behaviours. Telephone survey data from 8930 smokers from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey (ITC-4) were used to assess cigarette purchase patterns and smoking behaviours in Wave 1 conducted from October to December 2002 and subsequently followed seven months later in Wave 2. Respondents' smoking status, attempts to quit, amount smoked, and cigarette purchase patterns were assessed in both waves. Rates of purchase from a low/untaxed source at the respondents' last cigarette purchase differed notably between countries at Wave 1, from less than 1% in Australia to 15% in the United Kingdom. In the UK, but not the other countries, this increased significantly to 20% at Wave 2. Smokers who were older, white/English speakers, had higher incomes, and had higher levels of education were more likely to report purchasing cigarettes from a low/untaxed source on their last purchase. Those who reported purchasing from a low/untaxed source on their last purchase at Wave 1 were less likely to have tried to quit smoking quit smoking by Wave 2 (relative risk 0.70, p < 0.01), while no overall significant association with smoking cessation was observed. Data from this study indicate that there are lower levels of making a quit attempt among purchasers of low/untaxed cigarettes compared to purchasers of full-priced cigarettes. The availability of low/untaxed cigarettes may mitigate the influence of increases in cigarette prices.

  19. Cigarette purchase patterns in four countries and the relationship with cessation: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey

    PubMed Central

    Hyland, A; Laux, F L; Higbee, C; Hastings, G; Ross, H; Chaloupka, F J; Fong, G T; Cummings, K M

    2006-01-01

    Background Higher cigarette prices result in decreased cigarette consumption, but some smokers may seek lower‐taxed cigarette sources. This price avoidance behaviour likely dampens the health impact of higher cigarette prices although it has not been thoroughly studied. Objective To describe the characteristics of smokers who purchase low/untaxed cigarettes and to examine how this behaviour is associated with subsequent changes in smoking behaviours. Methods Telephone survey data from 8930 smokers from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey (ITC‐4) were used to assess cigarette purchase patterns and smoking behaviours in Wave 1 conducted from October to December 2002 and subsequently followed seven months later in Wave 2. Respondents' smoking status, attempts to quit, amount smoked, and cigarette purchase patterns were assessed in both waves. Results Rates of purchase from a low/untaxed source at the respondents' last cigarette purchase differed notably between countries at Wave 1, from less than 1% in Australia to 15% in the United Kingdom. In the UK, but not the other countries, this increased significantly to 20% at Wave 2. Smokers who were older, white/English speakers, had higher incomes, and had higher levels of education were more likely to report purchasing cigarettes from a low/untaxed source on their last purchase. Those who reported purchasing from a low/untaxed source on their last purchase at Wave 1 were less likely to have tried to quit smoking quit smoking by Wave 2 (relative risk 0.70, p < 0.01), while no overall significant association with smoking cessation was observed. Conclusion Data from this study indicate that there are lower levels of making a quit attempt among purchasers of low/untaxed cigarettes compared to purchasers of full‐priced cigarettes. The availability of low/untaxed cigarettes may mitigate the influence of increases in cigarette prices. PMID:16754948

  20. The Troubling Trichotomy 10 Years Later: Where Are We Now?

    PubMed

    Barrocas, Albert

    2016-06-01

    A decade ago, "Nutrition Support and The Troubling Trichotomy: A Call To Action" was published in this journal, identifying existing conflicts among technological, ethical, and legal aspects of nutrition support therapy, particularly in terminal or end-of-life situations. Over the past 10 years, the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition and others have responded to the action call. A "state of the trichotomy" reveals that while much has been achieved, differences in all 3 aspects will continue to exist due to their dynamic and ever-changing states. The technology arena has made it possible to increase the delivery of nutrition support in alternative settings with the use of telemedicine and social media. Critical/crucial conversations and earlier declarations of individual wishes for care and treatment while having decision-making capacity have been enhanced with the focus on patient-centered and family-centered care. The definition of death as brain death has been challenged in at least one instance. Conflicts between the state's interests and the individual's interests have added to recent legal controversies. Notwithstanding the progress made over the past 10 years, several challenges remain. The future challenges presented by the Troubling Trichotomy can be best confronted if we ACT-Accountability, Communication, and Teamwork. The focus of teamwork should move from multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary teams to transdisciplinary teams, reflecting the shift to function rather than form presented by the new healthcare environment. The transdisciplinary team will be able address the opportunities of the Troubling Trichotomy in the next decade by incorporating the 12 Cs, as detailed in the article. © 2016 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  1. Reporting Heterogeneity and Health Disparities Across Gender and Education Levels: Evidence From Four Countries.

    PubMed

    Molina, Teresa

    2016-04-01

    I use anchoring vignettes from Indonesia, the United States, England, and China to study the extent to which differences in self-reported health across gender and education levels can be explained by the use of different response thresholds. To determine whether statistically significant differences between groups remain after adjusting thresholds, I calculate standard errors for the simulated probabilities, largely ignored in previous literature. Accounting for reporting heterogeneity reduces the gender gap in many health domains across the four countries, but to varying degrees. Health disparities across education levels persist and even widen after equalizing thresholds across the two groups.

  2. Text and graphic warnings on cigarette packages: findings from the international tobacco control four country study.

    PubMed

    Hammond, David; Fong, Geoffrey T; Borland, Ron; Cummings, K Michael; McNeill, Ann; Driezen, Pete

    2007-03-01

    Health warnings on cigarette packages provide smokers with universal access to information on the risks of smoking. However, warnings vary considerably among countries, ranging from graphic depictions of disease on Canadian packages to obscure text warnings in the United States. The current study examined the effectiveness of health warnings on cigarette packages in four countries. Quasi-experimental design. Telephone surveys were conducted with representative cohorts of adult smokers (n=14,975): Canada (n=3687), United States (n=4273), UK (n=3634), and Australia (n=3381). Surveys were conducted between 2002 and 2005, before and at three time points following implementation of new package warnings in the UK. At Wave 1, Canadian smokers reported the highest levels of awareness and impact for health warnings among the four countries, followed by Australian smokers. Following the implementation of new UK warnings at Wave 2, UK smokers reported greater levels of awareness and impact, although Canadian smokers continued to report higher levels of impact after adjusting for the implementation date. U.S. smokers reported the lowest levels of effectiveness for almost every measure recorded at each survey wave. Large, comprehensive warnings on cigarette packages are more likely to be noticed and rated as effective by smokers. Changes in health warnings are also associated with increased effectiveness. Health warnings on U.S. packages, which were last updated in 1984, were associated with the least effectiveness.

  3. True fir spacing trials: 10-year results.

    Treesearch

    Robert O. Curtis

    2008-01-01

    Eighteen precommercial thinning trials were established in true fir-hemlock stands in the Olympic Mountains and the west side of the Cascade Range during the period 1987 through 1994. This paper updates a previous report, with results for the first 10 years after establishment. Results are given for (1) all trees, (2) the largest 80 per acre of any species, and (3)...

  4. [10 years of liver transplantation in Peru].

    PubMed

    Chaman Ortiz, José Carlos; Padilla Machaca, P Martín; Rondon Leyva, Carlos; Carrasco Mascaró, Felix

    2010-01-01

    The article reviews the experience in 10 years of hepatic transplants performed by The Transplant Department of the National Hospital Guillermo Almenara Irigoyen (HNGAI), describing the history, surgical outcomes in adults and children, retransplantation, combined liver-kidney transplants, complications in 72 transplants performed at the time of submission of the article.

  5. AMS at ANTARES - The first 10 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, E. M.; Elliott, G.; Fallon, J.; Fink, D.; Hotchkis, M. A. C.; Hua, Q.; Jacobsen, G. E.; Lee, P.; Smith, A. M.; Tuniz, C.; Zoppi, U.

    2000-10-01

    The status and capabilities of the ANTARES AMS facility after 10 years are reviewed. The common AMS radioisotopes, 10Be, 14C, 26Al, 36Cl and 129I, are routinely analysed. A capability for the detection of 236U and other actinide isotopes has been developed. The measurement program includes support to Quaternary science projects at Australian universities and to ANSTO projects in global climate change and nuclear safeguards.

  6. Neurology--the next 10 years.

    PubMed

    Baron, Ralf; Ferriero, Donna M; Frisoni, Giovanni B; Bettegowda, Chetan; Gokaslan, Ziya L; Kessler, John A; Vezzani, Annamaria; Waxman, Stephen G; Jarius, Sven; Wildemann, Brigitte; Weller, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Since the launch of our journal as Nature Clinical Practice Neurology in 2005, we have seen remarkable progress in many areas of neurology research, but what does the future hold? Will advances in basic research be translated into effective disease-modifying therapies, and will personalized medicine finally become a reality? For this special Viewpoint article, we invited a panel of Advisory Board members and other journal contributors to outline their research priorities and predictions in neurology for the next 10 years.

  7. Lead and cadmium in human hair: A comparison among four countries

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, A.F.M.; Elmubarak, A.H. )

    1990-07-01

    Concern over the health hazards caused by lead and cadmium in the environment has been emphasized by several investigators. Unlike other biological specimens (e.g. the blood and urine) which indicate recent exposure, trace metal content of hair correlates with body stores, especially of bones, and reflects for each individual, specific factors of genetical and environmental origins. In this paper the authors present results of a survey of lead and cadmium in human hair among four suburban university communities from four countries, two European (England West Germany), one Asian (Saudi Arabia) and one African (Sudan). Hair samples were analyzed for lead and cadmium in order to compare levels and distribution between populations of different ethnic background and geographical location. An attempt was made to study correlations, if any, between levels of lead or cadmium and smoking habits or sex.

  8. Information use skills in the engineering programme accreditation criteria of four countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, Cara

    2014-01-01

    The need for twenty-first century information skills in engineering practice, combined with the importance for engineering programmes to meet accreditation requirements, suggests that it may be worthwhile to explore the potential for closer alignment between librarians and their work with information literacy competencies to assist in meeting accreditation standards and graduating students with high-level information skills. This article explores whether and how information use skills are reflected in engineering programme accreditation standards of four countries: Canada, the USA, the UK, and Australia. Results indicate that there is significant overlap between the information use skills required of students by engineering accreditation processes and librarians' efforts to develop information literacy competencies in students, despite differences in terms used to describe these skills. Increased collaboration between engineering faculty and librarians has the potential to raise student information literacy levels and fulfil the information use-related requirements of accreditation processes.

  9. Sociological and psychological predictors of STD infection in homosexual men: a study of four countries.

    PubMed Central

    Ross, M W

    1984-01-01

    I investigated over 600 homosexual men in four countries (Sweden, Finland, Ireland, and Australia) regarding the number of times they had contracted a sexually transmitted disease (STD) and several psychological variables including masculinity and feminity, sex role conservatism, relationships with parents, number of sexual partners, attitudes towards homosexuality, and involvement in the homosexual subculture. Using multiple linear regression in each country, it was found that 19-42% of the variance of number of times infected could be accounted for by psychosocial factors, seven of which were common to all countries. The number of sexual partners was not a significant variable in any country. These data strongly suggest that numbers of infections in homosexual men are best predicted by psychological factors, and this has considerable implications for preventative and treatment programmes for homosexuals. PMID:6546702

  10. Sociological and psychological predictors of STD infection in homosexual men: a study of four countries.

    PubMed

    Ross, M W

    1984-04-01

    I investigated over 600 homosexual men in four countries (Sweden, Finland, Ireland, and Australia) regarding the number of times they had contracted a sexually transmitted disease (STD) and several psychological variables including masculinity and feminity, sex role conservatism, relationships with parents, number of sexual partners, attitudes towards homosexuality, and involvement in the homosexual subculture. Using multiple linear regression in each country, it was found that 19-42% of the variance of number of times infected could be accounted for by psychosocial factors, seven of which were common to all countries. The number of sexual partners was not a significant variable in any country. These data strongly suggest that numbers of infections in homosexual men are best predicted by psychological factors, and this has considerable implications for preventative and treatment programmes for homosexuals.

  11. Online Sexual Activity Experiences Among College Students: A Four-Country Comparison.

    PubMed

    Döring, Nicola; Daneback, Kristian; Shaughnessy, Krystelle; Grov, Christian; Byers, E Sandra

    2015-12-10

    The purpose of this study was to compare male and female college students in four countries (Canada, Germany, Sweden, and the U.S.) on their lifetime experiences (prevalence) and frequency of recent experiences with six types of online sexual activities (OSA): sexual information, sexual entertainment, sexual contacts, sexual minority communities, sexual products, and sex work. Participants (N = 2690; M age, 24.65 years; 53.4 % women, 46.6 % men) were recruited from a university in each of the countries to complete an online survey that included background and demographic questions, and questions about OSA. Most participants reported experience with accessing sexual information (89.8 %) and sexual entertainment (76.5 %) online. Almost half (48.5 %) reported browsing for sexual products, and a substantial minority reported having engaged in cybersex (30.8 %). Very few participants (1.1 %) paid for online sexual services or received payment (0.5 %). In general, participants showed relatively infrequent experience with all types of OSA within the last 3 months. Men showed both higher prevalence and frequency of use of sexually stimulating material online than did women. However, this gender gap was smaller than in previous studies. Country and gender by country effects were (with one exception) either very small or non-existent, suggesting that, overall, students in the four countries were similar in their OSA experiences. Results are discussed in light of an emerging global net generation and globalized sexual culture.

  12. 10-year survival of total ankle arthroplasties

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose There is an ongoing need to review large series of total ankle replacements (TARs) for monitoring of changes in practice and their outcome. 4 national registries, including the Swedish Ankle Register, have previously reported their 5-year results. We now present an extended series with a longer follow-up, and with a 10-year survival analysis. Patients and methods Records of uncemented 3-component TARs were retrospectively reviewed, determining risk factors such as age, sex, and diagnosis. Prosthetic survival rates were calculated with exchange or removal of components as endpoint—excluding incidental exchange of the polyethylene meniscus. Results Of the 780 prostheses implanted since 1993, 168 (22%) had been revised by June 15, 2010. The overall survival rate fell from 0.81 (95% CI: 0.79–0.83) at 5 years to 0.69 (95% CI: 0.67–0.71) at 10 years. The survival rate was higher, although not statistically significantly so, during the latter part of the period investigated. Excluding the STAR prosthesis, the survival rate for all the remaining designs was 0.78 at 10 years. Women below the age of 60 with osteoarthritis were at a higher risk of revision, but age did not influence the outcome in men or women with rheumatoid arthritis. Revisions due to technical mistakes at the index surgery and instability were undertaken earlier than revisions for other reasons. Interpretation The results have slowly improved during the 18-year period investigated. However, we do not believe that the survival rates of ankle replacements in the near future will approach those of hip and knee replacements—even though improved instrumentation and design of the prostheses, together with better patient selection, will presumably give better results. PMID:22066551

  13. Photovoltaics - 10 years after Cherry Hill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ralph, E. L.

    The status of R&D programs connected with photovoltaic (PV) systems 10 years after the Cherry Hill workshop on 'Photovoltaic Conversion of Solar Energy for Terrestrial Applications' is assessed. The five categories of research recommended by the Cherry Hill Workshop are listed in a table together with their recommended research budget allocations. The workshop categories include: single-crystal Si cells; poly-Si cells; systems and diagnostics. Categories for thin film CdS/Cu2S and CuInSe2 cells are also included. The roles of government and private utility companies in providing adequate financial support for PV research programs is emphasized.

  14. Mitochondrial ROS Metabolism: 10 Years Later

    PubMed Central

    Kushnareva, Y. E.; Murphy, A. N.

    2015-01-01

    The role of mitochondria in oxidative stress is well recognized, but many questions are still to be answered. This article is intended to update our comprehensive review in 2005 by highlighting the progress in understanding of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism over the past 10 years. We review the recently identified or re-appraised sources of ROS generation in mitochondria, such as p66shc protein, succinate dehydrogenase, and recently discovered properties of the mitochondrial antioxidant system. We also reflect upon some controversies, disputes, and misconceptions that confound the field. PMID:26071769

  15. Mitochondrial ROS Metabolism: 10 Years Later.

    PubMed

    Andreyev, A Y; Kushnareva, Y E; Murphy, A N; Starkov, A A

    2015-05-01

    The role of mitochondria in oxidative stress is well recognized, but many questions are still to be answered. This article is intended to update our comprehensive review in 2005 by highlighting the progress in understanding of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism over the past 10 years. We review the recently identified or re-appraised sources of ROS generation in mitochondria, such as p66(shc) protein, succinate dehydrogenase, and recently discovered properties of the mitochondrial antioxidant system. We also reflect upon some controversies, disputes, and misconceptions that confound the field.

  16. Aqua's First 10 Years: An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, Claire L.

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Aqua spacecraft was launched at 2:55 a.m. on May 4, 2002, from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California, into a near-polar, sun-synchronous orbit at an altitude of 705 km. Aqua carries six Earth-observing instruments to collect data on water in all its forms (liquid, vapor, and solid) and on a wide variety of additional Earth system variables (Parkinson 2003). The design lifetime for Aqua's prime mission was 6 years, and Aqua is now well into its extended mission, approaching 10 years of successful operations. The Aqua data have been used for hundreds of scientific studies and continue to be used for scientific discovery and numerous practical applications.

  17. A four-country investigation of factors facilitating student internet use.

    PubMed

    Fusilier, Marcelline; Durlabhji, Subhash; Cucchi, Alain; Collins, Michael

    2005-10-01

    Education and national culture may influence Internet use. The present study explored factors that might facilitate college students' use of the Internet across samples in four countries: India, Mauritius, Reunion Island (an overseas Department of France), and the United States. Questionnaire data was collected on students' extent and frequency of Internet use. Also, structured items asked about the factors that would help them to use the Internet more. Data was analyzed using dummy-coded multiple regression so as to compare responses across the country groups. The U.S. sample was coded as the reference group so that the regression coefficients in the equation provided a comparison between the U.S. sample and each other country represented. Further country comparisons were made using t-tests for differences between the regression coefficients. Results suggested that there was more Internet use in the U.S. sample compared to the others. The Non-Western samples also reported greater desire for Internet access and non-English web sites. Training on how to use the Internet and course requirements for Internet use were reported as helpful by the India and Mauritius groups to a greater extent than by those in Reunion and the United States. Implications of the present exploratory results are discussed for applications of theoretical models across cultures.

  18. Food choice questionnaire revisited in four countries. Does it still measure the same?

    PubMed

    Januszewska, Renata; Pieniak, Zuzanna; Verbeke, Wim

    2011-08-01

    This study focuses on the implementation of the food choice questionnaire (FCQ) across four countries. The first objective is to examine the degree to which the factor structure of the FCQ is invariant across different populations. The second objective is to analyse the motives for food choice in different countries. The cross-sectional sample of 1420 consumers consisted of Belgians (N=458), Hungarians (N=401), Romanians (N=229) and Filipinos (N=332). Data analyses included estimation of five multi-group confirmatory factor analysis models; calculation of mean importance ratings for each food choice factor across countries; ANOVA and Tukey post hoc tests; and a rank order test of most to least important factors within each country. The results confirm that the factorial structure of the FCQ is invariant with respect to factor configuration, factor loadings and item intercept. Sensory appeal is the most important factor among all European consumers, while health, convenience and price were all among the five most important factors shaping food choice in Belgium, Hungary and Romania. For Filipinos, the most important were health, price and mood. Sensory appeal ranked on the fourth place.

  19. Use of and beliefs about light cigarettes in four countries: findings from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Survey.

    PubMed

    Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie; King, Bill; Cummings, K Michael; Fong, Geoffrey T; Elton-Marshall, Tara; Hammond, David; McNeill, Ann

    2004-12-01

    This study examined reported use of, and beliefs about, so-called light cigarettes among adult smokers in four countries: Australia (Aus), Canada (Can), the United Kingdom (U.K.) and the United States (U.S.). The method used was parallel telephone surveys among 9,046 smokers across the four countries. The results indicated that more than half of all smokers in each country except the U.K. reported smoking light cigarette brands. A majority of smokers surveyed in each country except Canada continue to believe that light cigarettes offer some health benefit compared to regular cigarettes (Canada 43%, U.S. 51%, Australia 55%, U.K. 70%). A majority of smokers in all four countries believed that light cigarettes are smoother on the throat and chest than regular cigarettes. Predictors of use of light cigarettes and beliefs about possible benefits were very similar in the four countries. These results demonstrate an ongoing need for public education about why light cigarettes do not reduce harm and do not make quitting easier. The results provide further evidence for the need for regulatory measures in all four countries to prohibit the use of misleading light and mild descriptors including package imagery in product marketing (as prescribed in Article 11 of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control), abandon the use of standard FTC/ISO tar and nicotine yields as consumer information, and adopt policies to regulate deceptive design features of cigarettes, such as ventilated filters.

  20. Proeating disorder websites and subjective well-being: A four-country study on young people.

    PubMed

    Turja, Tuuli; Oksanen, Atte; Kaakinen, Markus; Sirola, Anu; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Räsänen, Pekka

    2017-01-01

    Proeating disorder (pro-ED) communities online encourage harmful weight-loss and weight-control practices. This study examined the association between exposure to pro-ED content online and subjective well-being (SWB) among adolescents and young adults in four countries. Cross-national data were collected in the US, Germany, the UK and Finland from Internet users aged 15-30 years (N = 3,557; 50.15% male). The questionnaire assessed SWB, exposure to harm-advocating websites, online activity, prior victimization, and social belonging. Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression models assessed the relationship between SWB and pro-ED exposure and adjusted for a number of confounding factors. Of the participants, 17% had been exposed to pro-ED content (US 20%, Germany 7%, UK 21%, Finland 22%). Exposure to pro-ED content online was negatively associated with SWB in the US, Germany, and Finland, also after adjusting for the confounding factors. Offline social belonging moderated the association between pro-ED and SWB. Participants who visited pro-ED websites reported lower SWB than others did. The potentially harmful impact of visiting these sites was buffered by the strong offline social belonging. Given the observed similarities across the countries, it is important for families, health professionals, and educators to stay abreast of online communities that have possible contra recovery influences and to be able to discuss such Internet contents in a way that increases treatment motivation. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2017; 50:50-57). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Effectiveness of Stop-Smoking Medications: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kasza, Karin A.; Hyland, Andrew J.; Borland, Ron; McNeill, Ann D.; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Fix, Brian V.; Hammond, David; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Cummings, K. Michael

    2012-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the population effectiveness of stop-smoking medications while accounting for potential recall bias by controlling for quit attempt recency. Design Prospective cohort survey. Setting United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and the United States. Participants 7,436 adult smokers (18+ years), selected via random digit dialling and interviewed as part of the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey (ITC-4) between 2002 and 2009. Primary analyses utilized the subset of respondents who participated in 2006 or later (N = 2,550). Measurements Continuous abstinence from smoking for one month/six months. Findings Among participants who recalled making a quit attempt within one month of interview, those who reported using varenicline, bupropion, or the nicotine patch were more likely to maintain six-month continuous abstinence from smoking compared to those who attempted to quit without medication (adjusted OR (95% CI): 5.84 (2.12 – 16.12), 3.94 (0.87 – 17.80), 4.09 (1.72 – 9.74), respectively); there were no clear effects for oral NRT use. Those who did not use any medication when attempting to quit tended to be younger, to be racial/ethnic minorities, to have lower incomes, and to believe that medications do not make quitting easier. Conclusions Consistent with evidence from randomized controlled trials, smokers in the UK, Canada, Australia, and the US are more likely to succeed in quit attempts if they use varenicline, bupropion or nicotine patch. Previous population studies that failed to find an effect failed to adjust adequately for important sources of bias. PMID:22891869

  2. Statutory health insurance competition in Europe: a four-country comparison.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Sarah; Busse, Reinhard; Crivelli, Luca; van de Ven, Wynand; Van de Voorde, Carine

    2013-03-01

    This paper explores the goals and implementation of reforms introducing choice of and competition among insurers providing statutory health coverage in Belgium, Germany, the Netherlands and Switzerland. In theory, health insurance competition can enhance efficiency in health care administration and delivery only if people have free choice of insurer (consumer mobility), if insurers do not have incentives to select risks, and if insurers are able to influence health service quality and costs. In practice, reforms in the four countries have not always prioritised efficiency and implementation has varied. Differences in policy goals explain some but not all of the differences in implementation. Despite significant investment in risk adjustment, incentives for risk selection remain and consumer mobility is not evenly distributed across the population. Better risk adjustment might make it easier for older and less healthy people to change insurer. Policy makers could also do more to prevent insurers from linking the sale of statutory and voluntary health insurance, particularly where take-up of voluntary coverage is widespread. Collective negotiation between insurers and providers in Belgium, Germany and Switzerland curbs insurers' ability to influence health care quality and costs. Nevertheless, while insurers in the Netherlands have good access to efficiency-enhancing tools, data and capacity constraints and resistance from stakeholders limit the extent to which tools are used. The experience of these countries offers an important lesson to other countries: it is not straightforward to put in place the conditions under which health insurance competition can enhance efficiency. Policy makers should not, therefore, underestimate the challenges involved. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Nursing students' perceptions of their instructors' caring behaviors: A four-country study.

    PubMed

    Labrague, Leodoro J; McEnroe-Petitte, Denise M; Papathanasiou, Ioanna V; Edet, Olaide B; Arulappan, Judie; Tsaras, Konstantinos; Fronda, Dennis C

    2016-06-01

    Caring is the core and essence of the nursing profession. Nurse educators, are in a key position to role model for perspective nurses the role of caring while including caring as a vital component in a nursing curriculum. This paper is a report on students' perceptions of instructors' caring behavior in four countries: India, Greece, Nigeria, and the Philippines. This study utilized a quantitative, cross-sectional, comparative approach. A total of 450 nursing students participated with an almost equal nursing student frequency distribution. The main instrument used in this study was the Nursing Students' Perceptions of Instructor Caring (NSPIC). The study was conducted during the months of September 2013 to January 2014. Descriptive statistics, correlations analysis, linear regression model and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to analyze the data collected. The highest rated subscale in the NSPIC was "instills confidence through caring" (M=4.268, SD=0.964), while the lowest ranked subscale was for the subscale "Control versus flexibility" (M=3.609, SD=1.076). No significant correlations were found between the NSPIC scale and gender (F=0.060, p=0.807), age (F=3.220, p=0.073), educational level (F=0.100, p=0.752) and family status of students (F=1.417, p=0.235), except the country of origin (F=3.703, p=0.012, η(2)=0.024). With this study as an initial investigation into ascertaining nursing instructors caring focused on a cross-country approach, nurse educators can utilize this information to better portray their role as a nurse educator when being perceived by their nursing students. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Symptom clusters at midlife: A four-country comparison of checklist and qualitative responses

    PubMed Central

    Sievert, Lynnette Leidy; Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to examine the frequency and clustering of somatic symptoms as reported by women aged 45-55 years in four countries, to compare women's responses to open-ended questions with those derived from structured checklists, and to assess the extent to which bodily symptoms grouped with emotional complaints. Methods The Decisions at Menopause Study (DAMES) recruited 1,193 women from the general population in Beirut, Lebanon; Rabat, Morocco; Madrid, Spain; and central Massachusetts. Women participated in semi-structured interviews about health, menopause, and bodily changes at midlife. Women's responses to symptom checklists and their statements in response to open-ended questions were analyzed through factor analysis and textual analysis. Results There was considerable consistency between the frequencies of quantitative and qualitative responses, and the analyses of qualitative data illustrate the extent to which women associate somatic and emotional complaints. In open-ended responses, women in Massachusetts and Spain did not often cluster somatic symptoms together with emotional symptoms. In Morocco, dizziness, fatigue, and headaches were clustered with emotional symptoms. Women in Lebanon explicitly associated shortness of breath, chest pain, palpitations, dizziness, fatigue, gastro-intestinal complaints, headaches, and, to a lesser extent, joint pain and numbness with emotional symptoms. Conclusions The number of volunteered symptom responses was small because respondents were relatively healthy; however, the extent and pattern of association between somatic and emotional symptoms varied across sites. Certain somatic symptoms may be more likely to communicate psychosocial distress in particular cultures. These results have implications for patterns of health care utilization. PMID:22042326

  5. Sociodemographic determinants of diet quality of the EU elderly: a comparative analysis in four countries.

    PubMed

    Irz, Xavier; Fratiglioni, Laura; Kuosmanen, Nataliya; Mazzocchi, Mario; Modugno, Lucia; Nocella, Giuseppe; Shakersain, Behnaz; Traill, W Bruce; Xu, Weili; Zanello, Giacomo

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the sociodemographic determinants of diet quality of the elderly in four EU countries. Cross-sectional study. For each country, a regression was performed of a multidimensional index of dietary quality v. sociodemographic variables. In Finland, Finnish Household Budget Survey (1998 and 2006); in Sweden, SNAC-K (2001-2004); in the UK, Expenditure & Food Survey (2006-07); in Italy, Multi-purpose Survey of Daily Life (2009). One- and two-person households of over-50s (Finland, n 2994; UK, n 4749); over-50 s living alone or in two-person households (Italy, n 7564); over-60 s (Sweden, n 2023). Diet quality among the EU elderly is both low on average and heterogeneous across individuals. The regression models explained a small but significant part of the observed heterogeneity in diet quality. Resource availability was associated with diet quality either negatively (Finland and UK) or in a non-linear or non-statistically significant manner (Italy and Sweden), as was the preference for food parameter. Education, not living alone and female gender were characteristics positively associated with diet quality with consistency across the four countries, unlike socio-professional status, age and seasonality. Regional differences within countries persisted even after controlling for the other sociodemographic variables. Poor dietary choices among the EU elderly were not caused by insufficient resources and informational measures could be successful in promoting healthy eating for healthy ageing. On the other hand, food habits appeared largely set in the latter part of life, with age and retirement having little influence on the healthiness of dietary choices.

  6. Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    Nutrition Health Education During the 2 years preceding the study: • The percentage of states that provided funding for staff development or offered staff development on nutrition and dietary behavior to those who teach health ...

  7. Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... into your diet. These include brightly colored and dark fruits and vegetables. Balance the food you eat ... can also order your free copy of Nutrition Matters and visit our Ask about Nutrition forum. << Back ...

  8. Support and correlates of support for banning smoking in cars with children: findings from the ITC Four Country Survey*

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Geoffrey T.; Zanna, Mark P.; Hyland, Andrew; Bansal-Travers, Maansi

    2011-01-01

    Background: Since 2006, banning smoking in cars with children has become a rapidly growing tobacco control policy. However, to date, there have been few studies examining support and correlates of support for car smoking bans, and none of the existing studies have been international in nature. We conducted such a study among smokers in four countries. Methods: 6716 adult current smokers from the 2007 Wave of the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey, a nationally representative, longitudinal cohort telephone survey of smokers in the USA, Canada, UK and Australia. Controlling for demographics, heaviness of smoking, smoking health knowledge/beliefs and quit intentions, we compared support and correlates of support for banning smoking in cars with children across the four countries. Results: The majority of smokers supported banning smoking in cars with children. Support was highest in Australia (83%), followed by the UK (75%) and Canada (74%); support was lower—but still high—in the USA (60%). Support was highest among smokers who: had stronger quit intentions, were lighter smokers, had lower education, had no children in the home, believed that cigarette smoke is dangerous to non-smokers and could cause asthma in children, and were concerned about modelling smoking to children. Conclusions: These findings indicate that a majority of smokers in the four countries support banning smoking in cars with children, and lend support to banning smoking in cars with children. Additionally, they suggest that support may be increased by educating smokers about the dangers of cigarette smoke exposure. PMID:20630910

  9. Support and correlates of support for banning smoking in cars with children: findings from the ITC Four Country Survey.

    PubMed

    Hitchman, Sara C; Fong, Geoffrey T; Zanna, Mark P; Hyland, Andrew; Bansal-Travers, Maansi

    2011-06-01

    Since 2006, banning smoking in cars with children has become a rapidly growing tobacco control policy. However, to date, there have been few studies examining support and correlates of support for car smoking bans, and none of the existing studies have been international in nature. We conducted such a study among smokers in four countries. 6716 adult current smokers from the 2007 Wave of the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey, a nationally representative, longitudinal cohort telephone survey of smokers in the USA, Canada, UK and Australia. Controlling for demographics, heaviness of smoking, smoking health knowledge/beliefs and quit intentions, we compared support and correlates of support for banning smoking in cars with children across the four countries. The majority of smokers supported banning smoking in cars with children. Support was highest in Australia (83%), followed by the UK (75%) and Canada (74%); support was lower-but still high-in the USA (60%). Support was highest among smokers who: had stronger quit intentions, were lighter smokers, had lower education, had no children in the home, believed that cigarette smoke is dangerous to non-smokers and could cause asthma in children, and were concerned about modelling smoking to children. These findings indicate that a majority of smokers in the four countries support banning smoking in cars with children, and lend support to banning smoking in cars with children. Additionally, they suggest that support may be increased by educating smokers about the dangers of cigarette smoke exposure.

  10. Children's Perceptions of Maternal Hostility as a Mediator of the Link between Discipline and Children's Adjustment in Four Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Malone, Patrick S.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Chang, Lei; Chaudhary, Nandita; Tapanya, Sombat; Oburu, Paul; Deater-Deckard, Kirby

    2010-01-01

    Using data from 195 dyads of mothers and children (age range = 8-12 years; M = 10.63) in four countries (China, India, the Philippines, and Thailand), this study examined children's perceptions of maternal hostility as a mediator of the links between physical discipline and harsh verbal discipline and children's adjustment. Both physical…

  11. Attitudes toward Physical Education: A Study of High School Students from Four Countries-Austria, Czech Republic, England, and USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stelzer, Jiri; Ernest, James M.; Fenster, Mark J.; Langford, George

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the attitude toward physical education of 1107 high school students from four countries, Czech Republic, Austria, England, and the United States. Survey data were gathered and measured using the Adams Scale survey instrument (Adams, 1963). While the data revealed individual differences, the overall sample indicated a…

  12. Comparative Study of the Status of Women in Sport and Athletics Across Four Countries: Egypt, Japan, Norway, and Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingram, Anne

    The purpose of this study was to assemble a profile of the status of women in four countries, including their accomplishments in international sports events. The status of women within a country must be defined and understood before equivalence in sport opportunities for males and females can be comprehended. The first hypothesis was that a lack…

  13. Comparative Study of the Status of Women in Sport and Athletics Across Four Countries: Egypt, Japan, Norway, and Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingram, Anne

    The purpose of this study was to assemble a profile of the status of women in four countries, including their accomplishments in international sports events. The status of women within a country must be defined and understood before equivalence in sport opportunities for males and females can be comprehended. The first hypothesis was that a lack…

  14. Children's Perceptions of Maternal Hostility as a Mediator of the Link between Discipline and Children's Adjustment in Four Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Malone, Patrick S.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Chang, Lei; Chaudhary, Nandita; Tapanya, Sombat; Oburu, Paul; Deater-Deckard, Kirby

    2010-01-01

    Using data from 195 dyads of mothers and children (age range = 8-12 years; M = 10.63) in four countries (China, India, the Philippines, and Thailand), this study examined children's perceptions of maternal hostility as a mediator of the links between physical discipline and harsh verbal discipline and children's adjustment. Both physical…

  15. Gender and Recent Graduates' Occupational Stratification: The Interactive Role of the Educational and Employment Sectors in Four Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prix, Irene

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores whether polytechnic and university graduates are affected in the same way by gender differences in the graduate labour market in four countries: the Netherlands, Finland, Norway and Switzerland. Using data from the Research into Employment and Professional Flexibility (REFLEX) graduate survey, the analysis is based on…

  16. Nutrition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.

    1990-01-01

    This is a collection of viewgraphs on the Johnson Space Center's work on nutrition for long duration space missions. Nutritional requirements are affected by isolation, workloads, and cold as well as the psychological needs, metabolism, and fluid balance of an individual.

  17. Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Durnin, J V

    1976-07-01

    Nutrition appeared somewhat late on the scene in the I.B.P. projects in the U.K., but eventually it occupied an integral part of many of the H.A. (human adaptability) investigations. The nutritional data obtained in the studies of isolated and nearisolated communities in Tristan da Cunha and in New Guinea provided information of wide nutritional significance. There were also detailed and extensive studies in Israel which, similarly to those in New Guinea, attempted to relate nutritional factors to enviroment, working conditions, and physical fitness. Some extraordinarily low energy intakes found in Ethiopians have induced much speculation on the extent which man can adequately adapt to restricted food supplies. Interesting nutritional observations, of general importance, have also arisen from results obtained on such disparate groups as Glasgow adolescents, Tanzanian and Sudanese students, children in Malawi and vegans in the U.K.

  18. Cigarette brand loyalty in Australia: findings from the ITC Four Country Survey.

    PubMed

    Cowie, Genevieve A; Swift, Elena; Borland, Ron; Chaloupka, Frank J; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2014-03-01

    There is little academic research on tobacco brand loyalty and switching, and even less in restrictive marketing environments such as Australia. This paper examines tobacco brand family loyalty, reasons for choice of brand and the relation between these and sociodemographic variables over a period of 10 years in Australia. Data from current Australian smokers from 9 waves of the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation 4-Country Survey covering the period from 2002 to early 2012. Key measures reported were having a regular brand, use for at least 1 year, brand stability (derived from same reported brand at successive waves), and reasons for choosing brands. Measures of brand loyalty showed little change across the period, with around 80% brand stability and 95% reporting a regular brand. Older adults were more brand-loyal than those under 25. Young people's brand choice was influenced more by friends, whereas older adults were more concerned about health. Price was the most reported reason for brand switching. Those in the higher income tertiles showed more loyalty than those in the lowest. The least addicted smokers also showed less brand loyalty. We found no clear relationship between brand loyalty and policies that were implemented to affect tobacco use. Levels of brand loyalty in Australia are quite high and consistent, and do not appear to have been influenced greatly by changes in tobacco control policies.

  19. Predictors of smoking in cars with nonsmokers: findings from the 2007 Wave of the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey.

    PubMed

    Hitchman, Sara C; Fong, Geoffrey T; Borland, Ron; Hyland, Andrew

    2010-04-01

    This study examines the proportion and characteristics of smokers who smoke in cars with nonsmokers across four countries and the potentially modifiable correlates of this behavior. Respondents included a total of 6,786 current adult smokers from Wave 6 (September 2007-February 2008) of the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey, a random digit-dial telephone survey of nationally representative samples of adult smokers in Australia, the United Kingdom, Canada, and the United States. Reports of smoking in cars with nonsmokers ranged from a low of 29% in Australia and the United Kingdom, to 34% in Canada, and to a high of 44% in the United States. Daily smokers who were from the United States, male, and younger were the most likely to smoke in cars with nonsmokers. Several potentially modifiable factors were also found to be related to this behavior, including smoke-free homes and beliefs about the dangers of cigarette smoke exposure to nonsmokers. A considerable proportion of smokers continue to smoke in cars with nonsmokers across the four countries, particularly in the United States. Public health campaigns should educate smokers about the hazards of cigarette smoke exposure and promote the need for smoke-free cars. These findings provide a foundation of evidence relevant for jurisdictions that are considering banning smoking in cars.

  20. Predictors of smoking in cars with nonsmokers: Findings from the 2007 Wave of the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Geoffrey T.; Borland, Ron; Hyland, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the proportion and characteristics of smokers who smoke in cars with nonsmokers across four countries and the potentially modifiable correlates of this behavior. Methods: Respondents included a total of 6,786 current adult smokers from Wave 6 (September 2007–February 2008) of the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey, a random digit-dial telephone survey of nationally representative samples of adult smokers in Australia, the United Kingdom, Canada, and the United States. Results: Reports of smoking in cars with nonsmokers ranged from a low of 29% in Australia and the United Kingdom, to 34% in Canada, and to a high of 44% in the United States. Daily smokers who were from the United States, male, and younger were the most likely to smoke in cars with nonsmokers. Several potentially modifiable factors were also found to be related to this behavior, including smoke-free homes and beliefs about the dangers of cigarette smoke exposure to nonsmokers. Conclusions: A considerable proportion of smokers continue to smoke in cars with nonsmokers across the four countries, particularly in the United States. Public health campaigns should educate smokers about the hazards of cigarette smoke exposure and promote the need for smoke-free cars. These findings provide a foundation of evidence relevant for jurisdictions that are considering banning smoking in cars. PMID:20156887

  1. Mumps Cases Hit 10-Year High in U.S.

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162676.html Mumps Cases Hit 10-Year High in U.S. Contagious ... 21, 2016 WEDNESDAY, Dec. 21, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Mumps cases have hit a 10-year high in ...

  2. Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saur, Susan

    An elementary level nutrition unit provides teachers with student background information, suggested activities, and student worksheets. Part 1 focuses on the relationship of food to growth, health, and energy. In part 2, students learn about the four main food groups. Part 3 deals with nutrients and provides information about carbohydrates, fats,…

  3. The value of inter-professional education: a comparative study of dental technology students' perceptions across four countries.

    PubMed

    Evans, J; Henderson, A J; Sun, J; Haugen, H; Myhrer, T; Maryan, C; Ivanow, K N; Cameron, A; Johnson, N W

    2015-04-24

    The ability to function as an effective member of a dental care team is a highly desirable--frequently mandated--attribute of dental technology (DT) graduates. Currently, there is little rigorous examination of how the learning of team-working skills might best be structured in a DT curriculum. This research compares DT curricula, and students' attitudes and perceptions regarding collaboration in practice, from four countries. Students (n=376) were invited to complete an education profile questionnaire, and the standardised measure--the shared learning scale. There were 196 (52%) responses. Students given opportunities to engage with others had better perceptions of inter-professional learning (IPL). Most believed that team-work and collaborative skills were best acquired by learning together with other dental care professionals, preferably sharing cases for real patients. Curricula should maximise opportunities for dental technology students to experience authentic IPL. Collaboration and team-work needs to be embedded through the whole undergraduate programme.

  4. Determinants and consequences of smoke‐free homes: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey

    PubMed Central

    Borland, R; Yong, H‐H; Cummings, K M; Hyland, A; Anderson, S; Fong, G T

    2006-01-01

    Objective To report on prevalence, trends and determinants of smoke‐free home policies in smokers' homes in different countries and to estimate the effects of these policies on smoking cessation. Design Two waves of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey (ITC‐4), a cohort survey of smokers conducted by telephone. Wave 1 was conducted in October/December 2002 with broadly representative samples of over 2000 adult (⩾ 18 years) cigarette smokers in each of the following four countries: Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia, 75% of whom were followed up at Wave 2 on average seven months later. Key measures Levels of smoking restrictions in homes (both waves). Results Australian smokers were most likely to live in smoke‐free homes and UK smokers least likely (34% v 15% at Wave 1). Levels of smoke‐free homes increased between waves. Logistic regressions indicated that the main independent predictors of smokers reporting smoke‐free homes or implementation of a smoke‐free policy between waves included household factors such as having a child, particularly a young child, and having other non‐smoking adults in the household. Positive attitudes to smoke‐free public places and/or reported presence of smoke‐free public places were independent predictors of having or implementing smoke‐free homes, supporting a social diffusion model for smoking restrictions. Intentions to quit at Wave 1 and quitting activity between survey waves were associated with implementing bans between Waves 1 and 2. Presence of bans at Wave 1 was associated with significantly greater proportions of quit attempts, and success among those who tried at Wave 2. There was no significant interaction between the predictive models and country. Conclusions Smoke‐free public places seem to stimulate adoption of smoke‐free homes, a strategy associated with both increased frequency of quit attempts, and of the success of those attempts. PMID

  5. The Health and Well-Being of Older Adults with Dual Sensory Impairment (DSI) in Four Countries

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Dual sensory impairment (DSI) is a combination of vision and hearing impairments that represents a unique disability affecting all aspects of a person’s life. The rates of DSI are expected to increase due to population aging, yet little is known about DSI among older adults (65+). The prevalence of DSI and client characteristics were examined among two groups, namely, older adults receiving home care services or those residing in a long-term care (LTC) facility in four countries (Canada, US, Finland, Belgium). Methods Existing data, using an interRAI assessment, were analyzed to compare older adults with DSI to all others across demographic characteristics, functional and psychosocial outcomes. Results In home care, the prevalence of DSI across the four countries ranged from 13.4% to 24.6%; in LTC facilities, it ranged from 9.7% to 33.9%. Clients with DSI were more likely to be 85+, have moderate/severe cognitive impairment, impairments in activities of daily living, and have communication difficulties. Among residents of LTC facilities, individuals with DSI were more likely to be 85+ and more likely have a diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease. Having DSI increased the likelihood of depression in both care settings, but after adjusting for other factors, it remained significant only in the home care sample. Conclusions While the prevalence of DSI cross nationally is similar to that of other illnesses such as diabetes, depression, and Alzheimer’s disease, we have a limited understanding of its affects among older adults. Raising awareness of this unique disability is imperative to insure that individuals receive the necessary rehabilitation and supportive services to improve their level of independence and quality of life. PMID:27148963

  6. 10-Year Framework of Programmes on Sustainable Consumption and Production

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    One of the important programmatic outcomes from the U.N. Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20) was the adoption of the 10-Year Framework of Programmes (10YFP) on Sustainable Consumption and Production (SCP).

  7. Actual 10-year survivors following resection of adrenocortical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tran, Thuy B; Postlewait, Lauren M; Maithel, Shishir K; Prescott, Jason D; Wang, Tracy S; Glenn, Jason; Phay, John E; Keplinger, Kara; Fields, Ryan C; Jin, Linda X; Weber, Sharon M; Salem, Ahmed; Sicklick, Jason K; Gad, Shady; Yopp, Adam C; Mansour, John C; Duh, Quan-Yang; Seiser, Natalie; Solorzano, Carmen C; Kiernan, Colleen M; Votanopoulos, Konstantinos I; Levine, Edward A; Hatzaras, Ioannis; Shenoy, Rivfka; Pawlik, Timothy M; Norton, Jeffrey A; Poultsides, George A

    2016-12-01

    Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare and aggressive malignancy with limited therapeutic options beyond surgical resection. The characteristics of actual long-term survivors following surgical resection for ACC have not been previously reported. Patients who underwent resection for ACC at one of 13 academic institutions participating in the US Adrenocortical Carcinoma Group from 1993 to 2014 were analyzed. Patients were stratified into four groups: early mortality (died within 2 years), late mortality (died within 2-5 years), actual 5-year survivor (survived at least 5 years), and actual 10-year survivor (survived at least 10 years). Patients with less than 5 years of follow-up were excluded. Among the 180 patients available for analysis, there were 49 actual 5-year survivors (27%) and 12 actual 10-year survivors (7%). Patients who experienced early mortality had higher rates of cortisol-secreting tumors, nodal metastasis, synchronous distant metastasis, and R1 or R2 resections (all P < 0.05). The need for multi-visceral resection, perioperative blood transfusion, and adjuvant therapy correlated with early mortality. However, nodal involvement, distant metastasis, and R1 resection did not preclude patients from becoming actual 10-year survivors. Ten of twelve actual 10-year survivors were women, and of the seven 10-year survivors who experienced disease recurrence, five had undergone repeat surgery to resect the recurrence. Surgery for ACC can offer a 1 in 4 chance of actual 5-year survival and a 1 in 15 chance of actual 10-year survival. Long-term survival was often achieved with repeat resection for local or distant recurrence, further underscoring the important role of surgery in managing patients with ACC. J. Surg. Oncol. 2016;114:971-976. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Actual 10-Year Survivors Following Resection of Adrenocortical Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Thuy B.; Postlewait, Lauren M.; Maithel, Shishir K.; Prescott, Jason D.; Wang, Tracy S.; Glenn, Jason; Phay, John E.; Keplinger, Kara; Fields, Ryan C.; Jin, Linda X.; Weber, Sharon M.; Salem, Ahmed; Sicklick, Jason K.; Gad, Shady; Yopp, Adam C.; Mansour, John C.; Duh, Quan-Yang; Seiser, Natalie; Solorzano, Carmen C.; Kiernan, Colleen M.; Votanopoulos, Konstantinos I.; Levine, Edward A.; Hatzaras, Ioannis; Shenoy, Rivfka; Pawlik, Timothy M.; Norton, Jeffrey A.; Poultsides, George A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare and aggressive malignancy with limited therapeutic options beyond surgical resection. The characteristics of actual long-term survivors following surgical resection for ACC have not been previously reported. Method Patients who underwent resection for ACC at one of 13 academic institutions participating in the US Adrenocortical Carcinoma Group from 1993 to 2014 were analyzed. Patients were stratified into four groups: early mortality (died within 2 years), late mortality (died within 2–5 years), actual 5-year survivor (survived at least 5 years), and actual 10-year survivor (survived at least 10 years). Patients with less than 5 years of follow-up were excluded. Results Among the 180 patients available for analysis, there were 49 actual 5-year survivors (27%) and 12 actual 10-year survivors (7%). Patients who experienced early mortality had higher rates of cortisol-secreting tumors, nodal metastasis, synchronous distant metastasis, and R1 or R2 resections (all P < 0.05). The need for multi-visceral resection, perioperative blood transfusion, and adjuvant therapy correlated with early mortality. However, nodal involvement, distant metastasis, and R1 resection did not preclude patients from becoming actual 10-year survivors. Ten of twelve actual 10-year survivors were women, and of the seven 10-year survivors who experienced disease recurrence, five had undergone repeat surgery to resect the recurrence. Conclusion Surgery for ACC can offer a 1 in 4 chance of actual 5-year survival and a 1 in 15 chance of actual 10-year survival. Long-term survival was often achieved with repeat resection for local or distant recurrence, further underscoring the important role of surgery in managing patients with ACC. PMID:27633419

  9. Implementing services for Early Infant Diagnosis (EID) of HIV: a comparative descriptive analysis of national programs in four countries

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is a significant increase in survival for HIV-infected children who have early access to diagnosis and treatment. The goal of this multi-country review was to examine when and where HIV-exposed infants and children are being diagnosed, and whether the EID service is being maximally utilized to improve health outcomes for HIV-exposed children. Methods In four countries across Africa and Asia existing documents and data were reviewed and key informant interviews were conducted. EID testing data was gathered from the central testing laboratories and was then complemented by health facility level data extraction which took place using a standardized and validated questionnaire Results In the four countries reviewed from 2006 to 2009 EID sample volumes rose dramatically to an average of >100 samples per quarter in Cambodia and Senegal, >7,000 samples per quarter in Uganda, and >2,000 samples per quarter in Namibia. Geographic coverage of sites also rapidly expanded to 525 sites in Uganda, 205 in Namibia, 48 in Senegal, and 26 in Cambodia in 2009. However, only a small proportion of testing was done at lower-level health facilities: in Uganda Health Center IIs and IIIs comprised 47% of the EID collection sites, but only 11% of the total tests, and in Namibia 15% of EID sites collected >93% of all samples. In all countries except for Namibia, more than 50% of the EID testing was done after 2 months of age. Few sites had robust referral mechanisms between EID and ART. In a sub-sample of children, we noted significant attrition of infants along the continuum of care post testing. Only 22% (Senegal), 37% (Uganda), and 38% (Cambodia) of infants testing positive by PCR were subsequently initiated onto treatment. In Namibia, which had almost universal EID coverage, more than 70% of PCR-positive infants initiated ART in 2008. Conclusions While EID testing has expanded dramatically, a large proportion of PCR- positive infants are initiated on treatment. As EID

  10. Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement 10-Year Plan, 1990 -1999.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1990-08-01

    In 1988 Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) began work on this Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement 10-Year Plan to develop a levelized program that would assure high system reliability. During the Programs in Perspective (PIP) meetings in the late summer and fall of 1988, many of the concerns to be addressed in an Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement Plan were identified. Following these PIP meetings BPA established internal work groups. During the winter and spring of 1989, these work groups developed technical background and issue papers on topics that ranged from substation maintenance to environmental protection. In addition, a customer forum group was established and met on several occasions to review work on the plan, to offer ideas and points of view, and to assure that BPA understood customer concerns. Based on recommendations from the work group reports and customer input, BPA's O M Management Team developed the draft Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement 10-Year Plan that was released for public comment during the spring of 1990. During the public review period, BPA received a number of written comments from customers and the interested public. In addition, special meetings were held with interested customers. This final Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement 10-Year Plan reflects BPA's response to customers and interested public on each topic discussed in the 10-Year Plan. The plan is a distillation of BPA's strategies to achieve a levelized program over 10 years.

  11. Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement 10-Year Plan, 1990--1999

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    In 1988 Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) began work on this Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement 10-Year Plan to develop a levelized program that would assure high system reliability. During the Programs in Perspective (PIP) meetings in the later summer and fall of 1988, many of the concerns to be addressed in an Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement Plan were identified. Following these PIP meetings BPA established internal work groups. During the winter and spring of 1989, these work groups developed technical background and issue papers on topics that ranged from substation maintenance to environmental protection. In addition, a customer forum group was established and met on several occasions to review work on the plan, to offer ideas and points of view, and to assure that BPA understood customer concerns. Based on recommendations from the work group reports and customer input, BPA's O M Management Team developed the draft Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement 10-Year Plan that was released for public comment during the spring of 1990. During the public review period, BPA received a number of written comments from customers and the interested public. In addition, special meetings were held with interested customers. This final Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement 10-year Plan reflects BPA's response to customers and interested public on each topic discussed in the 10-Year Plan. The plan is a distillation of BPA's strategies to achieve a levelized program over 10 years.

  12. Impact of point-of-sale tobacco display bans: findings from the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lin; Borland, Ron; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Thrasher, James F.; Hammond, David; Cummings, Kenneth M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the impact of point-of-sale (POS) tobacco marketing restrictions in Australia and Canada, in relation to the United Kingdom and the United States where there were no such restrictions during the study period (2006–10). The data came from the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey, a prospective multi-country cohort survey of adult smokers. In jurisdictions where POS display bans were implemented, smokers’ reported exposure to tobacco marketing declined markedly. From 2006 to 2010, in Canada, the percentages noticing POS tobacco displays declined from 74.1 to 6.1% [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.26, P < 0.001]; and reported exposure to POS tobacco advertising decreased from 40.3 to 14.1% (adjusted OR = 0.61, P < 0.001). Similarly, in Australia, noticing of POS displays decreased from 73.9 to 42.9%. In contrast, exposure to POS marketing in the United States and United Kingdom remained high during this period. In parallel, there were declines in reported exposures to other forms of advertising/promotion in Canada and Australia, but again, not in the United States or United Kingdom. Impulse purchasing of cigarettes was lower in places that enacted POS display bans. These findings indicate that implementing POS tobacco display bans does result in lower exposure to tobacco marketing and less frequent impulse purchasing of cigarettes. PMID:23640986

  13. Evaluating the WHO Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems by comparing mental health policies in four countries.

    PubMed

    Hamid, Hamada; Abanilla, Karen; Bauta, Besa; Huang, Keng-Yen

    2008-06-01

    Mental health is a low priority in most countries around the world. Minimal research and resources have been invested in mental health at the national level. As a result, WHO has developed the Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems (WHO-AIMS) to encourage countries to gather data and to re-evaluate their national mental health policy. This paper demonstrates the utility and limitations of WHO-AIMS by applying the model to four countries with different cultures, political histories and public health policies: Iraq, Japan, the Philippines and The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. WHO-AIMS provides a useful model for analysing six domains: policy and legislative framework; mental health services; mental health in primary care; human resources; education of the public at large; and monitoring and research. This is especially important since most countries do not have experts in mental health policy or resources to design their own evaluation tools for mental health systems. Furthermore, WHO-AIMS provides a standardized database for cross-country comparisons. However, limitations of the instrument include the neglect of the politics of mental health policy development, underestimation of the role of culture in mental health care utilization, and questionable measurement validity.

  14. Predictors of smoking relapse by duration of abstinence: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey

    PubMed Central

    Herd, N; Borland, R; Hyland, A

    2015-01-01

    Aim To explore predictors of smoking relapse and how predictors vary according to duration of abstinence. Design, setting and participants A longitudinal survey of 1296 ex-smokers recruited as part of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey (Australia, Canada, UK, and USA). Measurements Quitters were phone interviewed at varying durations of abstinence (from one day to approximately three years) and then followed-up approximately one year later. Theorised predictors of relapse (i.e., urges to smoke; outcome expectancies of smoking and quitting; and abstinence self-efficacy) and nicotine dependence were measured in the survey. Findings Relapse was associated with lower abstinence self-efficacy and a higher frequency of urges to smoke, but only after the first month or so of quitting. Both of these measures mediated relationships between perceived benefits of smoking and relapse. Perceived costs of smoking and benefits of quitting were unrelated to relapse. Conclusions Challenging perceived benefits of smoking may be an effective way to increase abstinence self-efficacy and reduce frequency of urges to smoke (particularly after the initial weeks of quitting), in order to subsequently reduce relapse risk. PMID:19922574

  15. Socioeconomic Status and Smokers’ Number of Smoking Friends: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey

    PubMed Central

    Hitchman, Sara C.; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Zanna, Mark P.; Thrasher, James F.; Chung-Hall, Janet; Siahpush, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background Smoking rates are higher among low socioeconomic (SES) groups, and there is evidence that inequalities in smoking are widening over time in many countries. Low SES smokers may be more likely to smoke and less likely to quit because smoking is heavily concentrated in their social contexts. This study investigated whether low SES smokers (1) have more smoking friends, and (2) are more likely to gain and less likely to lose smoking friends over time. Correlates of having more smoking friends and gaining or losing smoking friends were also considered. Method Respondents included 6,321 adult current smokers (at recruitment) from Wave 1 (2002) and Wave 2 (2003) of the International Tobacco Control Project (ITC) Four Country Survey, a nationally representative longitudinal cohort survey of smokers in Australia, Canada, UK, and US. Results Low SES smokers reported more smoking friends than moderate and high SES smokers. Low SES smokers were also more likely to gain smoking friends over time compared with high SES smokers. Smokers who were male, younger, and lived with other smokers reported more smoking friends, and were also more likely to gain and less likely to lose smoking friends. Smoking behaviours, such as higher nicotine dependence were related to reporting more smoking friends, but not to losing or gain smoking friends. Conclusions Smoking is highly concentrated in the social networks of lower SES smokers and this concentration may be increasing over time. Cessation interventions should consider how the structure of low SES smokers’ social networks affects quitting. PMID:25156228

  16. A comparison of how four countries use health IT to support care for people with chronic conditions.

    PubMed

    Adler-Milstein, Julia; Sarma, Nandini; Woskie, Liana R; Jha, Ashish K

    2014-09-01

    Countries around the globe are investing in health information and communications technologies (ICTs) as critical tools for improving care for chronically ill patients. We profiled four high-income nations with varied health ICT strategies--Australia, Canada, Denmark, and the United States--to describe their use of ICTs to improve chronic care. Our goal was to identify common challenges and opportunities for cross-national learning. We found four key themes. First, although all four countries have a national strategy for health ICT adoption, strategies are implemented and adapted to chronic care needs regionally, which creates the challenge of spreading successful efforts across regions. Second, each country struggles with how to ensure that clinical information follows patients seamlessly between care settings. Third, although each nation is pursuing telehealth solutions as a component of chronic care, the telehealth initiatives are usually stand-alone efforts that are not well integrated into other ICT solutions, such as electronic health records. Finally, countries have made progress in improving patients' access to their clinical data but have not fully succeeded in engaging patients to apply the data to improve care. These common themes suggest that although the four nations have different health care systems and ICT strategies, all of them face a similar set of challenges, creating an opportunity for cross-national learning.

