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Sample records for 10-year time horizon

  1. Extending the TIME concept: what have we learned in the past 10 years?(*).

    PubMed

    Leaper, David J; Schultz, Gregory; Carville, Keryln; Fletcher, Jacqueline; Swanson, Theresa; Drake, Rebecca

    2012-12-01

    The TIME acronym (tissue, infection/inflammation, moisture balance and edge of wound) was first developed more than 10 years ago, by an international group of wound healing experts, to provide a framework for a structured approach to wound bed preparation; a basis for optimising the management of open chronic wounds healing by secondary intention. However, it should be recognised that the TIME principles are only a part of the systematic and holistic evaluation of each patient at every wound assessment. This review, prepared by the International Wound Infection Institute, examines how new data and evidence generated in the intervening decade affects the original concepts of TIME, and how it is translated into current best practice. Four developments stand out: recognition of the importance of biofilms (and the need for a simple diagnostic), use of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT), evolution of topical antiseptic therapy as dressings and for wound lavage (notably, silver and polyhexamethylene biguanide) and expanded insight of the role of molecular biological processes in chronic wounds (with emerging diagnostics and theranostics). Tissue: a major advance has been the recognition of the value of repetitive and maintenance debridement and wound cleansing, both in time-honoured and novel methods (notably using NPWT and hydrosurgery). Infection/inflammation: clinical recognition of infection (and non infective causes of persisting inflammation) is critical. The concept of a bacterial continuum through contamination, colonisation and infection is now widely accepted, together with the understanding of biofilm presence. There has been a return to topical antiseptics to control bioburden in wounds, emphasised by the awareness of increasing antibiotic resistance. Moisture: the relevance of excessive or insufficient wound exudate and its molecular components has led to the development and use of a wide range of dressings to regulate moisture balance, and to protect

  2. Time Horizon and Social Scale in Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krantz, D. H.

    2010-12-01

    In 2009 our center (CRED) published a first version of The Psychology of Climate Change Communication. In it, we attempted to summarize facts and concepts from psychological research that could help guide communication. While this work focused on climate change, most of the ideas are at least partly applicable for communication about a variety of natural hazards. Of the many examples in this guide, I mention three. Single-action bias is the human tendency to stop considering further actions that might be needed to deal with a given hazard, once a single action has been taken. Another example is the importance of group affiliation in motivating voluntary contributions to joint action. A third concerns the finding that group participation enhances understanding of probabilistic concepts and promotes action in the face of uncertainty. One current research direction, which goes beyond those included in the above publication, focuses on how time horizons arise in the thinking of individuals and groups, and how these time horizons might influence hazard preparedness. On the one hand, individuals sometimes appear impatient, organizations look for immediate results, and officials fail to look beyond the next election cycle. Yet under some laboratory conditions and in some subcultures, a longer time horizon is adopted. We are interested in how time horizon is influenced by group identity and by the very architecture of planning and decision making. Institutional changes, involving long-term contractual relationships among communities, developers, insurers, and governments, could greatly increase resilience in the face of natural hazards. Communication about hazards, in the context of such long-term contractual relationships might look very different from communication that is first initiated by immediate threat. Another new direction concerns the social scale of institutions and of communication about hazards. Traditionally, insurance contracts share risk among a large

  3. Changes in the American Interventional Radiology Literature: Comparison over a 10-Year Time Period

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, Charles E. Gupta, Rajan; Blackwell, John

    2006-08-15

    < 0.001), the primary field of investigation, with significant increases noted for primary cancer interventions (6.5% vs. 13.3%; p < 0.001), gynecologic interventions (0.2% vs. 4.5%; p < 0.001), stent-grafts (0 vs. 2.9%; p < 0.001), and spine interventions (0 vs. 1.8%; p < 0.01). Studies receiving funding also demonstrated a significant increase when comparing the early and late data sets (11.3% vs. 23.0%, respectively; p < 0.001). Conclusions. Articles published in the American radiologic literature have changed significantly over the past 10 years. Primary authors are more likely to be nonradiologists and less likely to be American. Investigations dealing primarily with nonvascular interventions are less common; however, some forms of intervention (particularly cancer interventions) are seen more frequently in the literature. The percentage of funded projects has more than doubled in the same time frame.

  4. Horizons versus singularities in spherically symmetric space-times

    SciTech Connect

    Bronnikov, K. A.; Elizalde, E.; Odintsov, S. D.; Zaslavskii, O. B.

    2008-09-15

    We discuss different kinds of Killing horizons possible in static, spherically symmetric configurations and recently classified as 'usual', 'naked', and 'truly naked' ones depending on the near-horizon behavior of transverse tidal forces acting on an extended body. We obtain the necessary conditions for the metric to be extensible beyond a horizon in terms of an arbitrary radial coordinate and show that all truly naked horizons, as well as many of those previously characterized as naked and even usual ones, do not admit an extension and therefore must be considered as singularities. Some examples are given, showing which kinds of matter are able to create specific space-times with different kinds of horizons, including truly naked ones. Among them are fluids with negative pressure and scalar fields with a particular behavior of the potential. We also discuss horizons and singularities in Kantowski-Sachs spherically symmetric cosmologies and present horizon regularity conditions in terms of an arbitrary time coordinate and proper (synchronous) time. It turns out that horizons of orders 2 and higher occur in infinite proper times in the past or future, but one-way communication with regions beyond such horizons is still possible.

  5. Cold start extra emissions as a function of engine stop time: Evolution over the last 10 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favez, Jean-Yves; Weilenmann, Martin; Stilli, Jan

    Cars with catalysts show a significant increase in exhaust emissions at engine start. These extra emissions are expressed as the difference, over a particular driving cycle, between emissions generated when the vehicle is started and when the engine or the catalyst are stably warm. Experimental data, suitable for the assessment of cold start emissions, are usually available for completely cooled engines. Most results originate from tests at ambient temperature of 20-30 °C and with an engine stop time of at least 12 h. On the other hand, data including shorter stop times are very rare. The present work investigates the influence of exhaust emissions with shorter stop times, i.e. 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 h. The main goal consists in the comparison of emissions exhausted by recent car models (Euro-4) against emissions assessed in the framework of a similar campaign 10 years ago (FAV1/Euro-1 vehicles). A short survey of the current extra emission estimation methods is presented in this paper. It is shown that some methods are not suited for providing correct estimations in all cases. We discuss the fact that different estimation methods can show either similar or completely different results depending on the evolution behaviour of the hot emissions. Due to new technologies, e.g. the catalyst and improved engine control algorithms, emissions have been considerably reduced over the last 10 years. In this study it is determined how the relative extra emissions, i.e. extra emissions relative to the extra emissions for the standard stop time of 12 h, expressed as a function of stop time have changed. We may claim with caution that for medium stop times of 0.5-4 h the average relative extra emissions of Euro-4 vehicles are well below the average of the relative extra emissions of Euro-1 vehicles.

  6. The WSMR Timing System: Toward New Horizons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, William A.; Stimets, Bob

    1996-01-01

    In 1991, White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) initiated a modernization program for its range timing system. The main focus of this modernization program was to develop a system that was highly accurate, easy to maintain, and portable. The logical decision at the time was to develop a system based solely on Global Positioning System (GPS) technology. Since that time, wsmr has changed its philosophy on how GPS would be utilized for the timing system. This paper will describe WSMR's initial modernization plans for its range timing system and how certain events have led to a modification of these plans.

  7. Pattern of Venous Thromboembolism Occurrence in Gynecologic Malignancy: Incidence, Timing, and Distribution a 10-Year Retrospective Single-institutional Study.

    PubMed

    Ye, Shuang; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Jiaxin; Cao, Dongyan; Huang, Huifang; Wu, Ming; Lang, Jinghe; Shen, Keng

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this single-institutional 10-year retrospective study was to investigate the clinical pattern (incidence, type, timing, and location) of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in Chinese patients with gynecologic cancer. Cases were identified by searching institutional Electronic Discharge Database. A comprehensive review of medical documentation was then performed to collect relevant data. The detection of VTE was symptom-triggered. A total of 155 VTE events were identified out of 7562 cases over the past 10-year period in our hospital. The incidence of clinically significant VTE was 2.0% in gynecologic malignancy, with vulvar cancer (3.7%) and ovarian cancer (2.5%) being the high-risk types (P = 0.01, Chi-square test). Perioperative period (35.1%) and preoperation (29.1%) were the 2 incidence peaks. Seventeen cases of pulmonary embolism (PE) occurred prior to surgery. Ovarian cancer patients were more likely to present preoperative PE compared to other site of cancer (76.4%; P = 0.01, Chi-square test). More preoperative VTE cases were complicated by PE than those in the perioperative period (39.5% vs 17.3%, P = 0.02, Chi-square test). Bilateral lower extremity deep vein thrombosis (DVT) accounted for 32.6% and there existed a preponderance of left-sided DVT (47.5% vs 17.0%, ratio 2.79:1). Femoral vein (36.6%) was the most common location for DVT. About 2.0% of the Chinese patients with gynecologic carcinoma developed clinical VTE, mostly during perioperative period and the time of diagnosis. The true incidence might have been under-estimated due to several reasons. The need for increased patient education and awareness of VTE is of importance. PMID:26683971

  8. Time Horizons, Discounting, and Intertemporal Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streich, Philip; Levy, Jack S.

    2007-01-01

    Although many decisions involve a stream of payoffs over time, political scientists have given little attention to how actors make the required tradeoffs between present and future payoffs, other than applying the standard exponential discounting model from economics. After summarizing the basic discounting model, we identify some of its leading…

  9. My First Year in Academic Practice: If I Could Turn Back Time, What I Would Do Differently-10 Years Later.

    PubMed

    Liporace, Frank A

    2015-11-01

    "Joining a practice for the first time after training, whether in academia or the private sector is fraught with challenges and a learning curve. Postgraduate education has not sufficiently taught anyone how to manage the nuances of this new arena, or completely how to become successful. Success is not solely a function measured by reportable taxable income. Respect by colleagues, patients, partners, and staff are just as important, if not more so, and the financial attributes will be realized if the tangibles and intangibles discussed are appropriately executed in the correct environment." Although the preceding statements were made as reflecting on the first year of practice, they hold true 10 years later, and always. This article discusses what can be learned from a decade of "doing" even when having "planned well." Some concepts that have not changed are maintained throughout, some have been updated from experience, and some have been completely changed. Just remember, what you do should be dynamic and adaptable over time, but the principles, if sound from the start, never change. PMID:26458003

  10. Tracking of leisure-time physical activity during adolescence and young adulthood: a 10-year longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Kjønniksen, Lise; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Wold, Bente

    2008-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to show how participation in leisure-time physical activity changes between ages 13 to 23, and to what extent engaging in specific types of sports tracks into young adulthood. Methods The sample comprised 630 subjects who responded to questionnaires at age 13, with seven follow-ups over a 10-year period in the Norwegian Longitudinal Health Behaviour Study. The associations between adolescent participation in global and specific types of leisure-time physical activity were examined by analyses of variance, regression analysis and growth curve analysis. Results The findings suggest that the transition from adolescence to adulthood is, on average, a period of decline in physical activity, but with the decline levelling off into adulthood. The decline was significantly greater among males than females. There were substantial individual differences in the amount of change, in particular among males. Jogging alone and cycling, recreational activities such as skiing and hiking, and ball games, showed a high degree of tracking from age 15 to 23. The findings indicate low associations between participation in specific types of activities during adolescence and global leisure-time physical activity in young adulthood, while participation in several adolescent physical activities simultaneously was moderately related to later activity. Thus, being involved in various types of physical activity may offer good opportunities for establishing lifelong involvement in physical activity, independent of the specific type of activity. Conclusion The observed variation in change might suggest a need for a more targeted approach, with a focus on subgroups of individuals. The group of inactive youth may be considered as a high risk group, and the findings suggest that adolescent males who are inactive early seem likely to continue to be inactive later. The observed heterogeneity in change highlights the limitation of previous approaches to

  11. A Randomized Trial Comparing Part-time Patching with Observation for Children 3–10 Years Old with Intermittent Exotropia

    PubMed Central

    Cotter, Susan A.; Mohney, Brian G.; Chandler, Danielle L.; Holmes, Jonathan M.; Repka, Michael X.; Melia, Michele; Wallace, David K.; Beck, Roy W.; Birch, Eileen E.; Kraker, Raymond T.; Tamkins, Susanna M.; Miller, Aaron M.; Sala, Nicholas A.; Glaser, Stephen R.

    2014-01-01

    over a 6-month period is uncommon with or without patching treatment. Although there is a slightly lower deterioration rate with patching, both management approaches are reasonable for treating 3 to 10 year olds with IXT. PMID:25234012

  12. Time machines with the compactly determined Cauchy horizon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnikov, S.

    2014-07-01

    The building of a time machine, if possible at all, requires the relevant regions of spacetime to be compact (that is, physically speaking, free from sources of unpredictability such as infinities and singularities). Motivated by this argument we consider the spacetimes with the compactly determined Cauchy horizons (CDCHs), the defining property of which is the compactness of J-(U) ¯∩J+(S0), where U is an open subset of the Cauchy horizon and S0 is a Cauchy surface of the initial globally hyperbolic region Min. The following two facts are established: (1) Min has no globally hyperbolic maximal extension. This means that, by shaping appropriately a precompact portion of a globally hyperbolic region, one can force the Universe to produce either a closed causal curve, or a quasiregular singularity, whichever it abhors less. (2) Before a CDCH is formed a null geodesic appears which infinitely approaches the horizon returning again and again in the same—arbitrarily small—region. The energy of the photon moving on such a geodesic increases with each passage, or at least falls insufficiently fast. As a result, an observer located in the mentioned region would see a bunch of photons passing through his laboratory with the arbitrarily large total energy. We speculate that this phenomenon may have observable consequences.

  13. Association between accelerometer-measured physical activity intensities and sedentary time in 8- to 10-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Herman, Katya M; Paradis, Gilles; Mathieu, Marie-Eve; O'Loughlin, Jennifer; Tremblay, Angelo; Lambert, Marie

    2014-02-01

    This study examines the association between objectively-measured physical activity (PA) intensities and sedentary behavior (SED) in a cohort of 532 children aged 8-10 y. PA and SED were assessed by accelerometer over 7-days. Television and computer/video-game use were self-reported. Associations between PA intensities and SED variables were assessed by Spearman correlations and adjusted multiple linear regression. Higher mean daily moderate-to-vigorous and vigorous PA (MVPA, VPA) were negatively associated with mean daily SED (r = -0.47 and -0.37; p < .001), and positively associated with mean daily total PA (r = .58 and 0.46; p < .001). MVPA was also positively associated with light PA (LPA; r = .26, p < .001). MVPA and VPA were not significantly associated with TV, computer/video or total screen time; accelerometer SED was only weakly associated with specific SED behaviors. On average, for each additional 10 min daily MVPA, children accumulated >14 min less SED, and for each additional 5 min VPA, 11 min less SED. Thus, over the course of a week, higher mean daily MVPA may displace SED time and is associated with higher total PA over and above the additional MVPA, due to concomitant higher levels of LPA. Public health strategies should target both MVPA and SED to improve overall PA and health in children. PMID:24018974

  14. Joint association of physical activity/screen time and diet on CVD risk factors in 10-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Carlson, Joseph J; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Eisenmann, Joey C

    2012-12-01

    The increasing prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity has been associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). While several studies examined the effect of single behaviors such as physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior or diet on CVD risk, there is a lack of research on combined associations, specifically in children. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the joint association of PA or screen time (ST) and diet on CVD risk factors in children. PA, STand diet were assessed via questionnaire in 210 fifth grade students (age: 10.6 ± 0.4 years). The healthy eating index (HEI) was subsequently calculated as indicator for diet quality. Height, weight, % body fat, and resting blood pressure were measured according to standard procedures and blood samples obtained via fingerprick were assayed for blood lipids. Total cholesterol HDL ratio (TC:HDL), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and % body fat were used as indicators of CVD risk. 55% of children did not meet current PA recommendations on at least 5 days/week and 70% exceeded current recommendations for ST. Further, only 2.5% possessed a "good" diet (HEI> 80). There was no significant association of PA or STand diet on CVD risk score. Neither TC:HDL, MAP, and % body fat nor the total CVD risk score was significantly correlated with diet, PA, or ST. Children in the high PA group, however, had significantly better diet scores. Despite the fact that self-reported PA, ST, or dietary intake were not directly related to CVD risk in this sample, higher activity levels were associated with a healthier diet and lower ST indicating an overall healthier lifestyle of this subgroup. PMID:23224418

  15. Age, Time, and Decision Making: From Processing Speed to Global Time Horizons

    PubMed Central

    Löckenhoff, Corinna E.

    2013-01-01

    Time and time perceptions are integral to decision making because any meaningful choice is embedded in a temporal context and requires the evaluation of future preferences and outcomes. The present review examines the influence of chronological age on time perceptions and horizons and discusses implications for decision making across the life span. Time influences and interacts with decision making in multiple ways. Specifically, this review examines the following topic areas: (1) processing speed and decision time, (2) internal clocks and time estimation, (3) mental representations of future time and intertemporal choice, and (4) global time horizons. For each aspect, patterns of age differences and implications for decision strategies and quality are discussed. The conclusion proposes frameworks to integrate different lines of research and identifies promising avenues for future inquiry. PMID:22023567

  16. Deepwater Horizon - Estimating surface oil volume distribution in real time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehr, B.; Simecek-Beatty, D.; Leifer, I.

    2011-12-01

    Spill responders to the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill required both the relative spatial distribution and total oil volume of the surface oil. The former was needed on a daily basis to plan and direct local surface recovery and treatment operations. The latter was needed less frequently to provide information for strategic response planning. Unfortunately, the standard spill observation methods were inadequate for an oil spill this size, and new, experimental, methods, were not ready to meet the operational demands of near real-time results. Traditional surface oil estimation tools for large spills include satellite-based sensors to define the spatial extent (but not thickness) of the oil, complemented with trained observers in small aircraft, sometimes supplemented by active or passive remote sensing equipment, to determine surface percent coverage of the 'thick' part of the slick, where the vast majority of the surface oil exists. These tools were also applied to DWH in the early days of the spill but the shear size of the spill prevented synoptic information of the surface slick through the use small aircraft. Also, satellite images of the spill, while large in number, varied considerably in image quality, requiring skilled interpretation of them to identify oil and eliminate false positives. Qualified staff to perform this task were soon in short supply. However, large spills are often events that overcome organizational inertia to the use of new technology. Two prime examples in DWH were the application of hyper-spectral scans from a high-altitude aircraft and more traditional fixed-wing aircraft using multi-spectral scans processed by use of a neural network to determine, respectively, absolute or relative oil thickness. But, with new technology, come new challenges. The hyper-spectral instrument required special viewing conditions that were not present on a daily basis and analysis infrastructure to process the data that was not available at the command

  17. The Proportion of Diploid 46,XX Cells Increases with Time in Women with Turner Syndrome—A 10-Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Denes, Anna-Maria; Landin-Wilhelmsen, Kerstin; Wettergren, Yvonne; Bryman, Inger

    2015-01-01

    In the normal population, loss of one of the sex chromosomes leading to monosomy (45,X) is a part of the aging process. In Turner syndrome (TS), the classic karyotype 45,X is found in up to 50% at birth, and others have a second cell line; mosaicism. The aim was to study if the chromosomal pattern in TS women changes over time. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed on buccal smear cells obtained twice, 10 years apart, from 42 women with TS aged 26–66 years (mean±standard deviation: 42.0±11.6). DNA probes specific for chromosomes X (DXZ1) and Y (DYZ3) were used and >100 cells were analyzed/patient. Nineteen women had monosomy (45,X) (<10% 46,XX), nine had 45,X/46,XX mosaicism, and 14 had iso, ring, or a marker chromosome at baseline. At 10 years, the percentage of diploid cells had increased in 29 of 42 women (69%), with an average increase of 5.7±13.0%. There was a positive correlation between age and % change in diploid 46,XX or 46,XY cells (r=0.38, p=0.023). This new finding might have relevance for the life expectancy in TS. PMID:25587646

  18. The proportion of diploid 46,XX cells increases with time in women with Turner syndrome--a 10-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Denes, Anna-Maria; Landin-Wilhelmsen, Kerstin; Wettergren, Yvonne; Bryman, Inger; Hanson, Charles

    2015-02-01

    In the normal population, loss of one of the sex chromosomes leading to monosomy (45,X) is a part of the aging process. In Turner syndrome (TS), the classic karyotype 45,X is found in up to 50% at birth, and others have a second cell line; mosaicism. The aim was to study if the chromosomal pattern in TS women changes over time. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed on buccal smear cells obtained twice, 10 years apart, from 42 women with TS aged 26-66 years (mean±standard deviation: 42.0±11.6). DNA probes specific for chromosomes X (DXZ1) and Y (DYZ3) were used and >100 cells were analyzed/patient. Nineteen women had monosomy (45,X) (<10% 46,XX), nine had 45,X/46,XX mosaicism, and 14 had iso, ring, or a marker chromosome at baseline. At 10 years, the percentage of diploid cells had increased in 29 of 42 women (69%), with an average increase of 5.7±13.0%. There was a positive correlation between age and % change in diploid 46,XX or 46,XY cells (r=0.38, p=0.023). This new finding might have relevance for the life expectancy in TS. PMID:25587646

  19. [Bilateral urolithiasis with zonisamide developed for a short period of time in a 10-year-old girl with intractable epilepsy].

    PubMed

    Sato, Shunsuke; Nishinaka, Kazuyuki; Takahashi, Satoshi; Hirobe, Megumi; Tsukamoto, Taiji

    2013-09-01

    Zonisamide is an antiepileptic drug mainly used in patients with refractory epilepsy. One of the urological adverse effects caused by zonisamide is urinary lithiasis. We reported bilateral urinary lithiasis with zonisamide developed for a short period of time. A 10 year-old girl had been treated with zonisamide for intractable epilepsy for nine years. She progressively developed microscopic hematuria as well as crystalluria while being hospitalized for ventriculoperitoneal shunt infection. A computed tomography (CT) showed bilaterally hydronephrotic kidneys obstructed by multiple ureteral calculi. What was impressive was the fact that any single urinary calculus was not identified in a CT image taken just three weeks prior to this event. Then the diagnosis was made of zonisamide-induced bilateral urinary calculi and zonisamide treatment was discontinued. However, since the deterioration of renal function and left-sided hydronephrosis progressed, we performed the construction of right-sided percutaneous nephrostomy (PNS) and the transurethral placement of a left ureteral stent. Subsequently her condition was stabilized and all of these stones were discharged. The analysis of these stones showed mainly calcium phosphatic calculus. We eventually removed both the right PNS and the left ureteral stent. Since then, there has not been any recurrence thus far. We need to recognize the risk of progressively developing renal calculi during zonisamide treatment for a relatively short period of time in the face of dehydration. PMID:24187857

  20. 75 FR 79961 - Temporary Suspension of Certain Oil Spill Response Time Requirements To Support Deepwater Horizon...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-21

    ... Gulf of Mexico Deepwater Horizon SONSat the FOSC's request. 75 FR 37712. The rule also confirmed that...; 2050-AG63 Temporary Suspension of Certain Oil Spill Response Time Requirements To Support Deepwater.... Oil Spill Response Resources Return Time Several comments noted concerns about the return of assets...

  1. 75 FR 37712 - Temporary Suspension of Certain Oil Spill Response Time Requirements To Support Deepwater Horizon...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-30

    ...; 2050-AG63 Temporary Suspension of Certain Oil Spill Response Time Requirements To Support Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill of National Significance (SONS) Response AGENCIES: Coast Guard, DHS, and Environmental... Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) temporary interim rule will suspend oil spill response time...

  2. An integral equation representation approach for valuing Russian options with a finite time horizon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Junkee; Han, Heejae; Kim, Hyeonuk; Kang, Myungjoo

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we first describe a general solution for the inhomogeneous Black-Scholes partial differential equation with mixed boundary conditions using Mellin transform techniques. Since Russian options with a finite time horizon are usually formulated into the inhomogeneous free-boundary Black-Scholes partial differential equation with a mixed boundary condition, we apply our method to Russian options and derive an integral equation satisfied by Russian options with a finite time horizon. Furthermore, we present some numerical solutions and plots of the integral equation using recursive integration methods and demonstrate the computational accuracy and efficiency of our method compared to other competing approaches.

  3. Horizons and non-local time evolution of quantum mechanical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casadio, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    According to general relativity, trapping surfaces and horizons are classical causal structures that arise in systems with sharply defined energy and corresponding gravitational radius. The latter concept can be extended to a quantum mechanical matter state simply by means of the spectral decomposition, which allows one to define an associated "horizon wave-function". Since this auxiliary wave-function contains crucial information about the causal structure of space-time, a new proposal is formulated for the time evolution of quantum systems in order to account for the fundamental classical property that outer observers cannot receive signals from inside a horizon. The simple case of a massive free particle at rest is used throughout the paper as a toy model to illustrate the main ideas.

  4. Parisian ruin over a finite-time horizon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dębicki, Krzysztof; Hashorva, Enkelejd; Ji, LanPeng

    2016-03-01

    For a risk process $R_u(t)=u+ct-X(t), t\\ge 0$, where $u\\ge 0$ is the initial capital, $c>0$ is the premium rate and $X(t),t\\ge 0$ is an aggregate claim process, we investigate the probability of the Parisian ruin \\[ \\mathcal{P}_S(u,T_u)=\\mathbb{P}\\{\\inf_{t\\in[0,S]} \\sup_{s\\in[t,t+T_u]} R_u(s)<0\\}, \\] with a given positive constant $S$ and a positive measurable function $T_u$. We derive asymptotic expansion of $\\mathcal{P}_S(u,T_u)$, as $u\\to\\infty$, for the aggregate claim process $X$ modeled by Gaussian processes. As a by-product, we derive the exact tail asymptotics of the infimum of a standard Brownian motion with drift over a finite-time interval.

  5. Real-time beyond the horizon vessel detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roarty, Hugh J.; Smith, Michael; Glenn, Scott M.; Barrick, Donald E.

    2013-05-01

    The marine transportation system (MTS) is a vital component of the United States Economy. Waterborne cargo accounts for more than $742 billion of the nation's economy and creates employment for 13 million citizens. A disruption in this system would have far reaching consequences to the security of the country. The US National High Frequency radar network, which comprises 130 radar stations around the country, became operational in May 2009. It provides hourly measurements of surface currents to the US Coast Guard for search and rescue (SAR). This system has the capability of being a dual use system providing information for environmental monitoring as well as vessel position information for maritime security. Real time vessel detection has been implemented at two of the radar stations outside New York Harbor. Several experiments were conducted to see the amount vessel traffic that the radar could capture. The radars were able to detect a majority of the vessels that are reporting via the Automatic Identification System (AIS) as well as 30 percent of mid to large size vessels that are not reporting via AIS. The radars were able to detect vessels out to 60 km from the coast. The addition of a vessel detection capability to the National HF radar network will provide valuable information to maritime security sector. This dual use capability will fill a gap in the current surveillance of US coastal waters. It will also provide longer-range situational awareness necessary to detect and track smaller size vessels in the large vessel clutter.

  6. World-sheet stability, space-time horizons and cosmic censorship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollock, M. D.

    2014-11-01

    Previously, we have analyzed the stability and supersymmetry of the heterotic superstring world sheet in the background Friedmann space-time generated by a perfect fluid with energy density ρ and pressure p = ( γ - 1) ρ. The world sheet is tachyon-free within the range 2/3 ≤ γ ≤ ∞, and globally supersymmetric in the Minkowski-space limit ρ = ∞, or when γ = 2/3, which is the equation of state for stringy matter and corresponds to the Milne universe, that expands along its apparent horizon. Here, this result is discussed in greater detail, particularly with regard to the question of horizon structure, cosmic censorship, the TCP theorem, and local world-sheet supersymmetry. Also, we consider the symmetric background space-time generated by a static, electrically (or magnetically) charged matter distribution of total mass and charge Q, and containing a radially directed macroscopic string. We find that the effective string mass m satisfies the inequality m 2 ≥ 0, signifying stability, provided that , which corresponds to the Reissner-Nordström black hole. The case of marginal string stability, m 2 = 0, is the extremal solution , which was shown by Gibbons and Hull to be supersymmetric, and has a marginal horizon. If , the horizon disappears, m 2 < 0, and the string becomes unstable.

  7. Forecasting geomagnetic activity at monthly and annual horizons: Time series models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reikard, Gordon

    2015-10-01

    Most of the existing work on forecasting geomagnetic activity has been over short intervals, on the order of hours or days. However, it is also of interest to predict over longer horizons, ranging from months to years. Forecasting tests are run for the Aa index, which begins in 1868 and provides the longest continuous records of geomagnetic activity. This series is challenging to forecast. While it exhibits cycles at 11-22 years, the amplitude and period of the cycles varies over time. There is also evidence of discontinuous trending: the slope and direction of the trend change repeatedly. Further, at the monthly resolution, the data exhibits nonlinear variability, with intermittent large outliers. Several types of models are tested: regressions, neural networks, a frequency domain algorithm, and combined models. Forecasting tests are run at horizons of 1-11 years using the annual data, and 1-12 months using the monthly data. At the 1-year horizon, the mean errors are in the range of 13-17 percent while the median errors are in the range of 10-14 percent. The accuracy of the models deteriorates at longer horizons. At 5 years, the mean errors lie in the range of 21-23 percent, and at 11 years, 23-25 percent. At the 1 year horizon, the most accurate forecast is achieved by a combined model, but over longer horizons (2-11 years), the neural net dominates. At the monthly resolution, the mean errors are in the range of 17-19 percent at 1 month, while the median errors lie in a range of 14-17 percent. The mean error increases to 23-24 percent at 5 months, and 25 percent at 12 months. A model combining frequency and time domain methods is marginally better than regressions and neural networks alone, up to 11 months. The main conclusion is that geomagnetic activity can only be predicted to within a limited threshold of accuracy, over a given range of horizons. This is consistent with the finding of irregular trends and cycles in the annual data and nonlinear variability in

  8. Continuous-Time Mean-Variance Portfolio Selection with Random Horizon

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Zhiyong

    2013-12-15

    This paper examines the continuous-time mean-variance optimal portfolio selection problem with random market parameters and random time horizon. Treating this problem as a linearly constrained stochastic linear-quadratic optimal control problem, I explicitly derive the efficient portfolios and efficient frontier in closed forms based on the solutions of two backward stochastic differential equations. Some related issues such as a minimum variance portfolio and a mutual fund theorem are also addressed. All the results are markedly different from those in the problem with deterministic exit time. A key part of my analysis involves proving the global solvability of a stochastic Riccati equation, which is interesting in its own right.

  9. HORIZON SENSING

    SciTech Connect

    Larry G. Stolarczyk, Sc.D.

    2002-07-31

    Real-time horizon sensing (HS) on continuous mining (CM) machines is becoming an industry tool. Installation and testing of production-grade HS systems has been ongoing this quarter at Oxbow Mining Company, Monterey Coal Company (EXXON), FMC Trona, Twentymile Coal Company (RAG America), and SASOL Coal. Detailed monitoring of system function, user experience, and mining benefits is ongoing. All horizon sensor components have finished MSHA (United States) and IEC (International) certification.

  10. DART® Tsunameter Retrospective and Real-Time Data: A Reflection on 10 Years of Processing in Support of Tsunami Research and Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mungov, George; Eblé, Marie; Bouchard, Richard

    2013-09-01

    In the early 1980s, the United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory established the fundamentals of the contemporary tsunameter network deployed throughout the world oceans. The decades of technological and scientific advancements that followed led to a robust network that now provides real-time deep-ocean tsunami observations routinely incorporated into operational procedures of tsunami warning centers around the globe. All aspects of the network, from research to operations, to data archive and dissemination, are conducted collaboratively between the National Data Buoy Center, the Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, and the National Geophysical Data Center, with oversight by the National Weather Service. The National Data Buoy Center manages and conducts all operational network activities and distributes real-time data to the public. The Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory provides the research component in support of modeling and network enhancements for improved forecasting capability. The National Geophysical Data Center is responsible for the processing, archiving, and distribution of all retrospective data and integrates DART® tsunameter data with the National Geophysical Data Center global historical tsunami database. The role each agency plays in collecting, processing, and disseminating observations of deep-ocean bottom pressure is presented along with brief descriptions of data processing procedures. Specific examples of challenges and the approaches taken to address these are discussed. National Geophysical Data Center newly developed and available tsunami event web pages are briefly described and demonstrated with processed data for both the Tohoku 11 March 2011 and the Haiti 12 January 2010 tsunami events.

  11. Twelve months of active musical training in 8- to 10-year-old children enhances the preattentive processing of syllabic duration and voice onset time.

    PubMed

    Chobert, Julie; François, Clément; Velay, Jean-Luc; Besson, Mireille

    2014-04-01

    Musical training has been shown to positively influence linguistic abilities. To follow the developmental dynamics of this transfer effect at the preattentive level, we conducted a longitudinal study over 2 school years with nonmusician children randomly assigned to music or to painting training. We recorded the mismatch negativity (MMN), a cortical correlate of preattentive mismatch detection, to syllables that differed in vowel frequency, vowel duration, and voice onset time (VOT), using a test-training-retest procedure and 3 times of testing: before training, after 6 months and after 12 months of training. While no between-group differences were found before training, enhanced preattentive processing of syllabic duration and VOT, as reflected by greater MMN amplitude, but not of frequency, was found after 12 months of training in the music group only. These results demonstrate neuroplasticity in the child brain and suggest that active musical training rather than innate predispositions for music yielded the improvements in musically trained children. These results also highlight the influence of musical training for duration perception in speech and for the development of phonological representations in normally developing children. They support the importance of music-based training programs for children's education and open new remediation strategies for children with language-based learning impairments. PMID:23236208

  12. Incorporating a Time Horizon in Rate-of-Return Estimations: Discounted Cash Flow Model in Electric Transmission Rate Cases

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, Bishu; Sharp, Peter A.

    2006-07-15

    Electric transmission and other rate cases use a form of the discounted cash flow model with a single long-term growth rate to estimate rates of return on equity. It cannot incorporate information about the appropriate time horizon for which analysts' estimates of earnings growth have predictive powers. Only a non-constant growth model can explicitly recognize the importance of the time horizon in an ROE calculation. (author)

  13. Results and lessons of the 10 years experiment of large earthquake prediction made in advance with a lead time months using Reverse Tracing of Precursors (RTP) (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shebalin, P.

    2013-12-01

    The experiment in prospective documented earthquake prediction using the algorithm Reverse Tracing of Precursors (RTP) has been started in June 2003. The algorithm is based on the analysis of a set of intermediate-term precursors in an area of a short term long-range activation of seismicity, detected by earthquake chains. Earthquake chains are clusters of moderate-size earthquakes which extend over large distances and are formed by statistically rare pairs of events that are close in space and time. We put predictions on record at http://www.rtptest.org (with a restricted access to current predictions). Predictions are not deterministic: they are expected to be true with some probability exceeding 50%. During the period June 2003 to August 2013, 30 predictions were put on record, five of them were extended in modified area to longer intervals than standard 9 months. Those prolongations are not considered as separate predictions because they largely intersect in time and space with corresponding initial ones. Six earthquakes out of ten have been predicted (Hokkaido earthquake, September, 25, 2003, Mw=8.3; San-Simeon earthquake in California, 25 December, 2003, M=6.5, earthquake in the sea near Sendai, Japan, August 16, 2005, Mw=7.2; Simushir earthquake, Kuril Islands, November 15, 2006, Mw=8.3, Andreanoff Islands earthquake, December 19, 2007, M=7.2; Tohoku earthquake, March 11, 2011, M=9.1, Kurile Islands earthquake, April 19, 2013, M=7.2 and Okhotsk sea earthquake, May 24, 2013, M=8.3). Four earthquakes, in 2009 to 2012, have been missed. One of them is the Aquila earthquake in Central Italy, April 6th, 2009, M=6.3. We might suppose that this miss was due to an evident increase of the magnitude cut-off in the PDE catalogue we use for RTP in Italy. We have tried to complement retrospectively the catalogue with data from CSEM. However, the alarm prior to the Aquila earthquake still was not diagnosed. For three other earthquakes the situation is different. We

  14. Mean-Variance Hedging on Uncertain Time Horizon in a Market with a Jump

    SciTech Connect

    Kharroubi, Idris; Lim, Thomas; Ngoupeyou, Armand

    2013-12-15

    In this work, we study the problem of mean-variance hedging with a random horizon T∧τ, where T is a deterministic constant and τ is a jump time of the underlying asset price process. We first formulate this problem as a stochastic control problem and relate it to a system of BSDEs with a jump. We then provide a verification theorem which gives the optimal strategy for the mean-variance hedging using the solution of the previous system of BSDEs. Finally, we prove that this system of BSDEs admits a solution via a decomposition approach coming from filtration enlargement theory.

  15. The impact of the European Working Time Directive 10 years on: views of the UK medical graduates of 2002 surveyed in 2013–2014

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Trevor W; Goldacre, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To report doctors’ views about the European Working Time Directive (‘the Directive’). Design Survey of the medical graduates of 2002 (surveyed in 2013–2014). Participants Medical graduates. Setting UK. Main outcome measures Questions on views about the Directive. Results The response rate was 64% (2056/3196). Twelve per cent of respondents agreed that the Directive had benefited senior doctors, 39% that it benefited junior doctors, and 17% that it had benefited the NHS. More women (41%) than men (35%) agreed that the Directive had benefited junior doctors. Surgeons (6%) and adult medical specialists (8%) were least likely to agree that the Directive had benefited senior doctors. Surgeons (20%) were less likely than others to agree that the Directive had benefited junior doctors, whilst specialists in emergency medicine (57%) and psychiatry (52%) were more likely to agree. Surgeons (7%) were least likely to agree that the Directive had benefited the NHS. Most respondents (62%) reported a positive effect upon work–life balance. With regard to quality of patient care, 45% reported a neutral effect, 40% reported a negative effect, and 15% a positive effect. Most respondents (71%) reported a negative effect of the Directive on continuity of patient care, and 71% felt that the Directive had a negative effect upon junior doctors’ training opportunities. Fifty-two per cent reported a negative effect on efficiency in managing patient care. Conclusions Senior doctors agreed that the Directive benefited doctors’ work–life balance. In other respects, they were more negative about it. Surgeons were the least positive about aspects of the Directive. PMID:26981257

  16. Swift: 10 Years of Discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The conference Swift: 10 years of discovery was held in Roma at La Sapienza University on Dec. 2-5 2014 to celebrate 10 years of Swift successes. Thanks to a large attendance and a lively program, it provided the opportunity to review recent advances of our knowledge of the high-energy transient Universe both from the observational and theoretical sides. When Swift was launched on November 20, 2004, its prime objective was to chase Gamma-Ray Bursts and deepen our knowledge of these cosmic explosions. And so it did, unveiling the secrets of long and short GRBs. However, its multi-wavelength instrumentation and fast scheduling capabilities made it the most versatile mission ever flown. Besides GRBs, Swift has observed, and contributed to our understanding of, an impressive variety of targets including AGNs, supernovae, pulsars, microquasars, novae, variable stars, comets, and much more. Swift is continuously discovering rare and surprising events distributed over a wide range of redshifts, out to the most distant transient objects in the Universe. Such a trove of discoveries has been addressed during the conference with sessions dedicated to each class of events. Indeed, the conference in Rome was a spectacular celebration of the Swift 10th anniversary. It included sessions on all types of transient and steady sources. Top scientists from around the world gave invited and contributed talks. There was a large poster session, sumptuous lunches, news interviews and a glorious banquet with officials attending from INAF and ASI. All the presentations, as well as several conference pictures, can be found in the conference website (http://www.brera.inaf.it/Swift10/Welcome.html). These proceedings have been collected owing to the efforts of Paolo D’Avanzo who has followed each paper from submission to final acceptance. Our warmest thanks to Paolo for all his work. The Conference has been made possible by the support from La Sapienza University as well as from the ARAP

  17. Optimal Consumption in a Brownian Model with Absorption and Finite Time Horizon

    SciTech Connect

    Grandits, Peter

    2013-04-15

    We construct {epsilon}-optimal strategies for the following control problem: Maximize E[{integral}{sub [0,{tau})}e{sup -{beta}s} dC{sub s}+e{sup -{beta}{tau}}X{sub {tau}}] , where X{sub t}=x+{mu}t+{sigma}W{sub t}-C{sub t}, {tau}{identical_to}inf{l_brace}t>0|X{sub t}=0{r_brace} Logical-And T, T>0 is a fixed finite time horizon, W{sub t} is standard Brownian motion, {mu}, {sigma} are constants, and C{sub t} describes accumulated consumption until time t. It is shown that {epsilon}-optimal strategies are given by barrier strategies with time-dependent barriers.

  18. A receding horizon scheme for discrete-time polytopic linear parameter varying systems in networked architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franzè, Giuseppe; Lucia, Walter; Tedesco, Francesco

    2014-12-01

    This paper proposes a Model Predictive Control (MPC) strategy to address regulation problems for constrained polytopic Linear Parameter Varying (LPV) systems subject to input and state constraints in which both plant measurements and command signals in the loop are sent through communication channels subject to time-varying delays (Networked Control System (NCS)). The results here proposed represent a significant extension to the LPV framework of a recent Receding Horizon Control (RHC) scheme developed for the so-called robust case. By exploiting the parameter availability, the pre-computed sequences of one- step controllable sets inner approximations are less conservative than the robust counterpart. The resulting framework guarantees asymptotic stability and constraints fulfilment regardless of plant uncertainties and time-delay occurrences. Finally, experimental results on a laboratory two-tank test-bed show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  19. MARKOV: A methodology for the solution of infinite time horizon MARKOV decision processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, B.K.

    1988-01-01

    Algorithms are described for determining optimal policies for finite state, finite action, infinite discrete time horizon Markov decision processes. Both value-improvement and policy-improvement techniques are used in the algorithms. Computing procedures are also described. The algorithms are appropriate for processes that are either finite or infinite, deterministic or stochastic, discounted or undiscounted, in any meaningful combination of these features. Computing procedures are described in terms of initial data processing, bound improvements, process reduction, and testing and solution. Application of the methodology is illustrated with an example involving natural resource management. Management implications of certain hypothesized relationships between mallard survival and harvest rates are addressed by applying the optimality procedures to mallard population models.

  20. Pluto's Atmosphere at the Time of the New Horizons Flyby from the 29-JUN-2015 Occultation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, E.; Skrutskie, M.; Wasserman, L.; Howell, R.; Young, L.; Olkin, C.; Buie, M.

    2015-10-01

    Pluto is expected to occult a star on 29-JUN-2015, only two weeks before the scheduled New Horizons flyby on Pluto on 14-JUL-2015. This occultation should be remarkable for several reasons in addition to its synergy with the spacecraft observations. First, the occulted star is by far the brightest ever to be observed in a Pluto occultation: its V-mag is 12.10 ± 0.03, about ten times brighter than Pluto itself. We are deploying a wide array of telescopes to obtain quality lightcurves at 10 Hz, sufficient to resolve vertical atmospheric structure (e.g., gravity waves) at the 2.5-km scale over a range of radii from about 1195 to 1300 km. Second, we plan to obtain lighcurves in infrared wavelengths near 1.7 μm, where the star's H-mag (about 11) is bright enough to provide useful signal-to-noise ratios, albeit at slower cadences near 1 Hz (about two points per scale height). The combination of simultaneous IR and visible wavelength lightcurves should address the decades-old question: is there haze in Pluto's atmosphere, and if so, what is its opacity? New Horizons should image haze layers in reflected light as the occultation quantifies haze extinction in transmitted light: the combination could potentially let us solve for haze phase functions. Third, the current predicted shadow path is centered over much of New Zealand. We plan to deploy three portable telescopes in New Zealand to locations that are candidates for observing central flashes. If successful, these lightcurves can tell us (a) the oblateness of Pluto's atmosphere and (b) the detailed density gradient profile at radii near 1215 km, which (in turn) is a function of trace abundances of CO and CH4 a few tens of km above Pluto's surface. We will report on lightcurves obtained on 29-JUN- 2015, the column abundance of Pluto's atmosphere just two weeks before the New Horizons flyby, the detection (or not) of haze, and - if central flashes are obtained - the oblateness of Pluto's atmosphere.

  1. HORIZON SENSING

    SciTech Connect

    Larry G. Stolarczyk

    2003-03-18

    program began development in 1998 and experienced three major design phases. The final version, termed HS-3, was commissioned in 2000 with the assistance of the DOE-Mining Industry of the Future program, commercialized in 2002, and has been used 14 times in 12 different mines within the United States. The Horizon Sensor has applications in both underground and surface mining operations. This technology is primarily used in the coal industry, but is also used to mine trona and potash. All horizon sensor components have Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) (United States) and IEC (International) certification. Horizon Sensing saves energy by maximizing cutting efficiency, cutting only desired material. This desired material is cleaner fuel, therefore reducing pollutants to the atmosphere when burned and burning more efficiently. Extracting only desired material increases productivity by reducing or eliminating the cleaning step after extraction. Additionally, this technology allows for deeper mining, resulting in more material gained from one location. The remote sensing tool allows workers to operate the machinery away from the hazards of cutting coal, including noise, breathing dust and gases, and coal and rock splintering and outbursts. The HS program has primarily revolved around the development of the technology. However, the end goal of the program has always been the commercialization of the technology and only within the last 2 years of the program has this goal been realized. Real-time horizon sensing on mining machines is becoming an industry tool. Detailed monitoring of system function, user experience, and mining benefits is ongoing.

  2. ''Illusion of control'' in Time-Horizon Minority and Parrondo Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satinover, J. B.; Sornette, D.

    2007-12-01

    Human beings like to believe they are in control of their destiny. This ubiquitous trait seems to increase motivation and persistence, and is probably evolutionarily adaptive [J.D. Taylor, S.E. Brown, Psych. Bull. 103, 193 (1988); A. Bandura, Self-efficacy: the exercise of control (WH Freeman, New York, 1997)]. But how good really is our ability to control? How successful is our track record in these areas? There is little understanding of when and under what circumstances we may over-estimate [E. Langer, J. Pers. Soc. Psych. 7, 185 (1975)] or even lose our ability to control and optimize outcomes, especially when they are the result of aggregations of individual optimization processes. Here, we demonstrate analytically using the theory of Markov Chains and by numerical simulations in two classes of games, the Time-Horizon Minority Game [M.L. Hart, P. Jefferies, N.F. Johnson, Phys. A 311, 275 (2002)] and the Parrondo Game [J.M.R. Parrondo, G.P. Harmer, D. Abbott, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5226 (2000); J.M.R. Parrondo, How to cheat a bad mathematician (ISI, Italy, 1996)], that agents who optimize their strategy based on past information may actually perform worse than non-optimizing agents. In other words, low-entropy (more informative) strategies under-perform high-entropy (or random) strategies. This provides a precise definition of the “illusion of control” in certain set-ups a priori defined to emphasize the importance of optimization.

  3. Is it time to bring the “Parent” into the prevention of parent to child transmission programs in India? A study of trends over a 10-year period in a prevention of parent to child transmission clinic in India

    PubMed Central

    Shiradkar, Swati; Mande, Shubhangi; Bapat, Gauri; Setia, Maninder Singh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The present study evaluated the changes in serology and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing behaviors over a 10-year period in a center in India. Methods: We used clinical data collected at the antenatal clinic from 2002 to 2011. The key outcomes were: (1) Proportion of women who opted for HIV test and those who tested positive; (2) proportion of male partners who came in for HIV test and those who tested positive; and (3) proportion of women who opted for continuation of pregnancy or for medical termination of pregnancy. Results: We tested 11,452 women for HIV over the 10-year period from 2002 to 2011. The proportion of women who opted for HIV testing was 72.0% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 70.7–73.4%). The acceptance of test increased from 35.9% (95% CI: 31.7–40.4%) in 2002 to the peak of 82.6% (95% CI: 78.6–86.8%) in 2009 (P < 0.001). The overall HIV prevalence over the decade was 0.70% (95% CI: 0.55–0.87%). The prevalence high at 1.11% (95% CI: 0.23–3.24%) in 2002 and reduced to 0.37% (95% CI: 0.12–0.87%) in 2011 (P < 0.001). Only 0.57% of male partners tested for HIV over this time period. Conclusion: Strategies to improve acceptance of testing in pregnant women should be included in the Indian guidelines. The male partners do not get tested. Thus, this component needs to be strengthened - by targeted interventions for male spouses - to make the program more effective. PMID:27190414

  4. Space-time curvature and the cosmic horizon: derivations using the Newtonian world and the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öztaş, A. M.; Smith, M. L.

    2015-05-01

    Several relationships describing the distance versus time dependence of the cosmic horizon (Rh) for an expanding universe have been published within the past two decades. Some are based on the special conditions, including a flat universe geometry, and when applied for calculation return significantly different values. We present our derivation beginning with Newtonian world then following the Friedmann model from the viewpoint of an observer located at the origin of an expanding spherical, homogeneously matter-dominated universe; both geometrically flat and allowing space-time curvature. Our derivations for the cosmic horizon at the speed of light allow examination for the effects of matter density and space-time curvature. We also compare the fitness of several current models, including the recently proposed Rh = ct universe against the demands of the 580 Union 2.1 Type Ia supernovae distance and redshift data with uncommon, proper attention paid to data transformation and observational errors.

  5. GOM Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: A Time Series Analysis of Variations in Spilled Hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palomo, C. M.; Yan, B.

    2013-12-01

    An estimated amount of 210 million gallons of crude oil was released into the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) from April 20th to July 15th 2010 during the Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion. The spill caused a tremendous financial, ecological, environmental and health impact and continues to affect the GOM today. Variations in hydrocarbons including alkanes, hopanes and poly-cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can be analyzed to better understand the oil spill and assist in oil source identification. Twenty-one sediment samples*, two tar ball samples and one surface water oil sample were obtained from distinct locations in the GOM and within varying time frames from May to December 2010. Each sample was extracted through the ASE 200 solvent extractor, concentrated down under nitrogen gas, purified through an alumina column, concentrated down again with nitrogen gas and analyzed via GC X GC-TOF MS. Forty-one different hydrocarbons were quantified in each sample. Various hydrocarbon 'fingerprints,' such as parental :alkylate PAH ratios, high molecular weight PAHs: low molecular weight alkane ratios, and carbon preference index were calculated. The initial objective of this project was to identify the relative hydrocarbon contributions of petrogenic sources and combustion sources. Based on the calculated ratios, it is evident that the sediment core taken in October of 2010 was greatly affected by combustion sources. Following the first month of the spill, oil in the gulf was burned in attempts to contain the spill. Combustion related sources have quicker sedimentation rates, and hydrocarbons from a combustion source essentially move into deeper depths quicker than those from a petrogenic source, as was observed in analyses of the October 2010 sediment. *Of the twenty-one sediment samples prepared, nine were quantified for this project.

  6. The New Horizons Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fountain, Glen H.; Kusnierkiewicz, David Y.; Hersman, Christopher B.; Herder, Timothy S.; Coughlin, Thomas B.; Gibson, William C.; Clancy, Deborah A.; Deboy, Christopher C.; Hill, T. Adrian; Kinnison, James D.; Mehoke, Douglas S.; Ottman, Geffrey K.; Rogers, Gabe D.; Stern, S. Alan; Stratton, James M.; Vernon, Steven R.; Williams, Stephen P.

    2008-10-01

    The New Horizons spacecraft was launched on 19 January 2006. The spacecraft was designed to provide a platform for seven instruments designated by the science team to collect and return data from Pluto in 2015. The design meets the requirements established by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Announcement of Opportunity AO-OSS-01. The design drew on heritage from previous missions developed at The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) and other missions such as Ulysses. The trajectory design imposed constraints on mass and structural strength to meet the high launch acceleration consistent with meeting the AO requirement of returning data prior to the year 2020. The spacecraft subsystems were designed to meet tight resource allocations (mass and power) yet provide the necessary control and data handling finesse to support data collection and return when the one-way light time during the Pluto fly-by is 4.5 hours. Missions to the outer regions of the solar system (where the solar irradiance is 1/1000 of the level near the Earth) require a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) to supply electrical power. One RTG was available for use by New Horizons. To accommodate this constraint, the spacecraft electronics were designed to operate on approximately 200 W. The travel time to Pluto put additional demands on system reliability. Only after a flight time of approximately 10 years would the desired data be collected and returned to Earth. This represents the longest flight duration prior to the return of primary science data for any mission by NASA. The spacecraft system architecture provides sufficient redundancy to meet this requirement with a probability of mission success of greater than 0.85. The spacecraft is now on its way to Pluto, with an arrival date of 14 July 2015. Initial in-flight tests have verified that the spacecraft will meet the design requirements.

  7. An experimental study of the influence of limited time horizon on positivity effects among young adults using eye-tracking.

    PubMed

    Cypryańska, Marzena; Krejtz, Izabela; Jaskółowska, Aleksandra; Kulawik, Alicja; Żukowska, Aleksandra; De Zavala, Agnieszka Golec; Niewiarowski, Jakub; Nezlek, John B

    2014-12-01

    Compared to younger adults, older adults attend more to positive stimuli, a positivity effect. Older adults have limited time horizons, and they focus on maintaining positive affect, whereas younger adults have unlimited time horizons, and they focus on acquiring knowledge and developing skills. Time horizons were manipulated by asking participants (66 young adults, M age = 20.5 yr., SD = 1.2) to think that their lives would end in three years. Some participants focused on what they would do in these three years (life focus), whereas others focused on the fact that they would die in three years (death focus). Attentional biases to facial expressions of happiness, sadness, fear, anger, and disgust were measured. Participants viewed 20 slides including pairings of a happy face with each of the negative emotions. The dependent measure was the relative attention paid to the faces on each slide. Participants in the experimental conditions exhibited a positivity effect compared to participants in the control condition, although some results suggested that this effect was weaker in the death focus condition than in the life focus condition. PMID:25457091

  8. Optimal stock liquidation in a regime switching model with finite time horizon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pemy, M.; Zhang, Q.

    2006-09-01

    This paper is concerned with a finite-horizon optimal selling rule. A set of geometric Brownian motions coupled by a finite-state Markov chain is used to characterize stock price movements. Given a fixed transaction fee, the optimal selling rule can be obtained by solving an optimal stopping problem. The corresponding value function is shown to be the unique viscosity solution to the associated HJB equations. Numerical solutions to these equations and their convergence are obtained. A numerical example is presented to illustrate the results.

  9. Emergence of time-horizon invariant correlation structure in financial returns by subtraction of the market mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borghesi, Christian; Marsili, Matteo; Miccichè, Salvatore

    2007-08-01

    We investigate the emergence of a structure in the correlation matrix of assets’ returns as the time horizon over which returns are computed increases from the minutes to the daily scale. We analyze data from different stock markets (New York, Paris, London, Milano) and with different methods. In addition to the usual correlations, we also analyze those obtained by subtracting the dynamics of the “center of mass” (i.e., the market mode). We find that when the center of mass is not removed the structure emerges, as the time horizon increases, from splitting a single large cluster into smaller ones. By contrast, when the market mode is removed the structure of correlations observed at the daily scale is already well defined at very high frequency ( 5min in the New York Stock Exchange). Moreover, this structure accounts for 80% of the classification of stocks in economic sectors. Similar results, though less sharp, are found for the other markets. We also find that the structure of correlations in the overnight returns is markedly different from that of intraday activity.

  10. Time-lapse borehole radar for monitoring rainfall infiltration through podosol horizons in a sandy vadose zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strobach, Elmar; Harris, B. D.; Dupuis, J. C.; Kepic, A. W.

    2014-03-01

    The shallow aquifer on the Gnangara Mound, north of Perth, Western Australia, is recharged by winter rainfall. Water infiltrates through a sandy Podosol where cemented accumulation (B-) horizons are common. They are water retentive and may impede recharge. To observe wetting fronts and the influence of soil horizons on unsaturated flow, we deployed time-lapse borehole radar techniques sensitive to soil moisture variations during an annual recharge cycle. Zero-offset crosswell profiling (ZOP) and vertical radar profiling (VRP) measurements were performed at six sites on a monthly basis before, during, and after annual rainfall in 2011. Water content profiles are derived from ZOP logs acquired in closely spaced wells. Sites with small separation between wells present potential repeatability and accuracy difficulties. Such problems could be lessened by (i) ZOP saturated zone velocity matching of time-lapse curves, and (ii) matching of ZOP and VRP results. The moisture contents for the baseline condition and subsequent observations are computed using the Topp relationship. Time-lapse moisture curves reveal characteristic vadose zone infiltration regimes. Examples are (I) full recharge potential after 200 mm rainfall, (II) delayed wetting and impeded recharge, and (III) no recharge below 7 m depth. Seasonal infiltration trends derived from long-term time-lapse neutron logging at several sites are shown to be comparable with infiltration trends recovered from time-lapse crosswell radar measurements. However, radar measurements sample a larger volume of earth while being safer to deploy than the neutron method which employs a radioactive source. For the regime (III) site, where time-lapse radar indicates no net recharge or zero flux to the water table, a simple water balance provides an evapotranspiration value of 620 mm for the study period. This value compares favorably to previous studies at similar test sites in the region. Our six field examples demonstrate

  11. The State of Pluto's Bulk Atmosphere at the Time of the New Horizons Encounter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resnick, Aaron C.; Barry, T.; Buie, M. W.; Carriazo, C. Y.; Cole, A.; Gault, D.; Giles, B.; Giles, D.; Hartig, K.; Hill, K.; Howell, R. R.; Hudson, G.; Loader, B.; Mackie, J.; Nelson, M.; Olkin, C.; Register, J.; Rodgers, T.; Sicardy, B.; Skrutskie, M.; Verbiscer, A.; Wasserman, L.; Watson, C.; Young, E.; Young, L.; Zalucha, A.

    2015-11-01

    On 29-JUL-2015, our team - plus many critical amateur astronomers - observed a stellar occultation by Pluto from sites in Australia and New Zealand. This event was remarkable for two reasons: it preceded the New Horizons flyby of Pluto by just two weeks, and the occulted star was about 10x brighter than Pluto itself, by far the brightest Pluto occultation event observed to date. The separation of ground sites spanned nearly 900 km with respect to the central chord, allowing a good geometric solution for the shadow path. The lightcurves show some inflection points and broad "fangs" that are characteristic of perturbations in the temperature profile. Preliminary fits show that the temperature profile derived from a 2006 occultation (Young et al. 2008) reproduces the 29-JUN-2015 lightcurves well. Assuming a surface radius of 1187 km for Pluto, we find that the surface pressure is 18 +/- 3 µbar. This pressure indicates that Pluto's surface has not yet started to cool down, despite a decrease in absorbed solar flux of more than 17% since perihelion in 1988. A surface pressure of 18 µbar would correspond to a nitrogen ice surface temperature of 38.0 K.References:Young, E.F., et al. "Vertical Structure in Pluto's Atmosphere from the 2006 June 12 Stellar Occultation," AJ 136 1757-1769 (2008)

  12. Water Stress on U.S. Power Production at Decadal Time Horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguli, P.; Kumar, D.; Yun, J.; Short, G.; Klausner, J.; Ganguly, A. R.

    2014-12-01

    Thermoelectric power production at risk, owing to current and projected water scarcity and rising stream temperatures, is assessed for the continental United States (US) at decadal scales. Regional water scarcity is driven by climate variability and change, as well as by multi-sector water demand. While a planning horizon of zero to about thirty years is occasionally prescribed by stakeholders, the challenges to risk assessment at these scales include the difficulty in delineating decadal climate trends from intrinsic natural or multiple model variability. Current generation global climate or earth system models are not credible at the spatial resolutions of power plants, especially for surface water quantity and stream temperatures, which further exacerbates the assessment challenge. Population changes, which are anyway difficult to project, cannot serve as adequate proxies for changes in the water demand across sectors. The hypothesis that robust assessments of power production at risks are possible, despite the uncertainties, has been examined as a proof of concept. An approach is presented for delineating water scarcity and temperature from climate models, observations and population storylines, as well as for assessing power production at risk by examining geospatial correlations of power plant locations within regions where the usable water supply for energy production happens to be scarcer and warmer. Acknowledgment: Funding provided by US DOE's ARPA-E through Award DE-AR0000374.

  13. Mitochondrial ROS Metabolism: 10 Years Later

    PubMed Central

    Kushnareva, Y. E.; Murphy, A. N.

    2015-01-01

    The role of mitochondria in oxidative stress is well recognized, but many questions are still to be answered. This article is intended to update our comprehensive review in 2005 by highlighting the progress in understanding of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism over the past 10 years. We review the recently identified or re-appraised sources of ROS generation in mitochondria, such as p66shc protein, succinate dehydrogenase, and recently discovered properties of the mitochondrial antioxidant system. We also reflect upon some controversies, disputes, and misconceptions that confound the field. PMID:26071769

  14. Pediatric lung transplantation: 10 years of experience

    PubMed Central

    Camargo, Priscila C. L. B.; Pato, Eduardo Z. S.; Campos, Silvia V.; Afonso, José E.; Carraro, Rafael M.; Costa, André N.; Teixeira, Ricardo H. O. B.; Samano, Marcos N.; Pêgo-Fernandes, Paulo M.

    2014-01-01

    Lung transplantation is a well-established treatment for advanced lung diseases. In children, the diseases that most commonly lead to the need for a transplantation are cystic fibrosis, pulmonary hypertension, and bronchiolitis. However, the number of pediatric lung transplantations being performed is low compared with the number of transplants performed in the adult age group. The objective of this study was to demonstrate our experience with pediatric lung transplants over a 10-year period in a program initially designed for adults. PMID:24860860

  15. Neurology--the next 10 years.

    PubMed

    Baron, Ralf; Ferriero, Donna M; Frisoni, Giovanni B; Bettegowda, Chetan; Gokaslan, Ziya L; Kessler, John A; Vezzani, Annamaria; Waxman, Stephen G; Jarius, Sven; Wildemann, Brigitte; Weller, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Since the launch of our journal as Nature Clinical Practice Neurology in 2005, we have seen remarkable progress in many areas of neurology research, but what does the future hold? Will advances in basic research be translated into effective disease-modifying therapies, and will personalized medicine finally become a reality? For this special Viewpoint article, we invited a panel of Advisory Board members and other journal contributors to outline their research priorities and predictions in neurology for the next 10 years. PMID:26503922

  16. The professional code--10 years later.

    PubMed

    Aston-McCrimmon, E

    1986-01-01

    In 1974, following an extensive eight-year review of professional practices in the Province of Quebec, the Professional Code and the 21 professional bills associated with it became operational. Thirty-eight professional corporations encompassing the fields of health, administration, finance, applied sciences and justice were named in the Code, and each was assigned an exclusive mandate to protect the public. The mechanisms outline for controlling professional practice and promoting public service included professional inspection and discipline, as well as regulations regarding ethics, the arbitration of accounts, the keeping of client records, and publicity. This paper discusses the effectiveness of these mechanisms over the past 10-year period. It also looks at the capabilities of the corporations to achieve their mandates in light of the legal status assigned to each--whether that be exclusive right of practice and reserve of title (21 corporations), or reserve of title only (17 corporations). PMID:10275979

  17. Aqua's First 10 Years: An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, Claire L.

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Aqua spacecraft was launched at 2:55 a.m. on May 4, 2002, from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California, into a near-polar, sun-synchronous orbit at an altitude of 705 km. Aqua carries six Earth-observing instruments to collect data on water in all its forms (liquid, vapor, and solid) and on a wide variety of additional Earth system variables (Parkinson 2003). The design lifetime for Aqua's prime mission was 6 years, and Aqua is now well into its extended mission, approaching 10 years of successful operations. The Aqua data have been used for hundreds of scientific studies and continue to be used for scientific discovery and numerous practical applications.

