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Sample records for 10-year fracture probability

  1. Factors influencing infection in 10 years of battlefield open tibia fractures.

    PubMed

    Penn-Barwell, J G; Bennett, P M; Mortiboy, D E; Fries, C A; Groom, A F G; Sargeant, I D

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise severe open tibial shaft fractures sustained by the UK military personnel over 10 years of combat in Iraq and Afghanistan. The UK military Joint Theatre Trauma Registry was searched for all such injuries, and clinical records were reviewed for all patients. One hundred Gustilo-Anderson III tibia fractures in 89 patients were identified in the 10 year study period; the majority sustained injuries through explosive weapons (63, 68 %) with the remainder being injured from gunshot wounds. Three fractures were not followed up for 12 months and were therefore excluded. Twenty-two (23 %) of the remaining 97 tibial fractures were complicated by infection, with S. aureus being the causative agent in 13/22 infected fractures (59 %). Neither injury severity, mechanism, the use of an external fixator, the need for vascularised tissue transfer nor smoking status was associated with subsequent infection. Bone loss was significantly associated with subsequent infection (p < 0.0001, Fisher's exact test). This study presents 10 years of open tibial fractures sustained in Iraq and Afghanistan. Most infection in combat open tibia fractures is caused by familiar organisms, i.e. S. aureus. While the overall severity of a casualty's injuries was not associated with infection, the degree of bone loss from the fracture was. PMID:26993111

  2. Prediction of absolute risk of fragility fracture at 10 years in a Spanish population: validation of the WHO FRAX ™ tool in Spain

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Age-related bone loss is asymptomatic, and the morbidity of osteoporosis is secondary to the fractures that occur. Common sites of fracture include the spine, hip, forearm and proximal humerus. Fractures at the hip incur the greatest morbidity and mortality and give rise to the highest direct costs for health services. Their incidence increases exponentially with age. Independently changes in population demography, the age - and sex- specific incidence of osteoporotic fractures appears to be increasing in developing and developed countries. This could mean more than double the expected burden of osteoporotic fractures in the next 50 years. Methods/Design To assess the predictive power of the WHO FRAX™ tool to identify the subjects with the highest absolute risk of fragility fracture at 10 years in a Spanish population, a predictive validation study of the tool will be carried out. For this purpose, the participants recruited by 1999 will be assessed. These were referred to scan-DXA Department from primary healthcare centres, non hospital and hospital consultations. Study population: Patients attended in the national health services integrated into a FRIDEX cohort with at least one Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurement and one extensive questionnaire related to fracture risk factors. Measurements: At baseline bone mineral density measurement using DXA, clinical fracture risk factors questionnaire, dietary calcium intake assessment, history of previous fractures, and related drugs. Follow up by telephone interview to know fragility fractures in the 10 years with verification in electronic medical records and also to know the number of falls in the last year. The absolute risk of fracture will be estimated using the FRAX™ tool from the official web site. Discussion Since more than 10 years ago numerous publications have recognised the importance of other risk factors for new osteoporotic fractures in addition to low BMD. The extension of a

  3. Prediction of the 10-year probability of gastric cancer occurrence in the Japanese population: the JPHC study cohort II.

    PubMed

    Charvat, Hadrien; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Inoue, Manami; Iwasaki, Motoki; Sawada, Norie; Shimazu, Taichi; Yamaji, Taiki; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2016-01-15

    Gastric cancer is a particularly important issue in Japan, where incidence rates are among the highest observed. In this work, we provide a risk prediction model allowing the estimation of the 10-year cumulative probability of gastric cancer occurrence. The study population consisted of 19,028 individuals from the Japanese Public Health Center cohort II who were followed-up from 1993 to 2009. A parametric survival model was used to assess the impact on the probability of gastric cancer of clinical and lifestyle-related risk factors in combination with serum anti-Helicobacter pylori antibody titres and pepsinogen I and pepsinogen II levels. Based on the resulting model, cumulative probability estimates were calculated and a simple risk scoring system was developed. A total of 412 cases of gastric cancer occurred during 270,854 person-years of follow-up. The final model included (besides the biological markers) age, gender, smoking status, family history of gastric cancer and consumption of highly salted food. The developed prediction model showed good predictive performance in terms of discrimination (optimism-corrected c-index: 0.768) and calibration (Nam and d'Agostino's χ(2) test: 14.78; p values = 0.06). Estimates of the 10-year probability of gastric cancer occurrence ranged from 0.04% (0.02, 0.1) to 14.87% (8.96, 24.14) for men and from 0.03% (0.02, 0.07) to 4.91% (2.71, 8.81) for women. In conclusion, we developed a risk prediction model for gastric cancer that combines clinical and biological markers. It might prompt individuals to modify their lifestyle habits, attend regular check-up visits or participate in screening programmes.

  4. Antidepressant use and 10-year incident fracture risk: the population-based Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMoS)

    PubMed Central

    Bernatsky, S.; Abrahamowicz, M.; Papaioannou, A.; Bessette, L.; Adachi, J.; Goltzman, D.; Prior, J.; Kreiger, N.; Towheed, T.; Leslie, W. D.; Kaiser, S.; Ioannidis, G.; Pickard, L.; Fraser, L.-A.; Rahme, E.

    2016-01-01

    Summary We used data from a large, prospective Canadian cohort to assess the association between selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) and fracture. We found an increased risk of fractures in individuals who used SSRI or SNRI, even after controlling for multiple risk factors. Introduction Previous studies have suggested an association between SSRIs and increasing risk of fragility fractures. However, the majority of these studies were not long-term analyses or were performed using administrative data and, thus, could not fully control for potential confounders. We sought to determine whether the use of SSRIs and SNRIs is associated with increased risk of fragility fracture, in adults aged 50+. Methods We used data from the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos), a prospective randomly selected population-based community cohort; our analyses focused on subjects aged 50+. Time to event methodology was used to assess the association between SSRI/SNRI use, modeled time-dependently, and fragility fracture. Results Among 6,645 subjects, 192 (2.9 %) were using SSRIs or/and SNRIs at baseline. During the 10-year study period, 978 (14.7 %) participants experienced at least one fragility fracture. In our main analysis, SSRI/SNRI use was associated with increased risk of fragility fracture (hazard ratio (HR), 1.88; 95 % confidence intervals (CI), 1.48–2.39). After controlling for multiple risk factors, including Charlson score, previous falls, and bone mineral density hip and lumbar bone density, the adjusted HR for current SSRI/SNRI use remained elevated (HR, 1.68; 95 % CI, 1.32–2.14). Conclusions Our results lend additional support to an association between SSRI/SNRI use and fragility fractures. Given the high prevalence of antidepressants use, and the impact of fractures on health, our findings may have a significant clinical impact. PMID:24566587

  5. Erythrocyte membrane trans-fatty acid index is positively associated with a 10-year CHD risk probability.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Ru; Deng, Ze-Yuan; Hu, Jiang-Ning; Fan, Ya-Wei; Liu, Rong; Li, Jing; Peng, Jing-Tian; Su, Hai; Peng, Qiang; Li, Wei-Feng

    2013-05-01

    Industry-generated trans-fatty acids (TFA) are detrimental to risk of CHD, but ruminant-originated TFA have been reported as neutral or equivocal. Therefore, the total TFA amount should not be the only factor considered when measuring the effects of TFA. In the present study, we addressed whether a version of the TFA index that unifies the effects of different TFA isomers into one equation could be used to reflect CHD risk probability (RP). The present cross-sectional study involved 2713 individuals divided into four groups that represented different pathological severities and potential risks of CHD: acute coronary syndrome (ACS, n 581); chronic coronary artery disease (CCAD, n 631); high-risk population (HRP, n 659); healthy volunteers (HV, n 842). A 10-year CHD RP was calculated. Meanwhile, the equation of the TFA index was derived using five TFA isomers (trans-16 : 1n-7, trans-16 : 1n-9, trans-18 : 1n-7, trans-18 : 1n-9 and trans-18 : 2n-6n-9), which were detected in the whole blood, serum and erythrocyte membranes of each subject. The TFA index and the 10-year CHD RP were compared by linear models. It was shown that only in the erythrocyte membrane, the TFA isomers were significantly different between the groups. In the ACS group, industry-generated TFA (trans-16 : 1n-9, trans-18 : 1n-9 and trans-18 : 2n-6n-9) were the highest, whereas ruminant-originated TFA (trans-16 : 1n-7 and trans-18 : 1n-7), which manifested an inverse relationship with CHD, were the lowest, and vice versa in the HV group. The TFA index decreased progressively from 7·12 to 5·06, 3·11 and 1·92 in the ACS, CCAD, HRP and HV groups, respectively. The erythrocyte membrane TFA index was positively associated with the 10-year CHD RP (R 2 0·9981) and manifested a strong linear correlation, which might reflect the true pathological severity of CHD.

  6. Effect of Growth Hormone Treatment on Fractures and Quality of Life in Postmenopausal Osteoporosis: A 10-Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Trimpou, Penelope; Landin-Wilhelmsen, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    Context: Growth hormone (GH) treatment increases bone mineral density (BMD) in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Objective: The objective was to report bone data, fractures, and quality of life (QoL) in a 10-year follow-up of women who had received GH for 3 years and compared with controls followed in parallel. Design and Setting: A follow-up of a double-blind, placebo-controlled study conducted at Sahlgrenska University Hospital was performed. Patients: Eighty women aged between 50 and 70 years with osteoporosis and estrogen hormone replacement were studied and compared with an age-matched random population sample of women (n = 120) from the World Health Organization Monitoring of Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease project (Gothenburg, Sweden). Interventions: Patients were randomized to GH 1.0 U or GH 2.5 U recombinant human GH or placebo sc daily during 3 years. All received calcium 750 mg and vitamin D 400 U and were followed up during 10 years. Main Outcome Measures: BMD and bone mineral content were measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. QoL was estimated with the 36-item Short Form. Results: GH increased BMD and bone mineral content dose dependently in all regions (P = .01, GH 1.0 U, and P = .0006, GH 2.5 U vs placebo). After 10 years the number of fractures decreased from 56% to 28% (P = .0003) in patients evenly distributed between groups. In controls, fractures increased from 8% to 32% (P = .0008). QoL did not change during GH treatment or during the 10-year follow-up and did not differ compared with controls. Conclusion: GH treatment was beneficial for bone and fracture outcome after 10 years but did not affect the QoL of the women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. PMID:26312576

  7. [Absolute risk fracture prediction by risk factors validation and survey of osteoporosis in a Brussels cohort followed during 10 years (FRISBEE study)].

    PubMed

    Body, J J; Moreau, M; Bergmann, P; Paesmans, M; Dekelver, C; Lemaire, M L

    2008-09-01

    Osteoporosis is a major public health problem. For the time being, the diagnosis of osteoporosis relies on densitometry (T-score < -2.5 by DXA), although the risk of fracture depends also on other factors than the bone mass. Osteoporosis diagnosis (DXA) must be distinguished from the individual risk assessment of fracture. Different risk factors complementary to bone mass have been already validated in different populations. These include an old age, a history of fracture after the age of 50, a familial history of hip fracture (father or mother), a low BMI (< 20), corticoid treatment (> 3 months), tabagism and excessive alcohol consumption. A WHO taskforce has combined these different factors in order to integrate them in a 10-years predictive risk model of fracture (FRAX**). This model should still be validated in different populations, especially in populations not included in its development, which is the case for Belgium. We are evaluating these different risk factors for fracture in a Brussels population of 5000 women (60-80 years) who will be followed each year during 10 years. We also assess the predictive value of other risk factors for fracture not included in the WHO model (tendency to fall, use of sleeping pills, early non substituted menopause, sedentarity, ...). In an interim analysis of the first 452 women included and with data yet available at the time of this writing, we could find a significant (P < 0.05) relationship between diagnosis of osteoporosis at DXA and the number of risk factors, age > 70 years, a personal history of fracture after 50 years and a BMI < 20. PMID:18949979

  8. A Frailty Index predicts 10-year fracture risk in adults age 25 years and older: results from the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos)

    PubMed Central

    Ioannidis, G.; Rockwood, K.; Thabane, L.; Adachi, J. D.; Kirkland, S.; Pickard, L. E.; Papaioannou, A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary We created a 30-item Frailty Index in the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study. A Frailty Index is a sensitive measure that can quantify fracture risk according to degree of frailty. Our results indicated that at any age, frailty was an important independent risk factor for fracture over 10 years. Introduction In later life, frailty has been linked to fractures. It is likely that the antecedents of fracture are seen across the life course, in ways not entirely captured by traditional osteoporosis risk factors. Using data collected from the prospective, population-based Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos), we created the 30-item CaMos Frailty Index and examined whether it was associated with incident fractures over 10 years. Methods All CaMos participants aged 25 years and older (n= 9,423) were included in the analysis. To examine the relationship between baseline Frailty Index scores and incident fractures, a competing risk proportional sub-distribution hazards model was used with death considered a competing risk. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, education level, femoral neck T-score, and antiresorptive therapy. Results At baseline, the mean age was 62.1 years [standard deviation (SD) 13.4], and 69.4 % were women. The mean Frailty Index score was 0.13 (SD 0.11), ranging from 0 to 0.66. For every 0.10 increase in Frailty Index scores (approximately one SD), the hazard ratio was 1.25 (p<0.001) for all fractures, 1.18 (p=0.043) for hip fractures, and 1.30 (p= 0.001) for clinical vertebral fractures. Conclusion The CaMos Frailty Index quantified fracture risk according to degree of frailty. Irrespective of age and bone mineral density, the Frailty Index was associated with hip, vertebral, and all-type clinical fractures. Predicting late onset illnesses may have to consider overall health status and not just traditional risk factors. PMID:25103215

  9. Is a black eye a useful sign of facial fractures in patients with minor head injuries? A retrospective analysis in a level I trauma centre over 10 years.

    PubMed

    Büttner, Michael; Schlittler, Fabian Lukas; Michel, Chantal; Exadaktylos, Aris Konstantinos; Iizuka, Tateyuki

    2014-07-01

    Orbital blunt trauma is common, and the diagnosis of a fracture should be made by computed tomographic (CT) scan. However, this will expose patients to ionising radiation. Our objective was to identify clinical predictors of orbital fracture, in particular the presence of a black eye, to minimise unnecessary exposure to radiation. A 10-year retrospective study was made of the medical records of all patients with minor head trauma who presented with one or two black eyes to our emergency department between May 2000 and April 2010. Each of the patients had a CT scan, was over 16 years old, and had a Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) of 13-15. The primary outcome was whether the black eye was a valuable predictor of a fracture. Accompanying clinical signs were considered as a secondary outcome. A total of 1676 patients (mean (SD) age 51 (22) years) and minor head trauma with either one or two black eyes were included. In 1144 the CT scan showed a fracture of the maxillofacial skeleton, which gave an incidence of 68.3% in whom a black eye was the obvious symptom. Specificity for facial fractures was particularly high for other clinical signs, such as diminished skin sensation (specificity 96.4%), diplopia or occulomotility disorders (89.3%), fracture steps (99.8%), epistaxis (95.5%), subconjunctival haemorrhage (90.4%), and emphysema (99.6%). Sensitivity for the same signs ranged from 10.8% to 22.2%. The most striking fact was that 68.3% of all patients with a black eye had an underlying fracture. We therefore conclude that a CT scan should be recommended for every patient with minor head injury who presents with a black eye.

  10. Is a black eye a useful sign of facial fractures in patients with minor head injuries? A retrospective analysis in a level I trauma centre over 10 years.

    PubMed

    Büttner, Michael; Schlittler, Fabian Lukas; Michel, Chantal; Exadaktylos, Aris Konstantinos; Iizuka, Tateyuki

    2014-07-01

    Orbital blunt trauma is common, and the diagnosis of a fracture should be made by computed tomographic (CT) scan. However, this will expose patients to ionising radiation. Our objective was to identify clinical predictors of orbital fracture, in particular the presence of a black eye, to minimise unnecessary exposure to radiation. A 10-year retrospective study was made of the medical records of all patients with minor head trauma who presented with one or two black eyes to our emergency department between May 2000 and April 2010. Each of the patients had a CT scan, was over 16 years old, and had a Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) of 13-15. The primary outcome was whether the black eye was a valuable predictor of a fracture. Accompanying clinical signs were considered as a secondary outcome. A total of 1676 patients (mean (SD) age 51 (22) years) and minor head trauma with either one or two black eyes were included. In 1144 the CT scan showed a fracture of the maxillofacial skeleton, which gave an incidence of 68.3% in whom a black eye was the obvious symptom. Specificity for facial fractures was particularly high for other clinical signs, such as diminished skin sensation (specificity 96.4%), diplopia or occulomotility disorders (89.3%), fracture steps (99.8%), epistaxis (95.5%), subconjunctival haemorrhage (90.4%), and emphysema (99.6%). Sensitivity for the same signs ranged from 10.8% to 22.2%. The most striking fact was that 68.3% of all patients with a black eye had an underlying fracture. We therefore conclude that a CT scan should be recommended for every patient with minor head injury who presents with a black eye. PMID:24793410

  11. Estimating the Transitional Probabilities of Smoking Stages with Cross-sectional Data and 10-Year Projection for Smoking Behavior in Iranian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Khosravi, Ahmad; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Mahmoodi, Mahmood; Pouyan, Ali Akbar; Holakouie-Naieni, Kourosh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cigarette smoking is one of the most important health-related risk factors in terms of morbidity and mortality. In this study, we introduced a new method for deriving the transitional probabilities of smoking stages from a cross-sectional study and simulated a long-term smoking behavior for adolescents. Methods: In this study in 2010, a total of 4853 high school students were randomly selected and were completed a self-administered questionnaire about cigarette smoking. We used smoothed age- and sex-specific prevalence of smoking stages in a probabilistic discrete event system for estimating of transitional probabilities. A nonhomogenous discrete time Markov chain analysis was used to model the progression of the smoking in 10 years ahead in the same population. The mean age of the students was 15.69 ± 0.73 years (range: 14–19). Results: The smoothed prevalence proportion of current smoking varies between 3.58 and 26.14%. The age-adjusted odds of initiation in boys is 8.9 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.9–10.0) times of the odds of initiation of smoking in girls. Our study predicted that the prevalence proportion of current smokers increased from 7.55% in 2010 to 20.31% (95% CI: 19.44–21.37) for 2019. Conclusions: The present study showed a moderately but concerning prevalence of current smoking in Iranian adolescents and introduced a novel method for estimation of transitional probabilities from a cross-sectional study. The increasing trend of cigarette use among adolescents indicated the necessity of paying more attention to this group. PMID:27625766

  12. Estimating the Transitional Probabilities of Smoking Stages with Cross-sectional Data and 10-Year Projection for Smoking Behavior in Iranian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Khosravi, Ahmad; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Mahmoodi, Mahmood; Pouyan, Ali Akbar; Holakouie-Naieni, Kourosh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cigarette smoking is one of the most important health-related risk factors in terms of morbidity and mortality. In this study, we introduced a new method for deriving the transitional probabilities of smoking stages from a cross-sectional study and simulated a long-term smoking behavior for adolescents. Methods: In this study in 2010, a total of 4853 high school students were randomly selected and were completed a self-administered questionnaire about cigarette smoking. We used smoothed age- and sex-specific prevalence of smoking stages in a probabilistic discrete event system for estimating of transitional probabilities. A nonhomogenous discrete time Markov chain analysis was used to model the progression of the smoking in 10 years ahead in the same population. The mean age of the students was 15.69 ± 0.73 years (range: 14–19). Results: The smoothed prevalence proportion of current smoking varies between 3.58 and 26.14%. The age-adjusted odds of initiation in boys is 8.9 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.9–10.0) times of the odds of initiation of smoking in girls. Our study predicted that the prevalence proportion of current smokers increased from 7.55% in 2010 to 20.31% (95% CI: 19.44–21.37) for 2019. Conclusions: The present study showed a moderately but concerning prevalence of current smoking in Iranian adolescents and introduced a novel method for estimation of transitional probabilities from a cross-sectional study. The increasing trend of cigarette use among adolescents indicated the necessity of paying more attention to this group.

  13. Operative management of bilateral Salter-Harris type III fractures of the proximal phalanges of the great toes of a 10-year-old female ballet dancer: a case report.

    PubMed

    Csonka, Akos; Sikarinkul, Eakachit; Gargyan, Istvan; Boa, Kristof; Varga, Endre

    2016-07-01

    Differentiation between the normal variant cleft epiphysis and Salter-Harris type III fracture of the first proximal phalanges of the foot in children might be challenging. The authors describe a case of a 10-year-old ballet dancer girl with bilateral epiphyseal segmentation of the first proximal phalanges of the foot, unresponsive to conservative treatment. Considered a nonhealing stress-induced fracture, operative treatment with closed reduction and Herbert screw insertion was chosen on both sides. Complete union was achieved, with significant reduction of pain. The presented case suggests that internal fixation can be a viable option in the treatment of the problem. PMID:26919623

  14. Operative management of bilateral Salter-Harris type III fractures of the proximal phalanges of the great toes of a 10-year-old female ballet dancer: a case report.

    PubMed

    Csonka, Akos; Sikarinkul, Eakachit; Gargyan, Istvan; Boa, Kristof; Varga, Endre

    2016-07-01

    Differentiation between the normal variant cleft epiphysis and Salter-Harris type III fracture of the first proximal phalanges of the foot in children might be challenging. The authors describe a case of a 10-year-old ballet dancer girl with bilateral epiphyseal segmentation of the first proximal phalanges of the foot, unresponsive to conservative treatment. Considered a nonhealing stress-induced fracture, operative treatment with closed reduction and Herbert screw insertion was chosen on both sides. Complete union was achieved, with significant reduction of pain. The presented case suggests that internal fixation can be a viable option in the treatment of the problem.

  15. Trabecular bone score (TBS) predicts vertebral fractures in Japanese women over 10 years independently of bone density and prevalent vertebral deformity: the Japanese Population-Based Osteoporosis (JPOS) cohort study.

    PubMed

    Iki, Masayuki; Tamaki, Junko; Kadowaki, Eiko; Sato, Yuho; Dongmei, Namiraa; Winzenrieth, Renaud; Kagamimori, Sadanobu; Kagawa, Yoshiko; Yoneshima, Hideo

    2014-02-01

    Bone strength is predominantly determined by bone density, but bone microarchitecture also plays an important role. We examined whether trabecular bone score (TBS) predicts the risk of vertebral fractures in a Japanese female cohort. Of 1950 randomly selected women aged 15 to 79 years, we analyzed data from 665 women aged 50 years and older, who completed the baseline study and at least one follow-up survey over 10 years, and who had no conditions affecting bone metabolism. Each survey included spinal imaging by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for vertebral fracture assessment and spine areal bone mineral density (aBMD) measurement. TBS was obtained from spine DXA scans archived in the baseline study. Incident vertebral fracture was determined when vertebral height was reduced by 20% or more and satisfied McCloskey-Kanis criteria or Genant's grade 2 fracture at follow-up. Among eligible women (mean age 64.1 ± 8.1 years), 92 suffered incident vertebral fractures (16.7/10(3) person-years). These women were older with lower aBMD and TBS values relative to those without fractures. The unadjusted odds ratio of vertebral fractures for one standard deviation decrease in TBS was 1.98 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.56, 2.51) and remained significant (1.64, 95% CI 1.25, 2.15) after adjusting for aBMD. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of TBS and aBMD combined was 0.700 for vertebral fracture prediction and was not significantly greater than that of aBMD alone (0.673). However, reclassification improvement measures indicated that TBS and aBMD combined significantly improved risk prediction accuracy compared with aBMD alone. Further inclusion of age and prevalent vertebral deformity in the model improved vertebral fracture prediction, and TBS remained significant in the model. Thus, lower TBS was associated with higher risk of vertebral fracture over 10 years independently of aBMD and clinical risk factors including prevalent vertebral

  16. Fracture probability and leak before break analysis for the cold neutron source moderator vessel

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S.J.

    1998-04-01

    Fracture mechanics calculations are made to ensure the safety of the moderator vessel against failure by fracture. The 6061-T6 aluminum alloy is used for the moderator vessel structure. The fracture analysis of the moderator vessel consists of: (1) the probability of fracture calculations at the locations of the moderator where either the primary stress or the secondary stress assumes the highest value, (2) the vessel wall leak-before-break analysis by applying an edge crack solution, and (3) the crack penetration calculation as a result of radiation embrittlement by applying the flaw assessment diagram (FAD). The probability of fracture for the capsule is calculated by using a direct probability integration method instead of the Monte Carlo simulation method used by the PRAISE Code or the FAVOR Code developed in Oak Ridge. The probability of fracture as a function of radiation embrittlement is obtained. The leak before break analysis indicates that the vessel will fail by leak before fail by catastrophic fracture. A mass spectrometer will be installed to monitor the leak of hydrogen circulating within the moderator.

  17. Fracture Probability of MEMS Optical Devices for Space Flight Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fettig, Rainer K.; Kuhn, Jonathan L.; Moseley, S. Harvey; Kutyrev, Alexander S.; Orloff, Jon

    1999-01-01

    A bending fracture test specimen design is presented for thin elements used in optical devices for space flight applications. The specimen design is insensitive to load position, avoids end effect complications, and can be used to measure strength of membranes less than 2 microns thick. The theoretical equations predicting stress at failure are presented, and a detailed finite element model is developed to validate the equations for this application. An experimental procedure using a focused ion beam machine is outlined, and results from preliminary tests of 1.9 microns thick single crystal silicon are presented. These tests are placed in the context of a methodology for the design and evaluation of mission critical devices comprised of large arrays of cells.

  18. Associations of Sarcopenic Obesity and Dynapenic Obesity with Bone Mineral Density and Incident Fractures Over 5-10 Years in Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Scott, David; Chandrasekara, Sahan D; Laslett, Laura L; Cicuttini, Flavia; Ebeling, Peter R; Jones, Graeme

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether low muscle mass (sarcopenia) or strength (dynapenia), in the presence of obesity, are associated with increased risk for osteoporosis and non-vertebral fracture over 5-10 years in community-dwelling older adults. N = 1089 volunteers (mean ± SD age 62 ± 7 years; 51 % female) participated at baseline and 761 attended follow-up clinics (mean 5.1 ± 0.5 years later). Total body, total hip and spine BMD, and appendicular lean and total fat mass were assessed by DXA. Sarcopenic obesity and dynapenic obesity were defined as the lowest sex-specific tertiles for appendicular lean mass or lower-limb strength, respectively, and the highest sex-specific tertile for total fat mass. Fractures were self-reported on three occasions over 10.7 ± 0.7 years in 563 participants. Obese alone participants had significantly higher BMD at all sites compared with non-sarcopenic non-obese. Sarcopenic obese and dynapenic obese men had lower spine and total body BMD, respectively, and sarcopenic obese women had lower total hip BMD, compared with obese alone (all P < 0.05). Sarcopenic obese men had higher non-vertebral fracture rates compared to non-sarcopenic non-obese (incidence rate ratio: 3.0; 95 % CI 1.7-5.5), and obese alone (3.6; 1.7-7.4). Sarcopenic obese women had higher fracture rates compared with obese alone (2.8; 1.4-5.6), but this was non-significant after adjustment for total hip BMD. Sarcopenic and dynapenic obese older adults may have increased risk of osteoporosis and non-vertebral fracture relative to obese alone counterparts. Sarcopenic and dynapenic obese individuals potentially represent a subset of the obese older adult population who require closer monitoring of bone health during ageing. PMID:26939775

  19. Inverse modeling of hydraulic tests in fractured crystalline rock based on a transition probability geostatistical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blessent, Daniela; Therrien, René; Lemieux, Jean-Michel

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents numerical simulations of a series of hydraulic interference tests conducted in crystalline bedrock at Olkiluoto (Finland), a potential site for the disposal of the Finnish high-level nuclear waste. The tests are in a block of crystalline bedrock of about 0.03 km3 that contains low-transmissivity fractures. Fracture density, orientation, and fracture transmissivity are estimated from Posiva Flow Log (PFL) measurements in boreholes drilled in the rock block. On the basis of those data, a geostatistical approach relying on a transitional probability and Markov chain models is used to define a conceptual model based on stochastic fractured rock facies. Four facies are defined, from sparsely fractured bedrock to highly fractured bedrock. Using this conceptual model, three-dimensional groundwater flow is then simulated to reproduce interference pumping tests in either open or packed-off boreholes. Hydraulic conductivities of the fracture facies are estimated through automatic calibration using either hydraulic heads or both hydraulic heads and PFL flow rates as targets for calibration. The latter option produces a narrower confidence interval for the calibrated hydraulic conductivities, therefore reducing the associated uncertainty and demonstrating the usefulness of the measured PFL flow rates. Furthermore, the stochastic facies conceptual model is a suitable alternative to discrete fracture network models to simulate fluid flow in fractured geological media.

  20. Prediction Procedure of Fracture Probability of Threaded Part of Polyethylene Bottle by Closing Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Hiroshi; Ikeda, Masayuki; Shimbo, Minoru; Miyano, Yasushi

    This study has examined a method for predicting the probability of fracture in the threaded portion of a PE bottle that is used as an eye dropper after repeated opening and closing of the cap. Assuming that the duration of guarantee required for the PE bottle is at least three years, a state in which the bottle containing a liquid solution had been stored for three years from its manufacturing was realized in an accelerated manner according to the time-temperature equivalent law. A repeated test with this bottle was carried out under the conditions of various temperatures and various fastening torques using dozens of such bottles for each condition by repeating the opening and closing of the cap three times per day until the liquid solution leaked from the threaded portion. By analyzing the result thus obtained applying Weibull statistics, an attempt was made to predict the probability of fracture in the threaded portion resulting from opening and closing of the cap of the bottle. Consequently the following has been revealed. 1) Concerning the probability of fracture in the threaded portion after repeated opening and closing of the cap of the PE bottle, a prediction method applied to Weibull statistics has been proposed. 2) A fatigue rupture test for the threaded portion was carried out that involved opening and closing of the cap of the PE bottle under the conditions of various temperatures and fastening torques. By organizing the results thus obtained by using the Weibull distribution, it has been shown that the probability of fracture in the threaded portion is more greatly affected by fastening torques than by temperatures. 3) By using the data of fracture in the threaded portion resulting from opening and closing of the cap under the accelerating conditions of various temperatures and fastening torques, it has been estimated that the probability of fracture in the threaded portion is 6.27X10-5% when a person has repeated opening and closing of the cap 150

  1. Foot-Ankle Fractures and Injury Probability Curves from Post-mortem Human Surrogate Tests.

    PubMed

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Chirvi, Sajal; Pintar, Frank A; Uppal, Harmeeth; Schlick, Michael; Banerjee, Anjishnu; Voo, Liming; Merkle, Andrew; Kleinberger, Michael

    2016-10-01

    This purpose of this study was to replicate foot-ankle injuries seen in the military and derive human injury probability curves using the human cadaver model. Lower legs were isolated below knee from seventeen unembalmed human cadavers and they were aligned in a 90-90 posture (plantar surface orthogonal to leg). The specimens were loaded along the tibia axis by applying short-time duration pulses, using a repeated testing protocol. Injuries were documented using pre- and post-test X-rays, computed tomography scans, and dissection. Peak force-based risk curves were derived using survival analysis and accounted for data censoring. Fractures were grouped into all foot-ankle (A), any calcaneus (B), and any tibia injuries (C), respectively. Calcaneus and/or distal tibia/pilon fractures occurred in fourteen tests. Axial forces were the greatest and least for groups C and B, respectively. Times attainments of forces for all groups were within ten milliseconds. The Weibull function was the optimal probability distribution for all groups. Age was significant (p < 0.05) for groups A and C. Survival analysis-based probability curves were derived for all groups. Data are given in the body of paper. Age-based, risk-specific, and continuous distribution probability curves/responses guide in the creation of an injury assessment capability for military blast environments.

  2. A mechanical model for predicting the probability of osteoporotic hip fractures based in DXA measurements and finite element simulation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Osteoporotic hip fractures represent major cause of disability, loss of quality of life and even mortality among the elderly population. Decisions on drug therapy are based on the assessment of risk factors for fracture, from BMD measurements. The combination of biomechanical models with clinical studies could better estimate bone strength and supporting the specialists in their decision. Methods A model to assess the probability of fracture, based on the Damage and Fracture Mechanics has been developed, evaluating the mechanical magnitudes involved in the fracture process from clinical BMD measurements. The model is intended for simulating the degenerative process in the skeleton, with the consequent lost of bone mass and hence the decrease of its mechanical resistance which enables the fracture due to different traumatisms. Clinical studies were chosen, both in non-treatment conditions and receiving drug therapy, and fitted to specific patients according their actual BMD measures. The predictive model is applied in a FE simulation of the proximal femur. The fracture zone would be determined according loading scenario (sideway fall, impact, accidental loads, etc.), using the mechanical properties of bone obtained from the evolutionary model corresponding to the considered time. Results BMD evolution in untreated patients and in those under different treatments was analyzed. Evolutionary curves of fracture probability were obtained from the evolution of mechanical damage. The evolutionary curve of the untreated group of patients presented a marked increase of the fracture probability, while the curves of patients under drug treatment showed variable decreased risks, depending on the therapy type. Conclusion The FE model allowed to obtain detailed maps of damage and fracture probability, identifying high-risk local zones at femoral neck and intertrochanteric and subtrochanteric areas, which are the typical locations of osteoporotic hip fractures. The

  3. Binomial Test Method for Determining Probability of Detection Capability for Fracture Critical Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Generazio, Edward R.

    2011-01-01

    The capability of an inspection system is established by applications of various methodologies to determine the probability of detection (POD). One accepted metric of an adequate inspection system is that for a minimum flaw size and all greater flaw sizes, there is 0.90 probability of detection with 95% confidence (90/95 POD). Directed design of experiments for probability of detection (DOEPOD) has been developed to provide an efficient and accurate methodology that yields estimates of POD and confidence bounds for both Hit-Miss or signal amplitude testing, where signal amplitudes are reduced to Hit-Miss by using a signal threshold Directed DOEPOD uses a nonparametric approach for the analysis or inspection data that does require any assumptions about the particular functional form of a POD function. The DOEPOD procedure identifies, for a given sample set whether or not the minimum requirement of 0.90 probability of detection with 95% confidence is demonstrated for a minimum flaw size and for all greater flaw sizes (90/95 POD). The DOEPOD procedures are sequentially executed in order to minimize the number of samples needed to demonstrate that there is a 90/95 POD lower confidence bound at a given flaw size and that the POD is monotonic for flaw sizes exceeding that 90/95 POD flaw size. The conservativeness of the DOEPOD methodology results is discussed. Validated guidelines for binomial estimation of POD for fracture critical inspection are established.

  4. Sensitivity Analysis and Assessment of Prior Model Probabilities in MLBMA with Application to Unsaturated Fractured Tuff

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Ming; Neuman, Shlomo P.; Meyer, Philip D.; Pohlmann, Karl

    2005-12-24

    Previous application of Maximum Likelihood Bayesian Model Averaging (MLBMA, Neuman [2002, 2003]) to alternative variogram models of log air permeability data in fractured tuff has demonstrated its effectiveness in quantifying conceptual model uncertainty and enhancing predictive capability [Ye et al., 2004]. A question remained how best to ascribe prior probabilities to competing models. In this paper we examine the extent to which lead statistics of posterior log permeability predictions are sensitive to prior probabilities of seven corresponding variogram models. We then explore the feasibility of quantifying prior model probabilities by (a) maximizing Shannon's entropy H [Shannon, 1948] subject to constraints reflecting a single analyst's (or a group of analysts?) prior perception about how plausible each alternative model (or a group of models) is relative to others, and (b) selecting a posteriori the most likely among such maxima corresponding to alternative prior perceptions of various analysts or groups of analysts. Another way to select among alternative prior model probability sets, which however is not guaranteed to yield optimum predictive performance (though it did so in our example) and would therefore not be our preferred option, is a min-max approach according to which one selects a priori the set corresponding to the smallest value of maximum entropy. Whereas maximizing H subject to the prior perception of a single analyst (or group) maximizes the potential for further information gain through conditioning, selecting the smallest among such maxima gives preference to the most informed prior perception among those of several analysts (or groups). We use the same variogram models and log permeability data as Ye et al. [2004] to demonstrate that our proposed approach yields the least amount of posterior entropy (residual uncertainty after conditioning) and enhances predictive model performance as compared to (a) the non-informative neutral case in

  5. Scaling of strength and lifetime probability distributions of quasibrittle structures based on atomistic fracture mechanics.

    PubMed

    Bazant, Zdenek P; Le, Jia-Liang; Bazant, Martin Z

    2009-07-14

    The failure probability of engineering structures such as aircraft, bridges, dams, nuclear structures, and ships, as well as microelectronic components and medical implants, must be kept extremely low, typically <10(-6). The safety factors needed to ensure it have so far been assessed empirically. For perfectly ductile and perfectly brittle structures, the empirical approach is sufficient because the cumulative distribution function (cdf) of random material strength is known and fixed. However, such an approach is insufficient for structures consisting of quasibrittle materials, which are brittle materials with inhomogeneities that are not negligible compared with the structure size. The reason is that the strength cdf of quasibrittle structure varies from Gaussian to Weibullian as the structure size increases. In this article, a recently proposed theory for the strength cdf of quasibrittle structure is refined by deriving it from fracture mechanics of nanocracks propagating by small, activation-energy-controlled, random jumps through the atomic lattice. This refinement also provides a plausible physical justification of the power law for subcritical creep crack growth, hitherto considered empirical. The theory is further extended to predict the cdf of structural lifetime at constant load, which is shown to be size- and geometry-dependent. The size effects on structure strength and lifetime are shown to be related and the latter to be much stronger. The theory fits previously unexplained deviations of experimental strength and lifetime histograms from the Weibull distribution. Finally, a boundary layer method for numerical calculation of the cdf of structural strength and lifetime is outlined.

  6. A predictive mechanical model for evaluating vertebral fracture probability in lumbar spine under different osteoporotic drug therapies.

    PubMed

    López, E; Ibarz, E; Herrera, A; Puértolas, S; Gabarre, S; Más, Y; Mateo, J; Gil-Albarova, J; Gracia, L

    2016-07-01

    Osteoporotic vertebral fractures represent a major cause of disability, loss of quality of life and even mortality among the elderly population. Decisions on drug therapy are based on the assessment of risk factors for fracture from bone mineral density (BMD) measurements. A previously developed model, based on the Damage and Fracture Mechanics, was applied for the evaluation of the mechanical magnitudes involved in the fracture process from clinical BMD measurements. BMD evolution in untreated patients and in patients with seven different treatments was analyzed from clinical studies in order to compare the variation in the risk of fracture. The predictive model was applied in a finite element simulation of the whole lumbar spine, obtaining detailed maps of damage and fracture probability, identifying high-risk local zones at vertebral body. For every vertebra, strontium ranelate exhibits the highest decrease, whereas minimum decrease is achieved with oral ibandronate. All the treatments manifest similar trends for every vertebra. Conversely, for the natural BMD evolution, as bone stiffness decreases, the mechanical damage and fracture probability show a significant increase (as it occurs in the natural history of BMD). Vertebral walls and external areas of vertebral end plates are the zones at greatest risk, in coincidence with the typical locations of osteoporotic fractures, characterized by a vertebral crushing due to the collapse of vertebral walls. This methodology could be applied for an individual patient, in order to obtain the trends corresponding to different treatments, in identifying at-risk individuals in early stages of osteoporosis and might be helpful for treatment decisions. PMID:27265047

  7. Swift: 10 Years of Discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The conference Swift: 10 years of discovery was held in Roma at La Sapienza University on Dec. 2-5 2014 to celebrate 10 years of Swift successes. Thanks to a large attendance and a lively program, it provided the opportunity to review recent advances of our knowledge of the high-energy transient Universe both from the observational and theoretical sides. When Swift was launched on November 20, 2004, its prime objective was to chase Gamma-Ray Bursts and deepen our knowledge of these cosmic explosions. And so it did, unveiling the secrets of long and short GRBs. However, its multi-wavelength instrumentation and fast scheduling capabilities made it the most versatile mission ever flown. Besides GRBs, Swift has observed, and contributed to our understanding of, an impressive variety of targets including AGNs, supernovae, pulsars, microquasars, novae, variable stars, comets, and much more. Swift is continuously discovering rare and surprising events distributed over a wide range of redshifts, out to the most distant transient objects in the Universe. Such a trove of discoveries has been addressed during the conference with sessions dedicated to each class of events. Indeed, the conference in Rome was a spectacular celebration of the Swift 10th anniversary. It included sessions on all types of transient and steady sources. Top scientists from around the world gave invited and contributed talks. There was a large poster session, sumptuous lunches, news interviews and a glorious banquet with officials attending from INAF and ASI. All the presentations, as well as several conference pictures, can be found in the conference website (http://www.brera.inaf.it/Swift10/Welcome.html). These proceedings have been collected owing to the efforts of Paolo D’Avanzo who has followed each paper from submission to final acceptance. Our warmest thanks to Paolo for all his work. The Conference has been made possible by the support from La Sapienza University as well as from the ARAP

  8. Numerical experiments on the probability of seepage intounderground openings in heterogeneous fractured rock

    SciTech Connect

    Birkholzer, J.; Li, G.; Tsang, C.F.; Tsang, Y.

    1998-04-15

    An important issue for the performance of underground nuclear waste repositories is the rate of seepage into the waste emplacement drifts. A prediction of this rate is particularly complicated for the potential repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, because it is located in thick, unsaturated, fractured tuff formations. Underground opening in unsaturated media might act as capillary barriers, diverting water around them. In the present work, they study the potential rate of seepage into drifts as a function of the percolation flux at Yucca Mountain, based on a stochastic model of the fractured rock mass in the drift vicinity. A variety of flow scenarios are considered, assuming present-day and possible future climate conditions. They show that the heterogeneity in the flow domain is a key factor controlling seepage rates, since it causes channelized flow and local ponding in the unsaturated flow field.

  9. Consistent Practices for the Probability of Detection (POD) of Fracture Critical Metallic Components Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughitt, Brian; Generazio, Edward (Principal Investigator); Nichols, Charles; Myers, Mika (Principal Investigator); Spencer, Floyd (Principal Investigator); Waller, Jess (Principal Investigator); Wladyka, Jordan (Principal Investigator); Aldrin, John; Burke, Eric; Cerecerez, Laura; Corbett, Judy; George, Jill; Hodges, Kenneth; Jones, Justin; Parker, Bradford; Petry, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    NASA-STD-5009 requires that successful flaw detection by NDE methods be statistically qualified for use on fracture critical metallic components, but does not standardize practices. This task works towards standardizing calculations and record retention with a web-based tool, the NNWG POD Standards Library or NPSL. Test methods will also be standardized with an appropriately flexible appendix to -5009 identifying best practices. Additionally, this appendix will describe how specimens used to qualify NDE systems will be cataloged, stored and protected from corrosion, damage, or loss.

  10. Photovoltaics - 10 years after Cherry Hill

    SciTech Connect

    Ralph, E.L.

    1984-05-01

    The question is, could a workshop today be effective in planning the next 10 years of development in the PV industry. Given is some insight into the Cherry Hill workshop, who was there and what was accomplished. Plans were made at workshop sessions, open panels discussed the needs, and invited papers were presented by experts in the field showing what concepts and ideas existed. The need for U.S. Government support of a 10 year PV development program was confirmed.

  11. [10 years of liver transplantation in Peru].

    PubMed

    Chaman Ortiz, José Carlos; Padilla Machaca, P Martín; Rondon Leyva, Carlos; Carrasco Mascaró, Felix

    2010-01-01

    The article reviews the experience in 10 years of hepatic transplants performed by The Transplant Department of the National Hospital Guillermo Almenara Irigoyen (HNGAI), describing the history, surgical outcomes in adults and children, retransplantation, combined liver-kidney transplants, complications in 72 transplants performed at the time of submission of the article.

  12. Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Michael C.

    1963-01-01

    Recent studies on the epidemiology and repair of fractures are reviewed. The type and severity of the fracture bears a relation to the age, sex and occupation of the patient. Bone tissue after fracture shows a process of inflammation and repair common to all members of the connective tissue family, but it repairs with specific tissue. Cartilage forms when the oxygen supply is outgrown. After a fracture, the vascular bed enlarges. The major blood supply to healing tissue is from medullary vessels and destruction of them will cause necrosis of the inner two-thirds of the cortex. Callus rapidly mineralizes, but full mineralization is achieved slowly; increased mineral metabolism lasts several years after fracture. PMID:13952119

  13. Neurology--the next 10 years.

    PubMed

    Baron, Ralf; Ferriero, Donna M; Frisoni, Giovanni B; Bettegowda, Chetan; Gokaslan, Ziya L; Kessler, John A; Vezzani, Annamaria; Waxman, Stephen G; Jarius, Sven; Wildemann, Brigitte; Weller, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Since the launch of our journal as Nature Clinical Practice Neurology in 2005, we have seen remarkable progress in many areas of neurology research, but what does the future hold? Will advances in basic research be translated into effective disease-modifying therapies, and will personalized medicine finally become a reality? For this special Viewpoint article, we invited a panel of Advisory Board members and other journal contributors to outline their research priorities and predictions in neurology for the next 10 years.

  14. Fractures

    MedlinePlus

    ... commonly happen because of car accidents, falls, or sports injuries. Other causes are low bone density and osteoporosis, which cause weakening of the bones. Overuse can cause stress fractures, which are very small cracks in the ...

  15. 10-year survival of total ankle arthroplasties

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose There is an ongoing need to review large series of total ankle replacements (TARs) for monitoring of changes in practice and their outcome. 4 national registries, including the Swedish Ankle Register, have previously reported their 5-year results. We now present an extended series with a longer follow-up, and with a 10-year survival analysis. Patients and methods Records of uncemented 3-component TARs were retrospectively reviewed, determining risk factors such as age, sex, and diagnosis. Prosthetic survival rates were calculated with exchange or removal of components as endpoint—excluding incidental exchange of the polyethylene meniscus. Results Of the 780 prostheses implanted since 1993, 168 (22%) had been revised by June 15, 2010. The overall survival rate fell from 0.81 (95% CI: 0.79–0.83) at 5 years to 0.69 (95% CI: 0.67–0.71) at 10 years. The survival rate was higher, although not statistically significantly so, during the latter part of the period investigated. Excluding the STAR prosthesis, the survival rate for all the remaining designs was 0.78 at 10 years. Women below the age of 60 with osteoarthritis were at a higher risk of revision, but age did not influence the outcome in men or women with rheumatoid arthritis. Revisions due to technical mistakes at the index surgery and instability were undertaken earlier than revisions for other reasons. Interpretation The results have slowly improved during the 18-year period investigated. However, we do not believe that the survival rates of ankle replacements in the near future will approach those of hip and knee replacements—even though improved instrumentation and design of the prostheses, together with better patient selection, will presumably give better results. PMID:22066551

  16. Photovoltaics - 10 years after Cherry Hill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ralph, E. L.

    The status of R&D programs connected with photovoltaic (PV) systems 10 years after the Cherry Hill workshop on 'Photovoltaic Conversion of Solar Energy for Terrestrial Applications' is assessed. The five categories of research recommended by the Cherry Hill Workshop are listed in a table together with their recommended research budget allocations. The workshop categories include: single-crystal Si cells; poly-Si cells; systems and diagnostics. Categories for thin film CdS/Cu2S and CuInSe2 cells are also included. The roles of government and private utility companies in providing adequate financial support for PV research programs is emphasized.

  17. Pediatric lung transplantation: 10 years of experience

    PubMed Central

    Camargo, Priscila C. L. B.; Pato, Eduardo Z. S.; Campos, Silvia V.; Afonso, José E.; Carraro, Rafael M.; Costa, André N.; Teixeira, Ricardo H. O. B.; Samano, Marcos N.; Pêgo-Fernandes, Paulo M.

    2014-01-01

    Lung transplantation is a well-established treatment for advanced lung diseases. In children, the diseases that most commonly lead to the need for a transplantation are cystic fibrosis, pulmonary hypertension, and bronchiolitis. However, the number of pediatric lung transplantations being performed is low compared with the number of transplants performed in the adult age group. The objective of this study was to demonstrate our experience with pediatric lung transplants over a 10-year period in a program initially designed for adults. PMID:24860860

  18. Mitochondrial ROS Metabolism: 10 Years Later

    PubMed Central

    Kushnareva, Y. E.; Murphy, A. N.

    2015-01-01

    The role of mitochondria in oxidative stress is well recognized, but many questions are still to be answered. This article is intended to update our comprehensive review in 2005 by highlighting the progress in understanding of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism over the past 10 years. We review the recently identified or re-appraised sources of ROS generation in mitochondria, such as p66shc protein, succinate dehydrogenase, and recently discovered properties of the mitochondrial antioxidant system. We also reflect upon some controversies, disputes, and misconceptions that confound the field. PMID:26071769

  19. Motor Speech Disorders: Where Will We Be in 10 Years?

    PubMed

    Duffy, Joseph R

    2016-08-01

    Research and practice in the area of motor speech disorders (MSDs) will change in the next 10 years, most likely in evolutionary rather revolutionary ways. We are likely to see an increase in the understanding of the underpinnings of MSDs and refinements in assessment and diagnosis. Management approaches probably will be refined, as will how outcomes are measured. The evidence base for treatment efficacy will grow. Technology and changes in the health care system will have strong and overarching, but not easily predicted, influences. This article provides a broad overview of these and related issues, with some cautious predictions. PMID:27232096

  20. Parathyroid Carcinoma in a 10 Years Old Female Child.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M M; Karim, S S; Joarder, A I; Mubin, S; Abir, M M; Morshed, M S

    2015-07-01

    Parathyroid carcinoma (PC) is a rare cause of hypercalcaemia in children. Only 7 cases of PC have been reported so far in the world journal. The authors report the 8th case of parathyroid carcinoma in children less than 16 years of age. A 10 year old girl presented with difficulty in walking, dorsiflexion and ulnar deviation of both wrist joints and occasional pain in the central abdomen of about two years duration. Biochemical investigations revealed serum calcium 12.2 mg/dL (normal 9-11 mg/dL), serum alkaline phosphate 4992 U/L (normal 50-136 U/L), PTH (parathyroid hormone) 2217 pg/ml (normal 9-80 pg/ml). Parathyroid scintigraphy localized the lesion in the left parathyroid gland. X-ray showed bilateral coxa vera, genu valgus deformity and multiple stress fractures in both wrist joints. Histopathology confirmed PC with capsular and vascular invasion.

  1. Aqua's First 10 Years: An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, Claire L.

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Aqua spacecraft was launched at 2:55 a.m. on May 4, 2002, from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California, into a near-polar, sun-synchronous orbit at an altitude of 705 km. Aqua carries six Earth-observing instruments to collect data on water in all its forms (liquid, vapor, and solid) and on a wide variety of additional Earth system variables (Parkinson 2003). The design lifetime for Aqua's prime mission was 6 years, and Aqua is now well into its extended mission, approaching 10 years of successful operations. The Aqua data have been used for hundreds of scientific studies and continue to be used for scientific discovery and numerous practical applications.

  2. FRAX and the effect of teriparatide on vertebral and non-vertebral fracture

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Nicholas C; Kanis, John A; Odén, Anders; Burge, Russel T; Mitlak, Bruce H; Johansson, Helena; McCloskey, Eugene V

    2016-01-01

    Summary Daily teriparatide injections have been shown to reduce vertebral and non-vertebral fractures. Here we demonstrate that the magnitude of fracture risk reduction is independent of baseline fracture probability assessed by FRAX. Background Daily administration of 20μg or 40μg teriparatide has been shown to significantly decrease the risk of vertebral and non-vertebral fracture compared with placebo. The aim of the present study was to evaluate fracture risk assessed at baseline using the FRAX® tool and to determine the efficacy of teriparatide as a function of baseline fracture risk. Methods 1637 postmenopausal women in the pivotal phase 3 trial, randomly assigned to receive placebo (n=544), teriparatide 20 μg per day (n=541) or teriparatide 40 μg per day (n=552), were studied. Baseline clinical risk factors were entered into country-specific FRAX models to compute the 10-year probability of major osteoporotic fractures with or without input of femoral neck BMD. Because there was no difference in effect of 20 and 40μg teriparatide daily on fracture occurrence, the two active groups were merged. The interaction between probability of a major fracture and treatment efficacy was examined by Poisson regression. Results The 10-year probability of major osteoporotic fractures (with BMD) ranged from 2.2-67.2%. Treatment with teriparatide was associated with a 37% decrease in all non-vertebral fractures (95% CI:10-56 %) and a 56% decrease in low energy non-vertebral fractures (95% CI:24-75%) compared with placebo. The risk of morphometric vertebral fractures decreased significantly by 66% (95% CI:50-77%). Hazard ratios for the effect of teriparatide on the fracture outcome did not change significantly with increasing fracture probability (p>0.30). Similar findings were noted for the interaction when BMD was excluded from the FRAX model, or when probability of hip fracture was used as the marker of baseline risk. Conclusion We conclude that teriparatide

  3. Use of FRAX®-based fracture risk assessments to identify patients who will benefit from osteoporosis therapy.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Stuart L; Komm, Barry S; Mirkin, Sebastian

    2014-11-01

    Several pharmacological interventions, including selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), bisphosphonates, denosumab, and strontium ranelate have demonstrated efficacy in reducing the incidence of osteoporotic fractures, the most severe consequence of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Until recently, bone mineral density (BMD) was the primary factor used to determine which postmenopausal women may require osteoporosis treatment. However, clinical guidelines now recommend the use of the Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX(®)), a computer-based algorithm introduced by the World Health Organization, to help primary care physicians identify postmenopausal women who may be candidates for pharmacological osteoporosis therapy based on the level of fracture risk. Beyond its utility as a resource for determining whether or not to initiate osteoporosis treatment, clinical studies have begun to evaluate the correlation between FRAX(®)-based 10-year fracture probability and efficacy of different osteoporosis treatments. Bazedoxifene, clodronate, and denosumab have shown greater fracture risk reduction at higher FRAX(®)-based 10-year fracture probabilities, but the efficacy of raloxifene, alendronate, and strontium ranelate were relatively stable regardless of fracture probability. In summary, these data suggest that the relationship between FRAX(®)-based fracture probability and efficacy of different osteoporosis treatments varies depending upon the agent in question. PMID:25124532

  4. Use of FRAX®-based fracture risk assessments to identify patients who will benefit from osteoporosis therapy.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Stuart L; Komm, Barry S; Mirkin, Sebastian

    2014-11-01

    Several pharmacological interventions, including selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), bisphosphonates, denosumab, and strontium ranelate have demonstrated efficacy in reducing the incidence of osteoporotic fractures, the most severe consequence of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Until recently, bone mineral density (BMD) was the primary factor used to determine which postmenopausal women may require osteoporosis treatment. However, clinical guidelines now recommend the use of the Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX(®)), a computer-based algorithm introduced by the World Health Organization, to help primary care physicians identify postmenopausal women who may be candidates for pharmacological osteoporosis therapy based on the level of fracture risk. Beyond its utility as a resource for determining whether or not to initiate osteoporosis treatment, clinical studies have begun to evaluate the correlation between FRAX(®)-based 10-year fracture probability and efficacy of different osteoporosis treatments. Bazedoxifene, clodronate, and denosumab have shown greater fracture risk reduction at higher FRAX(®)-based 10-year fracture probabilities, but the efficacy of raloxifene, alendronate, and strontium ranelate were relatively stable regardless of fracture probability. In summary, these data suggest that the relationship between FRAX(®)-based fracture probability and efficacy of different osteoporosis treatments varies depending upon the agent in question.

  5. Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement 10-Year Plan, 1990 -1999.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1990-08-01

    In 1988 Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) began work on this Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement 10-Year Plan to develop a levelized program that would assure high system reliability. During the Programs in Perspective (PIP) meetings in the late summer and fall of 1988, many of the concerns to be addressed in an Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement Plan were identified. Following these PIP meetings BPA established internal work groups. During the winter and spring of 1989, these work groups developed technical background and issue papers on topics that ranged from substation maintenance to environmental protection. In addition, a customer forum group was established and met on several occasions to review work on the plan, to offer ideas and points of view, and to assure that BPA understood customer concerns. Based on recommendations from the work group reports and customer input, BPA's O M Management Team developed the draft Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement 10-Year Plan that was released for public comment during the spring of 1990. During the public review period, BPA received a number of written comments from customers and the interested public. In addition, special meetings were held with interested customers. This final Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement 10-Year Plan reflects BPA's response to customers and interested public on each topic discussed in the 10-Year Plan. The plan is a distillation of BPA's strategies to achieve a levelized program over 10 years.

  6. Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement 10-Year Plan, 1990--1999

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    In 1988 Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) began work on this Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement 10-Year Plan to develop a levelized program that would assure high system reliability. During the Programs in Perspective (PIP) meetings in the later summer and fall of 1988, many of the concerns to be addressed in an Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement Plan were identified. Following these PIP meetings BPA established internal work groups. During the winter and spring of 1989, these work groups developed technical background and issue papers on topics that ranged from substation maintenance to environmental protection. In addition, a customer forum group was established and met on several occasions to review work on the plan, to offer ideas and points of view, and to assure that BPA understood customer concerns. Based on recommendations from the work group reports and customer input, BPA's O M Management Team developed the draft Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement 10-Year Plan that was released for public comment during the spring of 1990. During the public review period, BPA received a number of written comments from customers and the interested public. In addition, special meetings were held with interested customers. This final Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement 10-year Plan reflects BPA's response to customers and interested public on each topic discussed in the 10-Year Plan. The plan is a distillation of BPA's strategies to achieve a levelized program over 10 years.

  7. Maturogenesis of Two Maxillary Central Incisors: A Case Report with 10 Years of Follow Up

    PubMed Central

    Ghorbanzadeh, Abdollah

    2015-01-01

    This case report describes the treatment of two immature maxillary central incisors in a 7-year-old female patient. She suffered complicated crown fracture because of trauma, and the root formation was incomplete. White mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) was selected as the pulp-capping material after cervical pulpotomy to preserve the pulp tissue vitality and achieve maturogenesis. Follow-up evaluations showed successful treatment in terms of preservation of pulp vitality and demonstrated marked continuous physiological root development. During 10 years of follow-up, both teeth were clinically asymptomatic, and radiographic evaluations showed apparent root regeneration with apical root-end closure without pulp or periapical pathosis. PMID:26622286

  8. Looking forward, looking back-10 years in urology.

    PubMed

    Albersen, Maarten; Cartwright, Rufus; Choyke, Peter; Goldenberg, S Larry; Goldman, Howard; Lawrentschuk, Nathan; Linehan, W Marston; Murphy, Declan; Nagler, Harris; Scardino, Peter; Shortliffe, Linda; Stenzl, Arnulf; Theodorescu, Dan

    2014-11-01

    When Nature Reviews Urology launched in 2004, the field of urology was vastly different to that which we work in today, and the past 10 years have seen the field change immensely. As a specialty on the forefront of cutting-edge innovation, urologists are often the first to embrace new technologies and ideas. In this Viewpoint, members of the Nature Reviews Urology advisory board were asked what they thought was the most important change, issue or innovation in urology in the past 10 years, and what they expected to be the most important in the next decade. Here are their opinions. PMID:25348169

  9. Expected innovations of optical lithography in the next 10 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owa, Soichi; Hirayanagi, Noriyuki

    2016-03-01

    In the past 10 years, immersion lithography has been the most effective high volume manufacturing method for the critical layers of semiconductor devices. Thinking of the next 10 years, we can expect continuous improvement on existing 300 mm wafer scanners with better accuracy and throughput to enhance the total output value per input cost. This value productivity, however, can be upgraded also by larger innovations which might happen in optical lithography. In this paper, we will discuss the possibilities and the impossibilities of potential innovation ideas of optical lithography, which are 450 mm wafer, optical maskless, multicolor lithography, and metamaterial.

  10. Looking forward, looking back-10 years in urology.

    PubMed

    Albersen, Maarten; Cartwright, Rufus; Choyke, Peter; Goldenberg, S Larry; Goldman, Howard; Lawrentschuk, Nathan; Linehan, W Marston; Murphy, Declan; Nagler, Harris; Scardino, Peter; Shortliffe, Linda; Stenzl, Arnulf; Theodorescu, Dan

    2014-11-01

    When Nature Reviews Urology launched in 2004, the field of urology was vastly different to that which we work in today, and the past 10 years have seen the field change immensely. As a specialty on the forefront of cutting-edge innovation, urologists are often the first to embrace new technologies and ideas. In this Viewpoint, members of the Nature Reviews Urology advisory board were asked what they thought was the most important change, issue or innovation in urology in the past 10 years, and what they expected to be the most important in the next decade. Here are their opinions.

  11. 10 Years of Media Literacy Education in K-12 Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daunic, Rhys

    2011-01-01

    When the author started working with teachers and students on classroom multimedia productions a little over 10 years ago, he had not yet encountered the term "media literacy", nor did he realize he had joined a long standing international movement of media literacy educators. Serendipitous exposure to "old-media" texts by Neil Postman and Noam…

  12. Headshaking in a 10-year-old Thoroughbred mare

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Abstract A 10-year-old Thoroughbred mare was presented with a 2.5-week history of headshaking. Based on a thorough physical examination, blood analysis, and a fine needle aspirate of an enlarged thyroid gland, a tentative diagnosis of seasonal idiopathic headshaking was made. Treatment with cyproheptadine was attempted. PMID:15025153

  13. Technology for Distance Education: A 10 Year Prospective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, A. W.

    This paper provides an overview of new technologies likely to be widely available within the next 10 years for teaching in Europe. It begins by presenting a framework which draws distinctions between different technologies based on their educational applications, i.e., for teaching or operational purposes, for communicating within or between…

  14. Highlights of 10-Year Remote Sensing Industry Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabin, Ron

    2002-01-01

    A background and highlights of a 10 year remote sensing industry analysis are provided.Included are the following:Training, educational analysis, staff levels, and end-users analysis, market drivers, market segments,application areas, spatial resolution needs, use of image types.

  15. Duodenal adenocarcinoma in a 10-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Zouari; Habib, Bouthour; Rabia, Ben Abdallah; Youssef, Hlel; Riath, Ben Malek; Youssef, Gharbi; Nejib, Kaabar

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal malignancies are extremely rare in the paediatric population and duodenal cancers represent an even more unusual entity. It represents 0.3-1% of all gastrointestinal tumours. A case report of a 10-year-old boy with duodenal adenocarcinoma is reported and the difficulties of diagnosing and treating this rare tumour are discussed. PMID:24647303

  16. "JPBI" 10 Years Later: Trends in Research Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Dell, Sean M.; Vilardo, Brigid A.; Kern, Lee; Kokina, Anastasia; Ash, Allison N.; Seymour, Kimberly J.; Castrantas, Lauren M.; Kollar, Rachel B.; Wagner, Andrea M.; Bartholomew, Audrey; Thomas, Lisa B.

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, the "Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions" ("JPBI") celebrated 10 years in publication. As the flagship journal of positive behavior support (PBS), it is important to periodically examine the research published in "JPBI" to determine whether it reflects the basic principles of PBS, to explore the ways in which PBS is being…

  17. Optogenetics: 10 years of microbial opsins in neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Deisseroth, Karl

    2015-09-01

    Over the past 10 years, the development and convergence of microbial opsin engineering, modular genetic methods for cell-type targeting and optical strategies for guiding light through tissue have enabled versatile optical control of defined cells in living systems, defining modern optogenetics. Despite widespread recognition of the importance of spatiotemporally precise causal control over cellular signaling, for nearly the first half (2005-2009) of this 10-year period, as optogenetics was being created, there were difficulties in implementation, few publications and limited biological findings. In contrast, the ensuing years have witnessed a substantial acceleration in the application domain, with the publication of thousands of discoveries and insights into the function of nervous systems and beyond. This Historical Commentary reflects on the scientific landscape of this decade-long transition.

  18. Optogenetics: 10 years of microbial opsins in neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Deisseroth, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, the development and convergence of microbial opsin engineering, modular genetic methods for cell-type targeting and optical strategies for guiding light through tissue have enabled versatile optical control of defined cells in living systems, defining modern optogenetics. Despite widespread recognition of the importance of spatiotemporally precise causal control over cellular signaling, for nearly the first half (2005–2009) of this 10-year period, as optogenetics was being created, there were difficulties in implementation, few publications and limited biological findings. In contrast, the ensuing years have witnessed a substantial acceleration in the application domain, with the publication of thousands of discoveries and insights into the function of nervous systems and beyond. This Historical Commentary reflects on the scientific landscape of this decade-long transition. PMID:26308982

  19. Primary Nasal Tuberculosis in a 10-Year-Old Girl

    PubMed Central

    Özer, Murat; Özsurekçi, Yasemin; Cengiz, Ali Bülent; Özçelik, Uğur; Yalçın, Ebru; Gököz, Özay

    2016-01-01

    Nasal tuberculosis is a rare clinical entity which mainly presents in elderly people. Nasal tuberculosis has always been considered to be secondary to tuberculosis of the lungs, and in rare instances it is a primary infection, usually when mycobacteria are inhaled. We describe the case of a 10-year-old girl who was successfully treated for primary nasal tuberculosis. This patient is one of the very few children who have been reported to have primary nasal tuberculosis. PMID:27366187

  20. Primary Nasal Tuberculosis in a 10-Year-Old Girl.

    PubMed

    Özer, Murat; Özsurekçi, Yasemin; Cengiz, Ali Bülent; Özçelik, Uğur; Yalçın, Ebru; Gököz, Özay

    2016-01-01

    Nasal tuberculosis is a rare clinical entity which mainly presents in elderly people. Nasal tuberculosis has always been considered to be secondary to tuberculosis of the lungs, and in rare instances it is a primary infection, usually when mycobacteria are inhaled. We describe the case of a 10-year-old girl who was successfully treated for primary nasal tuberculosis. This patient is one of the very few children who have been reported to have primary nasal tuberculosis.

  1. Atypical presentation of macrophagic myofasciitis 10 years post vaccination.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Aisling M; Bermingham, Niamh; Harrington, Hugh J; Keohane, Catherine

    2006-12-01

    Macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF) is an uncommon inflammatory disorder of muscle believed to be due to persistence of vaccine-derived aluminium hydroxide at the site of injection. The condition is characterised by diffuse myalgias, arthralgia and fatigue. We describe a patient with histologically confirmed MMF whose presentation was atypical with left chest and upper limb pain beginning more than 10 years post vaccination. Treatment with steroids led to symptomatic improvement. Although rare, clinicians should consider MMF in cases of atypical myalgia.

  2. 10-year evapotranspiration estimates in a Bornean tropical rainforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kume, T.; Tanaka, N.; Komatsu, H.; Yoshifuji, N.; Saitoh, T. M.; Suzuki, M.; Kumagai, T.