  17. How Do Price Minimizing Behaviors Impact Smoking Cessation? Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey

    PubMed Central

    Licht, Andrea S.; Hyland, Andrew J.; O’Connor, Richard J.; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Borland, Ron; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Nargis, Nigar; Cummings, K. Michael

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines how price minimizing behaviors impact efforts to stop smoking. Data on 4,988 participants from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation (ITC) Four-Country Survey who were smokers at baseline (wave 5) and interviewed at a 1 year follow-up were used. We examined whether price minimizing behaviors at baseline predicted: (1) cessation, (2) quit attempts, and (3) successful quit attempts at one year follow up using multivariate logistic regression modeling. A subset analysis included 3,387 participants who were current smokers at waves 5 and 6 and were followed through wave 7 to explore effects of changing purchase patterns on cessation. Statistical tests for interaction were performed to examine the joint effect of SES and price/tax avoidance behaviors on cessation outcomes. Smokers who engaged in any price/tax avoidance behaviors were 28% less likely to report cessation. Persons using low/untaxed sources were less likely to quit at follow up, those purchasing cartons were less likely to make quit attempts and quit, and those using discount cigarettes were less likely to succeed, conditional on making attempts. Respondents who utilized multiple behaviors simultaneously were less likely to make quit attempts and to succeed. SES did not modify the effects of price minimizing behaviors on cessation outcomes. The data from this paper indicate that the availability of lower priced cigarette alternatives may attenuate public health efforts aimed at to reduce reducing smoking prevalence through price and tax increases among all SES groups. PMID:21655144

  18. Children's Perceptions of Maternal Hostility as a Mediator of the Link between Discipline and Children's Adjustment in Four Countries.

    PubMed

    Lansford, Jennifer E; Malone, Patrick S; Dodge, Kenneth A; Chang, Lei; Chaudhary, Nandita; Tapanya, Sombat; Oburu, Paul; Deater-Deckard, Kirby

    2010-09-01

    Using data from 195 dyads of mothers and children (age range = 8-12 years; M = 10.63) in four countries (China, India, the Philippines, and Thailand), this study examined children's perceptions of maternal hostility as a mediator of the links between physical discipline and harsh verbal discipline and children's adjustment. Both physical discipline and harsh verbal discipline had direct effects on mothers' reports of children's anxiety and aggression; three of these four links were mediated by children's perceptions of maternal hostility. In contrast, there were no significant direct effects of physical discipline and harsh verbal discipline on children's reports of their own anxiety and aggression. Instead, both physical discipline and harsh verbal discipline had indirect effects on the outcomes through children's perceptions of maternal hostility. We identified a significant interaction between perceived normativeness and use of harsh verbal discipline on children's perception of maternal hostility, but children's perception of the normativeness of physical discipline did not moderate the relation between physical discipline and perceived maternal hostility. The effects of harsh verbal discipline were more adverse when children perceived that form of discipline as being nonnormative than when children perceived that form of discipline as being normative. Results are largely consistent with a theoretical model positing that the meaning children attach to parents' discipline strategies is important in understanding associations between discipline and children's adjustment, and that cultural context is associated with children's interpretations of their parents' behavior.

  19. How do price minimizing behaviors impact smoking cessation? Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey.

    PubMed

    Licht, Andrea S; Hyland, Andrew J; O'Connor, Richard J; Chaloupka, Frank J; Borland, Ron; Fong, Geoffrey T; Nargis, Nigar; Cummings, K Michael

    2011-05-01

    This paper examines how price minimizing behaviors impact efforts to stop smoking. Data on 4,988 participants from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation (ITC) Four-Country Survey who were smokers at baseline (wave 5) and interviewed at a 1 year follow-up were used. We examined whether price minimizing behaviors at baseline predicted: (1) cessation, (2) quit attempts, and (3) successful quit attempts at one year follow up using multivariate logistic regression modeling. A subset analysis included 3,387 participants who were current smokers at waves 5 and 6 and were followed through wave 7 to explore effects of changing purchase patterns on cessation. Statistical tests for interaction were performed to examine the joint effect of SES and price/tax avoidance behaviors on cessation outcomes. Smokers who engaged in any price/tax avoidance behaviors were 28% less likely to report cessation. Persons using low/untaxed sources were less likely to quit at follow up, those purchasing cartons were less likely to make quit attempts and quit, and those using discount cigarettes were less likely to succeed, conditional on making attempts. Respondents who utilized multiple behaviors simultaneously were less likely to make quit attempts and to succeed. SES did not modify the effects of price minimizing behaviors on cessation outcomes. The data from this paper indicate that the availability of lower priced cigarette alternatives may attenuate public health efforts aimed at to reduce reducing smoking prevalence through price and tax increases among all SES groups.

  20. Juvenile Hyaline Fibromatosis: A 10-year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Baltacioglu, Esra; Guzeldemir, Esra; Sukuroglu, Erkan; Yildiz, Kadriye; Yuva, Pinar; Aydin, Güven; Karacal, Naci

    2017-01-01

    Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis (JHF) is a rare hereditary disease with an autosomal recessive transmission. JHF is characterized by papulonodular skin lesions, osteolytic bone lesions, flexural joint contractures, and gingival hyperplasia and usually diagnosed in infancy or early childhood. JHF is thought to be a disorder of collagen metabolism and characterized by homogenous amorphous eosinophilic material and fibrous tissue. We report the case of a 14-year-old male child with multiple papulonodular skin lesions, progressive flexion contractures of joints, and severe gingival hyperplasia, with a 10-year follow-up. Although the lesions were totally removed thrice during the last 10 years, they recurred rigorously.

  1. Looking forward, looking back-10 years in urology.

    PubMed

    Albersen, Maarten; Cartwright, Rufus; Choyke, Peter; Goldenberg, S Larry; Goldman, Howard; Lawrentschuk, Nathan; Linehan, W Marston; Murphy, Declan; Nagler, Harris; Scardino, Peter; Shortliffe, Linda; Stenzl, Arnulf; Theodorescu, Dan

    2014-11-01

    When Nature Reviews Urology launched in 2004, the field of urology was vastly different to that which we work in today, and the past 10 years have seen the field change immensely. As a specialty on the forefront of cutting-edge innovation, urologists are often the first to embrace new technologies and ideas. In this Viewpoint, members of the Nature Reviews Urology advisory board were asked what they thought was the most important change, issue or innovation in urology in the past 10 years, and what they expected to be the most important in the next decade. Here are their opinions.

  2. Expected innovations of optical lithography in the next 10 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owa, Soichi; Hirayanagi, Noriyuki

    2016-03-01

    In the past 10 years, immersion lithography has been the most effective high volume manufacturing method for the critical layers of semiconductor devices. Thinking of the next 10 years, we can expect continuous improvement on existing 300 mm wafer scanners with better accuracy and throughput to enhance the total output value per input cost. This value productivity, however, can be upgraded also by larger innovations which might happen in optical lithography. In this paper, we will discuss the possibilities and the impossibilities of potential innovation ideas of optical lithography, which are 450 mm wafer, optical maskless, multicolor lithography, and metamaterial.

  3. Rheumatoid arthritis: workload and outcome over 10 years.

    PubMed

    Capell, H A; Murphy, E A; Hunter, J A

    1991-06-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis remains a chronic disabling disorder in which medical and surgical intervention may provide amelioration but not cure. In this study a cohort of 123 rheumatoid patients were followed for a period of 10 years from the time of prescription of their initial second-line agent. The workload involved in managing articular, extra-articular and intercurrent disease in these patients has been documented and outcome in relation to continued use of 'disease modifying' therapy evaluated. At 10 years 24 patients (20 per cent) had died and 7 (5 per cent) were not traced; of the 92 (75 per cent) who were assessed, three had become wheelchairbound, two for reasons other than rheumatoid arthritis. Seventy-one per cent of patients required joint surgery, 36 per cent management of peptic ulcer and 45 per cent experienced major episodes of sepsis. Analysis of the results in the 92 patients who were evaluated at 10 years showed significant improvement in Ritchie articular index, pain score, morning stiffness, haemoglobin, platelets, ESR, total globulins, IgG and IgM. Grip strength and Lee functional index showed a trend towards deterioration which did not reach significance. Sixty-seven (73 per cent) of the 92 patients remained on a second- or third-line agent at 10 years (median duration of treatment 107 months); 25 (27 per cent) were not receiving such therapy (median duration of second- and third-line therapy 13 months). The group remaining on treatment showed significant improvement similar to that of the total study group. Those not on treatment improved only for articular index; Lee functional index deteriorated significantly. There was a correlation between area under the curve for ESR over 10 years and radiological progression of disease in hands (r = 0.29, p = 0.026) and in knees and hips (r = 0.3748, p = 0.012) over the 10 year period. Radiographic score correlated well with Lee functional index at the outset and at 10 years and also with the change in

  4. CELBAN™: A 10-Year Retrospective Catherine Lewis & Blanche Kingdon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Catherine; Kingdom, Blanche

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a 10-year review by the test developers of the Canadian English Language Benchmark Assessment for Nurses (CELBAN™). From 2004 to 2014, the development, implementation, national administration, and operations of CELBAN and CELBAN-related products and services were the responsibility of the test developers and team at the…

  5. 10 Years of Media Literacy Education in K-12 Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daunic, Rhys

    2011-01-01

    When the author started working with teachers and students on classroom multimedia productions a little over 10 years ago, he had not yet encountered the term "media literacy", nor did he realize he had joined a long standing international movement of media literacy educators. Serendipitous exposure to "old-media" texts by Neil Postman and Noam…

  6. Neuropsychological aspects of 10-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Osborn, Ellen; Pereira, Liliane Desgualdo

    2012-01-01

    To characterize neuropsychological aspects of 10-year-old children. Out of 30 children, 26 cognitively normal 10-year-old public school students answered tests extracted from Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery: Children's Revision. The study was transversal. Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis were carried out. Most of the 10-year-old children retold a story (69.2%), understood it making correct inference (84.6%) and reproduced it adequately in writing (76.9%)--14.9% was the average number of incorrectly written words and 0.179 was the errors per written word coefficient. Besides, 53.8% showed logical thought process and 73.1% had a correct notion of "x more than...". They got five out of eight in the visuo-spatial test, an intermediary result. These results show that the tertiary areas of units II and III are developed in most 10-year-old children. The most frequent types of written mistakes were: oral influence (26.3%), multiple representation (22.5%) and omission (18.4%). As to coding principles, the mostly uncomplied with rule was vowel nasalization at end of syllable (23,53%). Ten-year-old children in the studied population understood and reproduced a story orally and in writing with a low coefficient error/word. The majority completed the visuospatial tests and presented logical thought process. When "x more than..." notion is absent it may be an indicator that all is not well in the reading/writing process.

  7. Career Theory Building in AJCD during Its Inaugural 10 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prideaux, Lee-Ann; Creed, Peter

    2002-01-01

    A review of the first 10 years of the Australian Journal of Career Development identified 26 articles meeting methodological criteria. These topics predominated: cross-sectional analyses, Holland's theory of vocational choice, self-efficacy/self-concept theory, gender issues, and career counseling/career education. A need for an…

  8. Headshaking in a 10-year-old Thoroughbred mare

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Abstract A 10-year-old Thoroughbred mare was presented with a 2.5-week history of headshaking. Based on a thorough physical examination, blood analysis, and a fine needle aspirate of an enlarged thyroid gland, a tentative diagnosis of seasonal idiopathic headshaking was made. Treatment with cyproheptadine was attempted. PMID:15025153

  9. Duodenal adenocarcinoma in a 10-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Zouari; Habib, Bouthour; Rabia, Ben Abdallah; Youssef, Hlel; Riath, Ben Malek; Youssef, Gharbi; Nejib, Kaabar

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal malignancies are extremely rare in the paediatric population and duodenal cancers represent an even more unusual entity. It represents 0.3-1% of all gastrointestinal tumours. A case report of a 10-year-old boy with duodenal adenocarcinoma is reported and the difficulties of diagnosing and treating this rare tumour are discussed.

  10. Sugar maple provenance study: West Virginia outplanting - 10-year results

    Treesearch

    G. W. Wendel; W. J. Gabriel

    1980-01-01

    After 10 years, survival of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) provenances outplanted in West Virginia did not differ significantly. Total height, height growth and dbh measurements were significantly different among provenances. Fifty percent of the trees had major forks below 9.0 feet. Thirty-eight percent of the trees had no forks but 71 percent...

  11. Smart Start: Celebrating 10 Years, 1993-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina Partnership for Children, Raleigh.

    Smart Start, a public-private initiative celebrating 10 years of operation, invests in high quality early care and education services for all children, birth to age five, and their families in North Carolina. The initiative funds programs to improve the quality, affordability, and availability of child care as well as children's health and family…

  12. Career Theory Building in AJCD during Its Inaugural 10 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prideaux, Lee-Ann; Creed, Peter

    2002-01-01

    A review of the first 10 years of the Australian Journal of Career Development identified 26 articles meeting methodological criteria. These topics predominated: cross-sectional analyses, Holland's theory of vocational choice, self-efficacy/self-concept theory, gender issues, and career counseling/career education. A need for an…

  13. Technology for Distance Education: A 10 Year Prospective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, A. W.

    This paper provides an overview of new technologies likely to be widely available within the next 10 years for teaching in Europe. It begins by presenting a framework which draws distinctions between different technologies based on their educational applications, i.e., for teaching or operational purposes, for communicating within or between…

  14. Interrogating the Subject: Queering Elementary Education, 10 Years On

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sears, James T.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the contributions to this special issue in the context of a wider argument about the notion of queering elementary education. When "Queering Elementary Education" was published 10 years ago there was very little writing or research on matters related to primary education, and just finding experienced educators to…

  15. Flowerpot sequestrum of the Humerus Neglect for 10 years!!

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Rakesh

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Neglected cases of osteomyelitis are not uncommon. We present a case of humerus osteomyelitis neglected for 10 years and presented with a sequestrum protruding out of the arm in the shape of a flowerpot. Such a long duration of neglect and a startling presentation are rare and have implications not only on healthcare but also reflect the socio-economic and cultural fabric of the society. Case Report: 22 year old lady presented with history of bone jutting out of right arm since last 10 years. She had a trivial injury to the arm 10 years back followed by pain and fever. She was treated by local osteopath and ‘registered’ doctors but developed wound over the arm with purulent discharge. On and off treatment with dressing was continued with symptomatic relief but in few weeks bone fragment started protruding out of the wound. The size of bone protruding from the wound increased gradually with on and off history of discharge since 10 years. Clinically a flowerpot shaped sequestrum was seen protruding from the arm. Radiographs showed a defined diaphyseal sequestrum of the humerus with continuity of the bone maintained by new bone formation. Sequestrectomy was done and at one year follow up patient was fine with no recurrence of infection Conclusions: Lack of health infrastructure, ignorance, and other social and cultural factors lead to such bad wounds. Even with such long history a single surgery for debridement and sequestrectomy was all that was needed for healing the patient.

  16. Australian smokers' support for plain or standardised packs before and after implementation: findings from the ITC Four Country Survey.

    PubMed

    Swift, Elena; Borland, Ron; Cummings, K Michael; Fong, Geoffrey T; McNeill, Ann; Hammond, David; Thrasher, James F; Partos, Timea R; Yong, Hua-Hie

    2015-11-01

    Plain packaging (PP) for tobacco products was fully implemented in Australia on 1 December 2012 along with larger graphic health warnings. Using longitudinal data from the Australian arm of the ITC Four Country Survey, we examined attitudes to the new packs before and after implementation, predictors of attitudinal change, and the relationship between support and quitting activity. A population-based cohort study design, with some cross-sectional analyses. Surveys of Australian smokers assessed attitudes to PP at four time points prior to implementation (from 2007 to 2012) and one post-implementation wave collected (early/mid-2013). Trend analysis showed a slight rise in opposition to PP among smokers in the waves leading up to their implementation, but no change in support. Support for PP increased significantly after implementation (28.2% pre vs 49% post), such that post-PP more smokers were supportive than opposed (49% vs 34.7%). Multivariate analysis showed support either before or after implementation was predicted by belief in greater adverse health impacts of smoking, desire to quit and lower addiction. Among those not supportive before implementation, having no clear opinion about PP (versus being opposed) prior to the changes also predicted support post-implementation. Support for PP was prospectively associated with higher levels of quitting activity. Since implementation of PP along with larger warnings, support among Australian smokers has increased. Support is related to lower addiction, stronger beliefs in the negative health impacts of smoking, and higher levels of quitting activity. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. The predictive utility of micro indicators of concern about smoking: findings from the International Tobacco Control Four Country study.

    PubMed

    Partos, Timea R; Borland, Ron; Thrasher, James F; Li, Lin; Yong, Hua-Hie; O'Connor, Richard J; Siahpush, Mohammad

    2014-08-01

    This study explored the association between six "micro indicators" of concern about smoking (1. stubbing out cigarettes before finishing; 2. forgoing cigarettes due to packet warning labels; thinking about... 3. the harms to oneself of smoking; 4. the harms to others of one's smoking; 5. the bad conduct of tobacco companies; and 6. money spent on cigarettes) and cessation outcomes (making quit attempts, and achieving at least six months of sustained abstinence) among adult smokers from Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America. Participants were 12,049 individuals from five survey waves of the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey (interviewed between 2002 and 2006, and followed-up approximately one year later). Generalized estimating equation logistic regression analysis was used, enabling us to control for within-participant correlations due to possible multiple responses by the same individual over different survey waves. The frequency of micro indicators predicted making quit attempts, with premature stubbing out, forgoing, and thinking about the harms to oneself of smoking being particularly strong predictors. An interaction effect with expressed intention to quit was observed, such that stubbing out and thinking about the harms on oneself predicted quit attempts more strongly among smokers with no expressed plans to quit. In contrast, there was a negative association between some micro indicators and sustained abstinence, with more frequent stubbing out, forgoing, and thinking about money spent on cigarettes associated with a reduced likelihood of subsequently achieving sustained abstinence. In countries with long-established tobacco control programs, micro indicators index both high motivation by smokers to do something about their smoking at least partly independent of espoused intention and, especially those indicators not part of a direct pathway to quitting, reduced capacity to quit successfully.

  18. Gender Differences in Medication Use and Cigarette Smoking Cessation: Results From the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Philip H.; Kasza, Karin A.; Hyland, Andrew; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Borland, Ron; Brady, Kathleen; Carpenter, Matthew J.; Hartwell, Karen; Cummings, K. Michael

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: There is conflicting evidence for gender differences in smoking cessation, and there has been little research on gender differences in smoking cessation medication (SCM) use and effectiveness. Using longitudinal data from the International Tobacco Control Four Country Surveys (ITC-4) conducted in the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, and Australia, we examined gender differences in the incidence of quit attempts, reasons for quitting, use of SCMs, reasons for discontinuing use of SCMs, and rates of smoking cessation. Methods: Data were analyzed from adult smokers participating in the ITC-4, annual waves 2006–2011 (n = 7,825), as well as a subsample of smokers (n = 1,079) who made quit attempts within 2 months of survey. Adjusted modeling utilized generalized estimating equations. Results: There were no gender differences in the likelihood of desire to quit, plans to quit, or quit attempts between survey waves. Among quit attempters, women had 31% lower odds of successfully quitting (OR = 0.69; 95% CI = 0.51, 0.94). Stratified by medication use, quit success was lower among women who did not use any SCMs (OR = 0.59; 95% CI = 0.39, 0.90), and it was no different from men when medications were used (OR = 0.73; 95% CI = 0.46, 1.16). In particular, self-selected use of nicotine patch and varenicline contributed to successful quitting among women. Conclusions: Women may have more difficulty quitting than men, and SCMs use may help attenuate this difference. PMID:25762757

  19. LONGITUDINAL ASSOCATIONS BETWEEN SMOKING CESSATION MEDICATIONS AND ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION AMONG SMOKERS IN THE INTERNATIONAL TOBACCO CONTROL FOUR COUNTRY SURVEY

    PubMed Central

    McKee, Sherry A.; Young-Wolff, Kelly C.; Harrison, Emily L.R.; Cummings, K. Michael; Borland, Ron; Kahler, Christopher W.; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Hyland, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Background Available evidence suggests that quitting smoking does not alter alcohol consumption. However, smoking cessation medications may have a direct impact on alcohol consumption independent of any effects on smoking cessation. Using an international longitudinal epidemiological sample of smokers, we evaluated whether smoking cessation medications altered alcohol consumption independent of quitting smoking. Methods Longitudinal data were analyzed from the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey (ITC-4) between 2007 and 2008, a telephone survey of nationally representative samples of smokers from the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, and the United States (n=4,995). Quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption, use of smoking cessation medications (varenicline, nicotine replacement (NRT), no medications), and smoking behavior were assessed across two yearly waves. Controlling for baseline drinking and changes in smoking status, we evaluated whether smoking cessation medications were associated with reduced alcohol consumption. Results Varenicline was associated with a reduced likelihood of any drinking compared to nicotine replacement (O.R. = 0.56; 95% CI = 0.34–0.94), and consuming alcohol once a month or more compared to nicotine replacement (O.R. = 0.43; 95% CI = 0.27–0.69) or no medication (O.R. = 0.63; 95% CI = 0.41–0.99). Nicotine replacement was associated with an increased likelihood of consuming alcohol once a month or more compared to no medication (O.R. = 1.14; 95% CI = 1.03–1.25). Smoking cessation medications were not associated with more frequent drinking (once a week or more) or typical quantity consumed per episode. Medication effects on drinking frequency were independent of smoking cessation. Conclusions This epidemiological investigation demonstrated that varenicline was associated with a reduced frequency of alcohol consumption. Continued work should clarify under what conditions nicotine replacement therapies may

  20. Beyond light and mild: cigarette brand descriptors and perceptions of risk in the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey.

    PubMed

    Mutti, Seema; Hammond, David; Borland, Ron; Cummings, Michael K; O'Connor, Richard J; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2011-06-01

    To examine perceptions of risk related to type of cigarette brand. Cross-sectional findings from wave 5 of the ITC Four Country Survey, conducted with nationally representative samples of smokers in 2006. A total of 8243 current and former adult (≥18 years) smokers from Canada (n=2022), the United States (n=2034), the United Kingdom (n=2019) and Australia (n=2168). Outcomes included beliefs about the relative risks of cigarettes, including perceptions of 'own' brand. Correlates included socio-demographic, smoking-related covariates and brand characteristics. One-fifth of smokers believed incorrectly that 'some cigarette brands could be less harmful' than others. False beliefs were higher in both the United States and United Kingdom compared to Canada and Australia. Smokers of 'light/mild', 'slim' and 100 mm/120 mm cigarettes were more likely to believe that some cigarettes could be less harmful [odds ratio (OR)=1.29, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.12-1.48 and that their own brand might be a little less harmful (OR=2.61, 95% CI=2.01-3.41). Smokers of 'gold', 'silver', 'blue' or 'purple' brands were more likely to believe that their 'own brand might be a little less harmful' compared to smokers of 'red' or 'black' brands (OR=12.48, 95% CI=1.45-107.31). Despite current prohibitions on the words 'light' and 'mild', smokers in western countries continue to falsely believe that some cigarette brands may be less harmful than others. These beliefs are associated with descriptive words and elements of package design that have yet to be prohibited, including the names of colours and long, slim cigarettes. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  1. Delivery fee exemption and subsidy policies: how have they affected health staff? Findings from a four-country evaluation.

    PubMed

    Witter, Sophie; Ilboudo, Patrick G; Cunden, Nadia; Boukhalfa, Chakib; Makoutode, Patrick; Daou, Zoumana

    2016-08-30

    Many countries, especially in Africa, have in recent years introduced fee exemptions or subsidies targeting deliveries and emergency obstetric care. A number of aspects of these policies have been studied but there are few studies which look at how staff have been affected and how they have responded. This article focuses on this question, comparing data from Benin, Burkina Faso, Mali and Morocco. It is nested in wider evaluation of the policies. The article analyses responses to a health worker survey, carried out in 2012 on 683 health staff (doctors, nurses, midwives and others such as auxiliaries) across the four countries. The survey focused on working hours, workloads, pay, motivation and perceptions of the policies, as well as reported changes in workload and remuneration over the period of policy introduction. Self-reported staff output ratios suggest that midwives are over-worked across all settings, but facility data presents lower estimates, making it hard to judge the adequacy of workforces. Staff are generally positive about the policies' effects on the health system (increasing supervised delivery rates, benefiting the poor, improving access to medicines and supplies and improving quality of care). In personal terms, staff in Mali and Burkina Faso report increased satisfaction with work as a result of the policies, while in Benin, there is little change and in Morocco a deterioration (which correlated with recommendations about extending exemption policies in future). Awareness of policies was high amongst staff but only a small minority had received any written guides or training on policy implementation. It is crucial that planned health financing changes engage with their implications for staffing-estimating whether specific cadres can absorb increase demand, for example, as well as how to engage them in the policy implementation such that their personal needs are met and their professionalism enhanced.

  2. The relative roles of ANC and EPI in the continuous distribution of LLINs: a qualitative study in four countries.

    PubMed

    Theiss-Nyland, Katherine; Koné, Diakalia; Karema, Corine; Ejersa, Waqo; Webster, Jayne; Lines, Jo

    2017-05-01

    The continuous distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) for malaria prevention, through the antenatal care (ANC) and the Expanded Programme on Immunizations (EPI), is recommended by the WHO to improve and maintain LLIN coverage. Despite these recommendations, little is known about the relative strengths and weaknesses of the ANC and EPI-based LLIN distribution. This study aimed to explore and compare the roles of the ANC and EPI for LLIN distribution in four African countries. In a qualitative evaluation of continuous distribution through the ANC and EPI, semi-structured, individual and group interviews were conducted in Kenya, Malawi, Mali, and Rwanda. Respondents included national, sub-national, and facility-level health staff, and were selected to capture a range of roles related to malaria, ANC and EPI programmes. Policies, guidelines, and data collection tools were reviewed as a means of triangulation to assess the structure of LLIN distribution, and the methods of data collection and reporting for malaria, ANC and EPI programmes. In the four countries visited, distribution of LLINs was more effectively integrated through ANC than through EPI because of a) stronger linkages and involvement between malaria and reproductive health programmes, as compared to malaria and EPI, and b) more complete programme monitoring for ANC-based distribution, compared to EPI-based distribution. Opportunities for improving the distribution of LLINs through these channels exist, especially in the case of EPI. For both ANC and EPI, integrated distribution of LLINs has the potential to act as an incentive, improving the already strong coverage of both these essential services. The collection and reporting of data on LLINs distributed through the ANC and EPI can provide insight into the performance of LLIN distribution within these programmes. Greater attention to data collection and use, by both the global malaria community, and the integrated programmes, can improve

  3. Helping a 10-year-old Haitian girl with vaginitis.

    PubMed

    Leveille-Tulce, Anne Marie B

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this case study is to demonstrate how nurses who work with Haitian children and families can use NANDA-I (diagnosis), the Nursing Outcomes Classification, and the Nursing Interventions Classification to assist a 10-year-old child with symptoms of vaginitis. The case study derives from the author's experience and literature sources. This case study demonstrates a nurse's clinical decision making while providing care to a 10-year-old girl with symptoms of vaginitis. Increased knowledge and awareness about appropriate health behaviors can increase patients' power and enable them to freely act and adopt health behaviors to improve health outcomes. Placing patients at the center of the nursing process and partnering with patients to plan and develop interventions enable them to take actions and improve health outcomes. © 2013 NANDA International.

  4. Optogenetics: 10 years of microbial opsins in neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Deisseroth, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, the development and convergence of microbial opsin engineering, modular genetic methods for cell-type targeting and optical strategies for guiding light through tissue have enabled versatile optical control of defined cells in living systems, defining modern optogenetics. Despite widespread recognition of the importance of spatiotemporally precise causal control over cellular signaling, for nearly the first half (2005–2009) of this 10-year period, as optogenetics was being created, there were difficulties in implementation, few publications and limited biological findings. In contrast, the ensuing years have witnessed a substantial acceleration in the application domain, with the publication of thousands of discoveries and insights into the function of nervous systems and beyond. This Historical Commentary reflects on the scientific landscape of this decade-long transition. PMID:26308982

  5. Optogenetics: 10 years of microbial opsins in neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Deisseroth, Karl

    2015-09-01

    Over the past 10 years, the development and convergence of microbial opsin engineering, modular genetic methods for cell-type targeting and optical strategies for guiding light through tissue have enabled versatile optical control of defined cells in living systems, defining modern optogenetics. Despite widespread recognition of the importance of spatiotemporally precise causal control over cellular signaling, for nearly the first half (2005-2009) of this 10-year period, as optogenetics was being created, there were difficulties in implementation, few publications and limited biological findings. In contrast, the ensuing years have witnessed a substantial acceleration in the application domain, with the publication of thousands of discoveries and insights into the function of nervous systems and beyond. This Historical Commentary reflects on the scientific landscape of this decade-long transition.

  6. Mandibular Dentigerous Cyst in a 10-Year-Old Child

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Bindu; Sharma, Sunil; Agarwal, Prateek; Bhamboo, Amit; Rastogi, Komal

    2016-01-01

    Dentigerous cyst is the most common odontogenic cyst. It is characterized by a unilocular radiolucent lesion that encloses permanent tooth buds or, under certain circumstances, displaced tooth buds. Buccal bony expansion and a missing tooth is the most common clinical feature. Various treatment modalities have been mentioned in the literature for management of dentigerous cysts. This article presents a left mandibular dentigerous cyst in a 10-year-old boy. Marsupialization was the treatment of choice and a denturelike space maintainer was provided. Long-term follow-up revealed good healing of the bony lesion. How to cite this article Bhardwaj B, Sharma S, Chitlangia P, Agarwal P, Bhamboo A, Rastogi K. Mandibular Dentigerous Cyst in a 10-Year-Old Child. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(3): 281-284. PMID:27843264

  7. 10 Years at Saturn, and More Excitement to Come!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgington, S. G.; Spilker, L. J.; Altobelli, N.

    2014-04-01

    After 10 years in orbit, the Cassini-Huygens Mission to Saturn, a collaboration of NASA, ESA, and ASI, continues to wow the imagination. Every year Cassini produces answers to questions raised by the Voyager flybys, while at the same time posing new questions that can only be answered with a long duration mission using a flagship-class spacecraft. In this talk, we sample a few of Cassini's discoveries from the past decade and give an overview of what comes next.

  8. [Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA), 10 years of experience].

    PubMed

    Estevan Solano, J M; García-Cosío, J; Rodríguez, E; Barreiro, A; Maynar, M

    1991-01-01

    Authors present their experiences during 10 years (1980-89) with the treatment of peripheral arteriopathies with the ATP. Between a total of 455 procedures, an accumulative permeability of 82% in the iliac sector and 71% in the femoro-popliteal sector in elective indications was reached. The total availability of this therapeutic method, the accurate selection of indications and the valious cooperation between Angioradiology and Vascular Surgery Departments should be noted.

  9. Atypical presentation of macrophagic myofasciitis 10 years post vaccination.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Aisling M; Bermingham, Niamh; Harrington, Hugh J; Keohane, Catherine

    2006-12-01

    Macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF) is an uncommon inflammatory disorder of muscle believed to be due to persistence of vaccine-derived aluminium hydroxide at the site of injection. The condition is characterised by diffuse myalgias, arthralgia and fatigue. We describe a patient with histologically confirmed MMF whose presentation was atypical with left chest and upper limb pain beginning more than 10 years post vaccination. Treatment with steroids led to symptomatic improvement. Although rare, clinicians should consider MMF in cases of atypical myalgia.

  10. 10-year evapotranspiration estimates in a Bornean tropical rainforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kume, T.; Tanaka, N.; Komatsu, H.; Yoshifuji, N.; Saitoh, T. M.; Suzuki, M.; Kumagai, T.

    2010-12-01

    This study was undertaken to quantify 10-year evapotranspiration (ET) in a tropical rainforest, Sarawak, Malaysia. To this aim, a simplified big-leaf model was formulated, which can consider transpiration (Et) and rainfall interception (Ei). The model was independently validated using eddy covariance fluxes, rainfall interception based on throughfall and stemflow measurements, and sap flow measurements conducted for more than two years. Consequently, our big-leaf model could successfully reproduce Et and Ei. By using the model and a 10-year meteorological data set, Et, Ei, and ET was estimated in the period between 2000 and 2009. The annual Et , Ei, and ET averaged over 10 years were estimated as 1114, 209, and 1323 mm, respectively, with the small seasonal fluctuations. The derived estimations for 10 years showed conservative year-to-year variations in Et, Ei, and ET (CV = 5-7%) against considerable year-to-year variations in annual rainfall (CV = 11%). Specific rainfall characteristics in this site could be a reason for conservative year-to-year variations in Ei. Small interannual variations in meteorological conditions and no occurrence of unusually severe drought in this study period could be a reason for the small year-to-year variations in Et. As well, we compared ET, Ei at this site with those of other tropical forests. Our forest ET was smaller than global maximum value of ET estimated in other tropical forests because of the smaller Ei, relative to annual rainfall at this site. Based on the derived characteristics of ET, we also discussed possible changes in ET, Et, and Ei in response to changes in rainfall regime at this site.

  11. Intellectual development at 10 years in early treated congenital hypothyroidism.

    PubMed Central

    Simons, W F; Fuggle, P W; Grant, D B; Smith, I

    1994-01-01

    Fifty nine children born between 1978 and 1981 with congenital hypothyroidism detected by neonatal screening were assessed at 10 years using the Wechsler intelligence scale for children, together with 59 matched classroom controls. Thirty one children with severe hypothyroidism who had pretreatment plasma thyroxine concentrations of 40 nmol/l or less had a mean (SD) full scale IQ score of 104.7 (15.1), compared with a mean (SD) score of 114.6 (16.3) for the 28 less severely affected children who had pretreatment thyroxine levels greater than 40 nmol/l, and mean (SD) scores of 114.5 (12.8) and 114.8 (13.8) respectively for the 31 and 28 control children. In the hypothyroid children the IQ scores at 10 years were closely related to the IQ scores at 5 years and at 3 years. It is concluded that the deficit in IQ score found at 3 and 5 years in children with severe hypothyroidism is still evident at the age of 10 years. PMID:7526803

  12. Perceived Partner Responsiveness Predicts Diurnal Cortisol Profiles 10 Years Later

    PubMed Central

    Slatcher, Richard B.; Selcuk, Emre; Ong, Anthony D.

    2015-01-01

    Several decades of research have demonstrated that marital relationships have a powerful influence on physical health. However, surprisingly little is known about how marriage affects health—both in terms of psychological processes and biological ones. We investigated the associations between perceived partner responsiveness—the extent to which people feel understood, cared for and appreciated by their romantic partner—and diurnal cortisol over a 10-year period in a large sample of married and cohabitating couples in the U.S. Partner responsiveness predicted higher wakeup cortisol values and steeper (“healthier”) cortisol slopes at the 10-year follow-up, and these associations remained strong after controlling for demographic factors, depressive symptoms, agreeableness, and other positive and negative relationship factors. Further, declines in negative affect over the 10-year period mediated the prospective association between responsiveness and cortisol slope. These findings suggest that diurnal cortisol may be a key biological pathway through which social relationships impact long-term health. PMID:26015413

  13. MMI's Metadata and Vocabulary Solutions: 10 Years and Growing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graybeal, J.; Gayanilo, F.; Rueda-Velasquez, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    The Marine Metadata Interoperability project (http://marinemetadata.org) held its public opening at AGU's 2004 Fall Meeting. For 10 years since that debut, the MMI guidance and vocabulary sites have served over 100,000 visitors, with 525 community members and continuous Steering Committee leadership. Originally funded by the National Science Foundation, over the years multiple organizations have supported the MMI mission: "Our goal is to support collaborative research in the marine science domain, by simplifying the incredibly complex world of metadata into specific, straightforward guidance. MMI encourages scientists and data managers at all levels to apply good metadata practices from the start of a project, by providing the best guidance and resources for data management, and developing advanced metadata tools and services needed by the community." Now hosted by the Harte Research Institute at Texas A&M University at Corpus Christi, MMI continues to provide guidance and services to the community, and is planning for marine science and technology needs for the next 10 years. In this presentation we will highlight our major accomplishments, describe our recent achievements and imminent goals, and propose a vision for improving marine data interoperability for the next 10 years, including Ontology Registry and Repository (http://mmisw.org/orr) advancements and applications (http://mmisw.org/cfsn).

  14. Trabecular metal tibial knee component still stable at 10 years.

    PubMed

    Henricson, Anders; Nilsson, Kjell G

    2016-10-01

    Background and purpose - Total knee replacement (TKR) in younger patients using cemented components has shown inferior results, mainly due to aseptic loosening. Excellent clinical results have been reported with components made of trabecular metal (TM). In a previous report, we have shown stabilization of the TM tibial implants for up to 5 years. In this study, we compared the clinical and RSA results of these uncemented implants with those of cemented implants. Patients and methods - 41 patients (47 knees) aged ≤ 60 years underwent TKR. 22 patients (26 knees) received an uncemented monoblock cruciate-retaining (CR) tibial component (TM) and 19 patients (21 knees) received a cemented NexGen Option CR tibial component. Follow-up examination was done at 10 years, and 16 patients (19 knees) with TM tibial components and 17 patients (18 knees) with cemented tibial components remained for analysis. Results - 1 of 19 TM implants was revised for infection, 2 of 18 cemented components were revised for knee instability, and no revisions were done for loosening. Both types of tibial components migrated in the first 3 months, the TM group to a greater extent than the cemented group. After 3 months, both groups were stable during the next 10 years. Interpretation - The patterns of migration for uncemented TM implants and cemented tibial implants over the first 10 years indicate that they have a good long-term prognosis regarding fixation.

  15. Trabecular metal tibial knee component still stable at 10 years

    PubMed Central

    Henricson, Anders; Nilsson, Kjell G

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose Total knee replacement (TKR) in younger patients using cemented components has shown inferior results, mainly due to aseptic loosening. Excellent clinical results have been reported with components made of trabecular metal (TM). In a previous report, we have shown stabilization of the TM tibial implants for up to 5 years. In this study, we compared the clinical and RSA results of these uncemented implants with those of cemented implants. Patients and methods 41 patients (47 knees) aged ≤ 60 years underwent TKR. 22 patients (26 knees) received an uncemented monoblock cruciate-retaining (CR) tibial component (TM) and 19 patients (21 knees) received a cemented NexGen Option CR tibial component. Follow-up examination was done at 10 years, and 16 patients (19 knees) with TM tibial components and 17 patients (18 knees) with cemented tibial components remained for analysis. Results 1 of 19 TM implants was revised for infection, 2 of 18 cemented components were revised for knee instability, and no revisions were done for loosening. Both types of tibial components migrated in the first 3 months, the TM group to a greater extent than the cemented group. After 3 months, both groups were stable during the next 10 years. Interpretation The patterns of migration for uncemented TM implants and cemented tibial implants over the first 10 years indicate that they have a good long-term prognosis regarding fixation PMID:27357222

  16. Avian response to bottomland hardwood reforestation: the first 10 years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, D.J.; Wilson, R.R.; Henne-Kerr, J.L.; Grosshuesch, D.A.

    2002-01-01

    Bttomland hardwood forests were planted on agricultural fields in Mississippi and Louisiana using either predominantly Quercus species (oaks) or Populus deltoides (eastern cottonwood). We assessed avian colonization of these reforested sites between 2 and 10 years after planting. Rapid vertical growth of cottonwoods (circa 2 - 3 m / yr) resulted in sites with forest structure that supported greater species richness of breeding birds, increased Shannon diversity indices, and supported greater territory densities than on sites planted with slower-growing oak species. Grassland birds (Spiza americana [Dickcissel], and Sturnella magna [Eastern Meadowlark]) were indicative of species breeding on oak-dominated reforestation # 10 years old. Agelaius phoeniceus (Red-winged Blackbird) and Colinus virginianus (Northern Bobwhite) characterized cottonwood reforestation # 4 years old, whereas 14 species of shrub-scrub birds (e.g., Passerina cyanea [Indigo Bunting]) and early-successional forest birds (e.g., Vireo gilvus [Warbling Vireo]) typified cottonwood reforestation 5 to 9 years after planting. Rates of daily nest survival did not differ between reforestation strategies. Nest parasitism increased markedly in older cottonwood stands, but was overwhelmed by predation as a cause of nest failure. Based on Partners in Flight prioritization scores and territory densities, the value of cottonwood reforestation for avian conservation was significantly greater than that of oak reforestation during their first 10 years. Because of benefits conferred on breeding birds, we recommend reforestation of bottomland hardwoods include a high proportion of fast-growing, early successional species such as cottonwood.

  17. Positive impact of Australian ‘blindness’ tobacco warning labels: findings from the ITC four country survey

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Ryan David; Spafford, Marlee M; Behm, Ilan; Hammond, David; Fong, Geoffrey T; Borland, Ron

    2013-01-01

    Background Smokers with greater knowledge of the health effects of smoking are more likely to quit and remain abstinent. Australia has communicated the causal association of smoking and blindness since the late 1990s. In March 2007, Australia became the first country to include a pictorial warning label on cigarette packages with the message that smoking causes blindness. The current study tested the hypothesis that the introduction of this warning label increased smokers’ knowledge of this important health effect. Methods Six waves of the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey were conducted, as a telephone survey of 17,472 adult smokers in Australia, Canada, United Kingdom and the United States, with three waves before and three waves after the blindness health warning was introduced in Australia. The survey measured adult smokers’ knowledge that smoking causes blindness. Results Australian smokers were significantly more likely to report that smoking causes blindness, compared to Canadian, UK and US smokers, where there were neither health campaigns nor health warnings labels about blindness. After the introduction of the blindness warning, Australian smokers were more likely than before the blindness warning to report that they know that smoking causes blindness (62 versus 49 per cent; OR = 1.68, 95% CI: 1.03, 2.76, p = 0.04). In Australia, smokers aged over 55 years were less likely than those aged 18 to 24 to report that smoking causes blindness (OR = 0.43; 95% CI: 0.29, 0.62, p < 0.001). Conclusion While more smokers report that smoking causes blindness in Australia compared to other countries, which have not had national social marketing campaigns, further gains in knowledge were found after pictorial warning labels were introduced in Australia. Findings suggest there is still a need to educate the public about the causal association of smoking and blindness. More education may be needed to redress the knowledge gap in older Australian

  18. Socio-Economic Variation in Price Minimizing Behaviors: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey

    PubMed Central

    Licht, Andrea S.; Hyland, Andrew J.; O’Connor, Richard J.; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Borland, Ron; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Nargis, Nigar; Cummings, K. Michael

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines how socio-economic status (SES) modifies how smokers adjust to changes in the price of tobacco products through utilization of multiple price minimizing techniques. Data come from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation (ITC) Four Country Survey, nationally representative samples of adult smokers and includes respondents from Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom and Australia. Cross-sectional analyses were completed among 8,243 respondents (7,038 current smokers) from the survey wave conducted between October 2006 and February 2007. Analyses examined predictors of purchasing from low/untaxed sources, using discount cigarettes or roll-your-own (RYO) tobacco, purchasing cigarettes in cartons, and engaging in high levels of price and tax avoidance at last purchase. All analyses tested for interactions with SES and were weighted to account for changing and under-represented demographics. Relatively high levels of price and tax avoidance behaviors were present; 8% reported buying from low or untaxed source; 36% used discount or generic brands, 13.5% used RYO tobacco, 29% reported purchasing cartons, and 63% reported using at least one of these high price avoidance behaviors. Respondents categorized as having low SES were approximately 26% less likely to report using low or untaxed sources and 43% less likely to purchase tobacco by the carton. However, respondents with low SES were 85% more likely to report using discount brands/RYO compared to participants with higher SES. Overall, lower SES smokers were 25% more likely to engage in at least one or more tax avoidance behaviors compared to their higher SES counterparts. Price and tax avoidance behaviors are relatively common among smokers of all SES strata, but strategies differed with higher SES groups more likely to report traveling to a low-tax location to avoid paying higher prices, purchase duty free tobacco, and purchase by cartons instead of packs all of which were less

  19. Towards a Science of Community Stakeholder Engagement in Biomedical HIV Prevention Trials: An Embedded Four-Country Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Peter A.; Rubincam, Clara; Slack, Catherine; Essack, Zaynab; Chakrapani, Venkatesan; Chuang, Deng-Min; Tepjan, Suchon; Shunmugam, Murali; Roungprakhon, Surachet; Logie, Carmen; Koen, Jennifer; Lindegger, Graham

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Broad international guidelines and studies in the context of individual clinical trials highlight the centrality of community stakeholder engagement in conducting ethically rigorous HIV prevention trials. We explored and identified challenges and facilitators for community stakeholder engagement in biomedical HIV prevention trials in diverse global settings. Our aim was to assess and deepen the empirical foundation for priorities included in the GPP guidelines and to highlight challenges in implementation that may merit further attention in subsequent GPP iterations. Methods From 2008–2012 we conducted an embedded, multiple case study centered in Thailand, India, South Africa and Canada. We conducted in-depth interviews and focus groups with respondents from different trial-related subsystems: civil society organization representatives, community advocates, service providers, clinical trialists/researchers, former trial participants, and key HIV risk populations. Interviews/focus groups were recorded, and coded using thematic content analysis. After intra-case analyses, we conducted cross-case analysis to contrast and synthesize themes and sub-themes across cases. Lastly, we applied the case study findings to explore and assess UNAIDS/AVAC GPP guidelines and the GPP Blueprint for Stakeholder Engagement. Results Across settings, we identified three cross-cutting themes as essential to community stakeholder engagement: trial literacy, including lexicon challenges and misconceptions that imperil sound communication; mistrust due to historical exploitation; and participatory processes: engaging early; considering the breadth of “community”; and, developing appropriate stakeholder roles. Site-specific challenges arose in resource-limited settings and settings where trials were halted. Conclusions This multiple case study revealed common themes underlying community stakeholder engagement across four country settings that largely mirror GPP goals and the

  20. Socio-economic variation in price minimizing behaviors: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey.

    PubMed

    Licht, Andrea S; Hyland, Andrew J; O'Connor, Richard J; Chaloupka, Frank J; Borland, Ron; Fong, Geoffrey T; Nargis, Nigar; Cummings, K Michael

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines how socio-economic status (SES) modifies how smokers adjust to changes in the price of tobacco products through utilization of multiple price minimizing techniques. Data come from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation (ITC) Four Country Survey, nationally representative samples of adult smokers and includes respondents from Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom and Australia. Cross-sectional analyses were completed among 8,243 respondents (7,038 current smokers) from the survey wave conducted between October 2006 and February 2007. Analyses examined predictors of purchasing from low/untaxed sources, using discount cigarettes or roll-your-own (RYO) tobacco, purchasing cigarettes in cartons, and engaging in high levels of price and tax avoidance at last purchase. All analyses tested for interactions with SES and were weighted to account for changing and under-represented demographics. Relatively high levels of price and tax avoidance behaviors were present; 8% reported buying from low or untaxed source; 36% used discount or generic brands, 13.5% used RYO tobacco, 29% reported purchasing cartons, and 63% reported using at least one of these high price avoidance behaviors. Respondents categorized as having low SES were approximately 26% less likely to report using low or untaxed sources and 43% less likely to purchase tobacco by the carton. However, respondents with low SES were 85% more likely to report using discount brands/RYO compared to participants with higher SES. Overall, lower SES smokers were 25% more likely to engage in at least one or more tax avoidance behaviors compared to their higher SES counterparts. Price and tax avoidance behaviors are relatively common among smokers of all SES strata, but strategies differed with higher SES groups more likely to report traveling to a low-tax location to avoid paying higher prices, purchase duty free tobacco, and purchase by cartons instead of packs all of which were less

  1. Towards a Science of Community Stakeholder Engagement in Biomedical HIV Prevention Trials: An Embedded Four-Country Case Study.

    PubMed

    Newman, Peter A; Rubincam, Clara; Slack, Catherine; Essack, Zaynab; Chakrapani, Venkatesan; Chuang, Deng-Min; Tepjan, Suchon; Shunmugam, Murali; Roungprakhon, Surachet; Logie, Carmen; Koen, Jennifer; Lindegger, Graham

    2015-01-01

    Broad international guidelines and studies in the context of individual clinical trials highlight the centrality of community stakeholder engagement in conducting ethically rigorous HIV prevention trials. We explored and identified challenges and facilitators for community stakeholder engagement in biomedical HIV prevention trials in diverse global settings. Our aim was to assess and deepen the empirical foundation for priorities included in the GPP guidelines and to highlight challenges in implementation that may merit further attention in subsequent GPP iterations. From 2008-2012 we conducted an embedded, multiple case study centered in Thailand, India, South Africa and Canada. We conducted in-depth interviews and focus groups with respondents from different trial-related subsystems: civil society organization representatives, community advocates, service providers, clinical trialists/researchers, former trial participants, and key HIV risk populations. Interviews/focus groups were recorded, and coded using thematic content analysis. After intra-case analyses, we conducted cross-case analysis to contrast and synthesize themes and sub-themes across cases. Lastly, we applied the case study findings to explore and assess UNAIDS/AVAC GPP guidelines and the GPP Blueprint for Stakeholder Engagement. Across settings, we identified three cross-cutting themes as essential to community stakeholder engagement: trial literacy, including lexicon challenges and misconceptions that imperil sound communication; mistrust due to historical exploitation; and participatory processes: engaging early; considering the breadth of "community"; and, developing appropriate stakeholder roles. Site-specific challenges arose in resource-limited settings and settings where trials were halted. This multiple case study revealed common themes underlying community stakeholder engagement across four country settings that largely mirror GPP goals and the GPP Blueprint, as well as highlighting

  2. Project Energize: intervention development and 10 years of progress in preventing childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Rush, Elaine; Cairncross, Carolyn; Williams, Margaret Hinepo; Tseng, Marilyn; Coppinger, Tara; McLennan, Steph; Latimer, Kasha

    2016-01-26

    Prevention of childhood obesity is a global priority. The school setting offers access to large numbers of children and the ability to provide supportive environments for quality physical activity and nutrition. This article describes Project Energize, a through-school physical activity and nutrition programme that celebrated its 10-year anniversary in 2015 so that it might serve as a model for similar practices, initiatives and policies elsewhere. The programme was envisaged and financed by the Waikato District Health Board of New Zealand in 2004 and delivered by Sport Waikato to 124 primary schools as a randomised controlled trial from 2005 to 2006. The programme has since expanded to include all 242 primary schools in the Waikato region and 70 schools in other regions, including 53,000 children. Ongoing evaluation and development of Project Energize has shown it to be sustainable (ongoing for >10 years), both effective (lower obesity, higher physical fitness) and cost effective (one health related cost quality adjusted life year between $18,000 and $30,000) and efficient ($45/child/year) as a childhood 'health' programme. The programme's unique community-based approach is inclusive of all children, serving a population that is 42% Māori, the indigenous people of New Zealand. While the original nine healthy eating and seven quality physical activity goals have not changed, the delivery and assessment processes has been refined and the health service adapted over the 10 years of the programme existence, as well as adapted over time to other settings including early childhood education and schools in Cork in Ireland. Evaluation and research associated with the programme delivery and outcomes are ongoing. The dissemination of findings to politicians and collaboration with other service providers are both regarded as priorities.

  3. THE TRAINING OF SKILLED WORKERS, REPORT ON A SAMPLE INQUIRY INTO THE BACKGROUND, TRAINING AND PRESENT OCCUPATIONS OF SKILLED WORKERS IN THE MECHANICAL ENGINEERING INDUSTRY OF FOUR COUNTRIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Manpower Div.

    AN INTENSIVE STUDY OF TWO SAMPLES DRAWN FROM ONE GEOGRAPHIC AREA IN EACH OF FOUR COUNTRIES AIMED TO DETERMINE THE TRAINING AND JOB HISTORIES OF SKILLED WORKERS IN THE METAL TRADES AND THE RESULTS OBTAINED BY DIFFERENT TRAINING SYSTEMS. THE COUNTRIES WERE SELECTED TO REPRESENT (1) PREDOMINANTLY SCHOOL-BASED TRAINING (BELGIUM), (2) HIGHLY REGULATED…

  4. Chronic pain in multiple sclerosis: A 10-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Young, Jamie; Amatya, Bhasker; Galea, Mary P; Khan, Fary

    2017-07-01

    Pain is a common symptom associated with multiple sclerosis (MS), and has lasting effects on an individual's functional capacity and quality of life. A wide range of prevalence rates of pain (between 23% and 90%)have been reported in MS and this is mainly due to the methodological differences amongst the studies such as variability in patient sources, method of sampling and the definition of pain used. Chronic pain in MS, defined as pain lasting for greater than 3-6 months, can have a significant impact on their biopsychosocial health, including negative impact on activities of daily living, relationships and social participation. The long-term course of MS-related pain and its impact in an Australian cohort over a 7-year period has been investigated earlier. The aim of this longitudinal study was to describe the impact of chronic pain, pain-related disability and carer burden in persons with MS over a 10-year period. The aim of this longitudinal study was to describe the impact of chronic pain, pain-related disability and carer burden in persons with MS over a 10-year period. This was a prospective longitudinal study conducted at the Rehabilitation Department of Royal Melbourne Hospital (RMH), a tertiary referral hospital in Victoria and Australia. The source of participants was from the RMH MS database and contains detailed MS patient information including demographic data, diagnosis details (using McDonald's criteria), pain characteristics. Structured face-face interviews and validated measures were used, which include the visual analogue scale (VAS); chronic pain grade (CPG); the assessment of quality of life (AQoL) and the carer strain index (CSI). The mean age of the participants (n=70) was 55.3 years and majority (70%) were female. The mean age of the participants (n=70) was 55.3 years and majority (70%) were female. The findings show that over time (10 years), participants report having greater bilateral bodily pain and greater description of pain as 'worse

  5. Retired Status and Older Adults’ 10-Year Drinking Trajectories*

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Penny L.; Schutte, Kathleen K.; Moos, Rudolf H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Little research has examined the role of retirement in shaping late-life drinking careers, and it has generally been limited to cross-sectional designs or short-term follow-ups that emphasize group-level comparisons of retirees and nonretirees. The purpose of this study was to determine the following: (a) the effect of retired status on older adults’ 10-year within-person drinking trajectories and (b) whether age, gender, income, health, and problem-drinker status account for or moderate this effect. Method: We first estimated older adults’ (baseline M= 62 years; n = 595) 10-year within-person drinking trajectories using three successively predictive multilevel regression models: unconditional growth, retired status alone, and retired status controlling for covariates. Next, we determined whether inclusion of Retired Status × Covariate interactions would improve prediction of the trajectories. Results: Participants’ drinking frequency declined moderately over the 10-year interval, and retired status hastened the decline. However, this effect disappeared once covariates were added to the model: Baseline poorer health, lower income, and current problem-drinker status predicted steeper decline in drinking frequency, whereas former problem-drinker status predicted slower decline. Lower income and current drinking problems also predicted steeper declines in amount of alcohol consumed. There were no statistically significant or uniquely contributive interactions between retired status and age, gender, health, income, or drinking problems for predicting late-life drinking trajectories. Conclusions: Baseline health, income, and problem-drinking history are more important than retired status for predicting older adults’ long-term within-person drinking trajectories. These factors—and recency of drinking problems—should be considered in future studies of retirement and late-life drinking patterns. PMID:20230712

  6. Andrology in China: current status and 10 years' progress

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Kai; Xu, Qing-Quan; Zhao, Yong-Ping; Gu, Yi-Qun; Jiang, Hui; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Zhu, Ji-Chuan

    2011-01-01

    Andrology has a long history in traditional Chinese medicine. There are records of male sexual health, male sexual dysfunction and male infertility from over thousands of years ago. Modern andrology in China had a late start, with the Chinese Andrology Association founded in 1995. Within last decade, andrology in China has grown rapidly. In this review article, we summarized the progress of andrology in last 10 years and outlined the current status of Chinese andrology with a special focus on progress in male erectile dysfunction, prostate diseases, male infertility and male hormonal contraception. PMID:21642997

  7. Motor Speech Disorders: Where Will We Be in 10 Years?

    PubMed

    Duffy, Joseph R

    2016-08-01

    Research and practice in the area of motor speech disorders (MSDs) will change in the next 10 years, most likely in evolutionary rather revolutionary ways. We are likely to see an increase in the understanding of the underpinnings of MSDs and refinements in assessment and diagnosis. Management approaches probably will be refined, as will how outcomes are measured. The evidence base for treatment efficacy will grow. Technology and changes in the health care system will have strong and overarching, but not easily predicted, influences. This article provides a broad overview of these and related issues, with some cautious predictions.

  8. Etiology of stillbirth at term: a 10-year cohort study.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Colin A; Vallerie, Amy M; Baxi, Laxmi V

    2008-07-01

    To examine etiological factors contributing to cases of intrauterine fetal demise in term pregnancies over a 10-year period. This was a retrospective cohort analysis of 29 908 term (37(+0) to 41(+6) weeks gestation) infants delivering in a single tertiary-referral university institution over the 10-year period from 1996 to 2005. Cases of stillbirth were identified from a computerized hospital database, and pathological, clinical, and biochemical data were reviewed for all cases. Trends were analyzed using the Cusick test for trend. Categorical data were analyzed using the Fisher's exact test, with the 5% level considered significant. The incidence of intrauterine fetal demise at term was 1.8 per 1000 at-risk pregnancies. There was no significant downward trend in the rate of term stillbirth between 1996 and 2005 (p = 0.0808). Stillbirths were unexplained in 51% of cases, although in many cases a possible etiological factor was identified but not necessarily proven. There was a significant downward trend in the incidence of unexplained term stillbirths at our institution over the 10-year study period (p = 0.0105). Placental/cord factors accounted for 25% of term stillbirths and did not decrease significantly over the study period (p = 0.0953). Almost 50% of term stillbirths occurred in women who registered late or had no antenatal care. However, suboptimal antenatal care was not predictive of differences in either acceptance of perinatal postmortem or successful identification of stillbirth etiology. The incidence of stillbirth at term is 2 per 1000 term pregnancies and has not changed significantly in the past 10 years. Almost 50% of term stillbirths occurred in women with suboptimal antenatal care. More than half of cases are unexplained, often resulting from an incomplete diagnostic work-up. Despite this, there has been a significant downward trend in the rates of unexplained stillbirth at term. It is imperative that a complete diagnostic work-up is performed in

  9. Factitious purpura in a 10-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Kayo; Sakurai, Yoshihiko; Shibata, Mari; Miyagawa, Sachiko; Yoshioka, Akira

    2009-01-01

    We describe a 10-year-old girl who presented with bizarre purpura. Both congenital and autoimmune hemorrhagic disorders were excluded based on her past medical history and physical and laboratory findings. Child abuse was also ruled out as purpura continued to develop after child-family separation. Histologic examination of the skin lesions revealed disruption of collagen fiber bundles. This finding indicated application of external force, leading to a definitive diagnosis of factitious purpura. Although it is very rare in school-age children, the diagnosis of factitious purpura should be included in the differential diagnosis of purpura in children. Histologic analysis of skin biopsies may aid in establishing the diagnosis.

  10. NASA Administrator Dan Goldin greets 10-year-old VIP.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    NASA Administrator Dan Goldin (left) watches as 10-year-old Jonathan Pierce (right), who is garbed in a protective cooling suit designed by NASA, shakes hands with astronaut Dog Wheelock. Behind Jonathan is his mother, Penny. Jonathan suffers from erythropoietic protoporphyria, a rare condition that makes his body unable to withstand ultraviolet rays. The suit allows him to be outside during the day, which would otherwise be impossible. Jonathan's trip was funded by the Make-A-Wish Foundation and included a visit to Disney World. He and his family were among a dozen VIPs at KSC to view the launch of STS-99.