  18. Penile injuries: A 10-year experience

    PubMed Central

    Krishna Reddy, S.V.; Shaik, Ahammad Basha; Sreenivas, K.

    2014-01-01

    We report our 10-year experience with penile injuries. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 156 cases of male external genitalia injuries between May 2002 and December 2012. Of these, only 26 patients presented without urethral injuries and were included in this study. Patients were divided into 4 groups: Group 1 (n = 12) with patients with penile fractures injuries; Group 2 (n = 5) with patients with penile amputation injuries; Group 3 (n = 2) with patients with penile penetrating injuries; and Group 4 (n = 7) with patients with penile soft tissue injuries. Grading of injury was done using the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST)-Organ injury scale of penile injury. Penile injuries without urethral injuries are urological emergencies which require immediate attention. PMID:25295134

  19. Adaptive dynamic programming for finite-horizon optimal control of discrete-time nonlinear systems with ε-error bound.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei-Yue; Jin, Ning; Liu, Derong; Wei, Qinglai

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study the finite-horizon optimal control problem for discrete-time nonlinear systems using the adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) approach. The idea is to use an iterative ADP algorithm to obtain the optimal control law which makes the performance index function close to the greatest lower bound of all performance indices within an ε-error bound. The optimal number of control steps can also be obtained by the proposed ADP algorithms. A convergence analysis of the proposed ADP algorithms in terms of performance index function and control policy is made. In order to facilitate the implementation of the iterative ADP algorithms, neural networks are used for approximating the performance index function, computing the optimal control policy, and modeling the nonlinear system. Finally, two simulation examples are employed to illustrate the applicability of the proposed method. PMID:20876014

  20. Neural network-based finite-horizon optimal control of uncertain affine nonlinear discrete-time systems.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qiming; Xu, Hao; Jagannathan, Sarangapani

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, the finite-horizon optimal control design for nonlinear discrete-time systems in affine form is presented. In contrast with the traditional approximate dynamic programming methodology, which requires at least partial knowledge of the system dynamics, in this paper, the complete system dynamics are relaxed utilizing a neural network (NN)-based identifier to learn the control coefficient matrix. The identifier is then used together with the actor-critic-based scheme to learn the time-varying solution, referred to as the value function, of the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equation in an online and forward-in-time manner. Since the solution of HJB is time-varying, NNs with constant weights and time-varying activation functions are considered. To properly satisfy the terminal constraint, an additional error term is incorporated in the novel update law such that the terminal constraint error is also minimized over time. Policy and/or value iterations are not needed and the NN weights are updated once a sampling instant. The uniform ultimate boundedness of the closed-loop system is verified by standard Lyapunov stability theory under nonautonomous analysis. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:25720005

  1. Time horizons and substance use among African American youths living in disadvantaged urban areas.

    PubMed

    Cheong, JeeWon; Tucker, Jalie A; Simpson, Cathy A; Chandler, Susan D

    2014-04-01

    Transitioning from adolescence to full-fledged adulthood is often challenging, and young people who live in disadvantaged urban neighborhoods face additional obstacles and experience disproportionately higher negative outcomes, including substance abuse and related risk behaviors. This study investigated whether substance use among African Americans ages 15 to 25 (M=18.86 years) living in such areas was related to present-dominated time perspectives and higher delay discounting. Participants (N=344, 110 males, 234 females) living in Deep South disadvantaged urban neighborhoods were recruited using Respondent Driven Sampling, an improved peer-referral sampling method suitable for accessing this hard-to-reach target group. Structured field interviews assessed alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use and risk/protective factors, including time perspectives (Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory [ZTPI]) and behavioral impulsivity (delay discounting task). As predicted, substance use was positively related to a greater ZTPI orientation toward present pleasure and a lower tendency to plan and achieve future goals. Although the sample as a whole showed high discounting of delayed rewards, discount rates did not predict substance use. The findings suggest that interventions to lengthen time perspectives and promote enriched views of future possible selves may prevent and reduce substance use among disadvantaged youths. Discontinuities among the discounting and time perspective variables in relation to substance use merit further investigation. PMID:24531637

  2. Impact of curvature divergences on physical observers in a wormhole space-time with horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olmo, Gonzalo J.; Rubiera-Garcia, D.; Sanchez-Puente, A.

    2016-06-01

    The impact of curvature divergences on physical observers in a black hole space-time, which, nonetheless, is geodesically complete is investigated. This space-time is an exact solution of certain extensions of general relativity coupled to Maxwell’s electrodynamics and, roughly speaking, consists of two Reissner-Nordström (or Schwarzschild or Minkowski) geometries connected by a spherical wormhole near the center. We find that, despite the existence of infinite tidal forces, causal contact is never lost among the elements making up the observer. This suggests that curvature divergences may not be as pathological as traditionally thought.

  3. Highlights of 10 years of immunology in Nature Reviews Immunology

    PubMed Central

    Medzhitov, Ruslan; Shevach, Ethan M.; Trinchieri, Giorgio; Mellor, Andrew L.; Munn, David H.; Gordon, Siamon; Libby, Peter; Hansson, Göran K.; Shortman, Ken; Dong, Chen; Gabrilovich, Dmitry; Gabryšová, Leona; Howes, Ashleigh; O’Garra, Anne

    2013-01-01

    As Nature Reviews Immunology reaches its 10th anniversary, we’ve asked the authors of one of the top-cited articles of each year to look back on the state of research at the time their Review was published, to consider why the article has had the impact it has and to discuss the future directions of their field. This Viewpoint article provides an interesting snapshot of some of the fundamental advances in the field of immunology over the past 10 years — including Toll-like receptor signalling, immune regulation mediated by regulatory T cells, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, myeloid-derived suppressor cells and interleukin-10, the development and heterogeneity of macrophages, dendritic cells and T helper cells, and the immune processes involved in diseases such as atherosclerosis — and looks forward to what the next 10 years may bring. PMID:21941295

  4. 1.3 mm WAVELENGTH VLBI OF SAGITTARIUS A*: DETECTION OF TIME-VARIABLE EMISSION ON EVENT HORIZON SCALES

    SciTech Connect

    Fish, Vincent L.; Doeleman, Sheperd S.; Beaudoin, Christopher; Bolin, David E.; Rogers, Alan E. E.; Blundell, Ray; Gurwell, Mark A.; Moran, James M.; Primiani, Rurik; Bower, Geoffrey C.; Plambeck, Richard; Chamberlin, Richard; Freund, Robert; Friberg, Per; Honma, Mareki; Oyama, Tomoaki; Inoue, Makoto; Krichbaum, Thomas P.; Lamb, James; Marrone, Daniel P.

    2011-02-01

    Sagittarius A*, the {approx}4 x 10{sup 6} M{sub sun} black hole candidate at the Galactic center, can be studied on Schwarzschild radius scales with (sub)millimeter wavelength very long baseline interferometry (VLBI). We report on 1.3 mm wavelength observations of Sgr A* using a VLBI array consisting of the JCMT on Mauna Kea, the Arizona Radio Observatory's Submillimeter Telescope on Mt. Graham in Arizona, and two telescopes of the CARMA array at Cedar Flat in California. Both Sgr A* and the quasar calibrator 1924-292 were observed over three consecutive nights, and both sources were clearly detected on all baselines. For the first time, we are able to extract 1.3 mm VLBI interferometer phase information on Sgr A* through measurement of closure phase on the triangle of baselines. On the third night of observing, the correlated flux density of Sgr A* on all VLBI baselines increased relative to the first two nights, providing strong evidence for time-variable change on scales of a few Schwarzschild radii. These results suggest that future VLBI observations with greater sensitivity and additional baselines will play a valuable role in determining the structure of emission near the event horizon of Sgr A*.

  5. Killing Horizons Kill Horizon Degrees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergamin, L.; Grumiller, D.

    Frequently, it is argued that the microstates responsible for the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy should arise from some physical degrees of freedom located near or on the black hole horizon. In this essay, we elucidate that instead entropy may emerge from the conversion of physical degrees of freedom, attached to a generic boundary, into unobservable gauge degrees of freedom attached to the horizon. By constructing the reduced phase space, it can be demonstrated that such a transmutation indeed takes place for a large class of black holes, including Schwarzschild.

  6. The Glacier Peak Tephra: A Continental-Scale Latest Pleistocene Time Horizon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyne-O'Donnell, S.; Cwynar, L. C.; Vincent, J. H.; Spear, R.; Froese, D. G.

    2014-12-01

    The latest Pleistocene eruptions of Glacier Peak in the Cascade Range deposited a widespread set of tephras throughout much of western North America within a short time span where they serve as valuable marker layers for inter-site correlation and chronostratigraphical control. We report the detection of these tephras in microscopic form in three lakes along the Eastern Seaboard (Maine and Nova Scotia). These distinct distal lake layers occur as closely spaced couplets which retain the subtle geochemical variation that characterises the proximal Glacier Peak G and B layers. New radiocarbon dates for the tephras also closely corroborate the most recently revised proximal dates for the tephras (ca. 13,700 - 13,400 cal. yr B.P) which found that they are ca. 400 14C yr older than hitherto thought. Their presence this far eastward implies that their deposition spans the intervening continent (>4000 km) and adds to a developing distal tephrostratigraphical framework with applications to studies of latest Pleistocene deglaciation and environmental change, megafaunal extinction and archaeology.

  7. HORIZON SENSING (PROPOSAL NO.51)

    SciTech Connect

    Larry G. Stolarczyk

    2003-07-01

    Real-time horizon sensing on continuous mining machines is becoming an industry tool. Installation and testing of production-grade Horizon Sensor (HS) systems continued this quarter at Monterey Coal Company (ExxonMobil), Mountain Coal Company West Elk Mine (Arch), and Ohio Valley Coal Company (OVC). Monitoring of system function, user experience, and mining benefits is ongoing. All horizon sensor components have finished MSHA (U.S.) and IEC (International) certification.

  8. HORIZON SENSING (PROPOSAL NO.51)

    SciTech Connect

    Larry G. Stolarczyk

    2003-07-30

    Real-time horizon sensing on continuous mining (CM) machines is becoming an industry tool. Installation and testing of production-grade Horizon Sensor (HS) systems has been ongoing this quarter at Monterey Coal Company (ExxonMobil), Mountain Coal Company West Elk Mine (Arch), Deserado Mining Company (Blue Mountain Energy), and The Ohio Valley Coal Company (TOVCC). Monitoring of system function, user experience, and mining benefits is ongoing. All horizon sensor components have finished MSHA (U.S.) and IEC (International) certification.

  9. A Randomized Clinical Trial to Assess the Efficacy and Safety of Real-Time Continuous Glucose Monitoring in the Management of Type 1 Diabetes in Young Children Aged 4 to <10 Years

    PubMed Central

    Mauras, Nelly; Beck, Roy; Xing, Dongyuan; Ruedy, Katrina; Buckingham, Bruce; Tansey, Michael; White, Neil H.; Weinzimer, Stuart A.; Tamborlane, William; Kollman, Craig

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) has been demonstrated to improve glycemic control in adults with type 1 diabetes but less so in children. We designed a study to assess CGM benefit in young children aged 4 to 9 years with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS After a run-in phase, 146 children with type 1 diabetes (mean age 7.5 ± 1.7 years, 64% on pumps, median diabetes duration 3.5 years) were randomly assigned to CGM or to usual care. The primary outcome was reduction in HbA1c at 26 weeks by ≥0.5% without the occurrence of severe hypoglycemia. RESULTS The primary outcome was achieved by 19% in the CGM group and 28% in the control group (P = 0.17). Mean change in HbA1c was −0.1% in each group (P = 0.79). Severe hypoglycemia rates were similarly low in both groups. CGM wear decreased over time, with only 41% averaging at least 6 days/week at 26 weeks. There was no correlation between CGM use and change in HbA1c (rs = −0.09, P = 0.44). CGM wear was well tolerated, and parental satisfaction with CGM was high. However, parental fear of hypoglycemia was not reduced. CONCLUSIONS CGM in 4- to 9-year-olds did not improve glycemic control despite a high degree of parental satisfaction with CGM. We postulate that this finding may be related in part to limited use of the CGM glucose data in day-to-day management and to an unremitting fear of hypoglycemia. Overcoming the barriers that prevent integration of these critical glucose data into day-to-day management remains a challenge. PMID:22210571

  10. The optimal manufacturing batch size with rework under time-varying demand process for a finite time horizon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musa, Sarah; Supadi, Siti Suzlin; Omar, Mohd

    2014-07-01

    Rework is one of the solutions to some of the main issues in reverse logistic and green supply chain as it reduces production cost and environmental problem. Many researchers focus on developing rework model, but to the knowledge of the author, none of them has developed a model for time-varying demand rate. In this paper, we extend previous works and develop multiple batch production system for time-varying demand rate with rework. In this model, the rework is done within the same production cycle.

  11. Nutrient intakes of 2- to 10-year-old American children: 10-year trends.

    PubMed

    Albertson, A M; Tobelmann, R C; Engstrom, A; Asp, E H

    1992-12-01

    Nutrient intakes of American children aged 2 to 10 years were compared for the years 1978 and 1988 using a unique nutrient assessment system designed and developed by the Nutrition Department at General Mills. This system integrated data from three sources: 14-day food consumption diaries collected from 4,000 households in the Market Research Corporation of America Menu Census panel surveys; serving-size data from the spring 1977 Nationwide Food Consumption Survey; and nutrient data from the Michigan State University Nutrient Data Bank. The results indicate that energy and macronutrient intakes remained fairly constant over the 10-year period. Average daily vitamin and mineral intakes were lower in 1988 than in 1978 for the majority of those studied; however, most nutrient levels remained over 100% of the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs). For more than 50% of the population, the intakes of calcium, vitamin B-6, and zinc were below the RDAs. Our findings indicate the need for continued monitoring of the impact of changing food consumption patterns on the diets of American children. PMID:1452963

  12. Planning ahead in public health? A qualitative study of the time horizons used in public health decision-making

    PubMed Central

    Taylor-Robinson, David C; Milton, Beth; Lloyd-Williams, Ffion; O'Flaherty, Martin; Capewell, Simon

    2008-01-01

    Background In order to better understand factors that influence decisions for public health, we undertook a qualitative study to explore issues relating to the time horizons used in decision-making. Methods Qualitative study using semi-structured interviews. 33 individuals involved in the decision making process around coronary heart disease were purposively sampled from the UK National Health Service (national, regional and local levels), academia and voluntary organizations. Analysis was based on the framework method using N-VIVO software. Interviews were transcribed, coded and emergent themes identified. Results Many participants suggested that the timescales for public health decision-making are too short. Commissioners and some practitioners working at the national level particularly felt constrained in terms of planning for the long-term. Furthermore respondents felt that longer term planning was needed to address the wider determinants of health and to achieve societal level changes. Three prominent 'systems' issues were identified as important drivers of short term thinking: the need to demonstrate impact within the 4 year political cycle; the requirement to 'balance the books' within the annual commissioning cycle and the disruption caused by frequent re-organisations within the health service. In addition respondents suggested that the tools and evidence base for longer term planning were not well established. Conclusion Many public health decision and policy makers feel that the timescales for decision-making are too short. Substantial systemic barriers to longer-term planning exist. Policy makers need to look beyond short-term targets and budget cycles to secure investment for long-term improvement in public health. PMID:19094194

  13. A Time-Series of Surface Oil Distribution Detected by Satellite SAR During the Deepwater Horizon Blowout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, I. R.; Garcia-Pineda, O. G.; Solow, A.; Daneshgar, S.; Beet, A.

    2013-12-01

    Oil discharged as a result of the Deepwater Horizon disaster was detected on the surface of the Gulf of Mexico by synthetic aperture radar satellites from 25 April 2010 until 4 August 2010. SAR images were not restricted by daylight or cloud-cover. Distribution of this material is a tracer for potential environmental impacts and an indicator of impact mitigation due to response efforts and physical forcing factors. We used a texture classifying neural network algorithm for semi-supervised processing of 176 SAR images from the ENVISAT, RADARSAT I, and COSMO-SKYMED satellites. This yielded an estimate the proportion of oil-covered water within the region sampled by each image with a nominal resolution of 10,000 sq m (100m pixels), which was compiled as a 5-km equal area grid covering the northern Gulf of Mexico. Few images covered the entire impact area, so analysis was required to compile a regular time-series of the oil cover. A Gaussian kernel using a bandwidth of 2 d was used to estimate oil cover percent in each grid at noon and midnight throughout the interval. Variance and confidence intervals were calculated for each grid and for the global 12-h totals. Results animated across the impact region show the spread of oil under the influence of physical factors. Oil cover reached an early peak of 17032.26 sq km (sd 460.077) on 18 May, decreasing to 27% of this total on 4 June, following by sharp increase to an overall maximum of 18424.56 sq km (sd 424.726) on 19 June. There was a significant negative correlation between average wind stress and the total area of oil cover throughout the time-series. Correlation between response efforts including aerial and subsurface application of dispersants and burning of gathered oil was negative, positive, or indeterminate at different time segments during the event. Daily totals for oil-covered surface waters of the Gulf of Mexico during 25 April - 9 August 2010 with upper and lower 0.95 confidence limits on estimate. (No oil

  14. 100% Retention of Snowpack Derived Nitrogen Over 10 Years in High Arctic Tundra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhary, S.; Tye, A. M.; Young, S. D.; West, H. M.; Phoenix, G. K.

    2013-12-01

    Tundra ecosystems are susceptible to atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition, increasing as a result of anthropogenic activities as well as climate change. Depositions that get accumulated within the snowpack during winter months are released in spring during snowmelt, providing a periodic input of reactive N in the melt water to such nutrient limited ecosystems. Identifying ecosystem N retention and allocation and how this change over time is important to understanding the long-term consequences of such N depositions to these ecosystems. We reanalysed 10 years later an atmospheric N deposition study established in Svalbard that in 2001 used 15N isotope tracers to determine the fate of N released from melting snowpack. Applications of 15N (99 atom%) at 0.1 and 0.5 g N m-2 were made immediately after snowmelt in 2001 as either Na15NO3 or 15NH4Cl. These applications were approximately 1 × and 5 × the yearly atmospheric deposition rates. In both the previous short-term (one week to two years after 15N tracer application) and our long-term re-sampling (10 years after 15N tracer application), ~67% of the total applied 15N was retained in the ecosystem, irrespective of the N forms or N dose. This meant the tundra had 100% long-term N retention after initial partitioning, suggesting a highly conservative N cycling. Bryophytes, followed by the organic soil horizon and then the microbial biomass formed the greatest short-term 15N sink. Maximum changes in 15N retention from the short- to long-term were observed in the microbial 15N pools, with ~75% of the 15N in soil located in its biomass during the initial partitioning (July 2001) decreasing to ~17% 10 years later. This indicates significant microbial N turnover mostly into stable humus N. In contrast, vascular plants, particularly Salix polaris, showed significant increases (~60%) in their 15N retention after 10 years, indicating a high capacity for acting as a long-term N sink in this tundra ecosystem. Because the largest

  15. Draft 1992 : Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement 10-Year Plan.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-05-01

    Two years ago, BPA released its first-ever Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement (OM&R) 10-Year Plan. That effort broke new ground and was an extensive look at the condition of Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement on BPA`s power system. This document -- the 1992 OM&R 10-Year Plan -- uses that original plan as its foundation. It takes a look at how well BPA has accomplished the challenging task set out in the 1990 Plan. The 1992 Plan also introduces the Construction Program. Construction`s critical role in these programs is explored, and the pressures of construction workload -- such as the seasonal nature of the work and the broad swings in workload between projects and years -- are discussed. The document then looks at how situations may have changed with issues explored initially in the 1990 Plan. Importantly, this Plan also surfaces and explains some new issues that threaten to impact BPA`s ability to accomplish its OM&R workload. Finally, the document focuses on the revised strategies for Operations, Maintenance, Replacement, Construction, and Environment for the 1992 to 2001 time period, including the financial and human resources needed to accomplish those strategies.

  16. Draft 1992 : Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement 10-Year Plan.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-05-01

    Two years ago, BPA released its first-ever Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement (OM R) 10-Year Plan. That effort broke new ground and was an extensive look at the condition of Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement on BPA's power system. This document -- the 1992 OM R 10-Year Plan -- uses that original plan as its foundation. It takes a look at how well BPA has accomplished the challenging task set out in the 1990 Plan. The 1992 Plan also introduces the Construction Program. Construction's critical role in these programs is explored, and the pressures of construction workload -- such as the seasonal nature of the work and the broad swings in workload between projects and years -- are discussed. The document then looks at how situations may have changed with issues explored initially in the 1990 Plan. Importantly, this Plan also surfaces and explains some new issues that threaten to impact BPA's ability to accomplish its OM R workload. Finally, the document focuses on the revised strategies for Operations, Maintenance, Replacement, Construction, and Environment for the 1992 to 2001 time period, including the financial and human resources needed to accomplish those strategies.

  17. Administrative Reinstatement Interlock Programs: Florida, a 10-Year Study

    PubMed Central

    Voas, Robert B.; Tippetts, A. Scott; Grosz, Milton

    2013-01-01

    Background Interlocks reduce driving-under-the-influence (DUI) recidivism by 64%, but offenders resist installing them, preferring to risk driving while their driver’s licenses are revoked. One method of motivating offenders to install an interlock is require it for reinstatement of their driver’s license. This report updates an earlier evaluation of the administrative reinstatement interlock program (ARIP) procedure implemented in Florida in 2002. Method Driver records and interlock program records covering 120,000 DUI offenders were followed over 10 years. The flow through the sanction system—conviction, reinstatement, interlock program, and postinterlock period—is described. Logistical regression was used to identify the characteristics of offenders who installed interlocks, and survival analysis was used to evaluate the recidivism of offenders in the various stages in the ARIP. Results At any given time, approximately one third of the convicted offenders were serving their license-revocation periods. Half of the offenders who completed their revocation periods remain unqualified for reinstatement because they do not fulfill other requirements. ARIP offenders who do qualify for reinstatement and install interlocks have lower recidivism rates while the devices are on their vehicles. Conclusions After 10 years, Florida’s ARIP is a mature system that succeeds in forcing all offenders in the program who qualify for reinstatement to install an interlock for at least 6 months. However, half of all offenders who complete their mandatory revocation period are either unable to, or choose not to, qualify for reinstatement. PMID:23442206

  18. The 10-year Incidence of Tinnitus Among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Nondahl, DM; Cruickshanks, KJ; Wiley, TL; Klein, BEK; Klein, R; Chappell, R; Tweed, TS

    2010-01-01

    As part of a population-based study in Beaver Dam, Wisconsin, we estimated the 10-year cumulative incidence of tinnitus and its risk factors. Participants (n = 2922, aged 48–92 years) not reporting tinnitus at baseline (1993–1995) were followed for up to ten years. In addition to audiometric testing and anthropometric measures, data on tinnitus, health and other history were obtained via questionnaire. Potential risk factors were assessed with discrete-time proportional hazards models. The 10-year cumulative incidence of tinnitus was 12.7%. The risk of developing tinnitus was significantly associated with: history of arthritis (Hazard ratio (HR) = 1.37), history of head injury (HR = 1.76), history of ever smoking (HR = 1.40), and among women, hearing loss (HR = 2.59). Alcohol consumption (HR = 0.63 for ≥ 141 grams/week vs. < 15 grams/week), age (among women, HR = 0.90 for each 5-year increase in age), and among men, obesity (HR = 0.55), were associated with decreased risk. The risk of developing tinnitus was high for older adults and associated with modifiable health and behavioral factors. PMID:20560859

  19. Self-Esteem during University Studies Predicts Career Characteristics 10 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2007-01-01

    To examine how self-esteem measured during university studies would impact on the characteristics of the work career 10 years later, 297 university students completed the Rosenberg's self-esteem inventory four times while at university and various career-related questionnaires 10 years later. Latent Growth Curve Modeling showed that a high overall…

  20. Energy-water analysis of the 10-year WECC transmission planning study cases.

    SciTech Connect

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Passell, Howard David; Castillo, Cesar; Moreland, Barbara

    2011-11-01

    calculating water withdrawal and consumption for current and planned electric power generation; projected water demand from competing use sectors; and, surface and groundwater availability. WECC's long range planning is organized according to two target planning horizons, a 10-year and a 20-year. This study supports WECC in the 10-year planning endeavor. In this case the water implications associated with four of WECC's alternative future study cases (described below) are calculated and reported. In future phases of planning we will work with WECC to craft study cases that aim to reduce the thermoelectric footprint of the interconnection and/or limit production in the most water stressed regions of the West.

  1. Cost savings associated with 10 years of road safety policies in Catalonia, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Suelves, Josep M; Barbería, Eneko

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine whether the road safety policies introduced between 2000 and 2010 in Catalonia, Spain, which aimed primarily to reduce deaths from road traffic collisions by 50% by 2010, were associated with economic benefits to society. Methods A cost analysis was performed from a societal perspective with a 10-year time horizon. It considered the costs of: hospital admissions; ambulance transport; autopsies; specialized health care; police, firefighter and roadside assistance; adapting to disability; and productivity lost due to institutionalization, death or sick leave of the injured or their caregivers; as well as material and administrative costs. Data were obtained from a Catalan hospital registry, the Catalan Traffic Service information system, insurance companies and other sources. All costs were calculated in euros (€) at 2011 values. Findings A substantial reduction in deaths from road traffic collisions was observed between 2000 and 2010. Between 2001 and 2010, with the implementation of new road safety policies, there were 26 063 fewer road traffic collisions with victims than expected, 2909 fewer deaths (57%) and 25 444 fewer hospitalizations. The estimated total cost savings were around €18 000 million. Of these, around 97% resulted from reductions in lost productivity. Of the remaining cost savings, 63% were associated with specialized health care, 15% with adapting to disability and 8.1% with hospital care. Conclusion The road safety policies implemented in Catalonia in recent years were associated with a reduction in the number of deaths and injuries from traffic collisions and with substantial economic benefits to society. PMID:23397348

  2. Refraction near the horizon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, Bradley E.; Liller, William

    1990-01-01

    Variations in astronomical refraction near the horizon are examined. Sunset timings, a sextant mounted on a tripod, and a temperature profile are utilized to derive the variations in refraction data, collected from 7 locations. It is determined that the refraction ranges from 0.234 to 1.678 deg with an rms deviation of 0.16, and it is observed that the variation is larger than previously supposed. Some applications for the variation of refraction value are discussed.

  3. ESO and Chile: 10 Years of Productive Scientific Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-06-01

    ESO and the Government of Chile launched today the book "10 Years Exploring the Universe", written by the beneficiaries of the ESO-Chile Joint Committee. This annual fund provides grants for individual Chilean scientists, research infrastructures, scientific congresses, workshops for science teachers and astronomy outreach programmes for the public. In a ceremony held in Santiago on 19 June 2006, the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere (ESO) and the Chilean Ministry of Foreign Affairs marked the 10th Anniversary of the Supplementary Agreement, which granted to Chilean astronomers up to 10 percent of the total observing time on ESO telescopes. This agreement also established an annual fund for the development of astronomy, managed by the so-called "ESO-Chile Joint Committee". ESO PR Photo 21/06 ESO PR Photo 21/06 Ten Years ESO-Chile Agreement Ceremony The celebration event was hosted by ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky, and the Director of Special Policy for the Chilean Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ambassador Luis Winter. "ESO's commitment is, and always will be, to promote astronomy and scientific knowledge in the country hosting our observatories", said ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky. "We hope Chile and Europe will continue with great achievements in this fascinating joint adventure, the exploration of the universe." On behalf of the Government of Chile, Ambassador Luis Winter outlined the historical importance of the Supplementary Agreement, ratified by the Chilean Congress in 1996. "Such is the magnitude of ESO-Chile Joint Committee that, only in 2005, this annual fund represented 8 percent of all financing sources for Chilean astronomy, including those from Government and universities", Ambassador Winter said. The ESO Representative and Head of Science in Chile, Dr. Felix Mirabel, and the appointed Chilean astronomer for the ESO-Chile Joint Committee, Dr. Leonardo Bronfman, also took part in the

  4. HORIZON SENSING (PROPOSAL No.51)

    SciTech Connect

    Larry G. Stolarczyk, Sc.D.

    2002-04-30

    Real-time horizon sensing on continuous mining machines is becoming an industry tool. Installation and testing of production-grade HS systems has been ongoing this quarter at Monterey Coal Company (EXXON), FMC Trona, Twentymile Coal Company (RAG America), and SASOL Coal. Detailed monitoring of system function, user experience, and mining benefits is ongoing. All horizon sensor components have finished MSHA (U.S.) and IEC (International) certification.

  5. METEONETWORK: 2002-2012, 10 years of activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazza, Edoardo

    2013-04-01

    The role of citizen-scientists in collecting data and observations has been increasingly crucial in the last 10 years of atmospheric sciences. Meteonetwork is a non-profit organization founded by citizen scientists in 2002, in Lombardia, with the aim of raising public awareness about meteorological and climatological issues. Throughout the years the organization, besides the continuous holding of events such as meeting, conferences and talks, has been standing out because of its forum and its wide network of weather stations. Meteonetwork's forum is, in this field, the most read and followed in the country and with its 8459 members and over 4,217,505 posts turns out to be the 17th forum over the entire country. Its network is operated in cooperation with Centro Epson Meteo and collects amateur semi-professional stations distributed all over the Italian territory, providing real-time and daily data. It consists of 706 stations, among which more than 400 regularly updated; volunteers constantly work to perform quality control and ensure data reliability. Meteonetwork has also developed several collaborations with private and public institutions, among which DRIHM - Cima Research Foundation, Centro Epson Meteo di Milano, Arpa Veneto, Arpa Emilia-Romagna, Arpa Lombardia, Arpa Friuli - Venezia Giulia, Servizio Glaciologico Lombardo, C. N. R. - C. I. S. A, Università di Pisa, Università di Milano, University of Aberdeen, Protezione Civile - Regione Lombardia, Protezione Civile - Regione Piemonte stand out. As WMO emphasized in 2001 World Meteorological Day "Volunteers for the weather, climate and water" the contribution of citizen-scientists to scientific studies is remarkable. In this perspective Meteonetwork and the University of Milan, in April 2011, started a project of technical and scientific cooperation called Weatherness. The university is provided with data gathered by Meteoneonetwork's stations with the aim of improving the knowledge of the impact that heat

  6. Competition, resources, and vegetation during 10 years in native grassland.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Scott D

    2007-12-01

    A 10-year experiment tested for variation in competition intensity over time in a natural grassland at the northern edge of the Great Plains. Growing-season precipitation varied fivefold during the study. All ecosystem-level variables varied significantly among years, and most covaried in expected ways. The covers of all common grasses possessing the C3 photosynthetic pathway varied significantly among years; in contrast, all common species with traits associated with drought tolerance (a C4 grass, a lichen, a spikemoss, and a subshrub) did not vary. Annual transplant experiments measured the competitive effects of neighbors on the growth of individuals of the native grass Bouteloua gracilis. A significant interaction between year and competition showed that competition intensity varied among years. The size of this effect, however, was small (eta2 = 0.074) relative to the size of the direct effect of competition (eta2 = 0.20) or the year in which the experiment was conducted (eta2 = 0.51). Further, competition intensity was not significantly related to any variable describing standing crop or resources, or species richness. Species richness was highest in years with high precipitation, standing crop, and individual growth, due to the recruitment of rare species that were absent from dry years. In summary, variation in competition intensity was statistically significant but had small effects relative to the direct effects of climate. PMID:18229830

  7. PCC characteristics at rest in 10-year memory decliners.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Charlotte; Dilharreguy, Bixente; Helmer, Catherine; Chanraud, Sandra; Amieva, Hélène; Dartigues, Jean-François; Allard, Michèle; Catheline, Gwénaëlle

    2015-10-01

    The present research sought to characterize the intrinsic functional networks associated with a 10-year episodic memory decline in elderly using data from a longitudinal population-based cohort (Bordeaux-3City). Complementary measures of whole-brain resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging investigations were combined to compare functional architecture of brain networks both at connectional and topological levels in 22 decliners to 22 nondecliners; episodic memory decline being assessed through a multiple time point Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test. The decliners presented differences in functional architecture centered on the posterior cingulate cortex, characterized by a significant decrease of connectivity intensity, a significant increased centrality. In accordance, a decrease of the functional connectivity inside the default mode network was observed in the decliners. Our results highlight the central role of the posterior cingulate cortex in a slow but reliable memory decline in elderly. Because functional alterations of this region are currently described in Alzheimer's disease, this functional signature could constitute a risk for Alzheimer's disease. PMID:26234756

  8. South american geochronology: radiometric time scale for middle to late tertiary mammal-bearing horizons in patagonia.

    PubMed

    Marshall, L G; Pascual, R; Curtis, G H; Drake, R E

    1977-03-25

    Radiometric (potassium-argon) age determinations for basalts and tuffs associated with middle to late Tertiary mammal-bearing horizons in Patagonia, southern Argentina, permit refinement of boundaries and hiatuses between beds of Deseadan (early Oligocene) through Friasian (middle to late Miocene) age. At two localities beds of Deseadan age are overlain by basalts, which gave dates of 33.6 and 35.4 million years ago; 34.0 million years ago is tentatively accepted as a terminal date for known Deseadan. At several localities beds of Colhuehuapian age are underlain by basalts, which gave dates ranging from 28.8 to 24.3 million years ago; 25.0 million years is tentatively taken as a basal age for known Colhuehuapian. The paleontological hiatus between known Deseadan and known Colhuehuapian is thus in the order of 9.0 million years. Two tuffs from the Santa Cruz Formation (Santacrucian) gave ages of 21.7 and 18.5 million years. Plagioclase and biotite concentrates of an ignimbrite from the Collón Curá Formation (Friasian) gave ages ranging from 15.4 to 14.0 million years. PMID:17738414

  9. Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement 10-Year Plan, 1990--1999

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    In 1988 Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) began work on this Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement 10-Year Plan to develop a levelized program that would assure high system reliability. During the Programs in Perspective (PIP) meetings in the later summer and fall of 1988, many of the concerns to be addressed in an Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement Plan were identified. Following these PIP meetings BPA established internal work groups. During the winter and spring of 1989, these work groups developed technical background and issue papers on topics that ranged from substation maintenance to environmental protection. In addition, a customer forum group was established and met on several occasions to review work on the plan, to offer ideas and points of view, and to assure that BPA understood customer concerns. Based on recommendations from the work group reports and customer input, BPA's O M Management Team developed the draft Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement 10-Year Plan that was released for public comment during the spring of 1990. During the public review period, BPA received a number of written comments from customers and the interested public. In addition, special meetings were held with interested customers. This final Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement 10-year Plan reflects BPA's response to customers and interested public on each topic discussed in the 10-Year Plan. The plan is a distillation of BPA's strategies to achieve a levelized program over 10 years.

  10. Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement 10-Year Plan, 1990 -1999.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1990-08-01

    In 1988 Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) began work on this Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement 10-Year Plan to develop a levelized program that would assure high system reliability. During the Programs in Perspective (PIP) meetings in the late summer and fall of 1988, many of the concerns to be addressed in an Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement Plan were identified. Following these PIP meetings BPA established internal work groups. During the winter and spring of 1989, these work groups developed technical background and issue papers on topics that ranged from substation maintenance to environmental protection. In addition, a customer forum group was established and met on several occasions to review work on the plan, to offer ideas and points of view, and to assure that BPA understood customer concerns. Based on recommendations from the work group reports and customer input, BPA's O M Management Team developed the draft Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement 10-Year Plan that was released for public comment during the spring of 1990. During the public review period, BPA received a number of written comments from customers and the interested public. In addition, special meetings were held with interested customers. This final Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement 10-Year Plan reflects BPA's response to customers and interested public on each topic discussed in the 10-Year Plan. The plan is a distillation of BPA's strategies to achieve a levelized program over 10 years.

  11. Pluto's Atmosphere from the 2015 June 29 Ground-based Stellar Occultation at the Time of the New Horizons Flyby

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sicardy, B.; Talbot, J.; Meza, E.; Camargo, J. I. B.; Desmars, J.; Gault, D.; Herald, D.; Kerr, S.; Pavlov, H.; Braga-Ribas, F.; Assafin, M.; Benedetti-Rossi, G.; Dias-Oliveira, A.; Gomes-Júnior, A. R.; Vieira-Martins, R.; Bérard, D.; Kervella, P.; Lecacheux, J.; Lellouch, E.; Beisker, W.; Dunham, D.; Jelínek, M.; Duffard, R.; Ortiz, J. L.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Cunniffe, R.; Querel, R.; Yock, P. C.; Cole, A. A.; Giles, A. B.; Hill, K. M.; Beaulieu, J. P.; Harnisch, M.; Jansen, R.; Pennell, A.; Todd, S.; Allen, W. H.; Graham, P. B.; Loader, B.; McKay, G.; Milner, J.; Parker, S.; Barry, M. A.; Bradshaw, J.; Broughton, J.; Davis, L.; Devillepoix, H.; Drummond, J.; Field, L.; Forbes, M.; Giles, D.; Glassey, R.; Groom, R.; Hooper, D.; Horvat, R.; Hudson, G.; Idaczyk, R.; Jenke, D.; Lade, B.; Newman, J.; Nosworthy, P.; Purcell, P.; Skilton, P. F.; Streamer, M.; Unwin, M.; Watanabe, H.; White, G. L.; Watson, D.

    2016-03-01

    We present results from a multi-chord Pluto stellar occultation observed on 2015 June 29 from New Zealand and Australia. This occurred only two weeks before the NASA New Horizons flyby of the Pluto system and serves as a useful comparison between ground-based and space results. We find that Pluto's atmosphere is still expanding, with a significant pressure increase of 5 ± 2% since 2013 and a factor of almost three since 1988. This trend rules out, as of today, an atmospheric collapse associated with Pluto's recession from the Sun. A central flash, a rare occurrence, was observed from several sites in New Zealand. The flash shape and amplitude are compatible with a spherical and transparent atmospheric layer of roughly 3 km in thickness whose base lies at about 4 km above Pluto's surface, and where an average thermal gradient of about 5 K km-1 prevails. We discuss the possibility that small departures between the observed and modeled flash are caused by local topographic features (mountains) along Pluto's limb that block the stellar light. Finally, using two possible temperature profiles, and extrapolating our pressure profile from our deepest accessible level down to the surface, we obtain a possible range of 11.9-13.7 μbar for the surface pressure. Partly based on observations made with the ESO WFI camera at the 2.2 m Telescope (La Silla), under program ID 079.A-9202(A) within the agreement between the ON/MCTI and the Max Planck Society, with the ESO camera NACO at the Very Large Telescope (Paranal), under program ID 089.C-0314(C), and at the Pico dos Dias Observatory/LNA, Brazil.

  12. Looking forward, looking back-10 years in urology.

    PubMed

    Albersen, Maarten; Cartwright, Rufus; Choyke, Peter; Goldenberg, S Larry; Goldman, Howard; Lawrentschuk, Nathan; Linehan, W Marston; Murphy, Declan; Nagler, Harris; Scardino, Peter; Shortliffe, Linda; Stenzl, Arnulf; Theodorescu, Dan

    2014-11-01

    When Nature Reviews Urology launched in 2004, the field of urology was vastly different to that which we work in today, and the past 10 years have seen the field change immensely. As a specialty on the forefront of cutting-edge innovation, urologists are often the first to embrace new technologies and ideas. In this Viewpoint, members of the Nature Reviews Urology advisory board were asked what they thought was the most important change, issue or innovation in urology in the past 10 years, and what they expected to be the most important in the next decade. Here are their opinions. PMID:25348169

  13. Anaerobic bacteraemia: a 10-year retrospective epidemiological survey.

    PubMed

    De Keukeleire, Steven; Wybo, Ingrid; Naessens, Anne; Echahidi, Fedoua; Van der Beken, Mieke; Vandoorslaer, Kristof; Vermeulen, Stefan; Piérard, Denis

    2016-06-01

    In order to identify current trends in anaerobic bacteraemia, a 10-year retrospective study was performed in the University Hospital Brussel, Belgium. All clinically relevant bacteraemia detected from 2004 until 2013 were included. Medical records were reviewed in an attempt to define clinical parameters that might be associated with the occurrence of anaerobic bacteraemia. 437 of the isolated organisms causing anaerobic bacteraemia were thawed, subcultured and reanalyzed using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF). There were an average of 33 cases of anaerobic bacteraemia per year during 2004-2008 compared to an average of 27 cases per year during 2009-2013 (P = 0.017), corresponding to a decrease by 19% between the first and the latter period. Also, the total number of cases of anaerobic bacteraemia per 100,000 patient days decreased from 17.3 in the period from 2004 to 2008 to 13.7 in the period 2009 to 2013 (P = 0.023). Additionally, the mean incidence of anaerobic bacteraemia decreased during the study period (1.27/1000 patients in 2004 vs. 0.94/1000 patients in 2013; P = 0.008). In contrast, the proportion of isolated anaerobic bacteraemia compared to the number of all bacteraemia remained stable at 5%. Bacteroides spp. and Parabacteroides spp. accounted for 47.1% of the anaerobes, followed by 14.4% Clostridium spp., 12.6% non-spore-forming Gram-positive rods, 10.5% anaerobic cocci, 8.2% Prevotella spp. and other Gram-negative rods and 7.1% Fusobacterium spp. The lower gastrointestinal tract (47%) and wound infections (10%) were the two most frequent sources for bacteraemia, with the origin remaining unknown in 62 cases (21%). The overall mortality rate was 14%. Further studies focusing on the antimicrobial susceptibility and demographic background of patients are needed to further objectify the currently observed trends. PMID:26923749

  14. "JPBI" 10 Years Later: Trends in Research Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Dell, Sean M.; Vilardo, Brigid A.; Kern, Lee; Kokina, Anastasia; Ash, Allison N.; Seymour, Kimberly J.; Castrantas, Lauren M.; Kollar, Rachel B.; Wagner, Andrea M.; Bartholomew, Audrey; Thomas, Lisa B.

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, the "Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions" ("JPBI") celebrated 10 years in publication. As the flagship journal of positive behavior support (PBS), it is important to periodically examine the research published in "JPBI" to determine whether it reflects the basic principles of PBS, to explore the ways in which PBS is being…

  15. 10 Years of Media Literacy Education in K-12 Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daunic, Rhys

    2011-01-01

    When the author started working with teachers and students on classroom multimedia productions a little over 10 years ago, he had not yet encountered the term "media literacy", nor did he realize he had joined a long standing international movement of media literacy educators. Serendipitous exposure to "old-media" texts by Neil Postman and Noam…

  16. Smart Start: Celebrating 10 Years, 1993-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina Partnership for Children, Raleigh.

    Smart Start, a public-private initiative celebrating 10 years of operation, invests in high quality early care and education services for all children, birth to age five, and their families in North Carolina. The initiative funds programs to improve the quality, affordability, and availability of child care as well as children's health and family…

  17. The Mathematical Abilities of Dyslexic 10-Year-Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, T. R.; Haslum, M. N.; Wheeler, T. J.

    2001-01-01

    Seventy-two items testing various aspects of mathematics were given to 12,131 10-year-old British children. Despite the absence of difference in intelligence level, the mean scores on the mathematics test for children with dyslexia was not only lower than that of normal achievers, but also lower than that of underachievers. (Contains references.)…

  18. Interrogating the Subject: Queering Elementary Education, 10 Years On

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sears, James T.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the contributions to this special issue in the context of a wider argument about the notion of queering elementary education. When "Queering Elementary Education" was published 10 years ago there was very little writing or research on matters related to primary education, and just finding experienced educators to…

  19. Highlights of 10-Year Remote Sensing Industry Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabin, Ron

    2002-01-01

    A background and highlights of a 10 year remote sensing industry analysis are provided.Included are the following:Training, educational analysis, staff levels, and end-users analysis, market drivers, market segments,application areas, spatial resolution needs, use of image types.

  20. Headshaking in a 10-year-old Thoroughbred mare

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Abstract A 10-year-old Thoroughbred mare was presented with a 2.5-week history of headshaking. Based on a thorough physical examination, blood analysis, and a fine needle aspirate of an enlarged thyroid gland, a tentative diagnosis of seasonal idiopathic headshaking was made. Treatment with cyproheptadine was attempted. PMID:15025153

  1. Duodenal adenocarcinoma in a 10-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Zouari; Habib, Bouthour; Rabia, Ben Abdallah; Youssef, Hlel; Riath, Ben Malek; Youssef, Gharbi; Nejib, Kaabar

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal malignancies are extremely rare in the paediatric population and duodenal cancers represent an even more unusual entity. It represents 0.3-1% of all gastrointestinal tumours. A case report of a 10-year-old boy with duodenal adenocarcinoma is reported and the difficulties of diagnosing and treating this rare tumour are discussed. PMID:24647303

  2. Flowerpot sequestrum of the Humerus Neglect for 10 years!!

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Rakesh

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Neglected cases of osteomyelitis are not uncommon. We present a case of humerus osteomyelitis neglected for 10 years and presented with a sequestrum protruding out of the arm in the shape of a flowerpot. Such a long duration of neglect and a startling presentation are rare and have implications not only on healthcare but also reflect the socio-economic and cultural fabric of the society. Case Report: 22 year old lady presented with history of bone jutting out of right arm since last 10 years. She had a trivial injury to the arm 10 years back followed by pain and fever. She was treated by local osteopath and ‘registered’ doctors but developed wound over the arm with purulent discharge. On and off treatment with dressing was continued with symptomatic relief but in few weeks bone fragment started protruding out of the wound. The size of bone protruding from the wound increased gradually with on and off history of discharge since 10 years. Clinically a flowerpot shaped sequestrum was seen protruding from the arm. Radiographs showed a defined diaphyseal sequestrum of the humerus with continuity of the bone maintained by new bone formation. Sequestrectomy was done and at one year follow up patient was fine with no recurrence of infection Conclusions: Lack of health infrastructure, ignorance, and other social and cultural factors lead to such bad wounds. Even with such long history a single surgery for debridement and sequestrectomy was all that was needed for healing the patient.

  3. Technology for Distance Education: A 10 Year Prospective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, A. W.

    This paper provides an overview of new technologies likely to be widely available within the next 10 years for teaching in Europe. It begins by presenting a framework which draws distinctions between different technologies based on their educational applications, i.e., for teaching or operational purposes, for communicating within or between…

  4. The effects of fire severity on black carbon additions to forest soils - 10 years post fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poore, R.; Wessman, C. A.; Buma, B.

    2013-12-01

    horizon and the top 10cm mineral horizon. The soils were sieved to 2mm and their BC content measured using the Kurth-MacKenzie-DeLuca method of digesting labile carbon using nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide at 95C for 20hrs. We integrated both remotely sensed data and field observations. We used the Relative Difference Normalized Burn Ratio (RdNBR) calculated by Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS). This index used Landsat images from July in the years before and after the fire and is based on differences in bands 4 and 7, with the aim of assessing coarse scale changes in soil and vegetation post fire. For each plot we also collected data on tree mortality and organic soil depth. These metrics were chosen from the Composite Burn Index as those that were most reliable even 10 years after the fire. We observed no significant differences in BC totals between high severity fire and unburned plots, although BC increased slightly on burned plots. Early results for low severity sites (analysis still in progress) suggest that BC increased in plots experiencing lower severity fires compared to unburned and high severity plots. Comparing carbon and BC totals on unburned and severely burned plots, and assuming no loss of BC from mineral soil during the fire, we observed a 1.2% conversion of burned biomass to BC, which corresponds with literature estimates of 1-4%.

  5. Gravitational Horizon(3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chao Yuan

    2012-05-01

    Anomalous decelerations of spacecraft Pioneer-10,11,etc could be interpreted as signal delay effect between speed of gravity and that of light as reflected in virtual scale, similar to covarying virtual scale effect in relative motion (http://arxiv.org/html/math-ph/0001019v5).A finite speed of gravity faster than light could be inferred (http://arXiv.org/html/physics/0001034v2). Measurements of gravitational variations by paraconical pendulum during a total solar eclipse infer the same(http://arXiv.org/html/physics/0001034v9). A finite Superluminal speed of gravity is the necessary condition to imply that there exists gravitational horizon (GH). Such "GH" of our Universe would stretch far beyond the cosmic event horizon of light. Dark energy may be owing to mutually interactive gravitational horizons of cousin universes. Sufficient condition for the conjecture is that the dark energy would be increasing with age of our Universe since accelerated expansion started about 5 Gyr ago, since more and more arrivals of "GH" of distant cousin universes would interact with "GH" of our Universe. The history of dark energy variations between then and now would be desirable(http://arXiv.org/html/physics/0001034). In "GH" conjecture, the neighborhood of cousin universes would be likely boundless in 4D-space-time without begining or end. The dark energy would keep all universes in continually accelerated expansion to eventual fragmentation. Fragments would crash and merge into bangs, big or small, to form another generation of cousin universes. These scenarios might offer a clue to what was before the big bang.

  6. Finite-Horizon Near-Optimal Output Feedback Neural Network Control of Quantized Nonlinear Discrete-Time Systems With Input Constraint.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hao; Zhao, Qiming; Jagannathan, Sarangapani

    2015-08-01

    The output feedback-based near-optimal regulation of uncertain and quantized nonlinear discrete-time systems in affine form with control constraint over finite horizon is addressed in this paper. First, the effect of input constraint is handled using a nonquadratic cost functional. Next, a neural network (NN)-based Luenberger observer is proposed to reconstruct both the system states and the control coefficient matrix so that a separate identifier is not needed. Then, approximate dynamic programming-based actor-critic framework is utilized to approximate the time-varying solution of the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman using NNs with constant weights and time-dependent activation functions. A new error term is defined and incorporated in the NN update law so that the terminal constraint error is also minimized over time. Finally, a novel dynamic quantizer for the control inputs with adaptive step size is designed to eliminate the quantization error overtime, thus overcoming the drawback of the traditional uniform quantizer. The proposed scheme functions in a forward-in-time manner without offline training phase. Lyapunov analysis is used to investigate the stability. Simulation results are given to show the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method. PMID:25794403

  7. Optogenetics: 10 years of microbial opsins in neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Deisseroth, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, the development and convergence of microbial opsin engineering, modular genetic methods for cell-type targeting and optical strategies for guiding light through tissue have enabled versatile optical control of defined cells in living systems, defining modern optogenetics. Despite widespread recognition of the importance of spatiotemporally precise causal control over cellular signaling, for nearly the first half (2005–2009) of this 10-year period, as optogenetics was being created, there were difficulties in implementation, few publications and limited biological findings. In contrast, the ensuing years have witnessed a substantial acceleration in the application domain, with the publication of thousands of discoveries and insights into the function of nervous systems and beyond. This Historical Commentary reflects on the scientific landscape of this decade-long transition. PMID:26308982

  8. Primary Nasal Tuberculosis in a 10-Year-Old Girl

    PubMed Central

    Özer, Murat; Özsurekçi, Yasemin; Cengiz, Ali Bülent; Özçelik, Uğur; Yalçın, Ebru; Gököz, Özay

    2016-01-01

    Nasal tuberculosis is a rare clinical entity which mainly presents in elderly people. Nasal tuberculosis has always been considered to be secondary to tuberculosis of the lungs, and in rare instances it is a primary infection, usually when mycobacteria are inhaled. We describe the case of a 10-year-old girl who was successfully treated for primary nasal tuberculosis. This patient is one of the very few children who have been reported to have primary nasal tuberculosis. PMID:27366187

  9. Hypopigmented mycosis fungoides in a 10-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Manzur, A; Zaidi, S T H

    2006-01-01

    Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) presenting with hypopigmented lesions is an uncommon clinical variant of the disease, usually described in dark-skinned patients. We report a case of hypopigmented CTCL in a 10-year-old boy. The disease has responded favorably to narrowband UVB therapy. This case illustrates the importance of clinical suspicion for mycosis fungoides in patients with widespread hypopigmentation. PMID:17083901

  10. 10-year evapotranspiration estimates in a Bornean tropical rainforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kume, T.; Tanaka, N.; Komatsu, H.; Yoshifuji, N.; Saitoh, T. M.; Suzuki, M.; Kumagai, T.

    2010-12-01

    This study was undertaken to quantify 10-year evapotranspiration (ET) in a tropical rainforest, Sarawak, Malaysia. To this aim, a simplified big-leaf model was formulated, which can consider transpiration (Et) and rainfall interception (Ei). The model was independently validated using eddy covariance fluxes, rainfall interception based on throughfall and stemflow measurements, and sap flow measurements conducted for more than two years. Consequently, our big-leaf model could successfully reproduce Et and Ei. By using the model and a 10-year meteorological data set, Et, Ei, and ET was estimated in the period between 2000 and 2009. The annual Et , Ei, and ET averaged over 10 years were estimated as 1114, 209, and 1323 mm, respectively, with the small seasonal fluctuations. The derived estimations for 10 years showed conservative year-to-year variations in Et, Ei, and ET (CV = 5-7%) against considerable year-to-year variations in annual rainfall (CV = 11%). Specific rainfall characteristics in this site could be a reason for conservative year-to-year variations in Ei. Small interannual variations in meteorological conditions and no occurrence of unusually severe drought in this study period could be a reason for the small year-to-year variations in Et. As well, we compared ET, Ei at this site with those of other tropical forests. Our forest ET was smaller than global maximum value of ET estimated in other tropical forests because of the smaller Ei, relative to annual rainfall at this site. Based on the derived characteristics of ET, we also discussed possible changes in ET, Et, and Ei in response to changes in rainfall regime at this site.

  11. Avian response to bottomland hardwood reforestation: the first 10 years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, D.J.; Wilson, R.R.; Henne-Kerr, J.L.; Grosshuesch, D.A.

    2002-01-01

    Bttomland hardwood forests were planted on agricultural fields in Mississippi and Louisiana using either predominantly Quercus species (oaks) or Populus deltoides (eastern cottonwood). We assessed avian colonization of these reforested sites between 2 and 10 years after planting. Rapid vertical growth of cottonwoods (circa 2 - 3 m / yr) resulted in sites with forest structure that supported greater species richness of breeding birds, increased Shannon diversity indices, and supported greater territory densities than on sites planted with slower-growing oak species. Grassland birds (Spiza americana [Dickcissel], and Sturnella magna [Eastern Meadowlark]) were indicative of species breeding on oak-dominated reforestation # 10 years old. Agelaius phoeniceus (Red-winged Blackbird) and Colinus virginianus (Northern Bobwhite) characterized cottonwood reforestation # 4 years old, whereas 14 species of shrub-scrub birds (e.g., Passerina cyanea [Indigo Bunting]) and early-successional forest birds (e.g., Vireo gilvus [Warbling Vireo]) typified cottonwood reforestation 5 to 9 years after planting. Rates of daily nest survival did not differ between reforestation strategies. Nest parasitism increased markedly in older cottonwood stands, but was overwhelmed by predation as a cause of nest failure. Based on Partners in Flight prioritization scores and territory densities, the value of cottonwood reforestation for avian conservation was significantly greater than that of oak reforestation during their first 10 years. Because of benefits conferred on breeding birds, we recommend reforestation of bottomland hardwoods include a high proportion of fast-growing, early successional species such as cottonwood.

  12. MMI's Metadata and Vocabulary Solutions: 10 Years and Growing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graybeal, J.; Gayanilo, F.; Rueda-Velasquez, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    The Marine Metadata Interoperability project (http://marinemetadata.org) held its public opening at AGU's 2004 Fall Meeting. For 10 years since that debut, the MMI guidance and vocabulary sites have served over 100,000 visitors, with 525 community members and continuous Steering Committee leadership. Originally funded by the National Science Foundation, over the years multiple organizations have supported the MMI mission: "Our goal is to support collaborative research in the marine science domain, by simplifying the incredibly complex world of metadata into specific, straightforward guidance. MMI encourages scientists and data managers at all levels to apply good metadata practices from the start of a project, by providing the best guidance and resources for data management, and developing advanced metadata tools and services needed by the community." Now hosted by the Harte Research Institute at Texas A&M University at Corpus Christi, MMI continues to provide guidance and services to the community, and is planning for marine science and technology needs for the next 10 years. In this presentation we will highlight our major accomplishments, describe our recent achievements and imminent goals, and propose a vision for improving marine data interoperability for the next 10 years, including Ontology Registry and Repository (http://mmisw.org/orr) advancements and applications (http://mmisw.org/cfsn).

  13. Perceived Partner Responsiveness Predicts Diurnal Cortisol Profiles 10 Years Later

    PubMed Central

    Slatcher, Richard B.; Selcuk, Emre; Ong, Anthony D.

    2015-01-01

    Several decades of research have demonstrated that marital relationships have a powerful influence on physical health. However, surprisingly little is known about how marriage affects health—both in terms of psychological processes and biological ones. We investigated the associations between perceived partner responsiveness—the extent to which people feel understood, cared for and appreciated by their romantic partner—and diurnal cortisol over a 10-year period in a large sample of married and cohabitating couples in the U.S. Partner responsiveness predicted higher wakeup cortisol values and steeper (“healthier”) cortisol slopes at the 10-year follow-up, and these associations remained strong after controlling for demographic factors, depressive symptoms, agreeableness, and other positive and negative relationship factors. Further, declines in negative affect over the 10-year period mediated the prospective association between responsiveness and cortisol slope. These findings suggest that diurnal cortisol may be a key biological pathway through which social relationships impact long-term health. PMID:26015413

  14. Deepwater Horizon Situation Report #5

    SciTech Connect

    2010-06-10

    At approximately 11:00 pm EDT April 20, 2010 an explosion occurred aboard the Deepwater Horizon mobile offshore drilling unit (MODU) located 52 miles Southeast of Venice, LA and 130 miles southeast of New Orleans, LA. The MODU was drilling an exploratory well and was not producing oil at the time of the incident. The Deepwater Horizon MODU sank 1,500 feet northwest of the well site. Detailed information on response and recovery operations can be found at: http://www.deepwaterhorizonresponse.com/go/site/2931/

  15. Horizon Report: 2009 Economic Development Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, L.; Levine, A.; Scott, C.; Smith, R.; Stone, S.

    2009-01-01

    The New Media Consortium's Horizon Project is an ongoing research project that seeks to identify and describe emerging technologies likely to have a large impact in education and other industries around the world over a five-year time period. The chief products of the project are the "Horizon Reports", an annual series of publications that…

  16. Does time heal all wounds? Community attachment, natural resource employment, and health impacts in the wake of the BP Deepwater Horizon disaster.

    PubMed

    Cope, Michael R; Slack, Tim; Blanchard, Troy C; Lee, Matthew R

    2013-05-01

    On April 20, 2010, the BP-leased Deepwater Horizon (BP-DH) oil rig exploded, resulting in the largest marine oil spill in history. In this paper we utilize one-of-a-kind household survey data-the Louisiana Community Oil Spill Survey-to examine the impacts of the BP-DH disaster on the mental and physical health of spill affected residents in coastal Louisiana, with a special focus on the influence of community attachment and natural resource employment. We find that levels of both negative mental and physical health were significantly more pronounced at baseline compared to later time points. We show that greater community attachment is linked to lower levels of negative health impacts in the wake of the oil spill and that the disaster had a uniquely negative impact on households involved in the fishing industry. Further, we find evidence that the relationship between community attachment and mental health is more pronounced at later points in time, and that the negative health impacts on fishers have worsened over time. Implications for research and policy are discussed. PMID:23522000

  17. CAM research in Britain: the last 10 years.

    PubMed

    Ernst, E; Schmidt, K; Wider, B

    2005-02-01

    Research into complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is not as new as it might appear from a U.K. perspective. Most continental European countries have a long tradition in CAM research. Many studies of homoeopathy, for instance, were published decades ago in languages other than English [The trials of homeopathy. Origins, structure and development. Stiftung: Essen, Karl und Veronica Carstens, 2004]. However, it is probably true to say that, in the English speaking world and particularly in the U.K., CAM has become a respectable area of scientific investigation only during the last decade. In this article, we review the 10 years of CAM research in Britain. PMID:15984219

  18. OPEC: 10 years after the Arab oil boycott

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, M.H.

    1983-09-23

    OPEC's dominance over world oil markets is waning 10 years after precipitating world-wide energy and economic crises. The 1979 revolution in Iran and the start of the Iranian-Iraqi war in 1980 introduced a second shock that caused oil importers to seek non-OPEC supplies and emphasize conservation. No breakup of the cartel is anticipated, however, despite internal disagreements over production and price levels. Forecasters see OPEC as the major price setter as an improved economy increases world demand for oil. Long-term forecasts are even more optimistic. 24 references, 2 figures, 2 tables. (DCK)

  19. Brain imaging of multiple sclerosis: the next 10 years.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Paul M

    2009-02-01

    MR imaging has had a major impact on understanding the dynamic neuropathologic findings of multiple sclerosis (MS), early diagnosis of the disease, and clinical trial conduct. The next 10 years can be expected to see further advances with a greater emphasis on large multicenter studies, new techniques and hardware allowing greater imaging sensitivity and resolution, and the exploitation of positron emission tomography molecular imaging for MS. The impact should be felt with a new emphasis on gray matter disease and processes of repair. With new ways of monitoring the disease, new treatment targets should become practical, helping to translate advances in the understanding of immunology and regenerative medicine into novel therapies. PMID:19064203

  20. Vesical Calculus 10 Years Post Missing Intrauterine Contraceptive Device

    PubMed Central

    Abdulwahab-Ahmed, Abdullahi; Ogunleye, Oluwagbemiga Olabisi

    2013-01-01

    Intravesical migration of intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) is rare. Early diagnosis of this rare entity is difficult because of its non-specific manifestations and very low index of suspicion. We present this case of bladder stone following intravesical migration of IUCD found to have been missing since insertion 10 years earlier. Lower abdominal discomfort and a missing vaginal string may be the only pointer to this unfortunate event in the immediate post insertion period. It is pertinent to consider the possibility of an intravesical migration of a missing IUCD in a patient presenting with lower abdominal discomfort, urinary frequency, and missing IUCD string on vaginal examination. PMID:24470853

  1. NASA Administrator Dan Goldin greets 10-year-old VIP.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    NASA Administrator Dan Goldin (left) shares a light moment during his meeting with 10-year-old Jonathan Pierce (right), who is garbed in a protective cooling suit designed by NASA. Behind Goldin is astronaut Doug Wheelock; behind Jonathan is his mother, Penny. Jonathan suffers from erythropoietic protoporphyria, a rare condition that makes his body unable to withstand ultraviolet rays. The suit allows him to be outside during the day, which would otherwise be impossible. Jonathan's trip was funded by the Make-A-Wish Foundation and included a visit to Disney World. He and his family were among a dozen VIPs at KSC to view the launch of STS-99.

  2. Developing of 10-year EEZ seafloor mapping and research program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lockwood, M.; Hill, G.W.

    1988-01-01

    The intent of expanding the exploration already begun on the outer continental shelf to the frontier of the EEZ (Exclusive Economic Zone) is to determine the "characteristics' and resource potential of this region. To coordinate this exploration, a Joint Office for Mapping and Research (JOMAR) has been established by the US Geological Survey (in the Department of the Interior) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (in the Department of Commerce). JOMAR's main purpose is to help direct and coordinate ongoing and planned seafloor related activities in the EEZ and prepare a 10-year plan for mapping and research. -from Authors

  3. Lithium ion secondary batteries; past 10 years and the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishi, Yoshio

    Technologies of lithium ion secondary batteries (LIB) were pioneered by Sony. Since the introduction of LIB on the market first in the world in 1991, the LIB has been applied to consumer products as diverse as cellular phones, video cameras, notebook computers, portable minidisk players and others. Years of assiduous efforts and researches to improve LIB performances enabled LIB to play a leading role in the portable secondary battery market. In this article, the past 10 years' technological achievement is traced and future possibilities are discussed.