    2010-12-01

    This study was undertaken to quantify 10-year evapotranspiration (ET) in a tropical rainforest, Sarawak, Malaysia. To this aim, a simplified big-leaf model was formulated, which can consider transpiration (Et) and rainfall interception (Ei). The model was independently validated using eddy covariance fluxes, rainfall interception based on throughfall and stemflow measurements, and sap flow measurements conducted for more than two years. Consequently, our big-leaf model could successfully reproduce Et and Ei. By using the model and a 10-year meteorological data set, Et, Ei, and ET was estimated in the period between 2000 and 2009. The annual Et , Ei, and ET averaged over 10 years were estimated as 1114, 209, and 1323 mm, respectively, with the small seasonal fluctuations. The derived estimations for 10 years showed conservative year-to-year variations in Et, Ei, and ET (CV = 5-7%) against considerable year-to-year variations in annual rainfall (CV = 11%). Specific rainfall characteristics in this site could be a reason for conservative year-to-year variations in Ei. Small interannual variations in meteorological conditions and no occurrence of unusually severe drought in this study period could be a reason for the small year-to-year variations in Et. As well, we compared ET, Ei at this site with those of other tropical forests. Our forest ET was smaller than global maximum value of ET estimated in other tropical forests because of the smaller Ei, relative to annual rainfall at this site. Based on the derived characteristics of ET, we also discussed possible changes in ET, Et, and Ei in response to changes in rainfall regime at this site.

  3. Trabecular metal tibial knee component still stable at 10 years

    PubMed Central

    Henricson, Anders; Nilsson, Kjell G

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose Total knee replacement (TKR) in younger patients using cemented components has shown inferior results, mainly due to aseptic loosening. Excellent clinical results have been reported with components made of trabecular metal (TM). In a previous report, we have shown stabilization of the TM tibial implants for up to 5 years. In this study, we compared the clinical and RSA results of these uncemented implants with those of cemented implants. Patients and methods 41 patients (47 knees) aged ≤ 60 years underwent TKR. 22 patients (26 knees) received an uncemented monoblock cruciate-retaining (CR) tibial component (TM) and 19 patients (21 knees) received a cemented NexGen Option CR tibial component. Follow-up examination was done at 10 years, and 16 patients (19 knees) with TM tibial components and 17 patients (18 knees) with cemented tibial components remained for analysis. Results 1 of 19 TM implants was revised for infection, 2 of 18 cemented components were revised for knee instability, and no revisions were done for loosening. Both types of tibial components migrated in the first 3 months, the TM group to a greater extent than the cemented group. After 3 months, both groups were stable during the next 10 years. Interpretation The patterns of migration for uncemented TM implants and cemented tibial implants over the first 10 years indicate that they have a good long-term prognosis regarding fixation PMID:27357222

  4. Avian response to bottomland hardwood reforestation: the first 10 years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, D.J.; Wilson, R.R.; Henne-Kerr, J.L.; Grosshuesch, D.A.

    2002-01-01

    Bttomland hardwood forests were planted on agricultural fields in Mississippi and Louisiana using either predominantly Quercus species (oaks) or Populus deltoides (eastern cottonwood). We assessed avian colonization of these reforested sites between 2 and 10 years after planting. Rapid vertical growth of cottonwoods (circa 2 - 3 m / yr) resulted in sites with forest structure that supported greater species richness of breeding birds, increased Shannon diversity indices, and supported greater territory densities than on sites planted with slower-growing oak species. Grassland birds (Spiza americana [Dickcissel], and Sturnella magna [Eastern Meadowlark]) were indicative of species breeding on oak-dominated reforestation # 10 years old. Agelaius phoeniceus (Red-winged Blackbird) and Colinus virginianus (Northern Bobwhite) characterized cottonwood reforestation # 4 years old, whereas 14 species of shrub-scrub birds (e.g., Passerina cyanea [Indigo Bunting]) and early-successional forest birds (e.g., Vireo gilvus [Warbling Vireo]) typified cottonwood reforestation 5 to 9 years after planting. Rates of daily nest survival did not differ between reforestation strategies. Nest parasitism increased markedly in older cottonwood stands, but was overwhelmed by predation as a cause of nest failure. Based on Partners in Flight prioritization scores and territory densities, the value of cottonwood reforestation for avian conservation was significantly greater than that of oak reforestation during their first 10 years. Because of benefits conferred on breeding birds, we recommend reforestation of bottomland hardwoods include a high proportion of fast-growing, early successional species such as cottonwood.

  5. Trabecular metal tibial knee component still stable at 10 years.

    PubMed

    Henricson, Anders; Nilsson, Kjell G

    2016-10-01

    Background and purpose - Total knee replacement (TKR) in younger patients using cemented components has shown inferior results, mainly due to aseptic loosening. Excellent clinical results have been reported with components made of trabecular metal (TM). In a previous report, we have shown stabilization of the TM tibial implants for up to 5 years. In this study, we compared the clinical and RSA results of these uncemented implants with those of cemented implants. Patients and methods - 41 patients (47 knees) aged ≤ 60 years underwent TKR. 22 patients (26 knees) received an uncemented monoblock cruciate-retaining (CR) tibial component (TM) and 19 patients (21 knees) received a cemented NexGen Option CR tibial component. Follow-up examination was done at 10 years, and 16 patients (19 knees) with TM tibial components and 17 patients (18 knees) with cemented tibial components remained for analysis. Results - 1 of 19 TM implants was revised for infection, 2 of 18 cemented components were revised for knee instability, and no revisions were done for loosening. Both types of tibial components migrated in the first 3 months, the TM group to a greater extent than the cemented group. After 3 months, both groups were stable during the next 10 years. Interpretation - The patterns of migration for uncemented TM implants and cemented tibial implants over the first 10 years indicate that they have a good long-term prognosis regarding fixation. PMID:27357222

  6. MMI's Metadata and Vocabulary Solutions: 10 Years and Growing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graybeal, J.; Gayanilo, F.; Rueda-Velasquez, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    The Marine Metadata Interoperability project (http://marinemetadata.org) held its public opening at AGU's 2004 Fall Meeting. For 10 years since that debut, the MMI guidance and vocabulary sites have served over 100,000 visitors, with 525 community members and continuous Steering Committee leadership. Originally funded by the National Science Foundation, over the years multiple organizations have supported the MMI mission: "Our goal is to support collaborative research in the marine science domain, by simplifying the incredibly complex world of metadata into specific, straightforward guidance. MMI encourages scientists and data managers at all levels to apply good metadata practices from the start of a project, by providing the best guidance and resources for data management, and developing advanced metadata tools and services needed by the community." Now hosted by the Harte Research Institute at Texas A&M University at Corpus Christi, MMI continues to provide guidance and services to the community, and is planning for marine science and technology needs for the next 10 years. In this presentation we will highlight our major accomplishments, describe our recent achievements and imminent goals, and propose a vision for improving marine data interoperability for the next 10 years, including Ontology Registry and Repository (http://mmisw.org/orr) advancements and applications (http://mmisw.org/cfsn).

  7. Developing of 10-year EEZ seafloor mapping and research program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lockwood, M.; Hill, G.W.

    1988-01-01

    The intent of expanding the exploration already begun on the outer continental shelf to the frontier of the EEZ (Exclusive Economic Zone) is to determine the "characteristics' and resource potential of this region. To coordinate this exploration, a Joint Office for Mapping and Research (JOMAR) has been established by the US Geological Survey (in the Department of the Interior) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (in the Department of Commerce). JOMAR's main purpose is to help direct and coordinate ongoing and planned seafloor related activities in the EEZ and prepare a 10-year plan for mapping and research. -from Authors

  8. Recurrent renal cell cancer: 10 years or more after nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Abara, Emmanuel; Chivulescu, Iolanda; Clerk, Nilam; Cano, Pablo; Goth, Alexis

    2010-04-01

    Localized renal cell carcinoma (RCC) responds well to surgery. Patients often question how long they have to be on surveillance after their surgery. Several follow-up patterns have been described in the literature. Until 2009, no published established Canadian guidelines existed to assist Canadian health-care practitioners in the surveillance of these patients. We present 3 cases of RCC that recurred 10 years or longer after the initial nephrectomy. These cases emphasize the need for careful long-term follow-up, as recommended in the Canadian Urological Association guidelines. We also discuss the optimism of prolonged disease survival in the era of novel therapeutic agents that target angiogenesis. PMID:20368882

  9. 10-year update of Stirling cryogenic coolers in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Jean-Yves

    2000-12-01

    This paper enters in the scope of the session on 10-year update of IR in France. Cryotechnologies is a leader in both the French and European markets as a designer and manufacturer of cryogenic coolers. Serial production of the first generation of Stirling cryocoolers started at Cryotechnologies in the late eighties. A range of integral Stirling coolers is nowadays available and completes the existing range of split Stirling cryocoolers. Technical improvements are keeping up with the market evolutions and new potential applications (costs reduction, fast cooldown time, increase of cooling power, very high reliability, pulse tube cold finger).

  10. Temporal Validation of the UKPDS Outcomes Model Using 10-Year Posttrial Monitoring Data

    PubMed Central

    Leal, Jose; Hayes, Alison J.; Gray, Alastair M.; Holman, Rury R.; Clarke, Philip M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the accuracy of the UK Prospective Diabetes Study Outcomes Model (UKPDS-OM) in predicting clinical outcomes during the UKPDS posttrial monitoring (PTM) period. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS At trial end in 1997, the 4,031 surviving UKPDS patients, of the 5,102 originally enrolled in the study, returned to their usual care providers, with no attempts made to maintain them in their randomized therapy groups. PTM risk factor data were collected for 5 years and clinical outcome data for 10 years. The UKPDS-OM was used firstly to forecast likely progression of HbA1c, systolic blood pressure, total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio, and smoking status and secondly to estimate the likely first occurrence of seven major diabetes-related complications or death from any cause. Model predictions were compared against observed PTM data for risk factor time paths and survival probabilities for major diabetes complications. RESULTS UKPDS-OM–forecasted risk factor time paths were similar to those observed for HbA1c (up to 3 years) and total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio but underestimated for systolic blood pressure and smoking status. Predicted 10-year event probabilities were similar to those observed for blindness, ischemic heart disease, myocardial infarction, and renal failure but were higher for heart failure and death from any cause and lower for stroke and amputation. CONCLUSIONS The UKPDS-OM has good predictive accuracy for two of four risk factor time paths and for 10-year clinical outcome probabilities with the exception of stroke, amputation, heart failure, and death from any cause. An updated version of the model incorporating PTM data is being developed. PMID:23275370

  11. Draft 1992 : Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement 10-Year Plan.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-05-01

    Two years ago, BPA released its first-ever Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement (OM&R) 10-Year Plan. That effort broke new ground and was an extensive look at the condition of Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement on BPA`s power system. This document -- the 1992 OM&R 10-Year Plan -- uses that original plan as its foundation. It takes a look at how well BPA has accomplished the challenging task set out in the 1990 Plan. The 1992 Plan also introduces the Construction Program. Construction`s critical role in these programs is explored, and the pressures of construction workload -- such as the seasonal nature of the work and the broad swings in workload between projects and years -- are discussed. The document then looks at how situations may have changed with issues explored initially in the 1990 Plan. Importantly, this Plan also surfaces and explains some new issues that threaten to impact BPA`s ability to accomplish its OM&R workload. Finally, the document focuses on the revised strategies for Operations, Maintenance, Replacement, Construction, and Environment for the 1992 to 2001 time period, including the financial and human resources needed to accomplish those strategies.

  12. Citations to Australian Astronomy: 5- and 10-Year Benchmarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenyon, Katherine H.; Paramasivam, Arjun; Tu, Jiachin; Zhang, Albert; Graham, Alister W.

    2012-03-01

    Expanding upon Pimbblet's 2011 analysis of career h-indices for members of the Astronomical Society of Australia, we provide additional citation metrics which are geared to quantifying the current performance of all professional astronomers in Australia. We have trawled the staff web-pages of Australian Universities, Observatories and Research Organisations hosting professional astronomers, and identified 384 PhD-qualified, research-active, astronomers in the nation. 132 of these are not members of the Astronomical Society of Australia. Using the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System, we provide the three following common metrics based on publications in the first decade of the 21st century (2001-2010): h-index, author-normalised citation count and lead-author citation count. We additionally present a somewhat more inclusive analysis, applicable for many early-career researchers, that is based on publications from 2006-2010. Histograms and percentiles, plus top-performer lists, are presented for each category. Finally, building on Hirsch's empirical equation, we find that the (10-year) h-index and (10-year) total citation count T can be approximated by the relation AS12011_IE1.gif for h>~5.

  13. Administrative Reinstatement Interlock Programs: Florida, a 10-Year Study

    PubMed Central

    Voas, Robert B.; Tippetts, A. Scott; Grosz, Milton

    2013-01-01

    Background Interlocks reduce driving-under-the-influence (DUI) recidivism by 64%, but offenders resist installing them, preferring to risk driving while their driver’s licenses are revoked. One method of motivating offenders to install an interlock is require it for reinstatement of their driver’s license. This report updates an earlier evaluation of the administrative reinstatement interlock program (ARIP) procedure implemented in Florida in 2002. Method Driver records and interlock program records covering 120,000 DUI offenders were followed over 10 years. The flow through the sanction system—conviction, reinstatement, interlock program, and postinterlock period—is described. Logistical regression was used to identify the characteristics of offenders who installed interlocks, and survival analysis was used to evaluate the recidivism of offenders in the various stages in the ARIP. Results At any given time, approximately one third of the convicted offenders were serving their license-revocation periods. Half of the offenders who completed their revocation periods remain unqualified for reinstatement because they do not fulfill other requirements. ARIP offenders who do qualify for reinstatement and install interlocks have lower recidivism rates while the devices are on their vehicles. Conclusions After 10 years, Florida’s ARIP is a mature system that succeeds in forcing all offenders in the program who qualify for reinstatement to install an interlock for at least 6 months. However, half of all offenders who complete their mandatory revocation period are either unable to, or choose not to, qualify for reinstatement. PMID:23442206

  14. Stunted at 10 Years. Linear Growth Trajectories and Stunting from Birth to Pre-Adolescence in a Rural Bangladeshi Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Svefors, Pernilla; Rahman, Anisur; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte; Khan, Ashraful Islam; Lindström, Emma; Persson, Lars Åke; Ekholm Selling, Katarina

    2016-01-01

    Background Few studies in low-income settings analyse linear growth trajectories from foetal life to pre-adolescence. The aim of this study is to describe linear growth and stunting from birth to 10 years in rural Bangladesh and to analyse whether maternal and environmental determinants at conception are associated with linear growth throughout childhood and stunting at 10 years. Methods and Findings Pregnant women participating in the MINIMat trial were identified in early pregnancy and a birth cohort (n = 1054) was followed with 19 growth measurements from birth to 10 years. Analyses of baseline predictors and mean height-for-age Z-scores (HAZ) over time were modelled using GLMM. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the associations between baseline predictors and stunting (HAZ<-2) at 10 years. HAZ decreased to 2 years, followed by an increase up to 10 years, while the average height-for-age difference in cm (HAD) to the WHO reference median continued to increase up to 10 years. Prevalence of stunting was highest at 2 years (50%) decreasing to 29% at 10 years. Maternal height, maternal educational level and season of conception were all independent predictors of HAZ from birth to pre-adolescence (p<0.001) and stunting at 10 years. The highest probability to be stunted at 10 years was for children born by short mothers (<147.5 cm) (ORadj 2.93, 95% CI: 2.06–4.20), mothers with no education (ORadj 1.74, 95% CI 1.17–2.81) or those conceived in the pre-monsoon season (ORadj 1.94, 95% CI 1.37–2.77). Conclusions Height growth trajectories and prevalence of stunting in pre-adolescence showed strong intergenerational associations, social differentials, and environmental influence from foetal life. Targeting women before and during pregnancy is needed for the prevention of impaired child growth. PMID:26934484

  15. [Stability of steroids in plasma over a 10-year period].

    PubMed

    Kley, H K; Schlaghecke, R; Krüskemper, H L

    1985-12-01

    In order to examine whether plasma samples may be used for steroid analysis after long periods of storage, cortisol, testosterone, oestrone and oestradiol were remeasured in samples, which had been analysed 1.3-10.8 years earlier. The method for the measurement of these steroids was unchanged over this period. The results demonstrate that at a temperature of -25 degrees C steroids remained stable. Only cortisol and testosterone concentrations showed a small, insignificant decrease (6-9%) after 3 to 4 years of storage. These differences are well within the range of the precision of the method (interassay variation), which over a period of 11 years was 9.4%, 8.0%, 10.0% and 9.5% for cortisol, testosterone, oestrone and oestradiol, respectively. It is concluded that steroid hormones in human plasma are stable in our laboratory, and that they might be analysed even after more than 10 years of storage at -25 degrees C. PMID:3831227

  16. Seismological network in China celebrates first 10 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y. T.; Zhou, G. W.; Wu, Z. L.

    Located near the boundary of the India, Pacific, and Eurasia plates, the Chinese continent is characterized by complex tectonics and high seismicity. Since the Sino-U.S. cooperative China Digital Seismograph Network (CDSN) began operating 10 years ago, it has played an active role in studying the seismology of China.Studies of the lithospheric structure and earthquake sources using digital seismic data are highly important in the study of geodynamics and the reduction of seismic disasters. Using the CDSN data, extensive studies were carried out by seismologists both in China and abroad. The studies investigated the lithospheric structure, seismic anisotropy within the upper mantle, and inversion of regional centroid moment tensors (RCMTs) of moderate to strong earthquakes. Earthquake sources were imaged based on broadband digital waveform analysis. As a result, over 100 papers have been published in China and abroad since 1990.

  17. Class III treatment using facial mask: Stability after 10 years

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Adilson Luiz

    2014-01-01

    Early Class III malocclusion treatment may not have long-term stability due to mandibular growth. Although some features of this malocclusion point to a better prognosis, it is practically impossible for the orthodontist to foresee cases that require new intervention. Many patients need retreatment, whether compensatory or orthodontic-surgical. The present study reports the case of a Class III patient treated at the end of the mixed dentition with the use of a face mask followed by conventional fixed appliances. The case remains stable 10 years after treatment completion. It was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO) as a requirement for the title of certified by the BBO. PMID:25715726

  18. Class III treatment using facial mask: stability after 10 years.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Adilson Luiz

    2014-01-01

    Early Class III malocclusion treatment may not have long-term stability due to mandibular growth. Although some features of this malocclusion point to a better prognosis, it is practically impossible for the orthodontist to foresee cases that require new intervention. Many patients need retreatment, whether compensatory or orthodontic-surgical. The present study reports the case of a Class III patient treated at the end of the mixed dentition with the use of a face mask followed by conventional fixed appliances. The case remains stable 10 years after treatment completion. It was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO) as a requirement for the title of certified by the BBO.

  19. Scurvy in a 10-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Cole, John A; Warthan, Molly M; Hirano, Stefanie A; Gowen, Clarence W; Williams, Judith V

    2011-01-01

    Scurvy, or hypovitaminosis C, is an uncommon condition that exists today primarily within certain unique populations-particularly the elderly subjects, patients with neurodevelopmental disabilities or psychiatric illnesses, or others with unusual dietary habits. Vitamin C is an essential nutrient in the human body, and is important in synthesizing collagen factor whose faulty production is responsible for most of the clinical manifestations of scurvy. These clinical manifestations can include dystrophic or corkscrew hairs, gingival hyperplasia, and weakened blood vessel walls, causing bleeding in the skin, joints, and other organs. Although rare in the Unites States, the presence of scurvy should not be forgotten because of its presence among susceptible populations. Moreover, with its diagnosis, treatment and cure is one of the simplest in modern medicine. We report a case of scurvy in a 10-year-old autistic child.

  20. New Jersey 10-year energy plan urges cogeneration reliance

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, J.

    1985-03-25

    The New Jersey DOE has drafted a 10-year master plan aimed at expanding state-wide conservation measures and encouraging the development of more than 2000 MW of cogenerated electricity through a combination of tax incentive and financial assistance programs. Although the plan deals with all sectors of energy use, the focus is on reducing industrial fuel and power costs. The incentives include a five-year exemption of new cogeneration facilities from property taxes, new buy-back rates equal to full avoided costs, and utility tariffs that allow the wheeling of cogenerated power. Part of the relicensing of casino-hotels could be a requirement for investigating the feasibility of installing a cogeneration system.

  1. The Troubling Trichotomy 10 Years Later: Where Are We Now?

    PubMed

    Barrocas, Albert

    2016-06-01

    A decade ago, "Nutrition Support and The Troubling Trichotomy: A Call To Action" was published in this journal, identifying existing conflicts among technological, ethical, and legal aspects of nutrition support therapy, particularly in terminal or end-of-life situations. Over the past 10 years, the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition and others have responded to the action call. A "state of the trichotomy" reveals that while much has been achieved, differences in all 3 aspects will continue to exist due to their dynamic and ever-changing states. The technology arena has made it possible to increase the delivery of nutrition support in alternative settings with the use of telemedicine and social media. Critical/crucial conversations and earlier declarations of individual wishes for care and treatment while having decision-making capacity have been enhanced with the focus on patient-centered and family-centered care. The definition of death as brain death has been challenged in at least one instance. Conflicts between the state's interests and the individual's interests have added to recent legal controversies. Notwithstanding the progress made over the past 10 years, several challenges remain. The future challenges presented by the Troubling Trichotomy can be best confronted if we ACT-Accountability, Communication, and Teamwork. The focus of teamwork should move from multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary teams to transdisciplinary teams, reflecting the shift to function rather than form presented by the new healthcare environment. The transdisciplinary team will be able address the opportunities of the Troubling Trichotomy in the next decade by incorporating the 12 Cs, as detailed in the article.

  2. The Troubling Trichotomy 10 Years Later: Where Are We Now?

    PubMed

    Barrocas, Albert

    2016-06-01

    A decade ago, "Nutrition Support and The Troubling Trichotomy: A Call To Action" was published in this journal, identifying existing conflicts among technological, ethical, and legal aspects of nutrition support therapy, particularly in terminal or end-of-life situations. Over the past 10 years, the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition and others have responded to the action call. A "state of the trichotomy" reveals that while much has been achieved, differences in all 3 aspects will continue to exist due to their dynamic and ever-changing states. The technology arena has made it possible to increase the delivery of nutrition support in alternative settings with the use of telemedicine and social media. Critical/crucial conversations and earlier declarations of individual wishes for care and treatment while having decision-making capacity have been enhanced with the focus on patient-centered and family-centered care. The definition of death as brain death has been challenged in at least one instance. Conflicts between the state's interests and the individual's interests have added to recent legal controversies. Notwithstanding the progress made over the past 10 years, several challenges remain. The future challenges presented by the Troubling Trichotomy can be best confronted if we ACT-Accountability, Communication, and Teamwork. The focus of teamwork should move from multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary teams to transdisciplinary teams, reflecting the shift to function rather than form presented by the new healthcare environment. The transdisciplinary team will be able address the opportunities of the Troubling Trichotomy in the next decade by incorporating the 12 Cs, as detailed in the article. PMID:26941110

  3. Cementless total knee arthroplasty with Profix: a 8- to 10-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Hardeman, François; Vandenneucker, Hilde; Van Lauwe, Johan; Bellemans, Johan

    2006-12-01

    A consecutive series of 115 cementless Profix (Smith and Nephew, Memphis, USA) Total Knee Arthroplasties performed in 113 patients were followed in order to determine the functional results and survivorship at 8 to 10 years. All patients were included in a prospective database and were reviewed annually until final follow-up. Patients overall satisfaction was excellent or good in 91.3% of cases. The mean Knee Society's knee and function scores increased respectively from 49.3 and 36.7 preoperatively to 93.1 and 82.2 postoperatively. The Kaplan-Meier estimate of implant survival at 10 years was 97.1%. Two patients underwent revision and were considered as failures. One patient had a fracture of the medial condyle at 4 days post-surgery, and the other was revised for aseptic loosening of the tibial component at 6 years post-surgery. On the basis of this long-term follow-up study, we can conclude that the Profix Total Knee System is effective and safe. PMID:17064905

  4. A 10-year prognostic model for patients with suspected angina attending a chest pain clinic

    PubMed Central

    Sekhri, Neha; Perel, Pablo; Clayton, Tim; Feder, Gene S; Hemingway, Harry; Timmis, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Background and objective Diagnostic models used in the management of suspected angina provide no explicit information about prognosis. We present a new prognostic model of 10-year coronary mortality in patients presenting for the first time with suspected angina to complement the Diamond-Forrester diagnostic model of disease probability. Methods and results A multicentre cohort of 8762 patients with suspected angina was followed up for a median of 10 years during which 233 coronary deaths were observed. Developmental (n=4412) and validation (n=4350) prognostic models based on clinical data available at first presentation showed good performance with close agreement and the final model utilised all 8762 patients to maximise power. The prognostic model showed strong associations with coronary mortality for age, sex, chest pain typicality, smoking status, diabetes, pulse rate, and ECG findings. Model discrimination was good (C statistic 0.83), patients in the highest risk quarter accounting for 173 coronary deaths (10-year risk of death: 8.7%) compared with a total of 60 deaths in the three lower risk quarters. When the model was simplified to incorporate only Diamond-Forrester factors (age, sex and character of symptoms) it underestimated coronary mortality risk, particularly in patients with reversible risk factors. Conclusions For the first time in patients with suspected angina, a prognostic model is presented based on simple clinical factors available at the initial cardiological assessment. The model discriminated powerfully between patients at high risk and lower risk of coronary death during 10-year follow-up. Clinical utility was reflected in the prognostic value it added to the updated Diamond-Forrester diagnostic model of disease probability. PMID:26928409

  5. ESO and Chile: 10 Years of Productive Scientific Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-06-01

    ESO and the Government of Chile launched today the book "10 Years Exploring the Universe", written by the beneficiaries of the ESO-Chile Joint Committee. This annual fund provides grants for individual Chilean scientists, research infrastructures, scientific congresses, workshops for science teachers and astronomy outreach programmes for the public. In a ceremony held in Santiago on 19 June 2006, the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere (ESO) and the Chilean Ministry of Foreign Affairs marked the 10th Anniversary of the Supplementary Agreement, which granted to Chilean astronomers up to 10 percent of the total observing time on ESO telescopes. This agreement also established an annual fund for the development of astronomy, managed by the so-called "ESO-Chile Joint Committee". ESO PR Photo 21/06 ESO PR Photo 21/06 Ten Years ESO-Chile Agreement Ceremony The celebration event was hosted by ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky, and the Director of Special Policy for the Chilean Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ambassador Luis Winter. "ESO's commitment is, and always will be, to promote astronomy and scientific knowledge in the country hosting our observatories", said ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky. "We hope Chile and Europe will continue with great achievements in this fascinating joint adventure, the exploration of the universe." On behalf of the Government of Chile, Ambassador Luis Winter outlined the historical importance of the Supplementary Agreement, ratified by the Chilean Congress in 1996. "Such is the magnitude of ESO-Chile Joint Committee that, only in 2005, this annual fund represented 8 percent of all financing sources for Chilean astronomy, including those from Government and universities", Ambassador Winter said. The ESO Representative and Head of Science in Chile, Dr. Felix Mirabel, and the appointed Chilean astronomer for the ESO-Chile Joint Committee, Dr. Leonardo Bronfman, also took part in the

  6. Diagnosis of traumatic thoracic aortic rupture: a 10-year retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Kram, H B; Appel, P L; Wohlmuth, D A; Shoemaker, W C

    1989-02-01

    A 10-year retrospective analysis of 82 patients with suspected thoracic aortic rupture (TAR) due to blunt chest trauma was performed to define which symptoms and signs were helpful in making an early diagnosis. Symptoms and signs associated with TAR included midscapular back pain (in the absence of thoracic spine fracture), unexplained hypotension, upper extremity hypertension, bilateral femoral pulse deficits, and initial chest tube output in excess of 750 mL. Chest roentgenographic signs seen with significantly greater frequency in the 12 patients with TAR than in 70 patients without such rupture included a widened paratracheal stripe (7 patients), deviation of the nasogastric tube or central venous pressure line (5 patients), blurring of the aortic knob (9 patients), abnormal paraspinous stripe (6 patients), and rightward tracheal deviation (5 patients). Mediastinal widening of greater than 8 cm occurred in 11 of the 12 patients with TAR (sensitivity, 92%); its specificity, however, was only 10% (11 true-positive and 63 false-positive results). In patients in hemodynamically stable condition who display these findings, immediate aortography should be considered. The presence of myocardial contusions, intraabdominal injuries, and pelvic fractures also occurred more frequently in patients with TAR. We conclude that a detailed history, physical examination, and chest roentgenography, with rapid progression to aortography in suspicious cases, represent the safest and most reliable approach to patients with TAR.

  7. METEONETWORK: 2002-2012, 10 years of activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazza, Edoardo

    2013-04-01

    The role of citizen-scientists in collecting data and observations has been increasingly crucial in the last 10 years of atmospheric sciences. Meteonetwork is a non-profit organization founded by citizen scientists in 2002, in Lombardia, with the aim of raising public awareness about meteorological and climatological issues. Throughout the years the organization, besides the continuous holding of events such as meeting, conferences and talks, has been standing out because of its forum and its wide network of weather stations. Meteonetwork's forum is, in this field, the most read and followed in the country and with its 8459 members and over 4,217,505 posts turns out to be the 17th forum over the entire country. Its network is operated in cooperation with Centro Epson Meteo and collects amateur semi-professional stations distributed all over the Italian territory, providing real-time and daily data. It consists of 706 stations, among which more than 400 regularly updated; volunteers constantly work to perform quality control and ensure data reliability. Meteonetwork has also developed several collaborations with private and public institutions, among which DRIHM - Cima Research Foundation, Centro Epson Meteo di Milano, Arpa Veneto, Arpa Emilia-Romagna, Arpa Lombardia, Arpa Friuli - Venezia Giulia, Servizio Glaciologico Lombardo, C. N. R. - C. I. S. A, Università di Pisa, Università di Milano, University of Aberdeen, Protezione Civile - Regione Lombardia, Protezione Civile - Regione Piemonte stand out. As WMO emphasized in 2001 World Meteorological Day "Volunteers for the weather, climate and water" the contribution of citizen-scientists to scientific studies is remarkable. In this perspective Meteonetwork and the University of Milan, in April 2011, started a project of technical and scientific cooperation called Weatherness. The university is provided with data gathered by Meteoneonetwork's stations with the aim of improving the knowledge of the impact that heat

  8. 10 years of Terra Outreach over the Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuen, K.; Riebeek, H.; Chambers, L. H.

    2009-12-01

    1 Author Yuen, Karen JPL (818) 393-7716 2 Author Riebeek, Holli Sigma Space Corporation (department) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (Institution), Greenbelt, Maryland 3 Author Chambers, Lin NASA Abstract: Since launch, Terra has returned about 195 gigabytes (level 0) of data per day or 1 terabyte every 5 days. Few outlets were able to accommodate and quickly share that amount of information as well as the Internet. To honor the 10-year anniversary of the launch of Terra, we would like to highlight the education and outreach efforts of the Terra mission on the Internet and its reach to the science attentive public. The Internet or web has been the primary way of delivering Terra content to different groups- from formal and informal education to general public outreach. Through the years, many different web-based projects have been developed, and they were of service to a growing population of the science attentive public. One of Terra’s original EPO activities was the Earth Observatory. It was initially dedicated to telling the remote sensing story of Terra, but quickly grew to include science and imagery from other sensors. The web site allowed for collaboration across NASA centers, universities and other organizations by exchanging and sharing of story ideas, news and images. The award winning Earth Observatory helped pave the way for the more recently funded development of the Climate Change website. With its specific focus on climate change studies, once again, Terra stories and images are shared with an even more specific audience base. During the last 10 years, Terra as a mission has captured the imagination of the public through its visually stunning and artistically arresting images. With its five instruments of complementary but unique capabilities, the mission gave the world not just pretty pictures, but scientific data-based images. The world was able to see from space everything from calving icebergs to volcanic eruption plumes and the eye of a

  9. Nose fracture

    MedlinePlus

    Fracture of the nose; Broken nose; Nasal fracture; Nasal bone fracture; Nasal septal fracture ... A fractured nose is the most common fracture of the face. It ... with other fractures of the face. Sometimes a blunt injury can ...

  10. In Brief: Chandra Observatory marks 10 years in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-08-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, originally envisioned as a 5-year mission, was deployed into an elliptical orbit around Earth 10 years ago, on 23 July 1999. The most powerful X-ray telescope yet, Chandra has provided a peak into the high-energy universe and has independently confirmed the existence of dark energy. Martin Weisskopf, Chandra project scientist at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala., said discoveries made possible by the observatory “have made dramatic changes to our understanding of the universe and its constituents.” “The Great Observatories program—of which Chandra is a major part—shows how astronomers need as many tools as possible to tackle the big questions out there,” said Ed Weiler, associate administrator of NASA's Science Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters in Washington. The Hubble Space Telescope, Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, and Spitzer Space Telescope are NASA's other Great Observatories. For more information, visit http://chandra.harvard.edu/ten/ and http://chandra.nasa.gov.

  11. Circles South East: the first 10 years 2002-2012.

    PubMed

    Bates, Andrew; Williams, Dominic; Wilson, Chris; Wilson, Robin J

    2014-07-01

    This article describes the first 10 years of the implementation of Circles of Support and Accountability (Circles) in the management of sexual offenders in South-East England by Circles South East (CSE). The Circles of 71 core members are reviewed in detail, with reference to demographic data, offense and sentencing histories, risk assessment data, and considerations regarding Multi-Agency Public Protection Arrangements. A group of 71 comparison subjects who were referred to CSE and deemed suitable for but did not receive the service was identified. Follow-up behaviors of both groups are examined (including all forms of reconviction, breach of orders, and prison recall). Over a comparable follow-up period of 55 months, the incidence of violent and contact sexual reconviction in the comparison group was significantly higher than for the Circles cohort. Comparisons are made between expected and actual levels of sexual reconviction, with the Circles cohort showing lower than expected rate of sexual reconviction but not to a statistically significant degree.

  12. Fatal burns in Manipal area: a 10 year study.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Virendra; Mohanty, Manoj Kumar; Kanth, Sarita

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to record and evaluate the causes and the magnitude of the fatal burn injuries retrospectively. An analysis of autopsy records revealed 19.4% cases of burn injuries amongst the total autopsies done over 10years period (1993-2002) in the mortuary of the department of Forensic Medicine of Kasturba medical College, Manipal. The majority of deaths (78.5%) occurred between 11 and 40years of age group with preponderance of females (74.8%). The flame burns were seen in 94.1% of the victims followed by scalds and electrical burns in 2.8% and 2.5% cases, respectively. The majority of burn incidents were accidental (75.8%) in nature followed by suicidal (11.5%) and homicidal (3.1%) deaths. The percentage of burn (TBSA) over 40% were observed in most of the cases (92.5%). The majority of deaths occurred within a week (69.87%) and most the victims died because of septicemia (50.9%). PMID:17046310

  13. Alopecia Areata in the Elderly: A 10-Year Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Yong Hyun; Park, Kyung Hea; Kim, Sang Lim; Lim, Hyun Jung; Lee, Weon Ju; Lee, Seok-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Background Alopecia areata (AA) is an organ-specific autoimmune disease that typically occurs in young adults. AA in the elderly is relatively rare, thus little data have been reported. Objective This study aimed to understand the clinical characteristics of AA in the elderly. Methods We performed a 10-year retrospective study of AA in the elderly who visited our dermatologic clinic from January 2002 to December 2011. A clinical review of medical records and telephone interviews were performed by two dermatologists. Results Among 1,761 patients with newly diagnosed AA, 61 (3.5%) were older than 60 years at the first visit. Among those who completed a telephone interview, 74.3% (26/35) had less than 50% of scalp-localized hair loss. There was no association between the extent of AA and hair graying (p=0.679). Favorable therapeutic response was observed in 62.9% (22/35) of cases. Conclusion AA in the elderly shows mild disease severity and favorable treatment response. There is no association between graying and the extent of AA. However, the influence of aging on the pathogenesis of AA in the elderly deserves further investigation. PMID:26273157

  14. Competition, resources, and vegetation during 10 years in native grassland.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Scott D

    2007-12-01

    A 10-year experiment tested for variation in competition intensity over time in a natural grassland at the northern edge of the Great Plains. Growing-season precipitation varied fivefold during the study. All ecosystem-level variables varied significantly among years, and most covaried in expected ways. The covers of all common grasses possessing the C3 photosynthetic pathway varied significantly among years; in contrast, all common species with traits associated with drought tolerance (a C4 grass, a lichen, a spikemoss, and a subshrub) did not vary. Annual transplant experiments measured the competitive effects of neighbors on the growth of individuals of the native grass Bouteloua gracilis. A significant interaction between year and competition showed that competition intensity varied among years. The size of this effect, however, was small (eta2 = 0.074) relative to the size of the direct effect of competition (eta2 = 0.20) or the year in which the experiment was conducted (eta2 = 0.51). Further, competition intensity was not significantly related to any variable describing standing crop or resources, or species richness. Species richness was highest in years with high precipitation, standing crop, and individual growth, due to the recruitment of rare species that were absent from dry years. In summary, variation in competition intensity was statistically significant but had small effects relative to the direct effects of climate. PMID:18229830

  15. Dnepr Launch Missions: 10 Years Experience of Internatio nal Cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solovey, V. A.; Andreev, V. A.; Mikhailov, V. S.; Smagin, Y. N.; Kalnov, V. V.

    2008-08-01

    International Space Company "Kosmotras" (ISC "Kosmotras") was founded in 1997 by the decisions of the Russian Aviation and Space Agency and the National Space Agency of Ukraine. It incorporated leading space industries of Russia and Ukraine. The first Launch Contract was signed in 1998 and in 1999 Dnepr launch vehicle carrying SSTL UoSAT-12 spacecraft (SC) was launched. During 10 years of its activity in the launch services market, ISC "Kosmotras" has exercised 9 successful space launches as a result of which 39 SC were placed into orbit. The flight reliability of Dnepr Launch Vehicle (LV) is estimated as 0.97. Three configurations of Space Head Module (SHM) are available for payload accommodation: a standard- size SHM for multiple small satellite missions (cluster launches); a standard-size SHM for mid-size satellites; an extended SHM for large-size satellite. ISC "Kosmotras" exercises space launches from two launch bases: Baikonur Cosmodrome (Kazakhstan) and Yasny Launch Base (Russia). This allows flexible planning of launch operations.

  16. Dissociative recombination of H3+: 10 years in retrospect

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, Mats

    2012-01-01

    The dissociative recombination of has been an intriguing problem for more than half a century. The early experiments on during the first 20 years were carried out without mass analysis in decaying plasma afterglows, and thus the measured rates pertained to an uncontrolled mixture of and impurity ions. When mass analysis was used, the rate coefficient was determined to be an uneventful value of about 10−7 cm3 s−1, a very common rate coefficient for many molecular ions. But this was not the end of the story, not even the beginning of the end; it marked only the end of the beginning. The story I will tell in this article started about 10 years ago, when the dissociative recombination of was approaching its deepest crisis. Today, owing to an extensive experimental and theoretical effort, the state of affairs has reached a historically unique level of harmony, although there still remains many things to sort out. PMID:23028159

  17. Snowmobile trauma: 10 years' experience at Manitoba's tertiary trauma centre

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Rena L.; Black, G. Brian

    2004-01-01

    Introduction According to the literature, the increased recreational use of the snowmobile has resulted in an increasing number of musculoskeletal injuries. We wished to examine whether previously described risk factors continue to be associated with snowmobile trauma and to identify previously unrecognized risks and specific patterns of injury. Methods We carried out a chart review of all snowmobile-related injuries over a 10-year period at the Health Sciences Centre in Winnipeg, the only level 1 trauma centre serving the Province of Manitoba, with particular attention to the risk factors of suboptimal lighting, excessive speed and alcohol consumption. Results We identified 480 injuries in 294 patients, and 81 (27.6%) of these patients died. Collisions accounted for 72% of the injury mechanisms. Of the injuries sustained, 31% occurred on roads. Excessive speed was a risk factor in 54% of patients, suboptimal lighting in 86% and a blood alcohol level greater than 0.08 in 70%. Musculoskeletal injuries accounted for 57% of those recorded. There were also brachial plexus injuries (3%) and knee dislocations (2%). To our knowledge, this is the largest study detailing injury associated with recreational use of snowmobiles in Canada. Conclusions Because snowmobile trauma is caused principally by human errors, it is potentially preventable. Efforts aimed at prevention must focus on the driver, who controls the common risk factors. The danger of snowmobiling while intoxicated must be emphasized. Trail-side monitoring is likely to be ineffective, as the majority of accidents do not occur on designated snowmobile trails. PMID:15132460

  18. Asian dust properties from 10 years of MISR data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalashnikova, Olga; Sokolik, Irina; Garay, Michael; Wu, Dong

    2010-05-01

    We use the 10-year aerosol data record from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) aboard the Terra satellite to investigate climatological linkages between the dust source activities, mid-range, and long-range transport of Asian dust. The inter-annual and seasonal variability of Asian dust loadings and properties as retrieved by MISR at selected regions along the transport routes was investigated. In particular, we examine the Taklamakan and East and Central Gobi regions (dust sources), South Korea and Japan regions (mid-range transport), and the North Pacific region along the northwestern U.S. coast (long-range transport). To avoid the gridding and averaging effects in Level 3 products, we use the Level 2 MISR data. Within each selected region, the analysis was performed to examine the multi-annual mean and variability of the aerosol optical depth and particle nonsphericity as well as time-lag correlation between the regions, taking into account the effects of MISR sampling and cloud coverage. The results will be presented and interpreted in the context of atmospheric dynamics variability, including variability of meteorological regimes in dust sources and the large-scale atmospheric circulation features controlling the trans-Pacific transport of Asian dust.

  19. Proteasome inhibitors in multiple myeloma: 10 years later

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Paul G.; Cavo, Michele; Orlowski, Robert Z.; San Miguel, Jesús F.; Palumbo, Antonio; Harousseau, Jean-Luc

    2012-01-01

    Proteasome inhibition has emerged as an important therapeutic strategy in multiple myeloma (MM). Since the publication of the first phase 1 trials of bortezomib 10 years ago, this first-in-class proteasome inhibitor (PI) has contributed substantially to the observed improvement in survival in MM patients over the past decade. Although first approved as a single agent in the relapsed setting, bortezomib is now predominantly used in combination regimens. Furthermore, the standard twice-weekly schedule may be replaced by weekly infusion, especially when bortezomib is used as part of combination regimens in frontline therapy. Indeed, bortezomib is an established component of induction therapy for patients eligible or ineligible for autologous stem cell transplantation. Bortezomib has also been incorporated into conditioning regimens before autologous stem cell transplantation, as well as into post-ASCT consolidation therapy, and in the maintenance setting. In addition, a new route of bortezomib administration, subcutaneous infusion, has recently been approved. Recently, several new agents have been introduced into the clinic, including carfilzomib, marizomib, and MLN9708, and trials investigating these “second-generation” PIs in patients with relapsed/refractory MMs have demonstrated positive results. This review provides an overview of the role of PIs in the treatment of MM, focusing on developments over the past decade. PMID:22645181

  20. The Cryptophlebia Leucotreta Granulovirus—10 Years of Commercial Field Use

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Sean D.; Kirkman, Wayne; Richards, Garth I.; Stephen, Peter R.

    2015-01-01

    In the last 15 years, extensive work on the Cryptophlebia leucotreta granulovirus (CrleGV) has been conducted in South Africa, initially in the laboratory, but subsequently also in the field. This culminated in the registration of the first CrleGV-based biopesticide in 2004 (hence, the 10 years of commercial use in the field) and the second one three years later. Since 2000, more than 50 field trials have been conducted with CrleGV against the false codling moth, Thaumatotibia leucotreta, on citrus in South Africa. In a representative sample of 13 field trials reported over this period, efficacy (measured by reduction in larval infestation of fruit) ranged between 30% and 92%. Efficacy was shown to persist at a level of 70% for up to 17 weeks after application of CrleGV. This only occurred where the virus was applied in blocks rather than to single trees. The addition of molasses substantially and sometimes significantly enhanced efficacy. It was also established that CrleGV should not be applied at less than ~2 × 1013 OBs per ha in order to avoid compromised efficacy. As CrleGV-based products were shown to be at least as effective as chemical alternatives, persistent and compatible with natural enemies, their use is recommended within an integrated program for control of T. leucotreta on citrus and other crops. PMID:25809025

  1. 10 years of surveillance of human tularaemia in France.

    PubMed

    Mailles, A; Vaillant, V

    2014-11-13

    Tularaemia has been mandatorily notifiable in France since October 2002. The surveillance aims to detect early any infection possibly due to bioterrorism and to follow up disease trends. We report the results of national surveillance from 2002 to 2012. A case is defined as a patient with clinical presentation suggestive of tularaemia and biological confirmation of infection or an epidemiological link with a biologically confirmed case. Clinical, biological and epidemiological data are collected using a standardised notification form. From 2002 to 2012, 433 cases were notified, with a median age of 49 years (range 2 to 95 years) and a male–female sex ratio of 1.8. Most frequent clinical presentations were glandular tularaemia (n=200; 46%) and ulceroglandular tularaemia (n=113; 26%). Most frequent at-risk exposures were handling hares (n=179; 41%) and outdoor leisure exposure to dust aerosols (n=217; 50%). Tick bites were reported by 82 patients (19%). Ten clusters (39 cases) were detected over the 10-year period, as well as a national outbreak during winter 2007/2008. The tularaemia surveillance system is able to detect small clusters as well as major outbreaks. Surveillance data show exposure to dust aerosols during outdoor leisure activities to be a major source of contamination in France.

  2. Past and next 10 years of medical informatics.

    PubMed

    Ückert, Frank; Ammenwerth, Elske; Dujat, Carl; Grant, Andrew; Haux, Reinhold; Hein, Andreas; Hochlehnert, Achim; Knaup-Gregori, Petra; Kulikowski, Casimir; Mantas, John; Maojo, Victor; Marschollek, Michael; Moura, Lincoln; Plischke, Maik; Röhrig, Rainer; Stausberg, Jürgen; Takabayashi, Katsuhiko; Winter, Alfred; Wolf, Klaus-Hendrik; Hasman, Arie

    2014-07-01

    More than 10 years ago Haux et al. tried to answer the question how health care provision will look like in the year 2013. A follow-up workshop was held in Braunschweig, Germany, for 2 days in May, 2013, with 20 invited international experts in biomedical and health informatics. Among other things it had the objectives to discuss the suggested goals and measures of 2002 and how priorities on MI research in this context should be set from the viewpoint of today. The goals from 2002 are now as up-to-date as they were then. The experts stated that the three goals: "patient-centred recording and use of medical data for cooperative care"; "process-integrated decision support through current medical knowledge" and "comprehensive use of patient data for research and health care reporting" have not been reached yet and are still relevant. A new goal for ICT in health care should be the support of patient centred personalized (individual) medicine. MI as an academic discipline carries out research concerning tools that support health care professionals in their work. This research should be carried out without the pressure that it should lead to systems that are immediately and directly accepted in practice. PMID:24952607

  3. Endometrial stem/progenitor cells: the first 10 years

    PubMed Central

    Gargett, Caroline E.; Schwab, Kjiana E.; Deane, James A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The existence of stem/progenitor cells in the endometrium was postulated many years ago, but the first functional evidence was only published in 2004. The identification of rare epithelial and stromal populations of clonogenic cells in human endometrium has opened an active area of research on endometrial stem/progenitor cells in the subsequent 10 years. METHODS The published literature was searched using the PubMed database with the search terms ‘endometrial stem cells and menstrual blood stem cells' until December 2014. RESULTS Endometrial epithelial stem/progenitor cells have been identified as clonogenic cells in human and as label-retaining or CD44+ cells in mouse endometrium, but their characterization has been modest. In contrast, endometrial mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) have been well characterized and show similar properties to bone marrow MSCs. Specific markers for their enrichment have been identified, CD146+PDGFRβ+ (platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta) and SUSD2+ (sushi domain containing-2), which detected their perivascular location and likely pericyte identity in endometrial basalis and functionalis vessels. Transcriptomics and secretomics of SUSD2+ cells confirm their perivascular phenotype. Stromal fibroblasts cultured from endometrial tissue or menstrual blood also have some MSC characteristics and demonstrate broad multilineage differentiation potential for mesodermal, endodermal and ectodermal lineages, indicating their plasticity. Side population (SP) cells are a mixed population, although predominantly vascular cells, which exhibit adult stem cell properties, including tissue reconstitution. There is some evidence that bone marrow cells contribute a small population of endometrial epithelial and stromal cells. The discovery of specific markers for endometrial stem/progenitor cells has enabled the examination of their role in endometrial proliferative disorders, including endometriosis, adenomyosis and Asherman

  4. Justification for Rhinoseptoplasty in Children – Our 10 Years Overview

    PubMed Central

    Kopacheva-Barsova, Gabriela; Nikolovski, Nikola

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nasal septal surgery and rhinoplasty are controversial in children. Traditionally, an attitude of restraint has been employed by most surgeons till an empirical age of 16 to 18 years. This is to avoid the possible adverse effects that the growth spurts may have on the nose and midface region. AIM: The aim of this paper was to present the results of rhinoplasty in children in order to restore the anatomy and function or to promote normal development and outgrowth of the nose. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ninety seven children aged 6-14, with severe nose deformities and breathing problems through the nose, were admitted for septo/rhinoplasty at the University Clinic for Ear, Nose and Throat, Faculty of Medicine, Ss Cyril and Methodius University of Skopje, Republic of Macedonia. At our Clinic, they have been observed and photographed (with parent permission) in the period of 10 years (2006-2016). The most frequent cause of these deformities was the nasal trauma in early childhood which was ignored or untreated. All of them rhino/septoplasty were indicated in accordance with the above-mentioned recommendations for rhino/septoplasty in early childhood and in adolescents. RESULTS: In 51 children and adolescents septoplasty were prepared. Mostly there was a group of younger children age from 6-10 (68%) and adolescents (32%). In the other 31 children and adolescents, septorhinoplasty was prepared. Mostly there were children older than 12 years old and adolescents (70%). Only 30% were younger than 12 years, of course with severe nasal breathing problems, nasal septal deformities and deformities of the nasal pyramid. CONCLUSION: The growth centres of the nose have to be avoided if possible; long-term nasal issues will theoretically be minimised. If the surgeon replaces it, the cartilage of the nose becomes straighter but still intact.

  5. Anaerobic bacteraemia: a 10-year retrospective epidemiological survey.

    PubMed

    De Keukeleire, Steven; Wybo, Ingrid; Naessens, Anne; Echahidi, Fedoua; Van der Beken, Mieke; Vandoorslaer, Kristof; Vermeulen, Stefan; Piérard, Denis

    2016-06-01

    In order to identify current trends in anaerobic bacteraemia, a 10-year retrospective study was performed in the University Hospital Brussel, Belgium. All clinically relevant bacteraemia detected from 2004 until 2013 were included. Medical records were reviewed in an attempt to define clinical parameters that might be associated with the occurrence of anaerobic bacteraemia. 437 of the isolated organisms causing anaerobic bacteraemia were thawed, subcultured and reanalyzed using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF). There were an average of 33 cases of anaerobic bacteraemia per year during 2004-2008 compared to an average of 27 cases per year during 2009-2013 (P = 0.017), corresponding to a decrease by 19% between the first and the latter period. Also, the total number of cases of anaerobic bacteraemia per 100,000 patient days decreased from 17.3 in the period from 2004 to 2008 to 13.7 in the period 2009 to 2013 (P = 0.023). Additionally, the mean incidence of anaerobic bacteraemia decreased during the study period (1.27/1000 patients in 2004 vs. 0.94/1000 patients in 2013; P = 0.008). In contrast, the proportion of isolated anaerobic bacteraemia compared to the number of all bacteraemia remained stable at 5%. Bacteroides spp. and Parabacteroides spp. accounted for 47.1% of the anaerobes, followed by 14.4% Clostridium spp., 12.6% non-spore-forming Gram-positive rods, 10.5% anaerobic cocci, 8.2% Prevotella spp. and other Gram-negative rods and 7.1% Fusobacterium spp. The lower gastrointestinal tract (47%) and wound infections (10%) were the two most frequent sources for bacteraemia, with the origin remaining unknown in 62 cases (21%). The overall mortality rate was 14%. Further studies focusing on the antimicrobial susceptibility and demographic background of patients are needed to further objectify the currently observed trends.

  6. Absolute fracture risk assessment using lumbar spine and femoral neck bone density measurements: derivation and validation of a hybrid system.

    PubMed

    Leslie, William D; Lix, Lisa M

    2011-03-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX) computes 10-year probability of major osteoporotic fracture from multiple risk factors, including femoral neck (FN) T-scores. Lumbar spine (LS) measurements are not currently part of the FRAX formulation but are used widely in clinical practice, and this creates confusion when there is spine-hip discordance. Our objective was to develop a hybrid 10-year absolute fracture risk assessment system in which nonvertebral (NV) fracture risk was assessed from the FN and clinical vertebral (V) fracture risk was assessed from the LS. We identified 37,032 women age 45 years and older undergoing baseline FN and LS dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA; 1990-2005) from a population database that contains all clinical DXA results for the Province of Manitoba, Canada. Results were linked to longitudinal health service records for physician billings and hospitalizations to identify nontrauma vertebral and nonvertebral fracture codes after bone mineral density (BMD) testing. The population was randomly divided into equal-sized derivation and validation cohorts. Using the derivation cohort, three fracture risk prediction systems were created from Cox proportional hazards models (adjusted for age and multiple FRAX risk factors): FN to predict combined all fractures, FN to predict nonvertebral fractures, and LS to predict vertebral (without nonvertebral) fractures. The hybrid system was the sum of nonvertebral risk from the FN model and vertebral risk from the LS model. The FN and hybrid systems were both strongly predictive of overall fracture risk (p < .001). In the validation cohort, ROC analysis showed marginally better performance of the hybrid system versus the FN system for overall fracture prediction (p = .24) and significantly better performance for vertebral fracture prediction (p < .001). In a discordance subgroup with FN and LS T-score differences greater than 1 SD, there was a significant

  7. Induced Probabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neel, John H.

    Induced probabilities have been largely ignored by educational researchers. Simply stated, if a new or random variable is defined in terms of a first random variable, then induced probability is the probability or density of the new random variable that can be found by summation or integration over the appropriate domains of the original random…

  8. 10 years of Cassini/VIMS observations at Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotin, C.; Brown, R. H.; Baines, K. H.; Barnes, J.; Buratti, B. J.; Clark, R. N.; Jaumann, R.; LeMouelic, S.; Nicholson, P. D.; Rodriguez, S.; Soderblom, J.; Soderblom, L.; Stephan, K.

    2014-04-01

    The interplanetary space probe Cassini/Huygens reached Saturn in July 2004 after seven years of cruise phase. Today, the German-lead Cosmic Dust Analyser (CDA) is operated continuously for 10 years in orbit around Saturn. During the cruise phase CDA measured the interstellar dust flux at one AU distance from the Sun, the charge and composition of interplanetary dust grains and the composition of the Jovian nanodust streams. The first discovery of CDA related to Saturn was the measurement of nanometer sized dust particles ejected by its magnetosphere to interplanetary space with speeds higher than 100 km/s. Their origin and composition was analysed and an their dynamical studies showed a strong link to the conditions of the solar wind plasma flow. A recent surprising result was, that stream particles stem from the interior of Enceladus. Since 2004 CDA measured millions of dust impacts characterizing the dust environment of Saturn. The instrument showed strong evidence for ice geysers located at the south pole of Saturn's moon Enceladus in 2005. Later, a detailed compositional analysis of the salt-rich water ice grains in Saturn's E ring system lead to the discovery of liquid water below the icy crust connected to an ocean at depth feeding the icy jets. CDA was even capable to derive a spatially resolved compositional profile of the plume during close Enceladus flybys. A determination of the dust-magnetosphere interaction and the discovery of the extended E ring allowed the definition of a dynamical dust model of Saturn's E ring describing the observed properties. The measured dust density profiles in the dense E ring revealed geometric asymmetries. Cassini performed shadow crossings in the ring plane and dust grain charges were measured in shadow regions delivering important data for dust-plasma interaction studies. In the last years, dedicated measurement campaigns were executed by CDA to monitor the flux of interplanetary and interstellar dust particles reaching

  9. Prospects for Emerging Infections in East and Southeast Asia 10 Years after Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, Dirk; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2013-01-01

    It is 10 years since severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) emerged, and East and Southeast Asia retain a reputation as a hot spot of emerging infectious diseases. The region is certainly a hot spot of socioeconomic and environmental change, and although some changes (e.g., urbanization and agricultural intensification) may reduce the probability of emerging infectious diseases, the effect of any individual emergence event may be increased by the greater concentration and connectivity of livestock, persons, and products. The region is now better able to detect and respond to emerging infectious diseases than it was a decade ago, but the tools and methods to produce sufficiently refined assessments of the risks of disease emergence are still lacking. Given the continued scale and pace of change in East and Southeast Asia, it is vital that capabilities for predicting, identifying, and controlling biologic threats do not stagnate as the memory of SARS fades. PMID:23738977

  10. Prospects for emerging infections in East and southeast Asia 10 years after severe acute respiratory syndrome.

    PubMed

    Horby, Peter W; Pfeiffer, Dirk; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2013-06-01

    It is 10 years since severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) emerged, and East and Southeast Asia retain a reputation as a hot spot of emerging infectious diseases. The region is certainly a hot spot of socioeconomic and environmental change, and although some changes (e.g., urbanization and agricultural intensification) may reduce the probability of emerging infectious diseases, the effect of any individual emergence event may be increased by the greater concentration and connectivity of livestock, persons, and products. The region is now better able to detect and respond to emerging infectious diseases than it was a decade ago, but the tools and methods to produce sufficiently refined assessments of the risks of disease emergence are still lacking. Given the continued scale and pace of change in East and Southeast Asia, it is vital that capabilities for predicting, identifying, and controlling biologic threats do not stagnate as the memory of SARS fades.

  11. Probability of pipe fracture in the primary coolant loop of a PWR plant. Volume 9. PRAISE computer code user's manual. Load Combination Program Project I final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, E.Y.

    1981-06-01

    The PRAISE (Piping Reliability Analysis Including Seismic Events) computer code estimates the influence of earthquakes on the probability of failure at a weld joint in the primary coolant system of a pressurized water reactor. Failure, either a through-wall defect (leak) or a complete pipe severance (a large-LOCA), is assumed to be caused by fatigue crack growth of an as-fabricated interior surface circumferential defect. These defects are assumed to be two-dimensional and semi-elliptical in shape. The distribution of initial crack sizes is a function of crack depth and aspect ratio. PRAISE treats the inter-arrival times of operating transients either as a constant or exponentially distributed according to observed or postulated rates. Leak rate and leak detection models are also included. The criterion for complete pipe severance is exceedance of a net section critical stress. Earthquakes of various intensity and arbitrary occurrence times can be modeled. PRAISE presently assumes that exactly one initial defect exists in the weld and that the earthquake of interest is the first earthquake experienced at the reactor. PRAISE has a very modular structure and can be tailored to a variety of crack growth and piping reliability problems. Although PRAISE was developed on a CDC-7600 computer, it was, however, coded in standard FORTRAN IV and is readily transportable to other machines.

  12. Probability Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaynes, E. T.; Bretthorst, G. Larry

    2003-04-01

    Foreword; Preface; Part I. Principles and Elementary Applications: 1. Plausible reasoning; 2. The quantitative rules; 3. Elementary sampling theory; 4. Elementary hypothesis testing; 5. Queer uses for probability theory; 6. Elementary parameter estimation; 7. The central, Gaussian or normal distribution; 8. Sufficiency, ancillarity, and all that; 9. Repetitive experiments, probability and frequency; 10. Physics of 'random experiments'; Part II. Advanced Applications: 11. Discrete prior probabilities, the entropy principle; 12. Ignorance priors and transformation groups; 13. Decision theory: historical background; 14. Simple applications of decision theory; 15. Paradoxes of probability theory; 16. Orthodox methods: historical background; 17. Principles and pathology of orthodox statistics; 18. The Ap distribution and rule of succession; 19. Physical measurements; 20. Model comparison; 21. Outliers and robustness; 22. Introduction to communication theory; References; Appendix A. Other approaches to probability theory; Appendix B. Mathematical formalities and style; Appendix C. Convolutions and cumulants.

  13. Treatment of Bilateral Refractive Amblyopia in Children 3 to <10 Years Old

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, David; Chandler, Danielle L.; Beck, Roy W.; Arnold, Robert W.; Bacal, Darron A.; Birch, Eileen E.; Felius, Joost; Frazier, Marcela; Holmes, Jonathan M.; Hoover, Darren; Klimek, Deborah A.; Lorenzana, Ingryd; Quinn, Graham E.; Repka, Michael X.; Suh, Donny W.; Tamkins, Susanna

    2007-01-01

    Purpose To determine the amount and time course of binocular visual acuity improvement during treatment of bilateral refractive amblyopia in children age 3 to <10 years old Design Prospective, multicenter noncomparative intervention Methods 113 children (mean age = 5.1 years) with previously untreated bilateral refractive amblyopia were enrolled at 27 community- and university-based sites and were provided optimal spectacle correction. Bilateral refractive amblyopia was defined as 20/40 to 20/400 best-corrected binocular acuity in the presence of ≥ 4.00 D hypermetropia by spherical equivalent and/or ≥ 2.00 D astigmatism in each eye. Best-corrected binocular and monocular visual acuities were measured at baseline and at 5, 13, 26 and 52 weeks. The primary study outcome was binocular acuity at one year. Results Mean binocular visual acuity improved from 0.50 logMAR (20/63) at baseline to 0.11 logMAR (20/25) at one year (mean improvement 3.9 lines, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.5 to 4.2). Mean improvement at one year for the 84 children with baseline binocular acuity of 20/40 to 20/80 was 3.4 lines (95% CI = 3.2 to 3.7) and for the 16 children with baseline binocular acuity of 20/100 to 20/320 was 6.3 lines (95% CI = 5.1 to 7.5). The cumulative probability of binocular acuity of 20/25 or better was 21% at 5 weeks, 46% at 13 weeks, 59% at 26 weeks, and 74% at 52 weeks. Conclusions Treatment of bilateral refractive amblyopia with spectacle correction improves binocular visual acuity in children age 3 to <10 years old, with most improving to 20/25 or better within one year. PMID:17707330

  14. Persistence of 10-year old Exxon Valdez oil on Gulf of Alaska beaches: The importance of boulder-armoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irvine, G.V.; Mann, D.H.; Short, J.W.

    2006-01-01

    Oil stranded as a result of the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill has persisted for >10 years at study sites on Gulf of Alaska shores distant from the spill's origin. These sites were contaminated by "oil mousse", which persists in these settings due to armoring of underlying sediments and their included oil beneath boulders. The boulder-armored beaches that we resampled in 1999 showed continued contamination by subsurface oil, despite their exposure to moderate to high wave energies. Significant declines in surface oil cover occurred at all study sites. In contrast, mousse has persisted under boulders in amounts similar to what was present in 1994 and probably in 1989. Especially striking is the general lack of weathering of this subsurface oil over the last decade. Oil at five of the six armored-beach sites 10 years after the spill is compositionally similar to 11-day old Exxon Valdez oil. Analysis of movements in the boulder-armor that covers the study beaches reveals that only minor shifts have occurred since 1994, suggesting that over the last five, and probably over the last 10 years, boulder-armors have remained largely unmoved at the study sites. These findings emphasize the importance of particular geomorphic parameters in determining stranded oil persistence. Surface armoring, combined with stranding of oil mousse, results in the unexpectedly lengthy persistence of only lightly to moderately weathered oil within otherwise high-energy wave environments. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Persistence of 10-year old Exxon Valdez oil on Gulf of Alaska beaches: the importance of boulder-armoring.

    PubMed

    Irvine, Gail V; Mann, Daniel H; Short, Jeffrey W

    2006-09-01

    Oil stranded as a result of the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill has persisted for >10 years at study sites on Gulf of Alaska shores distant from the spill's origin. These sites were contaminated by "oil mousse", which persists in these settings due to armoring of underlying sediments and their included oil beneath boulders. The boulder-armored beaches that we resampled in 1999 showed continued contamination by subsurface oil, despite their exposure to moderate to high wave energies. Significant declines in surface oil cover occurred at all study sites. In contrast, mousse has persisted under boulders in amounts similar to what was present in 1994 and probably in 1989. Especially striking is the general lack of weathering of this subsurface oil over the last decade. Oil at five of the six armored-beach sites 10 years after the spill is compositionally similar to 11-day old Exxon Valdez oil. Analysis of movements in the boulder-armor that covers the study beaches reveals that only minor shifts have occurred since 1994, suggesting that over the last five, and probably over the last 10 years, boulder-armors have remained largely unmoved at the study sites. These findings emphasize the importance of particular geomorphic parameters in determining stranded oil persistence. Surface armoring, combined with stranding of oil mousse, results in the unexpectedly lengthy persistence of only lightly to moderately weathered oil within otherwise high-energy wave environments. PMID:16524600

  16. Persistence of 10-year old Exxon Valdez oil on Gulf of Alaska beaches: the importance of boulder-armoring.

    PubMed

    Irvine, Gail V; Mann, Daniel H; Short, Jeffrey W

    2006-09-01

    Oil stranded as a result of the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill has persisted for >10 years at study sites on Gulf of Alaska shores distant from the spill's origin. These sites were contaminated by "oil mousse", which persists in these settings due to armoring of underlying sediments and their included oil beneath boulders. The boulder-armored beaches that we resampled in 1999 showed continued contamination by subsurface oil, despite their exposure to moderate to high wave energies. Significant declines in surface oil cover occurred at all study sites. In contrast, mousse has persisted under boulders in amounts similar to what was present in 1994 and probably in 1989. Especially striking is the general lack of weathering of this subsurface oil over the last decade. Oil at five of the six armored-beach sites 10 years after the spill is compositionally similar to 11-day old Exxon Valdez oil. Analysis of movements in the boulder-armor that covers the study beaches reveals that only minor shifts have occurred since 1994, suggesting that over the last five, and probably over the last 10 years, boulder-armors have remained largely unmoved at the study sites. These findings emphasize the importance of particular geomorphic parameters in determining stranded oil persistence. Surface armoring, combined with stranding of oil mousse, results in the unexpectedly lengthy persistence of only lightly to moderately weathered oil within otherwise high-energy wave environments.