  11. NASA Administrator Dan Goldin greets 10-year-old VIP.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    NASA Administrator Dan Goldin (left) shares a laugh with VIP 10- year-old Jonathan Pierce (right), who is garbed in a protective cooling suit designed by NASA. Behind Goldin is astronaut Doug Wheelock; behind Jonathan is his mother, Penny. Jonathan suffers from erythropoietic protoporphyria, a rare condition that makes his body unable to withstand ultraviolet rays. The suit allows him to be outside during the day, which would otherwise be impossible. Jonathan's trip was funded by the Make-A-Wish Foundation and included a visit to Disney World. He and his family were among a dozen VIPs at KSC to view the launch of STS- 99.

  12. NASA Administrator Dan Goldin greets 10-year-old VIP.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    NASA Administrator Dan Goldin (left) shares a light moment during his meeting with 10-year-old Jonathan Pierce (right), who is garbed in a protective cooling suit designed by NASA. Behind Goldin is astronaut Doug Wheelock; behind Jonathan is his mother, Penny. Jonathan suffers from erythropoietic protoporphyria, a rare condition that makes his body unable to withstand ultraviolet rays. The suit allows him to be outside during the day, which would otherwise be impossible. Jonathan's trip was funded by the Make-A-Wish Foundation and included a visit to Disney World. He and his family were among a dozen VIPs at KSC to view the launch of STS-99.

  13. NASA Administrator Dan Goldin greets 10-year-old VIP.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    NASA Administrator Dan Goldin (left) listens intently to 10-year- old Jonathan Pierce (right), who is garbed in a protective cooling suit designed by NASA. Behind Goldin is astronaut Doug Wheelock; behind Jonathan is his mother, Penny. Jonathan suffers from erythropoietic protoporphyria, a rare condition that makes his body unable to withstand ultraviolet rays. The suit allows him to be outside during the day, which would otherwise be impossible. Jonathan's trip was funded by the Make-A-Wish Foundation and included a visit to Disney World. He and his family were among a dozen VIPs at KSC to view the launch of STS- 99.

  14. Developing of 10-year EEZ seafloor mapping and research program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lockwood, M.; Hill, G.W.

    1988-01-01

    The intent of expanding the exploration already begun on the outer continental shelf to the frontier of the EEZ (Exclusive Economic Zone) is to determine the "characteristics' and resource potential of this region. To coordinate this exploration, a Joint Office for Mapping and Research (JOMAR) has been established by the US Geological Survey (in the Department of the Interior) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (in the Department of Commerce). JOMAR's main purpose is to help direct and coordinate ongoing and planned seafloor related activities in the EEZ and prepare a 10-year plan for mapping and research. -from Authors

  15. [Rounded atelectasis: a follow up of 10 years by CT].

    PubMed

    Bruyère, P J; Bartsch, P; Ghaye, B

    2005-10-01

    We report the case of a 69-year-old man who presented with a rounded atelectasis (RA). During a 10-year follow-up by Computed Tomography (CT), the lobe showed a progressive shrinkage, and a moderate increase in size of the lesion led to a percutaneous biopsy which confirmed the diagnosis. RA is an unusual form of lung consolidation. The major cause of RA is asbestosis. RA is usually asymptomatic and may simulate a pulmonary neoplasm on chest Xray. The diagnosis is made by CT, demonstrating the pathognomonic "comet tail sign". No treatment is required.

  16. The near-universal experience of regret among smokers in four countries: findings from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Survey.

    PubMed

    Fong, Geoffrey T; Hammond, David; Laux, Fritz L; Zanna, Mark P; Cummings, K Michael; Borland, Ron; Ross, Hana

    2004-12-01

    Regret may be a key variable in understanding the experience of smokers, the vast majority of whom continue to smoke while desiring to quit. We present data from the baseline wave (October-December 2002) of the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Survey, a random-digit-dialed telephone survey of a cohort of over 8,000 adult smokers across four countries--Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia--to estimate the prevalence of regret and to identify its predictors. The proportion of smokers who agreed or agreed strongly with the statement "If you had to do it over again, you would not have started smoking" was extremely high--about 90%--and nearly identical across the four countries. Regret was more likely to be experienced by older smokers, women, those who had tried to quit more often, those who perceived quitting as conferring benefits, those with higher levels of perceived addiction, those who worried about future damage to health, those who perceived smoking as lowering their quality of life, those who perceived higher monetary costs of smoking, and those who believed that smoking is not socially acceptable. This predictive model was the same in all four countries. Regret is thus a near-universal experience among smokers in all four countries, and the factors that predict regret are universal across these four countries. Among other implications for cessation treatment and smoking prevention, this near universality of regret casts doubt on the view of some policy analysts and economists that the decisions to take up and continue smoking are welfare-maximizing for the consumer.

  17. Citations to Australian Astronomy: 5- and 10-Year Benchmarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenyon, Katherine H.; Paramasivam, Arjun; Tu, Jiachin; Zhang, Albert; Graham, Alister W.

    2012-03-01

    Expanding upon Pimbblet's 2011 analysis of career h-indices for members of the Astronomical Society of Australia, we provide additional citation metrics which are geared to quantifying the current performance of all professional astronomers in Australia. We have trawled the staff web-pages of Australian Universities, Observatories and Research Organisations hosting professional astronomers, and identified 384 PhD-qualified, research-active, astronomers in the nation. 132 of these are not members of the Astronomical Society of Australia. Using the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System, we provide the three following common metrics based on publications in the first decade of the 21st century (2001-2010): h-index, author-normalised citation count and lead-author citation count. We additionally present a somewhat more inclusive analysis, applicable for many early-career researchers, that is based on publications from 2006-2010. Histograms and percentiles, plus top-performer lists, are presented for each category. Finally, building on Hirsch's empirical equation, we find that the (10-year) h-index and (10-year) total citation count T can be approximated by the relation AS12011_IE1.gif for h>~5.

  18. Administrative Reinstatement Interlock Programs: Florida, a 10-Year Study

    PubMed Central

    Voas, Robert B.; Tippetts, A. Scott; Grosz, Milton

    2013-01-01

    Background Interlocks reduce driving-under-the-influence (DUI) recidivism by 64%, but offenders resist installing them, preferring to risk driving while their driver’s licenses are revoked. One method of motivating offenders to install an interlock is require it for reinstatement of their driver’s license. This report updates an earlier evaluation of the administrative reinstatement interlock program (ARIP) procedure implemented in Florida in 2002. Method Driver records and interlock program records covering 120,000 DUI offenders were followed over 10 years. The flow through the sanction system—conviction, reinstatement, interlock program, and postinterlock period—is described. Logistical regression was used to identify the characteristics of offenders who installed interlocks, and survival analysis was used to evaluate the recidivism of offenders in the various stages in the ARIP. Results At any given time, approximately one third of the convicted offenders were serving their license-revocation periods. Half of the offenders who completed their revocation periods remain unqualified for reinstatement because they do not fulfill other requirements. ARIP offenders who do qualify for reinstatement and install interlocks have lower recidivism rates while the devices are on their vehicles. Conclusions After 10 years, Florida’s ARIP is a mature system that succeeds in forcing all offenders in the program who qualify for reinstatement to install an interlock for at least 6 months. However, half of all offenders who complete their mandatory revocation period are either unable to, or choose not to, qualify for reinstatement. PMID:23442206

  19. Draft 1992 : Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement 10-Year Plan.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-05-01

    Two years ago, BPA released its first-ever Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement (OM&R) 10-Year Plan. That effort broke new ground and was an extensive look at the condition of Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement on BPA`s power system. This document -- the 1992 OM&R 10-Year Plan -- uses that original plan as its foundation. It takes a look at how well BPA has accomplished the challenging task set out in the 1990 Plan. The 1992 Plan also introduces the Construction Program. Construction`s critical role in these programs is explored, and the pressures of construction workload -- such as the seasonal nature of the work and the broad swings in workload between projects and years -- are discussed. The document then looks at how situations may have changed with issues explored initially in the 1990 Plan. Importantly, this Plan also surfaces and explains some new issues that threaten to impact BPA`s ability to accomplish its OM&R workload. Finally, the document focuses on the revised strategies for Operations, Maintenance, Replacement, Construction, and Environment for the 1992 to 2001 time period, including the financial and human resources needed to accomplish those strategies.

  20. Draft 1992 : Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement 10-Year Plan.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-05-01

    Two years ago, BPA released its first-ever Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement (OM R) 10-Year Plan. That effort broke new ground and was an extensive look at the condition of Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement on BPA's power system. This document -- the 1992 OM R 10-Year Plan -- uses that original plan as its foundation. It takes a look at how well BPA has accomplished the challenging task set out in the 1990 Plan. The 1992 Plan also introduces the Construction Program. Construction's critical role in these programs is explored, and the pressures of construction workload -- such as the seasonal nature of the work and the broad swings in workload between projects and years -- are discussed. The document then looks at how situations may have changed with issues explored initially in the 1990 Plan. Importantly, this Plan also surfaces and explains some new issues that threaten to impact BPA's ability to accomplish its OM R workload. Finally, the document focuses on the revised strategies for Operations, Maintenance, Replacement, Construction, and Environment for the 1992 to 2001 time period, including the financial and human resources needed to accomplish those strategies.

  1. 10 Year Publication Trends in Dermatology in Mainland China

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Shujun; Mauro, Jacqueline A; Mauro, Theodora M; Elias, Peter M; Man, Mao-Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Background China has been experiencing huge changes in all aspects including dermatologic research since its reform in 1978. However, how the economic and intellectual development has influenced the publication trends in the field of dermatology, which could mirror the scientific development in other medical disciplines, is unknown. In the present study, we analyzed the publication trends from departments of dermatology in mainland China from 2002 to 2011. Materials and Methods All publication data were obtained from www.pubmed.com. Only papers published from dermatology departments of mainland China were used for analysis. Results The number of publications increased 10-fold over this 10 year period. A total 1,231 of articles were published in English in 251 journals between 2002 and 2011. A total of 129 journals published only one paper from dermatology departments of mainland China. Over 60% of articles were original research and 21.7% were case reports. Among these 251 journals, foremost was the Journal of Clinical Experimental Dermatology, which published 5.9% of all papers from mainland China. 2.7% papers were published in the Journal of Investigative Dermatology. The number of publications positively correlated with the changes in gross domestic product per capita during the study period. Conclusions These results suggest that the number of publications in the dermatology field has increased markedly in mainland China over the last 10 years. This dramatic increase in publications could be, at least partially, attributed to the significant improvement in economic conditions in mainland China. PMID:23968296

  2. Psychosocial and emotional outcomes 10 years following traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Draper, Kristy; Ponsford, Jennie; Schönberger, Michael

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the association of psychosocial outcome 10 years following traumatic brain injury (TBI) with demographic variables, injury severity, current cognitive functioning, emotional state, aggression, alcohol use, and fatigue. Community-based follow-up. Fifty-three participants with mild to very severe TBI sustained 10 years previously and significant others. Sydney Psychosocial Reintegration Scale, Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, NFI Aggression scale, Fatigue Severity Scale, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, neuropsychological tests of attention/processing speed, memory, and executive function. Psychosocial functioning was lowest in the occupational activity domain and highest in the living skills domains. Variables including education, posttraumatic amnesia duration, numerous cognitive measures, concurrent fatigue, aggression, anxiety, and depression were all significantly associated with psychosocial outcome, although the strength of correlations varied between ratings of participants with TBI and relatives. Posttraumatic amnesia duration was most strongly associated with psychosocial outcome measured by relatives; anxiety, aggression, and depression were the strongest predictors when ratings were assigned by participants with TBI. Self-reported fatigue, depression, and alcohol use were the strongest predictors of aggression. It is important to address problems with anxiety, depression, fatigue, and alcohol use as a possible means of improving long-term psychosocial outcome following TBI.

  3. 1992 Resource Program, 10 Year Plan : Draft II.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-05-01

    The Resource Program is the Bonneville Power Administration's primary process for deciding how to meet future electricity resource needs, how much new resources to develop, which types of resources to acquire or option and how to go about acquiring them, and how much BPA will have to spend for these resources. Recognizing that BPA must make a long-term commitment to acquiring conservation effectively, the 1992 Resource Program outlines a 10-year plan. Draft 2 of the 1992 Resource Program provides a framework for discussing the funding levels proposed in the Programs in Perspective (PIP) process. Previous final resource programs have been released prior to the PIP process. This version of the Resource Program recognizes that the PIP discussions are an integral part of the resource decision-making process and, therefore, it will be finalized after PIP.

  4. 1992 Resource Program, 10 Year Plan : Draft II.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-05-01

    The Resource Program is the Bonneville Power Administration`s primary process for deciding how to meet future electricity resource needs, how much new resources to develop, which types of resources to acquire or option and how to go about acquiring them, and how much BPA will have to spend for these resources. Recognizing that BPA must make a long-term commitment to acquiring conservation effectively, the 1992 Resource Program outlines a 10-year plan. Draft 2 of the 1992 Resource Program provides a framework for discussing the funding levels proposed in the Programs in Perspective (PIP) process. Previous final resource programs have been released prior to the PIP process. This version of the Resource Program recognizes that the PIP discussions are an integral part of the resource decision-making process and, therefore, it will be finalized after PIP.

  5. Class III treatment using facial mask: Stability after 10 years

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Adilson Luiz

    2014-01-01

    Early Class III malocclusion treatment may not have long-term stability due to mandibular growth. Although some features of this malocclusion point to a better prognosis, it is practically impossible for the orthodontist to foresee cases that require new intervention. Many patients need retreatment, whether compensatory or orthodontic-surgical. The present study reports the case of a Class III patient treated at the end of the mixed dentition with the use of a face mask followed by conventional fixed appliances. The case remains stable 10 years after treatment completion. It was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO) as a requirement for the title of certified by the BBO. PMID:25715726

  6. Scurvy in a 10-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Cole, John A; Warthan, Molly M; Hirano, Stefanie A; Gowen, Clarence W; Williams, Judith V

    2011-01-01

    Scurvy, or hypovitaminosis C, is an uncommon condition that exists today primarily within certain unique populations-particularly the elderly subjects, patients with neurodevelopmental disabilities or psychiatric illnesses, or others with unusual dietary habits. Vitamin C is an essential nutrient in the human body, and is important in synthesizing collagen factor whose faulty production is responsible for most of the clinical manifestations of scurvy. These clinical manifestations can include dystrophic or corkscrew hairs, gingival hyperplasia, and weakened blood vessel walls, causing bleeding in the skin, joints, and other organs. Although rare in the Unites States, the presence of scurvy should not be forgotten because of its presence among susceptible populations. Moreover, with its diagnosis, treatment and cure is one of the simplest in modern medicine. We report a case of scurvy in a 10-year-old autistic child. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. [One-stop outpatient cardiology clinics: 10 years' experience].

    PubMed

    Falces, Carlos; Sadurní, Josep; Monell, Joan; Andrea, Rut; Ylla, Miquel; Moleiro, Angels; Cantillo, Jordi

    2008-05-01

    A one-stop outpatient cardiology clinic was set up at the Vic General Hospital in Spain in 1996. The aims were to provide patients with a rapid response, and to ensure that, on the same day, they saw a specialist and were referred for any relevant investigations required, primarily echocardiography, exercise testing, and Holter monitoring. We report experience from 10 years of follow-up, involving 19,515 consultations. The mean waiting time for a consultation was 3 days. We analyzed the reasons for the consultations, the investigations carried out, and the reductions in follow-up visits and hospital admissions. Primary care physicians' level of satisfaction was increased by this approach. The one-stop clinic proved feasible in clinical practice and proved robust during the follow-up period. This clinical model was beneficial for patients, was highly acceptable to primary care physicians, reduced the need for patients to contact the hospital, and, possibly, reduced hospital admissions.

  8. Prenatal diagnosis of cystic fibrosis: 10-years experience.

    PubMed

    Hadj Fredj, S; Ouali, F; Siala, H; Bibi, A; Othmani, R; Dakhlaoui, B; Zouari, F; Messaoud, T

    2015-06-01

    We present in this study our 10years experience in prenatal diagnosis of cystic fibrosis performed in the Tunisian population. Based on family history, 40 Tunisian couples were selected for prenatal diagnosis. Fetal DNA was isolated from amniotic fluid collected by transabdominal amniocentesis or from chronic villi by transcervical chorionic villus sampling. The genetic analysis for cystic fibrosis mutations was performed by denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis and denaturing high-pressure liquid phase chromatography. We performed microsatellites analysis by capillary electrophoresis in order to verify the absence of maternal cell contamination. Thirteen fetuses were affected, 21 were heterozygous carriers and 15 were healthy with two normal alleles of CFTR gene. Ten couples opted for therapeutic abortion. The microsatellites genotyping showed the absence of contamination of the fetal DNA by maternal DNA in 93.75%. Our diagnostic strategy provides rapid and reliable prenatal diagnosis at risk families of cystic fibrosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Dynamics of income packaging: a 10-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Zippay, Allison

    2002-07-01

    This article examines the methods and dynamics of packaging multiple sources of wage and nonwage income as a means of making ends meet over a 10-year period among a sample of displaced steelworkers who lost jobs as a result of plant closings in the 1980s and then experienced extensive downward mobility. The study tracked changes in the respondents' income and employment over a decade, the dynamics of their use of social services, their pooling of a variety of income sources, and the use of social assistance to supplement low wages. The study found that among this sample income packaging was a universal economic strategy and that use of social services did not affect later employment and earnings.

  10. Spectacle prescribing among 10-year-old children.

    PubMed Central

    Stewart-Brown, S

    1985-01-01

    Between 10 and 12% of the 10-year-old children in the 1970 national birth cohort were prescribed a pair of spectacles. One-fifth of these children had no impairment of visual acuity and a further 15-20% had only minimal visual defects. Only two-thirds of children with spectacles could produce them when asked to do so at the survey school medical examination; this was particularly common among those in the lower social classes and among children who had no detectable impairment. The information presented in this paper combined with that from earlier national birth cohort studies suggests that overprescribing of spectacles to school children is very common. The financial implications of this overprescribing are discussed. PMID:4084477

  11. NASA Administrator Dan Goldin greets 10-year-old VIP.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    NASA Administrator Dan Goldin (center) greets 10-year-old Jonathan Pierce (right), who is garbed in a protective cooling suit designed by NASA. In the background, between them, are Jonathan's mother, Penny; his grandfather, John Janocka; and his sister, Jaimie.. At left is Mrs. Goldin. Jonathan suffers from erythropoietic protoporphyria, a rare condition that makes his body unable to withstand ultraviolet rays. The suit allows him to be outside during the day, which would otherwise be impossible. Jonathan's trip was funded by the Make-A-Wish Foundation and included a visit to Disney World. He and his family were among a dozen VIPs at KSC to view the launch of STS-99.

  12. NASA Administrator Dan Goldin greets 10-year-old VIP.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    NASA Administrator Dan Goldin (center) presents a bag of special gifts to 10-year-old Jonathan Pierce (right), who is garbed in a protective cooling suit designed by NASA. In the background, between them, are Jonathan's mother, Penny; his grandfather, John Janocka; and his sister, Jaimie.. At left is Mrs. Goldin. Jonathan suffers from erythropoietic protoporphyria, a rare condition that makes his body unable to withstand ultraviolet rays. The suit allows him to be outside during the day, which would otherwise be impossible. Jonathan's trip was funded by the Make-A-Wish Foundation and included a visit to Disney World. He and his family were among a dozen VIPs at KSC to view the launch of STS-99.

  13. NASA Administrator Dan Goldin greets 10-year-old VIP.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    NASA Administrator Dan Goldin (center) talks to 10-year-old Jonathan Pierce (right), who is garbed in a protective cooling suit designed by NASA. In the background, between them, are Jonathan's mother, Penny; his grandfather, John Janocka; and his sister, Jaimie. At left is Mrs. Goldin. Jonathan suffers from erythropoietic protoporphyria, a rare condition that makes his body unable to withstand ultraviolet rays. The suit allows him to be outside during the day, which would otherwise be impossible. Jonathan's trip was funded by the Make-A-Wish Foundation and included a visit to Disney World. He and his family were among a dozen VIPs at KSC to view the launch of STS-99.

  14. Depression and vulnerability to incident physical illness across 10 years.

    PubMed

    Holahan, Charles J; Pahl, Sandra A; Cronkite, Ruth C; Holahan, Carole K; North, Rebecca J; Moos, Rudolf H

    2010-06-01

    While considerable research exists on the role of physical illness in initiating depressive reactions, the role of depression in the onset of physical illness is much less studied. Moreover, whereas almost all previous research on depression and incident physical illness has involved specific physical illnesses, the present study examines the link between depression and incident physical illness more generally. The study followed 388 clinically depressed patients who were entering treatment for unipolar depressive disorders and 404 matched community controls across 10 years. In self-report surveys, sociodemographic and health behavior data were indexed at baseline and physician-diagnosed medical conditions were indexed at baseline and at 1, 4, and 10 years during the follow-up period. After accounting for prior physical illness and key demographic and health behavior factors, membership in the depressed group was significantly linked to physical illness during the follow-up period. In these prospective analyses, depressed patients showed an almost two-thirds higher likelihood of experiencing physical illness during the follow-up period compared to community controls. The prospective association between depression and subsequent physical illness was evident for both less serious and more serious physical illness. Although participants were asked to report only physician-diagnosed conditions, the association between depression and physical illness may have been due to depressed individuals perceiving themselves as more ill than they were. The World Health Organization has included the co-morbidity between depression and chronic physical illness among its ten concerns in global public health. The current findings broaden the growing awareness of the co-morbidity between depression and physical illness to encompass a vulnerability of depressed individuals to physical illness more generally. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Natural 10-year history of simple renal cysts.

    PubMed

    Park, Hongzoo; Kim, Choung-Soo

    2015-05-01

    To carry out long-term follow-up of patients diagnosed with asymptomatic simple renal cysts (SRCs). One hundred fifty-eight adult patients in whom SRCs were incidentally diagnosed by abdominal ultrasonography or abdominopelvic computed tomography between August 1994 and June 2004 were followed up for over 10 years. The retrospective analysis investigated sequential changes in the size, shape, and Bosniak classification of the renal cyst and analyzed risk factors for increased size and growth rate of the cysts. The median follow-up period was 13.9 years (range, 10.0-19.8 years). Median patient age was 54.1 years (range, 22-86 years). Mean maximal cyst size was 33 mm (range, 2-90 mm). Among all patients, 120 (76%) showed a mean increase in maximum renal cyst diameter of 1.4 mm (6.4%) per year. Age at initial diagnosis was a risk factor for increased renal cyst maximum diameter. The probability of an increase in maximum diameter of an SRC was 7.1 times greater in patients aged 50 years or older at diagnosis than in those aged less than 50 years. However, among patients with an increased maximum diameter, the mean growth rate was lower in patients aged ≥50 years than in those aged <50 years. About three-quarters of adult patients with accidentally diagnosed SRCs presented with an increased maximum diameter. The only risk factor for an increase in maximum diameter was age. In patients with an increase in the maximum diameter, the growth rate of the maximum diameter was 6.4% per year during 10 years and decreased with age.

  16. The 10-year natural history of simple renal cysts.

    PubMed

    Terada, Naoki; Arai, Yoichi; Kinukawa, Naoko; Terai, Akito

    2008-01-01

    We previously reported the natural history of renal cysts, with a mean follow-up of 6 years. Here, we extended the follow-up period to 10 years. From January 1993 to August 2006, 61 patients diagnosed with renal cysts were followed for up to 14 years (mean 9.9 years). The sequential changes in renal cyst size were plotted against patient age, and the rate of increase in cyst size per year was calculated for each individual. Those cyst characteristics known to predict aggressiveness were analyzed. The majority of the cysts increased in size and number. The average size increase and the average rate of enlargement in all cysts were 1.6 mm and 3.9% per year, respectively. Several cysts, especially multiloculated cysts, increased rapidly during the first 2 to 3 years, but then the rate of growth tended to decelerate with time. By using univariate analyses, age, laterality and cyst shape were revealed to be significant predictors of aggressiveness. The multivariate analysis revealed that age was the most significant predictor. Renal neoplasms originating from the renal cysts appeared in 2 patients during the follow-up period. The rate of size increase of the neoplasm-bearing cysts was similar to that of the other benign renal cysts in the same age category. The simple renal cysts continued to increase in size over 10 years, and sometimes increased rapidly, especially in younger patients. However, their growth rates appeared to decrease with age. There seems to be no specific pattern observed in the neoplasm-bearing renal cysts.

  17. Ocular microbiology trends in Edmonton, Alberta: a 10-year review.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Alysia W; Lee, Mao-Cheng; Rudnisky, Christopher J

    2012-06-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been recognized as an increasingly common cause of nosocomial infections since the 1980s.(1) Reports of ocular infections due to MRSA are composed primarily of case reports. But a recent report from the United States suggests that ocular infections due to MRSA are about to become more common than methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA).(2) However, this observation is not consistent with anecdotal experience at the University of Alberta. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the ocular microbiology trends in a tertiary care eye center in Canada. Cross-sectional study using a computer search of the DynaLIFE(DX) Diagnostic Laboratory Services database for all positive ocular microbiology cultures and in vitro antibiotic susceptibilities performed in the Edmonton area. Over a 10-year period, between 2000 and 2010, 6.4% of S. aureus isolates were MRSA; there were 2030 MSSA and 129 MRSA isolates, including 46 MSSA and 4 MRSA isolates from deep eye cultures. The prevalence of MRSA over the total number of S. aureus isolates, regardless of specimen source, steadily increased in the 10-year period, from 0.5% in 2002 to 12.6% in 2010. Gram-positive cocci were the most common organisms to cause ocular infections (82.6%). In vitro susceptibility of ocular MSSA and MRSA samples demonstrated 100% sensitivity to vancomycin. The prevalence of MRSA ocular infections, although still uncommon, appears to be increasing in Edmonton, Alberta. Copyright © 2012 Canadian Ophthalmological Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Sense of well-being 10 years after stroke.

    PubMed

    Brunborg, Birgit; Ytrehus, Siri

    2014-04-01

    To describe factors that promote subjective well-being in a long-time perspective of 10 years after stroke. The research literature describes circumstances that are difficult to deal with after a stroke, but there is relatively little knowledge of factors that contribute to well-being in a longer-time perspective than two years after the incident. This study focuses on such conditions in a 10-year perspective. Qualitative study Qualitative in-depth interviews were carried out with nine stroke survivors. The interviews addressed their description of factors accounting for adaptation and subjective well-being after the stroke. Kvale and Brinkmann's (2008, Interview. Sage Publications, Inc., København) guidelines for qualitative research informed the analysis. Six major themes emerged from these analyses: (1) personal characteristics as the cause of positive adaptation to the new situation, (2) new meaningful activities, (3) new health habits, (4) social networks and family, (5) economical resources and (6) public help. Only a few of the survivors had received any home-based nursing care or health assistance, but they were nevertheless mainly satisfied with their rehabilitation outcome. Self-care, health literacy, stamina, a positive way of thinking and attention from family and friends seemed to be of immense importance for adaptation and well-being. Personal characteristics and synergy with significant others seem to be the most important factors for having a good and long life after a stroke. The results of this study will contribute to rehabilitation planning and to understanding, assisting and supporting stroke survivors in restoring a good life despite disabilities after the stroke. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Cocaine use during pregnancy and health outcome after 10 years.

    PubMed

    Minnes, Sonia; Min, Meeyoung O; Singer, Lynn T; Edguer, Marjorie; Wu, Miaoping; Thi, Pyone

    2012-11-01

    Women who used cocaine during pregnancy may become at risk for increased physical and mental health problems. Three hundred and twenty-one (158 cocaine use during pregnancy (PC), 163 no cocaine (NC)) women were assessed using the Health Survey Questionnaire (SF-36V2) 10 years after infant birth. Factors related to mental and physical health, and co-occurring with PC, were evaluated using multiple regression. Controlling for age and education, PC women reported poorer total perceived mental health (PMH) (46.3±.9 vs. 50.7±.9, p<.001), more bodily pain (48.1±1.0 vs. 51.5±1.0, p<.02) and poorer health perceptions (46.8±.9 vs. 49.7±.9, p<.03) than NC women. PC women had lower BMI (29% vs. 32%, p<.006), higher current alcoholic drinks per/week (4.05±15.5 vs. 1.29±3.51, p<.005) and number of cigarettes per day (9±10.6 vs. 4±6.5, p<.0001) and greater total life strain (Family Inventory of Life Events and Changes (FILE)) (4.6±4.9 vs. 3.2±3.2, p<.004) than NC women. Regression analyses indicated that body mass index (BMI) mediated the effect of prior cocaine use on perceived physical health (PPH) and total life strain had additive effects. Current cigarette use and total life stress partially mediated the effects of cocaine use on PMH and also had additive independent effects. PC use is a marker for poor health after 10 years. Mediators of these relationships (BMI, stressful life events and current tobacco use) should be considered when designing interventions to promote health. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The academic occupational physician as consultant. A 10-year perspective.

    PubMed

    McCunney, R J

    1994-04-01

    The academic community has long served the private sector in a consultant capacity in engineering and in the sciences. With respect to occupational medicine, physicians, when working for industry, have generally practiced in a health care setting. Within the past 10 years, however, the business sector has placed more attention on the health implications of its operations as a result of regulations, liability, and rising health care costs. These issues, which go beyond traditional clinical responsibilities, have furthered the need for businesses to receive strategic medical advice to effectively operate and to maintain a competitive edge. One particular business sector, the chemical industry, has been challenged seriously because of legitimate as well as perceived health risks associated with the production and use of its products. This paper describes the professional experiences over a 10-year period (1983 to 1993) of an occupational physician working as a consultant to an international chemical company. Services have related to epidemiology, health policy, toxicology, plant oversight as well as serving as a health advisor on matters involving the relation between business and health. An academic affiliation with an occupational medicine residency program has facilitated access to related occupational health professionals to assist in problem solving and research. Opportunities for consulting in occupational medicine will depend upon the nature of the organization as well as the personal and professional characteristics of the physician. Requests for these types of services, however, are likely to expand in the near future, primarily as a result of wider awareness of the implications of work on health, increased litigation, and government regulations.

  1. A four-country survey of public attitudes towards restricting healthcare costs by limiting the use of high-cost medical interventions

    PubMed Central

    Benson, John M; Botta, Michael D; Zeldow, Deborah; Kim, Minah Kang

    2012-01-01

    Objective To discern how the public in four countries, each with unique health systems and cultures, feels about efforts to restrain healthcare costs by limiting the use of high-cost prescription drugs and medical/surgical treatments. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting Adult populations in Germany, Italy, the UK and the USA. Participants 2517 adults in the four countries. A questionnaire survey conducted by telephone (landline and cell) with randomly selected adults in each of the four countries. Main outcome measures Support for different rationales for not providing/paying for high-cost prescription drugs/medical or surgical treatments, measured in the aggregate and using four case examples derived from actual decisions. Measures of public attitudes about specific policies involving comparative effectiveness and cost-benefit decision making. Results The survey finds support among publics in four countries for decisions that limit the use of high-cost prescription drugs/treatments when some other drug/treatment is available that works equally well but costs less. The survey finds little public support, either in individual case examples or when asked in the aggregate, for decisions in which prescription drugs/treatments are denied on the basis of cost or various definitions of benefits. The main results are based on majorities of the public in each country supporting or opposing each measure. Conclusions The survey findings indicate that the public distinguishes in practice between the concepts of comparative effectiveness and cost-effectiveness analysis. This suggests that public authorities engaged in decision-making activities will find much more public support if they are dealing with the first type of decision than with the second. PMID:22586287

  2. A four-country survey of public attitudes towards restricting healthcare costs by limiting the use of high-cost medical interventions.

    PubMed

    Blendon, Robert J; Benson, John M; Botta, Michael D; Zeldow, Deborah; Kim, Minah Kang

    2012-01-01

    To discern how the public in four countries, each with unique health systems and cultures, feels about efforts to restrain healthcare costs by limiting the use of high-cost prescription drugs and medical/surgical treatments. Cross-sectional survey. Adult populations in Germany, Italy, the UK and the USA. 2517 adults in the four countries. A questionnaire survey conducted by telephone (landline and cell) with randomly selected adults in each of the four countries. Support for different rationales for not providing/paying for high-cost prescription drugs/medical or surgical treatments, measured in the aggregate and using four case examples derived from actual decisions. Measures of public attitudes about specific policies involving comparative effectiveness and cost-benefit decision making. The survey finds support among publics in four countries for decisions that limit the use of high-cost prescription drugs/treatments when some other drug/treatment is available that works equally well but costs less. The survey finds little public support, either in individual case examples or when asked in the aggregate, for decisions in which prescription drugs/treatments are denied on the basis of cost or various definitions of benefits. The main results are based on majorities of the public in each country supporting or opposing each measure. The survey findings indicate that the public distinguishes in practice between the concepts of comparative effectiveness and cost-effectiveness analysis. This suggests that public authorities engaged in decision-making activities will find much more public support if they are dealing with the first type of decision than with the second.

  3. [Association between Crohn's disease and primary sclerosing cholangitis in a 10 year old girl].

    PubMed

    Muñoz Lozón, Ana; Iglesias Blázquez, Cristina; Menéndez Arias, Cristina; Domínguez Sánchez, Patricia

    2016-06-01

    A 10 year old girl with diarrhea, abdominal pain, weight loss and fever of one month and a half of evolution. Analytical and sonographic findings raised the possibility of inflammatory bowel disease. Endoscopy and histology showed findings consistent with Crohn's disease. Treatment was initiated with mesalazine and exclusive enteral nutrition. Later corticosteroid treatment, immunosuppressive drugs and ursodeoxycholic acid were added due to cholestasis and persistent hypergammaglobulinemia. Magnetic resonance cholangiography and liver biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of concomitant primary sclerosing cholangitis. The association between Crohn's disease and primary sclerosing cholangitis is rare, predominantly in males between 20 and 40 years old and it presents a great clinical variability. The confirmation of the diagnosis requires magnetic resonance cholangiography or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. The prognosis is poor and there is no treatment to slow the progression of the disease.

  4. ESO and Chile: 10 Years of Productive Scientific Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-06-01

    ESO and the Government of Chile launched today the book "10 Years Exploring the Universe", written by the beneficiaries of the ESO-Chile Joint Committee. This annual fund provides grants for individual Chilean scientists, research infrastructures, scientific congresses, workshops for science teachers and astronomy outreach programmes for the public. In a ceremony held in Santiago on 19 June 2006, the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere (ESO) and the Chilean Ministry of Foreign Affairs marked the 10th Anniversary of the Supplementary Agreement, which granted to Chilean astronomers up to 10 percent of the total observing time on ESO telescopes. This agreement also established an annual fund for the development of astronomy, managed by the so-called "ESO-Chile Joint Committee". ESO PR Photo 21/06 ESO PR Photo 21/06 Ten Years ESO-Chile Agreement Ceremony The celebration event was hosted by ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky, and the Director of Special Policy for the Chilean Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ambassador Luis Winter. "ESO's commitment is, and always will be, to promote astronomy and scientific knowledge in the country hosting our observatories", said ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky. "We hope Chile and Europe will continue with great achievements in this fascinating joint adventure, the exploration of the universe." On behalf of the Government of Chile, Ambassador Luis Winter outlined the historical importance of the Supplementary Agreement, ratified by the Chilean Congress in 1996. "Such is the magnitude of ESO-Chile Joint Committee that, only in 2005, this annual fund represented 8 percent of all financing sources for Chilean astronomy, including those from Government and universities", Ambassador Winter said. The ESO Representative and Head of Science in Chile, Dr. Felix Mirabel, and the appointed Chilean astronomer for the ESO-Chile Joint Committee, Dr. Leonardo Bronfman, also took part in the

  5. METEONETWORK: 2002-2012, 10 years of activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazza, Edoardo

    2013-04-01

    The role of citizen-scientists in collecting data and observations has been increasingly crucial in the last 10 years of atmospheric sciences. Meteonetwork is a non-profit organization founded by citizen scientists in 2002, in Lombardia, with the aim of raising public awareness about meteorological and climatological issues. Throughout the years the organization, besides the continuous holding of events such as meeting, conferences and talks, has been standing out because of its forum and its wide network of weather stations. Meteonetwork's forum is, in this field, the most read and followed in the country and with its 8459 members and over 4,217,505 posts turns out to be the 17th forum over the entire country. Its network is operated in cooperation with Centro Epson Meteo and collects amateur semi-professional stations distributed all over the Italian territory, providing real-time and daily data. It consists of 706 stations, among which more than 400 regularly updated; volunteers constantly work to perform quality control and ensure data reliability. Meteonetwork has also developed several collaborations with private and public institutions, among which DRIHM - Cima Research Foundation, Centro Epson Meteo di Milano, Arpa Veneto, Arpa Emilia-Romagna, Arpa Lombardia, Arpa Friuli - Venezia Giulia, Servizio Glaciologico Lombardo, C. N. R. - C. I. S. A, Università di Pisa, Università di Milano, University of Aberdeen, Protezione Civile - Regione Lombardia, Protezione Civile - Regione Piemonte stand out. As WMO emphasized in 2001 World Meteorological Day "Volunteers for the weather, climate and water" the contribution of citizen-scientists to scientific studies is remarkable. In this perspective Meteonetwork and the University of Milan, in April 2011, started a project of technical and scientific cooperation called Weatherness. The university is provided with data gathered by Meteoneonetwork's stations with the aim of improving the knowledge of the impact that heat

  6. 10 years of Terra Outreach over the Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuen, K.; Riebeek, H.; Chambers, L. H.

    2009-12-01

    1 Author Yuen, Karen JPL (818) 393-7716 2 Author Riebeek, Holli Sigma Space Corporation (department) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (Institution), Greenbelt, Maryland 3 Author Chambers, Lin NASA Abstract: Since launch, Terra has returned about 195 gigabytes (level 0) of data per day or 1 terabyte every 5 days. Few outlets were able to accommodate and quickly share that amount of information as well as the Internet. To honor the 10-year anniversary of the launch of Terra, we would like to highlight the education and outreach efforts of the Terra mission on the Internet and its reach to the science attentive public. The Internet or web has been the primary way of delivering Terra content to different groups- from formal and informal education to general public outreach. Through the years, many different web-based projects have been developed, and they were of service to a growing population of the science attentive public. One of Terra’s original EPO activities was the Earth Observatory. It was initially dedicated to telling the remote sensing story of Terra, but quickly grew to include science and imagery from other sensors. The web site allowed for collaboration across NASA centers, universities and other organizations by exchanging and sharing of story ideas, news and images. The award winning Earth Observatory helped pave the way for the more recently funded development of the Climate Change website. With its specific focus on climate change studies, once again, Terra stories and images are shared with an even more specific audience base. During the last 10 years, Terra as a mission has captured the imagination of the public through its visually stunning and artistically arresting images. With its five instruments of complementary but unique capabilities, the mission gave the world not just pretty pictures, but scientific data-based images. The world was able to see from space everything from calving icebergs to volcanic eruption plumes and the eye of a

  7. Gender difference in handgrip strength of Italian children aged 9 to 10 years.

    PubMed

    Montalcini, Tiziana; Ferro, Yvelise; Salvati, Maria Antonietta; Romeo, Stefano; Miniero, Roberto; Pujia, Arturo

    2016-02-19

    Handgrip strength is an index of nutritional status which correlates to morbidity and mortality in young. It differs in adults and adolescents between gender. However, it is no clear whether a difference exists also in children aged 9 to 10 years, and which are the factors influencing it. Furthermore, data of Handgrip strength of Italian schoolchildren are lacking. Aim of this study was to provide Handgrip strength value from a sample of healthy Italian schoolchildren aged 9 to 10 years and to determine which factors affect grip strength at this age. We enrolled 137 children (boys n =66; girls n = 71) who underwent a body mass index and Handgrip strength measurement. Handgrip strength was assessed by an hydraulic hand dynamometer. The mean handgrip strength value was 13.8 ± 4.0 for girls and 15.2 ± 3.0 kg for boys (p = 0.04) thus, we found a significant difference between gender. We have not found a significant differences in anthropometric parameters between gender. In the univariate analysis Handgrip strength was associated with age, BMI, height, weight and gender (p < 0.001 for age, p < 0.001 for BMI, p < 0.001 for height, p < 0.001 for weight and p < 0.04 for gender). The Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that age, BMI and gender were all correlated to grip force. We found a significant difference in grip strength between healthy Italian schoolchildren aged 9 to 10 years. This parameter seems to be primarily influenced by gender. Our investigation is important since currently data regarding the reference values of HGS for Italian children are lacking.

  8. Alopecia Areata in the Elderly: A 10-Year Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Yong Hyun; Park, Kyung Hea; Kim, Sang Lim; Lim, Hyun Jung; Lee, Weon Ju; Lee, Seok-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Background Alopecia areata (AA) is an organ-specific autoimmune disease that typically occurs in young adults. AA in the elderly is relatively rare, thus little data have been reported. Objective This study aimed to understand the clinical characteristics of AA in the elderly. Methods We performed a 10-year retrospective study of AA in the elderly who visited our dermatologic clinic from January 2002 to December 2011. A clinical review of medical records and telephone interviews were performed by two dermatologists. Results Among 1,761 patients with newly diagnosed AA, 61 (3.5%) were older than 60 years at the first visit. Among those who completed a telephone interview, 74.3% (26/35) had less than 50% of scalp-localized hair loss. There was no association between the extent of AA and hair graying (p=0.679). Favorable therapeutic response was observed in 62.9% (22/35) of cases. Conclusion AA in the elderly shows mild disease severity and favorable treatment response. There is no association between graying and the extent of AA. However, the influence of aging on the pathogenesis of AA in the elderly deserves further investigation. PMID:26273157

  9. The Cryptophlebia Leucotreta Granulovirus—10 Years of Commercial Field Use

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Sean D.; Kirkman, Wayne; Richards, Garth I.; Stephen, Peter R.

    2015-01-01

    In the last 15 years, extensive work on the Cryptophlebia leucotreta granulovirus (CrleGV) has been conducted in South Africa, initially in the laboratory, but subsequently also in the field. This culminated in the registration of the first CrleGV-based biopesticide in 2004 (hence, the 10 years of commercial use in the field) and the second one three years later. Since 2000, more than 50 field trials have been conducted with CrleGV against the false codling moth, Thaumatotibia leucotreta, on citrus in South Africa. In a representative sample of 13 field trials reported over this period, efficacy (measured by reduction in larval infestation of fruit) ranged between 30% and 92%. Efficacy was shown to persist at a level of 70% for up to 17 weeks after application of CrleGV. This only occurred where the virus was applied in blocks rather than to single trees. The addition of molasses substantially and sometimes significantly enhanced efficacy. It was also established that CrleGV should not be applied at less than ~2 × 1013 OBs per ha in order to avoid compromised efficacy. As CrleGV-based products were shown to be at least as effective as chemical alternatives, persistent and compatible with natural enemies, their use is recommended within an integrated program for control of T. leucotreta on citrus and other crops. PMID:25809025

  10. Dissociative recombination of H3+: 10 years in retrospect

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, Mats

    2012-01-01

    The dissociative recombination of has been an intriguing problem for more than half a century. The early experiments on during the first 20 years were carried out without mass analysis in decaying plasma afterglows, and thus the measured rates pertained to an uncontrolled mixture of and impurity ions. When mass analysis was used, the rate coefficient was determined to be an uneventful value of about 10−7 cm3 s−1, a very common rate coefficient for many molecular ions. But this was not the end of the story, not even the beginning of the end; it marked only the end of the beginning. The story I will tell in this article started about 10 years ago, when the dissociative recombination of was approaching its deepest crisis. Today, owing to an extensive experimental and theoretical effort, the state of affairs has reached a historically unique level of harmony, although there still remains many things to sort out. PMID:23028159

  11. ß cell replacement therapy: the next 10 years.

    PubMed

    Schuetz, Christian; Anazawa, Takayuki; Cross, Sarah E; Labriola, Leticia; Meier, Raphael P H; Redfield, Robert R; Scholz, Hanne; Stock, Peter G; Zammit, Nathan W

    2017-09-06

    ß cell replacement with either pancreas or islet transplantation has progressed immensely over the last decades with current 1- and 5-year insulin independence rates of ~85% and ~50%, respectively. Recent advances are largely attributed to improvements in immunosuppressive regimen, donor selection and surgical technique. However, both strategies are compromised by a scarce donor source. Xenotransplantation provides a potential solution by providing a theoretically unlimited supply of islets, but clinical application has been limited by concerns for a potent immune response against xenogeneic tissue. ß cell clusters derived from embryonic or induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells represent another promising unlimited source of insulin producing cells, but clinical application is pending further advances in the function of the ß cell like clusters. Exciting developments and rapid progress in all areas of ß cell replacement prompted a lively debate by members of the young investigator committee of the International Pancreas and Islet Transplant Association (IPITA) at the 15th IPITA Congress in Melbourne and at the 26th international congress of The Transplant Society (TTS) in Hong Kong. This international group of young investigators debated which modality of ß cell replacement would predominate the landscape in 10 years, and their arguments are summarized here.

  12. Prospective Analysis of Hip Arthroscopy with 10-year Followup

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Kay S.

    2009-01-01

    Arthroscopic surgery of the hip is a well-established technique with numerous recognized indications. Despite the well-accepted nature of this procedure, there have been no outcomes studies with extended followup. We investigated the response to hip arthroscopy in a consecutive series of patients with 10 years followup. Since 1993, all patients undergoing hip arthroscopy have been assessed prospectively with a modified Harris hip score preoperatively and then postoperatively at 3, 12, 24, 60, and 120 months. A cohort of 50 patients (52 hips) was identified who had achieved 10-year followup and represent the substance of this study. There was 100% followup. The average age of the patients was 38 years (range, 14–84 years), with 27 males and 23 females. The median improvement was 25 points (preoperative, 56 points; postoperative, 81 points). Fourteen patients were converted to THA and two died. Four patients underwent repeat arthroscopy. There were two complications in one patient. The presence of arthritis at the time of the index procedure was an indicator of poor prognosis. This study substantiates the long-term effectiveness of arthroscopy in the hip as treatment for various disorders, including labral pathology, chondral damage, synovitis, and loose bodies. Arthritis is an indicator of poor long-term outcomes with these reported methods. Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:19381742

  13. Language Disorders: A 10-Year Research Update Review

    PubMed Central

    TOPPELBERG, CLAUDIO O.; SHAPIRO, THEODORE

    2012-01-01

    Objective To review the past 10 years of research in child language or communication disorders, which are highly prevalent in the general population and comorbid with childhood psychiatric disorders. Method A literature search of 3 major databases was conducted. The child language literature, describing the domains of language development—phonology, grammar, semantics, and pragmatics—is reviewed. Results Disorders of grammar, semantics, and pragmatics, but not phonology, overlap significantly with childhood psychiatric disorders. Receptive language disorders have emerged as high-risk indicators, often undiagnosed. Language disorders and delays are psychiatric risk factors and have implications for evaluation, therapy, and research. However, they are often undiagnosed in child mental health and community settings. The research has focused mostly on monolingual English-speaking children. Conclusion Awareness of basic child language development, delay, and deviance is crucial for the practicing child and adolescent psychiatrist, who must diagnose and refer relevant cases for treatment and remediation. Future research needs to address the growing language diversity of our clinical populations. PMID:10673823

  14. Family support, family income, and happiness: a 10-year perspective.

    PubMed

    North, Rebecca J; Holahan, Charles J; Moos, Rudolf H; Cronkite, Ruth C

    2008-06-01

    This study examined the role of 2 central aspects of family life--income and social support--in predicting concurrent happiness and change in happiness among 274 married adults across a 10-year period. The authors used hierarchical linear modeling to investigate the relationship between family income and happiness. Income had a small, positive impact on happiness, which diminished as income increased. In contrast, family social support, measured by 3 subscales, Cohesion, Expressiveness, and Conflict, showed a substantial, positive association with concurrent happiness, even after controlling for income. Furthermore, family income moderated the association between family social support and concurrent happiness; family social support was more strongly associated with happiness when family income was low than when family income was high. In addition, change in family social support was positively related to change in happiness, whereas change in family income was unrelated to change in happiness. These findings suggest that happiness can change and underscore the importance of exploring more deeply the role that family relationships play in facilitating such change. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved

  15. A 10-year retrospective study on odontogenic tumors in Iran.

    PubMed

    Taghavi, Nasim; Rajabi, Moones; Mehrdad, Leili; Sajjadi, Samad

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review cases of odontogenic tumors diagnosed in two pathology centers in Tehran, Iran, during a 10-year period. Patients' records were seen at two teaching pathology Centre's of Shahid Beheshti University between the months of March 2000 to 2010 with histologic diagnosis of any type of odontogenic tumors. The records were analyzed for frequency, age, sex, site, as well as clinical, radiographic and histopathologic findings. Of 30706 biopsies, 4767 (15.5%) cases were diagnosed as oral and maxillofacial lesions. Among these, 720 cases were tumoral with 188 (26.1%) cases of odontogenic tumors. Tumors with odontogenic epithelium origin formed 70.2% of total numbers of odontogenic tumors. Mixed odontogenic tumors and tumors of odontogenic ectomesenchyme comprised 12.2% and 17.5% of the cases respectively. Ameloblastoma, with a frequency of 62.2% was the most common tumor in this review which was followed by odontoma and odontogenic myxoma. Although there are few studies on odontogenic tumors in literature, the comparison of our results with existing data shows significant differences in the distribution of tumors and age of patients, which may be due to ethnic features and geographic distribution of patients. Future studies on other ethnic groups are essential for further clarification of the findings in this research.

  16. Proteasome inhibitors in multiple myeloma: 10 years later

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Paul G.; Cavo, Michele; Orlowski, Robert Z.; San Miguel, Jesús F.; Palumbo, Antonio; Harousseau, Jean-Luc

    2012-01-01

    Proteasome inhibition has emerged as an important therapeutic strategy in multiple myeloma (MM). Since the publication of the first phase 1 trials of bortezomib 10 years ago, this first-in-class proteasome inhibitor (PI) has contributed substantially to the observed improvement in survival in MM patients over the past decade. Although first approved as a single agent in the relapsed setting, bortezomib is now predominantly used in combination regimens. Furthermore, the standard twice-weekly schedule may be replaced by weekly infusion, especially when bortezomib is used as part of combination regimens in frontline therapy. Indeed, bortezomib is an established component of induction therapy for patients eligible or ineligible for autologous stem cell transplantation. Bortezomib has also been incorporated into conditioning regimens before autologous stem cell transplantation, as well as into post-ASCT consolidation therapy, and in the maintenance setting. In addition, a new route of bortezomib administration, subcutaneous infusion, has recently been approved. Recently, several new agents have been introduced into the clinic, including carfilzomib, marizomib, and MLN9708, and trials investigating these “second-generation” PIs in patients with relapsed/refractory MMs have demonstrated positive results. This review provides an overview of the role of PIs in the treatment of MM, focusing on developments over the past decade. PMID:22645181

  17. A 10-year review of false aneurysms in Nottingham.

    PubMed Central

    Berridge, D. C.; Earnshaw, J. J.; Makin, G. S.; Hopkinson, B. R.

    1988-01-01

    Over a 10-year period, twenty-nine patients who developed false aneurysms were reviewed retrospectively. The diagnosis was delayed for as long as 7 months in the eight patients who developed aneurysms following trauma. However, all these patients had an excellent outcome after surgery. The results were also good in patients with non-infected false aneurysms after vascular reconstruction, with 17 of the 19 patients having the affected limb saved by remedial surgery. The main principle of remedial surgery was to perform the simplest surgical procedure possible. The results in infected false aneurysms were poor and management should be considered along the lines laid down for graft infection. The incidence of false aneurysms may be reduced by the use of suitable non-absorbable sutures, prevention of tension at an anastomosis and prevention of infection. However, degeneration of the arterial wall is thought to be a major cause of false aneurysms and is, of course, beyond control. Recent technical advances such as digital subtraction angiography, labelled leucocyte scanning and computed tomography have all contributed to improvements in the management of false aneurysms. Images fig. 1 fig. 3 PMID:3415176

  18. 10 Years of Student Questions about the Radiation Belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, N. A.; Hughes, W. J.; Wiltberger, M. J.

    2016-12-01

    The NSF funded CISM Space Weather Summer School is targeted to graduate students just starting in space physics and provides a comprehensive conceptual background to the field. Insights from this summer school can provide valuable information to graduate instructors and graduate student mentors. During the school, students are invited to submit questions at the end of the lecture component each day. The lecturers then take the time to respond to these questions. We have collected over 3000 student questions over the last 10 years. The radiation belts, solar energetic particles, and the operational impacts of high energy particles are among the topics covered during the summer school, and these topics consistently generate a share of the questions following those lectures. The collection includes questions about: the structure and variability of the radiation belts, the distinction between solar energetic particles (SEPs) and the radiation belts, the distinction between the ring current and the radiation belts, the impact radiation belt particles and SEPs have on the magnetosphere, the risks high energy particles pose to spacecraft and humans, their impact on operations, regulations for human exposure, and others. The presentation will catalog the questions asked by students and provide insight into students prior conceptions and misunderstandings about this topic. We hope this work informs instructors who teach these topics.

  19. Oral squamous cell carcinoma in a 10 year old boy.

    PubMed

    Khan, M H; Naushad, Q N

    2011-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity a type of Oral Cancer in young patients is a very rare occurrence particularly during the first decade of life. Oral cancer is predominantly an aggressive neoplasm of middle-aged people where 96% of the patients are more than 40 years of age and it occurs mainly due to the excessive consumption of tobacco and alcohol. In South-East Asia it has a higher rate of occurrence than the rest of the world, partly due to increased consumption of chewing tobacco and various harmful spices, areca nuts and betel quids. These rare varieties of aggressive neoplasm commonly affect tongue and lip. This report describes a case of squamous cell carcinoma in a 10 year old boy who had an exophytic type of granulomatous lesion with some indurated borders which diffusely involved the left side of the hard palate, alveolar mucosa, left maxillary antrum and aggressively emerged within the left orbit by engulfing the left inferior rectus muscle. The purpose of this case report is to provide information that younger group can suffer from oral squamous cell carcinoma though it is very rare and this younger group would appear to have a biologically more aggressive tumor and they require more complex treatment. The role of more aggressive initial therapy must be considered.

  20. Improving mortality data in Jordan: a 10 year review

    PubMed Central

    Dababneh, Faris; Asad, Majed; Haddad, Yousef; Notzon, Francis; Anderson, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Problem Before 2003 there was substantial underreporting of deaths in Jordan. The death notification form did not comply with World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines and information on the cause of death was often missing, incomplete or inaccurate. Approach A new mortality surveillance system to determine the causes of death was implemented in 2003 and a unit for coding causes of death was established at the ministry of health. Local setting Jordan is a middle-income country with a population of 6.4 million people. Approximately 20 000 deaths were registered per year between 2005 and 2011. Relevant changes In 2001, the ministry of health organized the first meeting on Jordan’s mortality system, which yielded a five-point plan to improve mortality statistics. Using the recommendations produced from this meeting, in 2003 the ministry of health initiated a mortality statistics improvement project in collaboration with international partners. Jordan has continued to improve its mortality reporting system, with annual reporting since 2004. Reports are based on more than 70% of reported deaths. The quality of cause-of-death information has improved, with only about 6% of deaths allocated to symptoms and ill-defined conditions – a substantial decrease from the percentage before 2001 (40%). Mortality information is now submitted to WHO following international standards. Lessons learnt After 10 years of mortality surveillance in Jordan, the reporting has improved and the information has been used by various health programmes throughout Jordan. PMID:26600615

  1. Amiodarone for refractory cardiac arrhythmias: 10-year study.

    PubMed Central

    Leak, D; Eydt, J N

    1986-01-01

    Over a 10-year period 130 patients with drug-resistant cardiac arrhythmias associated mainly with coronary artery disease and its complications were treated with amiodarone. The drug controlled all the tachyarrhythmias associated with the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, 95% of the ventricular arrhythmias, including recurrent ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation, and 92% of the supraventricular arrhythmias. The maximum duration of therapy was 111 months and the mean 34 months. Side effects occurred in 34% of the patients, and there was one withdrawal from therapy per 15.3 patient-years of treatment. The commonest cause of withdrawal was nausea, which was significantly related (p less than 0.01) to a drug interaction with digoxin and diuretics. Reversible neurologic complications occurred in eight patients (6%), and acute myositis was recognized for the first time. Pulmonary infiltration developed in four patients (3%), who were receiving 600 mg of amiodarone per day. The rates of side effects and of withdrawal from therapy differed significantly between the patients whose maintenance doses were 600 and 200 mg/d, at 59% v. 6% (p less than 0.01) and 32% v. 0% (p less than 0.05) respectively. Thus, amiodarone is a very effective antiarrhythmic that can be administered over long periods with acceptable rates of side effects and withdrawal provided the minimal effective dose is used; 400 mg/d or less is desirable. PMID:3948063

  2. Penetrating keratoplasty: indications over a 10 year period

    PubMed Central

    Al-Yousuf, N; Mavrikakis, I; Mavrikakis, E; Daya, S M

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To determine the indications for penetrating keratoplasty (PK) at the Corneoplastic Unit and Eye Bank, UK, a tertiary referral centre, over a 10 year period. Methods: Records of all patients who underwent PK at our institution between 1990 and 1999 were reviewed retrospectively. Of the 1096 procedures performed in this period, 784 records were available for evaluation (72%). Results: Regrafting was the most common indication, accounting for 40.9% of all cases. Keratoconus was the second most common indication (15%), followed by Fuchs’ endothelial dystrophy (9.3%), pseudophakic bullous keratopathy (7.6%), and viral keratitis (5.9%), which included both herpes simplex and herpes zoster and showed a statistically significant decreasing trend using regression analysis (p<0.005). Among the regraft subgroup, viral keratitis accounted for 21.2% as the underlying primary diagnosis. The most common cause for graft failure in the regraft subgroup was endothelial failure (41.8%). Conclusion: Regrafting is the leading indication for PK; viral disease—although declining—is the leading primary diagnosis. PMID:15258012

  3. 10 years of surveillance of human tularaemia in France.

    PubMed

    Mailles, A; Vaillant, V

    2014-11-13

    Tularaemia has been mandatorily notifiable in France since October 2002. The surveillance aims to detect early any infection possibly due to bioterrorism and to follow up disease trends. We report the results of national surveillance from 2002 to 2012. A case is defined as a patient with clinical presentation suggestive of tularaemia and biological confirmation of infection or an epidemiological link with a biologically confirmed case. Clinical, biological and epidemiological data are collected using a standardised notification form. From 2002 to 2012, 433 cases were notified, with a median age of 49 years (range 2 to 95 years) and a male–female sex ratio of 1.8. Most frequent clinical presentations were glandular tularaemia (n=200; 46%) and ulceroglandular tularaemia (n=113; 26%). Most frequent at-risk exposures were handling hares (n=179; 41%) and outdoor leisure exposure to dust aerosols (n=217; 50%). Tick bites were reported by 82 patients (19%). Ten clusters (39 cases) were detected over the 10-year period, as well as a national outbreak during winter 2007/2008. The tularaemia surveillance system is able to detect small clusters as well as major outbreaks. Surveillance data show exposure to dust aerosols during outdoor leisure activities to be a major source of contamination in France.

