Science.gov

Sample records for 10-year time horizon

  1. The drug-target residence time model: a 10-year retrospective.

    PubMed

    Copeland, Robert A

    2016-02-01

    The drug-target residence time model was first introduced in 2006 and has been broadly adopted across the chemical biology, biotechnology and pharmaceutical communities. While traditional in vitro methods view drug-target interactions exclusively in terms of equilibrium affinity, the residence time model takes into account the conformational dynamics of target macromolecules that affect drug binding and dissociation. The key tenet of this model is that the lifetime (or residence time) of the binary drug-target complex, and not the binding affinity per se, dictates much of the in vivo pharmacological activity. Here, this model is revisited and key applications of it over the past 10 years are highlighted.

  2. Time Horizon in Students' Predictions of Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manger, Terje; Teigen, Karl Halvor

    1988-01-01

    Eight and two months before their final exam, 252 undergraduates in Norway stated their expectations and hopes for examination grades. Correlations between expected and obtained grades were low. A shift from optimism to pessimism occurred. Results confirm the time horizon's crucial role in the prediction of academic achievement. (TJH)

  3. Extending the TIME concept: what have we learned in the past 10 years?(*).

    PubMed

    Leaper, David J; Schultz, Gregory; Carville, Keryln; Fletcher, Jacqueline; Swanson, Theresa; Drake, Rebecca

    2012-12-01

    The TIME acronym (tissue, infection/inflammation, moisture balance and edge of wound) was first developed more than 10 years ago, by an international group of wound healing experts, to provide a framework for a structured approach to wound bed preparation; a basis for optimising the management of open chronic wounds healing by secondary intention. However, it should be recognised that the TIME principles are only a part of the systematic and holistic evaluation of each patient at every wound assessment. This review, prepared by the International Wound Infection Institute, examines how new data and evidence generated in the intervening decade affects the original concepts of TIME, and how it is translated into current best practice. Four developments stand out: recognition of the importance of biofilms (and the need for a simple diagnostic), use of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT), evolution of topical antiseptic therapy as dressings and for wound lavage (notably, silver and polyhexamethylene biguanide) and expanded insight of the role of molecular biological processes in chronic wounds (with emerging diagnostics and theranostics). Tissue: a major advance has been the recognition of the value of repetitive and maintenance debridement and wound cleansing, both in time-honoured and novel methods (notably using NPWT and hydrosurgery). Infection/inflammation: clinical recognition of infection (and non infective causes of persisting inflammation) is critical. The concept of a bacterial continuum through contamination, colonisation and infection is now widely accepted, together with the understanding of biofilm presence. There has been a return to topical antiseptics to control bioburden in wounds, emphasised by the awareness of increasing antibiotic resistance. Moisture: the relevance of excessive or insufficient wound exudate and its molecular components has led to the development and use of a wide range of dressings to regulate moisture balance, and to protect

  4. Extending the TIME concept: what have we learned in the past 10 years?(*).

    PubMed

    Leaper, David J; Schultz, Gregory; Carville, Keryln; Fletcher, Jacqueline; Swanson, Theresa; Drake, Rebecca

    2012-12-01

    The TIME acronym (tissue, infection/inflammation, moisture balance and edge of wound) was first developed more than 10 years ago, by an international group of wound healing experts, to provide a framework for a structured approach to wound bed preparation; a basis for optimising the management of open chronic wounds healing by secondary intention. However, it should be recognised that the TIME principles are only a part of the systematic and holistic evaluation of each patient at every wound assessment. This review, prepared by the International Wound Infection Institute, examines how new data and evidence generated in the intervening decade affects the original concepts of TIME, and how it is translated into current best practice. Four developments stand out: recognition of the importance of biofilms (and the need for a simple diagnostic), use of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT), evolution of topical antiseptic therapy as dressings and for wound lavage (notably, silver and polyhexamethylene biguanide) and expanded insight of the role of molecular biological processes in chronic wounds (with emerging diagnostics and theranostics). Tissue: a major advance has been the recognition of the value of repetitive and maintenance debridement and wound cleansing, both in time-honoured and novel methods (notably using NPWT and hydrosurgery). Infection/inflammation: clinical recognition of infection (and non infective causes of persisting inflammation) is critical. The concept of a bacterial continuum through contamination, colonisation and infection is now widely accepted, together with the understanding of biofilm presence. There has been a return to topical antiseptics to control bioburden in wounds, emphasised by the awareness of increasing antibiotic resistance. Moisture: the relevance of excessive or insufficient wound exudate and its molecular components has led to the development and use of a wide range of dressings to regulate moisture balance, and to protect

  5. Time Horizon and Social Scale in Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krantz, D. H.

    2010-12-01

    In 2009 our center (CRED) published a first version of The Psychology of Climate Change Communication. In it, we attempted to summarize facts and concepts from psychological research that could help guide communication. While this work focused on climate change, most of the ideas are at least partly applicable for communication about a variety of natural hazards. Of the many examples in this guide, I mention three. Single-action bias is the human tendency to stop considering further actions that might be needed to deal with a given hazard, once a single action has been taken. Another example is the importance of group affiliation in motivating voluntary contributions to joint action. A third concerns the finding that group participation enhances understanding of probabilistic concepts and promotes action in the face of uncertainty. One current research direction, which goes beyond those included in the above publication, focuses on how time horizons arise in the thinking of individuals and groups, and how these time horizons might influence hazard preparedness. On the one hand, individuals sometimes appear impatient, organizations look for immediate results, and officials fail to look beyond the next election cycle. Yet under some laboratory conditions and in some subcultures, a longer time horizon is adopted. We are interested in how time horizon is influenced by group identity and by the very architecture of planning and decision making. Institutional changes, involving long-term contractual relationships among communities, developers, insurers, and governments, could greatly increase resilience in the face of natural hazards. Communication about hazards, in the context of such long-term contractual relationships might look very different from communication that is first initiated by immediate threat. Another new direction concerns the social scale of institutions and of communication about hazards. Traditionally, insurance contracts share risk among a large

  6. Horizons versus singularities in spherically symmetric space-times

    SciTech Connect

    Bronnikov, K. A.; Elizalde, E.; Odintsov, S. D.; Zaslavskii, O. B.

    2008-09-15

    We discuss different kinds of Killing horizons possible in static, spherically symmetric configurations and recently classified as 'usual', 'naked', and 'truly naked' ones depending on the near-horizon behavior of transverse tidal forces acting on an extended body. We obtain the necessary conditions for the metric to be extensible beyond a horizon in terms of an arbitrary radial coordinate and show that all truly naked horizons, as well as many of those previously characterized as naked and even usual ones, do not admit an extension and therefore must be considered as singularities. Some examples are given, showing which kinds of matter are able to create specific space-times with different kinds of horizons, including truly naked ones. Among them are fluids with negative pressure and scalar fields with a particular behavior of the potential. We also discuss horizons and singularities in Kantowski-Sachs spherically symmetric cosmologies and present horizon regularity conditions in terms of an arbitrary time coordinate and proper (synchronous) time. It turns out that horizons of orders 2 and higher occur in infinite proper times in the past or future, but one-way communication with regions beyond such horizons is still possible.