  17. A personal perspective and update on erosive tooth wear - 10 years on: Part 1 - Diagnosis and prevention.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, D

    2016-08-12

    Tooth wear has been recognised as an increasing problem over the past 10 years. Recent data from epidemiological studies indicate that the condition is common with prevalence of dentine exposure in adults ranging between 2% and 10% and visible surface changes on teeth observed up to 30% of European adults. The Basic Erosive Wear Examination (BEWE) was designed for general practitioners to score the severity using similar protocols as the Basic Periodontal Examination (BPE). The role of the BEWE is partly to increase awareness, but also a means to record the severity in the clinical notes. Over the past 10 years toothpaste manufacturers have launched products to prevent progression of erosive tooth wear using specially formulated fluorides or calcium based products. Probably the most important preventive advice is to reduce the frequency of acidic foods and drinks, particularly outside meal times. PMID:27514340

  18. Subtrochanteric femur fracture after removal of screws for femoral neck fracture in a child.

    PubMed

    Song, Kwang Soon; Lee, Si Wook

    2015-01-01

    Displaced femoral neck fractures are rare in children and are associated with a high rate of complications. Subtrochanteric fractures after cannulated screw fixation of femoral neck fractures in adults are well recognized, and there are several reports on the topic. However, there are no reports on complications related to hardware or subtrochanteric fractures after removal of the screws in the treatment of femoral neck fractures in children. Here we report the case of a 10-year-old boy who sustained a subtrochanteric fracture after the screw removal and healing that followed a femoral neck fracture. PMID:25566556

  19. Self-Esteem during University Studies Predicts Career Characteristics 10 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2007-01-01

    To examine how self-esteem measured during university studies would impact on the characteristics of the work career 10 years later, 297 university students completed the Rosenberg's self-esteem inventory four times while at university and various career-related questionnaires 10 years later. Latent Growth Curve Modeling showed that a high overall…

  20. Natural History of Thyroid Function in Adults with Down Syndrome--10-Year Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasher, V.; Gomez, G.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The natural history of thyroid function in adults with Down syndrome (DS) is unknown. Method: This study investigated annual thyroid function tests in 200 adults with DS over a 10-year period. Results: Transient and persistent thyroid dysfunction was common. The 5- and 10-year incidence of definite hypothyroidism was 0.9%-1.64% and…

  1. Effects of Two Modes of Exercise Training on Physical Fitness of 10 Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribeiro, Ligia G. dos Santos Chaves; Portal, Maria de Nazare Dias; da Silva, Joao Bittencourt; Saraiva, Alan; da Cruz Monte, Gerson, Jr.; Dantas, Estelio H. M.

    2010-01-01

    Study aim: To compare two exercise training modes on the physical fitness of 10 year-old children. Material and methods: A sample of 60 schoolboys aged 10 years were randomly divided into 3 groups: Traditional (TG), trained according to the Brazilian national curricular parameters, Maturational (MG), in which the degree of difficulty of the…

  2. 7 CFR 625.9 - 10-year restoration cost-share agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 10-year restoration cost-share agreements. 625.9... restoration cost-share agreements. (a) The restoration plan developed under § 625.12 forms the basis for the...) Incorporate all portions of a restoration plan; (2) Be for a period of 10 years; (3) Include all provisions...

  3. 7 CFR 625.9 - 10-year restoration cost-share agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false 10-year restoration cost-share agreements. 625.9... restoration cost-share agreements. (a) The restoration plan developed under § 625.13 forms the basis for the... agreement will: (1) Incorporate all portions of a restoration plan; (2) Be for a period of 10 years;...

  4. A Meta-Analysis of Trabecular Bone Score in Fracture Risk Prediction and Its Relationship to FRAX.

    PubMed

    McCloskey, Eugene V; Odén, Anders; Harvey, Nicholas C; Leslie, William D; Hans, Didier; Johansson, Helena; Barkmann, Reinhard; Boutroy, Stephanie; Brown, Jacques; Chapurlat, Roland; Elders, Petra Jm; Fujita, Yuki; Glüer, Claus-C; Goltzman, David; Iki, Masayuki; Karlsson, Magnus; Kindmark, Andreas; Kotowicz, Mark; Kurumatani, Norio; Kwok, Timothy; Lamy, Oliver; Leung, Jason; Lippuner, Kurt; Ljunggren, Östen; Lorentzon, Mattias; Mellström, Dan; Merlijn, Thomas; Oei, Ling; Ohlsson, Claes; Pasco, Julie A; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rosengren, Björn; Sornay-Rendu, Elisabeth; Szulc, Pawel; Tamaki, Junko; Kanis, John A

    2016-05-01

    Trabecular bone score (TBS) is a gray-level textural index of bone microarchitecture derived from lumbar spine dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) images. TBS is a bone mineral density (BMD)-independent predictor of fracture risk. The objective of this meta-analysis was to determine whether TBS predicted fracture risk independently of FRAX probability and to examine their combined performance by adjusting the FRAX probability for TBS. We utilized individual-level data from 17,809 men and women in 14 prospective population-based cohorts. Baseline evaluation included TBS and the FRAX risk variables, and outcomes during follow-up (mean 6.7 years) comprised major osteoporotic fractures. The association between TBS, FRAX probabilities, and the risk of fracture was examined using an extension of the Poisson regression model in each cohort and for each sex and expressed as the gradient of risk (GR; hazard ratio per 1 SD change in risk variable in direction of increased risk). FRAX probabilities were adjusted for TBS using an adjustment factor derived from an independent cohort (the Manitoba Bone Density Cohort). Overall, the GR of TBS for major osteoporotic fracture was 1.44 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.35-1.53) when adjusted for age and time since baseline and was similar in men and women (p > 0.10). When additionally adjusted for FRAX 10-year probability of major osteoporotic fracture, TBS remained a significant, independent predictor for fracture (GR = 1.32, 95% CI 1.24-1.41). The adjustment of FRAX probability for TBS resulted in a small increase in the GR (1.76, 95% CI 1.65-1.87 versus 1.70, 95% CI 1.60-1.81). A smaller change in GR for hip fracture was observed (FRAX hip fracture probability GR 2.25 vs. 2.22). TBS is a significant predictor of fracture risk independently of FRAX. The findings support the use of TBS as a potential adjustment for FRAX probability, though the impact of the adjustment remains to be determined in the context of clinical

  5. The DOTS strategy in China: results and lessons after 10 years.

    PubMed Central

    Xianyi, Chen; Fengzeng, Zhao; Hongjin, Duanmu; Liya, Wan; Lixia, Wang; Xin, Du; Chin, Daniel P.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse the five-point tuberculosis (TB) strategy, DOTS, 10 years after its implementation in one-half of China's population, and to suggest lessons for future implementation of the DOTS strategy. METHODS: We analysed trends in case-finding and treatment outcome over time following implementation of the DOTS strategy in each county, using routine reporting data from the Infectious and Endemic Disease Control (IEDC) project (1991 - 2000). We also determined the proportion of counties with different levels of case-finding for the fifth and sixth years of DOTS implementation. FINDINGS: From 1991 to 1995, DOTS expanded rapidly to cover more than 90% of target population and counties. By 2000, 8 million TB suspects had received free diagnostic evaluation: 1.8 million TB cases were diagnosed, free treatment was provided to 1.3 million smear-positive cases, and more than 90% were cured. During DOTS implementation, the percentage of previously treated cases decreased among all smear-positive cases and treatment outcomes improved. Despite these achievements, the detection rate for new smear-positive cases in the project was estimated to be only 54% in 1998, and 41.2% of the counties had a below average or low level of case-finding (with substantial variation between provinces). CONCLUSIONS: The IEDC project demonstrated that it is feasible to rapidly expand DOTS on a large scale. The global target of an 85% cure rate was quickly achieved, and the level of drug-resistance was probably reduced by this project. However, case-detection did not reach the 70% global target, and more research is needed on how to enhance this. PMID:12131998

  6. 10-year prevalence of contact allergy in the general population in Denmark estimated through the CE-DUR method.

    PubMed

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Uter, Wolfgang; Schnuch, Axel; Linneberg, Allan; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2007-10-01

    The prevalence of contact allergy in the general population has traditionally been investigated through population-based epidemiological studies. A different approach is the combination of clinical epidemiological (CE) data and the World Health Organization-defined drug utilization research (DUR) method. The CE-DUR method was applied in Denmark to estimate the prevalence of contact allergy in the general population and compare it with the prevalence estimates from the Glostrup allergy studies. Contact allergy prevalence estimates ranging from very liberal ('worst case') to conservative ('best case') assumptions were based on patch test reading data in combination with an estimate of the number of persons eligible for patch testing each year based on sales data of the 'standard series'. The estimated 10-year prevalence of contact allergy ranged between 7.3% and 12.9% for adult Danes older than 18 years. The 10-year prevalence of contact allergy measured by CE-DUR was slightly lower than previous prevalence estimates from the Glostrup allergy studies. This could probably be explained by a decrease in nickel allergy. The CE-DUR approach holds the potential of being an efficient and easy monitoring method of contact allergy prevalence.

  7. Incidence of hip fracture in Barranquilla, Colombia, and the development of a Colombian FRAX model.

    PubMed

    Jaller-Raad, J J; Jaller-Char, J J; Lechuga-Ortiz, J A; Navarro-Lechuga, E; Johansson, H; Kanis, J A

    2013-07-01

    A FRAX model for Colombia was released June 30, 2010. This article describes the data used to develop the Colombian FRAX model and illustrates its features compared to other countries. Hip fracture cases aged 50 years or more who were referred to all hospitals serving the city of Barranquilla were identified prospectively over a 3-year period (2004-2006). Age- and sex-stratified hip fracture incidence rates were computed using the 2005 census. Present and future numbers of hip fracture cases in Colombia were calculated from the age- and sex-specific incidence and the national population demography. Mortality rates for 1999 were extracted from nationwide databases and used to estimate hip fracture probabilities. For other major fractures (clinical vertebral, forearm, and humerus), incidence rates were imputed, using Swedish ratios for hip to other major osteoporotic fracture, and used to construct the FRAX model. Incidence of hip fracture increased with age, more markedly in women than in men. Over all ages, the female to male ratio was 1.7. By extrapolation, there were estimated to be 7,902 new hip fracture cases (2,673 men, 5,229 women) in Colombia in 2010, which was predicted to increase to 22,720 cases (7,568 men, 15,152 women) in 2035. The 10-year probability of hip or major fracture was increased in patients with a clinical risk factor, lower BMI, female gender, a higher age, and a decreased BMD T score. The remaining lifetime probability of hip fracture at the age of 50 years was 2.5 and 4.7 % in men and women, respectively, which were lower than rates in a Mexican population (3.8 and 8.5 %, respectively) and comparable with estimates for Venezuela (2.4 and 7.5 %, respectively). The FRAX tool is the first country-specific fracture-prediction model available in Colombia. It is based on the original FRAX methodology, which has been externally validated in several independent cohorts. Despite some limitations, the strengths make the Colombian FRAX tool a good

  8. Estimating fracture geometry in the naturally fractured Antrim Shale

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, C.W.; Frantz, J.H. Jr.; Hill, D.G.

    1995-12-31

    The Antrim Shale of the Michigan Basin has been an active gas play with over 3,500 wells drilled over the last 5 years. There is substantial evidence that the Antrim must be fracture stimulated to be economical and that two-stage treatments provide the best results. However, due to the shallow depths (500-2300 ft) and naturally fractured nature of the Antrim, fracture geometry is complex, and determination of optimal fracture treatments is not straight forward. Because historical field comparisons did not provide insight on the optimal fracture treatments, the Gas Research Institute (GRI) instituted a field-based project for the specific purpose of evaluating the geometry of hydraulic fractures in the Antrim. Open- and cased-hole tests were performed on two separate Antrim wells - a shallow producer (600 {+-} ft) and a deep producer (1550 {+-} ft). Open-hole testing and data collection consisted of in-situ stress and mechanical property testing with Halliburton`s THE{trademark} Tool (9 tests) and a detailed suite of geophysical logs including dipole sonic logs and natural fracture detection logs. Cased-hole testing consisted of pre- and post-fracture injection/falloff tests, minifracture treatments, multiple isotope tracer and tracer logs, and treating pressure and production data analysis. The shallow depths, low in-situ stresses, and extremely fractured nature of the Antrim probably results in the preferential opening of existing fractures instead of the creation of new fracture planes. As a result, the creation of multiple fractures and severe near wellbore tortuosity is likely. Therefore, the natural fractures are responsible for increased leakoff and will greatly impact created fracture geometry. The results also suggest that creating long propped hydraulic fractures in the Antrim is not likely due to the creation of multiple fractures.

  9. Hepatitis C virus recurrence after liver transplantation: A 10-year evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Gitto, Stefano; Belli, Luca Saverio; Vukotic, Ranka; Lorenzini, Stefania; Airoldi, Aldo; Cicero, Arrigo Francesco Giuseppe; Vangeli, Marcello; Brodosi, Lucia; Panno, Arianna Martello; Di Donato, Roberto; Cescon, Matteo; Grazi, Gian Luca; De Carlis, Luciano; Pinna, Antonio Daniele; Bernardi, Mauro; Andreone, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the predictors of 10-year survival of patients with hepatitis C recurrence. METHODS: Data from 358 patients transplanted between 1989 and 2010 in two Italian transplant centers and with evidence of hepatitis C recurrence were analyzed. A χ2, Fisher’s exact test and Kruskal Wallis’ test were used for categorical and continuous variables, respectively. Survival analysis was performed at 10 years after transplant using the Kaplan-Meier method, and a log-rank test was used to compare groups. A P level less than 0.05 was considered significant for all tests. Multivariate analysis of the predictive role of different variables on 10-year survival was performed by a stepwise Cox logistic regression. RESULTS: The ten-year survival of the entire population was 61.2%. Five groups of patients were identified according to the virological response or lack of a response to antiviral treatment and, among those who were not treated, according to the clinical status (mild hepatitis C recurrence, “too sick to be treated” and patients with comorbidities contraindicating the treatment). While the 10-year survival of treated and untreated patients was not different (59.1% vs 64.7%, P = 0.192), patients with a sustained virological response had a higher 10-year survival rate than both the “non-responders” (84.7% vs 39.8%, P < 0.0001) and too sick to be treated (84.7% vs 0%, P < 0.0001). Sustained virological responders had a survival rate comparable to patients untreated with mild recurrence (84.7% vs 89.3%). A sustained virological response and young donor age were independent predictors of 10-year survival. CONCLUSION: Sustained virological response significantly increased long-term survival. Awaiting the interferon-free regimen global availability, antiviral treatment might be questionable in selected subjects with mild hepatitis C recurrence. PMID:25852276

  10. Influence of the isolation method on the 10-year clinical behaviour of posterior resin composite restorations.

    PubMed

    Raskin, A; Setcos, J C; Vreven, J; Wilson, N H

    2000-09-01

    The aims of this prospective randomised clinical study were to clinically evaluate a radiopaque, highly filled, hybrid, light-activated resin-based composite for posterior teeth (Occlusin, ICI Dental, Macclesfield, UK and GC Dental, Tokyo, Japan) and compare the performance of restorations placed using rubber dam or cotton roll isolation. One clinician placed 100 (42 Class I and 58 Class II) restorations of the material under investigation. The isolation mode for each restoration was determined randomly: 52 preparations were protected from contamination with cotton rolls and aspiration, and 48 preparations were isolated under rubber dam. At baseline and periodically thereafter (0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 10 years), each composite was evaluated by two practitioners using a modified (USPHS) rating system. After 10 years, 37 restorations were reviewed. The results showed satisfactory clinical performance with and without rubber dam after 10 years. A concern was the number of failures at 10 years due to unsatisfactory proximal contact. The evaluations for the surviving restorations were acceptable but with a large reduction in the percentage with ideal occlusal and proximal anatomy. The 10-year comparison of isolation modes showed no statistically significant differences (Kruskal-Wallis test) for each of the evaluation criteria. Furthermore, survival analysis showed no significant difference between the groups (Mantel-Haenszel method). It was concluded that the 10-year clinical behaviour of the restorations of a posterior composite placed under well-controlled, effective isolation with cotton rolls and aspiration, was not significantly different from the behaviour of restorations placed using rubber dam isolation.

  11. Visual plus nonvisual hallucinations in Parkinson's disease: development and evolution over 10 years.

    PubMed

    Goetz, Christopher G; Stebbins, Glenn T; Ouyang, Bichun

    2011-10-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the development and evolution of visual and nonvisual hallucinations in patients with Parkinson's disease over 10 years. Hallucinations increase over time, but minimal attention has been placed on nonvisual domains. We studied 60 patients with Parkinson's disease who had never hallucinated at baseline and followed them over 10 years. The Rush Hallucination Inventory monitored frequency and type (visual, auditory, tactile, olfactory) of hallucinations at baseline and after 0.5, 1.5, 4, 6, and 10 years. Descriptive statistics were applied, and general estimating equation modeling assessed longitudinal risks. Over 10 years, visual hallucinations were endorsed by patients more frequently than other sensory modalities. Whereas isolated visual hallucinations dominated the early hallucination profile, visual plus nonvisual hallucinations accounted for progressively higher proportions of hallucinators over 10 years: 0.5 years, 0%; 4 years, 26%; 6 years, 47%; 10 years, 60% (odds ratio, 1.17; confidence interval, 1.01-1.37; P = .04). Once visual plus nonvisual hallucinations developed, the risk of continuing to have multidomain hallucinations was high (odds ratio, 3.67; confidence interval, 1.13-11.93; P = .03). Hallucination severity was highly associated with current visual plus nonvisual hallucinations (odds ratio, 4.06; confidence interval, 2.93-5.61; P < .0001) and the continuation of multidomain hallucinations (odds ratio, 1.58; confidence interval, 1.12-2.24; P = .01). Whereas visual hallucinations in isolation are classic in Parkinson's disease, nonvisual hallucinations emerge over time, and the combination of visual with nonvisual hallucinations predominates in late Parkinson's disease. To capture the breadth and severity of hallucinations in chronically hallucinating patients with Parkinson's disease, screening inventories and practice-based interviews must include questions on both visual and nonvisual components.

  12. Early Predictors of Career Development: A 10-Year Follow-up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferreira, Joaquim Armando; Santos, Eduardo J. R.; Fonseca, Antonio C.; Haase, Richard F.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents empirical findings from a 10-year longitudinal study of the educational and occupational socialization of 445 participants who were about 7 years old when first tested, and about 17 years old at the fourth time of measurement. In addition to collecting psychological measurements from the participants, behavioral reports were…

  13. A Content Analysis of 10 Years of Clinical Supervision Articles in Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard, Janine M.; Luke, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    This content analysis follows Borders's (2005) review of counseling supervision literature and includes 184 counselor supervision articles published over the past 10 years. Articles were coded as representing 1 of 3 research types or 1 of 3 conceptual types. Articles were then analyzed for main topics producing 11 topic categories.

  14. Educational Attainment of 10-Year-Old Children with Treated and Untreated Visual Defects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart-Brown, Sarah; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Children with visual impairments who participated in a 10-year survey were compared with peers on measures of intelligence, reading, mathematics, and sporting ability. Results are consistent with earlier findings of increased intelligence among Ss with myopia and slightly reduced intelligence among Ss with amblyopia. It was concluded that the…

  15. Personnel Needs in School Psychology: A 10-Year Follow-Up Study on Predicted Personnel Shortages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castillo, Jose M.; Curtis, Michael J.; Tan, Sim Yin

    2014-01-01

    Concerns regarding whether a sufficient supply of school psychologists exists have been evident for decades. Studies have predicted that school psychology would face a critical personnel shortage that would peak in 2010, but continue into the foreseeable future. The current study is a 10-year follow-up investigation based on previously published…

  16. Bullying and Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder in 10-Year-Olds in a Swedish Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmberg, Kirsten; Hjern, Anders

    2008-01-01

    The association of attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with bullying in the peer group in school was studied in an entire population of 577 fourth graders (10-year-olds) in one municipality in Stockholm, Sweden. The schoolchildren were screened for ADHD in a two-step procedure that included Conners' ratings of behavioural problems:…

  17. Handedness in Swedish 10-year-olds, Some Background and Associated Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillberg, Christopher; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Aims to obtain prevalence figures for left-handedness among 10-year-old Swedish children; to replicate some findings concerning Bishop's (1980) extended pathological left-handedness hypothesis; to evaluate the influence of factors such as the child's sex and reduced optimality in the pre-, peri-, and neonatal period; and to determine the…

  18. Is the Party Over? Cannabis and Juvenile Psychiatric Disorder: The Past 10 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rey, Joseph M.; Martin, Andres; Krabman, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To critically review cannabis research during the past 10 years in relation to rates of use, behavioral problems, and mental disorders in young people. Method: Studies published in English between 1994 and 2004 were identified through systematic searches of literature databases. The material was selectively reviewed focusing on child…

  19. Students as Teachers: Effectiveness of a Peer-Led STEM Learning Programme over 10 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drane, Denise; Micari, Marina; Light, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Peer-led small-group learning has been used quite extensively in the US to enhance performance and retention of undergraduate students in science, math, and engineering classes. This study presents the results from an evaluation of a peer-led small-group programme at a research university in the US over a 10-year period across five disciplines…

  20. Childhood Peer Reputation as a Predictor of Competence and Symptoms 10 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gest, Scott D.; Sesma, Arturo, Jr.; Masten, Ann S.; Tellegen, Auke

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the differential developmental significance of multiple domains of peer reputation in childhood for current and future competence and symptoms. Participants were 205 children from a normative school cohort who completed assessments in grades 3-6 and then again 10 years later. Through re-analysis of original data from the…

  1. Getting an Early Start: Communication about Sexuality among Mothers and Children 6-10 Years Old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pluhar, Erika; Jennings, Tanya; DiIorio, Colleen

    2006-01-01

    Little information exists on communication about sexuality between parents and preadolescent children. This study collected qualitative data on family sexuality communication from 3 focus groups conducted with African American mothers of 6-10 year old children. Two broad themes emerged from the data: "Beyond the Birds and the Bees" and "Let's Talk…

  2. Psychosocial Family Treatment for a 10-Year-Old with Schizoaffective Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klaus, Nicole M.; Fristad, Mary A.; Malkin, Catherine; Mackinaw-Koons, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Schizophrenia spectrum disorders are rare in childhood and little is known about their psychosocial treatment. Relevant findings from the adult and child literature are reviewed. The case of 10-year-old "Michael" is presented, who participated in a randomized clinical trial of a psychoeducational family treatment for mood disorders. Following…

  3. Case Report: Homicide by a 10-Year-Old Girl with Autistic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukaddes, Nahit Motavalli; Topcu, Zerrin

    2006-01-01

    This case study presents a 10-year-old girl with a diagnosis of Autistic Disorder, who killed her 6-month-old sister by throwing her out of a window. Her aggressive-impulsive behavior had a persistent pattern. She had a history of epilepsy, and was frequently exposed to physical abuse. She never attended a structured treatment program. Here, we…

  4. Frontal Electroencephalogram Activation Asymmetry, Emotional Intelligence, and Externalizing Behaviors in 10-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santesso, L. Diane; Dana, L. Reker; Schmidt, Louis A.; Segalowitz, Sidney J.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relations among resting frontal brain electrical activity (EEG) (hypothesized to reflect a predisposition to positive versus negative affect and ability to regulate emotions), emotional intelligence, and externalizing behaviors in a sample of non-clinical 10-year-old children. We found that boys…

  5. Computer Card Games in Computer Science Education: A 10-Year Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kordaki, Maria; Gousiou, Anthi

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a 10-year review study that focuses on the investigation of the use of computer card games (CCGs) as learning tools in Computer Science (CS) Education. Specific search terms keyed into 10 large scientific electronic databases identified 24 papers referring to the use of CCGs for the learning of CS matters during the last…

  6. Impact of Adolescent Alcohol and Drug Use on Neuropsychological Functioning in Young Adulthood: 10-Year Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Karen L.; Medina, Krista Lisdahl; Padula, Claudia B.; Tapert, Susan F.; Brown, Sandra A.

    2011-01-01

    Because of ongoing neuromaturation, youth with chronic alcohol/substance use disorders (AUD/SUD) are at risk for cognitive decrements during young adulthood. We prospectively examined cognition over 10 years based on AUD/SUD history. Youth (N = 51) with no AUD/SUD history (n = 14), persisting AUD/SUD (n = 18), or remitted AUD/SUD (n = 19) were…

  7. Maintenance of Response Suppression Following Overcorrection: A 10-Year Retrospective Examination of Eight Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foxx, Richard M.; Livesay, Jim

    1984-01-01

    A retrospective analysis of the progress of eight institutionalized subjects who had been successfully treated in overcorrection procedures 10 years earlier revealed that maladaptive behaviors of the highest functioning individuals showed the longest term and best suppression, and that staff tend to return to the status quo after the expert…

  8. Optimism, Pessimism, Mutuality, and Gender: Predicting 10-Year Role Strain in Parkinson's Disease Spouses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Karen S.; Stewart, Barbara J.; Archbold, Patricia G.; Carter, Julie H.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: There is wide variability in how spouses providing care respond to their care situations. Few studies focus on the roles of both intra- and interpersonal factors in long-term spousal care, particularly in the context of Parkinson's disease (PD). The current study uses longitudinal data over a 10-year period to examine the roles of…

  9. Psychiatric Aspects of Child and Adolescent Obesity: A Review of the Past 10 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zametkin, Alan J.; Zoon, Christine K.; Klein, Hannah W.; Munson, Suzanne

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To review the past 10 years of published research on psychiatric aspects of child and adolescent obesity and highlight information mental health professionals need for preventing obesity in youths and diagnosing and treating it. Method: Researchers performed computerized and manual searches of the literature and summarized the most…

  10. Physical Activity Patterns During School Recess: A Study in Children 6 to 10 Years Old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopes, Victor; Vasques, Catarina Margarida Silva; de Oliveira Pereira, Maria Beatriz Ferreira Leite

    2006-01-01

    The aims of this study were to characterize the spontaneous physical activity of children during school recess, and to estimate variation in physical activity associated with gender and age. A MTI actigraph (Model 7164) was used with a sample of 140 boys and 131 girls, 6 to 10 years of age. MTI counts were converted to METs using a regression…

  11. Effect of meteorology and soil condition on metolachlor and atrazine volatilization over a 10 year period

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 10-year study was conducted to focus on the impact of soil and climatic factors governing herbicide volatilization from an agricultural field. For the first 5 years, metolachlor [2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N-(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl) acetamide] and atrazine [6-chloro-N-ethyl-N’-(1-methyl...

  12. Effect of meteorology and soil condition on metolachlor and atrazine volatilization over a 10 year period

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Volatilization of pesticides can detrimentally affect the environment by contaminating soil and surface waters far away from where the pesticides were applied. A 10-year study was conducted to focus on the impact of soil and climatic factors governing herbicide volatilization from an agricultural f...

  13. Public School Voice Clinics, Part II: Diagnosis and Recommendations--A 10-Year Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Sandra Q.; Madison, Charles L.

    1984-01-01

    In 10 years of school district voice clinics, 249 cases were reviewed. Vocal nodules, chronic laryngitis and thickened cords were frequently noted. One-third of the cases had concomitant allergies, ear, and/or upper respiratory problems. Direct voice therapy was recommended for 65 percent of attendees. (Author/CL)

  14. 7 CFR 625.9 - 10-year restoration cost-share agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... restoration cost-share agreements. (a) The restoration plan developed under § 625.13 forms the basis for the... agreement will: (1) Incorporate all portions of a restoration plan; (2) Be for a period of 10 years; (3... implementation of the approved conservation treatment identified in the restoration plan; and (8) Include...

  15. Colon perforation during percutaneous renal surgery: a 10-year experience in a single endourology centre.

    PubMed

    Kachrilas, Stefanos; Stefanos, Kachrilas; Papatsoris, Athanasios; Athanasios, Papatsoris; Bach, Christian; Christian, Bach; Kontos, Stylianos; Stylianos, Kontos; Faruquz, Zaman; Zaman, Faruquz; Goyal, Anuj; Anuj, Goyal; Masood, Junaid; Junaid, Masood; Buchholz, Noor; Noor, Buchholz

    2012-06-01

    The use of percutaneous renal surgery has been recently revolutionised with novel endourological instruments and techniques. However, the incidence, prevention and management of severe complications such as colon perforation still lack consensus. By presenting our 10-year experience, we would like to highlight the diagnosis and management of the rare complication of colon perforation.

  16. Individual Oral Exams in Mathematics Courses: 10 Years of Experience at the Air Force Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boedigheimer, Ralph; Ghrist, Michelle; Peterson, Dale; Kallemyn, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Over the last 10 years faculty members in the Department of Mathematical Sciences at the United States Air Force Academy have incorporated individual oral exams into mathematics courses. We have experimented with various approaches, shared results and ideas with other department members, and refined our techniques. We have found that this…

  17. A 10-Year Assessment of Information and Communication Technology Tasks Required in Undergraduate Agriculture Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgar, Leslie D.; Johnson, Donald M.; Cox, Casandra

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to assess required information and communication technology (ICT) tasks in selected undergraduate agriculture courses in a land-grant university during a 10-year period. Selected agriculture faculty members in the fall 1999 (n = 63), 2004 (n = 55), and 2009 (n = 64) semesters were surveyed to determine the ICT tasks they required…

  18. Adolescents’ attitudes toward sports, exercise and fitness predict physical activity 5 and 10 years later

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Dan J.; Sirard, John R.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine whether adolescent attitudes towards sports, exercise and fitness predict moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) 5 and 10 years later. Method A diverse group of 1902 adolescents participating in Project EAT (Eating and Activity in Teens), reported weekly MVPA and attitudes toward sports, exercise and fitness in EAT-I (1998-99), EAT-II (2003-04), and EAT-III (2008-09). Results Mean MVPA was 6.4, 4.8, and 4.0 hrs/wk at baseline, 5-yr, and 10-yr follow-up, respectively. Attitudes toward sports, exercise, and fitness together predicted MVPA at 5- and 10-years. Among the predictors of 5- and 10-year MVPA, attitude’s effect size, though modest, was comparable to the effect sizes for sports participation and BMI. Adolescents with more-favorable attitudes toward sports, exercise and fitness engaged in approximately 30-40% more weekly MVPA at follow-up (1.7 hr/wk at 5 years and 1.2 hr/wk at 10 years) than those with less-favorable attitudes. Conclusion Adolescents’ exercise-related attitudes predict subsequent MVPA independent of baseline behavior suggesting that youth MVPA promotion efforts may provide long-term benefits by helping youth develop favorable exercise attitudes. PMID:21130803

  19. Re-Visited: A Tracer Study 10 Years Later--Detective Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin-Rozalis, Miry

    2004-01-01

    Does an early childhood program have an influence on its participants that is detectable 10 years later? The answer is "yes". This research managed to detect differences between children of Ethiopian origin who had immigrated to Israel. It also managed to generalize and conceptualize these differences and provide an explanation of them: The…

  20. Functional and anatomic consequences of diabetic pregnancy on memory in 10-year-old children

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Kathleen M.; Langworthy, Sara; Georgieff, Michael K.; Nelson, Charles A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Pregnancies complicated by diabetes mellitus impair offspring memory functions during infancy and early childhood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the long term consequences of such pregnancies on memory and memory-related brain regions in 10-year-old children. Method Nineteen (19) children of diabetic mothers (CDMs) and thirty-five (35) children of non-diabetic mothers participated in this 10 year follow-up study. Memory performance was assessed using a continuous recognition memory task during which children made old/new judgments in response to pictures of concrete and abstract objects presented after different lags or delays. In addition, the volume of the hippocampal formation was measured using high resolution structural images. Results At 10 years of age, recognition memory performance of CDMs did not differ from children of non-diabetic mothers. Similarly, the volume of the hippocampal formation did not differ between groups. However, the size of the hippocampal formation in CDMs predicted the time those children needed to provide accurate responses in the continuous recognition memory task. Conclusion CDMs do not show memory impairments by 10 years of age, despite evidence for such impairments early in life. However, subtle differences in underlying neural processes may still be present. These results have important implications for long-term cognitive development of CDMs. PMID:26348971

  1. Psychopathy and Offending From Adolescence to Adulthood: A 10-Year Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gretton, Heather M.; Hare, Robert D.; Catchpole, Rosalind E. H.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the predictive validity of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV; A. E. Forth, D. S. Kosson, & R. D. Hare, 2003) from adolescence to early adulthood. The authors coded the PCL:YV using file information and collected criminal record information over a 10-year follow-up period on 157 boys, ages 12 through 18,…

  2. Eastern Michigan University's Automated Storage and Retrieval System: 10 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullard, Rita; Wrosch, Jackie

    2009-01-01

    Automated storage/retrieval systems (ASRSs) are playing an integral part in today's library operations and collections management. Eastern Michigan University installed an ASRS as part of the new Halle Library, which opened in May 1998, to provide "storage" for up to 800,000 items. Over the past 10 years our policies and procedures have been…

  3. Eating With Your Heart In Mind: 7 to 10 Year Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Heart, Lung, and Blood Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    The purpose of this brightly illustrated guide is to teach 7-10 year old children that all healthy Americans, 2 years of age or older, should eat in a way that is low in saturated fat and cholesterol so as to help reduce the risk of heart disease. The theme reflected throughout the manual is that changes in eating patterns help lower blood…

  4. Self-Controlled Feedback in 10-Year-Old Children: Higher Feedback Frequencies Enhance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiviacowsky, Suzete; Wulf, Gabriele; de Medeiros, Franklin Laroque; Kaefer, Angelica; Wally, Raquel

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine whether learning in 10-year-old children--that is, the age group for which the Chiviacowsky et al. (2006) study found benefits of self-controlled knowledge of results (KR)--would differ depending on the frequency of feedback they chose. The authors surmised that a relatively high feedback frequency…

  5. Learning Benefits of Self-Controlled Knowledge of Results in 10-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiviacowsky, Suzete; Wulf, Gabriele; Laroque de Medeiros, Franklin; Kaefer, Angelica; Tani, Go

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the learning benefits of self-controlled knowledge of results (KR) would generalize to children. Specifically, the authors chose 10-year-old children representative of late childhood. The authors used a task that required the children to toss beanbags at a target. One group received KR…

  6. If We Could Plan the Next 10 Years in Science Education...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansell, Warwick

    2013-01-01

    Two major sessions at the 2013 ASE Summer Celebration Conference in Hatfield offered teachers (and other educators) the chance to debate and define the key issues facing science education over the next 10 years. Participants were asked to suggest the important issues. Then those with similar proposals were put into groups to develop the idea ready…

  7. Motor Performance and Dyslexia in a National Cohort of 10-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haslum, M. N.; Miles, T. R.

    2007-01-01

    Data from the 10-year follow-up of the 1970 British Births Survey were examined for associations between motor performance and dyslexia. Five tests of motor performance were used: (a) balancing on one leg, (b) throwing a ball in the air, clapping and catching it, (c) walking backwards, (d) sorting matches and (e) graphaesthesia (recognizing shapes…

  8. Motor Skills in Children Aged 7-10 Years, Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whyatt, Caroline P.; Craig, Cathy M.

    2012-01-01

    This study used the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC2) to assess motor skills in children aged 7-10 years with autism (n = 18) in comparison to two groups of age-matched typically developing children; a receptive vocabulary matched group (n = 19) and a nonverbal IQ matched group (n = 22). The results supported previous work, as…

  9. Relationship between Motor Skill and Body Mass Index in 5- to 10-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Hondt, Eva; Deforche, Benedicte; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate gross and fine motor skill in overweight and obese children compared with normal-weight peers. According to international cut-off points for Body Mass Index (BMI) from Cole et al. (2000), all 117 participants (5-10 year) were classified as being normal-weight, overweight, or obese. Level of motor skill…

  10. Childhood Reactions to Terrorism-Induced Trauma: A Review of the Past 10 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fremont, Wanda P.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To summarize the literature about the clinical presentation and treatment interventions of childhood reactions to terrorism-induced trauma. Method: The literature on children's responses to terrorist activities was reviewed. Results: Over the past 10 years, more research has emerged on the subject of terrorism in children. Many of the…

  11. Parent-Child Relations and Adolescent Self-Image Following Divorce: A 10-Year Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlop, Rosemary; Burns, Ailsa; Bermingham, Suzanne

    2001-01-01

    Explored links between self-image, family structure (divorced or intact), parent-child relations, and gender at 3 intervals over 10 years during adolescence to early adulthood. Results suggest a consistent relationship between high parental care, low overprotective control, and better self-image scores with a stronger effect among subjects from…

  12. Langerhans cell histiocytosis: recurrent lesions affecting mandible in a 10-year-old patient.

    PubMed

    Loducca, S V; Mantesso, A; Araújo, N S; Magalhães, M H

    2001-01-01

    Hand-Schuller-Christian disease is a multifocal variant of eosinophilic granuloma, characterised by the classical triad of bony lesions, exophthalmos and diabetes insipidus. This case relates recurrent Langerhans' cell histiocytosis lesions presented as destruction of periodontal support associated with diabetes in a 10-year-old patient. Medical history suggests that the case represents a case of Hand-Schuller Christian disease.

  13. Anticipatory Action Planning Increases from 3 to 10 Years of Age in Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jongbloed-Pereboom, Marjolein; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W. G.; Saraber-Schiphorst, Nicole; Craje, Celine; Steenbergen, Bert

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to assess the development of action planning in a group of typically developing children aged 3 to 10 years (N = 351). The second aim was to assess reliability of the action planning task and to relate the results of the action planning task to results of validated upper limb motor performance tests. Participants…

  14. 24 CFR 203.203 - Issuance and nature of insured 10-year protection plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Issuance and nature of insured 10-year protection plans. 203.203 Section 203.203 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to... Underwriting Procedures Insured Ten-Year Protection Plans (plan) § 203.203 Issuance and nature of insured...

  15. 10-year clinical evaluation of a self-etching adhesive system.

    PubMed

    Akimoto, Naotake; Takamizu, Masaaki; Momoi, Yasuko

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the long-term clinical performance of a self-etching adhesive system, Clearfil Liner Bond 2. Two operators placed a total of 87 restorations among 42 patients. Carious dentin was identified with the help of Caries Detector and was removed using only a low speed round bur. Clearfil Liner Bond 2 was applied following the manufacturer's directions, and the resin composite was then placed. The number of restorations placed by cavity classification were: 8-Class I, 11-Class II, 21-Class III, 2-Class IV and 45-Class V. The restorations were evaluated in 5 categories according to modified USPHS criteria: pulpal response, marginal integrity, marginal discoloration, retention and secondary caries. Assessments were done at baseline, immediately after placement and at 6-months and 1, 5, 7 and 10 years. Recall rates at each assessment period were 83.9% (6-months), 82.8% (1 year), 59.8% (5 years), 77.0% (7 years) and 50.6% (10 years). In terms of assessment categories, there were no recorded sensitivity, retention loss or secondary caries at any of the five recall periods. At the 10-year assessment, 40 out of 44 restorations (90.9%) were rated Bravo for marginal integrity and 39 restorations (88.6%) were rated Bravo for marginal discoloration (Wilcoxon signed-ranks test p < 0.05). This data demonstrates the retention rate and pulpal response of the self-etching adhesive system Clearfil Liner Bond 2 was excellent at 10 years. Most cases showed slight marginal changes during clinical function; however, these changes were not clinically severe by USPHS criteria. These data demonstrate that placement of the Clearfil Liner Bond 2 self-etching adhesive system was demonstrated to be acceptable for the clinical restoration of human teeth following 10 years of clinical function.

  16. The 10-Year Cost-Effectiveness of Lifestyle Intervention or Metformin for Diabetes Prevention

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) and its Outcomes Study (DPPOS) demonstrated that either intensive lifestyle intervention or metformin could prevent type 2 diabetes in high-risk adults for at least 10 years after randomization. We report the 10-year within-trial cost-effectiveness of the interventions. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Data on resource utilization, cost, and quality of life were collected prospectively. Economic analyses were performed from health system and societal perspectives. RESULTS Over 10 years, the cumulative, undiscounted per capita direct medical costs of the interventions, as implemented during the DPP, were greater for lifestyle ($4,601) than metformin ($2,300) or placebo ($769). The cumulative direct medical costs of care outside the DPP/DPPOS were least for lifestyle ($24,563 lifestyle vs. $25,616 metformin vs. $27,468 placebo). The cumulative, combined total direct medical costs were greatest for lifestyle and least for metformin ($29,164 lifestyle vs. $27,915 metformin vs. $28,236 placebo). The cumulative quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) accrued over 10 years were greater for lifestyle (6.81) than metformin (6.69) or placebo (6.67). When costs and outcomes were discounted at 3%, lifestyle cost $10,037 per QALY, and metformin had slightly lower costs and nearly the same QALYs as placebo. CONCLUSIONS Over 10 years, from a payer perspective, lifestyle was cost-effective and metformin was marginally cost-saving compared with placebo. Investment in lifestyle and metformin interventions for diabetes prevention in high-risk adults provides good value for the money spent. PMID:22442395

  17. Elbow Fractures

    MedlinePlus

    ... and held together with pins and wires or plates and screws. Fractures of the distal humerus (see ... doctor. These fractures usually require surgical repair with plates and/or screw, unless they are stable. SIGNS ...

  18. A Unique Case of Mycophenolate Induced Colitis after 10 Years of Use

    PubMed Central

    Govil, Yogesh

    2016-01-01

    A 31-year-old female with a history of lupus nephritis on Hydroxychloroquine, Prednisone, and Mycophenolate Mofetil (MMF) for 10 years presented to the hospital for ankle swelling. On day four, she started to have severe, nonbloody, watery diarrhea with abdominal distension and tenderness. Stool PCR was negative for C. difficile. CT abdomen/pelvis showed gaseous distension of the colon without any obstruction. Flexible sigmoidoscopy revealed a normal looking mucosa. Histopathology showed crypt atrophy and increased crypt apoptosis, consistent with MMF colitis. The diarrhea resolved three days after stopping MMF. Although generally well tolerated, diarrhea is a common side effect of MMF. Most cases occur in the first six months of starting MMF. This case is unique because it describes MMF colitis in lupus after more than 10 years. Thus, MMF colitis should be considered as a differential in patients taking it, regardless of the duration of use.

  19. A Unique Case of Mycophenolate Induced Colitis after 10 Years of Use.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Abhinav; Salahuddin, Moiz; Govil, Yogesh

    2016-01-01

    A 31-year-old female with a history of lupus nephritis on Hydroxychloroquine, Prednisone, and Mycophenolate Mofetil (MMF) for 10 years presented to the hospital for ankle swelling. On day four, she started to have severe, nonbloody, watery diarrhea with abdominal distension and tenderness. Stool PCR was negative for C. difficile. CT abdomen/pelvis showed gaseous distension of the colon without any obstruction. Flexible sigmoidoscopy revealed a normal looking mucosa. Histopathology showed crypt atrophy and increased crypt apoptosis, consistent with MMF colitis. The diarrhea resolved three days after stopping MMF. Although generally well tolerated, diarrhea is a common side effect of MMF. Most cases occur in the first six months of starting MMF. This case is unique because it describes MMF colitis in lupus after more than 10 years. Thus, MMF colitis should be considered as a differential in patients taking it, regardless of the duration of use. PMID:27668102

  20. Stress Generation, Avoidance Coping, and Depressive Symptoms: A 10-Year Model

    PubMed Central

    Holahan, Charles J.; Moos, Rudolf H.; Holahan, Carole K.; Brennan, Penny L.; Schutte, Kathleen K.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined (a) the role of avoidance coping in prospectively generating both chronic and acute life stressors and (b) the stress-generating role of avoidance coping as a prospective link to future depressive symptoms. Participants were 1,211 late-middle-aged individuals (500 women and 711 men) assessed 3 times over a 10-year period. As predicted, baseline avoidance coping was prospectively associated with both more chronic and more acute life stressors 4 years later. Furthermore, as predicted, these intervening life stressors linked baseline avoidance coping and depressive symptoms 10 years later, controlling for the influence of initial depressive symptoms. These findings broaden knowledge about the stress-generation process and elucidate a key mechanism through which avoidance coping is linked to depressive symptoms. PMID:16173853

  1. Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) in Hungary; The First 10 Years.

    PubMed

    Varga, Endre; Endre, Endre; Kószó, Balázs; Pető, Zoltán; Ágoston, Zsuzsanna; Gyura, Erika; Nardai, Gábor; Boa, Kristóf; Süveges, Gábor

    2016-01-01

    Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) programs are recognized as the standard educational trauma program worldwide. Data suggest that ATLS has a positive impact on the value of trauma care. The ATLS Hungary program has been started in 2005, celebrating its 10-year anniversary this year. In the present brief communication a brief overview is provided on the program.Student evaluation and statistical data about the participants were collected throughout the 10-year history of the Hungarian program.Student evaluation shows a high level of satisfaction amongst the participating doctors. Most participants are working in higher level centers. The Hungarian program shows good quality according to the participants. Establishing at least one new center is crucial to be able to provide the course for every professional interested in it or required to take it. PMID:27162927

  2. Rugby injuries to the cervical spine and spinal cord: a 10-year review.

    PubMed

    Scher, A T

    1998-01-01

    A 10-year review (1987-1996) of injuries sustained to the spine and spinal cord in rugby players with resultant paralysis has been undertaken. This article reviews that the incidence of serious rugby spine and spinal cord injuries in South Africa has increased over the 10-year period reviewed, despite stringent new rules instituted in an attempt to decrease the incidence of these injuries. The mechanisms of injury, as previously reported, remain the same as well as the phases of game responsible for injury of the tight scrum, tackle, rucks, and mauls. Two new observations are reported: the first is related to the occurrence of spinal cord concussion with transient paralysis, and the second is related to the increased incidence of osteoarthritis of the cervical spine in rugby players. PMID:9475983

  3. Physical aggression, compromised social support, and 10-year marital outcomes: Testing a relational spillover model.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Kieran T; Pasch, Lauri A; Lawrence, Erika; Bradbury, Thomas N

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to test a relational spillover model of physical aggression whereby physical aggression affects marital outcomes due to its effects on how spouses ask for and provide support to one another. Newlywed couples (n = 172) reported levels of physical aggression over the past year and engaged in interactions designed to elicit social support; marital adjustment, and stability were assessed periodically over the first 10 years of marriage. Multilevel modeling revealed that negative support behavior mediated the relationship between physical aggression and 10-year marital adjustment levels whereas positive support behavior mediated the relationship between physical aggression and divorce status. These findings emphasize the need to look beyond conflict when explaining how aggression affects relationships and when working with couples with a history of physical aggression who are seeking to improve their relationships.

  4. Physical aggression, compromised social support, and 10-year marital outcomes: Testing a relational spillover model.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Kieran T; Pasch, Lauri A; Lawrence, Erika; Bradbury, Thomas N

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to test a relational spillover model of physical aggression whereby physical aggression affects marital outcomes due to its effects on how spouses ask for and provide support to one another. Newlywed couples (n = 172) reported levels of physical aggression over the past year and engaged in interactions designed to elicit social support; marital adjustment, and stability were assessed periodically over the first 10 years of marriage. Multilevel modeling revealed that negative support behavior mediated the relationship between physical aggression and 10-year marital adjustment levels whereas positive support behavior mediated the relationship between physical aggression and divorce status. These findings emphasize the need to look beyond conflict when explaining how aggression affects relationships and when working with couples with a history of physical aggression who are seeking to improve their relationships. PMID:26168263

  5. A Unique Case of Mycophenolate Induced Colitis after 10 Years of Use

    PubMed Central

    Govil, Yogesh

    2016-01-01

    A 31-year-old female with a history of lupus nephritis on Hydroxychloroquine, Prednisone, and Mycophenolate Mofetil (MMF) for 10 years presented to the hospital for ankle swelling. On day four, she started to have severe, nonbloody, watery diarrhea with abdominal distension and tenderness. Stool PCR was negative for C. difficile. CT abdomen/pelvis showed gaseous distension of the colon without any obstruction. Flexible sigmoidoscopy revealed a normal looking mucosa. Histopathology showed crypt atrophy and increased crypt apoptosis, consistent with MMF colitis. The diarrhea resolved three days after stopping MMF. Although generally well tolerated, diarrhea is a common side effect of MMF. Most cases occur in the first six months of starting MMF. This case is unique because it describes MMF colitis in lupus after more than 10 years. Thus, MMF colitis should be considered as a differential in patients taking it, regardless of the duration of use. PMID:27668102

  6. Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) in Hungary; The First 10 Years.

    PubMed

    Varga, Endre; Endre, Endre; Kószó, Balázs; Pető, Zoltán; Ágoston, Zsuzsanna; Gyura, Erika; Nardai, Gábor; Boa, Kristóf; Süveges, Gábor

    2016-01-01

    Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) programs are recognized as the standard educational trauma program worldwide. Data suggest that ATLS has a positive impact on the value of trauma care. The ATLS Hungary program has been started in 2005, celebrating its 10-year anniversary this year. In the present brief communication a brief overview is provided on the program.Student evaluation and statistical data about the participants were collected throughout the 10-year history of the Hungarian program.Student evaluation shows a high level of satisfaction amongst the participating doctors. Most participants are working in higher level centers. The Hungarian program shows good quality according to the participants. Establishing at least one new center is crucial to be able to provide the course for every professional interested in it or required to take it.

  7. The Future of Federated Search, or What Will the World Look like in 10 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Rich

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author contends that in 10 years, federated search--or search of any kind for that matter--won't exist. He elaborates that the "function" of search will exist--but not in a context with which anyone is familiar today. So if "search" doesn't exist in 2018, how will people find the information that they need across vast volumes…

  8. Impact of Adolescent Alcohol and Drug Use on Neuropsychological Functioning in Young Adulthood: 10-Year Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Karen L.; Medina, Krista Lisdahl; Padula, Claudia B.; Tapert, Susan F.; Brown, Sandra A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Alcohol and other substance use disorders (AUD/SUD) are common among youth and often continue into adulthood; therefore, the neurocognitive effects of substance use are of great concern. Because neuromaturation continues into young adulthood, youth with AUD/SUD may be at risk for lasting cognitive decrements. This study prospectively examines neuropsychological functioning over 10 years as a function of AUD/SUD history and outcomes. Methods The 51 participants consisted of 18 youth with persisting AUD/SUD, 19 youth with remitted AUD/SUD, and 14 community youth with no AUD/SUD history followed over 10 years (ages 16 to 27 on average) with neuropsychological testing and substance use interviews on 8 occasions. Neuropsychological performance from baseline to 10-year follow-up was compared between the three groups. Results Despite scoring higher than controls at intake, both AUD/SUD groups showed a relative decline in visuospatial construction at 10-year follow-up (p=.001). Regressions showed that alcohol use (β=−.33, p < .01) and drug withdrawal symptoms (β=−.31, p<.05) over follow-up were predictive of year 10 visuospatial function. Alcohol use also predicted verbal learning and memory (β=−.28, p<.05), while stimulant use predicted visual learning and memory function (β=−.33, p=.01). More recent substance use was associated with poorer executive function (β=.28, p<.05). Discussion These findings confirm prior studies suggesting that heavy, chronic alcohol and other substance use persisting from adolescence to young adulthood may produce cognitive disadvantages, primarily in visuospatial and memory abilities. Youth who chronically consume heavy quantities of alcohol and/or experience drug withdrawal symptoms may be particularly at risk for cognitive deterioration by young adulthood. PMID:21532924

  9. Changes in Pulmonary Function Up to 10 Years After Locoregional Breast Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Erven, Katrien; Weltens, Caroline; Nackaerts, Kristiaan; Fieuws, Steffen; Decramer, Marc; Lievens, Yolande

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the long-term impact of locoregional breast radiotherapy (RT) on pulmonary function tests (PFTs). Methods and Materials: This study included 75 women who underwent postoperative locoregional breast RT. PFTs were performed before RT and 3, 6, and 12 months and 8 to 10 years after RT. By use of univariate and multivariate analyses, the impact of treatment- and patient-related factors on late changes in PFTs was evaluated. Results: During the first year after RT, all PFTs significantly worsened at 3 to 6 months after RT (p < 0.05). At 12 months, forced vital capacity (FVC), vital capacity (VC), and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV{sub 1}) recovered almost to baseline values, whereas total lung capacity (TLC) and diffusion capacity of carbon monoxide (DL{sub CO}) recovered only slightly and were still found to be decreased compared with baseline (p < 0.05). At 8 to 10 years after RT, mean reductions in FEV{sub 1} of 4% (p = 0.03) and in VC, DL{sub CO}, and TLC of 5%, 9%, and 11% (all p < 0.0001), respectively, were observed compared with pre-RT values. On multivariate analysis, tamoxifen use negatively affected TLC at 8 to 10 years after RT (p = 0.033), whereas right-sided irradiation was associated with a late reduction in FEV{sub 1} (p = 0.027). For FEV{sub 1} and DL{sub CO}, an early decrease was predictive for a late decrease (p = 0.003 and p = 0.0009, respectively). Conclusions: The time course of PFT changes after locoregional RT for breast cancer follows a biphasic pattern. An early reduction in PFTs at 3 to 6 months with a partial recovery at 12 months after RT is followed by a late, more important PFT reduction up to 8 to 10 years after RT. Tamoxifen use may have an impact on this late decline in PFTs.

  10. Examining the 10-Year Rebuilding Dilemma for U.S. Fish Stocks

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, Wesley S.; Cope, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, fishery managers strive to maintain fish stocks at or above levels that produce maximum sustainable yields, and to rebuild overexploited stocks that can no longer support such yields. In the United States, rebuilding overexploited stocks is a contentious issue, where most stocks are mandated to rebuild in as short a time as possible, and in a time period not to exceed 10 years. Opponents of such mandates and related guidance argue that rebuilding requirements are arbitrary, and create discontinuities in the time and fishing effort allowed for stocks to rebuild due to differences in productivity. Proponents, however, highlight how these mandates and guidance were needed to curtail the continued overexploitation of these stocks by setting firm deadlines on rebuilding. Here we evaluate the statements made by opponents and proponents of the 10-year rebuilding mandate and related guidance to determine whether such points are technically accurate using a simple population dynamics model and a database of U.S. fish stocks to parameterize the model. We also offer solutions to many of the issues surrounding this mandate and its implementation by recommending some fishing mortality based frameworks, which meet the intent of the 10-year rebuilding requirement while also providing more flexibility. PMID:25375788

  11. Factors associated with arterial stiffness in children aged 9-10 years

    PubMed Central

    Batista, Milena Santos; Mill, José Geraldo; Pereira, Taisa Sabrina Silva; Fernandes, Carolina Dadalto Rocha; Molina, Maria del Carmen Bisi

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the factors associated with stiffness of the great arteries in prepubertal children. METHODS This study with convenience sample of 231 schoolchildren aged 9-10 years enrolled in public and private schools in Vitória, ES, Southeastern Brazil, in 2010-2011. Anthropometric and hemodynamic data, blood pressure, and pulse wave velocity in the carotid-femoral segment were obtained. Data on current and previous health conditions were obtained by questionnaire and notes on the child’s health card. Multiple linear regression was applied to identify the partial and total contribution of the factors in determining the pulse wave velocity values. RESULTS Among the students, 50.2% were female and 55.4% were 10 years old. Among those classified in the last tertile of pulse wave velocity, 60.0% were overweight, with higher mean blood pressure, waist circumference, and waist-to-height ratio. Birth weight was not associated with pulse wave velocity. After multiple linear regression analysis, body mass index (BMI) and diastolic blood pressure remained in the model. CONCLUSIONS BMI was the most important factor in determining arterial stiffness in children aged 9-10 years. PMID:25902563

  12. Evaluation of fire-safety programs that use 10-year smoke alarms.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Mark; Wilson, Jonathan; Akoto, Judith; Dixon, Sherry; Jacobs, David E; Ballesteros, Michael F

    2010-10-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention began funding a Smoke Alarm Installation and Fire Safety Education (SAIFE) program in 1998. This program involves the installation of lithium-powered "10-year" smoke alarms in homes at high risk for fires and injuries. This study aimed to (1) determine among original SAIFE homes if the lithium-powered alarms were still present and functional 8-10 years after installation and (2) understand factors related to smoke alarm presence and functionality. Data on a total of 384 homes and 601 smoke alarms in five states were collected and analyzed. Only one-third of alarms were still functional; 37% of installed alarms were missing; and 30% of alarms were present, but not functioning. Alarms were less likely to be functioning if they were installed in the kitchen and if homes had a different resident at follow-up. Of the 351 alarms that were present and had a battery at the time of the evaluation, only 21% contained lithium-powered batteries. Of these, 78% were still functioning. Programs that install lithium-powered alarms should use units that have sealed-in batteries and "hush" buttons. Additionally, education should be given on smoke alarm maintenance that includes a message that batteries in these alarms should not be replaced. Lithium-powered smoke alarms should last up to 10 years if maintained properly. PMID:20177753

  13. Parental stress and perceived vulnerability at 5 and 10 years after pediatric SCT.

    PubMed

    Vrijmoet-Wiersma, C M J; Egeler, R M; Koopman, H M; Bresters, D; Norberg, A L; Grootenhuis, M A

    2010-06-01

    With the aim of assessing parental stress after SCT, 73 parents of children and adolescents who underwent SCT 5 or 10 years ago responded to questionnaires on general distress (General Health Questionnaire (GHQ)), disease-related stress (Pediatric Inventory for Parents-short form (PIP-SF)) and perceptions of child vulnerability (Child Vulnerability Scale (CVS)). General distress scores were comparable with the reference groups, but 40% of the mothers at 5 years after SCT reported increased stress levels as compared with 26% in the community-based reference group. Disease-related stress was comparable with the reference group of parents of children who were just off cancer treatment, 5 years after SCT. At 10 years after SCT, scores were lower than the reference group. Perceived child vulnerability did diminish over time, but remained high in parents of SCT survivors, compared with parents of healthy children: 96% of the parents at 5 years after SCT and 76% of the parents at 10 years after SCT scored above the cutoff point. Perceived vulnerability was found to be a predictor for parental disease-related stress. To conclude, although most parents of SCT survivors are resilient, the majority of parents perceive their child to be much more vulnerable as compared with parents of healthy children. This perception is associated with disease-related stress and may induce overprotective parenting. PMID:19881554

  14. Facial fractures.

    PubMed Central

    Carr, M. M.; Freiberg, A.; Martin, R. D.

    1994-01-01

    Emergency room physicians frequently see facial fractures that can have serious consequences for patients if mismanaged. This article reviews the signs, symptoms, imaging techniques, and general modes of treatment of common facial fractures. It focuses on fractures of the mandible, zygomaticomaxillary region, orbital floor, and nose. Images p520-a p522-a PMID:8199509

  15. Decision-Making Processes: Sensitivity to Sequentially Experienced Outcome Probabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Ty W.

    2007-01-01

    A computerized sequential event sampling decision-making task was administered to 187 5- to 10-year-olds and adults. Participants made a series of choices between alternatives that differed in win probability (Study 1) or win and loss probability (Study 2). Intuitive and more explicit measures were used. Study 1 revealed that, across ages,…

  16. Metatarsal fractures.

    PubMed

    Rammelt, Stefan; Heineck, Jan; Zwipp, Hans

    2004-09-01

    Metatarsal fractures are relatively common and if malunited, a frequent source of pain and disability. Nondisplaced fractures and fractures of the second to fourth metatarsal with displacement in the horizontal plane can be treated conservatively with protected weight bearing in a cast shoe for 4-6 weeks. In most displaced fractures, closed reduction can be achieved but maintenance of the reduction needs internal fixation. Percutaneous pinning is suitable for most fractures of the lesser metatarsals. Fractures with joint involvement and multiple fragments frequently require open reduction and plate fixation. Transverse fractures at the metaphyseal-diaphyseal junction of the fifth metatarsal ("Jones fractures") require an individualized approach tailored to the level of activity and time to union. Avulsion fractures of the fifth metatarsal bone are treated by open reduction and tension-band wiring or screw fixation if displaced more than 2 mm or with more that 30% of the joint involved. The metatarsals are the most common site of stress fractures, most of which are treated nonoperatively. Symptomatic posttraumatic deformities need adequate correction, in most cases by osteotomy across the former fracture site.

  17. Probability 1/e

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koo, Reginald; Jones, Martin L.

    2011-01-01

    Quite a number of interesting problems in probability feature an event with probability equal to 1/e. This article discusses three such problems and attempts to explain why this probability occurs with such frequency.

  18. Development of 5- and 10-year-old pediatric phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Melo Lima, V. J. de; Cassola, V. F.; Kramer, R.; Oliveira Lira, C. A. B. de; Khoury, H. J.; Vieira, J. W.

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is the development of reference pediatric phantoms for 5- and 10-year-old children to be used for the calculation of organ and tissue equivalent doses in radiation protection. Methods: The study proposes a method for developing anatomically highly sophisticated pediatric phantoms without using medical images. The 5- and 10-year-old male and female phantoms presented here were developed using 3D modeling software applied to anatomical information taken from atlases and textbooks. The method uses polygon mesh surfaces to model body contours, the shape of organs as well as their positions, and orientations in the human body. Organ and tissue masses comply with the corresponding data given by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for the 5- and 10-year-old reference children. Bones were segmented into cortical bone, spongiosa, medullary marrow, and cartilage to allow for the use of micro computer tomographic ({mu}CT) images of trabecular bone for skeletal dosimetry. Results: The four phantoms, a male and a female for each age, and their organs are presented in 3D images and their organ and tissue masses in tables which show the compliance of the ICRP reference values. Dosimetric data, calculated for the reference pediatric phantoms by Monte Carlo methods were compared with corresponding data from adult mesh phantoms and pediatric stylized phantoms. The comparisons show reasonable agreement if the anatomical differences between the phantoms are properly taken into account. Conclusions: Pediatric phantoms were developed without using medical images of patients or volunteers for the first time. The models are reference phantoms, suitable for regulatory dosimetry, however, the 3D modeling method can also be applied to medical images to develop patient-specific phantoms.

  19. Project Energize: intervention development and 10 years of progress in preventing childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Rush, Elaine; Cairncross, Carolyn; Williams, Margaret Hinepo; Tseng, Marilyn; Coppinger, Tara; McLennan, Steph; Latimer, Kasha

    2016-01-26

    Prevention of childhood obesity is a global priority. The school setting offers access to large numbers of children and the ability to provide supportive environments for quality physical activity and nutrition. This article describes Project Energize, a through-school physical activity and nutrition programme that celebrated its 10-year anniversary in 2015 so that it might serve as a model for similar practices, initiatives and policies elsewhere. The programme was envisaged and financed by the Waikato District Health Board of New Zealand in 2004 and delivered by Sport Waikato to 124 primary schools as a randomised controlled trial from 2005 to 2006. The programme has since expanded to include all 242 primary schools in the Waikato region and 70 schools in other regions, including 53,000 children. Ongoing evaluation and development of Project Energize has shown it to be sustainable (ongoing for >10 years), both effective (lower obesity, higher physical fitness) and cost effective (one health related cost quality adjusted life year between $18,000 and $30,000) and efficient ($45/child/year) as a childhood 'health' programme. The programme's unique community-based approach is inclusive of all children, serving a population that is 42% Māori, the indigenous people of New Zealand. While the original nine healthy eating and seven quality physical activity goals have not changed, the delivery and assessment processes has been refined and the health service adapted over the 10 years of the programme existence, as well as adapted over time to other settings including early childhood education and schools in Cork in Ireland. Evaluation and research associated with the programme delivery and outcomes are ongoing. The dissemination of findings to politicians and collaboration with other service providers are both regarded as priorities.

  20. Natrelle Round Silicone Breast Implants: Core Study Results at 10 Years

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Diane K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Allergan’s Natrelle round silicone-filled breast implants were approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 2006 based on interim results from the Core Study; final 10-year study results are now available. Methods: Seven hundred fifteen subjects were implanted with smooth and Biocell textured Natrelle round silicone implants and attended clinic visits at 0 to 4 weeks, 6 months, 1 year, and annually through 10 years. Approximately one-third of subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging at years 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 to assess rupture. Results: Complication rates showed modest increases over the previously published 6-year rates. The Kaplan-Meier capsular contracture rate was 18.9 percent for augmentation, 28.7 percent for revision-augmentation, and 24.6 percent for reconstruction. Among augmentation subjects, capsular contracture was significantly lower (p = 0.023) for submuscular (15.7 percent) versus subglandular (26.3 percent) placement. The overall rupture rate in the magnetic resonance imaging cohort was 13.0 percent for subjects and 7.7 percent for implants. By the end of the study, 81.8 percent of augmentation subjects still had an original implant in place. Using a five-point scale, 94.2 percent of augmentation, 83.8 percent of revision-augmentation, and 90.7 percent of reconstruction subjects reported being satisfied or definitely satisfied with their implants. Significant improvement over baseline was also seen in overall breast satisfaction and satisfaction with breast size, shape, feel, and how well they matched. Conclusion: The 10-year data from the Natrelle Core Study, which can guide surgeons and patients in decision-making, demonstrate safety and high levels of patient satisfaction. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, III. PMID:24867717

  1. Project Energize: intervention development and 10 years of progress in preventing childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Rush, Elaine; Cairncross, Carolyn; Williams, Margaret Hinepo; Tseng, Marilyn; Coppinger, Tara; McLennan, Steph; Latimer, Kasha

    2016-01-01

    Prevention of childhood obesity is a global priority. The school setting offers access to large numbers of children and the ability to provide supportive environments for quality physical activity and nutrition. This article describes Project Energize, a through-school physical activity and nutrition programme that celebrated its 10-year anniversary in 2015 so that it might serve as a model for similar practices, initiatives and policies elsewhere. The programme was envisaged and financed by the Waikato District Health Board of New Zealand in 2004 and delivered by Sport Waikato to 124 primary schools as a randomised controlled trial from 2005 to 2006. The programme has since expanded to include all 242 primary schools in the Waikato region and 70 schools in other regions, including 53,000 children. Ongoing evaluation and development of Project Energize has shown it to be sustainable (ongoing for >10 years), both effective (lower obesity, higher physical fitness) and cost effective (one health related cost quality adjusted life year between $18,000 and $30,000) and efficient ($45/child/year) as a childhood 'health' programme. The programme's unique community-based approach is inclusive of all children, serving a population that is 42% Māori, the indigenous people of New Zealand. While the original nine healthy eating and seven quality physical activity goals have not changed, the delivery and assessment processes has been refined and the health service adapted over the 10 years of the programme existence, as well as adapted over time to other settings including early childhood education and schools in Cork in Ireland. Evaluation and research associated with the programme delivery and outcomes are ongoing. The dissemination of findings to politicians and collaboration with other service providers are both regarded as priorities. PMID:26809555

  2. SATVI - after 10 years closing in on a new and better vaccine to prevent tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Hanekom, Willem A; Hawkridge, Anthony; Mahomed, Hassan; Scriba, Thomas J; Tameris, Michele; Hughes, Jane; Hatherill, Mark; Day, Cheryl L; Hussey, Gregory D

    2012-03-02

    The vision of the South African Tuberculosis Vaccine Initiative (SATVI) (www.satvi.uct.ac.za) is 'A World Without TB' and our mission is 'Innovative and high-quality TB vaccine research in Africa, to impact the global epidemic'. Over the last 10 years, our focus has been twofold: first, clinical trials of BCG and of new candidate vaccines, and second, complementary research that addresses critical questions in TB vaccine development. SATVI is now widely regarded as the leading TB vaccine clinical research site in the world.

  3. Adolescent drug trafficking trends in the United Kingdom--a 10-year retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Vale, Ellen Louise Eva; Kennedy, Patrick John

    2004-12-01

    This paper reports data from HM Customs and Excise (HMCE) of recorded cases of adolescent drug trafficking through all sea and air points of entry into the UK over a 10-year period (May 1992-May 2002). We report the characteristics of 38 cases of mixed gender and nationality ranging in age between 13 and 18 years who have been apprehended by HMCE due to the illegal importation of drugs. Highlighted is an increasing trend in UK national male and female adolescents being apprehended for drug trafficking. Of particular note is the observation that more young adolescent females were apprehended importing large consignments of Class A substances than their male counterparts.

  4. Othering: difference understood??: a 10-year analysis and critique of the nursing literature.

    PubMed

    Canales, Mary K

    2010-01-01

    It has been 10 years since Advances in Nursing Science (ANS) published the first article that articulated othering within a nursing framework. This issue's topic, Critique and Replication, provided an opportunity for analysis of the influence of the original ANS article on the visibility and application of othering within nursing literature. Comprehensive searches of major health databases identified 32 publications citing the original ANS article. The analysis focused on exclusionary and inclusionary othering, role taking, and constructions of the other. Results indicate that although othering has become more visible within nursing literature, exclusionary othering dominates. The article concludes with thoughts for moving beyond othering and toward engagement.