  4. Endometrial stem/progenitor cells: the first 10 years

    PubMed Central

    Gargett, Caroline E.; Schwab, Kjiana E.; Deane, James A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The existence of stem/progenitor cells in the endometrium was postulated many years ago, but the first functional evidence was only published in 2004. The identification of rare epithelial and stromal populations of clonogenic cells in human endometrium has opened an active area of research on endometrial stem/progenitor cells in the subsequent 10 years. METHODS The published literature was searched using the PubMed database with the search terms ‘endometrial stem cells and menstrual blood stem cells' until December 2014. RESULTS Endometrial epithelial stem/progenitor cells have been identified as clonogenic cells in human and as label-retaining or CD44+ cells in mouse endometrium, but their characterization has been modest. In contrast, endometrial mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) have been well characterized and show similar properties to bone marrow MSCs. Specific markers for their enrichment have been identified, CD146+PDGFRβ+ (platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta) and SUSD2+ (sushi domain containing-2), which detected their perivascular location and likely pericyte identity in endometrial basalis and functionalis vessels. Transcriptomics and secretomics of SUSD2+ cells confirm their perivascular phenotype. Stromal fibroblasts cultured from endometrial tissue or menstrual blood also have some MSC characteristics and demonstrate broad multilineage differentiation potential for mesodermal, endodermal and ectodermal lineages, indicating their plasticity. Side population (SP) cells are a mixed population, although predominantly vascular cells, which exhibit adult stem cell properties, including tissue reconstitution. There is some evidence that bone marrow cells contribute a small population of endometrial epithelial and stromal cells. The discovery of specific markers for endometrial stem/progenitor cells has enabled the examination of their role in endometrial proliferative disorders, including endometriosis, adenomyosis and Asherman

  5. Endometrial stem/progenitor cells: the first 10 years.

    PubMed

    Gargett, Caroline E; Schwab, Kjiana E; Deane, James A

    2016-01-01

    The existence of stem/progenitor cells in the endometrium was postulated many years ago, but the first functional evidence was only published in 2004. The identification of rare epithelial and stromal populations of clonogenic cells in human endometrium has opened an active area of research on endometrial stem/progenitor cells in the subsequent 10 years. The published literature was searched using the PubMed database with the search terms 'endometrial stem cells and menstrual blood stem cells' until December 2014. Endometrial epithelial stem/progenitor cells have been identified as clonogenic cells in human and as label-retaining or CD44(+) cells in mouse endometrium, but their characterization has been modest. In contrast, endometrial mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) have been well characterized and show similar properties to bone marrow MSCs. Specific markers for their enrichment have been identified, CD146(+)PDGFRβ(+) (platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta) and SUSD2(+) (sushi domain containing-2), which detected their perivascular location and likely pericyte identity in endometrial basalis and functionalis vessels. Transcriptomics and secretomics of SUSD2(+) cells confirm their perivascular phenotype. Stromal fibroblasts cultured from endometrial tissue or menstrual blood also have some MSC characteristics and demonstrate broad multilineage differentiation potential for mesodermal, endodermal and ectodermal lineages, indicating their plasticity. Side population (SP) cells are a mixed population, although predominantly vascular cells, which exhibit adult stem cell properties, including tissue reconstitution. There is some evidence that bone marrow cells contribute a small population of endometrial epithelial and stromal cells. The discovery of specific markers for endometrial stem/progenitor cells has enabled the examination of their role in endometrial proliferative disorders, including endometriosis, adenomyosis and Asherman's syndrome

  6. "Media addiction" in a 10-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Brown, Scott; Scharf, Michael A; Bustos, Cristina; Chavira, Denise; Stein, Martin T

    2013-06-01

    Bryan is a 10-year-old boy who is brought to his pediatrician by his parents with concerns about oppositional behaviors. Bryan's parents report that he has always been hyperactive and oppositional since a very young age. He has been previously diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and has been treated with appropriate stimulant medications for several years; however, despite this, his parents feel increasingly unable to manage his difficult behaviors. He refuses to do chores or follow through with household routines. He refuses to go to bed at night. His family feels unable to take him to public places because he "climbs all over everything." At school, he acts up in class, is often disruptive, and requires close supervision by teachers. He was recently kicked off of the school bus. He has very few friends, and his parents state that other children do not enjoy to be around him. Bryan's parents also report that he is "obsessed" with electronics. He spends most his free time watching TV and movies and playing computer games. He has a television in his bedroom because otherwise he "monopolizes" the family television. The family also owns several portable electronic devices that he frequently uses. Bryan insists on watching TV during meals and even that the TV stays on in an adjacent room while showering. He gets up early each morning and turns on the television. He refuses to leave the house unless he can take a portable screen device with him. His parents admit to difficulty placing limits on this behavior because they feel it is the only way to keep his other behaviors under control. His mother explains "it is our only pacifier" and that attempts to place restrictions are met with explosive tantrums and have thus been short lived. These efforts have also been impeded due to the habits of his parents and older sibling, who also enjoy spending a significant amount of time watching television.

  7. [Cardiac factors predictive of 10-year survival after coronary surgery].

    PubMed

    Fournial, G; Fourcade, J; Roux, D; Garcia, O; Sauer, M; Glock, Y

    1999-07-01

    Although the predictive factors of postoperative mortality after coronary artery surgery are well known, those predictive of long-term survival have received less attention. This study reviews the outcome of a group of 480 patients between 50 and 65 years of age, operated between 1984 and 1986. The patients were classified in two groups according to the presence or absence of internal mammary artery bypass grafts: Group I (304 patients with saphenous vein bypass grafts alone) and group II (176 patients with an internal mammary artery +/- saphenous vein bypass grafts). The long-term results were assessed according to 3 criteria: isolated cardiac mortality: cardiac mortality associated with a repeat revascularisation procedure and cardiac mortality associated with reoperation or recurrence of angina. Cardiac survival at 10 years was significantly better after internal mammary-LAD bypass: 91.4% (CI 87.1-95.1) than after saphenous vein bypass grafting alone: 79.6% (CI 74.8-84.4) (p = 0.012). Univariate analysis identified the following poor predictive factors: three vessel disease (p = 0.03), preoperative left ventricular dysfunction with an ejection fraction inferior to 45% (p = 0.0001), incomplete revascularisation (p = 0.0003), use of venous bypass graft alone (p < 0.014) and perioperative infarction (p = 0.0254). For each criterion of survival (cardiac isolated or associated with a new revascularisation and/or recurrence of angina), multivariate analysis identified three independent predictive factors of long-term extramortality: not using internal mammary artery-LAD bypass graft, incomplete revascularisation and preoperative hypertension. This study confirms the beneficial effects of internal mammary-LAD artery grafting on long-term survival after coronary artery surgery, and also demonstrates the prejudicial effects of hypertension.

  8. Intravascular stents in the last and the next 10 years.

    PubMed

    Palmaz, Julio C

    2004-12-01

    The first balloon-expandable coronary stent was approved "for the prevention of restenosis" in 1994, the same year that the Journal of Endovascular Therapy was inaugurated. Since then, the development of the stent has paralleled the evolution of endovascular intervention as a new specialty. Innovators have pushed to explore new and varied stent applications outside the coronary arteries. Carotid stenting, transjugular intrahepatic portocaval shunts, and covered stents are a few of these new applications that have now become commonplace. Dozens of stent designs and several new materials have been tested to solve the problem of in-stent restenosis, but it is the drug-eluting stent (DES) that has emerged as the most promising, at least in the coronary arteries. However, the benefits of DES technology are not likely to be effective in the more pervasive forms of in-stent restenosis, such as encountered in the femoropopliteal segment. In the future, technologies aimed at stimulating rather than inhibiting tissue response to an implant may be part of the next wave of developments, as we take aim against the poor and/or slow tissue incorporation that manifests as leaks and dislodgement. In the superficial femoral artery, for example, mechanical stresses that cause fractures and dislocations may be addressed by using a very flexible endovascular device with a tissue-friendly inner surface that promotes rapid stent endothelialization to counter the biological effects of motion and microtrauma. The rapidly developing fields of nanotechnology, microelectronics, and advanced materials technology will enable the surface engineer to design molecular-specific surfaces for a new generation of vascular devices. Interactive implantable or injectable microdevices aimed at providing specific information upon demand from an external source will revolutionize disease prevention, as emphasis shifts toward monitoring cardiovascular risk exposure. There is no doubt that during the next 10

  9. "Media Addiction" in a 10-Year-Old Boy.

    PubMed

    Brown, Scott; Scharf, Michael A; Bustos, Cristina; Chavira, Denise; Stein, Martin T

    Bryan is a 10-year-old boy who is brought to his pediatrician by his parents with concerns about oppositional behaviors. Bryan's parents report that he has always been hyperactive and oppositional since a very young age. He has been previously diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and has been treated with appropriate stimulant medications for several years; however, despite this, his parents feel increasingly unable to manage his difficult behaviors. He refuses to do chores or follow through with household routines. He refuses to go to bed at night. His family feels unable to take him to public places because he "climbs all over everything." At school, he acts up in class, is often disruptive, and requires close supervision by teachers. He was recently kicked off of the school bus. He has very few friends, and his parents state that other children do not enjoy to be around him.Bryan's parents also report that he is "obsessed" with electronics. He spends most his free time watching TV and movies and playing computer games. He has a television in his bedroom because otherwise he "monopolizes" the family television. The family also owns several portable electronic devices that he frequently uses. Bryan insists on watching TV during meals and even that the TV stays on in an adjacent room while showering. He gets up early each morning and turns on the television. He refuses to leave the house unless he can take a portable screen device with him. His parents admit to difficulty placing limits on this behavior because they feel it is the only way to keep his other behaviors under control. His mother explains "it is our only pacifier" and that attempts to place restrictions are met with explosive tantrums and have thus been short lived. These efforts have also been impeded due to the habits of his parents and older sibling, who also enjoy spending a significant amount of time watching television.

  10. Click Chemistry and Radiochemistry: The First 10 Years.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Jan-Philip; Adumeau, Pierre; Lewis, Jason S; Zeglis, Brian M

    2016-12-21

    The advent of click chemistry has had a profound influence on almost all branches of chemical science. This is particularly true of radiochemistry and the synthesis of agents for positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and targeted radiotherapy. The selectivity, ease, rapidity, and modularity of click ligations make them nearly ideally suited for the construction of radiotracers, a process that often involves working with biomolecules in aqueous conditions with inexorably decaying radioisotopes. In the following pages, our goal is to provide a broad overview of the first 10 years of research at the intersection of click chemistry and radiochemistry. The discussion will focus on four areas that we believe underscore the critical advantages provided by click chemistry: (i) the use of prosthetic groups for radiolabeling reactions, (ii) the creation of coordination scaffolds for radiometals, (iii) the site-specific radiolabeling of proteins and peptides, and (iv) the development of strategies for in vivo pretargeting. Particular emphasis will be placed on the four most prevalent click reactions-the Cu-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC), the strain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition (SPAAC), the inverse electron demand Diels-Alder reaction (IEDDA), and the Staudinger ligation-although less well-known click ligations will be discussed as well. Ultimately, it is our hope that this review will not only serve to educate readers but will also act as a springboard, inspiring synthetic chemists and radiochemists alike to harness click chemistry in even more innovative and ambitious ways as we embark upon the second decade of this fruitful collaboration.

  11. [Tinea capitis: Main mycosis child. Epidemiological study on 10years].

    PubMed

    Kallel, A; Hdider, A; Fakhfakh, N; Belhadj, S; Belhadj-Salah, N; Bada, N; Chouchen, A; Ennigrou, S; Kallel, K

    2017-09-01

    Despite the changes in their epidemiology, and the improving level of hygiene of the population, tinea capitis is still considered a public health problem in our country, and is the most common type of dermatophytosis in our country. The aim of our study was to evaluate the epidemiological, clinical and mycological features of tinea capitis in children encountered in the Tunis region. A retrospective study concerned 1600 children aged 6 months to 15 years suspected to have tinea capitis was conducted in Parasitology-Mycology laboratory, Rabta hospital, over a 10-years period (2005-2014). Dermatophyte infections were confirmed using scalp scrapings examinated with direct microscopy using potash at 30% and/or culture on Sabouraud medium agar. Tinea capitis diagnosis was confirmed in 947 cases (59.18%). The sex ratio was 2.61 and the average age of 6.28 years with predominance in the age group of 4 to 8 years (52.27%). The most common clinical presentation was ringworm (87.65%). Ringworm large plaque was predominant (65.9%). Direct examination was positive in 884 cases (93.35%). Microsporic tinea was the most frequent (63.25%) followed by trichophytic tinea (29.78%). Positive cultures of dermatophytes were obtained in 912 cases (96.30%). The following dermatophyte species were isolated: Microsporum canis (67%), Trichophyton violaceum (31.68%), Trichophyton mentagrophytes (0.66%), Microsporum audouinii (0.22%), Trichophyton schoenleinii (0.22%) and Microsporum gypseum (0.22%). M. canis is currently the most frequently incriminated species in tinea capitis in Tunisia. This change is related to a change in behavior of our population, in fact the cat; main reservoir of M. canis cohabiting increasingly with Tunisian families. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Justification for Rhinoseptoplasty in Children – Our 10 Years Overview

    PubMed Central

    Kopacheva-Barsova, Gabriela; Nikolovski, Nikola

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nasal septal surgery and rhinoplasty are controversial in children. Traditionally, an attitude of restraint has been employed by most surgeons till an empirical age of 16 to 18 years. This is to avoid the possible adverse effects that the growth spurts may have on the nose and midface region. AIM: The aim of this paper was to present the results of rhinoplasty in children in order to restore the anatomy and function or to promote normal development and outgrowth of the nose. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ninety seven children aged 6-14, with severe nose deformities and breathing problems through the nose, were admitted for septo/rhinoplasty at the University Clinic for Ear, Nose and Throat, Faculty of Medicine, Ss Cyril and Methodius University of Skopje, Republic of Macedonia. At our Clinic, they have been observed and photographed (with parent permission) in the period of 10 years (2006-2016). The most frequent cause of these deformities was the nasal trauma in early childhood which was ignored or untreated. All of them rhino/septoplasty were indicated in accordance with the above-mentioned recommendations for rhino/septoplasty in early childhood and in adolescents. RESULTS: In 51 children and adolescents septoplasty were prepared. Mostly there was a group of younger children age from 6-10 (68%) and adolescents (32%). In the other 31 children and adolescents, septorhinoplasty was prepared. Mostly there were children older than 12 years old and adolescents (70%). Only 30% were younger than 12 years, of course with severe nasal breathing problems, nasal septal deformities and deformities of the nasal pyramid. CONCLUSION: The growth centres of the nose have to be avoided if possible; long-term nasal issues will theoretically be minimised. If the surgeon replaces it, the cartilage of the nose becomes straighter but still intact. PMID:27703562

  13. The management of HIV in pregnancy: A 10-year experience.

    PubMed

    Raffe, Sonia F; Savage, Charlotte; Perry, Louisa A; Patel, Amie; Keith, Tricia; Howell, Richard; Bradley, Robert; Bomont, Rob; Fidler, Katy; Gilleece, Yvonne

    2017-03-01

    The package of care to reduce HIV mother to child transmission (MTCT) has evolved significantly since trials of ante and intrapartum antiretroviral therapy (ART) in 1994. In the UK MTCT rate has fallen from 25.6% in the 1990s to 0.46%. We review the management of HIV in pregnancy in Brighton in the context of evolving guidelines. HIV, obstetric and neonatal notes of all HIV positive women, pregnant between 2003 and 2014, were reviewed. 97 pregnancies in 75 women were identified, resulting in 79 live births. Antenatal HIV diagnosis was made in 22 (28%). The proportion of pregnancies in those with known HIV at conception increased over the time period. At conception 58 (60%) were on ART, 33 (57%) of who continued on their original regimen. 34 (35%) initiated ART following conception: 14 known to be HIV positive, 20 diagnosed during pregnancy. Two did not start ART (1 due to miscarriage, 1 as diagnosed post-delivery) and in three cases ART history was unavailable due to transfer to alternative centres. ART was initiated on average at 22 weeks gestation (range 6-34). 4(5%) received Zidovudine (AZT) monotherapy, all before 2006. Choice of combination ART (cART) varied with time reflecting changing guidelines. Prior to 2008 an AZT containing regimen was used in 83% versus 8% after. Planned mode of delivery was documented in 73: 30(41%) planned a normal vaginal delivery (NVD), 43(59%) a caesarean section (CS). The viral load (VL) was <50copies/mL in 58(76%) at 36 weeks and 64(84%) at delivery. 90% with a detectable VL at 36 weeks delivered via CS. 100% received neonatal post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP): 68(88%) AZT monotherapy, 9(12%) cART. 84% initiated PEP within four hours. 90% completed 28days. 8(10%) babies experienced side effects. In the 10-year review period, one infant (1.3%) was diagnosed HIV positive. Both mother and infant received care in accordance with guidelines, including neonatal PEP within 4hours. Care of the HIV positive pregnant woman in Brighton has

  14. The GLOBE Program 10 Years On: Challenges and Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blurton, C.

    2004-12-01

    ). This session will examine what was accomplished during GLOBE's first 10 years as a Federal program, what challenges the Program faces, and what plans are afoot for GLOBE's next ten years under UCAR's leadership.

  15. The Israeli National Genetic database: a 10-year experience.

    PubMed

    Zlotogora, Joël; Patrinos, George P

    2017-03-16

    The Israeli National and Ethnic Mutation database ( http://server.goldenhelix.org/israeli ) was launched in September 2006 on the ETHNOS software to include clinically relevant genomic variants reported among Jewish and Arab Israeli patients. In 2016, the database was reviewed and corrected according to ClinVar ( https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/clinvar ) and ExAC ( http://exac.broadinstitute.org ) database entries. The present article summarizes some key aspects from the development and continuous update of the database over a 10-year period, which could serve as a paradigm of successful database curation for other similar resources. In September 2016, there were 2444 entries in the database, 890 among Jews, 1376 among Israeli Arabs, and 178 entries among Palestinian Arabs, corresponding to an ~4× data content increase compared to when originally launched. While the Israeli Arab population is much smaller than the Jewish population, the number of pathogenic variants causing recessive disorders reported in the database is higher among Arabs (934) than among Jews (648). Nevertheless, the number of pathogenic variants classified as founder mutations in the database is smaller among Arabs (175) than among Jews (192). In 2016, the entire database content was compared to that of other databases such as ClinVar and ExAC. We show that a significant difference in the percentage of pathogenic variants from the Israeli genetic database that were present in ExAC was observed between the Jewish population (31.8%) and the Israeli Arab population (20.6%). The Israeli genetic database was launched in 2006 on the ETHNOS software and is available online ever since. It allows querying the database according to the disorder and the ethnicity; however, many other features are not available, in particular the possibility to search according to the name of the gene. In addition, due to the technical limitations of the previous ETHNOS software, new features and data are not included in the

  16. Young men who have sex with men's use of social and sexual media and sex-risk associations: cross-sectional, online survey across four countries.

    PubMed

    Lorimer, Karen; Flowers, Paul; Davis, Mark; Frankis, Jamie

    2016-08-01

    There has been an increase in new HIV diagnoses among young men who have sex with men (YMSM) over the past decade in both UK and US contexts, with online sex-seeking implicated in driving this development. This study sought to examine YMSM's use of a variety of social and sexual networking websites and 'apps', and assess sexual risk behaviours. YMSM were recruited from across four countries in Britain and Ireland, via an online survey using convenience sampling. Data were collected from 2668 men, of whom 702 were aged 18-25 years. Facebook use was almost ubiquitous and for largely social reasons; sexual media use was common with 52% using gay sexual networking (GSN) websites frequently and 44% using similar apps frequently. We found increased odds of high-risk condomless anal intercourse associated with the length of time users had been using GSN websites and lower levels of education. We found no significant differences across the four countries in sexual risk behaviours. YMSM are a heterogeneous population with varied sexual health needs. For young men with digital literacy, individual-level online interventions, targeted and tailored, could be directed towards frequent users with lower levels of education. Variation in demographic characteristics of GSN websites and app users may affect who interventions are likely to reach, depending on where they are targeted. However, interventions, which may catch young men earlier, also provide a major opportunity for reducing sexual health inequalities. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. Effects of the 2003 advertising/promotion ban in the United Kingdom on awareness of tobacco marketing: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey.

    PubMed

    Harris, F; MacKintosh, A M; Anderson, S; Hastings, G; Borland, R; Fong, G T; Hammond, D; Cummings, K M

    2006-06-01

    In February 2003, a comprehensive ban on tobacco promotion came into effect in the United Kingdom, which prohibited tobacco marketing through print and broadcast media, billboards, the internet, direct mail, product placement, promotions, free gifts, coupons and sponsorships. To investigate the impact of the UK's comprehensive ban on tobacco promotion on adult smokers' awareness of tobacco marketing in the UK relative to Canada, the United States and Australia. A total of 6762 adult smokers participated in two waves of a random digit dialled telephone survey across the four countries. Wave 1 was conducted before the UK ban (October-December 2002) and Wave 2 was conducted after the UK ban (May-September 2003). Awareness of a range of forms of tobacco marketing. Levels of tobacco promotion awareness declined significantly among smokers in the UK after implementation of the advertising ban. Declines in awareness were greater in those channels regulated by the new law and change in awareness of tobacco promotions was much greater in the UK than the other three countries not affected by the ban. At least in the short term, there was no evidence that the law resulted in greater exposure to tobacco promotions in the few media channels not covered by the law. Notwithstanding the apparent success of the UK advertising ban and the controls in other countries, 9-22% of smokers in the four countries still reported noticing things that promoted smoking "often or very often" at Wave 2. The UK policy to ban tobacco advertising and promotion has significantly reduced exposure to pro-tobacco marketing influences. These findings support the effectiveness of comprehensive bans on advertising and promotion, as included in the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

  18. Effects of the 2003 advertising/promotion ban in the United Kingdom on awareness of tobacco marketing: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey

    PubMed Central

    Harris, F; MacKintosh, A M; Anderson, S; Hastings, G; Borland, R; Fong, G T; Hammond, D

    2006-01-01

    Background In February 2003, a comprehensive ban on tobacco promotion came into effect in the United Kingdom, which prohibited tobacco marketing through print and broadcast media, billboards, the internet, direct mail, product placement, promotions, free gifts, coupons and sponsorships. Objective To investigate the impact of the UK's comprehensive ban on tobacco promotion on adult smokers' awareness of tobacco marketing in the UK relative to Canada, the United States and Australia. Design A total of 6762 adult smokers participated in two waves of a random digit dialled telephone survey across the four countries. Wave 1 was conducted before the UK ban (October–December 2002) and Wave 2 was conducted after the UK ban (May–September 2003). Key measures Awareness of a range of forms of tobacco marketing. Results Levels of tobacco promotion awareness declined significantly among smokers in the UK after implementation of the advertising ban. Declines in awareness were greater in those channels regulated by the new law and change in awareness of tobacco promotions was much greater in the UK than the other three countries not affected by the ban. At least in the short term, there was no evidence that the law resulted in greater exposure to tobacco promotions in the few media channels not covered by the law. Notwithstanding the apparent success of the UK advertising ban and the controls in other countries, 9–22% of smokers in the four countries still reported noticing things that promoted smoking “often or very often” at Wave 2. Conclusions The UK policy to ban tobacco advertising and promotion has significantly reduced exposure to pro‐tobacco marketing influences. These findings support the effectiveness of comprehensive bans on advertising and promotion, as included in the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. PMID:16754943

  19. Socioeconomic Variation in the Prevalence, Introduction, Retention, and Removal of Smoke-Free Policies among Smokers: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey

    PubMed Central

    King, Brian A.; Hyland, Andrew J.; Borland, Ron; McNeill, Ann; Cummings, K. Michael

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Exposure to secondhand smoke causes premature death and disease in non-smokers and indoor smoke-free policies have become increasingly prevalent worldwide. Although socioeconomic disparities have been documented in tobacco use and cessation, the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and smoke-free policies is less well studied. Methods: Data were obtained from the 2006 and 2007 Waves of the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey (ITC-4), a prospective study of nationally representative samples of smokers in Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia. Telephone interviews were administered to 8,245 current and former adult smokers from October 2006 to February 2007. Between September 2007 and February 2008, 5,866 respondents were re-interviewed. Self-reported education and annual household income were used to create SES tertiles. Outcomes included the presence, introduction, and removal of smoke-free policies in homes, worksites, bars, and restaurants. Results: Smokers with high SES had increased odds of both having [OR: 1.54, 95% CI: 1.27–2.87] and introducing [OR: 1.49, 95% CI: 1.04–2.13] a total ban on smoking in the home compared to low SES smokers. Continuing smokers with high SES also had decreased odds of removing a total ban [OR: 0.44, 95% CI: 0.26–0.73]. No consistent association was observed between SES and the presence or introduction of bans in worksites, bars, or restaurants. Conclusions: The presence, introduction, and retention of smoke-free homes increases with increasing SES, but no consistent socioeconomic variation exists in the presence or introduction of total smoking bans in worksites, bars, or restaurants. Opportunities exist to reduce SES disparities in smoke-free homes, while the lack of socioeconomic differences in public workplace, bar, and restaurant smoke-free policies suggest these measures are now equitably distributed in these four countries. PMID:21556194

  20. Effect of Change in Systolic Blood Pressure Between Clinic Visits on Estimated 10-Year Cardiovascular Disease Risk

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Siqin; Wang, Y. Claire; Shimbo, Daichi; Newman, Jonathan D.; Levitan, Emily B.; Muntner, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background Systolic blood pressure (SBP) often varies between clinic visits within individuals, which can affect estimation of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Methods and Results We analyzed data from participants with two clinic visits separated by a median of 17 days in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n=808). Ten-year CVD risk was calculated with SBP obtained at each visit using the Pooled Cohort Equations. The mean age of participants was 46.1 years and 47.3% were male. The median SBP difference between the two visits was −1 mmHg (1st – 99th percentiles: −23 to 32 mmHg). The median estimated 10-year CVD risk was 2.5% and 2.4% at the first and second visit, respectively (1st – 99th percentiles −5.2% to +7.1%). Meaningful risk reclassification (i.e., across the guideline recommended 7.5% threshold for statin initiation) occurred in 12 (11.3%) of 106 participants whose estimated CVD risk was between 5% to 10%, but only in 2 (0.3%) of 702 participants who had a 10-year estimated CVD risk of <5% or >10%. Conclusions SBP variability can affect CVD risk estimation, and can influence statin eligibility for individuals with an estimated 10-year CVD risk between 5% and 10%. PMID:24462238

  1. Arsenic Exposure and Predicted 10-Year Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Risk Using the Pooled Cohort Equations in U.S. Hypertensive Adults.

    PubMed

    Nong, Qingjiao; Zhang, Yiyi; Guallar, Eliseo; Zhong, Qiuan

    2016-11-07

    This study was to evaluate the association of urine arsenic with predicted 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk in U.S. adults with hypertension. Cross-sectional analysis was conducted in 1570 hypertensive adults aged 40-79 years in the 2003-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) with determinations of urine arsenic. Predicted 10-year ASCVD risk was estimated by the Pooled Cohort Equations, developed by the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association in 2013. For men, after adjustment for sociodemographic factors, urine dilution, ASCVD risk factors and organic arsenic intake from seafood, participants in the highest quartiles of urine arsenic had higher 10-year predicted ASCVD risk than in the lowest quartiles; the increases were 24% (95% confidence interval (CI): 2%, 53%) for total arsenic, 13% (95% CI: 2%, 25%) for dimethylarsinate and 22% (95% CI: 5%, 40%) for total arsenic minus arsenobetaine separately. For women, the corresponding increases were 5% (95% CI: -15%, 29%), 10% (95% CI: -8%, 30%) and 0% (95% CI: -15%, 19%), respectively. Arsenic exposure, even at low levels, may contribute to increased ASCVD risk in men with hypertension. Furthermore, our findings suggest that particular circumstances need urgently to be considered while elucidating cardiovascular effects of low inorganic arsenic levels.

  2. Arsenic Exposure and Predicted 10-Year Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Risk Using the Pooled Cohort Equations in U.S. Hypertensive Adults

    PubMed Central

    Nong, Qingjiao; Zhang, Yiyi; Guallar, Eliseo; Zhong, Qiuan

    2016-01-01

    This study was to evaluate the association of urine arsenic with predicted 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk in U.S. adults with hypertension. Cross-sectional analysis was conducted in 1570 hypertensive adults aged 40–79 years in the 2003–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) with determinations of urine arsenic. Predicted 10-year ASCVD risk was estimated by the Pooled Cohort Equations, developed by the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association in 2013. For men, after adjustment for sociodemographic factors, urine dilution, ASCVD risk factors and organic arsenic intake from seafood, participants in the highest quartiles of urine arsenic had higher 10-year predicted ASCVD risk than in the lowest quartiles; the increases were 24% (95% confidence interval (CI): 2%, 53%) for total arsenic, 13% (95% CI: 2%, 25%) for dimethylarsinate and 22% (95% CI: 5%, 40%) for total arsenic minus arsenobetaine separately. For women, the corresponding increases were 5% (95% CI: −15%, 29%), 10% (95% CI: −8%, 30%) and 0% (95% CI: −15%, 19%), respectively. Arsenic exposure, even at low levels, may contribute to increased ASCVD risk in men with hypertension. Furthermore, our findings suggest that particular circumstances need urgently to be considered while elucidating cardiovascular effects of low inorganic arsenic levels. PMID:27828001

  3. How women are treated during facility-based childbirth: development and validation of measurement tools in four countries - phase 1 formative research study protocol.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Joshua P; Bohren, Meghan A; Tunçalp, Özge; Oladapo, Olufemi T; Adanu, Richard M; Baldé, Mamadou Diouldé; Maung, Thae Maung; Fawole, Bukola; Adu-Bonsaffoh, Kwame; Dako-Gyeke, Phyllis; Maya, Ernest Tei; Camara, Mohamed Campell; Diallo, Alfa Boubacar; Diallo, Safiatou; Wai, Khin Thet; Myint, Theingi; Olutayo, Lanre; Titiloye, Musibau; Alu, Frank; Idris, Hadiza; Gülmezoglu, Metin A

    2015-07-22

    Every woman has the right to dignified, respectful care during childbirth. Recent evidence has demonstrated that globally many women experience mistreatment during labour and childbirth in health facilities, which can pose a significant barrier to women attending facilities for delivery and can contribute to poor birth experiences and adverse outcomes for women and newborns. However there is no clear consensus on how mistreatment of women during childbirth in facilities is defined and measured. We propose using a two-phased, mixed-methods study design in four countries to address these research gaps. This protocol describes the Phase 1 qualitative research activities. We will employ qualitative research methodologies among women, healthcare providers and administrators in the facility catchment areas of two health facilities in each country: Ghana, Guinea, Myanmar and Nigeria. In-depth interviews (IDIs) and focus group discussions (FGDs) will be conducted among women of reproductive age (15-49 years) to explore their perceptions and experiences of facility-based childbirth care, focused on how they were treated by healthcare workers and perceived factors affecting how they were treated. IDIs will also be conducted with healthcare providers of different cadres (e.g.: nurses, midwives, medical officers, specialist obstetricians) and facility administrators working in the selected facilities to explore healthcare providers' perceptions and experiences of facility-based childbirth care and how staff are treated, colleagues and supervisors. Audio recordings will be transcribed and translated to English. Textual data will be analysed using a thematic framework approach and will consist of two levels of analysis: (1) conduct of local analysis workshops with the research assistants in each country; and (2) line-by-line coding to develop a thematic framework and coding scheme. This study serves several roles. It will provide an in-depth understanding of how women are

  4. Habitual sleep duration and predicted 10-year cardiovascular risk using the pooled cohort risk equations among US adults.

    PubMed

    Ford, Earl S

    2014-12-02

    The association between sleep duration and predicted cardiovascular risk has been poorly characterized. The objective of this study was to examine the association between self-reported sleep duration and predicted 10-year cardiovascular risk among US adults. Data from 7690 men and nonpregnant women who were aged 40 to 79 years, who were free of self-reported heart disease and stroke, and who participated in a National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2005 to 2012 were analyzed. Sleep duration was self-reported. Predicted 10-year cardiovascular risk was calculated using the pooled cohort equations. Among the included participants, 13.1% reported sleeping ≤5 hours, 24.4% reported sleeping 6 hours, 31.9% reported sleeping 7 hours, 25.2% reported sleeping 8 hours, 4.0% reported sleeping 9 hours, and 1.3% reported sleeping ≥10 hours. After adjustment for covariates, geometric mean-predicted 10-year cardiovascular risk was 4.0%, 3.6%, 3.4%, 3.5%, 3.7%, and 3.7% among participants who reported sleeping ≤5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and ≥10 hours per night, respectively (PWald chi-square<0.001). The age-adjusted percentages of predicted cardiovascular risk ≥20% for the 6 intervals of sleep duration were 14.5%, 11.9%, 11.0%, 11.4%, 11.8%, and 16.3% (PWald chi-square=0.022). After maximal adjustment, however, sleep duration was not significantly associated with cardiovascular risk ≥20% (PWald chi-square=0.698). Mean-predicted 10-year cardiovascular risk was lowest among adults who reported sleeping 7 hours per night and increased as participants reported sleeping fewer and more hours. © 2014 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  5. Dietary calcium intake and risk of obesity in school girls aged 8-10 years

    PubMed Central

    Samadi, Mehnoosh; Sadrzadeh-Yeganeh, Haleh; Azadbakht, Leila; Feizi, Avat; Jafarian, Korosh; Sotoudeh, Gity

    2012-01-01

    Background: Some studies have demonstrated the role of calcium in reducing body mass index (BMI) or fat mass. Though, BMI does not provide very valid information about changes in body fat mass, Fat Mass Index (FMI) relates body fat mass to height and allows comparing body fat mass of individuals at different heights. This study investigated the possible association between dietary calcium intake (CI) and other nutritional factors and weight status of girls aged 8-10 years. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, 110 girls aged 8-10 with FMI at or above 7.2 kg/m2 as cases and 307 girls with FMI less than 7.2 kg/m2 as controls were recruited through multistage cluster random sampling. FMI at or above 7.2 kg/m2 was considered as the cutoff point for obesity. Body fat mass was assessed by a stand on bio impedance analyzer. In order to assess CI, participants were asked to complete a validated food frequency questionnaire. Results: Mean and standard deviation of CI in the case group was significantly lower than the control group 649 ± 103 and 951 ± 152 mg/d, respectively (P < 0.01). After Adjustment for total energy intake, the percentage of energy from fat, carbohydrate and protein in quartiles of physical activity, inverse association between CI and obesity was significant and in the highest quartile of physical activity the association was weaker. By further adjustment for the effect of fruits and vegetable intake inverse association between CI and obesity became weaker but yet was significant. Conclusion: The inverse relationship between CI and FMI remained significant even after controlling for confounding factors. FMI may be more accurate, compared to BMI, in showing the association between CI and obesity. PMID:23853625

  6. Switching Between Menthol and Nonmenthol Cigarettes: Findings From the U.S. Cohort of the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey

    PubMed Central

    Hyland, Andrew J.; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Vogl, Lisa M.; Chen, Jiping; Evans, Sarah E.; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Cummings, Kenneth Michael; O’Connor, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This article examines trends in switching between menthol and nonmenthol cigarettes, smoker characteristics associated with switching, and associations among switching, indicators of nicotine dependence, and quitting activity. Methods: Participants were 5,932 U.S. adult smokers who were interviewed annually as part of the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey between 2002 and 2011. Generalized estimating equations (GEEs) were used to examine the prevalence of menthol cigarette use and switching between menthol and nonmenthol cigarettes (among 3,118 smokers who participated in at least 2 consecutive surveys). We also evaluated characteristics associated with menthol cigarette use and associations among switching, indicators of nicotine dependence, and quitting activity using GEEs. Results: Across the entire study period, 27% of smokers smoked menthol cigarettes; prevalence was highest among Blacks (79%), young adults (36%), and females (30%). Prevalence of switching between menthol and nonmenthol cigarettes was low (3% switched to menthol and 8% switched to nonmenthol), and switchers tended to revert back to their previous type. Switching types was not associated with indicators of nicotine dependence or quit attempts. However, those who switched cigarette brands within cigarette types were more likely to attempt to quit smoking. Conclusions: While overall switching rates were low, the percentage who switched from menthol to nonmenthol was significantly higher than the percentage who switched from nonmenthol to menthol. An asymmetry was seen in patterns of switching such that reverting back to menthol was more common than reverting back to nonmenthol, particularly among Black smokers. PMID:24984878

  7. The effectiveness of tobacco marketing regulations on reducing smokers' exposure to advertising and promotion: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey.

    PubMed

    Kasza, Karin A; Hyland, Andrew J; Brown, Abraham; Siahpush, Mohammad; Yong, Hua-Hie; McNeill, Ann D; Li, Lin; Cummings, K Michael

    2011-02-01

    Exposure to tobacco product marketing promotes the initiation, continuation, and reuptake of cigarette smoking and as a result the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) has called upon member Parties to enact comprehensive bans on tobacco advertising and promotion. This study examines the immediate and long term effectiveness of advertising restrictions enacted in different countries on exposure to different forms of product marketing, and examines differences in exposure across different socioeconomic status (SES) groups. Nationally representative data from the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and the United States, collected from adult smokers between 2002 and 2008 using the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey (ITC-4), were used in this study (N = 21,615). In light of the specific marketing regulation changes that occurred during the course of this study period, changes in awareness of tobacco marketing via various channels were assessed for each country, and for different SES groups within countries. Tobacco marketing regulations, once implemented, were associated with significant reductions in smokers' reported awareness of pro-smoking cues, and the observed reductions were greatest immediately following the enactment of regulations. Changes in reported awareness were generally the same across different SES groups, although some exceptions were noted. While tobacco marketing regulations have been effective in reducing exposure to certain types of product marketing there still remain gaps, especially with regard to in-store marketing and price promotions.

  8. The Relation Between Number of Smoking Friends, and Quit Intentions, Attempts, and Success: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey

    PubMed Central

    Hitchman, Sara C.; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Zanna, Mark P.; Thrasher, James F.; Laux, Fritz L.

    2014-01-01

    Smokers who inhabit social contexts with a greater number of smokers may be exposed to more positive norms towards smoking and more cues to smoke. This study examines the relation between number of smoking friends and changes in number of smoking friends, and smoking cessation outcomes. Data were drawn from Wave 1 (2002) and Wave 2 (2003) of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Project Four Country Survey, a longitudinal cohort survey of nationally representative samples of adult smokers in Australia, Canada, United Kingdom, and United States (N=6,321). Smokers with fewer smoking friends at Wave 1 were more likely to intend to quit at Wave 1 and were more likely to succeed in their attempts to quit at Wave 2. Compared to smokers who experienced no change in their number of smoking friends, smokers who lost smoking friends were more likely to intend to quit at Wave 2, attempt to quit between Wave 1 and Wave 2, and succeed in their quit attempts at Wave 2. Smokers who inhabit social contexts with a greater number of smokers may be less likely to successfully quit. Quitting may be particularly unlikely among smokers who do not experience a loss in the number of smokers in their social context. PMID:24841185

  9. Features of the Value Function for Voice and Their Consistency across Participants from Four Countries: Great Britain, Mexico, The Netherlands, and the United States.

    PubMed

    Price, K H; Hall, T W; van den Bos, K; Hunton, J E; Lovett, S; Tippett, M J

    2001-01-01

    This study investigated features of the value function for voice using subjects from four countries: Great Britain, Mexico, The Netherlands, and the United States. Across these four groups of subjects the shape of the value function was found to be similar, though differences in the estimated reference points were detected. Consistent with predictions derived from prospect theory (Kahneman & Tversky, 1979) the relationship between the value of voice and the magnitude of voice was found to be direct, monotonic, and nonlinear. The largest increment in value occurred when the magnitude of voice shifted from mute to some voice. Thereafter, increments in value tended to decline in magnitude suggesting diminishing marginal returns on the response measure of procedural fairness. An unexpected finding was that the final segment of the value function was convex indicating increasing marginal returns as the magnitude of voice shifted from its penultimate level to its maximum possible level. The study also investigated whether subjects' reported expectations of voice correspond to the value function reference point as theorized in the literature. Findings suggest that self-reported expectations of voice are higher than the estimated value function reference point. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  10. General parenting styles are not strongly associated with fruit and vegetable intake and social-environmental correlates among 11-year-old children in four countries in Europe.

    PubMed

    De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Te Velde, S J; Maes, L; Pérez-Rodrigo, C; de Almeida, M D V; Brug, J

    2009-02-01

    To investigate whether fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake in 11-year-olds, and social-environmental correlates of F&V intake such as parental modelling and encouragement, family food rules and home availability, differ according to general parenting styles in Belgium, The Netherlands, Portugal and Spain. Cross-sectional study. Primary schools in four countries. Pupils and one of their parents completed questionnaires to measure F&V intake, related social-environmental correlates and general parenting styles. The sample size was 4555 (49.3 % boys); 1180 for Belgium, 883 for The Netherlands, 1515 for Portugal and 977 for Spain. Parenting styles were divided into authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent and neglectful. No differences were found in F&V intake across parenting styles and only very few significant differences in social-environmental correlates. The authoritarian (more parental encouragement and more demands to eat fruit) and the authoritative (more availability of fruit and vegetables) parenting styles resulted in more favourable correlates. Despite earlier studies suggesting that general parenting styles are associated with health behaviours in children, the present study suggests that this association is weak to non-existent for F&V intakes in four different European countries.

  11. The Effectiveness of Tobacco Marketing Regulations on Reducing Smokers’ Exposure to Advertising and Promotion: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kasza, Karin A.; Hyland, Andrew J.; Brown, Abraham; Siahpush, Mohammad; Yong, Hua-Hie; McNeill, Ann D.; Li, Lin; Cummings, K. Michael

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to tobacco product marketing promotes the initiation, continuation, and reuptake of cigarette smoking and as a result the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) has called upon member Parties to enact comprehensive bans on tobacco advertising and promotion. This study examines the immediate and long term effectiveness of advertising restrictions enacted in different countries on exposure to different forms of product marketing, and examines differences in exposure across different socioeconomic status (SES) groups. Nationally representative data from the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and the United States, collected from adult smokers between 2002 and 2008 using the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey (ITC-4), were used in this study (N = 21,615). In light of the specific marketing regulation changes that occurred during the course of this study period, changes in awareness of tobacco marketing via various channels were assessed for each country, and for different SES groups within countries. Tobacco marketing regulations, once implemented, were associated with significant reductions in smokers’ reported awareness of pro-smoking cues, and the observed reductions were greatest immediately following the enactment of regulations. Changes in reported awareness were generally the same across different SES groups, although some exceptions were noted. While tobacco marketing regulations have been effective in reducing exposure to certain types of product marketing there still remain gaps, especially with regard to in-store marketing and price promotions. PMID:21556189

  12. The relation between number of smoking friends, and quit intentions, attempts, and success: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey.

    PubMed

    Hitchman, Sara C; Fong, Geoffrey T; Zanna, Mark P; Thrasher, James F; Laux, Fritz L

    2014-12-01

    Smokers who inhabit social contexts with a greater number of smokers may be exposed to more positive norms toward smoking and more cues to smoke. This study examines the relation between number of smoking friends and changes in number of smoking friends, and smoking cessation outcomes. Data were drawn from Wave 1 (2002) and Wave 2 (2003) of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Project Four Country Survey, a longitudinal cohort survey of nationally representative samples of adult smokers in Australia, Canada, United Kingdom, and United States (N = 6,321). Smokers with fewer smoking friends at Wave 1 were more likely to intend to quit at Wave 1 and were more likely to succeed in their attempts to quit at Wave 2. Compared with smokers who experienced no change in their number of smoking friends, smokers who lost smoking friends were more likely to intend to quit at Wave 2, attempt to quit between Wave 1 and Wave 2, and succeed in their quit attempts at Wave 2. Smokers who inhabit social contexts with a greater number of smokers may be less likely to successfully quit. Quitting may be particularly unlikely among smokers who do not experience a loss in the number of smokers in their social context.

  13. Patterns of cognitive dissonance-reducing beliefs among smokers: a longitudinal analysis from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey.

    PubMed

    Fotuhi, Omid; Fong, Geoffrey T; Zanna, Mark P; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie; Cummings, K Michael

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to assess whether smokers adjust their beliefs in a pattern that is consistent with Cognitive Dissonance Theory. This is accomplished by examining the longitudinal pattern of belief change among smokers as their smoking behaviours change. A telephone survey was conducted of nationally representative samples of adult smokers from Canada, the USA, the UK and Australia from the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey. Smokers were followed across three waves (October 2002 to December 2004), during which they were asked to report on their smoking-related beliefs and their quitting behaviour. Smokers with no history of quitting across the three waves exhibited the highest levels of rationalisations for smoking. When smokers quit smoking, they reported having fewer rationalisations for smoking compared with when they had previously been smoking. However, among those who attempted to quit but then relapsed, there was once again a renewed tendency to rationalise their smoking. This rebound in the use of rationalisations was higher for functional beliefs than for risk-minimising beliefs, as predicted by social psychological theory. Smokers are motivated to rationalise their behaviour through the endorsement of more positive beliefs about smoking, and these beliefs change systematically with changes in smoking status. More work is needed to determine if this cognitive dissonance-reducing function has an inhibiting effect on any subsequent intentions to quit.

  14. Patterns of cognitive dissonance-reducing beliefs among smokers: a longitudinal analysis from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey

    PubMed Central

    Fotuhi, Omid; Fong, Geoffrey T; Zanna, Mark P; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie; Cummings, K Michael

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this paper is to assess whether smokers adjust their beliefs in a pattern that is consistent with Cognitive Dissonance Theory. This is accomplished by examining the longitudinal pattern of belief change among smokers as their smoking behaviours change. Methods A telephone survey was conducted of nationally representative samples of adult smokers from Canada, the USA, the UK and Australia from the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey. Smokers were followed across three waves (October 2002 to December 2004), during which they were asked to report on their smoking-related beliefs and their quitting behaviour. Findings Smokers with no history of quitting across the three waves exhibited the highest levels of rationalisations for smoking. When smokers quit smoking, they reported having fewer rationalisations for smoking compared with when they had previously been smoking. However, among those who attempted to quit but then relapsed, there was once again a renewed tendency to rationalise their smoking. This rebound in the use of rationalisations was higher for functional beliefs than for risk-minimising beliefs, as predicted by social psychological theory. Conclusions Smokers are motivated to rationalise their behaviour through the endorsement of more positive beliefs about smoking, and these beliefs change systematically with changes in smoking status. More work is needed to determine if this cognitive dissonance-reducing function has an inhibiting effect on any subsequent intentions to quit. PMID:22218426

  15. To what extent do smokers make spontaneous quit attempts and what are the implications for smoking cessation maintenance? Findings from the International Tobacco Control Four country survey

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Jae; Yong, Hua-Hie; McNeill, Ann; Murray, Rachael L.; O’Connor, Richard J.; Cummings, K. Michael

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To assess the extent to which quit attempts are spontaneous and to evaluate if this is a determinant of smoking cessation maintenance, with better control for memory effects. Methods: We use data from 3,022 smokers who made quit attempts between Waves 4 and 5 and/or Waves 5 and 6 of the International Tobacco Control Four country survey. Outcomes (quitting for 6 months) were confirmed at the next wave for cases where the attempt began within the previous 6 months. We assessed the length of delay between the decision to quit and implementation and whether the attempt followed a “spur-of-the-moment” decision or some serious prior consideration. Outcomes were modeled using generalized estimating equations. Results: Prior consideration of quitting was unrelated to the outcome, but there were complex relationships for the delay between choosing a quit day and implementation. Those who reported quitting on the day they decided and those who delayed for 1 week or more had comparable rates of 6-month abstinence. Delaying for 1–6 days was associated with a greater relapse rate than those who quit on the day, although this effect became nonsignificant in multivariate analyses. Conclusions: Quitting is on most smokers’ minds regularly and most attempts are not preceded by a long lead in period following the decision to try. Neither prior consideration nor delay between the decision to quit and implementation was clearly related to outcomes. Previous findings of greater success for spontaneous quit attempts may be because they conflate setting a date in advance with planning and also perhaps some differential memory effects. PMID:20889481

  16. Children’s Perceptions of Maternal Hostility as a Mediator of the Link between Discipline and Children’s Adjustment in Four Countries

    PubMed Central

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Malone, Patrick S.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Chang, Lei; Chaudhary, Nandita; Tapanya, Sombat; Oburu, Paul; Deater-Deckard, Kirby

    2010-01-01

    Using data from 195 dyads of mothers and children (age range = 8–12 years; M = 10.63) in four countries (China, India, the Philippines, and Thailand), this study examined children’s perceptions of maternal hostility as a mediator of the links between physical discipline and harsh verbal discipline and children’s adjustment. Both physical discipline and harsh verbal discipline had direct effects on mothers’ reports of children’s anxiety and aggression; three of these four links were mediated by children’s perceptions of maternal hostility. In contrast, there were no significant direct effects of physical discipline and harsh verbal discipline on children’s reports of their own anxiety and aggression. Instead, both physical discipline and harsh verbal discipline had indirect effects on the outcomes through children’s perceptions of maternal hostility. We identified a significant interaction between perceived normativeness and use of harsh verbal discipline on children’s perception of maternal hostility, but children’s perception of the normativeness of physical discipline did not moderate the relation between physical discipline and perceived maternal hostility. The effects of harsh verbal discipline were more adverse when children perceived that form of discipline as being nonnormative than when children perceived that form of discipline as being normative. Results are largely consistent with a theoretical model positing that the meaning children attach to parents’ discipline strategies is important in understanding associations between discipline and children’s adjustment, and that cultural context is associated with children’s interpretations of their parents’ behavior. PMID:20823943

  17. Impact of reduced ignition propensity cigarette regulation on consumer smoking behavior and quit intentions: evidence from 6 waves (2004–11) of the ITC Four Country Survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although on the decline, smoking-related fires remain a leading cause of fire death in the United States and United Kingdom and account for over 10% of fire-related deaths worldwide. This has prompted lawmakers to enact legislation requiring manufacturers to implement reduced ignition propensity (RIP) safety standards for cigarettes. The current research evaluates how implementation of RIP safety standards in different countries influenced smokers’ perceptions of cigarette self-extinguishment, frequency of extinguishment, and the impact on consumer smoking behaviors, including cigarettes smoked per day and planning to quit. Methods Participants for this research come from Waves 3 through 8 of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey conducted longitudinally from 2004 through 2011 in the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, and Canada. Results Perceptions of cigarette self-extinguishment and frequency of extinguishment increased concurrently with an increase in the prevalence of RIP safety standards for cigarettes. Presence of RIP safety standards was also associated with a greater intention to quit smoking, but was not associated with the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Intention to quit was higher among those who were more likely to report that their cigarettes self-extinguish sometimes and often, but we found no evidence of an interaction between frequency of extinguishment and RIP safety standards on quit intentions. Conclusions Overall, because these standards largely do not influence consumer smoking behavior, RIP implementation may significantly reduce the number of cigarette-related fires and the associated death and damages. Further research should assess how implementation of RIP safety standards has influenced smoking-related fire incidence, deaths, and other costs associated with smoking-related fires. PMID:24359292

  18. Banning tobacco price promotions, smoking-related beliefs and behaviour: findings from the International Tobacco Control Four Country (ITC 4C) Survey.

    PubMed

    El-Toukhy, Sherine; Choi, Kelvin; Hitchman, Sara C; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Thrasher, James F; Yong, Hua-Hie; O'Connor, Richard J; Shang, Ce

    2017-07-12

    Ecological models emphasise multilevel influences on health behaviours. While studies show that exposure to price promotions is associated with smoking behaviour and its antecedents, less is known about whether these associations differ by macro-level factors such as national price promotion policies. Current and former smokers (N=4698) from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project four-country cohort were included in weighted multivariate logistic regression models to examine individual-level associations between exposure to price promotions at waves 7 and 8 (conducted in 2008-2009 and 2010-2011) and beliefs (social and injunctive norms, functional value of smoking, misconceptions around smoking and beliefs of tobacco industry and its regulations) and behaviour at wave 8, stratified by whether countries allow (Australia and USA) or ban (Canada and UK) price promotions. Associations between exposure to price promotions and smoking-related beliefs and behaviour differed by national price promotion policies. In countries that allow price promotions, participants repeatedly exposed to price promotions at waves 7 and 8 were more likely to associate functional values to smoking (ie, calms down when stressed (adjusted OR (AOR) 1.83) and to be current smokers at wave 8 (AOR 1.94). In countries that ban price promotions, participants repeatedly exposed to price promotions were less likely to hold misconceptions around smoking (ie, harsher smoke is more dangerous). Differential associations emerged between exposure to price promotions, smoking-related beliefs and behaviour across countries with and without a price promotions ban. Adopting price promotion bans could ameliorate the associations between exposure to price promotions and smoking beliefs and behaviours. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Do time perspective and sensation-seeking predict quitting activity among smokers? Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey.

    PubMed

    Hall, Peter A; Fong, Geoffrey T; Yong, Hua-Hie; Sansone, Genevieve; Borland, Ron; Siahpush, Mohammad

    2012-12-01

    Personality factors such as time perspective and sensation-seeking have been shown to predict smoking uptake. However, little is known about the influences of these variables on quitting behavior, and no prior studies have examined the association cross-nationally in a large probability sample. In the current study it was hypothesized that future time perspective would enhance - while sensation-seeking would inhibit - quitting activity among smokers. It was anticipated that the effects would be similar across English speaking countries. Using a prospective cohort design, this cross-national study of adult smokers (N=8845) examined the associations among time perspective, sensation-seeking and quitting activity using the first three waves of data gathered from the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey (ITC-4), a random digit dialed telephone survey of adult smokers from the United Kingdom, United States, Canada and Australia. Findings revealed that future time perspective (but not sensation-seeking) was a significant predictor of quitting attempts over the 8-month follow-up after adjusting for socio-demographic variables, factors known to inhibit quitting (e.g., perceived addiction, enjoyment of smoking, and perceived value of smoking), and factors known to enhance quitting (e.g., quit intention strength, perceived benefit of quitting, concerns about health effects of smoking). The latter, particularly intention, were significant mediators of the effect of time perspective on quitting activity. The effects of time perspective on quitting activity were similar across all four English speaking countries sampled. If these associations are causal in nature, it may be the case that interventions and health communications that enhance future-orientation may foster more quit attempts among current smokers.

  20. Impact of reduced ignition propensity cigarette regulation on consumer smoking behavior and quit intentions: evidence from 6 waves (2004-11) of the ITC Four Country Survey.

    PubMed

    Adkison, Sarah E; O'Connor, Richard J; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie; Cummings, K Michael; Hammond, David; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2013-12-21

    Although on the decline, smoking-related fires remain a leading cause of fire death in the United States and United Kingdom and account for over 10% of fire-related deaths worldwide. This has prompted lawmakers to enact legislation requiring manufacturers to implement reduced ignition propensity (RIP) safety standards for cigarettes. The current research evaluates how implementation of RIP safety standards in different countries influenced smokers' perceptions of cigarette self-extinguishment, frequency of extinguishment, and the impact on consumer smoking behaviors, including cigarettes smoked per day and planning to quit. Participants for this research come from Waves 3 through 8 of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey conducted longitudinally from 2004 through 2011 in the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, and Canada. Perceptions of cigarette self-extinguishment and frequency of extinguishment increased concurrently with an increase in the prevalence of RIP safety standards for cigarettes. Presence of RIP safety standards was also associated with a greater intention to quit smoking, but was not associated with the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Intention to quit was higher among those who were more likely to report that their cigarettes self-extinguish sometimes and often, but we found no evidence of an interaction between frequency of extinguishment and RIP safety standards on quit intentions. Overall, because these standards largely do not influence consumer smoking behavior, RIP implementation may significantly reduce the number of cigarette-related fires and the associated death and damages. Further research should assess how implementation of RIP safety standards has influenced smoking-related fire incidence, deaths, and other costs associated with smoking-related fires.

  1. Effects of Two Modes of Exercise Training on Physical Fitness of 10 Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribeiro, Ligia G. dos Santos Chaves; Portal, Maria de Nazare Dias; da Silva, Joao Bittencourt; Saraiva, Alan; da Cruz Monte, Gerson, Jr.; Dantas, Estelio H. M.

    2010-01-01

    Study aim: To compare two exercise training modes on the physical fitness of 10 year-old children. Material and methods: A sample of 60 schoolboys aged 10 years were randomly divided into 3 groups: Traditional (TG), trained according to the Brazilian national curricular parameters, Maturational (MG), in which the degree of difficulty of the…

  2. Natural History of Thyroid Function in Adults with Down Syndrome--10-Year Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasher, V.; Gomez, G.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The natural history of thyroid function in adults with Down syndrome (DS) is unknown. Method: This study investigated annual thyroid function tests in 200 adults with DS over a 10-year period. Results: Transient and persistent thyroid dysfunction was common. The 5- and 10-year incidence of definite hypothyroidism was 0.9%-1.64% and…

  3. The Career Trap. Breaking through the 10-Year Barrier To Get the Job You Really Want.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Jeffrey G.

    This book, which is intended for individuals who have been in a job for a decade and feel that their career development has stalled, explains how to break through the 10-year career barrier and get a desired job. The following topics are discussed in the book's 15 chapters: career stalls and their causes; the 10-year career barrier; the legality…

  4. Natural History of Thyroid Function in Adults with Down Syndrome--10-Year Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasher, V.; Gomez, G.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The natural history of thyroid function in adults with Down syndrome (DS) is unknown. Method: This study investigated annual thyroid function tests in 200 adults with DS over a 10-year period. Results: Transient and persistent thyroid dysfunction was common. The 5- and 10-year incidence of definite hypothyroidism was 0.9%-1.64% and…

  5. 7 CFR 625.9 - 10-year restoration cost-share agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 10-year restoration cost-share agreements. 625.9 Section 625.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES HEALTHY FORESTS RESERVE PROGRAM § 625.9 10-year...

  6. 77 FR 11651 - Hybrid III 10-Year-Old Child Test Dummy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 572 RIN 2127-AJ49 Hybrid III 10-Year-Old Child... specifications and qualification requirements for a Hybrid III 10-year- old size child test dummy (HIII-10C). In... Correlates 4. Repeatability in Systems Testing f. Dummy Development Efforts 1. Hybrid III Child Dummy...

  7. The Career Trap. Breaking through the 10-Year Barrier To Get the Job You Really Want.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Jeffrey G.

    This book, which is intended for individuals who have been in a job for a decade and feel that their career development has stalled, explains how to break through the 10-year career barrier and get a desired job. The following topics are discussed in the book's 15 chapters: career stalls and their causes; the 10-year career barrier; the legality…

  8. 7 CFR 625.9 - 10-year restoration cost-share agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false 10-year restoration cost-share agreements. 625.9 Section 625.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES HEALTHY FORESTS RESERVE PROGRAM § 625.9 10-year...

  9. 7 CFR 625.9 - 10-year restoration cost-share agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false 10-year restoration cost-share agreements. 625.9 Section 625.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES HEALTHY FORESTS RESERVE PROGRAM § 625.9 10-year...

  10. 7 CFR 625.9 - 10-year restoration cost-share agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false 10-year restoration cost-share agreements. 625.9 Section 625.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES HEALTHY FORESTS RESERVE PROGRAM § 625.9 10-year...

  11. 7 CFR 625.9 - 10-year restoration cost-share agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false 10-year restoration cost-share agreements. 625.9 Section 625.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES HEALTHY FORESTS RESERVE PROGRAM § 625.9 10-year...

  12. Revegetation after strip cutting and block clearcutting in northern hardwoods: a 10-year history

    Treesearch

    C. Wayne Martin; Hornbeck James W.; Hornbeck James W.

    1989-01-01

    Changes in the density and biomass of trees, shrubs, and herbs were measured periodically over 10 years following a progressive strip cutting and block clearcutting of northern hardwoods. At 10 years after clearcutting, yellow birch was the most numerous commercial or uncommercial tree on the block clearcut; sugar maple on the strip cut. Pin cherry dominated the...