  4. Motor Speech Disorders: Where Will We Be in 10 Years?

    PubMed

    Duffy, Joseph R

    2016-08-01

    Research and practice in the area of motor speech disorders (MSDs) will change in the next 10 years, most likely in evolutionary rather revolutionary ways. We are likely to see an increase in the understanding of the underpinnings of MSDs and refinements in assessment and diagnosis. Management approaches probably will be refined, as will how outcomes are measured. The evidence base for treatment efficacy will grow. Technology and changes in the health care system will have strong and overarching, but not easily predicted, influences. This article provides a broad overview of these and related issues, with some cautious predictions. PMID:27232096

  5. Time- and Oil-Dependent Transcriptomic and Physiological Responses to Deepwater Horizon Oil in Mahi-Mahi (Coryphaena hippurus) Embryos and Larvae.

    PubMed

    Xu, Elvis Genbo; Mager, Edward M; Grosell, Martin; Pasparakis, Christina; Schlenker, Lela S; Stieglitz, John D; Benetti, Daniel; Hazard, E Starr; Courtney, Sean M; Diamante, Graciel; Freitas, Juliane; Hardiman, Gary; Schlenk, Daniel

    2016-07-19

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill contaminated the spawning habitats for numerous commercially and ecologically important fishes. Exposure to the water accommodated fraction (WAF) of oil from the spill has been shown to cause cardiac toxicity during early developmental stages across fishes. To better understand the molecular events and explore new pathways responsible for toxicity, RNA sequencing was performed in conjunction with physiological and morphological assessments to analyze the time-course (24, 48, and 96 h post fertilization (hpf)) of transcriptional and developmental responses in embryos/larvae of mahi-mahi exposed to WAF of weathered (slick) and source DWH oils. Slick oil exposure induced more pronounced changes in gene expression over time than source oil exposure. Predominant transcriptomic responses included alteration of EIF2 signaling, steroid biosynthesis, ribosome biogenesis and activation of the cytochrome P450 pathway. At 96 hpf, slick oil exposure resulted in significant perturbations in eye development and peripheral nervous system, suggesting novel targets in addition to the heart may be involved in the developmental toxicity of DHW oil. Comparisons of changes of cardiac genes with phenotypic responses were consistent with reduced heart rate and increased pericardial edema in larvae exposed to slick oil but not source oil. PMID:27348429

  6. Early Predictors of Career Development: A 10-Year Follow-up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferreira, Joaquim Armando; Santos, Eduardo J. R.; Fonseca, Antonio C.; Haase, Richard F.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents empirical findings from a 10-year longitudinal study of the educational and occupational socialization of 445 participants who were about 7 years old when first tested, and about 17 years old at the fourth time of measurement. In addition to collecting psychological measurements from the participants, behavioral reports were…

  7. Educational Expectations, Parental Social Class, Gender, and Postsecondary Attainment: A 10-Year Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andres, Lesley; Adamuti-Trache, Maria; Yoon, Ee-Seul; Pidgeon, Michelle; Thomsen, Jens Peter

    2007-01-01

    The authors employ a unique longitudinal data set of British Columbia high school graduates that followed respondents 1, 5, and 10 years after graduation to examine the extent to which educational expectations change over time in relation to parental socioeconomic status and eventual postsecondary attainment. Using the method of correspondence…

  8. Citations to Australian Astronomy: 5- and 10-Year Benchmarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenyon, Katherine H.; Paramasivam, Arjun; Tu, Jiachin; Zhang, Albert; Graham, Alister W.

    2012-03-01

    Expanding upon Pimbblet's 2011 analysis of career h-indices for members of the Astronomical Society of Australia, we provide additional citation metrics which are geared to quantifying the current performance of all professional astronomers in Australia. We have trawled the staff web-pages of Australian Universities, Observatories and Research Organisations hosting professional astronomers, and identified 384 PhD-qualified, research-active, astronomers in the nation. 132 of these are not members of the Astronomical Society of Australia. Using the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System, we provide the three following common metrics based on publications in the first decade of the 21st century (2001-2010): h-index, author-normalised citation count and lead-author citation count. We additionally present a somewhat more inclusive analysis, applicable for many early-career researchers, that is based on publications from 2006-2010. Histograms and percentiles, plus top-performer lists, are presented for each category. Finally, building on Hirsch's empirical equation, we find that the (10-year) h-index and (10-year) total citation count T can be approximated by the relation AS12011_IE1.gif for h>~5.

  9. Semiclassical ultraextremal horizons

    SciTech Connect

    Matyjasek, Jerzy; Zaslavskii, O.B.

    2005-04-15

    We examine backreaction of quantum massive fields on multiply-degenerate (ultraextremal) horizons. It is shown that, under influence of the quantum backreaction, the horizon of such a kind moves to a new position near which the metric does not change its asymptotics, so the ultraextremal black holes and cosmological spacetimes do exist as self-consistent solutions of the semiclassical field equations.

  10. The 2011 Horizon Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, L.; Smith, R.; Willis, H.; Levine, A.; Haywood, K.

    2011-01-01

    The internationally recognized series of "Horizon Reports" is part of the New Media Consortium's Horizon Project, a comprehensive research venture established in 2002 that identifies and describes emerging technologies likely to have a large impact over the coming five years on a variety of sectors around the globe. This volume, the "2011 Horizon…

  11. Two Horizons of Fusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, Mun Ling; Chik, Pakey Pui Man

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we aim to differentiate the internal and external horizons of "fusion." "Fusion" in the internal horizon relates to the structure and meaning of the object of learning as experienced by the learner. It clarifies the interrelationships among an object's critical features and aspects. It also illuminates the…

  12. The 2010 Horizon Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, L.; Levine, A.; Smith, R.; Stone, S.

    2010-01-01

    The annual "Horizon Report" describes the continuing work of the New Media Consortium's Horizon Project, a qualitative research project established in 2002 that identifies and describes emerging technologies likely to have a large impact on teaching, learning, or creative inquiry on college and university campuses within the next five years. The…

  13. Fuzziness at the horizon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batic, Davide; Nicolini, Piero

    2010-08-01

    We study the stability of the noncommutative Schwarzschild black hole interior by analysing the propagation of a massless scalar field between the two horizons. We show that the spacetime fuzziness triggered by the field higher momenta can cure the classical exponential blue-shift divergence, suppressing the emergence of infinite energy density in a region nearby the Cauchy horizon.

  14. Geochemical and isotopic time series of oil deposited in Barataria Bay and on Grand Isle, Louisiana, after the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finkelstein, D. B.; Schimmelmann, A.; Rosenheim, B. E.

    2012-12-01

    We present time-series of bulk hydrocarbon geochemical and compound specific isotopic data of oiled and tarry sediment deposits from Grand Isle and Barataria Bay, Louisiana. Samples were taken between 46 days and 694 days after the Macondo well blowout, and analyzed for bulk hydrocarbon stable carbon and hydrogen isotope ratios, n-alkane and other organic molecular characteristics, ramped pyrolysis stable carbon ratios and radiocarbon content, and compound specific isotope analysis. Bulk and compound specific stable hydrogen isotopes point to slight 2H-enrichment attributable to water washing during transport to Grand Isle and Barataria Bay, followed by more subtle changes after deposition that depended in part on the wave energy available locally. Characterization of the n-alkane distributions through time identified subtle shifts in the dominant n-alkanes from water washing and terrestrial degradation. The loss of high molecular weight n-alkanes and an increase in the unresolved complex mixture after day 337 is consistent with a shift from slight to moderate biodegradation. More significant variations were observed in elemental H:C ratios, whereas bulk stable carbon isotope values showed small increases through time. Ramped pyrolysis analyses illustrated relatively volatile and reactive petroleum-derived components were present during the first year following the spill, but they ultimately became less apparent during later sampling. Isotope results from different ramped pyrolysis components are discussed. Compound specific isotope analysis indicate that a combination of variables (e.g., tidal water washing and biodegradation) may impact degradation during the first 200 days. This period was followed by a mixing of Macondo and non-Macondo hydrocarbons in the environment. In sum, our analyses show the complementary roles of abiotic and biotic factors in degradation of the Deepwater Horizon oil that was deposited in different environments of coastal Louisiana.

  15. 10 years of NICE: still growing and still controversial.

    PubMed

    Littlejohns, Peter; Garner, Sarah; Doyle, Nick; Macbeth, Fergus; Barnett, David; Longson, Carole

    2009-04-01

    The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) will have existed for 10 years on April 1, 2009. Over the past decade, the institute's methodological approach to the development of guidance and assessment of the value of health-care interventions has received international interest and acclaim. Furthermore, individual decisions, in particular those made on new cancer drugs, have generated enormous controversy. An early example was the appraisal of irinotecan and oxaliplatin for colorectal cancer in 2002. In 2003, NICE described the rationale behind its decision making. The 10th anniversary of the institute provides an opportunity to review some of the key issues affecting cancer appraisals and to explain the development of other NICE guidance programmes relevant to the provision of cancer services. PMID:19341973

  16. Parathyroid Carcinoma in a 10 Years Old Female Child.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M M; Karim, S S; Joarder, A I; Mubin, S; Abir, M M; Morshed, M S

    2015-07-01

    Parathyroid carcinoma (PC) is a rare cause of hypercalcaemia in children. Only 7 cases of PC have been reported so far in the world journal. The authors report the 8th case of parathyroid carcinoma in children less than 16 years of age. A 10 year old girl presented with difficulty in walking, dorsiflexion and ulnar deviation of both wrist joints and occasional pain in the central abdomen of about two years duration. Biochemical investigations revealed serum calcium 12.2 mg/dL (normal 9-11 mg/dL), serum alkaline phosphate 4992 U/L (normal 50-136 U/L), PTH (parathyroid hormone) 2217 pg/ml (normal 9-80 pg/ml). Parathyroid scintigraphy localized the lesion in the left parathyroid gland. X-ray showed bilateral coxa vera, genu valgus deformity and multiple stress fractures in both wrist joints. Histopathology confirmed PC with capsular and vascular invasion. PMID:26329966

  17. 1992 Resource Program, 10 Year Plan : Draft II.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-05-01

    The Resource Program is the Bonneville Power Administration`s primary process for deciding how to meet future electricity resource needs, how much new resources to develop, which types of resources to acquire or option and how to go about acquiring them, and how much BPA will have to spend for these resources. Recognizing that BPA must make a long-term commitment to acquiring conservation effectively, the 1992 Resource Program outlines a 10-year plan. Draft 2 of the 1992 Resource Program provides a framework for discussing the funding levels proposed in the Programs in Perspective (PIP) process. Previous final resource programs have been released prior to the PIP process. This version of the Resource Program recognizes that the PIP discussions are an integral part of the resource decision-making process and, therefore, it will be finalized after PIP.

  18. 1992 Resource Program, 10 Year Plan : Draft II.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-05-01

    The Resource Program is the Bonneville Power Administration's primary process for deciding how to meet future electricity resource needs, how much new resources to develop, which types of resources to acquire or option and how to go about acquiring them, and how much BPA will have to spend for these resources. Recognizing that BPA must make a long-term commitment to acquiring conservation effectively, the 1992 Resource Program outlines a 10-year plan. Draft 2 of the 1992 Resource Program provides a framework for discussing the funding levels proposed in the Programs in Perspective (PIP) process. Previous final resource programs have been released prior to the PIP process. This version of the Resource Program recognizes that the PIP discussions are an integral part of the resource decision-making process and, therefore, it will be finalized after PIP.

  19. A 10-year study of homosexually transmitted infection.

    PubMed Central

    Fluker, J L

    1976-01-01

    A 10-year survey is presented of male cases of homosexually acquired infection seen between 1962 and 1971 at Charing Cross Hospital (West London Branch). Tables showing the number of cases of syphilis, gonorrhea, and other conditions in homosexual and heterosexual males and in females are considered. Tables of other relevant data are also presented. The reasons underlying the changes illustrated, including the Act legalizing homosexual practices between consenting adult males, which became effective in 1968, are discussed. Certain pathological conditions apparently connected with homosexual practices, such as serum hepatitis, local rectal disease, and mucous colitis, are included and also some relevant manifestations of herpes genitalis and genitral warts. Homosexually acquired infection in prisoners is described. Some of the psychiatric effects of homosexuality on clinic patients and also their fears of treatment at clinics are considered, as well as the behavioral differences in response to infection between exclusively homosexuals, bi-sexuals, and married homosexuals. PMID:946948

  20. The academic occupational physician as consultant. A 10-year perspective.

    PubMed

    McCunney, R J

    1994-04-01

    The academic community has long served the private sector in a consultant capacity in engineering and in the sciences. With respect to occupational medicine, physicians, when working for industry, have generally practiced in a health care setting. Within the past 10 years, however, the business sector has placed more attention on the health implications of its operations as a result of regulations, liability, and rising health care costs. These issues, which go beyond traditional clinical responsibilities, have furthered the need for businesses to receive strategic medical advice to effectively operate and to maintain a competitive edge. One particular business sector, the chemical industry, has been challenged seriously because of legitimate as well as perceived health risks associated with the production and use of its products. This paper describes the professional experiences over a 10-year period (1983 to 1993) of an occupational physician working as a consultant to an international chemical company. Services have related to epidemiology, health policy, toxicology, plant oversight as well as serving as a health advisor on matters involving the relation between business and health. An academic affiliation with an occupational medicine residency program has facilitated access to related occupational health professionals to assist in problem solving and research. Opportunities for consulting in occupational medicine will depend upon the nature of the organization as well as the personal and professional characteristics of the physician. Requests for these types of services, however, are likely to expand in the near future, primarily as a result of wider awareness of the implications of work on health, increased litigation, and government regulations. PMID:8014716

  1. The Troubling Trichotomy 10 Years Later: Where Are We Now?

    PubMed

    Barrocas, Albert

    2016-06-01

    A decade ago, "Nutrition Support and The Troubling Trichotomy: A Call To Action" was published in this journal, identifying existing conflicts among technological, ethical, and legal aspects of nutrition support therapy, particularly in terminal or end-of-life situations. Over the past 10 years, the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition and others have responded to the action call. A "state of the trichotomy" reveals that while much has been achieved, differences in all 3 aspects will continue to exist due to their dynamic and ever-changing states. The technology arena has made it possible to increase the delivery of nutrition support in alternative settings with the use of telemedicine and social media. Critical/crucial conversations and earlier declarations of individual wishes for care and treatment while having decision-making capacity have been enhanced with the focus on patient-centered and family-centered care. The definition of death as brain death has been challenged in at least one instance. Conflicts between the state's interests and the individual's interests have added to recent legal controversies. Notwithstanding the progress made over the past 10 years, several challenges remain. The future challenges presented by the Troubling Trichotomy can be best confronted if we ACT-Accountability, Communication, and Teamwork. The focus of teamwork should move from multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary teams to transdisciplinary teams, reflecting the shift to function rather than form presented by the new healthcare environment. The transdisciplinary team will be able address the opportunities of the Troubling Trichotomy in the next decade by incorporating the 12 Cs, as detailed in the article. PMID:26941110

  2. 10 years of Terra Outreach over the Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuen, K.; Riebeek, H.; Chambers, L. H.

    2009-12-01

    1 Author Yuen, Karen JPL (818) 393-7716 2 Author Riebeek, Holli Sigma Space Corporation (department) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (Institution), Greenbelt, Maryland 3 Author Chambers, Lin NASA Abstract: Since launch, Terra has returned about 195 gigabytes (level 0) of data per day or 1 terabyte every 5 days. Few outlets were able to accommodate and quickly share that amount of information as well as the Internet. To honor the 10-year anniversary of the launch of Terra, we would like to highlight the education and outreach efforts of the Terra mission on the Internet and its reach to the science attentive public. The Internet or web has been the primary way of delivering Terra content to different groups- from formal and informal education to general public outreach. Through the years, many different web-based projects have been developed, and they were of service to a growing population of the science attentive public. One of Terra’s original EPO activities was the Earth Observatory. It was initially dedicated to telling the remote sensing story of Terra, but quickly grew to include science and imagery from other sensors. The web site allowed for collaboration across NASA centers, universities and other organizations by exchanging and sharing of story ideas, news and images. The award winning Earth Observatory helped pave the way for the more recently funded development of the Climate Change website. With its specific focus on climate change studies, once again, Terra stories and images are shared with an even more specific audience base. During the last 10 years, Terra as a mission has captured the imagination of the public through its visually stunning and artistically arresting images. With its five instruments of complementary but unique capabilities, the mission gave the world not just pretty pictures, but scientific data-based images. The world was able to see from space everything from calving icebergs to volcanic eruption plumes and the eye of a

  3. The Cryptophlebia Leucotreta Granulovirus—10 Years of Commercial Field Use

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Sean D.; Kirkman, Wayne; Richards, Garth I.; Stephen, Peter R.

    2015-01-01

    In the last 15 years, extensive work on the Cryptophlebia leucotreta granulovirus (CrleGV) has been conducted in South Africa, initially in the laboratory, but subsequently also in the field. This culminated in the registration of the first CrleGV-based biopesticide in 2004 (hence, the 10 years of commercial use in the field) and the second one three years later. Since 2000, more than 50 field trials have been conducted with CrleGV against the false codling moth, Thaumatotibia leucotreta, on citrus in South Africa. In a representative sample of 13 field trials reported over this period, efficacy (measured by reduction in larval infestation of fruit) ranged between 30% and 92%. Efficacy was shown to persist at a level of 70% for up to 17 weeks after application of CrleGV. This only occurred where the virus was applied in blocks rather than to single trees. The addition of molasses substantially and sometimes significantly enhanced efficacy. It was also established that CrleGV should not be applied at less than ~2 × 1013 OBs per ha in order to avoid compromised efficacy. As CrleGV-based products were shown to be at least as effective as chemical alternatives, persistent and compatible with natural enemies, their use is recommended within an integrated program for control of T. leucotreta on citrus and other crops. PMID:25809025

  4. Alopecia Areata in the Elderly: A 10-Year Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Yong Hyun; Park, Kyung Hea; Kim, Sang Lim; Lim, Hyun Jung; Lee, Weon Ju; Lee, Seok-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Background Alopecia areata (AA) is an organ-specific autoimmune disease that typically occurs in young adults. AA in the elderly is relatively rare, thus little data have been reported. Objective This study aimed to understand the clinical characteristics of AA in the elderly. Methods We performed a 10-year retrospective study of AA in the elderly who visited our dermatologic clinic from January 2002 to December 2011. A clinical review of medical records and telephone interviews were performed by two dermatologists. Results Among 1,761 patients with newly diagnosed AA, 61 (3.5%) were older than 60 years at the first visit. Among those who completed a telephone interview, 74.3% (26/35) had less than 50% of scalp-localized hair loss. There was no association between the extent of AA and hair graying (p=0.679). Favorable therapeutic response was observed in 62.9% (22/35) of cases. Conclusion AA in the elderly shows mild disease severity and favorable treatment response. There is no association between graying and the extent of AA. However, the influence of aging on the pathogenesis of AA in the elderly deserves further investigation. PMID:26273157

  5. Biliary complications following orthotopic liver transplantation: a 10-year audit

    PubMed Central

    Gunawansa, Nalaka; McCall, John L; Holden, Andrew; Plank, Lindsay; Munn, Stephen R

    2011-01-01

    Background Biliary complications following liver transplantation result in major morbidity. We undertook a 10-year audit of the incidence, management and outcomes of post-transplant biliary complications at the New Zealand Liver Transplant Unit. Methods Prospectively collected data on 348 consecutive liver transplants performed between February 1998 and October 2008 were reviewed. The minimum follow-up was 6 months. Results A total of 309 adult and 39 paediatric transplants were performed over the study period. Of these, 296 (85%) were whole liver grafts and 52 (15%) were partial liver grafts (24 split-liver, eight reduced-size and 20 live-donor grafts). There were 80 biliary complications, which included 63 (18%) strictures and 17 (5%) bile leaks. Partial graft, a paediatric recipient and a Roux-en-Y biliary anastomosis were independent predictors of biliary strictures. Twenty-five (40%) strictures were successfully managed non-operatively and 38 (60%) required surgery (31 biliary reconstructions, three segmental resections and four retransplants). Seven (41%) bile leaks required surgical revision and 10 (59%) were managed non-operatively. There was no mortality related directly to biliary complications. Conclusions Biliary complications affected one in five transplant recipients. Paediatric status, partial graft and Roux-en-Y anastomosis were independently associated with the occurrence of biliary strictures. Over half of the affected patients required surgical revision, but no mortality resulted from biliary complications. PMID:21609371

  6. In Brief: Chandra Observatory marks 10 years in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-08-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, originally envisioned as a 5-year mission, was deployed into an elliptical orbit around Earth 10 years ago, on 23 July 1999. The most powerful X-ray telescope yet, Chandra has provided a peak into the high-energy universe and has independently confirmed the existence of dark energy. Martin Weisskopf, Chandra project scientist at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala., said discoveries made possible by the observatory “have made dramatic changes to our understanding of the universe and its constituents.” “The Great Observatories program—of which Chandra is a major part—shows how astronomers need as many tools as possible to tackle the big questions out there,” said Ed Weiler, associate administrator of NASA's Science Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters in Washington. The Hubble Space Telescope, Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, and Spitzer Space Telescope are NASA's other Great Observatories. For more information, visit http://chandra.harvard.edu/ten/ and http://chandra.nasa.gov.

  7. Dissociative recombination of H3+: 10 years in retrospect

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, Mats

    2012-01-01

    The dissociative recombination of has been an intriguing problem for more than half a century. The early experiments on during the first 20 years were carried out without mass analysis in decaying plasma afterglows, and thus the measured rates pertained to an uncontrolled mixture of and impurity ions. When mass analysis was used, the rate coefficient was determined to be an uneventful value of about 10−7 cm3 s−1, a very common rate coefficient for many molecular ions. But this was not the end of the story, not even the beginning of the end; it marked only the end of the beginning. The story I will tell in this article started about 10 years ago, when the dissociative recombination of was approaching its deepest crisis. Today, owing to an extensive experimental and theoretical effort, the state of affairs has reached a historically unique level of harmony, although there still remains many things to sort out. PMID:23028159

  8. Circles South East: the first 10 years 2002-2012.

    PubMed

    Bates, Andrew; Williams, Dominic; Wilson, Chris; Wilson, Robin J

    2014-07-01

    This article describes the first 10 years of the implementation of Circles of Support and Accountability (Circles) in the management of sexual offenders in South-East England by Circles South East (CSE). The Circles of 71 core members are reviewed in detail, with reference to demographic data, offense and sentencing histories, risk assessment data, and considerations regarding Multi-Agency Public Protection Arrangements. A group of 71 comparison subjects who were referred to CSE and deemed suitable for but did not receive the service was identified. Follow-up behaviors of both groups are examined (including all forms of reconviction, breach of orders, and prison recall). Over a comparable follow-up period of 55 months, the incidence of violent and contact sexual reconviction in the comparison group was significantly higher than for the Circles cohort. Comparisons are made between expected and actual levels of sexual reconviction, with the Circles cohort showing lower than expected rate of sexual reconviction but not to a statistically significant degree. PMID:23615793

  9. 10 years of surveillance of human tularaemia in France.

    PubMed

    Mailles, A; Vaillant, V

    2014-01-01

    Tularaemia has been mandatorily notifiable in France since October 2002. The surveillance aims to detect early any infection possibly due to bioterrorism and to follow up disease trends. We report the results of national surveillance from 2002 to 2012. A case is defined as a patient with clinical presentation suggestive of tularaemia and biological confirmation of infection or an epidemiological link with a biologically confirmed case. Clinical, biological and epidemiological data are collected using a standardised notification form. From 2002 to 2012, 433 cases were notified, with a median age of 49 years (range 2 to 95 years) and a male–female sex ratio of 1.8. Most frequent clinical presentations were glandular tularaemia (n=200; 46%) and ulceroglandular tularaemia (n=113; 26%). Most frequent at-risk exposures were handling hares (n=179; 41%) and outdoor leisure exposure to dust aerosols (n=217; 50%). Tick bites were reported by 82 patients (19%). Ten clusters (39 cases) were detected over the 10-year period, as well as a national outbreak during winter 2007/2008. The tularaemia surveillance system is able to detect small clusters as well as major outbreaks. Surveillance data show exposure to dust aerosols during outdoor leisure activities to be a major source of contamination in France. PMID:25411688

  10. Language Disorders: A 10-Year Research Update Review

    PubMed Central

    TOPPELBERG, CLAUDIO O.; SHAPIRO, THEODORE

    2012-01-01

    Objective To review the past 10 years of research in child language or communication disorders, which are highly prevalent in the general population and comorbid with childhood psychiatric disorders. Method A literature search of 3 major databases was conducted. The child language literature, describing the domains of language development—phonology, grammar, semantics, and pragmatics—is reviewed. Results Disorders of grammar, semantics, and pragmatics, but not phonology, overlap significantly with childhood psychiatric disorders. Receptive language disorders have emerged as high-risk indicators, often undiagnosed. Language disorders and delays are psychiatric risk factors and have implications for evaluation, therapy, and research. However, they are often undiagnosed in child mental health and community settings. The research has focused mostly on monolingual English-speaking children. Conclusion Awareness of basic child language development, delay, and deviance is crucial for the practicing child and adolescent psychiatrist, who must diagnose and refer relevant cases for treatment and remediation. Future research needs to address the growing language diversity of our clinical populations. PMID:10673823

  11. Presentation of endometriosis to general surgeons: a 10-year experience.

    PubMed

    Singh, K K; Lessells, A M; Adam, D J; Jordan, C; Miles, W F; Macintyre, I M; Greig, J D

    1995-10-01

    The presentation and management of 24 patients with endometriosis (median age 34 (range 21-68)years) presenting to general surgeons over a period of 10 years (1985-1994) was reviewed. Patients presented with an abdominal wall swelling related to a previous Pfannenstiel incision (seven patients), umbilical swelling (four), inguinal canal swelling (two), incidentally following appendicectomy (five), terminal ileal obstruction (two), rectal bleeding (two) and urinary symptoms (two). Endometriosis was not suspected in most patients but was confirmed by surgical excision or resection with minimal morbidity. No recurrence occurred during a median follow-up of 53 (range 9-113) months. Endometriosis is a disease rarely seen by general surgeons and is often diagnosed incidentally or on histological examination. Cyclical symptoms associated with menstruation are present in 50 per cent of patients and should suggest the diagnosis in those presenting with scar-related and/or subcutaneous swellings. Simple excision or resection of the presenting lesion provides adequate treatment but, since pelvic endometriosis may be present, referral to a gynaecologist is recommended in every case. PMID:7489161

  12. New Horizons at Pluto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenk, Paul; Nimmo, Francis

    2016-06-01

    The New Horizons mission has revealed Pluto and its moon Charon to be geologically active worlds. The familiar, yet exotic, landforms suggest that geologic processes operate similarly across the Solar System, even in its cold outer reaches.

  13. Infrared horizon locator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jalink, A., Jr. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A precise method and apparatus for locating the earth's infrared horizon from space that is independent of season and latitude is described. First and second integrations of the earth's radiance profile are made from space to earth with the second delayed with respect to the first. The second integration is multiplied by a predetermined constant R and then compared with the first integration. When the two are equal the horizon is located.

  14. Endometrial stem/progenitor cells: the first 10 years

    PubMed Central

    Gargett, Caroline E.; Schwab, Kjiana E.; Deane, James A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The existence of stem/progenitor cells in the endometrium was postulated many years ago, but the first functional evidence was only published in 2004. The identification of rare epithelial and stromal populations of clonogenic cells in human endometrium has opened an active area of research on endometrial stem/progenitor cells in the subsequent 10 years. METHODS The published literature was searched using the PubMed database with the search terms ‘endometrial stem cells and menstrual blood stem cells' until December 2014. RESULTS Endometrial epithelial stem/progenitor cells have been identified as clonogenic cells in human and as label-retaining or CD44+ cells in mouse endometrium, but their characterization has been modest. In contrast, endometrial mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) have been well characterized and show similar properties to bone marrow MSCs. Specific markers for their enrichment have been identified, CD146+PDGFRβ+ (platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta) and SUSD2+ (sushi domain containing-2), which detected their perivascular location and likely pericyte identity in endometrial basalis and functionalis vessels. Transcriptomics and secretomics of SUSD2+ cells confirm their perivascular phenotype. Stromal fibroblasts cultured from endometrial tissue or menstrual blood also have some MSC characteristics and demonstrate broad multilineage differentiation potential for mesodermal, endodermal and ectodermal lineages, indicating their plasticity. Side population (SP) cells are a mixed population, although predominantly vascular cells, which exhibit adult stem cell properties, including tissue reconstitution. There is some evidence that bone marrow cells contribute a small population of endometrial epithelial and stromal cells. The discovery of specific markers for endometrial stem/progenitor cells has enabled the examination of their role in endometrial proliferative disorders, including endometriosis, adenomyosis and Asherman

  15. 10-year ionospheric equivalent current statistics from the ECLAT project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauristie, Kirsti; Vanhamäki, Heikki; Viljanen, Ari; Van de Kamp, Max; Juusola, Liisa; Partamies, Noora; Amm, Olaf; Zivkovic, Tatjana; Ågren, Karin; Opgenoorth, Hermann

    2013-04-01

    The ECLAT (European Cluster Assimilation Technology,) is an EU FP7 project which develops value added data products to support the Cluster Active Archive (CAA). The supporting data set will include 10 years of spatial maps of ionospheric equivalent currents (Jeq) calculated from the data of the magnetometers in the MIRACLE network operated in the Fennoscandian mainland and extending poleward until Svalbard. The Jeq database combined with the other data in Cluster Active Archive will offer a unique opportunity to conduct statistical studies on ionospheric current systems and their linkage with different magnetospheric processes. In this presentation we will introduce the process used to generate the Jeq data base, demonstrate how Jeq data can be browsed with an on-line tool and show some examples how the data can be used in magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling studies. In particular, we will show results from a preliminary study where Jeq recorded during 2003 are used to study the spatial distribution of Jeq and its curl (which in certain conditions can be used as a proxy for field-aligned currents) in different geophysical conditions. With this example we want to emphasize that the ECLAT Jeq database, in contrast to previously used data bases (e.g. from LEO satellites), is constructed from a 2-dimensional magnetometer network, which allows statistical studies on the horizontal gradients of Jeq in both latitudinal and longitudinal directions simultaneously. More information about ECLAT and the associated data archives is available from the following links: http://www.space.irfu.se/ECLAT/eclat-web/eclat_detail.html; http://caa.estec.esa.int/; http://www.space.fmi.fi/MIRACLE/; http://www.space.fmi.fi/image/.

  16. Almotriptan: a review of 10 years' clinical experience.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Julio; Vila, Carlos; McGown, Caroline C

    2010-10-01

    Almotriptan, a serotonin 5-HT 1B/1D agonist, was developed for the acute treatment of migraine with or without aura and has been available for 10 years. This article evaluates the wealth of experience that has been obtained with almotriptan, including large randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and post-marketing studies that more closely reflect everyday clinical practice. Initial RCTs required patients to take almotriptan when migraine pain was of moderate or severe intensity, and found that 12.5 mg provided optimal outcomes for both pain relief and tolerability. Almotriptan effectively improved 2-h pain-relief, reduced migraine-associated symptoms and demonstrated low recurrence rates. These findings were also shown in patient subgroups, such as adolescents and menstrual migraineurs. A secondary finding in these trials was that patients who took almotriptan early, when the pain was still mild, achieved better outcomes. This prompted the initiation of studies designed to assess the effect of almotriptan in early intervention. Open-label trials reported improvements in pain-free end points (2 h, 24 h), and subsequent RCTs confirmed these findings. Pharmacovigilance data from more than 100 million tablets dispensed worldwide have confirmed that almotriptan is associated with a low occurrence of adverse effects, which, in clinical trials, has been shown to be similar to that observed with placebo. The clinical evidence obtained and comparisons made over a decade of use have demonstrated that almotriptan is one of the more effective and fast-acting triptans available, with a placebo-like tolerability profile. This suggests that almotriptan is an excellent choice for patients requiring specific acute migraine treatment. PMID:20945537

  17. Examining the 10-Year Rebuilding Dilemma for U.S. Fish Stocks

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, Wesley S.; Cope, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, fishery managers strive to maintain fish stocks at or above levels that produce maximum sustainable yields, and to rebuild overexploited stocks that can no longer support such yields. In the United States, rebuilding overexploited stocks is a contentious issue, where most stocks are mandated to rebuild in as short a time as possible, and in a time period not to exceed 10 years. Opponents of such mandates and related guidance argue that rebuilding requirements are arbitrary, and create discontinuities in the time and fishing effort allowed for stocks to rebuild due to differences in productivity. Proponents, however, highlight how these mandates and guidance were needed to curtail the continued overexploitation of these stocks by setting firm deadlines on rebuilding. Here we evaluate the statements made by opponents and proponents of the 10-year rebuilding mandate and related guidance to determine whether such points are technically accurate using a simple population dynamics model and a database of U.S. fish stocks to parameterize the model. We also offer solutions to many of the issues surrounding this mandate and its implementation by recommending some fishing mortality based frameworks, which meet the intent of the 10-year rebuilding requirement while also providing more flexibility. PMID:25375788

  18. The GLOBE Program 10 Years On: Challenges and Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blurton, C.

    2004-12-01

    ). This session will examine what was accomplished during GLOBE's first 10 years as a Federal program, what challenges the Program faces, and what plans are afoot for GLOBE's next ten years under UCAR's leadership.

  19. Stunted at 10 Years. Linear Growth Trajectories and Stunting from Birth to Pre-Adolescence in a Rural Bangladeshi Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Svefors, Pernilla; Rahman, Anisur; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte; Khan, Ashraful Islam; Lindström, Emma; Persson, Lars Åke; Ekholm Selling, Katarina

    2016-01-01

    Background Few studies in low-income settings analyse linear growth trajectories from foetal life to pre-adolescence. The aim of this study is to describe linear growth and stunting from birth to 10 years in rural Bangladesh and to analyse whether maternal and environmental determinants at conception are associated with linear growth throughout childhood and stunting at 10 years. Methods and Findings Pregnant women participating in the MINIMat trial were identified in early pregnancy and a birth cohort (n = 1054) was followed with 19 growth measurements from birth to 10 years. Analyses of baseline predictors and mean height-for-age Z-scores (HAZ) over time were modelled using GLMM. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the associations between baseline predictors and stunting (HAZ<-2) at 10 years. HAZ decreased to 2 years, followed by an increase up to 10 years, while the average height-for-age difference in cm (HAD) to the WHO reference median continued to increase up to 10 years. Prevalence of stunting was highest at 2 years (50%) decreasing to 29% at 10 years. Maternal height, maternal educational level and season of conception were all independent predictors of HAZ from birth to pre-adolescence (p<0.001) and stunting at 10 years. The highest probability to be stunted at 10 years was for children born by short mothers (<147.5 cm) (ORadj 2.93, 95% CI: 2.06–4.20), mothers with no education (ORadj 1.74, 95% CI 1.17–2.81) or those conceived in the pre-monsoon season (ORadj 1.94, 95% CI 1.37–2.77). Conclusions Height growth trajectories and prevalence of stunting in pre-adolescence showed strong intergenerational associations, social differentials, and environmental influence from foetal life. Targeting women before and during pregnancy is needed for the prevention of impaired child growth. PMID:26934484

  20. Black holes with bottle-shaped horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu; Teo, Edward

    2016-06-01

    We present a new class of four-dimensional AdS black holes with noncompact event horizons of finite area. The event horizons are topologically spheres with one puncture, with the puncture pushed to infinity in the form of a cusp. Because of the shape of their event horizons, we call such black holes "black bottles." The solution was obtained as a special case of the Plebański-Demiański solution, and may describe either static or rotating black bottles. For certain ranges of parameters, an acceleration horizon may also appear in the space-time. We study the full parameter space of the solution, and the various limiting cases that arise. In particular, we show how the rotating black hole recently discovered by Klemm arises as a special limit.

  1. Modeling soil organic carbon stock after 10 years of cover crops in Mediterranean vineyards: improving ANN prediction by digital terrain analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Papa, Giuseppe; Novara, Agata; Santoro, Antonino; Gristina, Luciano

    2014-05-01

    Estimate changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) stock after Agro Environment Measures adoption are strategically for national and regional scale. Uncertainty in estimates also represents a very important parameter in terms of evaluation of the exact costs and agro environment payments to farmers. In this study we modeled the variation of SOC stock after 10-year cover crop adoption in a vine growing area of South-Eastern Sicily. A paired-site approach was chosen to study the difference in SOC stocks. A total 100 paired sites (i.e. two adjacent plots) were chosen and three soil samples (Ap soil horizons, circa 0-30 cm depth) were collected in each plot to obtain a mean value of organic carbon concentration for each plot. The variation of soil organic carbon (SOCv) for each plot was calculated by differences between concentrations of the plot subjected to cover crops (SOC10) and the relative plot subjected to traditional agronomic practices (SOC0). The feasibility of using artificial neural networks as a method to predict soil organic carbon stock variation and the contribution of digital terrain analysis to improve the prediction were tested. We randomly subdivided the experimental values of SOC-stock difference in 80 learning samples and 20 test samples for model validation. SOCv was strongly correlated to the SOC0 concentration. Model validation using only SOCv as unique covariate showed a training and test perfection of 0.724 and 0.871 respectively. We hypothesized that terrain-driven hydrological flow patterns, mass-movement and local micro-climatic factors could be responsible processes contributing for SOC redistributions, thus affecting soil carbon stock in time. Terrain attributes were derived by digital terrain analysis from the 10 m DEM of the study area. A total of 37 terrain attributes were calculated and submitted to statistical feature selection. The Chi-square ranking indicated only 4 significant covariates among the terrain attributes (slope height

  2. Firewall or smooth horizon?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ori, Amos

    2016-01-01

    Almheiri, Marolf, Polchinski, and Sully pointed out that for a sufficiently old black hole (BH), the set of assumptions known as the complementarity postulates appears to be inconsistent with the assumption of local regularity at the horizon. They concluded that the horizon of an old BH is likely to be the locus of local irregularity, a "firewall". Here I point out that if one adopts a different assumption, namely that semiclassical physics holds throughout its anticipated domain of validity, then the inconsistency is avoided, and the horizon retains its regularity. In this alternative view-point, the vast portion of the original BH information remains trapped inside the BH throughout the semiclassical domain of evaporation, and possibly leaks out later on. This appears to be an inevitable outcome of semiclassical gravity (if assumed to apply throughout its anticipated domain of validity).

  3. Parental stress and perceived vulnerability at 5 and 10 years after pediatric SCT.

    PubMed

    Vrijmoet-Wiersma, C M J; Egeler, R M; Koopman, H M; Bresters, D; Norberg, A L; Grootenhuis, M A

    2010-06-01

    With the aim of assessing parental stress after SCT, 73 parents of children and adolescents who underwent SCT 5 or 10 years ago responded to questionnaires on general distress (General Health Questionnaire (GHQ)), disease-related stress (Pediatric Inventory for Parents-short form (PIP-SF)) and perceptions of child vulnerability (Child Vulnerability Scale (CVS)). General distress scores were comparable with the reference groups, but 40% of the mothers at 5 years after SCT reported increased stress levels as compared with 26% in the community-based reference group. Disease-related stress was comparable with the reference group of parents of children who were just off cancer treatment, 5 years after SCT. At 10 years after SCT, scores were lower than the reference group. Perceived child vulnerability did diminish over time, but remained high in parents of SCT survivors, compared with parents of healthy children: 96% of the parents at 5 years after SCT and 76% of the parents at 10 years after SCT scored above the cutoff point. Perceived vulnerability was found to be a predictor for parental disease-related stress. To conclude, although most parents of SCT survivors are resilient, the majority of parents perceive their child to be much more vulnerable as compared with parents of healthy children. This perception is associated with disease-related stress and may induce overprotective parenting. PMID:19881554

  4. Evaluation of fire-safety programs that use 10-year smoke alarms.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Mark; Wilson, Jonathan; Akoto, Judith; Dixon, Sherry; Jacobs, David E; Ballesteros, Michael F

    2010-10-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention began funding a Smoke Alarm Installation and Fire Safety Education (SAIFE) program in 1998. This program involves the installation of lithium-powered "10-year" smoke alarms in homes at high risk for fires and injuries. This study aimed to (1) determine among original SAIFE homes if the lithium-powered alarms were still present and functional 8-10 years after installation and (2) understand factors related to smoke alarm presence and functionality. Data on a total of 384 homes and 601 smoke alarms in five states were collected and analyzed. Only one-third of alarms were still functional; 37% of installed alarms were missing; and 30% of alarms were present, but not functioning. Alarms were less likely to be functioning if they were installed in the kitchen and if homes had a different resident at follow-up. Of the 351 alarms that were present and had a battery at the time of the evaluation, only 21% contained lithium-powered batteries. Of these, 78% were still functioning. Programs that install lithium-powered alarms should use units that have sealed-in batteries and "hush" buttons. Additionally, education should be given on smoke alarm maintenance that includes a message that batteries in these alarms should not be replaced. Lithium-powered smoke alarms should last up to 10 years if maintained properly. PMID:20177753

  5. Changes in Pulmonary Function Up to 10 Years After Locoregional Breast Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Erven, Katrien; Weltens, Caroline; Nackaerts, Kristiaan; Fieuws, Steffen; Decramer, Marc; Lievens, Yolande

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the long-term impact of locoregional breast radiotherapy (RT) on pulmonary function tests (PFTs). Methods and Materials: This study included 75 women who underwent postoperative locoregional breast RT. PFTs were performed before RT and 3, 6, and 12 months and 8 to 10 years after RT. By use of univariate and multivariate analyses, the impact of treatment- and patient-related factors on late changes in PFTs was evaluated. Results: During the first year after RT, all PFTs significantly worsened at 3 to 6 months after RT (p < 0.05). At 12 months, forced vital capacity (FVC), vital capacity (VC), and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV{sub 1}) recovered almost to baseline values, whereas total lung capacity (TLC) and diffusion capacity of carbon monoxide (DL{sub CO}) recovered only slightly and were still found to be decreased compared with baseline (p < 0.05). At 8 to 10 years after RT, mean reductions in FEV{sub 1} of 4% (p = 0.03) and in VC, DL{sub CO}, and TLC of 5%, 9%, and 11% (all p < 0.0001), respectively, were observed compared with pre-RT values. On multivariate analysis, tamoxifen use negatively affected TLC at 8 to 10 years after RT (p = 0.033), whereas right-sided irradiation was associated with a late reduction in FEV{sub 1} (p = 0.027). For FEV{sub 1} and DL{sub CO}, an early decrease was predictive for a late decrease (p = 0.003 and p = 0.0009, respectively). Conclusions: The time course of PFT changes after locoregional RT for breast cancer follows a biphasic pattern. An early reduction in PFTs at 3 to 6 months with a partial recovery at 12 months after RT is followed by a late, more important PFT reduction up to 8 to 10 years after RT. Tamoxifen use may have an impact on this late decline in PFTs.

  6. New Horizons Launch Contingency Effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yale; Lear, Matthew H.; McGrath, Brian E.; Heyler, Gene A.; Takashima, Naruhisa; Owings, W. Donald

    2007-01-01

    On 19 January 2006 at 2:00 PM EST, the NASA New Horizons spacecraft (SC) was launched from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS), FL, onboard an Atlas V 551/Centaur/STAR™ 48B launch vehicle (LV) on a mission to explore the Pluto Charon planetary system and possibly other Kuiper Belt Objects. It carried a single Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG). As part of the joint NASA/US Department of Energy (DOE) safety effort, contingency plans were prepared to address the unlikely events of launch accidents leading to a near-pad impact, a suborbital reentry, an orbital reentry, or a heliocentric orbit. As the implementing organization. The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) had expanded roles in the New Horizons launch contingency effort over those for the Cassini mission and Mars Exploration Rovers missions. The expanded tasks included participation in the Radiological Control Center (RADCC) at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), preparation of contingency plans, coordination of space tracking assets, improved aerodynamics characterization of the RTG's 18 General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules, and development of spacecraft and RTG reentry breakup analysis tools. Other JHU/APL tasks were prediction of the Earth impact footprints (ElFs) for the GPHS modules released during the atmospheric reentry (for purposes of notification and recovery), prediction of the time of SC reentry from a potential orbital decay, pre-launch dissemination of ballistic coefficients of various possible reentry configurations, and launch support of an Emergency Operations Center (EOC) on the JHU/APL campus. For the New Horizons launch, JHU/APL personnel at the RADCC and at the EOC were ready to implement any real-time launch contingency activities. A successful New Horizons launch and interplanetary injection precluded any further contingency actions. The New Horizons launch contingency was an interagency effort by several organizations. This paper

  7. Bromus Tectorum (Cheatgrass): Monitoring An Invasion For 10 Years

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a Krascheninnikovia lanata (winterfat) community in the Honey Lake Valley of northeastern, CA we have monitored the effect of B. tectorum (a Eurasian exotic annual grass) invasion on surface soil properties. In 1990 a transect of 13 plots, 50 m apart was established, at which time only plots 1-5 ...

  8. Stable predictive control horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrada, Raúl; Favela, Antonio; Raimondi, Angelo; Nevado, Antonio; Requena, Ricardo; Beltrán-Carbajal, Francisco

    2012-04-01

    The stability theory of predictive and adaptive predictive control for processes of linear and stable nature is based on the hypothesis of a physically realisable driving desired trajectory (DDT). The formal theoretical verification of this hypothesis is trivial for processes with a stable inverse, but it is not for processes with an unstable inverse. The extended strategy of predictive control was developed with the purpose of overcoming methodologically this stability problem and it has delivered excellent performance and stability in its industrial applications given a suitable choice of the prediction horizon. From a theoretical point of view, the existence of a prediction horizon capable of ensuring stability for processes with an unstable inverse was proven in the literature. However, no analytical solution has been found for the determination of the prediction horizon values which guarantee stability, in spite of the theoretical and practical interest of this matter. This article presents a new method able to determine the set of prediction horizon values which ensure stability under the extended predictive control strategy formulation and a particular performance criterion for the design of the DDT generically used in many industrial applications. The practical application of this method is illustrated by means of simulation examples.

  9. Boosted apparent horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akcay, Sarp

    Boosted black holes play an important role in General Relativity (GR), especially in relation to the binary black hole problem. Solving Einstein vac- uum equations in the strong field regime had long been the holy grail of numerical relativity until the significant breakthroughs made in 2005 and 2006. Numerical relativity plays a crucial role in gravitational wave detection by providing numerically generated gravitational waveforms that help search for actual signatures of gravitational radiation exciting laser interferometric de- tectors such as LIGO, VIRGO and GEO600 here on Earth. Binary black holes orbit each other in an ever tightening adiabatic inspiral caused by energy loss due to gravitational radiation emission. As the orbits shrinks, the holes speed up and eventually move at relativistic speeds in the vicinity of each other (separated by ~ 10M or so where 2M is the Schwarzschild radius). As such, one must abandon the Newtonian notion of a point mass on a circular orbit with tangential velocity and replace it with the concept of black holes, cloaked behind spheroidal event horizons that become distorted due to strong gravity, and further appear distorted because of Lorentz effects from the high orbital velocity. Apparent horizons (AHs) are 2-dimensional boundaries that are trapped surfaces. Conceptually, one can think of them as 'quasi-local' definitions for a black hole horizon. This will be explained in more detail in chapter 2. Apparent horizons are especially important in numerical relativity as they provide a computationally efficient way of describing and locating a black hole horizon. For a stationary spacetime, apparent horizons are 2-dimensional cross-sections of the event horizon, which is itself a 3-dimensional null surface in spacetime. Because an AH is a 2-dimensional cross-section of an event horizon, its area remains invariant under distortions due to Lorentz boosts although its shape changes. This fascinating property of the AH can be

  10. Instability of enclosed horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kay, Bernard S.

    2015-03-01

    We point out that there are solutions to the scalar wave equation on dimensional Minkowski space with finite energy tails which, if they reflect off a uniformly accelerated mirror due to (say) Dirichlet boundary conditions on it, develop an infinite stress-energy tensor on the mirror's Rindler horizon. We also show that, in the presence of an image mirror in the opposite Rindler wedge, suitable compactly supported arbitrarily small initial data on a suitable initial surface will develop an arbitrarily large stress-energy scalar near where the two horizons cross. Also, while there is a regular Hartle-Hawking-Israel-like state for the quantum theory between these two mirrors, there are coherent states built on it for which there are similar singularities in the expectation value of the renormalized stress-energy tensor. We conjecture that in other situations with analogous enclosed horizons such as a (maximally extended) Schwarzschild black hole in equilibrium in a (stationary spherical) box or the (maximally extended) Schwarzschild-AdS spacetime, there will be similar stress-energy singularities and almost-singularities—leading to instability of the horizons when gravity is switched on and matter and gravity perturbations are allowed for. All this suggests it is incorrect to picture a black hole in equilibrium in a box or a Schwarzschild-AdS black hole as extending beyond the past and future horizons of a single Schwarzschild (/Schwarzschild-AdS) wedge. It would thus provide new evidence for 't Hooft's brick wall model while seeming to invalidate the picture in Maldacena's ` Eternal black holes in AdS'. It would thereby also support the validity of the author's matter-gravity entanglement hypothesis and of the paper ` Brick walls and AdS/CFT' by the author and Ortíz.

  11. Trends and predictors of asthma costs: results from a 10-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Tan, Ngiap Chuan; Nguyen, Hai V; Lye, Weng Kit; Sankari, Usha; Nadkarni, Nivedita V

    2016-03-01

    Research on asthma costs often focuses on estimating average asthma costs. Trends in asthma costs and patterns of medication use, especially for those who have been followed up and under treatment, have received much less attention. This study's objective was to document asthma costs over time for asthma patients who are enrolled in an asthma care programme in Singapore and to identify its predictors, using a 10-year longitudinal dataset.The study population comprised different cohorts of 939 asthma patients entering the programme at different times during 2004-2013. Average asthma costs were estimated and the trends over time examined graphically, within and across patient cohorts. Regression analyses were conducted to examine cost predictors, with a focus on the relationship between risk factors at programme enrolment and subsequent asthma costs.The results indicate that 10-year average annual asthma cost was GBP 341 per patient. The main drivers of costs were asthma medications and consultation fees. Use of combined inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting β-agonist medications increased over time, but this was accompanied by declines in controller drug use, doctor visits and total asthma drug costs. Obesity, smoking and asthma severity were the main predictors of subsequent asthma costs, especially for females. PMID:26647437

  12. Where Is Needle- and Root-Derived Soil Organic Matter After 10 Years of Decomposition in a Temperate Forest?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks Pries, C.; Hatton, P.; Castanha, C.; Bird, J. A.; Torn, M. S.

    2013-12-01

    All soil organic matter (SOM) is ultimately derived from plant litter. The fate of plant litter in ecosystems determines soil carbon (C) storage and nutrient availability with far-reaching implications for ecosystems and global change. However, little is known about the process by which litter becomes SOM (as opposed to the well-studied controls on rates of C and nitrogen (N) loss from litter). We are investigating whether litter type affects where in soils litter-derived C and N eventually reside. Specifically, we are investigating whether litter type affects which minerals the C and N are associated with and how much C is in the microbial pool after a decade. We incubated 15N and 13C-labeled Pinus ponderosa needle and fine root litter in the Blodgett Experimental Forest in the Sierra Nevada foothills for 10 years. A two-way factorial design was used with needle and root litter placed into O and A soil horizons. In 2001, litter was inserted into the given horizon within soil mesocosms (10.2 cm diameter x 24 cm long PVC) that had two 5 x 5 cm mesh windows to allow contact with the surrounding soil. After 0.5, 1, 1.5, 4.5, and 10 years, the soil mesocosms were collected from the field. Isotopes were used to measure the percent recovery of the litter C and N in the bulk soil of the O and A horizons. To investigate mineral associations of the added litter C and N after 10 years, we sequentially fractionated the soils by density. The fractions were a free light fraction (<1.75 g cm-3), a fraction dominated by phyllosilicate secondary minerals (1.75-2.5 g cm-3), a quartz and feldspar-dominated fraction (2.5-2.78 g cm-3), and a fraction dominated by biotite with kaolinite and iron oxide coatings (>2.78 g cm-3). To quantify the amount of litter-derived C actively cycling in the microbial pool after 10 years and use of the C by different microbial groups, we measured the 13C in phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs). After 10 years, more root litter C (about 40%) was retained in

  13. 10 years after implementation of TRIPS obligations in India.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Mahesh D

    2015-01-01

    The Patent (Amendment) Act of 2005 enforced after TRIPS raises many issues which hinder growth of Indian pharma companies. To tackle this, Indian pharma companies doubled their R&D expenditure and became significant players in global generic drug market. Indian pharmaceutical companies, which predominantly focused on import-oriented market, shifted to research-based approach by signing various agreements with MNCs that led to M&A and technology transfer. At the same time growth in R&D activities increased ANDA and DMF filing in the USA and Europe. Companies also kept their social responsibility by selling medicines at affordable price to patients. This paper highlights the changing business scenario of Indian pharmaceutical companies to counteract various issues evolved from new patent regime after TRIPS. PMID:26030078

  14. Bacterial nanocellulose production and application: a 10-year overview.

    PubMed

    Jozala, Angela Faustino; de Lencastre-Novaes, Leticia Celia; Lopes, André Moreni; de Carvalho Santos-Ebinuma, Valéria; Mazzola, Priscila Gava; Pessoa-Jr, Adalberto; Grotto, Denise; Gerenutti, Marli; Chaud, Marco Vinicius

    2016-03-01

    Production of bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) is becoming increasingly popular owing to its environmentally friendly properties. Based on this benefit of BNC production, researchers have also begun to examine the capacity for cellulose production through microbial hosts. Indeed, several research groups have developed processes for BNC production, and many studies have been published to date, with the goal of developing methods for large-scale production. During BNC bioproduction, the culture medium represents approximately 30 % of the total cost. Therefore, one important and challenging aspect of the fermentation process is identification of a new cost-effective culture medium that can facilitate the production of high yields within short periods of time, thereby improving BNC production and permitting application of BNC in the biotechnological, medical, pharmaceutical, and food industries. In this review, we addressed different aspects of BNC production, including types of fermentation processes and culture media, with the aim of demonstrating the importance of these parameters. PMID:26743657

  15. Responsibility-centered management: a 10-year nursing assessment.

    PubMed

    McBride, A B; Neiman, S; Johnson, J

    2000-01-01

    In 1988-89, Indiana University became the first public university to implement responsibility-centered management (RCM) comprehensively. This article describes and assesses the implementation of RCM on the core campus of Indiana University School of Nursing in Indianapolis. It describes how RCM encouraged an information-rich environment, particularly with the advent of economic modeling; decision making linked to strategic goals/objectives; and a performance-based reward structure (e.g., merit pay increases and incentive plans). It ends with a discussion about the worth of RCM and the changes that frame-work produced, particularly in reconceptualizing the roles of the business officer and dean. The most profound consequence of RCM may be the effect it has in encouraging rethinking of what it means to be a school of nursing at this point in time. PMID:10932994

  16. Seyfert Spectral Database: 10 Years Of Rxte Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattson, Barbara; Weaver, K.; Reynolds, C.

    2008-05-01

    What does the core of an active galactic nucleus truly look like? Do all Seyfert 2s have a Seyfert 1 at their core? How does the environment of their central regions affect our view of the central engine? We explore these questions with a systematic X-ray spectral study of bright Seyfert galaxies observed by the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). We develop a database of spectral fits of 821 time-resolved spectra from 39 Seyfert galaxies fitted to a standard model including the effects of a power-law X-ray spectrum reprocessed and absorbed by material around the black hole. We find a complex relationship between the iron line equivalent width (EW) and the underlying power law index (Γ) in the Seyfert 1 sample, which may be caused by dilution of a disk spectrum (which includes the narrow iron line) by a beamed jet component and, hence, could be used as a diagnostic of jet-dominance. The same relationship does not hold for the Seyfert 2 sample, and may indicate that these sources show more complex environments. We also see the X-ray Baldwin effect (an anti-correlation between the 2-10 keV X-ray luminosity and EW) for the Seyfert 1 sample and Seyfert 1 sub-classifications, but not for each individual galaxy. In addition, our sample shows a strong correlation between R and Γ for all spectra in the sample, but we find that it is likely the result of a modeling degeneracy.

  17. Spacetimes containing slowly evolving horizons

    SciTech Connect

    Kavanagh, William; Booth, Ivan

    2006-08-15

    Slowly evolving horizons are trapping horizons that are ''almost'' isolated horizons. This paper reviews their definition and discusses several spacetimes containing such structures. These include certain Vaidya and Tolman-Bondi solutions as well as (perturbatively) tidally distorted black holes. Taking into account the mass scales and orders of magnitude that arise in these calculations, we conjecture that slowly evolving horizons are the norm rather than the exception in astrophysical processes that involve stellar-scale black holes.

  18. Back to the future: 10 years of European health reforms.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Anna; Poteliakhoff, Emmi

    2012-01-01

    The challenges facing European health systems have changed little over 30 years but the responses to them have. Policy ideas that emerged in some countries spread to others; however, the way policies were implemented and the impact they have had has been shaped by specific national contexts. Comparative policy analysis has evolved in response to this, moving away from simple classifications of health systems and crude rankings to studies that try and understand more deeply what works, where and why. For policymakers interested in how other countries have dealt with common challenges, it is important that they avoid the naïve transplantation of policy solutions but understand the need to translate policies to fit the institutional context of a particular country. Policies that cross borders will necessarily be shaped by the social and political institutions of a country. These dimensions should not be ignored in comparative research. The next decade will require health systems to deliver improved care for people with complex needs while at the same time delivering greater value. Policymakers will benefit from looking backwards as well as to their neighbours in order to develop appropriate policy solutions. PMID:22221926

  19. Experiences from 10 years of school programmes at GEOMAR Kiel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dengg, Joachim

    2014-05-01

    GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, Germany, started a programme of cooperations with secondary schools in 2003, which has been expanding continually since that time. By active involvement of teachers and students, the Centre's research topics are communicated to schools, and young people are encouraged to develop their interest for biogeosciences. The portfolio of activities includes: project work with schools over periods from one day to several months, individual student theses at the research centre, internships, a weekly "Research Club" allowing individual experiments, summer school programmes, teacher training courses, joint activities with international partners and a video-project in which students portray scientific aspects of oceanic oxygen minimum zones (in the context of the Collaborative Research Center SFB 754) to other students. Essential prerequisites for these activities are the direct involvement of the Centre's researchers who contribute their expertise and act as role-models for the students, dedicated staff for coordination and continuity, and financial and structural support both at the research centre and the schools.