  5. A case of choroidal osteoma in a 10-year-old child

    PubMed Central

    Behera, Madhusmita; Das, Manmath Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Choroidal osteoma is a rare, benign tumor, usually diagnosed in healthy adult women in their second or third decade of life. Though its etiology and pathogenesis are unclear, it is usually diagnosed due to its typical clinical features of yellowish-orange colored subretinal lesion at posterior pole and a dense echogenic plaque persisting even in lower gains on B-scan ultrasonography. Mostly unilateral (79%), the median age of diagnosis is 26 years. It is relatively rare in children. We report a case of choroidal osteoma in a 10-year-old boy. PMID:26586966

  6. Solitary fibrous tumor arising slowly in the vulva over 10 years: case report and review.

    PubMed

    Taki, Mana; Baba, Tsukasa; Mandai, Masaki; Suzuki, Ayako; Mikami, Yoshiki; Matsumura, Noriomi; Konishi, Ikuo

    2012-05-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT), which was first described as a pleural lesion by Klemperer and Rabin in 1931, is a rare, slow-growing neoplasm characterized by the proliferation of fibroblast-like spindle cells arranged in a patternless manner with few nuclear atypia. Extrathoracic SFT have increasingly been recognized, but those in the genital tract are extremely rare. Gynecological SFT behave as tumors with low malignant potential to recur, metastasize, or affect nearby organs resulting in infertility. We report a case of vulvar SFT slowly growing for 10 years, and propose a strategy for the diagnosis and treatment of gynecological SFT.

  7. Incontinentia Pigmenti; a Rare Multisystem Disorder: Case Report of a 10-Year-Old Girl

    PubMed Central

    Rafatjoo, Rezvan; Taghdisi Kashani, Amene

    2016-01-01

    Incontinentia pigmenti is a rare genodermatosis in which the skin involvement occurs in all patients. Additionally, other ectodermal tissues may be affected such as the central nervous system, eyes, hair, nails and teeth. The disease has an X-linked dominant inheritance pattern. But in our case, there was a mutation in the body cells due to incontinentia pigmenti. The dermatological findings occur in four successive phases. We report the case of a 10-year-old female presented cutaneous, dental and ophthalmic characteristic with 3 years follow-up. Dental anomalies such as hypodontia, peg-shaped anterior teeth, malformed primary and permanent teeth, and delayed eruption were seen in our patient.

  8. Peroral Endoscopic Myotomy for the Treatment of Achalasia in a 10-Year-Old Male Patient

    PubMed Central

    Filser, Jörg; Dick, Anke; Meyer, Thomas; Germer, Christoph-Thomas; von Rahden, Burkard H.A.

    2014-01-01

    Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is a new endoscopic treatment for achalasia with very good short-term results in adults. Data about POEM in pediatric patients are missing. We present the case of a 10-year-old male patient with type I (classic) achalasia, successfully treated with POEM. The procedure was accomplished in a similar fashion to the technique used in adults. Short-term results were fine, with a complete control of dysphagia and absence of reflux. We suggest that POEM is a suitable option in pediatric patients—similar to adults—but long-term results must be awaited. PMID:26171309

  9. 10-year experience of injuries sustained during clearance of anti-personnel mines.

    PubMed

    Brown, R; Chaloner, E; Mannion, S; Cheatle, T

    2001-12-15

    Clearance of anti-personnel mines and unexploded ordnance in countries recovering from war usually continues long after conflict has ceased. We prospectively recorded 92 traumatic injuries sustained by 73 mineclearers working in seven countries over a period of 10 years. 15% of injuries were fatal, with an incidence of 116 injuries per 100000 workers per year. Limb injury occurred in 59% of cases, with an overall amputation rate of 30%. 44% of injuries were sustained by workers handling a mine, resulting in severe upper limb and facial injuries. The incidence of facial injuries fell after the introduction of visors.

  10. Mycoplasma pneumoniae associated organising pneumonia in a 10 year old boy.

    PubMed

    Wachowski, O; Demirakça, S; Müller, K-M; Scheurlen, W

    2003-03-01

    We describe a 10 year old boy with organising pneumonia associated with acute Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. The diagnosis of organising pneumonia was made by open lung biopsy and the M pneumoniae infection was proven serologically. Antibiotic and long term corticosteroid treatment resulted in steadily improving pulmonary function monitored by spirometry. The introduction of anti-inflammatory treatment with NSAIDs/immunosuppressive agents in order to spare steroids was well tolerated and resulted in further improvement of the pulmonary function. To our knowledge this is the first documented case of Mycoplasma pneumoniae associated organising pneumonia to be reported in a child.

  11. Parathyroidectomy in the treatment of patients with chronic renal failure: a 10-year review.

    PubMed

    Bessell, J R; Proudman, W D; Parkyn, R F; Disney, A P

    1993-01-01

    The technique and outcome of surgery for the manifestations of secondary hyperparathyroidism are described. Forty-seven patients were analysed retrospectively over a 10-year period. Total parathyroidectomy and autotransplantation to the forearm was performed in all but five patients. Improvement occurred in 87 per cent of patients and there were no graft failures. Of six deaths, none was related to surgery. Four patients had recurrent hyperparathyroidism, three being graft dependent and one requiring re-exploration of the neck. Total parathyroidectomy and autotransplantation is a safe and effective approach. The major management problem was graft hyperplasia, seen in three of the 47 patients and managed by simple excision.

  12. The drug-target residence time model: a 10-year retrospective.

    PubMed

    Copeland, Robert A

    2016-02-01

    The drug-target residence time model was first introduced in 2006 and has been broadly adopted across the chemical biology, biotechnology and pharmaceutical communities. While traditional in vitro methods view drug-target interactions exclusively in terms of equilibrium affinity, the residence time model takes into account the conformational dynamics of target macromolecules that affect drug binding and dissociation. The key tenet of this model is that the lifetime (or residence time) of the binary drug-target complex, and not the binding affinity per se, dictates much of the in vivo pharmacological activity. Here, this model is revisited and key applications of it over the past 10 years are highlighted.

  13. [Multicenter retrospective analysis of the patients with sarcoidosis with a 10 year interval in observations].

    PubMed

    Vizel', I Iu; Shmelev, E I; Baranova, O P; Barlamov, P N; Borodina, G L; Denisova, O A; Dobin, V L; Kulbaisov, A M; Kupaev, V I; Listopadova, M V; Ovsiannikov, N V; Os'kin, D N; Petrov, D V; Solov'ev, K I; Shul'zhenko, L V; Vizel', A A

    2014-01-01

    Comparison of the state of 83 patients with histologically confirmed sarcoidosis observed with a 10 year interval revealed remission in 47% of the cases. The main factors having negative effect on prognosis of the disease included extrapulmonary symptoms, the use ofcorticosteroids (at all stages, especially at stage I and in Lofgren syndrome) and antituberculosis drugs, positive TB test. Risk factors of relapses were stage II sarcoidosis, the use of systemic corticosteroids in patients with Lofgren syndrome and antituberculosis drugs, initially low FEV1/FVLC ratio and the number of lymphocytes in peripheral blood. PMID:25799827

  14. Photodynamic therapy for bronchial carcinoid tumours: complete response over a 10-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Moghissi, Keyvan; Dixon, Kate; Gibbins, Sally

    2013-06-01

    A 63-year old woman diagnosed in September 2001 with a typical bronchial carcinoid of the left upper lobe bronchus extending into the left main stem bronchus is presented. The patient was unsuitable for standard surgical treatment, and the topography was not amenable for a parenchyma-saving bronchoplastic procedure. Two cycles of bronchoscopic photodynamic therapy (PDT) were undertaken at 6 monthly intervals. The patient has now been followed up regularly for over 10 years without signs of recurrence bronchoscopically or radiologically. To our knowledge, this is the first case of a carcinoid tumour treated solely by PDT. PMID:23284100

  15. Isolated intramedullary spinal cysticercosis in a 10-year-old female showing dramatic response with albendazole

    PubMed Central

    Azfar, Shah F.; Kirmani, Sanna; Badar, Farheen; Ahmad, Ibne

    2011-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis is the most common parasitic infection of the central nervous system caused by larvae of Taenia solium. Spinal cysticercosis is an uncommon site of cysticercal infection, and isolated intramedullary involvement is even rarer. We present a case of 10-year-old girl who presented with gradual onset paraparesis with sensory loss and bowel and bladder incontinence. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of spine revealed a cystic lesion with mural nodule (scolex) which was diagnostic for cysticercosis. Patient was treated with antihelminthic, which led to marked clinico-radiological improvement. PMID:21977090

  16. Elective treatment of bleeding varices with the Sugiura operation over 10 years.

    PubMed

    Orozco, H; Mercado, M A; Takahashi, T; Hernández-Ortiz, J; Capellán, J F; Garcia-Tsao, G

    1992-06-01

    A 10-year experience with the devascularization operation described by Sugiura is reported here. The operation was performed electively in 100 patients in whom it was not possible to place a shunt, all of whom had different kinds of hepatopathies (63 Child's A, 32 Child's B, and 5 Child's C). In 15 patients, the procedure was done in one stage (6% operative mortality, 1 patient), and, in 51, it was performed in two stages. Eight deaths were recorded in the 63 patients of the Child's A group, with a total of 111 operations. The operative mortality rate for this group was 12% and, as related to the number of operative procedures, 7% (8 of 111 operations). Seventeen patients were not considered for a second stage. Rebleeding in the early postoperative period was 4% and at long-term 6%. Incapacitating encephalopathy was found in 2 of the 71 surviving patients (3%). Survival (as determined by Kaplan-Meier tests) was 75% (1 year), 70% (5 years), and 69.2% (10 years). Six esophageal fistulas were observed secondary to transection. The Sugiura operation is an excellent complement to the therapeutic armamentarium used to treat portal hypertension, with low rebleeding and encephalopathy rates.

  17. HIV-positive shopper who bit employee gets 10 years in jail.

    PubMed

    1996-05-31

    Judge John Goshgarian sentenced John [name removed] to 10 years in prison for biting a store employee and then declaring he was HIV-positive. An unidentified employee at the Sam's Club store in Gurnee, IL tried to block [name removed] from exiting during questioning about a check he had just written. The bite [name removed] made on the employee's arm left teeth marks and drew blood. [Name removed] was charged with criminal transmission of HIV, a charge rarely used. He pled guilty to a lesser offense-aggravated battery in a public way, as well as related charges of forgery, possession of a fictitious driver's license, and obstruction of justice. The judge sentenced [name removed] to the maximum of 10 years in prison on the battery charge; criminal transmission punishment is 3 to 7 years in prison. [Name removed]'s test results remain sealed, although the store employee has been notified of the results and is undergoing monthly testing for HIV antibodies. Thus far, the results show he does not have the virus.

  18. A 10-Year Climatology of Amazonian Rainfall Derived from Passive Microwave Satellite Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Negri, Andrew J.; Anagnostou, Emmanouil N.; Adler, Robert F.

    1998-01-01

    In this study we present and describe a satellite-derived precipitation climatology over northern South America using a passive microwave technique, the Goddard Profiling Algorithm. A period of data slightly longer than 10 years is examined. The climatologies take the form of the mean estimated (adjusted) rainfall for a 10-year (+) period, with sub-divisions by month and meteorological season. For the six-year period 1992-1997, when two satellites were in operation, diurnal variability (to the extent it is discerned by four unequally spaced observations) is presented. We find an alternating pattern of morning and maxima stretching from the northeast (Atlantic coast) clear across the continent to the Pacific. The effects of topography, coastlines and geography (river valleys) on the rainfall patterns are clear. Interannual variability is examined by computing the deviations of yearly and warm season (DJF) rainfall from their respective long-term means. Interannual variability of the diurnal nature of the rainfall is presented, and the strong El Nino event of 1997-1998 is discussed.

  19. The EnviSAT ASAR Mission: A Look Back At 10 Years Of Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, N.; Rosich, B.; Meadows, P. J.; Haria, K.; Small, D.; Schubert, A.; Lavalle, M.; Collard, F.; Johnsen, H.; Guarnieri, A. Monti; D'Aria, D.

    2013-12-01

    The Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) on- board Envisat operated successfully for just over 10 years until the failure of Envisat in April 2012. ASAR was ESA's very first deployment of a C-band phased- array antenna, allowing extended imaging capacity in comparison to its ERS SAR predecessors. As such it operated in various acquisition modes - Image (IM), Alternating Polarisation (AP), Wide Swath (WS), Global Monitoring (GM), and Wave (WV). For IM and AP modes there was a selection of 7 swaths with swath width from 100 km to 56 km: IM was single- polarisation, while AP was dual-pol, offering a choice from HH&VV, HH&HV, or VV&VH. WS and GM modes had a total swath width of 405 km based on the combination of 5 sub-swaths. WV acquired imagettes of 10 km by 10 km every 100 km along the satellite track. This paper is a look back to the 10 years of ASAR operations, covering topics such as the ASAR Instrument (characteristics, acquisition modes, product tree and observation scenario), Instrument Calibration and Performance Verification (including instrument stability, internal calibration, external calibration, absolute radiometric calibration, localisation accuracy, absolute geolocation accuracy, performance verification and product calibration), ASAR specific missions (wave and polarimetric), particular ASAR events such as antenna resets, burst synchronisation, AP swath modifications and the Envisat orbit change in October 2010.

  20. 10 Years of Height Resolved, Cloud-Track, Vector Winds from MISR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garay, M. J.; Mueller, K. J.; Moroney, C. M.; Jovanovic, V.; Wu, D. L.; Diner, D. J.

    2009-12-01

    By utilizing multiple camera views and fast image matching algorithms to identify common features and determine feature motion, the MISR instrument on NASA’s Terra satellite has now collected nearly 10 years of height-resolved, cloud-track, vector winds using a single, globally consistent algorithm. The MISR cloud-track winds are reported globally on mesoscale domains of 70.4 km × 70.4 km and referenced to stereoscopically derived heights above the earth ellipsoid, which have a nominal vertical resolution of approximately 500 m. Importantly, from the standpoint of climate research, the stereo height assignment and wind retrieval are largely insensitive to instrument calibration changes because the pattern matcher relies only on relative brightness values, rather than the absolute magnitude of the brightness. We will describe comparisons with other wind datasets, including geostationary cloud drift winds, scatterometer surface winds, and reanalysis model winds, that demonstrate the quality of the MISR winds. We will also show the coverage and resolution advantages that MISR provides relative to these other datasets. Additionally, because the global winds are driven primarily by the global (im)balance of heating, monitoring variations in the winds over 10 years promises to yield important insights into the processes related to the hydrologic cycle and transport of heat and water vapor, such as the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) and the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO).

  1. Post-Test Analysis of a 10-Year Sodium Heat Pipe Life Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenfeld, John H.; Locci, Ivan E.; Sanzi, James L.; Hull, David R.; Geng, Steven M.

    2011-01-01

    High-temperature heat pipes are being evaluated for use in energy conversion applications such as fuel cells, gas turbine re-combustors, Stirling cycle heat sources; and with the resurgence of space nuclear power both as reactor heat removal elements and as radiator elements. Long operating life and reliable performance are critical requirements for these applications. Accordingly, long-term materials compatibility is being evaluated through the use of high-temperature life test heat pipes. Thermacore, Inc., has carried out a sodium heat pipe 10-year life test to establish long-term operating reliability. Sodium heat pipes have demonstrated favorable materials compatibility and heat transport characteristics at high operating temperatures in air over long time periods. A representative one-tenth segment Stirling Space Power Converter heat pipe with an Inconel 718 envelope and a stainless steel screen wick has operated for over 87,000 hr (10 years) at nearly 700 C. These life test results have demonstrated the potential for high-temperature heat pipes to serve as reliable energy conversion system components for power applications that require long operating lifetime with high reliability. Detailed design specifications, operating history, and post-test analysis of the heat pipe and sodium working fluid are described. Lessons learned and future life test plans are also discussed.

  2. Cannabis use and the course of schizophrenia: 10-year follow-up after first hospitalization

    PubMed Central

    Foti, Daniel J.; Kotov, Roman; Guey, Lin T.; Bromet, Evelyn J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The authors examined the relationship between cannabis use and the course of illness in schizophrenia over 10 years following first psychiatric hospitalization. Method We assessed 229 patients with a schizophrenia-spectrum disorder five times: during the first admission, and 6 months, 2 years, 4 years, and 10 years later. Ratings of cannabis use and psychiatric symptoms (psychotic, negative, disorganized, and depressive) were made at each assessment. Results The lifetime rate of cannabis use was 66.2%, and survival analysis revealed that this usage was associated with an earlier onset of psychosis. The rates of current use ranged from 10% to 18% across assessments. Cannabis status was moderately stable, with concordance between waves ranging rtet = 0.48 – 0.78. Mixed-effects logistic regression revealed that changes in cannabis use were associated with changes in psychotic symptoms over time even after gender, age, socio-economic status, other drug use, antipsychotic medication use, and other symptoms were controlled. Structural equation modeling indicated that the association with psychotic symptoms was bi-directional. Conclusions Cannabis use is associated with an adverse course of psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia, and vice versa, even after taking into account other clinical, substance, and demographic variables. The specificity of this relationship suggests that clinical interventions to reduce cannabis use may be best targeted at individuals with prominent psychotic symptoms. PMID:20478874

  3. Bibliometric Analysis of Orthopedic Literature on Total Knee Arthroplasty in Asian Countries: A 10-year Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Eom, Sang Hwa; Bamne, Ankur B.; Chowdhry, Madhav; Chae, Ihn Seok

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We aimed to determine the quantity and quality of research output of selected Asian countries in the field of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in the last 10 years. Materials and Methods Top 15 Asian countries were selected according to their gross domestic product. The Science Citation Index Expanded database was used to search for the literature published between 2004 and 2013 using "Total Knee Arthroplasty". The numbers of articles, journals and citations and the contribution of each country were analyzed. The articles were classified according to the type of study and the relative proportion of each type was analyzed. Results Asian surgeons have increasingly contributed to orthopedic literature on TKA for the past 10 years, but the dominant contribution came from only a few countries. The total number of articles published by Asian countries increased by 261%, with Japan producing most of the studies and China showing the maximum growth rate. The majority of studies were published in low impact factor journals. Korea published the highest proportion of articles in high impact factor journals. Clinical papers were most frequent. Conclusions Our identification of research productivity pertaining to TKA among Asian countries gives a unique insight into the level of academic research in the field of TKA in these countries. There is a need to improve the quality of research to enhance the publishing power in high impact journals as well as the need for more basic research and epidemiological studies considering the unique differences among Asian patients undergoing TKA. PMID:26389067

  4. Overview of Aqua MODIS 10-year On-orbit Calibration and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, X.; Wenny, B.; Sun, J.; Wu, A.; Chen, H.; Angal, A.; Choi, T.; Madhavan, S.; Geng, X.; Link, D.; Toller, G.; Barnes, W.; Salomonson, V.

    2012-01-01

    Since launch in May 2002, Aqua MODIS has successfully operated for nearly 10 years, continuously collecting global datasets for scientific studies of key parameters of the earth's land, ocean, and atmospheric properties and their changes over time. The quality of these geophysical parameters relies on the input quality of sensor calibrated radiances. MODIS observations are made in 36 spectral bands with wavelengths ranging from visible (VIS) to longwave infrared (LWIR). Its reflective solar bands (RSB) are calibrated using data collected from its on-board solar diffuser and regularly scheduled lunar views. The thermal emissive bands (TEB) are calibrated using an on-board blackbody (BB). The changes in the sensor's spectral and spatial characteristics are monitored by an on-board spectroradiometric calibration assembly (SRCA). This paper presents an overview of Aqua MODIS 10-year on-orbit operation and calibration activities, from launch to present, and summarizes its on-orbit radiometric, spectral, and spatial calibration and characterization performance. In addition, it will illustrate and discuss on-orbit changes in sensor characteristics and corrections applied to continuously maintain the sensor level 1B (L1B) data quality, as well as lessons learned that could benefit future calibration efforts.

  5. Enteroviruses in Spain: virological and epidemiological studies over 10 years (1988-97).

    PubMed Central

    Trallero, G.; Casas, I.; Tenorio, A.; Echevarria, J. E.; Castellanos, A.; Lozano, A.; Breña, P. P.

    2000-01-01

    A total of 15,662 clinical samples were analysed for enterovirus (EV) isolation in cell cultures during a 10-year period (1988-97). Furthermore, 210 isolates of EV obtained in primary laboratories within Spain from patients with meningitis were characterized. The total number of EV typed was 758, including 727 non-polio EV and 31 Sabin-like (SL) polioviruses. Twenty-eight EV serotypes were represented. Echoviruses comprised 90% (653/727) of fully typed non-polio EV. The four most prevalent serotypes were echovirus 30, echovirus 9, echovirus 6 and echovirus 4. Echovirus 30 was the main serotype associated with meningitis. Echovirus 9 was the aetiological agent in 20 outbreaks of meningitis while the occurrence of echovirus 6 was localized in 1 year (1997). Coxsackieviruses A and B occurred in 3 and 7% of the non-polio EV respectively. Coxsackievirus B5 presented the relative greater abundance. This paper examines the epidemiology of EV in Spain to serotype level over a 10-year period with special attention to non-polio EV associated with meningitis. PMID:10982074

  6. Highlights from 10 Years of NASA/KNMI/FMI Collaboration on UV Remote Sensing from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhartia, Pawan K.

    2010-01-01

    The first joint meeting between NASA, KNMI and FMI scientists was held on 13 & 14 June, 2000, almost exactly 10 years ago. NASA had recently selected 14 US scientists to work on instrument calibration, science algorithms, and validation activities related to the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) that we being built by collaboration between the Netherlands and Finland for flight on NASA's EOS Aura satellite. The progress on this project had been remarkable for a space based instrument. Only two years before this meeting my colleague Ernest Hilsenrath and I had visited Netherlands at the invitation of Fokker Space to persuade KNMI management to collaborate with NASA on this mission. And only 4 years after the first science meeting was held OMI was lunched on the Aura spacecraft. Next month will be the 6 th anniversary of this launch and very successful operation of OMI. All this was possible because of the leadership from Dr. Hennie Kelder and KNMI management who in 1998 saw the opportunity for Netherlands in the mission and stepped up to the challenge by creating a young and talented team of scientists at KNMI under the leadership of Dr. Pieterenel Levelt. This vision has now put Netherlands as the leading country in the world in monitoring air quality from space. Recent selection of TROPOMI by ESA attests to the success of this vision. I will present some selected highlights of our very successful collaboration on this project over the past 10 years.

  7. Prenatal alcohol and marijuana exposure: effects on neuropsychological outcomes at 10 years.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Gale A; Ryan, Christopher; Willford, Jennifer; Day, Nancy L; Goldschmidt, Lidush

    2002-01-01

    This report from a longitudinal study of the effects of prenatal alcohol and marijuana exposure investigates whether these drugs affect neuropsychological development at 10 years of age. Women were recruited from a medical assistance prenatal clinic and interviewed about their substance use at the end of each trimester of pregnancy, at 8 and 18 months, and at 3, 6, 10, 14, and 16 years. Half of the women were African American, and half were Caucasian. The women were generally from lower socioeconomic status families and had obtained high school degrees. At the 10-year follow-up, 593 children completed a neuropsychological battery, which focused on problem solving, learning and memory, mental flexibility, psychomotor speed, attention, and impulsivity. Prenatal alcohol use was found to have a significant negative impact on learning and memory skills, as measured by the WRAML. Prenatal marijuana exposure also had an effect on learning and memory, as well as on impulsivity, as measured by a continuous performance task. The effects of prenatal alcohol and marijuana exposure persisted when other predictors of learning and memory were controlled. We continue to follow these offspring into the adolescent years when further neuropsychological deficits may become evident.

  8. Personality disorder risk factors for suicide attempts over 10 years of follow-up.

    PubMed

    Ansell, Emily B; Wright, Aidan G C; Markowitz, John C; Sanislow, Charles A; Hopwood, Christopher J; Zanarini, Mary C; Yen, Shirley; Pinto, Anthony; McGlashan, Thomas H; Grilo, Carlos M

    2015-04-01

    Identifying personality disorder (PD) risk factors for suicide attempts is an important consideration for research and clinical care alike. However, most prior research has focused on single PDs or categorical PD diagnoses without considering unique influences of different PDs or of severity (sum) of PD criteria on the risk for suicide-related outcomes. This has usually been done with cross-sectional or retrospective assessment methods. Rarely are dimensional models of PDs examined in longitudinal, naturalistic prospective designs. In addition, it is important to consider divergent risk factors in predicting the risk of ever making a suicide attempt versus the risk of making an increasing number of attempts within the same model. This study examined 431 participants who were followed for 10 years in the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study. Baseline assessments of personality disorder criteria were summed as dimensional counts of personality pathology and examined as predictors of suicide attempts reported at annual interviews throughout the 10-year follow-up period. We used univariate and multivariate zero-inflated Poisson regression models to simultaneously evaluate PD risk factors for ever attempting suicide and for increasing numbers of attempts among attempters. Consistent with prior research, borderline PD was uniquely associated with ever attempting. However, only narcissistic PD was uniquely associated with an increasing number of attempts. These findings highlight the relevance of both borderline and narcissistic personality pathology as unique contributors to suicide-related outcomes. PMID:25705977

  9. 100% Retention of Snowpack Derived Nitrogen Over 10 Years in High Arctic Tundra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhary, S.; Tye, A. M.; Young, S. D.; West, H. M.; Phoenix, G. K.

    2013-12-01

    Tundra ecosystems are susceptible to atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition, increasing as a result of anthropogenic activities as well as climate change. Depositions that get accumulated within the snowpack during winter months are released in spring during snowmelt, providing a periodic input of reactive N in the melt water to such nutrient limited ecosystems. Identifying ecosystem N retention and allocation and how this change over time is important to understanding the long-term consequences of such N depositions to these ecosystems. We reanalysed 10 years later an atmospheric N deposition study established in Svalbard that in 2001 used 15N isotope tracers to determine the fate of N released from melting snowpack. Applications of 15N (99 atom%) at 0.1 and 0.5 g N m-2 were made immediately after snowmelt in 2001 as either Na15NO3 or 15NH4Cl. These applications were approximately 1 × and 5 × the yearly atmospheric deposition rates. In both the previous short-term (one week to two years after 15N tracer application) and our long-term re-sampling (10 years after 15N tracer application), ~67% of the total applied 15N was retained in the ecosystem, irrespective of the N forms or N dose. This meant the tundra had 100% long-term N retention after initial partitioning, suggesting a highly conservative N cycling. Bryophytes, followed by the organic soil horizon and then the microbial biomass formed the greatest short-term 15N sink. Maximum changes in 15N retention from the short- to long-term were observed in the microbial 15N pools, with ~75% of the 15N in soil located in its biomass during the initial partitioning (July 2001) decreasing to ~17% 10 years later. This indicates significant microbial N turnover mostly into stable humus N. In contrast, vascular plants, particularly Salix polaris, showed significant increases (~60%) in their 15N retention after 10 years, indicating a high capacity for acting as a long-term N sink in this tundra ecosystem. Because the largest

  10. An economic evaluation: Simulation of the cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of universal prevention strategies against osteoporosis-related fractures

    PubMed Central

    Nshimyumukiza, Léon; Durand, Audrey; Gagnon, Mathieu; Douville, Xavier; Morin, Suzanne; Lindsay, Carmen; Duplantie, Julie; Gagné, Christian; Jean, Sonia; Giguère, Yves; Dodin, Sylvie; Rousseau, François; Reinharz, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    A patient-level Markov decision model was used to simulate a virtual cohort of 500,000 women 40 years old and over, in relation to osteoporosis-related hip, clinical vertebral, and wrist bone fractures events. Sixteen different screening options of three main scenario groups were compared: (1) the status quo (no specific national prevention program); (2) a universal primary prevention program; and (3) a universal screening and treatment program based on the 10-year absolute risk of fracture. The outcomes measured were total directs costs from the perspective of the public health care system, number of fractures, and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). Results show that an option consisting of a program promoting physical activity and treatment if a fracture occurs is the most cost-effective (CE) (cost/fracture averted) alternative and also the only cost saving one, especially for women 40 to 64 years old. In women who are 65 years and over, bone mineral density (BMD)-based screening and treatment based on the 10-year absolute fracture risk calculated using a Canadian Association of Radiologists and Osteoporosis Canada (CAROC) tool is the best next alternative. In terms of cost-utility (CU), results were similar. For women less than 65 years old, a program promoting physical activity emerged as cost-saving but BMD-based screening with pharmacological treatment also emerged as an interesting alternative. In conclusion, a program promoting physical activity is the most CE and CU option for women 40 to 64 years old. BMD screening and pharmacological treatment might be considered a reasonable alternative for women 65 years old and over because at a healthcare capacity of $50,000 Canadian dollars ($CAD) for each additional fracture averted or for one QALY gained its probabilities of cost-effectiveness compared to the program promoting physical activity are 63% and 75%, respectively, which could be considered socially acceptable. Consideration of the indirect costs could

  11. Plating of open pediatric tibia fractures.

    PubMed

    Head, James; Lewis, T R; Puffinbarger, William; Garbrecht, Erika

    2014-07-01

    This study is a single center retrospective chart and radiographic review of patients with open tibia fractures under the age of 16 years of age over past 10 years. The purpose of this study is to investigate the treatment of open pediatric tibia fractures with plating in regards to time to ambulation, time to union, and deformity in comparison to other treatment options. We found that plating open pediatric tibia fractures is a safe treatment option that can lead to excellent results with low risk of complications. PMID:25223152

  12. On Probability Domains III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frič, Roman; Papčo, Martin

    2015-12-01

    Domains of generalized probability have been introduced in order to provide a general construction of random events, observables and states. It is based on the notion of a cogenerator and the properties of product. We continue our previous study and show how some other quantum structures fit our categorical approach. We discuss how various epireflections implicitly used in the classical probability theory are related to the transition to fuzzy probability theory and describe the latter probability theory as a genuine categorical extension of the former. We show that the IF-probability can be studied via the fuzzy probability theory. We outline a "tensor modification" of the fuzzy probability theory.

  13. Effects of background and classroom characteristics on the science achievement of 10-year-old students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosier, Malcolm

    1990-01-01

    Effects of characteristics of science classrooms on the science achievement of students were examined in the context of a simple model. The model incorporated prior attributes of the students in terms of home background, sex, and verbal and quantitative ability. The model was estimated by means of partial least squares multivariate procedures using data for 10-year-old Queensland students from the Second International Science Study. The results demonstrated the dominant influence of home background and verbal/mathematical ability. Female students tended to have lower scores after allowing for the influence of the other variables in the model. Students who stated that there were more student initiated activities in their science lessons tended to have lower achievement.

  14. Incontinentia Pigmenti; a Rare Multisystem Disorder: Case Report of a 10-Year-Old Girl

    PubMed Central

    Rafatjoo, Rezvan; Taghdisi Kashani, Amene

    2016-01-01

    Incontinentia pigmenti is a rare genodermatosis in which the skin involvement occurs in all patients. Additionally, other ectodermal tissues may be affected such as the central nervous system, eyes, hair, nails and teeth. The disease has an X-linked dominant inheritance pattern. But in our case, there was a mutation in the body cells due to incontinentia pigmenti. The dermatological findings occur in four successive phases. We report the case of a 10-year-old female presented cutaneous, dental and ophthalmic characteristic with 3 years follow-up. Dental anomalies such as hypodontia, peg-shaped anterior teeth, malformed primary and permanent teeth, and delayed eruption were seen in our patient. PMID:27602400

  15. Incontinentia Pigmenti; a Rare Multisystem Disorder: Case Report of a 10-Year-Old Girl.

    PubMed

    Rafatjoo, Rezvan; Taghdisi Kashani, Amene

    2016-09-01

    Incontinentia pigmenti is a rare genodermatosis in which the skin involvement occurs in all patients. Additionally, other ectodermal tissues may be affected such as the central nervous system, eyes, hair, nails and teeth. The disease has an X-linked dominant inheritance pattern. But in our case, there was a mutation in the body cells due to incontinentia pigmenti. The dermatological findings occur in four successive phases. We report the case of a 10-year-old female presented cutaneous, dental and ophthalmic characteristic with 3 years follow-up. Dental anomalies such as hypodontia, peg-shaped anterior teeth, malformed primary and permanent teeth, and delayed eruption were seen in our patient. PMID:27602400

  16. The Effects of Lack of Joint Goal Planning on Divorce over 10 Years

    PubMed Central

    Gere, Judith; Almeida, David M.; Martire, Lynn M.

    2016-01-01

    Given the negative consequences of divorce on health and well-being, it is important to try to identify its predictors. In the current study we used data from the National Survey of Midlife Development (N = 2801) to examine the longitudinal effects of lack of joint goal planning with a romantic relationship partner on divorce over a 10-year period. Multilevel regression analyses showed that lack of joint planning with the relationship partner was associated with a 19% increase in the odds of divorce, even when controlling for various demographic (i.e., age, gender, relationship length, number of children in the household), individual (i.e., neuroticism, positive affect, negative affect, physical symptoms, planning), and relationship (i.e., marital empathy, partner strain, partner disagreement, marital satisfaction, commitment). These results demonstrate the importance of considering one’s partner when making decisions and plans for the future, given that it has clear implications for relationship dissolution. PMID:27668863

  17. [Wavelet analysis on SO2 pollution index changes of Shanghai in recent 10 years].

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiao-ling; Zhang, Bin; Ai, Nan-shan; Liu, Li-jun

    2009-08-15

    Based on the continuous Mexican Hat wavelet transformation of time series of daily SO2 pollution index during last 10 years in Shanghai, the multiscale variations, primary period, catastrophe point and influencing factors are analyzed. The result shows that periodical fluctuation of SO2 pollution index varies at diverse time-scales, and the primary period of the daily variations is about 100 days; pollution pattern takes on serious in winter and light in summer in most scales due to meteorological conditions, and the catastrophe point of serious-light transformation of SO2 pollution index in a year is vernal and autumnal equinox; energy demand and socioeconomic development result in more seriousness in recent years and half result with twice the effort of endeavors of pollution elimination. Wavelet analysis is an effective method to time series of SO2 pollution index, also to multiscale variations of other pollutants. PMID:19799273

  18. [Association between Crohn's disease and primary sclerosing cholangitis in a 10 year old girl].

    PubMed

    Muñoz Lozón, Ana; Iglesias Blázquez, Cristina; Menéndez Arias, Cristina; Domínguez Sánchez, Patricia

    2016-06-01

    A 10 year old girl with diarrhea, abdominal pain, weight loss and fever of one month and a half of evolution. Analytical and sonographic findings raised the possibility of inflammatory bowel disease. Endoscopy and histology showed findings consistent with Crohn's disease. Treatment was initiated with mesalazine and exclusive enteral nutrition. Later corticosteroid treatment, immunosuppressive drugs and ursodeoxycholic acid were added due to cholestasis and persistent hypergammaglobulinemia. Magnetic resonance cholangiography and liver biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of concomitant primary sclerosing cholangitis. The association between Crohn's disease and primary sclerosing cholangitis is rare, predominantly in males between 20 and 40 years old and it presents a great clinical variability. The confirmation of the diagnosis requires magnetic resonance cholangiography or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. The prognosis is poor and there is no treatment to slow the progression of the disease.

  19. The genetic and environmental etiology of high math performance in 10-year-old twins.

    PubMed

    Petrill, Stephen A; Kovas, Yulia; Hart, Sara A; Thompson, Lee A; Plomin, Robert

    2009-07-01

    The genetic and environmental etiology of high math performance (at or above the 85%tile) was examined in a population-based sample of 10-year-old twins (nMZ = 1,279, nDZ = 2,305). Math skills were assessed using a web-based battery of math performance tapping skills related to the UK National Math Curriculum. Probandwise concordance rates and liability threshold models indicated that genetic and shared environmental influences were significant, and that these estimates were generally similar to those obtained across the normal range of ability and did not vary significantly by gender. These results suggest that the genetic and environmental influences at the high end of ability are likely to be continuous with those that affect the entire range of math performance across all children irrespective of gender.

  20. Health Care Finance Executive Personalities Revisited: A 10-Year Follow-up Study.

    PubMed

    Lieneck, Cristian; Nowicki, Michael

    2015-01-01

    A dynamic health care industry continues to call upon health care leaders to possess not one but multiple competencies. Inherent personality characteristics of leaders often play a major role in personal as well as organizational success to include those in health care finance positions of responsibility. A replication study was conducted to determine the Myers-Briggs personality-type differences between practicing health care finance professionals in 2014, as compared with a previous 2003 study. Results indicate a significant shift between both independent samples of health care finance professionals over the 10-year period from original high levels of introversion to that of extraversion, as well as higher sensing personality preferences, as compared with the original sample's high level of intuition preferences. Further investigation into the evolving role of the health care finance manager is suggested, while continued alignment of inherent, personal characteristics is suggested to meet ongoing changes in the industry.

  1. Tracking 10-year competitive winning performance of judo athletes across age groups.

    PubMed

    Julio, Ursula F; Takito, Monica Y; Mazzei, Leandro; Miarka, Bianca; Sterkowicz, Stanislaw; Franchini, Emerson

    2011-08-01

    Little information is available concerning early specialization and competitive success in judo across the early training years. Thus, the present objective was to verify the stability of individual competitive performance of a state-level championship for judo athletes who had been previously successful. For this, 406 athletes from six age groups (9 to 20+ years old) of each sex were followed for 10 years. Using recorded data from the São Paulo State Judo Federation beginning in 1999, the scores and standings for these judo players were analyzed. The proportion of medal winners during this period was not constant, differing from the grand mean in all groups of both 204 males and 202 females. At the end of this period, only 7% of the male and 5% of the female athletes had maintained their competitive levels. Successful competitive performance in early judo competition was not associated with success later in adulthood. PMID:21987915

  2. Perceived neighborhood safety, recovery capital, and successful outcomes among mothers 10 years after substance abuse treatment

    PubMed Central

    Evans, E.; Li, L.; Buoncristiani, S.; Hser, Y.I.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines perceived neighborhood characteristics associated with successful outcome among mothers 10 years after being treated for substance use disorders. Data were obtained from 713 mothers first studied at admission to drug treatment in California in 2000-2002 and followed-up in 2009-2011. At follow-up, 53.6% of mothers had a successful outcome (i.e., no use of illicit drugs and not involved with the criminal justice system). Perceived neighborhood safety almost doubled the odds of success. Perceived neighborhood safety interacted with social involvement, decreasing the odds of success among mothers who reported more versus less neighborhood social involvement. Perceived neighborhood climate is associated with long-term outcomes among mothers with substance use disorders independent of individual-level characteristics, underscoring the need for further efforts to understand its interaction with recovery capital in ways that promote and impede health. PMID:24832914

  3. A review of Internet pornography use research: methodology and content from the past 10 years.

    PubMed

    Short, Mary B; Black, Lora; Smith, Angela H; Wetterneck, Chad T; Wells, Daryl E

    2012-01-01

    Internet pornography (IP) use has increased over the past 10 years. The effects of IP use are widespread and are both negative (e.g., relationship and interpersonal distress) and positive (e.g., increases in sexual knowledge and attitudes toward sex). Given the possible negative effects of IP use, understanding the definition of IP, the types of IP used, and reasons for IP use is important. The present study reviews the methodology and content of available literature regarding IP use in nondeviant adult populations. The study seeks to determine how the studies defined IP, utilized validated measures of pornography use, examined variables related to IP, and addressed form and function of IP use. Overall, studies were inconsistent in their definitions of IP, measurement, and their assessment of the form and function of IP use. Discussion regarding how methodological differences between studies may impact the results and the ability to generalize findings is provided, and suggestions for future studies are offered. PMID:22032795

  4. Organic anti-corrosion systems in FGD lignite-fired units -- 10 years of operation experience

    SciTech Connect

    Schwart, G.; Moellmann, A.

    1998-07-01

    In order to meet the limitation of sulfur dioxide emission that came into force at the 1st July 1988 RWE Energie installed 37 flue gas desulfurizing plants (FGD) in 4 lignite fired stations. These FGD's are operated on basis of the limestone process. The types of scrubber are different. To protect the inner steel surfaces of the scrubbers and the ducts from corrosion by the flue gas and the condensate, rubbers and coatings are used. During 10 years of operation experience with FGD's several types of corrosion protection systems in the surface in the scrubber and the ducts were used. The reliability and break down mechanism of different types of soft rubber linings and resin systems is discussed.

  5. Evolution of Science Operations after 10 years of the Mars Express Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardesin Moinelo, Alejandro; Martin, Patrick

    2013-10-01

    The Mars Express mission was launched in June 2003 and has been providing great amounts of data since its arrival to Mars in Christmas 2003, covering a wide range of science objectives at all levels, from the surface and sub-surface geology, atmosphere dynamics and composition, up to the interaction with the magnetosphere and the characterization of the Martian sytem including its two moons, Phobos and Deimos. In these last 10 years, the Mars Express Science Operations Center has been responsible for the coordination of the scientific requirements and the implementation of the science plan, aiming to obtain the maximum scientific return of the mission while respecting the operational constraints. In this contribution we will show some of the operational challenges of the mission, focusing on the improvements and adaptations of the past years, not only in terms of technical and scientific requirements which have been varying with time, but also the optimization of the interfaces with all the teams involved.

  6. Voice disorders without organic diseases of the larynx. A 10-year review of 62 patients.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Y; Miura, M; Shoji, H

    1983-01-01

    We reviewed the clinical records of 62 patients with voice disorders without organic diseases of the larynx who were examined in the Department of Otolaryngology, Kurume University Hospital during the 10 years from 1971 to 1980. There were 9 patients with psychogenic dysphonia, 24 with vocal abuse, 4 with spastic dysphonia, 9 with mutational voice disturbance, 8 with virilization of voice, 7 with dysphonia attributed to diseases of other organs than the larynx, and 1 with senile change of voice. The clinical service to the patients with these kinds of dysphonia has been poor in Japan for lack of trained voice pathologists. This has been also the case with our department. Recognition for the necessity of voice pathologists is strongly demanded.

  7. Tracking 10-year competitive winning performance of judo athletes across age groups.

    PubMed

    Julio, Ursula F; Takito, Monica Y; Mazzei, Leandro; Miarka, Bianca; Sterkowicz, Stanislaw; Franchini, Emerson

    2011-08-01

    Little information is available concerning early specialization and competitive success in judo across the early training years. Thus, the present objective was to verify the stability of individual competitive performance of a state-level championship for judo athletes who had been previously successful. For this, 406 athletes from six age groups (9 to 20+ years old) of each sex were followed for 10 years. Using recorded data from the São Paulo State Judo Federation beginning in 1999, the scores and standings for these judo players were analyzed. The proportion of medal winners during this period was not constant, differing from the grand mean in all groups of both 204 males and 202 females. At the end of this period, only 7% of the male and 5% of the female athletes had maintained their competitive levels. Successful competitive performance in early judo competition was not associated with success later in adulthood.

  8. Pertussis Accompanying Recent Mycoplasma Infection in a 10-Year-Old Girl.

    PubMed

    Cheon, Mi Kyung; Na, Hyunju; Han, Seung Beom; Kwon, Hyo Jin; Chun, Yoon Hong; Kang, Jin Han

    2015-09-01

    Recently, the incidence of pertussis has been increasing; however, reports on mixed infection of pertussis with other respiratory pathogens are rare in highly immunized populations. We report the case of a 10-year-old girl who presented with cough, post-tussive emesis, and fever. She was subsequently diagnosed with bronchopneumonia. Although she had received five doses of diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine, polymerase chain reaction of her nasopharyngeal aspirate confirmed Bordetella pertussis infection. In addition, serologic testing for Mycoplasma pneumoniae was also positive. The patient was treated with roxithromycin without any complications. This is the first report of mixed B. pertussis and M. pneumoniae infection in Korea. To avoid under-diagnosis, pertussis should be considered in patients with chronic cough even when other respiratory pathogens have been documented. PMID:26483996

  9. Tuskegee Bioethics Center 10th anniversary presentation: "Commemorating 10 years: ethical perspectives on origin and destiny".

    PubMed

    Prograis, Lawrence J

    2010-08-01

    More than 70 years have passed since the beginning of the Public Health Service syphilis study in Tuskegee, Alabama, and it has been over a decade since President Bill Clinton formally apologized for it and held a ceremony for the Tuskegee study participants. The official launching of the Tuskegee University National Center for Bioethics in Research and Health Care took place two years after President Clinton's apology. How might we fittingly discuss the Center's 10th Anniversary and the topic 'Commemorating 10 Years: Ethical Perspectives on Origin and Destiny'? Over a decade ago, a series of writers, many of them African Americans, wrote a text entitled 'African-American Perspectives on Biomedical Ethics'; their text was partly responsible for a prolonged reflection by others to produce a subsequent work, 'African American Bioethics: Culture, Race and Identity'. What is the relationship between the discipline of bioethics and African American culture? This and related questions are explored in this commentary.

  10. A 10-year plan to study the aquifer system of Indian Wells Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lipinski, Paul; Knochenmus, Darwin D.

    1981-01-01

    Water needs of the population of Indian Wells Valley, Calif., must be met through further development of ground-water resources. Studies show that annual ground-water pumpage there has increased since 1945 and has exceeded mean annual recharge since 1966. Continued and increased stress on the aquifer system of the valley is expected because population in the valley is predicted to double by 1998 and triple by 2020, based on 1977 population figures. The U.S. Geological Survey proposes a 10-year program to develop a data base to aid in evaluation of future water-management alternatives. A study plan has been developed that describes present and potential problems and objectives of the program, and outlines work items to be undertaken in the study area. (USGS)

  11. Use of Qualitative Methods in Published Health Services and Management Research: A 10-Year Review

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, Bryan J.; Amick, Halle R.; Lund, Jennifer L.; Lee, Shoou-Yih Daniel; Hoff, Timothy J.

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, the field of health services and management research has seen renewed interest in the use of qualitative research methods. This article examines the volume and characteristics of qualitative research articles published in nine major health services and management journals between 1998 and 2008. Qualitative research articles comprise 9% of research articles published in these journals. Although the publication rate of qualitative research articles has not kept pace with that of quantitative research articles, citation analysis suggests that qualitative research articles contribute comparably to the field’s knowledge base. A wide range of policy and management topics has been examined using qualitative methods. Case study designs, interviews, and documentary sources were the most frequently used methods. Half of qualitative research articles provided little or no detail about key aspects the study’s methods. Implications are discussed and recommendations are offered for promoting the publication of qualitative research. PMID:20675353

  12. Inflammation in end-stage renal disease--what have we learned in 10 years?

    PubMed

    Carrero, Juan J; Stenvinkel, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The first reports connecting uremic inflammation with a wasted and atherogenic phenotype and poor outcome initiated in the late 1990s. Since then, about 3500 publications appear on Medline, reflecting the exponential interest that this topic has evoked in nephrology. What was described as a "novel" risk factor 10 years ago has now evolved into an established finding in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The purpose of this review is to summarize the main advances contributing to our current understanding of the complex inflammatory processes present in ESRD. Causes and consequences of inflammation, genetic heritability of the inflammatory response, implications on outcome prognostication, and contemporary therapeutic evidence are some of the various topics discussed.

  13. [10 years after Chernobyl--radioactivity of mother's milk-- measurements from Tirol, Tibet and Nepal].

    PubMed

    Lechner, W; Brunner, P; Bergant, A; Pastner, E; Müller, D

    1997-11-28

    10 years after the Chernobyl disaster gamma radioactivity from Cs-137 was determined in 53 breast milk samples from Tyrol, as well as 9 samples from Tibet and 2 from Nepal by means of a gamma-spectrometer with a germanium detector. In contrast to the values obtained within a few days, and again 1 year after the nuclear plant catastrophe, all samples from Tyrol showed gamma radioactivity levels (median 0.07 nCi/l; range 0.02-0.20 nCi/l) which were now below the limit laid down for baby food in Austria (0.3 nCi/l-11.1 Bq). The samples from Tibet and Nepal registered a slightly higher level of gamma radioactivity (median 0.16 nCi/l; range 0.16-0.41 nCi/l).

  14. A review of Internet pornography use research: methodology and content from the past 10 years.

    PubMed

    Short, Mary B; Black, Lora; Smith, Angela H; Wetterneck, Chad T; Wells, Daryl E

    2012-01-01

    Internet pornography (IP) use has increased over the past 10 years. The effects of IP use are widespread and are both negative (e.g., relationship and interpersonal distress) and positive (e.g., increases in sexual knowledge and attitudes toward sex). Given the possible negative effects of IP use, understanding the definition of IP, the types of IP used, and reasons for IP use is important. The present study reviews the methodology and content of available literature regarding IP use in nondeviant adult populations. The study seeks to determine how the studies defined IP, utilized validated measures of pornography use, examined variables related to IP, and addressed form and function of IP use. Overall, studies were inconsistent in their definitions of IP, measurement, and their assessment of the form and function of IP use. Discussion regarding how methodological differences between studies may impact the results and the ability to generalize findings is provided, and suggestions for future studies are offered.

  15. Minimum 10-Year Wear Analysis of Highly Cross-Linked Polyethylene in Cementless Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    So, Kazutaka; Goto, Koji; Kuroda, Yutaka; Matsuda, Shuichi

    2015-12-01

    Fifty-four patients (64 hips) underwent cementless total hip arthroplasty between 2000 and 2003 with a 22-mm zirconia ceramic bearing on highly cross-linked polyethylene, and were evaluated with a mean 11.9-year postoperative follow-up (range, 10-14 years). Linear wear was measured on the anteroposterior radiograph of the hip. No evidence of osteolysis and loosening was found on the final radiograph in any of the cases, and the steady-state linear wear rate was 0.017±0.018 mm/year. No significant correlation was found between the linear wear rate and age, body weight, cup inclination angle, or polyethylene thickness. Highly cross-linked polyethylene showed excellent wear resistance for >10 years when used in combination with 22-mm zirconia heads.

  16. Total knee arthroplasty using cementless keels and cemented tibial trays: 10-year results

    PubMed Central

    Kolisek, Frank R.; Mont, Michael A.; Seyler, Thorsten M.; Marker, David R.; Jessup, Nenette M.; Siddiqui, Junaed A.; Monesmith, Eric

    2008-01-01

    The problem of early mechanical stability of cemented and cementless keels of the tibial component in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is controversial. The purpose of this study was to assess clinical and radiographic outcomes of a cohort of 51 TKAs using a cemented platform with cementless keel fixation. At a mean follow-up of 10.4 years (range, 7 to 14 years), the mean Knee Society Score (KSS) was 93 points (range, 59 to 100 points), and the mean functional score was 73 points (range, 0 to 100 points). Only one patient demonstrated progressive tibial radiolucencies at 13.1 years follow-up, which resolved with a revision with an exchange of components. The results of this study suggest that a proximally cemented tibial tray with a press-fit keel TKA provides excellent mean 10-year outcomes. PMID:18185931

  17. Predictors Associated with Changes of Weight and Total Cholesterol among two Occupational Cohorts over 10 Years

    PubMed Central

    Stanford, Joseph B.; Murtaugh, Maureen A.; Greenwood, Jessica L.J.; Gren, Lisa H.; Hegmann, Kurt T.; Thiese, Matthew S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To ascertain worker health characteristics and psychosocial factors associated with changes in body weight and total cholesterol (TC) among two production operation populations. Methods We performed descriptive and predictive analysis of questionnaire data and biomedical measurements from two prospective cohort studies. Our key outcomes were changes in weight, and TC over 5–10 years between baseline and exit assessments. Results 146 subjects were analyzed. Increases in weight were associated with belief in being overweight and baseline overweight and obesity. Increases in TC levels were associated with female gender, belief that TC levels were “not good,” and feeling depressed. Conclusion Most of the reported associations with increases in weight and TC levels are amenable to interventions and may be a target for workplace intervention programs. PMID:26147542

  18. From Exotic to Mainstream: A 10-year Odyssey from Internet Speed to Boundary Spanning with Scrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskerville, Richard; Pries-Heje, Jan; Madsen, Sabine

    Based on four empirical studies conducted over a 10-year time period from 1999 to 2008 we investigate how local software processes interact with global changes in the software development context. In 1999 companies were developing software at high speed in a desperate rush to be first-to-market. In 2001 a new high speed/quick results development process had become established practice. In 2003 changes in the market created the need for a more balanced view on speed and quality, and in 2008 companies were successfully combining agile and plan driven approaches to achieve the benefits of both. The studies reveal a twostage pattern in which dramatic changes in the market causes disruption of established practices, experimentation, and process adaptations followed by consolidation of lessons learnt into a new (and once again mature) software development process. Limitations, implications, and areas for future research are discussed.

  19. The World Health Organization European Health in Prisons Project After 10 Years: Persistent Barriers and Achievements

    PubMed Central

    Gatherer, Alex; Moller, Lars; Hayton, Paul

    2005-01-01

    The recognition that good prison health is important to general public health has led 28 countries in the European Region of the World Health Organization (WHO) to join a WHO network dedicated to improving health within prisons. Within the 10 years since that time, vital actions have been taken and important policy documents have been produced. A key factor in making progress is breaking down the isolation of prison health services and bringing them into closer collaboration with the country’s public health services. However, barriers to progress remain. A continuing challenge is how best to move from policy recommendations to implementation, so that the network’s fundamental aim of noticeable improvements in the health and care of prisoners is further achieved. PMID:16186449

  20. Tuberculosis in Israel: a 10-year survey of an immigrant society.

    PubMed

    Dolberg, O T; Alkan, M; Schlaeffer, F

    1991-07-01

    Over a 10-year period (1978-87), 279 tuberculosis (TB) patients were diagnosed at the Soroka Medical Center. Of these, 48% were Ethiopian Jews, 28% Bedouin Arabs, and 24% were Jews of other origins. The Bedouin and Ethiopian patients were younger and had fewer concomitant diseases. The Ethiopian patients were hospitalized longer than other patients. Ethiopian and Bedouin patients were less compliant with therapy. There were 187 cases of pulmonary TB (67%), and 92 cases of extrapulmonary TB (33%). The majority of the Bedouin and Ethiopian patients had pulmonary tuberculosis, while extrapulmonary TB was more frequent among the rest of the patients. It is concluded that TB in the Negev reflects the diversity of its population, with characteristics of both a developing and a developed country. PMID:2071375

  1. After more than 10 years of Gulf War veteran medical evaluations, what have we learned?

    PubMed

    Gray, Gregory C; Gackstetter, Gary D; Kang, Han K; Graham, John T; Scott, Ken C

    2004-06-01

    Since the 1991 Gulf War, more than 10 years and 1 billion dollars of health evaluations and research have been invested in understanding illnesses among Gulf War veterans. We examined the extensive published healthcare utilization data in an effort to summarize what has been learned. Using multiple search techniques, data as of June 2003 from four different national Gulf War health registries and numerous hospitalization and ambulatory care reports were reviewed. Thus far, published reports have not revealed a unique Gulf War syndrome nor identified specific exposures that might explain postwar morbidity. Instead, they have demonstrated that Gulf War veterans have had an increase in multi-symptom condition, injury, and mental health diagnoses. While these diagnoses are similar to those experienced by other comparable military populations, their explanation is not fully understood. New strategies to identify risk factors for, and to reduce, such postdeployment conditions are summarized.

  2. Federal Transit Administration's noise and vibration Guidance Manual: Updates after 10 years of experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Carl E.

    2005-09-01

    In April 1995, the Federal Transit Administration of the U.S. Department of Transportation issued its guidance manual, ``Transit Noise and Vibration Impact Assessment.'' The manual was written to provide direction for the preparation of noise and vibration sections of environmental documents for public transportation projects in the interest of promoting quality and uniformity in assessments. In the 10 years since its release, the guidance manual has been used as the basis of noise and vibration assessments in over 80 environmental documents and has been used worldwide as a standard method for performing transit noise analyses. An updated version has recently been prepared that takes account of improvements in tools, changes in the environmental assessment procedures, modifications of impact criteria, and experience with mitigation measures. These factors, and other background information, will be discussed to provide insight regarding the revisions in the new edition.

  3. Pertussis Accompanying Recent Mycoplasma Infection in a 10-Year-Old Girl

    PubMed Central

    Cheon, Mi Kyung; Na, Hyunju; Han, Seung Beom; Kwon, Hyo Jin; Chun, Yoon Hong

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the incidence of pertussis has been increasing; however, reports on mixed infection of pertussis with other respiratory pathogens are rare in highly immunized populations. We report the case of a 10-year-old girl who presented with cough, post-tussive emesis, and fever. She was subsequently diagnosed with bronchopneumonia. Although she had received five doses of diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine, polymerase chain reaction of her nasopharyngeal aspirate confirmed Bordetella pertussis infection. In addition, serologic testing for Mycoplasma pneumoniae was also positive. The patient was treated with roxithromycin without any complications. This is the first report of mixed B. pertussis and M. pneumoniae infection in Korea. To avoid under-diagnosis, pertussis should be considered in patients with chronic cough even when other respiratory pathogens have been documented. PMID:26483996

  4. Use of qualitative methods in published health services and management research: a 10-year review.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Bryan J; Amick, Halle R; Lund, Jennifer L; Lee, Shoou-Yih Daniel; Hoff, Timothy J

    2011-02-01

    Over the past 10 years, the field of health services and management research has seen renewed interest in the use of qualitative research methods. This article examines the volume and characteristics of qualitative research articles published in nine major health services and management journals between 1998 and 2008. Qualitative research articles comprise 9% of research articles published in these journals. Although the publication rate of qualitative research articles has not kept pace with that of quantitative research articles, citation analysis suggests that qualitative research articles contribute comparably to the field's knowledge base. A wide range of policy and management topics has been examined using qualitative methods. Case study designs, interviews, and documentary sources were the most frequently used methods. Half of qualitative research articles provided little or no detail about key aspects the study's methods. Implications are discussed and recommendations are offered for promoting the publication of qualitative research.

  5. [Mosaic trisomy of chromosome 20 in a patient with congenital anomalies--10-years observation].

    PubMed

    Barg, Ewa; Gil, Justyna; Wikiera, Beata; Smigiel, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Trisomy 20 is one of the most often identified disorders in amniocytes, but in a postnatal analysis is detected rather rarely. We present a girl with dysmorphic features, congenital defects, tumor of a suprarenal gland, hypothyroidism and abnormal intelligence. The recognition of mosaic trisomy 20 was confirmed after cytogenetic examination of the skin fibroblast. The karyotype is described as mos 47,XX,+20/46,XX. The karyotype from peripheral blood lymphocytes, which was examined in the 1st year of life, was normal female (46,XX) and the Turner syndrome was excluded. During 10 years we observed that the dysmorphic features were increased and suggested genetic reasons of these features. In children with dysmorphic features and normal karyotype of blood lymphocytes a wide-ranged genetic counseling is necessary.

  6. Impact of the Active Healthy Kids Canada report card: a 10-year analysis.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Mark S; Barnes, Joel D; Cowie Bonne, Jennifer

    2014-05-01

    For 20 years Active Healthy Kids Canada (AHKC) has worked to inspire the country to engage all children and youth in physical activity (PA). The primary vehicle to achieve this is the AHKC Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth, which has been released annually since 2005. Using 10 years of experience with this knowledge translation and synthesis mechanism, this paper aggregates and consolidates diverse evidence demonstrating the impact of the Report Card and related knowledge translation activities. Over the years many evaluations, consultations, assessments, and surveys have helped inform changes in the Report Card to improve its impact. Guided by a logic model, the various assessments have traversed areas related to distribution and reach, meeting stakeholder needs, use of the Report Card, its influence on policy, and advancing the mission of AHKC. In the past 10 years, the Report Card has achieved > 1 billion media impressions, distributed > 120,000 printed copies and > 200,000 electronic copies, and benefited from a collective ad value > $10 million. The Report Card has been replicated in 14 countries, 2 provinces, 1 state and 1 city. AHKC has received consistent positive feedback from stakeholders and end-users, who reported that the Report Card has been used for public awareness/education campaigns and advocacy strategies, to strengthen partnerships, to inform research and program design, and to advance and adjust policies and strategies. Collectively, the evidence suggests that the Report Card has been successful at powering the movement to get kids moving, and in achieving demonstrable success on immediate and intermediate outcomes, although the long-term goal of improving the PA of Canadian children and youth remains to be realized. PMID:25426911

  7. Effect of Ocular Alignment on Emmetropization in Children <10 years with Amblyopia

    PubMed Central

    Kulp, Marjean T.; Foster, Nicole C.; Holmes, Jonathan M.; Kraker, Raymond T.; Melia, B. Michele; Repka, Michael X.; Tien, D. Robbins

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether change in refractive error is associated with ocular alignment in 105 children 3 to <7 years of age who previously participated in a randomized trial comparing atropine and patching for moderate amblyopia. Design Prospective cohort study Methods One hundred five children 3 to <7 years of age previously participated in a randomized trial comparing atropine with patching for moderate amblyopia. Cycloplegic refraction was measured at baseline and 10 years of age. Ocular alignment at baseline was categorized as orthotropic, microtropic (1–8Δ horizontal tropia), or heterotropic (>8Δ horizontal tropia). Multivariate regression models evaluated whether change in spherical equivalent refractive error was associated with alignment category, after adjusting for age, baseline spherical equivalent refractive error, and type of amblyopia treatment. Results Between enrollment and the age 10-year exam there was a decrease in spherical equivalent refractive error from hyperopia to less hyperopia (amblyopic eye: − 0.65D, 95%CI −0.85, −0.46; fellow eye: −0.39D, 95%CI −0.58, −0.20). A greater decrease in amblyopic eye refractive error was associated with better ocular alignment category (p=0.004), with the greatest decrease occurring in orthotropic patients. There was no relationship between ocular alignment category and change in fellow-eye refractive error. Conclusions Among children treated for anisometropic, strabismic, or combined mechanism amblyopia, there is a decrease in amblyopic eye spherical equivalent refractive error to less hyperopia after controlling for baseline refractive error. This negative shift toward emmetropia is associated with ocular alignment, which supports the suggestion that better motor and sensory fusion promote emmetropization. PMID:22633344

  8. Lamont-Doherty's Secondary School Field Research Program: 10 years of field research-based education.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, R.; Vincent, S.; Gribbin, S.; Peteet, D. M.; Sambrotto, R.; Bostick, B. C.; Corbett, E.; Nguyen, K.; Bjornton, J.; Lee, D.; Dubossi, D.; Reyes, N.

    2014-12-01

    This fall marks the 10th year in which we have run a research-project-based educational program for high school students and science teachers at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory. This summer's cohort included 31 teenagers, 7 science teachers, and 16 college students, most of whom are returning to the program to help run the research projects. Nearly all of our students attend non-competitive-entry public schools in NYC or the neighborhoods around the Observatory. Over 80% are from under-served minority populations. Most receive Title I/III assistance. About 60% are young women. During the past 10 years, nearly all of our participants have gone on to 4-year colleges. About half are declaring science and engineering majors. Our students receive scholarship support at rates several times higher than their graduating peers, including 5 Gates Millennium scholars over the past 5 years. Our science is centered on studies of a nearby tidal wetland, where we have expanded from fish collections in year one to include everything from sediment core analysis to soil chemistry to nutrient cycles to the local food web. In this presentation we will look back over 10 years of experience and focus on what lessons can be learned about (1) how to engage teams of young investigators in authentic scientific research; (2) what cultural/organizational structures encourage them to make use of place- and project-based learning and (3) what the participants themselves report as the most useful aspects of our programming. The presentation will include video clips from the students' field experiences and from reflective interviews with "graduates".

  9. Community Structure and Quality After 10 Years in Two Central Ohio Mitigation Bank Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spieles, Douglas J.; Coneybeer, Meagan; Horn, Jonathan

    2006-11-01

    We evaluate two 10-year-old mitigation bank wetlands in central Ohio, one created and one with restored and enhanced components, by analysis of vegetation characteristics and by comparison of the year-10 vegetation and macroinvertebrate communities with reference wetlands. To assess different measures of wetland development, we compare the prevalence of native hydrophytes with an index of floristic quality and we evaluate the predictability of these parameters in year 10, given 5 years of data. Results show that the mitigation wetlands in this study meet vegetation performance criteria of native hydrophyte establishment by year 5 and maintain these characteristics through year 10. Species richness and floristic quality, as well as vegetative similarity with reference wetlands, differ among mitigation wetlands in year 1 and also in their rate of change during the first 10 years. The prevalence of native hydrophytes is reasonably predictable by year 10, but 5 years of monitoring is not sufficient to predict future trends of floristic quality in either the created or restored wetland. By year 10, macroinvertebrate taxa richness does not statistically differ among these wetlands, but mitigation wetlands differ from reference sites by tolerance index and by trophic guild dominance. The created wetland herbivore biomass is significantly smaller than its reference, whereas detritivore biomass is significantly greater in the created wetland and smaller in the restored wetland as compared with respective reference wetlands. These analyses illustrate differences in measures of wetland performance and contrast the monitoring duration necessary for legal compliance with the duration required for development of more complex indicators of ecosystem integrity.

  10. [Analysis on characteristics of red tide in Fujian coastal waters during the last 10 years].

    PubMed

    Li, Xue-Ding

    2012-07-01

    There were 161 red tide events collected during the last 10 years from 2001 to 2010 in Fujian coastal waters. Comprehensive analysis was performed using statistical methods and the results indicated the following characteristics of the temporal and spatial distribution of red tide in Fujian coastal waters: (1) Outbreaks of red tide often occurred between April and September, and the peak period was in May and June. Most red tide events lasted for 2 to 4 days, and the affected area was below 50 square kilometers. The first outbreak of red tide tended to occur earlier in recent years, and the lasting time became longer. (2) There were 20 species of organisms causing the red tides in Fujian coastal waters, among which 10 species were Bacillariophyta, 9 species were Dinophyta and 1 species was Protozoa. Prorocentrum donghaiense was the most frequent cause of red tides, followed by Noctiluca scintillans, Skeletonema costatum and Chaetoceros sp.. The species caused red tides obeyed the succession law and there were always new species involved. (2) In terms of spatial distribution, outbreaks of red tides mainly occurred in the coastal waters of Ningde, Fuzhou and Xiamen. The species causing red tides were Prorocentrum donghaiense and Noctiluca in the coastal waters in the north of Pingtan, Fujian Province, Skeletonema costatum and Chaetoceros in the coastal waters in the south of Pingtan, Fujian Province. The comprehensive analysis of the characteristics of red tides during the last 10 years is expected to provide scientific and reasonable basis for the prevention, reduction and forecast of red tides in Fujian coastal waters.