  7. Cold start extra emissions as a function of engine stop time: Evolution over the last 10 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favez, Jean-Yves; Weilenmann, Martin; Stilli, Jan

    Cars with catalysts show a significant increase in exhaust emissions at engine start. These extra emissions are expressed as the difference, over a particular driving cycle, between emissions generated when the vehicle is started and when the engine or the catalyst are stably warm. Experimental data, suitable for the assessment of cold start emissions, are usually available for completely cooled engines. Most results originate from tests at ambient temperature of 20-30 °C and with an engine stop time of at least 12 h. On the other hand, data including shorter stop times are very rare. The present work investigates the influence of exhaust emissions with shorter stop times, i.e. 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 h. The main goal consists in the comparison of emissions exhausted by recent car models (Euro-4) against emissions assessed in the framework of a similar campaign 10 years ago (FAV1/Euro-1 vehicles). A short survey of the current extra emission estimation methods is presented in this paper. It is shown that some methods are not suited for providing correct estimations in all cases. We discuss the fact that different estimation methods can show either similar or completely different results depending on the evolution behaviour of the hot emissions. Due to new technologies, e.g. the catalyst and improved engine control algorithms, emissions have been considerably reduced over the last 10 years. In this study it is determined how the relative extra emissions, i.e. extra emissions relative to the extra emissions for the standard stop time of 12 h, expressed as a function of stop time have changed. We may claim with caution that for medium stop times of 0.5-4 h the average relative extra emissions of Euro-4 vehicles are well below the average of the relative extra emissions of Euro-1 vehicles.

  8. The WSMR Timing System: Toward New Horizons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, William A.; Stimets, Bob

    1996-01-01

    In 1991, White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) initiated a modernization program for its range timing system. The main focus of this modernization program was to develop a system that was highly accurate, easy to maintain, and portable. The logical decision at the time was to develop a system based solely on Global Positioning System (GPS) technology. Since that time, wsmr has changed its philosophy on how GPS would be utilized for the timing system. This paper will describe WSMR's initial modernization plans for its range timing system and how certain events have led to a modification of these plans.

  9. Pattern of Venous Thromboembolism Occurrence in Gynecologic Malignancy: Incidence, Timing, and Distribution a 10-Year Retrospective Single-institutional Study

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Shuang; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Jiaxin; Cao, Dongyan; Huang, Huifang; Wu, Ming; Lang, Jinghe; Shen, Keng

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this single-institutional 10-year retrospective study was to investigate the clinical pattern (incidence, type, timing, and location) of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in Chinese patients with gynecologic cancer. Cases were identified by searching institutional Electronic Discharge Database. A comprehensive review of medical documentation was then performed to collect relevant data. The detection of VTE was symptom-triggered. A total of 155 VTE events were identified out of 7562 cases over the past 10-year period in our hospital. The incidence of clinically significant VTE was 2.0% in gynecologic malignancy, with vulvar cancer (3.7%) and ovarian cancer (2.5%) being the high-risk types (P = 0.01, Chi-square test). Perioperative period (35.1%) and preoperation (29.1%) were the 2 incidence peaks. Seventeen cases of pulmonary embolism (PE) occurred prior to surgery. Ovarian cancer patients were more likely to present preoperative PE compared to other site of cancer (76.4%; P = 0.01, Chi-square test). More preoperative VTE cases were complicated by PE than those in the perioperative period (39.5% vs 17.3%, P = 0.02, Chi-square test). Bilateral lower extremity deep vein thrombosis (DVT) accounted for 32.6% and there existed a preponderance of left-sided DVT (47.5% vs 17.0%, ratio 2.79:1). Femoral vein (36.6%) was the most common location for DVT. About 2.0% of the Chinese patients with gynecologic carcinoma developed clinical VTE, mostly during perioperative period and the time of diagnosis. The true incidence might have been under-estimated due to several reasons. The need for increased patient education and awareness of VTE is of importance. PMID:26683971

  10. The Structure of Titan's Ionosphere from 10 Years of Cassini Measurements: Solar Cycle and Saturn Local Time Dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edberg, N. J. T.; Kurth, W. S.; Gurnett, D. A.; Andrews, D. J.; Vigren, E.; Shebanits, O.; Agren, K.; Wahlund, J. E.; Opgenoorth, H. J.; Holmberg, M.; Jackman, C. M.; Cravens, T.; Bertucci, C.; Dougherty, M. K.

    2014-12-01

    We present measurements from the Cassini Radio and Plasma Wave Science/Langmuir probe (RPWS/LP) instrument of the electron density in the ionosphere of Titan from the first ~100 flybys (2004-2014). After more than 10 years of measurements a good number of measurements exists from Titan's ionosphere. This allows for statistical studies of the structure of Titan's ionosphere. The electron density has been shown to vary significantly from one flyby to the next, as well as on longer time scales and here we discern some of the reasons for the observed ionospheric variability. Firstly, following the rise to the recent solar maximum we show how the ionospheric peak density, normalized to a common solar zenith angle, Nnorm clearly varies with the ~11-year solar cycle. Nnorm correlates well with the solar energy flux Fe and we find that Nnorm ∝ Fek, with k = 0.54 ± 0.18, which is close to the theoretical value of 0.5. Secondly, we present results that indicate that the ionospheric density in the topside ionosphere (altitude range 1200-2400 km) are generally significantly increased, roughly by a factor of 2, when Titan is located in the post-midnight sector of Saturn, i.e. at Saturn local times 00 - 03 h, compared to other local time sectors. We suggest that this increase could be caused by additional particle impact ionization from reconnection events in the Saturn tail.

  11. A Randomized Trial Comparing Part-time Patching with Observation for Children 3–10 Years Old with Intermittent Exotropia

    PubMed Central

    Cotter, Susan A.; Mohney, Brian G.; Chandler, Danielle L.; Holmes, Jonathan M.; Repka, Michael X.; Melia, Michele; Wallace, David K.; Beck, Roy W.; Birch, Eileen E.; Kraker, Raymond T.; Tamkins, Susanna M.; Miller, Aaron M.; Sala, Nicholas A.; Glaser, Stephen R.

    2014-01-01

    over a 6-month period is uncommon with or without patching treatment. Although there is a slightly lower deterioration rate with patching, both management approaches are reasonable for treating 3 to 10 year olds with IXT. PMID:25234012

  12. Time machines with the compactly determined Cauchy horizon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnikov, S.

    2014-07-01

    The building of a time machine, if possible at all, requires the relevant regions of spacetime to be compact (that is, physically speaking, free from sources of unpredictability such as infinities and singularities). Motivated by this argument we consider the spacetimes with the compactly determined Cauchy horizons (CDCHs), the defining property of which is the compactness of J-(U) ¯∩J+(S0), where U is an open subset of the Cauchy horizon and S0 is a Cauchy surface of the initial globally hyperbolic region Min. The following two facts are established: (1) Min has no globally hyperbolic maximal extension. This means that, by shaping appropriately a precompact portion of a globally hyperbolic region, one can force the Universe to produce either a closed causal curve, or a quasiregular singularity, whichever it abhors less. (2) Before a CDCH is formed a null geodesic appears which infinitely approaches the horizon returning again and again in the same—arbitrarily small—region. The energy of the photon moving on such a geodesic increases with each passage, or at least falls insufficiently fast. As a result, an observer located in the mentioned region would see a bunch of photons passing through his laboratory with the arbitrarily large total energy. We speculate that this phenomenon may have observable consequences.