  20. Pediatric Germ Cell Tumors; A 10-year Experience

    PubMed Central

    Khaleghnejad-Tabari, Ahmad; Mirshemirani, Alireza; Rouzrokh, Mohsen; Mohajerzadeh, Leily; Khaleghnejad-Tabari, Nasibeh; Hasas-Yeganeh, Shaghayegh

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of germ cell tumors in patients admitted to our center during a ten year period. Methods: In a retrospective descriptive study, patients with the pathological diagnosis of germ cell tumor (GCT) were included. All records were evaluated and patients followed by personal visit in clinic or phone call. Data regarding age, sex, tumor site, bio-chemical assay, pathology, treatment and outcomes were gathered. For qualitative variables we computed frequency and percentage and for quantitative variables, mean and standard deviation. Survival analysis was performed using Kaplan-Meier. All statistical analyses were performed by SPSS version16.0. Findings : Forty four patients consisted of 32 girls (72.7%) and 12 boys (27.3%). Their median age was 23 months. The most common pathological tumor types were 18 (40.9%) mature teratomas and 14 (31.8%) yolk sac tumors. Extra gonadal tumors were more prevalent (32 cases) and consisted of 21 (47.7%) sacrcoccygeal, 7 (15.9%) retroperitoneal, 2 (4.4%) mediastinal and 2 (4.4%) cervical tumors. In gonadal tumors 9 patients had ovarian and 3 patients testicular involvement. Staging at the time of diagnosis revealed stage one in 23 (52.3%) cases. All patients were treated surgically and the most common procedure was total resection in 41 (93.2%) patients. Fifteen (34.1%) patients received chemotherapy. In follow-up 31 (77.5%) patients were in complete remission, 9 (22.5%) had died, and 4 cases did not appear to follow-up visits. The median survival was 16 months (IQR 4-49 months). The highest mortality rate was found in patients with yolk sac tumors (8 of 13 cases). Conclusion: The patients with extra-gonadal GCT and a high AFP level have the worst prognosis and lower survival rate. Combination of surgery and chemotherapy can lead to a better prognosis. PMID:25755868

  1. Coroner consistency - The 10-jurisdiction, 10-year, postcode lottery?

    PubMed

    Mclean, Maxwell

    2015-04-01

    The investigation and classification of deaths in England and Wales relies upon the application by medical practitioners of diverse reporting standards set locally by coroners and thereafter upon the effectively unconstrained decision process of those same coroners. The author has conducted extensive comparative analysis of Ministry of Justice data on reports to the coroner and their inquest and verdict returns alongside Office of National Statistics data pertaining to the numbers of registered deaths in equivalent local jurisdictions. Here, he analyses 10 jurisdictions characterised by almost identical inquest return numbers in 2011. Substantial variation was found in reporting rates to the coroner and in the profile of inquest verdicts. The range of deaths reported varied from 34% to 62% of all registered deaths. Likewise only 2 of the 10 jurisdictions shared the same ranking of proportions in which the six common verdicts were reached. Individual jurisdictions tended to be consistent over time in their use of verdicts. In all cases, proportionately more male deaths were reported to the coroner. Coroners generally seemed prima facie to be 'gendered' in their approach to verdicts; that is, they were consistently more likely to favour a particular verdict when dealing with a death, according to the sex of the deceased. The extent to which coroners seemed gendered varied widely. While similar services such as the criminal courts or the Crown Prosecution Service are subject to extensive national guidance in an attempt to constrain idiosyncratic decision making, there seems no reason why this should apply less to the process of death investigation and classification. Further analysis of coroners' local practices and their determinants seems necessary. PMID:24644227

  2. 10 years of mapping the icy saturnian satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roatsch, Thomas; Kersten, Elke; Matz, Klaus-Dieter; Porco, Carolyn

    2014-05-01

    synoptic map for making planet-wide maps on a single sheet was used for Phoebe [2]. • A quadrangle scheme with 15 tiles for Mercury-sized bodies and high-resolution imaging was used for Enceladus, Tethys, Dione, and Rhea. • A quadrangle scheme with 3 tiles, a subdivision of the synoptic map was used for Mimas and Iapetus. The individual maps and tiles were extracted from global mosaics and reprojected into the defined map projections. We added resolution maps and index maps for every individual tile of the atlas, showing the image resolution, the image numbers and the location of the images for every map, respectively. The entire atlases are available to the public through the Imaging Team's website: http://ciclops.org/maps. The map tiles are also archived as standard products in the Planetary Data System (PDS): http://pds.jpl.nasa.gov/. Nomenclature: The nomenclature proposed by the Cassini-ISS team was approved by the IAU (http://planetarynames.wr.usgs.gov/). By international agreement, the features must be named after people or locations in • "Le Morte d'Arthur" for Mimas • "The Thousand Nights and a Night" for Enceladus • "The Odyssey of Homer" for Tethys • "The Aeneid of Virgil" for Dione • Creation myths (with Asian emphasis) for Rhea • "The Song of Roland" for Iapetus • "The Argonautica" for Phoebe Future work: The Cassini Equinox mission ended in 2010. Cassini is now operating in the Solstice mission hopefully until September 2017. Several additional close satellite flybys are scheduled for this time frame e.g. for Enceladus in October 2015 and for Mimas in January 2017. These upcoming flybys will help to replace the low-resolution parts of these atlases with higher resolu-tion images. The northern polar regions will be illumi-nated during the extended mission providing an oppor-tunity to obtain high-resolution Cassini coverage of high northern latitudes. References: [1] Porco et al., 2004, Cassini imaging science: instrument characteristics and

  3. SMART-1 SPEDE: Results and Legacy after 10 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Walter; Mälkki, Anssi

    2014-05-01

    The Spacecraft Potential, Electron and Dust Experiment (SPEDE) [1], one of the instruments on the SMART-1 spacecraft, the European Space Agency's first Lunar mission, was part of the monitoring instruments supervising the propulsion system and supporting corrective actions to its operation when needed. During mission phases with inactive propulsion system the plasma instrument measured electron and ion densities and temperatures of the natural plasma in the vicinity of the spacecraft. While the spacecraft was slowly spiraling out of an Earth orbit towards a Moon trajectory it spent many months inside the Earth radiation belt. During this time SPEDE recorded the plasma parameters as a function of altitude and solar conditions and monitored also the effects of the major solar CME of October 28, the so-called "Halloween Storm" [2], [3]. After reaching the Moon on November 15, 2004, it continued to monitor the plasma and dust impacts onto the spacecraft until the end of the mission on September 3, 2006. Most of the Moon orbits lasted about 5 hours with an initial perilune distance of 2208 and an apolune distance of 4618 km, changing to 300 km and 3000km, respectively towards the end of the mission with a controlled impact onto the Lunar surface. A total of over 200 orbits were covered [4]. Covered by the SPEDE instrument are three areas of scientific interest: - A detailed altitude profile of the plasma parameters inside the radiation belt under different environmental condition - SPEDE was one of the few instruments active inside the radiation belt while normally all instruments on space missions are kept off to prevent damage, - a plasma parameter map in Lunar orbit with the Moon inside and outside the Earth magnetosphere, - plasma wave measurements around the moon with signatures of dust impacts onto the spacecraft monitoring the dust lifting processes on the Moon surface to escape velocities under certain solar wind conditions. Technical legacy: The Langmuir Probe

  4. Cannabis use and the course of schizophrenia: 10-year follow-up after first hospitalization

    PubMed Central

    Foti, Daniel J.; Kotov, Roman; Guey, Lin T.; Bromet, Evelyn J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The authors examined the relationship between cannabis use and the course of illness in schizophrenia over 10 years following first psychiatric hospitalization. Method We assessed 229 patients with a schizophrenia-spectrum disorder five times: during the first admission, and 6 months, 2 years, 4 years, and 10 years later. Ratings of cannabis use and psychiatric symptoms (psychotic, negative, disorganized, and depressive) were made at each assessment. Results The lifetime rate of cannabis use was 66.2%, and survival analysis revealed that this usage was associated with an earlier onset of psychosis. The rates of current use ranged from 10% to 18% across assessments. Cannabis status was moderately stable, with concordance between waves ranging rtet = 0.48 – 0.78. Mixed-effects logistic regression revealed that changes in cannabis use were associated with changes in psychotic symptoms over time even after gender, age, socio-economic status, other drug use, antipsychotic medication use, and other symptoms were controlled. Structural equation modeling indicated that the association with psychotic symptoms was bi-directional. Conclusions Cannabis use is associated with an adverse course of psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia, and vice versa, even after taking into account other clinical, substance, and demographic variables. The specificity of this relationship suggests that clinical interventions to reduce cannabis use may be best targeted at individuals with prominent psychotic symptoms. PMID:20478874

  5. Project Energize: intervention development and 10 years of progress in preventing childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Rush, Elaine; Cairncross, Carolyn; Williams, Margaret Hinepo; Tseng, Marilyn; Coppinger, Tara; McLennan, Steph; Latimer, Kasha

    2016-01-01

    Prevention of childhood obesity is a global priority. The school setting offers access to large numbers of children and the ability to provide supportive environments for quality physical activity and nutrition. This article describes Project Energize, a through-school physical activity and nutrition programme that celebrated its 10-year anniversary in 2015 so that it might serve as a model for similar practices, initiatives and policies elsewhere. The programme was envisaged and financed by the Waikato District Health Board of New Zealand in 2004 and delivered by Sport Waikato to 124 primary schools as a randomised controlled trial from 2005 to 2006. The programme has since expanded to include all 242 primary schools in the Waikato region and 70 schools in other regions, including 53,000 children. Ongoing evaluation and development of Project Energize has shown it to be sustainable (ongoing for >10 years), both effective (lower obesity, higher physical fitness) and cost effective (one health related cost quality adjusted life year between $18,000 and $30,000) and efficient ($45/child/year) as a childhood 'health' programme. The programme's unique community-based approach is inclusive of all children, serving a population that is 42% Māori, the indigenous people of New Zealand. While the original nine healthy eating and seven quality physical activity goals have not changed, the delivery and assessment processes has been refined and the health service adapted over the 10 years of the programme existence, as well as adapted over time to other settings including early childhood education and schools in Cork in Ireland. Evaluation and research associated with the programme delivery and outcomes are ongoing. The dissemination of findings to politicians and collaboration with other service providers are both regarded as priorities. PMID:26809555

  6. Graft survival rate of renal transplantation during a period of 10 years in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Shahbazi, Fatemeh; Ranjbaran, Mehdi; Karami-far, Simin; Soori, Hamid; Manesh, Hadi Jafari

    2015-01-01

    Background: Kidney transplantation is a preferred treatment for many patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and is far more profitable than hemodialysis. Analyzing renal transplantation data can help to evaluate the effectiveness of transplantation interventions. The aim of this study was to determine the organ survival rate after kidney transplantation during a period of 10 years (March 2001-March 2011) among transplanted patients in Arak, Markazi Province, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this historical cohort study, all recipients of kidney transplantation from Arak, Markazi Province, Iran who had medical records in Valiasr Hospital and “charity for kidney patients” of Arak, Markazi Province, Iran during a period of 10 years from March 2001 to March 2011 were included. Data collected by using checklists were completed from patients’ hospital records. Kaplan-Meier method was used to determine the graft cumulative survival rate, log-rank test to compare survival curves in subgroups, and Cox regression model to define the hazard ratio and for ruling out the intervening factors. Statistical analysis was conducted by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) 20 and Stata 11. Results: Mean duration of follow-up was 55.43 ± 42.02 months. By using the Kaplan-Meier method, the cumulative probability of graft survival at 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 years was 99.1, 97.7, 94.3, 85.7, and 62.1%, respectively. The number of dialysis by controlling the effect of other variables had a significant association with the risk of graft failure [hazard ratios and 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.47 (1.02-2.13)]. Conclusion: This study showed that the graft survival rate was satisfactory in this community and was similar to the results of single-center studies in the world. Dialysis time after transplantation was a significant predictor of survival in the recipients of kidney transplantation that should be considered. PMID:26941807

  7. Development of 5- and 10-year-old pediatric phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Melo Lima, V. J. de; Cassola, V. F.; Kramer, R.; Oliveira Lira, C. A. B. de; Khoury, H. J.; Vieira, J. W.

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is the development of reference pediatric phantoms for 5- and 10-year-old children to be used for the calculation of organ and tissue equivalent doses in radiation protection. Methods: The study proposes a method for developing anatomically highly sophisticated pediatric phantoms without using medical images. The 5- and 10-year-old male and female phantoms presented here were developed using 3D modeling software applied to anatomical information taken from atlases and textbooks. The method uses polygon mesh surfaces to model body contours, the shape of organs as well as their positions, and orientations in the human body. Organ and tissue masses comply with the corresponding data given by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for the 5- and 10-year-old reference children. Bones were segmented into cortical bone, spongiosa, medullary marrow, and cartilage to allow for the use of micro computer tomographic ({mu}CT) images of trabecular bone for skeletal dosimetry. Results: The four phantoms, a male and a female for each age, and their organs are presented in 3D images and their organ and tissue masses in tables which show the compliance of the ICRP reference values. Dosimetric data, calculated for the reference pediatric phantoms by Monte Carlo methods were compared with corresponding data from adult mesh phantoms and pediatric stylized phantoms. The comparisons show reasonable agreement if the anatomical differences between the phantoms are properly taken into account. Conclusions: Pediatric phantoms were developed without using medical images of patients or volunteers for the first time. The models are reference phantoms, suitable for regulatory dosimetry, however, the 3D modeling method can also be applied to medical images to develop patient-specific phantoms.

  8. Smooth horizons and quantum ripples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovnev, Alexey

    2015-05-01

    Black holes are unique objects which allow for meaningful theoretical studies of strong gravity and even quantum gravity effects. An infalling and a distant observer would have very different views on the structure of the world. However, a careful analysis has shown that it entails no genuine contradictions for physics, and the paradigm of observer complementarity has been coined. Recently this picture was put into doubt. In particular, it was argued that in old black holes a firewall must form in order to protect the basic principles of quantum mechanics. This AMPS paradox has already been discussed in a vast number of papers with different attitudes and conclusions. Here we want to argue that a possible source of confusion is the neglect of quantum gravity effects. Contrary to widespread perception, it does not necessarily mean that effective field theory is inapplicable in rather smooth neighbourhoods of large black hole horizons. The real offender might be an attempt to consistently use it over the huge distances from the near-horizon zone of old black holes to the early radiation. We give simple estimates to support this viewpoint and show how the Page time and (somewhat more speculative) scrambling time do appear.

  9. Functional status and quality of life in patients surviving 10 years after lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, Robert M; Fisher, Andrew J; Hilton, Colin; Forty, Jonathan; Hasan, Asif; Gould, Francis K; Dark, John H; Corris, Paul A

    2005-05-01

    Although many lung allograft recipients achieve long-term survival, there is a lack of published data regarding these patients' functional status and quality of life (QoL). We evaluated all 10-year survivors at our institution and, utilizing the SF-36 questionnaire, compared their QoL to population normative and chronic illness data. Twenty-eight (29%) of 96 patients survived > or =10 years following 11 single, 6 bilateral and 11 heart-lung procedures. At the most recent evaluation, median FEV(1) in single and double lung recipients was predicted to be 54% and 74%, respectively. Five (18%) patients had BOS score 0, 13 (46%) BOS 1, 5 (18%) BOS 2 and 5 (18%) BOS 3 and median time to BOS was 7 years. Four (14%) patients required renal replacement therapy. Three patients (11%) developed symptomatic osteoporosis, 2 (7%) post-transplant lymphoma and 1 (4%) an ischaemic stroke. Scores for physical function, role-physical/emotional and general health, but not mental health and bodily pain, were significantly lower compared to normative and chronic illness data. Energy and social-function scores were significantly lower than normative data alone. Long-term survival after lung transplantation is characterized by an absence or delayed development of BOS, low iatrogenic morbidity and preserved mental, but reduced physical health status. PMID:15816892

  10. Post-Test Analysis of a 10-Year Sodium Heat Pipe Life Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenfeld, John H.; Locci, Ivan E.; Sanzi, James L.; Hull, David R.; Geng, Steven M.

    2011-01-01

    High-temperature heat pipes are being evaluated for use in energy conversion applications such as fuel cells, gas turbine re-combustors, Stirling cycle heat sources; and with the resurgence of space nuclear power both as reactor heat removal elements and as radiator elements. Long operating life and reliable performance are critical requirements for these applications. Accordingly, long-term materials compatibility is being evaluated through the use of high-temperature life test heat pipes. Thermacore, Inc., has carried out a sodium heat pipe 10-year life test to establish long-term operating reliability. Sodium heat pipes have demonstrated favorable materials compatibility and heat transport characteristics at high operating temperatures in air over long time periods. A representative one-tenth segment Stirling Space Power Converter heat pipe with an Inconel 718 envelope and a stainless steel screen wick has operated for over 87,000 hr (10 years) at nearly 700 C. These life test results have demonstrated the potential for high-temperature heat pipes to serve as reliable energy conversion system components for power applications that require long operating lifetime with high reliability. Detailed design specifications, operating history, and post-test analysis of the heat pipe and sodium working fluid are described. Lessons learned and future life test plans are also discussed.

  11. Overview of Aqua MODIS 10-year On-orbit Calibration and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, X.; Wenny, B.; Sun, J.; Wu, A.; Chen, H.; Angal, A.; Choi, T.; Madhavan, S.; Geng, X.; Link, D.; Toller, G.; Barnes, W.; Salomonson, V.

    2012-01-01

    Since launch in May 2002, Aqua MODIS has successfully operated for nearly 10 years, continuously collecting global datasets for scientific studies of key parameters of the earth's land, ocean, and atmospheric properties and their changes over time. The quality of these geophysical parameters relies on the input quality of sensor calibrated radiances. MODIS observations are made in 36 spectral bands with wavelengths ranging from visible (VIS) to longwave infrared (LWIR). Its reflective solar bands (RSB) are calibrated using data collected from its on-board solar diffuser and regularly scheduled lunar views. The thermal emissive bands (TEB) are calibrated using an on-board blackbody (BB). The changes in the sensor's spectral and spatial characteristics are monitored by an on-board spectroradiometric calibration assembly (SRCA). This paper presents an overview of Aqua MODIS 10-year on-orbit operation and calibration activities, from launch to present, and summarizes its on-orbit radiometric, spectral, and spatial calibration and characterization performance. In addition, it will illustrate and discuss on-orbit changes in sensor characteristics and corrections applied to continuously maintain the sensor level 1B (L1B) data quality, as well as lessons learned that could benefit future calibration efforts.

  12. Prospective Predictors of Body Dissatisfaction in Young Adults: 10-year Longitudinal Findings

    PubMed Central

    Quick, Virginia; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Bucchianeri, Michaela M.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    This study identified longitudinal risk factors for body dissatisfaction (BD) over a 10-year period from adolescence to young adulthood. Participants (N = 2134; age at baseline: M =15.0, SD =1.6 years) provided two waves of survey data. A 6-step hierarchical linear regression analysis examined the predictive contribution of Time 1 BD, weight status, demographics, family and peer environmental factors, and psychological factors. Among females, Asian race/ethnicity, low self-esteem, greater BD, and higher body mass index during adolescence contributed significantly to predicting greater BD at 10-year follow up (R2 = 0.27). Among males, demographics (i.e., Asian, other-mixed ethnicity, education attainment), depressive symptoms, greater BD, higher body mass index, more parent communication, and less peer weight teasing during adolescence contributed to BD at follow-up (R2 = 0.27). Findings indicate who may be at greatest risk for BD in young adulthood and the types of factors that should be addressed during adolescence. PMID:25045599

  13. On the Bartnik mass of apparent horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantoulidis, Christos; Schoen, Richard

    2015-10-01

    In this paper we characterize the intrinsic geometry of apparent horizons (outermost marginally outer trapped surfaces) in asymptotically flat spacetimes; that is, the Riemannian metrics on the two sphere which can arise. Furthermore we determine the minimal ADM mass of a spacetime containing such an apparent horizon. The results are conveniently formulated in terms of the quasi-local mass introduced by Bartnik (1989 Phys. Rev. Lett. 62 2346-8). The Hawking mass provides a lower bound for Bartnik’s quasilocal mass on apparent horizons by way of Penrose’s conjecture on time symmetric slices, proven in 1997 by Huisken and Ilmanen (2001 J. Differ. Geom. 59 353-437) and in full generality in 1999 by Bray (2001 J. Differ. Geom. 59 177-267). We compute Bartnik’s mass for all non-degenerate apparent horizons and show that it coincides with the Hawking mass. As a corollary we disprove a conjecture due to Gibbons in the spirit of Thorne’s hoop conjecture (Gibbons 2009 arXiv:0903.1580), and construct a new large class of examples of apparent horizons with the integral of the negative part of the Gauss curvature arbitrarily large.

  14. Late Lung Metastasis of a Primary Eccrine Sweat Gland Carcinoma 10 Years after Initial Surgical Treatment: The First Clinical Documentation

    PubMed Central

    Falkenstern-Ge, R. F.; Bode-Erdmann, S.; Ott, G.; Wohlleber, M.; Kohlhäufl, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Sweat gland carcinoma is a rare malignancy with a high metastatic potential seen more commonly in elderly patients. The scalp is the most common site of occurrence and it usually spreads to regional lymph nodes. Liver, lungs, and bones are the most common sites of distant metastasis. Late lung metastasis of sweat gland adenocarcinoma after a time span of 5 years is extremely rare. Aim. We report a patient with late lung metastasis of a primary sweat gland carcinoma 10 years after initial surgical resection. Conclusion. Sweat gland carcinomas are rare cancers with a poor prognosis. Surgery in the form of wide local excision and lymph node dissection is the mainstay of treatment. Late pulmonary metastases with a latency of 10 years have never been reported in the literature. This is the first clinical documentation of late lung metastasis from sweat gland carcinoma with a latency period of 10 years. PMID:23710393

  15. Hopelessness as a Predictor of Attempted Suicide among First Admission Patients with Psychosis: A 10-Year Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klonsky, E. David; Kotov, Roman; Bakst, Shelly; Rabinowitz, Jonathan; Bromet, Evelyn J.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the longitudinal relationship of hopelessness to attempted suicide in psychotic disorders. This study addresses this gap by assessing hopelessness and attempted suicide at multiple time-points over 10 years in a first-admission cohort with psychosis (n = 414). Approximately one in five participants attempted suicide during…

  16. The Horizon Report: 2009 Australia-New Zealand Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, L.; Levine, A.; Smith, R.; Smythe, T.; Stone, S.

    2009-01-01

    The New Media Consortium's Horizon Project is an ongoing research project that aims to identify and describe emerging technologies likely to have a large impact on teaching, learning, or creative inquiry within education around the globe over a five-year time period. The project's central products are the "Horizon Reports", an annual series of…

  17. New Horizons at Pluto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Artist's concept of the New Horizons spacecraft as it approaches Pluto and its largest moon, Charon, in July 2015. The craft's miniature cameras, radio science experiment, ultraviolet and infrared spectrometers and space plasma experiments will characterize the global geology and geomorphology of Pluto and Charon, map their surface compositions and temperatures, and examine Pluto's atmosphere in detail. The spacecraft's most prominent design feature is a nearly 7-foot (2.1-meter) dish antenna, through which it will communicate with Earth from as far as 4.7 billion miles (7.5 billion kilometers) away.

  18. Internet's critical path horizon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valverde, S.; Solé, R. V.

    2004-03-01

    Internet is known to display a highly heterogeneous structure and complex fluctuations in its traffic dynamics. Congestion seems to be an inevitable result of user's behavior coupled to the network dynamics and it effects should be minimized by choosing appropriate routing strategies. But what are the requirements of routing depth in order to optimize the traffic flow? In this paper we analyse the behavior of Internet traffic with a topologically realistic spatial structure as described in a previous study [S.-H. Yook et al., Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 99, 13382 (2002)]. The model involves self-regulation of packet generation and different levels of routing depth. It is shown that it reproduces the relevant key, statistical features of Internet's traffic. Moreover, we also report the existence of a critical path horizon defining a transition from low-efficient traffic to highly efficient flow. This transition is actually a direct consequence of the web's small world architecture exploited by the routing algorithm. Once routing tables reach the network diameter, the traffic experiences a sudden transition from a low-efficient to a highly-efficient behavior. It is conjectured that routing policies might have spontaneously reached such a compromise in a distributed manner. Internet would thus be operating close to such critical path horizon.

  19. Horizon thermodynamics and spacetime mappings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faraoni, Valerio; Vitagliano, Vincenzo

    2014-03-01

    When black holes are dynamical, event horizons are replaced by apparent and trapping horizons. Conformal and Kerr-Schild transformations are widely used in relation to dynamical black holes, and we study the behavior under such transformations of quantities related to the thermodynamics of these horizons, such as the Misner-Sharp-Hernandez mass (internal energy), the Kodama vector, surface gravity, and temperature. The transformation properties are not those expected on the basis of naive arguments.

  20. Acute Cholangitis following Intraductal Migration of Surgical Clips 10 Years after Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Cookson, Natalie E; Mirnezami, Reza; Ziprin, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy represents the gold standard approach for treatment of symptomatic gallstones. Surgery-associated complications include bleeding, bile duct injury, and retained stones. Migration of surgical clips after cholecystectomy is a rare complication and may result in gallstone formation "clip cholelithiasis". Case Report. We report a case of a 55-year-old female patient who presented with right upper quadrant pain and severe sepsis having undergone an uncomplicated laparoscopic cholecystectomy 10 years earlier. Computed tomography (CT) imaging revealed hyperdense material in the common bile duct (CBD) compatible with retained calculus. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) revealed appearances in keeping with a migrated surgical clip within the CBD. Balloon trawl successfully extracted this, alleviating the patient's jaundice and sepsis. Conclusion. Intraductal clip migration is a rarely encountered complication after laparoscopic cholecystectomy which may lead to choledocholithiasis. Appropriate management requires timely identification and ERCP. PMID:25874138

  1. Acute Cholangitis following Intraductal Migration of Surgical Clips 10 Years after Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Cookson, Natalie E.; Mirnezami, Reza; Ziprin, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy represents the gold standard approach for treatment of symptomatic gallstones. Surgery-associated complications include bleeding, bile duct injury, and retained stones. Migration of surgical clips after cholecystectomy is a rare complication and may result in gallstone formation “clip cholelithiasis”. Case Report. We report a case of a 55-year-old female patient who presented with right upper quadrant pain and severe sepsis having undergone an uncomplicated laparoscopic cholecystectomy 10 years earlier. Computed tomography (CT) imaging revealed hyperdense material in the common bile duct (CBD) compatible with retained calculus. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) revealed appearances in keeping with a migrated surgical clip within the CBD. Balloon trawl successfully extracted this, alleviating the patient's jaundice and sepsis. Conclusion. Intraductal clip migration is a rarely encountered complication after laparoscopic cholecystectomy which may lead to choledocholithiasis. Appropriate management requires timely identification and ERCP. PMID:25874138

  2. Emergency Peripartum Hysterectomies at a District General Hospital in United Kingdom: 10-Year Review of Practice

    PubMed Central

    Chester, J.; Sidhu, P.; Sharma, S.; Israfil-Bayli, F.

    2016-01-01

    Peripartum haemorrhage is an obstetric emergency which requires effective and timely management. A retrospective analysis was conducted at a single centre district hospital, over a 10-year period to describe factors that would lead to a peripartum hysterectomy. We sought to establish intraoperative and postoperative risks and review outcomes and complications associated with the procedure. A total of 29 cases (incidence 0.8 per 1000) were reviewed over 2001–2011. The mean parity was 1.8 and the mean maternal age was 33 years. Uterine atony was the most common indication for hysterectomy (12/29) followed by placenta praevia and accreta (4/29 and 5/29 cases, resp.). The commonest postoperative complications were sepsis and paralytic ileus. EPH most commonly occurs due to uterine atony but remains difficult to predict. Hospitals should continue to have robust systems and the necessary resources available to perform EPH where clinically indicated. PMID:27190690

  3. From Exotic to Mainstream: A 10-year Odyssey from Internet Speed to Boundary Spanning with Scrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskerville, Richard; Pries-Heje, Jan; Madsen, Sabine

    Based on four empirical studies conducted over a 10-year time period from 1999 to 2008 we investigate how local software processes interact with global changes in the software development context. In 1999 companies were developing software at high speed in a desperate rush to be first-to-market. In 2001 a new high speed/quick results development process had become established practice. In 2003 changes in the market created the need for a more balanced view on speed and quality, and in 2008 companies were successfully combining agile and plan driven approaches to achieve the benefits of both. The studies reveal a twostage pattern in which dramatic changes in the market causes disruption of established practices, experimentation, and process adaptations followed by consolidation of lessons learnt into a new (and once again mature) software development process. Limitations, implications, and areas for future research are discussed.

  4. Transverse deformations of extreme horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Carmen; Lucietti, James

    2016-04-01

    We consider the inverse problem of determining all extreme black hole solutions to the Einstein equations with a prescribed near-horizon geometry. We investigate this problem by considering infinitesimal deformations of the near-horizon geometry along transverse null geodesics. We show that, up to a gauge transformation, the linearised Einstein equations reduce to an elliptic PDE for the extrinsic curvature of a cross-section of the horizon. We deduce that for a given near-horizon geometry there exists a finite dimensional moduli space of infinitesimal transverse deformations. We then establish a uniqueness theorem for transverse deformations of the extreme Kerr horizon. In particular, we prove that the only smooth axisymmetric transverse deformation of the near-horizon geometry of extreme Kerr, such that cross-sections of the horizon are marginally trapped surfaces, corresponds to that of the extreme Kerr black hole. Furthermore, we determine all smooth and biaxisymmetric transverse deformations of the near-horizon geometry of the five-dimensional extreme Myers-Perry black hole with equal angular momenta. We find a three parameter family of solutions such that cross-sections of the horizon are marginally trapped, which is more general than the known black hole solutions. We discuss the possibility that they correspond to new five-dimensional vacuum black holes.

  5. Neurocognition and Duration of Psychosis: A 10-year Follow-up of First-Episode Patients.

    PubMed

    Rund, Bjørn Rishovd; Barder, Helene Eidsmo; Evensen, Julie; Haahr, Ulrik; ten Velden Hegelstad, Wenche; Joa, Inge; Johannessen, Jan Olav; Langeveld, Johannes; Larsen, Tor Ketil; Melle, Ingrid; Opjordsmoen, Stein; Røssberg, Jan Ivar; Simonsen, Erik; Sundet, Kjetil; Vaglum, Per; McGlashan, Thomas; Friis, Svein

    2016-01-01

    A substantial proportion of schizophrenia-spectrum patients exhibit a cognitive impairment at illness onset. However, the long-term course of neurocognition and a possible neurotoxic effect of time spent in active psychosis, is a topic of controversy. Furthermore, it is of importance to find out what predicts the long-term course of neurocognition. Duration of untreated psychosis (DUP), accumulated time in psychosis the first year after start of treatment, relapse rates and symptoms are potential predictors of the long-term course. In this study, 261 first-episode psychosis patients were assessed neuropsychologically on one or more occasions. Patients were tested after remission of psychotic symptoms and reassessed 1, 2, 5, and 10 years after inclusion. The neurocognitive battery consisted of California Verbal Learning Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Controlled Oral Word Association Task, Trail Making A and B, and Finger Tapping. We calculated a composite score by adding the z-scores of 4 tests that were only moderately inter-correlated, not including Finger Tapping. Data were analyzed by a linear mixed model. The composite score was stable over 10 years. No significant relationship between psychosis before (DUP) or after start of treatment and the composite score was found, providing no support for the neurotoxicity hypothesis, and indicating that psychosis before start of treatment has no significant impact on the course and outcome in psychosis. We found no association between symptoms and the neurocognitive trajectory. Stable remission during the first year predicted neurocognitive functioning, suggesting that the early clinical course is a good predictor for the long-term course. PMID:26101305

  6. Technologies on the Horizon: Teachers Respond to the Horizon Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Charles B.; Prater, Alyssa H.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate teachers' beliefs regarding the integration of technologies from the 2011 K-12 edition of the "Horizon Report" into their local, public school contexts. Teachers read the "Horizon Report" and then participated in an asynchronous, threaded discussion focusing on technologies they…

  7. Telescopic horizon scanning.

    PubMed

    Koenderink, Jan

    2014-12-20

    The problem of "distortionless" viewing with terrestrial telescopic systems (mainly "binoculars") remains problematic. The so called "globe effect" is only partially counteracted in modern designs. Theories addressing the phenomenon have never reached definitive closure. In this paper, we show that exact distortionless viewing with terrestrial telescopic systems is not possible in general, but that it is in principle possible in-very frequent in battle field and marine applications-the case of horizon scanning. However, this involves cylindrical optical elements. For opto-electronic systems, a full solution is more readily feasible. The solution involves a novel interpretation of the relevant constraints and objectives. For final design decisions, it is not necessary to rely on a corpus of psychophysical (or ergonomic) data, although one has to decide whether the instrument is intended as an extension of the eye or as a "pictorial" device. PMID:25608206

  8. Resolving Lifshitz Horizons

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Sarah; Kachru, Shamit; Wang, Huajia; /Stanford U., ITP /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC

    2012-04-24

    Via the AdS/CFT correspondence, ground states of field theories at finite charge density are mapped to extremal black brane solutions. Studies of simple gravity + matter systems in this context have uncovered wide new classes of extremal geometries. The Lifshitz metrics characterizing field theories with non-trivial dynamical critical exponent z {ne} 1 emerge as one common endpoint in doped holographic toy models. However, the Lifshitz horizon exhibits mildly singular behaviour - while curvature invariants are finite, there are diverging tidal forces. Here we show that in some of the simplest contexts where Lifshitz metrics emerge, Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theories, generic corrections lead to a replacement of the Lifshitz metric, in the deep infrared, by a re-emergent AdS{sub 2} x R{sup 2} geometry. Thus, at least in these cases, the Lifshitz scaling characterizes the physics over a wide range of energy scales, but the mild singularity is cured by quantum or stringy effects.

  9. Fluctuating black hole horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Jianwei

    2013-10-01

    In this paper we treat the black hole horizon as a physical boundary to the spacetime and study its dynamics following from the Gibbons-Hawking-York boundary term. Using the Kerr black hole as an example we derive an effective action that describes, in the large wave number limit, a massless Klein-Gordon field living on the average location of the boundary. Complete solutions can be found in the small rotation limit of the black hole. The formulation suggests that the boundary can be treated in the same way as any other matter contributions. In particular, the angular momentum of the boundary matches exactly with that of the black hole, suggesting an interesting possibility that all charges (including the entropy) of the black hole are carried by the boundary. Using this as input, we derive predictions on the Planck scale properties of the boundary.

  10. Treatment of Bilateral Refractive Amblyopia in Children 3 to <10 Years Old

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, David; Chandler, Danielle L.; Beck, Roy W.; Arnold, Robert W.; Bacal, Darron A.; Birch, Eileen E.; Felius, Joost; Frazier, Marcela; Holmes, Jonathan M.; Hoover, Darren; Klimek, Deborah A.; Lorenzana, Ingryd; Quinn, Graham E.; Repka, Michael X.; Suh, Donny W.; Tamkins, Susanna

    2007-01-01

    Purpose To determine the amount and time course of binocular visual acuity improvement during treatment of bilateral refractive amblyopia in children age 3 to <10 years old Design Prospective, multicenter noncomparative intervention Methods 113 children (mean age = 5.1 years) with previously untreated bilateral refractive amblyopia were enrolled at 27 community- and university-based sites and were provided optimal spectacle correction. Bilateral refractive amblyopia was defined as 20/40 to 20/400 best-corrected binocular acuity in the presence of ≥ 4.00 D hypermetropia by spherical equivalent and/or ≥ 2.00 D astigmatism in each eye. Best-corrected binocular and monocular visual acuities were measured at baseline and at 5, 13, 26 and 52 weeks. The primary study outcome was binocular acuity at one year. Results Mean binocular visual acuity improved from 0.50 logMAR (20/63) at baseline to 0.11 logMAR (20/25) at one year (mean improvement 3.9 lines, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.5 to 4.2). Mean improvement at one year for the 84 children with baseline binocular acuity of 20/40 to 20/80 was 3.4 lines (95% CI = 3.2 to 3.7) and for the 16 children with baseline binocular acuity of 20/100 to 20/320 was 6.3 lines (95% CI = 5.1 to 7.5). The cumulative probability of binocular acuity of 20/25 or better was 21% at 5 weeks, 46% at 13 weeks, 59% at 26 weeks, and 74% at 52 weeks. Conclusions Treatment of bilateral refractive amblyopia with spectacle correction improves binocular visual acuity in children age 3 to <10 years old, with most improving to 20/25 or better within one year. PMID:17707330

  11. [Analysis on characteristics of red tide in Fujian coastal waters during the last 10 years].

    PubMed

    Li, Xue-Ding

    2012-07-01

    There were 161 red tide events collected during the last 10 years from 2001 to 2010 in Fujian coastal waters. Comprehensive analysis was performed using statistical methods and the results indicated the following characteristics of the temporal and spatial distribution of red tide in Fujian coastal waters: (1) Outbreaks of red tide often occurred between April and September, and the peak period was in May and June. Most red tide events lasted for 2 to 4 days, and the affected area was below 50 square kilometers. The first outbreak of red tide tended to occur earlier in recent years, and the lasting time became longer. (2) There were 20 species of organisms causing the red tides in Fujian coastal waters, among which 10 species were Bacillariophyta, 9 species were Dinophyta and 1 species was Protozoa. Prorocentrum donghaiense was the most frequent cause of red tides, followed by Noctiluca scintillans, Skeletonema costatum and Chaetoceros sp.. The species caused red tides obeyed the succession law and there were always new species involved. (2) In terms of spatial distribution, outbreaks of red tides mainly occurred in the coastal waters of Ningde, Fuzhou and Xiamen. The species causing red tides were Prorocentrum donghaiense and Noctiluca in the coastal waters in the north of Pingtan, Fujian Province, Skeletonema costatum and Chaetoceros in the coastal waters in the south of Pingtan, Fujian Province. The comprehensive analysis of the characteristics of red tides during the last 10 years is expected to provide scientific and reasonable basis for the prevention, reduction and forecast of red tides in Fujian coastal waters. PMID:23002593

  12. Lamont-Doherty's Secondary School Field Research Program: 10 years of field research-based education.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, R.; Vincent, S.; Gribbin, S.; Peteet, D. M.; Sambrotto, R.; Bostick, B. C.; Corbett, E.; Nguyen, K.; Bjornton, J.; Lee, D.; Dubossi, D.; Reyes, N.

    2014-12-01

    This fall marks the 10th year in which we have run a research-project-based educational program for high school students and science teachers at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory. This summer's cohort included 31 teenagers, 7 science teachers, and 16 college students, most of whom are returning to the program to help run the research projects. Nearly all of our students attend non-competitive-entry public schools in NYC or the neighborhoods around the Observatory. Over 80% are from under-served minority populations. Most receive Title I/III assistance. About 60% are young women. During the past 10 years, nearly all of our participants have gone on to 4-year colleges. About half are declaring science and engineering majors. Our students receive scholarship support at rates several times higher than their graduating peers, including 5 Gates Millennium scholars over the past 5 years. Our science is centered on studies of a nearby tidal wetland, where we have expanded from fish collections in year one to include everything from sediment core analysis to soil chemistry to nutrient cycles to the local food web. In this presentation we will look back over 10 years of experience and focus on what lessons can be learned about (1) how to engage teams of young investigators in authentic scientific research; (2) what cultural/organizational structures encourage them to make use of place- and project-based learning and (3) what the participants themselves report as the most useful aspects of our programming. The presentation will include video clips from the students' field experiences and from reflective interviews with "graduates".

  13. Natural History of Thyroid Function in Adults with Down Syndrome--10-Year Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasher, V.; Gomez, G.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The natural history of thyroid function in adults with Down syndrome (DS) is unknown. Method: This study investigated annual thyroid function tests in 200 adults with DS over a 10-year period. Results: Transient and persistent thyroid dysfunction was common. The 5- and 10-year incidence of definite hypothyroidism was 0.9%-1.64% and…

  14. 7 CFR 625.9 - 10-year restoration cost-share agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false 10-year restoration cost-share agreements. 625.9... restoration cost-share agreements. (a) The restoration plan developed under § 625.13 forms the basis for the... agreement will: (1) Incorporate all portions of a restoration plan; (2) Be for a period of 10 years;...

  15. 7 CFR 625.9 - 10-year restoration cost-share agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false 10-year restoration cost-share agreements. 625.9... restoration cost-share agreements. (a) The restoration plan developed under § 625.13 forms the basis for the... agreement will: (1) Incorporate all portions of a restoration plan; (2) Be for a period of 10 years;...

  16. Effects of Two Modes of Exercise Training on Physical Fitness of 10 Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribeiro, Ligia G. dos Santos Chaves; Portal, Maria de Nazare Dias; da Silva, Joao Bittencourt; Saraiva, Alan; da Cruz Monte, Gerson, Jr.; Dantas, Estelio H. M.

    2010-01-01

    Study aim: To compare two exercise training modes on the physical fitness of 10 year-old children. Material and methods: A sample of 60 schoolboys aged 10 years were randomly divided into 3 groups: Traditional (TG), trained according to the Brazilian national curricular parameters, Maturational (MG), in which the degree of difficulty of the…

  17. The Career Trap. Breaking through the 10-Year Barrier To Get the Job You Really Want.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Jeffrey G.

    This book, which is intended for individuals who have been in a job for a decade and feel that their career development has stalled, explains how to break through the 10-year career barrier and get a desired job. The following topics are discussed in the book's 15 chapters: career stalls and their causes; the 10-year career barrier; the legality…

  18. Changes in the Capacity of Visual Working Memory in 5- to 10-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggs, Kevin J.; McTaggart, James; Simpson, Andrew; Freeman, Richard P. J.

    2006-01-01

    Using the Luck and Vogel change detection paradigm, we sought to investigate the capacity of visual working memory in 5-, 7-, and 10-year-olds. We found that performance on the task improved significantly with age and also obtained evidence that the capacity of visual working memory approximately doubles between 5 and 10 years of age, where it…

  19. Variations in Titan's Ionospheric Densities over a 10 Year Time Period of the Cassini Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madanian, H.; Cravens, T.; Richard, M. S.; Edberg, N. J. T.; Westlake, J. H.; Wahlund, J. E.; Waite, J. H., Jr.; Perryman, R.

    2015-12-01

    Titan hosts the most chemically complex atmosphere in the solar system. The first encounter of the Cassini spacecraft with Titan was in October 2004 with a closest approach altitude of 1147km. Since then the Cassini has made measurements of the ionospheric species over multiple flybys and has provided a unique opportunity to study long term effects on Titan's ionosphere including solar activity cycle. It has been shown that solar extreme ultraviolet radiation is the main source of ion production and production rates are highly dependent on solar zenith angle. We use data from the ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) and the Radio and Plasma Wave Science-Langmuir probe (RPWS-LP) instruments onboard the Cassini spacecraft to investigate changes in the ion composition of the ionosphere. We compare the observations with the results of our ionospheric models. Data from 21 targeted Titan flybys are used, covering the declining phase of solar cycle 23 into the double peak of solar cycle 24. We show that the ion densities have in fact increased during the high solar activity, especially at altitudes near the ionospheric peak, and unlike Earth, the Titan's thermosphere is contracted during high solar activity. Charge neutrality is assumed near the peak of the ionosphere, however difference exists between INMS total ion densities and RPWS-LP electron densities and it becomes more noticeable at high solar activity. This may be for several reasons including enhanced negative ion densities and increased electron recombination rates. The model results agree reasonably well with the in-situ measurements for most ion species at low and high solar activity conditions although overproduction exists for some ions (e.g. HCNH+) and underproduction is seen for some heavier species such as C7H7+.

  20. 10 Years Later, Another Look at Big-Time College Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suggs, Welch

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of the newly reconstituted Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics focuses on issues facing the commission, including its role in preventing an "arms race" in salaries, facilities, and other aspects of athletic departments; the need to empower college/university presidents to take more control of athletics; and…

  1. Just-in-Time Training: The Lessons of Hurricane Katrina, 10 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boerner, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina reshaped college workforce development programs as thoroughly as it did the coastline--but in this case, the changes were for the good of students, employers and the community. This article discusses the effects and changes made by 4 community colleges who were effected by Hurricane Katrina: (1) Louisiana Community and Technical…

  2. The Horizon Report. 2007 Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Media Consortium, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This fourth edition of the New Media Consortium's (NMC) annual "Horizon Report" describes the continuing work of the Horizon Project, a research-oriented effort that seeks to identify and describe emerging technologies likely to have a large impact on teaching, learning, or creative expression within higher education. Drawing on ongoing…

  3. The Horizon Report. 2006 Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Media Consortium, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This third edition of the New Media Consortium's (NMC) annual "Horizon Report" describes the continuing work of the Horizon Project, a research-oriented effort that seeks to identify and describe emerging technologies likely to have a large impact on teaching, learning, or creative expression within higher education. Drawing on ongoing discussions…

  4. The Horizon Report. 2004 Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Media Consortium, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This first edition of the New Media Consortium's (NMC) annual "Horizon Report" details findings of the Horizon Project, a research-oriented effort that seeks to identify and describe emerging technologies likely to have a large impact on teaching, learning, or creative expression within higher education. Drawing on an ongoing series of interviews…

  5. The Horizon Report. 2005 Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Media Consortium, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This second edition of the New Media Consortium's (NMC) annual "Horizon Report" describes the continuing work of the Horizon Project, a research-oriented effort that seeks to identify and describe emerging technologies likely to have a large impact on teaching, learning, or creative expression within higher education. Drawing on an ongoing series…

  6. Are We Under-Estimating Mercury in Soils? Experimental Acidification and Sample Collection Timing Demonstrate Variability in Estimates of Mercury in O-Horizon Soils at a Maine Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, S. J.; Johnson, K. B.

    2009-12-01

    Sampling protocols, including sample timing, collection methods, preservation, and preparation, can strongly influence the results of any analysis. Organic soil horizons are a large pool of mercury (Hg) in most temperate, forested sites; minimizing the potential for under- or over- estimates in this medium is critical for discerning the fate and transport of Hg. Detailed guidance is available for ultra-clean and semi-clean handling for Hg sampling in surface waters. However, neither guidance regarding the proper time of year to sample soils nor methodological studies regarding post-sampling preservation and handling were available in the scientific literature for soil Hg sampling. Here we report on pilot work that (1) provides data for Hg in soils (O-horizon) through an entire year, to determine whether seasonality affects Hg estimates; and (2) documents the effect of treating a soil with acidic water prior to preparation and analysis. We collected O-horizon soil samples monthly from a single plot during 2008, and analyzed them for total Hg. Each month, samples were split; half were ‘control’ samples (dried then analyzed) and half were ‘acidified’ (treated with acidic (pH 2.0) ultrapure water prior to drying and analysis). We observed: (1) a three-fold range of Hg values (148-446 ppb) for the control samples (all collected within the same 2-m2 plot), varying across the twelve months in 2008 during which samples were collected; (2) differences of ~15-20% between acidified and control samples; and, (3) an apparent loss of ~100 ppb of Hg (~22%) if acidification of the dry sample was delayed a day or more. Soils collected when the antecedent period had been wet lost Hg when soils were treated with pH 2.0 solution, potentially because soluble Hg in solution could have been leached during acid treatment. This finding may help to explain why researchers have seen large pulses of Hg in streamwater flux during snowmelt. Further, our results may help to inform

  7. On the differentiability order of horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szeghy, D.

    2016-06-01

    Let M be a time oriented Lorentzian manifold and H\\subset M a horizon. We will show that the differentiability order of the horizon can change only once along a generator, i.e. the following holds. If γ :I\\to H is a generator, thus, an inextendable past directed light-like geodesic on the horizon, where I=(α ,β ) or [α ,β ), then there exists a unique parameter {t}0\\in [α ,β ] and a positive integer k≥slant 1 such that the following is true. The horizon H is exactly of class {C}k at γ (t), for every t\\in ({t}0,β ), moreover H is only differentiable, but not of class {C}1 at every point γ (t), for which t\\in (α ,{t}0]. Moreover, if γ (α ) is the endpoint of only one generator then for a suitable space-like submanifold R\\subset H the first cut point of R along γ is γ (α ). Furthermore, all the points γ (t), for which t\\in [α ,{t}0], are non-injectivity points of R along γ . Moreover, if H is smooth at an interior point of γ, then H is smooth at every point of γ. MSC 53C50

  8. What happens to Petrov classification, on horizons of axisymmetric dirty black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Tanatarov, I. V.; Zaslavskii, O. B.

    2014-02-15

    We consider axisymmetric stationary dirty black holes with regular non-extremal or extremal horizons, and compute their on-horizon Petrov types. The Petrov type (PT) in the frame of the observer crossing the horizon can be different from that formally obtained in the usual (but singular in the horizon limit) frame of an observer on a circular orbit. We call this entity the boosted Petrov type (BPT), as the corresponding frame is obtained by a singular boost from the regular one. The PT off-horizon can be more general than PT on-horizon and that can be more general than the BPT on horizon. This is valid for all regular metrics, irrespective of the extremality of the horizon. We analyze and classify the possible relations between the three characteristics and discuss the nature and features of the underlying singular boost. The three Petrov types can be the same only for space-times of PT D and O off-horizon. The mutual alignment of principal null directions and the generator in the vicinity of the horizon is studied in detail. As an example, we also analyze a special class of metrics with utra-extremal horizons (for which the regularity conditions look different from the general case) and compare their off-horizon and on-horizon algebraic structure in both frames.

  9. Female bisexuality from adolescence to adulthood: results from a 10-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Lisa M

    2008-01-01

    Debates persist over whether bisexuality is a temporary stage of denial or transition, a stable "3rd type" of sexual orientation, or a heightened capacity for sexual fluidity. The present study uses 5 waves of longitudinal data collected from 79 lesbian, bisexual, and "unlabeled" women to evaluate these models. Both the "3rd orientation" and "fluidity" models had support, but the "transitional stage" model did not. Over 10 years, 2/3 of women changed the identity labels they had claimed at the beginning of the study, and 1/3 changed labels 2 or more times. Yet, contrary to the "transitional stage" model, more women adopted bisexual/unlabeled identities than relinquished these identities; few bisexual/unlabeled women ended up identifying as lesbian or heterosexual. Overall, the most commonly adopted identity was "unlabeled." Bisexual/unlabeled women had stable overall distributions of same-sex/other-sex attractions but greater absolute fluctuations in attractions from assessment to assessment than lesbians. All women reported declines in their ratio of same-sex to other-sex behavior over time. These findings demonstrate that the distinction between lesbianism and bisexuality is a matter of degree rather than kind. PMID:18194000

  10. Soil physical quality changes under different management systems after 10 years in Argentinian Humid Pampa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, J. L.; Aparicio, V. C.; Cerda, A.

    2014-08-01

    The Argentinian Humid Pampa extends over about 60 million ha, 90% of which are agricultural lands. The southeast of the Buenos Aires Province is part of the Humid Pampa (1 206 162 ha). The main crops are wheat, sunflower, corn and soybean. The management systems used in the area are: moldboard plow (MP), chisel plow (CP) and no-till (NT). Excessive soil cultivation under MP causes decreases in the soil organic carbon content (SOC). Adopting NT may reduce the effects of intensive agriculture, through the maintenance and accumulation of SOC. However, the soil compaction under NT causes degradation of the soil structure, reduces the soil water availability and reduces the soil hydraulic conductivity. We evaluated the evolution of the soil physical parameters in three management systems. After 10 years of experiments in four farmers' fields, we found that: soil bulk density was significantly higher under NT. The change in mean weight diameter (CMWD) of aggregates increased as the management system became more intensive. We did not find significant differences in time and management systems in hydraulic conductivity at tension (h)0 cm and h=20 cm. The reduction in total porosity under NT is mainly a product of a reduction in the percentage of mesopores in the soil. Time had no statistically significant effect on the SOC content. The management system did not affect the yields of crop. In this work, the results indicate a modification of some soil physical parameters (porosity, near-saturated hydraulic conductivity, soil structure) due to uninterrupted agricultural production.

  11. Social pharmacology: expanding horizons.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Rituparna; Alloza, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    In the current modern and global society, social changes are in constant evolution due to scientific progress (technology, culture, customs, and hygiene) and produce the freedom in individuals to take decisions by themselves or with their doctors toward drug consumption. In the arena of marketed drug products which includes society, individual, administration, and pharmaceutical industry, the young discipline emerged is social pharmacology or sociopharmacology. This science arises from clinical pharmacology, and deals with different parameters, which are important in creating knowledge on marketed drugs. However, the scope of "social pharmacology" is not covered by the so-called "Phase IV" alone, but it is the science that handles the postmarketing knowledge of drugs. The social pharmacology studies the "life cycle" of any marketed pharmaceutical product in the social terrain, and evaluates the effects of the real environment under circumstances totally different in the drug development process. Therefore, there are far-reaching horizons, plural, and shared predictions among health professionals and other, for beneficial use of a drug, toward maximizing the benefits of therapy, while minimizing negative social consequences. PMID:24987168

  12. Social Pharmacology: Expanding horizons

    PubMed Central

    Maiti, Rituparna; Alloza, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    In the current modern and global society, social changes are in constant evolution due to scientific progress (technology, culture, customs, and hygiene) and produce the freedom in individuals to take decisions by themselves or with their doctors toward drug consumption. In the arena of marketed drug products which includes society, individual, administration, and pharmaceutical industry, the young discipline emerged is social pharmacology or sociopharmacology. This science arises from clinical pharmacology, and deals with different parameters, which are important in creating knowledge on marketed drugs. However, the scope of “social pharmacology” is not covered by the so-called “Phase IV” alone, but it is the science that handles the postmarketing knowledge of drugs. The social pharmacology studies the “life cycle” of any marketed pharmaceutical product in the social terrain, and evaluates the effects of the real environment under circumstances totally different in the drug development process. Therefore, there are far-reaching horizons, plural, and shared predictions among health professionals and other, for beneficial use of a drug, toward maximizing the benefits of therapy, while minimizing negative social consequences. PMID:24987168

  13. Apparent horizons in binary black hole spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoemaker, Deirdre Marie

    Over the last decade, advances in computing technology and numerical techniques have lead to the possible theoretical prediction of astrophysically relevant waveforms in numerical simulations. With the building of gravitational wave detectors such as the Laser Interferometric Gravitational-Wave Observatory, we stand at the epoch that will usher in the first experimental study of strong field general relativity. One candidate source for ground based detection of gravitational waveforms, the orbit and merger of two black holes, is of great interest to the relativity community. The binary black hole problem is the two-body problem in general relativity. It is a stringent dynamical test of the theory. The problem involves the evolution of the Einstein equation, a complex system of non-linear, dynamic, elliptic-hyperbolic equations intractable in closed form. Numerical relativists are now developing the technology to evolve the Einstein equation using numerical simulations. The generation of these numerical I codes is a ``theoretical laboratory'' designed to study strong field phenomena in general relativity. This dissertation reports the successful development and application of the first multiple apparent horizon tracker applied to the generic binary black hole problem. I have developed a method that combines a level set of surfaces with a curvature flow method. This method, which I call the level flow method, locates the surfaces of any apparent horizons in the spacetime. The surface location then is used to remove the singularities from the computational domain in the evolution code. I establish the following set of criteria desired in an apparent horizon tracker: (1)The robustness of the tracker due to its lack of dependence on small changes to the initial guess; (2)The generality of the tracker in its applicability to generic spacetimes including multiple back hole spacetimes; and (3)The efficiency of the tracker algorithm in CPU time. I demonstrate the apparent

  14. The Remains of the Dam: What Have We Learned From 10 Years of Dam Removals?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, G. E.; O'Connor, J. E.; Major, J. J.

    2012-12-01

    Over the past 10 years in the U.S., dam removal has evolved from an occasionally implemented, rarely studied, and poorly understood intervention to improve rivers, to a much more frequently accomplished and better studied and understood approach to river restoration. Over that same time period, the numbers and sizes of dams and volumes of sediment released have dramatically increased. By some estimates close to 1000 dams have been removed over the last 100 years, with most of those occurring within the last 10. While most of these are small (less than 15 m high) dams, removals of dams up to 70 m high are presently underway. Releases of sediment associated with these removals over the past 10 years have also increased by close to four orders of magnitude; for example removal of the Elwha River dams in Washington is estimated to release almost 107 m3 of sediment into the lower Elwha River. Given a decade's worth of dam removals and, in some cases, well-orchestrated case studies of the effects of removal on the geomorphology and (to a lesser extent) ecology of rivers, what have we learned? More specifically, where do we now stand with respect to being able to predict the consequences of future dam removals? Drawing on both field examples and numerical models of dam removals in the western U.S., several key lessons stand out. Although every dam removal and river are different, removals initiate very rapid upstream river response and reservoir erosion and evacuation of sediment by various mechanisms that are strongly controlled by grain size of the deposit, volumes of residual sediment relative to total reservoir volume, and style of dam removal (instantaneous versus staged). Erosion of sediment accumulations in fully and partially filled (by sediment) reservoirs proceeds by different trajectories and rates, with full reservoirs releasing sediment primarily by upstream knickpoint retreat while erosion and sediment release in partially-filled reservoirs proceeds by

  15. Near-horizon Kerr magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gralla, Samuel E.; Lupsasca, Alexandru; Strominger, Andrew

    2016-05-01

    We exploit the near-horizon conformal symmetry of rapidly spinning black holes to determine universal properties of their magnetospheres. Analytic expressions are derived for the limiting form of the magnetosphere in the near-horizon region. The symmetry is shown to imply that the black hole Meissner effect holds for free Maxwell fields but is generically violated for force-free fields. We further show that in the extremal limit, near-horizon plasma particles are infinitely boosted relative to accretion flow. Active galactic nuclei powered by rapidly spinning black holes are therefore natural sites for high-energy particle collisions.

  16. Acute respiratory distress syndrome in a 10-year-old dog.

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, T L

    2001-01-01

    A 10-year-old shih tzu was presented with lethargy, anorexia, coughing, and dyspnea of 2 days' duration. Despite treatment with parenteral fluids, corticosteroids, antibiotics, and diuretics, the dog died. Acute respiratory distress syndrome was diagnosed histologically. PMID:11565374

  17. [Visual illusions and moving horizon].

    PubMed

    Zhdan'ko, I M; Chulaevskiĭ, A O; Kovalenko, P A

    2012-09-01

    Results of psychological "additional investigation" of the crash of Boeing-737, "Aeroflot-Nord" on 14.09.2008 near Perm are presented. 37 pilots from the one of the leading airline companies sensed the attitude and rolling out the aircraft to the forward flight under the moving horizon with straight display of bank and tangage (view from the aircraft to the ground) in model conditions. 29 pilots (78.4%) made a mistake at determining the roll direction and tangage, they made a mistake at determining the roll direction 61 times (16.4%) and 44 times at determining the tangage direction, in other words they confused left and right bank and also nose-up and nose-down. Visual illusions of mobility of space and handling of ground (instead of aircraft) during the flight were revealed in pilots. These illusions may be the important cause of the following crashes. The necessity of "back" faultless display of bank in all aircrafts of civil aviation and development of computer complex for training of visual spatial orientation is proved. PMID:23156114

  18. Quantum correlations through event horizons: Fermionic versus bosonic entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Martin-Martinez, Eduardo; Leon, Juan

    2010-03-15

    We disclose the behavior of quantum and classical correlations among all the different spatial-temporal regions of a space-time with an event horizon, comparing fermionic with bosonic fields. We show the emergence of conservation laws for entanglement and classical correlations, pointing out the crucial role that statistics plays in the information exchange (and more specifically, the entanglement tradeoff) across horizons. The results obtained here could shed new light on the problem of information behavior in noninertial frames and in the presence of horizons, giving better insight into the black-hole information paradox.

  19. Quantum correlations through event horizons: Fermionic versus bosonic entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín-Martínez, Eduardo; León, Juan

    2010-03-01

    We disclose the behavior of quantum and classical correlations among all the different spatial-temporal regions of a space-time with an event horizon, comparing fermionic with bosonic fields. We show the emergence of conservation laws for entanglement and classical correlations, pointing out the crucial role that statistics plays in the information exchange (and more specifically, the entanglement tradeoff) across horizons. The results obtained here could shed new light on the problem of information behavior in noninertial frames and in the presence of horizons, giving better insight into the black-hole information paradox.

  20. Area Theorem and Smoothness of Compact Cauchy Horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minguzzi, E.

    2015-10-01

    We obtain an improved version of the area theorem for not necessarily differentiable horizons which, in conjunction with a recent result on the completeness of generators, allows us to prove that under the null energy condition every compactly generated Cauchy horizon is smooth and compact. We explore the consequences of this result for time machines, topology change, black holes and cosmic censorship. For instance, it is shown that compact Cauchy horizons cannot form in a non-empty spacetime which satisfies the stable dominant energy condition wherever there is some source content.

  1. Characteristics of Primary Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma in Iran: A 10-Year Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Fatemi Naeini, Farahnaz; Sadeghiyan, Hamidreza; Pourazizi, Mohsen; Najafian, Jamshid; Abtahi-Naeini, Bahareh

    2014-01-01

    Background. Primary cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCLs) are a group of extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphomas that may be present in the skin without any evidence of extracutaneous disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiological characteristics of primary CTCL in Isfahan, Iran. Method. A total of 95 patients who were diagnosed as having primary CTCL were recruited during a 10-year period (2003–2013) and were classified according to the new WHO-EORTC criteria. Results. The patient group consisted of 43 (44.8%) males and 53 (55.2%) females, which indicated a female predominance (M : F ratio 1 : 1.2). The mean age at the time of diagnosis was 41.78 ± 16.88 years (range: 7–84 years). Prior to diagnosis, the lesions had persisted for a mean of 8.34 ± 4.38 years (range: 0–55 years). The age at peak diagnosis was 20–40 years (43%). The most frequent subtypes were mycosis fungoides (MF) (88.5%). Four patients died from CTCL-related complications. Conclusions. The distinguishing epidemiologic characteristics of primary CTCL, particularly those MF, in Iran, are the absence of a male predominance and lower age at diagnosis. This is likely because of the characteristic ethnic group diversity and increased susceptibility among younger population.

  2. Stability and change in sexual orientation identity over a 10-year period in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Mock, Steven E; Eibach, Richard P

    2012-06-01

    We examined reports of sexual orientation identity stability and change over a 10-year period drawing on data from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS I and II) and tested for three patterns: (1) heterosexual stability, (2) female sexual fluidity, and (3) bisexual fluidity. Fifty-four percent of the 2,560 participants were female and the average age was approximately 47 years. At Wave 1, 2,494 (97.42%) reported a heterosexual identity, 32 (1.25%) a homosexual identity, and 34 (1.33%) a bisexual identity and somewhat more than 2% reported a different sexual orientation identity at Wave 2. Although some support for each hypothesis was found, initial sexual orientation identity interacted with gender to predict a more complex pattern. For the sample as a whole, heterosexuality was the most stable identity. For women, bisexuality and homosexuality were equally unstable and significantly less stable than heterosexuality, suggesting that sexual orientation identity fluidity is a pattern that applies more to sexual minority women than heterosexual women. For men, heterosexuality and homosexuality were both relatively stable compared to bisexuality, which stood out as a particularly unstable identity. This pattern of results was consistent with previous findings and helps to address methodological limitations of earlier research by showing the characteristics of a population-based sample of heterosexual, homosexual, and bisexual identified men and women over time. PMID:21584828

  3. Aggression and Violence among Iranian Adolescents and Youth: A 10-year Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Saeid; Farajzadegan, Ziba; Kelishadi, Roya; Heidari, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although the overwhelming majority of Iranian adolescents are well-adjusted, a substantial group exhibits high levels of maladjustment and deficient functioning. Escalation of criminal violence among the youth population has become a major public policy issue and a serious public health problem. In reviewing a 10-year literature, this article aimed to describe and propose primary assumptions regarding the correlates of aggressive and violent behaviors in Iranian adolescents and youth. Methods: Bibliographic databases such as PubMed and Google Scholar along with Iranian databases including PubMed, IranMedex, Magiran, Irandoc, Psychoinfo, and Emrofor Scientific Information Database, and Magiran constituted the databases which we searched for the relevant literature. Overall 98 articles met the inclusion criteria, allowing us to initiate the discussion. Results: Reportedly, prevalence of violence and aggression among the Iranian adolescents and youth ranged from 30% to 65.5% while males being 2½ times more affected than females. The role of gender, family environment, family size, socioeconomic status, and victimization in perpetuating the circumstances was apparent. Conclusions: Relatively high prevalence of violence and aggression among Iranian youth and adolescents is a warning sign and a great challenge to the social system. Reviewed studies suffer from certain methodological and conceptual limitations. Undertaking community-based studies to estimate the actual extent of the problem is warranted. PMID:26157572

  4. Effect of Metronidazole on Halitosis of 2 to 10 Years Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Sayedi, Sayed Javad; Modaresi, Mohammad Reza; Saneian, Hosein

    2015-01-01

    Background: Regarding the fact that halitosis has social and personal aspects which can lead to social embarrassment and consequently low self-esteem and self-confidence in subjects suffering from the problem, especially children, its proper treatment is an important issue. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of metronidazole as a nonspecific antimicrobial agent in the treatment of halitosis in children. Materials and Methods: In this study, 2-10 years old children with oral halitosis were enrolled. Children without H. pylori infection and parasitic infection were randomized in two interventional and control groups. Metronidazole was given 5mg/kg/day for one week. Information regarding the demographic characteristics of studied population and halitosis (duration and time of day with more halitosis and its severity) before and after intervention was recorded using a questionnaire Results: 77 children with halitosis were studied in two interventional (40 children) and control (37 children) groups. There was no significant difference between two groups before intervention. After intervention, halitosis improvement rate - according to the reports of mothers of studied children - was higher significantly in intervention group (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The results support the effectiveness of metronidazole in the treatment of halitosis. Moreover, it supports recent findings regarding the participation of specific bacteria specially unculturable ones in the pathogenesis of the disease. PMID:26199692

  5. Assessment of 10-Year Global Record of Aerosol Products from the OMI Near-UV Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, C.; Torres, O.; Jethva, H. T.

    2014-12-01

    Global observations of aerosol properties from space are critical for understanding climate change and air quality applications. The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) onboard the EOS-Aura satellite provides information on aerosol optical properties by making use of the large sensitivity to aerosol absorption and dark surface albedo in the UV spectral region. These unique features enable us to retrieve both aerosol extinction optical depth (AOD) and single scattering albedo (SSA) successfully from radiance measurements at 354 and 388 nm by the OMI near UV aerosol algorithm (OMAERUV). Recent improvements to algorithms in conjunction with the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) and Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) carbon monoxide data also reduce uncertainties due to aerosol layer heights and types significantly in retrieved products. We present validation results of OMI AOD against space and time collocated Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) measured AOD values over multiple stations representing major aerosol episodes and regimes. We also compare the OMI SSA against the inversion made by AERONET as well as an independent network of ground-based radiometer called SKYNET in Japan, China, South-East Asia, India, and Europe. The outcome of the evaluation analysis indicates that in spite of the "row anomaly" problem, affecting the sensor since mid-2007, the long-term aerosol record shows remarkable sensor stability. The OMAERUV 10-year global aerosol record is publicly available at the NASA data service center web site (http://disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/Aura/data-holdings/OMI/omaeruv_v003.shtml).