  11. Injuries in a Professional Ballet Dance Company: A 10-year Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Ramkumar, Prem N; Farber, Joseph; Arnouk, Johnny; Varner, Kevin E; Mcculloch, Patrick C

    2016-03-01

    Ballet dancers are high-performance athletes who are particularly susceptible to a wide variety of musculoskeletal injuries. However, they are relatively understudied, and data on their injury rates are lacking. This retrospective study features the largest aggregate data on professional ballet dancers to date and aims to identify the most common diagnoses and areas of injury in this unique population to better direct preventative and clinical practices. The study encompassed a 10-year period from January 2000 to December 2010 of dancers from a single company. Data regarding the dancers' age, gender, location of injury, and diagnosis were collected from workers' compensation claims, company records, and medical records maintained by the treating doctors. These were analyzed to determine metrics on injury incidence, frequency, and diagnosis. Over the 10-year span, 574 injuries occurred. There were approximately 52 dancers per year for a total of 153 who danced at least one complete season during the study period. The average age was 27, and 53% were female. Given turnover with retirement and replacements, the total number of dancer-years was 520, indicating an injury incidence per annum of 1.10 (574 injuries per 520 dancer-years). The most common locations of injury were foot and ankle and the lumbar spine, with the three most common diagnoses making up greater than a third (37%) of the total. As the current largest study in professional ballet, the findings set the benchmark metrics for musculoskeletal injury to the foot, ankle, and lumbar spine sites. Future studies should aim to identify injury risk factors and modalities for prevention of these injuries. PMID:27025450

  12. Impact of the Active Healthy Kids Canada report card: a 10-year analysis.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Mark S; Barnes, Joel D; Cowie Bonne, Jennifer

    2014-05-01

    For 20 years Active Healthy Kids Canada (AHKC) has worked to inspire the country to engage all children and youth in physical activity (PA). The primary vehicle to achieve this is the AHKC Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth, which has been released annually since 2005. Using 10 years of experience with this knowledge translation and synthesis mechanism, this paper aggregates and consolidates diverse evidence demonstrating the impact of the Report Card and related knowledge translation activities. Over the years many evaluations, consultations, assessments, and surveys have helped inform changes in the Report Card to improve its impact. Guided by a logic model, the various assessments have traversed areas related to distribution and reach, meeting stakeholder needs, use of the Report Card, its influence on policy, and advancing the mission of AHKC. In the past 10 years, the Report Card has achieved > 1 billion media impressions, distributed > 120,000 printed copies and > 200,000 electronic copies, and benefited from a collective ad value > $10 million. The Report Card has been replicated in 14 countries, 2 provinces, 1 state and 1 city. AHKC has received consistent positive feedback from stakeholders and end-users, who reported that the Report Card has been used for public awareness/education campaigns and advocacy strategies, to strengthen partnerships, to inform research and program design, and to advance and adjust policies and strategies. Collectively, the evidence suggests that the Report Card has been successful at powering the movement to get kids moving, and in achieving demonstrable success on immediate and intermediate outcomes, although the long-term goal of improving the PA of Canadian children and youth remains to be realized.

  13. Deaths in the Cook County jail: 10-year report, 1995-2004.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seijeoung; Ting, Andrew; Puisis, Michael; Rodriguez, Sergio; Benson, Roger; Mennella, Connie; Davis, Faith

    2007-01-01

    The aims of this study were to describe causes of death during the 10-year period between 1995 and 2004 in a large urban jail in Chicago; to compare disease specific mortality rates between the jail population and the general population; to explore demographic and incarceration characteristics of the inmates who died in the jail by cause of death; and to examine gender difference in demographic characteristics, incarceration patterns, and causes of death. A total of 178 deaths occurring in the jail over a 10-year period (1995-2004) were reviewed. Age-adjusted disease-specific mortality rates were computed for the jail population and compared with the rates in the US general population. Cause of death, demographic variables, and incarceration related factors were retrieved from multiple computerized databases. Descriptive analyses were performed to examine demographic and incarceration-related patterns by cause of death and gender. Heart disease was the most frequent cause of death in the jail population, followed by cerebrovascular disease and suicide. Mortality rates for heart diseases, infectious/inflammatory conditions and suicide were higher for jail inmates than the general population. Black inmates accounted for the majority of deaths due to illnesses and homicide, and a much higher proportion of white and Hispanic inmates were involved in suicide deaths. Deaths due to drug overdose or withdrawal were disproportionately higher among female inmates compared with male inmates. Consistent review of mortality rates and causes of deaths in jail can be a useful tool to better understand health issues and needs of jail inmates. Surveillance of acute and chronic illnesses and strategic reengineering of jail health care is a key to quality improvement for incarcerated populations for whom the jail system becomes their primary care provider. PMID:17136629

  14. [Analysis on characteristics of red tide in Fujian coastal waters during the last 10 years].

    PubMed

    Li, Xue-Ding

    2012-07-01

    There were 161 red tide events collected during the last 10 years from 2001 to 2010 in Fujian coastal waters. Comprehensive analysis was performed using statistical methods and the results indicated the following characteristics of the temporal and spatial distribution of red tide in Fujian coastal waters: (1) Outbreaks of red tide often occurred between April and September, and the peak period was in May and June. Most red tide events lasted for 2 to 4 days, and the affected area was below 50 square kilometers. The first outbreak of red tide tended to occur earlier in recent years, and the lasting time became longer. (2) There were 20 species of organisms causing the red tides in Fujian coastal waters, among which 10 species were Bacillariophyta, 9 species were Dinophyta and 1 species was Protozoa. Prorocentrum donghaiense was the most frequent cause of red tides, followed by Noctiluca scintillans, Skeletonema costatum and Chaetoceros sp.. The species caused red tides obeyed the succession law and there were always new species involved. (2) In terms of spatial distribution, outbreaks of red tides mainly occurred in the coastal waters of Ningde, Fuzhou and Xiamen. The species causing red tides were Prorocentrum donghaiense and Noctiluca in the coastal waters in the north of Pingtan, Fujian Province, Skeletonema costatum and Chaetoceros in the coastal waters in the south of Pingtan, Fujian Province. The comprehensive analysis of the characteristics of red tides during the last 10 years is expected to provide scientific and reasonable basis for the prevention, reduction and forecast of red tides in Fujian coastal waters. PMID:23002593

  15. Changes in Neuropsychological Functioning over 10 Years Following Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Karen L.; Cummins, Kevin; Tapert, Susan F.; Brown, Sandra A.

    2011-01-01

    Previously, Anderson, Ramo, Cummins, and Brown (2010) described six distinct patterns of alcohol and other drug (AOD) use during the decade following adolescents’ treatment for alcohol and other substance use disorders (A/SUD). This time period represents a phase of significant neurodevelopment and the influence of substance use on the brain is a concern. In the present study we examined patterns of neuropsychological function over these 10 years in relation to the AOD trajectories identified for youth as they transition into their twenties. Participants were part of a longitudinal research project following adolescents with and without A/SUD who received neuropsychological examinations at baseline and up to 7 times thereafter spanning 10 years (N=213; 46% female at baseline). Neuropsychological trajectories were significantly related to substance involvement patterns over time on measures of verbal learning and memory (ps=.011 to <.0001), visuospatial memory (p=.0002), and verbal attention/working memory (p=.020), with heavier use patterns generally followed by poorer cognition. Heavy use of alcohol alone was independently associated with poorer verbal memory over time. Further, substance withdrawal symptoms during each follow-up time point were related to poorer verbal learning and memory scores (ps<.05), while substance abuse/dependence diagnostic criteria were not related to neuropsychological performance levels. These findings suggest that AOD use during adolescence and young adulthood may primarily influence performance that relies on later maturing brain structures, although further research is needed. Higher levels of AOD withdrawal symptoms may signify greater neuropsychological impairment, reflecting potential neurotoxic effects of AOD use. PMID:21443308

  16. Neurocognition and Duration of Psychosis: A 10-year Follow-up of First-Episode Patients.

    PubMed

    Rund, Bjørn Rishovd; Barder, Helene Eidsmo; Evensen, Julie; Haahr, Ulrik; ten Velden Hegelstad, Wenche; Joa, Inge; Johannessen, Jan Olav; Langeveld, Johannes; Larsen, Tor Ketil; Melle, Ingrid; Opjordsmoen, Stein; Røssberg, Jan Ivar; Simonsen, Erik; Sundet, Kjetil; Vaglum, Per; McGlashan, Thomas; Friis, Svein

    2016-01-01

    A substantial proportion of schizophrenia-spectrum patients exhibit a cognitive impairment at illness onset. However, the long-term course of neurocognition and a possible neurotoxic effect of time spent in active psychosis, is a topic of controversy. Furthermore, it is of importance to find out what predicts the long-term course of neurocognition. Duration of untreated psychosis (DUP), accumulated time in psychosis the first year after start of treatment, relapse rates and symptoms are potential predictors of the long-term course. In this study, 261 first-episode psychosis patients were assessed neuropsychologically on one or more occasions. Patients were tested after remission of psychotic symptoms and reassessed 1, 2, 5, and 10 years after inclusion. The neurocognitive battery consisted of California Verbal Learning Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Controlled Oral Word Association Task, Trail Making A and B, and Finger Tapping. We calculated a composite score by adding the z-scores of 4 tests that were only moderately inter-correlated, not including Finger Tapping. Data were analyzed by a linear mixed model. The composite score was stable over 10 years. No significant relationship between psychosis before (DUP) or after start of treatment and the composite score was found, providing no support for the neurotoxicity hypothesis, and indicating that psychosis before start of treatment has no significant impact on the course and outcome in psychosis. We found no association between symptoms and the neurocognitive trajectory. Stable remission during the first year predicted neurocognitive functioning, suggesting that the early clinical course is a good predictor for the long-term course.

  17. Injuries in a Professional Ballet Dance Company: A 10-year Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Ramkumar, Prem N; Farber, Joseph; Arnouk, Johnny; Varner, Kevin E; Mcculloch, Patrick C

    2016-03-01

    Ballet dancers are high-performance athletes who are particularly susceptible to a wide variety of musculoskeletal injuries. However, they are relatively understudied, and data on their injury rates are lacking. This retrospective study features the largest aggregate data on professional ballet dancers to date and aims to identify the most common diagnoses and areas of injury in this unique population to better direct preventative and clinical practices. The study encompassed a 10-year period from January 2000 to December 2010 of dancers from a single company. Data regarding the dancers' age, gender, location of injury, and diagnosis were collected from workers' compensation claims, company records, and medical records maintained by the treating doctors. These were analyzed to determine metrics on injury incidence, frequency, and diagnosis. Over the 10-year span, 574 injuries occurred. There were approximately 52 dancers per year for a total of 153 who danced at least one complete season during the study period. The average age was 27, and 53% were female. Given turnover with retirement and replacements, the total number of dancer-years was 520, indicating an injury incidence per annum of 1.10 (574 injuries per 520 dancer-years). The most common locations of injury were foot and ankle and the lumbar spine, with the three most common diagnoses making up greater than a third (37%) of the total. As the current largest study in professional ballet, the findings set the benchmark metrics for musculoskeletal injury to the foot, ankle, and lumbar spine sites. Future studies should aim to identify injury risk factors and modalities for prevention of these injuries.

  18. Type 2 Diabetes and 10-Year Risk of Dementia and Cognitive Impairment Among Older Mexican Americans

    PubMed Central

    Mayeda, Elizabeth R.; Haan, Mary N.; Kanaya, Alka M.; Yaffe, Kristine; Neuhaus, John

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Type 2 diabetes has been linked with increased risk of dementia and cognitive impairment among older adults and with premature mortality in young and middle-aged adults. No studies have evaluated the association between diabetes and dementia among Mexican Americans, a population with a high burden of diabetes. We evaluated the association of diabetes with incidence of dementia and cognitive impairment without dementia (CIND) among older Mexican Americans while accounting for competing risk from death. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This study included 1,617 participants 60–98 years of age from the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging followed up to 10 years from 1998. We evaluated the association between diabetes and dementia/CIND with competing risk regression models. RESULTS Participants free of dementia/CIND at baseline (n = 1,617) were followed annually up to 10 years. There were 677 (41.9%) participants with diabetes, 159 (9.8%) incident dementia/CIND cases, and 361 (22.3%) deaths. Treated and untreated diabetes (hazard ratio 2.12 [95% CI 1.65–2.73] and 2.15 [1.58–2.95]) and dementia/CIND (2.48 [1.75–3.51]) were associated with an increased risk of death. In models adjusted for competing risk of death, those with treated and untreated diabetes had an increased risk of dementia/CIND (2.05 [1.41–2.97] and 1.55 [0.93–2.58]) compared with those without diabetes. CONCLUSIONS These findings provide evidence that the association between type 2 diabetes and dementia/CIND among Mexican Americans remains strong after accounting for competing risk of mortality. Treatments that modify risk of death among those with diabetes may change future dementia risk. PMID:23514732

  19. Fragility fracture: recent developments in risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Aspray, Terry J

    2015-02-01

    More than half of older women who sustain a fragility fracture do not have osteoporosis by World Health Organization (WHO) bone mineral density (BMD) criteria; and, while BMD has been used to assess fracture risk for over 30 years, a range of other skeletal and nonskeletal clinical risk factors (CRFs) for fracture have been recognized. More than 30 assessment tools using CRFs have been developed, some predicting fracture risk and others low BMD alone. Recent systematic reviews have reported that many tools have not been validated against fracture incidence, and that the complexity of tools and the number of CRFs included do not ensure best performance with poor assessment of (internal or comparative) validity. Internationally, FRAX® is the most commonly recommended tool, in addition to QFracture in the UK, The Canadian Association of Radiologists and Osteoporosis Canada (CAROC) tool in Canada and Garvan in Australia. All tools estimate standard 10-year risk of major osteoporotic and 10-year risk of hip fracture: FRAX® is able to estimate fracture risk either with or without BMD, but CAROC and Garvan both require BMD and QFracture does not. The best evidence for the utility of these tools is in case finding but there may be future prospects for the use of 10-year fracture risk as a common currency with reference to the benefits of treatment, whether pharmacological or lifestyle. The use of this metric is important in supporting health economic analyses. However, further calibration studies will be needed to prove that the tools are robust and that their estimates can be used in supporting treatment decisions, independent of BMD.

  20. Prematures with and without Regressed Retinopathy of Prematurity: Comparison of Long-Term (6-10 Years) Ophthalmological Morbidity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cats, Bernard P.; Tan, Karel E. W. P.

    Reporting long-term ophthalmologic sequelae among ex-prematures at 6 to 10 years of age, this study compares 42 ex-premature infants who had had regressed forms of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) during the neonatal period with 42 matched non-ROP ex-premature controls at 6 to 10 years of age. Subjects were subdivided into four groups: (1) ROP…

  1. Midline Crossing: Developmental Trend from 3 to 10 Years of Age in a Preferential Card-Reaching Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlier, M.; Doyen, A.-L.; Lamard, C.

    2006-01-01

    We assessed 110 left-handed and 322 right-handed children aged from 3 to 10 years, using Bishop's card-reaching task. Manual body midline crossings were observed. A regular developmental trend was observed from 3 to 10 years: older children crossed the body midline more frequently when reaching for cards than did younger children. The factor age…

  2. Fatigue Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Morris, James M.

    1968-01-01

    Fatigue (or stress) fracture of bone in military recruits has been recognized for many years. Most often it is a metatarsal bone that is involved but the tarsal bones, calcaneus, tibia, fibula, femur, and pelvis are occasionally affected. Reports of such fractures in the ribs, ulna and vertebral bodies may be found in the literature. In recent years, there has been increasing awareness of the occurrence of fatigue fractures in the civilian population. Weekend sportsmen, athletes in an early phase of training, and persons engaged in unaccustomed, repetitive, vigorous activity are potential victims of such a fracture. The signs and symptoms, roentgenographic findings, treatment and etiology of fatigue fractures are dealt with in this presentation. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6. PMID:5652745

  3. Coupled Fracture and Flow in Shale in Hydraulic Fracturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carey, J. W.; Mori, H.; Viswanathan, H.

    2014-12-01

    Production of hydrocarbon from shale requires creation and maintenance of fracture permeability in an otherwise impermeable shale matrix. In this study, we use a combination of triaxial coreflood experiments and x-ray tomography characterization to investigate the fracture-permeability behavior of Utica shale at in situ reservoir conditions (25-50 oC and 35-120 bars). Initially impermeable shale core was placed between flat anvils (compression) or between split anvils (pure shear) and loaded until failure in the triaxial device. Permeability was monitored continuously during this process. Significant deformation (>1%) was required to generate a transmissive fracture system. Permeability generally peaked at the point of a distinct failure event and then dropped by a factor of 2-6 when the system returned to hydrostatic failure. Permeability was very small in compression experiments (< 1 mD), possibly because of limited fracture connectivity through the anvils. In pure share experiments, shale with bedding planes perpendicular to shear loading developed complex fracture networks with narrow apertures and peak permeability of 30 mD. Shale with bedding planes parallel to shear loading developed simple fractures with large apertures and a peak permeability as high as 1 D. Fracture systems held at static conditions for periods of several hours showed little change in effective permeability at hydrostatic conditions as high as 140 bars. However, permeability of fractured systems was a function of hydrostatic pressure, declining in a pseudo-linear, exponential fashion as pressure increased. We also observed that permeability decreased with increasing fluid flow rate indicating that flow did not follow Darcy's Law, possibly due to non-laminar flow conditions, and conformed to Forscheimer's law. The coupled deformation and flow behavior of Utica shale, particularly the large deformation required to initiate flow, indicates the probable importance of activation of existing

  4. Probability on a Budget.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewbank, William A.; Ginther, John L.

    2002-01-01

    Describes how to use common dice numbered 1-6 for simple mathematical situations including probability. Presents a lesson using regular dice and specially marked dice to explore some of the concepts of probability. (KHR)

  5. Is quantum probability rational?

    PubMed

    Houston, Alasdair I; Wiesner, Karoline

    2013-06-01

    We concentrate on two aspects of the article by Pothos & Busemeyer (P&B): the relationship between classical and quantum probability and quantum probability as a basis for rational decisions. We argue that the mathematical relationship between classical and quantum probability is not quite what the authors claim. Furthermore, it might be premature to regard quantum probability as the best practical rational scheme for decision making.

  6. Predicted probabilities' relationship to inclusion probabilities.

    PubMed

    Fang, Di; Chong, Jenny; Wilson, Jeffrey R

    2015-05-01

    It has been shown that under a general multiplicative intercept model for risk, case-control (retrospective) data can be analyzed by maximum likelihood as if they had arisen prospectively, up to an unknown multiplicative constant, which depends on the relative sampling fraction. (1) With suitable auxiliary information, retrospective data can also be used to estimate response probabilities. (2) In other words, predictive probabilities obtained without adjustments from retrospective data will likely be different from those obtained from prospective data. We highlighted this using binary data from Medicare to determine the probability of readmission into the hospital within 30 days of discharge, which is particularly timely because Medicare has begun penalizing hospitals for certain readmissions. (3).

  7. Recurrent Gram-Negative Bloodstream Infection: A 10-Year Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hasan, Majdi N.; Eckel-Passow, Jeanette E.; Baddour, Larry M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Recurrent gram-negative bloodstream infection (BSI) has not been evaluated in a population-based setting; therefore, we performed a population-based retrospective cohort study to examine the incidence, recurrence, and mortality rates of gram-negative BSI. Methods We identified 944 episodes of gram-negative BSI, including 98 recurrent episodes, among Olmsted County, Minnesota, residents from 1/1/1998 to 12/31/2007. Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate the cumulative incidence rate of recurrence and 28-day all-cause mortality rate of gram-negative BSI. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to determine risk factors for recurrence. Results The overall age- and gender-adjusted incidence rate of gram-negative BSI per 100,000 person-years was 84.5 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 79.1–90.0), including 75.7 (95% CI: 70.6–80.8) for first episodes and 8.8 (95% CI: 7.1–10.6) for recurrent episodes. Among 846 patients with first episodes of gram-negative BSI, the cumulative incidence rates of recurrence after 1, 5, and 10 years of the initial episode were 5.6%, 9.2%, and 14.6%, respectively, with death treated as a competing risk. Patients with Klebsiella species were more likely than those with Escherichia coli BSI to develop recurrent gram-negative BSI (hazard ratio: 2.33 [95% CI: 1.34–3.92], p=0.003). The 28-day all-cause mortality rates following the initial and second episodes of gram-negative BSI were 10.0% (95% CI: 8.0–12.0) and 11.3% (95% CI: 4.4–18.2), respectively. Conclusions Even though recurrent gram-negative BSI was relatively uncommon in the general population, up to 15% of patients with gram-negative BSI developed a recurrent episode within 10 years of the initial episode. PMID:20378069

  8. Extending the TIME concept: what have we learned in the past 10 years?(*).

    PubMed

    Leaper, David J; Schultz, Gregory; Carville, Keryln; Fletcher, Jacqueline; Swanson, Theresa; Drake, Rebecca

    2012-12-01

    The TIME acronym (tissue, infection/inflammation, moisture balance and edge of wound) was first developed more than 10 years ago, by an international group of wound healing experts, to provide a framework for a structured approach to wound bed preparation; a basis for optimising the management of open chronic wounds healing by secondary intention. However, it should be recognised that the TIME principles are only a part of the systematic and holistic evaluation of each patient at every wound assessment. This review, prepared by the International Wound Infection Institute, examines how new data and evidence generated in the intervening decade affects the original concepts of TIME, and how it is translated into current best practice. Four developments stand out: recognition of the importance of biofilms (and the need for a simple diagnostic), use of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT), evolution of topical antiseptic therapy as dressings and for wound lavage (notably, silver and polyhexamethylene biguanide) and expanded insight of the role of molecular biological processes in chronic wounds (with emerging diagnostics and theranostics). Tissue: a major advance has been the recognition of the value of repetitive and maintenance debridement and wound cleansing, both in time-honoured and novel methods (notably using NPWT and hydrosurgery). Infection/inflammation: clinical recognition of infection (and non infective causes of persisting inflammation) is critical. The concept of a bacterial continuum through contamination, colonisation and infection is now widely accepted, together with the understanding of biofilm presence. There has been a return to topical antiseptics to control bioburden in wounds, emphasised by the awareness of increasing antibiotic resistance. Moisture: the relevance of excessive or insufficient wound exudate and its molecular components has led to the development and use of a wide range of dressings to regulate moisture balance, and to protect

  9. The Remains of the Dam: What Have We Learned From 10 Years of Dam Removals?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, G. E.; O'Connor, J. E.; Major, J. J.

    2012-12-01

    Over the past 10 years in the U.S., dam removal has evolved from an occasionally implemented, rarely studied, and poorly understood intervention to improve rivers, to a much more frequently accomplished and better studied and understood approach to river restoration. Over that same time period, the numbers and sizes of dams and volumes of sediment released have dramatically increased. By some estimates close to 1000 dams have been removed over the last 100 years, with most of those occurring within the last 10. While most of these are small (less than 15 m high) dams, removals of dams up to 70 m high are presently underway. Releases of sediment associated with these removals over the past 10 years have also increased by close to four orders of magnitude; for example removal of the Elwha River dams in Washington is estimated to release almost 107 m3 of sediment into the lower Elwha River. Given a decade's worth of dam removals and, in some cases, well-orchestrated case studies of the effects of removal on the geomorphology and (to a lesser extent) ecology of rivers, what have we learned? More specifically, where do we now stand with respect to being able to predict the consequences of future dam removals? Drawing on both field examples and numerical models of dam removals in the western U.S., several key lessons stand out. Although every dam removal and river are different, removals initiate very rapid upstream river response and reservoir erosion and evacuation of sediment by various mechanisms that are strongly controlled by grain size of the deposit, volumes of residual sediment relative to total reservoir volume, and style of dam removal (instantaneous versus staged). Erosion of sediment accumulations in fully and partially filled (by sediment) reservoirs proceeds by different trajectories and rates, with full reservoirs releasing sediment primarily by upstream knickpoint retreat while erosion and sediment release in partially-filled reservoirs proceeds by

  10. Energy-water analysis of the 10-year WECC transmission planning study cases.

    SciTech Connect

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Passell, Howard David; Castillo, Cesar; Moreland, Barbara

    2011-11-01

    calculating water withdrawal and consumption for current and planned electric power generation; projected water demand from competing use sectors; and, surface and groundwater availability. WECC's long range planning is organized according to two target planning horizons, a 10-year and a 20-year. This study supports WECC in the 10-year planning endeavor. In this case the water implications associated with four of WECC's alternative future study cases (described below) are calculated and reported. In future phases of planning we will work with WECC to craft study cases that aim to reduce the thermoelectric footprint of the interconnection and/or limit production in the most water stressed regions of the West.

  11. Climatological Analysis of the Exclusive Economic Zone of Mexico Based on 10 Years of Satellite Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez Rodriguez, E.; Trasviña-Castro, A.; Aguirre Bahena, F.

    2013-05-01

    To visualize the variability of inorganic carbon in the waters of the Exclusive Economic Zone of Mexico we analysed over 10 years of monthly data 4-km resolution from the MODIS-AQUA satellite. This sensor provides various types of information and for this discussion we selected particulate organic carbon, sea surface temperature and euphotic zone depth. We constructed climatological maps for each month of the year to show the average, maximum, minimum and standard deviation of the three variables. The result of the average particulate organic carbon climatology indicates that the main areas of inorganic carbon production (> 200 mg m3) are the Gulf of California, the west coast of the peninsula of Baja California, the coast of Colima, the Gulf of Tehuantepec and in the Gulf of Mexico the coasts of Yucatan, Tabasco and Tamaulipas. The months presenting higher production occur between December and April. In comparison, lowest climatological mean sea surface temperature (below 14 oC) occurs on the west coast of the Baja California peninsula and it is observed associated with the highest mean particulate organic carbon (>250 mg m-3). Climatological mean sea surface temperature on the coast of Colima, Yucatan, Tabasco and Tamaulipas are about 25 °C and coincide with high values of particulate organic carbon (> 200 mg m-3). The climatological mean euphotic zone depth show lowest values (<50 m) coincide with the highest mean particulate organic carbon values indicating a clear relationship with a reduction of light penetration in the water column. Inspection of the standard deviation maps shows greatest variability of particulate organic carbon from December to February in the Gulf of California, the coast of Colima and the Gulf of Tehuantepec. In the west coast of the peninsula of Baja California greater variability of particulate organic carbon occurs from June to December. In the oceanic domain beyond the continental shelf, particulate organic carbon values are very

  12. Extending the TIME concept: what have we learned in the past 10 years?(*).

    PubMed

    Leaper, David J; Schultz, Gregory; Carville, Keryln; Fletcher, Jacqueline; Swanson, Theresa; Drake, Rebecca

    2012-12-01

    The TIME acronym (tissue, infection/inflammation, moisture balance and edge of wound) was first developed more than 10 years ago, by an international group of wound healing experts, to provide a framework for a structured approach to wound bed preparation; a basis for optimising the management of open chronic wounds healing by secondary intention. However, it should be recognised that the TIME principles are only a part of the systematic and holistic evaluation of each patient at every wound assessment. This review, prepared by the International Wound Infection Institute, examines how new data and evidence generated in the intervening decade affects the original concepts of TIME, and how it is translated into current best practice. Four developments stand out: recognition of the importance of biofilms (and the need for a simple diagnostic), use of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT), evolution of topical antiseptic therapy as dressings and for wound lavage (notably, silver and polyhexamethylene biguanide) and expanded insight of the role of molecular biological processes in chronic wounds (with emerging diagnostics and theranostics). Tissue: a major advance has been the recognition of the value of repetitive and maintenance debridement and wound cleansing, both in time-honoured and novel methods (notably using NPWT and hydrosurgery). Infection/inflammation: clinical recognition of infection (and non infective causes of persisting inflammation) is critical. The concept of a bacterial continuum through contamination, colonisation and infection is now widely accepted, together with the understanding of biofilm presence. There has been a return to topical antiseptics to control bioburden in wounds, emphasised by the awareness of increasing antibiotic resistance. Moisture: the relevance of excessive or insufficient wound exudate and its molecular components has led to the development and use of a wide range of dressings to regulate moisture balance, and to protect

  13. Estimating Monthly, Annual, and Low 7-Day, 10-Year Streamflows for Ungaged Rivers in Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dudley, Robert W.

    2004-01-01

    Regression equations to estimate monthly, annual, and low 7-day, 10-year (7Q10) streamflows were derived for rivers in Maine. The derived regression equations for estimating mean monthly, mean annual, median monthly, median annual, and low 7Q10 streamflows for ungaged rivers in Maine presented in this report supersede those derived in previous studies. Twenty-six U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations on unregulated, rural rivers in Maine with 10 years or more of recorded streamflow were used to develop the regression equations. Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression techniques were used to select the explanatory variables (basin and climatic characteristics) that would appear in the final regression equations. OLS regression of all possible subsets was done with 62 explanatory variables for each of 27 response variables. Five explanatory variables were chosen for the final regression equations: drainage basin area, areal fraction of the drainage basin underlain by sand and gravel aquifers, distance from the coast to the drainage basin centroid, mean drainage basin annual precipitation, and mean drainage basin winter precipitation (the sum of mean monthly precipitation for December, January, and February). Generalized least-squares regression techniques were used to derive the final coefficients and measures of uncertainty for the regression equations. The forms of many of the derived regression equations indicate some physical, mechanistic processes. Drainage basin area is the most statistically important explanatory variable and appears in all derived regression equations. Monthly streamflows are related inversely to the distance from the coast to the drainage basin centroid during December, January, February, and March; that is, the closer a river basin is to the coast, the higher monthly streamflows are per unit drainage basin area during the winter. The relation reverses in May when higher streamflows are attributed to basins farther from the coast

  14. MISR observations at dust source regions: 10-year analysis of aerosol properties and plume heights.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalashnikova, Olga; Sokolik, Irina; Garay, Michael; Wu, Dong

    Multiangle remote sensing, in particular from Terra/MISR, provides a unique, independent source of data for study dust emission and transport. MISR/Terra is an imaging instrument that uses combination of multi-spectral and multi-angle data to retrieve aerosol properties and aerosol plume heights. A number of validation studies have shown that MISR provides reliable optical depth values over the bright desert. We use the 10-year aerosol data record from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) aboard the Terra satellite to investigate the inter-annual and seasonal variability of dust loadings and properties as retrieved by MISR at selected dust source regions. In particular, we examine the Taklamakan, East and Central Gobi regions in Asia, and Mauritania desert and Bodélé Basin regions in Africa. Within each ee selected region, the analysis was performed to examine the multi-annual mean and variability of the aerosol optical depth and particle properties, taking into account the effects of MISR sampling and cloud coverage. To avoid the gridding and averaging effects as much as possible we use the instantaneous Level 2 MISR data for the analysis. We use AERONET data and other independent measurements where available to supplement and constrain MISR product. In addition to the optical depth/property analysis, we report 10-year climatology of dust plume heights over Bodélé Basin as function of the distance from the source. We demonstrate that, ee while there are some effects of large-scale dynamics on dust loadings and heights, the various differences in anomaly time series (including month-to-month differences) reveal the role of meso-scale systems specific to the each source region. These source-specific differences provide valuable information for testing/validating the regional dust transport models. The results will be presented and interpreted in the context of atmospheric dynamics variability, including variability of meteorological regimes in dust

  15. Racing To Understand Probability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Zoest, Laura R.; Walker, Rebecca K.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a series of lessons designed to supplement textbook instruction of probability by addressing the ideas of "equally likely,""not equally likely," and "fairness," as well as to introduce the difference between theoretical and experimental probability. Presents four lessons using The Wind Racer games to study probability. (ASK)

  16. Dependent Probability Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, William F.; Shiflett, Ray C.; Shultz, Harris

    2008-01-01

    The mathematical model used to describe independence between two events in probability has a non-intuitive consequence called dependent spaces. The paper begins with a very brief history of the development of probability, then defines dependent spaces, and reviews what is known about finite spaces with uniform probability. The study of finite…

  17. Searching with probabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Palay, A.J.

    1985-01-01

    This book examines how probability distributions can be used as a knowledge representation technique. It presents a mechanism that can be used to guide a selective search algorithm to solve a variety of tactical chess problems. Topics covered include probabilities and searching the B algorithm and chess probabilities - in practice, examples, results, and future work.

  18. Heterotopic ossification: review of histologic findings and tissue distribution in a 10-year experience.

    PubMed

    Liu, Katharine; Tripp, Sheryl; Layfield, Lester J

    2007-01-01

    Heterotopic ossification (HO) within tissues involved by a pathologic process is a well-recognized phenomenon. It is most frequently observed in atherosclerotic plaques, in soft tissue around joints, and in the central nervous system. Less frequently, carcinomas and some benign neoplasms will undergo heterotopic ossification. We performed a retrospective review of our experience with HO over a 10-year period to determine the frequency and tissue site distribution of heterotopic ossification. A computerized review of surgical pathology records of approximately 126,000 reports revealed 85 cases in which heterotopic ossification, ectopic bone or metaplastic bone was specifically mentioned in the surgical pathology diagnosis. Twenty-two cases were neoplasms of non-osseous tissues, and 63 cases were non-neoplastic lesions. Immunohistochemical staining for bone morphogenic proteins (BMP) 1, 4, and 6 was performed. Fourteen cases showed staining for BMP-1, 22 cases showed staining for BMP-4, and five cases showed weak staining for BMP-6. HO is a relatively infrequent finding and is more commonly seen in degenerative and reparative conditions than in neoplasms. PMID:17728073

  19. Bonneville Power Administration, Office of Engineering 10-Year Plan, 1992-2001 : Draft.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration. Office of Engineering.

    1992-05-01

    For over 50 years, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has evolved to supply electric power to more than 170 customer utilities and direct service industries across 14,800 miles of high voltage transmission lines. BPA's Office of Engineering provides the planning, development, and engineering for the required expansion, upgrade, and replacement of the transmission system. The purpose of this 10-Year Plan is to present strategies to maintain a reliable energy delivery system within changing public, business, technological, and environmental climates. The issues and trends discussed in this document and our strategies for addressing them provide the background for the Office of Engineering programs and projects. With a budget in the hundreds of millions annually and increasing public concern, we welcome the opportunity to communicate with our customers. In addition to the factors, trends and issues described in this document are two appendices containing project costs and program and staffing levels. These figures are preliminary with estimates current as of May 13, 1992.

  20. Bonneville Power Administration, Office of Engineering 10-Year Plan, 1992-2001 : Draft.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration. Office of Engineering.

    1992-05-01

    For over 50 years, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has evolved to supply electric power to more than 170 customer utilities and direct service industries across 14,800 miles of high voltage transmission lines. BPA`s Office of Engineering provides the planning, development, and engineering for the required expansion, upgrade, and replacement of the transmission system. The purpose of this 10-Year Plan is to present strategies to maintain a reliable energy delivery system within changing public, business, technological, and environmental climates. The issues and trends discussed in this document and our strategies for addressing them provide the background for the Office of Engineering programs and projects. With a budget in the hundreds of millions annually and increasing public concern, we welcome the opportunity to communicate with our customers. In addition to the factors, trends and issues described in this document are two appendices containing project costs and program and staffing levels. These figures are preliminary with estimates current as of May 13, 1992.

  1. Characteristics of Primary Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma in Iran: A 10-Year Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Fatemi Naeini, Farahnaz; Sadeghiyan, Hamidreza; Pourazizi, Mohsen; Najafian, Jamshid; Abtahi-Naeini, Bahareh

    2014-01-01

    Background. Primary cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCLs) are a group of extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphomas that may be present in the skin without any evidence of extracutaneous disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiological characteristics of primary CTCL in Isfahan, Iran. Method. A total of 95 patients who were diagnosed as having primary CTCL were recruited during a 10-year period (2003–2013) and were classified according to the new WHO-EORTC criteria. Results. The patient group consisted of 43 (44.8%) males and 53 (55.2%) females, which indicated a female predominance (M : F ratio 1 : 1.2). The mean age at the time of diagnosis was 41.78 ± 16.88 years (range: 7–84 years). Prior to diagnosis, the lesions had persisted for a mean of 8.34 ± 4.38 years (range: 0–55 years). The age at peak diagnosis was 20–40 years (43%). The most frequent subtypes were mycosis fungoides (MF) (88.5%). Four patients died from CTCL-related complications. Conclusions. The distinguishing epidemiologic characteristics of primary CTCL, particularly those MF, in Iran, are the absence of a male predominance and lower age at diagnosis. This is likely because of the characteristic ethnic group diversity and increased susceptibility among younger population. PMID:27437467

  2. Postmortem analysis of cardiovascular deaths in schizophrenia: a 10-year review.

    PubMed

    Sweeting, Joanna; Duflou, Johan; Semsarian, Christopher

    2013-11-01

    Schizophrenia is a devastating mental disorder, associated with mortality rates up to three times higher than those in the general population. This post-mortem study sought to investigate the causes of death in a consecutive series of schizophrenia cases, with a specific focus on cardiovascular disease and sudden death. A 10-year review of autopsies in schizophrenia related-cases performed at the Department of Forensic Medicine in Sydney, Australia was undertaken. Premorbid clinical and demographic information was recorded, as well as the key pathological findings and final cause of death. From 2003 to 2012, there were 19,478 postmortem examinations performed of which 683 (3.5%) were deaths in people with a history of schizophrenia. In these cases, the mean age at death was 51years (range 18-93years), with 43% in the 41-60year age group. Males comprised 67% of cases. Overall, 62% of cases had a BMI≥25kg/m(2), indicating overweight or obese individuals. The three primary causes of death were "cardiovascular" (23%), "suicide" (20%), and "drug toxicity" (17%). In 11% of cases (n=72), no definitive cause of death was found, the so-called "unexplained" cases. In conclusion, patients with schizophrenia have premature mortality. The major contributing factors include cardiovascular diseases, suicide and drug toxicity. The "unexplained" and frequently sudden deaths may suggest underlying cardiac arrhythmias as a cause of death in a subgroup of schizophrenia patients. PMID:24028743

  3. Aggression and Violence among Iranian Adolescents and Youth: A 10-year Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Saeid; Farajzadegan, Ziba; Kelishadi, Roya; Heidari, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although the overwhelming majority of Iranian adolescents are well-adjusted, a substantial group exhibits high levels of maladjustment and deficient functioning. Escalation of criminal violence among the youth population has become a major public policy issue and a serious public health problem. In reviewing a 10-year literature, this article aimed to describe and propose primary assumptions regarding the correlates of aggressive and violent behaviors in Iranian adolescents and youth. Methods: Bibliographic databases such as PubMed and Google Scholar along with Iranian databases including PubMed, IranMedex, Magiran, Irandoc, Psychoinfo, and Emrofor Scientific Information Database, and Magiran constituted the databases which we searched for the relevant literature. Overall 98 articles met the inclusion criteria, allowing us to initiate the discussion. Results: Reportedly, prevalence of violence and aggression among the Iranian adolescents and youth ranged from 30% to 65.5% while males being 2½ times more affected than females. The role of gender, family environment, family size, socioeconomic status, and victimization in perpetuating the circumstances was apparent. Conclusions: Relatively high prevalence of violence and aggression among Iranian youth and adolescents is a warning sign and a great challenge to the social system. Reviewed studies suffer from certain methodological and conceptual limitations. Undertaking community-based studies to estimate the actual extent of the problem is warranted. PMID:26157572

  4. Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement 10-Year Plan 1990-1999 : Environmental Strategy. Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1990-09-01

    In operating and maintaining its regional power transmission system, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) must address environmental concerns. Pollution sources and pathways for pollution migration, including potential contamination from hazardous or toxic materials, are present. BPA must develop and follow precautionary measures, respond to emergencies, minimize wastes, redress past problems, alert and train employees to problems and safety needs, constantly evaluate this effort and update the program for improvements and changes in regulations and technology. Part of BPA's mission is to conduct its operation, maintenance, and replacement programs in an environmentally sound manner. BPA recognizes its responsibility to be good stewards of the environment. BPA will meet its environmental obligations as set forth in environmental laws and regulations. BPA intends to make consistent and measurable progress toward meeting these responsibilities. The target for the 10-Year Plan is to achieve environmental compliance and meet the following goals: (1) protect human health and the environment; (2) avoid or limit liability (3) set up an effective internal management structure to maintain compliance; and (4) achieve cost-effective compliance. 6 figs.

  5. Inhibitory control in otherwise healthy overweight 10-year-old children

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, S; Peirano, P; Peigneux, P; Lozoff, B; Algarin, C

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Preventing obesity is a worldwide public health priority. In vulnerable children living in obesogenic environments, with easy access to high-caloric food, alterations in inhibitory control functions might favor excessive food intake and affect energy regulation. We hypothesized that overweight/obese children would present lower inhibitory control in comparison to normal weight children. METHODS We measured inhibitory control functions in 93 otherwise healthy overweight/obese and 92 normal weight 10-year-old children using the Stroop test and the Go/No-Go task. Event-related potentials were recorded during the Go/No-Go task. RESULTS Overweight/obese children showed slower reaction times (1248.6 ms (95% confidence interval (CI): 1182.9–1314.3) vs 1149.0 ms (95% CI: 1083.0–1215.1)) on the Stroop test, higher reaction time variability (0.25 (95% CI: 0.22–0.27) vs 0.21 (95% CI: 0.19–0.24)) on the Go/No-Go task and decreased P300 amplitude (4.1 µV (95% CI: 3.0–5.2) vs 6.4 µV (95% CI: 5.2–7.6)) on event-related potentials compared with normal weight children. CONCLUSIONS Our results indicate altered inhibitory control functions in otherwise healthy overweight/obese children, which might contribute to their excessive food consumption. PMID:25869603

  6. Good stability and minimal osteolysis with a biconical threaded cup at 10 years.

    PubMed

    Zweymüller, Karl A; Steindl, Martin; Schwarzinger, Ulrike

    2007-10-01

    In the literature there is no consensus on the value of threaded cementless cups. We primarily asked whether the newly constructed threaded double-cone cup without additional screw fixation would provide high survival at intermediate followup. We retrospectively reviewed 365 patients (376 hips) who underwent primary total hip arthroplasty using this cup made of pure titanium with ceramic-on-polyethylene articulating surfaces. At a minimum followup of 10.0 years (mean, 10.3 years; range, 10.0-13.1 years), 232 cups (61.7%) were available for analysis. We performed two revisions for early infection and cup breakage. No polyethylene liner was exchanged because of wear or instability. Three of the cup shells were radiographically loose at followup; one had periacetabular osteolysis. The mean liner wear rate was 0.13 mm per year. The Kaplan-Meier 10-year survivorship with revision of the cup shell for any reason was 99.3% (95% confidence interval, 96.9-99.8%) and with revision and radiographic loosening of the cup shell 98.6% (95% confidence interval, 96.0-99.5%). These intermediate results compare favorably with survivorship and periacetabular bone reaction data observed with the best cementless acetabular implant designs. PMID:17960675

  7. 10 years of MS instrumental developments--impact on LC-MS/MS in clinical chemistry.

    PubMed

    Himmelsbach, Markus

    2012-02-01

    The combination of liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is a powerful and indispensable analytical tool that is widely applied in many areas of chemistry, medicine, pharmaceutics and biochemistry. In this review recent MS instrumental developments are presented as part of a special issue covering various aspects of liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in clinical chemistry. Improvements, new inventions as well as new combinations in ion source technology are described focusing on dual or multimode sources and atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI). Increasing demands regarding sensitivity, accuracy, resolution and both quantitation and identification guarantee on-going improvements in mass analyzer technology. This paper discusses new hybrid MS instruments that can perform novel scan modes as well as high-resolution mass spectrometers (HRMS) that finally seem to be able to overcome, or at least significantly reduce, their weaknesses in quantitative applications. Ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IMMS) itself is not an invention of the last 10 years, but a lot of progress was made within the last decade that reveals the potential benefits of this combination. This is clearly reflected by the increased number of commercially available instruments and the various designs of IMMS are covered in detail in this review. Selected applications for all these instrumental developments are given focusing on the perspective of clinical chemistry.

  8. Impacts of Natural Hazards on Primary Health Care Facilities of Iran: A 10-Year Retrospective Survey

    PubMed Central

    Ardalan, Ali; Mowafi, Hani; Yousefi, Homa

    2013-01-01

    Public health facilities in Iran are exposed to a wide range of natural hazards. This article presents the first survey of the impacts of such natural hazards on primary health care (PHC) centers in Iran from 2001 to 2011. A retrospective survey was conducted in 25 out of 30 provinces of Iran. Archival reports at provincial public health departments were cross-referenced with key informant interviews. During a 10-year period, 119 natural hazard events were recorded that led to physical damage and/or functional failure in 1,401 health centers, 127 deaths and injury or illness in 644 health staff. Earthquakes accounted for the most physical damage and all health-worker deaths. However, there was an increasing trend of impacts due to hydro-meteorological hazards. Iran’s health system needs to establish a registry to track the impact of natural hazards on health facilities, conduct regular hazard and vulnerability assessments and increase mitigation and preparedness measures. Keywords: Disaster, primary health care, facility, Iran, natural hazard Corresponding author: Ali Ardalan MD, PhD. Iran’s National Institute of Health Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Harvard Humanitarian Initiative. Email: aardalan@tums.ac.ir PMID:23863871

  9. Nanotechnology in glucose monitoring: advances and challenges in the last 10 years.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, Viviana

    2013-09-15

    In the last decades, a wide multitude of research activity has been focused on the development of biosensors for glucose monitoring, devoted to overcome the challenges associated with smart analytical performances with commercial implications. Crucial issues still nowadays elude biosensors to enter the market, such as sensitivity, stability, miniaturisation, continuous and in situ monitoring in a complex matrix. A noteworthy tendency of biosensor technology is likely to push towards nanotechnology, which allows to reduce dimensions at the nanoscale, consenting the construction of arrays for high throughput analysis with the integration of microfluidics, and enhancing the performance of the biological components by using new nanomaterials. This review aims to highlight current trends in biosensors for glucose monitoring based on nanotechnology, reporting widespread representative examples of the recent approaches for nanobiosensors over the past 10 years. Progress in nanotechnology for the development of biosensing systems for blood glucose level monitoring will be discussed, in view of their design and construction on the bases of the new materials offered by nanotechnology.

  10. VARIABILITY OF LUMINOUS STARS IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD USING 10 YEARS OF ASAS DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Szczygiel, D. M.; Stanek, K. Z.; Bonanos, A. Z.; Pojmanski, G.; Pilecki, B.; Prieto, J. L. E-mail: kstanek@astronomy.ohio-state.ed E-mail: gp@astrouw.edu.p E-mail: jose@obs.carnegiescience.ed

    2010-07-15

    Motivated by the detection of a recent outburst of the massive luminous blue variable LMC-R71, which reached an absolute magnitude M{sub V} = -9.3 mag, we undertook a systematic study of the optical variability of 1268 massive stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud, using a recent catalog by Bonanos et al. as the input. The ASAS All Star Catalog provided well-sampled light curves of these bright stars spanning 10 years. Combining the two catalogs resulted in 599 matches, on which we performed a variability search. We identified 117 variable stars, 38 of which were not known before, despite their brightness and large amplitude of variation. We found 13 periodic stars that we classify as eclipsing binary (EB) stars, 8 of which are newly discovered bright massive EBs composed of OB-type stars. The remaining 104 variables are either semi- or non-periodic, the majority (85) being red supergiants (RSGs). Most (26) of the newly discovered variables in this category are also RSGs with only three B and four O stars.

  11. The Ecology of Sustainable Implementation: Reflection on a 10-Year Case History Illustration.

    PubMed

    Rimehaug, Tormod

    2014-01-01

    The primary aim of this paper is to illustrate the strategic and ecological nature of implementation. The ultimate aim of implementation is not dissemination but sustainability beyond the implementation effort. A case study is utilized to illustrate these broad and long-term perspectives of sustainable implementation based on qualitative analyses of a 10-year implementation effort. The purveyors aimed to develop selective community prevention services for children in families burdened by parental psychiatric or addictive problems. Services were gradually disseminated to 23 sites serving 40 municipalities by 2013. Up to 2013, only one site terminated services after initial implementation. Although many sites suspended services for shorter periods, services are still offered at 22 sites. This case analysis is based on project reports, user evaluations, practitioner interviews, and service statistics. The paper focuses on the analyses and strategies utilized to cope with quality decay and setbacks as well as progress and success in disseminating and sustaining the services and their quality. Low-cost multilevel strategies to implement services at the community level were organized by a prevention unit in child psychiatry, supervised by a university department (purveyors). The purveyors were also involved in national and international collaboration and development. Multilevel strategies included manualized intervention, in-practice training methods, organizational responsibility, media strategies, service evaluation, staff motivation maintenance, quality assurance, and proposals for new law regulations. These case history aspects will be discussed in relation to the implementation literature, focusing on possible applicability across settings.

  12. Gesture Frequency Linked Primarily to Story Length in 4-10-Year Old Children's Stories.

    PubMed

    Nicoladis, Elena; Marentette, Paula; Navarro, Samuel

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that older children gesture more while telling a story than younger children. This increase in gesture use has been attributed to increased story complexity. In adults, both narrative complexity and imagery predict gesture frequency. In this study, we tested the strength of three predictors of children's gesture use in a narrative context: age, narrative complexity (measured by discourse connectors), and use of imagery (measured by story length). French-, Spanish-, and English-speaking children between 4 and 10 years participated in this study. Including these three groups allows us to test for the generalizability of our results and for cross-linguistic differences in gesture frequency. All the children watched cartoons and retold the story. The results showed that the length of the story was a significant predictor of children's gesture rate while age and discourse connectors were not. There were no differences between language groups. One possible in interpretation of these results is that children's gesture frequency is strongly linked to activation of imagery.

  13. Does gymnastics practice improve vertical jump reliability from the age of 8 to 10 years?

    PubMed

    Marina, Michel; Torrado, Priscila

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to confirm whether gymnastics practice from a young age can induce greater vertical jump reliability. Fifty young female gymnasts (8.84 ± 0.62 years) and 42 females in the control group (8.58 ± 0.92 years) performed the following jump tests on a contact mat: squat jump, countermovement jump, countermovement jump with arm swing and drop jump from heights of 40 and 60 cm. The two testing sessions had three trials each and were separated by one week. A 2 (groups) × 2 (sessions) × 3 (trials) repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and a test-retest correlation analysis were used to study the reliability. There was no systematic source of error in either group for non-plyometric jumps such as squat jump, countermovement jump, and countermovement jump with arm swing. A significant group per trial interaction revealed a learning effect in gymnasts' drop jumps from 40 cm height. Additionally, the test-retest correlation analysis and the higher minimum detectable error suggest that the quick drop jump technique was not fully consolidated in either group. At an introductory level of gymnastics and between the ages of 8-10 years, the condition of being a gymnast did not lead to conclusively higher reliability, aside from better overall vertical jump performance. PMID:23414426

  14. Cryobanking of Korean allium germplasm collections: results from a 10 year experience.

    PubMed

    Kim, H H; Popova, E; Shin, D J; Yi, J Y; Kim, C H; Lee, J S; Yoon, M K; Engelmann, F

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews a 10-year experience in establishing a cryopreserved Allium germplasm collection at the genebank of the National Agrobiodiversity Center, Republic of Korea. A systematic approach to Allium cryopreservation included: 1. revealing the most critical factors that affected regeneration after cryostorage; 2. understanding the mechanisms of cryoprotection by analyzing the thermal behavior of explants and cryoprotectant solutions using DSC and influx/efflux of cryoprotectants using HPLC; 3. assessing genetic stability of regenerants; and 4. revealing the efficiency of cryotherapy. Bulbil primordia, i.e. asexual bulbs formed on unripe inflorescences, proved to be the most suitable material for conservation of bolting varieties due to high post-cryopreservation regrowth and lower microbial infection level, followed by apical shoot apices from single bulbs and cloves. A total of 1,158 accessions of garlic as well as some Allium species have been cryopreserved during 2005-2010 using the droplet-vitrification technique with a mean regeneration percentage of 65.9 percent after cryostorage. These results open the door for large-scale implementation of cryostorage and for simplifying international exchange for clonal Allium germplasm.

  15. Global Tpw and Uth Trends Inferred from 10 Years of Hiirs and MODIS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borbas, E. E.; Menzel, P.; Frey, R.; Heidinger, A. K.; Bearson, N.

    2014-12-01

    The HIRS and MODIS (MOD07) TPW and UTH algorithm retrieves total column precipitable water vapor and integrated high (UTH), mid, and low layer tropospheric humidity. It is a statistical regression (Seemann et al 2003 and 2008) developed from an atmospheric profile data base (SeeBor, Borbas et al, 2005) that consists of geographically and seasonally distributed radiosonde, ozonesonde, and ECMWF ReAnalysis data. TPW and UTH are determined for clear sky radiances measured by HIRS (at 20km and later 10km resolution) and MODIS (5km resolution) over land and ocean both day and night. The Space Time Gridding (STG) framework is used to calculate daily and monthly composites of the moisture properties. It has two components. (1) Space gridding where geophysical properties are first filtered based on a set of criteria (e.g. time of day, etc.) and then aggregated into equal-angle grid cells. (2) Time gridding where daily statistics are computed from the aggregate of pixels in each grid cell. Longer-term, such as monthly, statistics are derived from the daily gridded statistics. The HIRS and MODIS TPW and UTH products are binned into a global map of 0.5 degree lat-lon boxes daily, compiled into monthly amounts, and inspected for trends over a 10-year time period (2000-2009). The HIRS and MODIS TPW data is also compared to the NASA NVAP dataset.

  16. Isentropic tracking of lower-stratospheric potential vorticity anomalies: A 10-year winter climatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kew, S.; Sprenger, M.

    2009-04-01

    Isentropic charts exhibit many mesoscale potential vorticity (PV) maxima in the weak background PV field of the lowermost stratosphere. Such PV anomalies are known to act as precursors to cyclogenesis when in the vicinity of the tropopause. A feature-tracking tool is developed and applied to ten consecutive winters of the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Reanalysis (ERA-40) to establish the general characteristics and life cycle of these anomalies and thus shed light on an earlier phase of cyclogenesis. The tool identifies the anomalies as local maxima, whose amplitudes are defined with respect to the surrounding local background PV. The isentropic wind field is used to advect structures forward to the next time step, thus predicting their subsequent position and form. A tracking is enabled when there is a satisfactory overlap between the predicted and observed structures. The routine detects the merger and splitting of PV entities as well as their genesis and lysis. The 10-year climatology reveals that the anomalies are frequently located near high topography in a quasi-annular band at about 70 °N, can be long-lived (days to weeks) and their core PV is typically 2 PV units above that of their local surroundings. Clear life cycles in along-track composites of amplitude, PV, shape (isotropy) and velocity indicate that the anomalies have their own distinctive dynamics. The tracking methodology is being adapted for cyclone tracking to take part in the Intercomparison of Mid-Latitudinal Storm Diagnostics (IMILAST) project.

  17. Isolated Myxoma in the External Auditory Canal of a 10-Year-Old Girl.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Hee; Jeong, Su Hee; Kim, Hojong; Shin, Eunhye

    2015-12-01

    Myxoma is a benign connective tissue tumor that is most commonly found in the heart. Because myxoma of the external ear is extremely rare, its diagnosis may be easily delayed or it may be misdiagnosed as another disease. Moreover, because it can be a part of Carney complex (autosomal dominant syndrome), its correct diagnosis is very important. We experienced a 10-year-old girl who had a mass on the posterior surface of the tragus at the entrance of the left ear canal. Fine-needle aspiration revealed mucoid content of the cystic mass, but its cytology did not confirm the diagnosis. The whole mass was surgically removed, and the diagnosis was confirmed as myxoma with a stellate spindle cell proliferation in the hypocellular matrix. Thorough examination failed to determine any presentation of Carney complex, and her final diagnosis was isolated myxoma of the external auditory canal. This is the first reported study regarding myxoma of the external auditory canal in the Korean literature. PMID:26915162

  18. Soil physical quality changes under different management systems after 10 years in Argentinian Humid Pampa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, J. L.; Aparicio, V. C.; Cerda, A.

    2014-08-01

    The Argentinian Humid Pampa extends over about 60 million ha, 90% of which are agricultural lands. The southeast of the Buenos Aires Province is part of the Humid Pampa (1 206 162 ha). The main crops are wheat, sunflower, corn and soybean. The management systems used in the area are: moldboard plow (MP), chisel plow (CP) and no-till (NT). Excessive soil cultivation under MP causes decreases in the soil organic carbon content (SOC). Adopting NT may reduce the effects of intensive agriculture, through the maintenance and accumulation of SOC. However, the soil compaction under NT causes degradation of the soil structure, reduces the soil water availability and reduces the soil hydraulic conductivity. We evaluated the evolution of the soil physical parameters in three management systems. After 10 years of experiments in four farmers' fields, we found that: soil bulk density was significantly higher under NT. The change in mean weight diameter (CMWD) of aggregates increased as the management system became more intensive. We did not find significant differences in time and management systems in hydraulic conductivity at tension (h)0 cm and h=20 cm. The reduction in total porosity under NT is mainly a product of a reduction in the percentage of mesopores in the soil. Time had no statistically significant effect on the SOC content. The management system did not affect the yields of crop. In this work, the results indicate a modification of some soil physical parameters (porosity, near-saturated hydraulic conductivity, soil structure) due to uninterrupted agricultural production.

  19. Wave Resource Characteristics Near Humboldt Bay - Results from a 10-year Hindcast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallman, A.; Neary, V. S.

    2014-12-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) marine and hydrokinetic energy (MHK) Program has identified a need to improve modeling capabilities for near-shore wave climate hind-casting, among other applications. The potential wave energy converter (WEC) test or commercial deployment site offshore of Humboldt Bay, CA was selected to investigate the performance of a nearshore SWAN model and the spatial variability of wave statistics. SNL performed a 10-year hindcast using SWAN (Simulating Waves Nearshore), forced by spectral output from a WAVEWATCH III hindcast. The model was found to be insensitive to bottom friction and whitecapping parameterizations for the locations of interest, which included depths of 40m or greater. Predicted significant wave heights were found to be overbiased due to an overbias in the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) winds used to drive WAVEWATCH III. The spatial variability of the wave statistics calculated from the hindcast simulation were found to vary by season and were affected by the wind direction due to geographic features north of Humboldt Bay. Further details of the model performance along with possible areas of improvement will be discussed.

  20. Lessons from high-throughput protein crystallization screening: 10 years of practical experience

    PubMed Central

    JR, Luft; EH, Snell; GT, DeTitta

    2011-01-01

    Introduction X-ray crystallography provides the majority of our structural biological knowledge at a molecular level and in terms of pharmaceutical design is a valuable tool to accelerate discovery. It is the premier technique in the field, but its usefulness is significantly limited by the need to grow well-diffracting crystals. It is for this reason that high-throughput crystallization has become a key technology that has matured over the past 10 years through the field of structural genomics. Areas covered The authors describe their experiences in high-throughput crystallization screening in the context of structural genomics and the general biomedical community. They focus on the lessons learnt from the operation of a high-throughput crystallization screening laboratory, which to date has screened over 12,500 biological macromolecules. They also describe the approaches taken to maximize the success while minimizing the effort. Through this, the authors hope that the reader will gain an insight into the efficient design of a laboratory and protocols to accomplish high-throughput crystallization on a single-, multiuser-laboratory or industrial scale. Expert Opinion High-throughput crystallization screening is readily available but, despite the power of the crystallographic technique, getting crystals is still not a solved problem. High-throughput approaches can help when used skillfully; however, they still require human input in the detailed analysis and interpretation of results to be more successful. PMID:22646073

  1. The incidence of secondary tumors of the heart and pericardium: a 10-year study.

    PubMed

    Mukai, K; Shinkai, T; Tominaga, K; Shimosato, Y

    1988-09-01

    Secondary tumors of the heart and pericardium are much more common than primary tumors. During a 10-year period (1976-1985), only one instance of a primary tumor (malignant mesothelioma) was identified among 2,649 autopsies of malignant tumors at the National Cancer Center Hospital. In contrast, there were 407 cases in which heart and/or pericardium were secondarily involved with a malignant tumor from other organs. In 78 cases, the secondary tumors were present only in the pericardium, while in 329 cases, the tumors involved the heart itself with or without pericardial involvement. Among the primary tumors, three-quarters were carcinomas of various organs. In addition there were 53 hematologic malignancies, 19 melanomas and 17 sarcomas. In 31 cases, cardiac failure was the direct cause of death. The secondary tumors of the heart were often overlooked clinically because the cardiac dysfunction appeared to be part of the deteriorating general condition. Electrocardiography and echocardiography were often helpful in suggesting the presence of cardiac metastases. Appropriate diagnostic procedures and therapeutic intervention should be considered for the care of patients with advanced malignancy and sudden onset of cardiac failure.

  2. The 10-year Course of PTSD in Borderline Patients and Axis II Comparison Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Zanarini, Mary C.; Hörz, Susanne; Frankenburg, Frances R.; Weingeroff, Jolie; Reich, D. Bradford; Fitzmaurice, Garrett

    2011-01-01

    Objective The first objective is to detail the prevalence of PTSD over a decade of follow-up for those in both study groups. The second is to determine time-to-remission, recurrence, and new onset of PTSD and the third is to assess the relationship between sexual adversity and the likelihood of remission and recurrence of PTSD. Method The SCID I was administered to 290 borderline inpatients and 72 axis II comparison subjects during their index admission and re-administered at five contiguous two-year follow-up periods. Results The prevalence of PTSD declined significantly over time for patients with BPD (61%). Over 85% of borderline patients meeting criteria for PTSD at baseline experienced a remission by the time of the 10-year follow-up. Recurrences (40%) and new onsets (27%) were less common. A childhood history of sexual abuse significantly decreased the likelihood of remission from PTSD and an adult history of sexual assault significantly increased the likelihood of a recurrence of PTSD. Conclusion Taken together, the results of this study suggest that PTSD is not a chronic disorder for the majority of borderline patients. They also suggest a strong relationship between sexual adversity and the course of PTSD among patients with BPD. PMID:21564040

  3. European Competence Network on Mastocytosis (ECNM): 10-year jubilee, update, and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Valent, Peter; Arock, Michel; Bonadonna, Patrizia; Brockow, Knut; Broesby-Olsen, Sigurd; Escribano, Luis; Gleixner, Karoline V; Grattan, Clive; Hadzijusufovic, Emir; Hägglund, Hans; Hermine, Olivier; Horny, Hans-Peter; Kluin-Nelemans, Hanneke C; Maurer, Marcus; Niedoszytko, Marek; Nedoszytko, Boguslaw; Nilsson, Gunnar; Oude-Elberink, Hanneke N G; Orfao, Alberto; Radia, Deepti; Reiter, Andreas; Siebenhaar, Frank; Sotlar, Karl; Sperr, Wolfgang R; Triggiani, Massimo; VanDoormaal, Jaap J; Várkonyi, Judit; Yavuz, Selim; Hartmann, Karin

    2012-12-01

    The European Competence Network on Mastocytosis (ECNM) was initiated in 2002 as a multidisciplinary and multinational cooperative approach to increase awareness and to improve diagnosis and therapy of mastocytosis. The network is composed of local centers, physicians, and scientists who have dedicated their work to patients with mastocytosis. A strategic goal of the ECNM is to provide the best available information about the disease to patients and physicians. During the past 10 years, the ECNM has expanded to various countries and contributed successfully to the development of markers, definitions, and standards in the field of mastocytosis. Members of the ECNM organized Annual Meetings in Europe and two Working Conferences on Mastocytosis in Vienna (in 2005 and 2010), and initiated and supported several preclinical and clinical trials. In all these activities, representatives of the ECNM cooperate closely with their US colleagues, with patient-organizations in Europe and in the USA, and with other scientific networks. The ECNM also launched a mastocytosis registry that has been activated in 2012. Using the central database of this registry, cooperative multicenter studies, which should include sufficient numbers of patients and robust evaluations, will be conducted. These studies will increase our knowledge about optimal management and therapy of patients with mastocytosis in the future.

  4. Early treatment of Class III malocclusion: 10-year clinical follow-up

    PubMed Central

    de ALMEIDA, Marcio Rodrigues; de ALMEIDA, Renato Rodrigues; OLTRAMARI-NAVARRO, Paula Vanessa Pedron; CONTI, Ana Cláudia de Castro Ferreira; NAVARRO, Ricardo de Lima; CAMACHO, José Gustavo Dala Déa

    2011-01-01

    Angle Class III malocclusion has been a challenge for researchers concerning diagnosis, prognosis and treatment. It has a prevalence of 5% in the Brazilian population, and may have a genetic or environmental etiology. This malocclusion can be classified as dentoalveolar, skeletal or functional, which will determine the prognosis. Considering these topics, the aim of this study was to describe and discuss a clinical case with functional Class III malocclusion treated by a two-stage approach (interceptive and corrective), with a long-term follow-up. In this case, the patient was treated with a chincup and an Eschler arch, used simultaneously during 14 months, followed by corrective orthodontics. It should be noticed that, in this case, initial diagnosis at the centric relation allowed visualizing the anterior teeth in an edge-to-edge relationship, thereby favoring the prognosis. After completion of the treatment, the patient was followed for a 10-year period, and stability was observed. The clinical treatment results showed that it is possible to achieve favorable outcomes with early management in functional Class III malocclusion patients. PMID:21952927

  5. Assessment of 10-Year Global Record of Aerosol Products from the OMI Near-UV Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, C.; Torres, O.; Jethva, H. T.

    2014-12-01

    Global observations of aerosol properties from space are critical for understanding climate change and air quality applications. The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) onboard the EOS-Aura satellite provides information on aerosol optical properties by making use of the large sensitivity to aerosol absorption and dark surface albedo in the UV spectral region. These unique features enable us to retrieve both aerosol extinction optical depth (AOD) and single scattering albedo (SSA) successfully from radiance measurements at 354 and 388 nm by the OMI near UV aerosol algorithm (OMAERUV). Recent improvements to algorithms in conjunction with the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) and Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) carbon monoxide data also reduce uncertainties due to aerosol layer heights and types significantly in retrieved products. We present validation results of OMI AOD against space and time collocated Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) measured AOD values over multiple stations representing major aerosol episodes and regimes. We also compare the OMI SSA against the inversion made by AERONET as well as an independent network of ground-based radiometer called SKYNET in Japan, China, South-East Asia, India, and Europe. The outcome of the evaluation analysis indicates that in spite of the "row anomaly" problem, affecting the sensor since mid-2007, the long-term aerosol record shows remarkable sensor stability. The OMAERUV 10-year global aerosol record is publicly available at the NASA data service center web site (http://disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/Aura/data-holdings/OMI/omaeruv_v003.shtml).