  13. Generalized Robertson-Walker Space-Time Admitting Evolving Null Horizons Related to a Black Hole Event Horizon

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    A new technique is used to study a family of time-dependent null horizons, called “Evolving Null Horizons” (ENHs), of generalized Robertson-Walker (GRW) space-time (M¯,g¯) such that the metric g¯ satisfies a kinematic condition. This work is different from our early papers on the same issue where we used (1 + n)-splitting space-time but only some special subcases of GRW space-time have this formalism. Also, in contrast to previous work, we have proved that each member of ENHs is totally umbilical in (M¯,g¯). Finally, we show that there exists an ENH which is always a null horizon evolving into a black hole event horizon and suggest some open problems. PMID:27722202

  14. Association between accelerometer-measured physical activity intensities and sedentary time in 8- to 10-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Herman, Katya M; Paradis, Gilles; Mathieu, Marie-Eve; O'Loughlin, Jennifer; Tremblay, Angelo; Lambert, Marie

    2014-02-01

    This study examines the association between objectively-measured physical activity (PA) intensities and sedentary behavior (SED) in a cohort of 532 children aged 8-10 y. PA and SED were assessed by accelerometer over 7-days. Television and computer/video-game use were self-reported. Associations between PA intensities and SED variables were assessed by Spearman correlations and adjusted multiple linear regression. Higher mean daily moderate-to-vigorous and vigorous PA (MVPA, VPA) were negatively associated with mean daily SED (r = -0.47 and -0.37; p < .001), and positively associated with mean daily total PA (r = .58 and 0.46; p < .001). MVPA was also positively associated with light PA (LPA; r = .26, p < .001). MVPA and VPA were not significantly associated with TV, computer/video or total screen time; accelerometer SED was only weakly associated with specific SED behaviors. On average, for each additional 10 min daily MVPA, children accumulated >14 min less SED, and for each additional 5 min VPA, 11 min less SED. Thus, over the course of a week, higher mean daily MVPA may displace SED time and is associated with higher total PA over and above the additional MVPA, due to concomitant higher levels of LPA. Public health strategies should target both MVPA and SED to improve overall PA and health in children. PMID:24018974

  15. Racial Disparities in Colorectal Carcinoma Incidence, Severity and Survival Times Over 10 Years: A Retrospective Single Center Study

    PubMed Central

    Arshad, Hafiz Muhammad Sharjeel; Tetangco, Eula; Shah, Natasha; Kabir, Christopher; Raddawi, Hareth

    2016-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Although studies have been performed on malignancy behavior in African Americans and Caucasians, scant data are present on other minority racial groups. Methods A retrospective single center study was performed where 1,860 patient charts with a diagnosis of CRC from January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2014 were reviewed. Data collected on each patient included age, gender, ethnicity, primary site and histological stage at the time of diagnosis. Survival time over the course of 5 years was documented for patients from January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2009. Comparisons were made amongst different racial groups for the above mentioned factors. Results Study population consisted of 27.09% African Americans, 65.61% Caucasians, 3.86% Hispanics, 0.54% South Asians, 1.03% Arabs, 0.54% Asians and 0.22% American Indians. Mean age of CRC presentation was found to be significantly different (P < 0.05) between the three largest racial groups: 71 years for Caucasians, 69 years for African Americans, and 61 years for Hispanics. African Americans (27.09%) and Hispanics (28.79%) presented predominantly at stage IV in comparison to other racial groups. Caucasians presented predominantly at stage III (24.84%). The rectum was the most common site of CRC across all racial groups with the exception of Asians, where sigmoid colon was the predominant site (30%). Adenocarcinoma remained the predominant cancer type in all groups. Hispanics had relatively higher incidence rate of carcinoid tumor (12.68%). Survival time analysis showed that Caucasians tend to have better survival probability over 5 years after initial diagnosis as compared to African Americans and Hispanic (P < 0.05). Conclusion There is lack of studies performed on minority racial groups in North America. Our study highlighted some important clinical differences of CRC presentation in different racial groups which are not

  16. Time to First Shunt Failure in Pediatric Patients over 1 Year Old: A 10-Year Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Shannon, Chevis N; Carr, Kevin R; Tomycz, Luke; Wellons, John C; Tulipan, Noel

    2013-01-01

    Studies comparing alternatives to ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunting for treatment of hydrocephalus have often relied upon data from an earlier era that may not be representative of contemporary shunt survival outcomes. We sought to determine the shunt survival rate of our cohort and compare our results to previously published shunt survival and endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) success rates. We identified 95 patients between 1 and 18 years of age, who underwent initial VP shunt placement between January 2001 and December 2010. Our study shows a shunt survival rate of 85% at 6 months and 79% at 2 years, for initial shunts in pediatric patients over 1 year of age in this cohort. The overall infection rate was 3%. This compares favorably with published success rates of ETV at similar time points as well as with the rate of infection. This suggests that ventricular shunting remains a viable alternative to ETV in the older child.

  17. Joint association of physical activity/screen time and diet on CVD risk factors in 10-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Carlson, Joseph J; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Eisenmann, Joey C

    2012-12-01

    The increasing prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity has been associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). While several studies examined the effect of single behaviors such as physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior or diet on CVD risk, there is a lack of research on combined associations, specifically in children. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the joint association of PA or screen time (ST) and diet on CVD risk factors in children. PA, STand diet were assessed via questionnaire in 210 fifth grade students (age: 10.6 ± 0.4 years). The healthy eating index (HEI) was subsequently calculated as indicator for diet quality. Height, weight, % body fat, and resting blood pressure were measured according to standard procedures and blood samples obtained via fingerprick were assayed for blood lipids. Total cholesterol HDL ratio (TC:HDL), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and % body fat were used as indicators of CVD risk. 55% of children did not meet current PA recommendations on at least 5 days/week and 70% exceeded current recommendations for ST. Further, only 2.5% possessed a "good" diet (HEI> 80). There was no significant association of PA or STand diet on CVD risk score. Neither TC:HDL, MAP, and % body fat nor the total CVD risk score was significantly correlated with diet, PA, or ST. Children in the high PA group, however, had significantly better diet scores. Despite the fact that self-reported PA, ST, or dietary intake were not directly related to CVD risk in this sample, higher activity levels were associated with a healthier diet and lower ST indicating an overall healthier lifestyle of this subgroup.