  6. Angiosarcoma of the breast: a clinicopathologic analysis of cases from the last 10 years.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao Yun; Jakowski, Joseph; Tawfik, Ossama W; Thomas, Patricia A; Fan, Fang

    2009-06-01

    Breast angiosarcoma may occur de novo, or as a complication of radiation therapy, or chronic lymphedema secondary to axillary lymph node dissection for mammary carcinoma. In our effort to characterize the clinicopathologic features of breast angiosarcoma, we reviewed all breast angiosarcoma cases in the University of Kansas Medical Center and Ohio State University Medical Center archives from 1997 to 2007. Clinical histories and follow-up data for identified patients were reviewed. The tumors were graded histologically according to Rosen's method. Only 11 angiosarcomas were identified among more than 5000 malignant breast neoplasms (0.1%-0.2% incidence) for the last 10 years. Eight cases (6 high grade, 1 intermediate grade, 1 low grade) were identified as postradiation angiosarcoma (postradiation time interval, 4-12 years), and 3 cases were identified as primary angiosarcomas (1 high grade, 2 low grade). Follow-up (median, 36 months) revealed that 3 cases of postradiation angiosarcoma recurred as skin and/or chest wall lesions and 1 case of primary angiosarcoma developed liver metastases (all high-grade). In conclusion, breast angiosarcoma remains a rare disease. Rosen's method for grading breast angiosarcoma is easy to implement and correlates well with clinical outcome. There are no distinct clinical or histologic differences between primary and postradiation breast angiosarcomas. PMID:19433291

  7. Annual and interannual variations of absorbed solar radiation based on a 10-year data set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. Louis; Charlock, Thomas P.; Bess, T. Dale; Rutan, David

    1990-01-01

    Annual and interannual variations of absorbed solar radiation (ASR) are studied using the 10-year earth radiation budget data set from the Nimbus-6 and Nimbus-7 earth radiation budget instruments in the form of monthly averaged maps of ASR. Empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) are computed for the global distribution of ASR. Six EOFs are found which have physical significance and which account for 97.8 percent of the spatial variance of the data set. The first EOF describes the annual cycle and is primarily a latitudinal variation which is driven by the incident solar radiation. The second and fourth EOFs are semiannual cycles. EOFs 3 through 6 are strongly longitudinally dependent. EOF 3 describes the spring/fall part of the annual cycle, and EOF 4 describes the part of the semiannual cycle which is out of phase with EOF 2. EOF 5 is the response of the ASR to El Nino. The annual cycle and its harmonics account for 97.6 percent of the variance with time. When the data set is deseasonalized, the first two EOFs of the resulting set are found to correspond closely to EOFs 5 and 6 of the data set with season included. As with outgoing longwave radiation, most of the interannual variation is found over the tropical oceans.

  8. A personal perspective and update on erosive tooth wear - 10 years on: Part 1 - Diagnosis and prevention.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, D

    2016-08-12

    Tooth wear has been recognised as an increasing problem over the past 10 years. Recent data from epidemiological studies indicate that the condition is common with prevalence of dentine exposure in adults ranging between 2% and 10% and visible surface changes on teeth observed up to 30% of European adults. The Basic Erosive Wear Examination (BEWE) was designed for general practitioners to score the severity using similar protocols as the Basic Periodontal Examination (BPE). The role of the BEWE is partly to increase awareness, but also a means to record the severity in the clinical notes. Over the past 10 years toothpaste manufacturers have launched products to prevent progression of erosive tooth wear using specially formulated fluorides or calcium based products. Probably the most important preventive advice is to reduce the frequency of acidic foods and drinks, particularly outside meal times. PMID:27514340

  9. Cognitive function and 10 year mortality in an 85 year-old community-dwelling population

    PubMed Central

    Takata, Yutaka; Ansai, Toshihiro; Soh, Inho; Awano, Shuji; Nakamichi, Ikuo; Akifusa, Sumio; Goto, Kenichi; Yoshida, Akihiro; Fujii, Hiroki; Fujisawa, Ritsuko; Sonoki, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between mortality and impaired cognitive function has not been thoroughly investigated in a very elderly community-dwelling population, and little is known about the association of disease-specific mortality with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) subscale scores. Here we evaluated these data in Japanese community-dwelling elderly. In 2003, 85 year-olds (n=207) were enrolled; 205 completed the MMSE for cognitive function and were followed-up for 10 years, during which time 120 participants died, 70 survived, and 17 were lost to follow-up. Thirty-eight deaths were due to cardiovascular disease, 22 to senility, 21 to respiratory disease, and 16 to cancer. All-cause mortality decreased by 4.3% with a 1-point increase in the global MMSE score without adjustment, and it decreased by 6.3% with adjustment for both sex and length of education. Cardiovascular mortality decreased by 7.6% and senility mortality decreased by 9.2% with a 1-point increase in the global MMSE score with adjustment for sex and education. No association was found between respiratory diseases or cancer mortality and global MMSE score. All-cause mortality also decreased with increases in MMSE subscale scores for time orientation, place orientation, delayed recall, naming objects, and listening and obeying. Cardiovascular mortality was also associated with the MMSE subscale of naming objects, and senility mortality was associated with the subscales of time orientation and place orientation. Thus, we found that impaired cognitive function determined by global MMSE score and some MMSE subscale scores were independent predictors of all-cause mortality or mortality due to cardiovascular disease or senility in 85 year-olds. PMID:25336934

  10. Status of the JPL Horizons Ephemeris System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giorgini, Jon D.

    2015-08-01

    Since 1996, the NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory on-line Horizons system has provided open access to the latest JPL orbit solutions through customizable ephemeris generation and searches. Currently, high-precision ephemerides for more than 683,000 objects are available: all known solar system bodies, several dozen spacecraft, system barycenters, and some libration points.Since inception, Horizons has produced 150 million ephemeris products in response to 70.4 million connections by 800,000 unique IP addresses. Recent usage is typically 6000 unique users requesting 4,000,000 ephemeris products per month.Horizons is freely accessible without an account and may be used and automated through any of three interfaces: interactive telnet connection, web-browser form, or by sending e-mail command-files.Asteroid and comet ephemerides are numerically integrated on request using JPL's DASTCOM5 database of initial conditions which is kept current by a separate process; as new measurements and discoveries are reported by the Minor Planet Center, they are automatically processed into new JPL orbit solutions. Radar targets and other objects of high interest have their orbit solutions manually examined and updated into the database.For asteroids and comets, SPK files may be dynamically created using Horizons. This is effectively a recording of the integrator output. The binary files may then be efficiently interpolated by user software to exactly reproduce the trajectory without having to duplicate the numerically integrated n-body dynamical model or PPN equations of motion.Other Horizons output is numerical and in the form of plain-text observer, vector, osculating element, and close-approach tables. More than one hundred quantities can be requested in various time-scales and coordinate systems. For asteroids and comets, statistical uncertainties can be mapped to output times to assess position and motion uncertainties.Horizons is consistent with the DE431 solar system solution

  11. Surrogacy families 10 years on: relationship with the surrogate, decisions over disclosure and children's understanding of their surrogacy origins

    PubMed Central

    Jadva, V.; Blake, L.; Casey, P.; Golombok, S.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND This study aimed to prospectively examine families created using surrogacy over a 10-year period in the UK with respect to intending parents' and children's relationship with the surrogate mother, parents' decisions over disclosure and children's understanding of the nature of their conception. METHODS Semi-structured interviews were administered by trained researchers to intending mothers, intending fathers and children on four occasions over a 10-year period. Forty-two families (19 with a genetic surrogate mother) participated when the child was 1-year old and by age 10 years, 33 families remained in the study. Data were collected on the frequency of contact with the surrogate mother, relationship with the surrogate, disclosure of surrogacy to the child and the child's understanding of their surrogacy birth. RESULTS Frequency of contact between surrogacy families and their surrogate mother decreased over time, particularly for families whose surrogate was a previously unknown genetic carrier (P < 0.001) (i.e. where they had met through a third party and the surrogate mother's egg was used to conceive the child). Most families reported harmonious relationships with their surrogate mother. At age 10 years, 19 (90%) children who had been informed of the nature of their conception had a good understanding of this and 13 of the 14 children who were in contact with their surrogate reported that they liked her. CONCLUSIONS Surrogacy families maintained good relationships with the surrogate mother over time. Children felt positive about their surrogate mother and their surrogacy birth. The sample size of this study was small and further, larger investigations are needed before firm conclusions can be drawn. PMID:22814484

  12. Anatomical and functional graft survival, 10 years after epikeratoplasty in keratoconus

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Anita; Gupta, Anoop K; Sharma, Namrata; Nindrakrishna, Sasikala; Vajpayee, Rasik

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To report outcomes of epikeratoplasty in keratoconus (KC), utilizing manually-prepared plano donor lenticules in terms of flattening of the cone, reduction in astigmatism and improvement in the visual acuity. Materials and Methods: Patients with KC, having visual acuity <20/200, astigmatism >12 diopters (D) but without corneal opacity underwent epikeratoplasty, using manually prepared plano donor lenticules from fresh or M.K preserved corneas, between 1990 - 2000 and followed for 10 years, were included in this report. Visual acuity slit-lamp-biomicroscopy, keratometry, and refraction were performed at 8 weeks, 12 weeks, and 6 months for all 59 patients. The same were carried out at 1 year, 5 years, and 10 years depending upon the availability of the patient for that period. Results: Of the 59 patients, only 26 were available for follow-up after 10 years. At 3 months, 1 year and 5 years, best corrected visual acuity of (BCVA) ≥20/60 were achieved in 84.7%, 84.4% and 80.3% of eyes, respectively. BCVA was 73% at 10-year follow- up, which was due to the presence of posterior subcapsular cataract (PSC). The average keratometric astigmatism and average flattening in diopters stabilized at the end of 3 months, which remained constant at 1, 5, and 10-year follow-up. The average diopter of myopia was stabilized by 1 year, which was almost same at 10 year. Graft was clear in all but 1 eye at 10 year follow-up. Conclusion: Epikeratoplasty is a useful technique for keratoconic eyes without apical scarring who fail or unable to use contact lenses. PMID:23275216

  13. The absence of horizon in black-hole formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Pei-Ming

    2016-08-01

    With the back-reaction of Hawking radiation taken into consideration, the work of Kawai, Matsuo and Yokokura [1] has shown that, under a few assumptions, the collapse of matter does not lead to event horizon nor apparent horizon. In this paper, we relax their assumptions and elaborate on the space-time geometry of a generic collapsing body with spherical symmetry. The geometry outside the collapsing sphere is found to be approximated by the geometry outside the white-hole horizon, hence the collapsing matter remains outside the Schwarzschild radius. As particles in Hawking radiation are created in the vicinity of the collapsing matter, the information loss paradox is alleviated. Assuming that the collapsing body evaporates within finite time, there is no event horizon.

  14. Dynamical AdS strings across horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Takaaki; Murata, Keiju

    2016-03-01

    We examine the nonlinear classical dynamics of a fundamental string in anti-de Sitter spacetime. The string is dual to the flux tube between an external quark-antiquark pair in {N}=4 super Yang-Mills theory. We perturb the string by shaking the endpoints and compute its time evolution numerically. We find that with sufficiently strong perturbations the string continues extending and plunges into the Poincaré horizon. In the evolution, effective horizons are also dynamically created on the string worldsheet. The quark and antiquark are thus causally disconnected, and the string transitions to two straight strings. The forces acting on the endpoints vanish with a power law whose slope depends on the perturbations. The condition for this transition to occur is that energy injection exceeds the static energy between the quark-antiquark pair.

  15. NEW HORIZONS IN SENSOR DEVELOPMENT

    PubMed Central

    Intille, Stephen S.; Lester, Jonathan; Sallis, James F.; Duncan, Glen

    2011-01-01

    Background Accelerometery and other sensing technologies are important tools for physical activity measurement. Engineering advances have allowed developers to transform clunky, uncomfortable, and conspicuous monitors into relatively small, ergonomic, and convenient research tools. New devices can be used to collect data on overall physical activity and in some cases posture, physiological state, and location, for many days or weeks from subjects during their everyday lives. In this review article, we identify emerging trends in several types of monitoring technologies and gaps in the current state of knowledge. Best practices The only certainty about the future of activity sensing technologies is that researchers must anticipate and plan for change. We propose a set of best practices that may accelerate adoption of new devices and increase the likelihood that data being collected and used today will be compatible with new datasets and methods likely to appear on the horizon. Future directions We describe several technology-driven trends, ranging from continued miniaturization of devices that provide gross summary information about activity levels and energy expenditure, to new devices that provide highly detailed information about the specific type, amount, and location of physical activity. Some devices will take advantage of consumer technologies, such as mobile phones, to detect and respond to physical activity in real time, creating new opportunities in measurement, remote compliance monitoring, data-driven discovery, and intervention. PMID:22157771

  16. Birth size and physical activity in a cohort of Indian children aged 6-10 years.

    PubMed

    Kehoe, S H; Krishnaveni, G V; Veena, S R; Hill, J C; Osmond, C; Kiran; Coakley, P; Karat, S C; Fall, C H D

    2012-08-01

    There is evidence of a reduction in children's physical activity in India in the last decade. Our objective was to assess whether size and body composition at birth are associated with physical activity in school-aged children. Children from a prospective observational cohort study born in Mysore, South India between 1997 and 1998 (n = 663) had neonatal anthropometric measurements made within 72 h of delivery [weight, mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), chest, abdomen and head circumference, crown-heel, crown-buttock and leg length, triceps and subscapular skinfolds]. At 6-10 years, children (n = 449) were asked to wear AM7164 or GT1M Actigraph accelerometers for 7 days. Body composition was measured within 6 months of activity monitoring. Arm muscle area at birth and time of activity monitoring was calculated from MUAC and skinfold measurements. Activity outcome measures were: mean accelerometer counts per minute (cpm); counts per day and proportion of time spent in moderate and vigorous activity. The mean (S.D.) number of days with ≥500 min of recorded accelerometer data was 7.0 (1.1). Linear regression models showed no significant associations between any of the neonatal anthropometric measures and the activity variables. Body fat percentage at 7.5 years was negatively associated with all activity variables (B = -4.69, CI: -7.31, -2.07 for mean cpm). In conclusion, this study showed no associations between body size and skinfold thickness at birth and objectively measured physical activity in childhood. PMID:24098836

  17. Birth size and physical activity in a cohort of Indian children aged 6–10 years

    PubMed Central

    Kehoe, S. H.; Krishnaveni, G. V.; Veena, S. R.; Hill, J. C.; Osmond, C.; Kiran; Coakley, P.; Karat, S. C.; Fall, C. H. D.

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence of a reduction in children’s physical activity in India in the last decade. Our objective was to assess whether size and body composition at birth are associated with physical activity in school-aged children. Children from a prospective observational cohort study born in Mysore, South India between 1997 and 1998 (n = 663) had neonatal anthropometric measurements made within 72 h of delivery [weight, mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), chest, abdomen and head circumference, crown–heel, crown–buttock and leg length, triceps and subscapular skinfolds]. At 6–10 years, children (n = 449) were asked to wear AM7164 or GT1M Actigraph accelerometers for 7 days. Body composition was measured within 6 months of activity monitoring. Arm muscle area at birth and time of activity monitoring was calculated from MUAC and skinfold measurements. Activity outcome measures were: mean accelerometer counts per minute (cpm); counts per day and proportion of time spent in moderate and vigorous activity. The mean (S.D.) number of days with ≥500 min of recorded accelerometer data was 7.0 (1.1). Linear regression models showed no significant associations between any of the neonatal anthropometric measures and the activity variables. Body fat percentage at 7.5 years was negatively associated with all activity variables (B = −4.69, CI: −7.31, −2.07 for mean cpm). In conclusion, this study showed no associations between body size and skinfold thickness at birth and objectively measured physical activity in childhood. PMID:24098836

  18. Ureteroscopy with conscious sedation for distal ureteric calculi: 10-year experience

    PubMed Central

    Kroczak, Tadeusz J.; Kaler, Kamaljot Singh; Patel, Premal; Al-Essawi, Turki

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Distal ureteroscopy for stone extraction is a common procedure that is generally performed with spinal or general anesthesia. We retrospectively reviewed all distal ureteroscopy performed for ureteric stone extraction with conscious sedation at our institution over a 10-year period to determine its efficacy and safety. Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed of all distal ureteroscopy performed for calculus removal from 2004 to 2014. Patient characteristics, analgesic requirement, tolerability, procedure time, stone size and composition, method of stone extraction, success rate, and complications were collected. Results: Between 2004 and 2014, 314 procedures were performed. Mean age was 53.74 years, with 160 males and 154 females. A success rate of 97% and 10 (3.2%) complications were reported. Mean analgesic requirement was 189 μg of fentanyl (range: 50–400) and 2.79 mg of midazolam (range: 0–8). A total of 263 patients (83.7%) tolerated the procedure well, with only seven (2.2%) having poor tolerability. When comparing females to males, females were found to require less fentanyl (p=0.0001) and midazolam (p=0.0001). When calculi >5 mm were compared to those <5 mm, there was no statistically significant difference in success rate, procedure time, analgesic requirement, tolerability, or complications. Conclusion: Distal ureteroscopy with conscious sedation is safe and efficacious. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating stones >5 mm can be safely and effectively treated with conscious sedation during this procedure. The context of our findings must be understood within the limitations of our retrospective analysis. PMID:26858781

  19. Antipsychotic effects on estimated 10 year coronary heart disease risk in the CATIE Schizophrenia Study

    PubMed Central

    Daumit, Gail L.; Goff, Donald C.; Meyer, Jonathan M.; Davis, Vicki G.; Nasrallah, Henry A.; McEvoy, Joseph P.; Rosenheck, Robert; Davis, Sonia M.; Hsiao, John K.; Stroup, T. Scott; Lieberman, Jeffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Persons with schizophrenia die earlier than the general population, in large part due to cardiovascular disease. The study objective was to examine effects of different antipsychotic treatments on estimates of 10 year coronary heart disease (CHD) risk calculated by the Framingham Heart Study formula. Method Change in ten-year risk for CHD was compared between treatment groups in 1125 patients followed for 18 months or until treatment discontinuation in the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) Schizophrenia Trial. Results The covariate-adjusted mean change in 10-year CHD risk differed significantly between treatments. Olanzapine was associated with a 0.5% (SE 0.3) increase and quetiapine, a 0.3% (SE 0.3) increase; whereas risk decreased in patients treated with perphenazine, −0.5% (SE 0.3), risperidone, −0.6% (SE 0.3), and ziprasidone −0.6% (SE 0.4). The difference in 10-year CHD risk between olanzpaine and risperidone was statistically significant (p=0.004). Differences in estimated 10 year CHD risk between drugs were most marked in the tertile of subjects with a baseline CHD risk of at least 10%. Among individual CHD risk factors used in the Framingham formula, only total and HDL cholesterol levels differed between treatments. Conclusions These results indicate that the impact on 10-year CHD risk differs significantly between antipsychotic agents, with olanzapine producing the largest elevation in CHD risk of the agents studied in CATIE. PMID:18775645

  20. Thermal history of the Sabero Coalfield (Southern Cantabrian Zone, NW Spain) as revealed by apatite fission track analyses from tonstein horizons: implications for timing of coalification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botor, Dariusz; Anczkiewicz, Aneta A.

    2015-10-01

    Apatite fission track (AFT) central ages from Carboniferous (Stephanian) tonsteins of the Sabero Coalfield, NW Spain, range from 140.8 ± 7.5 to 65.8 ± 8.1 Ma (Cretaceous), with mean c-axis projected track length values ranging from 12.5 to 13.4 μm. Mean random vitrinite reflectance ( R r) of these samples ranges from 0.91 to 1.20 %, which can be translated into maximum palaeotemperatures of ca. 130 to 180 °C. All analysed samples experienced substantial post-depositional annealing. The considerably younger AFT ages compared to the depositional ages of the samples and R r data indicate the certainty of the occurrence of at least one heating event after the deposition of strata. The unimodal track length distributions, the relatively short mean track length, and the rather low standard deviation (SD) (1.0-1.6 μm) indicate a relatively simple thermal history that could be related to the post-Late Variscan heating event followed by prolonged residence in the apatite partial annealing zone (APAZ). Geological data combined with thermal models of AFT data indicate that Stephanian strata reached the maximum palaeotemperatures in the Permian period, which was therefore the major time of the coalification processes. The Permian magmatic activity was responsible for a high heat flow, which, with the added effect of sedimentary burial, could account for the resetting of the AFT system. It appears that the fault-related hydrothermal activity could have redistributed heat in areas of significant subsidence. Cooling occurred in the Triassic-Cretaceous times after a high heat flow Permian regime. A post-Permian maturation of the Stephanian organic matter is not very likely, since there is no evidence of a high Mesozoic burial that was sufficient to cause a significant increase in the palaeotemperatures. Finally, exhumation and associated erosion rates may possibly have been faster in the Tertiary, causing the present exposure of the studied rocks.

  1. Minimum average 7-day, 10-year flows in the Hudson River basin, New York, with release-flow data on Rondout and Ashokan reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Archer, Roger J.

    1978-01-01

    Minimum average 7-day, 10-year flow at 67 gaging stations and 173 partial-record stations in the Hudson River basin are given in tabular form. Variation of the 7-day, 10-year low flow from point to point in selected reaches, and the corresponding times of travel, are shown graphically for Wawayanda Creek, Wallkill River, Woodbury-Moodna Creek, and the Fishkill Creek basins. The 7-day, 10-year low flow for the Saw Kill basin, and estimates of the 7-day, 10-year low flow of the Roeliff Jansen Kill at Ancram and of Birch Creek at Pine Hill, are given. Summaries of discharge from Rondout and Ashokan Reservoirs, in Ulster County, are also included. Minimum average 7-day, 10-year flow for gaging stations with 10 years or more of record were determined by log-Pearson Type III computation; those for partial-record stations were developed by correlation of discharge measurements made at the partial-record stations with discharge data from appropriate long-term gaging stations. The variation in low flows from point to point within the selected subbasins were estimated from available data and regional regression formula. Time of travel at these flows in the four subbasins was estimated from available data and Boning's equations.

  2. Hepatitis C virus recurrence after liver transplantation: A 10-year evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Gitto, Stefano; Belli, Luca Saverio; Vukotic, Ranka; Lorenzini, Stefania; Airoldi, Aldo; Cicero, Arrigo Francesco Giuseppe; Vangeli, Marcello; Brodosi, Lucia; Panno, Arianna Martello; Di Donato, Roberto; Cescon, Matteo; Grazi, Gian Luca; De Carlis, Luciano; Pinna, Antonio Daniele; Bernardi, Mauro; Andreone, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the predictors of 10-year survival of patients with hepatitis C recurrence. METHODS: Data from 358 patients transplanted between 1989 and 2010 in two Italian transplant centers and with evidence of hepatitis C recurrence were analyzed. A χ2, Fisher’s exact test and Kruskal Wallis’ test were used for categorical and continuous variables, respectively. Survival analysis was performed at 10 years after transplant using the Kaplan-Meier method, and a log-rank test was used to compare groups. A P level less than 0.05 was considered significant for all tests. Multivariate analysis of the predictive role of different variables on 10-year survival was performed by a stepwise Cox logistic regression. RESULTS: The ten-year survival of the entire population was 61.2%. Five groups of patients were identified according to the virological response or lack of a response to antiviral treatment and, among those who were not treated, according to the clinical status (mild hepatitis C recurrence, “too sick to be treated” and patients with comorbidities contraindicating the treatment). While the 10-year survival of treated and untreated patients was not different (59.1% vs 64.7%, P = 0.192), patients with a sustained virological response had a higher 10-year survival rate than both the “non-responders” (84.7% vs 39.8%, P < 0.0001) and too sick to be treated (84.7% vs 0%, P < 0.0001). Sustained virological responders had a survival rate comparable to patients untreated with mild recurrence (84.7% vs 89.3%). A sustained virological response and young donor age were independent predictors of 10-year survival. CONCLUSION: Sustained virological response significantly increased long-term survival. Awaiting the interferon-free regimen global availability, antiviral treatment might be questionable in selected subjects with mild hepatitis C recurrence. PMID:25852276

  3. Traumatic flap dislocation 10 years after LASIK. Case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Khoueir, Z; Haddad, N M; Saad, A; Chelala, E; Warrak, E

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of traumatic partial flap dislocation 10 years after uneventful laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). The patient was treated bilaterally for hyperopia and astigmatism with LASIK. A superior-hinged corneal flap was created using the Moria M2 microkeratome (Moria SA, Antony, France) and the surgery was uneventful. Ten years later, partial flap dislocation was diagnosed after mild trauma. This case suggests that flap dislocations can occur during recreational activities up to 10 years after surgery. Full visual recovery is achievable if the case is managed promptly. Further studies should evaluate the potential protective role of an inferior hinge during LASIK. PMID:23219507

  4. Partial sight and blindness in children of the 1970 birth cohort at 10 years of age.

    PubMed Central

    Stewart-Brown, S L; Haslum, M N

    1988-01-01

    The prevalence and causes of partial sight and blindness (best corrected distant visual acuity of 6/24 or less) have been studied in a nationally representative sample of 15,000 10-year-old children. The prevalence of blindness (acuity less than 6/60) was between 3.4 and 4.0/10,000. All these children had been registered as blind; less than half were in schools for the blind, the remainder were all in other special schools. The prevalence of partial sight (acuity less than or equal to 6/24 greater than or equal to 6/60) was between 5.4 and 8.7/10,000; less than half of these children were in schools for the visually handicapped or partially sighted; most were in ordinary schools; half were neither registered as partially sighted nor ascertained as in need of special education for visual handicap. The most common cause of partial sight or blindness in this cohort was congenital cataract; the second most common was congenital nystagmus. The study identified a number of children whose best acuity on examination was 6/24 or less who had either no ophthalmological diagnosis or who had been diagnosed as suffering from a refractive error. These children have been included in the study because at the time of the survey they had either not been prescribed spectacles or they had spectacles which they were not wearing; the functional visual level of these children was therefore equivalent to that of those defined as partially sighted. PMID:3418281

  5. 10 years after rio-concepts on the contribution of chemistry to a sustainable development.

    PubMed

    Eissen, Marco; Metzger, Jürgen O; Schmidt, Eberhard; Schneidewind, Uwe

    2002-02-01

    The principles of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), held in June 1992 in Rio de Janeiro, and Agenda 21, the comprehensive plan of action for the 21st century, adopted 10 years ago by more than 170 governments, address the pressing problems of today and also aim at preparing the world for the challenges of this century. The conservation and management of resources for development are the main focus of interest, to which the sciences will have to make a considerable contribution. Natural, economic, and social sciences will have to be integrated in order to achieve this aim. In their future programs, the associations of the chemical industries in Europe, Japan, and the USA have explicitly accepted their obligation to foster a sustainable development. In this review we investigate innovations in chemistry exemplarily for such a development with regard to their ecological, economical, and social dimensions from an integrated and interdisciplinary perspective. Since base chemicals are produced in large quantities and important product lines are synthesized from them, their resource-saving production is especially important for a sustainable development. This concept has been shown, amongst others, by the example of the syntheses of propylene oxide and adipic acid. In the long run, renewable resources that are catalytically processed could replace fossil raw materials. Separation methods existing today must be improved considerably to lower material and energy consumption. Chemistry might become the pioneer of an innovative energy technique. The design of chemical products should make possible a sustainable processing and recycling and should prevent their bio-accumulation. Methods and criteria to assess their contribution to a sustainable development are necessary. The time taken to introduce the new more sustainable processes and products has to be diminished by linking their development with operational innovation management and with

  6. The DOTS strategy in China: results and lessons after 10 years.

    PubMed Central

    Xianyi, Chen; Fengzeng, Zhao; Hongjin, Duanmu; Liya, Wan; Lixia, Wang; Xin, Du; Chin, Daniel P.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse the five-point tuberculosis (TB) strategy, DOTS, 10 years after its implementation in one-half of China's population, and to suggest lessons for future implementation of the DOTS strategy. METHODS: We analysed trends in case-finding and treatment outcome over time following implementation of the DOTS strategy in each county, using routine reporting data from the Infectious and Endemic Disease Control (IEDC) project (1991 - 2000). We also determined the proportion of counties with different levels of case-finding for the fifth and sixth years of DOTS implementation. FINDINGS: From 1991 to 1995, DOTS expanded rapidly to cover more than 90% of target population and counties. By 2000, 8 million TB suspects had received free diagnostic evaluation: 1.8 million TB cases were diagnosed, free treatment was provided to 1.3 million smear-positive cases, and more than 90% were cured. During DOTS implementation, the percentage of previously treated cases decreased among all smear-positive cases and treatment outcomes improved. Despite these achievements, the detection rate for new smear-positive cases in the project was estimated to be only 54% in 1998, and 41.2% of the counties had a below average or low level of case-finding (with substantial variation between provinces). CONCLUSIONS: The IEDC project demonstrated that it is feasible to rapidly expand DOTS on a large scale. The global target of an 85% cure rate was quickly achieved, and the level of drug-resistance was probably reduced by this project. However, case-detection did not reach the 70% global target, and more research is needed on how to enhance this. PMID:12131998

  7. Ciguatera fish poisoning in Hong Kong--a 10-year perspective on the class of ciguatoxins.

    PubMed

    Wong, Chun-Kwan; Hung, Patricia; Lo, Janice Y C

    2014-08-01

    The present study used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to investigate retrospectively ciguatoxin (CTX)-positive samples as determined by mouse bioassay (MBA) in the past 10 years in Hong Kong. The results showed that Pacific CTXs (P-CTX-1, -2 and -3) were the most commonly observed toxins found in the samples, indicating Pacific Ocean areas as the most important origin of ciguatera fish poisoning. Clinical diagnosis from ciguatera patients also revealed the predominance of neurological illnesses in most cases, supporting intoxication of Pacific origin. This study demonstrated the ability of laboratory analysis to identify and quantify Pacific CTXs in suspected fish samples, so as to support the clinical diagnosis of ciguatera. Comparative analysis (Student's t-test and Spearman's rank correlation analysis) on the two CTX detection methods showed approximate linearity for overall P-CTXs (P-CTX-1, -2 and -3)/P-CTX-1 alone as derived by LC-MS/MS and total toxicity levels (P-CTX-1 equivalent) as determined by MBA. The LC-MS/MS method coupled with the rapid extraction method could allow the detection of trace amount of CTXs at levels below the clinically relevant limit, 0.1 ppb P-CTX-1 in fish flesh. For practical application, the adoption of a two-tiered approach for testing, chemical analysis by LC-MS/MS for toxic fish screening, coupled with biological assay by MBA for final toxicity confirmation, was proposed for first-line screening of CTX in potentially contaminated fish samples in the market, with an aim to minimizing the use of laboratory mice and at the same time providing reasonably effective means for routine analysis. PMID:24878373

  8. Haiti's progress in achieving its 10-year plan to eliminate cholera: hidden sickness cannot be cured.

    PubMed

    Koski-Karell, Victoria; Farmer, Paul E; Isaac, Benito; Campa, Elizabeth M; Viaud, Loune; Namphy, Paul C; Ternier, Ralph; Ivers, Louise C

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of the cholera epidemic in Haiti 5 years ago, the prevalence of this deadly water-borne disease has fallen far below the initial rates registered during its explosive outset. However, cholera continues to cause extensive suffering and needless deaths across the country, particularly among the poor. The urgent need to eliminate transmission of cholera persists: compared to the same period in 2014, the first 4 months of 2015 saw three times the number of cholera cases. Drawing upon epidemiology, clinical work (and clinical knowledge), policy, ecology, and political economy, and informed by ethnographic data collected in a rural area of Haiti called Bocozel, this paper evaluates the progress of the nation's 10-year Plan for the Elimination of Cholera. Bocozel is a rice-producing region where most people live in extreme poverty. The irrigation network is decrepit, the land is prone to environmental shocks, fertilizer is not affordable, and the government's capacity to assist farmers is undermined by resource constraints. When peasants do have rice to sell, the price of domestically grown rice is twice that of US-imported rice. Canal water is not only used to irrigate thousands of acres of rice paddies and sustain livestock, but also to bathe, wash, and play, while water from wells, hand pumps, and the river is used for drinking, cooking, and bathing. Only one out of the three government-sponsored water treatment stations in the research area is still functional and utilized by those who can afford it. Latrines are scarce and often shared by up to 30 people; open defecation remains common. Structural vulnerabilities cut across all sectors - not just water, sanitation, health care, and education, but agriculture, environment, (global and local) commerce, transportation, and governance as well. These are among the hidden sicknesses that impede Haiti and its partners' capacity to eliminate cholera. PMID:27307774

  9. The genetics of Alzheimer's disease in Brazil: 10 years of analysis in a unique population.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, J R M; Nishimura, A L; Lemos, R R; Zatz, M

    2009-01-01

    Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia among the elderly, with devastating consequences for the patient, their relatives, and caregivers. More than 300 genetic polymorphisms have been involved with AD, demonstrating that this condition is polygenic and with a complex pattern of inheritance. This paper aims to report and compare the results of AD genetics studies in case-control and familial analysis performed in Brazil since our first publication, 10 years ago. They include the following genes/markers: Apolipoprotein E (APOE), 5-hidroxytryptamine transporter length polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR), brain-derived neurotrophin factor (BDNF), monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A), and two simple-sequence tandem repeat polymorphisms (DXS1047 and D10S1423). Previously unpublished data of the interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta) genes are reported here briefly. Results from others Brazilian studies with AD patients are also reported at this short review. Four local families studied with various markers at the chromosome 21, 19, 14, and 1 are briefly reported for the first time. The importance of studying DNA samples from Brazil is highlighted because of the uniqueness of its population, which presents both intense ethnical miscegenation, mainly at the east coast, but also clusters with high inbreeding rates in rural areas at the countryside. We discuss the current stage of extending these studies using high-throughput methods of large-scale genotyping, such as single nucleotide polymorphism microarrays, associated with bioinformatics tools that allow the analysis of such extensive number of genetics variables, with different levels of penetrance. There is still a long way between the huge amount of data gathered so far and the actual application toward the full understanding of AD, but the final goal is to develop precise tools for diagnosis and prognosis, creating new strategies for better treatments based on genetic profile. PMID

  10. Affective dysregulation and reality distortion: a 10-year prospective study of their association and clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    van Rossum, Inge; Dominguez, Maria-de-Gracia; Lieb, Roselind; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; van Os, Jim

    2011-05-01

    Evidence from clinical patient populations indicates that affective dysregulation is strongly associated with reality distortion, suggesting that a process of misassignment of emotional salience may underlie this connection. To examine this in more detail without clinical confounds, affective regulation-reality distortion relationships, and their clinical relevance, were examined in a German prospective cohort community study. A cohort of 2524 adolescents and young adults aged 14-24 years at baseline was examined by experienced psychologists. Presence of psychotic experiences and (hypo)manic and depressive symptoms was assessed at 2 time points (3.5 and up to 10 years after baseline) using the Munich-Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Associations were tested between level of affective dysregulation on the one hand and incidence of psychotic experiences, persistence of these experiences, and psychotic Impairment on the other. Most psychotic experiences occurred in a context of affective dysregulation, and bidirectional dose-response was apparent with greater level of both affective dysregulation and psychotic experiences. Persistence of psychotic experiences was progressively more likely with greater level of (hypo)manic symptoms (odds ratio [OR] trend=1.51, P<.001) and depressive symptoms (OR trend=1.15, P=.012). Similarly, psychotic experiences of clinical relevance were progressively more likely to occur with greater level of affective dysregulation (depressive symptoms: OR trend=1.28, P=.002; (hypo)manic symptoms: OR trend=1.37, P=.036). Correlated genetic liabilities underlying affective and nonaffective psychotic syndromes may be expressed as correlated dimensions in the general population. Also, affective dysregulation may contribute causally to the persistence and clinical relevance of reality distortion, possibly by facilitating a mechanism of aberrant salience attribution. PMID:19793794

  11. Hip arthroscopy in the warrior athlete: 2 to 10 year outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Byrd, J. W. Thomas; Jones, Kay S.; Schmitz, LtCol Matthew R.; Doner, Geoffrey P.

    2016-01-01

    Hip disorders are increasingly recognized among athletic populations. The rigors of military service expose individuals to the same risks as those participating in competitive sports, compounded by potential exposure to violent macrotrauma. This is a retrospective review of prospectively collected data among 62 active duty military personnel (64 hips) with 2–10-year follow-up. Follow-up averaged 47 months (range 24–120 months). The average age was 30 years (range 17–53 years) with 45 males and 17 females; 37 right and 27 left hips. Duration of symptoms prior to arthroscopy averaged 28 months (range 6–168 months). The average improvement was 22 points (pre-op 63; post-op 85) using the 100-point modified Harris hip score and was statistically significant (P <  0.001). Patients were improved after 60 of 64 procedures (94%) and returned to active duty following 52 (80%) and an average of 5 months (range 1 week–15 months). Forty-six (72%) underwent correction of FAI including 27 combined, 17 cam and two pincer lesions. Overall diagnoses and procedures are detailed. One patient underwent repeat arthroscopy and remained improved at 2-year follow-up; none were converted to total hip arthroplasty. There were two minor complications, a transient ulnar nerve neurapraxia and superficial sensory dysesthesias of the foot, both of which resolved within a few days. This is a heterogeneous cohort of pathology, but illustrates that hip disorders may exist among active duty military personnel and may benefit from arthroscopic intervention. A sense of awareness is important for accurate diagnosis and timely treatment. PMID:27026823

  12. Hip arthroscopy in the warrior athlete: 2 to 10 year outcomes.

    PubMed

    Byrd, J W Thomas; Jones, Kay S; Schmitz, LtCol Matthew R; Doner, Geoffrey P

    2016-04-01

    Hip disorders are increasingly recognized among athletic populations. The rigors of military service expose individuals to the same risks as those participating in competitive sports, compounded by potential exposure to violent macrotrauma. This is a retrospective review of prospectively collected data among 62 active duty military personnel (64 hips) with 2-10-year follow-up. Follow-up averaged 47 months (range 24-120 months). The average age was 30 years (range 17-53 years) with 45 males and 17 females; 37 right and 27 left hips. Duration of symptoms prior to arthroscopy averaged 28 months (range 6-168 months). The average improvement was 22 points (pre-op 63; post-op 85) using the 100-point modified Harris hip score and was statistically significant (P <  0.001). Patients were improved after 60 of 64 procedures (94%) and returned to active duty following 52 (80%) and an average of 5 months (range 1 week-15 months). Forty-six (72%) underwent correction of FAI including 27 combined, 17 cam and two pincer lesions. Overall diagnoses and procedures are detailed. One patient underwent repeat arthroscopy and remained improved at 2-year follow-up; none were converted to total hip arthroplasty. There were two minor complications, a transient ulnar nerve neurapraxia and superficial sensory dysesthesias of the foot, both of which resolved within a few days. This is a heterogeneous cohort of pathology, but illustrates that hip disorders may exist among active duty military personnel and may benefit from arthroscopic intervention. A sense of awareness is important for accurate diagnosis and timely treatment. PMID:27026823

  13. Objective outcomes analysis following microvascular gracilis transfer for facial reanimation: a review of 10 years' experience.

    PubMed

    Bhama, Prabhat K; Weinberg, Julie S; Lindsay, Robin W; Hohman, Marc H; Cheney, Mack L; Hadlock, Tessa A

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Objective assessment of smile outcome after microvascular free gracilis transfer is challenging, and quantification of smile outcomes in the literature is inconsistent. OBJECTIVE To report objective excursion and symmetry outcomes from a series of free gracilis cases and investigate the predictive value of intraoperative measurements on final outcomes. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A retrospective medical chart review was undertaken of all patients who underwent microvascular free gracilis transfer for smile at our institution over the past 10 years. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Outcome measures included the following: smile excursion, angle of smile with respect to the vertical midline, and facial symmetry during repose and with smile. Measurements were obtained using an automated tool for assessment of facial landmarks (FACE-Gram). An exhaustive set of intraoperative parameters including degree of recoil of the gracilis muscle following harvest, the degree to which the muscle foreshortened during stimulation of the obturator nerve, final stretched length of the inset muscle, surgeon assessment of neurorrhaphy and pulse pressure, ischemia time, number of sutures used during neurorrhaphy, nerve used to innervate the flap, and surgeon assessment of oral commissure overcorrection were recorded and placed into a linear regression model to investigate correlations with smile. RESULTS From March 2003 to March 2013, 154 microvascular free gracilis transfers were performed for facial reanimation at our institution, 14 (9%) of which were deemed failures. Of the remaining 140 flaps, 127 fulfilled inclusion criteria and constituted the study cohort. Smile excursion, angle excursion, and symmetry of the oral commissure at repose and with smile all improved following gracilis free flap (P < .05). Associations between selected outcomes measures and intraoperative gracilis measurements were identified. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Facial reanimation using free

  14. Exact event horizon of a black hole merger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emparan, Roberto; Martínez, Marina

    2016-08-01

    We argue that the event horizon of a binary black hole merger, in the extreme-mass-ratio limit where one of the black holes is much smaller than the other, can be described in an exact analytic way. This is done by tracing in the Schwarzschild geometry a congruence of null geodesics that approaches a null plane at infinity. Its form can be given explicitly in terms of elliptic functions, and we use it to analyze and illustrate the time-evolution of the horizon along the merger. We identify features such as the line of caustics at which light rays enter the horizon, and the critical point at which the horizons touch. We also compute several quantities that characterize these aspects of the merger.

  15. Finding KBO flyby targets for New Horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, John; Trilling, David; Buie, Marc; Parker, Alex; Tholen, David; Stern, S. Alan

    2014-08-01

    We propose to continue the search for Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) that can be reached by the New Horizons spacecraft after its 2015 Pluto flyby, by following up on KBOs discovered in 2014A. The first flyby of a small (~50 km) KBO would revolutionize our understanding of KBOs, providing information that can be extrapolated to hundreds of thousands of similar KBOs. Our 2011 search discovered two objects that could be targeted with less than twice the fuel that New Horizons has available, during excellent seeing, but seeing was insufficient to achieve this depth over the entire search area in 2012 or 2013. Deepening the search with time allocated in 2014A, taking advantage of lower star density and the shrinking search area, has a chance of finding a targetable object given sufficiently good seeing, especially with Hyper Suprime Cam. 2014B follow-up is essential to produce orbits good enough to determine targetability, and allow recovery in 2015. We will also continue to refine the orbits of other previously discovered objects, including ones that can be observed from a distance by New Horizons on its passage through the Kuiper Belt.

  16. Accelerating to New Aviation Horizons

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA has a 10-year plan to accelerate aviation research that includes the design, build and flight of a series of piloted X-planes -- experimental aircraft -- which will test advanced technologies ...

  17. New Horizons Pluto Flyby Guest Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, M.; Turney, D.; Fisher, S.; Carr, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    On July 14, 2015, after 9.5 years of cruise, NASA's New Horizons spacecraft flew past the Pluto system to gather first images humankind had ever seen on Pluto and its five moons. While much has been discovered about the Pluto system since New Horizons launch in 2006, the system has never been imaged at high resolution and anticipation of the "First Light" of the Pluto system had been anticipated by planetary enthusiasts for decades. The Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory (APL), which built and operates New Horizons, was the focal point for gathering three distinct groups: science and engineering team members; media and public affairs representatives; and invited public, including VIP's. Guest operations activities were focused on providing information primarily to the invited public and VIP's. High level objectives for the Guest Operations team was set to entertain and inform the general public, offer media reaction shots, and to deconflict activities for the guests from media activities wherever possible. Over 2000 people arrived at APL in the days surrounding closest approach for guest, science or media operations tracks. Reaction and coverage of the Guest Operations events was universally positive and global in impact: iconic pictures of the auditorium waving flags during the moment of closest approach were published in media outlets on every continent. Media relations activities ensured coverage in all key media publications targeted for release, such as the New York Times, Science, Le Monde, and Nature. Social and traditional media coverage of the events spanned the globe. Guest operations activities are designed to ensure that a guest has a memorable experience and leaves with a lifelong memory of the mission and their partnership in the activity. Results, lessons learned, and other data from the New Horizons guest operations activity will be presented and analyzed.

  18. Personnel Needs in School Psychology: A 10-Year Follow-Up Study on Predicted Personnel Shortages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castillo, Jose M.; Curtis, Michael J.; Tan, Sim Yin

    2014-01-01

    Concerns regarding whether a sufficient supply of school psychologists exists have been evident for decades. Studies have predicted that school psychology would face a critical personnel shortage that would peak in 2010, but continue into the foreseeable future. The current study is a 10-year follow-up investigation based on previously published…

  19. Educational Attainment of 10-Year-Old Children with Treated and Untreated Visual Defects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart-Brown, Sarah; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Children with visual impairments who participated in a 10-year survey were compared with peers on measures of intelligence, reading, mathematics, and sporting ability. Results are consistent with earlier findings of increased intelligence among Ss with myopia and slightly reduced intelligence among Ss with amblyopia. It was concluded that the…

  20. Clinical and Radiographic Evaluation of a Resin-Based Root Canal Sealer: 10-Year Recall Data

    PubMed Central

    Zmener, Osvaldo; Pameijer, Cornelis H.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. This retrospective clinical and radiographical study evaluated the 10-year outcome of one-visit endodontic treatment with gutta-percha and a methacrylate resin-based sealer. Methods. From an initial sample size of 180 patients, 89 patients with 175 root canals responded to a recall. Treatment outcome was based on predetermined clinical and radiographic criteria. Results. Root canals had been adequately filled to the working length in 80 teeth (89.88%), short in 6 instances (6.74%), while 3 (3.37%) with extrusion immediate postoperatively, showed no sealer in periradicular tissues. The difference in the outcomes of treatments with respect to age, gender, preoperative pulp or periapical status, the size of periapical lesions and the type of permanent restorations were not statistically significantly different (P > 0.05). Overall, 7 (7.86%) cases were considered clinically and radiographically a failure. A life table analysis showed a cumulative probability of success of 92.13% after 10 years with a 95% confidence interval of 83.0 to 94.0. Conclusions. The results of this retrospective clinical and radiographical study suggest that the tested methacrylate-resin based sealer used with gutta-percha performed similarly to other root canal sealers over a period 10 years. Clinical Implications. Considering the success rate after 10 years of this methacrylate resin-based sealer can be recommended as an alternative to other commonly used root canal sealers. PMID:22654909

  1. Eating With Your Heart In Mind: 7 to 10 Year Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Heart, Lung, and Blood Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    The purpose of this brightly illustrated guide is to teach 7-10 year old children that all healthy Americans, 2 years of age or older, should eat in a way that is low in saturated fat and cholesterol so as to help reduce the risk of heart disease. The theme reflected throughout the manual is that changes in eating patterns help lower blood…

  2. Childhood Reactions to Terrorism-Induced Trauma: A Review of the Past 10 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fremont, Wanda P.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To summarize the literature about the clinical presentation and treatment interventions of childhood reactions to terrorism-induced trauma. Method: The literature on children's responses to terrorist activities was reviewed. Results: Over the past 10 years, more research has emerged on the subject of terrorism in children. Many of the…

  3. A 10-Year Assessment of Information and Communication Technology Tasks Required in Undergraduate Agriculture Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgar, Leslie D.; Johnson, Donald M.; Cox, Casandra

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to assess required information and communication technology (ICT) tasks in selected undergraduate agriculture courses in a land-grant university during a 10-year period. Selected agriculture faculty members in the fall 1999 (n = 63), 2004 (n = 55), and 2009 (n = 64) semesters were surveyed to determine the ICT tasks they required…

  4. Learning Benefits of Self-Controlled Knowledge of Results in 10-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiviacowsky, Suzete; Wulf, Gabriele; Laroque de Medeiros, Franklin; Kaefer, Angelica; Tani, Go

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the learning benefits of self-controlled knowledge of results (KR) would generalize to children. Specifically, the authors chose 10-year-old children representative of late childhood. The authors used a task that required the children to toss beanbags at a target. One group received KR…

  5. Self-Controlled Feedback in 10-Year-Old Children: Higher Feedback Frequencies Enhance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiviacowsky, Suzete; Wulf, Gabriele; de Medeiros, Franklin Laroque; Kaefer, Angelica; Wally, Raquel

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine whether learning in 10-year-old children--that is, the age group for which the Chiviacowsky et al. (2006) study found benefits of self-controlled knowledge of results (KR)--would differ depending on the frequency of feedback they chose. The authors surmised that a relatively high feedback frequency…

  6. Eastern Michigan University's Automated Storage and Retrieval System: 10 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullard, Rita; Wrosch, Jackie

    2009-01-01

    Automated storage/retrieval systems (ASRSs) are playing an integral part in today's library operations and collections management. Eastern Michigan University installed an ASRS as part of the new Halle Library, which opened in May 1998, to provide "storage" for up to 800,000 items. Over the past 10 years our policies and procedures have been…

  7. 7 CFR 625.9 - 10-year restoration cost-share agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 10-year restoration cost-share agreements. 625.9 Section 625.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES HEALTHY FORESTS RESERVE PROGRAM § 625.9...

  8. Anticipatory Action Planning Increases from 3 to 10 Years of Age in Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jongbloed-Pereboom, Marjolein; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W. G.; Saraber-Schiphorst, Nicole; Craje, Celine; Steenbergen, Bert

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to assess the development of action planning in a group of typically developing children aged 3 to 10 years (N = 351). The second aim was to assess reliability of the action planning task and to relate the results of the action planning task to results of validated upper limb motor performance tests. Participants…

  9. Public School Voice Clinics, Part II: Diagnosis and Recommendations--A 10-Year Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Sandra Q.; Madison, Charles L.

    1984-01-01

    In 10 years of school district voice clinics, 249 cases were reviewed. Vocal nodules, chronic laryngitis and thickened cords were frequently noted. One-third of the cases had concomitant allergies, ear, and/or upper respiratory problems. Direct voice therapy was recommended for 65 percent of attendees. (Author/CL)

  10. Effect of meteorology and soil condition on metolachlor and atrazine volatilization over a 10 year period

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 10-year study was conducted to focus on the impact of soil and climatic factors governing herbicide volatilization from an agricultural field. For the first 5 years, metolachlor [2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N-(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl) acetamide] and atrazine [6-chloro-N-ethyl-N’-(1-methyl...

  11. Effect of meteorology and soil condition on metolachlor and atrazine volatilization over a 10 year period

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Volatilization of pesticides can detrimentally affect the environment by contaminating soil and surface waters far away from where the pesticides were applied. A 10-year study was conducted to focus on the impact of soil and climatic factors governing herbicide volatilization from an agricultural f...

  12. Is the Party Over? Cannabis and Juvenile Psychiatric Disorder: The Past 10 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rey, Joseph M.; Martin, Andres; Krabman, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To critically review cannabis research during the past 10 years in relation to rates of use, behavioral problems, and mental disorders in young people. Method: Studies published in English between 1994 and 2004 were identified through systematic searches of literature databases. The material was selectively reviewed focusing on child…

  13. Relationship between Motor Skill and Body Mass Index in 5- to 10-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Hondt, Eva; Deforche, Benedicte; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate gross and fine motor skill in overweight and obese children compared with normal-weight peers. According to international cut-off points for Body Mass Index (BMI) from Cole et al. (2000), all 117 participants (5-10 year) were classified as being normal-weight, overweight, or obese. Level of motor skill…

  14. Psychiatric Aspects of Child and Adolescent Obesity: A Review of the Past 10 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zametkin, Alan J.; Zoon, Christine K.; Klein, Hannah W.; Munson, Suzanne

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To review the past 10 years of published research on psychiatric aspects of child and adolescent obesity and highlight information mental health professionals need for preventing obesity in youths and diagnosing and treating it. Method: Researchers performed computerized and manual searches of the literature and summarized the most…

  15. Physical Activity Patterns During School Recess: A Study in Children 6 to 10 Years Old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopes, Victor; Vasques, Catarina Margarida Silva; de Oliveira Pereira, Maria Beatriz Ferreira Leite

    2006-01-01

    The aims of this study were to characterize the spontaneous physical activity of children during school recess, and to estimate variation in physical activity associated with gender and age. A MTI actigraph (Model 7164) was used with a sample of 140 boys and 131 girls, 6 to 10 years of age. MTI counts were converted to METs using a regression…

  16. Childhood Peer Reputation as a Predictor of Competence and Symptoms 10 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gest, Scott D.; Sesma, Arturo, Jr.; Masten, Ann S.; Tellegen, Auke

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the differential developmental significance of multiple domains of peer reputation in childhood for current and future competence and symptoms. Participants were 205 children from a normative school cohort who completed assessments in grades 3-6 and then again 10 years later. Through re-analysis of original data from the…

  17. 7 CFR 625.9 - 10-year restoration cost-share agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... restoration cost-share agreements. (a) The restoration plan developed under § 625.13 forms the basis for the... agreement will: (1) Incorporate all portions of a restoration plan; (2) Be for a period of 10 years; (3... implementation of the approved conservation treatment identified in the restoration plan; and (8) Include...

  18. 7 CFR 625.9 - 10-year restoration cost-share agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... restoration cost-share agreements. (a) The restoration plan developed under § 625.13 forms the basis for the... agreement will: (1) Incorporate all portions of a restoration plan; (2) Be for a period of 10 years; (3... implementation of the approved conservation treatment identified in the restoration plan; and (8) Include...

  19. [Irritable bowel syndrome in the light of Rome consensus III (2006): 10 years later].

    PubMed

    Parfenov, A I; Albulova, E A; Ruchkina, I N

    2016-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most common diagnosis in gastroenterology. Over 10 years after Rome consensus III (2006), there has been much new information on the pathogenesis of IBS and its therapy options. The paper analyzes basic investigations that have contributed to the theory of this disease and to a better quality of life in patients. PMID:27135104

  20. 24 CFR 203.203 - Issuance and nature of insured 10-year protection plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Issuance and nature of insured 10-year protection plans. 203.203 Section 203.203 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to... Underwriting Procedures Insured Ten-Year Protection Plans (plan) § 203.203 Issuance and nature of insured...

  1. Gasoline Abuse in a 10-Year-Old Child with Mental Retardation: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Mohit; Vankar, GK

    2015-01-01

    Inahalant abuse is of increasing interest in India. The age of onset is typically during adolescence. Gasoline inhalant use is rarely reported in adolescents with intellectual deficit. We report a case of petrol dependence in a 10-year-old child with mental retardation. Possible effect of petrol huffing on behavior and cognition is discussed. PMID:25733844

  2. 77 FR 11651 - Hybrid III 10-Year-Old Child Test Dummy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... certification requirements for a new test dummy representative of a 10- year-old child (70 FR 40281, July 13... published July 13, 2005 (70 FR 40281). The agency is concurrently publishing in this issue of the Federal... we published an NPRM to adopt the HIII-10C into FMVSS No. 213.\\1\\ \\1\\ 70 FR 51720 (August 31,...

  3. 24 CFR 203.203 - Issuance and nature of insured 10-year protection plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Issuance and nature of insured 10-year protection plans. 203.203 Section 203.203 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to... Underwriting Procedures Insured Ten-Year Protection Plans (plan) § 203.203 Issuance and nature of insured...

  4. 24 CFR 203.203 - Issuance and nature of insured 10-year protection plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Issuance and nature of insured 10-year protection plans. 203.203 Section 203.203 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to... Underwriting Procedures Insured Ten-Year Protection Plans (plan) § 203.203 Issuance and nature of insured...

  5. 24 CFR 203.203 - Issuance and nature of insured 10-year protection plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Issuance and nature of insured 10-year protection plans. 203.203 Section 203.203 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to... Underwriting Procedures Insured Ten-Year Protection Plans (plan) § 203.203 Issuance and nature of insured...

  6. 24 CFR 203.203 - Issuance and nature of insured 10-year protection plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Issuance and nature of insured 10-year protection plans. 203.203 Section 203.203 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to... Underwriting Procedures Insured Ten-Year Protection Plans (plan) § 203.203 Issuance and nature of insured...

  7. Optimism, Pessimism, Mutuality, and Gender: Predicting 10-Year Role Strain in Parkinson's Disease Spouses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Karen S.; Stewart, Barbara J.; Archbold, Patricia G.; Carter, Julie H.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: There is wide variability in how spouses providing care respond to their care situations. Few studies focus on the roles of both intra- and interpersonal factors in long-term spousal care, particularly in the context of Parkinson's disease (PD). The current study uses longitudinal data over a 10-year period to examine the roles of…

  8. Motor Skills in Children Aged 7-10 Years, Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whyatt, Caroline P.; Craig, Cathy M.

    2012-01-01

    This study used the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC2) to assess motor skills in children aged 7-10 years with autism (n = 18) in comparison to two groups of age-matched typically developing children; a receptive vocabulary matched group (n = 19) and a nonverbal IQ matched group (n = 22). The results supported previous work, as…

  9. Running Training, Instruction on Running Technique, and Running Economy in 10-year-old Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petray, Clayre K.; Krahenbuhl, Gary S.

    1985-01-01

    This study attempted to determine the effects of running training, instruction on running techniques, or a combination of instruction and training on the running economy of 10-year-old children. No significant alterations in running economy or technique were produced as a result of the various regimens. (Author/MT)

  10. If We Could Plan the Next 10 Years in Science Education...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansell, Warwick

    2013-01-01

    Two major sessions at the 2013 ASE Summer Celebration Conference in Hatfield offered teachers (and other educators) the chance to debate and define the key issues facing science education over the next 10 years. Participants were asked to suggest the important issues. Then those with similar proposals were put into groups to develop the idea ready…

  11. Individual Oral Exams in Mathematics Courses: 10 Years of Experience at the Air Force Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boedigheimer, Ralph; Ghrist, Michelle; Peterson, Dale; Kallemyn, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Over the last 10 years faculty members in the Department of Mathematical Sciences at the United States Air Force Academy have incorporated individual oral exams into mathematics courses. We have experimented with various approaches, shared results and ideas with other department members, and refined our techniques. We have found that this…

  12. 7 CFR Exhibit L to Subpart A of... - Insured 10-Year Home Warranty Plan Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Insured 10-Year Home Warranty Plan Requirements L Exhibit L to Subpart A of Part 1924 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... Construction and Other Development Pt. 1924, Subpt. A, Exh. L Exhibit L to Subpart A of Part 1924—Insured...

  13. 7 CFR Exhibit L to Subpart A of... - Insured 10-Year Home Warranty Plan Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Insured 10-Year Home Warranty Plan Requirements L Exhibit L to Subpart A of Part 1924 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... Construction and Other Development Pt. 1924, Subpt. A, Exh. L Exhibit L to Subpart A of Part 1924—Insured...

  14. 7 CFR Exhibit L to Subpart A of... - Insured 10-Year Home Warranty Plan Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Insured 10-Year Home Warranty Plan Requirements L Exhibit L to Subpart A of Part 1924 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... Construction and Other Development Pt. 1924, Subpt. A, Exh. L Exhibit L to Subpart A of Part 1924—Insured...

  15. 7 CFR Exhibit L to Subpart A of... - Insured 10-Year Home Warranty Plan Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Insured 10-Year Home Warranty Plan Requirements L Exhibit L to Subpart A of Part 1924 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... Construction and Other Development Pt. 1924, Subpt. A, Exh. L Exhibit L to Subpart A of Part 1924—Insured...

  16. 7 CFR Exhibit L to Subpart A of... - Insured 10-Year Home Warranty Plan Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insured 10-Year Home Warranty Plan Requirements L Exhibit L to Subpart A of Part 1924 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... Construction and Other Development Pt. 1924, Subpt. A, Exh. L Exhibit L to Subpart A of Part 1924—Insured...

  17. Parent-Child Relations and Adolescent Self-Image Following Divorce: A 10-Year Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlop, Rosemary; Burns, Ailsa; Bermingham, Suzanne

    2001-01-01

    Explored links between self-image, family structure (divorced or intact), parent-child relations, and gender at 3 intervals over 10 years during adolescence to early adulthood. Results suggest a consistent relationship between high parental care, low overprotective control, and better self-image scores with a stronger effect among subjects from…

  18. Case Report: Homicide by a 10-Year-Old Girl with Autistic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukaddes, Nahit Motavalli; Topcu, Zerrin

    2006-01-01

    This case study presents a 10-year-old girl with a diagnosis of Autistic Disorder, who killed her 6-month-old sister by throwing her out of a window. Her aggressive-impulsive behavior had a persistent pattern. She had a history of epilepsy, and was frequently exposed to physical abuse. She never attended a structured treatment program. Here, we…

  19. Students as Teachers: Effectiveness of a Peer-Led STEM Learning Programme over 10 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drane, Denise; Micari, Marina; Light, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Peer-led small-group learning has been used quite extensively in the US to enhance performance and retention of undergraduate students in science, math, and engineering classes. This study presents the results from an evaluation of a peer-led small-group programme at a research university in the US over a 10-year period across five disciplines…

  20. Impact of Adolescent Alcohol and Drug Use on Neuropsychological Functioning in Young Adulthood: 10-Year Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Karen L.; Medina, Krista Lisdahl; Padula, Claudia B.; Tapert, Susan F.; Brown, Sandra A.

    2011-01-01

    Because of ongoing neuromaturation, youth with chronic alcohol/substance use disorders (AUD/SUD) are at risk for cognitive decrements during young adulthood. We prospectively examined cognition over 10 years based on AUD/SUD history. Youth (N = 51) with no AUD/SUD history (n = 14), persisting AUD/SUD (n = 18), or remitted AUD/SUD (n = 19) were…

  1. Effortful Control, Executive Attention, and Emotional Regulation in 7-10-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonds, Jennifer; Kieras, Jessica E.; Rueda, M. Rosario; Rothbart, Mary K.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, self-regulation was investigated in 7- to 10-year-old children using three different measures: (1) parent and child report questionnaires measuring temperamental effortful control, (2) a conflict task assessing efficiency of executive attention, and (3) the mistaken gift paradigm assessing social smiling in response to an…

  2. Psychopathy and Offending From Adolescence to Adulthood: A 10-Year Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gretton, Heather M.; Hare, Robert D.; Catchpole, Rosalind E. H.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the predictive validity of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV; A. E. Forth, D. S. Kosson, & R. D. Hare, 2003) from adolescence to early adulthood. The authors coded the PCL:YV using file information and collected criminal record information over a 10-year follow-up period on 157 boys, ages 12 through 18,…

  3. Psychosocial Family Treatment for a 10-Year-Old with Schizoaffective Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klaus, Nicole M.; Fristad, Mary A.; Malkin, Catherine; Mackinaw-Koons, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Schizophrenia spectrum disorders are rare in childhood and little is known about their psychosocial treatment. Relevant findings from the adult and child literature are reviewed. The case of 10-year-old "Michael" is presented, who participated in a randomized clinical trial of a psychoeducational family treatment for mood disorders. Following…

  4. Getting an Early Start: Communication about Sexuality among Mothers and Children 6-10 Years Old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pluhar, Erika; Jennings, Tanya; DiIorio, Colleen

    2006-01-01

    Little information exists on communication about sexuality between parents and preadolescent children. This study collected qualitative data on family sexuality communication from 3 focus groups conducted with African American mothers of 6-10 year old children. Two broad themes emerged from the data: "Beyond the Birds and the Bees" and "Let's Talk…

  5. Patterns and Predictors of Late-Life Drinking Trajectories: A 10-Year Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Penny L.; Schutte, Kathleen K.; Moos, Rudolf H.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the extent of group-level and intra-individual decline in alcohol consumption among adults as they traverse a 10-year interval spanning late-middle to early-old age. Further, it identifies key baseline predictors of these adults' 10-year drinking trajectories. Community residents (n=1,291; age 55 to 65 at baseline) were assessed at 4 points over a 10-year interval on demographic and health characteristics, coping responses, social context, and alcohol consumption. Descriptive cross-wave statistics, and multilevel regression analyses, indicated that in the sample overall, participants' 10-year patterns of alcohol consumption were relatively stable. However, men's patterns, and those of individuals drinking beyond recommended alcohol consumption guidelines at baseline, were more variable and showed steeper rates of decline, than did those of women and individuals drinking within recommended levels. Contrary to expectation, baseline use of substances to reduce tension and heavier reliance on avoidance coping predicted faster rate of decline in alcohol consumption. Post-hoc prospective mediation analyses suggested that this may have occurred because these and other baseline predictors heighten risk of developing new health problems which, in turn, motivate reduced alcohol consumption. PMID:20565151

  6. A Content Analysis of 10 Years of Clinical Supervision Articles in Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard, Janine M.; Luke, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    This content analysis follows Borders's (2005) review of counseling supervision literature and includes 184 counselor supervision articles published over the past 10 years. Articles were coded as representing 1 of 3 research types or 1 of 3 conceptual types. Articles were then analyzed for main topics producing 11 topic categories.