  13. Monitoring the affordability of healthy eating: a case study of 10 years of the Illawarra Healthy Food Basket.

    PubMed

    Williams, Peter

    2010-11-01

    Healthy food baskets have been used around the world for a variety of purposes, including: examining the difference in cost between healthy and unhealthy food; mapping the availability of healthy foods in different locations; calculating the minimum cost of an adequate diet for social policy planning; developing educational material on low cost eating and examining trends on food costs over time. In Australia, the Illawarra Healthy Food Basket was developed in 2000 to monitor trends in the affordability of healthy food compared to average weekly wages and social welfare benefits for the unemployed. It consists of 57 items selected to meet the nutritional requirements of a reference family of five. Bi-annual costing from 2000-2009 has shown that the basket costs have increased by 38.4% in the 10-year period, but that affordability has remained relatively constant at around 30% of average household incomes.

  14. Association of depression and anxiety status with 10-year cardiovascular disease incidence among apparently healthy Greek adults: The ATTICA Study.

    PubMed

    Kyrou, Ioannis; Kollia, Natasa; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes; Georgousopoulou, Ekavi; Chrysohoou, Christina; Tsigos, Constantine; Randeva, Harpal S; Yannakoulia, Mary; Stefanadis, Christodoulos; Papageorgiou, Charalabos; Pitsavos, Christos

    2017-01-01

    Background Chronic stress frequently manifests with anxiety and/or depressive symptomatology and may have detrimental cardiometabolic effects over time. As such, recognising the potential links between stress-related psychological disorders and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is becoming increasingly important in cardiovascular epidemiology research. The primary aim of this study was to explore prospectively potential associations between clinically relevant depressive symptomatology and anxiety levels and the 10-year CVD incidence among apparently healthy Greek adults. Design A population-based, health and nutrition prospective survey. Methods In the context of the ATTICA Study (2002-2012), 853 adult participants without previous CVD history (453 men (45 ± 13 years) and 400 women (44 ± 18 years)) underwent psychological evaluations through validated, self-reporting depression and anxiety questionnaires. Results After adjustment for multiple established CVD risk factors, both reported depression and anxiety levels were positively and independently associated with the 10-year CVD incidence, with depression markedly increasing the CVD risk by approximately fourfold (adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) 3.6 (1.3, 11) for depression status; 1.03 (1.0, 1.1) for anxiety levels). Conclusions Our findings indicate that standardised psychological assessments focusing on depression and anxiety should be considered as an additional and distinct aspect in the context of CVD preventive strategies that are designed and implemented by health authorities at the general population level.

  15. Serum Lipid Levels and Dyslipidaemia Prevalence among 2–10 Year-Old Northern Mexican Children

    PubMed Central

    Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Salas, Rogelio; Novelo, Hilda I.; Villarreal, Jesús Z.; Sureda, Antoni; Tur, Josep A.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims The increase in overweight and obese children may be linked to increased rates of dyslipidaemia. The aim was to assess the prevalence of dyslipidaemia and associated risk factors among the Northern Mexican child population. Methods and Results Four hundred and fifty-one subjects aged between 2 and 10 (47.5% girls) took part in the Nuevo León State Survey of Nutrition and Health 2011–2012. According to the 2011 Expert Panel on Integrated Guidelines for Cardiovascular Health and Risk Reduction in Children and Adolescents, serum lipid levels (mg/dL) were categorized into three subgroups (acceptable, borderline-high/low or high/low) as follows: TChol: acceptable <170, borderline-high 170–199, high ≥200; LDL-chol: acceptable <110, borderline-high 110–129, high ≥130; non-HDL-chol: acceptable <120, borderline-high 120–144, high ≥145; HDL-chol: acceptable >45, borderline-low 40–45, low <40; and TG: acceptable <75, borderline-high 75–99, high ≥100 in ≤9 year-old children, and acceptable <90, borderline-high 90–129, and high ≥130 in 10 year-old children. The overall prevalence of borderline-high + high TG, non-HDL-chol, TChol, and LDL-chol was 63.0%, 44.1%, 43.5%, and 29.9%, respectively. The overall prevalence of borderline-low + low HDL-chol was 46.3%. The overall frequency of dyslipidaemia was 54.3%. Thirteen children (2.9%) had all five symptoms of dyslipidaemia. The most common dyslipidaemia was high TG in combination (26.2%) and in isolation (10.6%). Conclusions Half of the children had at least one abnormal lipid concentration. A high TG level was the most frequent dyslipidaemia. Obesity was associated with the occurrence of at least one abnormal lipid level. These findings emphasize the need to pay further attention to the prevention of cardiovascular disease and obesity from an early age. PMID:25793380

  16. Influenza and respiratory syncytial virus in infants study (IRIS) of hospitalized and non-ill infants aged <1 year in four countries: study design and methods.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Mark G; Hunt, Danielle R; Arbaji, Ali K; Simaku, Artan; Tallo, Veronica L; Biggs, Holly M; Kulb, Carolyn; Gordon, Aubree; Khader, Ilham Abu; Bino, Silvia; Lucero, Marilla G; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Shifflett, Pat; Sanchez, Felix; Marar, Basima I; Bakalli, Ilirjana; Simões, Eric A F; Levine, Min Z; Meece, Jennifer K; Balmaseda, Angel; Al-Sanouri, Tareq M; Dhimolea, Majlinda; de Jesus, Joanne N; Thornburg, Natalie J; Gerber, Susan I; Gresh, Lionel

    2017-03-22

    This multi-country prospective study of infants aged <1 year aims to assess the frequency of influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections associated with hospitalizations, to describe clinical features and antibody response to infection, and to examine predictors of very severe disease requiring intensive care. We are enrolling a hospital-based cohort and a sample of non-ill infants in four countries (Albania, Jordan, Nicaragua, and the Philippines) using a common protocol. We are currently starting year 2 of a 2- to 3-year study and will enroll approximately 3,000 infants hospitalized for any acute illness (respiratory or non-respiratory) during periods of local influenza and/or RSV circulation. After informed consent and within 24 h of admission, we collect blood and respiratory specimens and conduct an interview to assess socio-demographic characteristics, medical history, and symptoms of acute illness (onset ≤10 days). Vital signs, interventions, and medications are documented daily through medical record abstraction. A follow-up health assessment and collection of convalescent blood occurs 3-5 weeks after enrollment. Influenza and RSV infection is confirmed by singleplex real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) assays. Serologic conversion will be assessed comparing acute and convalescent sera using hemagglutination inhibition assay for influenza antibodies and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for RSV. Concurrent with hospital-based enrollment, respiratory specimens are also being collected (and tested by rRT-PCR) from approximately 1,400 non-ill infants aged <1 year during routine medical or preventive care. The Influenza and RSV in Infants Study (IRIS) promises to expand our knowledge of the frequency, clinical features, and antibody profiles of serious influenza and RSV disease among infants aged <1 year, quantify the proportion of infections that may be missed by traditional surveillance, and

  17. The feasibility of measuring and monitoring social determinants of health and the relevance for policy and programme - a qualitative assessment of four countries.

    PubMed

    Blas, Erik; Ataguba, John E; Huda, Tanvir M; Bao, Giang Kim; Rasella, Davide; Gerecke, Megan R

    2016-01-01

    Background Since the publication of the reports by the Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH), many research papers have documented inequities, explaining causal pathways in order to inform policy and programmatic decision-making. At the international level, the sustainable development goals (SDGs) reflect an attempt to bring together these themes and the complexities involved in defining a comprehensive development framework. However, to date, much less has been done to address the monitoring challenges, that is, how data generation, analysis and use are to become routine tasks. Objective To test proposed indicators of social determinants of health (SDH), gender, equity, and human rights with respect to their relevance in tracking progress in universal health coverage and population health (level and distribution). Design In an attempt to explore these monitoring challenges, indicators covering a wide range of social determinants were tested in four country case studies (Bangladesh, Brazil, South Africa, and Vietnam) for their technical feasibility, reliability, and validity, and their communicability and usefulness to policy-makers. Twelve thematic domains with 20 core indicators covering different aspects of equity, human rights, gender, and SDH were tested through a review of data sources, descriptive analyses, key informant interviews, and focus group discussions. To test the communicability and usefulness of the domains, domain narratives that explained the causal pathways were presented to policy-makers, managers, the media, and civil society leaders. Results For most countries, monitoring is possible, as some data were available for most of the core indicators. However, a qualitative assessment showed that technical feasibility, reliability, and validity varied across indicators and countries. Producing understandable and useful information proved challenging, and particularly so in translating indicator definitions and data into meaningful lay

  18. The feasibility of measuring and monitoring social determinants of health and the relevance for policy and programme – a qualitative assessment of four countries

    PubMed Central

    Blas, Erik; Ataguba, John E.; Huda, Tanvir M.; Bao, Giang Kim; Rasella, Davide; Gerecke, Megan R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Since the publication of the reports by the Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH), many research papers have documented inequities, explaining causal pathways in order to inform policy and programmatic decision-making. At the international level, the sustainable development goals (SDGs) reflect an attempt to bring together these themes and the complexities involved in defining a comprehensive development framework. However, to date, much less has been done to address the monitoring challenges, that is, how data generation, analysis and use are to become routine tasks. Objective To test proposed indicators of social determinants of health (SDH), gender, equity, and human rights with respect to their relevance in tracking progress in universal health coverage and population health (level and distribution). Design In an attempt to explore these monitoring challenges, indicators covering a wide range of social determinants were tested in four country case studies (Bangladesh, Brazil, South Africa, and Vietnam) for their technical feasibility, reliability, and validity, and their communicability and usefulness to policy-makers. Twelve thematic domains with 20 core indicators covering different aspects of equity, human rights, gender, and SDH were tested through a review of data sources, descriptive analyses, key informant interviews, and focus group discussions. To test the communicability and usefulness of the domains, domain narratives that explained the causal pathways were presented to policy-makers, managers, the media, and civil society leaders. Results For most countries, monitoring is possible, as some data were available for most of the core indicators. However, a qualitative assessment showed that technical feasibility, reliability, and validity varied across indicators and countries. Producing understandable and useful information proved challenging, and particularly so in translating indicator definitions and data into meaningful lay

  19. Prevalence and sociodemographic determinants of tobacco use in four countries of the World Health Organization: South-East Asia region: findings from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey.

    PubMed

    Palipudi, K; Rizwan, S A; Sinha, D N; Andes, L J; Amarchand, R; Krishnan, A; Asma, S

    2014-12-01

    Tobacco use is a leading cause of deaths and Disability Adjusted Life Years lost worldwide, particularly in South-East Asia. Health risks associated with exclusive use of one form of tobacco alone has a different health risk profile when compared to dual use. In order to tease out specific profiles of mutually exclusive categories of tobacco use, we carried out this analysis. The Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) data was used to describe the profiles of three mutually exclusive tobacco use categories ("Current smoking only," "Current smokeless tobacco [SLT] use only," and "Dual use") in four World Health Organization South-East Asia Region countries, namely Bangladesh, India, Indonesia and Thailand. GATS was a nationally representative household-based survey that used a stratified multistage cluster sampling design proportional to population size. Prevalence of different forms of usage were described as proportions. Logistics regression analyses was performed to calculate odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals. All analyses were weighted, accounted for the complex sampling design and conducted using SPSS version 18. The prevalence of different forms of tobacco use varied across countries. Current tobacco use ranged from 27.2% in Thailand to 43.3% in Bangladesh. Exclusively smoking was more common in Indonesia (34.0%) and Thailand (23.4%) and less common in Bangladesh (16.1%) and India (8.7%). Exclusively using SLT was more common in Bangladesh (20.3%) and India (20.6%) and less common on Indonesia (0.9%) and Thailand (3.5%). Dual use of smoking and SLT was found in Bangladesh (6.8%) and India (5.3%), but was negligible in Indonesia (0.8) and Thailand (0.4%). Gender, age, education and wealth had significant effects on the OR for most forms of tobacco use across all four countries with the exceptions of SLT use in Indonesia and dual use in both Indonesia and Thailand. In general, the different forms of tobacco use increased among males and with increasing

  20. The feasibility of measuring and monitoring social determinants of health and the relevance for policy and programme - a qualitative assessment of four countries.

    PubMed

    Blas, Erik; Ataguba, John E; Huda, Tanvir M; Bao, Giang Kim; Rasella, Davide; Gerecke, Megan R

    2016-01-01

    Since the publication of the reports by the Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH), many research papers have documented inequities, explaining causal pathways in order to inform policy and programmatic decision-making. At the international level, the sustainable development goals (SDGs) reflect an attempt to bring together these themes and the complexities involved in defining a comprehensive development framework. However, to date, much less has been done to address the monitoring challenges, that is, how data generation, analysis and use are to become routine tasks. To test proposed indicators of social determinants of health (SDH), gender, equity, and human rights with respect to their relevance in tracking progress in universal health coverage and population health (level and distribution). In an attempt to explore these monitoring challenges, indicators covering a wide range of social determinants were tested in four country case studies (Bangladesh, Brazil, South Africa, and Vietnam) for their technical feasibility, reliability, and validity, and their communicability and usefulness to policy-makers. Twelve thematic domains with 20 core indicators covering different aspects of equity, human rights, gender, and SDH were tested through a review of data sources, descriptive analyses, key informant interviews, and focus group discussions. To test the communicability and usefulness of the domains, domain narratives that explained the causal pathways were presented to policy-makers, managers, the media, and civil society leaders. For most countries, monitoring is possible, as some data were available for most of the core indicators. However, a qualitative assessment showed that technical feasibility, reliability, and validity varied across indicators and countries. Producing understandable and useful information proved challenging, and particularly so in translating indicator definitions and data into meaningful lay and managerial narratives, and

  1. Public awareness of aesthetic and other forest values associated with sustainable forest management: a cross-cultural comparison among the public in four countries.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sang Seop; Innes, John L; Meitner, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Korea, China, Japan and Canada are all members of the Montreal Process (MP). However, there has been little comparative research on the public awareness of forest values within the framework of Sustainable Forest Management, not only between Asia and Canada, but also among these three Asian countries. This is true of aesthetic values, especially as the MP framework has no indicator for aesthetic values. We conducted surveys to identify similarities and differences in the perceptions of various forest values, including aesthetic values, between residents of the four countries: university student groups in Korea, China, Japan and Canada, as well as a more detailed assessment of the attitudes of Koreans by including two additional groups, Korean office workers, and Koreans living in Canada. A multivariate analysis of variance test across the four university student groups revealed significant differences in the rating of six forest functions out of 31. However the same test across the three Korean groups indicated no significant differences indicating higher confidence in the generalizability of our university student comparisons. For the forest aesthetic values, an analysis of variance test showed no significant differences across all groups. The forest aesthetic value was rated 6.95 to 7.98 (out of 10.0) depending on the group and rated relatively highly among ten social values across all the groups. Thurstone scale rankings and relative distances of six major forest values indicated that climate change control was ranked as the highest priority and scenic beauty was ranked the lowest by all the groups. Comparison tests of the frequencies of preferred major forest values revealed no significant differences across the groups with the exception of the Japanese group. These results suggest that public awareness of aesthetic and other forest values are not clearly correlated with the cultural backgrounds of the individuals, and the Korean university students' awareness

  2. Actual over 10-year survival after liver resection for patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Si, Anfeng; Li, Jun; Xiang, Hongjun; Zhang, Shichao; Bai, Shilei; Yang, Pinghua; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Xia, Yong; Wang, Kui; Yan, Zhenlin; Lau, Wan Yee; Shi, Lehua; Shen, Feng

    2017-07-04

    Partial hepatectomy is a potentially curative therapy for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). Unfortunately, the overall surgical prognosis remains dismal and the actual 10-year survival has not been reported. This study aimed to document 10-year actual survival rates, identify the prognostic factors associated with 10-year survival rate, and analyze the characteristics of patients who survived ≥ 10 years. Among 251 patients who underwent curative liver resection for ICC between 2003 and 2006 at the Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital, 21 patients (8.4%) survived ≥ 10 years. The 5-, 7-, and 10-year overall survival rates were 32.3%, 22.3% and 8.4%, respectively. The 10-year cumulative incidence of ICC-related death and recurrence were 80.9% and 85.7%, respectively. Multivariate analysis based on competing risk survival analysis identified that tumor > 5 cm was independently associated with ICC-related death and recurrence (hazard ratios: 1.369 and 1.445, respectively), in addition to carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) >10 U/mL, carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) >39 U/mL, multiple nodules, vascular invasion, nodal metastasis and local extrahepatic invasion. Patients who survived ≥ 10 years had a longer time to first recurrence, lower levels of CEA, CA19-9 and alkaline phosphatase, less perioperative blood loss, solitary tumor, smaller tumor size, and absence of nodal metastasis or local extrahepatic invasion. In conclusion, a 10-year survival after liver resection for ICC is possible and can be expected in approximately 8.4% of patients.

  3. [Clinicopathologic features of hepatocellular carcinoma patients surviving more than 10 years after radical hepatectomy].

    PubMed

    Wu, L Q; Wang, Z S; Cao, J Y; Hu, W Y; Han, B; Sun, C D; Zhang, B Y; Qiu, F B; Zhang, S; Yang, J Y; Cui, Z J

    2017-02-01

    Objective: To clarify the clinicopathologic features of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients survived more than 10 years after radical hepatectomy. Methods: Two hundreds and fifty-two patients who underwent curative resection for HCC between January 1999 and March 2006 at Department of Hepatopancreatobiliary Surgery, Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University were included.There were 217 male cases and 35 female cases aging from 17 to 82 years with median age of (53.8±10.5)years. Followed by March 31 2016, clinicopathologic factors in 10-year survivors and patients who died within 10 years were compared by χ(2) test, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional hazards model and the prognostic factors affecting survival were identified. Results: All patients were followed-up for 4.0 to 205.7 months with median time of 53.4 months. The 10-year overall survival rate was 26%, there were 62 cases(26.2%) who survived for more than 10 years after initial hepatectomy. In survival >10-year group, the paitents with ALT<40 U/L, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase<64 U/L, albumin≥35 g/L, without liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension, Child-Pugh grade A, no blood transfusion, AFP≤20 μg/L, tumor size ≤5.0 cm, single tumor, high differentiation, TNM stage Ⅰ and TACE negative after resection were more than the patients in survival <10-year group (P<0.05). In multivariate analysis, Child-Pugh grade A, the tumor size ≤5.0 cm and TACE negative after resection were favorable independent factors associated with 10-year survival (P<0.05). Conclusion: Based on the results of the study, Child-Pugh grade A, tumor size ≤5.0 cm and TACE negative after resection at initial hepatectomy might be biologically favorable conditions for patients surviving more than 10 years.

  4. How To Teach Nutrition to Kids: An Integrated, Creative Approach to Nutrition Education for Children Ages 6-10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evers, Connie Liakos

    This book presents nutrition education activities and strategies that are child-tested and teacher-endorsed. It targets educators, nutrition professionals, parents, and other caregivers, offering the tools to teach children ages 6-10 years about nutrition in a meaningful, integrated way. Divided by subject, this resource integrates nutrition into…

  5. How To Teach Nutrition to Kids: An Integrated, Creative Approach to Nutrition Education for Children Ages 6-10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evers, Connie Liakos

    This book presents nutrition education activities and strategies that are child-tested and teacher-endorsed. It targets educators, nutrition professionals, parents, and other caregivers, offering the tools to teach children ages 6-10 years about nutrition in a meaningful, integrated way. Divided by subject, this resource integrates nutrition into…

  6. Treating severe partial anodontia: a 10-year history of patient treatment.

    PubMed

    Dario, L J; Aschaffenburg, P H

    1994-12-01

    Severe partial anodontia is relatively rare. This case report describes the 10-year treatment history of a patient with partial anodontia, beginning with removable partial overlay dentures and culminating with fixed implant prostheses.

  7. A 10-year longitudinal study of tubal function in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma after irradiation.

    PubMed

    Young, Y H; Cheng, P W; Ko, J Y

    1997-09-01

    To follow up the chronological change of tubal function in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma for 10 years after irradiation. Patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma were subjected to eustachian tube function tests before irradiation and 6 months, 5 years, and 10 years after irradiation. University hospital. Ten patients (20 ears), 7 men and 3 women. Twelve (60%) of the ears had patulous tubes 10 years after irradiation, which might result from atrophy of peritubal tissues. The occurrence of a patulous tube was independent of the radiation dosage, but it was related to the interval since irradiation. Development of a patulous tube is associated with correction of organic obstruction of the eustachian tube. Resolution of the inflammatory reaction plays the most important role in recovery of function of the tube. Therefore, the prevalence of middle ear complications is low 10 years after irradiation.

  8. Maintenance of antifracture efficacy over 10 years with strontium ranelate in postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Reginster, J-Y; Kaufman, J-M; Goemaere, S; Devogelaer, J P; Benhamou, C L; Felsenberg, D; Diaz-Curiel, M; Brandi, M-L; Badurski, J; Wark, J; Balogh, A; Bruyère, O; Roux, C

    2012-03-01

    In an open-label extension study, BMD increased continuously with strontium ranelate over 10 years in osteoporotic women (P < 0.01). Vertebral and nonvertebral fracture incidence was lower between 5 and 10 years than in a matched placebo group over 5 years (P < 0.05). Strontium ranelate's antifracture efficacy appears to be maintained long term. Strontium ranelate has proven efficacy against vertebral and nonvertebral fractures, including hip, over 5 years in postmenopausal osteoporosis. We explored long-term efficacy and safety of strontium ranelate over 10 years. Postmenopausal osteoporotic women participating in the double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 studies SOTI and TROPOS to 5 years were invited to enter a 5-year open-label extension, during which they received strontium ranelate 2 g/day (n = 237, 10-year population). Bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture incidence were recorded, and FRAX® scores were calculated. The effect of strontium ranelate on fracture incidence was evaluated by comparison with a FRAX®-matched placebo group identified in the TROPOS placebo arm. The patients in the 10-year population had baseline characteristics comparable to those of the total SOTI/TROPOS population. Over 10 years, lumbar BMD increased continuously and significantly (P < 0.01 versus previous year) with 34.5 ± 20.2% relative change from baseline to 10 years. The incidence of vertebral and nonvertebral fracture with strontium ranelate in the 10-year population in years 6 to 10 was comparable to the incidence between years 0 and 5, but was significantly lower than the incidence observed in the FRAX®-matched placebo group over 5 years (P < 0.05); relative risk reductions for vertebral and nonvertebral fractures were 35% and 38%, respectively. Strontium ranelate was safe and well tolerated over 10 years. Long-term treatment with strontium ranelate is associated with sustained increases in BMD over 10 years, with a good safety profile. Our results also support

  9. Attentional skills 10 years post-paediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI).

    PubMed

    Catroppa, Cathy; Anderson, Vicki; Godfrey, Celia; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V

    2011-01-01

    To date no study has reported findings regarding attentional deficits following pre-school paediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI), as long as 10 years post-injury. It was predicted that more severe TBI would be associated with generalized deficits at 10 years post-TBI, particularly for skills not mastered at time of injury. The sample comprised 40 prospectively-recruited children (42% of the original sample) who had sustained a mild, moderate or severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) between the ages of 1-7 years and 19 non-injured control participants. Children were assessed 10 years post-TBI, with a focus on measures of attentional ability. While attentional deficits were not evident across all components of attentional ability, both early- and later-established attention skills were compromised, particularly following severe TBI. Environmental predictors were generally not successful predictors of attentional outcome at 10 years post-TBI. Age at injury and acute IQ were identified as contributing to attention at 10 years. The present study shows that attentional deficits do occur and persist to 10 years following serious TBI. Clinicians may be able to screen for such deficits and so intervene in order to prevent or lessen the consequences of such difficulties.

  10. Anatomical and functional graft survival, 10 years after epikeratoplasty in keratoconus

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Anita; Gupta, Anoop K; Sharma, Namrata; Nindrakrishna, Sasikala; Vajpayee, Rasik

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To report outcomes of epikeratoplasty in keratoconus (KC), utilizing manually-prepared plano donor lenticules in terms of flattening of the cone, reduction in astigmatism and improvement in the visual acuity. Materials and Methods: Patients with KC, having visual acuity <20/200, astigmatism >12 diopters (D) but without corneal opacity underwent epikeratoplasty, using manually prepared plano donor lenticules from fresh or M.K preserved corneas, between 1990 - 2000 and followed for 10 years, were included in this report. Visual acuity slit-lamp-biomicroscopy, keratometry, and refraction were performed at 8 weeks, 12 weeks, and 6 months for all 59 patients. The same were carried out at 1 year, 5 years, and 10 years depending upon the availability of the patient for that period. Results: Of the 59 patients, only 26 were available for follow-up after 10 years. At 3 months, 1 year and 5 years, best corrected visual acuity of (BCVA) ≥20/60 were achieved in 84.7%, 84.4% and 80.3% of eyes, respectively. BCVA was 73% at 10-year follow- up, which was due to the presence of posterior subcapsular cataract (PSC). The average keratometric astigmatism and average flattening in diopters stabilized at the end of 3 months, which remained constant at 1, 5, and 10-year follow-up. The average diopter of myopia was stabilized by 1 year, which was almost same at 10 year. Graft was clear in all but 1 eye at 10 year follow-up. Conclusion: Epikeratoplasty is a useful technique for keratoconic eyes without apical scarring who fail or unable to use contact lenses. PMID:23275216

  11. Dental age estimation: the role of probability estimates at the 10 year threshold.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Victoria S; McDonald, Fraser; Neil, Monica; Roberts, Graham

    2014-08-01

    The use of probability at the 18 year threshold has simplified the reporting of dental age estimates for emerging adults. The availability of simple to use widely available software has enabled the development of the probability threshold for individual teeth in growing children. Tooth development stage data from a previous study at the 10 year threshold were reused to estimate the probability of developing teeth being above or below the 10 year thresh-hold using the NORMDIST Function in Microsoft Excel. The probabilities within an individual subject are averaged to give a single probability that a subject is above or below 10 years old. To test the validity of this approach dental panoramic radiographs of 50 female and 50 male children within 2 years of the chronological age were assessed with the chronological age masked. Once the whole validation set of 100 radiographs had been assessed the masking was removed and the chronological age and dental age compared. The dental age was compared with chronological age to determine whether the dental age correctly or incorrectly identified a validation subject as above or below the 10 year threshold. The probability estimates correctly identified children as above or below on 94% of occasions. Only 2% of the validation group with a chronological age of less than 10 years were assigned to the over 10 year group. This study indicates the very high accuracy of assignment at the 10 year threshold. Further work at other legally important age thresholds is needed to explore the value of this approach to the technique of age estimation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Sheepskin effects of education in the 10-year Framingham risk of coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sze Yan; Buka, Stephen L; Kubzansky, Laura D; Kawachi, Ichiro; Gilman, Stephen E; Loucks, Eric B

    2013-03-01

    While the association between education and adult health is well documented, it is unclear whether quantity (i.e. years of schooling) or credentials (i.e. degrees) drive this association. Individuals with degrees may have better health than their non-credentialed counterparts given similar years of schooling, the so-called "sheepskin" effect. This paper contributes to this line of inquiry by examining associations of educational degree and years of schooling with the Framingham Risk Score, a measure of 10-year risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), using data from a unique birth cohort (the New England Family Study; participants mean age 42 years) with prospective information on childhood health and intelligence quotient (IQ). According to our results, years of schooling were inversely associated with 10-year CHD risk in the unadjusted model but not in the fully adjusted models that included degree attainment. By contrast, associations between degree attainment and 10-year CHD risk remained significant in the fully adjusted models that included years of schooling. College degree holders had 10-year CHD risk 19% (95% CI: -33%, -2%) lower than individuals with HS degrees or less in the fully adjusted models. Subanalyses evaluating sheepskin effects on the individual components of the 10-year CHD risk algorithm showed the expected education gradient was generally noted for each of the individual components, with decreasing prevalence of "high risk" values associated with higher degree credentials. Our results suggest educational credentials provide an additional benefit to risk of coronary heart disease beyond schooling.

  13. Sustained linear growth and preserved renal function in 10-year survivors of pediatric liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sanghoon; Kim, Jong-Man; Choi, Gyu-Seong; Kwon, Choon Hyuck D; Choe, Yon-Ho; Joh, Jae-Won; Lee, Suk-Koo

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the clinical outcomes of children and adolescents who achieved survival of more than 10 years following liver transplantation (LT) in a single center in Korea. From June 1996 to October 2003, 57 pediatric LTs were performed. The medical records of 44 patients who had survived more than 10 years were reviewed retrospectively. Median age of patients at LT was 0.8 years. Forty-one patients received living donor LT, and three patients received deceased donor LT. Biliary atresia was the most common indication (65.9%). Thirty-five patients were on tacrolimus monotherapy at 10 years post-LT with a mean trough level of 2.73 ng/ml, and five patients were maintaining stable graft function without any immunosuppression. There were no patients receiving antihypertensive medication and one case of diabetes mellitus. Renal dysfunction was seen in two patients (4.5%), while none required renal replacement therapy. Mean height z-score prior to LT was -1.35 and at 10 years post-transplant was 0.05. Good linear growth was sustained in this cohort throughout the 10 years, approaching the 50th percentile. Also, there were remarkably low incidences of renal dysfunction and patients requiring medications for glycemic or hypertensive control, all hallmarks of continued use of immunosuppressive agents. © 2015 Steunstichting ESOT.

  14. Sex differences in cognition are stable over a 10-year period in adulthood and old age.

    PubMed

    de Frias, Cindy M; Nilsson, Lars-Göran; Herlitz, Agneta

    2006-01-01

    Sex differences in declarative memory and visuospatial ability are robust in cross-sectional studies. The present longitudinal study examined whether sex differences in cognition were present over a 10-year period, and whether age modified the magnitude of sex differences. Tests assessing episodic and semantic memory, and visuospatial ability were administered to 625 nondemented adults (initially aged 35-80 years), participating in the population-based Betula study at two follow-up occasions. There was stability of sex differences across five age groups and over a 10-year period. Women performed at a higher level than men on episodic recall, face and verbal recognition, and semantic fluency, whereas men performed better than women on a task-assessing, visuospatial ability. Sex differences in cognitive functions are stable over a 10-year period and from 35 to 90 years of age.

  15. Optimism and Resources: Effects on Each Other and on Health over 10 Years

    PubMed Central

    Segerstrom, Suzanne C.

    2007-01-01

    Dispositional optimism may be associated with growth of social and status resources by virtue of optimists' greater persistence and better performance. Conversely, resource growth may give people a more positive view of their future and increase optimism. Changes in dispositional optimism and resources over 10 years were examined in former law students (N = 61). More optimistic first-year law students made more money 10 years later, but income did not predict later optimism. More optimistic students did not have larger social networks 10 years later, but increases in social network size predicted increased optimism. These changes predicted mental and physical health. Dispositional optimism was less stable than many personality traits (r = .35), potentially because it is responsive to resource change. PMID:24347739

  16. Depressive symptoms in first-episode psychosis: a 10-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Sönmez, Nasrettin; Røssberg, Jan Ivar; Evensen, Julie; Barder, Helene Eidsmo; Haahr, Ulrik; Ten Velden Hegelstad, Wenche; Joa, Inge; Johannessen, Jan Olav; Langeveld, Hans; Larsen, Tor Ketil; Melle, Ingrid; Opjordsmoen, Stein; Rund, Bjørn Rishovd; Simonsen, Erik; Vaglum, Per; McGlashan, Thomas; Friis, Svein

    2016-06-01

    The present study examined if any patient characteristics at baseline predicted depressive symptoms at 10 years and whether patients prone to depressive symptoms in the first year of treatment had a different prognosis in the following years. A total of 299 first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders were assessed for depressive symptoms with PANSS depression item (g6) at baseline, and 1, 2, 5 and 10 years of follow up. At 10 years, depressive symptoms were also assessed with Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS). A PANSS g6 ≥ 4 and CDSS score ≥ 6 were used as a cut-off score for depression. A total of 122 (41%) patients were scored as depressed at baseline, 75 (28%) at 1 year, 50 (20%) at 2 years, 33 (16%) at 5 years, and 35 (19%) at 10 years of follow up. Poor childhood social functioning and alcohol use at baseline predicted depression at 10 years of follow up. Thirty-eight patients were depressed at both baseline and 1 year follow up. This group had poorer symptomatic and functional outcome in the follow-up period compared to a group of patients with no depression in the first year of treatment. Depressive symptoms are frequent among FEP patients at baseline but decrease after treatment because their general symptoms have been initiated. Patients with poor social functioning in childhood and alcohol use at baseline are more prone to have depressive symptoms at 10 years of follow up. Patients struggling with depressive symptoms in the first year of treatment should be identified as having poorer long-term prognosis. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  17. Radiofrequency Ablation for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: 10-Year Outcome and Prognostic Factors

    PubMed Central

    Shiina, Shuichiro; Tateishi, Ryosuke; Arano, Toru; Uchino, Koji; Enooku, Kenichiro; Nakagawa, Hayato; Asaoka, Yoshinari; Sato, Takahisa; Masuzaki, Ryota; Kondo, Yuji; Goto, Tadashi; Yoshida, Haruhiko; Omata, Masao; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is widely performed for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, there has been no report on 10-year outcome of RFA. The objective of this study was to report a 10-year consecutive case series at a tertiary referral center. METHODS: We performed 2,982 RFA treatments on 1,170 primary HCC patients and analyzed a collected database. RESULTS: Final computed tomography images showed complete tumor ablation in 2,964 (99.4%) of 2,982 treatments performed for the 1,170 primary HCC patients. With a median follow-up of 38.2 months, 5- and 10-year survival rates were 60.2% (95% confidence interval (CI): 56.7–63.9%) and 27.3% (95% CI: 21.5–34.7%), respectively. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that age, antibody to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV), Child-Pugh class, tumor size, tumor number, serum des-γ-carboxy-prothrombin (DCP) level, and serum lectin-reactive α-fetoprotein level (AFP-L3) were significantly related to survival. Five- and 10-year local tumor progression rates were both 3.2% (95% CI: 2.1–4.3%). Serum DCP level alone was significantly related to local tumor progression. Five- and 10-year distant recurrence rates were 74.8% (95% CI: 71.8–77.8%) and 80.8% (95% CI: 77.4–84.3%), respectively. Anti-HCV, Child-Pugh class, platelet count, tumor size, tumor number, serum AFP level, and serum DCP level were significantly related to distant recurrence. There were 67 complications (2.2%) and 1 death (0.03%). CONCLUSIONS: RFA could be locally curative for HCC, resulting in survival for as long as 10 years, and was a safe procedure. RFA might be a first-line treatment for selected patients with early-stage HCC. PMID:22158026

  18. Hepatitis C virus recurrence after liver transplantation: A 10-year evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Gitto, Stefano; Belli, Luca Saverio; Vukotic, Ranka; Lorenzini, Stefania; Airoldi, Aldo; Cicero, Arrigo Francesco Giuseppe; Vangeli, Marcello; Brodosi, Lucia; Panno, Arianna Martello; Di Donato, Roberto; Cescon, Matteo; Grazi, Gian Luca; De Carlis, Luciano; Pinna, Antonio Daniele; Bernardi, Mauro; Andreone, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the predictors of 10-year survival of patients with hepatitis C recurrence. METHODS: Data from 358 patients transplanted between 1989 and 2010 in two Italian transplant centers and with evidence of hepatitis C recurrence were analyzed. A χ2, Fisher’s exact test and Kruskal Wallis’ test were used for categorical and continuous variables, respectively. Survival analysis was performed at 10 years after transplant using the Kaplan-Meier method, and a log-rank test was used to compare groups. A P level less than 0.05 was considered significant for all tests. Multivariate analysis of the predictive role of different variables on 10-year survival was performed by a stepwise Cox logistic regression. RESULTS: The ten-year survival of the entire population was 61.2%. Five groups of patients were identified according to the virological response or lack of a response to antiviral treatment and, among those who were not treated, according to the clinical status (mild hepatitis C recurrence, “too sick to be treated” and patients with comorbidities contraindicating the treatment). While the 10-year survival of treated and untreated patients was not different (59.1% vs 64.7%, P = 0.192), patients with a sustained virological response had a higher 10-year survival rate than both the “non-responders” (84.7% vs 39.8%, P < 0.0001) and too sick to be treated (84.7% vs 0%, P < 0.0001). Sustained virological responders had a survival rate comparable to patients untreated with mild recurrence (84.7% vs 89.3%). A sustained virological response and young donor age were independent predictors of 10-year survival. CONCLUSION: Sustained virological response significantly increased long-term survival. Awaiting the interferon-free regimen global availability, antiviral treatment might be questionable in selected subjects with mild hepatitis C recurrence. PMID:25852276

  19. Hepatitis C virus recurrence after liver transplantation: a 10-year evaluation.

    PubMed

    Gitto, Stefano; Belli, Luca Saverio; Vukotic, Ranka; Lorenzini, Stefania; Airoldi, Aldo; Cicero, Arrigo Francesco Giuseppe; Vangeli, Marcello; Brodosi, Lucia; Panno, Arianna Martello; Di Donato, Roberto; Cescon, Matteo; Grazi, Gian Luca; De Carlis, Luciano; Pinna, Antonio Daniele; Bernardi, Mauro; Andreone, Pietro

    2015-04-07

    To evaluate the predictors of 10-year survival of patients with hepatitis C recurrence. Data from 358 patients transplanted between 1989 and 2010 in two Italian transplant centers and with evidence of hepatitis C recurrence were analyzed. A χ(2), Fisher's exact test and Kruskal Wallis' test were used for categorical and continuous variables, respectively. Survival analysis was performed at 10 years after transplant using the Kaplan-Meier method, and a log-rank test was used to compare groups. A P level less than 0.05 was considered significant for all tests. Multivariate analysis of the predictive role of different variables on 10-year survival was performed by a stepwise Cox logistic regression. The ten-year survival of the entire population was 61.2%. Five groups of patients were identified according to the virological response or lack of a response to antiviral treatment and, among those who were not treated, according to the clinical status (mild hepatitis C recurrence, "too sick to be treated" and patients with comorbidities contraindicating the treatment). While the 10-year survival of treated and untreated patients was not different (59.1% vs 64.7%, P = 0.192), patients with a sustained virological response had a higher 10-year survival rate than both the "non-responders" (84.7% vs 39.8%, P < 0.0001) and too sick to be treated (84.7% vs 0%, P < 0.0001). Sustained virological responders had a survival rate comparable to patients untreated with mild recurrence (84.7% vs 89.3%). A sustained virological response and young donor age were independent predictors of 10-year survival. Sustained virological response significantly increased long-term survival. Awaiting the interferon-free regimen global availability, antiviral treatment might be questionable in selected subjects with mild hepatitis C recurrence.

  20. Estimates of 7-day, 10-year minimum flows at selected stream sites in Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cobb, Ernest D.

    1978-01-01

    The 7-day, 10-year minimum flow of streams is used as an index for determining the capacity of streams to receive waste effluents. This index of flow was computed from streamflow records for 31 stream sites in Puerto Rico. In addition, there was a need for the 7-day, 10-year minimum flow at an additional 15 stream sites for which adequate streamflow data were not available. The flow index was estimated at these sites on the basis of available record, records at nearby sites, and comparisons with drainage areas. (Woodard-USGS)

  1. Association of Generalized Psoriasis and Mixed Glomerulonephritis in a 10-year-old Girl.

    PubMed

    Milošević, Danko; Husar, Karmela; Batinić, Danica; Ćorić, Marijana; Jović, Anamaria; Turudić, Daniel; Pelajić, Stipe; Dumić Čule, Ivo

    2017-07-01

    Generalized psoriasis and renal function disorder were previously described in sporadic adult cases, revealing a new entity - psoriatic nephropathy. So far there have been only two cases describing this association in children. We present and discuss a case of 10-year-old girl with the unique biopsy findings of double glomerulonephritis associated with the simultaneous onset of generalized psoriasis.

  2. Eating With Your Heart In Mind: 7 to 10 Year Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Heart, Lung, and Blood Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    The purpose of this brightly illustrated guide is to teach 7-10 year old children that all healthy Americans, 2 years of age or older, should eat in a way that is low in saturated fat and cholesterol so as to help reduce the risk of heart disease. The theme reflected throughout the manual is that changes in eating patterns help lower blood…

  3. Childhood Reactions to Terrorism-Induced Trauma: A Review of the Past 10 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fremont, Wanda P.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To summarize the literature about the clinical presentation and treatment interventions of childhood reactions to terrorism-induced trauma. Method: The literature on children's responses to terrorist activities was reviewed. Results: Over the past 10 years, more research has emerged on the subject of terrorism in children. Many of the…

  4. Anticipatory Action Planning Increases from 3 to 10 Years of Age in Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jongbloed-Pereboom, Marjolein; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W. G.; Saraber-Schiphorst, Nicole; Craje, Celine; Steenbergen, Bert

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to assess the development of action planning in a group of typically developing children aged 3 to 10 years (N = 351). The second aim was to assess reliability of the action planning task and to relate the results of the action planning task to results of validated upper limb motor performance tests. Participants…

  5. Is the Party Over? Cannabis and Juvenile Psychiatric Disorder: The Past 10 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rey, Joseph M.; Martin, Andres; Krabman, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To critically review cannabis research during the past 10 years in relation to rates of use, behavioral problems, and mental disorders in young people. Method: Studies published in English between 1994 and 2004 were identified through systematic searches of literature databases. The material was selectively reviewed focusing on child…

  6. The course of growth response in released white spruce--10-year results

    Treesearch

    Robert M. Frank; Robert M. Frank

    1973-01-01

    Weekly bole measurements at 4.5 feet in height were made on individual codominant white spruce trees released on one, two, three, and four sides, and on untreated controls. Results showed that after 10 years annual circumference growth was still significantly related to the degree of release. The growth trend was established the first year but significant differences...

  7. Injuries to elite male cricketers in Australia over a 10-year period.

    PubMed

    Orchard, John W; James, Trefor; Portus, Marc R

    2006-12-01

    This study analyses injuries occurring to Australian male cricketers at the state and national levels over 10 years using recently published international definitions of injury. Data was collected retrospectively for 3 years and then prospectively over the final 7 years. Injury incidence has stayed at a fairly constant level over the 10 years. Injury prevalence has gradually increased over the 10-year period but fell in season 2004-2005. Increasing match scheduling over the 10-year period has probably contributed to the increasing injury prevalence. Fast bowlers miss, through injury, about 16% of all potential playing time, whereas the prevalence rate for all other positions is less than 5%. Some match and schedule-related risks for bowling injury have been noted, including a greater risk of injury in the second innings of first class matches (compared to the first innings), a greater risk of injury in the second game of back-to-back matches and an increased risk of injury in the rare situation of enforcing the follow-on in a test match. The introduction of a boundary rope at all grounds has successfully eliminated the mechanism of injury from collision with fences whilst fielding. Cricket is a much safer sport to play at the elite level for batsmen, fieldsmen, wicketkeepers, and spin bowlers than the football codes, which are the other most popular professional sports in Australia.

  8. Effect of meteorology and soil condition on metolachlor and atrazine volatilization over a 10 year period

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Volatilization of pesticides can detrimentally affect the environment by contaminating soil and surface waters far away from where the pesticides were applied. A 10-year study was conducted to focus on the impact of soil and climatic factors governing herbicide volatilization from an agricultural f...

  9. Effect of meteorology and soil condition on metolachlor and atrazine volatilization over a 10 year period

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A 10-year study was conducted to focus on the impact of soil and climatic factors governing herbicide volatilization from an agricultural field. For the first 5 years, metolachlor [2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N-(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl) acetamide] and atrazine [6-chloro-N-ethyl-N’-(1-methyl...

  10. Comparing 9 to 10 Years Old Children's Performance in Tennis and Physical Fitness Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olcucu, Burcin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the degree of performance-related physical coordination of elementary education children (male and female) that play tennis according to their age and gender and to investigate the relationship between their motor ability tests and performances. A total of 210 children tennis players (9 to 10 years; 105 males…

  11. Childhood Peer Reputation as a Predictor of Competence and Symptoms 10 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gest, Scott D.; Sesma, Arturo, Jr.; Masten, Ann S.; Tellegen, Auke

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the differential developmental significance of multiple domains of peer reputation in childhood for current and future competence and symptoms. Participants were 205 children from a normative school cohort who completed assessments in grades 3-6 and then again 10 years later. Through re-analysis of original data from the…

  12. A Content Analysis of 10 Years of Clinical Supervision Articles in Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard, Janine M.; Luke, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    This content analysis follows Borders's (2005) review of counseling supervision literature and includes 184 counselor supervision articles published over the past 10 years. Articles were coded as representing 1 of 3 research types or 1 of 3 conceptual types. Articles were then analyzed for main topics producing 11 topic categories.

  13. 24 CFR 203.203 - Issuance and nature of insured 10-year protection plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Issuance and nature of insured 10-year protection plans. 203.203 Section 203.203 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to... Underwriting Procedures Insured Ten-Year Protection Plans (plan) § 203.203 Issuance and nature of insured 10...

  14. 24 CFR 203.203 - Issuance and nature of insured 10-year protection plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Issuance and nature of insured 10-year protection plans. 203.203 Section 203.203 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to... Underwriting Procedures Insured Ten-Year Protection Plans (plan) § 203.203 Issuance and nature of insured 10...

  15. 24 CFR 203.203 - Issuance and nature of insured 10-year protection plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Issuance and nature of insured 10-year protection plans. 203.203 Section 203.203 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to... Underwriting Procedures Insured Ten-Year Protection Plans (plan) § 203.203 Issuance and nature of insured 10...

  16. 24 CFR 203.203 - Issuance and nature of insured 10-year protection plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Issuance and nature of insured 10-year protection plans. 203.203 Section 203.203 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to... Underwriting Procedures Insured Ten-Year Protection Plans (plan) § 203.203 Issuance and nature of insured 10...

  17. 24 CFR 203.203 - Issuance and nature of insured 10-year protection plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Issuance and nature of insured 10-year protection plans. 203.203 Section 203.203 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to... Underwriting Procedures Insured Ten-Year Protection Plans (plan) § 203.203 Issuance and nature of insured 10...

  18. Learning Benefits of Self-Controlled Knowledge of Results in 10-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiviacowsky, Suzete; Wulf, Gabriele; Laroque de Medeiros, Franklin; Kaefer, Angelica; Tani, Go

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the learning benefits of self-controlled knowledge of results (KR) would generalize to children. Specifically, the authors chose 10-year-old children representative of late childhood. The authors used a task that required the children to toss beanbags at a target. One group received KR…

  19. Self-Controlled Feedback in 10-Year-Old Children: Higher Feedback Frequencies Enhance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiviacowsky, Suzete; Wulf, Gabriele; de Medeiros, Franklin Laroque; Kaefer, Angelica; Wally, Raquel

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine whether learning in 10-year-old children--that is, the age group for which the Chiviacowsky et al. (2006) study found benefits of self-controlled knowledge of results (KR)--would differ depending on the frequency of feedback they chose. The authors surmised that a relatively high feedback frequency…

  20. If We Could Plan the Next 10 Years in Science Education...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansell, Warwick

    2013-01-01

    Two major sessions at the 2013 ASE Summer Celebration Conference in Hatfield offered teachers (and other educators) the chance to debate and define the key issues facing science education over the next 10 years. Participants were asked to suggest the important issues. Then those with similar proposals were put into groups to develop the idea ready…

  1. Psychiatric Aspects of Child and Adolescent Obesity: A Review of the Past 10 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zametkin, Alan J.; Zoon, Christine K.; Klein, Hannah W.; Munson, Suzanne

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To review the past 10 years of published research on psychiatric aspects of child and adolescent obesity and highlight information mental health professionals need for preventing obesity in youths and diagnosing and treating it. Method: Researchers performed computerized and manual searches of the literature and summarized the most…

  2. 10 Years of "Adult Learning": Content Analysis of an Academic Journal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherrstrom, Catherine A.; Robbins, Stacey E.; Bixby, John

    2017-01-01

    Academic publications provide insights into a discipline's history, knowledge base, and research norms, and thus analyzing publication activity provides learning about the field of study. To learn more about the field of adult and continuing education, this study used content analysis to examine 10 years of "Adult Learning" from 2006…

  3. Students as Teachers: Effectiveness of a Peer-Led STEM Learning Programme over 10 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drane, Denise; Micari, Marina; Light, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Peer-led small-group learning has been used quite extensively in the US to enhance performance and retention of undergraduate students in science, math, and engineering classes. This study presents the results from an evaluation of a peer-led small-group programme at a research university in the US over a 10-year period across five disciplines…

  4. Effectiveness of fire-retardant treatments for shingles after 10 years of outdoor weathering

    Treesearch

    S. L. LeVan; C. A. Holmes

    Some building codes require wood shingles to be fire-retardant treated. Because exterior fire-retardant treatments are subjected to weathering, treatment durability and leach resistance are critical for insuring adequate fire protection. We examined the effectiveness of various fire-retardant treatments on wood after 0, 2, 5, and 10 years of outdoor exposure. We used a...

  5. Diabetes Mellitus, Hypertension and Hypercholesterolemia in Relation to the 10-Year ACS Prognosis; the GREECS Study.

    PubMed

    Notara, Venetia; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Michalopoulou, Moscho; Kouvari, Matina; Tsompanaki, Eleni; Verdi, Margarita; Vassileiou, Nikos; Kalli, Eleni; Mantas, Yannis; Kogias, Yannis; Stravopodis, Petros; Papanagnou, George; Zombolos, Spyros; Pitsavos, Christos

    2016-01-01

    Although hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes mellitus (DM) are recognized as major cardio-metabolic risk factors in primary Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) prevention, studies focusing on secondary ACS incidence are scarce. In the present study, the association between the aforementioned factors and 10-year ACS prognosis was evaluated. From October 2003 to September 2004 2,172 consecutive patients with ACS diagnosis, from 6 Greek hospitals, were enrolled. During 2013-14, the 10-year follow-up was performed in 1,918 participants. Baseline clinical factors were assessed through physical examination, medical records and pharmacological management. All-cause mortality and the development of fatal or non-fatal ACS events were recorded through medical records or hospital registries. Logistic regression models were applied to evaluate the impact of baseline clinical status on the ACS prognosis. The 10-year all cause and ACS mortality rate was 32.6 and 17.8%, respectively. Multi-adjusted analysis highlighted that, after taking into account various potential confounders, DM was the sole clinical factor associated with adverse effect on the 10-year ACS fatal incidence [Odds Ratio (OR)=1.35, 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI) 1.01, 1.80, p=0.04]. DM was the only clinical factor that aggravated ACS prognosis, whereas abnormal lipids profile and blood pressure did not seem to determine prognosis. Thus, glycaemic control may play a critical role in the secondary CVD prevention management of ACS patients.

  6. Revisiting the southern pine growth decline: Where are we 10 years later?

    Treesearch

    Gary L. Gadbury; Michael S. Williams; Hans T. Schreuder

    2004-01-01

    This paper evaluates changes in growth of pine stands in the state of Georgia, U.S.A., using USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data. In particular, data representing an additional 10-year growth cy-cle has been added to previously published results from two earlier growth cycles. A robust regression procedure is combined with a bootstrap technique...

  7. United States Transportation Command: 10 Years of Excellence, 1987-1997

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-01-01

    Military Sealift Command-chartered vessel at the port of Mogadishu, Somalia. 18 10 YEARS OF EXCELLENCE 1993 Acting Secretary of Defense Donald J. Atwood ...thanks are extended to James K. Matthews, Ph.D., and Margaret �Peg� Nigra for their help in the preparation of this book. Citations: In addition to

  8. Self-Controlled Feedback in 10-Year-Old Children: Higher Feedback Frequencies Enhance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiviacowsky, Suzete; Wulf, Gabriele; de Medeiros, Franklin Laroque; Kaefer, Angelica; Wally, Raquel

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine whether learning in 10-year-old children--that is, the age group for which the Chiviacowsky et al. (2006) study found benefits of self-controlled knowledge of results (KR)--would differ depending on the frequency of feedback they chose. The authors surmised that a relatively high feedback frequency…

  9. Learning Benefits of Self-Controlled Knowledge of Results in 10-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiviacowsky, Suzete; Wulf, Gabriele; Laroque de Medeiros, Franklin; Kaefer, Angelica; Tani, Go

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the learning benefits of self-controlled knowledge of results (KR) would generalize to children. Specifically, the authors chose 10-year-old children representative of late childhood. The authors used a task that required the children to toss beanbags at a target. One group received KR…

  10. Handedness in Swedish 10-year-olds, Some Background and Associated Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillberg, Christopher; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Aims to obtain prevalence figures for left-handedness among 10-year-old Swedish children; to replicate some findings concerning Bishop's (1980) extended pathological left-handedness hypothesis; to evaluate the influence of factors such as the child's sex and reduced optimality in the pre-, peri-, and neonatal period; and to determine the…

  11. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty for carotid artery stenosis in Takayasu arteritis: Persistent benefit over 10 years

    SciTech Connect

    Murakami, Ryuji; Korogi, Yukunori; Matsuno, Yasuji; Matsukawa, Tetsuya; Hirai, Toshinori; Takahashi, Mutsumasa

    1997-05-15

    A 66-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with right hemiplegia due to a cerebral infarction associated with Takayasu arteritis. We successfully performed percutaneous transluminal angioplasty for stenoses of the innominate and right common carotid arteries. Improvement of the stenotic lesions persisted over 10 years.

  12. Computer Card Games in Computer Science Education: A 10-Year Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kordaki, Maria; Gousiou, Anthi

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a 10-year review study that focuses on the investigation of the use of computer card games (CCGs) as learning tools in Computer Science (CS) Education. Specific search terms keyed into 10 large scientific electronic databases identified 24 papers referring to the use of CCGs for the learning of CS matters during the last…

  13. 10 Years of "Adult Learning": Content Analysis of an Academic Journal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherrstrom, Catherine A.; Robbins, Stacey E.; Bixby, John

    2017-01-01

    Academic publications provide insights into a discipline's history, knowledge base, and research norms, and thus analyzing publication activity provides learning about the field of study. To learn more about the field of adult and continuing education, this study used content analysis to examine 10 years of "Adult Learning" from 2006…

  14. A Content Analysis of 10 Years of Clinical Supervision Articles in Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard, Janine M.; Luke, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    This content analysis follows Borders's (2005) review of counseling supervision literature and includes 184 counselor supervision articles published over the past 10 years. Articles were coded as representing 1 of 3 research types or 1 of 3 conceptual types. Articles were then analyzed for main topics producing 11 topic categories.

  15. Getting an Early Start: Communication about Sexuality among Mothers and Children 6-10 Years Old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pluhar, Erika; Jennings, Tanya; DiIorio, Colleen

    2006-01-01

    Little information exists on communication about sexuality between parents and preadolescent children. This study collected qualitative data on family sexuality communication from 3 focus groups conducted with African American mothers of 6-10 year old children. Two broad themes emerged from the data: "Beyond the Birds and the Bees" and "Let's Talk…

  16. Natural regeneration 10 years after a Douglas-fir tussock moth outbreak in northeastern Oregon.

    Treesearch

    B.E. Wickman; K.W. Seidel; G. Lynn. Star

    1986-01-01

    A survey of natural regeneration 10 years after severe grand fir mortality caused by an outbreak of Douglas-fir tussock moth was conducted in the Wenaha-Tucannon Wilderness in the Blue Mountains of northeastern Oregon. Seedling stocking was only moderate, but seedling density was adequate where present. Grand fir is dominating both preoutbreak and postoutbreak...

  17. Post-fire saguaro community: impacts on associated vegetation still apparent 10 years later

    Treesearch

    Marcia Narog; Ruth Wilson

    2005-01-01

    Fire impacts on saguaro (Carnegiea gigantea) associated vegetation were studied in unburned and burned areas over a 10 year post-fire period after the 1993 Vista View fire, Tonto National Forest, Arizona. Many associated species, crucial for saguaro survival, regenerate by vegetative growth after fire. Bushes were the most common nearest-neighbor,...

  18. Individual Oral Exams in Mathematics Courses: 10 Years of Experience at the Air Force Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boedigheimer, Ralph; Ghrist, Michelle; Peterson, Dale; Kallemyn, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Over the last 10 years faculty members in the Department of Mathematical Sciences at the United States Air Force Academy have incorporated individual oral exams into mathematics courses. We have experimented with various approaches, shared results and ideas with other department members, and refined our techniques. We have found that this…

  19. 10-year results of the Birmingham Hip Resurfacing: a non-designer case series.

    PubMed

    J A Hunter, Thomas; S Moores, Thomas; Morley, David; Manoharan, Gopikanthan; G Collier, Simon; J Shaylor, Phillip

    2017-09-05

    Recent controversies surrounding metal-on-metal (MoM) hip resurfacing has led to a substantial decline in its use. Despite this, there is good evidence to support the use of specific implants in select patients. A retrospective analysis of Birmingham Hip Resurfacing (BHR) patients with a minimum of 10 years follow-up was performed. Functional scoring was performed with the Oxford Hip Score (OHS) and failure was defined as revision for any cause. 111 patients underwent 121 BHR procedures. All patients had a minimum follow-up of 10 years. 70 patients (63%) were male. Mean patient age at surgery was 52.5 years (male 53.9 years, female 48.8 years). Overall survival at 10 years was 91% (97% male, 80% female). There was a statistically significant improvement in OHS postoperatively which remains at 10-year follow-up (p = <0.05). There was no significant difference in scores between the male and female groups. Revisions were most often in patients with smaller component sizes but this was not found to be statistically significant. Our results reflect that of the wider literature in that good outcomes can be obtained with this implant in a select group of patients and results are comparable to that of conventional hip arthroplasty in patients of a similar age.

  20. A western larch-engelmann spruce spacing study in eastern Oregon: results after 10 years.

    Treesearch

    K.W. Seidel

    1984-01-01

    The 10-year growth response from a spacing study in an even-aged stand of western larch (Larix occidentalis Nutt.) and Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii Parry ex Engelm.), thinned at age 10 to 9- and 15-foot spacings, was measured in eastern Oregon. Both basal area and total cubic volume increment per acre increased at the...

  1. Educational Attainment of 10-Year-Old Children with Treated and Untreated Visual Defects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart-Brown, Sarah; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Children with visual impairments who participated in a 10-year survey were compared with peers on measures of intelligence, reading, mathematics, and sporting ability. Results are consistent with earlier findings of increased intelligence among Ss with myopia and slightly reduced intelligence among Ss with amblyopia. It was concluded that the…

  2. Bullying and Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder in 10-Year-Olds in a Swedish Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmberg, Kirsten; Hjern, Anders

    2008-01-01

    The association of attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with bullying in the peer group in school was studied in an entire population of 577 fourth graders (10-year-olds) in one municipality in Stockholm, Sweden. The schoolchildren were screened for ADHD in a two-step procedure that included Conners' ratings of behavioural problems:…

  3. Eastern Michigan University's Automated Storage and Retrieval System: 10 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullard, Rita; Wrosch, Jackie

    2009-01-01

    Automated storage/retrieval systems (ASRSs) are playing an integral part in today's library operations and collections management. Eastern Michigan University installed an ASRS as part of the new Halle Library, which opened in May 1998, to provide "storage" for up to 800,000 items. Over the past 10 years our policies and procedures have…

  4. Appendiceal metastasis 10 years following ‘curative’ resection for low-grade primary endometrial carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Addison, Alfred Bentsi; Miller, Katy; Hammouch, Dalia; Waraich, Naseem; Kaye, Phillip; Kapur, Rakesh; Tennant, William

    2012-01-01

    Metastasis of primary endometrial adenocarcinoma to unusual sites has been occasionally reported. However, the authors believe this to be the first case report of metastasis to the appendix. This occurred more than 10 years after curative resection, and presented as sepsis with an intra-abdominal focus. PMID:22605700

  5. Relationship between Motor Skill and Body Mass Index in 5- to 10-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Hondt, Eva; Deforche, Benedicte; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate gross and fine motor skill in overweight and obese children compared with normal-weight peers. According to international cut-off points for Body Mass Index (BMI) from Cole et al. (2000), all 117 participants (5-10 year) were classified as being normal-weight, overweight, or obese. Level of motor skill…

  6. Epicormic branching on central Appalachian hardwoods 10 years after deferment cutting

    Treesearch

    Gary W. Miller

    1996-01-01

    Epicormic branching was monitored over a 10-year period following deferment cutting in four central Appalachian hardwood stands in West Virginia. Data from 545 codominant residual trees indicated that the average number of epicormic branches on the butt and second 16-foot log sections increased significantly for the first 2 years after treatment. For upper log...