  6. Predicting future suicide attempts among depressed suicide ideators: a 10-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    May, Alexis M; Klonsky, E David; Klein, Daniel N

    2012-07-01

    Suicidal ideation and attempts are a major public health problem. Research has identified many risk factors for suicidality; however, most fail to identify which suicide ideators are at greatest risk of progressing to a suicide attempt. Thus, the present study identified predictors of future suicide attempts in a sample of psychiatric patients reporting suicidal ideation. The sample comprised 49 individuals who met full DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder and/or dysthymic disorder and reported suicidal ideation at baseline. Participants were followed for 10 years. Demographic, psychological, personality, and psychosocial risk factors were assessed using validated questionnaires and structured interviews. Phi coefficients and point-biserial correlations were used to identify prospective predictors of attempts, and logistic regressions were used to identify which variables predicted future attempts over and above past suicide attempts. Six significant predictors of future suicide attempts were identified - cluster A personality disorder, cluster B personality disorder, lifetime substance abuse, baseline anxiety disorder, poor maternal relationship, and poor social adjustment. Finally, exploratory logistic regressions were used to examine the unique contribution of each significant predictor controlling for the others. Comorbid cluster B personality disorder emerged as the only robust, unique predictor of future suicide attempts among depressed suicide ideators. Future research should continue to identify variables that predict transition from suicidal thoughts to suicide attempts, as such work will enhance clinical assessment of suicide risk as well as theoretical models of suicide. PMID:22575331

  7. Depression Amplifies the Influence of Central Obesity on 10-Year Incidence of Diabetes: Findings from MIDUS

    PubMed Central

    Karlamangla, Arun

    2016-01-01

    Background Central obesity is a major risk factor for diabetes but many obese individuals never develop diabetes, suggesting the presence of important effect modifiers. Depression has emerged as a key risk factor for poor glycemic control, but to our knowledge, no previous work has investigated whether depression amplifies the effect of central obesity on glucoregulation. Methods and Findings We used a national sample of adults without prevalent diabetes (MIDUS; N = 919) to test for synergy between central obesity and depression in the development of diabetes 10 years later. We found that depression amplified the association of waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) with incident diabetes adjusted for age, race, gender, education, physical activity, and sleep problems (p = 0.01 for test of interaction). The relative risk for incident diabetes per every 0.1 increment in WHR was 1.75 (95% CI: 1.31; 2.33) in those without depression and 3.78 in those with depression (95% CI: 2.14; 6.66). Conclusions These results confirm the role of depression as a robust risk factor for the development of diabetes and for the first time, demonstrate a synergy between depression and central obesity. Identifying and addressing depression could prove to be an effective approach to preventing diabetes in at risk individuals. Ultimately, elucidating the interplay among risk factors from different domains will be key to understanding multifactorial diseases such as diabetes and informing theory-based, patient-centered interventions aimed at reducing diabetes risk. PMID:27755576

  8. Improving the TNM classification: findings from a 10-year continuous literature review.

    PubMed

    Webber, Colleen; Gospodarowicz, Mary; Sobin, Leslie H; Wittekind, Christian; Greene, Frederick L; Mason, Malcolm D; Compton, Carolyn; Brierley, James; Groome, Patti A

    2014-07-15

    The Union for International Cancer Control's (UICC) TNM classification is a globally accepted system to describe the anatomic extent of malignant tumors. Since its development seventy years ago, the TNM classification has undergone significant revisions to reflect the current understanding of extent of disease and its role in prognosis. To ensure that revisions are evidence-based, the UICC implemented a process for continuous improvement of the TNM classification that included a formalized system for submitting proposals for revisions directly to the UICC and an annual review of the scientific literature on staging that assessed, criticized or made suggestions for changes. The process involves review of the proposals and literature by a group of international, multidisciplinary Expert Panels. The process has been in place for 10 years and informed the development of the 7th edition of the TNM classification published in 2009. The purpose of this article is to provide a description of the annual literature review process, including the search strategy, article selection process and the roles and requirements of the Expert Panels in the review of the literature. Since 2002, 147 Expert Panel members in 11 cancer sites have reviewed over 770 articles. The results of the annual literature reviews, Expert Panel feedback and documentation and dissemination of results are described.

  9. Keratin Durability Has Implications for the Fossil Record: Results from a 10 Year Feather Degradation Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Moyer, Alison E.; Zheng, Wenxia; Schweitzer, Mary H.

    2016-01-01

    Keratinous ‘soft tissue’ structures (i.e. epidermally derived and originally non-biomineralized), include feathers, skin, claws, beaks, and hair. Despite their relatively common occurrence in the fossil record (second only to bone and teeth), few studies have addressed natural degradation processes that must occur in all organic material, including those keratinous structures that are incorporated into the rock record as fossils. Because feathers have high preservation potential and strong phylogenetic signal, in the current study we examine feathers subjected to different burial environments for a duration of ~10 years, using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and in situ immunofluorescence (IF). We use morphology and persistence of specific immunoreactivity as indicators of preservation at the molecular and microstructural levels. We show that feather keratin is durable, demonstrates structural and microstructural integrity, and retains epitopes suitable for specific antibody recognition in even the harshest conditions. These data support the hypothesis that keratin antibody reactivity can be used to identify the nature and composition of epidermal structures in the rock record, and to address evolutionary questions by distinguishing between alpha- (widely distributed) and beta- (limited to sauropsids) keratin. PMID:27384819

  10. Keratin Durability Has Implications for the Fossil Record: Results from a 10 Year Feather Degradation Experiment.

    PubMed

    Moyer, Alison E; Zheng, Wenxia; Schweitzer, Mary H

    2016-01-01

    Keratinous 'soft tissue' structures (i.e. epidermally derived and originally non-biomineralized), include feathers, skin, claws, beaks, and hair. Despite their relatively common occurrence in the fossil record (second only to bone and teeth), few studies have addressed natural degradation processes that must occur in all organic material, including those keratinous structures that are incorporated into the rock record as fossils. Because feathers have high preservation potential and strong phylogenetic signal, in the current study we examine feathers subjected to different burial environments for a duration of ~10 years, using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and in situ immunofluorescence (IF). We use morphology and persistence of specific immunoreactivity as indicators of preservation at the molecular and microstructural levels. We show that feather keratin is durable, demonstrates structural and microstructural integrity, and retains epitopes suitable for specific antibody recognition in even the harshest conditions. These data support the hypothesis that keratin antibody reactivity can be used to identify the nature and composition of epidermal structures in the rock record, and to address evolutionary questions by distinguishing between alpha- (widely distributed) and beta- (limited to sauropsids) keratin. PMID:27384819

  11. Spatiotemporal Trends Analysis of Pyrethroid Sediment Concentrations Spanning 10 Years in a Residential Creek in California.

    PubMed

    Hall, Lenwood W; Anderson, Ronald D; Killen, William D

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to assess temporal and spatial trends for eight pyrethroids monitored in sediment spanning 10 years from 2006 to 2015 in a residential stream in California (Pleasant Grove Creek). The timeframe for this study included sampling 3 years during a somewhat normal non-drought period (2006-2008) and 3 years during a severe drought period (2013-2015). Regression analysis of pyrethroid concentrations in Pleasant Grove Creek for 2006, 2007, 2008, 2012, 2013, 2014, and 2015 using ½ the detection limit for nondetected concentrations showed statistically significant declining trends for cyfluthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, permethrin, and total pyrethoids. Additional trends analysis of the Pleasant Grove Creek pyrethroid data using only measured concentrations, without nondetected values, showed similar statistically significant declining trends for cyfluthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, esfenvalerate, fenpropathrin, permethrin, and total pyrethroids. Spatial trends analysis for the specific creek sites showed that six of the eight pyrethroids had a greater number of sites with statistically significant declining concentrations. Possible reasons for reduced pyrethroid concentrations in the stream bed in Pleasant Grove Creek during this 10-year period are label changes in 2012 that reduced residential use and lack of precipitation during the later severe drought years of 2013-2015. PMID:26643307

  12. PCDD/Fs in the soils in the province of Trento: 10 years of monitoring.

    PubMed

    Rada, E C; Ragazzi, M; Marconi, M; Chistè, A; Schiavon, M; Fedrizzi, S; Tava, M

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a 10-year overview of the dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) content in soils in the province of Trento (Italy). The aim was to compare the results found in the Valsugana valley where there is a steel-making plant with other locations within the province. During 2002 and from 2005 to 2010, campaigns were carried out in order to obtain a background reference in terms of micropollutants, in view of the possible construction of a municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerator in Trento. In 2009, a campaign was performed for the environmental characterization of the Valsugana valley, the town of Trento and its surroundings, in order to help assess the impact of the steel-making plant. In 2012, another campaign was carried out by the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering of Trento, in order to monitor the soils in the area around the steel mill. All the campaigns showed relatively low concentrations of PCDD/Fs, both in protected areas and in the areas close to the industrial plants. No critical situations were identified, as also confirmed by an estimation of the potential daily PCDD/F intake by children subject to accidental ingestion of soil. PMID:25381582

  13. Wheezing, asthma, and pulmonary dysfunction 10 years after infection with respiratory syncytial virus in infancy.

    PubMed Central

    Pullan, C R; Hey, E N

    1982-01-01

    Of the 180 children admitted to hospitals in Tyneside in the first year of life with proved respiratory syncytial virus lower respiratory tract infection, 130 were seen for review 10 years later and 34 of the remaining 50 children accounted for. Skin tests, lung function tests, and histamine-challenge and exercise tests for bronchial lability were undertaken in over 100 of the index children and a similar number of control children. A total of 55 (42%) of the 130 index children had had further episodes of wheeze, while only 21 (19%) out of 111 controls had ever wheezed; but few (6.2% v 4.5%) had troublesome symptoms at the age of 10. There was a threefold increase in the incidence of bronchial lability in the index children but no excess of atopy. Maximum expiratory air flow was reduced throughout the vital capacity manoeuvre in the index children, even when those with a history of recurrent wheeze were excluded. Results of single-breath nitrogen washout tests were normal, however, suggesting that ventilation was not appreciably uneven, even though expiratory flow was restricted. These differences might have been caused by infection damaging the growing lung but might also be explained by pre-existing differences in the airway, rendering certain children more susceptible to symptomatic infection when first challenged by the virus in infancy. PMID:6805648

  14. Atmospheric emissions and trends of nitrous oxide deduced from 10 years of ALE-GAGE data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinn, R.; Cunnold, D.; Alyea, F.; Rasmussen, R.; Simmonds, P.

    1990-01-01

    Long-term measurements of nitrous oxide (N2O) obtained during the Atmospheric Lifetime Experiment (ALE) and the Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (GAGE) for a period from 1978 to 1988 are presented and interpreted. It is observed that the average concentration in the Northern Hemisphere is 0.75 +/- 0.16 ppbv higher than in the Southern Hemisphere and that the global average linear trend in N2O lies in the range from 0.25 to 0.31 percent/year. The measured trends and latitudinal distributions are shown to be consistent with the hypothesis that stratospheric photodissociation is the major atmospheric sink for N2O, while the cause of the N2O trend is suggested to be a combination of a growing tropical source and a growing Northern mid-latitude source. A 10-year average global N2O emission rate of (20.5 +/- 2.4) x 10 to the 12th g N2O/year is deduced from the ALE/GAGE data.

  15. Properties and transport of Asian dust from 10 years of MISR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalashnikova, O. V.; Sokolik, I. N.; Garay, M. J.; Wu, D. L.

    2009-12-01

    We use the 10-year aerosol data record from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) aboard the Terra satellite to investigate climatological linkages between the dust source activities, mid-range, and long-range transport of Asian dust. The inter-annual and seasonal variability of Asian dust loadings and properties as retrieved by MISR at selected regions along the transport routes was investigated. In particular, we examine the Taklamakan and East and Central Gobi regions (dust sources), South Korea and Japan regions (mid-range transport), and the North Pacific region along the northwestern U.S. coast (long-range transport). To avoid the gridding and averaging effects in Level 3 products, we use the Level 2 MISR swath data. Within each selected region, the analysis was performed to examine the multi-annual mean and variability of the aerosol optical depth and particle nonsphericity as well as time-lag correlation between the regions, taking into account the effects of MISR sampling and cloud screening. The results will be presented and interpreted in the context of atmospheric dynamics variability, including variability of meteorological regimes in dust sources and the large-scale atmospheric circulation features controlling the trans-Pacific transport of Asian dust.

  16. Ecosystem Service Restoration after 10 Years of Rewetting Peatlands in NE Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerbe, Stefan; Steffenhagen, Peggy; Parakenings, Karsten; Timmermann, Tiemo; Frick, Annett; Gelbrecht, Jörg; Zak, Dominik

    2013-06-01

    The restoration of ecosystem services, i.e., production, regulation, and information, is a global challenge, which the federal state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern in NE Germany addressed in 2000 by rewetting over 20,000 ha of degraded peatlands within the Mire Restoration Program. We evaluated ecosystem services in 23 rewetted sites by assessing the following mire parameters within a ten year period: (a) dominant vegetation at the ecosystem level, (b) peat formation potential at the landscape level, and (c) aboveground biomass and nutrient levels. Seven to 10 years after rewetting, the wetlands formed a mosaic of vegetation types with the highest potential for peat formation and several dominant, peat-forming species accumulated high levels of aboveground biomass and nutrients (C, N, P). Common reed ( Phragmites australis) accumulated the most biomass (up to 24 t dry matter/ha), and N+P during the growing season. A future management option is to annually harvest aquatic and wetland plants to reduce nutrient levels in restored mire ecosystems.

  17. Predicting disability pension - depression as hazard: a 10 year population-based cohort study in Norway.

    PubMed

    Lassemo, Eva; Sandanger, Inger; Nygård, Jan F; Sørgaard, Knut W

    2016-03-01

    Disability pension (DP) is an escalating challenge to individuals and the welfare state, with mental health problems as imminent hazard. The objective of the present paper was to determine if a diagnosis of depression increased the risk of subsequent DP, and whether the risk differed by gender. A population cohort of 1230 persons were diagnostically interviewed (Composite International Diagnostic Interview, CIDI) in a population study examining mental health, linked to the DP registry and followed for 10 years. The risk for DP following depression was estimated using Cox regression. Life-time depression, as well as current depression, increased the risk of subsequent DP for both genders. The fully adjusted [baseline health, health behavior and socio-economic status (SES)] hazard ratios (HRs) for life-time depressed men and women were 2.9 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5-5.8] and 1.6 (95% CI 1.0-2.5) respectively. Men were significantly older at time of DP. There are reasons to believe that depression went under-recognized and under-treated. To augment knowledge in the field, without underestimating depression as risk for DP, a deeper understanding of the nature and effects of other distress is needed.

  18. The paediatric flat foot and general anthropometry in 140 Australian school children aged 7 - 10 years

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Many studies have found a positive relationship between increased body weight and flat foot posture in children. Methods From a study population of 140 children aged seven to 10 years, a sample of 31 children with flat feet was identified by screening with the FPI-6. Basic anthropometric measures were compared between subjects with and without flat feet as designated. Results The results of this study, in contrast to many others, question the association of flat feet and heavy children. A significant relationship between foot posture and weight (FPI (L) r = -0.186 (p < 0.05), FPI(R) r = -0.194 (p < 0.05), waist girth (FPI (L) r = -0.213 (p < 0.05), FPI(R) r = -0.228 (p < 0.01) and BMI (FPI (L) r = -0.243 (p < 0.01), FPI(R) r = -0.263 (p < 0.01) was identified, but was both weak and inverse. Conclusions This study presents results which conflict with those of many previous investigations addressing the relationship between children's weight and foot posture. In contrast to previous studies, the implication of these results is that heavy children have less flat feet. Further investigation is warranted using a standardized approach to assessment and a larger sample of children to test this apparent contradiction. PMID:21513507

  19. Argon laser panretinal photocoagulation in ischemic central retinal vein occlusion. A 10-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Hayreh, S S; Klugman, M R; Podhajsky, P; Servais, G E; Perkins, E S

    1990-01-01

    We conducted a prospective, planned study of argon laser panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) in ischemic central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) over a 10-year period in 123 eyes. On comparing the lasered eyes versus the nonlasered eyes, there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in the incidence of development of angle neovascularization (NV), neovascular glaucoma (NVG), retinal and/or optic disc NV, or vitreous hemorrhage, or in visual acuity. Our study, however, did show a statistically significant (P = 0.04) difference in the incidence of iris NV between the two groups, with iris NV less prevalent in the laser group than in the nonlaser group, but only when the PRP was performed within 90 days after the onset of CRVO. The other parameter which showed a statistically significant difference between the two groups was the peripheral visual fields-the laser group suffered a significantly (P less than or equal to 0.03) greater loss than the non-laser group. We discuss the implications of these findings in light of the natural history of ischemic CRVO and of ocular NV. Since the original rationale for advocating PRP in ischemic CRVO was the proven beneficial effect of PRP on ocular NV in proliferative diabetic retinopathy, we also discuss the disparities in the disease process between ischemic CRVO and proliferative diabetic retinopathy and in their responses to PRP. PMID:1698170

  20. Stability and change in sexual orientation identity over a 10-year period in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Mock, Steven E; Eibach, Richard P

    2012-06-01

    We examined reports of sexual orientation identity stability and change over a 10-year period drawing on data from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS I and II) and tested for three patterns: (1) heterosexual stability, (2) female sexual fluidity, and (3) bisexual fluidity. Fifty-four percent of the 2,560 participants were female and the average age was approximately 47 years. At Wave 1, 2,494 (97.42%) reported a heterosexual identity, 32 (1.25%) a homosexual identity, and 34 (1.33%) a bisexual identity and somewhat more than 2% reported a different sexual orientation identity at Wave 2. Although some support for each hypothesis was found, initial sexual orientation identity interacted with gender to predict a more complex pattern. For the sample as a whole, heterosexuality was the most stable identity. For women, bisexuality and homosexuality were equally unstable and significantly less stable than heterosexuality, suggesting that sexual orientation identity fluidity is a pattern that applies more to sexual minority women than heterosexual women. For men, heterosexuality and homosexuality were both relatively stable compared to bisexuality, which stood out as a particularly unstable identity. This pattern of results was consistent with previous findings and helps to address methodological limitations of earlier research by showing the characteristics of a population-based sample of heterosexual, homosexual, and bisexual identified men and women over time.

  1. Rapid and Complete Remission of Metastatic Adrenocortical Carcinoma Persisting 10 Years After Treatment With Mitotane Monotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Ghorayeb, Nada El; Rondeau, Geneviève; Latour, Mathieu; Cohade, Christian; Olney, Harold; Lacroix, André; Perrotte, Paul; Sabourin, Alexis; Mazzuco, Tania L; Bourdeau, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Mitotane has been used for more than 5 decades as therapy for adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). However its mechanism of action and the extent of tumor response remain incompletely understood. To date no cases of rapid and complete remission of metastatic ACC with mitotane monotherapy has been reported. A 52-year-old French Canadian man presented with metastatic disease 2 years following a right adrenalectomy for stage III nonsecreting ACC. He was started on mitotane which was well tolerated despite rapid escalation of the dose. The patient course was exceptional as he responded to mitotane monotherapy after only few months of treatment. Initiation of chemotherapy was not needed and he remained disease-free with good quality of life on low maintenance dose of mitotane during the following 10 years. A germline heterozygous TP53 exon 4 polymorphism c.215C>G (p. Pro72Arg) was found. Immunohistochemical stainings for IGF-2 and cytoplasmic β-catenin were positive. Advanced ACC is an aggressive disease with poor prognosis and the current therapeutic options remain limited. These findings suggest that mitotane is a good option for the treatment of metastatic ACC and might result in rapid complete remission in selected patients. PMID:27043680

  2. Motor performance and dyslexia in a national cohort of 10-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Haslum, M N; Miles, T R

    2007-11-01

    Data from the 10-year follow-up of the 1970 British Births Survey were examined for associations between motor performance and dyslexia. Five tests of motor performance were used: (a) balancing on one leg, (b) throwing a ball in the air, clapping and catching it, (c) walking backwards, (d) sorting matches and (e) graphaesthesia (recognizing shapes drawn on the palm of the hand). These tests were given to 12 950 children aged between 10 and 11 years old. The cohort was divided into nine groups based on three levels of literacy achievement and three levels of possible indicators of dyslexia. The group with the most severe underachievement and most possible indicators (children most likely to be severely dyslexic) comprised about 2% of the total. Of this group, 35.3% failed one motor test and 16.4% failed more than one (51.7% in total), compared with 26.8% and 7.7% of normal achievers. The children had greater problems with balance than those in the other two severely underachieving groups but the effects were small. It is suggested that the use of a balance test only as a screener for dyslexia could result in a proportion of dyslexics being missed and that remedial motor training programmes for children with dyslexia should be offered only to those with co-occurring motor difficulties.

  3. Children of treated substance-abusing mothers: a 10-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Hser, Y-I; Evans, E; Li, L; Metchik-Gaddis, A; Messina, N

    2014-04-01

    This study examined children of substance-abusing mothers approximately 10 years after mothers' admission to drug abuse treatment, and identified maternal characteristics that may be risk factors for child behavior problems on the Child Behavior Checklist. Data were obtained from 396 mothers who were included in a sample consecutively admitted to 44 treatment programs in 13 California counties during 2000-2002. The Addiction Severity Index was administered at both intake and follow-up. Each mother reported on one child 6-17 years of age. All of the children had been exposed to drugs, either in utero or postnatally. At follow-up about 22% of the children demonstrated borderline or clinical range problem behaviors. Child behavior problems were related significantly to the mothers' ethnicity (lower among Hispanics relative to white), and problem severity in family/social relationship and mental health, marginally related to her prior medical/health problem, and not related to severity of alcohol, drug, legal and employment problems. Assisting mothers to address their family/social relationship and psychological problems may have an added value to prevent or reduce behavioral problems of their children.

  4. The Effect of Executive Function on Science Achievement Among Normally Developing 10-Year Olds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lederman, Sheri G.

    Executive function (EF) is an umbrella term used to identify a set of discrete but interrelated cognitive abilities that enable individuals to engage in goal-directed, future-oriented action in response to a novel context. Developmental studies indicate that EF is predictive of reading and math achievement in middle childhood. The purpose of this study was to identify the association between EF and science achievement among normally developing 10 year olds. A sample of fifth grade students from a Northeastern suburban community participated in tests of EF, science, and intelligence. Consistent with adult models of EF, principal components analysis identified a three-factor model of EF organization in middle childhood, including cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibition. Multiple regression analyses revealed that executive function processes of cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibition were all predictive of science performance. Post hoc analyses revealed that high-performing science students differed significantly from low-performing students in both cognitive flexibility and working memory. These findings suggest that complex academic demands specific to science achievement rely on the emergence and maturation of EF components.

  5. Newspaper Coverage of Autism Treatment in Canada: 10-Year Trends (2004–2013)

    PubMed Central

    Lanovaz, Marc J; Dufour, Marie-Michèle; Shah, Shalaka

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare trends in coverage of empirically supported and alternative autism treatments in Canadian newspapers during a 10-year period and to examine whether the portrayal of empirically supported and alternative treatments differed. Method: We searched a sample of 10 daily local and national Canadian newspapers using the word autism combined with intervention or treatment in the Proquest Canadian Newsstand and Eureka.cc databases, which yielded a total of 857 articles published between 2004 and 2013. In our subsequent analyses, we only included articles whose main topic was autism and that referred to at least one treatment. We then categorized the 137 remaining articles by treatment and rated whether each treatment category was portrayed in a favourable, unfavourable, or neutral manner. Results: In total, 46% of the articles discussed at least 1 empirically supported treatment, 53% at least 1 alternative treatment, and 12% at least 1 uncategorized treatment. Newspaper articles provided favourable, unfavourable, and neutral portrayals of empirically supported treatments in 75%, 10%, and 16% of cases, respectively. In contrast, alternative treatments were portrayed favourably in 52%, unfavourably in 32%, and neutrally in 16% of cases. Our analyses indicated that empirically supported treatments were portrayed more favourably than alternative treatments (χ2 = 10.42, df = 2, P = 0.005). Conclusions: Despite some encouraging trends, our study has shown that researchers and clinicians must continue to clarify misconceptions about autism treatment. Families of people with autism spectrum disorders should be directed toward more reliable and accurate sources of information. PMID:26175392

  6. Fatal firearm injuries in autopsy cases at central Bangkok, Thailand: a 10-year retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Myint, Sithu; Rerkamnuaychoke, Budsaba; Peonim, Vichan; Riengrojpitak, Suda; Worasuwannarak, Wisarn

    2014-11-01

    Even though there have been previously published reports on firearm injuries in various countries, the incidence and pattern of death from firearm injuries in Thailand have not been studied before. In present study, 149 fatal firearm injuries from 2002 to 2011 were reviewed. At total of 7126 autopsies, fatal firearm injuries comprised of 2.09% (n = 149) of total autopsies cases. Among those victims, 136 were male (91.3%), 13 (8.7%) were female. The youngest age of victim was 10 years and the oldest was 79 years. Mean age of the victims was 33.79 years and median age was 30 years. Outdoor incident was the most common scene of crime. Night time incident (18:00 PM-05:59 AM) was higher than day time one. Most of the cases occurred in week ends (n = 52). Homicide (77.2%) was the most frequent manner of death. Head/face and chest were the most common sites of entrance. The autopsy report also study on entrance wound, range and types of projectiles. Blood alcohol concentration was examined in 122 cases and 38 victims showed positive results, 11 cases revealed using of illegal substances in blood and urine analysis. This study also included the association between manner of death and other factors. Age group, time of incidence, place of incidence, number of entrance wound and range showed statistically significant association with manner of death.

  7. Perceived food hypersensitivity: a review of 10 years of interdisciplinary research at a reference center.

    PubMed

    Lied, Gülen Arslan; Lillestøl, Kristine; Lind, Ragna; Valeur, Jørgen; Morken, Mette Helvik; Vaali, Kirsi; Gregersen, Kine; Florvaag, Erik; Tangen, Tone; Berstad, Arnold

    2011-10-01

    Perceived food hypersensitivity is a prevalent, but poorly understood condition. In this review article, we summarize narratively recent literature including results of our 10 years' interdisciplinary research program dealing with such patients. The patients (more than 400) included in our studies were all adults referred to a university hospital because of gastrointestinal complaints self-attributed to food hypersensitivity. Despite extensive examinations, food allergy was seldom diagnosed. The majority of the patients fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for irritable bowel syndrome. In addition, most suffered from several extra-intestinal health complaints and had considerably impaired quality of life. However, psychological factors could explain only approximately 10% of the variance in the patients' symptom severity and 90% of the variance thus remained unexplained. Intolerance to low-digestible carbohydrates was a common problem and abdominal symptoms were replicated by carbohydrate ingestion. A considerable number of patients showed evidence of immune activation by analyses of B-cell activating factor, dendritic cells and "IgE-armed" mast cells. Multiple factors such as immune activation, disturbed intestinal fermentation, enteric dysmotility, post-infectious changes and "local" allergy in the gut as well as psychological disturbances may play a role in the pathophysiology of perceived food hypersensitivity. Hence, our results support the view that management of these patients should be interdisciplinary.

  8. Analysis of a single Helicobacter pylori strain over a 10-year period in a primate model.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Fero, Jutta B; Mendez, Melissa; Carpenter, Beth M; Servetas, Stephanie L; Rahman, Arifur; Goldman, Matthew D; Boren, Thomas; Salama, Nina R; Merrell, D Scott; Dubois, Andre

    2015-05-01

    Helicobacter pylori from different individuals exhibits substantial genetic diversity. However, the kinetics of bacterial diversification after infection with a single strain is poorly understood. We investigated evolution of H. pylori following long-term infection in the primate stomach; Rhesus macaques were infected with H. pylori strain USU101 and then followed for 10 years. H. pylori was regularly cultured from biopsies, and single colony isolates were analyzed. At 1-year, DNA fingerprinting showed that all output isolates were identical to the input strain; however, at 5-years, different H. pylori fingerprints were observed. Microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization revealed that long term persistence of USU101 in the macaque stomach was associated with specific whole gene changes. Further detailed investigation showed that levels of the BabA protein were dramatically reduced within weeks of infection. The molecular mechanisms behind this reduction were shown to include phase variation and gene loss via intragenomic rearrangement, suggesting strong selective pressure against BabA expression in the macaque model. Notably, although there is apparently strong selective pressure against babA, babA is required for establishment of infection in this model as a strain in which babA was deleted was unable to colonize experimentally infected macaques.

  9. North-East Atlantic Current Systems from 10 Years of Multi-Mission Satellite Altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lázaro, C.; Fernandes, M. J.; Alves, M.

    2006-07-01

    At the Faculty of Science, University of Porto (FCUP), Portugal, data from several altimeter missions have been regularly reprocessed using state-of-art geophysical corrections and have been used for oceanographic applications, the main focus being the Cape Verde Archipelago and the Iberia Peninsula regions. In this study, some of the latest results for the North- East (NE) Atlantic region comprising the upwelling systems that occur along the African and Iberian coasts, obtained from a continuous 10-year SLA data set of merged data from TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P), Jason-1 (J1), ERS-2 and Envisat (EN) missions, are shown. This data set was generated with the aim of analysing the spatial and temporal evolution of the ocean currents associated with the upwelling systems along the coasts, known as rich and diverse ecosystems. This regional study covers the NE Atlantic between latitudes 10°N and 50°N and longitudes 30°W and 5°W.

  10. Ecosystem service restoration after 10 years of rewetting peatlands in NE Germany.

    PubMed

    Zerbe, Stefan; Steffenhagen, Peggy; Parakenings, Karsten; Timmermann, Tiemo; Frick, Annett; Gelbrecht, Jörg; Zak, Dominik

    2013-06-01

    The restoration of ecosystem services, i.e., production, regulation, and information, is a global challenge, which the federal state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern in NE Germany addressed in 2000 by rewetting over 20,000 ha of degraded peatlands within the Mire Restoration Program. We evaluated ecosystem services in 23 rewetted sites by assessing the following mire parameters within a ten year period: (a) dominant vegetation at the ecosystem level, (b) peat formation potential at the landscape level, and (c) aboveground biomass and nutrient levels. Seven to 10 years after rewetting, the wetlands formed a mosaic of vegetation types with the highest potential for peat formation and several dominant, peat-forming species accumulated high levels of aboveground biomass and nutrients (C, N, P). Common reed (Phragmites australis) accumulated the most biomass (up to 24 t dry matter/ha), and N+P during the growing season. A future management option is to annually harvest aquatic and wetland plants to reduce nutrient levels in restored mire ecosystems. PMID:23636204

  11. Fatal firearm injuries in autopsy cases at central Bangkok, Thailand: a 10-year retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Myint, Sithu; Rerkamnuaychoke, Budsaba; Peonim, Vichan; Riengrojpitak, Suda; Worasuwannarak, Wisarn

    2014-11-01

    Even though there have been previously published reports on firearm injuries in various countries, the incidence and pattern of death from firearm injuries in Thailand have not been studied before. In present study, 149 fatal firearm injuries from 2002 to 2011 were reviewed. At total of 7126 autopsies, fatal firearm injuries comprised of 2.09% (n = 149) of total autopsies cases. Among those victims, 136 were male (91.3%), 13 (8.7%) were female. The youngest age of victim was 10 years and the oldest was 79 years. Mean age of the victims was 33.79 years and median age was 30 years. Outdoor incident was the most common scene of crime. Night time incident (18:00 PM-05:59 AM) was higher than day time one. Most of the cases occurred in week ends (n = 52). Homicide (77.2%) was the most frequent manner of death. Head/face and chest were the most common sites of entrance. The autopsy report also study on entrance wound, range and types of projectiles. Blood alcohol concentration was examined in 122 cases and 38 victims showed positive results, 11 cases revealed using of illegal substances in blood and urine analysis. This study also included the association between manner of death and other factors. Age group, time of incidence, place of incidence, number of entrance wound and range showed statistically significant association with manner of death. PMID:25440139

  12. Annual and interannual variations of Earth-emitted radiation based on a 10-year data set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bess, T. Dale; Smith, G. Louis; Charlock, Thomas P.; Rose, Fred G.

    1989-01-01

    The method of empirical orthogonal functions (EOF) was applied to a 10-year data set of outgoing longwave radiation. Spherical harmonic functions are used as a basis set for producing equal area map results. The following findings are noted. The first EOF accounts for 66 percent of the variance. After that, each EOF accounts for only a small variance, forming a slowly converging series. The first two EOF's describe mainly the annual cycle. The third EOF is primarily the semiannual cycle although many other EOF's also contain significant semiannual parts. These results reaffirm those based on a shorter data set. In addition, a much stronger spring/fall mode was found in the central equatorial Pacific Ocean for the second EOF than was found earlier. This difference is attributed to the use of broadband radiometer data which were available for the present study. The earlier study used data from a window channel instrument which is not as sensitive to water vapor variations. The fourth EOF describes much of the 1976 to 1977 and 1982 to 1983 ENSO phenomena. There is typically a gap in the spectrum between a semiannual peak and the annual cycle for all but the first EOF. A semiannual OLR dipole straddles the Asian-Australian monsoon track.

  13. Dinophyceae fluctuations in two alpine lakes of contrasting size during a 10-year fortnightly survey.

    PubMed

    Trevisan, Renata; Pertile, Riccardo; Bronamonte, Valentina; Dazzo, Frank B; Squartini, Andrea

    2012-06-01

    Colbricon Superiore and Inferiore are two small adjacent high-mountain lakes located in the Paneveggio Natural Park (Italy) that offer the rare opportunity to study two iso-ecologic water environments differing only by area and volume in a ratio of 2:1 and 3:1, respectively. We took advantage of this setting to investigate phytoplankton dynamics, compare variability and productivity differences between the two basins, and assess size-dependent issues. The phytoplankton group of the Dinophyceae was chosen as the indicator organisms of ecological perturbation owing to their high sensitivity to environmental variations, as well as their acknowledged nature of versatile proxy to report global climatic changes. The study was conducted for over 10 years with fortnightly samplings. Results indicated that (a) the Dinophyceae communities in the smaller lake were significantly more resistant to changes exerted by the fluctuation of lakewater transparency and pH; and (b) the smaller lake sustained a consistently higher production with an average Dinophyceae density 1.73 fold higher than that of the larger lake. The coefficients of variation show that the chemical parameters in the smaller lake display higher time-related fluctuation while being spatially homogeneous and that such conditions correlate with a higher stability of the Dinophyceae assemblage. The use of this setting is also proposed as a model to test relationships between ecosystem production and physical stability.

  14. [Application of placebo acupuncture in randomized controlled trials in the past 10 years in foreign countries].

    PubMed

    Ju, Lu; Wu, Xiaoliang; Xu, Dake; Pei, Lixia; Ning, Houxu; Sun, Jianhua

    2016-02-01

    The application of placebo acupuncture in randomized controlled trials in the past 10 years (2004-2014) in foreign countries was systematically reviewed to summarize the design of placebo acupuncture; according to category of diseases, advantages and disadvantages were analyzed to explore an ideal placebo acupuncture set. By retrieval in PubMed, EMBASE and OVID databases, the clinical study literature which met the inclusion criteria was searched, and the category of diseases, design of placebo acupuncture and clinical efficacy were analyzed. Totally 29 articles were included. The pain was the leading disease in category of diseases; the most commonly used application of placebo acupuncture design was telescopiform sliding blunt needle, accounting for 45. 16%; the treatment locations were non-acupoints mostly; in the needling depth, approximately 60. 00% selected non-penetrating needling and 26. 67% selected superficial needling; 28 articles indicated that acupuncture and placebo acupuncture had clinical effects, accounting for 96. 55%; 37. 93% of articles indicated acupuncture was superior to placebo acupuncture and 37. 93% of articles indicated acupuncture was not superior to placebo acupuncture. It is concluded that the design of placebo acupuncture should consider multiple factors, including main symptoms, operability, security, blinding and specific effects, and the objective indices should be selected for outcome evaluation. PMID:27348931

  15. An overview of the last 10 years of genetically engineered crop safety research.

    PubMed

    Nicolia, Alessandro; Manzo, Alberto; Veronesi, Fabio; Rosellini, Daniele

    2014-03-01

    The technology to produce genetically engineered (GE) plants is celebrating its 30th anniversary and one of the major achievements has been the development of GE crops. The safety of GE crops is crucial for their adoption and has been the object of intense research work often ignored in the public debate. We have reviewed the scientific literature on GE crop safety during the last 10 years, built a classified and manageable list of scientific papers, and analyzed the distribution and composition of the published literature. We selected original research papers, reviews, relevant opinions and reports addressing all the major issues that emerged in the debate on GE crops, trying to catch the scientific consensus that has matured since GE plants became widely cultivated worldwide. The scientific research conducted so far has not detected any significant hazards directly connected with the use of GE crops; however, the debate is still intense. An improvement in the efficacy of scientific communication could have a significant impact on the future of agricultural GE. Our collection of scientific records is available to researchers, communicators and teachers at all levels to help create an informed, balanced public perception on the important issue of GE use in agriculture.

  16. In All Probability, Probability is not All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helman, Danny

    2004-01-01

    The national lottery is often portrayed as a game of pure chance with no room for strategy. This misperception seems to stem from the application of probability instead of expectancy considerations, and can be utilized to introduce the statistical concept of expectation.

  17. Fracture Management

    MedlinePlus

    ... to hold the fracture in the correct position. • Fiberglass casting is lighter and stronger and the exterior ... with your physician if this occurs. • When a fiberglass cast is used in conjunction with a GORE- ...

  18. Lisfranc fractures.

    PubMed

    Wright, Amanda; Gerhart, Ann E

    2009-01-01

    Injuries of the tarsometatarsal, or Lisfranc, joint are rarely seen. Lisfranc fractures and fracture dislocations are among the most frequently misdiagnosed foot injuries in the emergency department. A misdiagnosed injury may have severe consequences including chronic pain and loss of foot biomechanics. Evaluation of a foot injury should include a high level of suspicion of a Lisfranc injury, and a thorough work-up is needed for correct diagnosis.

  19. CT-detected traumatic small artery extremity injuries: surgery, embolize, or watch? A 10-year experience.

    PubMed

    Velez, Erik; Surman, Andrew M; Nanavati, Sujal M; Kumar, Vishal; Lehrman, Evan; Wilson, Mark W; Conrad, Miles B

    2016-02-01

    Advances in computed tomography (CT) angiography have increased the sensitivity and specificity of detecting small branch arterial injuries in the extremities of trauma patients. However, it is unclear whether these patients should undergo surgery, angioembolization, or conservative watchful waiting. We hypothesized that uncomplicated small arterial branch injuries can be managed successfully with watchful waiting. A 10-year retrospective review of extremity CT angiograms with search findings of arterial "active extravasation" or "pseudoaneurysm" was performed at a level 1 county trauma center. Subgroup analysis was performed on those with isolated extremity injury and those with concurrent injuries. A total of 31 patients had CT-detected active extravasation (84 %) or pseudoaneurysm (16 %), 71 % of which were isolated vascular injuries. Of the patients evaluated, 71 % (n = 22) were managed with watchful waiting, 19 % (n = 6) with angioembolization, and 10 % (n = 3) with surgery. Watchful waiting complications included progression to alternative treatment (n = 1) and blood transfusions (n = 2). Complications of surgery included the inability to find active bleeding (n = 1) and postoperative psychosis (n = 1). Complications of angioembolization were limited to a postprocedure blood transfusion (n = 1). Patients with isolated vascular injuries had an average length of stay of 2.9 days, with management averages of the following: 2.7 days with watchful waiting (n = 16), 3.3 days with angioembolization (n = 3), and 3.7 days with surgery (n = 3). CT angiography has greatly increased the reported incidence of traumatic arterial injury in the extremity. We propose that small branch arterial injuries in the extremities can be managed successfully with watchful waiting and do not often require immediate embolization.

  20. PLANT POISONING IN THAILAND: A 10-YEAR ANALYSIS FROM RAMATHIBODI POISON CENTER.

    PubMed

    Sriapha, Charuwan; Tongpoo, Achara; Wongvisavakorn, Sunun; Rittilert, Panee; Trakulsrichai, Satariya; Srisuma, Sahaphume; Wananukul, Winai

    2015-11-01

    Plant poisoning is not uncommon in Thailand. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence, type, clinical manifestations, severity and outcomes of plant poisoned patients in Thailand over a 10-year period. We retrospectively reviewed data from the Ramathibodi Poison Center Toxic Exposure Surveillance System for 2001-2010. A total of 2,901 poisonous plant exposure cases were identified, comprising 3.1% of the 92,392 poison cases recorded during the study period. This was the fifth most common type of poisoning recorded. Children aged < 13 years comprised the largest percent (69.8%) of the cases. The major type of exposure was unintentional ingestion. Ninety-nine types of poisonous plants were recorded as the causative agents among 99.1%of the cases. Gastrointestinal symptoms were reported in 72.0% of cases with Jatropha curcas (physic nut) comprising 54.1% of these. Most patients had only minor signs and symptoms. The mortality rate among the total plant poisoning cases was 0.9%, with 26 deaths. Thirteen deaths occurred in children aged < 13 years. The greatest number of fatalities were due to ingestion of Manihot esculenta (cassava), primarily due to multi-system organ failure. Children aged < 13 years are at the greatest risk for plant poisoning in Thailand; mostly unintentional. Most cases were minor and the mortality rate was low. Jatropha curcas was the most common cause of poisoning and Manihot esculenta was the most common cause of death. Public education is important to minimize these poisonings.

  1. PLANT POISONING IN THAILAND: A 10-YEAR ANALYSIS FROM RAMATHIBODI POISON CENTER.

    PubMed

    Sriapha, Charuwan; Tongpoo, Achara; Wongvisavakorn, Sunun; Rittilert, Panee; Trakulsrichai, Satariya; Srisuma, Sahaphume; Wananukul, Winai

    2015-11-01

    Plant poisoning is not uncommon in Thailand. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence, type, clinical manifestations, severity and outcomes of plant poisoned patients in Thailand over a 10-year period. We retrospectively reviewed data from the Ramathibodi Poison Center Toxic Exposure Surveillance System for 2001-2010. A total of 2,901 poisonous plant exposure cases were identified, comprising 3.1% of the 92,392 poison cases recorded during the study period. This was the fifth most common type of poisoning recorded. Children aged < 13 years comprised the largest percent (69.8%) of the cases. The major type of exposure was unintentional ingestion. Ninety-nine types of poisonous plants were recorded as the causative agents among 99.1%of the cases. Gastrointestinal symptoms were reported in 72.0% of cases with Jatropha curcas (physic nut) comprising 54.1% of these. Most patients had only minor signs and symptoms. The mortality rate among the total plant poisoning cases was 0.9%, with 26 deaths. Thirteen deaths occurred in children aged < 13 years. The greatest number of fatalities were due to ingestion of Manihot esculenta (cassava), primarily due to multi-system organ failure. Children aged < 13 years are at the greatest risk for plant poisoning in Thailand; mostly unintentional. Most cases were minor and the mortality rate was low. Jatropha curcas was the most common cause of poisoning and Manihot esculenta was the most common cause of death. Public education is important to minimize these poisonings. PMID:26867365

  2. Hip arthroscopy in the warrior athlete: 2 to 10 year outcomes.

    PubMed

    Byrd, J W Thomas; Jones, Kay S; Schmitz, LtCol Matthew R; Doner, Geoffrey P

    2016-04-01

    Hip disorders are increasingly recognized among athletic populations. The rigors of military service expose individuals to the same risks as those participating in competitive sports, compounded by potential exposure to violent macrotrauma. This is a retrospective review of prospectively collected data among 62 active duty military personnel (64 hips) with 2-10-year follow-up. Follow-up averaged 47 months (range 24-120 months). The average age was 30 years (range 17-53 years) with 45 males and 17 females; 37 right and 27 left hips. Duration of symptoms prior to arthroscopy averaged 28 months (range 6-168 months). The average improvement was 22 points (pre-op 63; post-op 85) using the 100-point modified Harris hip score and was statistically significant (P <  0.001). Patients were improved after 60 of 64 procedures (94%) and returned to active duty following 52 (80%) and an average of 5 months (range 1 week-15 months). Forty-six (72%) underwent correction of FAI including 27 combined, 17 cam and two pincer lesions. Overall diagnoses and procedures are detailed. One patient underwent repeat arthroscopy and remained improved at 2-year follow-up; none were converted to total hip arthroplasty. There were two minor complications, a transient ulnar nerve neurapraxia and superficial sensory dysesthesias of the foot, both of which resolved within a few days. This is a heterogeneous cohort of pathology, but illustrates that hip disorders may exist among active duty military personnel and may benefit from arthroscopic intervention. A sense of awareness is important for accurate diagnosis and timely treatment.

  3. Parkinson disease, 10 years after its genetic revolution: multiple clues to a complex disorder.

    PubMed

    Klein, Christine; Schlossmacher, Michael G

    2007-11-27

    Over the last 10 years, an unprecedented number of scientific reports have been published that relate to the pathogenesis of parkinsonism. Since the discovery in 1997 of the first heritable form of parkinsonism that could be linked to a mutation in a single gene, SNCA, many more genetic leads have followed (Parkin, DJ-1, PINK1, LRRK2, to name a few); these have provided us with many molecular clues to better explore the etiology of parkinsonism and have led to the dismantling of many previously held dogmas about Parkinson disease (PD). Epidemiologic studies have delineated an array of environmental modulators of susceptibility to parkinsonism, which can now be examined in the context of gene expression. Furthermore, in vivo imaging data and postmortem results have generated concepts that greatly expanded our appreciation for the phenotypic spectrum of parkinsonism from its presymptomatic to advanced stages. With this plethora of new information emerged the picture of a complex syndrome that raises many questions: How many forms of classic parkinsonism/Parkinson disease(s) are there? Where does the disease begin? What causes late-onset, "idiopathic" PD? What are the caveats related to genetic testing? What is the role of Lewy bodies? What will be the best disease model to accommodate the now known genetic and environmental contributors to parkinsonism? What will be the ideal markers and targets for earlier diagnosis and cause-directed therapy? In the following article we highlight some of the burning issues surrounding the understanding of classic parkinsonism, a complex puzzle of genes, environment, and an aging host.

  4. A Single-Center 10-Year Experience with Pasireotide in Cushing's Disease: Patients' Characteristics and Outcome.

    PubMed

    Trementino, L; Michetti, G; Angeletti, A; Marcelli, G; Concettoni, C; Cardinaletti, C; Polenta, B; Boscaro, M; Arnaldi, G

    2016-05-01

    Pasireotide is the first pituitary-directed drug approved for treating patients with Cushing's disease (CD). Our 10-year experience with pasireotide in CD is reported here. Twenty patients with de novo, persistent, or recurrent CD after pituitary surgery were treated with pasireotide from December 2003 to December 2014. Twelve patients were treated with pasireotide in randomized trials and 8 patients with pasireotide sc (Signifor(®); Novartis AG, Basel, Switzerland) in clinical practice. The mean treatment duration was 20.5 months (median 9 months; range, 3-72 months). Urinary free cortisol (UFC) levels mean percentage change (± SD) at last follow-up was-40.4% (± 35.1; range, 2-92%; median reduction 33.3%) with a normalization rate of 50% (10/20). Ten patients achieved sustained normalized late night salivary cortisol (LNSC) levels during treatment. LNSC normalization was associated with UFC normalization in 7/10 patients. Serum cortisol and plasma ACTH significantly decreased from baseline to last follow-up. Body weight decrease and blood pressure improvement during pasireotide treatment were independent from UFC response. Glucose profile worsening was observed in all patients except one. The frequency of diabetes mellitus increased from 40% (8/20) at baseline to 85% (17/20) at last follow-up requiring initiation of medical treatment only in 44% of patients. Pasireotide treatment was associated with sustained biochemical and clinical benefit in about 60% of CD patients. Glucose profile alteration is a frequent complication of pasireotide treatment; however, it seems to be easy to manage with diet and lifestyle intervention in almost half of the patients. PMID:27127913

  5. A 10-year longitudinal fMRI study of narrative comprehension in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Szaflarski, Jerzy P; Altaye, Mekibib; Rajagopal, Akila; Eaton, Kenneth; Meng, Xiangxiang; Plante, Elena; Holland, Scott K

    2012-11-15

    Comprehension of spoken narratives requires coordination of multiple language skills. As such, for normal children narrative skills develop well into the school years and, during this period, are particularly vulnerable in the face of brain injury or developmental disorder. For these reasons, we sought to determine the developmental trajectory of narrative processing using longitudinal fMRI scanning. 30 healthy children between the ages of 5 and 18 enrolled at ages 5, 6, or 7, were examined annually for up to 10 years. At each fMRI session, children were presented with a set of five, 30s-long, stories containing 9, 10, or 11 sentences designed to be understood by a 5 year old child. fMRI data analysis was conducted based on a hierarchical linear model (HLM) that was modified to investigate developmental changes while accounting for missing data and controlling for factors such as age, linguistic performance and IQ. Performance testing conducted after each scan indicated well above the chance (p<0.002) comprehension performance. There was a linear increase with increasing age in bilateral superior temporal cortical activation (BAs 21 and 22) linked to narrative processing. Conversely, age-related decreases in cortical activation were observed in bilateral occipital regions, cingulate and cuneus, possibly reflecting changes in the default mode networks. The dynamic changes observed in this longitudinal fMRI study support the increasing role of bilateral BAs 21 and 22 in narrative comprehension, involving non-domain-specific integration in order to achieve final story interpretation. The presence of a continued linear development of this area throughout childhood and teenage years with no apparent plateau, indicates that full maturation of narrative processing skills has not yet occurred and that it may be delayed to early adulthood.

  6. Recommendations for Serogroup B Meningococcal Vaccine for Persons 10 Years and Older.

    PubMed

    2016-09-01

    This policy statement provides recommendations for the prevention of serogroup B meningococcal disease through the use of 2 newly licensed serogroup B meningococcal vaccines: MenB-FHbp (Trumenba; Wyeth Pharmaceuticals, a subsidiary of Pfizer, Philadelphia, PA) and MenB-4C (Bexsero; Novartis Vaccines, Siena, Italy). Both vaccines are approved for use in persons 10 through 25 years of age. MenB-FHbp is licensed as a 2- or 3-dose series, and MenB-4C is licensed as a 2-dose series for all groups. Either vaccine is recommended for routine use in persons 10 years and older who are at increased risk of serogroup B meningococcal disease (category A recommendation). Persons at increased risk of meningococcal serogroup B disease include the following: (1) persons with persistent complement component diseases, including inherited or chronic deficiencies in C3, C5-C9, properdin, factor D, or factor H or persons receiving eculizumab (Soliris; Alexion Pharmaceuticals, Cheshire, CT), a monoclonal antibody that acts as a terminal complement inhibitor by binding C5 and inhibiting cleavage of C5 to C5A; (2) persons with anatomic or functional asplenia, including sickle cell disease; and (3) healthy persons at increased risk because of a serogroup B meningococcal disease outbreak. Both serogroup B meningococcal vaccines have been shown to be safe and immunogenic and are licensed by the US Food and Drug Administration for individuals between the ages of 10 and 25 years. On the basis of epidemiologic and antibody persistence data, the American Academy of Pediatrics agrees with the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention that either vaccine may be administered to healthy adolescents and young adults 16 through 23 years of age (preferred ages are 16 through 18 years) to provide short-term protection against most strains of serogroup B meningococcal disease (category B recommendation). PMID:27573083

  7. Outcomes of combined phacoemulsification and deep sclerectomy: a 10-year UK single-centre study

    PubMed Central

    Mercieca, K; Shevade, B; Anand, N

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To report the outcomes of combined phacoemulsification and -deep sclerectomy (phaco-DS) from a single UK centre over a 10-year period. Methods Retrospective analysis of phaco-DS data extracted from an ongoing glaucoma surgery database within Calderdale and Huddersfield NHS Trust. Two hundred and ninety-six eyes of 282 patients were included. Data included patient demographics, pre- and postoperative intraocular pressure (IOP), use of mitomycin C (MMC), spacer device implantation, and follow-up details including surgical success rates. IOP success criteria were: (A) IOP <19 mm Hg and/or 20% decrease from baseline and (B) IOP <16 mm Hg and/or 30% drop from baseline. Results Mean follow-up was 63.5±35.3 months. MMC was applied in 145 eyes (49%). Kaplan–Meier success rates in all eyes for criteria A were 89.1% and 80% with glaucoma medications (qualified success) and 81.2% and 68.3% without medications (unqualified success) at 2 and 5 years, respectively. Qualified success for criteria B was 72.4 and 61.4% and unqualified rates were 67.2 and 55.2% for the same time periods. Repeated-measures ANOVA showed significantly lower IOP in the phaco-DS with MMC group up to 3 years postoperatively (P=0.002). Cox's proportional hazards for criteria B, however, showed no significant effect of MMC application in the long term (P=0.2). Increasing age and laser goniopuncture were positively associated with success, whereas the absence of spacer devices was negatively associated. At last follow-up, 20% of eyes were on glaucoma medications. Complication rates were low with hypotony rates of 0.68%. Conclusions This study confirms the long-term safety and efficacy of phaco-DS as a primary glaucoma procedure. PMID:26337945

  8. Future prospect 2012-2025 - How will our business change for the next 10 years -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Sakae

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this lecture is to discuss about the "Future". How our business will change in the next 10 years? I believe the key is 3 mega-trends "Sustainability", "Cloud Computing" and "Life Innovation". With the development of social environment, the required business will change, too. The future would be invisible if you shut yourself up in your single industry. It is important to see various business fields horizontally, and recognize various key changes stereoscopically such as demographics, economy, technology, sense of value and lifestyle, when you develop mid-and-long term strategy. "Cloud" is silent, but the revolution of personal computing. It will bring the drastic changes in every industry. It will make "voice" and "moving image" possible to use as the interface to access your computer. Cloud computing will also make the client device more diversified and spread the application range widely. 15 years ago, the term "IT" was equivalent to "personal computer". Recently, it rather means to use smartphone and tablet device. In the next several years, TV and car-navigation system will be connected to broadband and it will become a part of personal computing. The meaning of personal computing is changing essentially year by year. In near future, the universe of computing will expand to the energy, medical and health-care, and agriculture etc. It passed only 20 years since we use "Computer" in a full scale operation. Recently, computer has start understanding our few words and talking in babble like a baby. The history of computing has just started.

  9. Recommendations for Serogroup B Meningococcal Vaccine for Persons 10 Years and Older.

    PubMed

    2016-09-01

    This policy statement provides recommendations for the prevention of serogroup B meningococcal disease through the use of 2 newly licensed serogroup B meningococcal vaccines: MenB-FHbp (Trumenba; Wyeth Pharmaceuticals, a subsidiary of Pfizer, Philadelphia, PA) and MenB-4C (Bexsero; Novartis Vaccines, Siena, Italy). Both vaccines are approved for use in persons 10 through 25 years of age. MenB-FHbp is licensed as a 2- or 3-dose series, and MenB-4C is licensed as a 2-dose series for all groups. Either vaccine is recommended for routine use in persons 10 years and older who are at increased risk of serogroup B meningococcal disease (category A recommendation). Persons at increased risk of meningococcal serogroup B disease include the following: (1) persons with persistent complement component diseases, including inherited or chronic deficiencies in C3, C5-C9, properdin, factor D, or factor H or persons receiving eculizumab (Soliris; Alexion Pharmaceuticals, Cheshire, CT), a monoclonal antibody that acts as a terminal complement inhibitor by binding C5 and inhibiting cleavage of C5 to C5A; (2) persons with anatomic or functional asplenia, including sickle cell disease; and (3) healthy persons at increased risk because of a serogroup B meningococcal disease outbreak. Both serogroup B meningococcal vaccines have been shown to be safe and immunogenic and are licensed by the US Food and Drug Administration for individuals between the ages of 10 and 25 years. On the basis of epidemiologic and antibody persistence data, the American Academy of Pediatrics agrees with the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention that either vaccine may be administered to healthy adolescents and young adults 16 through 23 years of age (preferred ages are 16 through 18 years) to provide short-term protection against most strains of serogroup B meningococcal disease (category B recommendation).

  10. Cost savings associated with 10 years of road safety policies in Catalonia, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Suelves, Josep M; Barbería, Eneko

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine whether the road safety policies introduced between 2000 and 2010 in Catalonia, Spain, which aimed primarily to reduce deaths from road traffic collisions by 50% by 2010, were associated with economic benefits to society. Methods A cost analysis was performed from a societal perspective with a 10-year time horizon. It considered the costs of: hospital admissions; ambulance transport; autopsies; specialized health care; police, firefighter and roadside assistance; adapting to disability; and productivity lost due to institutionalization, death or sick leave of the injured or their caregivers; as well as material and administrative costs. Data were obtained from a Catalan hospital registry, the Catalan Traffic Service information system, insurance companies and other sources. All costs were calculated in euros (€) at 2011 values. Findings A substantial reduction in deaths from road traffic collisions was observed between 2000 and 2010. Between 2001 and 2010, with the implementation of new road safety policies, there were 26 063 fewer road traffic collisions with victims than expected, 2909 fewer deaths (57%) and 25 444 fewer hospitalizations. The estimated total cost savings were around €18 000 million. Of these, around 97% resulted from reductions in lost productivity. Of the remaining cost savings, 63% were associated with specialized health care, 15% with adapting to disability and 8.1% with hospital care. Conclusion The road safety policies implemented in Catalonia in recent years were associated with a reduction in the number of deaths and injuries from traffic collisions and with substantial economic benefits to society. PMID:23397348

  11. Cognitive effects of 10 years of hormone-replacement therapy with tibolone.

    PubMed

    Fluck, Emma; File, Sandra E; Rymer, Janice

    2002-02-01

    In an open study, self-ratings of bodily symptoms, mood (before and after stress), and cognitive performance were investigated in 25 women (aged 54-66 years) who for approximately 10 years had been taking an oral preparation of hormone replacement therapy (HRT), tibolone (Livial; 2.5 mg/ day). Tibolone has a unique profile, with estrogenic, progestogenic, and androgenic actions. The control group of 25 women had never taken HRT. Each woman in this group was pair-matched to one in the tibolone group on age, years since menopause, IQ, years of secondary education, and occupation. The groups were matched on their anxiety and depression scores on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression rating scale. Exclusion criteria were scores on this scale in the clinical range and any current illness or recent use of psychoactive medication. The women who were taking tibolone felt significantly less clumsy and had less severe palpitations than the control group. After exposure to a mildly stressful test, the control group felt more anxious, but this change was not seen in the group receiving tibolone. The group taking tibolone had significantly better semantic memory (memory for facts), as assessed in a category generation task, but they did not differ in tests of episodic memory (memory for events). An unexpected finding was that the tibolone group performed significantly worse on a sustained attention task and a planning task, tasks that are associated with frontal lobe function. Our results suggest that the effects of HRT on cognition may be influenced by the type of HRT, the duration of treatment, the nature of the tests, and the brain region controlling the cognitive function.

  12. 10 years with Planet Earth essence in the primary school children drawings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Addezio, Giuliana

    2016-04-01

    "10 years with Planet Earth" is the title of the 2016 INGV calendar for primary schools representing the review of a project conceived as support and complement of 15 years long INGV dissemination activities with schools. We realized 10 calendars together with and for primary schools, every year with a subject related to a World in constant evolution. Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tsunami waves, magnetic storms and other phenomena are manifestations of the complexity and dynamicity, which began more than four billion years ago and never halted. Since the Earth originated to the first presence of water, life and oxygen, the Cambrian explosion of species, the domain of dinosaurs, the great extinctions and glaciations, the surface of our planet experiences continents collisions, mountains and oceans formation and life forms emerging and disappearing. Every year we have launched a competition asking children to send drawings on themes chosen to stimulate learning about Earth Sciences and Planet Earth dynamics. We intended to raise awareness on issues as water resources availability, protection against natural disasters and control of environmental degradation. For each competition, we chose the most significant drawings to be included in the yearly calendar about the Earth. The authors of drawings were awarded by scientists, journalists, artists and science communicators and even by a minister. Besides the competitions, these drawings depict their own impressions and reflections, providing an opportunity to illustrate the children's point of view. From drawings and texts arise a great consideration and respect for the Planet, raising hopes that similar initiatives can contribute to increase the knowledge of the Earth and of the fragile human ecosystem in the hearts and minds of future active citizens. The project was made possible thanks to the teachers and to the wonderful students of more than 200 schools that sent about 10,000 drawings that have intrigued

  13. Surprises in the Saturn System: 10 Years of Cassini Discoveries and More Excitement to Come

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spilker, L. J.; Altobelli, N.; Edgington, S. G.

    2014-12-01

    Cassini's findings have revolutionized our understanding of Saturn, its complex rings, the amazing assortment of moons and the planet's dynamic magnetic environment. The robotic spacecraft arrived in 2004 after a 7-year flight from Earth, dropped a parachuted probe named Huygens to study the atmosphere and surface of Saturn's big moon Titan, and commenced making astonishing discoveries that continue today. Icy jets shoot from the tiny moon Enceladus; Titan's hydrocarbon lakes and seas are dominated by liquid ethane and methane, and complex pre-biotic chemicals form in the atmosphere and rain to the surface; 3-dimensional structures rise above Saturn's rings, and a giant Saturn storm circled the entire planet. Cassini's findings at Saturn have also fundamentally altered many of our concepts of how planets form around stars. The Solstice Mission continues to provide fundamental new science as Cassini observes seasonal and temporal changes, and addresses new questions that have arisen during the mission thus far. The mission's grand finale occurs in 2017, with 22 inclined orbits between the innermost D ring and the upper portions of Saturn's atmosphere, enabling unique gravity and magnetic field measurements of the planet, unprecedented determination of the ring mass, some of the highest resolution measurements of the rings and Saturn, and in situ observations in a completely new region around the planet. Highlights from 10 years of Cassini's ambitious inquiry at Saturn will be presented along with the remarkable science that will be collected in the next three years. Cassini-Huygens is a cooperative undertaking by NASA, the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Italian space agency (Agenzia Spaziale Italiana, ASI). This work was carried out in part at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with NASA. Copyright 2014 California Institute of Technology. Government sponsorship is acknowledged.

  14. 10 years after rio-concepts on the contribution of chemistry to a sustainable development.

    PubMed

    Eissen, Marco; Metzger, Jürgen O; Schmidt, Eberhard; Schneidewind, Uwe

    2002-02-01

    The principles of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), held in June 1992 in Rio de Janeiro, and Agenda 21, the comprehensive plan of action for the 21st century, adopted 10 years ago by more than 170 governments, address the pressing problems of today and also aim at preparing the world for the challenges of this century. The conservation and management of resources for development are the main focus of interest, to which the sciences will have to make a considerable contribution. Natural, economic, and social sciences will have to be integrated in order to achieve this aim. In their future programs, the associations of the chemical industries in Europe, Japan, and the USA have explicitly accepted their obligation to foster a sustainable development. In this review we investigate innovations in chemistry exemplarily for such a development with regard to their ecological, economical, and social dimensions from an integrated and interdisciplinary perspective. Since base chemicals are produced in large quantities and important product lines are synthesized from them, their resource-saving production is especially important for a sustainable development. This concept has been shown, amongst others, by the example of the syntheses of propylene oxide and adipic acid. In the long run, renewable resources that are catalytically processed could replace fossil raw materials. Separation methods existing today must be improved considerably to lower material and energy consumption. Chemistry might become the pioneer of an innovative energy technique. The design of chemical products should make possible a sustainable processing and recycling and should prevent their bio-accumulation. Methods and criteria to assess their contribution to a sustainable development are necessary. The time taken to introduce the new more sustainable processes and products has to be diminished by linking their development with operational innovation management and with

  15. Course of Depression in a 10-year Prospective Study: Evidence for Qualitatively Distinct Subgroups

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Daniel N.; Kotov, Roman

    2016-01-01

    The course of depressive disorders can vary considerable, with some individuals exhibiting a chronic course and poor outcomes, while others have a more episodic course and better outcomes. However it is unclear whether degree of chronicity is continuous or reflects qualitatively distinct subgroups. Using data from a 5-wave, 10-year, naturalistic study of 127 depressed outpatients, we examined whether depression chronicity lies on a continuum or manifests natural boundaries. Spline regression was used to test 7 continuous and discontinuous models of the relationship between depression during the first follow-up interval and multiple outcomes at subsequent follow-ups. In order to further validate the findings, we also created empirically-derived subgroups based on the results of the spline regression analyses and compared them on baseline clinical characteristics and long-term outcomes. There was a clear and consistent discontinuity indicating that for higher levels of chronicity during the first 30 month period, depression was linearly related to outcome; in contrast, for lower levels of chronicity, depression in the initial interval was unrelated to subsequent outcomes. The findings were strikingly consistent across the 4 follow-up evaluations using multiple outcomes and goodness-of-fit indices. In addition, the chronic group--as defined by the first follow-up period--exhibited more baseline chronic depression, anxiety and personality disorders, family history of dysthymia, and childhood adversity, and was more likely to attempt suicide and be hospitalized during follow-up, than the non-chronic group. Results suggest that there are qualitatively distinct classes of patients with more and less chronic depressions, and support the utility of longitudinal course as a means of parsing depression into more homogeneous subgroups. PMID:26845258

  16. Bullying and attention-deficit- hyperactivity disorder in 10-year-olds in a Swedish community.

    PubMed

    Holmberg, Kirsten; Hjern, Anders

    2008-02-01

    The association of attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with bullying in the peer group in school was studied in an entire population of 577 fourth graders (10-year-olds) in one municipality in Stockholm, Sweden. The schoolchildren were screened for ADHD in a two-step procedure that included Conners'ratings of behavioural problems: teacher and parent interviews in a first step; and a clinical assessment in the second. Information about bullying was collected from the children themselves in a classroom questionnaire. Five-hundred and sixteen children (89.4%; 252 females, 264 males), for whom there was information from all data sources, were included in the study population. Conners'ratings that were collected from parents early in first grade were available for 382 of these children. Hypotheses were tested by multivariate analyses with adjustment for sex and parental education. Pervasive ADHD was diagnosed in 9.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 5.6-12.8) of the males and 1.6% (CI 0.1-3.1) of the females. ADHD was associated with bullying other students (adjusted odds ratios (OR) 3.8 [CI 2.0-7.2]) as well as being bullied (often, OR 10.8 [CI 4.0-29.0]; sometimes, OR 2.9 [CI 1.5-5.7]). Bullying other students in fourth grade was associated with high scores in parental reports of behavioural problems at entry into first grade, suggesting a causal link to the ADHD syndrome. Being bullied, on the other hand, was not linked to behavioural problems at school entry. This study demonstrates a connection between ADHD and bullying in the peer group at school. Evaluation and treatment strategies for ADHD need to include assessment and effective interventions for bullying. Evaluation of ADHD should be considered in children involved in bullying.

  17. Ciguatera fish poisoning in Hong Kong--a 10-year perspective on the class of ciguatoxins.

    PubMed

    Wong, Chun-Kwan; Hung, Patricia; Lo, Janice Y C

    2014-08-01

    The present study used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to investigate retrospectively ciguatoxin (CTX)-positive samples as determined by mouse bioassay (MBA) in the past 10 years in Hong Kong. The results showed that Pacific CTXs (P-CTX-1, -2 and -3) were the most commonly observed toxins found in the samples, indicating Pacific Ocean areas as the most important origin of ciguatera fish poisoning. Clinical diagnosis from ciguatera patients also revealed the predominance of neurological illnesses in most cases, supporting intoxication of Pacific origin. This study demonstrated the ability of laboratory analysis to identify and quantify Pacific CTXs in suspected fish samples, so as to support the clinical diagnosis of ciguatera. Comparative analysis (Student's t-test and Spearman's rank correlation analysis) on the two CTX detection methods showed approximate linearity for overall P-CTXs (P-CTX-1, -2 and -3)/P-CTX-1 alone as derived by LC-MS/MS and total toxicity levels (P-CTX-1 equivalent) as determined by MBA. The LC-MS/MS method coupled with the rapid extraction method could allow the detection of trace amount of CTXs at levels below the clinically relevant limit, 0.1 ppb P-CTX-1 in fish flesh. For practical application, the adoption of a two-tiered approach for testing, chemical analysis by LC-MS/MS for toxic fish screening, coupled with biological assay by MBA for final toxicity confirmation, was proposed for first-line screening of CTX in potentially contaminated fish samples in the market, with an aim to minimizing the use of laboratory mice and at the same time providing reasonably effective means for routine analysis.