  7. A Model Job Rotation Plan: A 10-Year Follow-up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Daniel C.; Delbridge-Parker, Linda

    1991-01-01

    Describes model job rotation plan in a college student affairs division in which a staff member (intern) rotates among departments as a staff development opportunity. A 10-year follow-up evaluation underscored the success of the program. Concludes job rotation is not just learning experience, but it is also sharing experience. (Author/ABL)

  8. Frontal Electroencephalogram Activation Asymmetry, Emotional Intelligence, and Externalizing Behaviors in 10-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santesso, L. Diane; Dana, L. Reker; Schmidt, Louis A.; Segalowitz, Sidney J.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relations among resting frontal brain electrical activity (EEG) (hypothesized to reflect a predisposition to positive versus negative affect and ability to regulate emotions), emotional intelligence, and externalizing behaviors in a sample of non-clinical 10-year-old children. We found that boys…

  9. Handedness in Swedish 10-year-olds, Some Background and Associated Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillberg, Christopher; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Aims to obtain prevalence figures for left-handedness among 10-year-old Swedish children; to replicate some findings concerning Bishop's (1980) extended pathological left-handedness hypothesis; to evaluate the influence of factors such as the child's sex and reduced optimality in the pre-, peri-, and neonatal period; and to determine the…

  10. Adolescent Drug Trafficking Trends in the United Kingdom--A 10-Year Retrospective Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vale, Ellen Louise Eva; Kennedy, Patrick John

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports data from HM Customs and Excise (HMCE) of recorded cases of adolescent drug trafficking through all sea and air points of entry into the UK over a 10-year period (May 1992-May 2002). We report the characteristics of 38 cases of mixed gender and nationality ranging in age between 13 and 18 years who have been apprehended by HMCE…

  11. Stabilization dynamics of root versus needle-derived 13C and 15N during 10 years in a temperate forest soil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, J. A.; Hatton, P. J.; Castanha, C.; Torn, M. S.

    2012-12-01

    Belowground plant carbon (C) allocation as fine roots can result in greater retention of C in soils compared with aboveground litter in temperate forest ecosystems. However, much of our understanding of the fate of fine root C and nitrogen (N) in soils comes from short-term studies, often lasting only a few months to a few years. In 2011, we concluded a 10-year field study that compared the fate of dual-labeled (13C/15N) Ponderosa pine fine roots (<2 mm diameter) with needles in a temperate forest soil of the Sierra Nevada, CA, USA. The 13C- and 15N-labeled fine roots or needles were added to mesocosms at two soil depths (top of O or A horizon) to compare C and N stabilization in mineral versus organic soil horizons. We will present data on retention of litter C and N in soil after 0.5, 1.5, 5 and 10 years in situ. For soil samples recovered after 5 years, litter-derived C and N recovered in the mineral soil was partitioned into several operationally-defined physical and chemical soil organic matter (SOM) fractions, which were also characterized by natural abundance 14C. In addition, we compared two fractionation methods (i.e., with and without occluded light fraction isolation) on the partitioning of litter-derived C and N in mineral soil. After 5 years in situ the retention of fine root C in soil (59.9±3.8%) was significantly greater than that of added needle C (38.4±2.0%); however the depth of litter placement in the soil did not affect total litter C or N recovery. Our results provide a direct, decade-scale measure of stabilization of above- and belowground plant inputs to soil, including a portrait of the dominant stabilization mechanisms.

  12. Sheepskin effects of education in the 10-year Framingham risk of coronary heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Sze Yan; Buka, Stephen L.; Kubzansky, Laura D.; Kawachi, Ichiro; Gilman, Stephen E.; Loucks, Eric B.

    2014-01-01

    While the association between education and adult health is well documented, it is unclear whether quantity (i.e. years of schooling) or credentials (i.e. degrees) drive this association. Individuals with degrees may have better health than their non-credentialed counterparts given similar years of schooling, the so-called “sheepskin” effect. This paper contributes to this line of inquiry by examining associations of educational degree and years of schooling with the Framingham Risk Score, a measure of 10-year risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), using data from a unique birth cohort (the New England Family Study; participants mean age 42 years) with prospective information on childhood health and intelligence quotient (IQ). According to our results, years of schooling were inversely associated with 10-year CHD risk in the unadjusted model but not in the fully adjusted models that included degree attainment. By contrast, associations between degree attainment and 10-year CHD risk remained significant in the fully adjusted models that included years of schooling. College degree holders had 10-year CHD risk 19% (95% CI: −33%, −2%) lower than individuals with HS degrees or less in the fully adjusted models. Subanalyses evaluating sheepskin effects on the individual components of the 10-year CHD risk algorithm showed the expected education gradient was generally noted for each of the individual components, with decreasing prevalence of “high risk” values associated with higher degree credentials. Our results suggest educational credentials provide an additional benefit to risk of coronary heart disease beyond schooling. PMID:23415589

  13. NIF featured on BBC "Horizon"

    ScienceCinema

    Brian Cox

    2010-09-01

    The National Ignition Facility, the world's largest laser system, located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, was featured in the BBC broadcast "Horizon" hosted by physicist Brian Cox. Here is the NIF portion of the program, which was entitled "Can We Make A Star On Earth?" This video is used with the express permission of the BBC.

  14. Common Ground: Expanding Our Horizons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDevitt, Michele J.

    In "Common Ground: Dialogue, Understanding, and the Teaching of Composition," Kurt Spellmeyer seeks to familiarize students and teachers with the linguistic and cultural no-man's-land separating them. Reinstating the value of two writing conventions often used by traditional students--expressive and commonplaces--can help expand on the horizons of…

  15. New Horizons in Education, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Kwok Keung, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This document contains the May and November 2000 issues of "New Horizons in Education," with articles in English and Chinese. The May issue includes the following articles: "A Key to Successful Environmental Education: Teacher Trainees' Attitude, Behaviour, and Knowledge" (Kevin Chung Wai Lui, Eric Po Keung Tsang, Sing Lai Chan); "Critical…

  16. New Horizons Mission to Pluto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delgado, Luis G.

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the trajectory that will take the New Horizons Mission to Pluto. Included are photographs of the spacecraft, the launch vehicle, the assembled vehicle as it is being moved to the launch pad and the launch. Also shown are diagrams of the assembled parts with identifying part names.

  17. NIF featured on BBC "Horizon"

    SciTech Connect

    Brian Cox

    2010-01-12

    The National Ignition Facility, the world's largest laser system, located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, was featured in the BBC broadcast "Horizon" hosted by physicist Brian Cox. Here is the NIF portion of the program, which was entitled "Can We Make A Star On Earth?" This video is used with the express permission of the BBC.

  18. Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) in Hungary; The First 10 Years.

    PubMed

    Varga, Endre; Endre, Endre; Kószó, Balázs; Pető, Zoltán; Ágoston, Zsuzsanna; Gyura, Erika; Nardai, Gábor; Boa, Kristóf; Süveges, Gábor

    2016-01-01

    Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) programs are recognized as the standard educational trauma program worldwide. Data suggest that ATLS has a positive impact on the value of trauma care. The ATLS Hungary program has been started in 2005, celebrating its 10-year anniversary this year. In the present brief communication a brief overview is provided on the program.Student evaluation and statistical data about the participants were collected throughout the 10-year history of the Hungarian program.Student evaluation shows a high level of satisfaction amongst the participating doctors. Most participants are working in higher level centers. The Hungarian program shows good quality according to the participants. Establishing at least one new center is crucial to be able to provide the course for every professional interested in it or required to take it. PMID:27162927

  19. Physical aggression, compromised social support, and 10-year marital outcomes: Testing a relational spillover model.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Kieran T; Pasch, Lauri A; Lawrence, Erika; Bradbury, Thomas N

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to test a relational spillover model of physical aggression whereby physical aggression affects marital outcomes due to its effects on how spouses ask for and provide support to one another. Newlywed couples (n = 172) reported levels of physical aggression over the past year and engaged in interactions designed to elicit social support; marital adjustment, and stability were assessed periodically over the first 10 years of marriage. Multilevel modeling revealed that negative support behavior mediated the relationship between physical aggression and 10-year marital adjustment levels whereas positive support behavior mediated the relationship between physical aggression and divorce status. These findings emphasize the need to look beyond conflict when explaining how aggression affects relationships and when working with couples with a history of physical aggression who are seeking to improve their relationships. PMID:26168263

  20. Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) in Hungary; The First 10 Years

    PubMed Central

    Varga, Endre; Endre, Endre; Kószó, Balázs; Pető, Zoltán; Ágoston, Zsuzsanna; Gyura, Erika; Nardai, Gábor; Boa, Kristóf; Süveges, Gábor

    2016-01-01

    Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) programs are recognized as the standard educational trauma program worldwide. Data suggest that ATLS has a positive impact on the value of trauma care. The ATLS Hungary program has been started in 2005, celebrating its 10-year anniversary this year. In the present brief communication a brief overview is provided on the program.Student evaluation and statistical data about the participants were collected throughout the 10-year history of the Hungarian program.Student evaluation shows a high level of satisfaction amongst the participating doctors. Most participants are working in higher level centers. The Hungarian program shows good quality according to the participants. Establishing at least one new center is crucial to be able to provide the course for every professional interested in it or required to take it. PMID:27162927

  1. Incidence of, and reasons for, tooth mortality among mentally retarded adults during a 10-year period.

    PubMed

    Gabre, P; Martinsson, T; Gahnberg, L

    1999-02-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the reasons for, and incidence of, tooth mortality over a 10-year period in mentally retarded adults receiving regular dental care. The number of teeth present in 115 individuals (mean age in 1984 was 41.0, range 19-83 years) was registered in 1984 and 1994. The reasons for tooth mortality, medication utilization, frequency of dental care visits and cooperation during dental treatment were registered and related to tooth loss. The average incidence of tooth mortality was 3.72 teeth during the 10-year period. The mean number of dental care visits per year was 6.6. Most of the 428 teeth (58%) were lost due to periodontal disease. The preventive dental care given was not sufficient to arrest oral diseases. The data indicate, however, that achievement of cooperation in dental care situations not only makes dental treatment possible, but also leads to a decreased incidence of tooth mortality. PMID:10207537

  2. Rugby injuries to the cervical spine and spinal cord: a 10-year review.

    PubMed

    Scher, A T

    1998-01-01

    A 10-year review (1987-1996) of injuries sustained to the spine and spinal cord in rugby players with resultant paralysis has been undertaken. This article reviews that the incidence of serious rugby spine and spinal cord injuries in South Africa has increased over the 10-year period reviewed, despite stringent new rules instituted in an attempt to decrease the incidence of these injuries. The mechanisms of injury, as previously reported, remain the same as well as the phases of game responsible for injury of the tight scrum, tackle, rucks, and mauls. Two new observations are reported: the first is related to the occurrence of spinal cord concussion with transient paralysis, and the second is related to the increased incidence of osteoarthritis of the cervical spine in rugby players. PMID:9475983

  3. Weight Suppression Predicts Maintenance and Onset of Bulimic Syndromes at 10-Year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Keel, Pamela K.; Heatherton, Todd F.

    2010-01-01

    Conflicting results have emerged regarding the prognostic significance of weight suppression for maintenance of bulimic symptoms. This study examined whether the magnitude of weight suppression would predict bulimic syndrome maintenance and onset in college-based samples of men (n=369) and women (n=968) at 10-year follow-up. Data come from a longitudinal study of body weight and disordered eating with high retention (80%). Among those with a bulimic syndrome at baseline, greater weight suppression significantly predicted maintenance of the syndrome, and, among those without a bulimic syndrome at baseline, greater weight suppression predicted onset of a bulimic syndrome at 10-year follow-up in multivariate models that included baseline body mass index, diet frequency, and weight perception. Future research should address mechanisms that could account for the effects of weight suppression over a long duration of follow-up. PMID:20455599

  4. Generic isolated horizons and their applications

    PubMed

    Ashtekar; Beetle; Dreyer; Fairhurst; Krishnan; Lewandowski; Wisniewski

    2000-10-23

    The notion of isolated horizons is extended to allow for distortion and rotation. Space-times containing a black hole, itself in equilibrium but possibly surrounded by radiation, satisfy these conditions. The framework has three types of applications: (i) it provides new tools to extract physics from strong field geometry; (ii) it leads to a generalization of the zeroth and first laws of black hole mechanics and sheds new light on the "origin" of the first law; and (iii) it serves as a point of departure for black hole entropy calculations in nonperturbative quantum gravity. PMID:11030951

  5. Art, the Urban Skyscraper, and Horizon Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mooney, J. D.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation delineates the historiography and the iconography of my urban public sculptures which use skyscrapers as today's standing stones, markers for horizon astronomy. From 1977 to the present time, my work has engaged the public to “look up and see.” Through ephemeral works in the sky and over the water to large-scale rooftop sculptures in Los Angeles, Chicago, Atlanta, and Europe, viewers are oriented to the Milky Way, the summer triangle, and other celestial phenomena. This new urban scale art, transformative in context and gesture, has become part of the new cultural landscape.

  6. The Future of Federated Search, or What Will the World Look like in 10 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Rich

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author contends that in 10 years, federated search--or search of any kind for that matter--won't exist. He elaborates that the "function" of search will exist--but not in a context with which anyone is familiar today. So if "search" doesn't exist in 2018, how will people find the information that they need across vast volumes…

  7. Impact of Adolescent Alcohol and Drug Use on Neuropsychological Functioning in Young Adulthood: 10-Year Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Karen L.; Medina, Krista Lisdahl; Padula, Claudia B.; Tapert, Susan F.; Brown, Sandra A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Alcohol and other substance use disorders (AUD/SUD) are common among youth and often continue into adulthood; therefore, the neurocognitive effects of substance use are of great concern. Because neuromaturation continues into young adulthood, youth with AUD/SUD may be at risk for lasting cognitive decrements. This study prospectively examines neuropsychological functioning over 10 years as a function of AUD/SUD history and outcomes. Methods The 51 participants consisted of 18 youth with persisting AUD/SUD, 19 youth with remitted AUD/SUD, and 14 community youth with no AUD/SUD history followed over 10 years (ages 16 to 27 on average) with neuropsychological testing and substance use interviews on 8 occasions. Neuropsychological performance from baseline to 10-year follow-up was compared between the three groups. Results Despite scoring higher than controls at intake, both AUD/SUD groups showed a relative decline in visuospatial construction at 10-year follow-up (p=.001). Regressions showed that alcohol use (β=−.33, p < .01) and drug withdrawal symptoms (β=−.31, p<.05) over follow-up were predictive of year 10 visuospatial function. Alcohol use also predicted verbal learning and memory (β=−.28, p<.05), while stimulant use predicted visual learning and memory function (β=−.33, p=.01). More recent substance use was associated with poorer executive function (β=.28, p<.05). Discussion These findings confirm prior studies suggesting that heavy, chronic alcohol and other substance use persisting from adolescence to young adulthood may produce cognitive disadvantages, primarily in visuospatial and memory abilities. Youth who chronically consume heavy quantities of alcohol and/or experience drug withdrawal symptoms may be particularly at risk for cognitive deterioration by young adulthood. PMID:21532924

  8. 10-year Field Measurement Program of Post-Wildfire Tree Root Decay, Kootenay National Park, British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Y. E.; Johnson, E. A.; Kroeker, S.

    2013-12-01

    Tree population dynamics in subalpine forests of the Canadian Rockies are dominated by wildfire disturbance (Gallaway et al., 2009), with wildfire return intervals most often being shorter than the potential lifespan of trees. These crown wildfires kill all trees, resulting in a gradual decline of tree root strength in shallow soils in the immediate post-wildfire years. Tree root networks have been shown to provide mechanical reinforcement of shear strength in shallow soils (Schmidt et al., 2001; Roering et al., 2003). Therefore, decreases in tree root reinforcement in post-wildfire years may result in increased debris slide and debris flow activity during this time period (e.g., Benda and Dunne, 1997; Martin, 2007; Jackson and Roering, 2009). To our knowledge, our study is the first that has measured tree root strength annually for 10 years following a crown wildfire to document the nature and timing of tree root decay. Suggestions have been made that studies documenting the decay of tree roots following timber harvesting provide a reasonable analogue for post-wildfire tree root decay; drainage basin modeling studies considering hillslope erosion resulting from episodic wildfires have had to rely on this assumption (e.g., Benda and Dunne, 1997; Martin, 2007). Herein, we present our annual field measurements of post-wildfire tree root strength made over the past 10 years at a post-wildfire site in Kootenay National Park, Canadian Rockies. The episodic nature of crown wildfire occurrence over time in these forests results in periods of tree root decay in the immediate post-fire years, and an associated susceptibility for mass wasting during these time periods. In July 2003, two large crown fires were ignited by lightning in Kootenay National Park, British Columbia, Canada and merged to burn approximately 17 000 hectares. Our field measurements were made in the subalpine forest of Hawk Creek drainage basin, Kootenay National Park. Measurements of tree root

  9. A Longitudinal Examination of 10-year Change in Vocational and Educational Activities for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Julie Lounds; Center, Vanderbilt Kennedy; Mailick, Marsha R.

    2014-01-01

    The transition from adolescence to adulthood has been shown to be a time of amplified risk for individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). It is unknown, however, whether problems in educational attainment and employment in the years after high school exit represent “momentary perturbations” in development or a “turning point” with long-lasting effects throughout adulthood. The present study addressed this question by examining 10-year trajectories of vocational and educational activities for adults with ASD, as well as the personal characteristics and environmental resources that predicted these activities. Participants were 161 adults with ASD (ages 18-52 at the start of the study, M=30.9 years) who were part of a larger longitudinal study. Data were collected at 6 time points over a 10-year period. Results indicated significant declines in the level of independence and engagement in vocational/educational activities over the study period, particularly for women. Greater independence in vocational activities was found for those with more independence in activities of daily living. Net of personal characteristics, receipt of more services was marginally related to greater improvement in vocational independence. PMID:24001150

  10. A longitudinal examination of 10-year change in vocational and educational activities for adults with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Julie Lounds; Mailick, Marsha R

    2014-03-01

    The transition from adolescence to adulthood has been shown to be a time of amplified risk for individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). It is unknown, however, whether problems in educational attainment and employment in the years after high school exit represent momentary perturbations in development or a turning point with long-lasting effects throughout adulthood. The present study addressed this question by examining 10-year trajectories of vocational and educational activities for adults with ASD, as well as the personal characteristics and environmental resources that predicted these activities. Participants were 161 adults with ASD (ages 18-52 years at the start of the study; M = 30.9) who were part of a larger longitudinal study. Data were collected at 6 time points over a 10-year period. Results indicated significant declines in the level of independence and engagement in vocational/educational activities over the study period, particularly for women. Greater independence in vocational activities was found for those with more independence in activities of daily living. After controlling for personal characteristics, receipt of more services was marginally related to greater improvement in vocational independence. PMID:24001150

  11. Factors influencing infection in 10 years of battlefield open tibia fractures.

    PubMed

    Penn-Barwell, J G; Bennett, P M; Mortiboy, D E; Fries, C A; Groom, A F G; Sargeant, I D

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise severe open tibial shaft fractures sustained by the UK military personnel over 10 years of combat in Iraq and Afghanistan. The UK military Joint Theatre Trauma Registry was searched for all such injuries, and clinical records were reviewed for all patients. One hundred Gustilo-Anderson III tibia fractures in 89 patients were identified in the 10 year study period; the majority sustained injuries through explosive weapons (63, 68 %) with the remainder being injured from gunshot wounds. Three fractures were not followed up for 12 months and were therefore excluded. Twenty-two (23 %) of the remaining 97 tibial fractures were complicated by infection, with S. aureus being the causative agent in 13/22 infected fractures (59 %). Neither injury severity, mechanism, the use of an external fixator, the need for vascularised tissue transfer nor smoking status was associated with subsequent infection. Bone loss was significantly associated with subsequent infection (p < 0.0001, Fisher's exact test). This study presents 10 years of open tibial fractures sustained in Iraq and Afghanistan. Most infection in combat open tibia fractures is caused by familiar organisms, i.e. S. aureus. While the overall severity of a casualty's injuries was not associated with infection, the degree of bone loss from the fracture was. PMID:26993111

  12. Factors associated with arterial stiffness in children aged 9-10 years

    PubMed Central

    Batista, Milena Santos; Mill, José Geraldo; Pereira, Taisa Sabrina Silva; Fernandes, Carolina Dadalto Rocha; Molina, Maria del Carmen Bisi

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the factors associated with stiffness of the great arteries in prepubertal children. METHODS This study with convenience sample of 231 schoolchildren aged 9-10 years enrolled in public and private schools in Vitória, ES, Southeastern Brazil, in 2010-2011. Anthropometric and hemodynamic data, blood pressure, and pulse wave velocity in the carotid-femoral segment were obtained. Data on current and previous health conditions were obtained by questionnaire and notes on the child’s health card. Multiple linear regression was applied to identify the partial and total contribution of the factors in determining the pulse wave velocity values. RESULTS Among the students, 50.2% were female and 55.4% were 10 years old. Among those classified in the last tertile of pulse wave velocity, 60.0% were overweight, with higher mean blood pressure, waist circumference, and waist-to-height ratio. Birth weight was not associated with pulse wave velocity. After multiple linear regression analysis, body mass index (BMI) and diastolic blood pressure remained in the model. CONCLUSIONS BMI was the most important factor in determining arterial stiffness in children aged 9-10 years. PMID:25902563

  13. RECONSTRUCTION OF THE ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT WITH THE CENTRAL THIRD OF THE QUADRICEPS MUSCLE TENDON: ANALYSIS OF 10-YEAR RESULTS

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Marcus Valladares; Junior, Lúcio Honório de Carvalho; Terra, Dalton Lopes

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Assess clinical results using two different protocols, 10 years after ACL reconstruction surgery with the central third of quadriceps muscle tendon (QT). Method: Between November /1997 and April/1998, 25 patients were submitted to 25 ACL reconstructions with QT by transtibial technique. The bone portion of the graft was fixated on femoral tunnel with interference screw and the tendinous portion of tibial tunnel with screw with washer. Two patients injured the new when playing soccer. Six patients were not available for follow-up (24%). Seventeen patients were evaluated, 15 men and two women, with mean age at surgery time of 28.53 ± 6.64 years. All patients were examined at six months, one year, and ten years after surgery. Clinical evaluation was made by the Lysholm scale, and the knee evaluation, with the Hospital for Special Surgery scale. Results: The patients had their injuries operated after 9.87 ± 14.42 months of the accident. According to Lysholm scale, the results at the end of the first year were 98.71 ± 2.47 and, after 10 years, 97.35 ± 3.12. Using the Hospital for Special Surgery scale, the mean score was 95.07 ± 5.23 in one year, and 94.87 ± 4.16 in 10 years. All patients returned to their professional activities with the same previous status. Fifteen (88.24%) patients were able to return to their sports activities, one by modifying the practice, while another one switched to another sport. No patient complained of pain on the donor area in the medium and long term. The sports return rate was excellent, and no changes were found on the femoropatellar joint. PMID:27022511

  14. Changing Patterns of Primary Treatment in Korean Men with Prostate Cancer Over 10 Years: A Nationwide Population Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jinsung; Suh, Beomseok; Shin, Dong Wook; Hong, Jun Hyuk; Ahn, Hanjong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We investigated changing patterns of primary treatment in Korean men with prostate cancer (PC) and impact of sociodemographic factors on treatment choice from a nationwide cohort over 10 years. Materials and Methods We conducted a cohort study of a 2% nationwide random sample of Korean National Health Insurance. A total of 1,382 patients who had undergone active treatments for newly diagnosed PC between 2003 and 2013 were included. Time trends in primary treatment of PC, including radical surgery, radiation therapy (RT), and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) were analyzed. Results Total number of patients undergoing active treatments increased significantly (162%). Surgery cases showed the most significant increase, from 22.4% in 2003 to 45.4% in 2013, while the relative proportion of ADT showed a tendency to decrease from 60.3% in 2003 to 45.4% in 2013, and the relative proportion of RT was variable over 10 years (from 7.2% to 18.4%). While treatment patterns differed significantly according to age (p < 0.001) and income classes (p=0.014), there were differences in primary treatment according to residential area. In multinomial logistic regression analysis, older patients showed significant association with ADT or RT compared to surgery, while patients with higher income showed significant association with surgery. Conclusion Treatment pattern in Korean PC patients has changed remarkably over the last 10 years. Sociodemographic factors do affect the primary treatment choice. Our results will be valuable in overviewing changing patterns of primary treatment in Korean PC patients and planning future health policy for PC. PMID:26511804

  15. Seal, replacement or monitoring amalgam restorations with occlusal marginal defects? Results of a 10-year clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Moncada, G; Fernández, E; Mena, K; Martin, J; Vildósola, P; De Oliveira Junior, O B; Estay, J; Mjör, I A; Gordan, V V

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this prospective and blind clinical trial was to assess the effectiveness of sealing localized marginal defects of amalgam restoration that were initially scheduled to be replaced. A cohort of twenty six patients with 60 amalgam restorations (n=44Class I and n=16Class II), that presented marginal defects deviating from ideal (Bravo) according to USPHS criteria, were assigned to either sealing or replacement groups: A: sealing n=20, Replacement n=20, and no treatment (n=20). Two blind examiners evaluated the restorations at baseline (K=0.74) and after ten years (K=0.84) according with USPHS criteria, in four parameters: marginal adaptation (MA), secondary caries (SC), marginal staining (MS) and teeth sensitivity (TS). Multiple comparison of restorations degradation/upgrade was analyzed by Friedman test and the comparisons within groups were performed by Wilcoxon test. After 10 years, 44 restorations were assessed (73.3%), Group A: n=14 and Group B: n=16; and Group C: n=14 sealing and replacement amalgam restorations presented similar level of quality in MA (p=0.76), SC (p=0.25) and TS (p=0.52), while in MS (p=0.007) presented better performance in replacement group after 10-years. Most of the occlusal amalgam restorations with marginal gaps showed similar long term outcomes than the restorations were sealed, replaced, or not treated over a 10-year period. Most of the restorations of the three groups were clinically acceptable, under the studied parameters. All restorations had the tendency to present downgrade/deterioration over time. PMID:26231302

  16. On tunneling across horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanzo, L.

    2011-07-01

    The tunneling method for stationary black holes in the Hamilton-Jacobi variant is reconsidered in the light of some critiques that have been moved against. It is shown that once the tunneling trajectories have been correctly identified the method is free from internal inconsistencies, it is manifestly covariant, it allows for the extension to spinning particles and it can even be used without solving the Hamilton-Jacobi equation. These conclusions borrow support on a simple analytic continuation of the classical action of a pointlike particle, made possible by the unique assumption that it should be analytic in the complexified Schwarzschild or Kerr-Newman space-time. A more general version of the Parikh-Wilczek method will also be proposed along these lines.

  17. The Malcolm horizon: History and future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malcolm, R.

    1984-01-01

    The development of the Malcolm Horizon, a peripheral vision horizon used in flight simulation, is discussed. A history of the horizon display is presented as well as a brief overview of vision physiology, and the role balance plays is spatial orientation. Avenues of continued research in subconscious cockpit instrumentation are examined.

  18. Long-Term Predictors of Social and Leisure Activity 10 Years after Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Norlander, Anna; Carlstedt, Emma; Jönsson, Ann-Cathrin; Lexell, Eva M.; Ståhl, Agneta; Lindgren, Arne; Iwarsson, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Background Restrictions in social and leisure activity can have negative consequences for the health and well-being of stroke survivors. To support the growing number of people who are ageing with stroke, knowledge is needed about factors that influence such activity in a long-term perspective. Aim To identify long-term predictors of the frequency of social and leisure activities 10 years after stroke. Method 145 stroke survivors in Sweden were followed-up at16 months and 10 years after a first-ever stroke. Data representing body functions, activities & participation, environmental factors and personal factors at 16 months after stroke, were used in multiple linear regression analyses to identify predictors of the activity frequency after 10 years, as assessed by the ‘Community, social and civic life’ sub-domain of the Frenchay Activities Index (FAI-CSC). Results At the 10-year follow-up the frequency of social and leisure activities varied considerably among the participants, with FAI-CSC scores spanning the entire score range 0–9 (mean/median 4.9/5.0). Several factors at 16 months post stroke were independently related to the long-term activity frequency. The final regression model included four significant explanatory variables. Driving a car (B = 0.999), ability to walk a few hundred meters (B = 1.698) and extent of social network (B = 1.235) had a positive effect on activity frequency, whereas an age ≥ 75 years had a negative effect (B = -1.657). This model explained 36.9% of the variance in the FAI-CSC (p<0.001). Conclusion Stroke survivors who drive a car, have the ability to walk a few hundred meters and have a wide social network at 16 months after a first-ever stroke are more likely to have a high frequency of social and leisure activities after 10 years, indicating that supporting outdoor mobility and social anchorage of stroke survivors during rehabilitation is important to counteract long-term inactivity. PMID:26901501

  19. Geometric properties of static Einstein-Maxwell dilaton horizons with a Liouville potential

    SciTech Connect

    Abdolrahimi, Shohreh; Shoom, Andrey A.

    2011-05-15

    We study nondegenerate and degenerate (extremal) Killing horizons of arbitrary geometry and topology within the Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton model with a Liouville potential (the EMdL model) in d-dimensional (d{>=}4) static space-times. Using Israel's description of a static space-time, we construct the EMdL equations and the space-time curvature invariants: the Ricci scalar, the square of the Ricci tensor, and the Kretschmann scalar. Assuming that space-time metric functions and the model fields are real analytic functions in the vicinity of a space-time horizon, we study the behavior of the space-time metric and the fields near the horizon and derive relations between the space-time curvature invariants calculated on the horizon and geometric invariants of the horizon surface. The derived relations generalize similar relations known for horizons of static four- and five-dimensional vacuum and four-dimensional electrovacuum space-times. Our analysis shows that all the extremal horizon surfaces are Einstein spaces. We present the necessary conditions for the existence of static extremal horizons within the EMdL model.

  20. How does litter become soil organic matter? Tracing the fate of needle- and root-derived soil organic matter through 10 years of decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks Pries, Caitlin E.; Hatton, Pierre-Joseph; Castanha, Cristina; Bird, Jeffrey A.; Torn, Margaret S.

    2014-05-01

    All soil organic matter (SOM) is derived from plant material. However, little is known about the process by which plant litter becomes SOM (as opposed to the better-studied controls on rates of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) loss from litter). We investigated the transformations of above- and below-ground plant inputs in soil over ten years, and whether litter type (roots versus needles) affects the form and location of litter-derived C and N in soil after 10 years. We placed 15N and 13C-labeled Pinus ponderosa needle and fine root litter in the Blodgett Experimental Forest in the Sierra Nevada foothills in 2001. A two-way factorial design was used with needle and root litter placed into O and A soil horizons. Litter was inserted into the given horizon within soil mesocosms (10.2 cm diameter x 24 cm long PVC) that had two 5 x 5 cm mesh windows to allow contact with the surrounding soil. After 0.5, 1, 1.5, 4.5, and 10 years, the mesocosms were collected from the field. Isotopes were used to measure the percent recovery of the litter C and N in the bulk soil of the O and A horizons. To investigate mineral associations of the added litter C and N after 10 years, we sequentially fractionated the soils by density. The fractions were a free light fraction (<1.75 g cm-3), a fraction dominated by secondary phyllosilicate minerals (1.75-2.5 g cm-3), a quartz and feldspar-dominated fraction (2.5-2.78 g cm-3), and a fraction dominated by biotite with kaolinite and iron oxide coatings (>2.78 g cm-3). These fractions differ in the type of organic matter they are associated with according to C:N ratios and molecular characterization via FTIR. The biotite fraction had the lowest C:N ratios, indicating it was the most microbially-processed. After 10 years, more root litter C (about 44%) was retained in the soil than needle litter C (about 28%). In line with slower rates of decomposition, root C and N remained in the particulate (>2 mm) fraction and the free light fraction longer than

  1. Early and delayed rupture after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair in a 10-year multicenter registry

    PubMed Central

    Candell, Leah; Tucker, Lue-Yen; Goodney, Philip; Walker, Joy; Okuhn, Steven; Hill, Bradley; Chang, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Objective Rupture after abdominal endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) is a function of graft maintenance of the seal and fixation. We describe our 10-year experience with rupture after EVAR. Methods From 2000 to 2010, 1736 patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) from 17 medical centers underwent EVAR in a large, regional integrated health care system. Preoperative demographic and clinical data of interest were collected and stored in our registry. We retrospectively identified patients with postoperative rupture, characterized as “early” and “delayed” rupture (≤30 days and >30 days after the initial EVAR, respectively), and identified predictors associated with delayed rupture. Results The overall follow-up rate was 92%, and the median follow-up was 2.7 years (interquartile range, 1.2–4.4 years) in these 1736 EVAR patients. We identified 20 patients with ruptures; 70% were male, the mean age was 79 years, and mean AAA size at the initial EVAR was 6.3 cm. Six patients underwent initial EVAR for rupture (n = 2) or symptomatic presentation (n = 4). Of the 20 post-EVAR ruptures, 25% (five of 20) were early, all occurring within 2 days after the initial EVAR. Of these five patients, four had intraoperative adverse events leading directly to rupture, with one type I and one type III endoleak. Of the five early ruptures, four patients underwent endovascular repair and one received repair with open surgery, resulting in two perioperative deaths. Among the remaining 15 patients, the median time from initial EVAR to rupture was 31.1 months (interquartile range, 13.8–57.3 months). Most of these delayed ruptures (10 of 15) were preceded by AAA sac increases, including three patients with known endoleaks who underwent reintervention. At the time of delayed rupture, nine of 15 patients had new endoleaks. Among all 20 patients, six patients did not undergo repair (all delayed patients) and died, nine underwent repeated EVAR, and five had open repair

  2. Fermion tunneling from dynamical horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Criscienzo, R.; Vanzo, L.

    2008-06-01

    The instability against emission of fermionic particles by the trapping horizon of an evolving black hole is analyzed and confirmed using the Hamilton-Jacobi tunneling method. This method automatically selects one special expression for the surface gravity of a changing horizon. The results also apply to point masses embedded in an expanding universe. As a bonus of the tunneling method, we gain the insight that the surface gravity still defines a temperature parameter as long as the evolution is sufficiently slow that the black-hole pass through a sequence of quasi-equilibrium states, and that black holes should be semi-classically unstable even in a hypothetical world without bosonic fields.

  3. Circulation and rainfall climatology of a 10-year (1979 - 1988) integration with the Goddard Laboratory for atmospheres general circulation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, J.-H.; Sud, Y. C.

    1993-01-01

    A 10-year (1979-1988) integration of Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheres (GLA) general circulation model (GCM) under Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) is analyzed and compared with observation. The first momentum fields of circulation variables and also hydrological variables including precipitation, evaporation, and soil moisture are presented. Our goals are (1) to produce a benchmark documentation of the GLA GCM for future model improvements; (2) to examine systematic errors between the simulated and the observed circulation, precipitation, and hydrologic cycle; (3) to examine the interannual variability of the simulated atmosphere and compare it with observation; and (4) to examine the ability of the model to capture the major climate anomalies in response to events such as El Nino and La Nina. The 10-year mean seasonal and annual simulated circulation is quite reasonable compared to the analyzed circulation, except the polar regions and area of high orography. Precipitation over tropics are quite well simulated, and the signal of El Nino/La Nina episodes can be easily identified. The time series of evaporation and soil moisture in the 12 biomes of the biosphere also show reasonable patterns compared to the estimated evaporation and soil moisture.

  4. Meningococcal disease epidemiology in Australia 10 years after implementation of a national conjugate meningococcal C immunization programme.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, G L; Wang, H; Lahra, M; Booy, R; McINTYRE, P B

    2016-08-01

    Australia implemented conjugate meningococcal C immunization in 2003 with a single scheduled dose at age 12 months and catch-up for individuals aged 2-19 years. Several countries have recently added one or more booster doses to their programmes to maintain disease control. Australian disease surveillance and vaccine coverage data were used to assess longer term vaccine coverage and impact on invasive serogroup C disease incidence and mortality, and review vaccine failures. Coverage was 93% in 1-year-olds and 70% for catch-up cohorts. In 10 years, after adjusting for changes in diagnostic practices, population invasive serogroup C incidence declined 96% (95% confidence interval 94-98) to 0·4 and 0·6 cases/million in vaccinated and unvaccinated cohorts, respectively. Only three serogroup C deaths occurred in 2010-2012 vs. 68 in 2000-2002. Four (<1/million doses) confirmed vaccine failures were identified in 10 years with no increasing trend. Despite published evidence of waning antibody over time, an ongoing single dose of meningococcal C conjugate vaccine in the second year of life following widespread catch-up has resulted in near elimination of serogroup C disease in all age groups without evidence of vaccine failures in the first decade since introduction. Concurrently, serogroup B incidence declined independently by 55%. PMID:27094814

  5. Retrieval analysis of Harris-Galante I and II acetabular liners in situ for more than 10 years

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose There have been few reports documenting the wear and oxidation performance of the polyethylene bearing surface of HGPI and HGPII THA devices. We evaluated retrieved HGPI and HGPII acetabular liners that had been in situ for more than 10 years and determined whether there was a relationship between clinical and radiographic factors, surface damage, wear, and oxidation. Materials and methods 129 HGPI and II acetabular liners with implantation times of > 10 years were retrieved at 4 institutions between 1997 and 2010. The liners were made from a single resin and were gamma radiation-sterilized in air. Surface damage, linear wear, and oxidation index (OI) were assessed. Differences in clinical and radiographic factors, surface damage, linear wear, and OI for the 2 designs were statistically evaluated separately and together. Results Articular surface damage and backside damage was similar in the 2 designs. The linear penetration rate was 0.14 (SD 0.07) mm/year for the HGPI liners and 0.12 (SD 0.08) mm/year for the HGPII liners. For both cohorts, the rim had a higher OI than the articular surface. 74% of the liners had subsurface cracking and 24% had a complete fracture through the acetabular rim. Interpretation Despite modification of the HGP locking mechanism in the HGPII design, dissociation of the liner from the acetabular shell can still occur if fracture of the rim of the liner develops due to oxidative degradation. PMID:22880709

  6. Penrose inequality and apparent horizons

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Dov, Ishai

    2004-12-15

    A spherically symmetric spacetime is presented with an initial data set that is asymptotically flat, satisfies the dominant energy condition, and such that on this initial data M<{radical}(A/16{pi}), where M is the total mass and A is the area of the apparent horizon. This provides a counterexample to a commonly stated version of the Penrose inequality, though it does not contradict the true Penrose inequality.

  7. Persistent Psychological Well-being Predicts Improved Self-Rated Health Over 9-10 Years: Longitudinal Evidence from MIDUS

    PubMed Central

    Ryff, Carol D.; Radler, Barry T.; Friedman, Elliot M.

    2015-01-01

    Psychological well-being has been linked with better health, but mostly with cross-sectional evidence. Using MIDUS, a national sample of U.S. adults (N = 4,963), longitudinal profiles of well-being were used to predict in cross-time change over a 9-10 years in self-reported health. Well-being was largely stable, although adults differed in whether they had persistently high versus persistently low or moderate levels of well-being. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, those with persistently high well-being reported better health (subjective health, chronic conditions, symptoms, functional impairment) across time compared to those with persistently low well-being. Further, persistently high well-being was protective of improved health especially among the educationally disadvantaged. The findings underscore the importance of intervention and educational programs designed to promote well-being for greater segments of society. PMID:26617988

  8. New Horizons Tracks an Asteroid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The two 'spots' in this image are a composite of two images of asteroid 2002 JF56 taken on June 11 and June 12, 2006, with the Multispectral Visible Imaging Camera (MVIC) component of the New Horizons Ralph imager. In the bottom image, taken when the asteroid was about 3.36 million kilometers (2.1 million miles) away from the spacecraft, 2002 JF56 appears like a dim star. At top, taken at a distance of about 1.34 million kilometers (833,000 miles), the object is more than a factor of six brighter. The best current, estimated diameter of the asteroid is approximately 2.5 kilometers.

    The asteroid observation was a chance for the New Horizons team to test the spacecraft's ability to track a rapidly moving object. On June 13 New Horizons came to within about 102,000 kilometers of the small asteroid, when the spacecraft was nearly 368 million kilometers (228 million miles) from the Sun and about 273 million kilometers (170 million miles) from Earth.

  9. A receding horizon approach for dynamic UAV mission management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassandras, Christos G.; Li, Wei

    2003-09-01

    We consider a setting where multiple UAVs form a team cooperating to visit multiple targets to collect rewards associated with them. The team objective is to maximize the total reward accumulated over a given time interval. Complicating factors include uncertainties regarding the locations of targets and the effectiveness of collecting rewards, differences among vehicle capabilities, and the fact that rewards are time-varying. We describe a Receding Horizon (RH) control scheme which dynamically assigns vehicles to targets and simultaneously determines associated trajectories. This scheme is based on solving a sequence of optimization problems over a planning horizon and executing them over a shorter action horizon. We also describe a simulated battlespace environment designed to test UAV team missions and to illustrate how the RH scheme can achieve optimal performance with high probability.

  10. The 10-year course of Alcoholics Anonymous participation and long-term outcomes: a follow-up study of outpatient subjects in Project MATCH.

    PubMed

    Pagano, Maria E; White, William L; Kelly, John F; Stout, Robert L; Tonigan, J Scott

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the 10-year course and impact of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA)-related helping (AAH), step-work, and meeting attendance on long-term outcomes. Data were derived from 226 treatment-seeking alcoholics recruited from an outpatient site in Project MATCH and followed for 10 years post treatment. Alcohol consumption, AA participation, and other-oriented behavior were assessed at baseline, end of the 3-month treatment period, and 1, 3, and 10 years post treatment. Controlling for explanatory baseline and time-varying variables, results showed significant direct effects of AAH and meeting attendance on reduced alcohol outcomes and a direct effect of AAH on improved other-oriented interest. PMID:23327504

  11. Sharing Telescopes With 10-Year Olds to Celebrate the International Year of Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, Daniel Jonathan; Slater, T. F.; Slater, S. J.; in Astronomy, Cognition; Physics; Earth sciences Research CAPER Team

    2009-05-01

    Precisely four hundred years ago, Italian scientist Galileo's observations of the heavens forever and profoundly altered the way we view our place in the Universe. Throughout 2009, children across Wyoming are joining in a United Nations proclaimed International Year of Astronomy celebration. To commemorate 400 years of the telescope in advancing our understanding of the Universe through astronomy, our goal is that every 10-year old child in Wyoming will experience the excitement and wonder of looking through their very own telescope to observe majestic rings surrounding Saturn, deep craters on the Moon, countless stars lining the Milky Way, brilliant phases of Venus, and orbiting moons of Jupiter. This is being accomplished by a massive, state-wide collaborative effort bringing the collective energy and enthusiasm of professional scientists, amateur astronomers, local teachers, and community outreach enthusiasts together to spark an interest in science among Wyoming's children. Our strategy to bring a telescope to every Wyoming 10-year old child started first with a major year-long fundraising campaign. We estimate the cost of an individual telescope, constructed specifically for the 2009 International Year of Astronomy celebration, to be approximately $13 per child. With 6,489 (in 2007) 10-year old children in Wyoming, this amounts to less than $100,000 as a fund raising goal. University of Wyoming faculty are training teachers in how to use telescopes and how to integrate the excitement of astronomy across the curriculum. To teach children how to use their telescopes, volunteers from around the state are hosting star parties at schools, county fairs, and other regularly scheduled community celebrations.

  12. Sharing the Stars: Bringing Telescopes to 10-year Olds for International Year of Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, S. J.

    2008-12-01

    Precisely four hundred years ago, Italian scientist Galileo's observations of the heavens forever and profoundly altered the way we view our place in the Universe. He dramatically increased our thinking about the size of the known Universe by using his telescope and initiated one of the most important scientific revolutions in history. Throughout 2009, children across Wyoming are joining in a United Nations proclaimed International Year of Astronomy celebration. To commemorate 400 years of the telescope in advancing our understanding of the Universe through astronomy, our goal is that every 10-year old child in Wyoming will experience the excitement and wonder of looking through their very own telescope to observe majestic rings surrounding Saturn, deep craters on the Moon, countless stars lining the Milky Way, brilliant phases of Venus, and orbiting moons of Jupiter. This is being accomplished by a massive, state-wide collaborative effort bringing the collective energy and enthusiasm of professional scientists, amateur astronomers, local teachers, and community outreach enthusiasts together to spark an interest in science among Wyoming's children. Our strategy to bring a telescope to every Wyoming 10-year old child started first with a major year-long fundraising campaign. We estimate the cost of an individual telescope, constructed specifically for the 2009 International Year of Astronomy celebration, to be approximately 13 per child. With 6,489 (in 2007) 10- year old children in Wyoming, this amounts to less than 100,000 as a fund raising goal. University of Wyoming faculty are training teachers in how to use telescopes and how to integrate the excitement of astronomy across the curriculum. To teach children how to use their telescopes, volunteers from around the state are hosting star parties at schools, county fairs, and other regularly scheduled community celebrations.

  13. The Protective Role of Family Meals for Youth Obesity: 10-year Longitudinal Associations

    PubMed Central

    Berge, Jerica M.; Wall, Melanie; Hsueh, Tsun-Fang; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Larson, Nicole; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine whether having family meals as an adolescent protects against becoming overweight or obese 10 years later as a young adult. Study design Data from Project EAT-III, a longitudinal cohort study with emerging young adults, were used. At baseline (1998-1999) adolescents completed surveys in middle or high schools and at 10-year follow-up (2008-2009) surveys were completed online or via mailed surveys. Young adult participants (n=2117) were racially/ethnically and socioeconomically diverse (52% minority; 38% low income) between the ages of 19-31 (mean age=25.3; 55% female). Logistic regression was used to associate weight status at follow-up with family meal frequency 10-years earlier during adolescence, controlling and testing for interactions with demographic characteristics. Results All levels of baseline family meal frequency (i.e., 1-2, 3-4, ≥5 family meals/week) during adolescence were significantly associated with reduced odds of overweight or obesity ten years later in young adulthood as compared with never having family meals as an adolescent. Interactions by race indicated that family meals had a stronger protective effect for obesity in black versus white young adults. Conclusions Family meals during adolescence were protective against the development of overweight and obesity in young adulthood. Professionals who work with adolescents and parents may want to strategize with them how to successfully carry out at least one to two family meals per week in order to protect adolescents from overweight or obesity in young adulthood. PMID:25266343

  14. Oral Hygiene Facilitators and Barriers in Greek 10 Years Old Schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    Kavvadia, Katerina; Oulis, Constantine; Reppa, Christina

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the oral hygiene facilitators and barriers for 10 years old Greek children, via a questionnaire and clinical examination. Materials and methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 266, 10 years old, children recruited from schools in 3 locations in Greece. Data were collected via questionnaires and clinical examination. Questionnaires referred to Children’s oral hygiene knowledge, behavior and attitude as well as parents’ oral hygiene behavior and educational level. Children were clinically examined by two calibrated pediatric dentists using a WHO probe and artificial light to assess dental plaque (hygiene index-HI), gingivitis (simplified gingival index-GIs) and dental caries (DMFT-BASCD criteria). Results: Regarding oral hygiene knowledge, although 80% of the children were literate of the proper means of oral hygiene, only 58.64% brushed their teeth twice daily and 36.84% used dental floss. Children’s oral hygiene knowledge was positively correlated with both parental brushing frequency (ρ = 0.175, p < 0.05) and educational level (ρ = -0.216, p < 0.05). Toothpaste use was reported by 92.11% of the children. Regarding Children’s attitude, 62.28% were concerned whether their teeth were clean, with girls showing greater concern than boys (p < 0.001). Their reported beliefs regarding brushing avoidance were boredom (84.06%), low oral health literacy (73.91%) and forgetfulness (56.52%). Conclusion: Oral hygiene facilitators were found to be the concern about how clean were their teeth, oral health literacy of both children and parents and toothpaste appeal to children. Oral hygiene barriers were Children’s boredom, low oral health literacy, forgetfulness and low socioeconomic level. How to cite this article: Angelopoulou M, Kavvadia K, Oulis C, Reppa C. Oral Hygiene Facilitators and Barriers in Greek 10 Years Old Schoolchildren. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(2):87-93. PMID:26379373

  15. The 10-Year Risk of Verified Motor Vehicle Crashes in Relation to Physiologic Sleepiness

    PubMed Central

    Drake, Christopher; Roehrs, Timothy; Breslau, Naomi; Johnson, Eric; Jefferson, Catherine; Scofield, Holly; Roth, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the risk of DMV documented crashes as a function of physiological sleepiness in a population-based sample. Design: 24-hour laboratory assessment (nocturnal polysomnogram and daytime MSLT) and 10-year crash rate based on DMV obtained accident records. Participants: 618 individuals (mean age = 41.6 ± 12.8; 48.5% male) were recruited from the general population of southeastern Michigan using random-digit dialing techniques. Results: Subjects were divided into 3 groups based on their average MSLT latency (in minutes) as follows: excessively sleepy, 0.0 to ≤ 5.0 (n = 69); moderately sleepy, 5.0 to ≤ 10.0 (n = 204); and alert, > 10 (n = 345). Main outcome measures were DMV data on accidents from 1995-2005. Rates for all accidents in the 3 MSLT groups were: excessively sleepy = 59.4%, moderately sleepy = 52.5%, alert = 47.3%. Excessively sleepy subjects were at significantly greater risk of an accident over the 10-year period compared to alert subjects. A similar relation was observed when we limited the database to those accident victims with severe injury (excessively sleepy = 4.3%, moderately sleepy = 0.5%, alert = 0.6%; P = 0.028). When the victim was the only occupant of the car, subjects in the lowest MSLT group (highest sleepiness) had the greatest crash rate compared with alert individuals (excessively sleepy = 52.2%, moderately sleepy = 42.2%, alert = 37.4%; P = 0.022). Interventions: N/A Conclusions: These data demonstrate that the MSLT, a physiological measure of sleepiness, is predictive of an increased risk of DMV documented automotive crashes in the general population. Citation: Drake C; Roehrs T; Breslau N; Johnson E; Jefferson C; Scofield H; Roth T. The 10-year risk of verified motor vehicle crashes in relation to physiologic sleepiness. SLEEP 2010;33(6):745-752. PMID:20550014

  16. ESA SMART-1 mission: review of results and legacy 10 years after launch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, Bernard

    2014-05-01

    We review ESA's SMART-1 highlights and legacy 10 years after launch. The SMART-1 mission to the Moon achieved record firsts such as: 1) first Small Mission for Advanced Research and Technology; with spacecraft built and integrated in 2.5 years and launched 3.5 years after mission approval; 2) first mission leaving the Earth orbit using solar power alone with demonstration for future deep space missions such as BepiColombo; 3) most fuel effective mission (60 litres of Xenon) and longest travel (13 month) to the Moon!; 4) first ESA mission reaching the Moon and first European views of lunar poles; 5) first European demonstration of a wide range of new technologies: Li-Ion modular battery, deep-space communications in X- and Ka-bands, and autonomous positioning for navigation; 6) first lunar demonstration of an infrared spectrometer and of a Swept Charge Detector Lunar X-ray fluorescence spectrometer ; 7) first ESA mission with opportunity for lunar science, elemental geochemistry, surface mineralogy mapping, surface geology and precursor studies for exploration; 8) first controlled impact landing on the Moon with real time observations campaign; 9) first mission supporting goals of the ILEWG/COSPAR International Lunar Exploration Working Group in technical and scientific exchange, international collaboration, public and youth engagement; 10) first mission preparing the ground for ESA collaboration in Chandrayaan-1, Chang'E1-2-3 and near-future landers, sample return and human lunar missions. The SMART-1 technology legacy is applicable to geostationary satellites and deep space missions using solar electric propulsion. The SMART-1 archive observations have been used to support scientific research and prepare subsequent lunar missions and exploration. Most recent SMART-1 results are relevant to topics on: 1) the study of properties of the lunar dust, 2) impact craters and ejecta, 3) the study of illumination, 4) observations and science from the Moon, 5) support to

  17. [Multicenter retrospective analysis of the patients with sarcoidosis with a 10 year interval in observations].

    PubMed

    Vizel', I Iu; Shmelev, E I; Baranova, O P; Barlamov, P N; Borodina, G L; Denisova, O A; Dobin, V L; Kulbaisov, A M; Kupaev, V I; Listopadova, M V; Ovsiannikov, N V; Os'kin, D N; Petrov, D V; Solov'ev, K I; Shul'zhenko, L V; Vizel', A A

    2014-01-01

    Comparison of the state of 83 patients with histologically confirmed sarcoidosis observed with a 10 year interval revealed remission in 47% of the cases. The main factors having negative effect on prognosis of the disease included extrapulmonary symptoms, the use ofcorticosteroids (at all stages, especially at stage I and in Lofgren syndrome) and antituberculosis drugs, positive TB test. Risk factors of relapses were stage II sarcoidosis, the use of systemic corticosteroids in patients with Lofgren syndrome and antituberculosis drugs, initially low FEV1/FVLC ratio and the number of lymphocytes in peripheral blood. PMID:25799827

  18. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis in a 10-year-old girl masquerading as tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Baro, Abhamoni; Shah, Ira; Chandane, Parmarth; Khosla, Indu

    2015-06-01

    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare pulmonary disease. Diagnosis is established by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), which has macroscopic 'milky appearance', and in the presence of typical computed tomography, findings are diagnostic of PAP but, however, the feature of periodic acid-Schiff-positive eosinophilic proteinaceous fluid raises the confidence of the diagnosis. We report late-onset PAP in a 10-year-old girl who had acid fast bacilli on an initial BAL examination, but was subsequently diagnosed as PAP. PMID:26069841

  19. Photodynamic therapy for bronchial carcinoid tumours: complete response over a 10-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Moghissi, Keyvan; Dixon, Kate; Gibbins, Sally

    2013-06-01

    A 63-year old woman diagnosed in September 2001 with a typical bronchial carcinoid of the left upper lobe bronchus extending into the left main stem bronchus is presented. The patient was unsuitable for standard surgical treatment, and the topography was not amenable for a parenchyma-saving bronchoplastic procedure. Two cycles of bronchoscopic photodynamic therapy (PDT) were undertaken at 6 monthly intervals. The patient has now been followed up regularly for over 10 years without signs of recurrence bronchoscopically or radiologically. To our knowledge, this is the first case of a carcinoid tumour treated solely by PDT. PMID:23284100

  20. Maturogenesis of Two Maxillary Central Incisors: A Case Report with 10 Years of Follow Up.

    PubMed

    Ghorbanzadeh, Abdollah; Ghorbanzadeh, Atiyeh

    2015-04-01

    This case report describes the treatment of two immature maxillary central incisors in a 7-year-old female patient. She suffered complicated crown fracture because of trauma, and the root formation was incomplete. White mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) was selected as the pulp-capping material after cervical pulpotomy to preserve the pulp tissue vitality and achieve maturogenesis. Follow-up evaluations showed successful treatment in terms of preservation of pulp vitality and demonstrated marked continuous physiological root development. During 10 years of follow-up, both teeth were clinically asymptomatic, and radiographic evaluations showed apparent root regeneration with apical root-end closure without pulp or periapical pathosis. PMID:26622286

  1. Maturogenesis of Two Maxillary Central Incisors: A Case Report with 10 Years of Follow Up

    PubMed Central

    Ghorbanzadeh, Abdollah

    2015-01-01

    This case report describes the treatment of two immature maxillary central incisors in a 7-year-old female patient. She suffered complicated crown fracture because of trauma, and the root formation was incomplete. White mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) was selected as the pulp-capping material after cervical pulpotomy to preserve the pulp tissue vitality and achieve maturogenesis. Follow-up evaluations showed successful treatment in terms of preservation of pulp vitality and demonstrated marked continuous physiological root development. During 10 years of follow-up, both teeth were clinically asymptomatic, and radiographic evaluations showed apparent root regeneration with apical root-end closure without pulp or periapical pathosis. PMID:26622286

  2. Peroral Endoscopic Myotomy for the Treatment of Achalasia in a 10-Year-Old Male Patient

    PubMed Central

    Filser, Jörg; Dick, Anke; Meyer, Thomas; Germer, Christoph-Thomas; von Rahden, Burkard H.A.

    2014-01-01

    Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is a new endoscopic treatment for achalasia with very good short-term results in adults. Data about POEM in pediatric patients are missing. We present the case of a 10-year-old male patient with type I (classic) achalasia, successfully treated with POEM. The procedure was accomplished in a similar fashion to the technique used in adults. Short-term results were fine, with a complete control of dysphagia and absence of reflux. We suggest that POEM is a suitable option in pediatric patients—similar to adults—but long-term results must be awaited. PMID:26171309

  3. Arthralgia and Osteolytic Lesions Associated with Traumatic Pancreatitis in a 10-Year-Old Girl

    PubMed Central

    Obatake, Masayuki; Yamane, Yusuke; Tokunaga, Takayuki; Taura, Yasuaki; Inamura, Yukio; Nagayasu, Takeshi

    2009-01-01

    A case of traumatic pancreatitis with subsequent joint pain and osteolytic lesions is presented. A 10-year-old girl was admitted to our hospital with abdominal pain caused by blunt epigastric injury. She was diagnosed with traumatic pancreatitis, and multiple pancreatic pseudocysts subsequently developed. Two weeks after admission, she complained of joint pain, and MR revealed osteolytic lesions of both knee joints. On the 58th day, endoscopic transgastric pseudocyst drainage was performed. Joint pain and osteolytic lesions resolved rapidly, in parallel with the decrease in serum amylase level and pseudocyst size. PMID:20041026

  4. Quality and Quantity of Published Studies Evaluating Lumbar Fusion during the Past 10 Years: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Robert; Hermsmeyer, Jeffrey T.; Sethi, Rajiv K.; Norvell, Daniel C.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Systematic review. Clinical Questions (1) Has the proportion and number of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) as an indicator of quality of evidence regarding lumbar fusion increased over the past 10 years? (2) Is there a difference in the proportion of RCTs among the four primary fusion diagnoses (degenerative disk disease, spondylolisthesis, deformity, and adjacent segment disease) over the past 10 years? (3) Is there a difference in the type and quality of clinical outcomes measures reported among RCTs over time? (4) Is there a difference in the type and quality of adverse events measures reported among RCTs over time? (5) Are there changes in fusion surgical approach and techniques over time by diagnosis over the past 10 years? Methods Electronic databases and reference lists of key articles were searched from January 1, 2004, through December 31, 2013, to identify lumbar fusion RCTs. Fusion studies designed specifically to evaluate recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 or other bone substitutes, revision surgery studies, nonrandomized comparison studies, case reports, case series, and cost-effectiveness studies were excluded. Results Forty-two RCTs between January 1, 2004, and December 31, 2013, met the inclusion criteria and form the basis for this report. There were 35 RCTs identified evaluating patients diagnosed with degenerative disk disease, 4 RCTs evaluating patients diagnosed with degenerative spondylolisthesis, and 3 RCTs evaluating patients with a combination of degenerative disk disease and degenerative spondylolisthesis. No RCTs were identified evaluating patients with deformity or adjacent segment disease. Conclusions This structured review demonstrates that there has been an increase in the available clinical database of RCTs using patient-reported outcomes evaluating the benefit of lumbar spinal fusion for the diagnoses of degenerative disk disease and degenerative spondylolisthesis. Gaps remain in the

  5. Juvenile sex offender re-arrest rates for sexual, violent nonsexual and property crimes: a 10-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Waite, Dennis; Keller, Adrienne; McGarvey, Elizabeth L; Wieckowski, Edward; Pinkerton, Relana; Brown, Gerald L

    2005-07-01

    We report the results of a 10-year follow-up recidivism study of two sex offender treatment programs for incarcerated juvenile sex offenders (JSOs) in Virginia. The programs vary in environment and intensity. The more intense JSO program ("self-contained") operates in specialized living units that are separate from those of the general juvenile incarcerated population. In the less intense program ("prescriptive"), JSOs remain housed with the general population of juvenile offenders. Arrest and incarceration data through January 2003 were obtained for 261 male JSOs released between 1992 and 2001. The inclusion of adult incarceration data allowed for a more accurate assessment of the actual time at risk for sexual re-offending. Outcomes are re-arrest rates, length of time to re-arrest and type of offense (property, nonsexual assault, sexual) on re-arrest, with analyses using survival curve functions. For both groups, actual re-arrest is most likely to be for a nonsexual person offense (31 and 47%, respectively) and least likely to be for a sexual offense (<5% for both groups). Comparing the nonequivalent groups, the self-contained treatment group has a lower predicted re-arrest rate and a longer mean time to re-arrest, for all types of offenses, than the prescriptive treatment group. In addition, juveniles who indicate high levels of impulsive/antisocial behaviors are significantly more likely to recidivate compared to juveniles with low-levels of impulsive/antisocial behaviors, regardless of treatment type. This is the first 10-year follow-up study of treatment outcomes for a relatively large sample of males who were incarcerated for sexual offenses as juveniles. PMID:16121841

  6. The EnviSAT ASAR Mission: A Look Back At 10 Years Of Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, N.; Rosich, B.; Meadows, P. J.; Haria, K.; Small, D.; Schubert, A.; Lavalle, M.; Collard, F.; Johnsen, H.; Guarnieri, A. Monti; D'Aria, D.

    2013-12-01

    The Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) on- board Envisat operated successfully for just over 10 years until the failure of Envisat in April 2012. ASAR was ESA's very first deployment of a C-band phased- array antenna, allowing extended imaging capacity in comparison to its ERS SAR predecessors. As such it operated in various acquisition modes - Image (IM), Alternating Polarisation (AP), Wide Swath (WS), Global Monitoring (GM), and Wave (WV). For IM and AP modes there was a selection of 7 swaths with swath width from 100 km to 56 km: IM was single- polarisation, while AP was dual-pol, offering a choice from HH&VV, HH&HV, or VV&VH. WS and GM modes had a total swath width of 405 km based on the combination of 5 sub-swaths. WV acquired imagettes of 10 km by 10 km every 100 km along the satellite track. This paper is a look back to the 10 years of ASAR operations, covering topics such as the ASAR Instrument (characteristics, acquisition modes, product tree and observation scenario), Instrument Calibration and Performance Verification (including instrument stability, internal calibration, external calibration, absolute radiometric calibration, localisation accuracy, absolute geolocation accuracy, performance verification and product calibration), ASAR specific missions (wave and polarimetric), particular ASAR events such as antenna resets, burst synchronisation, AP swath modifications and the Envisat orbit change in October 2010.

  7. [The National Mental Health Plan in Chile: 10 years of experience].