  18. Joint association of physical activity/screen time and diet on CVD risk factors in 10-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Carlson, Joseph J; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Eisenmann, Joey C

    2012-12-01

    The increasing prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity has been associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). While several studies examined the effect of single behaviors such as physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior or diet on CVD risk, there is a lack of research on combined associations, specifically in children. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the joint association of PA or screen time (ST) and diet on CVD risk factors in children. PA, STand diet were assessed via questionnaire in 210 fifth grade students (age: 10.6 ± 0.4 years). The healthy eating index (HEI) was subsequently calculated as indicator for diet quality. Height, weight, % body fat, and resting blood pressure were measured according to standard procedures and blood samples obtained via fingerprick were assayed for blood lipids. Total cholesterol HDL ratio (TC:HDL), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and % body fat were used as indicators of CVD risk. 55% of children did not meet current PA recommendations on at least 5 days/week and 70% exceeded current recommendations for ST. Further, only 2.5% possessed a "good" diet (HEI> 80). There was no significant association of PA or STand diet on CVD risk score. Neither TC:HDL, MAP, and % body fat nor the total CVD risk score was significantly correlated with diet, PA, or ST. Children in the high PA group, however, had significantly better diet scores. Despite the fact that self-reported PA, ST, or dietary intake were not directly related to CVD risk in this sample, higher activity levels were associated with a healthier diet and lower ST indicating an overall healthier lifestyle of this subgroup. PMID:23224418

  19. Receding Horizon Stabilization and Disturbance Attenuation for Neural Networks With Time-Varying Delay.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Choon Ki; Shi, Peng; Wu, Ligang

    2015-12-01

    This paper is concerned with the problems of receding horizon stabilization and disturbance attenuation for neural networks with time-varying delay. New delay-dependent conditions on the terminal weighting matrices of a new finite horizon cost functional for receding horizon stabilization are established for neural networks with time-varying or time-invariant delays using single- and double-integral Wirtinger-type inequalities. Based on the results, delay-dependent sufficient conditions for the receding horizon disturbance attenuation are given to guarantee the infinite horizon H∞ performance of neural networks with time-varying or time-invariant delays. Three numerical examples are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  20. Deepwater Horizon - Estimating surface oil volume distribution in real time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehr, B.; Simecek-Beatty, D.; Leifer, I.

    2011-12-01

    Spill responders to the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill required both the relative spatial distribution and total oil volume of the surface oil. The former was needed on a daily basis to plan and direct local surface recovery and treatment operations. The latter was needed less frequently to provide information for strategic response planning. Unfortunately, the standard spill observation methods were inadequate for an oil spill this size, and new, experimental, methods, were not ready to meet the operational demands of near real-time results. Traditional surface oil estimation tools for large spills include satellite-based sensors to define the spatial extent (but not thickness) of the oil, complemented with trained observers in small aircraft, sometimes supplemented by active or passive remote sensing equipment, to determine surface percent coverage of the 'thick' part of the slick, where the vast majority of the surface oil exists. These tools were also applied to DWH in the early days of the spill but the shear size of the spill prevented synoptic information of the surface slick through the use small aircraft. Also, satellite images of the spill, while large in number, varied considerably in image quality, requiring skilled interpretation of them to identify oil and eliminate false positives. Qualified staff to perform this task were soon in short supply. However, large spills are often events that overcome organizational inertia to the use of new technology. Two prime examples in DWH were the application of hyper-spectral scans from a high-altitude aircraft and more traditional fixed-wing aircraft using multi-spectral scans processed by use of a neural network to determine, respectively, absolute or relative oil thickness. But, with new technology, come new challenges. The hyper-spectral instrument required special viewing conditions that were not present on a daily basis and analysis infrastructure to process the data that was not available at the command

  1. The proportion of diploid 46,XX cells increases with time in women with Turner syndrome--a 10-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Denes, Anna-Maria; Landin-Wilhelmsen, Kerstin; Wettergren, Yvonne; Bryman, Inger; Hanson, Charles

    2015-02-01

    In the normal population, loss of one of the sex chromosomes leading to monosomy (45,X) is a part of the aging process. In Turner syndrome (TS), the classic karyotype 45,X is found in up to 50% at birth, and others have a second cell line; mosaicism. The aim was to study if the chromosomal pattern in TS women changes over time. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed on buccal smear cells obtained twice, 10 years apart, from 42 women with TS aged 26-66 years (mean±standard deviation: 42.0±11.6). DNA probes specific for chromosomes X (DXZ1) and Y (DYZ3) were used and >100 cells were analyzed/patient. Nineteen women had monosomy (45,X) (<10% 46,XX), nine had 45,X/46,XX mosaicism, and 14 had iso, ring, or a marker chromosome at baseline. At 10 years, the percentage of diploid cells had increased in 29 of 42 women (69%), with an average increase of 5.7±13.0%. There was a positive correlation between age and % change in diploid 46,XX or 46,XY cells (r=0.38, p=0.023). This new finding might have relevance for the life expectancy in TS.

  2. The Proportion of Diploid 46,XX Cells Increases with Time in Women with Turner Syndrome—A 10-Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Denes, Anna-Maria; Landin-Wilhelmsen, Kerstin; Wettergren, Yvonne; Bryman, Inger

    2015-01-01

    In the normal population, loss of one of the sex chromosomes leading to monosomy (45,X) is a part of the aging process. In Turner syndrome (TS), the classic karyotype 45,X is found in up to 50% at birth, and others have a second cell line; mosaicism. The aim was to study if the chromosomal pattern in TS women changes over time. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed on buccal smear cells obtained twice, 10 years apart, from 42 women with TS aged 26–66 years (mean±standard deviation: 42.0±11.6). DNA probes specific for chromosomes X (DXZ1) and Y (DYZ3) were used and >100 cells were analyzed/patient. Nineteen women had monosomy (45,X) (<10% 46,XX), nine had 45,X/46,XX mosaicism, and 14 had iso, ring, or a marker chromosome at baseline. At 10 years, the percentage of diploid cells had increased in 29 of 42 women (69%), with an average increase of 5.7±13.0%. There was a positive correlation between age and % change in diploid 46,XX or 46,XY cells (r=0.38, p=0.023). This new finding might have relevance for the life expectancy in TS. PMID:25587646

  3. Treatment of Wilson's disease with zinc from the time of diagnosis in pediatric patients: a single-hospital, 10-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Marcellini, Matilde; Di Ciommo, Vincenzo; Callea, Francesco; Devito, Rita; Comparcola, Donatella; Sartorelli, Maria Rita; Carelli, Giovanni; Carelli, Francesco; Nobili, Valerio

    2005-03-01

    Wilson's disease (WD) is an inherited disorder of copper metabolism characterized by a failure of the liver to excrete copper, leading to its accumulation in the liver, brain, cornea, and kidney, with resulting chronic degenerative changes. It is generally accepted that "presymptomatic" patients--in whom WD is diagnosed in childhood and who are defined as those who, although still asymptomatic, do have liver disease, as indicated by increased serum concentrations of transaminases--should be treated prophylactically. Here we report our results in 22 children treated with continuous oral zinc therapy for 10 years. Zinc sulfate was administered at a dosage of 25 mg elemental zinc twice a day until the age of 6 years, 25 mg three times a day between the ages of 7 and 16 years or until the child attained a body weight of 125 lb, and 50 mg three times a day thereafter. Five years after the start of zinc treatment, we noted highly significant decreases in alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and urinary copper excretion, but white blood cell counts did not vary significantly. Six of 22 patients continued to demonstrate greater-than-normal ALT concentrations and only 1 patient demonstrated an ALT concentration more than 1.5 times the upper normal limit. Further decreases in ALT, AST, and urinary copper excretion were observed at the end of the 10-year follow-up, but these decreases were not statistically significant. Only 1 patient continued to demonstrate abnormal ALT levels. Again, white blood cells showed no significant variations. All histologic scores (steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis) were significantly decreased after treatment. Hepatic copper content was also significantly decreased, although it remained higher than normal in all patients. The removal of toxic copper was confirmed by disappearance of Kayser-Fleischer rings in 3 patients. Zinc did not have adverse effects on growth. The efficacy of zinc in WD in presymptomatic

  4. Correlation based networks of equity returns sampled at different time horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tumminello, M.; di Matteo, T.; Aste, T.; Mantegna, R. N.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the planar maximally filtered graphs of the portfolio of the 300 most capitalized stocks traded at the New York Stock Exchange during the time period 2001 2003. Topological properties such as the average length of shortest paths, the betweenness and the degree are computed on different planar maximally filtered graphs generated by sampling the returns at different time horizons ranging from 5 min up to one trading day. This analysis confirms that the selected stocks compose a hierarchical system progressively structuring as the sampling time horizon increases. Finally, a cluster formation, associated to economic sectors, is quantitatively investigated.