  18. Decreases in human immunodeficiency virus infection rates in Kombolcha, Ethiopia: a 10-year data review

    PubMed Central

    Shiferaw, Melashu Balew; Gebregergs, Gebremedhin Berhe; Sinishaw, Mulusew Alemneh; Yesuf, Yohannes Amede

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is one of the most serious public health and development challenges in sub-Saharan Africa, including Ethiopia. A particular challenge for prevention strategies has been the emergence of hotspot areas. Therefore, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome programs should not be based on national level statistics, but need to be more focused geographically. Kombolcha is one of the high spot areas with different projects and development corridors. Hence, the aim of this study is to assess the trend of HIV infection rates among patients who visited Africa Service Committee clinic from 2005 to 2014. Methods An institutional-based cross-sectional study was conducted from January 1 to January 30, 2016. All records of new patients enrolled from February 8, 2005 to December 31, 2014 were reviewed. Data on sociodemographic information, risky sexual behavior, and HIV test result were collected from each study participant using data collection format. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to identify risk factors of HIV infection. Results The overall HIV infection was 10.8% (2,233/20,674). The rate of infection varied from 13.3% in 2005 to 4.5% in 2014, and its trend had significantly declined from 2008 to 2014. Urban residence (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 2.53; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.22–5.25), patients who ever had intercourse with penetration (AOR: 5.62; 95% CI: 1.11–28.57), and those who had marriage experience (AOR: 11.65; 95% CI: 4.2–32.3) were more infected with HIV. Conclusion The trend of HIV infection significantly reduced in the last 10 years in Kombolcha area. However, the HIV infection still remains high (4.5%) that needs intervention of those who had marriage experience, risky sexual behavior, and urban dwellers. PMID:27462177

  19. The 10-year Trend of Periprocedural Complication Following Carotid Artery Stenting; Single Center Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Jeong-Ho; Kang, Jihoon; Yeo, Min-Ju; Kim, Beom Joon; Jang, Min Uk; Bae, Hee-Joon; Kwon, O-Ki; Hwang, Gyo Jun; Oh, Chang Wan; Jung, Cheolkyu; Lee, Ji Sung; Han, Moon-Ku

    2015-04-15

    PurposeCarotid endarterectomy and stenting are used to treat carotid stenosis, with the volume of carotid artery procedures increasing over the past decade. We investigated the 10-year trend of periprocedural complications with an increasing procedure volume of carotid stenting at a single tertiary hospital.MethodsWe collected 416 consecutive cases (384 patients) of carotid artery stenting performed for either symptomatic (231 cases, 55.5 %) or asymptomatic (185 cases, 44.5 %) internal carotid artery stenosis at a single center. Periprocedural complication was defined as any stroke, myocardial infarction, or death. Procedure-related outcome included any dissection, hemodynamic event, or periprocedural complication.ResultsThe mean age was 68.8 years (82.8 % males; range of 20–89 years); 23.9 % were older than 75 years. Before the procedure, 99.3 and 56.0 % of patients received antiplatelet and lipid-lowering medication, respectively. The overall periprocedural complication rate was 3.6 % (1.6 and 5.2 % in the asymptomatic and symptomatic group, respectively). The composite outcome of any stroke or death was 3.4 %. Periprocedural complication and procedure-related outcome showed a decremental trend with increasing procedure volume, and this trend remained after adjusting for confounders.ConclusionsOur study suggests that carotid stenting at an experienced center might reduce the periprocedural complications. Our periprocedural complication rate of carotid artery stenting may be comparable to, or somewhat lower than, that reported in other clinical trials.

  20. An adequacy evaluation of a 10-year, four-country nutrition and health programme

    PubMed Central

    Berti, Peter R; Mildon, Alison; Siekmans, Kendra; Main, Barbara; MacDonald, Carolyn

    2010-01-01

    Background Evaluations of large-scale health and nutrition programmes in developing countries are needed for determining the effectiveness of interventions. This article critically analyses a non-governmental organization (NGO)-led large-scale, multi-country, 10-year micronutrient and health (MICAH) programme with an ‘adequacy evaluation’, that is, a documentation of time trends in the expected direction. Methods MICAH was implemented from 1996 to 2005 in selected areas of Ethiopia, Ghana, Malawi and Tanzania, reaching >6 million people with numerous health and nutrition interventions. Coverage and impact were monitored through surveys at baseline, midpoint and end of funding. The data were subjected to post-hoc methods of quality determination, and, if of suitable quality, included in the adequacy evaluation. Results Most collected data were of moderate or high quality and therefore included in the adequacy evaluation. There were moderate to large improvements in vitamin A status in Ethiopian school-age children, children <5 years of age in Tanzania and Ghana and mothers in Ghana. Iodine status improved in Malawi and Tanzania. Anaemia rates and malaria prevalence decreased in women, pregnant women and pre-school children in Ghana, Malawi and Tanzania, but anaemia increased in Ethiopian women. Large increases were reported for rates of exclusive breastfeeding and immunization. Child growth improved to the maximum that would be predicted with the given interventions. Conclusions Numerous nutrition and health impacts were observed in the intervention areas, often of a magnitude equal to or larger than observed in controlled interventions or trials. These results show the value of integrated long-term interventions. PMID:20202929

  1. Response to treatment in hereditary metabolic disease: 1993 survey and 10-year comparison.

    PubMed Central

    Treacy, E; Childs, B; Scriver, C R

    1995-01-01

    Knowledge about cause, pathogenesis, and manifestations of hereditary metabolic diseases puts them among the best known of all human diseases. On the other hand, outcomes of treatment are cause for uncertainty and concern. In 1985, Hayes et al. analyzed efficacy of treatment up to 1983 in 65 of these diseases selected randomly from the McKusick catalogs. Disease scores were calculated for seven parameters: longevity; reproductive capability; somatic and cognitive development; and handicaps affecting schooling, work, and cosmetic appearance. Scores of the untreated and treated phenotypes were then compared. We have now measured progress over the past decade by calculating scores on the same 65 diseases from data in several hundred new reports published since 1983. All seven parameters in the 1993 survey reflect improved efficacy of treatment in the 10-year interval. However, the percent of diseases for which all manifestations of the disease were removed by treatment has not changed (12% in 1983; 12% in 1993). The group in which manifestations were untouched by treatment has become smaller (48% in 1983; 31% in 1993), and the group partially ameliorated by treatment had increased reciprocally (40% in 1983; 57% in 1993). Progress in the treatment of hereditary metabolic disease is thus better than it was, but it is still only a partial success. The advances are attributable to greater success with organ and tissue transplantation, better pharmacotherapy, and better support systems. Restoration of normal homeostasis, the key to successful treatment, remains an elusive challenge and is a logical, major focus for research in human genetics. PMID:7847368

  2. Haiti's progress in achieving its 10-year plan to eliminate cholera: hidden sickness cannot be cured.

    PubMed

    Koski-Karell, Victoria; Farmer, Paul E; Isaac, Benito; Campa, Elizabeth M; Viaud, Loune; Namphy, Paul C; Ternier, Ralph; Ivers, Louise C

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of the cholera epidemic in Haiti 5 years ago, the prevalence of this deadly water-borne disease has fallen far below the initial rates registered during its explosive outset. However, cholera continues to cause extensive suffering and needless deaths across the country, particularly among the poor. The urgent need to eliminate transmission of cholera persists: compared to the same period in 2014, the first 4 months of 2015 saw three times the number of cholera cases. Drawing upon epidemiology, clinical work (and clinical knowledge), policy, ecology, and political economy, and informed by ethnographic data collected in a rural area of Haiti called Bocozel, this paper evaluates the progress of the nation's 10-year Plan for the Elimination of Cholera. Bocozel is a rice-producing region where most people live in extreme poverty. The irrigation network is decrepit, the land is prone to environmental shocks, fertilizer is not affordable, and the government's capacity to assist farmers is undermined by resource constraints. When peasants do have rice to sell, the price of domestically grown rice is twice that of US-imported rice. Canal water is not only used to irrigate thousands of acres of rice paddies and sustain livestock, but also to bathe, wash, and play, while water from wells, hand pumps, and the river is used for drinking, cooking, and bathing. Only one out of the three government-sponsored water treatment stations in the research area is still functional and utilized by those who can afford it. Latrines are scarce and often shared by up to 30 people; open defecation remains common. Structural vulnerabilities cut across all sectors - not just water, sanitation, health care, and education, but agriculture, environment, (global and local) commerce, transportation, and governance as well. These are among the hidden sicknesses that impede Haiti and its partners' capacity to eliminate cholera. PMID:27307774

  3. Estrogen receptor testing and 10-year mortality from breast cancer: A model for determining testing strategy

    PubMed Central

    Naugler, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Background: The use of adjuvant tamoxifen therapy in the treatment of estrogen receptor (ER) expressing breast carcinomas represents a major advance in personalized cancer treatment. Because there is no benefit (and indeed there is increased morbidity and mortality) associated with the use of tamoxifen therapy in ER-negative breast cancer, its use is restricted to women with ER expressing cancers. However, correctly classifying cancers as ER positive or negative has been challenging given the high reported false negative test rates for ER expression in surgical specimens. In this paper I model practice recommendations using published information from clinical trials to address the question of whether there is a false negative test rate above which it is more efficacious to forgo ER testing and instead treat all patients with tamoxifen regardless of ER test results. Methods: I used data from randomized clinical trials to model two different hypothetical treatment strategies: (1) the current strategy of treating only ER positive women with tamoxifen and (2) an alternative strategy where all women are treated with tamoxifen regardless of ER test results. The variables used in the model are literature-derived survival rates of the different combinations of ER positivity and treatment with tamoxifen, varying true ER positivity rates and varying false negative ER testing rates. The outcome variable was hypothetical 10-year survival. Results: The model predicted that there will be a range of true ER rates and false negative test rates above which it would be more efficacious to treat all women with breast cancer with tamoxifen and forgo ER testing. This situation occurred with high true positive ER rates and false negative ER test rates in the range of 20-30%. Conclusions: It is hoped that this model will provide an example of the potential importance of diagnostic error on clinical outcomes and furthermore will give an example of how the effect of that error could be

  4. Nighttime Sleep Macrostructure Is Altered in Otherwise Healthy 10-Year-Old Overweight Children

    PubMed Central

    Chamorro, Rodrigo; Algarín, Cecilia; Garrido, Marcelo; Causa, Leonardo; Held, Claudio; Lozoff, Betsy; Peirano, Patricio

    2014-01-01

    Objective Epidemiological evidence shows an inverse relationship between sleep duration and overweight/obesity risk. However, there are few polysomnographic studies that relate the organization of sleep stages to pediatric overweight (OW). We compared sleep organization in otherwise healthy OW and normal weight (NW) 10-year-old children. Subjects Polysomnographic assessments were performed in 37 NW and 59 OW children drawn from a longitudinal study beginning in infancy. Weight and height were used to evaluate body-mass index (BMI) according to international criteria. Non-REM (NREM) sleep (stages N1, N2 and N3), rapid eye movement (REM) sleep (stage R), and wakefulness (stage W) were visually scored. Sleep parameters were compared in NW and OW groups for the whole total sleep period (SPT) and for each successive third of it using independent student t-tests or non-parametric tests. The relationship between BMI and sleep variables was evaluated by correlation analyses controlling for relevant covariates. Results The groups were similar in timing of sleep onset and offset, and sleep period time. BMI was inversely related to total sleep time (TST) and sleep efficiency. OW children showed reduced TST, sleep efficiency, and stage R amount, but higher stage W amount. In analysis by thirds of the SPT, the duration of stage N3 episodes, was shorter in the first third and longer in the second third in OW children, compared with NW children. Conclusions Our results show reduced sleep amount and quality in otherwise healthy OW children. The lower stage R amount and changes involving stage N3 throughout the night suggest that OW in childhood is associated with modifications not only in sleep duration, but also in the ongoing nighttime patterns of NREM sleep and REM sleep stages. PMID:24352291

  5. Reaching Spanish-speaking smokers online: a 10-year worldwide research program

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Ricardo Felipe; Chen, Ken; Bunge, Eduardo Liniers; Bravin, Julia Isabela; Shaughnessy, Elizabeth Annelly; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo Joaquín

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe a 10-year proof-of-concept smoking cessation research program evaluating the reach of online health interventions throughout the Americas. Methods Recruitment occurred from 2002–2011, primarily using Google.com AdWords. Over 6 million smokers from the Americas entered keywords related to smoking cessation; 57 882 smokers (15 912 English speakers and 41 970 Spanish speakers) were recruited into online self-help automated intervention studies. To examine disparities in utilization of methods to quit smoking, cessation aids used by English speakers and Spanish speakers were compared. To determine whether online interventions reduce disparities, abstinence rates were also compared. Finally, the reach of the intervention was illustrated for three large Spanish-speaking countries of the Americas—Argentina, Mexico, and Peru—and the United States of America. Results Few participants had utilized other methods to stop smoking before coming to the Internet site; most reported using no previous smoking cessation aids: 69.2% of Spanish speakers versus 51.8% of English speakers (P < 0.01). The most used method was nicotine gum, 13.9%. Nicotine dependence levels were similar to those reported for in-person smoking cessation trials. Overall observed quit rate for English speakers was 38.1% and for Spanish speakers, 37.0%; quit rates in which participants with missing data were considered to be smoking were 11.1% and 10.6%, respectively. Neither comparison was significantly different. Conclusions The systematic use of evidence-based Internet interventions for health problems could have a broad impact throughout the Americas, at little or no cost to individuals or to ministries of health. PMID:25211569

  6. Spectrum of Sinonasal Tumors: A 10-year Experience at a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India

    PubMed Central

    Shirazi, Nadia; Bist, Sampan S.; Selvi, Thamarai N.; Harsh, Meena

    2015-01-01

    Objective Sinonasal tumors are a highly heterogeneous group of tumors that account for less than 1% of all cancers. Precise diagnosis is essential because the natural history, treatment, and prognosis vary for different neoplasms. We reviewed 610 cases of sinonasal lesions to understand this entity better. Methods A total of 610 sinonasal biopsies/specimens were received over a period of 10 years (2004–14). All the samples were processed and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Special staining for microorganisms and immunohistochemistry were performed where indicated. Results Benign lesions were 72% with nasal polyp being the most common. Malignant lesions made up 21.2% of lesions with nasopharyngeal carcinoma being the most common while 7.7% cases were inflammatory/non-neoplastic. The most common cause for this was fungal sinusitis. The maxillary sinus was the most frequently involved site in all the lesions (62%). The average age of presentation was 40 years old, and the male to female ratio was 3:1 in those with benign tumors. The average age of presentation in the malignant and inflammatory group were 45 and 43 years, respectively, with an almost equal sex ratio in both categories. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans were done in virtually all cases to assess the extent of the tumor as well as bony destruction. Local recurrence was the most frequent cause of treatment failure. Conclusion Tumors of the nasal cavity are often grouped with those in the paranasal sinuses. Benign tumors constituted approximately 75% of tumors in our hospital. Squamous cell carcinoma was the most common malignancy of this region. These tumors need to be studied closely and accurately because their proximity to vital structures pose significant challenges for their treatment and may be the source of significant patient morbidity. PMID:26674709

  7. Soil erosion in the Swiss midlands: Results of a 10-year field survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasuhn, Volker

    2011-03-01

    Long-term field monitoring of soil erosion by water was conducted on arable land in the Swiss midlands. All visible erosion features in 203 fields were continuously mapped and quantified over 10 years. The eroded soil volume associated with linear erosion features was calculated by measuring the length and cross-sectional area in rills at representative positions and the extent of interrill erosion was estimated. Averaged across the 10 study years, just under one-third (32.2%) of the fields exhibited erosion. With 0.75 t ha -1 yr -1 (mean) and 0.56 t ha -1 yr -1 (median), the average annual soil loss of the region was relatively small. The year-to-year variation in soil loss of the region was great and ranged from 0.16 to 1.83 t ha -1 yr -1. The maximum annual soil erosion in a single field was 96 t yr -1 or 58 t ha -1 yr -1, thus demonstrating that only a few erosion events on a few fields may decisively contribute to the total extent of soil erosion in a region. Linear and interrill erosion accounted for 75% and 25% of total soil loss, respectively. Wheel tracks, furrows, headlands, and slope depressions were important on-site accelerators of erosion. Run-on from adjacent upslope areas was an important trigger of erosion. Of the soil moved by erosion, 52% was deposited within the field of origin. A high proportion (72%) of the linear erosion features caused off-site damage. Part of the total eroded soil (20%) was transported into water, thereby contributing to their contamination. The long-term field assessment of soil erosion helps to fill existing knowledge gaps concerning temporal and spatial variability of soil erosion on arable land, the extent and severity of soil erosion and its sources and causes, as well as subsequent off-site damage.

  8. Cardiac repolarisation and drug regulation: assessing cardiac safety 10 years after the CPMP guidance.

    PubMed

    Shah, Rashmi R

    2007-01-01

    December 2007 marks the 10-year anniversary of the first regulatory guidance for evaluation of drug-induced QT interval prolongation. A decade on, it seems surprising that this document, which was released by the Committee on Proprietary Medicinal Products, caused such acrimony in the industry. Sponsors now routinely evaluate their new drugs for an effect on cardiac electrophysiology in preclinical studies, in addition to obtaining ECGs in all phases of drug development and conducting a formal thorough QT study in humans.However, concurrently, new concerns have also emerged on broader issues related to the cardiovascular safety of drugs because of their potential to shorten the QT interval as well as to induce proischaemic, profibrotic or prothrombotic effects. Drugs may also have an indirect effect by adversely affecting one or more of the cardiovascular risk factors (e.g. through fluid retention or induction of dyslipidaemia). In addition to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists and cyclo-oxygenase 2 selective inhibitors, three other drugs, darbepoetin alfa, pergolide and tegaserod, provide a more contemporary regulatory stance on tolerance of cardiovascular risk of drugs and their benefit-risk assessment. This recent, more assertive, risk-averse stance has significant implications for future drug development. These include the routine evaluation of cardiovascular safety for certain classes of drugs. Drugs that are intended for long-term use will almost certainly require long-term clinical evaluation in studies that enrol populations that most closely resemble the ultimate target population. Novel mechanisms of action and biomarkers by themselves are no guarantee of improved safety or benefits. Even some traditional biomarkers have come to be viewed with scepticism. Requirements for more extensive and earlier postmarketing assessment of clinical benefits and rare, but serious risks associated with new medicinal products should create a new standard

  9. A 10-year spatial and temporal trend of sulfate across the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malm, William C.; Schichtel, Bret A.; Ames, Rodger B.; Gebhart, Kristi A.

    2002-11-01

    Legislative and regulatory mandates have resulted in reduced sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions in both the eastern and western United States with anticipation that concurrent levels of ambient SO2, SO42-, and rainwater acidity would decrease. This paper examines spatial and temporal trends in ambient SO42- concentration from 1988 to 1999, SO2 emissions from 1990 to 1999, and the relationship between these two variables. The SO42- concentration data came from combining data from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) and the Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNet). Over 70 sites spread across the continental United States are considered in this analysis. From a spatial perspective, the 90th percentile summer sulfate concentrations are highest along the Ohio River Valley and in central Tennessee where the emission density of SO2 is greatest. These concentrations are a factor of 2 greater than the Northeast, northern Michigan, and coastal areas of the Southeast and about a factor of 15 greater than the central western United States. In the East, the largest SO42- decreases in the 80th percentile concentrations occurred north of the Ohio River Valley, while most monitoring sites south of Kentucky and Virginia showed increasing and decreasing trends that were not statistically significant. Big Bend National Park, Texas, Cranberry, North Carolina, and Lassen Volcanic National Park, California, are the only areas that show a statistically significant increase in SO42- mass concentrations. The 1990-1999 annual 80th percentile SO42- time series were compared to the annual SO2 emissions over four broad United States regions. Each region had a unique time series pattern with the SO42- concentrations and SO2 emissions closely tracking each other over the 10-year period. Both the SO42- and SO2 emissions decreased in the Northeast (28%) and the West (15%), while there was little change in the Southeast and a 15% increase over Texas, New Mexico

  10. HEMIPELVECTOMY: ERASTO GAERTNER HOSPITAL'S EXPERIENCES WITH 32 CASES IN 10 YEARS

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Rosyane Rena de; Crivellaro, André Luiz Soares; Mello, Glauco José Pauka; Neto, Múrio Armani; Filho, Geraldo de Freitas; Silva, Letícia Viani da

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To show the experience of the Erasto Gaertner Hospital with hemipelvectomy surgery over a 10-year period. Methods: This was a retrospective study on 32 patients who underwent hemipelvectomy at Erasto Gaertner Hospital between 1998 and 2008, assessing clinical and surgical characteristics. Results: Among the 32 patients, 15 were female and 17 were male. The mean age was 37.94 years. Eight cases showed involvement of the neurovascular bundle: three were located in the iliac and extended to the thigh, two were in the acetabulum and extended to the thigh and three were in the acetabulum and pubis. Twenty-three cases presented a neurovascular bundle free from neoplasia: 11 were restricted to the iliac, six were in the acetabular region, two were in the pubic ramus and four extended to the whole hemipelvis bone. One case involved the iliac-femoral vessels: one in the pubic ramus. Seven cases of chondrosarcoma and four cases of Ewing's sarcoma represented the majority. Eight cases underwent external hemipelvectomy and 24 underwent internal hemipelvectomy (11 were type I; four were type II; two were type II + III; three were type III and four were type IV). Of these 24 cases, 13 did not have any reconstruction, 10 had a fibular graft and one had an iliacfemoral vein and artery prosthesis. Twenty-six surgeries were curative and six were palliative. There were 14 deaths. Survival of two and five years was seen in 11 and 10 cases, respectively. For six cases, less than two years had passed since the operation. Three cases were lost during follow-up. Conclusion: This study shows the experiences of an oncology reference service specializing in highly complex surgical treatment. PMID:27022573

  11. Variability and Stability in Daily Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity among 10 Year Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Sara; Gomes, Thayse Natacha; Borges, Alessandra; Santos, Daniel; Souza, Michele; dos Santos, Fernanda K.; Chaves, Raquel N.; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Maia, José A. R.

    2015-01-01

    Day-to-day variability and stability of children’s physical activity levels across days of the week are not well understood. Our aims were to examine the day-to-day variability of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), to determine factors influencing the day-to-day variability of MVPA and to estimate stability of MVPA in children. The sample comprises 686 Portuguese children (10 years of age). MVPA was assessed with an accelerometer, and BMI was computed from measured height and weight. Daily changes in MVPA and their correlates (gender, BMI, and maturity) were modeled with a multilevel approach, and tracking was calculated using Foulkes & Davies γ. A total of 51.3% of boys and 26.2% of girls achieved 60 min/day of MVPA on average. Daily MVPA was lower during the weekend (23.6% of boys and 13.6% of girls comply with the recommended 60 min/day of MVPA) compared to weekdays (60.8% and 35.4%, boys and girls, respectively). Normal weight children were more active than obese children and no effect was found for biological maturation. Tracking is low in both boys (γ = 0.59 ± 0.01) and girls (γ = 0.56 ± 0.01). Children’s MVPA levels during a week are highly unstable. In summary, boys are more active than girls, maturation does not affect their MVPA, and obese children are less likely to meet 60 min/day of MVPA. These results highlight the importance of providing opportunities for increasing children’s daily MVPA on all days of week, especially on the weekend. PMID:26262632

  12. The Cassini Cosmic Dust Analyser CDA - A 10 year exploration of Saturn's dust environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srama, Ralf

    2014-05-01

    The interplanetary space probe Cassini/Huygens reached Saturn in July 2004 after seven years of cruise phase. Since then, the German-lead Cosmic Dust Analyser (CDA) was operated continuously for 10 years in orbit around Saturn. The first discovery of CDA related to Saturn was the measurement of nanometer sized dust particles ejected by its magnetosphere to interplanetary space with speeds higher than 100 km/s. Their origin and composition was analysed and an their dynamical studies showed a strong link to the conditions of the solar wind plasma flow. A recent surprising result was, that stream particles stem from the interior of Enceladus. Since 2004 CDA measured millions of dust impacts characterizing the dust environment of Saturn. The instrument showed strong evidence for ice geysers located at the south pole of Saturn's moon Enceladus in 2005. Later, a detailed compositional analysis of the salt-rich water ice grains in Saturn's E ring system lead to the discovery of liquid water below the crust connected to an ocean at depth feeding the icy jets. CDA was even capable to derive a spatially resolved compositional profile of the plume during close Enceladus flybys. A determination of the dust-magnetosphere interaction and the discovery of the extended E ring (at least twice as large as previously known) allowed the definition of a dynamical dust model of Saturns E ring describing the observed properties. Cassini performed shadow crossings in the ring plane and dust grain charges were measured in shadow regions delivering important data for dust-plasma interaction studies. In the last years, dedicated measurement campaigns were executed by CDA to monitor the flux of interplanetary and interstellar dust particles reaching Saturn.

  13. Haiti's progress in achieving its 10-year plan to eliminate cholera: hidden sickness cannot be cured.

    PubMed

    Koski-Karell, Victoria; Farmer, Paul E; Isaac, Benito; Campa, Elizabeth M; Viaud, Loune; Namphy, Paul C; Ternier, Ralph; Ivers, Louise C

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of the cholera epidemic in Haiti 5 years ago, the prevalence of this deadly water-borne disease has fallen far below the initial rates registered during its explosive outset. However, cholera continues to cause extensive suffering and needless deaths across the country, particularly among the poor. The urgent need to eliminate transmission of cholera persists: compared to the same period in 2014, the first 4 months of 2015 saw three times the number of cholera cases. Drawing upon epidemiology, clinical work (and clinical knowledge), policy, ecology, and political economy, and informed by ethnographic data collected in a rural area of Haiti called Bocozel, this paper evaluates the progress of the nation's 10-year Plan for the Elimination of Cholera. Bocozel is a rice-producing region where most people live in extreme poverty. The irrigation network is decrepit, the land is prone to environmental shocks, fertilizer is not affordable, and the government's capacity to assist farmers is undermined by resource constraints. When peasants do have rice to sell, the price of domestically grown rice is twice that of US-imported rice. Canal water is not only used to irrigate thousands of acres of rice paddies and sustain livestock, but also to bathe, wash, and play, while water from wells, hand pumps, and the river is used for drinking, cooking, and bathing. Only one out of the three government-sponsored water treatment stations in the research area is still functional and utilized by those who can afford it. Latrines are scarce and often shared by up to 30 people; open defecation remains common. Structural vulnerabilities cut across all sectors - not just water, sanitation, health care, and education, but agriculture, environment, (global and local) commerce, transportation, and governance as well. These are among the hidden sicknesses that impede Haiti and its partners' capacity to eliminate cholera.

  14. Retroperitoneal Fibrosis: A Retrospective Clinical Data Analysis of 30 Patients in a 10-year Period

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hai-Jiang; Yan, Yong; Zhou, Biao; Lan, Tian-Fei; Wang, Xue-Yan; Li, Chun-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Background: Retroperitoneal fibrosis (RPF) is an uncommon disease that is characterized by development of fibrosclerotic tissues involving retroperitoneal structures. This study aimed to investigate the clinical features of 30 patients with RPF in a single center in Beijing in a 10-year period. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed clinical data on demographic characteristics, clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, radiological findings, modalities of treatments, outcomes and prognosis of 30 patients with RPF. Patients were treated in Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital between January 2003 and December 2013. Results: The mean age of patients with RPF was 56.7 ± 14.4 years. Twenty-three patients were men and seven patients were women. Acute phase reactants were elevated in most patients. Rheumatic factor was positive in 4/25 (16.0%) patients, and antinuclear antibody was positive in 6/22 (27.3%) patients. Elevation of IgG4 was observed in 9/22 (40.9%) patients. The most common type was I + III (n = 13), followed by I + II + III (n = 12). Five patients undertook an 18F-fluoro-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography examination and increased uptake was detected in four patients. Eight patients received combination therapy with glucocorticoids and tamoxifen. Surgical intervention treatments included intraureteral double-J stent implantation (n = 26), percutaneous nephrostomy (n = 2), open ureterolysis and intraperitonealization of the ureters (n = 5) and laparoscopic ureterolysis and intraperitonealization of the ureters (n = 5). Three patients underwent hemodialysis because of renal failure. Conclusions: Clinical characteristics of RPF patients in our study are similar to those previously reported. Steroids and immunosuppressive therapy combined with ureterolysis could be a viable choice of treatment for RPF. More prospective, multi-center studies with a longer follow-up are warranted. PMID:25758277

  15. NIHSeniorHealth Celebrating 10 Years of online health and wellness information! | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Celebrating 10 Years of online health and wellness information! Senior-friendly Design Large font Easy navigation Short segments of information Open captioned videos Easy-to-read language Research- ...

  16. 10 years results of an uncemented metaphyseal fit modular stem in elderly patients

    PubMed Central

    De la Torre, Basilio J; Chaparro, Manuel; Romanillos, Juan O; Zarzoso, Sara; Mosquera, Margarita; Rodriguez, Gil

    2011-01-01

    Background: There are concerns with regard to the femoral fixation in cementless total hip arthroplasty in elderly patients. We report a retrospective analysis of clinical and radiological results of uncemented metaphyseal fit modular stem in elderly patients irrespective of anatomic characterstics of proximal femur. Materials and Methods: This study reviews the outcomes of 60 primary hip replacements using a metaphyseal fit modular stem (third-generation Omniflex stem) conducted in 54 patients, of age 75 years or older. After a mean follow-up of 10,4 years, complete clinical and radiographic records were available for 52 hips of 48 patients. The patients were evaluated by Harris Hip Score (HHS). Results: There was a significantly improved pain score and Harris Hip Score (41,6 to 83,2). Six stems (11.53%) were revised: four because of periprosthetic fracture; one stem was well fixed, but presented a large osteolytic lesion in the metaphyseal area and the last stem was revised because of aseptic loosening. Stem survival taking aseptic loosening as the end-point was 98%. Bone atrophy in the proximal femur caused by stress shielding was observed in 39 stems (75%), but there was no case of subtrochanteric stress shielding. Moreover, atrophy appeared within two years postoperatively, with no extension thereafter. Conclusions: We achieved good clinical and radiographic results by uncemented metaphyseal fit femoral stem regardless of patient's age and femoral canal type. PMID:21772630

  17. Biodegradable fixation for craniomaxillofacial surgery: a 10-year experience involving 761 operations and 745 patients

    PubMed Central

    Turvey, T. A.; Proffit, W. P.; Phillips, C.

    2011-01-01

    Patient acceptance, safety, and efficacy of poly-L/DL-lactic acid (PLLDL) bone plates and screws in craniomaxillofacial surgery are reported in this article. Included in the sample are 745 patients who underwent 761 separate operations, including more than 1400 surgical procedures (orthognathic surgery (685), bone graft reconstruction (37), trauma (191) and transcranial surgery (20)). The success (no breakage or inflammation requiring additional operating room treatment) was 94%. Failure occurred because of breakage (14) or exuberant inflammation (31). All breakage occurred at mandibular sites and the majority of inflammatory failure occurred in the maxilla or orbit (29), with only two in the mandible. Failures were evenly distributed between the two major vendors. PLLDL 70/30 bone plates and screws may be used successfully in a variety of craniomaxillofacial surgical applications. The advantages include the gradual transference of physiological forces to the healing bone, the reduced need for a second operation to remove the material and its potential to serve as a vehicle to deliver bone-healing proteins to fracture/osteotomy sites. Bone healing was noted at all sites, even where exuberant inflammation required a second surgical intervention. PMID:21185695

  18. Probability of satellite collision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarter, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    A method is presented for computing the probability of a collision between a particular artificial earth satellite and any one of the total population of earth satellites. The collision hazard incurred by the proposed modular Space Station is assessed using the technique presented. The results of a parametric study to determine what type of satellite orbits produce the greatest contribution to the total collision probability are presented. Collision probability for the Space Station is given as a function of Space Station altitude and inclination. Collision probability was also parameterized over miss distance and mission duration.

  19. Fracturing driven by gas exsolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafver, A.; Kobchenko, M. E.; Malthe-Sørenssen, A.; Meakin, P.

    2012-04-01

    The formation and dynamics of fractures due to uniform fluid production is important for many geological systems, such as for primary migration of hydrocarbons, dehydration and devolatilization reactions. However, the basic mechanism of the process or the key signature in the form of fracture network geometries are not understood. We have therefore developed a set of analogue experiments addressing the fracturing of a thin, confined layer of gelatin which consumes sugar to generate CO2. Exploratory experimental studies show that the system exhibits a complex dynamics with clear fracture-fracture interactions during fluid production and expulsion. Here, we introduce a model to address the dynamics observed in the experiment by focusing on the material failure process induced by bubble formation during CO2 production. We use a discrete element model to address the elastic gel matrix with a coupled representation of the dissolved gas. The failure of individual bonds is modeled as a thermally activated processes - where the transition probability depends on the local stress as well as the local saturation of the dissolved gas. The model is used to address the phase-diagram for the fracture patterns, with a particular focus on hierarchical fracture system and drainage dynamics during fluid expulsion.

  20. Early history of scapular fractures.

    PubMed

    Bartoníček, Jan; Kozánek, Michal; Jupiter, Jesse B

    2016-01-01

    The first to use the term Scapula was Vesalius (1514-1564) and thus it has remained ever since. Probably the oldest injured scapula, from 250 million years ago, was described by Chinese authors of a skeletal examination of a fossilised remains of a dinosaur Yangchuanosaurus hepingensis. In humans, the oldest known scapular fractures date back to the prehistoric and early historic times. In ancient times, a fracture of acromion was described in the treatises of Hippocrates. Early modern history of the treatment of scapular fractures is closely interlinked with the history of the French surgery. The first to point out the existence of these fractures were Petit, Du Verney and Desault in the 18th century. The first study devoted solely to scapular fractures was published by Traugott Karl August Vogt in 1799. Thomas Callaway published in 1849 an extensive dissertation on injuries to the shoulder girdle, in which he discussed a number of cases known at that time. The first radiograph of a scapular fracture was published by Petty in 1907. Mayo Robson (1884), Lambotte (1913) and Lane (1914) were pioneers in the surgical treatment of these fractures, followed in 1923 by the French surgeons Lenormat, Dujarrier and Basset. The first internal fixation of the glenoid fossa, including a radiograph, was published by Fischer in 1939. PMID:26133287

  1. Early history of scapular fractures.

    PubMed

    Bartoníček, Jan; Kozánek, Michal; Jupiter, Jesse B

    2016-01-01

    The first to use the term Scapula was Vesalius (1514-1564) and thus it has remained ever since. Probably the oldest injured scapula, from 250 million years ago, was described by Chinese authors of a skeletal examination of a fossilised remains of a dinosaur Yangchuanosaurus hepingensis. In humans, the oldest known scapular fractures date back to the prehistoric and early historic times. In ancient times, a fracture of acromion was described in the treatises of Hippocrates. Early modern history of the treatment of scapular fractures is closely interlinked with the history of the French surgery. The first to point out the existence of these fractures were Petit, Du Verney and Desault in the 18th century. The first study devoted solely to scapular fractures was published by Traugott Karl August Vogt in 1799. Thomas Callaway published in 1849 an extensive dissertation on injuries to the shoulder girdle, in which he discussed a number of cases known at that time. The first radiograph of a scapular fracture was published by Petty in 1907. Mayo Robson (1884), Lambotte (1913) and Lane (1914) were pioneers in the surgical treatment of these fractures, followed in 1923 by the French surgeons Lenormat, Dujarrier and Basset. The first internal fixation of the glenoid fossa, including a radiograph, was published by Fischer in 1939.

  2. AMIE SMART-1: review of results and legacy 10 years after launch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josset, Jean-Luc; Souchon, Audrey; Josset, Marie; Foing, Bernard

    2014-05-01

    The Advanced Moon micro-Imager Experiment (AMIE) camera was launched in September 2003 onboard the ESA SMART-1 spacecraft. We review the technical characteristics, scientific objectives and results of the instrument, 10 years after its launch. The AMIE camera is an ultra-compact imaging system that includes a tele-objective with a 5.3° x 5.3° field of view and an imaging sensor of 1024 x 1024 pixels. It is dedicated to spectral imaging with three spectral filters (750, 915 and 960 nm filters), photometric measurements (filter free CCD area), and Laser-link experiment (laser filter at 847 nm). The AMIE camera was designed to acquire high-resolution images of the lunar surface, in white light and for specific spectral bands, under a number of different viewing conditions and geometries. Specifically, its main scientific objectives included: (i) imaging of high latitude regions in the southern hemisphere, in particular the South Pole Aitken basin and the permanently shadowed regions close to the South Pole; (ii) determination of the photometric properties of the lunar surface from observations at different phase angles (physical properties of the regolith); (iii) multi-band imaging for constraining the chemical and mineral composition of the surface; (iv) detection and characterisation of lunar non-mare volcanic units; (v) study of lithological variations from impact craters and implications for crustal heterogeneity. The study of AMIE images enhanced the knowledge of the lunar surface, in particular regarding photometric modelling and surface physical properties of localized lunar areas and geological units. References: http://scholar.google.nl/scholar?q=smart-1+amie We acknowledge ESA, member states, industry and institutes for their contribution, and the members of the AMIE Team: J.-L. Josset, P. Plancke, Y. Langevin, P. Cerroni, M. C. De Sanctis, P. Pinet, S. Chevrel, S. Beauvivre, B.A. Hofmann, M. Josset, D. Koschny, M. Almeida, K. Muinonen, J. Piironen, M. A

  3. The International Space Station and the Space Debris Environment: 10 Years On

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Nicholas; Klinkrad, Heiner

    2009-01-01

    For just over a decade the International Space Station (ISS), the most heavily protected vehicle in Earth orbit, has weathered the space debris environment well. Numerous hypervelocity impact features on the surface of ISS caused by small orbital debris and meteoroids have been observed. In addition to typical impacts seen on the large solar arrays, craters have been discovered on windows, hand rails, thermal blankets, radiators, and even a visiting logistics module. None of these impacts have resulted in any degradation of the operation or mission of the ISS. Validating the rate of small particle impacts on the ISS as predicted by space debris environment models is extremely complex. First, the ISS has been an evolving structure, from its original 20 metric tons to nearly 300 metric tons (excluding logistics vehicles) ten years later. Hence, the anticipated space debris impact rate has grown with the increasing size of ISS. Secondly, a comprehensive visual or photographic examination of the complete exterior of ISS has never been accomplished. In fact, most impact features have been discovered serendipitously. Further complications include the estimation of the size of an impacting particle without knowing its mass, velocity, and angle of impact and the effect of shadowing by some ISS components. Inadvertently and deliberately, the ISS has also been the source of space debris. The U.S. Space Surveillance Network officially cataloged 65 debris from ISS from November 1998 to November 2008: from lost cameras, sockets, and tool bags to intentionally discarded equipment and an old space suit. Fortunately, the majority of these objects fall back to Earth quickly with an average orbital lifetime of less than two months and a maximum orbital lifetime of a little more than 15 months. The cumulative total number of debris object-years is almost exactly 10, the equivalent of one piece of debris remaining in orbit for 10 years. An unknown number of debris too small to be

  4. The relationship between household income and dietary intakes of 1-10 year old urban Malaysian

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Khor Geok; Sariman, Sarina; Lee, Huang Soo; Siew, Chin Yit; Mohd Yusof, Barakatun Nisak; Mun, Chan Yoke; Mohamad, Maznorila

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Diet plays an important role in growth and development of children. However, dietary intakes of children living in either rural or urban areas can be influenced by household income. This cross-sectional study examined energy, nutrient and food group intakes of 749 urban children (1-10 years old) by household income status. SUBJECTS/METHODS Children's dietary intakes were obtained using food recall and record for two days. Diet adequacy was assessed based on recommended intakes of energy and nutrients and food group servings. RESULTS For toddlers, all nutrients except dietary fiber (5.5 g) exceeded recommended intakes. Among older children (preschoolers and school children), calcium (548 mg, 435 mg) and dietary fiber (7.4 g, 9.4 g) did not meet recommendations while percentage of energy from total fat and saturated fats exceeded 30% and 10%, respectively. The mean sodium intakes of preschoolers (1,684 mg) and school children (2,000 mg) were relatively high. Toddlers in all income groups had similar energy and nutrient intakes and percentages meeting the recommended intakes. However, low income older children had lowest intakes of energy (P < 0.05) and most nutrients (P < 0.05) and highest proportions that did not meet recommended energy and nutrient intakes. For all food groups, except milk and dairy products, all age groups had mean intakes below the recommended servings. Compared to middle and high income groups, low income preschoolers had the lowest mean intake of fruits (0.07 serving), meat/poultry (0.78 serving) and milk/dairy products (1.14 serving) while low income toddlers and school children had the least mean intake of fruits (0.09 serving) and milk/dairy products (0.54 serving), respectively. CONCLUSION Low socioeconomic status, as indicated by low household income, could limit access to adequate diets, particularly for older children. Parents and caregivers may need dietary guidance to ensure adequate quantity and quality of home

  5. Serum Lipid Levels and Dyslipidaemia Prevalence among 2–10 Year-Old Northern Mexican Children

    PubMed Central

    Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Salas, Rogelio; Novelo, Hilda I.; Villarreal, Jesús Z.; Sureda, Antoni; Tur, Josep A.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims The increase in overweight and obese children may be linked to increased rates of dyslipidaemia. The aim was to assess the prevalence of dyslipidaemia and associated risk factors among the Northern Mexican child population. Methods and Results Four hundred and fifty-one subjects aged between 2 and 10 (47.5% girls) took part in the Nuevo León State Survey of Nutrition and Health 2011–2012. According to the 2011 Expert Panel on Integrated Guidelines for Cardiovascular Health and Risk Reduction in Children and Adolescents, serum lipid levels (mg/dL) were categorized into three subgroups (acceptable, borderline-high/low or high/low) as follows: TChol: acceptable <170, borderline-high 170–199, high ≥200; LDL-chol: acceptable <110, borderline-high 110–129, high ≥130; non-HDL-chol: acceptable <120, borderline-high 120–144, high ≥145; HDL-chol: acceptable >45, borderline-low 40–45, low <40; and TG: acceptable <75, borderline-high 75–99, high ≥100 in ≤9 year-old children, and acceptable <90, borderline-high 90–129, and high ≥130 in 10 year-old children. The overall prevalence of borderline-high + high TG, non-HDL-chol, TChol, and LDL-chol was 63.0%, 44.1%, 43.5%, and 29.9%, respectively. The overall prevalence of borderline-low + low HDL-chol was 46.3%. The overall frequency of dyslipidaemia was 54.3%. Thirteen children (2.9%) had all five symptoms of dyslipidaemia. The most common dyslipidaemia was high TG in combination (26.2%) and in isolation (10.6%). Conclusions Half of the children had at least one abnormal lipid concentration. A high TG level was the most frequent dyslipidaemia. Obesity was associated with the occurrence of at least one abnormal lipid level. These findings emphasize the need to pay further attention to the prevention of cardiovascular disease and obesity from an early age. PMID:25793380

  6. [Analytical, toxicological and forensic aspects of drug-facilitated crimes: 10 years of experience].

    PubMed

    Pépin, G

    2010-03-01

    Although being a relatively old phenomenon, drug-facilitated crime has been well described over the past 20 years as being the administration without the knowledge of the victim of a psychoactive substance in criminal purposes (rape, robbery, theft, money extortion, even murder). Drug-facilitated crime involves also mistreatment of older people or children treated by their parents in order to obtain sedation. Drug-facilitated crimes are often difficult to solve mainly due to analytical issues. Since 10 years, we developed and improved specific methods using LC-MS/MS (benzodiazepines, neuroleptics) and GC-MS/MS (GHB, cannabis) to detect the drugs involved in such crimes. After the intake of a low dosage of a particular drug, those methods allow to detect the analyte of interest up to 3-5 days in blood, 10-15 days in urine, and more than 1 year in hair. In drug-facilitated crime cases, blood and urine are frequently collected too late, more than 12 h after the drug intake and in some cases with a delay greater than 48 h after the event. Thus, the most used molecules are undetectable by the techniques classically used in a laboratory of biology. Moreover, a "good" compound that can be used to commit a drug-facilitated crime usually possesses a short elimination half-life and amnesic properties, so that the victim is less able to accurately recall the circumstances under which the offence occurred. The recent progress in analytical toxicology, particularly for laboratories working in the field of forensic toxicology, permits to elucidate many cases of drug-facilitated crimes. Heaven to the introduction of the sequential analysis of hair and the use of sophisticated analytical techniques such as tandem mass-spectrometry for the toxicologist to bring the scientific proof to the applicant authorities in the description of the criminal act and to confuse the offender. The author presents the results of 583 presumed cases of drug-facilitated crimes analyzed by his

  7. Diagnosis and treatment of acute urogenital and genitalia tract traumas: 10-year clinical experience

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Qingsong; Fu, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To report our 10-year diagnosis and treatment experience of acute urogenital and genitalia tract traumas and outline the management of the traumatic injury. Methods: We reviewed the diagnoses and treatments of 208 cases of acute kidney, ureter, bladder, urethra, or male genitalia injuries in our department between March 2002 and March 2012. The patient data including general information, injury position and mechanism, diagnosis and treatment, the follow-up information was analyzed and summarized. Results: Of 62 patients with renal injury examined by ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) examination, 45 were treated conservatively, 9 with superselective arterial embolization, and 8 with nephrectomy. Intravenous pyelogram (IVP) was conducted in two patients with ureteral injury, one was treated with cystoscopic ureteral catheterization and the other with ureteric reimplantation. Bladder injury (6 patients) confirmed with a waterflood susceptibility test combined with CT scans underwent laparotomy and the bladder suturing was done. Of 92 patients with urethral injury, 6 were treated with a nonoperative approach (indwelling catheter), 18 with urethral realignment, 35 with cystoscopic urethral realignment, 29 with end-to-end anastomotic urethroplasty, and 4 with urethral repairmen. Of the 24 cases with penile injuries, 1 underwent conservative treatment, 8 were treated with debridement and suture ligation, and 15 were managed with suture repair of the penis white membrane. Of the 24 cases with penile injuries, 1 underwent conservative treatment, 8 were treated with debridement and suture ligation, and 15 were managed with suture repair of the penis white membrane. During the follow-up period, 62 patients with renal injury had normal renal function. Neither of the two patients with ureteral injury developed hydronephrosis. Twenty-nine patients with urethral injury suffered from urethral structure. All patients with vesical or genital injury recovered

  8. [Tumors of the adipose tissue during 10 years of diagnostic activities (1979-1988)].

    PubMed

    Grandi, E; Trisolini, M P

    1990-01-01

    Adipose tissue tumors in ten years of diagnostic activity (1979-1988). We have reconsidered our material on tumors of adipose tissue, which were observed for 10 years, from 1979 to 1988, at Istituto di Anatomia Patologica dell'Università degli Studi - Arcispedale S. Anna di Ferrara. The whole collection consists of 772 tumors, 742 lipomas and 30 liposarcomas. We have intended to examine the development of our diagnostic experience through time and compare our data with those of literature. Simple lipomas and fibrolipomas are the most common histological types (78.8%), followed by angiolipomas (3.6%) and intramuscular lipomas (2.5%). The other types have a lower percentage. In every cases the morphologic and clinicopathologic features are shown, as well as compared with those of literature, and discordances that may result are interpreted. We are firmly convinced that routine diagnosis is not always compatible with rigid classifications and that it is not easy to use morphologic criteria which vary in quality and quantity. We have consequently aimed at reducing any possible distortion in diagnosis due to subjectivity, by sticking rigorously to consolidated morphology. Although our findings mostly agree with those of literature, some discordances still exist; the most significant of them regard age incidence. Among spindle cell lipomas there are two cases diagnosed in early childhood; the number of angiolipomas as well seems to be very high in this period of life. Particularly important from the clinical point of view has been the decision of diagnosing a thigh tumor as lipoblastoma in an eighteen-year-old boy. Other discordances seem to us less significant, as, for example, the absence of intramuscular lipomas in the thigh, which is to be considered, in our opinion, a chance event that we could not explain otherwise. Liposarcomas represent the 4% of the cases. Only one cases has been diagnosed in a patient less than 40 years old. The location sites agree with those

  9. Incidental Diagnosis of Filariasis in Superficial Location by FNAC: A Retrospective Study of 10 Years

    PubMed Central

    Khare, Pratima; Jha, Aditi; Chauhan, Nidhi; Chand, Priyanka

    2014-01-01

    Background: Filariasis, transmitted by the bite of various species of mosquito, is a common disease of tropical belt of the world. In South East Asia, including India, it is a major public health problem. The parasite is primarily confined to Lymphatic channel or lymph nodes where it can remain viable for more than two decades. The most common presentation of the disease is asymptomatic/ subclinical microfilaremia, Hydrocele, acute adeno-lymphangitis (ADL) and chronic lymphatic disease. However, the disease may rarely present as superficial swellings at unusual sites. Incidental findings of microfilaria on fine needle aspiration cytology in these situations, helps in prompt recognition of the disease. Aim: The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the incidental diagnosis of Filariasis on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), done for swellings in superficial locations over last ten years at our institute. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was conducted over a period of 10 years from April 2003 to March 2013 on the cases where FNAC was carried out on swellings in superficial locations of the body. Twenty cases of filariasis were diagnosed on routine FNAC material obtained from various superficial sites. Their data was retrieved and analyzed. Results: Among the 20 cases diagnosed as filariasis on FNAC, six cases involved lymph nodes, six involved testiculo-scrotal region, three cases of thyroid swelling, soft tissue swelling in three cases and breast lump in two cases. On FNA smears, microfilariae were seen in all 20 cases, eggs in three cases, adult female worm in two cases and adult male worm in one case. Adherence of inflammatory cells and macrophages to microfilariae was noticed in 4 cases. Eosinophilia was present in seven cases. Microfilaremia was present in only three cases. Causative agent was Wuchereria bancrofti in all cases. Conclusion: Although not so common, filariasis should be considered as one of the differential diagnosis of

  10. [Home accidents in children less than 10 years of age: causes and consequences].

    PubMed

    Híjar-Medina, M C; Tapia-Yáñez, J R; Lozano-Ascencio, R; López-López, M V

    1992-01-01

    A case-control study was carried out, aimed at identifying and defining the individual, family, household and childcare social support network characteristics, more likely to be associated with the occurrence of accidental home injuries in 0-9 year-old children. This study was carried out in the emergency units of three pediatric hospitals in the Federal District. In this article we report the results of the descriptive analysis only of the cases. The results were as follows: male children (62%) and the one and two year-old children group (37%) were the most affected. Contusions, head injuries and fractures occupied the first three places, the main three causes being falls from one level to another (mainly in stairways and off the bed) falls on the same level (sliding, tripping or stumbling) and burns with boiling liquids (most frequently boiling water for bathing). A history of injuries was documented in only 15% of cases. Thirty nine percent of cases requested medical attention after one hour of the accident; 51% of these were hospitalized. In 25% of cases, the mother worked outside the home, being absent from 6 to 12 hours. Risk factors occurring most frequently were: unprotected electricity inlets (40%); products within reach of children: cleaning products (38%), makeup products (34%), plastic bags (30%) and tools (30%); lack of protection rails for cradles (30%) and for staircases (48%), and free access to roofs (44%). In 62 percent of cases some care was provided in the house of the injured child; twenty six percent counted on a support network, and 3 percent were by themselves. We present some proposals for epidemiologic and health services research, and stress the necessity to implement health education, social security and health services policies to favorably influence the solution of these problems.

  11. Where Does Water Go During Hydraulic Fracturing?

    PubMed

    O'Malley, D; Karra, S; Currier, R P; Makedonska, N; Hyman, J D; Viswanathan, H S

    2016-07-01

    During hydraulic fracturing millions of gallons of water are typically injected at high pressure into deep shale formations. This water can be housed in fractures, within the shale matrix, and can potentially migrate beyond the shale formation via fractures and/or faults raising environmental concerns. We describe a generic framework for producing estimates of the volume available in fractures and undamaged shale matrix where water injected into a representative shale site could reside during hydraulic fracturing, and apply it to a representative site that incorporates available field data. The amount of water that can be stored in the fractures is estimated by calculating the volume of all the fractures associated with a discrete fracture network (DFN) based on real data and using probability theory to estimate the volume of smaller fractures that are below the lower cutoff for the fracture radius in the DFN. The amount of water stored in the matrix is estimated utilizing two distinct methods-one using a two-phase model at the pore-scale and the other using a single-phase model at the continuum scale. Based on these calculations, it appears that most of the water resides in the matrix with a lesser amount in the fractures. PMID:26469857

  12. The elastic properties of fractured rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darcel, C.; Le Goc, R.; Davy, P.

    2013-12-01

    The consequences of fracturing on rock mass strength still remain an issue for rock engineering practices, including excavation or repository design, support design, slope stability and caving in mines. The difficulty is twice and concerns both the description of the fracturing pattern, and the relationship between fracture characteristics and rock mass mechanical properties. This is generally assessed by empirical knowledge but no complete quantitative and theoretical relations are yet established. To our knowledge, the only theoretical work was to found a relationship between the elastic strength and the percolation parameter (i.e. a normalized sum of the cube of fracture radius) for 3D frictionless fracture networks. The relationship has been demonstrated for Poissonian (randomly distributed) low-density (i.e. where fractures are not almost intersecting) networks, with a narrow range of fracture radius. By means of finite-element models and Green's function methods, we extend the analysis to fracture networks with geologically realistic geometry: i.e. non-Poissonian, relatively high densities, and power-law length distributions. The elastic strength of the fractured rock mass is still found to decrease exponentially with the percolation parameter on average. But large deviations from the mean exist for heavy tailed fracture length distribution, i.e. when the probability of having fractures of the order of the system size is no more negligible. We discuss the way to ameliorate the prediction by taking into account configuration details that are not described by statistical parameters.

  13. 10+ years of ACORK: Continuous pore pressure record from the decollement zone at Nankai Trough off Muroto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, M.; Davis, E. E.; Becker, K.; Miyazaki, J.; Hulme, S.; Mendrum, R.; Toki, T.; Wheat, C. G.; Kasaya, T.

    2012-12-01

    Pore pressure and hydrological properties play key roles in governing coupling and slip behavior along the subducting plate interface. During the KR22-12 cruise, three dives were completed using ROV KAIKO onboard R/V KAIREI during Dec. 20-25, 2011, to retrieve pore pressure data and interstitial fluid samples from ACORKs at ODP Holes 808I and 1173B situated landward and seaward of the deformation front in the Nankai Trough off Cape Muroto. With 3-year-long and a 4-year-long new data records from Holes 808I and 1173B, respectively, we now have over 10-year-long continuous pressure records since June 2001 at both sites. Data from most monitoring depths show systematic variations in average pressure, and in formation pressure response to seafloor tidal loading. In 2005 and 2009, we observed significant decrease in the amplitudes of pressure response to semi-diurnal tidal loading at Hole 808I. Transient changes were observed at the time of several nearby earthquakes, including the 2011 Mar. 11 Tohoku earthquake, followed by long-lasting pressure changes in both holes starting on Mar. 23, 2011. Gas-tight fluid sampling operations were successfully carried out from the hydraulic port attached to the swellable packer inserted within the ACORK head at Hole 808I. The swellable packer was set in order to isolate the décollement zone that lies roughly 20 m below the bottom of casing at 922 m below the seafloor. We observed shimmering water venting through the port, and the flow rate was measured using a ball-type flowmeter. Fluid samples looked muddy, probably as a result of staining from the casing steel. We believe that the packer seal at the ACORK head is set properly, although the pore pressure at 922 m does not seem to have increased up to 2011. Still, the observed fluid seepage suggests a significant amount of fluid evacuated from the décollement zone since ACORK installation, which may have changed its hydrogeological condition.

  14. Galeazzi fracture.

    PubMed

    Atesok, Kivanc I; Jupiter, Jesse B; Weiss, Arnold-Peter C

    2011-10-01

    Galeazzi fracture is a fracture of the radial diaphysis with disruption at the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ). Typically, the mechanism of injury is forceful axial loading and torsion of the forearm. Diagnosis is established on radiographic evaluation. Underdiagnosis is common because disruption of the ligamentous restraints of the DRUJ may be overlooked. Nonsurgical management with anatomic reduction and immobilization in a long-arm cast has been successful in children. In adults, nonsurgical treatment typically fails because of deforming forces acting on the distal radius and DRUJ. Open reduction and internal fixation is the preferred surgical option. Anatomic reduction and rigid fixation should be followed by intraoperative assessment of the DRUJ. Further intraoperative interventions are based on the reducibility and postreduction stability of the DRUJ. Misdiagnosis or inadequate management of Galeazzi fracture may result in disabling complications, such as DRUJ instability, malunion, limited forearm range of motion, chronic wrist pain, and osteoarthritis.

  15. The effects of fire severity on black carbon additions to forest soils - 10 years post fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poore, R.; Wessman, C. A.; Buma, B.

    2013-12-01

    horizon and the top 10cm mineral horizon. The soils were sieved to 2mm and their BC content measured using the Kurth-MacKenzie-DeLuca method of digesting labile carbon using nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide at 95C for 20hrs. We integrated both remotely sensed data and field observations. We used the Relative Difference Normalized Burn Ratio (RdNBR) calculated by Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS). This index used Landsat images from July in the years before and after the fire and is based on differences in bands 4 and 7, with the aim of assessing coarse scale changes in soil and vegetation post fire. For each plot we also collected data on tree mortality and organic soil depth. These metrics were chosen from the Composite Burn Index as those that were most reliable even 10 years after the fire. We observed no significant differences in BC totals between high severity fire and unburned plots, although BC increased slightly on burned plots. Early results for low severity sites (analysis still in progress) suggest that BC increased in plots experiencing lower severity fires compared to unburned and high severity plots. Comparing carbon and BC totals on unburned and severely burned plots, and assuming no loss of BC from mineral soil during the fire, we observed a 1.2% conversion of burned biomass to BC, which corresponds with literature estimates of 1-4%.

  16. Postoperative epidural analgesia for patients undergoing pectus excavatum corrective surgery: a 10-year retrospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Asad; Tse, Andrew; Paul, James E; Fitzgerald, Peter; Teh, Bernice

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Managing postoperative pain in patients undergoing minimally invasive pectus excavatum repair (Nuss procedure) is challenging but essential in facilitating ambulation and minimizing the length of stay. Although multiple epidural regimens with varying opioids are presently used for pain management, there is currently no clinical consensus regarding which epidural regimen provides the best analgesia outcomes with the fewest side effects. This 10-year retrospective cohort study was performed to compare the quality of analgesia and the incidence of side effects associated with the three most common epidural regimens used at a tertiary care children’s hospital, in patients undergoing the Nuss procedure. Methods Seventy-two pediatric patients were identified as having been treated with one of three epidural regimens for postoperative pain management following the Nuss procedure: Group A (n=12) received 0.125% bupivacaine and 5 µg/mL fentanyl, Group B (n=21) received 0.125% bupivacaine and 10 µg/mL hydromorphone, and Group C (n=39) received 0.1% ropivacaine and 20 µg/mL hydromorphone. Our primary outcome was maximal daily pain scores (numerical rating scale 0–10), with an analytical focus on postoperative day 1 scores. The primary outcome was analyzed using linear regression. The secondary outcomes included the length of stay, side-effect profiles as reflected by the number of treatments for nausea and pruritus, pain scores according to epidural site insertion, occurrence of breakthrough pain, and presence of severe pain throughout their hospital stay. Secondary outcomes were analyzed using linear or logistic regression adjusted for pain scores at baseline. The criterion for statistical significance was set a priori at alpha =0.05. Results Group A had significantly higher day-1 pain scores (score 5.42/10) than Group B (4.52/10; P=0.030) and Group C (4.49/10; P=0.015) after adjusting for baseline pain and age. No significant difference in maximum daily

  17. ESA SMART-1 mission: review of results and legacy 10 years after launch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, Bernard

    2014-05-01

    We review ESA's SMART-1 highlights and legacy 10 years after launch. The SMART-1 mission to the Moon achieved record firsts such as: 1) first Small Mission for Advanced Research and Technology; with spacecraft built and integrated in 2.5 years and launched 3.5 years after mission approval; 2) first mission leaving the Earth orbit using solar power alone with demonstration for future deep space missions such as BepiColombo; 3) most fuel effective mission (60 litres of Xenon) and longest travel (13 month) to the Moon!; 4) first ESA mission reaching the Moon and first European views of lunar poles; 5) first European demonstration of a wide range of new technologies: Li-Ion modular battery, deep-space communications in X- and Ka-bands, and autonomous positioning for navigation; 6) first lunar demonstration of an infrared spectrometer and of a Swept Charge Detector Lunar X-ray fluorescence spectrometer ; 7) first ESA mission with opportunity for lunar science, elemental geochemistry, surface mineralogy mapping, surface geology and precursor studies for exploration; 8) first controlled impact landing on the Moon with real time observations campaign; 9) first mission supporting goals of the ILEWG/COSPAR International Lunar Exploration Working Group in technical and scientific exchange, international collaboration, public and youth engagement; 10) first mission preparing the ground for ESA collaboration in Chandrayaan-1, Chang'E1-2-3 and near-future landers, sample return and human lunar missions. The SMART-1 technology legacy is applicable to geostationary satellites and deep space missions using solar electric propulsion. The SMART-1 archive observations have been used to support scientific research and prepare subsequent lunar missions and exploration. Most recent SMART-1 results are relevant to topics on: 1) the study of properties of the lunar dust, 2) impact craters and ejecta, 3) the study of illumination, 4) observations and science from the Moon, 5) support to

  18. Pediatric Thighbone (Femur) Fracture

    MedlinePlus

    ... fractures in infants under 1 year old is child abuse. Child abuse is also a leading cause of thighbone fracture ... contact sports • Being in a motor vehicle accident • Child abuse Types of Femur Fractures (Classification) Femur fractures vary ...

  19. Abstract Models of Probability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maximov, V. M.

    2001-12-01

    Probability theory presents a mathematical formalization of intuitive ideas of independent events and a probability as a measure of randomness. It is based on axioms 1-5 of A.N. Kolmogorov 1 and their generalizations 2. Different formalized refinements were proposed for such notions as events, independence, random value etc., 2,3, whereas the measure of randomness, i.e. numbers from [0,1], remained unchanged. To be precise we mention some attempts of generalization of the probability theory with negative probabilities 4. From another side the physicists tryed to use the negative and even complex values of probability to explain some paradoxes in quantum mechanics 5,6,7. Only recently, the necessity of formalization of quantum mechanics and their foundations 8 led to the construction of p-adic probabilities 9,10,11, which essentially extended our concept of probability and randomness. Therefore, a natural question arises how to describe algebraic structures whose elements can be used as a measure of randomness. As consequence, a necessity arises to define the types of randomness corresponding to every such algebraic structure. Possibly, this leads to another concept of randomness that has another nature different from combinatorical - metric conception of Kolmogorov. Apparenly, discrepancy of real type of randomness corresponding to some experimental data lead to paradoxes, if we use another model of randomness for data processing 12. Algebraic structure whose elements can be used to estimate some randomness will be called a probability set Φ. Naturally, the elements of Φ are the probabilities.

  20. Probability of brittle failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, A.; Bosnyak, C. P.; Chudnovsky, A.

    1991-01-01

    A methodology was developed for collecting statistically representative data for crack initiation and arrest from small number of test specimens. An epoxy (based on bisphenol A diglycidyl ether and polyglycol extended diglycyl ether and cured with diethylene triamine) is selected as a model material. A compact tension specimen with displacement controlled loading is used to observe multiple crack initiation and arrests. The energy release rate at crack initiation is significantly higher than that at a crack arrest, as has been observed elsewhere. The difference between these energy release rates is found to depend on specimen size (scale effect), and is quantitatively related to the fracture surface morphology. The scale effect, similar to that in statistical strength theory, is usually attributed to the statistics of defects which control the fracture process. Triangular shaped ripples (deltoids) are formed on the fracture surface during the slow subcritical crack growth, prior to the smooth mirror-like surface characteristic of fast cracks. The deltoids are complementary on the two crack faces which excludes any inelastic deformation from consideration. Presence of defects is also suggested by the observed scale effect. However, there are no defects at the deltoid apexes detectable down to the 0.1 micron level.

  1. Probability with Roulette

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Jennings B.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes how roulette can be used to teach basic concepts of probability. Various bets are used to illustrate the computation of expected value. A betting system shows variations in patterns that often appear in random events.

  2. Effect of 10 years of in vitro aging on the flexural properties of fiber-reinforced resin composites.

    PubMed

    Vallittu, Pekka K

    2007-01-01

    This study determined the effect of 10 years of water immersion on the properties of fiber-reinforced resin composites (FRC). E-glass and silica fibers were used to reinforce heat-cured and autopolymerized acrylic resin polymers. Control specimens were unreinforced. Test specimens stored in water for up to 10 years were tested by the 3-point test. The flexural strength and elasticity of the specimens decreased during water immersion (P < .001, analysis of variance). After 10 years, the reductions in flexural strength and modulus of E-glass FRC were 24% and 21%, respectively; for silica FRC, reductions were 47% and 46%, respectively; and for controls, reductions were 24% and 11%, respectively. E-glass FRC showed a smaller reduction in strength than silica FRC.

  3. Quantum computing and probability.

    PubMed

    Ferry, David K

    2009-11-25

    Over the past two decades, quantum computing has become a popular and promising approach to trying to solve computationally difficult problems. Missing in many descriptions of quantum computing is just how probability enters into the process. Here, we discuss some simple examples of how uncertainty and probability enter, and how this and the ideas of quantum computing challenge our interpretations of quantum mechanics. It is found that this uncertainty can lead to intrinsic decoherence, and this raises challenges for error correction.

  4. Rosetta begins its 10-year journey to the origins of the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-03-01

    Rosetta’s mission began at 08h17 CET (07h17 GMT) on 2 March when a European Ariane 5 launch vehicle liftered off from the Guiana Space Centre, Europe’s spaceport in Kourou, French Guiana. The launcher successfully placed its upper stage and payload into an eccentric coast orbit (200 x 4000 km). About two hours later, at 10h14 CET (09h14 GMT) the upper stage ignited its own engine to reach an escape velocity in order to leave the Earth’s gravity field and enter heliocentric orbit. The Rosetta probe was released about 18 minutes later. “After the recent success of Mars Express, Europe is now heading to deep space with another fantastic mission. We will have to be patient, as the rendezvous with the comet will not take place until ten years from now, but I think it’s worth the wait” said ESA’s Director General Jean-Jacques Dordain witnessing the launch from Kourou. ESA’s Operations Centre (ESOC) in Darmstadt, Germany, has established contact with the probe as it flies away from Earth at a relative speed of about 3.4 km/s. ESOC will be in charge of Rosetta operations and orbit determination throughout the mission. During the next eight months, the spacecraft’s onboard systems will be checked and its science payload will be commissioned. A 10-year odyssey Rosetta will be reactivated for planetary flybys, which will be used to modify its trajectory through gravity assist manoeuvres. During the trip, the probe could also observe one or more asteroids, observation of asteroids being one of the mission's secondary objectives. The first planetary encounter will be in March 2005, as Rosetta flies by the Earth for the first time. The gravity assist will boost Rosetta into an orbit that will take it to Mars two years later. During its close encounter with Mars in February 2007, Rosetta will approach to a distance of about 200 km and conduct science observations. This Martian flyby will be followed by another Earth flyby in November the same year. Both

  5. Launch Collision Probability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bollenbacher, Gary; Guptill, James D.