    PubMed

    Minoletti, Alberto; Zaccaria, Alessandra

    2005-01-01

    Dealing with mental health problems is undoubtedly an increasingly important public health responsibility around the world. In Chile, because of the changes in the epidemiological profile of the population, the lifetime prevalence of mental and behavioral disorders has reached 36%. In response, the Ministry of Health of Chile, through its Mental Health Unit, prepared the National Plan for Mental Health and Psychiatry. The Plan establishes objectives, strategies, and steps to improve the well-being and mental health of Chileans. This piece describes the model of care for mental health and psychiatry used in Chile's public health care system, analyzes the main difficulties encountered and the achievements made in the 10 years that the Plan has been in place, and makes recommendations for improving the Plan. Over the 10-year period, the new model for mental health and psychiatry has managed to make a place for itself in the public health care system. Indicators show that the beneficiaries of the public health care system in Chile now have greater access to mental health services than before the new model of community care was established, have broader health care coverage, and receive better quality services. PMID:16354432

  8. A 10-Year Climatology of Amazonian Rainfall Derived from Passive Microwave Satellite Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Negri, Andrew J.; Anagnostou, Emmanouil N.; Adler, Robert F.

    1998-01-01

    In this study we present and describe a satellite-derived precipitation climatology over northern South America using a passive microwave technique, the Goddard Profiling Algorithm. A period of data slightly longer than 10 years is examined. The climatologies take the form of the mean estimated (adjusted) rainfall for a 10-year (+) period, with sub-divisions by month and meteorological season. For the six-year period 1992-1997, when two satellites were in operation, diurnal variability (to the extent it is discerned by four unequally spaced observations) is presented. We find an alternating pattern of morning and maxima stretching from the northeast (Atlantic coast) clear across the continent to the Pacific. The effects of topography, coastlines and geography (river valleys) on the rainfall patterns are clear. Interannual variability is examined by computing the deviations of yearly and warm season (DJF) rainfall from their respective long-term means. Interannual variability of the diurnal nature of the rainfall is presented, and the strong El Nino event of 1997-1998 is discussed.

  9. Bibliometric Analysis of Orthopedic Literature on Total Knee Arthroplasty in Asian Countries: A 10-year Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Eom, Sang Hwa; Bamne, Ankur B.; Chowdhry, Madhav; Chae, Ihn Seok

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We aimed to determine the quantity and quality of research output of selected Asian countries in the field of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in the last 10 years. Materials and Methods Top 15 Asian countries were selected according to their gross domestic product. The Science Citation Index Expanded database was used to search for the literature published between 2004 and 2013 using "Total Knee Arthroplasty". The numbers of articles, journals and citations and the contribution of each country were analyzed. The articles were classified according to the type of study and the relative proportion of each type was analyzed. Results Asian surgeons have increasingly contributed to orthopedic literature on TKA for the past 10 years, but the dominant contribution came from only a few countries. The total number of articles published by Asian countries increased by 261%, with Japan producing most of the studies and China showing the maximum growth rate. The majority of studies were published in low impact factor journals. Korea published the highest proportion of articles in high impact factor journals. Clinical papers were most frequent. Conclusions Our identification of research productivity pertaining to TKA among Asian countries gives a unique insight into the level of academic research in the field of TKA in these countries. There is a need to improve the quality of research to enhance the publishing power in high impact journals as well as the need for more basic research and epidemiological studies considering the unique differences among Asian patients undergoing TKA. PMID:26389067

  10. Cementless total knee arthroplasty with Profix: a 8- to 10-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Hardeman, François; Vandenneucker, Hilde; Van Lauwe, Johan; Bellemans, Johan

    2006-12-01

    A consecutive series of 115 cementless Profix (Smith and Nephew, Memphis, USA) Total Knee Arthroplasties performed in 113 patients were followed in order to determine the functional results and survivorship at 8 to 10 years. All patients were included in a prospective database and were reviewed annually until final follow-up. Patients overall satisfaction was excellent or good in 91.3% of cases. The mean Knee Society's knee and function scores increased respectively from 49.3 and 36.7 preoperatively to 93.1 and 82.2 postoperatively. The Kaplan-Meier estimate of implant survival at 10 years was 97.1%. Two patients underwent revision and were considered as failures. One patient had a fracture of the medial condyle at 4 days post-surgery, and the other was revised for aseptic loosening of the tibial component at 6 years post-surgery. On the basis of this long-term follow-up study, we can conclude that the Profix Total Knee System is effective and safe. PMID:17064905

  11. 10 Years of Height Resolved, Cloud-Track, Vector Winds from MISR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garay, M. J.; Mueller, K. J.; Moroney, C. M.; Jovanovic, V.; Wu, D. L.; Diner, D. J.

    2009-12-01

    By utilizing multiple camera views and fast image matching algorithms to identify common features and determine feature motion, the MISR instrument on NASA’s Terra satellite has now collected nearly 10 years of height-resolved, cloud-track, vector winds using a single, globally consistent algorithm. The MISR cloud-track winds are reported globally on mesoscale domains of 70.4 km × 70.4 km and referenced to stereoscopically derived heights above the earth ellipsoid, which have a nominal vertical resolution of approximately 500 m. Importantly, from the standpoint of climate research, the stereo height assignment and wind retrieval are largely insensitive to instrument calibration changes because the pattern matcher relies only on relative brightness values, rather than the absolute magnitude of the brightness. We will describe comparisons with other wind datasets, including geostationary cloud drift winds, scatterometer surface winds, and reanalysis model winds, that demonstrate the quality of the MISR winds. We will also show the coverage and resolution advantages that MISR provides relative to these other datasets. Additionally, because the global winds are driven primarily by the global (im)balance of heating, monitoring variations in the winds over 10 years promises to yield important insights into the processes related to the hydrologic cycle and transport of heat and water vapor, such as the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) and the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO).

  12. Highlights from 10 Years of NASA/KNMI/FMI Collaboration on UV Remote Sensing from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhartia, Pawan K.

    2010-01-01

    The first joint meeting between NASA, KNMI and FMI scientists was held on 13 & 14 June, 2000, almost exactly 10 years ago. NASA had recently selected 14 US scientists to work on instrument calibration, science algorithms, and validation activities related to the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) that we being built by collaboration between the Netherlands and Finland for flight on NASA's EOS Aura satellite. The progress on this project had been remarkable for a space based instrument. Only two years before this meeting my colleague Ernest Hilsenrath and I had visited Netherlands at the invitation of Fokker Space to persuade KNMI management to collaborate with NASA on this mission. And only 4 years after the first science meeting was held OMI was lunched on the Aura spacecraft. Next month will be the 6 th anniversary of this launch and very successful operation of OMI. All this was possible because of the leadership from Dr. Hennie Kelder and KNMI management who in 1998 saw the opportunity for Netherlands in the mission and stepped up to the challenge by creating a young and talented team of scientists at KNMI under the leadership of Dr. Pieterenel Levelt. This vision has now put Netherlands as the leading country in the world in monitoring air quality from space. Recent selection of TROPOMI by ESA attests to the success of this vision. I will present some selected highlights of our very successful collaboration on this project over the past 10 years.

  13. Change in physical mobility over 10 years in post-polio syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bickerstaffe, A; Beelen, A; Nollet, F

    2015-03-01

    Post-polio syndrome is characterised by progressive muscle weakness and other symptoms which can limit physical mobility. We assessed the rate of decline in mobility over 10 years in relation to strength decline; and investigated potential predictors for the rate of decline of walking capacity, a measure of mobility, in 48 patients with post-polio syndrome and proven quadriceps dysfunction at baseline. Average walking capacity and self-reported physical mobility declined over 10 years, by 6 and 14%, respectively. Concomitantly people lost an average of 15% of isometric quadriceps strength. Significantly more people used walking aids offering greater support at follow-up. Notably, there was much individual variation, with 18% of participants losing a substantial amount of walking capacity (27% decline) and concomitant self-reported physical mobility (38% decline). Loss of quadriceps strength only explained a small proportion of the variance of the decline in walking capacity (R = 11%) and the rate of decline could not be predicted from baseline values for strength, walking capacity, self-reported physical mobility or basic demographics. The individual variability, yet lack of predictive factors, underscores the need for personally tailored care based on actual functional decline in patients with post-polio syndrome. PMID:25613808

  14. Skeletal maturation, fundamental motor skills and motor coordination in children 7-10 years.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Duarte L; Lausen, Berthold; Maia, José António; Lefevre, Johan; Gouveia, Élvio Rúbio; Thomis, Martine; Antunes, António Manuel; Claessens, Albrecht L; Beunen, Gaston; Malina, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    Relationships between skeletal maturation and fundamental motor skills and gross motor coordination were evaluated in 429 children (213 boys and 216 girls) 7-10 years. Skeletal age was assessed (Tanner-Whitehouse 2 method), and stature, body mass, motor coordination (Körperkoordinations Test für Kinder, KTK) and fundamental motor skills (Test of Gross Motor Development, TGMD-2) were measured. Relationships among chronological age, skeletal age (expressed as the standardised residual of skeletal age on chronological age) and body size and fundamental motor skills and motor coordination were analysed with hierarchical multiple regression. Standardised residual of skeletal age on chronological age interacting with stature and body mass explained a maximum of 7.0% of the variance in fundamental motor skills and motor coordination over that attributed to body size per se. Standardised residual of skeletal age on chronological age alone accounted for a maximum of 9.0% of variance in fundamental motor skills, and motor coordination over that attributed to body size per se and interactions between standardised residual of skeletal age on chronological age and body size. In conclusion, skeletal age alone or interacting with body size has a negligible influence on fundamental motor skills and motor coordination in children 7-10 years. PMID:25649360

  15. Beyond the veil: Inner horizon instability and holography

    SciTech Connect

    Balasubramanian, Vijay; Levi, Thomas S.

    2004-11-15

    We show that scalar perturbations of the eternal, rotating Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole should lead to an instability of the inner (Cauchy) horizon, preserving strong cosmic censorship. Because of backscattering from the geometry, plane-wave modes have a divergent stress tensor at the event horizon, but suitable wave packets avoid this difficulty, and are dominated at late times by quasinormal behavior. The wave packets have cuts in the complexified coordinate plane that are controlled by requirements of continuity, single-valuedness, and positive energy. Due to a focusing effect, regular wave packets nevertheless have a divergent stress energy at the inner horizon, signaling an instability. We propose that this instability, which is localized behind the event horizon, is detected holographically as a breakdown in the semiclassical computation of dual conformal field theory (CFT) expectation values in which the analytic behavior of wave packets in the complexified coordinate plane plays an integral role. In the dual field theory, this is interpreted as an encoding of physics behind the horizon in the entanglement between otherwise independent CFTs.

  16. Mutual influences between child emotion regulation and parent-child reciprocity support development across the first 10 years of life: Implications for developmental psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Ruth

    2015-11-01

    Elucidating the mechanisms by which infant birth conditions shape development across lengthy periods is critical for understanding typical and pathological development and for targeted early interventions. This study examined how newborns' regulatory capacities impact 10-year outcomes via the bidirectional influences of child emotion regulation (ER) and reciprocal parenting across early development. Guided by dynamic systems theory, 125 infants were tested at seven time points: birth, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months and 5 and 10 years. Initial regulatory conditions were measured by respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA; vagal tone) and neurobehavioral regulation (Brazelton, 1973) at birth. At each assessment between 3 months and 5 years, infant ER was microcoded from age-appropriate paradigms and mother-child reciprocity observed during social interactions. Four regulation-related outcomes were measured at 10 years: child RSA, empathy measured by mother-child conflict discussion and a lab paradigm, accident proneness, and behavior problems. An autoregressive cross-lagged structural model indicated that infant birth conditions impacted 10-year outcomes via three mechanisms. First, child ER and reciprocal parenting were individually stable across development and were each predicted by regulatory birth conditions, describing gradual maturation of ER and reciprocity over time. Second, better ER skills at one time point were related to greater reciprocity at the next time point and vice versa, and these cross-time effects defined a field of individual-context mutual influences that mediated the links between neonatal RSA and 10-year outcomes. Third, direct associations emerged between neonatal regulation and outcome, suggesting that birth conditions may establish a neurobiological milieu that promotes a more mature and resilient system. These mechanisms describe distinct "attractor" states that constrain the system's future options, emphasize the importance of defining behavior

  17. Predictors of temporal patterns of psychiatric distress during 10 years following the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island.

    PubMed

    Dew, M A; Bromet, E J

    1993-04-01

    The present study examines psychiatric symptom levels during a 10-year period in a community sample of mothers of young children. All were identified in the early aftermath of the 1979 Three Mile Island nuclear accident, and followed through the accident's 1989 anniversary. Cluster analysis was used to identify long-term distress profiles during the study period; women's temporal profiles were found to be either (a) stable and at low, clinically nonsignificant levels of distress across all measurement points or (b) at consistently elevated, clinically significant levels that varied with the timing of postaccident events such as the restart of the undamaged reactor and the 10th anniversary. Subsequent multivariate analyses indicated that preaccident characteristics, as well as parameters reflecting respondents' initial involvement with, and reactions to the accident, were important for distinguishing between women within the two temporal profile groups. Implications of the results for both policy formulation and continued research on significant environmental stressors is discussed. PMID:8511662

  18. Monitoring the Affordability of Healthy Eating: A Case Study of 10 Years of the Illawarra Healthy Food Basket

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Healthy food baskets have been used around the world for a variety of purposes, including: examining the difference in cost between healthy and unhealthy food; mapping the availability of healthy foods in different locations; calculating the minimum cost of an adequate diet for social policy planning; developing educational material on low cost eating and examining trends on food costs over time. In Australia, the Illawarra Healthy Food Basket was developed in 2000 to monitor trends in the affordability of healthy food compared to average weekly wages and social welfare benefits for the unemployed. It consists of 57 items selected to meet the nutritional requirements of a reference family of five. Bi-annual costing from 2000–2009 has shown that the basket costs have increased by 38.4% in the 10-year period, but that affordability has remained relatively constant at around 30% of average household incomes. PMID:22254001

  19. Topological deformation of isolated horizons

    SciTech Connect

    Liko, Tomas

    2008-03-15

    We show that the Gauss-Bonnet term can have physical effects in four dimensions. Specifically, the entropy of a black hole acquires a correction term that is proportional to the Euler characteristic of the cross sections of the horizon. While this term is constant for a single black hole, it will be a nontrivial function for a system with dynamical topologies such as black-hole mergers: it is shown that for certain values of the Gauss-Bonnet parameter, the second law of black-hole mechanics can be violated.

  20. The risk of losing 10 years of life put in perspective: views of college student smokers.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Shu-Hui; Huang, Song-Lih

    2015-03-01

    Health messages have limited effects on young smokers. The health effects typically have long latent periods, and the appreciation of risk depends on the meaning given to longevity. This study aims to understand how college student smokers interpreted the risks of losing 10 years of life because of smoking. In-depth semistructured interviews were conducted with 23 male smokers from a relatively low-achieving college in southern Taiwan. The participants had vague ideas about the future; were not expecting a successful life, thought life was stressful and boring; and expressed that there was no need to live too long. Many believed that removing the stress and having a composed lifestyle was the way to becoming healthy, which could be achieved only by people with economic success. They would quit had they been rich. Empowerment to help young smokers gain control over their life events may be the key to tobacco control. PMID:23695539

  1. A 10-year climatology of Northern Hemisphere tropical cloud plumes and their composite flow patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Iskenderian, H.

    1995-06-01

    A 10-year cool season climatology of tropical cloud plumes in the Northern Hemisphere was generated by visual inspection of infrared satellite imagery. The sample included 1062 plume events during the months of October to May for the years 1974 to 1984. The results show that the westerly ducts of the tropical eastern Pacific and central Atlantic are preferred regions for tropical cloud plume development. Composite fields of streamfunction and outgoing longwave radiation for eastern Pacific plumes indicate that both low-latitude westerlies in the planetary-scale basic-state flow and the presence of synoptic-scale transients appear to be favorable for plume formation. With a knowledge of these features, some of the interannual and intraannual variability shown in the climatology can be explained. 14 refs., 6 figs.

  2. A review of Internet pornography use research: methodology and content from the past 10 years.

    PubMed

    Short, Mary B; Black, Lora; Smith, Angela H; Wetterneck, Chad T; Wells, Daryl E

    2012-01-01

    Internet pornography (IP) use has increased over the past 10 years. The effects of IP use are widespread and are both negative (e.g., relationship and interpersonal distress) and positive (e.g., increases in sexual knowledge and attitudes toward sex). Given the possible negative effects of IP use, understanding the definition of IP, the types of IP used, and reasons for IP use is important. The present study reviews the methodology and content of available literature regarding IP use in nondeviant adult populations. The study seeks to determine how the studies defined IP, utilized validated measures of pornography use, examined variables related to IP, and addressed form and function of IP use. Overall, studies were inconsistent in their definitions of IP, measurement, and their assessment of the form and function of IP use. Discussion regarding how methodological differences between studies may impact the results and the ability to generalize findings is provided, and suggestions for future studies are offered. PMID:22032795

  3. Overview of humanistic progress in sickle cell anemia during the past 10 years.

    PubMed

    Nash, K B

    1983-01-01

    Humanistic progress in sickle cell anemia over the past 10 years is described, with a focus on individual, institutional, and societal progress. Accessibility, acceptability, and accountability are examined for humanistic progress in medical care, counseling, education, support services, and public education. Specific dimensions of humanistic progress are noted, including career development, work with schools and employers, establishment of tutorial programs, retraining of health care providers, utilization of the team concept, and increasing awareness of this disease. Constraints, such as funding patterns and the political climate, will be considered as part of the challenge for the next decade. A frame of reference is suggested for meeting the challenges ahead for further humanistic progress. PMID:6670715

  4. Hybrid component fixation in total knee arthroplasty: minimum of 10-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jae-Hyuk; Yoon, Jung-Ro; Oh, Chi-Hun; Kim, Taik-Sun

    2012-06-01

    Hybrid total knee arthroplasty (TKA) (uncemented femur with cemented tibia and patella) was introduced in the late 1980s to gain the theoretical advantage of durable cementless femoral fixation while avoiding the problems noted with cementless tibial fixation. From December 1992 to July 2000, 215 patients (235 knees) who underwent hybrid TKA were enrolled in this study. Five types of prosthesis (AGC, Maxim, LCS-M, LCS-APG, and Scorpio) were used. Revision rate for aseptic loosening was 16 (6.8%) of 235 knees. At 10 and 15 years, survivorship with tibial or femoral revision as the end point was 0.95 and 0.92, respectively. Hybrid TKA provides durable fixation with clinical and radiographic performance at minimum 10 years comparable with cemented series. PMID:22019322

  5. Diagnostic Approach to Childhood-onset Cerebellar Atrophy: A 10-Year Retrospective Study of 300 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Al-Maawali, Almundher; Blaser, Susan; Yoon, Grace

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary ataxias associated with cerebellar atrophy are a heterogeneous group of disorders. Selection of appropriate clinical and genetic tests for patients with cerebellar atrophy poses a diagnostic challenge. Neuroimaging is a crucial initial investigation in the diagnostic evaluation of ataxia in childhood, and the presence of cerebellar atrophy helps guide further investigations. We performed a detailed review of 300 patients with confirmed cerebellar atrophy on magnetic resonance imaging over a 10-year period. A diagnosis was established in 47% of patients: Mitochondrial disorders were most common, followed by the neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses, ataxia telangectasia, and late GM2-gangliosidosis. We review the common causes of cerebellar atrophy in childhood and propose a diagnostic approach based on correlating specific neuroimaging patterns with clinical and genetic diagnoses. PMID:22764178

  6. Spinal dysraphism. A study of patients over the age of 10 years.

    PubMed

    Yamane, T; Shinoto, A; Kamegaya, M; Shinada, Y

    1991-11-01

    Thirty patients over the age of 10 years, exhibiting cutaneous manifestations on the back suspected to be due to spinal dysraphism, and neurologic deficits, were studied to analyze neurologic appearance. Neurologic deficits appeared by age 5 in 26 patients. No patient complained of low-back pain or sciatica. Paralytic deformities of the lower extremities were divided into four grades for evaluation: A = no deformity, with only urinary disturbance (four cases); B = toe-limited deformity (two cases); C = toe and foot-limited deformity (six cases); D = toe, foot, ankle, and lower limb deformity (18 cases). Patients with slight neurologic disturbance, either Grade A or without urinary disturbance, were seen among the patients who had undergone a release operation by age 2, although neurologic appearance in patients in severe grades was not related to the age at release operation. Also, the release operation was thought to be effective in preventing low-back pain or sciatica. PMID:1750003

  7. Prospects for emerging infections in East and southeast Asia 10 years after severe acute respiratory syndrome.

    PubMed

    Horby, Peter W; Pfeiffer, Dirk; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2013-06-01

    It is 10 years since severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) emerged, and East and Southeast Asia retain a reputation as a hot spot of emerging infectious diseases. The region is certainly a hot spot of socioeconomic and environmental change, and although some changes (e.g., urbanization and agricultural intensification) may reduce the probability of emerging infectious diseases, the effect of any individual emergence event may be increased by the greater concentration and connectivity of livestock, persons, and products. The region is now better able to detect and respond to emerging infectious diseases than it was a decade ago, but the tools and methods to produce sufficiently refined assessments of the risks of disease emergence are still lacking. Given the continued scale and pace of change in East and Southeast Asia, it is vital that capabilities for predicting, identifying, and controlling biologic threats do not stagnate as the memory of SARS fades. PMID:23738977

  8. Prospects for Emerging Infections in East and Southeast Asia 10 Years after Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, Dirk; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2013-01-01

    It is 10 years since severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) emerged, and East and Southeast Asia retain a reputation as a hot spot of emerging infectious diseases. The region is certainly a hot spot of socioeconomic and environmental change, and although some changes (e.g., urbanization and agricultural intensification) may reduce the probability of emerging infectious diseases, the effect of any individual emergence event may be increased by the greater concentration and connectivity of livestock, persons, and products. The region is now better able to detect and respond to emerging infectious diseases than it was a decade ago, but the tools and methods to produce sufficiently refined assessments of the risks of disease emergence are still lacking. Given the continued scale and pace of change in East and Southeast Asia, it is vital that capabilities for predicting, identifying, and controlling biologic threats do not stagnate as the memory of SARS fades. PMID:23738977

  9. Perceived neighborhood safety, recovery capital, and successful outcomes among mothers 10 years after substance abuse treatment

    PubMed Central

    Evans, E.; Li, L.; Buoncristiani, S.; Hser, Y.I.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines perceived neighborhood characteristics associated with successful outcome among mothers 10 years after being treated for substance use disorders. Data were obtained from 713 mothers first studied at admission to drug treatment in California in 2000-2002 and followed-up in 2009-2011. At follow-up, 53.6% of mothers had a successful outcome (i.e., no use of illicit drugs and not involved with the criminal justice system). Perceived neighborhood safety almost doubled the odds of success. Perceived neighborhood safety interacted with social involvement, decreasing the odds of success among mothers who reported more versus less neighborhood social involvement. Perceived neighborhood climate is associated with long-term outcomes among mothers with substance use disorders independent of individual-level characteristics, underscoring the need for further efforts to understand its interaction with recovery capital in ways that promote and impede health. PMID:24832914

  10. [Association between Crohn's disease and primary sclerosing cholangitis in a 10 year old girl].

    PubMed

    Muñoz Lozón, Ana; Iglesias Blázquez, Cristina; Menéndez Arias, Cristina; Domínguez Sánchez, Patricia

    2016-06-01

    A 10 year old girl with diarrhea, abdominal pain, weight loss and fever of one month and a half of evolution. Analytical and sonographic findings raised the possibility of inflammatory bowel disease. Endoscopy and histology showed findings consistent with Crohn's disease. Treatment was initiated with mesalazine and exclusive enteral nutrition. Later corticosteroid treatment, immunosuppressive drugs and ursodeoxycholic acid were added due to cholestasis and persistent hypergammaglobulinemia. Magnetic resonance cholangiography and liver biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of concomitant primary sclerosing cholangitis. The association between Crohn's disease and primary sclerosing cholangitis is rare, predominantly in males between 20 and 40 years old and it presents a great clinical variability. The confirmation of the diagnosis requires magnetic resonance cholangiography or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. The prognosis is poor and there is no treatment to slow the progression of the disease. PMID:27164355

  11. Soft tissue aneurysmal bone cyst in a 10-year-old girl

    PubMed Central

    HAO, YONGQIANG; WANG, LEI; YAN, MENGNING; JIN, FANGCHUN; GE, SHENGFANG; DAI, KERONG

    2011-01-01

    We report the case of a 10-year-old girl with a soft tissue aneurysmal bone cyst (STABC) located in the posterior aspect of the left shoulder. Conventional radiography revealed an oblong mass with a calcified rim. On the computed tomography scan, the lesion appeared to have a non-uniform intralesional density with an incomplete rim. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a multi-cavity lesion with fluid-fluid levels. Following pathological examination, the lesion was diagnosed as a STABC. This may be only the twentieth reported case in the English literature of this extremely rare benign tumor occurring in soft tissue. Eight months after surgery the patient was assessed at our outpatient clinic and found to have excellent mobility of her left shoulder and no sign of recurrence. PMID:22740948

  12. Pregnancy outcomes in cystic fibrosis: a 10-year experience from a UK centre

    PubMed Central

    Priestley, L; Bennett, L; Mackillop, L; Chapman, SJ

    2015-01-01

    Background Cystic fibrosis manifests as a multisystem disease, despite this female fertility is relatively preserved with levels approaching that of the non-cystic fibrosis population. We reviewed pregnancies in cystic fibrosis patients over a 10-year period from a UK adult cystic fibrosis centre by considering maternal and fetal outcomes. Methods We conducted a retrospective case-note review of pregnancies during 2003–2013 using respiratory and obstetric records. Results We observed moderate falls in lung function immediately after delivery, which persisted at 12 months postpartum. We found that a decline in lung function at delivery was a marker for further decline in function during the subsequent postpartum period. We found baseline lung function was predictive of gestational age at delivery. We observed a high incidence of haemoptysis. Conclusion Consistent with current guidance we found pregnancy is feasible and well tolerated in the majority of patients with cystic fibrosis. There was a high incidence of haemoptysis, which warrants further study.

  13. Incontinentia Pigmenti; a Rare Multisystem Disorder: Case Report of a 10-Year-Old Girl

    PubMed Central

    Rafatjoo, Rezvan; Taghdisi Kashani, Amene

    2016-01-01

    Incontinentia pigmenti is a rare genodermatosis in which the skin involvement occurs in all patients. Additionally, other ectodermal tissues may be affected such as the central nervous system, eyes, hair, nails and teeth. The disease has an X-linked dominant inheritance pattern. But in our case, there was a mutation in the body cells due to incontinentia pigmenti. The dermatological findings occur in four successive phases. We report the case of a 10-year-old female presented cutaneous, dental and ophthalmic characteristic with 3 years follow-up. Dental anomalies such as hypodontia, peg-shaped anterior teeth, malformed primary and permanent teeth, and delayed eruption were seen in our patient. PMID:27602400

  14. A 10-year plan to study the aquifer system of Indian Wells Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lipinski, Paul; Knochenmus, Darwin D.

    1981-01-01

    Water needs of the population of Indian Wells Valley, Calif., must be met through further development of ground-water resources. Studies show that annual ground-water pumpage there has increased since 1945 and has exceeded mean annual recharge since 1966. Continued and increased stress on the aquifer system of the valley is expected because population in the valley is predicted to double by 1998 and triple by 2020, based on 1977 population figures. The U.S. Geological Survey proposes a 10-year program to develop a data base to aid in evaluation of future water-management alternatives. A study plan has been developed that describes present and potential problems and objectives of the program, and outlines work items to be undertaken in the study area. (USGS)

  15. Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia of the breast in a 10-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Baker, Michael; Chen, Hui; Latchaw, Laurie; Memoli, Vincent; Ornvold, Kim

    2011-08-01

    Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) of the breast is a benign lesion, characterized by a dense proliferation of stromal mesenchymal cells of myofibroblastic origin forming empty, slitlike channels. The development of PASH is subject to hormonal influence and is most commonly seen in premenopausal women. In adolescent patients, PASH is rarely reported. Here we report a case of PASH presenting in a 10-year-old girl. After the presentation and inconclusive radiographic findings, incisional biopsy revealed a soft nodule with histopathologic features characteristic of PASH. Immunoperoxidase studies showed positive immunoreactivity for CD34 and bcl-2 and negative immunoreactivity for CD31 and desmin, supporting the diagnosis of PASH. Because of the benign nature of the lesion, excisional biopsy was deferred to minimize damage to the patient's developing breast. To our knowledge, this case represents the youngest female patient with unequivocal PASH in reported literature. PMID:21843705

  16. Physical therapy management of osteitis pubis in a 10-year-old cricket fast bowler.

    PubMed

    Sudarshan, A

    2013-08-01

    This case report describes a 10-year-old boy who presented with radiating pain (Visual Analog Scale score of 7.2 cm) down his left groin and was eventually diagnosed to have osteitis pubis. History revealed that he was exceeding the workload guidelines of bowling for a fast bowler. Examination findings were left sacro-iliac joint dysfunction, reduced left internal rotation of the hip, tightness of bilateral hip flexors and poor motor control of the lumbo-pelvic muscles. Physical therapy was aimed at correcting the sacro-iliac joint dysfunction, increasing the hip range of motion and muscle length along with exercises aimed at improving the lumbopelvic stability. The patient had complete resolution of pain by the ninth week and returned to fast bowling without any discomfort. PMID:23270404

  17. Mining injuries in Serbian underground coal mines -- a 10-year study.

    PubMed

    Stojadinović, Saša; Svrkota, Igor; Petrović, Dejan; Denić, Miodrag; Pantović, Radoje; Milić, Vitomir

    2012-12-01

    Mining, especially underground coal mining, has always been a dangerous occupation. Injuries, unfortunately, even those resulting in death, are one of the major occupational risks that all miners live with. Despite the fact that all workers are aware of the risk, efforts must be and are being made to increase the safety of mines. Injury monitoring and data analysis can provide us with valuable data on the causes of accidents and enable us to establish a correlation between the conditions in the work environment and the number of injuries, which can further lead to proper preventive measures. This article presents the data on the injuries in Serbian coal mines during a 10-year period (2000-2009). The presented results are only part of an ongoing study whose aim is to assess the safety conditions in Serbian coal mines and classify them according to that assessment. PMID:21920518

  18. Incontinentia Pigmenti; a Rare Multisystem Disorder: Case Report of a 10-Year-Old Girl.

    PubMed

    Rafatjoo, Rezvan; Taghdisi Kashani, Amene

    2016-09-01

    Incontinentia pigmenti is a rare genodermatosis in which the skin involvement occurs in all patients. Additionally, other ectodermal tissues may be affected such as the central nervous system, eyes, hair, nails and teeth. The disease has an X-linked dominant inheritance pattern. But in our case, there was a mutation in the body cells due to incontinentia pigmenti. The dermatological findings occur in four successive phases. We report the case of a 10-year-old female presented cutaneous, dental and ophthalmic characteristic with 3 years follow-up. Dental anomalies such as hypodontia, peg-shaped anterior teeth, malformed primary and permanent teeth, and delayed eruption were seen in our patient. PMID:27602400

  19. Total knee arthroplasty using cementless keels and cemented tibial trays: 10-year results

    PubMed Central

    Kolisek, Frank R.; Mont, Michael A.; Seyler, Thorsten M.; Marker, David R.; Jessup, Nenette M.; Siddiqui, Junaed A.; Monesmith, Eric

    2008-01-01

    The problem of early mechanical stability of cemented and cementless keels of the tibial component in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is controversial. The purpose of this study was to assess clinical and radiographic outcomes of a cohort of 51 TKAs using a cemented platform with cementless keel fixation. At a mean follow-up of 10.4 years (range, 7 to 14 years), the mean Knee Society Score (KSS) was 93 points (range, 59 to 100 points), and the mean functional score was 73 points (range, 0 to 100 points). Only one patient demonstrated progressive tibial radiolucencies at 13.1 years follow-up, which resolved with a revision with an exchange of components. The results of this study suggest that a proximally cemented tibial tray with a press-fit keel TKA provides excellent mean 10-year outcomes. PMID:18185931

  20. Education status determines 10-year (2002-2012) survival from cardiovascular disease in Athens metropolitan area: the ATTICA study, Greece.

    PubMed

    Panagiotakos, Demosthenes; Georgousopoulou, Ekavi; Notara, Venetia; Pitaraki, Evangelia; Kokkou, Eleni; Chrysohoou, Christina; Skoumas, Yannis; Metaxa, Vassiliki; Pitsavos, Christos; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2016-05-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and educational level seems to be an important determinant of the disease occurrence. The aim of this work was to investigate the association between education status and 10-year incidence of CVD, controlling for various socio-demographic lifestyle and clinical factors. From May 2001 to December 2002, 1514 men and 1528 women (>18 years) without any clinical evidence of CVD or any other chronic disease, at baseline, living in greater Athens area, Greece, were enrolled. In 2011-2012, the 10-year follow-up was performed in 2583 participants (15% of the participants were lost to follow-up). Incidence of fatal or non-fatal CVD was defined according to WHO-ICD-10 criteria. Education status was measured in years of schooling. The 10-year incidence of CVD was 15.7% [95% confidence intervals (CI) 14.1%-17.4%], 19.7% in men and 11.7% in women (Pgender < 0.001). Age-and gender-adjusted analyses revealed that those with low education (<9 years of schooling) were 1.52 times more likely (95% CI 1.03-2.23%) to have CVD compared with those with high education (>12 years of schooling). People in the low education group had higher prevalence of hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidaemias, were more likely to be smokers and sedentary, had less healthy dietary habits, as compared with those in the high education group. When controlling for participants' medical history, smoking, dietary and lifestyle habits, low education was no longer significantly associated with CVD, illustrating the mediating effect of clinical and behavioural factors in the link between education and disease. It was of interest that low education status interacted with alcohol drinking, enhancing the adverse effect of low education on CVD risk (relative risk 1.44, 95% CI 0.94%-2.20%), after various adjustments made. In this study, it was concluded that low educational level was associated with increased CVD risk. This was

  1. Prevalence of Malocclusion among 6 to 10 Year old Nalgonda School Children

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, E Rajendra; Manjula, M; Sreelakshmi, N; Rani, S Thabitha; Aduri, Rajesh; Patil, B Dharamraj

    2013-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the prevalence of malocclusion among 6 to 10 year old children of Nalgonda District. Materials & Methods: A total of 3000 children were examined, out of which 2135 children (1009 boys and 1126 girls) who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were included. The selected sample was examined for Class I, Class II, Class III molar relationship, lower anterior crowding, cross bite (anterior and posterior), open bite, and pseudo class III [edge to edge bite] discrepancies after obtaining the written consent from the concerned school authorities. The collected data was tabulated and statistically analysed using chi-square test. Results: Among the selected sample, 648 (30.35%) children had minor tooth alignment discrepancies. Angle’s Class I molar relation with and without minor discrepancies was observed in 78.6%, Class II in 13.9%, Class III in 7.8% of the subjects surveyed. Lower anterior crowding in 11.8%, anterior cross bite in 4.5%, posterior cross bite in 3.75%, openbite in 3% and Pseudo class III [edge to edge] in 5.97% was noticed among the studied population. There was no statistical significant difference observed gender wise. Conclusion: In the current study, 52% of the studied population had malocclusion with a higher prevalence of Angle’s Class I molar relation with lower anterior crowding. How to cite this article: Reddy ER, Manjula M, Sreelakshmi N, Rani ST, Aduri R, Patil BD. Prevalence of Malocclusion among 6 to 10 Year old Nalgonda School Children. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(6):49-54 . PMID:24453444

  2. Cementless porous-coated total knee arthroplasty: 10-year results in a consecutive series.

    PubMed

    Schrøder, H M; Berthelsen, A; Hassani, G; Hansen, E B; Solgaard, S

    2001-08-01

    We report the results of 114 AGC 2000 porous-coated, cementless total knee arthroplasties (TKA) performed consecutively in 102 patients during the period 1984-1986. After 10 years, 58 TKAs in 52 patients were evaluated with patient assessment, Hospital for Special Surgery knee score, weight-bearing radiographs done under fluoroscopic control, and survivorship analysis. All dropouts within the first 9 years were patients dying with a functioning TKA except 1 revision secondary to a supracondylar fracture after 8.5 years. Of the patients, 53 (92%) were satisfied or very satisfied with their TKA, and 55 (95%) of the knees were rated good or excellent. There was no pain in 53 knees, and the median knee flexion was 110 degrees. Six radiolucencies >1 mm were found beneath parts of the tibial component, and 5 radiolucencies were seen beneath the femoral component. None had progressed compared with the 5-year follow-up, and in all cases trabeculae could be seen reaching the prosthetic component. No migrations had occurred since the 5-year follow-up. No obvious joint space reduction was seen. Osteolysis presenting as an isolated cyst was found in 1 knee in the lateral tibial condyle and was not progressive. Two tibial components had been revised because of aseptic loosening and 1 because of septic loosening, all within the first 3 years. No femoral or patellar components were revised. The cumulative prosthesis survival rate after 10 to 11 years was 97%. When pain and radiographic loosening also were considered, the success rate was 87%. Cementless insertion of a nonmodular, porous-coated TKA resulted in a long-term durable bone-prosthesis interface. The flat-on-flat articulation did not result in catastrophic polyethylene wear or osteolysis within the first 10 years. PMID:11503114

  3. Wave height analysis from 10 years of observations in the Norwegian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xiangbo; Tsimplis, M. N.; Quartly, G. D.; Yelland, M. J.

    2014-01-01

    Large waves pose risks to ships, offshore structures, coastal infrastructure and ecosystems. This paper analyses 10 years of in-situ measurements of significant wave height (Hs) and maximum wave height (Hmax) from the ocean weather ship Polarfront in the Norwegian Sea. During the period 2000 to 2009, surface elevation was recorded every 0.59 s during sampling periods of 30 min. The Hmax observations scale linearly with Hs on average. A widely-used empirical Weibull distribution is found to estimate average values of Hmax/Hs and Hmax better than a Rayleigh distribution, but tends to underestimate both for all but the smallest waves. In this paper we propose a modified Rayleigh distribution which compensates for the heterogeneity of the observed dataset: the distribution is fitted to the whole dataset and improves the estimate of the largest waves. Over the 10-year period, the Weibull distribution approximates the observed Hs and Hmax well, and an exponential function can be used to predict the probability distribution function of the ratio Hmax/Hs. However, the Weibull distribution tends to underestimate the occurrence of extremely large values of Hs and Hmax. The persistence of Hs and Hmax in winter is also examined. Wave fields with Hs>12 m and Hmax>16 m do not last longer than 3 h. Low-to-moderate wave heights that persist for more than 12 h dominate the relationship of the wave field with the winter NAO index over 2000-2009. In contrast, the inter-annual variability of wave fields with Hs>5.5 m or Hmax>8.5 m and wave fields persisting over ~2.5 days is not associated with the winter NAO index.

  4. Student Accomplishments in the Rapid Response Radiotherapy Program: A 10-Year Review.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Rachel; Lechner, Breanne; Pulenzas, Natalie; Bedard, Gillian; Wong, Erin; Holden, Lori; Tsao, May; Barnes, Elizabeth; Szumacher, Ewa; Fenton, Gonenc; Chow, Edward; Popovic, Marko; Danjoux, Cyril

    2015-12-01

    In 1996, the Toronto Sunnybrook Regional Cancer Centre developed the Rapid Response Radiotherapy Program (RRRP). The objective of this clinic is to consult, simulate, plan, and treat patients with palliative radiotherapy on the same day. In 2004, the RRRP initiated a program to provide clinical and research experience to undergraduate students interested in health sciences. The purpose of this study is to review the 10-year (2004-2013) experience of the RRRP and to examine whether the goals of the student program have been met. Students who worked in the RRRP from 2004 to 2013 were contacted to complete a short survey regarding their overall experience with the program and their current endeavors. Student accomplishments were collected from an internal database as well as PubMed. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze results. A total of 54 students from ten postsecondary institutions have worked in the RRRP; 29 were from the University of Waterloo undergraduate co-op program. In total, 214 articles with first authorship from students were published, 93 (43%) of which can be found on PubMed. Other accomplishments include 40 book chapters, 58 invited presentations, and 99 awards cumulatively. Qualitative data regarding student perspectives of their experience in the RRRP were also analyzed. Over the past 10 years, the RRRP has achieved its goal of providing quality medical and research experience to students interested in the health sciences. Using the responses of past and present students, we hope to continue to shape our program and provide unique opportunities to future students. PMID:25370839

  5. Community Structure and Quality After 10 Years in Two Central Ohio Mitigation Bank Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spieles, Douglas J.; Coneybeer, Meagan; Horn, Jonathan

    2006-11-01

    We evaluate two 10-year-old mitigation bank wetlands in central Ohio, one created and one with restored and enhanced components, by analysis of vegetation characteristics and by comparison of the year-10 vegetation and macroinvertebrate communities with reference wetlands. To assess different measures of wetland development, we compare the prevalence of native hydrophytes with an index of floristic quality and we evaluate the predictability of these parameters in year 10, given 5 years of data. Results show that the mitigation wetlands in this study meet vegetation performance criteria of native hydrophyte establishment by year 5 and maintain these characteristics through year 10. Species richness and floristic quality, as well as vegetative similarity with reference wetlands, differ among mitigation wetlands in year 1 and also in their rate of change during the first 10 years. The prevalence of native hydrophytes is reasonably predictable by year 10, but 5 years of monitoring is not sufficient to predict future trends of floristic quality in either the created or restored wetland. By year 10, macroinvertebrate taxa richness does not statistically differ among these wetlands, but mitigation wetlands differ from reference sites by tolerance index and by trophic guild dominance. The created wetland herbivore biomass is significantly smaller than its reference, whereas detritivore biomass is significantly greater in the created wetland and smaller in the restored wetland as compared with respective reference wetlands. These analyses illustrate differences in measures of wetland performance and contrast the monitoring duration necessary for legal compliance with the duration required for development of more complex indicators of ecosystem integrity.

  6. Injuries in a Professional Ballet Dance Company: A 10-year Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Ramkumar, Prem N; Farber, Joseph; Arnouk, Johnny; Varner, Kevin E; Mcculloch, Patrick C

    2016-03-01

    Ballet dancers are high-performance athletes who are particularly susceptible to a wide variety of musculoskeletal injuries. However, they are relatively understudied, and data on their injury rates are lacking. This retrospective study features the largest aggregate data on professional ballet dancers to date and aims to identify the most common diagnoses and areas of injury in this unique population to better direct preventative and clinical practices. The study encompassed a 10-year period from January 2000 to December 2010 of dancers from a single company. Data regarding the dancers' age, gender, location of injury, and diagnosis were collected from workers' compensation claims, company records, and medical records maintained by the treating doctors. These were analyzed to determine metrics on injury incidence, frequency, and diagnosis. Over the 10-year span, 574 injuries occurred. There were approximately 52 dancers per year for a total of 153 who danced at least one complete season during the study period. The average age was 27, and 53% were female. Given turnover with retirement and replacements, the total number of dancer-years was 520, indicating an injury incidence per annum of 1.10 (574 injuries per 520 dancer-years). The most common locations of injury were foot and ankle and the lumbar spine, with the three most common diagnoses making up greater than a third (37%) of the total. As the current largest study in professional ballet, the findings set the benchmark metrics for musculoskeletal injury to the foot, ankle, and lumbar spine sites. Future studies should aim to identify injury risk factors and modalities for prevention of these injuries. PMID:27025450

  7. Hot Beverage Scalds in Australian Children: Still Simmering 10 Years On.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Jacqueline D; Kimble, Roy M; Cameron, Cate M; Stockton, Kellie A

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to describe the proportion, mechanism, severity, and outcomes of hot beverage scald injuries in children presenting at a major burns centre in 2013 and to compare these results with data collected at the same centre 10 years before. A cross-sectional trend analysis was performed to determine the differences in proportion, mechanism, severity, and outcomes of hot beverage scalds in 0-year to 14-year old children presenting to the Stuart Pegg Paediatric Burns Centre, Royal Children's Hospital, Brisbane, Australia, between January 1 and December 31, 2013 and compare these data to presentations at the same burns centre between 1999 and 2002. Of the 759 children treated for burns and scald injuries at Stuart Pegg Paediatric Burns Centre in 2013, 133 (18%) were caused by hot beverages. Although there has been no change in the proportion, injury mechanism or age groups affected in the past 10 years, there has been a significant change in the number of children being admitted to hospital (52% vs 11% in 2013, P < .001), requiring split skin grafts (18% vs 5% in 2013, P < .05), and long-term scar management (26% vs 11% in 2013, P < .05). The decrease in admissions, skin grafts, and scar management requirements can be attributed to several factors; moving from silver sulfadiazine to silver-impregnated dressings at SPBBC from 2003, changes in excision and skin grafting practices, modified referral patterns, a move to non-inpatient care for minor burns, and the increased application of first aid. However, what has not changed is hot beverage scalds remain the leading cause of childhood burns making it a major pediatric public health issue. PMID:26132050

  8. Variable horizon in a peridynamic medium

    SciTech Connect

    Silling, Stewart A.; Littlewood, David J.; Seleson, Pablo

    2015-12-10

    Here, a notion of material homogeneity is proposed for peridynamic bodies with variable horizon but constant bulk properties. A relation is derived that scales the force state according to the position-dependent horizon while keeping the bulk properties unchanged. Using this scaling relation, if the horizon depends on position, artifacts called ghost forces may arise in a body under a homogeneous deformation. These artifacts depend on the second derivative of the horizon and can be reduced by employing a modified equilibrium equation using a new quantity called the partial stress. Bodies with piecewise constant horizon can be modeled without ghost forces by using a simpler technique called a splice. As a limiting case of zero horizon, both the partial stress and splice techniques can be used to achieve local-nonlocal coupling. Computational examples, including dynamic fracture in a one-dimensional model with local-nonlocal coupling, illustrate the methods.

  9. Variable horizon in a peridynamic medium.

    SciTech Connect

    Silling, Stewart Andrew; Littlewood, David John; Seleson, Pablo

    2014-10-01

    A notion of material homogeneity is proposed for peridynamic bodies with vari- able horizon but constant bulk properties. A relation is derived that scales the force state according to the position-dependent horizon while keeping the bulk properties un- changed. Using this scaling relation, if the horizon depends on position, artifacts called ghost forces may arise in a body under homogeneous deformation. These artifacts de- pend on the second derivative of horizon and can be reduced by use of a modified equilibrium equation using a new quantity called the partial stress . Bodies with piece- wise constant horizon can be modeled without ghost forces by using a technique called a splice between the regions. As a limiting case of zero horizon, both partial stress and splice techniques can be used to achieve local-nonlocal coupling. Computational examples, including dynamic fracture in a one-dimensional model with local-nonlocal coupling, illustrate the methods.

  10. Variable horizon in a peridynamic medium

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Silling, Stewart A.; Littlewood, David J.; Seleson, Pablo

    2015-12-10

    Here, a notion of material homogeneity is proposed for peridynamic bodies with variable horizon but constant bulk properties. A relation is derived that scales the force state according to the position-dependent horizon while keeping the bulk properties unchanged. Using this scaling relation, if the horizon depends on position, artifacts called ghost forces may arise in a body under a homogeneous deformation. These artifacts depend on the second derivative of the horizon and can be reduced by employing a modified equilibrium equation using a new quantity called the partial stress. Bodies with piecewise constant horizon can be modeled without ghost forcesmore » by using a simpler technique called a splice. As a limiting case of zero horizon, both the partial stress and splice techniques can be used to achieve local-nonlocal coupling. Computational examples, including dynamic fracture in a one-dimensional model with local-nonlocal coupling, illustrate the methods.« less

  11. Rosetta begins its 10-year journey to the origins of the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-03-01

    Rosetta’s mission began at 08h17 CET (07h17 GMT) on 2 March when a European Ariane 5 launch vehicle liftered off from the Guiana Space Centre, Europe’s spaceport in Kourou, French Guiana. The launcher successfully placed its upper stage and payload into an eccentric coast orbit (200 x 4000 km). About two hours later, at 10h14 CET (09h14 GMT) the upper stage ignited its own engine to reach an escape velocity in order to leave the Earth’s gravity field and enter heliocentric orbit. The Rosetta probe was released about 18 minutes later. “After the recent success of Mars Express, Europe is now heading to deep space with another fantastic mission. We will have to be patient, as the rendezvous with the comet will not take place until ten years from now, but I think it’s worth the wait” said ESA’s Director General Jean-Jacques Dordain witnessing the launch from Kourou. ESA’s Operations Centre (ESOC) in Darmstadt, Germany, has established contact with the probe as it flies away from Earth at a relative speed of about 3.4 km/s. ESOC will be in charge of Rosetta operations and orbit determination throughout the mission. During the next eight months, the spacecraft’s onboard systems will be checked and its science payload will be commissioned. A 10-year odyssey Rosetta will be reactivated for planetary flybys, which will be used to modify its trajectory through gravity assist manoeuvres. During the trip, the probe could also observe one or more asteroids, observation of asteroids being one of the mission's secondary objectives. The first planetary encounter will be in March 2005, as Rosetta flies by the Earth for the first time. The gravity assist will boost Rosetta into an orbit that will take it to Mars two years later. During its close encounter with Mars in February 2007, Rosetta will approach to a distance of about 200 km and conduct science observations. This Martian flyby will be followed by another Earth flyby in November the same year. Both

  12. Theory underlying the peripheral vision horizon device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Money, K. E.

    1984-01-01

    Peripheral Vision Horizon Device (PVHD) theory states that the likelihood of pilot disorientation in flight is reduced by providing an artificial horizon that provides orientation information to peripheral vision. In considering the validity of the theory, three areas are explored: the use of an artificial horizon device over some other flight instrument; the use of peripheral vision over foveal vision; and the evidence that peripheral vision is well suited to the processing of orientation information.

  13. Treatment of the edentulous atrophic maxilla using zygomatic implants: evaluation of survival rates over 5-10 years.

    PubMed

    Yates, J M; Brook, I M; Patel, R R; Wragg, P F; Atkins, S A; El-Awa, A; Bakri, I; Bolt, R

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this retrospective observational cohort study was to analyse and report the 5-10-year survival rates of endosseous zygomatic implants used in the rehabilitation of the atrophic maxilla. Forty-three consecutive zygomatic implant placements in 25 patients were evaluated over a 5-10-year period. All zygomatic implant surgery was carried out under general anaesthesia. Nobel Biocare zygomatic machined-surface implants were used, and placement was undertaken using the modified sinus slot method. The main outcome measures and determinants for success were survival of the restored implants and the proportion of originally planned prostheses delivered to patients. Of the 25 patients treated, 12 were male and 13 were female; 19 were non-smokers, and the mean age at time of surgery was 64 years. Patients were treatment-planned for implant-retained bridgework, a removable prosthesis retained by fixed cast gold or milled titanium beams, or magnet-retained removable prostheses. A combination of zygomatic and conventional implants was used in all but one patient. In this study it was shown that the overall success rate for zygomatic implants was 86%, with six of the implants either failing to integrate or requiring removal due to persistent infection associated with the maxillary sinus. All patients received their planned prosthesis, although in six cases the method of retention required modification. This study illustrates that zygomatic implants are a successful and important treatment option when trying to restore the atrophic maxilla, with the potential to avoid additional augmentation/grafting procedures and resulting in a high long-term success rate. PMID:24120903

  14. Midline Crossing: Developmental Trend from 3 to 10 Years of Age in a Preferential Card-Reaching Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlier, M.; Doyen, A.-L.; Lamard, C.

    2006-01-01

    We assessed 110 left-handed and 322 right-handed children aged from 3 to 10 years, using Bishop's card-reaching task. Manual body midline crossings were observed. A regular developmental trend was observed from 3 to 10 years: older children crossed the body midline more frequently when reaching for cards than did younger children. The factor age…

  15. Prematures with and without Regressed Retinopathy of Prematurity: Comparison of Long-Term (6-10 Years) Ophthalmological Morbidity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cats, Bernard P.; Tan, Karel E. W. P.

    Reporting long-term ophthalmologic sequelae among ex-prematures at 6 to 10 years of age, this study compares 42 ex-premature infants who had had regressed forms of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) during the neonatal period with 42 matched non-ROP ex-premature controls at 6 to 10 years of age. Subjects were subdivided into four groups: (1) ROP…

  16. Soil profile nutrient distribution following 10 years of poultry litter application in conventional and conservation tillage systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The distribution of pH, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn and Zn within the soil profile was determined following 10 years of poultry litter application to a Cecil sandy loam soil in the Southern Piedmont. During the 10 year period, 95 Mg ha-1 of poultry litter was applied to five cotton crops and five corn crops. ...

  17. A MIP Model for Rolling Horizon Surgery Scheduling.

    PubMed

    Luo, Li; Luo, Yong; You, Yang; Cheng, Yuanjun; Shi, Yingkang; Gong, Renrong

    2016-05-01

    Most surgery scheduling is done 1 day in advance. Caused by lack of overall planning, this scheduling scheme often results in unbalanced occupancy time of the operating rooms. So we put forward a rolling horizon mixed integer programming model for the scheduling. Rolling horizon scheduling refers to a scheduling scheme in which cyclic surgical requests are taken into account. Surgical requests are updated daily. The completed surgeries are eliminated, and new surgeries are added to the scheduling list. Considering day-to-day demand for surgery, we develop a non-rolling scheduling model (NRSM) and a rolling horizon scheduling model (RSM). By comparing the two, we find that the quality of surgery scheduling is significantly influenced by the variation in demand from day to day. A rolling horizon scheduling will enable a more flexible planning of the pool of surgeries that have not been scheduled into this main blocks, and hence minimize the idle time of operating rooms. The strategy of the RSM helps balance the occupancy time among operating rooms. Using surgical data from five departments of the West China Hospital (WCH), we generate surgical demands randomly to compare the NRSM and the RSM. The results show the operating rooms' average utilization rate using RSM is significantly higher than when applying NRSM. PMID:27071394

  18. Spectroscopy of a weakly isolated horizon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ge-Rui; Huang, Yong-Chang

    2016-06-01

    The spectroscopy of a weakly isolated horizon has been investigated. We obtain an equally spaced entropy spectrum with its quantum equal to the one given by Bekenstein (Phys Rev D 7:2333, 1973). We demonstrate that the quantization of entropy and area is a generic property of horizons which exists in a wide class of spacetimes admitting weakly isolated horizons. Our method based on the tunneling method also indicates that the entropy quantum of black hole horizons is closely related to Hawking temperature.

  19. Priority Questions and Horizon Scanning for Conservation: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Kark, Salit; Sutherland, William J.; Shanas, Uri; Klass, Keren; Achisar, Hila; Dayan, Tamar; Gavrieli, Yael; Justo-Hanani, Ronit; Mandelik, Yael; Orion, Nir; Pargament, David; Portman, Michelle; Reisman-Berman, Orna; Safriel, Uriel N.; Schaffer, Gad; Steiner, Noa; Tauber, Israel; Levin, Noam

    2016-01-01

    Several projects aimed at identifying priority issues for conservation with high relevance to policy have recently been completed in several countries. Two major types of projects have been undertaken, aimed at identifying (i) policy-relevant questions most imperative to conservation and (ii) horizon scanning topics, defined as emerging issues that are expected to have substantial implications for biodiversity conservation and policy in the future. Here, we provide the first overview of the outcomes of biodiversity and conservation-oriented projects recently completed around the world using this framework. We also include the results of the first questions and horizon scanning project completed for a Mediterranean country. Overall, the outcomes of the different projects undertaken (at the global scale, in the UK, US, Canada, Switzerland and in Israel) were strongly correlated in terms of the proportion of questions and/or horizon scanning topics selected when comparing different topic areas. However, some major differences were found across regions. There was large variation among regions in the percentage of proactive (i.e. action and response oriented) versus descriptive (non-response oriented) priority questions and in the emphasis given to socio-political issues. Substantial differences were also found when comparing outcomes of priority questions versus horizon scanning projects undertaken for the same region. For example, issues related to climate change, human demography and marine ecosystems received higher priority as horizon scanning topics, while ecosystem services were more emphasized as current priority questions. We suggest that future initiatives aimed at identifying priority conservation questions and horizon scanning topics should allow simultaneous identification of both current and future priority issues, as presented here for the first time. We propose that further emphasis on social-political issues should be explicitly integrated into future

  20. Priority Questions and Horizon Scanning for Conservation: A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Kark, Salit; Sutherland, William J; Shanas, Uri; Klass, Keren; Achisar, Hila; Dayan, Tamar; Gavrieli, Yael; Justo-Hanani, Ronit; Mandelik, Yael; Orion, Nir; Pargament, David; Portman, Michelle; Reisman-Berman, Orna; Safriel, Uriel N; Schaffer, Gad; Steiner, Noa; Tauber, Israel; Levin, Noam

    2016-01-01

    Several projects aimed at identifying priority issues for conservation with high relevance to policy have recently been completed in several countries. Two major types of projects have been undertaken, aimed at identifying (i) policy-relevant questions most imperative to conservation and (ii) horizon scanning topics, defined as emerging issues that are expected to have substantial implications for biodiversity conservation and policy in the future. Here, we provide the first overview of the outcomes of biodiversity and conservation-oriented projects recently completed around the world using this framework. We also include the results of the first questions and horizon scanning project completed for a Mediterranean country. Overall, the outcomes of the different projects undertaken (at the global scale, in the UK, US, Canada, Switzerland and in Israel) were strongly correlated in terms of the proportion of questions and/or horizon scanning topics selected when comparing different topic areas. However, some major differences were found across regions. There was large variation among regions in the percentage of proactive (i.e. action and response oriented) versus descriptive (non-response oriented) priority questions and in the emphasis given to socio-political issues. Substantial differences were also found when comparing outcomes of priority questions versus horizon scanning projects undertaken for the same region. For example, issues related to climate change, human demography and marine ecosystems received higher priority as horizon scanning topics, while ecosystem services were more emphasized as current priority questions. We suggest that future initiatives aimed at identifying priority conservation questions and horizon scanning topics should allow simultaneous identification of both current and future priority issues, as presented here for the first time. We propose that further emphasis on social-political issues should be explicitly integrated into future

  1. Estimating Monthly, Annual, and Low 7-Day, 10-Year Streamflows for Ungaged Rivers in Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dudley, Robert W.

    2004-01-01

    Regression equations to estimate monthly, annual, and low 7-day, 10-year (7Q10) streamflows were derived for rivers in Maine. The derived regression equations for estimating mean monthly, mean annual, median monthly, median annual, and low 7Q10 streamflows for ungaged rivers in Maine presented in this report supersede those derived in previous studies. Twenty-six U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations on unregulated, rural rivers in Maine with 10 years or more of recorded streamflow were used to develop the regression equations. Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression techniques were used to select the explanatory variables (basin and climatic characteristics) that would appear in the final regression equations. OLS regression of all possible subsets was done with 62 explanatory variables for each of 27 response variables. Five explanatory variables were chosen for the final regression equations: drainage basin area, areal fraction of the drainage basin underlain by sand and gravel aquifers, distance from the coast to the drainage basin centroid, mean drainage basin annual precipitation, and mean drainage basin winter precipitation (the sum of mean monthly precipitation for December, January, and February). Generalized least-squares regression techniques were used to derive the final coefficients and measures of uncertainty for the regression equations. The forms of many of the derived regression equations indicate some physical, mechanistic processes. Drainage basin area is the most statistically important explanatory variable and appears in all derived regression equations. Monthly streamflows are related inversely to the distance from the coast to the drainage basin centroid during December, January, February, and March; that is, the closer a river basin is to the coast, the higher monthly streamflows are per unit drainage basin area during the winter. The relation reverses in May when higher streamflows are attributed to basins farther from the coast

  2. Climatological Analysis of the Exclusive Economic Zone of Mexico Based on 10 Years of Satellite Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez Rodriguez, E.; Trasviña-Castro, A.; Aguirre Bahena, F.