  5. 75 FR 79961 - Temporary Suspension of Certain Oil Spill Response Time Requirements To Support Deepwater Horizon...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-21

    ... Gulf of Mexico Deepwater Horizon SONSat the FOSC's request. 75 FR 37712. The rule also confirmed that...; 2050-AG63 Temporary Suspension of Certain Oil Spill Response Time Requirements To Support Deepwater.... Oil Spill Response Resources Return Time Several comments noted concerns about the return of assets...

  6. An integral equation representation approach for valuing Russian options with a finite time horizon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Junkee; Han, Heejae; Kim, Hyeonuk; Kang, Myungjoo

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we first describe a general solution for the inhomogeneous Black-Scholes partial differential equation with mixed boundary conditions using Mellin transform techniques. Since Russian options with a finite time horizon are usually formulated into the inhomogeneous free-boundary Black-Scholes partial differential equation with a mixed boundary condition, we apply our method to Russian options and derive an integral equation satisfied by Russian options with a finite time horizon. Furthermore, we present some numerical solutions and plots of the integral equation using recursive integration methods and demonstrate the computational accuracy and efficiency of our method compared to other competing approaches.

  7. Self-regulation predicts risk-taking through people's time horizon.

    PubMed

    Panno, Angelo; Pierro, Antonio; Lauriola, Marco

    2014-06-01

    In the context of decision-making research, people's regulatory orientation mode (i.e., assessment and locomotion modes) has been included among the most prominent individual difference variables, which may potentially account for choice behaviour. Thus, the main objective of our experiment was to investigate the relations between habitual use of regulatory mode and risk-taking through people's time horizon. Risk-taking was appraised using a behavioural measure (i.e., BART) 1 month following evaluation of habitual use of regulatory mode. The findings revealed a significant negative association between the assessment mode and risk-taking through individual differences in time horizon. PMID:24821511

  8. Parisian ruin over a finite-time horizon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dębicki, Krzysztof; Hashorva, Enkelejd; Ji, LanPeng

    2016-03-01

    For a risk process $R_u(t)=u+ct-X(t), t\\ge 0$, where $u\\ge 0$ is the initial capital, $c>0$ is the premium rate and $X(t),t\\ge 0$ is an aggregate claim process, we investigate the probability of the Parisian ruin \\[ \\mathcal{P}_S(u,T_u)=\\mathbb{P}\\{\\inf_{t\\in[0,S]} \\sup_{s\\in[t,t+T_u]} R_u(s)<0\\}, \\] with a given positive constant $S$ and a positive measurable function $T_u$. We derive asymptotic expansion of $\\mathcal{P}_S(u,T_u)$, as $u\\to\\infty$, for the aggregate claim process $X$ modeled by Gaussian processes. As a by-product, we derive the exact tail asymptotics of the infimum of a standard Brownian motion with drift over a finite-time interval.

  9. Real-time beyond the horizon vessel detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roarty, Hugh J.; Smith, Michael; Glenn, Scott M.; Barrick, Donald E.

    2013-05-01

    The marine transportation system (MTS) is a vital component of the United States Economy. Waterborne cargo accounts for more than $742 billion of the nation's economy and creates employment for 13 million citizens. A disruption in this system would have far reaching consequences to the security of the country. The US National High Frequency radar network, which comprises 130 radar stations around the country, became operational in May 2009. It provides hourly measurements of surface currents to the US Coast Guard for search and rescue (SAR). This system has the capability of being a dual use system providing information for environmental monitoring as well as vessel position information for maritime security. Real time vessel detection has been implemented at two of the radar stations outside New York Harbor. Several experiments were conducted to see the amount vessel traffic that the radar could capture. The radars were able to detect a majority of the vessels that are reporting via the Automatic Identification System (AIS) as well as 30 percent of mid to large size vessels that are not reporting via AIS. The radars were able to detect vessels out to 60 km from the coast. The addition of a vessel detection capability to the National HF radar network will provide valuable information to maritime security sector. This dual use capability will fill a gap in the current surveillance of US coastal waters. It will also provide longer-range situational awareness necessary to detect and track smaller size vessels in the large vessel clutter.

  10. World-sheet stability, space-time horizons and cosmic censorship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollock, M. D.

    2014-11-01

    Previously, we have analyzed the stability and supersymmetry of the heterotic superstring world sheet in the background Friedmann space-time generated by a perfect fluid with energy density ρ and pressure p = ( γ - 1) ρ. The world sheet is tachyon-free within the range 2/3 ≤ γ ≤ ∞, and globally supersymmetric in the Minkowski-space limit ρ = ∞, or when γ = 2/3, which is the equation of state for stringy matter and corresponds to the Milne universe, that expands along its apparent horizon. Here, this result is discussed in greater detail, particularly with regard to the question of horizon structure, cosmic censorship, the TCP theorem, and local world-sheet supersymmetry. Also, we consider the symmetric background space-time generated by a static, electrically (or magnetically) charged matter distribution of total mass and charge Q, and containing a radially directed macroscopic string. We find that the effective string mass m satisfies the inequality m 2 ≥ 0, signifying stability, provided that , which corresponds to the Reissner-Nordström black hole. The case of marginal string stability, m 2 = 0, is the extremal solution , which was shown by Gibbons and Hull to be supersymmetric, and has a marginal horizon. If , the horizon disappears, m 2 < 0, and the string becomes unstable.