  7. Anticipatory Action Planning Increases from 3 to 10 Years of Age in Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jongbloed-Pereboom, Marjolein; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W. G.; Saraber-Schiphorst, Nicole; Craje, Celine; Steenbergen, Bert

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to assess the development of action planning in a group of typically developing children aged 3 to 10 years (N = 351). The second aim was to assess reliability of the action planning task and to relate the results of the action planning task to results of validated upper limb motor performance tests. Participants…

  8. Childhood Peer Reputation as a Predictor of Competence and Symptoms 10 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gest, Scott D.; Sesma, Arturo, Jr.; Masten, Ann S.; Tellegen, Auke

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the differential developmental significance of multiple domains of peer reputation in childhood for current and future competence and symptoms. Participants were 205 children from a normative school cohort who completed assessments in grades 3-6 and then again 10 years later. Through re-analysis of original data from the…

  9. Re-Visited: A Tracer Study 10 Years Later--Detective Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin-Rozalis, Miry

    2004-01-01

    Does an early childhood program have an influence on its participants that is detectable 10 years later? The answer is "yes". This research managed to detect differences between children of Ethiopian origin who had immigrated to Israel. It also managed to generalize and conceptualize these differences and provide an explanation of them:…

  10. Personnel Needs in School Psychology: A 10-Year Follow-Up Study on Predicted Personnel Shortages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castillo, Jose M.; Curtis, Michael J.; Tan, Sim Yin

    2014-01-01

    Concerns regarding whether a sufficient supply of school psychologists exists have been evident for decades. Studies have predicted that school psychology would face a critical personnel shortage that would peak in 2010, but continue into the foreseeable future. The current study is a 10-year follow-up investigation based on previously published…

  11. Relationship between Motor Skill and Body Mass Index in 5- to 10-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Hondt, Eva; Deforche, Benedicte; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate gross and fine motor skill in overweight and obese children compared with normal-weight peers. According to international cut-off points for Body Mass Index (BMI) from Cole et al. (2000), all 117 participants (5-10 year) were classified as being normal-weight, overweight, or obese. Level of motor skill…

  12. Public School Voice Clinics, Part II: Diagnosis and Recommendations--A 10-Year Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Sandra Q.; Madison, Charles L.

    1984-01-01

    In 10 years of school district voice clinics, 249 cases were reviewed. Vocal nodules, chronic laryngitis and thickened cords were frequently noted. One-third of the cases had concomitant allergies, ear, and/or upper respiratory problems. Direct voice therapy was recommended for 65 percent of attendees. (Author/CL)

  13. Clinical and Radiographic Evaluation of a Resin-Based Root Canal Sealer: 10-Year Recall Data

    PubMed Central

    Zmener, Osvaldo; Pameijer, Cornelis H.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. This retrospective clinical and radiographical study evaluated the 10-year outcome of one-visit endodontic treatment with gutta-percha and a methacrylate resin-based sealer. Methods. From an initial sample size of 180 patients, 89 patients with 175 root canals responded to a recall. Treatment outcome was based on predetermined clinical and radiographic criteria. Results. Root canals had been adequately filled to the working length in 80 teeth (89.88%), short in 6 instances (6.74%), while 3 (3.37%) with extrusion immediate postoperatively, showed no sealer in periradicular tissues. The difference in the outcomes of treatments with respect to age, gender, preoperative pulp or periapical status, the size of periapical lesions and the type of permanent restorations were not statistically significantly different (P > 0.05). Overall, 7 (7.86%) cases were considered clinically and radiographically a failure. A life table analysis showed a cumulative probability of success of 92.13% after 10 years with a 95% confidence interval of 83.0 to 94.0. Conclusions. The results of this retrospective clinical and radiographical study suggest that the tested methacrylate-resin based sealer used with gutta-percha performed similarly to other root canal sealers over a period 10 years. Clinical Implications. Considering the success rate after 10 years of this methacrylate resin-based sealer can be recommended as an alternative to other commonly used root canal sealers. PMID:22654909

  14. Impact of Adolescent Alcohol and Drug Use on Neuropsychological Functioning in Young Adulthood: 10-Year Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Karen L.; Medina, Krista Lisdahl; Padula, Claudia B.; Tapert, Susan F.; Brown, Sandra A.

    2011-01-01

    Because of ongoing neuromaturation, youth with chronic alcohol/substance use disorders (AUD/SUD) are at risk for cognitive decrements during young adulthood. We prospectively examined cognition over 10 years based on AUD/SUD history. Youth (N = 51) with no AUD/SUD history (n = 14), persisting AUD/SUD (n = 18), or remitted AUD/SUD (n = 19) were…

  15. A Model Job Rotation Plan: A 10-Year Follow-up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Daniel C.; Delbridge-Parker, Linda

    1991-01-01

    Describes model job rotation plan in a college student affairs division in which a staff member (intern) rotates among departments as a staff development opportunity. A 10-year follow-up evaluation underscored the success of the program. Concludes job rotation is not just learning experience, but it is also sharing experience. (Author/ABL)

  16. Computer Card Games in Computer Science Education: A 10-Year Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kordaki, Maria; Gousiou, Anthi

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a 10-year review study that focuses on the investigation of the use of computer card games (CCGs) as learning tools in Computer Science (CS) Education. Specific search terms keyed into 10 large scientific electronic databases identified 24 papers referring to the use of CCGs for the learning of CS matters during the last…

  17. Regular aquatic exercise for chronic kidney disease patients: a 10-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Pechter, Ülle; Raag, Mait; Ots-Rosenberg, Mai

    2014-09-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients not yet in dialysis can benefit from increased physical activity; however, the safety and outcomes of aquatic exercise have not been investigated in observational studies. The aim of this study was to analyze association of 10 years of regularly performed aquatic exercise with the study endpoint--that is, all-cause death or start of dialysis. Consecutive CKD patients were included in the study in January 2002. The exercise group (n=7) exercised regularly under the supervision of physiotherapist for 10 years; the control group (n=9), matched in terms of age and clinical parameters, remained sedentary. Low-intensity aerobic aquatic exercise was performed regularly twice a week; 32 weeks or more of exercise therapy sessions were conducted annually. None of the members of the aquatic exercise group reached dialysis or died in 10 years. In the sedentary control group, 55% reached the study endpoint--renal replacement therapy (n=2) or all-cause death (n=3). Occurrence of the study endpoint, compared using the exact multinomial test with unconditional margins, was statistically significantly different (P-value: 0.037) between the study groups. Regular supervised aquatic exercise arrested CKD progression. There was a statistically significant difference between the sedentary group and the exercise group in reaching renal replacement therapy or all-cause death in a follow-up time of 10 years.

  18. Growth and yield predictions for upland oak stands. 10 years after initial thinning

    Treesearch

    Martin E. Dale; Martin E. Dale

    1972-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to furnish part of the needed information, that is, quantitative estimates of growth and yield 10 years after initial thinning of upland oak stands. All estimates are computed from a system of equations. These predictions are presented here in tabular form for convenient visual inspection of growth and yield trends. The tables show growth...

  19. The Effects of Crowding on the Behavior and Perception of 10-Year-Old Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loo, Chalsa; Smetana, Judi

    1978-01-01

    This study integrated observational and self-report methods to investigate the effects of low and high spatial density on 10-year-old boys in an experimental setting. Five factors emerged: discomfort and dislike of room; active play; avoidance; positive group interactions; and anger and aggression. (Author)

  20. Handedness in Swedish 10-year-olds, Some Background and Associated Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillberg, Christopher; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Aims to obtain prevalence figures for left-handedness among 10-year-old Swedish children; to replicate some findings concerning Bishop's (1980) extended pathological left-handedness hypothesis; to evaluate the influence of factors such as the child's sex and reduced optimality in the pre-, peri-, and neonatal period; and to determine the…

  1. The Cognitive Foundations of Reading and Arithmetic Skills in 7- to 10-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durand, Marianne; Hulme, Charles; Larkin, Rebecca; Snowling, Margaret

    2005-01-01

    A range of possible predictors of arithmetic and reading were assessed in a large sample (N=162) of children between ages 7 years 5 months and 10 years 4 months. A confirmatory factor analysis of the predictors revealed a good fit to a model consisting of four latent variables (verbal ability, nonverbal ability, search speed, and phonological…

  2. A 10-Year Assessment of Information and Communication Technology Tasks Required in Undergraduate Agriculture Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgar, Leslie D.; Johnson, Donald M.; Cox, Casandra

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to assess required information and communication technology (ICT) tasks in selected undergraduate agriculture courses in a land-grant university during a 10-year period. Selected agriculture faculty members in the fall 1999 (n = 63), 2004 (n = 55), and 2009 (n = 64) semesters were surveyed to determine the ICT tasks they required…

  3. Psychiatric Aspects of Child and Adolescent Obesity: A Review of the Past 10 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zametkin, Alan J.; Zoon, Christine K.; Klein, Hannah W.; Munson, Suzanne

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To review the past 10 years of published research on psychiatric aspects of child and adolescent obesity and highlight information mental health professionals need for preventing obesity in youths and diagnosing and treating it. Method: Researchers performed computerized and manual searches of the literature and summarized the most…

  4. Motor Skills in Children Aged 7-10 Years, Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whyatt, Caroline P.; Craig, Cathy M.

    2012-01-01

    This study used the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC2) to assess motor skills in children aged 7-10 years with autism (n = 18) in comparison to two groups of age-matched typically developing children; a receptive vocabulary matched group (n = 19) and a nonverbal IQ matched group (n = 22). The results supported previous work, as…

  5. If We Could Plan the Next 10 Years in Science Education...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansell, Warwick

    2013-01-01

    Two major sessions at the 2013 ASE Summer Celebration Conference in Hatfield offered teachers (and other educators) the chance to debate and define the key issues facing science education over the next 10 years. Participants were asked to suggest the important issues. Then those with similar proposals were put into groups to develop the idea ready…

  6. Motor Skills in Children Aged 7-10 Years, Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whyatt, Caroline P.; Craig, Cathy M.

    2012-01-01

    This study used the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC2) to assess motor skills in children aged 7-10 years with autism (n = 18) in comparison to two groups of age-matched typically developing children; a receptive vocabulary matched group (n = 19) and a nonverbal IQ matched group (n = 22). The results supported previous work, as…

  7. Height of Tallest Saplings in 10-year-old Appalachian Hardwood Clearcuts

    Treesearch

    H. Clay Smith

    1977-01-01

    Stem characteristics, mainly height, of the tallest hardwood saplings in 10-year-old circular clearcut openings were evaluated for several Appalachian hardwoods in West Virginia. Heights of the tallest saplings were not influenced by cardinal directions on two oak sites. Saplings were taller near the center of 150-, 2OO-, and 250-foot openings than saplings in the...

  8. Psychosocial Family Treatment for a 10-Year-Old with Schizoaffective Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klaus, Nicole M.; Fristad, Mary A.; Malkin, Catherine; Mackinaw-Koons, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Schizophrenia spectrum disorders are rare in childhood and little is known about their psychosocial treatment. Relevant findings from the adult and child literature are reviewed. The case of 10-year-old "Michael" is presented, who participated in a randomized clinical trial of a psychoeducational family treatment for mood disorders. Following…

  9. Impact of Adolescent Alcohol and Drug Use on Neuropsychological Functioning in Young Adulthood: 10-Year Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Karen L.; Medina, Krista Lisdahl; Padula, Claudia B.; Tapert, Susan F.; Brown, Sandra A.

    2011-01-01

    Because of ongoing neuromaturation, youth with chronic alcohol/substance use disorders (AUD/SUD) are at risk for cognitive decrements during young adulthood. We prospectively examined cognition over 10 years based on AUD/SUD history. Youth (N = 51) with no AUD/SUD history (n = 14), persisting AUD/SUD (n = 18), or remitted AUD/SUD (n = 19) were…

  10. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty for carotid artery stenosis in Takayasu arteritis: persistent benefit over 10 years.

    PubMed

    Murakami, R; Korogi, Y; Matsuno, Y; Matsukawa, T; Hirai, T; Takahashi, M

    1997-01-01

    A 66-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with right hemiplegia due to a cerebral infarction associated with Takayasu arteries. We successfully performed percutaneous transluminal angioplasty for stenoses of the innominate and right common carotid arteries. Improvement of the stenotic lesions persisted over 10 years.

  11. Optimism, Pessimism, Mutuality, and Gender: Predicting 10-Year Role Strain in Parkinson's Disease Spouses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Karen S.; Stewart, Barbara J.; Archbold, Patricia G.; Carter, Julie H.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: There is wide variability in how spouses providing care respond to their care situations. Few studies focus on the roles of both intra- and interpersonal factors in long-term spousal care, particularly in the context of Parkinson's disease (PD). The current study uses longitudinal data over a 10-year period to examine the roles of…

  12. A 10-Year Assessment of Information and Communication Technology Tasks Required in Undergraduate Agriculture Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgar, Leslie D.; Johnson, Donald M.; Cox, Casandra

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to assess required information and communication technology (ICT) tasks in selected undergraduate agriculture courses in a land-grant university during a 10-year period. Selected agriculture faculty members in the fall 1999 (n = 63), 2004 (n = 55), and 2009 (n = 64) semesters were surveyed to determine the ICT tasks they required…

  13. A ponderosa pine-grand fir spacing study in central Oregon: results after 10 years.

    Treesearch

    K.W. Seidel

    1985-01-01

    The 10-year growth response from an initial spacing study established in a ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl, ex Laws.) and grand fir (Abies grandis (Dougl. ex D. Don) Lindl.) plantation was measured in central Oregon. The study was designed to compare the growth rates of pure pine, pure fir, and a 50-percent mixture of...

  14. Researching and Understanding Environmental Learning: Hopes for the Next 10 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rickinson, Mark

    2006-01-01

    The tenth anniversary of "Environmental Education Research" comes at an interesting time. The next 10 years of the journal overlap with the United Nation's Decade for Education for Sustainable Development, with the possibilities that this may (or may not) bring for those working at the intersections of education and sustainable…

  15. Parent-Child Relations and Adolescent Self-Image Following Divorce: A 10-Year Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlop, Rosemary; Burns, Ailsa; Bermingham, Suzanne

    2001-01-01

    Explored links between self-image, family structure (divorced or intact), parent-child relations, and gender at 3 intervals over 10 years during adolescence to early adulthood. Results suggest a consistent relationship between high parental care, low overprotective control, and better self-image scores with a stronger effect among subjects from…

  16. Motor Performance and Dyslexia in a National Cohort of 10-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haslum, M. N.; Miles, T. R.

    2007-01-01

    Data from the 10-year follow-up of the 1970 British Births Survey were examined for associations between motor performance and dyslexia. Five tests of motor performance were used: (a) balancing on one leg, (b) throwing a ball in the air, clapping and catching it, (c) walking backwards, (d) sorting matches and (e) graphaesthesia (recognizing shapes…

  17. Adolescent Drug Trafficking Trends in the United Kingdom--A 10-Year Retrospective Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vale, Ellen Louise Eva; Kennedy, Patrick John

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports data from HM Customs and Excise (HMCE) of recorded cases of adolescent drug trafficking through all sea and air points of entry into the UK over a 10-year period (May 1992-May 2002). We report the characteristics of 38 cases of mixed gender and nationality ranging in age between 13 and 18 years who have been apprehended by HMCE…

  18. Psychosocial Family Treatment for a 10-Year-Old with Schizoaffective Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klaus, Nicole M.; Fristad, Mary A.; Malkin, Catherine; Mackinaw-Koons, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Schizophrenia spectrum disorders are rare in childhood and little is known about their psychosocial treatment. Relevant findings from the adult and child literature are reviewed. The case of 10-year-old "Michael" is presented, who participated in a randomized clinical trial of a psychoeducational family treatment for mood disorders. Following…

  19. Educational Attainment of 10-Year-Old Children with Treated and Untreated Visual Defects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart-Brown, Sarah; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Children with visual impairments who participated in a 10-year survey were compared with peers on measures of intelligence, reading, mathematics, and sporting ability. Results are consistent with earlier findings of increased intelligence among Ss with myopia and slightly reduced intelligence among Ss with amblyopia. It was concluded that the…

  20. Comparing 9 to 10 Years Old Children's Performance in Tennis and Physical Fitness Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olcucu, Burcin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the degree of performance-related physical coordination of elementary education children (male and female) that play tennis according to their age and gender and to investigate the relationship between their motor ability tests and performances. A total of 210 children tennis players (9 to 10 years; 105 males…

  1. Implant-retained mandibular overdentures versus conventional dentures: 10 years of care and aftercare.

    PubMed

    Visser, Anita; Meijer, Henny J A; Raghoebar, Gerry M; Vissink, Arjan

    2006-01-01

    This 10-year prospective, randomized, clinical trial investigated the treatment outcome of edentulous patients treated with mandibular overdentures retained by 2 endosseous implants compared with conventional dentures in patients with or without vestibuloplasty. One hundred fifty-one edentulous patients (5 groups) with a symphyseal mandibular bone height between 8 and 25 mm participated. Sixty-two patients were treated with an overdenture retained by 2 implants (groups 1 and 3), 59 patients were treated with a conventional denture (groups 2 and 5), and 30 patients were treated with a conventional denture after preprosthetic vestibuloplasty (group 4). Patients who received conventional dentures but preferred implants later on could undergo implant surgery after 1 year of their initial treatment, but were analyzed in their original group. The prosthetic and surgical care and aftercare were scored during a 10-year evaluation period. One hundred thirty-three patients completed the 10-year follow-up evaluations. Forty-four percent of patients treated with conventional dentures switched within 10 years to implant-retained overdentures, versus 16% of the patients who were treated with conventional dentures after vestibuloplasty. On average, a greater time investment and more treatment sessions were needed in patients treated with implant-retained overdentures compared to patients treated with conventional dentures. Patients treated with an implant-retained overdenture need more treatment interventions and treatment time than patients treated with conventional dentures.

  2. Psychopathy and Offending From Adolescence to Adulthood: A 10-Year Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gretton, Heather M.; Hare, Robert D.; Catchpole, Rosalind E. H.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the predictive validity of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV; A. E. Forth, D. S. Kosson, & R. D. Hare, 2003) from adolescence to early adulthood. The authors coded the PCL:YV using file information and collected criminal record information over a 10-year follow-up period on 157 boys, ages 12 through 18,…

  3. Physical Activity Patterns During School Recess: A Study in Children 6 to 10 Years Old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopes, Victor; Vasques, Catarina Margarida Silva; de Oliveira Pereira, Maria Beatriz Ferreira Leite

    2006-01-01

    The aims of this study were to characterize the spontaneous physical activity of children during school recess, and to estimate variation in physical activity associated with gender and age. A MTI actigraph (Model 7164) was used with a sample of 140 boys and 131 girls, 6 to 10 years of age. MTI counts were converted to METs using a regression…

  4. The Impact of 10 Years of War on Combat Casualty Care Research: A Citation Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    The impact of 10 years of war on combat casualty care research: A citation analysis Jean A. Orman, ScD, MPH, Brian J. Eastridge, MD, David G. Baer...J. 2011;82Y86. 28. Eastridge BJ, Hardin M, Cantrell J, et al. Died of wounds on the battle- field: causation and implications for improving combat

  5. 7 CFR Exhibit L to Subpart A of... - Insured 10-Year Home Warranty Plan Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Insured 10-Year Home Warranty Plan Requirements L Exhibit L to Subpart A of Part 1924 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... Construction and Other Development Pt. 1924, Subpt. A, Exh. L Exhibit L to Subpart A of Part 1924—Insured 10...

  6. 7 CFR Exhibit L to Subpart A of... - Insured 10-Year Home Warranty Plan Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Insured 10-Year Home Warranty Plan Requirements L Exhibit L to Subpart A of Part 1924 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... Construction and Other Development Pt. 1924, Subpt. A, Exh. L Exhibit L to Subpart A of Part 1924—Insured 10...

  7. 7 CFR Exhibit L to Subpart A of... - Insured 10-Year Home Warranty Plan Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Insured 10-Year Home Warranty Plan Requirements L Exhibit L to Subpart A of Part 1924 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... Construction and Other Development Pt. 1924, Subpt. A, Exh. L Exhibit L to Subpart A of Part 1924—Insured 10...

  8. 7 CFR Exhibit L to Subpart A of... - Insured 10-Year Home Warranty Plan Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Insured 10-Year Home Warranty Plan Requirements L Exhibit L to Subpart A of Part 1924 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... Construction and Other Development Pt. 1924, Subpt. A, Exh. L Exhibit L to Subpart A of Part 1924—Insured 10...

  9. Langerhans cell histiocytosis: recurrent lesions affecting mandible in a 10-year-old patient.

    PubMed

    Loducca, S V; Mantesso, A; Araújo, N S; Magalhães, M H

    2001-01-01

    Hand-Schuller-Christian disease is a multifocal variant of eosinophilic granuloma, characterised by the classical triad of bony lesions, exophthalmos and diabetes insipidus. This case relates recurrent Langerhans' cell histiocytosis lesions presented as destruction of periodontal support associated with diabetes in a 10-year-old patient. Medical history suggests that the case represents a case of Hand-Schuller Christian disease.

  10. Gasoline Abuse in a 10-Year-Old Child with Mental Retardation: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Mohit; Vankar, GK

    2015-01-01

    Inahalant abuse is of increasing interest in India. The age of onset is typically during adolescence. Gasoline inhalant use is rarely reported in adolescents with intellectual deficit. We report a case of petrol dependence in a 10-year-old child with mental retardation. Possible effect of petrol huffing on behavior and cognition is discussed. PMID:25733844

  11. Case Report: Homicide by a 10-Year-Old Girl with Autistic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukaddes, Nahit Motavalli; Topcu, Zerrin

    2006-01-01

    This case study presents a 10-year-old girl with a diagnosis of Autistic Disorder, who killed her 6-month-old sister by throwing her out of a window. Her aggressive-impulsive behavior had a persistent pattern. She had a history of epilepsy, and was frequently exposed to physical abuse. She never attended a structured treatment program. Here, we…

  12. Individual Oral Exams in Mathematics Courses: 10 Years of Experience at the Air Force Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boedigheimer, Ralph; Ghrist, Michelle; Peterson, Dale; Kallemyn, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Over the last 10 years faculty members in the Department of Mathematical Sciences at the United States Air Force Academy have incorporated individual oral exams into mathematics courses. We have experimented with various approaches, shared results and ideas with other department members, and refined our techniques. We have found that this…

  13. Optimism, Pessimism, Mutuality, and Gender: Predicting 10-Year Role Strain in Parkinson's Disease Spouses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Karen S.; Stewart, Barbara J.; Archbold, Patricia G.; Carter, Julie H.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: There is wide variability in how spouses providing care respond to their care situations. Few studies focus on the roles of both intra- and interpersonal factors in long-term spousal care, particularly in the context of Parkinson's disease (PD). The current study uses longitudinal data over a 10-year period to examine the roles of…

  14. Eastern Michigan University's Automated Storage and Retrieval System: 10 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullard, Rita; Wrosch, Jackie

    2009-01-01

    Automated storage/retrieval systems (ASRSs) are playing an integral part in today's library operations and collections management. Eastern Michigan University installed an ASRS as part of the new Halle Library, which opened in May 1998, to provide "storage" for up to 800,000 items. Over the past 10 years our policies and procedures have…

  15. Frontal Electroencephalogram Activation Asymmetry, Emotional Intelligence, and Externalizing Behaviors in 10-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santesso, L. Diane; Dana, L. Reker; Schmidt, Louis A.; Segalowitz, Sidney J.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relations among resting frontal brain electrical activity (EEG) (hypothesized to reflect a predisposition to positive versus negative affect and ability to regulate emotions), emotional intelligence, and externalizing behaviors in a sample of non-clinical 10-year-old children. We found that boys…

  16. Is the Party Over? Cannabis and Juvenile Psychiatric Disorder: The Past 10 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rey, Joseph M.; Martin, Andres; Krabman, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To critically review cannabis research during the past 10 years in relation to rates of use, behavioral problems, and mental disorders in young people. Method: Studies published in English between 1994 and 2004 were identified through systematic searches of literature databases. The material was selectively reviewed focusing on child…

  17. Getting an Early Start: Communication about Sexuality among Mothers and Children 6-10 Years Old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pluhar, Erika; Jennings, Tanya; DiIorio, Colleen

    2006-01-01

    Little information exists on communication about sexuality between parents and preadolescent children. This study collected qualitative data on family sexuality communication from 3 focus groups conducted with African American mothers of 6-10 year old children. Two broad themes emerged from the data: "Beyond the Birds and the Bees" and "Let's Talk…

  18. The cost effectiveness of tacrolimus versus microemulsified cyclosporin: a 10-year model of renal transplantation outcomes.

    PubMed

    Orme, Michelle E; Jurewicz, Wieslaw A; Kumar, Nagappan; McKechnie, Tracy L

    2003-01-01

    In 1983, the launch of cyclosporin was a significant clinical advance for organ transplant recipients. Subsequent drug research led to further advances with the introduction of cyclosporin microemulsion (cyclosporin ME) and tacrolimus. This paper presents the results from a long-term model comparing the clinical and economic outcomes associated with cyclosporin ME and tacrolimus immunosuppression for the prevention of graft rejection following renal transplantation. A model was developed to project the costs and outcomes over a 10-year period following transplantation. The model was based on the results of a prospective, randomised study of 179 renal transplantation recipients receiving either cyclosporin ME or tacrolimus, which was conducted by the Welsh Transplantation Research Group (median follow-up: 2.7 years). The short-term costs and outcomes were the averages from the actual head-to-head trial data. From this, the long-term costs and outcomes were extrapolated based on the rate of change in patient and graft survival at 3, 5 and 10 years post transplant, as reported in the 1995 United Kingdom Transplant Support Service Authority Renal Transplant Audit. PERSPECTIVE AND YEAR OF COST DATA: The analysis was conducted from the perspective of a UK transplant unit. Costs were at 1999 prices (pounds sterling 1 = dollars US 1.42 = Euro 1.5) and costs and outcomes were discounted at 6% and 1.5%, respectively. The model estimated that 10 years after transplantation, the proportion of patients surviving was 56% of the cyclosporin ME cohort and 64% of the tacrolimus cohort. The cumulative cost of maintenance therapy at 10 years was pounds sterling 23204 per patient maintained on cyclosporin ME versus pounds sterling 23803 per patient on tacrolimus. The cost per survivor at 10 years was pounds sterling 37000 (tacrolimus) versus pounds sterling 41000 (cyclosporin ME) and the cost per patient with a functioning graft was pounds sterling 39000 versus pounds sterling 45000

  19. Intrastromal corneal ring segments implantation in patients with keratoconus: 10-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Torquetti, Leonardo; Ferrara, Guilherme; Almeida, Franklin; Cunha, Leandro; Araujo, Luana P N; Machado, Aydano P; Marcelo Lyra, João; Merayo-Lloves, Jesús; Ferrara, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of Ferrara intrastromal corneal ring segments (ICRS) (Ferrara Ring; AJL, Boecillo, Spain) in patients with keratoconus. The chart records of 36 eyes of 30 patients with keratoconus implanted with ICRS, operated on between July 1996 and January 2002, were retrospectively reviewed. The following parameters were studied: uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), keratometry (K), and central corneal thickness. The outcomes were evaluated at 5 and 10 years after ICRS implantation. The mean UDVA (logMAR) improved from 1.01 ± 0.28 (20/200 Snellen) to 0.71 ± 0.38 (20/100 Snellen) at 5 years (P < .05) and 0.67 ± 0.25 (20/90 Snellen) at 10 years (P = .735). The mean CDVA (logMAR) improved from 0.45 ± 0.45 (20/55 Snellen) to 0.24 ± 0.19 (20/35 Snellen) at 5 years (P < .05) and 0.29 ± 0.09 (20/38 Snellen) at 10 years (P = .292). The mean maximum K value decreased from 54.99 ± 6.33 to 50.58 ± 5.11 D at 5 years (P < .05) and 50.65 ± 5.17 D at 10 years (P = .854). The mean minimum K value decreased from 48.85 ± 5.70 to 46.90 ± 5.08 D at 5 years (P < .05) and 47.12 ± 4.22 D at 10 years (P = .945). The central corneal thickness decreased from 457.42 ± 58.21 to 421.34 ± 74.12 μm at 5 years (P = .039) and 434.32 ± 77.65 μm at 10 years (P = .427). Intrastromal corneal ring segments can effectively improve UDVA and CDVA 10 years after implantation in patients with keratoconus.

  20. Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion Outcomes over 10 Years: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Buttermann, Glenn R

    2017-06-09

    Prospective cohort study with >10-year follow-up. To assess the long-term, >10-year, clinical outcomes of anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) and to compare outcomes based on primary diagnosis of disc herniation; stenosis or advanced degenerative disc disease (DDD); number of levels treated; and preexisting adjacent level degeneration. ACDF is a proven treatment for patients with stenosis and disc herniation and results in significantly improved short- and intermediate-term outcomes. Motion preservation treatments may result in improved long-term outcomes but need to be compared to long-term ACDF outcomes reference. Patients who had disc herniation, stenosis, and DDD and underwent ACDF with or without decompression were prospectively enrolled and followed for a minimum of 10 years with outcome assessment at various intervals. All 159 consecutive patients had autogenous tricortical iliac crest bone graft and plate instrumentation used. Outcomes included visual analog scale (VAS) for neck and arm pain; pain drawing; Oswestry Disability Index (ODI); and self-assessment of procedure success. Preoperative adjacent-level disc degeneration, pseudarthrosis, and secondary operations were analyzed. For all diagnostic groups, significant outcomes improvement was seen at all follow-up periods for all scales relative to preoperative scores. Outcomes were not related to age, gender, number of levels treated, and minimally to pre-existing degeneration at the adjacent level. The use of narcotic pain medication decreased substantially. Neurological deficits almost all resolved. Patient self-reported success ranged from 85% to 95%. Over the long term, additional surgery for pseudarthrosis (10%) occurred in the early follow-up period, and for adjacent segment degeneration (21%) which occurred linearly during the 10+ year follow-up period. ACDF leads to significantly improved outcomes for all primary diagnoses and was sustained for more than 10 years' follow-up. Secondary

  1. Intellectual ability 10 years after traumatic brain injury in infancy and childhood: what predicts outcome?

    PubMed

    Anderson, Vicki; Catroppa, Cathy; Godfrey, Celia; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V

    2012-01-01

    The long-term consequences of child traumatic brain injury (TBI) are poorly understood, but there are indications of ongoing deterioration in skills with time since injury. This study investigated outcomes up to 10 years post-injury, to determine the influences of injury severity, injury age, and environment. The study design was prospective and longitudinal. Participants included consecutive admissions to the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Australia. Children sustaining TBI between 2 and 12 years of age (n=76) were recruited on admission and divided according to injury severity (mild, moderate, and severe) and injury age (2-7 years and 8-12 years). Cognitive abilities were evaluated using standard measures of intellectual function (IQ) acutely and at 12 months, 30 months, and 10 years post-injury. At 10 years, mean IQs for survivors fell within the low average to average range. There were no significant effects of injury severity, injury age, or time since injury. In contrast, elevated rates of impairment were identified in association with severe TBI (global deficits), and early injury (non-verbal deficits). Impairments in processing speed were related to injury severity and age at injury. Predictors of 10-year outcome included pre-injury and social factors, injury age, and family function. Child survivors of serious TBI are at elevated risk of cognitive impairment, with recovery continuing into the third year post-injury. However, between 30 months and 10 years post-insult, children appear to make appropriate developmental gains, contrary to the speculation that these children "grow into their deficits."

  2. FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH STRESS AND COPING AT 5 AND 10 YEARS AFTER HEART TRANSPLANTATION

    PubMed Central

    Grady, Kathleen L.; Wang, Edward; White-Williams, Connie; Naftel, David C.; Myers, Susan; Kirklin, James K.; Rybarczyk, Bruce; Young, James B.; Pelegrin, Dave; Kobashigawa, Jon; Higgins, Robert; Heroux, Alain

    2013-01-01

    Background Heart transplant-related stressors and coping are related to poor outcomes early after transplant. The purposes of our study were to (1) identify the most frequent and bothersome stressors and most used and effective coping strategies, and (2) compare the most frequent and bothersome stresses and most used and effective coping styles between patients at 5 and 10 years after heart transplantation. We also examined differences in coping styles by patient characteristics, and factors associated with frequency and intensity of stress at both 5 and 10 years after heart transplantation. Methods This report is a secondary analysis of data from a prospective, multi-site study of quality of life outcomes. Data are from 199 and 98 patients at 5 and 10 years after transplant, respectively. Patients completed the Heart Transplant Stressor Scale and Jalowiec Coping Scale. Statistical analyses included frequencies, measures of central tendency, t-tests, Chi-square and generalized linear models. Results At 5 and 10 years after heart transplantation, the most bothersome stressors were regarding work, school, and financial issues. Patients who were 10 years post transplant reported less stress, similar stress intensity, and less use and perceived effectiveness of negative coping than patients who were 5 years post transplant. Long-term after transplant, demographic characteristics, psychological problems, negative coping, and clinical factors were related to stress frequency and/or intensity. Conclusions Heart transplant-related stress occurs long-term after surgery. Types of transplant-related stress and factors related to stress confirm the importance of ongoing psychological and clinical support after heart transplantation. PMID:23498164

  3. A longitudinal comparison of drug use among 10-year-old children and 15-year-old adolescents from the German GINIplus and LISAplus birth cohorts.

    PubMed

    Italia, Salvatore; Brüske, Irene; Heinrich, Joachim; Berdel, Dietrich; von Berg, Andrea; Lehmann, Irina; Standl, Marie; Wolfenstetter, Silke B

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare longitudinal data on drug utilization between 10-year-old children and 15-year-old adolescents and to analyse the association of drug use at the age of 15 years with drug use at the age of 10 years. Based on the German GINIplus (German infant study on the Influence of Nutrition Intervention plus environmental and genetic influences on allergy development) and LISAplus (Influence of lifestyle factors on the immune system and allergies in East and West Germany plus the influence of traffic emissions and genetics) birth cohorts, data on drug utilization (past 4 weeks) were collected using a self-administered questionnaire for 3642 children (10-year follow-up) and 4677 adolescents (15-year follow-up). The drugs were classified by therapeutic categories (conventional drugs, homeopathic drugs, etc.) and by codes according to the anatomical therapeutic chemical (ATC) classification system. Associations of adolescents' drug use with gender, study area, maternal education, parental income, presence of chronic conditions, and prior drug use at the age of 10 years were analysed using a logistic regression model. The 4-week prevalence rates of overall drug use were similar for adolescents (41.1%) and children (42.3%). However, adolescents used noticeably more anti-inflammatory drugs, analgesics, and systemic antihistamines. Exactly 3194 children/adolescents participated in both follow-ups. Adolescents' use of anti-inflammatory drugs was predicted (OR = 3.37) by use of anti-inflammatory drugs as a child. In summary, the strongest predictor of adolescents' use of specific therapeutic categories or ATC groups was the previous use of the same therapeutic drug category or ATC group as a 10-year-old child. Despite similar prevalence rates of overall drug utilization among both age groups, there is a noticeable difference concerning the use of drugs from specific ATC groups. Drug use as a child may partly determine what they use as an

  4. Predictors of Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substance (PFAS) Plasma Concentrations in 6-10 Year Old American Children.

    PubMed

    Harris, Maria H; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Calafat, Antonia M; Ye, Xiaoyun; Mora, Ana Maria; Webster, Thomas F; Oken, Emily; Sagiv, Sharon K

    2017-05-02

    Certain per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are suspected developmental toxicants, but data on PFAS concentrations and exposure routes in children are limited. We measured plasma PFASs in children aged 6-10 years from the Boston-area Project Viva prebirth cohort, and used multivariable linear regression to estimate associations with sociodemographic, behavioral, and health-related factors, and maternal PFASs measured during pregnancy. PFAS concentrations in Project Viva children (sampled 2007-2010) were similar to concentrations among youth participants (aged 12-19 years) in the 2007-8 and 2009-10 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES); mean concentrations of most PFASs declined from 2007 to 2010 in Project Viva and NHANES. In mutually adjusted models, predictors of higher PFAS concentrations included older child age, lower adiposity, carpeting or a rug in the child's bedroom, higher maternal education, and higher neighborhood income. Concentrations of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS), and 2-(N-methyl-perfluorooctane sulfonamido) acetate (Me-PFOSA-AcOH) were 26-36% lower in children of black mothers compared to children of white mothers and increased 12-21% per interquartile range increase in maternal pregnancy PFASs. Breastfeeding duration did not predict childhood PFAS concentrations in adjusted multivariable models. Together, the studied predictors explained the observed variability in PFAS concentrations to only a modest degree.

  5. Family meals: perceptions of benefits and challenges among parents of 8- to 10-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Fulkerson, Jayne A; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Rydell, Sarah

    2008-04-01

    The study purpose was to examine parental perceptions of the mealtime environment in families with school-aged children and identify strategies to improve the dietary quality of meals. Cross-sectional surveys were completed by a convenience sample of 107 parents (86% mothers, 14% fathers) of 8- to 10-year-old children who were recruited from afterschool child care programs/elementary schools. SAS (version 9.1) was used to produce descriptive frequencies of parental reports of positive and negative perceptions of mealtime. Parents reported frequent family meals; however, they indicated that family dinners were eaten at full-service restaurants, purchased from fast-food establishments, or picked up as takeout foods at least weekly (47.0%, 28.3%, and 23.8%, respectively). Conflicts about food were problematic for some families (40.2% on at least some days), and appeared to be related to children's food pickiness. Parents reported many benefits of family meals, including time for conversation, feelings of togetherness, shared nutrition, and ceremony. Areas where parents desired change included assistance with meal planning, food preparation, and clean-up; spending more time at meals; assistance with children's food pickiness; new recipes and meal ideas; and decreasing conflict at mealtimes. Findings suggest that interventions to increase family meal frequency and promote healthful foods at mealtimes should address promoting food acceptance among children, sharing responsibilities among parents and children for meal planning and preparation, decreasing conflict at meals, and eating out healthfully.

  6. Income-related inequalities in the prevalence of depression and suicidal behaviour: a 10-year trend following economic crisis.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jihyung; Knapp, Martin; McGuire, Alistair

    2011-02-01

    The issue of health inequalities has steadily gained attention in South Korea, as income inequality widened and social polarization increased following the country's economic crisis in the late 1990s. While official figures indicate a general trend of worsening mental health, with rapidly rising rates of suicide and depression in particular, the extent of socio-economic inequality with respect to mental health problems has not been well elucidated. This study aimed to measure income-related inequalities in depression, suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in South Korea and to trace their changes over a 10-year period (1998-2007). The concentration index approach was employed to quantify the degree of income-related inequalities, using four waves of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. The study found persistent pro-rich inequality in depression, suicidal ideation and suicide attempts over the past decade (i.e., individuals with higher incomes were less likely to have these conditions). The inequalities actually doubled over this period. These findings imply a need for expanded social protection policies for the less privileged in the population.

  7. Physical aggression, compromised social support, and 10-year marital outcomes: Testing a relational spillover model.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Kieran T; Pasch, Lauri A; Lawrence, Erika; Bradbury, Thomas N

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to test a relational spillover model of physical aggression whereby physical aggression affects marital outcomes due to its effects on how spouses ask for and provide support to one another. Newlywed couples (n = 172) reported levels of physical aggression over the past year and engaged in interactions designed to elicit social support; marital adjustment, and stability were assessed periodically over the first 10 years of marriage. Multilevel modeling revealed that negative support behavior mediated the relationship between physical aggression and 10-year marital adjustment levels whereas positive support behavior mediated the relationship between physical aggression and divorce status. These findings emphasize the need to look beyond conflict when explaining how aggression affects relationships and when working with couples with a history of physical aggression who are seeking to improve their relationships.

  8. An epidemiological survey of tinea capitis in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina over a 10-year period.

    PubMed

    Prohic, Asja

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and aetiological agents of tinea capitis in Sarajevo area, Bosnia and Herzegovina, during a 10-year period (1997-2006). A total of 707 patients with suspected dermatophyte infections of scalp was analysed. Tinea capitis was determined in 241 (34.1%) of these patients, in whom causative agents were identified in 209 (29.6%). Zoophilic dermatophytes (91.8%) prevailed over anthropophilic (7.2%) and geophilic (1.0%) dermatophytes. Microsporum canis was the most frequent dermatophyte isolated (90.4%), followed by Trichophyton schoenleinii (2.4%) and Trichophyton violaceum (1.9%). The majority of infections occurred in males (56.5%) and in children with age less than 10 years (52.6%).

  9. Patterns of treatment utilization and methamphetamine use during first 10 years after methamphetamine initiation.

    PubMed

    Brecht, Mary-Lynn; Lovinger, Katherine; Herbeck, Diane M; Urada, Darren

    2013-01-01

    The study examined joint trajectories of methamphetamine (MA) use and substance abuse treatment utilization and identified differences among pattern groups for a sample of 348 treated for MA use. Results from group-based trajectory modeling showed that treatment utilization during the first 10 years after initiation of MA use could be categorized into three distinctive patterns: about half the MA users have a pattern of low treatment utilization; one-fourth follow a quicker-to-treatment trajectory with higher probability of treatment during the first 5 years of MA use and less treatment in the next 5 years; and one-fourth have a slower-to-treatment trajectory with more treatment during the second half of the 10-year period. Four MA use patterns were identified: consistently low use, moderate, and high use, as well as a decreasing use pattern. Periods of greater likelihood of treatment participation were associated with periods of decreasing or lower frequency of MA use.

  10. Rugby injuries to the cervical spine and spinal cord: a 10-year review.

    PubMed

    Scher, A T

    1998-01-01

    A 10-year review (1987-1996) of injuries sustained to the spine and spinal cord in rugby players with resultant paralysis has been undertaken. This article reviews that the incidence of serious rugby spine and spinal cord injuries in South Africa has increased over the 10-year period reviewed, despite stringent new rules instituted in an attempt to decrease the incidence of these injuries. The mechanisms of injury, as previously reported, remain the same as well as the phases of game responsible for injury of the tight scrum, tackle, rucks, and mauls. Two new observations are reported: the first is related to the occurrence of spinal cord concussion with transient paralysis, and the second is related to the increased incidence of osteoarthritis of the cervical spine in rugby players.

  11. Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) in Hungary; The First 10 Years.

    PubMed

    Varga, Endre; Endre, Endre; Kószó, Balázs; Pető, Zoltán; Ágoston, Zsuzsanna; Gyura, Erika; Nardai, Gábor; Boa, Kristóf; Süveges, Gábor

    2016-01-01

    Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) programs are recognized as the standard educational trauma program worldwide. Data suggest that ATLS has a positive impact on the value of trauma care. The ATLS Hungary program has been started in 2005, celebrating its 10-year anniversary this year. In the present brief communication a brief overview is provided on the program.Student evaluation and statistical data about the participants were collected throughout the 10-year history of the Hungarian program.Student evaluation shows a high level of satisfaction amongst the participating doctors. Most participants are working in higher level centers. The Hungarian program shows good quality according to the participants. Establishing at least one new center is crucial to be able to provide the course for every professional interested in it or required to take it.

  12. Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) in Hungary; The First 10 Years

    PubMed Central

    Varga, Endre; Endre, Endre; Kószó, Balázs; Pető, Zoltán; Ágoston, Zsuzsanna; Gyura, Erika; Nardai, Gábor; Boa, Kristóf; Süveges, Gábor

    2016-01-01

    Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) programs are recognized as the standard educational trauma program worldwide. Data suggest that ATLS has a positive impact on the value of trauma care. The ATLS Hungary program has been started in 2005, celebrating its 10-year anniversary this year. In the present brief communication a brief overview is provided on the program.Student evaluation and statistical data about the participants were collected throughout the 10-year history of the Hungarian program.Student evaluation shows a high level of satisfaction amongst the participating doctors. Most participants are working in higher level centers. The Hungarian program shows good quality according to the participants. Establishing at least one new center is crucial to be able to provide the course for every professional interested in it or required to take it. PMID:27162927

  13. Weight Suppression Predicts Maintenance and Onset of Bulimic Syndromes at 10-Year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Keel, Pamela K.; Heatherton, Todd F.

    2010-01-01

    Conflicting results have emerged regarding the prognostic significance of weight suppression for maintenance of bulimic symptoms. This study examined whether the magnitude of weight suppression would predict bulimic syndrome maintenance and onset in college-based samples of men (n=369) and women (n=968) at 10-year follow-up. Data come from a longitudinal study of body weight and disordered eating with high retention (80%). Among those with a bulimic syndrome at baseline, greater weight suppression significantly predicted maintenance of the syndrome, and, among those without a bulimic syndrome at baseline, greater weight suppression predicted onset of a bulimic syndrome at 10-year follow-up in multivariate models that included baseline body mass index, diet frequency, and weight perception. Future research should address mechanisms that could account for the effects of weight suppression over a long duration of follow-up. PMID:20455599

  14. The past 10 years of gastroenterology and hepatology-reflections and predictions.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Scott L; Quigley, Eamonn M M; Sharkey, Keith A; Sung, Joseph J Y; Whitcomb, David C

    2014-11-01

    In November 2004, the very first issue of this journal featured articles on the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis, mechanisms leading to chronic pancreatitis, and treatment of recurrent Clostridium-difficile-associated diarrhoea. Although those topics might seem familiar, much has changed in the intervening years in our understanding, diagnosis and treatment of many different diseases across the field of gastroenterology and hepatology. Nonetheless, many challenges remain. Here, we have asked five of our Advisory Board members-international experts across different subspecialties in gastroenterology and hepatology-to reflect on the progress and frustrations of the past 10 years. They also comment on where effort and money should be invested now, as well as their predictions for progress in the next 10 years.

  15. Sunlight and the 10-year incidence of age-related maculopathy: the Beaver Dam Eye Study.

    PubMed

    Tomany, Sandra C; Cruickshanks, Karen J; Klein, Ronald; Klein, Barbara E K; Knudtson, Michael D

    2004-05-01

    To examine the association of sunlight exposure and indicators of sun sensitivity with the 10-year incidence of age-related maculopathy (ARM). Population-based cohort study. We included persons aged 43 to 86 years at the baseline examination from 1988 to 1990, living in Beaver Dam, Wis, of whom 3684 persons underwent 5-year follow-up and 2764 underwent 10-year follow-up. Data on sun exposure and indicators of sun sensitivity were obtained from a standardized questionnaire administered at baseline and/or follow-up. We determined ARM status by grading stereoscopic color fundus photographs using the Wisconsin Age-Related Maculopathy Grading System. Incidence and progression of ARM. While controlling for age and sex, we found that participants exposed to the summer sun for more than 5 hours a day during their teens, in their 30s, and at the baseline examination were at a higher risk of developing increased retinal pigment (risk ratio [RR], 2.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18-7.60; P =.02) and early ARM (RR, 2.20; 95% CI, 1.02-4.73; P =.04) [corrected] by 10 years than those exposed less than 2 hours per day during the same periods. In participants reporting the highest summer sun exposure levels in their teens and 30s, the use of hats and sunglasses at least half the time during the same periods was associated with a decreased risk of developing soft indistinct drusen (RR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.33-0.90; P =.02) and retinal pigment epithelial depigmentation (RR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.29-0.91; P =.02). Participants who experienced more than 10 severe sunburns during their youth were more likely than those who experienced 1 or no burn to develop drusen with a 250-microm diameter or larger (RR, 2.52; 95% CI, 1.29-4.94 [corrected] P =.01) by the 10-year examination. No relationships were found between UV-B exposure, winter leisure time spent outdoors, skin sun sensitivity, or number of bad sunburns experienced by the time of the baseline examination and the 10-year incidence and

  16. Stress Generation, Avoidance Coping, and Depressive Symptoms: A 10-Year Model

    PubMed Central

    Holahan, Charles J.; Moos, Rudolf H.; Holahan, Carole K.; Brennan, Penny L.; Schutte, Kathleen K.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined (a) the role of avoidance coping in prospectively generating both chronic and acute life stressors and (b) the stress-generating role of avoidance coping as a prospective link to future depressive symptoms. Participants were 1,211 late-middle-aged individuals (500 women and 711 men) assessed 3 times over a 10-year period. As predicted, baseline avoidance coping was prospectively associated with both more chronic and more acute life stressors 4 years later. Furthermore, as predicted, these intervening life stressors linked baseline avoidance coping and depressive symptoms 10 years later, controlling for the influence of initial depressive symptoms. These findings broaden knowledge about the stress-generation process and elucidate a key mechanism through which avoidance coping is linked to depressive symptoms. PMID:16173853

  17. The first 10 years of the American Board of Vascular Medicine.

    PubMed

    Gray, Bruce H; Jaff, Michael R; Slovut, David Paul; Bacharach, J Michael; Carman, Terry; Creager, Mark; Halperin, Jonathon; von Mering, Gregory; Kinlay, Scott

    2015-02-01

    The American Board of Vascular Medicine (ABVM) was conceived through the Society for Vascular Medicine and this year will complete 10 years of certifying physicians who practice vascular medicine and endovascular medicine. The value of certification to our physicians, patients, and field cannot be understated. This paper reviews the highlights of the test development process, quality assurance measures, and management of these high stakes examinations.

  18. Changes in Pulmonary Function Up to 10 Years After Locoregional Breast Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Erven, Katrien; Weltens, Caroline; Nackaerts, Kristiaan; Fieuws, Steffen; Decramer, Marc; Lievens, Yolande

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the long-term impact of locoregional breast radiotherapy (RT) on pulmonary function tests (PFTs). Methods and Materials: This study included 75 women who underwent postoperative locoregional breast RT. PFTs were performed before RT and 3, 6, and 12 months and 8 to 10 years after RT. By use of univariate and multivariate analyses, the impact of treatment- and patient-related factors on late changes in PFTs was evaluated. Results: During the first year after RT, all PFTs significantly worsened at 3 to 6 months after RT (p < 0.05). At 12 months, forced vital capacity (FVC), vital capacity (VC), and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV{sub 1}) recovered almost to baseline values, whereas total lung capacity (TLC) and diffusion capacity of carbon monoxide (DL{sub CO}) recovered only slightly and were still found to be decreased compared with baseline (p < 0.05). At 8 to 10 years after RT, mean reductions in FEV{sub 1} of 4% (p = 0.03) and in VC, DL{sub CO}, and TLC of 5%, 9%, and 11% (all p < 0.0001), respectively, were observed compared with pre-RT values. On multivariate analysis, tamoxifen use negatively affected TLC at 8 to 10 years after RT (p = 0.033), whereas right-sided irradiation was associated with a late reduction in FEV{sub 1} (p = 0.027). For FEV{sub 1} and DL{sub CO}, an early decrease was predictive for a late decrease (p = 0.003 and p = 0.0009, respectively). Conclusions: The time course of PFT changes after locoregional RT for breast cancer follows a biphasic pattern. An early reduction in PFTs at 3 to 6 months with a partial recovery at 12 months after RT is followed by a late, more important PFT reduction up to 8 to 10 years after RT. Tamoxifen use may have an impact on this late decline in PFTs.

  19. The Future of Federated Search, or What Will the World Look like in 10 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Rich

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author contends that in 10 years, federated search--or search of any kind for that matter--won't exist. He elaborates that the "function" of search will exist--but not in a context with which anyone is familiar today. So if "search" doesn't exist in 2018, how will people find the information that they need across vast volumes…

  20. Synthesis of 10-years of Ecohydrologic studies on Turkey Creek watershed

    Treesearch

    Devendra Amatya; Timothy Callahan; Carl Trettin

    2016-01-01

    Since the establishment of a collaborative study 10 years ago, research on the third-order, 5240 ha forested Turkey Creek watershed in South Carolina’s coastal plain has advanced the understanding of rainfall-runoff relationships, stream hydrograph characteristics, and water table dynamics for dominant soil types. Surface water dynamics were shown to be regulated...

  1. The protective role of family meals for youth obesity: 10-year longitudinal associations.

    PubMed

    Berge, Jerica M; Wall, Melanie; Hsueh, Tsun-Fang; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Larson, Nicole; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2015-02-01

    To examine whether having family meals as an adolescent protects against becoming overweight or obese 10 years later as a young adult. Data from Project Eating and Activity in Teens -III, a longitudinal cohort study with emerging young adults, were used. At baseline (1998-1999), adolescents completed surveys in middle or high schools, and at 10-year follow-up (2008-2009) surveys were completed online or via mailed surveys. Young adult participants (n = 2117) were racially/ethnically and socioeconomically diverse (52% minority; 38% low income) between the ages of 19 and 31 years (mean age = 25.3; 55% female). Logistic regression was used to associate weight status at follow-up with family meal frequency 10 years earlier during adolescence, controlling and testing for interactions with demographic characteristics. All levels of baseline family meal frequency (ie, 1-2, 3-4, ≥5 family meals/wk) during adolescence were significantly associated with reduced odds of overweight or obesity 10 years later in young adulthood compared with never having family meals as an adolescent. Interactions by race indicated that family meals had a stronger protective effect for obesity in black vs white young adults. Family meals during adolescence were protective against the development of overweight and obesity in young adulthood. Professionals who work with adolescents and parents may want to strategize with them how to successfully carry out at least 1 to 2 family meals per week in order to protect adolescents from overweight or obesity in young adulthood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Impact of Adolescent Alcohol and Drug Use on Neuropsychological Functioning in Young Adulthood: 10-Year Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Karen L.; Medina, Krista Lisdahl; Padula, Claudia B.; Tapert, Susan F.; Brown, Sandra A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Alcohol and other substance use disorders (AUD/SUD) are common among youth and often continue into adulthood; therefore, the neurocognitive effects of substance use are of great concern. Because neuromaturation continues into young adulthood, youth with AUD/SUD may be at risk for lasting cognitive decrements. This study prospectively examines neuropsychological functioning over 10 years as a function of AUD/SUD history and outcomes. Methods The 51 participants consisted of 18 youth with persisting AUD/SUD, 19 youth with remitted AUD/SUD, and 14 community youth with no AUD/SUD history followed over 10 years (ages 16 to 27 on average) with neuropsychological testing and substance use interviews on 8 occasions. Neuropsychological performance from baseline to 10-year follow-up was compared between the three groups. Results Despite scoring higher than controls at intake, both AUD/SUD groups showed a relative decline in visuospatial construction at 10-year follow-up (p=.001). Regressions showed that alcohol use (β=−.33, p < .01) and drug withdrawal symptoms (β=−.31, p<.05) over follow-up were predictive of year 10 visuospatial function. Alcohol use also predicted verbal learning and memory (β=−.28, p<.05), while stimulant use predicted visual learning and memory function (β=−.33, p=.01). More recent substance use was associated with poorer executive function (β=.28, p<.05). Discussion These findings confirm prior studies suggesting that heavy, chronic alcohol and other substance use persisting from adolescence to young adulthood may produce cognitive disadvantages, primarily in visuospatial and memory abilities. Youth who chronically consume heavy quantities of alcohol and/or experience drug withdrawal symptoms may be particularly at risk for cognitive deterioration by young adulthood. PMID:21532924

  3. Design of carbon therapy facility based on 10 years experience at HIMAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noda, K.; Furukawa, T.; Iwata, Y.; Kanai, T.; Kanazawa, M.; Kanematsu, N.; Kitagawa, A.; Komori, M.; Minohara, S.; Murakami, T.; Muramatsu, M.; Sato, S.; Sato, Y.; Shibuya, S.; Torikoshi, M.; Yamada, S.

    2006-06-01

    Since 1994, the clinical trial for cancer therapy with HIMAC has successfully progressed, and more than 2100 cancer patients have been treated with a carbon beam. Based on the development of the accelerator and irradiation technologies for 10 years, we have designed a new carbon-therapy facility for widespread use in Japan, and key technologies for the new facility have been developed. We describe the conceptual design of the new facility and the status of development for the key technologies.

  4. Laboratory investigation of monoclonal gammopathy during 10 years of screening in a general hospital.

    PubMed Central

    Malacrida, V; De Francesco, D; Banfi, G; Porta, F A; Riches, P G

    1987-01-01

    Protein electrophoresis was carried out on 102,000 samples from the patients of a district general hospital over 10 years, and a monoclonal protein was detected in 730 cases; of these, 114 could be classified as B cell malignancies and 261 as monoclonal gammopathy of undefined significance (MGUS). The various clinical and laboratory features of monoclonal gammopathy were examined with respect to distinguishing the malignant conditions from MGUS at first presentation. PMID:3114329

  5. Risk for subsequent injuries after spinal cord injury: a 10-year longitudinal analysis.

    PubMed

    Krause, James S

    2010-11-01

    To identify (1) the annual incidence of subsequent injury and injury-related hospitalizations in persons with preexisting spinal cord injury (SCI) and (2) risk and protective behaviors associated with differential risk for injury. Longitudinal mailed survey. Participants were enrolled in 1997 to 1998, with a follow-up conducted 10 years later. Data were collected from participants identified from a specialty hospital and were analyzed at a medical university in the Southeastern United States. Participants (N=1386) during the baseline enrollment, 821 of whom also participated in the 10-year follow-up. Inclusion criteria were (1) traumatic SCI with residual impairment, (2) nonsurgical onset, (3) aged 18 years or older, and (4) a minimum of 12 months post-SCI. Not applicable. Number of injuries severe enough to require treatment in a clinic, emergency department, or hospital in the 12 months before the survey and number of injury-related hospitalizations. Predictor variables included selected items from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire, and prescription medication use. More than 23% of participants reported at least 1 injury within the past year, an increase from that reported 10 years earlier by the same participants (19%), and 7% reported at least 1 injury-related hospitalization. Those who reported a subsequent injury during the preliminary baseline data collection were about twice as likely to report at least 1 injury 10 years later. Binge drinking, psychotropic prescription medication use, and several personality characteristics also were related to injuries and/or injury-related hospitalization. Risk for injury continues to be a significant concern in the years and decades after SCI onset. Behavioral and personality factors hold the key to prevention. Copyright © 2010 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Delayed introduction of solid feeding reduces child overweight and obesity at 10 years.

    PubMed

    Seach, K A; Dharmage, S C; Lowe, A J; Dixon, J B

    2010-10-01

    The function that the timing of introduction of solid foods may have in the development of child obesity has not been adequately explored, either as a potential confounder of the relationship between breastfeeding and child obesity, or as an independent modifiable risk factor. To determine the association between infant feeding practices and child overweight/obesity. Six hundred and twenty subjects were recruited antenatally from 1990 to 1994. A total of 18 telephone interviews over the first 2 years of life recorded infant feeding practices. At mean age of 10 years, height and weight were measured for 307 subjects. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine whether infant feeding practices (duration of exclusive and any breastfeeding, and age at introduction of solid foods) were associated with odds of being overweight/obese (internationally age- and sex-standardized body mass index category) at age 10 years, after adjustment for confounders. Delayed introduction of solid foods was associated with reduced odds of being overweight/obese at age 10 years, after controlling for socioeconomic status, parental smoking and childcare attendance (adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=0.903 per week, 95% CI=0.841-0.970, P=0.005). Antenatal parental smoking was associated with overweight/obesity at age 10 years (aOR=3.178, 95% CI=1.643-6.147, P=0.001). Duration of exclusive or any breastfeeding was not associated with the outcome. Delayed introduction of solids is associated with reduced odds of child overweight/obesity. Wider promotion of current infant feeding guidelines could have a significant impact on the rates of child overweight and obesity.