    2013-05-01

    To visualize the variability of inorganic carbon in the waters of the Exclusive Economic Zone of Mexico we analysed over 10 years of monthly data 4-km resolution from the MODIS-AQUA satellite. This sensor provides various types of information and for this discussion we selected particulate organic carbon, sea surface temperature and euphotic zone depth. We constructed climatological maps for each month of the year to show the average, maximum, minimum and standard deviation of the three variables. The result of the average particulate organic carbon climatology indicates that the main areas of inorganic carbon production (> 200 mg m3) are the Gulf of California, the west coast of the peninsula of Baja California, the coast of Colima, the Gulf of Tehuantepec and in the Gulf of Mexico the coasts of Yucatan, Tabasco and Tamaulipas. The months presenting higher production occur between December and April. In comparison, lowest climatological mean sea surface temperature (below 14 oC) occurs on the west coast of the Baja California peninsula and it is observed associated with the highest mean particulate organic carbon (>250 mg m-3). Climatological mean sea surface temperature on the coast of Colima, Yucatan, Tabasco and Tamaulipas are about 25 °C and coincide with high values of particulate organic carbon (> 200 mg m-3). The climatological mean euphotic zone depth show lowest values (<50 m) coincide with the highest mean particulate organic carbon values indicating a clear relationship with a reduction of light penetration in the water column. Inspection of the standard deviation maps shows greatest variability of particulate organic carbon from December to February in the Gulf of California, the coast of Colima and the Gulf of Tehuantepec. In the west coast of the peninsula of Baja California greater variability of particulate organic carbon occurs from June to December. In the oceanic domain beyond the continental shelf, particulate organic carbon values are very

  3. Rosetta begins its 10-year journey to the origins of the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-03-01

    Rosetta’s mission began at 08h17 CET (07h17 GMT) on 2 March when a European Ariane 5 launch vehicle liftered off from the Guiana Space Centre, Europe’s spaceport in Kourou, French Guiana. The launcher successfully placed its upper stage and payload into an eccentric coast orbit (200 x 4000 km). About two hours later, at 10h14 CET (09h14 GMT) the upper stage ignited its own engine to reach an escape velocity in order to leave the Earth’s gravity field and enter heliocentric orbit. The Rosetta probe was released about 18 minutes later. “After the recent success of Mars Express, Europe is now heading to deep space with another fantastic mission. We will have to be patient, as the rendezvous with the comet will not take place until ten years from now, but I think it’s worth the wait” said ESA’s Director General Jean-Jacques Dordain witnessing the launch from Kourou. ESA’s Operations Centre (ESOC) in Darmstadt, Germany, has established contact with the probe as it flies away from Earth at a relative speed of about 3.4 km/s. ESOC will be in charge of Rosetta operations and orbit determination throughout the mission. During the next eight months, the spacecraft’s onboard systems will be checked and its science payload will be commissioned. A 10-year odyssey Rosetta will be reactivated for planetary flybys, which will be used to modify its trajectory through gravity assist manoeuvres. During the trip, the probe could also observe one or more asteroids, observation of asteroids being one of the mission's secondary objectives. The first planetary encounter will be in March 2005, as Rosetta flies by the Earth for the first time. The gravity assist will boost Rosetta into an orbit that will take it to Mars two years later. During its close encounter with Mars in February 2007, Rosetta will approach to a distance of about 200 km and conduct science observations. This Martian flyby will be followed by another Earth flyby in November the same year. Both

  4. Human Brucellosis in Macedonia – 10 Years of Clinical Experience in Endemic Region

    PubMed Central

    Bosilkovski, Mile; Krteva, Ljiljana; Dimzova, Marija; Vidinic, Ivan; Sopova, Zaklina; Spasovska, Katerina

    2010-01-01

    Aim To present our 10-year clinical experience with brucellosis patients at the University Clinic for Infectious Diseases and Febrile Conditions in Skopje, Republic of Macedonia. Methods A total of 550 patients with brucellosis treated between 1998 and 2007 were retrospectively assessed for their demographic, epidemiological, and clinical characteristics and outcomes. Results Of the 550 patients, 395 (72%) were male. The median age was 34.5 years (range, 1-82). Direct contact with infected animals was recorded in 333 (61%) patients and positive family history in 310 (56%). The most frequently seen symptoms were arthralgia (438, 80%), fever (419, 76%), and sweating (394, 72%). The most common signs were fever and hepatomegaly, which were verified in 357 (65%) and 273 (50%) patients, respectively. Focal brucellosis was found in 362 patients (66%) and osteoarticular in 299 (54%). Therapeutic failures were registered in 37 (6.7%) patients. Of the 453 (82%) patients who completed a follow-up period of at least 6 months, relapses occurred in 60 (13%). Conclusion Due to non-specific clinical manifestation and laboratory parameters, brucellosis should be considered one of the differential diagnoses of any patient suffering from obscure involvement of various organs in a brucellosis-endemic region. High percentage of relapses and therapeutic failures in spite of the use of currently recommended therapeutic regimens indicates the seriousness of this zoonosis and the need to control it. PMID:20718086

  5. Heterotopic ossification: review of histologic findings and tissue distribution in a 10-year experience.

    PubMed

    Liu, Katharine; Tripp, Sheryl; Layfield, Lester J

    2007-01-01

    Heterotopic ossification (HO) within tissues involved by a pathologic process is a well-recognized phenomenon. It is most frequently observed in atherosclerotic plaques, in soft tissue around joints, and in the central nervous system. Less frequently, carcinomas and some benign neoplasms will undergo heterotopic ossification. We performed a retrospective review of our experience with HO over a 10-year period to determine the frequency and tissue site distribution of heterotopic ossification. A computerized review of surgical pathology records of approximately 126,000 reports revealed 85 cases in which heterotopic ossification, ectopic bone or metaplastic bone was specifically mentioned in the surgical pathology diagnosis. Twenty-two cases were neoplasms of non-osseous tissues, and 63 cases were non-neoplastic lesions. Immunohistochemical staining for bone morphogenic proteins (BMP) 1, 4, and 6 was performed. Fourteen cases showed staining for BMP-1, 22 cases showed staining for BMP-4, and five cases showed weak staining for BMP-6. HO is a relatively infrequent finding and is more commonly seen in degenerative and reparative conditions than in neoplasms. PMID:17728073

  6. Diagnosis and management of Duchenne muscular dystrophy in a developing country over a 10-year period.

    PubMed

    Thong, Meow-Keong; Bazlin, R I Raja; Wong, Kum-Thong

    2005-07-01

    Clinical data on Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) are lacking in developing countries. The objective of this study was to delineate the demographic characteristics, investigations, and outcome of 21 Malaysian males diagnosed with DMD over a period of 10 years. Mean age presentation was 3 years 8 months (SD 23mo; range 10 to 84mo), mean duration from first presentation to diagnosis was 3y 7mo (SD 26mo; range 5 to 84) and the mean age for loss of ambulation was 11 years (SD 25mo; range 102 to 168). There was family history of DMD in five of the 21 patients. Muscle biopsy showed confirmatory findings of DMD in the 16 patients tested. Molecular genetic analysis showed dystrophin gene deletions in 11 of these 16 patients. Four and seven of the students stopped schooling and had learning difficulties, respectively; only nine had satisfactory school performances. Eight out of 14 patients evaluated were classified as having severe to total dependency levels on the modified Barthel Index for activities of daily living assessment. DMD is associated with significant medical and social needs for a developing country such as Malaysia. Earlier referral, genetic counselling, and provision of support and rehabilitative services are the main priorities. PMID:15991868

  7. Uric Acid Levels Can Predict Metabolic Syndrome and Hypertension in Adolescents: A 10-Year Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hai-Lun; Pei, Dee; Lue, Ko-Huang; Chen, Yen-Lin

    2015-01-01

    The relationships between uric acid and chronic disease risk factors such as metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and hypertension have been studied in adults. However, whether these relationships exist in adolescents is unknown. We randomly selected 8,005 subjects who were between 10 to 15 years old at baseline. Measurements of uric acid were used to predict the future occurrence of metabolic syndrome, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes. In total, 5,748 adolescents were enrolled and followed for a median of 7.2 years. Using cutoff points of uric acid for males and females (7.3 and 6.2 mg/dl, respectively), a high level of uric acid was either the second or third best predictor for hypertension in both genders (hazard ratio: 2.920 for males, 5.222 for females; p<0.05). However, uric acid levels failed to predict type 2 diabetes mellitus, and only predicted metabolic syndrome in males (hazard ratio: 1.658; p<0.05). The same results were found in multivariate adjusted analysis. In conclusion, a high level of uric acid indicated a higher likelihood of developing hypertension in both genders and metabolic syndrome in males after 10 years of follow-up. However, uric acid levels did not affect the occurrence of type 2 diabetes in both genders. PMID:26618358

  8. Good stability and minimal osteolysis with a biconical threaded cup at 10 years.

    PubMed

    Zweymüller, Karl A; Steindl, Martin; Schwarzinger, Ulrike

    2007-10-01

    In the literature there is no consensus on the value of threaded cementless cups. We primarily asked whether the newly constructed threaded double-cone cup without additional screw fixation would provide high survival at intermediate followup. We retrospectively reviewed 365 patients (376 hips) who underwent primary total hip arthroplasty using this cup made of pure titanium with ceramic-on-polyethylene articulating surfaces. At a minimum followup of 10.0 years (mean, 10.3 years; range, 10.0-13.1 years), 232 cups (61.7%) were available for analysis. We performed two revisions for early infection and cup breakage. No polyethylene liner was exchanged because of wear or instability. Three of the cup shells were radiographically loose at followup; one had periacetabular osteolysis. The mean liner wear rate was 0.13 mm per year. The Kaplan-Meier 10-year survivorship with revision of the cup shell for any reason was 99.3% (95% confidence interval, 96.9-99.8%) and with revision and radiographic loosening of the cup shell 98.6% (95% confidence interval, 96.0-99.5%). These intermediate results compare favorably with survivorship and periacetabular bone reaction data observed with the best cementless acetabular implant designs. PMID:17960675

  9. A tentative 10-year sediment budget of the lower River Ebro (NE Iberian Peninsula)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tena, A.; Batalla, R. J.; Vericat, D.; López-Tarazón, J. A.

    2009-04-01

    Dams in the Ebro basin alter flow regime and sediment transport of most rivers in the catchment. This fact, together with changes in land use, results in a sustained decrease of the sediment load since the beginning of the 20th century, with special impact on the sediment load of the lower reaches of the river. The aim of this work is to develop a long-term suspended sediment budget for the river reach downstream the largest complex of dams in the basin (Mequinenza-Ribarroja-Flix, impounding around 1.7 km3 of water). As a first step we have estimated the river's sediment load over a 10-year period based on turbidity and water discharge records continuously measured by the Ebro Water Authorities. Turbidity measurements have been calibrated by means of five-hundred manual water samples collected during all flow conditions (i.e. floods and low flows) between 2002 and 2008. Water samples have been collected 28 km downstream from the lowermost Flix Dam, at the Mora d'Ebre Monitoring Section (hereafter MEMS). Discharge at MEMS is estimated by routing the flow hydrographs from the Asc

  10. Conference Experience for Undergraduates in the Division of Nuclear Physics - 10 Years Running

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Warren

    2008-04-01

    The Conference Experience for Undergraduates (CEU), held annually in the APS Division of Nuclear Physics since 1998, has become a valuable addition to the fall DNP meetings. Since its inception 10 years ago, approximately 730 undergraduate students from over 60 colleges and universities from around the country (and a few from abroad) have participated. The goal of the program is to provide students who have conducted undergraduate research in nuclear science a ``capstone'' conference experience, with the goal toward strengthening retention of talented students in the field. In addition to the main conference, the CEU includes extra activities for the students, including the main research poster session, two undergraduate nuclear physics seminars, and a graduate school information session. CEU application materials are considered by an independent review committee, and travel and lodging grants are awarded based on project merit. Financial support is provided by the NSF, DOE, and DNP. At the recent 10^th anniversary CEU, a mini-symposium was organized as part of the DNP conference, at which former CEU students (now graduate students, post-docs, and professors) had opportunity to talk about their research and the influence that undergraduate research and conference participation had on their career paths. Survey and anecdotal data indicating benefits of CEU participation, as well as initial results from career path tracking will be presented.

  11. Lessons from high-throughput protein crystallization screening: 10 years of practical experience

    PubMed Central

    JR, Luft; EH, Snell; GT, DeTitta

    2011-01-01

    Introduction X-ray crystallography provides the majority of our structural biological knowledge at a molecular level and in terms of pharmaceutical design is a valuable tool to accelerate discovery. It is the premier technique in the field, but its usefulness is significantly limited by the need to grow well-diffracting crystals. It is for this reason that high-throughput crystallization has become a key technology that has matured over the past 10 years through the field of structural genomics. Areas covered The authors describe their experiences in high-throughput crystallization screening in the context of structural genomics and the general biomedical community. They focus on the lessons learnt from the operation of a high-throughput crystallization screening laboratory, which to date has screened over 12,500 biological macromolecules. They also describe the approaches taken to maximize the success while minimizing the effort. Through this, the authors hope that the reader will gain an insight into the efficient design of a laboratory and protocols to accomplish high-throughput crystallization on a single-, multiuser-laboratory or industrial scale. Expert Opinion High-throughput crystallization screening is readily available but, despite the power of the crystallographic technique, getting crystals is still not a solved problem. High-throughput approaches can help when used skillfully; however, they still require human input in the detailed analysis and interpretation of results to be more successful. PMID:22646073

  12. Keratin Durability Has Implications for the Fossil Record: Results from a 10 Year Feather Degradation Experiment.

    PubMed

    Moyer, Alison E; Zheng, Wenxia; Schweitzer, Mary H

    2016-01-01

    Keratinous 'soft tissue' structures (i.e. epidermally derived and originally non-biomineralized), include feathers, skin, claws, beaks, and hair. Despite their relatively common occurrence in the fossil record (second only to bone and teeth), few studies have addressed natural degradation processes that must occur in all organic material, including those keratinous structures that are incorporated into the rock record as fossils. Because feathers have high preservation potential and strong phylogenetic signal, in the current study we examine feathers subjected to different burial environments for a duration of ~10 years, using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and in situ immunofluorescence (IF). We use morphology and persistence of specific immunoreactivity as indicators of preservation at the molecular and microstructural levels. We show that feather keratin is durable, demonstrates structural and microstructural integrity, and retains epitopes suitable for specific antibody recognition in even the harshest conditions. These data support the hypothesis that keratin antibody reactivity can be used to identify the nature and composition of epidermal structures in the rock record, and to address evolutionary questions by distinguishing between alpha- (widely distributed) and beta- (limited to sauropsids) keratin. PMID:27384819

  13. Analysis of a single Helicobacter pylori strain over a 10-year period in a primate model.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Fero, Jutta B; Mendez, Melissa; Carpenter, Beth M; Servetas, Stephanie L; Rahman, Arifur; Goldman, Matthew D; Boren, Thomas; Salama, Nina R; Merrell, D Scott; Dubois, Andre

    2015-05-01

    Helicobacter pylori from different individuals exhibits substantial genetic diversity. However, the kinetics of bacterial diversification after infection with a single strain is poorly understood. We investigated evolution of H. pylori following long-term infection in the primate stomach; Rhesus macaques were infected with H. pylori strain USU101 and then followed for 10 years. H. pylori was regularly cultured from biopsies, and single colony isolates were analyzed. At 1-year, DNA fingerprinting showed that all output isolates were identical to the input strain; however, at 5-years, different H. pylori fingerprints were observed. Microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization revealed that long term persistence of USU101 in the macaque stomach was associated with specific whole gene changes. Further detailed investigation showed that levels of the BabA protein were dramatically reduced within weeks of infection. The molecular mechanisms behind this reduction were shown to include phase variation and gene loss via intragenomic rearrangement, suggesting strong selective pressure against BabA expression in the macaque model. Notably, although there is apparently strong selective pressure against babA, babA is required for establishment of infection in this model as a strain in which babA was deleted was unable to colonize experimentally infected macaques. PMID:25804332

  14. Development of a 10-year-old full body geometric dataset for computational modeling.

    PubMed

    Mao, Haojie; Holcombe, Sven; Shen, Ming; Jin, Xin; Wagner, Christina D; Wang, Stewart C; Yang, King H; King, Albert I

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to create a computer-aided design (CAD) geometric dataset of a 10-year-old (10 YO) child. The study includes two phases of efforts. At Phase One, the 10 YO whole body CAD was developed from component computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans of 12 pediatric subjects. Geometrical scaling methods were used to convert all component parts to the average size for a 10 YO child, based on available anthropometric data. Then the component surfaces were compiled and integrated into a complete body. The bony structures and flesh were adjusted as symmetrical to minimize the bias from a single subject while maintaining anthropometrical measurements. Internal organs including the liver, spleen, and kidney were further verified by literature data. At Phase Two, internal characteristics for the cervical spine disc, wrist, hand, pelvis, femur, and tibia were verified with data measured from additional 94 10 YO children. The CAD dataset developed through these processes was mostly within the corridor of one standard deviation (SD) of the mean. In conclusion, a geometric dataset for an average size 10 YO child was created. The dataset serves as a foundation to develop computational 10 YO whole body models for enhanced pediatric injury prevention. PMID:25118667

  15. Gluteal Fascial Advancement for Pilonidal Cyst Disease: A 10-year Review.

    PubMed

    Powell, Benjamin C; Webb, Colin B; Ewing, Joseph A; Smith, Dane E

    2016-07-01

    Elective excision of noninfected pilonidal cysts has historically been plagued by a high rate of complications, such as wound breakdown and recurrence. Debate remains regarding the most effective method of wound closure. We previously reported a small group of patients (n = 17 out of 83 patients) in which a novel technique decreased wound complications and recurrence. The purpose of this article was to build on that prior study by evaluating the utility of the gluteal fascial advancement method to decrease complications over a 10-year period. All patients who underwent elective pilonidal cyst excision from 2008 to 2015 were retrospectively reviewed (n = 150); this was added to the data from 2004 to 2007. Patients were divided into two cohorts: those who underwent elective excision with simple closure (n = 172) and those who underwent bilateral gluteal fascial advancement flaps (n = 61). Primary end points included recurrence and dehiscence. Overall demographic characteristics were statistically comparable between groups. The rate of recurrence was not significantly different between groups. However, wound closure using bilateral gluteal fascial advancement flaps was associated with a significantly lower rate of dehiscence when compared with standard primary closure (12% vs 40%, P < 0.001). The use of bilateral gluteal fascial advancement flaps is a superior method for closing elective pilonidal cyst excisions. PMID:27457861

  16. The paediatric flat foot and general anthropometry in 140 Australian school children aged 7 - 10 years

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Many studies have found a positive relationship between increased body weight and flat foot posture in children. Methods From a study population of 140 children aged seven to 10 years, a sample of 31 children with flat feet was identified by screening with the FPI-6. Basic anthropometric measures were compared between subjects with and without flat feet as designated. Results The results of this study, in contrast to many others, question the association of flat feet and heavy children. A significant relationship between foot posture and weight (FPI (L) r = -0.186 (p < 0.05), FPI(R) r = -0.194 (p < 0.05), waist girth (FPI (L) r = -0.213 (p < 0.05), FPI(R) r = -0.228 (p < 0.01) and BMI (FPI (L) r = -0.243 (p < 0.01), FPI(R) r = -0.263 (p < 0.01) was identified, but was both weak and inverse. Conclusions This study presents results which conflict with those of many previous investigations addressing the relationship between children's weight and foot posture. In contrast to previous studies, the implication of these results is that heavy children have less flat feet. Further investigation is warranted using a standardized approach to assessment and a larger sample of children to test this apparent contradiction. PMID:21513507

  17. Light microscopic hair abnormalities in children: retrospective review of 119 cases in a 10-year period.

    PubMed

    Shao, Lei; Newell, Brandon

    2014-01-01

    Abnormalities in the hair can be congenital or acquired conditions. Examples of genetic disorders with associated hair abnormalities include Menkes syndrome, Netherton syndrome, uncombable hair syndrome, trichothiodystrophy, and loose anagen hair syndrome. Acquired hair abnormalities can be associated with grooming or use of various hair products. There are many patterns of hair abnormalities that can be readily identified under a light microscope. We performed a retrospective review of 129 hair mount samples from 119 patients submitted to the pathology department for microscopic examination over a 10-year span (from January 2002 to December 2011). Of the 119 patients, 63 (53%) had morphologic changes in the hair samples. Thirty-seven patients (31%) showed morphologic changes compatible with specific diagnoses of various genetic conditions, including 25 cases of loose anagen hair syndrome, 6 cases of uncombable hair syndrome, 2 cases of Netherton syndrome, 3 cases of Menkes syndrome, and 1 case of trichothiodystrophy. The other changes were considered nonspecific or nondiagnostic, with trichorrhexis nodosa in 13 patients, presence of loose anagen hairs in 12 patients, and pili torti in 1 patient. We describe the light microscopic patterns of hair abnormalities, clinical findings, and molecular defects related to those genetic conditions. Our study indicates that hair examination can be a 1st-line investigation on various pediatric conditions. PMID:24251687

  18. The Effect of Executive Function on Science Achievement Among Normally Developing 10-Year Olds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lederman, Sheri G.

    Executive function (EF) is an umbrella term used to identify a set of discrete but interrelated cognitive abilities that enable individuals to engage in goal-directed, future-oriented action in response to a novel context. Developmental studies indicate that EF is predictive of reading and math achievement in middle childhood. The purpose of this study was to identify the association between EF and science achievement among normally developing 10 year olds. A sample of fifth grade students from a Northeastern suburban community participated in tests of EF, science, and intelligence. Consistent with adult models of EF, principal components analysis identified a three-factor model of EF organization in middle childhood, including cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibition. Multiple regression analyses revealed that executive function processes of cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibition were all predictive of science performance. Post hoc analyses revealed that high-performing science students differed significantly from low-performing students in both cognitive flexibility and working memory. These findings suggest that complex academic demands specific to science achievement rely on the emergence and maturation of EF components.

  19. Impacts of Natural Hazards on Primary Health Care Facilities of Iran: A 10-Year Retrospective Survey

    PubMed Central

    Ardalan, Ali; Mowafi, Hani; Yousefi, Homa

    2013-01-01

    Public health facilities in Iran are exposed to a wide range of natural hazards. This article presents the first survey of the impacts of such natural hazards on primary health care (PHC) centers in Iran from 2001 to 2011. A retrospective survey was conducted in 25 out of 30 provinces of Iran. Archival reports at provincial public health departments were cross-referenced with key informant interviews. During a 10-year period, 119 natural hazard events were recorded that led to physical damage and/or functional failure in 1,401 health centers, 127 deaths and injury or illness in 644 health staff. Earthquakes accounted for the most physical damage and all health-worker deaths. However, there was an increasing trend of impacts due to hydro-meteorological hazards. Iran’s health system needs to establish a registry to track the impact of natural hazards on health facilities, conduct regular hazard and vulnerability assessments and increase mitigation and preparedness measures. Keywords: Disaster, primary health care, facility, Iran, natural hazard Corresponding author: Ali Ardalan MD, PhD. Iran’s National Institute of Health Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Harvard Humanitarian Initiative. Email: aardalan@tums.ac.ir PMID:23863871

  20. Cancer incidence and mortality due to alcohol: an analysis of 10-year data.

    PubMed

    Laffoy, M; McCarthy, T; Mullen, L; Byrne, D; Martin, J

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is causally related to cancer of the upper aero-digestive tract, liver, colon, rectum, female breast and pancreas. The dose response relationship varies for each site. We calculated Ireland's cancer incidence and mortality attributable to alcohol over a 10-year period. Between 2001 and 2010, 4,585 (4.7%) male and 4,593 (4.2%) female invasive cancer diagnoses were attributable to alcohol. The greatest risk was for the upper aero-digestive tract where 2,961 (52.9%) of these cancers in males and 866 (35.2%) in females were attributable to alcohol. Between 2001 and 2010, 2,823 (6.7%) of male cancer deaths and 1,700 (4.6%) of female cancer deaths were attributable to alcohol. Every year approximately 900 new cancers and 500 cancer deaths are attributable to alcohol. Alcohol is a major cause of cancer after smoking, obesity and physical inactivity. Public awareness of risk must improve. Over half of alcohol related cancers are preventable by adhering to Department of Health alcohol consumption guidelines. PMID:24579406

  1. Unilocular radiolucencies of anterior mandible in young patients: A 10 year retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Mohanty, Sujata; Gulati, Ujjwal; Mediratta, Akshat; Ghosh, Sujoy

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Mandibular anterior region is an uncommon site for occurrence of intrabony pathologies. Unilocular presentation of a lesion is again less common than multilocular appearance. Demographically, most lesions occur in middle to elderly age group. The study is designed to review the pathologies manifesting a combination of these rare demographic and radiological criteria. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of patients with anterior unilocular radiolucencies of mandible in young patients was done. Records of past 10 years were searched. There were a total of 17 patients. Their clinical history and radiographs were reviewed from the case files and correlated with histopathological examination of the lesion. Results: Nine different pathologies constituted the sample size of 17. A wide array of lesions was found to manifest similar signs and symptoms and radiographic findings namely ameloblastoma (three), adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT, four), odontogenic keratocyst (OKC, three), ossifying fibroma (OF, two), idiopathic bone cavity (IBC, one), dentigerous cyst (DC, one), radicular cyst (RC, one), central giant cell granuloma (CGCG, one), and calcifying odontogenic cyst (COC, one). Conclusion: Anterior mandible is a rare site for occurrence of intrabony pathologies. Majority of patients are females. Lesions acquire large size before they are detected. Growth occurs more in length than in width. Root resorption is not uncommon and root displacement is almost a consistent feature. PMID:24163555

  2. Bonneville Power Administration, Office of Engineering 10-Year Plan, 1992-2001 : Draft.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration. Office of Engineering.

    1992-05-01

    For over 50 years, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has evolved to supply electric power to more than 170 customer utilities and direct service industries across 14,800 miles of high voltage transmission lines. BPA's Office of Engineering provides the planning, development, and engineering for the required expansion, upgrade, and replacement of the transmission system. The purpose of this 10-Year Plan is to present strategies to maintain a reliable energy delivery system within changing public, business, technological, and environmental climates. The issues and trends discussed in this document and our strategies for addressing them provide the background for the Office of Engineering programs and projects. With a budget in the hundreds of millions annually and increasing public concern, we welcome the opportunity to communicate with our customers. In addition to the factors, trends and issues described in this document are two appendices containing project costs and program and staffing levels. These figures are preliminary with estimates current as of May 13, 1992.

  3. Bonneville Power Administration, Office of Engineering 10-Year Plan, 1992-2001 : Draft.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration. Office of Engineering.

    1992-05-01

    For over 50 years, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has evolved to supply electric power to more than 170 customer utilities and direct service industries across 14,800 miles of high voltage transmission lines. BPA`s Office of Engineering provides the planning, development, and engineering for the required expansion, upgrade, and replacement of the transmission system. The purpose of this 10-Year Plan is to present strategies to maintain a reliable energy delivery system within changing public, business, technological, and environmental climates. The issues and trends discussed in this document and our strategies for addressing them provide the background for the Office of Engineering programs and projects. With a budget in the hundreds of millions annually and increasing public concern, we welcome the opportunity to communicate with our customers. In addition to the factors, trends and issues described in this document are two appendices containing project costs and program and staffing levels. These figures are preliminary with estimates current as of May 13, 1992.

  4. Personality Disorder Risk Factors for Suicide Attempts over 10 Years of Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Ansell, Emily B.; Wright, Aidan G.C.; Markowitz, John C.; Sanislow, Charles A.; Hopwood, Christopher J.; Zanarini, Mary C.; Yen, Shirley; Pinto, Anthony; McGlashan, Thomas H.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Identifying personality disorder (PD) risk factors for suicide attempts is an important consideration for research and clinical care alike. However, most prior research has focused on single PDs or categorical PD diagnoses without considering unique influences of different PDs, or severity (sum) of PD criteria on the risk for suicide related outcomes. This has usually been done in cross-sectional or retrospective assessment methods. Rarely are dimensional models of PDs examined in longitudinal, naturalistic prospective designs. In addition, it is important to consider divergent risk factors in predicting the risk of ever making a suicide attempt versus making an increasing number of attempts within the same model. Method This study examined 431 participants who were followed for 10 years in the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study (CLPS). Baseline assessments of personality disorder criteria were summed as dimensional counts of personality pathology and examined as predictors of suicide attempts reported at annual interviews throughout the ten-year follow-up. We employed univariate and multivariate zero-inflated Poisson regression models to simultaneously evaluate PD risk factors for ‘ever attempt’ and for increasing numbers of attempts among attempters. Results Consistent with prior research, borderline PD was uniquely associated with ever attempting. However, only narcissistic PD was uniquely associated with an increasing number of attempts. Conclusion These findings highlight the relevance of both borderline and narcissistic personality pathology as unique contributors to suicide related outcomes. PMID:25705977

  5. PCDD/Fs in the soils in the province of Trento: 10 years of monitoring.

    PubMed

    Rada, E C; Ragazzi, M; Marconi, M; Chistè, A; Schiavon, M; Fedrizzi, S; Tava, M

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a 10-year overview of the dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) content in soils in the province of Trento (Italy). The aim was to compare the results found in the Valsugana valley where there is a steel-making plant with other locations within the province. During 2002 and from 2005 to 2010, campaigns were carried out in order to obtain a background reference in terms of micropollutants, in view of the possible construction of a municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerator in Trento. In 2009, a campaign was performed for the environmental characterization of the Valsugana valley, the town of Trento and its surroundings, in order to help assess the impact of the steel-making plant. In 2012, another campaign was carried out by the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering of Trento, in order to monitor the soils in the area around the steel mill. All the campaigns showed relatively low concentrations of PCDD/Fs, both in protected areas and in the areas close to the industrial plants. No critical situations were identified, as also confirmed by an estimation of the potential daily PCDD/F intake by children subject to accidental ingestion of soil. PMID:25381582

  6. Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement 10-Year Plan 1990-1999 : Environmental Strategy. Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1990-09-01

    In operating and maintaining its regional power transmission system, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) must address environmental concerns. Pollution sources and pathways for pollution migration, including potential contamination from hazardous or toxic materials, are present. BPA must develop and follow precautionary measures, respond to emergencies, minimize wastes, redress past problems, alert and train employees to problems and safety needs, constantly evaluate this effort and update the program for improvements and changes in regulations and technology. Part of BPA's mission is to conduct its operation, maintenance, and replacement programs in an environmentally sound manner. BPA recognizes its responsibility to be good stewards of the environment. BPA will meet its environmental obligations as set forth in environmental laws and regulations. BPA intends to make consistent and measurable progress toward meeting these responsibilities. The target for the 10-Year Plan is to achieve environmental compliance and meet the following goals: (1) protect human health and the environment; (2) avoid or limit liability (3) set up an effective internal management structure to maintain compliance; and (4) achieve cost-effective compliance. 6 figs.

  7. Duodenal cancer in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP): results of a 10 year prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Groves, C J; Saunders, B P; Spigelman, A D; Phillips, R K S

    2002-01-01

    Background: Duodenal cancer is one of the leading causes of death in familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) patients. An endoscopic surveillance programme was therefore initiated in 1988, the outcome of which is described in this paper. Methods: We report the 10 year follow up of 114 patients with FAP who were prospectively screened for the presence and severity of duodenal adenomas. Results: Six of 114 patients (median age 67 years) developed duodenal adenocarcinoma. Four of these were from 11 patients who originally had Spigelman stage IV disease (advanced duodenal polyposis), which gives a 36% risk within this group of developing cancer. One case of duodenal cancer arose from 41 patients who originally had stage III disease (2%) and one cancer arose from 44 patients with original stage II disease (2%). All six patients have died: five were inoperable and one had recurrence three years after a pancreaticoduodenectomy. There was no association between duodenal cancer and site of germline mutation of the APC gene. Conclusions: Surveillance for duodenal adenocarcinoma and subsequent early referral for curative surgery has not been effective. Selection of patients with advanced but benign (Spigelman stage IV) duodenal polyposis for prophylactic pancreaticoduodenectomy should therefore be considered and can now be justified on the basis of these results. More comprehensive endoscopic surveillance of high risk (stage III and IV) patients is needed in an attempt to avoid underestimating the severity of duodenal polyposis, and to evaluate the role of endoscopic therapy in preventing advanced disease. PMID:11950808

  8. Spatiotemporal Trends Analysis of Pyrethroid Sediment Concentrations Spanning 10 Years in a Residential Creek in California.

    PubMed

    Hall, Lenwood W; Anderson, Ronald D; Killen, William D

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to assess temporal and spatial trends for eight pyrethroids monitored in sediment spanning 10 years from 2006 to 2015 in a residential stream in California (Pleasant Grove Creek). The timeframe for this study included sampling 3 years during a somewhat normal non-drought period (2006-2008) and 3 years during a severe drought period (2013-2015). Regression analysis of pyrethroid concentrations in Pleasant Grove Creek for 2006, 2007, 2008, 2012, 2013, 2014, and 2015 using ½ the detection limit for nondetected concentrations showed statistically significant declining trends for cyfluthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, permethrin, and total pyrethoids. Additional trends analysis of the Pleasant Grove Creek pyrethroid data using only measured concentrations, without nondetected values, showed similar statistically significant declining trends for cyfluthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, esfenvalerate, fenpropathrin, permethrin, and total pyrethroids. Spatial trends analysis for the specific creek sites showed that six of the eight pyrethroids had a greater number of sites with statistically significant declining concentrations. Possible reasons for reduced pyrethroid concentrations in the stream bed in Pleasant Grove Creek during this 10-year period are label changes in 2012 that reduced residential use and lack of precipitation during the later severe drought years of 2013-2015. PMID:26643307

  9. A 10-year systematic review of HIV/AIDS mass communication campaigns: Have we made progress?

    PubMed

    Noar, Seth M; Palmgreen, Philip; Chabot, Melissa; Dobransky, Nicole; Zimmerman, Rick S

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to conduct a 10-year systematic review of HIV/AIDS mass communication campaigns focused on sexual behavior, HIV testing, or both (1998-2007) and to compare the results with the last comprehensive review of such campaigns, conducted by Myhre and Flora (2000). A comprehensive search strategy yielded 38 HIV/AIDS campaign evaluation articles published in peer-reviewed journals, representing 34 distinct campaign efforts conducted in 23 countries. The articles were coded on a variety of campaign design and evaluation dimensions by two independent coders. Results indicated that compared with the previous systematic review (1986-1998 period), campaigns increasingly have employed the following strategies: (1) targeted defined audiences developed through audience segmentation procedures; (2) designed campaign themes around behavior change (rather than knowledge change); (3) used behavioral theories; (4) achieved high message exposure; (5) used stronger research designs for outcome evaluation; and (6) included measures of behavior (or behavioral intentions) in outcome assessments. In addition, an examination of 10 campaign efforts that used more rigorous quasi-experimental designs revealed that the majority (8 of 10) demonstrated effects on behavior change or behavioral intentions. Despite these positive developments, most HIV/AIDS campaigns continue to use weak (i.e., preexperimental) outcome evaluation designs. Implications of these results for improved design, implementation, and evaluation of HIV/AIDS campaign efforts are discussed. PMID:19180369

  10. Keratin Durability Has Implications for the Fossil Record: Results from a 10 Year Feather Degradation Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Moyer, Alison E.; Zheng, Wenxia; Schweitzer, Mary H.

    2016-01-01

    Keratinous ‘soft tissue’ structures (i.e. epidermally derived and originally non-biomineralized), include feathers, skin, claws, beaks, and hair. Despite their relatively common occurrence in the fossil record (second only to bone and teeth), few studies have addressed natural degradation processes that must occur in all organic material, including those keratinous structures that are incorporated into the rock record as fossils. Because feathers have high preservation potential and strong phylogenetic signal, in the current study we examine feathers subjected to different burial environments for a duration of ~10 years, using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and in situ immunofluorescence (IF). We use morphology and persistence of specific immunoreactivity as indicators of preservation at the molecular and microstructural levels. We show that feather keratin is durable, demonstrates structural and microstructural integrity, and retains epitopes suitable for specific antibody recognition in even the harshest conditions. These data support the hypothesis that keratin antibody reactivity can be used to identify the nature and composition of epidermal structures in the rock record, and to address evolutionary questions by distinguishing between alpha- (widely distributed) and beta- (limited to sauropsids) keratin. PMID:27384819

  11. Rapid and Complete Remission of Metastatic Adrenocortical Carcinoma Persisting 10 Years After Treatment With Mitotane Monotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Ghorayeb, Nada El; Rondeau, Geneviève; Latour, Mathieu; Cohade, Christian; Olney, Harold; Lacroix, André; Perrotte, Paul; Sabourin, Alexis; Mazzuco, Tania L; Bourdeau, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Mitotane has been used for more than 5 decades as therapy for adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). However its mechanism of action and the extent of tumor response remain incompletely understood. To date no cases of rapid and complete remission of metastatic ACC with mitotane monotherapy has been reported. A 52-year-old French Canadian man presented with metastatic disease 2 years following a right adrenalectomy for stage III nonsecreting ACC. He was started on mitotane which was well tolerated despite rapid escalation of the dose. The patient course was exceptional as he responded to mitotane monotherapy after only few months of treatment. Initiation of chemotherapy was not needed and he remained disease-free with good quality of life on low maintenance dose of mitotane during the following 10 years. A germline heterozygous TP53 exon 4 polymorphism c.215C>G (p. Pro72Arg) was found. Immunohistochemical stainings for IGF-2 and cytoplasmic β-catenin were positive. Advanced ACC is an aggressive disease with poor prognosis and the current therapeutic options remain limited. These findings suggest that mitotane is a good option for the treatment of metastatic ACC and might result in rapid complete remission in selected patients. PMID:27043680

  12. An overview of the last 10 years of genetically engineered crop safety research.

    PubMed

    Nicolia, Alessandro; Manzo, Alberto; Veronesi, Fabio; Rosellini, Daniele

    2014-03-01

    The technology to produce genetically engineered (GE) plants is celebrating its 30th anniversary and one of the major achievements has been the development of GE crops. The safety of GE crops is crucial for their adoption and has been the object of intense research work often ignored in the public debate. We have reviewed the scientific literature on GE crop safety during the last 10 years, built a classified and manageable list of scientific papers, and analyzed the distribution and composition of the published literature. We selected original research papers, reviews, relevant opinions and reports addressing all the major issues that emerged in the debate on GE crops, trying to catch the scientific consensus that has matured since GE plants became widely cultivated worldwide. The scientific research conducted so far has not detected any significant hazards directly connected with the use of GE crops; however, the debate is still intense. An improvement in the efficacy of scientific communication could have a significant impact on the future of agricultural GE. Our collection of scientific records is available to researchers, communicators and teachers at all levels to help create an informed, balanced public perception on the important issue of GE use in agriculture. PMID:24041244

  13. Aprepitant and Fosaprepitant: A 10-Year Review of Efficacy and Safety

    PubMed Central

    Carides, Alexandra; Rapoport, Bernardo L.; Schmoll, Hans-Joachim; Zhang, Li; Warr, David

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is a common adverse event associated with anticancer treatment that can have a significant adverse impact on patient health-related quality of life and that can potentially undermine the effectiveness of chemotherapy. Traditional regimens to prevent CINV generally involved a combination of a corticosteroid plus a 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT3) receptor antagonist (RA). In the past 10 years, antiemetic treatment has greatly advanced with the availability of the neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist (NK1 RA) aprepitant and its prodrug fosaprepitant. NK1 RAs have a different mechanism of action in CINV than corticosteroids and 5HT3 RAs, thus their use can complement traditional antiemetic drugs and can enhance control of CINV. This review examined accumulated data regarding the safety and efficacy of aprepitant and fosaprepitant over the decade since the first regulatory approval. Data from key studies of aprepitant and fosaprepitant in the prevention of CINV in patients receiving moderately and highly emetogenic chemotherapy were explored, as were recommendations in currently available guidelines for their use. In addition, their use as antiemetic therapy in special patient populations was highlighted. Future perspectives on potential uses of aprepitant and fosaprepitant for indications other than CINV are presented. PMID:25795636

  14. Gesture Frequency Linked Primarily to Story Length in 4-10-Year Old Children's Stories.

    PubMed

    Nicoladis, Elena; Marentette, Paula; Navarro, Samuel

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that older children gesture more while telling a story than younger children. This increase in gesture use has been attributed to increased story complexity. In adults, both narrative complexity and imagery predict gesture frequency. In this study, we tested the strength of three predictors of children's gesture use in a narrative context: age, narrative complexity (measured by discourse connectors), and use of imagery (measured by story length). French-, Spanish-, and English-speaking children between 4 and 10 years participated in this study. Including these three groups allows us to test for the generalizability of our results and for cross-linguistic differences in gesture frequency. All the children watched cartoons and retold the story. The results showed that the length of the story was a significant predictor of children's gesture rate while age and discourse connectors were not. There were no differences between language groups. One possible in interpretation of these results is that children's gesture frequency is strongly linked to activation of imagery. PMID:25430692

  15. Perceived food hypersensitivity: a review of 10 years of interdisciplinary research at a reference center.

    PubMed

    Lied, Gülen Arslan; Lillestøl, Kristine; Lind, Ragna; Valeur, Jørgen; Morken, Mette Helvik; Vaali, Kirsi; Gregersen, Kine; Florvaag, Erik; Tangen, Tone; Berstad, Arnold

    2011-10-01

    Perceived food hypersensitivity is a prevalent, but poorly understood condition. In this review article, we summarize narratively recent literature including results of our 10 years' interdisciplinary research program dealing with such patients. The patients (more than 400) included in our studies were all adults referred to a university hospital because of gastrointestinal complaints self-attributed to food hypersensitivity. Despite extensive examinations, food allergy was seldom diagnosed. The majority of the patients fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for irritable bowel syndrome. In addition, most suffered from several extra-intestinal health complaints and had considerably impaired quality of life. However, psychological factors could explain only approximately 10% of the variance in the patients' symptom severity and 90% of the variance thus remained unexplained. Intolerance to low-digestible carbohydrates was a common problem and abdominal symptoms were replicated by carbohydrate ingestion. A considerable number of patients showed evidence of immune activation by analyses of B-cell activating factor, dendritic cells and "IgE-armed" mast cells. Multiple factors such as immune activation, disturbed intestinal fermentation, enteric dysmotility, post-infectious changes and "local" allergy in the gut as well as psychological disturbances may play a role in the pathophysiology of perceived food hypersensitivity. Hence, our results support the view that management of these patients should be interdisciplinary. PMID:21679125

  16. VARIABILITY OF LUMINOUS STARS IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD USING 10 YEARS OF ASAS DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Szczygiel, D. M.; Stanek, K. Z.; Bonanos, A. Z.; Pojmanski, G.; Pilecki, B.; Prieto, J. L. E-mail: kstanek@astronomy.ohio-state.ed E-mail: gp@astrouw.edu.p E-mail: jose@obs.carnegiescience.ed

    2010-07-15

    Motivated by the detection of a recent outburst of the massive luminous blue variable LMC-R71, which reached an absolute magnitude M{sub V} = -9.3 mag, we undertook a systematic study of the optical variability of 1268 massive stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud, using a recent catalog by Bonanos et al. as the input. The ASAS All Star Catalog provided well-sampled light curves of these bright stars spanning 10 years. Combining the two catalogs resulted in 599 matches, on which we performed a variability search. We identified 117 variable stars, 38 of which were not known before, despite their brightness and large amplitude of variation. We found 13 periodic stars that we classify as eclipsing binary (EB) stars, 8 of which are newly discovered bright massive EBs composed of OB-type stars. The remaining 104 variables are either semi- or non-periodic, the majority (85) being red supergiants (RSGs). Most (26) of the newly discovered variables in this category are also RSGs with only three B and four O stars.

  17. Uric Acid Levels Can Predict Metabolic Syndrome and Hypertension in Adolescents: A 10-Year Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hai-Lun; Pei, Dee; Lue, Ko-Huang; Chen, Yen-Lin

    2015-01-01

    The relationships between uric acid and chronic disease risk factors such as metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and hypertension have been studied in adults. However, whether these relationships exist in adolescents is unknown. We randomly selected 8,005 subjects who were between 10 to 15 years old at baseline. Measurements of uric acid were used to predict the future occurrence of metabolic syndrome, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes. In total, 5,748 adolescents were enrolled and followed for a median of 7.2 years. Using cutoff points of uric acid for males and females (7.3 and 6.2 mg/dl, respectively), a high level of uric acid was either the second or third best predictor for hypertension in both genders (hazard ratio: 2.920 for males, 5.222 for females; p<0.05). However, uric acid levels failed to predict type 2 diabetes mellitus, and only predicted metabolic syndrome in males (hazard ratio: 1.658; p<0.05). The same results were found in multivariate adjusted analysis. In conclusion, a high level of uric acid indicated a higher likelihood of developing hypertension in both genders and metabolic syndrome in males after 10 years of follow-up. However, uric acid levels did not affect the occurrence of type 2 diabetes in both genders. PMID:26618358

  18. Hypotonic hyponatremia by primary polydipsia caused brain death in a 10-year-old boy

    PubMed Central

    Ko, A Ra; Kim, Soo Jung; Jung, Mo Kyung; Kim, Ki Eun; Chae, Hyun Wook; Kim, Duk Hee; Kim, Ho-Seong

    2015-01-01

    Hypotonic hyponatremia by primary polydipsia can cause severe neurologic complications due to cerebral edema. A 10-year-and-4-month-old boy with a psychiatric history of intellectual disability and behavioral disorders who presented with chief complaints of seizure and mental change showed severe hypotonic hyponatremia with low urine osmolality (serum sodium, 101 mmol/L; serum osmolality, 215 mOsm/kg; urine osmolality, 108 mOsm/kg). The patient had been polydipsic for a few months prior, and this had been worse in the previous few days. A diagnosis of hypotonic hyponatremia caused by primary polydipsia was made. The patient was in a coma, and developed respiratory arrest and became brain death shortly after admission, despite the treatment. The initial brain magnetic resonance imaging showed severe brain swelling with tonsillar and uncal herniation, and the patient was declared as brain death. It has been reported that antidiuretic hormone suppression is inadequate in patients with chronic polydipsia, and that this inadequate suppression of antidiuretic hormone is aggravated in patients with acute psychosis. Therefore, hyponatremia by primary polydipsia, although it is rare, can cause serious and life-threatening neurologic complications. PMID:26512354

  19. Wave Resource Characteristics Near Humboldt Bay - Results from a 10-year Hindcast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallman, A.; Neary, V. S.

    2014-12-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) marine and hydrokinetic energy (MHK) Program has identified a need to improve modeling capabilities for near-shore wave climate hind-casting, among other applications. The potential wave energy converter (WEC) test or commercial deployment site offshore of Humboldt Bay, CA was selected to investigate the performance of a nearshore SWAN model and the spatial variability of wave statistics. SNL performed a 10-year hindcast using SWAN (Simulating Waves Nearshore), forced by spectral output from a WAVEWATCH III hindcast. The model was found to be insensitive to bottom friction and whitecapping parameterizations for the locations of interest, which included depths of 40m or greater. Predicted significant wave heights were found to be overbiased due to an overbias in the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) winds used to drive WAVEWATCH III. The spatial variability of the wave statistics calculated from the hindcast simulation were found to vary by season and were affected by the wind direction due to geographic features north of Humboldt Bay. Further details of the model performance along with possible areas of improvement will be discussed.

  20. Annual and interannual variations of Earth-emitted radiation based on a 10-year data set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bess, T. Dale; Smith, G. Louis; Charlock, Thomas P.; Rose, Fred G.

    1989-01-01

    The method of empirical orthogonal functions (EOF) was applied to a 10-year data set of outgoing longwave radiation. Spherical harmonic functions are used as a basis set for producing equal area map results. The following findings are noted. The first EOF accounts for 66 percent of the variance. After that, each EOF accounts for only a small variance, forming a slowly converging series. The first two EOF's describe mainly the annual cycle. The third EOF is primarily the semiannual cycle although many other EOF's also contain significant semiannual parts. These results reaffirm those based on a shorter data set. In addition, a much stronger spring/fall mode was found in the central equatorial Pacific Ocean for the second EOF than was found earlier. This difference is attributed to the use of broadband radiometer data which were available for the present study. The earlier study used data from a window channel instrument which is not as sensitive to water vapor variations. The fourth EOF describes much of the 1976 to 1977 and 1982 to 1983 ENSO phenomena. There is typically a gap in the spectrum between a semiannual peak and the annual cycle for all but the first EOF. A semiannual OLR dipole straddles the Asian-Australian monsoon track.

  1. European Competence Network on Mastocytosis (ECNM): 10-year jubilee, update, and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Valent, Peter; Arock, Michel; Bonadonna, Patrizia; Brockow, Knut; Broesby-Olsen, Sigurd; Escribano, Luis; Gleixner, Karoline V; Grattan, Clive; Hadzijusufovic, Emir; Hägglund, Hans; Hermine, Olivier; Horny, Hans-Peter; Kluin-Nelemans, Hanneke C; Maurer, Marcus; Niedoszytko, Marek; Nedoszytko, Boguslaw; Nilsson, Gunnar; Oude-Elberink, Hanneke N G; Orfao, Alberto; Radia, Deepti; Reiter, Andreas; Siebenhaar, Frank; Sotlar, Karl; Sperr, Wolfgang R; Triggiani, Massimo; VanDoormaal, Jaap J; Várkonyi, Judit; Yavuz, Selim; Hartmann, Karin

    2012-12-01

    The European Competence Network on Mastocytosis (ECNM) was initiated in 2002 as a multidisciplinary and multinational cooperative approach to increase awareness and to improve diagnosis and therapy of mastocytosis. The network is composed of local centers, physicians, and scientists who have dedicated their work to patients with mastocytosis. A strategic goal of the ECNM is to provide the best available information about the disease to patients and physicians. During the past 10 years, the ECNM has expanded to various countries and contributed successfully to the development of markers, definitions, and standards in the field of mastocytosis. Members of the ECNM organized Annual Meetings in Europe and two Working Conferences on Mastocytosis in Vienna (in 2005 and 2010), and initiated and supported several preclinical and clinical trials. In all these activities, representatives of the ECNM cooperate closely with their US colleagues, with patient-organizations in Europe and in the USA, and with other scientific networks. The ECNM also launched a mastocytosis registry that has been activated in 2012. Using the central database of this registry, cooperative multicenter studies, which should include sufficient numbers of patients and robust evaluations, will be conducted. These studies will increase our knowledge about optimal management and therapy of patients with mastocytosis in the future. PMID:23179435

  2. The 10-year experience of an academically affiliated occupational and environmental medicine clinic.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenstock, L; Daniell, W; Barnhart, S; Stover, B; Castorina, J; Mason, S E; Heyer, N J; Hubbard, R; Kaufman, J D; Brodkin, C A

    1992-01-01

    Occupational and environmental diseases are underrecognized. Among the barriers to the successful diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of these conditions are inadequate consultative and information resources. We describe the 10-year clinical and training experiences of an academically affiliated referral center that has as its primary goal the identification of work-related and other environmental diseases. The University of Washington Occupational and Environmental Medicine Program has evaluated 6,048 patients in its diagnostic and screening clinics. Among the 2,841 seen in the diagnostic clinics, 1,553 (55%) had a work-related condition. The most prevalent diagnoses included asbestos-related lung disease (n = 603), toxic encephalopathy (n = 160), asthma (n = 119), other specific respiratory conditions (n = 197), carpal tunnel syndrome (n = 86), and dermatitis (n = 82). The clinics serve as a training site for fellows in the specialty training program, primary care internal medicine residents, residents from other medical specialties, and students in industrial hygiene, toxicology, and occupational health nursing. The program serves two additional important functions: providing consultative services to community physicians and training specialists and other physicians in this underserved area of medicine. PMID:1462536

  3. Medical Malpractice in Wuhan, China: A 10-Year Autopsy-Based Single-Center Study.

    PubMed

    He, Fanggang; Li, Liliang; Bynum, Jennifer; Meng, Xiangzhi; Yan, Ping; Li, Ling; Liu, Liang

    2015-11-01

    Medical disputes in China are historically poorly documented. In particular, autopsy-based evaluation and its impact on medical malpractice claims remain largely unstudied. This study aims to document autopsy findings and medical malpractice in one of the largest cities of China, Wuhan, located in Hubei Province. A total of 519 autopsies were performed by the Department of Forensic Medicine, Wuhan University School of Medicine, Wuhan, China, over a 10-year period between 2004 and 2013. Of these cases, 190 (36.6%) were associated with medical malpractice claims. Joint evaluation by forensic pathologists and clinicians confirmed that 97 (51.1%) of the 190 claims were approved medical malpractice cases. The percentage of approved malpractice cases increased with patient age and varied according to medical setting, physician specialty, and organ system. The clinico-pathological diagnostic discrepancy was significantly different among various physician specialties (P = 0.031) and organ systems (P = 0.000). Of those cases involved in malpractice claims, aortic dissection, coronary heart disease, and acute respiratory infection were most common. Association between incorrect diagnosis and malpractice was significant (P = 0.001). This is the first report on China's medical malpractice and findings at autopsy which reflects the current state of health care services in one of the biggest cities in China. PMID:26559306

  4. Prevalence and geographical distribution of Escherichia coli O157 in India: a 10-year survey.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Rakesh; Kumar, Yashwant; Kumar, Sunil

    2008-04-01

    Escherichia coli colonizes the human gastrointestinal tract and produces a variety of diseases. Escherichia coli O157 is one of the most important pathogenic strains reported from food-borne illnesses leading to enterohemorrhagic colitis. The National Salmonella and Escherichia Centre is a national reference centre for Salmonella and Escherichia for India; it receives samples from research laboratories, hospitals and institutions for serological identification. The present study is an epidemiological survey of E. coli O157 in different regions of India. The data are based on samples received from humans, food items, animals and the environment. A total of 17 093 isolates cultured from samples were received during the 10-year period of which 5678 were from human sources. Thirty (0.5%) human samples were positive for E. coli O157. A significantly high percentage of E. coli O157 were isolated from meat (0.9%, 13/1376), milk and milk products (1.8%, 10/553), seafood (8.4%, 16/190) and water (1.6%, 8/486). The isolates were found to be distributed among domestic and wild animals, and the maximum number of isolates of E. coli O157 was detected in samples received from coastal belt areas. Escherichia coli O157 is widely distributed among humans and animals, food and environment in different geographical regions of India. PMID:18321544

  5. A 10-year review of four academic nurse-managed centers: challenges and survival strategies.

    PubMed

    King, Eunice S

    2008-01-01

    Since 1985, there has been rapid growth in nurse-managed health centers (NMHCs). Many were established by academic schools of nursing, and several have closed. The Independence Foundation undertook this study to identify the challenges and survival strategies employed by four academic nurse-managed center grantees during a 10-year period. Data from Foundation records, interviews with directors and staff from the centers and the National Nursing Centers Consortium, a focus group with center founders, and field notes were analyzed for themes related to the centers' challenges and survival strategies. Although the centers faced many challenges from the sociopolitical environment, the community, and their parent organizations, the most difficult challenge was achieving financial sustainability, which was attainable only by obtaining cost-based reimbursement. Because of existing health policies, that was possible only through organizational restructuring and affiliation with an existing federally qualified health center. The future of nursing centers depends upon favorable health policies, data documenting centers' effectiveness, and adequate preparation of the next generation of nursing center directors and practitioners. PMID:18206838

  6. Nail Psoriasis in Children: Common or Uncommon? Results from a 10-Year Double-Center Study

    PubMed Central

    Piraccini, Bianca Maria; Triantafyllopoulou, Ioanna; Prevezas, Christos; Starace, Michela; Neri, Iria; Patrizi, Annalisa; Caserini, Maurizio; Palmieri, Renata; Rigopoulos, Dimitrios

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the Study Our aim was to perform an extensive search of the literature on the prevalence of nail psoriasis in the pediatric population and to estimate it on our own database. Procedures Searching the most important databases yielded results of 16 papers published in a 40-year period which reported the prevalence of nail psoriasis in children. Furthermore, data gathered between 2004 and 2013 at two centers specialized in nail disorders were analyzed. Results The selected papers encompassed a total of 4,853 psoriatic children, of whom 762 (15.7%) had nail involvement. Concerning our data, a total of 68,839 children were seen in pediatric skin consultation in both clinics over a period of 10 years, 0.11% of which had nail involvement. The rate of psoriatic children presenting nail alterations was 19.4% in the Greek and 15.5% in the Italian patient groups. Conclusions and Message This is the retrospective study including the largest number of cases of nail psoriasis in the pediatric population. Our data are in line with the incidence estimation of the rest of Europe. PMID:27172521

  7. Does gymnastics practice improve vertical jump reliability from the age of 8 to 10 years?

    PubMed

    Marina, Michel; Torrado, Priscila

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to confirm whether gymnastics practice from a young age can induce greater vertical jump reliability. Fifty young female gymnasts (8.84 ± 0.62 years) and 42 females in the control group (8.58 ± 0.92 years) performed the following jump tests on a contact mat: squat jump, countermovement jump, countermovement jump with arm swing and drop jump from heights of 40 and 60 cm. The two testing sessions had three trials each and were separated by one week. A 2 (groups) × 2 (sessions) × 3 (trials) repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and a test-retest correlation analysis were used to study the reliability. There was no systematic source of error in either group for non-plyometric jumps such as squat jump, countermovement jump, and countermovement jump with arm swing. A significant group per trial interaction revealed a learning effect in gymnasts' drop jumps from 40 cm height. Additionally, the test-retest correlation analysis and the higher minimum detectable error suggest that the quick drop jump technique was not fully consolidated in either group. At an introductory level of gymnastics and between the ages of 8-10 years, the condition of being a gymnast did not lead to conclusively higher reliability, aside from better overall vertical jump performance. PMID:23414426

  8. Isolated Myxoma in the External Auditory Canal of a 10-Year-Old Girl.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Hee; Jeong, Su Hee; Kim, Hojong; Shin, Eunhye

    2015-12-01

    Myxoma is a benign connective tissue tumor that is most commonly found in the heart. Because myxoma of the external ear is extremely rare, its diagnosis may be easily delayed or it may be misdiagnosed as another disease. Moreover, because it can be a part of Carney complex (autosomal dominant syndrome), its correct diagnosis is very important. We experienced a 10-year-old girl who had a mass on the posterior surface of the tragus at the entrance of the left ear canal. Fine-needle aspiration revealed mucoid content of the cystic mass, but its cytology did not confirm the diagnosis. The whole mass was surgically removed, and the diagnosis was confirmed as myxoma with a stellate spindle cell proliferation in the hypocellular matrix. Thorough examination failed to determine any presentation of Carney complex, and her final diagnosis was isolated myxoma of the external auditory canal. This is the first reported study regarding myxoma of the external auditory canal in the Korean literature. PMID:26915162

  9. The NMC Horizon Report: 2014 Library Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, L.; Adams Becker, S.; Estrada, V.; Freeman, A.

    2014-01-01

    The internationally recognized "NMC Horizon Report" series and regional "NMC Technology Outlooks" are part of the NMC Horizon Project, a 12-year effort established in 2002 that annually identifies and describes emerging technologies likely to have a large impact over the coming five years in every sector of education around the…

  10. Reconceptualizing Knowledge at the Mathematical Horizon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zazkis, Rina; Mamolo, Ami

    2011-01-01

    This article extends the notion of "knowledge at the mathematical horizon" or "horizon knowledge" introduced by Ball and colleagues as a part of teachers' subject matter knowledge. Our focus is on teachers' mathematical knowledge beyond the school curriculum, that is, on mathematics learnt during undergraduate college or university studies. We…

  11. The Horizon Report: 2010 Museum Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, L.; Witchey, H.; Smith, R.; Levine, A.; Haywood, K.

    2010-01-01

    The internationally recognized series of "Horizon Reports" is part of the New Media Consortium's Horizon Project, a comprehensive research venture established in 2002 that identifies and describes emerging technologies likely to have a large impact over the coming five years on a variety of sectors around the globe. This volume, the "2010 Horizon…

  12. Expanding your horizons in science and mathematics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, Cynthia E. A.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the 'Expanding Your Horizons in Science and Mathematics' program is to interest young women in grades six through twelve in a variety of careers where mathematics and science are important. Progress in encouraging young women to take courses in mathematics, science, and technological subjects is discussed. Also included are adult, student, and organizational information packets used for 'Expanding Your Horizons' conferences.

  13. Horizon Report: 2010 K-12 Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, L.; Smith, R.; Levine, A.; Haywood, K.

    2010-01-01

    The "Horizon Report" series is the most visible outcome of the New Media Consortium's Horizon Project, an ongoing research effort established in 2002 that identifies and describes emerging technologies likely to have a large impact on teaching, learning, research, or creative expression within education around the globe. This volume, the "2010…

  14. The NMC Horizon Report: 2015 Museum Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, L.; Adams Becker, S.; Estrada, V.; Freeman, A.

    2015-01-01

    The internationally recognized series of "Horizon Reports" is part of the New Media Consortium's Horizon Project, a comprehensive research venture established in 2002 that identifies and describes emerging technologies likely to have a large impact over the coming years on a variety of sectors around the globe. This "2015 Horizon…

  15. High-frequency over-the-horizon radar and ionospheric backscatter studies in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Le-Wei

    1998-09-01

    China is one of the countries that employs high-frequency over-the-horizon radars for both military and civil applications. The first Chinese high-frequency over-the horizon backscatter radar was developed in the 1970s. This paper briefly introduces the first Chinese over-the-horizon backscatter radar system and reviews ionospheric backscatter and propagation studies in China. The paper discusses the motivation for establishing over-the-horizon radar systems in China, the experimental system, target recognition and detection,and estimation of over-the-horizon radar availability. Observations of aircraft, large-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances, and the effects of a remote nuclear explosion are also presented. Finally, the real-time Chinese ionosonde network and frequency predictions using backscatter ionograms are discussed.

  16. Estimation of the Horizon in Photographed Outdoor Scenes by Human and Machine

    PubMed Central

    Herdtweck, Christian; Wallraven, Christian

    2013-01-01

    We present three experiments on horizon estimation. In Experiment 1 we verify the human ability to estimate the horizon in static images from only visual input. Estimates are given without time constraints with emphasis on precision. The resulting estimates are used as baseline to evaluate horizon estimates from early visual processes. Stimuli are presented for only ms and then masked to purge visual short-term memory and enforcing estimates to rely on early processes, only. The high agreement between estimates and the lack of a training effect shows that enough information about viewpoint is extracted in the first few hundred milliseconds to make accurate horizon estimation possible. In Experiment 3 we investigate several strategies to estimate the horizon in the computer and compare human with machine “behavior” for different image manipulations and image scene types. PMID:24349073

  17. Spherically Symmetric Trapping Horizons, the Misner-Sharp Mass and Black Hole Evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Alex B.; Yeom, Dong-Han

    We discuss some of the issues relating to information loss and black hole thermodynamics in the light of recent work on local black hole horizons. Understood in terms of pure states evolving into mixed states, the possibility of information loss in black holes is closely related to the global causal structure of space-time, as is the existence of event horizons. However, black holes need not be defined by event horizons, and in fact we argue that in order to have a fully unitary evolution for black holes, they should be defined in terms of something else, such as a trapping horizon. The Misner-Sharp mass in spherical symmetry shows very simply how trapping horizons can give rise to black hole thermodynamics, Hawking radiation and singularities. We show how the Misner-Sharp mass can also be used to give insights into the process of collapse and evaporation of locally defined black holes.

  18. A 10-year retrospective study of free anterolateral thigh flap application in 872 head and neck tumour cases.

    PubMed

    Xu, Z; Zhao, X P; Yan, T L; Wang, M; Wang, L; Wu, H J; Shang, Z J

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to report the clinical features, reliability, and various applications of free anterolateral thigh (ALT) flaps and to provide a 10-year retrospective review of the application of this flap in head and neck tumour patients. A retrospective study was performed of 872 patients who underwent immediate reconstruction of head and neck tumour-induced defects with ALT flaps between April 2005 and April 2014. The study sample consisted of 609 males and 263 females aged 18-79 years. The shapes and sizes of the flaps were designed individually to meet various demands of reconstruction in the head and neck region. The overall rate of successful reconstruction was 97.4%. The reasons for 57 cases of flap compromise were analyzed. The time to detection of flap crisis was often within the first 8h after surgery (64.9%). One- and two-vein anastomosis strategies in microsurgery were compared, and significant differences were observed in terms of the time to detection of flap compromise and the rate of successful flap salvage. In conclusion, the free ALT flap provides unique features for the reconstruction of oral and facial defects in a reliable and versatile approach. The ALT flap is a favourable and versatile 'workhorse' flap for head and neck reconstruction. PMID:26154948

  19. Burden of morbidity in 10+ year survivors of hematopoietic cell transplantation: a report from the Bone Marrow Transplant Survivor Study

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Can-Lan; Kersey, John H.; Francisco, Liton; Armenian, Saro H.; Baker, K. Scott; Weisdorf, Daniel J.; Forman, Stephen J.; Bhatia, Smita

    2013-01-01

    Long-term morbidity after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is unknown. The risk of physical and psychological health in 324 patients who had survived 10 or more years after HCT, and a sibling comparison group (n=309) was evaluated. Using the CTCAE v3.0, the 15-year cumulative incidence of severe/life-threatening/fatal conditions was 41% (95%CI, 34–48%). HCT survivors were 5.7 times as likely to develop a severe/life-threatening condition (p<0.001), and 2.7 times as likely to report somatic distress (p<0.001) compared with siblings. Compared with allogeneic HCT recipients with no chronic GvHD, those with active chronic GvHD were at a 1.8-fold higher risk of severe/life-threatening health conditions (p=0.006), and 4.5-fold higher risk of somatic distress (p=0.04); allogeneic HCT recipients with resolved chronic GvHD were not at increased risk of morbidity compared with those with no chronic GvHD. Only 27% of the HCT survivors returned to the transplant center for their cancer-related care. The burden of long-term physical and emotional morbidity borne by survivors remains substantial, even beyond 10 years after HCT; however, specialized healthcare is underutilized. Patients, families and healthcare providers need to be made aware of the high burden, such that they can plan for post-HCT care, even many years after HCT. PMID:23583827

  20. Changes in Active Commuting to School in Czech Adolescents in Different Types of Built Environment across a 10-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Dygrýn, Jan; Mitáš, Josef; Gába, Aleš; Rubín, Lukáš; Frömel, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Active commuting (AC) to school represents a great opportunity to incorporate walking or cycling into adolescents’ everyday routine. The objective of the study was to describe changes in AC in Czech adolescents across a 10-year period in different built environments. Data from the 2001 and 2011 Czech Census of Population and Housing were used to examine the mode of transportation taken to school in 6236 adolescents. Changes in AC over time were analyzed for low and high walkable areas separately in two Czech regional cities, Olomouc and Hradec Králové. Between 2001 and 2011, the proportion of adolescents actively commuting to school decreased by 47%, from an absolute rate of 49.1% to 26%. The proportion of active commuters fell in low walkable areas by 61% and in high walkable areas by 39%. The results indicated that adolescents in 2011 were 2.7 times less (OR = 0.365, p < 0.001) likely to actively commute than in 2001. The AC behavior in Czech adolescents has a negative tendency to replicate travel-to-school patterns in adolescents previously described in more developed countries. The findings might serve as a recommendation for municipal policy. PMID:26501304