    1999-01-01

    This report analyzes the probability of a launch vehicle colliding with one of the nearly 10,000 tracked objects orbiting the Earth, given that an object on a near-collision course with the launch vehicle has been identified. Knowledge of the probability of collision throughout the launch window can be used to avoid launching at times when the probability of collision is unacceptably high. The analysis in this report assumes that the positions of the orbiting objects and the launch vehicle can be predicted as a function of time and therefore that any tracked object which comes close to the launch vehicle can be identified. The analysis further assumes that the position uncertainty of the launch vehicle and the approaching space object can be described with position covariance matrices. With these and some additional simplifying assumptions, a closed-form solution is developed using two approaches. The solution shows that the probability of collision is a function of position uncertainties, the size of the two potentially colliding objects, and the nominal separation distance at the point of closest approach. ne impact of the simplifying assumptions on the accuracy of the final result is assessed and the application of the results to the Cassini mission, launched in October 1997, is described. Other factors that affect the probability of collision are also discussed. Finally, the report offers alternative approaches that can be used to evaluate the probability of collision.

  6. A 10-Year Retrospective Review of a Nonrandomized Cohort of 458 Patients Undergoing Radical Radiotherapy or Cystectomy in Yorkshire, UK

    SciTech Connect

    Munro, Nicholas P.; Sundaram, Subramnian K.; Weston, Philip; Fairley, Lesley; Harrison, Simon C.W.; Forman, David; Chahal, Rohit

    2010-05-01

    Purpose: We have previously reported on the mortality, morbidity, and 5-year survival of 458 patients who underwent radical radiotherapy or surgery for invasive bladder cancer in Yorkshire from 1993 to 1996. We aim to present the 10-year outcomes of these patients and to reassess factors predicting survival. Methods and Materials: The Northern and Yorkshire Cancer Registry identified 458 patients whose cases were subjected to Kaplan-Meier all-cause survival analyses, and a retrospective casenote analysis was undertaken on 398 (87%) for univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards modeling. Additional proportional hazards regression modeling was used to assess the statistical significance of variables on overall survival. Results: The ratio of radiotherapy to cystectomy was 3:1. There was no significant difference in overall 10-year survival between those who underwent radiotherapy (22%) and radical cystectomy (24%). Univariate analyses suggested that female sex, performance status, hydronephrosis and clinical T stage, were associated with an inferior outcome at 10 years. Patient age, tumor grade, treatment delay, and caseload factors were not significant. Multivariate analysis models were created for 0-2 and 2-10 years after treatment. There were no significant differences in treatment for 0-2 years; however, after 2 years follow-up there was some evidence of increased survival for patients receiving surgery compared with radiotherapy (hazard ratio 0.66, 95% confidence interval: 0.44-1.01, p = 0.06). Conclusions: a 10-year minimum follow-up has rarely been reported after radical treatment for invasive bladder cancer. At 10 years, there was no statistical difference in all-cause survival between surgery and radiotherapy treatment modalities.

  7. Mortality rates at 10 years after metal-on-metal hip resurfacing compared with total hip replacement in England: retrospective cohort analysis of hospital episode statistics

    PubMed Central

    Kendal, Adrian R; Prieto-Alhambra, Daniel; Arden, Nigel K; Judge, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To compare 10 year mortality rates among patients undergoing metal-on-metal hip resurfacing and total hip replacement in England. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting English hospital episode statistics database linked to mortality records from the Office for National Statistics. Population All adults who underwent primary elective hip replacement for osteoarthritis from April 1999 to March 2012. The exposure of interest was prosthesis type: cemented total hip replacement, uncemented total hip replacement, and metal-on-metal hip resurfacing. Confounding variables included age, sex, Charlson comorbidity index, rurality, area deprivation, surgical volume, and year of operation. Main outcome measures All cause mortality. Propensity score matching was used to minimise confounding by indication. Kaplan-Meier plots estimated the probability of survival up to 10 years after surgery. Multilevel Cox regression modelling, stratified on matched sets, described the association between prosthesis type and time to death, accounting for variation across hospital trusts. Results 7437 patients undergoing metal-on-metal hip resurfacing were matched to 22 311 undergoing cemented total hip replacement; 8101 patients undergoing metal-on-metal hip resurfacing were matched to 24 303 undergoing uncemented total hip replacement. 10 year rates of cumulative mortality were 271 (3.6%) for metal-on-metal hip resurfacing versus 1363 (6.1%) for cemented total hip replacement, and 239 (3.0%) for metal-on-metal hip resurfacing versus 999 (4.1%) for uncemented total hip replacement. Patients undergoing metal-on-metal hip resurfacing had an increased survival probability (hazard ratio 0.51 (95% confidence interval 0.45 to 0.59) for cemented hip replacement; 0.55 (0.47 to 0.65) for uncemented hip replacement). There was no evidence for an interaction with age or sex. Conclusions Patients with hip osteoarthritis undergoing metal-on-metal hip resurfacing have reduced mortality in

  8. The influence of food consumption level on body growth of school children (7-10 years old) in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Omar, K O

    2001-01-01

    The nutritional status of children (7-10 years old) depends to great extent on the type of food they eat. The natural growth of children is considered as an indicator of their nutritional status in addition to that children are considered the building blocks of healthy societies. This paper presents the results of questionnaire studies of nutrition of school children in Egypt with the special emphasis given to social-economic status in the families. The results show the effect on nutritional status on body growth of school children (7-10 years old) in Egypt and relationship between difference social-economic level in the families. PMID:11452746

  9. Arcuate Fractures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    In the upper left corner of this VIS image are a series of fractures. Where the fractures are exposed on the surface it is impossible to tell the plane of the fracture; however where the fractures are visible in the cliff wall it is possible to see that the fractures dip to the north. This image shows part of the caldera of Tharsis Tholus.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 1.7, Longitude 176.5 East (183.5 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  10. Probabilistic Simulation for Nanocomposite Fracture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Christos C.

    2010-01-01

    A unique probabilistic theory is described to predict the uniaxial strengths and fracture properties of nanocomposites. The simulation is based on composite micromechanics with progressive substructuring down to a nanoscale slice of a nanofiber where all the governing equations are formulated. These equations have been programmed in a computer code. That computer code is used to simulate uniaxial strengths and fracture of a nanofiber laminate. The results are presented graphically and discussed with respect to their practical significance. These results show smooth distributions from low probability to high.

  11. Vertical-split fracture of mandibular condyle and its sequelae.

    PubMed

    Hackett, J F; Sleeman, D J

    2001-11-24

    A case of vertical-split fracture of the right mandibular condyle and its sequelae is presented. The patient was a 16-year-old female being assessed for orthodontic treatment. Orthopantomograph and plain joint view radiographs showed a remodelled condyle which had suffered trauma 10 years previously. This type of fracture is unusual in nature but has not led to any secondary lack of growth, restriction of movement or facial asymmetry. PMID:11767857

  12. Rosetta begins its 10-year journey to the origins of the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-03-01

    Rosetta’s mission began at 08h17 CET (07h17 GMT) on 2 March when a European Ariane 5 launch vehicle liftered off from the Guiana Space Centre, Europe’s spaceport in Kourou, French Guiana. The launcher successfully placed its upper stage and payload into an eccentric coast orbit (200 x 4000 km). About two hours later, at 10h14 CET (09h14 GMT) the upper stage ignited its own engine to reach an escape velocity in order to leave the Earth’s gravity field and enter heliocentric orbit. The Rosetta probe was released about 18 minutes later. “After the recent success of Mars Express, Europe is now heading to deep space with another fantastic mission. We will have to be patient, as the rendezvous with the comet will not take place until ten years from now, but I think it’s worth the wait” said ESA’s Director General Jean-Jacques Dordain witnessing the launch from Kourou. ESA’s Operations Centre (ESOC) in Darmstadt, Germany, has established contact with the probe as it flies away from Earth at a relative speed of about 3.4 km/s. ESOC will be in charge of Rosetta operations and orbit determination throughout the mission. During the next eight months, the spacecraft’s onboard systems will be checked and its science payload will be commissioned. A 10-year odyssey Rosetta will be reactivated for planetary flybys, which will be used to modify its trajectory through gravity assist manoeuvres. During the trip, the probe could also observe one or more asteroids, observation of asteroids being one of the mission's secondary objectives. The first planetary encounter will be in March 2005, as Rosetta flies by the Earth for the first time. The gravity assist will boost Rosetta into an orbit that will take it to Mars two years later. During its close encounter with Mars in February 2007, Rosetta will approach to a distance of about 200 km and conduct science observations. This Martian flyby will be followed by another Earth flyby in November the same year. Both

  13. Potential of hydraulically induced fractures to communicate with existing wellbores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montague, James A.; Pinder, George F.

    2015-10-01

    The probability that new hydraulically fractured wells drilled within the area of New York underlain by the Marcellus Shale will intersect an existing wellbore is calculated using a statistical model, which incorporates: the depth of a new fracturing well, the vertical growth of induced fractures, and the depths and locations of existing nearby wells. The model first calculates the probability of encountering an existing well in plan view and combines this with the probability of an existing well-being at sufficient depth to intersect the fractured region. Average probability estimates for the entire region of New York underlain by the Marcellus Shale range from 0.00% to 3.45% based upon the input parameters used. The largest contributing parameter on the probability value calculated is the nearby density of wells meaning that due diligence by oil and gas companies during construction in identifying all nearby wells will have the greatest effect in reducing the probability of interwellbore communication.

  14. Experimental Probability in Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrew, Lane

    2009-01-01

    Concepts in probability can be more readily understood if students are first exposed to probability via experiment. Performing probability experiments encourages students to develop understandings of probability grounded in real events, as opposed to merely computing answers based on formulae.

  15. Prediction of Incident Major Osteoporotic and Hip Fractures by Trabecular Bone Score (TBS) and Prevalent Radiographic Vertebral Fracture in Older Men.

    PubMed

    Schousboe, John T; Vo, Tien; Taylor, Brent C; Cawthon, Peggy M; Schwartz, Ann V; Bauer, Douglas C; Orwoll, Eric S; Lane, Nancy E; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Ensrud, Kristine E

    2016-03-01

    Trabecular bone score (TBS) has been shown to predict major osteoporotic (clinical vertebral, hip, humerus, and wrist) and hip fractures in postmenopausal women and older men, but the association of TBS with these incident fractures in men independent of prevalent radiographic vertebral fracture is unknown. TBS was estimated on anteroposterior (AP) spine dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans obtained at the baseline visit for 5979 men aged ≥65 years enrolled in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Study and its association with incident major osteoporotic and hip fractures estimated with proportional hazards models. Model discrimination was tested with Harrell's C-statistic and with a categorical net reclassification improvement index, using 10-year risk cutpoints of 20% for major osteoporotic and 3% for hip fractures. For each standard deviation decrease in TBS, there were hazard ratios of 1.27 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.17 to 1.39) for major osteoporotic fracture, and 1.20 (95% CI 1.05 to 1.39) for hip fracture, adjusted for FRAX with bone mineral density (BMD) 10-year fracture risks and prevalent radiographic vertebral fracture. In the same model, those with prevalent radiographic vertebral fracture compared with those without prevalent radiographic vertebral fracture had hazard ratios of 1.92 (95% CI 1.49 to 2.48) for major osteoporotic fracture and 1.86 (95% CI 1.26 to 2.74) for hip fracture. There were improvements of 3.3%, 5.2%, and 6.2%, respectively, of classification of major osteoporotic fracture cases when TBS, prevalent radiographic vertebral fracture status, or both were added to FRAX with BMD and age, with minimal loss of correct classification of non-cases. Neither TBS nor prevalent radiographic vertebral fracture improved discrimination of hip fracture cases or non-cases. In conclusion, TBS and prevalent radiographic vertebral fracture are associated with incident major osteoporotic fractures in older men independent of each other

  16. Hopelessness as a Predictor of Attempted Suicide among First Admission Patients with Psychosis: A 10-Year Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klonsky, E. David; Kotov, Roman; Bakst, Shelly; Rabinowitz, Jonathan; Bromet, Evelyn J.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the longitudinal relationship of hopelessness to attempted suicide in psychotic disorders. This study addresses this gap by assessing hopelessness and attempted suicide at multiple time-points over 10 years in a first-admission cohort with psychosis (n = 414). Approximately one in five participants attempted suicide during…

  17. Work stress, sleep deficiency and predicted 10-year cardiometabolic risk in a female patient care worker population

    PubMed Central

    Jacobsen, Henrik Børsting; Reme, Silje Endresen; Sembajwe, Grace; Hopcia, Karen; Stiles, Tore C.; Sorensen, Glorian; Porter, James H.; Marino, Miguel; Buxton, Orfeu M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the longitudinal effect of work-related stress, sleep deficiency and physical activity on 10-year cardiometabolic risk among an all-female worker population. Methods Data on patient care workers (n=99) was collected two years apart. Baseline measures included: job stress, physical activity, night work and sleep deficiency. Biomarkers and objective measurements were used to estimate 10-year cardiometabolic risk at follow-up. Significant associations (P<0.05) from baseline analyses were used to build a multivariable linear regression model. Results The participants were mostly white nurses with a mean age of 41 years. Adjusted linear regression showed that having sleep maintenance problems, a different occupation than nurse, and/or not exercising at recommended levels at baseline increased the 10-year cardiometabolic risk at follow-up. Conclusions In female workers prone to work-related stress and sleep deficiency, maintaining sleep and exercise patterns had a strong impact on modifiable 10-year cardiometabolic risk. PMID:24809311

  18. The Dynamics of Free Recall and Their Relation to Rehearsal between 8 and 10 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehmann, Martin; Hasselhorn, Marcus

    2010-01-01

    The present study longitudinally examined changes in recall in children between the ages of 8 and 10 years. Given the increasingly sophisticated use of memory strategies during this developmental period, correspondences between study and recall dynamics were of particular interest. Seventy-six children performed free-recall tasks on 5 occasions…

  19. Verbal memory decline is less frequent at 10 years than at 2 years after temporal lobe surgery for epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Andersson-Roswall, Lena; Malmgren, Kristina; Engman, Elisabeth; Samuelsson, Hans

    2012-08-01

    We investigated individual short- and long-term verbal memory changes after temporal lobe resection for epilepsy. Fifty-one patients (23 operated on the speech-dominant temporal lobe, DTL and 28 on the non-dominant temporal lobe, NDTL) were tested on learning/immediate recall and delayed recall of word-list and word-pairs preoperatively, 2 years postoperatively and 10years postoperatively. Changes were defined using reliable change indices of 23 healthy controls assessed at corresponding intervals. Fewer patients had reliable declines at 10 years than at 2 years (DTL: 13-35% vs 35-44%; NDTL: 0-4% vs 7-21%). Four DTL patients (17%) had reliable declines in ≥2 tests at 10-year follow-up. More NDTL patients had improvement at 10 years than at 2 years (18-30% vs 4-22%). The only risk factor for decline both short and long term was DTL resection. In conclusion, most patients had stable verbal memory postoperatively. A few DTL patients had a lasting decline at long-term follow-up, but more patients showed partial recovery, especially in the NDTL group.

  20. A Cluster-Analytical Approach towards Physical Activity and Eating Habits among 10-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabbe, Dieter; De Bourdeaudhuij, I.; Legiest, E.; Maes, L.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose was to investigate whether clusters--based on physical activity (PA) and eating habits--can be found among children, and to explore subgroups' characteristics. A total of 1725 10-year olds completed a self-administered questionnaire. K-means cluster analysis was based on the weekly quantity of vigorous and moderate PA, the excess index…

  1. Reconstruction of alveolar bone defect with autogenous bone particles and osseointegrated implants: Histologic analysis and 10 years monitoring

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, Paulo Sérgio Perri; de Carvalho, Mariliza Comar Astolphi; Ponzoni, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining the volume of the alveolar process after extraction can be achieved by immediate implant placement and guided bone regeneration, with or without the use of biomaterials. The authors present a case report with a 10 years follow-up, rehabilitation using osseointegrated implants in the extraction area and maintenance of the volume of the alveolar process with autogenous cortical bone shavings. PMID:26389054

  2. Effects of Multiple Planning Constraints on the Development of Grasp Posture Planning in 6- to 10-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stöckel, Tino; Hughes, Charmayne M. L.

    2015-01-01

    This experiment examined how multiple planning constraints affect grasp posture planning in 6- to 10-year-old children (n = 16 in each group) by manipulating the intended object end-orientation (left end-down, right end-down) and initial precision demands (standard, initial precision) of a bar transport task. Results indicated that grasp posture…

  3. Frequency of Six Early Childhood Education Approaches: A 10-Year Content Analysis of Early Childhood Education Journal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Bridget A.; Petty, Karen

    2007-01-01

    The frequency of early childhood education approaches spanning 10 years of publications was investigated. A content analysis of publications (N = 492) from "Early Childhood Education Journal" was conducted. From a previous content analysis six approaches or search words were identified: Bank Street, Head Start, High/Scope, Montessori, Reggio…

  4. The Pre-Incubator: A Longitudinal Study of 10 Years of University Pre-Incubation in Wales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voisey, Pamela; Jones, Paul; Thomas, Brychan

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a longitudinal study of over 10 years of university pre-incubation in Wales, using case studies of incubated businesses to track their performance since 2001. Surviving "graduated" businesses were investigated and quantitative and qualitative data were gathered to profile the current status of these businesses and…

  5. 10 CFR 503.31 - Lack of alternate fuel supply for the first 10 years of useful life.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... made to obtain an adequate and reliable supply of an alternate fuel for use as a primary energy source... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lack of alternate fuel supply for the first 10 years of useful life. 503.31 Section 503.31 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS NEW...

  6. Does Loss of Spasticity Matter? A 10-Year Follow-up after Selective Dorsal Rhizotomy in Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tedroff, Kristina; Lowing, Kristina; Jacobson, Dan N. O.; Astrom, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Method: Nineteen children (four females, 15 males; mean age 4y 7mo, SD 1y 7mo) with bilateral spastic CP, were prospectively assessed at baseline and 18 months, 3 years, and 10 years after SDR. Assessments…

  7. Counseling in New Orleans 10 Years after Hurricane Katrina: A Commentary on the Aftermath, Recovery and the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remley, Theodore P., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    Ten years after Hurricane Katrina, the counseling profession in New Orleans has changed. The author, along with a group of counseling and other mental health professionals who were providing services at the time of the hurricane and still working in the city 10 years later, provided their impressions of counseling in New Orleans a decade after the…

  8. A Taste of China: A Series of Lessons for the Gifted/Talented 8-10 Year Old Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Bruce M.; And Others

    The document provides three lesson plans designed to introduce gifted children (8-10 years old) to a study of China. The plans are built around three stories which portray specific conditions of the Country; the plans are designed to develop specific understandings related to economic conditions caused by floods and droughts, the potential menaces…

  9. 10 CFR 503.31 - Lack of alternate fuel supply for the first 10 years of useful life.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... useful life. 503.31 Section 503.31 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS NEW FACILITIES... useful life. (a) Eligibility. Section 212(a)(1)(A)(i) of the Act provides for a permanent exemption due to lack of an adequate and reliable supply of alternate fuel within the first 10 years of useful...

  10. 10 CFR 503.31 - Lack of alternate fuel supply for the first 10 years of useful life.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... useful life. 503.31 Section 503.31 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS NEW FACILITIES... useful life. (a) Eligibility. Section 212(a)(1)(A)(i) of the Act provides for a permanent exemption due to lack of an adequate and reliable supply of alternate fuel within the first 10 years of useful...

  11. 10 CFR 503.31 - Lack of alternate fuel supply for the first 10 years of useful life.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... useful life. 503.31 Section 503.31 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS NEW FACILITIES... useful life. (a) Eligibility. Section 212(a)(1)(A)(i) of the Act provides for a permanent exemption due to lack of an adequate and reliable supply of alternate fuel within the first 10 years of useful...

  12. 10 CFR 503.31 - Lack of alternate fuel supply for the first 10 years of useful life.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... useful life. 503.31 Section 503.31 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS NEW FACILITIES... useful life. (a) Eligibility. Section 212(a)(1)(A)(i) of the Act provides for a permanent exemption due to lack of an adequate and reliable supply of alternate fuel within the first 10 years of useful...

  13. Comparing 9 to 10 Years Old Children's Performance in Tennis and Physical Fitness Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olcucu, Burcin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the degree of performance-related physical coordination of elementary education children (male and female) that play tennis according to their age and gender and to investigate the relationship between their motor ability tests and performances. A total of 210 children tennis players (9 to 10 years; 105 males…

  14. Conservative management of a type III acromioclavicular separation: a case report and 10-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Robb, Andrew J.; Howitt, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study is to present a 10-year prospective case of a right incomplete type III acromioclavicular (AC) separation in a 26-year-old patient. Clinical Features A 26-year-old male patient fell directly on his right shoulder with the arm in an outstretched and overhead position. Pain and swelling were immediate and were associated with a “step deformity.” The patient had limited right shoulder range of motion (ROM), strength, and function. Radiographic findings confirmed a type III AC separation on the right. At 1-year follow-up, the patient did not report any deficits in ROM or function, but did note a prominent distal clavicle on the right. At 3-, 5-, 7-, and 10-year follow-up, the patient did not report changes from 1 year. The radiographic findings at the 10-year follow-up indicated mild degenerative joint disease in both AC joints and mild elevation of the distal clavicle on the right. Intervention and Outcome The patient received chiropractic care to control for pain, swelling, and loss of ROM. The patient received acupuncture, joint mobilizations, palliative adhesive taping of the AC joint, Active Release Technique, and progressive resisted exercises. Radiographic study was done at the time of the injury and at 10 years to observe for any osseous changes in the AC joint. Conclusion The patient yielded excellent results from conservative chiropractic management that was reflected in a prompt return to work 19 days after the injury. Follow-up at 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 years exhibited absence of residual deficits in ROM and function. The “step deformity” was still present after the injury on the right. PMID:22654684

  15. Multiple bilateral fractures of the lumbar transverse processes in a roe deer (Capreolus capreolus).

    PubMed

    Montané, J; Marco, I; López, J; Manteca, X; Lavín, S

    2001-09-01

    Multiple bilateral fractures of the lumbar transverse processes were radiographically identified postmortem in a recently captured roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). These fractures were probably caused by an avulsion of the psoas major occurring during introduction into the transport box. The deer probably died from shock caused by the fractures, muscle damage, and subsequent hemorrhage. Although easily overlooked, fractured lumbar transverse processes may indicate inadequate postcapture management practices.

  16. Univariate Probability Distributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leemis, Lawrence M.; Luckett, Daniel J.; Powell, Austin G.; Vermeer, Peter E.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a web-based interactive graphic that can be used as a resource in introductory classes in mathematical statistics. This interactive graphic presents 76 common univariate distributions and gives details on (a) various features of the distribution such as the functional form of the probability density function and cumulative distribution…

  17. Approximating Integrals Using Probability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maruszewski, Richard F., Jr.; Caudle, Kyle A.

    2005-01-01

    As part of a discussion on Monte Carlo methods, which outlines how to use probability expectations to approximate the value of a definite integral. The purpose of this paper is to elaborate on this technique and then to show several examples using visual basic as a programming tool. It is an interesting method because it combines two branches of…

  18. A Unifying Probability Example.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maruszewski, Richard F., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Presents an example from probability and statistics that ties together several topics including the mean and variance of a discrete random variable, the binomial distribution and its particular mean and variance, the sum of independent random variables, the mean and variance of the sum, and the central limit theorem. Uses Excel to illustrate these…

  19. A new computer code for discrete fracture network modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chaoshui; Dowd, Peter

    2010-03-01

    The authors describe a comprehensive software package for two- and three-dimensional stochastic rock fracture simulation using marked point processes. Fracture locations can be modelled by a Poisson, a non-homogeneous, a cluster or a Cox point process; fracture geometries and properties are modelled by their respective probability distributions. Virtual sampling tools such as plane, window and scanline sampling are included in the software together with a comprehensive set of statistical tools including histogram analysis, probability plots, rose diagrams and hemispherical projections. The paper describes in detail the theoretical basis of the implementation and provides a case study in rock fracture modelling to demonstrate the application of the software.

  20. Nonunion of the ulna after elastic stable intramedullary nailing for unstable forearm fractures: a case series.

    PubMed

    Ballal, Moez S; Garg, Neeraj K; Bruce, Colin E; Bass, Alfie

    2009-09-01

    Elastic stable intramedullary nailing (ESIN) for displaced forearm fractures in children has shown good results over the last two decades. To our knowledge, nonunion as complications after ESIN fixation of displaced forearm fractures is not well reported in English literature. In our institute, and over a period of 10 years, we identified three cases of nonunion of the ulna after ESIN fixation of unstable and displaced forearm both bone fractures. Two patients had closed fractures and one patient had an open fracture. There was no deep infection in any case. All cases after revision surgery went into union. PMID:19581817

  1. On Probability Domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frič, Roman; Papčo, Martin

    2010-12-01

    Motivated by IF-probability theory (intuitionistic fuzzy), we study n-component probability domains in which each event represents a body of competing components and the range of a state represents a simplex S n of n-tuples of possible rewards-the sum of the rewards is a number from [0,1]. For n=1 we get fuzzy events, for example a bold algebra, and the corresponding fuzzy probability theory can be developed within the category ID of D-posets (equivalently effect algebras) of fuzzy sets and sequentially continuous D-homomorphisms. For n=2 we get IF-events, i.e., pairs ( μ, ν) of fuzzy sets μ, ν∈[0,1] X such that μ( x)+ ν( x)≤1 for all x∈ X, but we order our pairs (events) coordinatewise. Hence the structure of IF-events (where ( μ 1, ν 1)≤( μ 2, ν 2) whenever μ 1≤ μ 2 and ν 2≤ ν 1) is different and, consequently, the resulting IF-probability theory models a different principle. The category ID is cogenerated by I=[0,1] (objects of ID are subobjects of powers I X ), has nice properties and basic probabilistic notions and constructions are categorical. For example, states are morphisms. We introduce the category S n D cogenerated by Sn=\\{(x1,x2,ldots ,xn)in In;sum_{i=1}nxi≤ 1\\} carrying the coordinatewise partial order, difference, and sequential convergence and we show how basic probability notions can be defined within S n D.

  2. Monterey fractured reservoir, Santa Barbara Channel, California

    SciTech Connect

    Belfield, W.C.; Helwig, J.; La Pointe, P.R.; Dahleen, W.K.

    1983-03-01

    The South Elwood field in the Santa Barbara Channel is a faulted anticline with cumulative production of 14.5 million bbl from the Monterey Formation as of September 1, 1982. The distributions of pressure, flow rates, and oil-water contacts and the low average matrix permeability of 0.2 md require a fractured reservoir. Core and outcrop studies show a dominant fracture set characterized by vertical, lithologically controlled fractures oriented across strike, and breccias controlled by lithology and structure. Generally, the fracture intensity is unaffected by structural position or bed curvature but is controlled by lithology and bed thickness. Other varieties of fracturing in the Monterey are related to a protracted history of diagenesis, deformation, and fluid injection. Three types of tar-bearing breccias occur in the Monterey Formation: stratigraphic breccia, coalescent-fracture breccia, and fault-related breccia. Formation of breccias probably involves high pore pressures. Because of their polygenetic origin, breccia masses have diverse orientations paralleling bedding or fracture/fault systems. In conclusions, fracturing and brecciation of the Monterey Formation reflect the interplay between processes of diagenesis, deformation, and fluid dynamics. The most important features of the reservoir in the area of the present study are: (1) vertical fractures oriented normal to the structural trends and inferred to be favorably oriented (to remain open) with respect to the regional minimum horizontal stress; and (2) breccias that are both stratigraphically and structurally controlled and inferred to be related to the interaction of rock stress and fluid dynamics.

  3. Bilateral Femoral Neck Stress Fracture in Child: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gun-Woo; Yoon, Taek-Rim; Eshnazarovich, Eshnazarov Kamolhuja

    2016-01-01

    A femoral neck stress fracture in child is rare, particularly in bilateral case. It is easy to miss initially or may be misdiagnosed. The authors experienced a case of bilateral femoral neck stress fracture in a 10-year-old boy with bilateral hip. The patient was successfully healed by conservative treatment. We report this rare case with a review of the literature. A femoral neck stress fracture should be included in the differential diagnosis in children who present with sustained hip or groin pain. PMID:27777920

  4. Changes in the types of liver diseases requiring hepatic resection: a single-institution experience of 9016 cases over a 10-year period

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hwui-Dong; Lee, Young-Joo; Park, Kwang-Min; Kim, Ki-Hun; Kim, Jin Cheon; Ahn, Chul-Soo; Moon, Deok-Bog; Ha, Tae-Yong; Lee, Sung-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds/Aims To understand the changing demands for hepatic resection (HR), we collected data regarding HR performed in a tertiary centre over a period of 10 years. Methods We carried out extensive search of institutional databases to identify HR cases performed between January 2005 and December 2014. A study cohort of 9,016 patients were divided into 5 disease categories, namely hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC), intrahepatic duct stone disease (IHDS), colorectal cancer liver metastasis (CRLM), and uncommon/rare diseases (URD). Results There were 5,661 (62.8%) HCC cases, followed by 1441 (16.0%) CRLM, 942 (10.5%) ICC, 638 (7.1%) IHDS and 334 (3.7%) URD. The number of annual HR cases gradually increased from 443 in 2005 to 1,260 in 2015. Annual HCC cases also gradually increased, but the annual proportion of HCC cases fluctuated narrowly between 58.3% and 70.2%. Annual CRLM cases increased rapidly, and their proportion increased progressively from 4.7% to 20.5%. Annual ICC cases increased slowly, and their annual proportion fluctuated between 7.2% and 15.6%. Annual IHDS cases decreased slowly, and their annual proportion decreased progressively from 17.2% to 3.4%, while annual URD cases fluctuated, with annual proportions varying between 2.3% and 5.6%. Conclusions Annual cases of HR increased over the last 10 years in a tertiary center probably due to a center-specific centralization effect. The number of CRLM cases increased rapidly; those of HCC and ICC increased gradually, and those of IHDS declined gradually. We believe that these results reflect real changes in the types of liver disease requiring HR. PMID:27212990

  5. Characterization and significance of natural fractures in Mesaverde reservoirs at the Multiwell Experiment site

    SciTech Connect

    Finley, S.J.; Lorenz, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Natural fractures dominate the permeability of tight gas reservoirs in the Mesaverde Formation of the Piceance Creek Basin, northwestern Colorado. Roughly 450 natural fractures have been detected in reservoir sandstones and siltstones in 4200 ft of core from the US Department of Energy's Multiwell Experiment (MWX). Sixty percent of the fractures are calcite-mineralized, vertical extension fractures that are probably the greatest contributors to reservoir permeability. However, the contribution of the other mineralized fractures should not be discounted. 9 refs., 13 figs.

  6. Decision-making processes: sensitivity to sequentially experienced outcome probabilities.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Ty W

    2007-05-01

    A computerized sequential event sampling decision-making task was administered to 187 5- to 10-year-olds and adults Participants made a series of choices between alternatives that differed in win probability (Study 1) or win and loss probability (Study 2). Intuitive and more explicit measures were used. Study 1 revealed that, across ages, participants demonstrated intuitive sensitivity to probability; however, adult participants evidenced greater sensitivity than did children, and younger children failed to demonstrate more explicit understanding of probability. Study 2 also revealed that children were intuitively sensitive to probability; however, the inclusion of loss had limited impact on decision processes. These findings and their relevance to cognitive developmental theory are discussed.

  7. Relationship Status Predicts Lower Restrictive Eating Pathology for Bisexual and Gay Men across 10-year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Tiffany A.; Keel, Pamela K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Cross-sectional studies support that bisexual and gay (BG) men are at increased risk for eating pathology, and romantic relationships may buffer against risk; however, no studies have examined this association longitudinally. The current study examined how romantic relationships impact the trajectory of eating pathology in BG versus heterosexual men. Method BG (n=51) and heterosexual (n=522) men completed surveys of health and eating behaviors at baseline and 10-year follow-up. Results For BG men, being single at baseline prospectively predicted an increase in Drive for Thinness scores over 10-year follow-up. Additionally, for BG men in relationships at baseline, lower relationship satisfaction predicted an increase in Drive for Thinness scores over time. Conversely, these relationship variables did not predict trajectory of eating pathology for heterosexual men. Discussion Implications for theoretical models of risk, including objectification theory and sexual minority stress theory, and prevention, including peer-led cognitive dissonance based interventions, are discussed. PMID:26172055

  8. Financial problems and health complaints among farm couples: results of a 10-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Gorgievski-Duijvesteijn, M J; Giesen, C W; Bakker, A B

    2000-07-01

    Over a 10-year period, this survey study of 91 Dutch dairy farm couples investigated both causal and reversed causal relationships between couples' financial problems and husbands' and wives' mental and physical health complaints, as well as crossover effects of mental and physical health complaints between spouses. These relationships were tested simultaneously using structural equation modeling analyses. Results showed that financial problems were not predictive of health complaints for either spouse but that husbands' health complaints did predict both couples' financial problems and wives' health complaints 10 years later. These findings emphasize the importance of mental and physical health as resources for both the business and the family. For wives, these effects were not found, which may reflect the different positions of husbands and wives at the farm and, hence, the different ways they allocate their resources.

  9. Panic attacks 10 years after heart transplantation successfully treated with low-dose citalopram: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ye, Chenyu; Zhuang, Yamin; Ji, Jianlin; Chen, Hao

    2015-12-25

    Panic attacks are common among patients who have undergone heart transplantation, but there are no clinical guidelines for the treatment of panic attacks in this group of patients. This report describes a 22-year-old woman who experienced panic attacks 10 years after heart transplant surgery. The attacks started after she discovered that the average post-transplantation survival is 10 years. Treated with citalopram 10 mg/d, her symptoms improved significantly after 2 weeks and had completely resolved after 8 weeks. A positive physician-patient relationship with the doctors who regularly followed her medical condition was crucial to encouraging her to adhere to the treatment with citalopram. She continued taking the citalopram for 7 months without any adverse effects. When followed up 3 months after stopping the citalopram, she had had no recurrence of the panic attacks. PMID:27199531

  10. Bayesian Probability Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von der Linden, Wolfgang; Dose, Volker; von Toussaint, Udo

    2014-06-01

    Preface; Part I. Introduction: 1. The meaning of probability; 2. Basic definitions; 3. Bayesian inference; 4. Combinatrics; 5. Random walks; 6. Limit theorems; 7. Continuous distributions; 8. The central limit theorem; 9. Poisson processes and waiting times; Part II. Assigning Probabilities: 10. Transformation invariance; 11. Maximum entropy; 12. Qualified maximum entropy; 13. Global smoothness; Part III. Parameter Estimation: 14. Bayesian parameter estimation; 15. Frequentist parameter estimation; 16. The Cramer-Rao inequality; Part IV. Testing Hypotheses: 17. The Bayesian way; 18. The frequentist way; 19. Sampling distributions; 20. Bayesian vs frequentist hypothesis tests; Part V. Real World Applications: 21. Regression; 22. Inconsistent data; 23. Unrecognized signal contributions; 24. Change point problems; 25. Function estimation; 26. Integral equations; 27. Model selection; 28. Bayesian experimental design; Part VI. Probabilistic Numerical Techniques: 29. Numerical integration; 30. Monte Carlo methods; 31. Nested sampling; Appendixes; References; Index.

  11. Fractal probability laws.

    PubMed

    Eliazar, Iddo; Klafter, Joseph

    2008-06-01

    We explore six classes of fractal probability laws defined on the positive half-line: Weibull, Frechét, Lévy, hyper Pareto, hyper beta, and hyper shot noise. Each of these classes admits a unique statistical power-law structure, and is uniquely associated with a certain operation of renormalization. All six classes turn out to be one-dimensional projections of underlying Poisson processes which, in turn, are the unique fixed points of Poissonian renormalizations. The first three classes correspond to linear Poissonian renormalizations and are intimately related to extreme value theory (Weibull, Frechét) and to the central limit theorem (Lévy). The other three classes correspond to nonlinear Poissonian renormalizations. Pareto's law--commonly perceived as the "universal fractal probability distribution"--is merely a special case of the hyper Pareto class.

  12. Waste Package Misload Probability

    SciTech Connect

    J.K. Knudsen

    2001-11-20

    The objective of this calculation is to calculate the probability of occurrence for fuel assembly (FA) misloads (i.e., Fa placed in the wrong location) and FA damage during FA movements. The scope of this calculation is provided by the information obtained from the Framatome ANP 2001a report. The first step in this calculation is to categorize each fuel-handling events that occurred at nuclear power plants. The different categories are based on FAs being damaged or misloaded. The next step is to determine the total number of FAs involved in the event. Using the information, a probability of occurrence will be calculated for FA misload and FA damage events. This calculation is an expansion of preliminary work performed by Framatome ANP 2001a.

  13. Processes of volcanic unrest inferred from 10 years of micro-seismicity at Piton de la Fournaise volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivemale, E.; Brenguier, F.; Ferrazzini, V.; Battaglia, J.; Got, J.; Kowalski, P.; Nercessian, A.; Taisne, B.

    2010-12-01

    -scale fractures with sizes of the order of tens of meters, between 0 and 1 km above sea level, mainly clustered beneath the Bory secondary crater located at the western part of the Dolomieu crater. A time extended series of repeating events, present before several eruptions independently of their eruptive fissure elevation, points towards a common process of injection initiation. Moreover, inter-eruptive seismicity seems to show a good correlation with an estimated tremor intensity factor. On the other hand, the temporal occurrence of inter-eruptive summit seismicity shows a long-term increase of average number of events per day, probably linked to the progressive damage of the edifice leading to the 2007 caldera collapse of Dolomieu crater. Inter-eruptive seismicity on Piton de la Fournaise thus seems to be associated to pre-eruptive processes (few months) of volcanic unrest such as magma pressurization, injection and also to longer-term processes of edifice growth and destruction.

  14. Stress fractures in athletes: review of 196 cases.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Jun; Takeda, Tsuyoshi

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of stress fractures with age, sex, sport level, sporting activity, and skeletal site in athletes seen at our sports medicine clinic between September 1991 and May 2001. During these 10 years, 10 726 patients (6415 males, 3861 females) visited our clinic because of sport-related injuries, and 196 patients [125 males (1.9%), 71 females (1.8%)] sustained stress fractures. The average age of the patients with stress fractures was 20.1 years (range 10-46 years); 84 patients (42.6%) were 15-19 years of age, and 68 (34.7%) were 20-24 years of age. Altogether, 74 patients (37.8%) were active at the high recreational level and 122 (62.2%) at the competitive level. The sites of the stress fractures varied from sport to sport. The ulnar olecranon was the most common stress fracture site among baseball athletes and the rib among the rowing athletes. Classical ballet, aerobics, tennis, and volleyball athletes predominantly sustained stress fractures of the tibial shaft. Basketball athletes predominantly sustained stress fractures of the tibial shaft and medial malleolus and the metatarsal bone, whereas track and field and soccer athletes predominantly sustained stress fractures of the tibial shaft and pubic bone. Our results show that stress fractures are seen even in high-level adolescent athletes, with similar proportions for males and females, and that particular sports are associated with specific sites for stress fractures.

  15. Example of fracture characterization in granitic rock

    SciTech Connect

    Thorpe, R.K.

    1981-03-01

    A detailed study of geologic discontinuities for an underground heater test in highly fractured granitic rock is reported. Several prominent shear fractures were delineated within a 6 x 30 x 15 m rock mass by correlating surface mapping and borehole fracture logs. Oblique-reverse faulting is suspected on at least one of the surfaces, and its inferred borehole intercepts appear to be collinear in the direction of slickensiding observed in the field. Four distinct joint sets were identified, one of which coincides with the shear fractures. Another lies nearly horizontal, and two others are steeply inclined and orthogonal. Fracture lengths and spacings for the four joint sets are represented by lognormal probability distributions.

  16. Variability of Physical Activity Patterns by Type of Day and Season in 8-10-Year-Old Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowlands, Ann V.; Hughes, Dylan R.

    2006-01-01

    The aims of this study were to: (a) compare physical activity across two seasons and, within those seasons, across school and vacation time, and (b) compare the proportion of children meeting the activity thresholds recommended by Tudor-Locke et al. (2004) at each time point. Thirty-six boys, between the ages of 8 and 10 years (M age = 8.8 years,…

  17. Surrogacy families 10 years on: relationship with the surrogate, decisions over disclosure and children's understanding of their surrogacy origins

    PubMed Central

    Jadva, V.; Blake, L.; Casey, P.; Golombok, S.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND This study aimed to prospectively examine families created using surrogacy over a 10-year period in the UK with respect to intending parents' and children's relationship with the surrogate mother, parents' decisions over disclosure and children's understanding of the nature of their conception. METHODS Semi-structured interviews were administered by trained researchers to intending mothers, intending fathers and children on four occasions over a 10-year period. Forty-two families (19 with a genetic surrogate mother) participated when the child was 1-year old and by age 10 years, 33 families remained in the study. Data were collected on the frequency of contact with the surrogate mother, relationship with the surrogate, disclosure of surrogacy to the child and the child's understanding of their surrogacy birth. RESULTS Frequency of contact between surrogacy families and their surrogate mother decreased over time, particularly for families whose surrogate was a previously unknown genetic carrier (P < 0.001) (i.e. where they had met through a third party and the surrogate mother's egg was used to conceive the child). Most families reported harmonious relationships with their surrogate mother. At age 10 years, 19 (90%) children who had been informed of the nature of their conception had a good understanding of this and 13 of the 14 children who were in contact with their surrogate reported that they liked her. CONCLUSIONS Surrogacy families maintained good relationships with the surrogate mother over time. Children felt positive about their surrogate mother and their surrogacy birth. The sample size of this study was small and further, larger investigations are needed before firm conclusions can be drawn. PMID:22814484

  18. Regional flood probabilities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Troutman, B.M.; Karlinger, M.R.

    2003-01-01

    The T-year annual maximum flood at a site is defined to be that streamflow, that has probability 1/T of being exceeded in any given year, and for a group of sites the corresponding regional flood probability (RFP) is the probability that at least one site will experience a T-year flood in any given year. The RFP depends on the number of sites of interest and on the spatial correlation of flows among the sites. We present a Monte Carlo method for obtaining the RFP and demonstrate that spatial correlation estimates used in this method may be obtained with rank transformed data and therefore that knowledge of the at-site peak flow distribution is not necessary. We examine the extent to which the estimates depend on specification of a parametric form for the spatial correlation function, which is known to be nonstationary for peak flows. It is shown in a simulation study that use of a stationary correlation function to compute RFPs yields satisfactory estimates for certain nonstationary processes. Application of asymptotic extreme value theory is examined, and a methodology for separating channel network and rainfall effects on RFPs is suggested. A case study is presented using peak flow data from the state of Washington. For 193 sites in the Puget Sound region it is estimated that a 100-year flood will occur on the average every 4,5 years.

  19. Fractures attributable to osteoporosis: report from the National Osteoporosis Foundation.

    PubMed

    Melton, L J; Thamer, M; Ray, N F; Chan, J K; Chesnut, C H; Einhorn, T A; Johnston, C C; Raisz, L G; Silverman, S L; Siris, E S

    1997-01-01

    To assess the cost-effectiveness of interventions to prevent osteoporosis, it is necessary to estimate total health care expenditures for the treatment of osteoporotic fractures. Resources utilized for the treatment of many diseases can be estimated from secondary databases using relevant diagnosis codes, but such codes do not indicate which fractures are osteoporotic in nature. Therefore, a panel of experts was convened to make judgments about the probabilities that fractures of different types might be related to osteoporosis according to patient age, gender, and race. A three-round Delphi process was applied to estimate the proportion of fractures related to osteoporosis (i.e., the osteoporosis attribution probabilities) in 72 categories comprised of four specific fracture types (hip, spine, forearm, all other sites combined) stratified by three age groups (45-64 years, 65-84 years, 85 years and older), three racial groups (white, black, all others), and both genders (female, male). It was estimated that at least 90% of all hip and spine fractures among elderly white women should be attributed to osteoporosis. Much smaller proportions of the other fractures were attributed to osteoporosis. Regardless of fracture type, attribution probabilities were less for men than women and generally less for non-whites than whites. These probabilities will be used to estimate the total direct medical costs associated with osteoporosis-related fractures in the United States.

  20. Predicting 10-Year Risk of Fatal Cardiovascular Disease in Germany: An Update Based on the SCORE-Deutschland Risk Charts

    PubMed Central

    Rücker, Viktoria; Keil, Ulrich; Fitzgerald, Anthony P; Malzahn, Uwe; Prugger, Christof; Ertl, Georg; Heuschmann, Peter U; Neuhauser, Hannelore

    2016-01-01

    Estimation of absolute risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), preferably with population-specific risk charts, has become a cornerstone of CVD primary prevention. Regular recalibration of risk charts may be necessary due to decreasing CVD rates and CVD risk factor levels. The SCORE risk charts for fatal CVD risk assessment were first calibrated for Germany with 1998 risk factor level data and 1999 mortality statistics. We present an update of these risk charts based on the SCORE methodology including estimates of relative risks from SCORE, risk factor levels from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults 2008–11 (DEGS1) and official mortality statistics from 2012. Competing risks methods were applied and estimates were independently validated. Updated risk charts were calculated based on cholesterol, smoking, systolic blood pressure risk factor levels, sex and 5-year age-groups. The absolute 10-year risk estimates of fatal CVD were lower according to the updated risk charts compared to the first calibration for Germany. In a nationwide sample of 3062 adults aged 40–65 years free of major CVD from DEGS1, the mean 10-year risk of fatal CVD estimated by the updated charts was lower by 29% and the estimated proportion of high risk people (10-year risk > = 5%) by 50% compared to the older risk charts. This recalibration shows a need for regular updates of risk charts according to changes in mortality and risk factor levels in order to sustain the identification of people with a high CVD risk. PMID:27612145

  1. Predicting 10-Year Risk of Fatal Cardiovascular Disease in Germany: An Update Based on the SCORE-Deutschland Risk Charts.

    PubMed

    Rücker, Viktoria; Keil, Ulrich; Fitzgerald, Anthony P; Malzahn, Uwe; Prugger, Christof; Ertl, Georg; Heuschmann, Peter U; Neuhauser, Hannelore

    2016-01-01

    Estimation of absolute risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), preferably with population-specific risk charts, has become a cornerstone of CVD primary prevention. Regular recalibration of risk charts may be necessary due to decreasing CVD rates and CVD risk factor levels. The SCORE risk charts for fatal CVD risk assessment were first calibrated for Germany with 1998 risk factor level data and 1999 mortality statistics. We present an update of these risk charts based on the SCORE methodology including estimates of relative risks from SCORE, risk factor levels from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults 2008-11 (DEGS1) and official mortality statistics from 2012. Competing risks methods were applied and estimates were independently validated. Updated risk charts were calculated based on cholesterol, smoking, systolic blood pressure risk factor levels, sex and 5-year age-groups. The absolute 10-year risk estimates of fatal CVD were lower according to the updated risk charts compared to the first calibration for Germany. In a nationwide sample of 3062 adults aged 40-65 years free of major CVD from DEGS1, the mean 10-year risk of fatal CVD estimated by the updated charts was lower by 29% and the estimated proportion of high risk people (10-year risk > = 5%) by 50% compared to the older risk charts. This recalibration shows a need for regular updates of risk charts according to changes in mortality and risk factor levels in order to sustain the identification of people with a high CVD risk. PMID:27612145

  2. Radial head fracture - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    Elbow fracture - radial head - aftercare ... to 2 weeks. If you have a small fracture and your bones did not move around much, ... to see a bone doctor (orthopedic surgeon). Some fractures require surgery to: Insert pins and plates to ...

  3. Fractured Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03084 Fractured Surface

    These fractures and graben are part of Gordii Fossae, a large region that has undergone stresses which have cracked the surface.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 16.6S, Longitude 234.3E. 18 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  4. ADHD: 10 Years Later.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Philip

    2013-09-01

    Estimates of children struggling with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) vary, but the Centers for Disease Control puts the number at a stunningly high 25 percent. Whatever the number, ADHD affects too many children at school, at home, and with their peers, and often persists into adulthood. The cause is as yet unknown, although genetic factors and their interaction with the environment are known to be pivotal. Ten years ago a landmark study showed that the structure of the brains of children with ADHD differs from that of unaffected children. Since that study, enhancements in imaging have given researchers a better look at key hubs in the brain and how they network-advances that could prove useful in the control and treatment of ADHD in both children and adults.

  5. 10 Years of Illusions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smeets, Jeroen B. J.; Brenner, Eli

    2006-01-01

    A decade ago, S. Aglioti, J. F. X. DeSouza, and M. A. Goodale (1995) published an experiment that has had a big influence on the way that visual information is thought to control human behavior. Their findings have often been simplified as suggesting that action is immune to perceptual illusions. The current authors critically analyze the 4 steps…

  6. Multiwell fracturing experiments. [Nitrogen foam fracture treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Warpinski, N.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of the Multiwell fracturing experiments is to test and develop the technology for the efficient stimulation of tight, lenticular gas sands. This requires basic understanding of: (1) fracture behavior and geometry in this complex lithologic environment, and (2) subsequent production into the created fracture. The intricate interplay of the hydraulic fracture with the lens geometry, the internal reservoir characteristics (fractures, reservoir breaks, etc.), the in situ stresses, and the mechanical defects (fracture, bedding, etc.) need to be defined in order to develop a successful stimulation program. The stimulation phase of the Multiwell Experiment is concerned with: (1) determining important rock/reservoir properties that influence or control fracture geometry and behavior, (2) designing fracture treatments to achieve a desired size and objectives, and (3) conducting post-treatment analyses to evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment. Background statement, project description, results and evaluation of future plans are presented. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Characterization of natural fractures in Mesaverde core from the multiwell experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Finley, S.J.; Lorenz, J.C.

    1988-09-01

    Natural fractures dominate the permeability of tight sandstone reservoirs in the Mesaverde Formation of the Piceance Creek Basin, north-western Colorado. Roughly 1900 natural fractures, detected in 4200 ft of Mesaverde core from the US Department of Energy's Multiwell Experiment (MWX), have been differentiated into 10 different fracture types on the basis of fracture morphology, inclination, the presence of slickensides, the presence of dickite mineralization and/or host lithology. Approximately 75% of the MWX core fractures are dewatering planes in mudstone and are probably unimportant to reservoir permeability. The remaining 25% of the MWX core fractures include 275 mostly calcite-mineralized, vertical extension fractures, 61 irregular, dickite-mineralized extension fractures, 27 mostly calcite-mineralized, horizontal extension fractures, and 90 slickensided, occasionally mineralized shear fractures. These extension and shear fractures are all potentially important to reservoir permeability and consequently productivity. 13 refs., 61 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Proximal fifth metatarsal fractures.

    PubMed

    Ramponi, Denise R

    2013-01-01

    The most common fracture of the foot is a fracture of the proximal fifth metatarsal. In general, there are 3 types of fractures involving the proximal fifth metatarsal area, including a proximal diaphyseal stress fracture, a Jones fracture, and an avulsion fracture of the tuberosity. Some fractures of the fifth metatarsal heal without difficulty, whereas some have the potential for nonunion or delayed healing. Each fracture has some variation in the anatomical location on the fifth metatarsal, the mechanism of injury, the radiographic findings, and the treatment plan. Avulsion fractures of the tuberosity often heal without difficulty, yet fractures distal to the area of insertion of the peroneus brevis tendon are prone to nonunion and delayed healing (). Differential diagnosis of a fifth metatarsal midfoot injury includes ankle sprains, midfoot sprains, plantar facial ruptures, peroneus tendon ruptures, and other foot fractures.

  9. Long Term Clinical Prognostic Factors in Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis: Insights from a 10-Year Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Ehling, Rainer; Lutterotti, Andreas; Hegen, Harald; Di Pauli, Franziska; Auer, Michael; Deisenhammer, Florian; Reindl, Markus; Berger, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) has a highly heterogenic course making prediction of long term outcome very difficult. Objective The objective was to evaluate current and identify additional clinical factors that are linked to long term outcome of relapsing-remitting MS assessed by disability status 10 years after disease onset. Methods This observational study included 793 patients with relapsing-remitting MS. Clinical factors hypothesized to influence long term outcome measured by EDSS scores 10 years after disease onset were analysed by Kaplan-Meier-estimates. Multinomial logistic regression models regarding mild (EDSS ≤2.5), moderate (EDSS 3.0–5.5) or severe (EDSS ≥6.0) disability were calculated to correct for confounders. Results Secondary progression was the strongest predictor of severe disability (Hazard ratio [HR] 503.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 160.0–1580.1); p<0.001). Complete remission of neurological symptoms at onset reduced the risk of moderate disability (HR 0.42; CI 0.23–0.77; p = 0.005), while depression (HR 3.59; CI 1.14–11.24; p = 0.028) and cognitive dysfunction (HR 4.64; CI 1.11–19.50; p = 0.036) 10 years after disease onset were associated with severe disability. Oligoclonal bands and pregnancy were not correlated with disability. Conclusion We were able to identify clinically apparent chronic depression and cognitive dysfunction to be associated with adverse long term outcome in MS and to confirm that pregnancy has no negative impact. Additionally, we emphasize the positive predictive value of complete remission of initial symptoms. PMID:27391947

  10. Acute paediatric bite injuries treated on inpatient basis: a 10-year retrospective study and criteria for hospital admission.

    PubMed

    Shipkov, Hristo; Stefanova, Penka; Sirakov, Vladimir; Stefanov, Rumen; Dachev, Dimitar; Simeonov, Martin; Ivanov, Biser; Nenov, Momchil

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the acute bite wounds in children treated on an inpatient basis over a 10-year period and the criteria for inpatient treatment. This study comprised all acute mammalian bite injuries in relation to all paediatric bite injuries seen at the Emergency Surgical Department (ESD). Inclusion criteria were: aged between 0-18 years; acute human or animal bite injuries (presenting for the first time); and inpatient treatment. Exclusion criteria were: bite wounds treated elsewhere and referred for complications; bites treated on an outpatient basis referred for complications; and all insect bites. Over 10 years, 12,948 children were seen at the ESD. There were 167 children (0.77%) with mammalian bite wounds. Twelve of them responded to the inclusion criteria. They presented 7.18% of all mammalian bite injuries and 0.09% of all paediatric emergency visits at the ESD. The average age was 3.82 ± 1.63 years (from 1.3-7 years). The time elapsed between the accident to the wound debridement was 118.64 ± 101.39 minutes. There were 10 dogs, one horse, and one rabbit bite. Surgical treatment comprised debridement, saline irrigation, and primary closure or reconstruction. All patients received antibiotics in the postoperative period. The average hospital stay was 5.92 ± 2.39 days. In one case a partial distal flap necrosis occurred. Animal bite injuries treated on an inpatient basis are predominantly dog bites in young children under 10 years of age, with deep, extended, and commonly multiple injuries. Only 7% of paediatric bite injuries require inpatient treatment.

  11. The Course of Positive Affective and Cognitive States in Borderline Personality Disorder: A 10-year Follow-up Study

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Lawrence Ian; Fitzmaurice, Garrett; Zanarini, Mary C.

    2013-01-01

    This study had two aims. The first was to identify and define the course of positive affective and cognitive states present in borderline personality disorder (BPD) and compare them to those of comparison subjects with other personality disorders. The second was to compare the positive affective and cognitive states of borderline patients who recovered from BPD to those who did not. Two hundred ninety patients with BPD and 72 non-borderline axis II subjects (OPD) completed the Positive Affect Scale (PAS), a 50-item self-report measure designed to assess positive states thought to be common among and characteristic of BPD over a 10-year course of prospective follow-up. Affective, cognitive, and mixed PAS items were separately analyzed, based on respective subscores. Borderline patients reported positive affective, cognitive, and mixed states less frequently than OPD subjects. Additionally, affective, and cognitive subscores increased significantly for both groups taken together over 10-years of follow-up though at greater rates among borderline patients. Mixed subscores showed a significant increase over time and at similar rates for both groups. Within the BPD group, recovered patients reported more positive affective, cognitive, and mixed states compared to non-recovered patients. Results also showed a significant increase in affective and cognitive states at similar rates for both groups taken together over 10-years of follow-up. Mixed subscores also showed a significant increase for both groups taken over time, though at greater rates among recovered borderline patients. Taken together, these results suggest a characteristic profile of positive states within borderline patients that is far lower than those reported by axis II comparison subjects. They also suggest that this characteristic profile is predictive of recovery of BPD over time. PMID:23606922

  12. Epidemiologic characteristics of 10 years hospitalized patients with glaucoma at shanghai eye and ear, nose, and throat hospital.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yingying; Zhang, Yuqiu; Sun, Xinghuai

    2016-07-01

    To analyze the epidemiologic characteristics of hospitalized patients with glaucoma at Shanghai Eye and Ear, Nose, and Throat Hospital in the relative well economic condition area Eastern China.Researchers reviewed the 10 years charts of patients with a discharge diagnosis of glaucoma at this hospital from January 2004 to December 2013. With the criteria used for diagnoses of different types of glaucoma, the constitution of this disease between the first and last 5 years was compared and analyzed.A total of 11,864 cases were enrolled according to the criteria of diagnoses for 10 years. Primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) was the main type (51.69%) followed by secondary glaucoma (SG, 28.14%), primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) (10.41%), and congenital glaucoma (7.16%). Other glaucoma types were less prevalent (2.61%). PACG has seen a declining trend (from 57.75% to 48.41%), while the proportion of SG has increased (from 23.68% to 34.21%). For the POAG group, there is no increasing trend and the same is true of CG. The mean age of PACG patients was 62.28 year-old, while it was 46 year-old for the POAG and SG groups. The patients of PACG had more women than men (M/F ratio: 1:1.92). The reverse was the case with regard to POAG (M/F ratio: 1.97:1).In Eastern China, although PACG has some decreased, but still is the most commonly encountered type of glaucoma, while SG has significantly increased, and POAG has slightly decreased in hospitalized patients during recent 10 years. PMID:27442654

  13. RECONSTRUCTION OF THE ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT WITH THE CENTRAL THIRD OF THE QUADRICEPS MUSCLE TENDON: ANALYSIS OF 10-YEAR RESULTS

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Marcus Valladares; Junior, Lúcio Honório de Carvalho; Terra, Dalton Lopes

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Assess clinical results using two different protocols, 10 years after ACL reconstruction surgery with the central third of quadriceps muscle tendon (QT). Method: Between November /1997 and April/1998, 25 patients were submitted to 25 ACL reconstructions with QT by transtibial technique. The bone portion of the graft was fixated on femoral tunnel with interference screw and the tendinous portion of tibial tunnel with screw with washer. Two patients injured the new when playing soccer. Six patients were not available for follow-up (24%). Seventeen patients were evaluated, 15 men and two women, with mean age at surgery time of 28.53 ± 6.64 years. All patients were examined at six months, one year, and ten years after surgery. Clinical evaluation was made by the Lysholm scale, and the knee evaluation, with the Hospital for Special Surgery scale. Results: The patients had their injuries operated after 9.87 ± 14.42 months of the accident. According to Lysholm scale, the results at the end of the first year were 98.71 ± 2.47 and, after 10 years, 97.35 ± 3.12. Using the Hospital for Special Surgery scale, the mean score was 95.07 ± 5.23 in one year, and 94.87 ± 4.16 in 10 years. All patients returned to their professional activities with the same previous status. Fifteen (88.24%) patients were able to return to their sports activities, one by modifying the practice, while another one switched to another sport. No patient complained of pain on the donor area in the medium and long term. The sports return rate was excellent, and no changes were found on the femoropatellar joint. PMID:27022511

  14. Seal, replacement or monitoring amalgam restorations with occlusal marginal defects? Results of a 10-year clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Moncada, G; Fernández, E; Mena, K; Martin, J; Vildósola, P; De Oliveira Junior, O B; Estay, J; Mjör, I A; Gordan, V V

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this prospective and blind clinical trial was to assess the effectiveness of sealing localized marginal defects of amalgam restoration that were initially scheduled to be replaced. A cohort of twenty six patients with 60 amalgam restorations (n=44Class I and n=16Class II), that presented marginal defects deviating from ideal (Bravo) according to USPHS criteria, were assigned to either sealing or replacement groups: A: sealing n=20, Replacement n=20, and no treatment (n=20). Two blind examiners evaluated the restorations at baseline (K=0.74) and after ten years (K=0.84) according with USPHS criteria, in four parameters: marginal adaptation (MA), secondary caries (SC), marginal staining (MS) and teeth sensitivity (TS). Multiple comparison of restorations degradation/upgrade was analyzed by Friedman test and the comparisons within groups were performed by Wilcoxon test. After 10 years, 44 restorations were assessed (73.3%), Group A: n=14 and Group B: n=16; and Group C: n=14 sealing and replacement amalgam restorations presented similar level of quality in MA (p=0.76), SC (p=0.25) and TS (p=0.52), while in MS (p=0.007) presented better performance in replacement group after 10-years. Most of the occlusal amalgam restorations with marginal gaps showed similar long term outcomes than the restorations were sealed, replaced, or not treated over a 10-year period. Most of the restorations of the three groups were clinically acceptable, under the studied parameters. All restorations had the tendency to present downgrade/deterioration over time. PMID:26231302

  15. Rebound rib: stress-induced first rib fracture.

    PubMed

    Sacchetti, A D; Beswick, D R; Morse, S D

    1983-03-01

    Reported are two cases of stress-induced fracture of the first rib in young, healthy basketball players. Presumably the fractures resulted from violent contraction of the scalene musculature. This is the usual method of production of stress-induced first rib fracture, but basketball-related cases have not been reported previously. This entity probably is underdiagnosed, and is amenable to conservative outpatient management in most cases.

  16. Patterns and Predictors of Language and Literacy Abilities 4-10 Years in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children

    PubMed Central

    Zubrick, Stephen R.; Taylor, Catherine L.; Christensen, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Aims Oral language is the foundation of literacy. Naturally, policies and practices to promote children’s literacy begin in early childhood and have a strong focus on developing children’s oral language, especially for children with known risk factors for low language ability. The underlying assumption is that children’s progress along the oral to literate continuum is stable and predictable, such that low language ability foretells low literacy ability. This study investigated patterns and predictors of children’s oral language and literacy abilities at 4, 6, 8 and 10 years. The study sample comprised 2,316 to 2,792 children from the first nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC). Six developmental patterns were observed, a stable middle-high pattern, a stable low pattern, an improving pattern, a declining pattern, a fluctuating low pattern, and a fluctuating middle-high pattern. Most children (69%) fit a stable middle-high pattern. By contrast, less than 1% of children fit a stable low pattern. These results challenged the view that children’s progress along the oral to literate continuum is stable and predictable. Findings Multivariate logistic regression was used to investigate risks for low literacy ability at 10 years and sensitivity-specificity analysis was used to examine the predictive utility of the multivariate model. Predictors were modelled as risk variables with the lowest level of risk as the reference category. In the multivariate model, substantial risks for low literacy ability at 10 years, in order of descending magnitude, were: low school readiness, Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander status and low language ability at 8 years. Moderate risks were high temperamental reactivity, low language ability at 4 years, and low language ability at 6 years. The following risk factors were not statistically significant in the multivariate model: Low maternal consistency, low family income, health care card

  17. Prevalence of dermatoses in dermatologic evaluation requests from patients admitted to a tertiary hospital for 10 years*

    PubMed Central

    Dantas, Lia Dias Pinheiro; Bakos, Lucio; Balbinot, Gabriela; Drechsler, Carine Elisabete Rost; Eidt, Letícia Maria

    2015-01-01

    Skin diseases are common in hospitalized patients. However, there is a lack of data concerning their frequency. The objective of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of dermatological diagnoses in hospitalized patients after consultation requested by nondermatologist physicians to the Department of Dermatology, Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre period of 10 years. A total of 5685 patients were evaluated, representing an average of 48.2 patients per month. The five most frequent groups were infectious dermatoses(33.25%), eczematous dermatoses (11.49%), drug reactions (11.43%), vascular dermatoses (6.81%) and group of pruritus, prurigo nodularis and urticaria (hives) (4.71%). PMID:26560228

  18. Emptiness Formation Probability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, Nicholas; Ng, Stephen; Starr, Shannon

    2016-08-01

    We present rigorous upper and lower bounds on the emptiness formation probability for the ground state of a spin-1/2 Heisenberg XXZ quantum spin system. For a d-dimensional system we find a rate of decay of the order {exp(-c L^{d+1})} where L is the sidelength of the box in which we ask for the emptiness formation event to occur. In the {d=1} case this confirms previous predictions made in the integrable systems community, though our bounds do not achieve the precision predicted by Bethe ansatz calculations. On the other hand, our bounds in the case {d ≥ 2} are new. The main tools we use are reflection positivity and a rigorous path integral expansion, which is a variation on those previously introduced by Toth, Aizenman-Nachtergaele and Ueltschi.

  19. People's conditional probability judgments follow probability theory (plus noise).

    PubMed

    Costello, Fintan; Watts, Paul

    2016-09-01

    A common view in current psychology is that people estimate probabilities using various 'heuristics' or rules of thumb that do not follow the normative rules of probability theory. We present a model where people estimate conditional probabilities such as P(A|B) (the probability of A given that B has occurred) by a process that follows standard frequentist probability theory but is subject to random noise. This model accounts for various results from previous studies of conditional probability judgment. This model predicts that people's conditional probability judgments will agree with a series of fundamental identities in probability theory whose form cancels the effect of noise, while deviating from probability theory in other expressions whose form does not allow such cancellation. Two experiments strongly confirm these predictions, with people's estimates on average agreeing with probability theory for the noise-cancelling identities, but deviating from probability theory (in just the way predicted by the model) for other identities. This new model subsumes an earlier model of unconditional or 'direct' probability judgment which explains a number of systematic biases seen in direct probability judgment (Costello & Watts, 2014). This model may thus provide a fully general account of the mechanisms by which people estimate probabilities.

  20. People's conditional probability judgments follow probability theory (plus noise).

    PubMed

    Costello, Fintan; Watts, Paul

    2016-09-01

    A common view in current psychology is that people estimate probabilities using various 'heuristics' or rules of thumb that do not follow the normative rules of probability theory. We present a model where people estimate conditional probabilities such as P(A|B) (the probability of A given that B has occurred) by a process that follows standard frequentist probability theory but is subject to random noise. This model accounts for various results from previous studies of conditional probability judgment. This model predicts that people's conditional probability judgments will agree with a series of fundamental identities in probability theory whose form cancels the effect of noise, while deviating from probability theory in other expressions whose form does not allow such cancellation. Two experiments strongly confirm these predictions, with people's estimates on average agreeing with probability theory for the noise-cancelling identities, but deviating from probability theory (in just the way predicted by the model) for other identities. This new model subsumes an earlier model of unconditional or 'direct' probability judgment which explains a number of systematic biases seen in direct probability judgment (Costello & Watts, 2014). This model may thus provide a fully general account of the mechanisms by which people estimate probabilities. PMID:27570097