  7. Efficacy and tolerability of gamma knife radiosurgery in acromegaly: a 10-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Ronchi, Cristina L; Attanasio, Roberto; Verrua, Elisa; Cozzi, Renato; Ferrante, Emanuele; Loli, Paola; Montefusco, Laura; Motti, Enrico; Ferrari, Daniela I; Giugni, Enrico; Beck-Peccoz, Paolo; Arosio, Maura

    2009-12-01

    The long-term efficacy and safety of stereotactic radiosurgery by gamma knife (GK) still remain unknown. The aim of the study was to investigate the long-term efficacy and tolerability of GK in acromegalic patients. Retrospective analysis for a median follow-up of 10 years. Thirty-five acromegalic patients from two referral centres in Milan submitted to GK (median margin dose: 20 Gy, median % isodose: 50) between 1995 and 2004. GH/IGF-I secretion, anterior pituitary function, radiological imaging and ophthalmological data. Cure rate improved over time (up to 46% at 10 years), as did the proportion of patients achieving control on somatostatin analogues (from 12.5% at baseline to 50% at 10 years). Normal IGF-I values were observed in 82% of patients at their last visit. No visual impairment, disease recurrence, tumour growth or secondary cerebral tumour occurred. Half of the patients developed one or more new deficiencies, while two patients normalized their prior failures. In particular, new onset of clinical or subclinical hypoadrenalism occurred in 12/30 patients (40%), hypothyroidism in 3/28 (11%), hypogonadism in 2/15 (13%) and GH deficiency in 2/35 (6%). GH value at the time of GK was the best negative predictor of cure and margin dose was the best positive predictor of new hypopituitarism. Over a 10-year period after GK radiosurgery, an increasing percentage of patients achieve cure, or adequate control of the disease on pharmacological therapy, at the expense of increasing novel pituitary deficiencies. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Establishing a children's orthopaedic hospital for Malawi: A review after 10 years.

    PubMed

    Dorman, S L; Graham, S M; Paniker, J; Phalira, S; Harrison, W J

    2014-12-01

    BEIT CURE International Hospital (BCIH) opened in 2002 providing orthopaedic surgical services to children in Malawi. This study reviews the hospital's progress 10 years after establishment of operational services. In addition we assess the impact of the hospital's Malawi national clubfoot programme (MNCP) and influence on orthopaedic training. All operative paediatric procedures performed by BCIH services in the 10th operative year were included. Data on clubfoot clinic locations and number of patients treated were obtained from the MNCP. BCIH records were reviewed to identify the number of healthcare professionals who have received training at the BCIH. 609 new patients were operated on in the 10th year of hospital service. Patients were treated from all regions; however 60% came from Southern regions compared with the 48% in the 5th year. Clubfoot, burn contracture and angular lower limb deformities were the three most common pathologies treated surgically. In total BCIH managed 9,842 patients surgically over a 10-year period. BCIH helped to establish and co-ordinate the MNCP since 2007. At present the program has a total of 29 clinics, which have treated 5748 patients. Furthermore, BCIH has overseen the full or partial training of 5 orthopaedic surgeons and 82 orthopaedic clinical officers in Malawi. The BCIH has improved the care of paediatric patients in a country that prior to its establishment had no dedicated paediatric orthopaedic service, treating almost 10,000 patients surgically and 6,000 patients in the MNCP. This service has remained consistent over a 10-year period despite times of global austerity. Whilst the type of training placement offered at BCIH has changed in the last 10 years, the priority placed on training has remained paramount. The strategic impact of long-term training commitments are now being realised, in particular by the addition of Orthopaedic surgeons serving the nation.

  9. Corneal Astigmatism in Patients After Cataract Surgery: A 10-Year Follow-up Study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyojin; Whang, Woong-Joo; Joo, Choun-Ki

    2016-06-01

    To report the long-term outcomes of corneal astigmatism after cataract surgery. The study included 55 eyes of 46 patients who underwent cataract surgery with temporal 3-mm clear corneal incisions from January 2001 to December 2003. All patients underwent complete ophthalmological examination including keratometry at the preoperative visit and at 2 months and 10 years after surgery. Only those eyes that underwent a follow-up of 10 years or longer from the time of cataract surgery were enrolled. Arithmetic and vector analyses were performed to obtain the change in corneal astigmatism with advancing age. The mean age of the patients was 59.11 ± 12.33 years (range: 18 to 75 years), and 58.7% of the patients were women. The mean follow-up period was 131.28 ± 14.36 months. The average magnitudes of surgically induced astigmatism and long-term astigmatism change were 0.66 ± 0.42 and 0.57 ± 0.47 diopters (D), respectively. The vector difference was 0.56 ± 0.55 D at 90° ± 0° between the preoperative and 2-month visits. However, there was no difference in vector values between postoperative 2 months and 10 years (0.00 ± 0.74 D at 0° ± 0°). Patients with corneal astigmatism who underwent cataract surgery did not show a long-term against-the-rule change in corneal astigmatism during a 10-year follow-up. These results provide useful information when planning toric intraocular lens implantation in patients with corneal astigmatism. [J Refract Surg. 2016;32(6):404-409.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. Risk for Subsequent Injuries After Spinal Cord Injury: A 10-Year Longitudinal Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Krause, James S.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To identify: (a) the annual incidence of subsequent injury and injury related hospitalizations among individuals with pre-existing spinal cord injury (SCI) and (b) risk and protective behaviors associated with differential risk of injury. Design Longitudinal, mailed survey. Participants were enrolled in 1997-1998, with a follow-up conducted 10 years later. Setting Data were collected from participants identified from a specialty hospital and analyzed at a medical university in the Southeastern United States. Participants There were 1386 participants during the baseline enrollment, 821 of whom also participated in the 10-year follow-up. Inclusion criteria were: (1) traumatic SCI with residual impairment A-D, (2) non-surgical onset, (3) age 18 years or older, and (4) a minimum of 12 months post-SCI. Interventions Main Outcome Measures Number of injuries severe enough to require treatment in a clinic, emergency department, or hospital in the 12 months prior to the survey, and number of injury related hospitalizations. Predictor variables included selected items from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire, and prescription medication usage. Results Over 23% of participants reported at least 1 injury within the past year, an increase from that reported 10 years earlier by the same participants (19%), and 7% reported at least 1 injury related hospitalization. Those who reported a subsequent injury during the preliminary baseline data collection were about twice as likely to report at least 1 injury 10 years later. Binge drinking, psychotropic prescription medication use, and several personality characteristics were also related to injuries and/or injury hospitalization. Conclusions Risk of injury continues to be a significant concern in the years and decades after SCI onset. Behavioral and personality factors hold the key to prevention. PMID:21044720

  11. The Future of Federated Search, or What Will the World Look like in 10 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Rich

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author contends that in 10 years, federated search--or search of any kind for that matter--won't exist. He elaborates that the "function" of search will exist--but not in a context with which anyone is familiar today. So if "search" doesn't exist in 2018, how will people find the information that they need across vast volumes…

  12. Evaluation of fire-safety programs that use 10-year smoke alarms.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Mark; Wilson, Jonathan; Akoto, Judith; Dixon, Sherry; Jacobs, David E; Ballesteros, Michael F

    2010-10-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention began funding a Smoke Alarm Installation and Fire Safety Education (SAIFE) program in 1998. This program involves the installation of lithium-powered "10-year" smoke alarms in homes at high risk for fires and injuries. This study aimed to (1) determine among original SAIFE homes if the lithium-powered alarms were still present and functional 8-10 years after installation and (2) understand factors related to smoke alarm presence and functionality. Data on a total of 384 homes and 601 smoke alarms in five states were collected and analyzed. Only one-third of alarms were still functional; 37% of installed alarms were missing; and 30% of alarms were present, but not functioning. Alarms were less likely to be functioning if they were installed in the kitchen and if homes had a different resident at follow-up. Of the 351 alarms that were present and had a battery at the time of the evaluation, only 21% contained lithium-powered batteries. Of these, 78% were still functioning. Programs that install lithium-powered alarms should use units that have sealed-in batteries and "hush" buttons. Additionally, education should be given on smoke alarm maintenance that includes a message that batteries in these alarms should not be replaced. Lithium-powered smoke alarms should last up to 10 years if maintained properly.

  13. Factors associated with arterial stiffness in children aged 9-10 years

    PubMed Central

    Batista, Milena Santos; Mill, José Geraldo; Pereira, Taisa Sabrina Silva; Fernandes, Carolina Dadalto Rocha; Molina, Maria del Carmen Bisi

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the factors associated with stiffness of the great arteries in prepubertal children. METHODS This study with convenience sample of 231 schoolchildren aged 9-10 years enrolled in public and private schools in Vitória, ES, Southeastern Brazil, in 2010-2011. Anthropometric and hemodynamic data, blood pressure, and pulse wave velocity in the carotid-femoral segment were obtained. Data on current and previous health conditions were obtained by questionnaire and notes on the child’s health card. Multiple linear regression was applied to identify the partial and total contribution of the factors in determining the pulse wave velocity values. RESULTS Among the students, 50.2% were female and 55.4% were 10 years old. Among those classified in the last tertile of pulse wave velocity, 60.0% were overweight, with higher mean blood pressure, waist circumference, and waist-to-height ratio. Birth weight was not associated with pulse wave velocity. After multiple linear regression analysis, body mass index (BMI) and diastolic blood pressure remained in the model. CONCLUSIONS BMI was the most important factor in determining arterial stiffness in children aged 9-10 years. PMID:25902563

  14. Volumetric growth analysis of an insular dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor over a 10-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Uno, Takehiro; Kinoshita, Masashi; Furuta, Takuya; Miyashita, Katsuyoshi; Sabit, Hemragul; Nakada, Mitsutoshi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (DNETs) are benign tumors characterized by a cortical location; they result in symptoms of drug-resistant partial seizures in children. The development of DNETs is poorly understood because most of them are resected immediately upon diagnosis without any observation period owing to the intractable seizures. Case Description: We report the first DNET case with the growth rate analyzed in the natural course of development for a period of 10 years. The patient was a right-handed man who was initially referred to another hospital with mild head injury when he was 8 years old. A tumor located in the right insular cortex was incidentally detected on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and followed-up with annual MRI for 10 years. Conclusion: In this case, the volume of the DNET increased in direct proportion to the length of time in its clinical course. The tumor doubling time was approximately 10 years. This case suggests DNET is a slow-growing but not stable tumor. PMID:28194304

  15. Quality of life 10 years after liver transplantation: The impact of graft histology

    PubMed Central

    Karam, Vincent; Sebagh, Mylène; Rifai, Kinan; Yilmaz, Funda; Bhangui, Prashant; Danet, Colette; Saliba, Faouzi; Samuel, Didier; Castaing, Denis; Adam, René; Feray, Cyrille

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the relationship between the state of transplanted liver graft and the recipient quality of life (QOL) of histologically proven lesions in a 10-year post liver transplantation (LT) cohort of patients. METHODS Seventy-two recipients with a functional first graft at 10 years post-LT underwent liver biopsy and completed a QOL questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore associations between histological, clinical and QOL criteria. RESULTS Ten years after LT, fibrosis was detected in 53% of patients, and affected the general health perception, while ductopenia, present in 36%, affected the well-being (P = 0.05). Hepatic steatosis (HS) was present in 33% of patients and was associated with the worst QOL score on multiple domains. When compared to patients without HS, patients with HS had significantly higher incidence of fibrosis (P = 0.03), hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection (P = 0.007), and more patients had retired from their job (P = 0.03). Recurrent or de novo HCV-associated fibrosis and patient retirement as objective variables, and abdominal pain or discomfort and joint aches or pains as subjective variables, emerged as independent determinants of HS. CONCLUSION Long-term liver graft lesions, mainly HS presumably as a surrogate marker of HCV infection, may have a substantial impact on QOL 10 years after LT. PMID:28058221

  16. Deterioration of mental health in bariatric surgery after 10 years despite successful weight loss.

    PubMed

    Canetti, L; Bachar, E; Bonne, O

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated the mental health and psychological functioning of bariatric patients before surgery, and after 1 year and 10 year follow-ups, and compared them with participants in a dietary program. Such long follow-up is rare, but strongly recommended by the American Association of Bariatric Surgeons. Thirty-six bariatric surgery patients and 34 participants of a weight loss program were weighed and assessed at all 3 points in time. Participants were administered the mental health inventory, neuroticism, sense of control and fear of intimacy scales. Along with these mental and psychological measurements, the medical outcome short form (SF-36) was used. The surgery group achieved successful weight loss outcomes (27% reduction of pre-operative weight) after 10 years and better than baseline health-related quality-of-life scores. However, their general mental health, neuroticism, sense of control and fear of intimacy scores showed significant deterioration in comparison to pre-operative levels after 10 years. The dietary group participants remained psychologically stable among all three points in time. This study highlights the importance of identifying a risk group among bariatric patients for which the dietary and psychological follow-up may be of special significance.

  17. Examining the 10-year rebuilding dilemma for U.S. fish stocks.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Wesley S; Cope, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, fishery managers strive to maintain fish stocks at or above levels that produce maximum sustainable yields, and to rebuild overexploited stocks that can no longer support such yields. In the United States, rebuilding overexploited stocks is a contentious issue, where most stocks are mandated to rebuild in as short a time as possible, and in a time period not to exceed 10 years. Opponents of such mandates and related guidance argue that rebuilding requirements are arbitrary, and create discontinuities in the time and fishing effort allowed for stocks to rebuild due to differences in productivity. Proponents, however, highlight how these mandates and guidance were needed to curtail the continued overexploitation of these stocks by setting firm deadlines on rebuilding. Here we evaluate the statements made by opponents and proponents of the 10-year rebuilding mandate and related guidance to determine whether such points are technically accurate using a simple population dynamics model and a database of U.S. fish stocks to parameterize the model. We also offer solutions to many of the issues surrounding this mandate and its implementation by recommending some fishing mortality based frameworks, which meet the intent of the 10-year rebuilding requirement while also providing more flexibility.

  18. Reconstructive surgery after burns: a 10-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Hop, M J; Langenberg, L C; Hiddingh, J; Stekelenburg, C M; van der Wal, M B A; Hoogewerf, C J; van Koppen, M L J; Polinder, S; van Zuijlen, P P M; van Baar, M E; Middelkoop, E

    2014-12-01

    There is minimal insight into the prevalence of reconstructive surgery after burns. The objective of this study was to analyse the prevalence, predictors, indications, techniques and medical costs of reconstructive surgery after burns. A retrospective cohort study was conducted in the three Dutch burn centres. Patients with acute burns, admitted from January 1998 until December 2001, were included. Data on patient and injury characteristics and reconstructive surgery details were collected in a 10-year follow-up period. In 13.0% (n=229/1768) of the patients with burns, reconstructive surgery was performed during the 10-year follow-up period. Mean number of reconstructive procedure per patient were 3.6 (range 1-25). Frequently reconstructed locations were hands and head/neck. The most important indication was scar contracture and the most applied technique was release plus random flaps/skin grafting. Mean medical costs of reconstructive surgery per patient over 10-years were €8342. With this study we elucidated the reconstructive needs of patients after burns. The data presented can be used as reference in future studies that aim to improve scar quality of burns and decrease the need for reconstructive surgery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  19. Examining the 10-Year Rebuilding Dilemma for U.S. Fish Stocks

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, Wesley S.; Cope, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, fishery managers strive to maintain fish stocks at or above levels that produce maximum sustainable yields, and to rebuild overexploited stocks that can no longer support such yields. In the United States, rebuilding overexploited stocks is a contentious issue, where most stocks are mandated to rebuild in as short a time as possible, and in a time period not to exceed 10 years. Opponents of such mandates and related guidance argue that rebuilding requirements are arbitrary, and create discontinuities in the time and fishing effort allowed for stocks to rebuild due to differences in productivity. Proponents, however, highlight how these mandates and guidance were needed to curtail the continued overexploitation of these stocks by setting firm deadlines on rebuilding. Here we evaluate the statements made by opponents and proponents of the 10-year rebuilding mandate and related guidance to determine whether such points are technically accurate using a simple population dynamics model and a database of U.S. fish stocks to parameterize the model. We also offer solutions to many of the issues surrounding this mandate and its implementation by recommending some fishing mortality based frameworks, which meet the intent of the 10-year rebuilding requirement while also providing more flexibility. PMID:25375788

  20. Annual incidences of visual impairment during 10-year period in Mie prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Ikesugi, Kengo; Ichio, Takako; Tsukitome, Hideyuki; Kondo, Mineo

    2017-07-01

    To determine the annual incidence of visual impairment in a Japanese population during a 10-year period. We examined the physical disability certificates issued yearly between 2004 and 2013 in Mie prefecture, Japan. During this period 2468 visually impaired people were registered under the newly defined Act on Welfare of the Physically Disabled Persons' criteria. The age, sex distribution, and causes of visual impairment were determined from the certificates. The major causes of visual impairment during the ten-year period were glaucoma (23.3%), diabetic retinopathy (17.3%), retinitis pigmentosa (12.2%), macular degeneration (9.0%), chorioretinal degeneration or high myopia (7.4%), optic atrophy (5.8%), stroke or brain tumor (5.4%) and cataracts (3.7%). The incidence of glaucoma was significantly higher throughout the period (2004-2013), and that of diabetic retinopathy was lower between 2007 and 2013. The incidence of retinitis pigmentosa did not change significantly during the 10-year period. The incidence of macular degeneration tended to increase between 2004 and 2007, but it decreased significantly between 2007 and 2013. The results indicate that in Japan, the rates of the major causes of visual impairment altered in the most recent 10-year period reflecting the recent changes in the social background and advances in ocular and systemic treatment.

  1. Nutrition Needs Assessment of Young Special Olympics Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Jennifer C.; Temple, Viviene A.; Anholt, Jane P.; Gaul, Catherine A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Children with intellectual disability (ID) are at increased risk for obesity and nutrition-related health concerns, yet there is a paucity of data describing their nutrition status. The purpose of this study was to evaluate nutritional challenges of young participants (2-10 years of age) enrolled in Special Olympics Canada (SOC)…

  2. Nutrition Needs Assessment of Young Special Olympics Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Jennifer C.; Temple, Viviene A.; Anholt, Jane P.; Gaul, Catherine A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Children with intellectual disability (ID) are at increased risk for obesity and nutrition-related health concerns, yet there is a paucity of data describing their nutrition status. The purpose of this study was to evaluate nutritional challenges of young participants (2-10 years of age) enrolled in Special Olympics Canada (SOC)…

  3. A high energy intake from dietary fat among middle-aged and older adults is associated with increased risk of malnutrition 10 years later.

    PubMed

    Söderström, Lisa; Rosenblad, Andreas; Adolfsson, Eva T; Wolk, Alicja; Håkansson, Niclas; Bergkvist, Leif

    2015-09-28

    A higher fat content in the diet could be an advantage for preventing malnutrition among older adults. However, there is sparse scientific evidence to determine the optimal fat intake among older adults. This prospective cohort study examined whether a high energy intake of dietary fat among middle-aged and older adults is associated with the risk of malnutrition 10 years later. The study population comprised 725 Swedish men and women aged 53-80 years who had completed a questionnaire about dietary intake and lifestyle factors in 1997 (baseline) and whose nutritional status was assessed when admitted to the hospital in 2008-2009 (follow-up). At the follow-up, 383 (52.8%) participants were identified as being at risk of malnutrition and fifty-two (7.2%) were identified as malnourished. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to analyse the association between previous dietary fat intake and nutritional status later in life. Contrary to what was expected, a high energy intake from total fat, saturated fat and monounsaturated fat among middle-aged and older adults increased the risk of exhibiting malnutrition 10 years later. However, this applied only to individuals with a BMI<25 kg/m² at the baseline. In conclusion, these findings suggest that preventive actions to counteract malnutrition in older adults should focus on limiting the intake of total fat in the diet by reducing consumption of food with a high content of saturated and monounsaturated fat.

  4. Long-Term Predictors of Social and Leisure Activity 10 Years after Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Norlander, Anna; Carlstedt, Emma; Jönsson, Ann-Cathrin; Lexell, Eva M.; Ståhl, Agneta; Lindgren, Arne; Iwarsson, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Background Restrictions in social and leisure activity can have negative consequences for the health and well-being of stroke survivors. To support the growing number of people who are ageing with stroke, knowledge is needed about factors that influence such activity in a long-term perspective. Aim To identify long-term predictors of the frequency of social and leisure activities 10 years after stroke. Method 145 stroke survivors in Sweden were followed-up at16 months and 10 years after a first-ever stroke. Data representing body functions, activities & participation, environmental factors and personal factors at 16 months after stroke, were used in multiple linear regression analyses to identify predictors of the activity frequency after 10 years, as assessed by the ‘Community, social and civic life’ sub-domain of the Frenchay Activities Index (FAI-CSC). Results At the 10-year follow-up the frequency of social and leisure activities varied considerably among the participants, with FAI-CSC scores spanning the entire score range 0–9 (mean/median 4.9/5.0). Several factors at 16 months post stroke were independently related to the long-term activity frequency. The final regression model included four significant explanatory variables. Driving a car (B = 0.999), ability to walk a few hundred meters (B = 1.698) and extent of social network (B = 1.235) had a positive effect on activity frequency, whereas an age ≥ 75 years had a negative effect (B = -1.657). This model explained 36.9% of the variance in the FAI-CSC (p<0.001). Conclusion Stroke survivors who drive a car, have the ability to walk a few hundred meters and have a wide social network at 16 months after a first-ever stroke are more likely to have a high frequency of social and leisure activities after 10 years, indicating that supporting outdoor mobility and social anchorage of stroke survivors during rehabilitation is important to counteract long-term inactivity. PMID:26901501

  5. Subsequent fracture rates in a nationwide population-based cohort study with a 10-year perspective.

    PubMed

    Hansen, L; Petersen, K D; Eriksen, S A; Langdahl, B L; Eiken, P A; Brixen, K; Abrahamsen, B; Jensen, J-E B; Harsløf, T; Vestergaard, P

    2015-02-01

    Fractures after the age of 50 are frequently observed in Denmark, and many of these may be osteoporotic. This study examined the incidence of all and subsequent fractures in a 10-year period from 2001 to 2011. The incidence of subsequent fractures was high, especially following hip fracture. The purpose of this study is to examine patterns of subsequent fractures and mortality rates over a 10-year period in patients already suffering from fracture. The study was designed as a nationwide, register-based follow-up study. Patients were included if diagnosed with an index fracture (ICD-10 codes: S22.x, S32.x, S42.x, S52.x, S62.x, S72.x, S82.x, S92.x, T02.x, T08.x, T10.x and T12.x) between January 1st, 2001 and December 31st, 2001 and if older than 50 years at time of fracture. The patients were investigated for future subsequent fractures from January 1st, 2002 to December 31st, 2011. In this study, we demonstrated that patients with fractures (especially hip fractures) have a high risk of subsequent fractures, especially hip fracture. Other fractures, which are not commonly considered as osteoporotic fractures, such as lower leg, were frequently observed in the 10 years following index fracture. The cumulative incidence proportion (CIP) of subsequent fractures during the 10-year follow-up period was high for all recurrent fractures (9-46 %). Subsequent hip fracture, regardless of index fracture, had the highest CIP across the study period, ranging from 9 to 40 %. Appendicular fractures were often followed by a recurrent fracture, or subsequent fractures at a more proximal location in the same limb, i.e. forearm fractures were followed by humerus fractures. These results have not been previously demonstrated to this extent, and according to our knowledge, no previous studies have estimated cumulative 10-year subsequent fracture incidences for any non-hip fractures. Patients suffering a fracture (and especially a hip fracture) have a high incidence of subsequent

  6. Is a child's growth pattern early in life related to serum adipokines at the age of 10 years?

    PubMed

    Flexeder, C; Thiering, E; Kratzsch, J; Klümper, C; Koletzko, B; Müller, M J; Koletzko, S; Heinrich, J

    2014-01-01

    Growth parameters during infancy and early childhood might predict adipokine levels later in life. This study investigates the association between peak growth velocities, body mass index (BMI) and age at adiposity rebound (AR), with leptin and adiponectin levels at age 10 years. Peak height (PHV) and weight (PWV) velocities were calculated from height and weight measurements obtained between birth and age 2 years from 2880 children participating in the GINIplus (German Infant Nutritional Intervention plus environmental and genetic influences on allergy development) and LISAplus (Influences of Lifestyle-Related Factors on the Immune System and the Development of Allergies in Childhood plus Air Pollution and Genetics) birth cohorts. BMI and age at AR were calculated using BMI measurements between age 1.5 and 12 years. Blood samples were collected during a physical examination at age 10. Adiponectin and leptin levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Linear regression models were fitted after adjustment for potential confounding factors and results are presented per interquartile range increase in the exposure. Age at AR was negatively associated with leptin in males and females (percent difference β*: -41.71%; 95% confidence interval: (-44.34;-38.96) and β*: -43.22%; (-45.59; -40.75), respectively). For both males and females PWV (β*: 14.23%; (7.60; 21.26) and β*: 18.54%; (10.76; 26.87), respectively) and BMI at AR (β*: 63.08%; (55.04; 71.53) and β*: 67.02%; (59.30; 75.10), respectively) were positively associated with leptin levels. PHV showed a positive effect on leptin in females only (β*: 10.75%; (3.73; 18.25)). Growth parameters were not significantly associated with adiponectin except for age at AR among females (β: 0.75 ng/ml; (0.42; 1.09)) and PWV among males (β: 0.45 ng/ml; (0.11; 0.79)). Growth patterns in early life may be associated with leptin levels at age 10 years.

  7. Impingement adversely affects 10-year survivorship after periacetabular osteotomy for DDH.

    PubMed

    Albers, Christoph E; Steppacher, Simon D; Ganz, Reinhold; Tannast, Moritz; Siebenrock, Klaus A

    2013-05-01

    Although periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) for developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) provides conceptual advantages compared with other osteotomies and reportedly is associated with joint survivorship of 60% at 20 years, the beneficial effect of proper acetabular reorientation with concomitant arthrotomy and creation of femoral head-neck offset on 10-year hip survivorship remains unclear. We asked the following questions: (1) Does the 10-year survivorship of the hip after PAO improve with proper acetabular reorientation and a spherical femoral head; (2) does the Merle d'Aubigné-Postel score improve; (3) can the progression of osteoarthritis (OA) be slowed; and (4) what factors predict conversion to THA, progression of OA, or a Merle d'Aubigné-Postel score less than 15 points? We retrospectively reviewed 147 patients who underwent 165 PAOs for DDH with two matched groups: Group I (proper reorientation and spherical femoral head) and Group II (improper reorientation and aspherical femoral head). We compared the Kaplan-Meier survivorship, Merle d'Aubigné-Postel scores, and progression of OA in both groups. A Cox regression analysis (end points: THA, OA progression, or Merle d'Aubigné-Postel score less than 15) was performed to detect factors predicting failure. The minimum followup was 10 years (median, 11 years; range, 10-14 years). An increased survivorship was found in Group I. The Merle d'Aubigné-Postel score did not differ. Progression of OA in Group I was slower than in Group II. Factors predicting failure included greater age, lower preoperative Merle d'Aubigné-Postel score, and the presence of a Trendelenburg sign, aspherical head, OA, subluxation, postoperative acetabular retroversion, excessive acetabular anteversion, and undercoverage. Proper acetabular reorientation and the creation of a spherical femoral head improve long-term survivorship and decelerate OA progression in patients with DDH.

  8. [Cardiac rehabilitation in patients with myocardial infarction: a 10-year follow-up study].

    PubMed

    Maroto Montero, José M; Artigao Ramírez, Rosario; Morales Durán, María D; de Pablo Zarzosa, Carmen; Abraira, Víctor

    2005-10-01

    Very little information is available on the effect of cardiac rehabilitation programs on long-term survival. The primary aim of this study was to assess the effect of a structured cardiac rehabilitation program on mortality in patients who had suffered acute myocardial infarction. The secondary endpoint was the effect on morbidity. The study included 180 low-risk male patients aged under 65 years. Patients were randomly assigned to one of 2 groups: 90 entered into a comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation program, and 90 served as a control group. The mean follow-up period was 10 years. All-cause mortality was significantly lower in the intervention group: the 10-year survival rate was 91.8% in the intervention group compared with 81.7% in the control group (P=.04). There was also a decrease in cardiovascular mortality, though it was not statistically significant: the 10-year survival rate was 91.8% in the intervention group compared with 83.8% in the control group (P=.10). The incidence of non-fatal complications was lower in the intervention group (35.2% vs 63.2%, P=.03), as was the incidence of unstable angina (15.7% vs 33.9%, P =.02) and cardiac heart failure (3.0% vs 14.4%, P=.02), and the need for coronary intervention (8.4% vs 22.9%, P=.02). The application of a comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation program significantly decreased long-term mortality and morbidity in low-risk patients after acute myocardial infarction.

  9. Cartilage and bone biomarkers in rheumatoid arthritis: prediction of 10-year radiographic progression.

    PubMed

    Syversen, Silje W; Goll, Guro L; van der Heijde, Désirée; Landewé, Robert; Gaarder, Per Ivar; Odegård, Sigrid; Haavardsholm, Espen A; Kvien, Tore K

    2009-02-01

    As current predictors of joint destruction have low specificity, serological biomarkers reflecting bone and cartilage destruction have been proposed as tools in assessing prognosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We examined whether serum concentrations of a panel of biomarkers could predict radiographic progression in patients with RA. A cohort of 238 patients with RA was followed longitudinally for 10 years with collection of clinical data and serum samples. These analyses focus on the 136 patients with radiographs of the hands available at baseline and at 5 and/or 10 years. Radiographs were scored according to the van der Heijde-modified Sharp score (SHS). Baseline sera were analyzed for receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL), osteoprotegerin (OPG), human cartilage glycoprotein-39 (YKL-40), C2C, collagen cross-linked C-telopeptide (CTX-I), and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP). Multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses were used to identify predictors of radiographic progression. Baseline CTX-I levels were higher in progressors [0.41 ng/ml (interquartile range 0.31-0.75)] than in nonprogressors [0.32 ng/ml (IQR 0.21-0.49)], and were independently associated with 10-year change in radiographic damage score [ss = 16.4 (IQR 5.7-27.1)]. We found no association between radiographic progression and baseline serum levels of RANKL, OPG, C2C, YKL-40, or COMP. This longterm followup study of patients with RA indicates a relationship between elevated CTX-I levels in serum and subsequent joint destruction. This association was, however, weak, and our study does not support that serum CTX-I or any of the other tested biomarkers will serve as more useful prognostic markers than current predictors such as anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide, radiographic damage early in the disease course, and signs of inflammation.

  10. Incidence of skeletal fractures after traumatic spinal cord injury: a 10-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Gifre, Laia; Vidal, Joan; Carrasco, Josep; Portell, Enric; Puig, Josep; Monegal, Ana; Guañabens, Núria; Peris, Pilar

    2014-04-01

    To analyse the incidence and factors related to the development and clinical evolution of fractures in patients with traumatic spinal cord injury. A retrospective 10-year follow-up study. Neurorehabilitation centre. Sixty-three patients (50M/13F) with a mean age of 36 ± 20 years with recent traumatic spinal cord injury attended over a one-year period (January to December 2000). Medical reports were reviewed, evaluating risk factors for osteoporosis, fracture incidence during the 10 years following spinal cord injury, severity (ASIA score) and level of spinal cord injury (paraplegia/tetraplegia), type of lesion (spastic/flaccid), weight-bearing standing activity, and the cause, location and evolution of the fracture. Of the 129 patients attending during the study period, 75 had traumatic spinal cord injury (7 died and 5 had no follow-up). Finally, 63 patients were included. Fifty-four per cent had complete motor injury (ASIA A). Twenty-five per cent of these patients developed fractures, with 2.9 fractures per 100 patient-years. The femur was the most frequent location of the fractures. Fractures were observed 6.4 ± 2.4 years after spinal cord injury (range 2-10 years), all in males. Most fractures (70%) were related to low-impact injuries. Fifty per cent presented with associated clinical complications and only 20% of the patients had received anti-osteoporotic treatment. Spinal cord injury severity was the only risk factor for the development of fractures (complete spinal cord injury (ASIA A)) (RR 4.043; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.081-23.846, P = 0.037). The incidence of fractures after spinal cord injury is high, with severity and time since spinal cord injury being the main determinants for their development. Fractures were frequently associated with clinical complications. However, the use of anti-osteoporotic treatment was uncommon.

  11. Lower limb function and 10-year survival in population aged 75 years and older.

    PubMed

    Arnau, Anna; Espaulella, Joan; Méndez, Teresa; Serrarols, Marta; Canudas, Judit; Formiga, Francesc; Ferrer, Montserrat

    2016-02-01

    Scientific societies recommend assessing lower limb function in usual clinical practice. The Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) is one of the most validated tools to assess this, but its capacity to predict long-term mortality in very old population attending primary care has not been studied. To assess the ability of the SPPB to predict 10-year survival in individuals aged 75 and over. Prospective cohort study with a 10-year follow-up. A representative sample of people aged 75 years or older without severe dependence (Barthel Index > 20) treated at a Spanish primary care centre (n = 315). Baseline evaluation included geriatric assessment with most well-known death predictors. The three SPPB subtasks (standing balance, walking speed and chair stand tests) were administered. Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazard models were calculated for all-cause mortality. Mean age was 81.9 years (60.6% female). Ten-year survival of elders with SPPB score <7 and ≥7 was 0.23 and 0.37 (P < 0.001), respectively. This difference remained statistically significant in the Cox model adjusted by age, gender, number of drugs prescribed, cognitive status, body mass index and visual sharpness (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.37; 95% confidence interval: 1.01-1.86). Also, walking speed and chair stand subtasks were both individual-independent predictors of 10-year survival. Our findings indicate that SPPB is an independent predictor of long-term survival. The chair stand subtask could be a predictor as useful as the full performance battery, becoming a good alternative for primary care where the burden of performing all three subtasks could be excessive. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Sharing Telescopes With 10-Year Olds to Celebrate the International Year of Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, Daniel Jonathan; Slater, T. F.; Slater, S. J.; in Astronomy, Cognition; Physics; Earth sciences Research CAPER Team

    2009-05-01

    Precisely four hundred years ago, Italian scientist Galileo's observations of the heavens forever and profoundly altered the way we view our place in the Universe. Throughout 2009, children across Wyoming are joining in a United Nations proclaimed International Year of Astronomy celebration. To commemorate 400 years of the telescope in advancing our understanding of the Universe through astronomy, our goal is that every 10-year old child in Wyoming will experience the excitement and wonder of looking through their very own telescope to observe majestic rings surrounding Saturn, deep craters on the Moon, countless stars lining the Milky Way, brilliant phases of Venus, and orbiting moons of Jupiter. This is being accomplished by a massive, state-wide collaborative effort bringing the collective energy and enthusiasm of professional scientists, amateur astronomers, local teachers, and community outreach enthusiasts together to spark an interest in science among Wyoming's children. Our strategy to bring a telescope to every Wyoming 10-year old child started first with a major year-long fundraising campaign. We estimate the cost of an individual telescope, constructed specifically for the 2009 International Year of Astronomy celebration, to be approximately $13 per child. With 6,489 (in 2007) 10-year old children in Wyoming, this amounts to less than $100,000 as a fund raising goal. University of Wyoming faculty are training teachers in how to use telescopes and how to integrate the excitement of astronomy across the curriculum. To teach children how to use their telescopes, volunteers from around the state are hosting star parties at schools, county fairs, and other regularly scheduled community celebrations.

  13. Sharing the Stars: Bringing Telescopes to 10-year Olds for International Year of Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, S. J.

    2008-12-01

    Precisely four hundred years ago, Italian scientist Galileo's observations of the heavens forever and profoundly altered the way we view our place in the Universe. He dramatically increased our thinking about the size of the known Universe by using his telescope and initiated one of the most important scientific revolutions in history. Throughout 2009, children across Wyoming are joining in a United Nations proclaimed International Year of Astronomy celebration. To commemorate 400 years of the telescope in advancing our understanding of the Universe through astronomy, our goal is that every 10-year old child in Wyoming will experience the excitement and wonder of looking through their very own telescope to observe majestic rings surrounding Saturn, deep craters on the Moon, countless stars lining the Milky Way, brilliant phases of Venus, and orbiting moons of Jupiter. This is being accomplished by a massive, state-wide collaborative effort bringing the collective energy and enthusiasm of professional scientists, amateur astronomers, local teachers, and community outreach enthusiasts together to spark an interest in science among Wyoming's children. Our strategy to bring a telescope to every Wyoming 10-year old child started first with a major year-long fundraising campaign. We estimate the cost of an individual telescope, constructed specifically for the 2009 International Year of Astronomy celebration, to be approximately 13 per child. With 6,489 (in 2007) 10- year old children in Wyoming, this amounts to less than 100,000 as a fund raising goal. University of Wyoming faculty are training teachers in how to use telescopes and how to integrate the excitement of astronomy across the curriculum. To teach children how to use their telescopes, volunteers from around the state are hosting star parties at schools, county fairs, and other regularly scheduled community celebrations.

  14. Identifying and developing rugby talent among 10-year-old boys: a practical model.

    PubMed

    Pienaar, A E; Spamer, M J; Steyn, H S

    1998-11-01

    The re-entry of South Africa into the international sporting arena and the resultant need for the identification and development of talent, especially among formerly deprived groups of people, provided the incentive for this study. Its aim was to identify the physical, motor and anthropometric variables that will enable coaches to identify 10-year-old boys, based on their abilities, who could become successful rugby players. Altogether, 173 ten-year-old boys with no rugby experience from a cross-section of the population were selected at random and subjected to 14 physical and motor tests and 14 anthropometric measurements. From 22 schools which participated in the Western Transvaal primary schools under-11 rugby league, the three top teams (n = 45 individuals) were selected and also tested. The results from these three teams were used as the criteria for rugby talent among 10-year-old boys. To establish the best predictors of talent, a stepwise discriminant analysis was conducted: this indicated eight variables (four motor and four anthropometric) that discriminated maximally between the talented and the rest of the players of this age. With classification functions based on these eight variables, 93.8% of all the subjects were classified correctly, indicating good validity. A canonical analysis, based on the selected variables, was then conducted on all the under-11 teams that played in the league in the region (n = 330), and they were ranked according to the scores of the first canonical variable from the most to the least talented. By comparing these results with the players who were chosen for the region's primary schools team, a success rate of 88% in prediction of talent was established. We conclude that this is a successful and practical method to aid the teacher and the coach in selecting and developing talent among 10-year-old rugby players in South Africa.

  15. Graft survival rate of renal transplantation during a period of 10 years in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Shahbazi, Fatemeh; Ranjbaran, Mehdi; Karami-far, Simin; Soori, Hamid; Manesh, Hadi Jafari

    2015-01-01

    Background: Kidney transplantation is a preferred treatment for many patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and is far more profitable than hemodialysis. Analyzing renal transplantation data can help to evaluate the effectiveness of transplantation interventions. The aim of this study was to determine the organ survival rate after kidney transplantation during a period of 10 years (March 2001-March 2011) among transplanted patients in Arak, Markazi Province, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this historical cohort study, all recipients of kidney transplantation from Arak, Markazi Province, Iran who had medical records in Valiasr Hospital and “charity for kidney patients” of Arak, Markazi Province, Iran during a period of 10 years from March 2001 to March 2011 were included. Data collected by using checklists were completed from patients’ hospital records. Kaplan-Meier method was used to determine the graft cumulative survival rate, log-rank test to compare survival curves in subgroups, and Cox regression model to define the hazard ratio and for ruling out the intervening factors. Statistical analysis was conducted by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) 20 and Stata 11. Results: Mean duration of follow-up was 55.43 ± 42.02 months. By using the Kaplan-Meier method, the cumulative probability of graft survival at 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 years was 99.1, 97.7, 94.3, 85.7, and 62.1%, respectively. The number of dialysis by controlling the effect of other variables had a significant association with the risk of graft failure [hazard ratios and 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.47 (1.02-2.13)]. Conclusion: This study showed that the graft survival rate was satisfactory in this community and was similar to the results of single-center studies in the world. Dialysis time after transplantation was a significant predictor of survival in the recipients of kidney transplantation that should be considered. PMID:26941807

  16. Is maternal education level associated with diet in 10-year-old children?

    PubMed

    Cribb, Victoria L; Jones, Louise R; Rogers, Imogen S; Ness, Andrew R; Emmett, Pauline M

    2011-11-01

    To examine the associations between maternal education level and diet in 10-year-old children. Three-day diet diaries (child completed with parental help) were collected. Height and weight were measured in research clinics. Maternal education level was derived from a questionnaire completed during pregnancy and classified into low, medium or high. One-way ANOVA was undertaken to compare maternal education groups for nutrient intakes and the Kruskal-Wallis test used for food consumption. Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), Bristol, UK. Children (n 7474) who provided dietary data at age 10 years. A large proportion (60 %) of the sample was classified as plausible reporters, with under-reporting accounting for 36 %. No clear differences were found for intakes of energy or macronutrients between maternal education groups for plausible reporters. However, there were marked differences in micronutrient intakes especially for vitamin C, retinol equivalents and folate, highlighting lower diet quality with lower maternal education level. Intakes of fruit and vegetables showed a positive gradient with increasing maternal education (57 % v. 79 % consumed fresh fruit in low and high educational groups, respectively). A trend towards higher intake in the lower educated group was shown for less healthy foods (meat pies P < 0·001; sausages, burgers and kebabs P < 0·001). The quality of children's diet at 10 years was related to maternal education level. Lower maternal education was associated with less healthy food choices that could be detrimental to health. Further research is needed to establish if these associations can be explained by other socio-economic factors.

  17. Neuregulins and the neuromuscular system: 10 years of answers and questions.

    PubMed

    Falls, Douglas L

    2003-01-01

    The neuregulins were originally discovered in searches for the acetylcholine receptor-inducing activity (ARIA), glial growth factor (GGF), and a ligand for the oncogene neu (ErbB2/HER2). Neuregulin1 (NRG1)-mediated cell communication is critical in the central and peripheral nervous system, heart, breast, and other organ systems. This review will focus on the functions of NRG1s in the development and maintenance of the neuromuscular system and on the regulation of NRG1 signaling within this system. The roles of NRG1 signaling in the neuromuscular system are far more pervasive than contemplated when neuregulins were discovered 10 years ago. In fact, neuregulin-mediated cell communication plays an essential role in the biology of most components of the neuromuscular system--including motor and sensory neurons, muscle fibers, Schwann cells, and major specializations (neuromuscular synapses, muscle spindles, Golgi tendon organs, and peripheral nerves). It is argued here that while NRG1 proteins are indeed "ARIA" and "GGF", their involvement in regulating synapse-specific transcription and Schwann cell development is more complex than originally proposed. It is also argued that NRG1 isoforms differ in their signaling properties and that these differences tailor specific isoforms for specific signaling tasks; for example, some NRG1 isoforms may be specialized for paracrine signaling and others for juxtacrine signaling. In the first 10 years of neuregulin research there has been much progress in understanding the actions of neuregulins in shaping and maintaining the neuromuscular system. However, major questions, old and new, remain unanswered; and the second 10 years promises to be at least as exciting as the first.

  18. Prediction of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality at 10 years in the hypertensive aged population.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Quan L; Reid, Christopher M; Chowdhury, Enayet K; Huq, Molla M; Billah, Baki; Wing, Lindon M H; Tonkin, Andrew M; Simons, Leon A; Nelson, Mark R

    2015-05-01

    We have previously developed a score for predicting cardiovascular events in the intermediate term in an elderly hypertensive population. In this study, we aimed to extend this work to predict 10-year cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in the hypertensive aged population. Ten-year follow-up data of 5,378 hypertensive participants in the Second Australian National Blood Pressure study who were aged 65-84 years at baseline (1995-2001) and without prior cardiovascular events were analyzed. By using bootstrap resampling variable selection methods and comparing the Akaike and Bayesian information criterion and C-indices of the potential models, optimal and parsimonious multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were developed to predict 10-year cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. The models were validated using bootstrap validation method internally and using the Dubbo Study dataset externally. The final model for cardiovascular mortality included detrimental (age, smoking, diabetes, waist-hip ratio, and disadvantaged socioeconomic status) and protective factors (female sex, alcohol consumption, and physical activity). The final model for all-cause mortality also included detrimental (age, smoking, random blood glucose, and disadvantaged socioeconomic status) and protective factors (female sex, alcohol consumption, body mass index, and statin use). Blood pressure did not appear in either model in this patient group. The C-statistics for internal validation were 0.707 (cardiovascular mortality) and 0.678 (all-cause mortality), and for external validation were 0.729 (cardiovascular mortality) and 0.772 (all-cause mortality). These algorithms allow reliable estimation of 10-year risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality for hypertensive aged individuals. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2014. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Safety of Quadrivalent Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccine in Children 2-10 Years.

    PubMed

    Tartof, Sara Y; Sy, Lina S; Ackerson, Bradley K; Hechter, Rulin C; Haag, Mendel; Slezak, Jeffrey M; Luo, Yi; Fischetti, Christine A; Takhar, Harp S; Miao, Yan; Solano, Zendi; Jacobsen, Steven J; Tseng, Hung-Fu

    2017-07-14

    Quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine is recommended for children, adolescents, and adults at increased risk of meningococcal disease. In 2011, MenACWY-CRM (Menveo, GSK) was approved for children aged 2-10 years in the U.S. Although no safety concerns arose from clinical trials, it remains important to monitor its safety in routine clinical settings. Kaiser Permanente Southern California members 2-10 years old who received MenACWY-CRM between September 2011 and September 2014 were included. Electronic health records were searched using a validated algorithm to identify 26 pre-specified events of interest (EOIs) and serious medically attended events (SMAEs) from inpatient or emergency settings up to one year following MenACWY-CRM vaccination. SMAEs were categorized by ICD-9 diagnostic categories. All events were reviewed to confirm the diagnosis and symptom onset date. The study was descriptive (NCT01452438); no statistical tests were performed. Among 387 vaccinated children, 327 with ≥6 months membership before vaccination were analyzed. Among EOIs, 9 asthma cases and one myasthenia gravis case underwent chart review which confirmed one incident asthma case occurring 237 days after concomitant vaccination with MenACWY-CRM and typhoid vaccine. Thirty-one children experienced SMAEs, most commonly due to unrelated injury and poisoning. The remaining events occurred sporadically after vaccination and most were unlikely related to vaccination based on medical record review. One incident EOI of asthma late in the 1-year observation period and sporadic distribution of SMAEs were observed. These data do not suggest safety concerns associated with MenACWY-CRM vaccination in children 2-10 years old.

  20. Trends in paediatric, neonatal, and adult cardiology publications over the past 10 years.

    PubMed

    Menahem, Samuel; Fink, Daniel; Mimouni, Francis B

    2014-04-01

    Medline classifies publications as clinical trials, randomised control trials, meta-analyses, practice guidelines, reviews, case reports, editorials, and letters. We tested the hypothesis that cardiology-related publications have increased with a shift in the type of publications over the past 10 years by age category. To retrieve from Medline the cardiology articles, we used the keyword "heart disease", but limited the search to articles in English from 2000 to 2009. We repeated the search using one limit according to the publication type and using age tags. We used regression analysis to determine the effect of the year of publication on the number of publications of each type. During the 10-year period, Medline registered 152,849 cardiology articles, doubling from 10,452 in 2000 to 20,841 in 2009, of which 8.5% were tagged as both paediatric and adult. There was a linear increase in the number over the study period in the total number of publications and in all categories, except for practice guidelines. There was almost a twofold increase in adult and neonatal articles, but ∼ 70% in paediatric articles. The rate of increase was 66% for randomised control trials, 73% for clinical trials, 124% for meta-analyses, 117% for editorials, 36% for reviews, and 103% for case reports. Practice guidelines remained very low, increasing significantly for paediatric and neonatal articles. There was a substantial increase in cardiology articles over the past 10 years, being greater for adult and neonatal articles compared with paediatric articles. The increase varied according to the type of article.

  1. Residential proximity to major roadway and 10-year all-cause mortality after myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Rosenbloom, Joshua I; Wilker, Elissa H; Mukamal, Kenneth J; Schwartz, Joel; Mittleman, Murray A

    2012-05-08

    The relationship between residential proximity to roadway and long-term survival after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is unknown. We investigated the association between distance from residence and major roadway and 10-year all-cause mortality after AMI in the Determinants of Myocardial Infarction Onset Study (Onset Study), hypothesizing that living closer to a major roadway at the time of AMI would be associated with increased risk of mortality. The Onset Study enrolled 3886 individuals hospitalized for AMI in 64 centers across the United States from 1989 to 1996. Institutionalized patients, those providing only post office boxes, and those whose addresses could not be geocoded were excluded, leaving 3547 patients eligible for analysis. Addresses were geocoded, and distance to the nearest major roadway was assigned. Cox regression was used to calculate hazard ratios, with adjustment for personal characteristics (age, sex, race, education, marital status, distance to nearest acute care hospital), clinical characteristics (smoking, body mass index, comorbidities, medications), and neighborhood-level characteristics derived from US Census block group data (household income, education, urbanicity). There were 1071 deaths after 10 years of follow-up. In the fully adjusted model, compared with living >1000 m, hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) for living ≤100 m were 1.27 (1.01-1.60), for 100 to ≤200 m were 1.19 (0.93-1.60), and for 200 to ≤1000 m were 1.13 (0.99-1.30) (P(trend)=0.016). In this multicenter study, living close to a major roadway at the time of AMI was associated with increased risk of all-cause 10-year mortality; this relationship persisted after adjustment for individual and neighborhood-level covariates.

  2. Oral Hygiene Facilitators and Barriers in Greek 10 Years Old Schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    Kavvadia, Katerina; Oulis, Constantine; Reppa, Christina

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the oral hygiene facilitators and barriers for 10 years old Greek children, via a questionnaire and clinical examination. Materials and methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 266, 10 years old, children recruited from schools in 3 locations in Greece. Data were collected via questionnaires and clinical examination. Questionnaires referred to Children’s oral hygiene knowledge, behavior and attitude as well as parents’ oral hygiene behavior and educational level. Children were clinically examined by two calibrated pediatric dentists using a WHO probe and artificial light to assess dental plaque (hygiene index-HI), gingivitis (simplified gingival index-GIs) and dental caries (DMFT-BASCD criteria). Results: Regarding oral hygiene knowledge, although 80% of the children were literate of the proper means of oral hygiene, only 58.64% brushed their teeth twice daily and 36.84% used dental floss. Children’s oral hygiene knowledge was positively correlated with both parental brushing frequency (ρ = 0.175, p < 0.05) and educational level (ρ = -0.216, p < 0.05). Toothpaste use was reported by 92.11% of the children. Regarding Children’s attitude, 62.28% were concerned whether their teeth were clean, with girls showing greater concern than boys (p < 0.001). Their reported beliefs regarding brushing avoidance were boredom (84.06%), low oral health literacy (73.91%) and forgetfulness (56.52%). Conclusion: Oral hygiene facilitators were found to be the concern about how clean were their teeth, oral health literacy of both children and parents and toothpaste appeal to children. Oral hygiene barriers were Children’s boredom, low oral health literacy, forgetfulness and low socioeconomic level. How to cite this article: Angelopoulou M, Kavvadia K, Oulis C, Reppa C. Oral Hygiene Facilitators and Barriers in Greek 10 Years Old Schoolchildren. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(2):87-93. PMID:26379373

  3. The Protective Role of Family Meals for Youth Obesity: 10-year Longitudinal Associations

    PubMed Central

    Berge, Jerica M.; Wall, Melanie; Hsueh, Tsun-Fang; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Larson, Nicole; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine whether having family meals as an adolescent protects against becoming overweight or obese 10 years later as a young adult. Study design Data from Project EAT-III, a longitudinal cohort study with emerging young adults, were used. At baseline (1998-1999) adolescents completed surveys in middle or high schools and at 10-year follow-up (2008-2009) surveys were completed online or via mailed surveys. Young adult participants (n=2117) were racially/ethnically and socioeconomically diverse (52% minority; 38% low income) between the ages of 19-31 (mean age=25.3; 55% female). Logistic regression was used to associate weight status at follow-up with family meal frequency 10-years earlier during adolescence, controlling and testing for interactions with demographic characteristics. Results All levels of baseline family meal frequency (i.e., 1-2, 3-4, ≥5 family meals/week) during adolescence were significantly associated with reduced odds of overweight or obesity ten years later in young adulthood as compared with never having family meals as an adolescent. Interactions by race indicated that family meals had a stronger protective effect for obesity in black versus white young adults. Conclusions Family meals during adolescence were protective against the development of overweight and obesity in young adulthood. Professionals who work with adolescents and parents may want to strategize with them how to successfully carry out at least one to two family meals per week in order to protect adolescents from overweight or obesity in young adulthood. PMID:25266343

  4. Vertical scar versus the inverted-T scar reduction mammaplasty: a 10-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Bouwer, Lesley R; van der Biezen, Jan Jaap; Spronk, Cees A; van der Lei, Berend

    2012-10-01

    A retrospective study was undertaken to evaluate whether the initial outcome of two types of reduction mammaplasty techniques (vertical scar reduction mammaplasty vs. the inverted-T scar reduction mammaplasty) remains stable in the long term: Sixty-nine patients who had undergone breast reduction surgery in the period 1997-2000 at the Department of Reconstructive Plastic Surgery at the Medical Center of Leeuwarden were willing and able to participate in this study. A structured questionnaire was used to assess the degree of patient satisfaction. For subjective evaluation, the Strasser Grading System on photographs at the 3 months after surgery and after long-term follow-up (10 years) was used. The median general appreciation mark for the entire surgical procedure given by patients was 8 (1-10) on a scale from 1 to 10. Forty-six of the 69 patients could be scored according to Strasser: at 3 months in 17 patients (37%) the result was 'good', in 21 patients (46%) 'mediocre' and in eight patients (17%) 'poor'. After 10 years, in 37 of the patients (80%) the result was 'good', in six patients (13%) 'mediocre' and in three patients (7%) 'poor'. At 3 months, there was a higher incidence of bottoming out in the vertical scar group (one on two patients) as compared to the inverted-T scar group (one on 10 patients); however, at the 10-years follow-up bottoming out was 50% in the inverted-T scar group and 20% in the vertical scar group. Despite bottoming out, in both the vertical scar reduction mammaplasty technique and the inverted-T scar reduction mammaplasty technique, high patient satisfaction rates are achieved that remains for years. Copyright © 2012 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Development of 5- and 10-year-old pediatric phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Melo Lima, V. J. de; Cassola, V. F.; Kramer, R.; Oliveira Lira, C. A. B. de; Khoury, H. J.; Vieira, J. W.

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is the development of reference pediatric phantoms for 5- and 10-year-old children to be used for the calculation of organ and tissue equivalent doses in radiation protection. Methods: The study proposes a method for developing anatomically highly sophisticated pediatric phantoms without using medical images. The 5- and 10-year-old male and female phantoms presented here were developed using 3D modeling software applied to anatomical information taken from atlases and textbooks. The method uses polygon mesh surfaces to model body contours, the shape of organs as well as their positions, and orientations in the human body. Organ and tissue masses comply with the corresponding data given by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for the 5- and 10-year-old reference children. Bones were segmented into cortical bone, spongiosa, medullary marrow, and cartilage to allow for the use of micro computer tomographic ({mu}CT) images of trabecular bone for skeletal dosimetry. Results: The four phantoms, a male and a female for each age, and their organs are presented in 3D images and their organ and tissue masses in tables which show the compliance of the ICRP reference values. Dosimetric data, calculated for the reference pediatric phantoms by Monte Carlo methods were compared with corresponding data from adult mesh phantoms and pediatric stylized phantoms. The comparisons show reasonable agreement if the anatomical differences between the phantoms are properly taken into account. Conclusions: Pediatric phantoms were developed without using medical images of patients or volunteers for the first time. The models are reference phantoms, suitable for regulatory dosimetry, however, the 3D modeling method can also be applied to medical images to develop patient-specific phantoms.

  6. 10-year follow-up of laparoscopic vertical banded gastroplasty: good results in selected patients.

    PubMed

    Scozzari, Gitana; Toppino, Mauro; Famiglietti, Federico; Bonnet, Gisella; Morino, Mario

    2010-11-01

    To evaluate the long-term results of laparoscopic vertical banded gastroplasty (VBG) for morbid obesity. Laparoscopic VBG, a safe and straightforward bariatric procedure characterized by good short-term results, has been progressively replaced by other more complex procedures on the basis of a presumed high rate of long-term failure. Nevertheless, some authors have recently reported long-term efficacy in selected patients. All patients who underwent laparoscopic VBG were included in a prospective database. Patients reaching 10-year follow-up received a complete evaluation including clinical, endoscopic, and biochemical examinations. Between January 1996 and March 1999, 266 morbidly obese patients underwent bariatric procedures. Among them, 213 were selected for laparoscopic VBG; exclusion criteria were as follows: contraindications to pneumoperitoneum, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and psychological contraindications to restrictive procedures. Mean age, preoperative weight, and body mass index were 36.9 years, 123.6 kg, and 45.4 kg/m, respectively. Intraoperative complication rate and conversion rate were 0.9% and 0.9%, respectively. Early postoperative complication rate was 4.2% and early reoperation rate was 0.5%. Mean hospital length of stay was 6.3 days. Mortality was nil. The 10-year follow-up rate was 70.4% (150 patients). Late postoperative complication rate was 14.7%, and 10-year revisional surgery rate was 10.0%. The excess weight loss percentages at 3, 5, and 10 years were 65.0%, 59.9%, and 59.8%, respectively. The resolution and/or improvement rate for comorbidity were 47.5% for hypertension, 55.6% for diabetes, 75% for sleep apnea, and 47.4% for arthritis. Mean Moorehead-Ardelt Quality of Life Questionnaire and BAROS values were 1.4 and 3.8, respectively. The present study demonstrates that laparoscopic VBG in carefully selected patients leads to long-term results comparable with more complex and invasive procedures. Given the low postoperative

  7. Pulmonary talcosis 10 years after brief teenage exposure to cosmetic talcum powder

    PubMed Central

    Shakoor, Amarah; Rahatullah, Arsalan; Shah, Adil Aijaz; Zubairi, Ali Bin Sarwar

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary talcosis is a rare but debilitating variant of pneumoconiosis often presenting with isolated non-specific symptoms of progressive exertional dyspnoea or cough. Occupational exposure to talc dust and intravenous drug abuse are well-recognised aetiological factors with only a few cases related to cosmetic talc exposure being reported to date. The authors report a case of a young woman in whom a mere 4 month ritual of inhaling cosmetic talcum powder led to full-blown pulmonary talcosis being diagnosed 10 years later. The importance of a taking a pertinent history relating to environmental exposures in all patients presenting with respiratory symptoms is re-established here. PMID:22679260

  8. Pulmonary talcosis 10 years after brief teenage exposure to cosmetic talcum powder.

    PubMed

    Shakoor, Amarah; Rahatullah, Arsalan; Shah, Adil Aijaz; Zubairi, Ali Bin Sarwar

    2011-09-19

    Pulmonary talcosis is a rare but debilitating variant of pneumoconiosis often presenting with isolated non-specific symptoms of progressive exertional dyspnoea or cough. Occupational exposure to talc dust and intravenous drug abuse are well-recognised aetiological factors with only a few cases related to cosmetic talc exposure being reported to date. The authors report a case of a young woman in whom a mere 4 month ritual of inhaling cosmetic talcum powder led to full-blown pulmonary talcosis being diagnosed 10 years later. The importance of a taking a pertinent history relating to environmental exposures in all patients presenting with respiratory symptoms is re-established here.