  11. Forecasting geomagnetic activity at monthly and annual horizons: Time series models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reikard, Gordon

    2015-10-01

    Most of the existing work on forecasting geomagnetic activity has been over short intervals, on the order of hours or days. However, it is also of interest to predict over longer horizons, ranging from months to years. Forecasting tests are run for the Aa index, which begins in 1868 and provides the longest continuous records of geomagnetic activity. This series is challenging to forecast. While it exhibits cycles at 11-22 years, the amplitude and period of the cycles varies over time. There is also evidence of discontinuous trending: the slope and direction of the trend change repeatedly. Further, at the monthly resolution, the data exhibits nonlinear variability, with intermittent large outliers. Several types of models are tested: regressions, neural networks, a frequency domain algorithm, and combined models. Forecasting tests are run at horizons of 1-11 years using the annual data, and 1-12 months using the monthly data. At the 1-year horizon, the mean errors are in the range of 13-17 percent while the median errors are in the range of 10-14 percent. The accuracy of the models deteriorates at longer horizons. At 5 years, the mean errors lie in the range of 21-23 percent, and at 11 years, 23-25 percent. At the 1 year horizon, the most accurate forecast is achieved by a combined model, but over longer horizons (2-11 years), the neural net dominates. At the monthly resolution, the mean errors are in the range of 17-19 percent at 1 month, while the median errors lie in a range of 14-17 percent. The mean error increases to 23-24 percent at 5 months, and 25 percent at 12 months. A model combining frequency and time domain methods is marginally better than regressions and neural networks alone, up to 11 months. The main conclusion is that geomagnetic activity can only be predicted to within a limited threshold of accuracy, over a given range of horizons. This is consistent with the finding of irregular trends and cycles in the annual data and nonlinear variability in

  12. Continuous-Time Mean-Variance Portfolio Selection with Random Horizon

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Zhiyong

    2013-12-15

    This paper examines the continuous-time mean-variance optimal portfolio selection problem with random market parameters and random time horizon. Treating this problem as a linearly constrained stochastic linear-quadratic optimal control problem, I explicitly derive the efficient portfolios and efficient frontier in closed forms based on the solutions of two backward stochastic differential equations. Some related issues such as a minimum variance portfolio and a mutual fund theorem are also addressed. All the results are markedly different from those in the problem with deterministic exit time. A key part of my analysis involves proving the global solvability of a stochastic Riccati equation, which is interesting in its own right.

  13. [10 years of liver transplantation in Peru].

    PubMed

    Chaman Ortiz, José Carlos; Padilla Machaca, P Martín; Rondon Leyva, Carlos; Carrasco Mascaró, Felix

    2010-01-01

    The article reviews the experience in 10 years of hepatic transplants performed by The Transplant Department of the National Hospital Guillermo Almenara Irigoyen (HNGAI), describing the history, surgical outcomes in adults and children, retransplantation, combined liver-kidney transplants, complications in 72 transplants performed at the time of submission of the article.

  14. HORIZON SENSING

    SciTech Connect

    Larry G. Stolarczyk, Sc.D.

    2002-07-31

    Real-time horizon sensing (HS) on continuous mining (CM) machines is becoming an industry tool. Installation and testing of production-grade HS systems has been ongoing this quarter at Oxbow Mining Company, Monterey Coal Company (EXXON), FMC Trona, Twentymile Coal Company (RAG America), and SASOL Coal. Detailed monitoring of system function, user experience, and mining benefits is ongoing. All horizon sensor components have finished MSHA (United States) and IEC (International) certification.

  15. Chert horizons as time-stratigraphic markers in Ordovician and Silurian of eastern Great Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, G.J.

    1986-08-01

    Data from numerous measured sections show that distinct chert horizons occur at or near the same stratigraphic intervals in a number of Ordovician and Silurian dolomite sequences in the eastern Great basin of Nevada and Utah. In many cases a shallow-water origin for the chert is inferred because of silicified shelfal fauna and lack of deeper water indicators. The cherty intervals appear to transgress across environmentally controlled lithologic boundaries. This fact, coupled with the regional extent of the chert, suggests that these intervals can be used as time-stratigraphic marker horizons. This concept is useful in assessing the degree of stratigraphic thinning of Upper Silurian strata along a regional unconformity. Although chert is almost ubiquitously present in certain stratigraphic intervals, the abundance of chert-bearing horizons within an individual section varies. By contouring the abundance of chert-bearing intervals within the Silurian system, a well-defined pattern is documented that increases in abundance to the northeast toward the northwestern corner of Utah. The ratio of chert to dolomite within the intervals increases correspondingly. It is suggested that the chert is the result of silica supersaturation from the settling of wind-blow volcanic ash on the Silurian epicontinental sea. The distribution of the chert was largely a function of paleowind currents from an easterly or northerly active volcanic source area.

  16. DART® Tsunameter Retrospective and Real-Time Data: A Reflection on 10 Years of Processing in Support of Tsunami Research and Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mungov, George; Eblé, Marie; Bouchard, Richard

    2013-09-01

    In the early 1980s, the United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory established the fundamentals of the contemporary tsunameter network deployed throughout the world oceans. The decades of technological and scientific advancements that followed led to a robust network that now provides real-time deep-ocean tsunami observations routinely incorporated into operational procedures of tsunami warning centers around the globe. All aspects of the network, from research to operations, to data archive and dissemination, are conducted collaboratively between the National Data Buoy Center, the Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, and the National Geophysical Data Center, with oversight by the National Weather Service. The National Data Buoy Center manages and conducts all operational network activities and distributes real-time data to the public. The Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory provides the research component in support of modeling and network enhancements for improved forecasting capability. The National Geophysical Data Center is responsible for the processing, archiving, and distribution of all retrospective data and integrates DART® tsunameter data with the National Geophysical Data Center global historical tsunami database. The role each agency plays in collecting, processing, and disseminating observations of deep-ocean bottom pressure is presented along with brief descriptions of data processing procedures. Specific examples of challenges and the approaches taken to address these are discussed. National Geophysical Data Center newly developed and available tsunami event web pages are briefly described and demonstrated with processed data for both the Tohoku 11 March 2011 and the Haiti 12 January 2010 tsunami events.

  17. Twelve months of active musical training in 8- to 10-year-old children enhances the preattentive processing of syllabic duration and voice onset time.

    PubMed

    Chobert, Julie; François, Clément; Velay, Jean-Luc; Besson, Mireille

    2014-04-01

    Musical training has been shown to positively influence linguistic abilities. To follow the developmental dynamics of this transfer effect at the preattentive level, we conducted a longitudinal study over 2 school years with nonmusician children randomly assigned to music or to painting training. We recorded the mismatch negativity (MMN), a cortical correlate of preattentive mismatch detection, to syllables that differed in vowel frequency, vowel duration, and voice onset time (VOT), using a test-training-retest procedure and 3 times of testing: before training, after 6 months and after 12 months of training. While no between-group differences were found before training, enhanced preattentive processing of syllabic duration and VOT, as reflected by greater MMN amplitude, but not of frequency, was found after 12 months of training in the music group only. These results demonstrate neuroplasticity in the child brain and suggest that active musical training rather than innate predispositions for music yielded the improvements in musically trained children. These results also highlight the influence of musical training for duration perception in speech and for the development of phonological representations in normally developing children. They support the importance of music-based training programs for children's education and open new remediation strategies for children with language-based learning impairments.

  18. Mean-Variance Hedging on Uncertain Time Horizon in a Market with a Jump

    SciTech Connect

    Kharroubi, Idris; Lim, Thomas; Ngoupeyou, Armand

    2013-12-15

    In this work, we study the problem of mean-variance hedging with a random horizon T∧τ, where T is a deterministic constant and τ is a jump time of the underlying asset price process. We first formulate this problem as a stochastic control problem and relate it to a system of BSDEs with a jump. We then provide a verification theorem which gives the optimal strategy for the mean-variance hedging using the solution of the previous system of BSDEs. Finally, we prove that this system of BSDEs admits a solution via a decomposition approach coming from filtration enlargement theory.