  9. Adolescent drug trafficking trends in the United Kingdom--a 10-year retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Vale, Ellen Louise Eva; Kennedy, Patrick John

    2004-12-01

    This paper reports data from HM Customs and Excise (HMCE) of recorded cases of adolescent drug trafficking through all sea and air points of entry into the UK over a 10-year period (May 1992-May 2002). We report the characteristics of 38 cases of mixed gender and nationality ranging in age between 13 and 18 years who have been apprehended by HMCE due to the illegal importation of drugs. Highlighted is an increasing trend in UK national male and female adolescents being apprehended for drug trafficking. Of particular note is the observation that more young adolescent females were apprehended importing large consignments of Class A substances than their male counterparts.

  10. Maturogenesis of Two Maxillary Central Incisors: A Case Report with 10 Years of Follow Up

    PubMed Central

    Ghorbanzadeh, Abdollah

    2015-01-01

    This case report describes the treatment of two immature maxillary central incisors in a 7-year-old female patient. She suffered complicated crown fracture because of trauma, and the root formation was incomplete. White mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) was selected as the pulp-capping material after cervical pulpotomy to preserve the pulp tissue vitality and achieve maturogenesis. Follow-up evaluations showed successful treatment in terms of preservation of pulp vitality and demonstrated marked continuous physiological root development. During 10 years of follow-up, both teeth were clinically asymptomatic, and radiographic evaluations showed apparent root regeneration with apical root-end closure without pulp or periapical pathosis. PMID:26622286

  11. Malignant Nonfunctioning Neuroendocrine Neoplasm of the Pancreas in a 10-Year-Old Child.

    PubMed

    Marwan, Ahmed; Christein, John D

    2009-04-17

    Malignant neoplasms of the pancreas are extremely rare in children and only represent a small percentage of pediatric cancer-related deaths. The paucity of cases reported in the literature, in addition to the lack of understanding of biologic behavior, has led to a lack of consensus concerning optimal management strategy. Presentation differs compared to adult counterparts and generally prognosis is improved even when lymph node metastases occur. Here we review the literature and report the case of a 10-year-old autistic female with a malignant nonfunctioning pancreatic endocrine neoplasm of the head of the pancreas successfully extirpated via pancreaticoduodenectomy.

  12. Fessenheim 1, 1989; The first 10-year outage of a French 900 MW reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Tarby, S.; Naudet, R.; Montane, C. ); Gras, P. )

    1990-01-01

    10 years after the preservice inspection in 1979, French legislation required the Fessenheim 1 900 MW reactor unit to undergo specific inspections necessitating a long-duration shut-down. EDF, the French Electricity Board, decided to take advantage of the shut-down to make major improvements to safety, fire detection and fire-fighting systems. Fessenheim 1 was shut down on April 7th 1989 and reconnected to the grid on October 14th in the same year. The overall operation was brought to a successful conclusion. This paper reviews the objectives and preparatives for the operation, describes the key phases and summarizes the main benefits.

  13. Peroral Endoscopic Myotomy for the Treatment of Achalasia in a 10-Year-Old Male Patient.

    PubMed

    Filser, Jörg; Dick, Anke; Meyer, Thomas; Germer, Christoph-Thomas; von Rahden, Burkard H A

    2015-06-01

    Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is a new endoscopic treatment for achalasia with very good short-term results in adults. Data about POEM in pediatric patients are missing. We present the case of a 10-year-old male patient with type I (classic) achalasia, successfully treated with POEM. The procedure was accomplished in a similar fashion to the technique used in adults. Short-term results were fine, with a complete control of dysphagia and absence of reflux. We suggest that POEM is a suitable option in pediatric patients-similar to adults-but long-term results must be awaited.

  14. Veneered zirconia inlay-retained fixed dental prostheses: 10-Year results from a prospective clinical study.

    PubMed

    Rathmann, Friederike; Bömicke, Wolfgang; Rammelsberg, Peter; Ohlmann, Brigitte

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the 10-year clinical performance of zirconia-based inlay-retained fixed dental prostheses (IRFDP). For replacement of a molar in 27 patients, 30 IRFDP were luted by use of different cements, Panavia F (Kuraray Europe GmbH) or Multilink Automix (Ivoclar Vivadent GmbH), with use of inlay/inlay, inlay/full-crown, or inlay/partial-crown retainers for anchorage. Frameworks were milled from yttria-stabilized zirconia (IPS e.maxZirCAD; Ivoclar Vivadent GmbH) and fully veneered with pressable ceramic (IPS e.max ZirPress; Ivoclar Vivadent GmbH). Before luting, the IRFDP were silica-coated (Rocatec; 3M Espe) and silanized (Monobond S; Ivoclar Vivadent GmbH). Complications (for example, chipping or delamination of the veneering ceramic, debonding, secondary caries, endodontic treatment, and abutment tooth fracture) and failure were reported, by use of standardized report forms, 2 weeks, 6 months, and 1, 2, and 10 years after cementation. Statistical analysis included Kaplan-Meier survival and success (complication-free survival) and Cox regression analysis (α=0.05 for all). During the 10-year observation period, the complications most often observed were chipping of the veneer and debonding. Twenty-five restorations failed and one participant dropped out. Cumulative 10-year survival and success were 12.1% and 0%, respectively. The design of the retainer, use of a dental dam, choice of cement, and location in the dental arch had no statistically significant effect on the occurrence of complications. Use of fully veneered zirconia-based IRFDP with this technique cannot be recommended. A large incidence of complications and poor survival were observed for fully veneered zirconia-based IRFDP, revealing an urgent need for further design improvements for this type of restoration. This, again, emphasizes the need for testing of new restoration designs in clinical trials before implementation in general dental practice. Copyright © 2017

  15. Tibial nerve intraneural ganglion cyst in a 10-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Squires, Judy H; Emery, Kathleen H; Johnson, Neil; Sorger, Joel

    2014-04-01

    Intraneural ganglion cysts are uncommon cystic lesions of peripheral nerves that are typically encountered in adults. In the lower extremity, the peroneal nerve is most frequently affected with involvement of the tibial nerve much less common. This article describes a tibial intraneural ganglion cyst in a 10-year-old boy. Although extremely rare, intraneural ganglion cysts of the tibial nerve should be considered when a nonenhancing cystic structure with intra-articular extension is identified along the course of the nerve. This report also details the unsuccessful attempt at percutaneous treatment with US-guided cyst aspiration and steroid injection, an option recently reported as a viable alternative to open surgical resection.

  16. [If I were to wake up clumsy and shaking (10 years later)].

    PubMed

    Linazasoro, G

    2008-09-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of early Parkinson's disease (PD) has undergone considerable changes in the last 10 years. Identification of genes responsible for familial forms of the disease as well as the possibility of detecting dopaminergic dysfunction before the appearance of motor symptoms has opened up the possibility of presymptomatic diagnosis. The concept of PD is changing. Therapeutic strategies are quite different. Several studies support the recommendation of not delaying the onset of dopaminergic therapies. Nonetheless, neuroprotection still has not been totally demonstrated and this continues to be an objective of priority.

  17. Long-term follow-up of heel spur surgery. A 10-year retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Vohra, P K; Giorgini, R J; Sobel, E; Japour, C J; Villalba, M A; Rostkowski, T

    1999-02-01

    A comparative retrospective study of 48 open heel spur surgeries and 20 endoscopic plantar fasciotomies was conducted involving 59 patients over a 10-year period. There was a significant reduction in heel pain at the time of follow-up (average, 3 years) for both groups. Overall, 85% of procedures were associated with patient satisfaction with the results, and patients said that they would recommend heel spur surgery for relief of severe heel pain in 94% of cases. Factors influencing the postoperative outcome, such as duration of preoperative symptoms, extent of conservative care, and obesity, are discussed.

  18. The HERMES Polarized H&D Gas Target: 10 Years of Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffens, Erhard

    2007-06-01

    The design and operation of the polarized hydrogen and deuterium gas target internal to the HERA 27.5 GeV polarized electron ring is described. The target has been employed to measure the spin structure of the nucleon, using beams of electrons and positrons, both polarized and unpolarized. The various components of the target system will be described and the operation summarized. The target was removed in November 2005, after 10 years of successful running. It will be utilized in preparation of the PAX experiment at FAIR (Darmstadt) for spin filtering studies of protons and antiprotons.

  19. Diet & Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nutrition Share this page Facebook Twitter Email Diet & Nutrition Eating healthy to take charge of your health. Shelly Diagnosed in 2006 Diet & Nutrition Take Control of Your Weight Portion Control Low ...

  20. Phytoplankton succession in a coastal area of the NW Adriatic, over a 10-year sampling period (1990-1999)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubry, F. Bernardi; Berton, A.; Bastianini, M.; Socal, G.; Acri, F.

    2004-01-01

    The distribution of phytoplankton abundance and species composition is described for coastal waters of the NW Adriatic Sea, for the period 1990-1999. Hydrochemical and biological properties were investigated every month, at 48 stations. This coastal system is quite unstable and heterogeneous, due to the influence of several rivers, intense water exchange with the Lagoon of Venice, and complex advective processes. In the vicinity of river plumes, dissolved nitrogen and dissolved silica appear to be in excess, rarely limiting phytoplankton growth. Examining the general trend of phytoplankton over the years, the main limiting factors for phytoplankton growth in the Adriatic coastal system are light, temperature, and the strong influence of meteorological events. The NW Adriatic coastal area was subdivided into three zones, each characterised by different trophic conditions. In each zone, phytoplankton was similar in terms of community structure and was different only in abundance. Three main periods of growth were observed: February, April and July. As expected in a nutrient-enriched system, the community structure was dominated by diatoms (both micro- and nanoplankton fractions), over most of the year. The importance of dinoflagellates in the communities was generally low, with significant abundances present only in June-July, once the spring bloom of diatoms had left 'nutrient-poor' conditions in the water. These low concentrations of nutrients favoured the growth of dinoflagellates, which have lower nutritional requirements. Over the 10-year study, a decrease in orthophosphate concentrations was observed. This pattern could be explained as a consequence of reduced quantities of phosphorus used in detergents, in the late 1980s. No significant change in any hydrochemical or biological property was observed.

  1. Post-Test Analysis of a 10-Year Sodium Heat Pipe Life Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenfeld, John H.; Locci, Ivan E.; Sanzi, James L.; Hull, David R.; Geng, Steven M.

    2011-01-01

    High-temperature heat pipes are being evaluated for use in energy conversion applications such as fuel cells, gas turbine re-combustors, Stirling cycle heat sources; and with the resurgence of space nuclear power both as reactor heat removal elements and as radiator elements. Long operating life and reliable performance are critical requirements for these applications. Accordingly, long-term materials compatibility is being evaluated through the use of high-temperature life test heat pipes. Thermacore, Inc., has carried out a sodium heat pipe 10-year life test to establish long-term operating reliability. Sodium heat pipes have demonstrated favorable materials compatibility and heat transport characteristics at high operating temperatures in air over long time periods. A representative one-tenth segment Stirling Space Power Converter heat pipe with an Inconel 718 envelope and a stainless steel screen wick has operated for over 87,000 hr (10 years) at nearly 700 C. These life test results have demonstrated the potential for high-temperature heat pipes to serve as reliable energy conversion system components for power applications that require long operating lifetime with high reliability. Detailed design specifications, operating history, and post-test analysis of the heat pipe and sodium working fluid are described. Lessons learned and future life test plans are also discussed.

  2. Evaluation of 6 and 10 Year-Old Child Human Body Models in Emergency Events

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Emergency events can influence a child’s kinematics prior to a car-crash, and thus its interaction with the restraint system. Numerical Human Body Models (HBMs) can help understand the behaviour of children in emergency events. The kinematic responses of two child HBMs–MADYMO 6 and 10 year-old models–were evaluated and compared with child volunteers’ data during emergency events–braking and steering–with a focus on the forehead and sternum displacements. The response of the 6 year-old HBM was similar to the response of the 10 year-old HBM, however both models had a different response compared with the volunteers. The forward and lateral displacements were within the range of volunteer data up to approximately 0.3 s; but then, the HBMs head and sternum moved significantly downwards, while the volunteers experienced smaller displacement and tended to come back to their initial posture. Therefore, these HBMs, originally intended for crash simulations, are not too stiff and could be able to reproduce properly emergency events thanks, for instance, to postural control. PMID:28099505

  3. Enteroviruses in Spain: virological and epidemiological studies over 10 years (1988-97).

    PubMed Central

    Trallero, G.; Casas, I.; Tenorio, A.; Echevarria, J. E.; Castellanos, A.; Lozano, A.; Breña, P. P.

    2000-01-01

    A total of 15,662 clinical samples were analysed for enterovirus (EV) isolation in cell cultures during a 10-year period (1988-97). Furthermore, 210 isolates of EV obtained in primary laboratories within Spain from patients with meningitis were characterized. The total number of EV typed was 758, including 727 non-polio EV and 31 Sabin-like (SL) polioviruses. Twenty-eight EV serotypes were represented. Echoviruses comprised 90% (653/727) of fully typed non-polio EV. The four most prevalent serotypes were echovirus 30, echovirus 9, echovirus 6 and echovirus 4. Echovirus 30 was the main serotype associated with meningitis. Echovirus 9 was the aetiological agent in 20 outbreaks of meningitis while the occurrence of echovirus 6 was localized in 1 year (1997). Coxsackieviruses A and B occurred in 3 and 7% of the non-polio EV respectively. Coxsackievirus B5 presented the relative greater abundance. This paper examines the epidemiology of EV in Spain to serotype level over a 10-year period with special attention to non-polio EV associated with meningitis. PMID:10982074

  4. Mortality study of ethylene oxide workers in chemical manufacturing: a 10 year update.

    PubMed

    Teta, M J; Benson, L O; Vitale, J N

    1993-08-01

    Men assigned to units producing ethylene oxide by the chlorohydrin or direct oxidation processes and to other departments using ethylene oxide in two chemical plants were followed up for mortality from 1940 to 1988 (n = 1896). Based on findings from a previous study of these workers to the end of 1978, which identified confounding exposures, workers assigned to one unit with low ethylene oxide exposure potential were excluded (n = 278). Average duration of exposure was over five years and average follow up was 27 years, with all subjects at least 10 years from first exposure. The data did not support associations of ethylene oxide with all cancer types combined, leukaemia, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, or brain, pancreatic, or stomach cancers. There were also no duration-response trends. The standardised mortality ratio (SMR) for total cancer was 86 (95% confidence interval 71-104) and did not increase for those hired the earliest and with long duration assignments. The results of this 10 year update and those of other recent studies of ethylene oxide workers do not confirm findings from animal studies and are not consistent with the earliest results reported among ethylene oxide workers.

  5. Epilepsy in the first 10 years of life: findings of the child health and education study.

    PubMed Central

    Verity, C. M.; Ross, E. M.; Golding, J.

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To identify children with afebrile seizures in a national cohort, classify the seizures, and document progress in the first 10 years of life. DESIGN--Population based birth cohort study. SETTING--The child health and education study, which includes 16,004 neonatal survivors (98.5% of infants born in the United Kingdom during one week of April 1970). SUBJECTS--14,676 children for whom relevant information was available. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Responses to parental and general practitioner questionnaires and hospital records at 5 and 10 years after birth. RESULTS--84 children (42 boys, 42 girls) had had one or more afebrile seizure (incidence 5.7/1000). 63 children (31 boys, 32 girls) had epilepsy (incidence 4.3/1000). 49 of 55 children had a second seizure within a year of the first. The commonest seizure types were tonic-clonic (42) and complex partial (25). A greater proportion of children with complex partial seizures had recurrences. Children who had infantile spasms or a mixed seizure disorder had a poor outcome. All six children who died had symptomatic seizures in the first year, but seizures were not the direct cause of death. CONCLUSIONS--The results of this study are probably representative of seizure patterns in the general population. Outcome after seizures is determined more by the underlying disease than by the seizures themselves. PMID:1384897

  6. Cannabis use and the course of schizophrenia: 10-year follow-up after first hospitalization

    PubMed Central

    Foti, Daniel J.; Kotov, Roman; Guey, Lin T.; Bromet, Evelyn J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The authors examined the relationship between cannabis use and the course of illness in schizophrenia over 10 years following first psychiatric hospitalization. Method We assessed 229 patients with a schizophrenia-spectrum disorder five times: during the first admission, and 6 months, 2 years, 4 years, and 10 years later. Ratings of cannabis use and psychiatric symptoms (psychotic, negative, disorganized, and depressive) were made at each assessment. Results The lifetime rate of cannabis use was 66.2%, and survival analysis revealed that this usage was associated with an earlier onset of psychosis. The rates of current use ranged from 10% to 18% across assessments. Cannabis status was moderately stable, with concordance between waves ranging rtet = 0.48 – 0.78. Mixed-effects logistic regression revealed that changes in cannabis use were associated with changes in psychotic symptoms over time even after gender, age, socio-economic status, other drug use, antipsychotic medication use, and other symptoms were controlled. Structural equation modeling indicated that the association with psychotic symptoms was bi-directional. Conclusions Cannabis use is associated with an adverse course of psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia, and vice versa, even after taking into account other clinical, substance, and demographic variables. The specificity of this relationship suggests that clinical interventions to reduce cannabis use may be best targeted at individuals with prominent psychotic symptoms. PMID:20478874

  7. A 10-year follow-up study on suicidal mortality after 1999 Taiwan earthquake.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sam Li-Sheng; Lee, Chau-Shoun; Yen, Amy Ming-Fang; Chen, Hsiu-Hsi; Chan, Chang-Chuan; Chiu, Sherry Yueh-Hsia; Fann, Jean Ching-Yuan; Chang, Jung-Chen

    2016-08-01

    The long-term impact of natural disasters on suicide in general population and survivors remains uncertain. The present report examined the direction and the length of the influence of an earthquake over suicide across age groups. We used an interrupted time-series design with non-equivalent no-treatment group to evaluate post-earthquake changes in suicide rates by the standardized mortality ratio. The time trend changes in suicide rates before and after the earthquake were similar for males and females but different between senior and junior age groups. Gender-specific relative ratios were 0.85 (95%CI: 0.81-0.90) for males and 0.79 (95% CI: 0.72-0.86) for females. Age-gender-stratified relative ratios were 0.61 (95% CI: 0.53-0.70) and 0.69 (95% CI: 0.64-0.75) for males and females aged less than 45 years, respectively. Although the overall suicide mortality increased after the earthquake, the relative suicide risk ratio decreased 31-39% for those aged less than 45 years, which persisted for nearly 10 years after earthquake. Our study demonstrated that a severe earthquake resulted in a significant decrease in standardized suicide mortality ratios in exposed areas for 10 years compared to unexposed area, particularly in a younger population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cumulative survival rate and associated risk factors of Implantium implants: A 10-year retrospective clinical study.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin-Hong; Kim, Young-Soo; Ryu, Jae-Jun; Shin, Sang-Wan; Lee, Jeong-Yol

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the cumulative survival rate (CSR) and associated risk factors of Implantium implants by retrospective clinical study. Patients who received Implantium implants (Dentium Co., Seoul, Korea) at Korea University Guro Hospital from 2004 to 2011 were included. The period between the first surgery and the last hospital visit until December 2015 was set as the observation period for this study. Clinical and radiographic data were collected from patient records, including all complications observed during the follow-up period. Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed to examine CSR. Multiple Cox proportional hazard model was employed to assess the associations between potential risk factors and CSR. A total of 370 implants were placed in 121 patients (mean age, 56.1 years; range, 19 to 75 years). Of the 370 implants, 13 failed, including 7 implants that were lost before loading. The 10-year cumulative survival rate of implants was 94.8%. The multiple Cox proportional hazard model revealed that significant risk factor of implant failure were smoking and maxillary implant (P<.05). The 10-year CSR of Implantium implants was 94.8%. Risk factors of implant failure were smoking and maxillary implant.

  9. Stump appendicitis 10 years after appendectomy, a rare, but serious complication of appendectomy, a case report.

    PubMed

    Van Paesschen, Carl; Haenen, Filip; Bestman, Raymond; Van Cleemput, Marc

    2017-02-01

    We describe a case of stump appendicitis with the formation of abdominal abscesses in a 41-year-old patient 10 years prior appendectomy. The patient consulted with fever (38.1 °C) and abdominal pain, located at the right iliac fossa. Imaging studies showed signs of abscesses, located at the right iliac fossa, without clear origin of these abscesses. The abscesses were drained through diagnostic laparoscopy, no bowel perforation or clear origin of the abscedation was found during laparoscopy. During postoperative stay, the inflammatory parameters rose and the abscesses reoccurred. Re-laparoscopy was performed, the abscesses were drained and on careful inspection and adhesiolysis, a perforated stump appendicitis was revealed, covered underneath layers of fibrous tissue. Stump appendicitis is a rare complication seen after appendectomy and is generally not considered a possible etiology in patients presenting with fever and right iliac fossa abdominal pain with a history of appendectomy. This often delays the correct diagnosis and results in an associated increased incidence of complications. We describe a case of stump appendicitis occurring 10 years after initial appendectomy.

  10. What factors influence motor complications in Parkinson disease?: a 10-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    García-Ruiz, Pedro J; Del Val, Javier; Fernández, Ignacio Mahillo; Herranz, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The causes and mechanism behind motor complications in Parkinson disease (PD) are still a subject of debate. Several factors including age at onset, evolution in years, and initial medication can influence the onset and severity of motor complications in PD.We studied patients with recent diagnosis of PD who were followed up prospectively for 10 years. Analysis included the progression of these patients, as measured by the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale scores and the presence of motor complications (motors fluctuations, dyskinesias, and gait freezing) over time. The patient group was studied as a whole and by subgroups classified according to age at onset, initial treatment, and sex.By the end of the first decade, most patients exhibited dyskinesias (91%), motor fluctuations (62%), and freezing of gait (68%). An association was found between several patients' characteristics and presence of motor complications by 5 years, though not after 10 years of follow up. The apparition of motor fluctuations was mainly related to initial treatment (odds ratio [OR], 3.87). The development of dyskinesias was linked to initial treatment (OR, 8.31), age at onset (OR, 0.90), and sex (OR, 12.87).

  11. [10 Years of Quality Management: Perception and Importance from GPs' Point of View].

    PubMed

    Kühlein, T; Madlo-Thiess, F; Wambach, V; Schaffer, S

    2016-10-25

    Background: Quality management (QM) became mandatory for the ambulatory sector of the German health care system 10 years ago. Objectives: The aim of this study was to find out how general practitioners (GPs) perceived the introduction of this measure, how they see it today and what they expect of the future concerning QM. Materials and Methods: In a qualitative study, interviews following a semi-structured guideline with GPs were conducted. Following transcription, interviews were coded in triangulation, first inductively, then deductively until saturation was reached. Main topics and code families were agreed on after discussion. Results: There was consensus on the necessity of standardization of basic processes like hygiene. However, the application of QM to an activity that emphasizes personal relationships and communication was seen as barely possible. GPs stated that they reduced QM to a tolerable and for them reasonable minimum. GPs mostly refused certification. The next 10 years were seen with pessimism in terms of more bureaucratic guidelines. Conclusion: The statutory introduction of QM was an attack on medical professionalism. Instead of passive resistance and reduction of QM to a minimum, engaged independent quality work might help to regain the trust of society we seem to have lost and restore the professional autonomy we need for our work.

  12. A 10-year experience of totally extraperitoneal endoscopic repair for adult inguinal hernia.

    PubMed

    Toma, Hiroki; Eguchi, Toru; Toyoda, Shuichi; Okabe, Yasuhiro; Kobarai, Tomonari; Naritomi, Gen; Ogawa, Takahiro; Hirota, Ichio

    2015-11-01

    Laparoscopic surgery is fast becoming the treatment of choice for inguinal hernia. By reviewing our 10-year experience of performing totally extraperitoneal repair (TEP), we sought to establish its clinical significance in the treatment of adult inguinal hernia. We reviewed retrospectively the clinical records of patients who underwent TEP for adult inguinal hernia between January 2003 and December 2012. None of the 303 patients with adult primary or recurrent inguinal hernia in our study needed TEP converted to other procedures or suffered serious complications during the procedure. A significant difference was noted in the operation time between direct (n = 32) vs indirect (n = 128) hernias in the primary unilateral inguinal hernia group (91 ± 27 vs 80 ± 32 min, p = 0.033) and between direct/direct (n = 31) vs indirect/indirect (n = 24) hernias (136 ± 58 vs 89 ± 24 min, p = 0.01) in the primary bilateral inguinal hernia group. The only postoperative complications recorded were four cases of hernia recurrence (1.3 %) and one case of chronic pain (0.3 %). The results obtained for TEP over 10 years support this as a promising procedure for the treatment of adult inguinal hernia.

  13. Bibliometric Analysis of Orthopedic Literature on Total Knee Arthroplasty in Asian Countries: A 10-year Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Eom, Sang Hwa; Bamne, Ankur B.; Chowdhry, Madhav; Chae, Ihn Seok

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We aimed to determine the quantity and quality of research output of selected Asian countries in the field of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in the last 10 years. Materials and Methods Top 15 Asian countries were selected according to their gross domestic product. The Science Citation Index Expanded database was used to search for the literature published between 2004 and 2013 using "Total Knee Arthroplasty". The numbers of articles, journals and citations and the contribution of each country were analyzed. The articles were classified according to the type of study and the relative proportion of each type was analyzed. Results Asian surgeons have increasingly contributed to orthopedic literature on TKA for the past 10 years, but the dominant contribution came from only a few countries. The total number of articles published by Asian countries increased by 261%, with Japan producing most of the studies and China showing the maximum growth rate. The majority of studies were published in low impact factor journals. Korea published the highest proportion of articles in high impact factor journals. Clinical papers were most frequent. Conclusions Our identification of research productivity pertaining to TKA among Asian countries gives a unique insight into the level of academic research in the field of TKA in these countries. There is a need to improve the quality of research to enhance the publishing power in high impact journals as well as the need for more basic research and epidemiological studies considering the unique differences among Asian patients undergoing TKA. PMID:26389067

  14. [Causes of anaemia in African children aged 5 to 10 years].

    PubMed

    Mbanya, Dora; Tagny, Claude Tayou; Akamba, Anastasie; Mekongo, Martin Ondoua; Tetanye, Ekoe

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted among two groups of 105 children in a hospital in Yaoundé, Cameroon, to determine the causes of anaemia in children aged 5- 10-years-old. The study group included children presenting clinical evidence of anaemia while the control group was made of children without anaemia. Both sets of children were matched for neighbourhoods within the city of Yaoundé. Each child had a complete physical examination, full blood count, haemoglobin electrophoresis, reticulocyte counts, and stool samples examined for parasites and hemoparasites. The mean haemoglobin level was 7.77 +/- 1.54 g/dL in the study group and 12.37 +/- 1.23 in the control group. The anaemia was mainly normocytic, normochromic and regenerative in the study group, usually associated with evidence of haemolysis. Patients with homozygous sickle cell disease were found only in the study group (n = 13; 12.3%). Malaria parasites were noted in 89 children (84.7%) in the study group, compared with 34 (32.4%) in the control group (p = 0.0004). Prevalence of intestinal parasites was similar in both groups (50.8%). Protein-calorie malnutrition was rare and was not associated with anemia. We conclude that both malaria and sickle cell anaemia play an important role in anaemia in children aged 5-10 years.

  15. Skeletal maturation, fundamental motor skills and motor coordination in children 7-10 years.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Duarte L; Lausen, Berthold; Maia, José António; Lefevre, Johan; Gouveia, Élvio Rúbio; Thomis, Martine; Antunes, António Manuel; Claessens, Albrecht L; Beunen, Gaston; Malina, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    Relationships between skeletal maturation and fundamental motor skills and gross motor coordination were evaluated in 429 children (213 boys and 216 girls) 7-10 years. Skeletal age was assessed (Tanner-Whitehouse 2 method), and stature, body mass, motor coordination (Körperkoordinations Test für Kinder, KTK) and fundamental motor skills (Test of Gross Motor Development, TGMD-2) were measured. Relationships among chronological age, skeletal age (expressed as the standardised residual of skeletal age on chronological age) and body size and fundamental motor skills and motor coordination were analysed with hierarchical multiple regression. Standardised residual of skeletal age on chronological age interacting with stature and body mass explained a maximum of 7.0% of the variance in fundamental motor skills and motor coordination over that attributed to body size per se. Standardised residual of skeletal age on chronological age alone accounted for a maximum of 9.0% of variance in fundamental motor skills, and motor coordination over that attributed to body size per se and interactions between standardised residual of skeletal age on chronological age and body size. In conclusion, skeletal age alone or interacting with body size has a negligible influence on fundamental motor skills and motor coordination in children 7-10 years.

  16. Hostility, Anger and Depression Predict Increases in C3 over a 10-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, Stephen H.; Jackson, William G.; Suarez, Edward C.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the relation of hostility, anger and depression to 10-year changes in the third (C3) and fourth (C4) complement in 313, apparently healthy male participants enrolled in the Air Force Health Study (AFHS), a 20-year study designed to evaluate the health consequences of dioxin exposure. Hostility, depression and anger were assessed using subscales from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), which was administered in 1985. Given the high intercorrelations among these psychological scales, we used a principal component analysis to generate a composite score representing the linear combination of the hostility, anger and depression scales. The dependent variables, C3 and C4 levels, were determined from samples collected in 1992, 1997 and 2002. Regression analyses controlling for age, race, alcohol use, body mass index and cigarette use as well as onset of disease and use of lipid lowering and blood pressure medications during follow-up revealed a significant time X composite score interaction for C3 complement (p < .0003), but not C4. Post-hoc analyses revealed that high composite scores were associated with larger 10-year increases in C3. These observations suggest that men who are hostile and are prone to experience frequent and intense feelings of anger and depression show activation of the complement system, and specifically increases in C3, that may contribute to the development of coronary heart disease. PMID:17321106

  17. Hostility, anger, and depression predict increases in C3 over a 10-year period.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Stephen H; Jackson, William G; Suarez, Edward C

    2007-08-01

    We examined the relation of hostility, anger, and depression to 10-year changes in the third (C3), and fourth (C4) complement in 313, apparently healthy male participants enrolled in the Air Force Health Study (AFHS), a 20-year study designed to evaluate the health consequences of dioxin exposure. Hostility, depression, and anger were assessed using subscales from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), which was administered in 1985. Given the high intercorrelations among these psychological scales, we used a principal component analysis to generate a composite score representing the linear combination of the hostility, anger, and depression scales. The dependent variables, C3 and C4 levels, were determined from samples collected in 1992, 1997, and 2002. Regression analyses controlling for age, race, alcohol use, body mass index, and cigarette use as well as onset of disease, and use of lipid lowering and blood pressure medications during follow-up revealed a significant timexcomposite score interaction for C3 complement (p<.0003), but not C4. Post-hoc analyses revealed that high composite scores were associated with larger 10-year increases in C3. These observations suggest that men who are hostile and are prone to experience frequent and intense feelings of anger, and depression show activation of the complement system, and specifically increases in C3, that may contribute to the development of coronary heart disease.

  18. Obstetrical anal sphincter laceration and anal incontinence 5-10 years after childbirth.

    PubMed

    Evers, Emily C; Blomquist, Joan L; McDermott, Kelly C; Handa, Victoria L

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the long-term impact of anal sphincter laceration on anal incontinence. Five to 10 years after first delivery, anal incontinence and other bowel symptoms were measured with the Epidemiology of Prolapse and Incontinence Questionnaire and the short form of the Colorectal-Anal Impact Questionnaire. Obstetric exposures were assessed with review of hospital records. Symptoms and quality-of-life impact were compared among 90 women with at least 1 anal sphincter laceration, 320 women who delivered vaginally without sphincter laceration, and 527 women who delivered by cesarean delivery. Women who sustained an anal sphincter laceration were most likely to report anal incontinence (odds ratio, 2.32; 95% confidence interval, 1.27-4.26) and reported the greatest negative impact on quality of life. Anal incontinence and quality-of-life scores were similar between women who delivered by cesarean section and those who delivered vaginally without sphincter laceration. Anal sphincter laceration is associated with anal incontinence 5-10 years after delivery. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Discrimination of facial features by adults, 10-year-olds, and cataract-reversal patients.

    PubMed

    Mondloch, Catherine J; Robbins, Rachel; Maurer, Daphne

    2010-01-01

    In previous studies we created 8 new versions of a single face: 4 differed only in the spacing among features and 4 differed in the shape of the eyes and mouth. Compared to the spacing set, results for this feature set indicated little impairment by inversion, earlier adult-like accuracy (Mondloch et al, 2002 Perception 31 553-566), and normal performance after a history of early visual deprivation from bilateral congenital cataract (Le Grand et al, 2001 Nature 410 890, 412 786). Here we addressed the possibility that this pattern might have resulted from our having inadvertently selected easily discriminated features or including some faces with make-up. We created 20 featural versions of a single female face and asked adults, 10-year-old children, and patients treated for bilateral congenital cataract to make same/different judgments for 120 pairings (half different). The results confirm that adults easily discriminate facial features, even after early visual deprivation from cataract, and that inversion has only a small effect. By the age of 10 years, children are close to, but not quite at, adult levels of accuracy. The previous findings cannot be attributed to our having inadvertently created a feature set that was unusually easy to discriminate.

  20. Prospective Predictors of Body Dissatisfaction in Young Adults: 10-year Longitudinal Findings

    PubMed Central

    Quick, Virginia; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Bucchianeri, Michaela M.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    This study identified longitudinal risk factors for body dissatisfaction (BD) over a 10-year period from adolescence to young adulthood. Participants (N = 2134; age at baseline: M =15.0, SD =1.6 years) provided two waves of survey data. A 6-step hierarchical linear regression analysis examined the predictive contribution of Time 1 BD, weight status, demographics, family and peer environmental factors, and psychological factors. Among females, Asian race/ethnicity, low self-esteem, greater BD, and higher body mass index during adolescence contributed significantly to predicting greater BD at 10-year follow up (R2 = 0.27). Among males, demographics (i.e., Asian, other-mixed ethnicity, education attainment), depressive symptoms, greater BD, higher body mass index, more parent communication, and less peer weight teasing during adolescence contributed to BD at follow-up (R2 = 0.27). Findings indicate who may be at greatest risk for BD in young adulthood and the types of factors that should be addressed during adolescence. PMID:25045599

  1. Visual search and contextual cueing: differential effects in 10-year-old children and adults.

    PubMed

    Couperus, Jane W; Hunt, Ruskin H; Nelson, Charles A; Thomas, Kathleen M

    2011-02-01

    The development of contextual cueing specifically in relation to attention was examined in two experiments. Adult and 10-year-old participants completed a context cueing visual search task (Jiang & Chun, The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 54A(4), 1105-1124, 2001) containing stimuli presented in an attended (e.g., red) and unattended (e.g., green) color. When the spatial configuration of stimuli in the attended and unattended color was invariant and consistently paired with the target location, adult reaction times improved, demonstrating learning. Learning also occurred if only the attended stimuli's configuration remained fixed. In contrast, while 10 year olds, like adults, showed incrementally slower reaction times as the number of attended stimuli increased, they did not show learning in the standard paradigm. However, they did show learning when the ratio of attended to unattended stimuli was high, irrespective of the total number of attended stimuli. Findings suggest children show efficient attentional guidance by color in visual search but differences in contextual cueing.

  2. Highlights from 10 Years of NASA/KNMI/FMI Collaboration on UV Remote Sensing from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhartia, Pawan K.

    2010-01-01

    The first joint meeting between NASA, KNMI and FMI scientists was held on 13 & 14 June, 2000, almost exactly 10 years ago. NASA had recently selected 14 US scientists to work on instrument calibration, science algorithms, and validation activities related to the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) that we being built by collaboration between the Netherlands and Finland for flight on NASA's EOS Aura satellite. The progress on this project had been remarkable for a space based instrument. Only two years before this meeting my colleague Ernest Hilsenrath and I had visited Netherlands at the invitation of Fokker Space to persuade KNMI management to collaborate with NASA on this mission. And only 4 years after the first science meeting was held OMI was lunched on the Aura spacecraft. Next month will be the 6 th anniversary of this launch and very successful operation of OMI. All this was possible because of the leadership from Dr. Hennie Kelder and KNMI management who in 1998 saw the opportunity for Netherlands in the mission and stepped up to the challenge by creating a young and talented team of scientists at KNMI under the leadership of Dr. Pieterenel Levelt. This vision has now put Netherlands as the leading country in the world in monitoring air quality from space. Recent selection of TROPOMI by ESA attests to the success of this vision. I will present some selected highlights of our very successful collaboration on this project over the past 10 years.

  3. Reflecting upon 10 years of geoengineering research: Introduction to the Crutzen + 10 special issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boettcher, Miranda; Schäfer, Stefan

    2017-03-01

    Ten years ago, Nobel laureate Paul Crutzen called for research into the possibility of reflecting sunlight away from Earth by injecting sulfur particles into the stratosphere. Across academic disciplines, Crutzen's intervention caused a surge in interest in and research on proposals for what is often referred to as "geoengineering"—an unbounded set of heterogeneous proposals for intentionally intervening into the climate system to reduce the risks of climate change. To mark the 10-year anniversary of the publication of Paul Crutzen's seminal essay, this special issue reviews the developments in geoengineering research since Crutzen's intervention and reflects upon possible future directions that geoengineering research may take. In this introduction, we briefly outline the arguments made in Paul Crutzen's (2006) contribution and describe the key developments of the past 10 years. We then proceed to give an overview of some of the central issues in current discussions on geoengineering, and situate the contributions to this special issue within them. In particular, we contend that geoengineering research is characterized by an orientation toward speculative futures that fundamentally shapes how geoengineering is entering the collective imagination of scientists, policymakers, and publics, and a mode of knowledge production that recognizes the risks that may result from new knowledge and that struggles with its own socio-political dimensions.

  4. Trends and predictors of asthma costs: results from a 10-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Tan, Ngiap Chuan; Nguyen, Hai V; Lye, Weng Kit; Sankari, Usha; Nadkarni, Nivedita V

    2016-03-01

    Research on asthma costs often focuses on estimating average asthma costs. Trends in asthma costs and patterns of medication use, especially for those who have been followed up and under treatment, have received much less attention. This study's objective was to document asthma costs over time for asthma patients who are enrolled in an asthma care programme in Singapore and to identify its predictors, using a 10-year longitudinal dataset.The study population comprised different cohorts of 939 asthma patients entering the programme at different times during 2004-2013. Average asthma costs were estimated and the trends over time examined graphically, within and across patient cohorts. Regression analyses were conducted to examine cost predictors, with a focus on the relationship between risk factors at programme enrolment and subsequent asthma costs.The results indicate that 10-year average annual asthma cost was GBP 341 per patient. The main drivers of costs were asthma medications and consultation fees. Use of combined inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting β-agonist medications increased over time, but this was accompanied by declines in controller drug use, doctor visits and total asthma drug costs. Obesity, smoking and asthma severity were the main predictors of subsequent asthma costs, especially for females.

  5. Ewing sarcoma family of tumors in children younger than 10 years of age.

    PubMed

    Huh, Winston W; Daw, Najat C; Herzog, Cynthia E; Munsell, Mark F; McAleer, Mary Frances; Lewis, Valerae O

    2017-04-01

    Few data exist regarding the clinical characteristics and outcome of young children with Ewing sarcoma family of tumors (ESFT). We reviewed the records of ESFT patients at our institution younger than 10 years of age at diagnosis. Forty-two patients were identified. Median age was 6.4 years (range 0.6-9.5 years). Most patients had T2 (>5 cm) tumors (n = 31; 74%). Most common primary site was the extremity (n = 17; 41%). Seven patients (17%) had metastasis at diagnosis. For local tumor control, 20 patients had surgery only, 13 had radiation therapy only, and 6 had surgery plus radiation. Surgical margin status was negative in 19 patients (73%). Median follow-up was 4.7 years (range 0.7-29.7 years), and 5-year relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) estimates were 67% (95% CI: 53-84%) and 82% (95% CI: 71-95%), respectively. Metastasis at presentation was the only significant predictor for decreased RFS (P = 0.008) and OS (P = 0.01). A trend was seen for T2 tumors with worse OS (P = 0.09). Patients younger than 10 years of age with ESFT may have a better OS than older patients, but further study of a homogeneously treated larger cohort is needed. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Foreign body aspiration and language spoken at home: 10-year review.

    PubMed

    Choroomi, S; Curotta, J

    2011-07-01

    To review foreign body aspiration cases encountered over a 10-year period in a tertiary paediatric hospital, and to assess correlation between foreign body type and language spoken at home. Retrospective chart review of all children undergoing direct laryngobronchoscopy for foreign body aspiration over a 10-year period. Age, sex, foreign body type, complications, hospital stay and home language were analysed. At direct laryngobronchoscopy, 132 children had foreign body aspiration (male:female ratio 1.31:1; mean age 32 months (2.67 years)). Mean hospital stay was 2.0 days. Foreign bodies most commonly comprised food matter (53/132; 40.1 per cent), followed by non-food matter (44/132; 33.33 per cent), a negative endoscopy (11/132; 8.33 per cent) and unknown composition (24/132; 18.2 per cent). Most parents spoke English (92/132, 69.7 per cent; vs non-English-speaking 40/132, 30.3 per cent), but non-English-speaking patients had disproportionately more food foreign bodies, and significantly more nut aspirations (p = 0.0065). Results constitute level 2b evidence. Patients from non-English speaking backgrounds had a significantly higher incidence of food (particularly nut) aspiration. Awareness-raising and public education is needed in relevant communities to prevent certain foods, particularly nuts, being given to children too young to chew and swallow them adequately.

  7. Tumors of the accessory lobe of the parotid gland: a 10-year experience.

    PubMed

    Lin, Derrick T; Coppit, George L; Burkey, Brian B; Netterville, James L

    2004-09-01

    The differential diagnosis of midcheek masses include pathology arising from normal anatomic structures or from variations of normal accessory parotid gland tissue. Accessory parotid gland tissue has been described as salivary tissue adjacent to Stenson's duct that is separate from the main body of the parotid gland. We report our 10-year experience with the diagnosis and treatment of eight accessory parotid gland neoplasms that have been followed by the senior authors. This is a retrospective review of our experience with eight accessory parotid gland neoplasms. A literature review and retrospective chart review of our experience with accessory parotid gland tumors over the past 10 years. The presentation, evaluation, management, treatment, and outcome were recorded. Eight cases of accessory lobe parotid tumors were identified, which have been followed since the date of initial treatment. All of the patients presented with a slowly growing cheek mass. There was one case of carcinoma expleomorphic adenoma, one case of undifferentiated carcinoma (small cell carcinoma), one case of basal cell adenocarcinoma, one case of benign salivary cyst, two cases of pleomorphic adenoma, and two cases of monomorphic adenoma. A standard facelift approach or modified Blair incision was used to excise these tumors. Neoplasms of the accessory parotid gland are rare. Management of these tumors include a high index of suspicion, good understanding of the anatomy, and meticulous surgical approach.

  8. Highlights from 10 Years of NASA/KNMI/FMI Collaboration on UV Remote Sensing from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhartia, Pawan K.

    2010-01-01

    The first joint meeting between NASA, KNMI and FMI scientists was held on 13 & 14 June, 2000, almost exactly 10 years ago. NASA had recently selected 14 US scientists to work on instrument calibration, science algorithms, and validation activities related to the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) that we being built by collaboration between the Netherlands and Finland for flight on NASA's EOS Aura satellite. The progress on this project had been remarkable for a space based instrument. Only two years before this meeting my colleague Ernest Hilsenrath and I had visited Netherlands at the invitation of Fokker Space to persuade KNMI management to collaborate with NASA on this mission. And only 4 years after the first science meeting was held OMI was lunched on the Aura spacecraft. Next month will be the 6 th anniversary of this launch and very successful operation of OMI. All this was possible because of the leadership from Dr. Hennie Kelder and KNMI management who in 1998 saw the opportunity for Netherlands in the mission and stepped up to the challenge by creating a young and talented team of scientists at KNMI under the leadership of Dr. Pieterenel Levelt. This vision has now put Netherlands as the leading country in the world in monitoring air quality from space. Recent selection of TROPOMI by ESA attests to the success of this vision. I will present some selected highlights of our very successful collaboration on this project over the past 10 years.

  9. Overview of Aqua MODIS 10-year On-orbit Calibration and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, X.; Wenny, B.; Sun, J.; Wu, A.; Chen, H.; Angal, A.; Choi, T.; Madhavan, S.; Geng, X.; Link, D.; Toller, G.; Barnes, W.; Salomonson, V.

    2012-01-01

    Since launch in May 2002, Aqua MODIS has successfully operated for nearly 10 years, continuously collecting global datasets for scientific studies of key parameters of the earth's land, ocean, and atmospheric properties and their changes over time. The quality of these geophysical parameters relies on the input quality of sensor calibrated radiances. MODIS observations are made in 36 spectral bands with wavelengths ranging from visible (VIS) to longwave infrared (LWIR). Its reflective solar bands (RSB) are calibrated using data collected from its on-board solar diffuser and regularly scheduled lunar views. The thermal emissive bands (TEB) are calibrated using an on-board blackbody (BB). The changes in the sensor's spectral and spatial characteristics are monitored by an on-board spectroradiometric calibration assembly (SRCA). This paper presents an overview of Aqua MODIS 10-year on-orbit operation and calibration activities, from launch to present, and summarizes its on-orbit radiometric, spectral, and spatial calibration and characterization performance. In addition, it will illustrate and discuss on-orbit changes in sensor characteristics and corrections applied to continuously maintain the sensor level 1B (L1B) data quality, as well as lessons learned that could benefit future calibration efforts.

  10. Developing a Ruggedized Soil Moisture Sensor for 10+ Year Climate Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobos, D. R.; Campbell, C. S.; Campbell, G. S.; Bissey, L. L.; Dunne, K. M.; Teare, B. L.

    2009-12-01

    The establishment of long term climate observatories is becoming a priority in many countries around the world. It is generally acknowledged that, although many parameters can be measured effectively at a few distributed sites, soil moisture requires a much wider and more intensively sampled distribution. However, researchers are still left with a difficult choice. Low cost sensors can be distributed in this manner but do not have an expected >10 year life expectancy. Sensors with better performance are available but are expensive. In addition, all of these sensors are difficult to install. The goal of this project was to develop, calibrate, and characterize a sensor that would have a >10 year life expectancy and simplified installation but maintain a low price point so it would not be cost prohibitive to heavily sample an area. Several prototype sensors were constructed and optimized for accurate soil moisture response in the soil. The sensors were subjected to extensive accelerated durability tests to assess long term weaknesses. In addition, calibration and characterization determined the response of the sensor to soil moisture and other confounding factors such as % clay, soil salinity, and temperature. Results showed excellent survival rate in the accelerated testing and consistent calibration with soil type and salinity. Temperature effects were observed at similar levels as other, similar soil moisture sensors. These results indicate it may be possible make a lower cost, rugged, long lasting soil moisture sensor available for climate observatory sites and other applications.

  11. Incidence of balanitis xerotica obliterans in boys younger than 10 years presenting with phimosis.

    PubMed

    Kuehhas, F E; Miernik, A; Weibl, P; Schoenthaler, M; Sevcenco, S; Schauer, I; Tosev, G; Oezsoy, M; Lassmann, J

    2013-01-01

    Evaluation of the true incidence of balanitis xerotica obliterans (BXO) among boys younger than 10 years. In a period of 13 months, 75 boys younger than 10 years were treated for phimosis. Suspicion of BXO was raised in phimosis grade 2 or 3 (classification by Kikiros). Patients were offered primarily either circumcision or conservative therapy and circumcision secondarily (if treatment failed in the conservative group). Each circumcision specimen was examined histopathologically. Circumcision was primarily performed in 29 and secondarily in 17 patients. The mean age was 3.7 years (range 1-10). BXO, chronic inflammation, and normal histological results were found in 8/26/12 (17.4/56.5/26.1%) cases, respectively. The mean follow-up was 8.1 months. No recurrences were reported. The incidence of BXO appears to be higher than previously reported. The clinical appearance in children may be confusing. The preoperative BXO suspicion did not correlate with the final histopathological results. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Evaluation of 6 and 10 Year-Old Child Human Body Models in Emergency Events.

    PubMed

    Gras, Laure-Lise; Stockman, Isabelle; Brolin, Karin

    2017-01-01

    Emergency events can influence a child's kinematics prior to a car-crash, and thus its interaction with the restraint system. Numerical Human Body Models (HBMs) can help understand the behaviour of children in emergency events. The kinematic responses of two child HBMs-MADYMO 6 and 10 year-old models-were evaluated and compared with child volunteers' data during emergency events-braking and steering-with a focus on the forehead and sternum displacements. The response of the 6 year-old HBM was similar to the response of the 10 year-old HBM, however both models had a different response compared with the volunteers. The forward and lateral displacements were within the range of volunteer data up to approximately 0.3 s; but then, the HBMs head and sternum moved significantly downwards, while the volunteers experienced smaller displacement and tended to come back to their initial posture. Therefore, these HBMs, originally intended for crash simulations, are not too stiff and could be able to reproduce properly emergency events thanks, for instance, to postural control.

  13. Evolution in Practice: How has British Neurosurgery Changed in the Last 10 Years?

    PubMed Central

    Tarnaris, A; Arvin, B; Ashkan, K

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Neurosurgery is a fast-evolving surgical subspecialty driven by technological advances, socio-economic factors and patient expectations. In this study, we have compared the work-load volume in a single institution in the years of 1994 and 2004 and commented on the possible reasons for the changes and the impacts they may have for the future. PATIENTS AND METHODS A retrospective, log-book review of all operations performed in the years 1994 and 2004 in a single, tertiary, neurosurgical centre was performed. RESULTS Neurosurgical practice has evolved over this period. Current practice has moved away from clipping of aneurysms and towards coil embolisation performed by interventional radiologists. Electrode stimulation of deep brain regions for movement disorders is the current practice, whereas 10 years ago the same disorders were dealt with by lesioning of the relevant regions. In spinal neurosurgery, instrumentation is increasingly favoured currently. In the field of neuro-oncology, current practice favours minimal access to the target area by the use of stereotactic localisation. CONCLUSIONS Changes were most pronounced in the subspecialties of vascular, functional and spinal neurosurgery within this 10-year period. Knowledge of such dynamics is valuable in health resource management as well as planning for neurosurgical training programmes. PMID:18765031

  14. Mortality study of ethylene oxide workers in chemical manufacturing: a 10 year update.

    PubMed Central

    Teta, M J; Benson, L O; Vitale, J N

    1993-01-01

    Men assigned to units producing ethylene oxide by the chlorohydrin or direct oxidation processes and to other departments using ethylene oxide in two chemical plants were followed up for mortality from 1940 to 1988 (n = 1896). Based on findings from a previous study of these workers to the end of 1978, which identified confounding exposures, workers assigned to one unit with low ethylene oxide exposure potential were excluded (n = 278). Average duration of exposure was over five years and average follow up was 27 years, with all subjects at least 10 years from first exposure. The data did not support associations of ethylene oxide with all cancer types combined, leukaemia, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, or brain, pancreatic, or stomach cancers. There were also no duration-response trends. The standardised mortality ratio (SMR) for total cancer was 86 (95% confidence interval 71-104) and did not increase for those hired the earliest and with long duration assignments. The results of this 10 year update and those of other recent studies of ethylene oxide workers do not confirm findings from animal studies and are not consistent with the earliest results reported among ethylene oxide workers. PMID:8398856

  15. [Food avoidance emotional disorder in 3 to 10-year-old children: a clinical reality].

    PubMed

    Goëb, J-L; Azcona, B; Troussier, F; Malka, J; Giniès, J-L; Duverger, P

    2005-09-01

    We underline the clinical importance of a specific eating disorder in 3 to 10 years old children, when the majority of the works about the prepubertal eating disorders focus either on the period just preceding adolescence (often between 10 and 13 years), or on the second half of the first year of the baby. Within the eating disorders described in the literature, we compare the clinical presentation of most of these 3 to 10 years old children with the food avoidance emotional disorder described during adolescence. These problems of eating behaviour (various selective eating with or without provoked vomiting) are ignored for a long time in these young children because of quite a satisfactory growth, but these children are often seen in emergency rooms because of a brutally complete eating refusal. Therapeutic consultations allow these children to express their fears about diseases, poisoning and death, for themselves or for their close relations, in particular the mother, without endangering their body. The early recognition and care of these difficulties of conciliation between the body and the thoughts impose a narrow collaboration between paediatric and psychiatric staffs.

  16. A 10-Year Climatology of Amazonian Rainfall Derived from Passive Microwave Satellite Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Negri, Andrew J.; Anagnostou, Emmanouil N.; Adler, Robert F.

    1998-01-01

    In this study we present and describe a satellite-derived precipitation climatology over northern South America using a passive microwave technique, the Goddard Profiling Algorithm. A period of data slightly longer than 10 years is examined. The climatologies take the form of the mean estimated (adjusted) rainfall for a 10-year (+) period, with sub-divisions by month and meteorological season. For the six-year period 1992-1997, when two satellites were in operation, diurnal variability (to the extent it is discerned by four unequally spaced observations) is presented. We find an alternating pattern of morning and maxima stretching from the northeast (Atlantic coast) clear across the continent to the Pacific. The effects of topography, coastlines and geography (river valleys) on the rainfall patterns are clear. Interannual variability is examined by computing the deviations of yearly and warm season (DJF) rainfall from their respective long-term means. Interannual variability of the diurnal nature of the rainfall is presented, and the strong El Nino event of 1997-1998 is discussed.

  17. Performance and bacterial community structure of a 10-years old constructed mangrove wetland.

    PubMed

    Tian, Tingting; Tam, Nora F Y; Zan, Qijie; Cheung, S G; Shin, Paul K S; Wong, Y S; Zhang, Li; Chen, Zhanghe

    2017-07-12

    Constructed mangrove wetland has been used for wastewater treatment but its long-term performance has not been reported. One-year monitoring of a 10-years old horizontal subsurface-flow constructed mangrove wetland consisting of three belts, two with mangrove plants and one without, revealed that the system maintained high and stable removal percentages of organic matter and nutrients, and planted belts performed better than unplanted control. Substrates in belts planted with Aegiceras corniculatum or Kandelia obovata had higher abundance of ammonifiers, nitrifiers and denitrifiers but lower total heterotrophic bacteria than unplanted substrate. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis showed that microbial diversity in planted substrate was significantly lower than that in unplanted one. The bacteria in substrates, irrespective to belts, were phylogenetically related to Proteobacteria (most dominant), Acidobacteria, Firmicutes, Nitrospirae, Gemmatimonadetes, Chloroflexi and Cyanobacteria. The steady performance of this 10-year old constructed mangrove wetland was affected by the abundance and diversity of bacterial community in substrate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Customising turnaround time indicators to requesting clinician: a 10-year study through balanced scorecard indicators.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Maria; López-Garrigós, Maite; Santo-Quiles, Ana; Gutierrez, Mercedes; Lugo, Javier; Lillo, Rosa; Leiva-Salinas, Carlos

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study is, first to present a 10-year monitoring of postanalytical turnaround time (TAT) adapted to different clinicians and patient situations, second to evaluate and analyse the indicators results during that period of time, and finally to show a synthetic appropriate indicator to be included in the balanced scorecard management system. TAT indicator for routine samples was devised as the percentage of certain key tests that were verified before a specific time on the phlebotomy day. A weighted mean synthetic indicator was also designed. They were calculated for inpatients at 15:00 and 12:00 and for primary care patients only at 15:00. The troponin TAT of emergency department patients, calculated as the difference between the troponin verification and registration time, was selected as the stat laboratory TAT indicator. The routine and stat TAT improved along the 10-year study period. The synthetic indicator showed the same trend. The implementation of systematic and continuous monitoring over years, promoted a continuous improvement in TAT which will probably benefit patient outcome and safety.

  19. 100% Retention of Snowpack Derived Nitrogen Over 10 Years in High Arctic Tundra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhary, S.; Tye, A. M.; Young, S. D.; West, H. M.; Phoenix, G. K.

    2013-12-01

    Tundra ecosystems are susceptible to atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition, increasing as a result of anthropogenic activities as well as climate change. Depositions that get accumulated within the snowpack during winter months are released in spring during snowmelt, providing a periodic input of reactive N in the melt water to such nutrient limited ecosystems. Identifying ecosystem N retention and allocation and how this change over time is important to understanding the long-term consequences of such N depositions to these ecosystems. We reanalysed 10 years later an atmospheric N deposition study established in Svalbard that in 2001 used 15N isotope tracers to determine the fate of N released from melting snowpack. Applications of 15N (99 atom%) at 0.1 and 0.5 g N m-2 were made immediately after snowmelt in 2001 as either Na15NO3 or 15NH4Cl. These applications were approximately 1 × and 5 × the yearly atmospheric deposition rates. In both the previous short-term (one week to two years after 15N tracer application) and our long-term re-sampling (10 years after 15N tracer application), ~67% of the total applied 15N was retained in the ecosystem, irrespective of the N forms or N dose. This meant the tundra had 100% long-term N retention after initial partitioning, suggesting a highly conservative N cycling. Bryophytes, followed by the organic soil horizon and then the microbial biomass formed the greatest short-term 15N sink. Maximum changes in 15N retention from the short- to long-term were observed in the microbial 15N pools, with ~75% of the 15N in soil located in its biomass during the initial partitioning (July 2001) decreasing to ~17% 10 years later. This indicates significant microbial N turnover mostly into stable humus N. In contrast, vascular plants, particularly Salix polaris, showed significant increases (~60%) in their 15N retention after 10 years, indicating a high capacity for acting as a long-term N sink in this tundra ecosystem. Because the largest

  20. Increased 10-year cardiovascular disease and mortality risk scores in asymptomatic patients with calcium oxalate urolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Hasan; Yencilek, Faruk; Erihan, Ismet Bilger; Okan, Binnur; Sarica, Kemal

    2011-12-01

    Both the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and event rate are increased in patients with urolithiasis. Screening is recommended to all patients who have high cardiovascular risk. The aim of this study was to document 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality in asymptomatic patients with urolithiasis. Consecutive 200 patients with calcium oxalate urolithiasis were compared with 200 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Ten-year cardiovascular disease risk was calculated with the Framingham Risk Score and mortality risk with SCORE risk score. Calcium, oxalate, and citrate excretion were studied as urinary stone risk factors. The results indicate that patients with urolithiasis had higher total cholesterol (p < 0.0001), lower HDL-cholesterol (p < 0.0001), and higher systolic blood pressure (p < 0.0001) and hsCRP (p < 0.0001) compared with controls. Patients with urolithiasis had a higher Framingham Risk Scores [OR 8.36 (95% CI 3.81-18.65), p = 0.0001] and SCORE risk score [OR 3.02 (95% CI 1.30-7.02), p = 0.0006] compared with controls. The Framingham and SCORE risk score were significantly correlated with urinary calcium (p = 0.0001, r = 0.460, and p = 0.005, r = 0.223, respectively) and oxalate excretion (p = 0.0001, r = 0.516, p = 0.001, r = 0.290, respectively). In multiple linear regression analysis, urinary calcium and oxalate excretion, age, sex, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, hsCRP and smoking were the independent predictors of 10-year cardiovascular disease risk and urinary calcium and oxalate excretion, age, sex, total cholesterol, fasting blood glucose for 10-year cardiovascular mortality. In conclusion, patients with calcium oxalate urolithiasis carry high risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. All patients should be screened at the initial diagnosis of urolithiasis for the risk factors.