  19. Swift: 10 Years of Discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The conference Swift: 10 years of discovery was held in Roma at La Sapienza University on Dec. 2-5 2014 to celebrate 10 years of Swift successes. Thanks to a large attendance and a lively program, it provided the opportunity to review recent advances of our knowledge of the high-energy transient Universe both from the observational and theoretical sides. When Swift was launched on November 20, 2004, its prime objective was to chase Gamma-Ray Bursts and deepen our knowledge of these cosmic explosions. And so it did, unveiling the secrets of long and short GRBs. However, its multi-wavelength instrumentation and fast scheduling capabilities made it the most versatile mission ever flown. Besides GRBs, Swift has observed, and contributed to our understanding of, an impressive variety of targets including AGNs, supernovae, pulsars, microquasars, novae, variable stars, comets, and much more. Swift is continuously discovering rare and surprising events distributed over a wide range of redshifts, out to the most distant transient objects in the Universe. Such a trove of discoveries has been addressed during the conference with sessions dedicated to each class of events. Indeed, the conference in Rome was a spectacular celebration of the Swift 10th anniversary. It included sessions on all types of transient and steady sources. Top scientists from around the world gave invited and contributed talks. There was a large poster session, sumptuous lunches, news interviews and a glorious banquet with officials attending from INAF and ASI. All the presentations, as well as several conference pictures, can be found in the conference website (http://www.brera.inaf.it/Swift10/Welcome.html). These proceedings have been collected owing to the efforts of Paolo D’Avanzo who has followed each paper from submission to final acceptance. Our warmest thanks to Paolo for all his work. The Conference has been made possible by the support from La Sapienza University as well as from the ARAP

  20. Optimal Consumption in a Brownian Model with Absorption and Finite Time Horizon

    SciTech Connect

    Grandits, Peter

    2013-04-15

    We construct {epsilon}-optimal strategies for the following control problem: Maximize E[{integral}{sub [0,{tau})}e{sup -{beta}s} dC{sub s}+e{sup -{beta}{tau}}X{sub {tau}}] , where X{sub t}=x+{mu}t+{sigma}W{sub t}-C{sub t}, {tau}{identical_to}inf{l_brace}t>0|X{sub t}=0{r_brace} Logical-And T, T>0 is a fixed finite time horizon, W{sub t} is standard Brownian motion, {mu}, {sigma} are constants, and C{sub t} describes accumulated consumption until time t. It is shown that {epsilon}-optimal strategies are given by barrier strategies with time-dependent barriers.

  1. A receding horizon scheme for discrete-time polytopic linear parameter varying systems in networked architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franzè, Giuseppe; Lucia, Walter; Tedesco, Francesco

    2014-12-01

    This paper proposes a Model Predictive Control (MPC) strategy to address regulation problems for constrained polytopic Linear Parameter Varying (LPV) systems subject to input and state constraints in which both plant measurements and command signals in the loop are sent through communication channels subject to time-varying delays (Networked Control System (NCS)). The results here proposed represent a significant extension to the LPV framework of a recent Receding Horizon Control (RHC) scheme developed for the so-called robust case. By exploiting the parameter availability, the pre-computed sequences of one- step controllable sets inner approximations are less conservative than the robust counterpart. The resulting framework guarantees asymptotic stability and constraints fulfilment regardless of plant uncertainties and time-delay occurrences. Finally, experimental results on a laboratory two-tank test-bed show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  2. MARKOV: A methodology for the solution of infinite time horizon MARKOV decision processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, B.K.

    1988-01-01

    Algorithms are described for determining optimal policies for finite state, finite action, infinite discrete time horizon Markov decision processes. Both value-improvement and policy-improvement techniques are used in the algorithms. Computing procedures are also described. The algorithms are appropriate for processes that are either finite or infinite, deterministic or stochastic, discounted or undiscounted, in any meaningful combination of these features. Computing procedures are described in terms of initial data processing, bound improvements, process reduction, and testing and solution. Application of the methodology is illustrated with an example involving natural resource management. Management implications of certain hypothesized relationships between mallard survival and harvest rates are addressed by applying the optimality procedures to mallard population models.

  3. Pluto's Atmosphere at the Time of the New Horizons Flyby from the 29-JUN-2015 Occultation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, E.; Skrutskie, M.; Wasserman, L.; Howell, R.; Young, L.; Olkin, C.; Buie, M.

    2015-10-01

    Pluto is expected to occult a star on 29-JUN-2015, only two weeks before the scheduled New Horizons flyby on Pluto on 14-JUL-2015. This occultation should be remarkable for several reasons in addition to its synergy with the spacecraft observations. First, the occulted star is by far the brightest ever to be observed in a Pluto occultation: its V-mag is 12.10 ± 0.03, about ten times brighter than Pluto itself. We are deploying a wide array of telescopes to obtain quality lightcurves at 10 Hz, sufficient to resolve vertical atmospheric structure (e.g., gravity waves) at the 2.5-km scale over a range of radii from about 1195 to 1300 km. Second, we plan to obtain lighcurves in infrared wavelengths near 1.7 μm, where the star's H-mag (about 11) is bright enough to provide useful signal-to-noise ratios, albeit at slower cadences near 1 Hz (about two points per scale height). The combination of simultaneous IR and visible wavelength lightcurves should address the decades-old question: is there haze in Pluto's atmosphere, and if so, what is its opacity? New Horizons should image haze layers in reflected light as the occultation quantifies haze extinction in transmitted light: the combination could potentially let us solve for haze phase functions. Third, the current predicted shadow path is centered over much of New Zealand. We plan to deploy three portable telescopes in New Zealand to locations that are candidates for observing central flashes. If successful, these lightcurves can tell us (a) the oblateness of Pluto's atmosphere and (b) the detailed density gradient profile at radii near 1215 km, which (in turn) is a function of trace abundances of CO and CH4 a few tens of km above Pluto's surface. We will report on lightcurves obtained on 29-JUN- 2015, the column abundance of Pluto's atmosphere just two weeks before the New Horizons flyby, the detection (or not) of haze, and - if central flashes are obtained - the oblateness of Pluto's atmosphere.

  4. HORIZON SENSING

    SciTech Connect

    Larry G. Stolarczyk

    2003-03-18

    program began development in 1998 and experienced three major design phases. The final version, termed HS-3, was commissioned in 2000 with the assistance of the DOE-Mining Industry of the Future program, commercialized in 2002, and has been used 14 times in 12 different mines within the United States. The Horizon Sensor has applications in both underground and surface mining operations. This technology is primarily used in the coal industry, but is also used to mine trona and potash. All horizon sensor components have Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) (United States) and IEC (International) certification. Horizon Sensing saves energy by maximizing cutting efficiency, cutting only desired material. This desired material is cleaner fuel, therefore reducing pollutants to the atmosphere when burned and burning more efficiently. Extracting only desired material increases productivity by reducing or eliminating the cleaning step after extraction. Additionally, this technology allows for deeper mining, resulting in more material gained from one location. The remote sensing tool allows workers to operate the machinery away from the hazards of cutting coal, including noise, breathing dust and gases, and coal and rock splintering and outbursts. The HS program has primarily revolved around the development of the technology. However, the end goal of the program has always been the commercialization of the technology and only within the last 2 years of the program has this goal been realized. Real-time horizon sensing on mining machines is becoming an industry tool. Detailed monitoring of system function, user experience, and mining benefits is ongoing.

  5. ''Illusion of control'' in Time-Horizon Minority and Parrondo Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satinover, J. B.; Sornette, D.

    2007-12-01

    Human beings like to believe they are in control of their destiny. This ubiquitous trait seems to increase motivation and persistence, and is probably evolutionarily adaptive [J.D. Taylor, S.E. Brown, Psych. Bull. 103, 193 (1988); A. Bandura, Self-efficacy: the exercise of control (WH Freeman, New York, 1997)]. But how good really is our ability to control? How successful is our track record in these areas? There is little understanding of when and under what circumstances we may over-estimate [E. Langer, J. Pers. Soc. Psych. 7, 185 (1975)] or even lose our ability to control and optimize outcomes, especially when they are the result of aggregations of individual optimization processes. Here, we demonstrate analytically using the theory of Markov Chains and by numerical simulations in two classes of games, the Time-Horizon Minority Game [M.L. Hart, P. Jefferies, N.F. Johnson, Phys. A 311, 275 (2002)] and the Parrondo Game [J.M.R. Parrondo, G.P. Harmer, D. Abbott, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5226 (2000); J.M.R. Parrondo, How to cheat a bad mathematician (ISI, Italy, 1996)], that agents who optimize their strategy based on past information may actually perform worse than non-optimizing agents. In other words, low-entropy (more informative) strategies under-perform high-entropy (or random) strategies. This provides a precise definition of the “illusion of control” in certain set-ups a priori defined to emphasize the importance of optimization.

  6. Is it time to bring the “Parent” into the prevention of parent to child transmission programs in India? A study of trends over a 10-year period in a prevention of parent to child transmission clinic in India

    PubMed Central

    Shiradkar, Swati; Mande, Shubhangi; Bapat, Gauri; Setia, Maninder Singh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The present study evaluated the changes in serology and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing behaviors over a 10-year period in a center in India. Methods: We used clinical data collected at the antenatal clinic from 2002 to 2011. The key outcomes were: (1) Proportion of women who opted for HIV test and those who tested positive; (2) proportion of male partners who came in for HIV test and those who tested positive; and (3) proportion of women who opted for continuation of pregnancy or for medical termination of pregnancy. Results: We tested 11,452 women for HIV over the 10-year period from 2002 to 2011. The proportion of women who opted for HIV testing was 72.0% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 70.7–73.4%). The acceptance of test increased from 35.9% (95% CI: 31.7–40.4%) in 2002 to the peak of 82.6% (95% CI: 78.6–86.8%) in 2009 (P < 0.001). The overall HIV prevalence over the decade was 0.70% (95% CI: 0.55–0.87%). The prevalence high at 1.11% (95% CI: 0.23–3.24%) in 2002 and reduced to 0.37% (95% CI: 0.12–0.87%) in 2011 (P < 0.001). Only 0.57% of male partners tested for HIV over this time period. Conclusion: Strategies to improve acceptance of testing in pregnant women should be included in the Indian guidelines. The male partners do not get tested. Thus, this component needs to be strengthened - by targeted interventions for male spouses - to make the program more effective. PMID:27190414

  7. Time horizon dependent characterization factors for acidification in life-cycle assessment based on forest plant species occurrence in Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Rosalie van Zelm; Mark A.J. Huijbregts; Hans A. van Jaarsveld; Gert Jan Reinds; Dick de Zwart; Jaap Struijs; Dik van de Meent

    2007-02-15

    This paper describes a new approach in life-cycle impact assessment to derive characterization factors for acidification in European forests. Time horizon dependent characterization factors for acidification were calculated, whereas before only steady-state factors were available. The characterization factors indicate the change in the potential occurrence of plant species due to a change in emission, and they consist of a fate and an effect factor. The fate factor combines the results of an atmospheric deposition model and a dynamic soil acidification model. The change in base saturation in soil due to an atmospheric emission change was derived for 20, 50, 100, and 500 year time horizons. The effect factor was based on a dose-response curve of the potential occurrence of plant species, derived from multiple regression equations per plant species. The results showed that characterization factors for acidification increase up to a factor of 13 from a 20 years to a 500 years time horizon. Characterization factors for ammonia are 4.0-4.3 times greater than those for nitrogen oxides (NOx), and characterization factors for sulfur dioxide are 1.4-2.0 times greater than those for NOx. Aggregation of damage due to acidification with other impact categories on the European scale becomes feasible with the applied approach. 45 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Time horizon dependent characterization factors for acidification in life-cycle assessment based on forest plant species occurrence in Europe.

    PubMed

    Van Zelm, Rosalie; Huijbregts, Mark A J; van Jaarsveld, Hans A; Reinds, Gert Jan; de Zwart, Dick; Struijs, Jaap; van de Meent, Dik

    2007-02-01

    This paper describes a new approach in life-cycle impact assessment to derive characterization factors for acidification in European forests. Time horizon dependent characterization factors for acidification were calculated, whereas before only steady-state factors were available. The characterization factors indicate the change in the potential occurrence of plant species due to a change in emission, and they consist of a fate and an effect factor. The fate factor combines the results of an atmospheric deposition model and a dynamic soil acidification model. The change in base saturation in soil due to an atmospheric emission change was derived for 20, 50, 100, and 500 year time horizons. The effect factor was based on a dose-response curve of the potential occurrence of plant species, derived from multiple regression equations per plant species. The results showed that characterization factors for acidification increase up to a factor of 13 from a 20 years to a 500 years time horizon. Characterization factors for ammonia are 4.0-4.3 times greater than those for nitrogen oxides (NO(x)), and characterization factors for sulfur dioxide are 1.4-2.0 times greater than those for NO(x). Aggregation of damage due to acidification with other impact categories on the European scale becomes feasible with the applied approach.

  9. 75 FR 37712 - Temporary Suspension of Certain Oil Spill Response Time Requirements To Support Deepwater Horizon...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-30

    ... and sinking of the Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit ``Deepwater Horizon'' on April 20, 2010, causing an... (73 FR 3316). II. Abbreviations AMPD Average Most Probable Discharge CEQ Council on Environmental... Environmental Protection Agency FOSC Federal On-Scene Coordinator FR Federal Register MMPD Maximum Most...

  10. Photovoltaics - 10 years after Cherry Hill

    SciTech Connect

    Ralph, E.L.

    1984-05-01

    The question is, could a workshop today be effective in planning the next 10 years of development in the PV industry. Given is some insight into the Cherry Hill workshop, who was there and what was accomplished. Plans were made at workshop sessions, open panels discussed the needs, and invited papers were presented by experts in the field showing what concepts and ideas existed. The need for U.S. Government support of a 10 year PV development program was confirmed.

  11. Neurology--the next 10 years.

    PubMed

    Baron, Ralf; Ferriero, Donna M; Frisoni, Giovanni B; Bettegowda, Chetan; Gokaslan, Ziya L; Kessler, John A; Vezzani, Annamaria; Waxman, Stephen G; Jarius, Sven; Wildemann, Brigitte; Weller, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Since the launch of our journal as Nature Clinical Practice Neurology in 2005, we have seen remarkable progress in many areas of neurology research, but what does the future hold? Will advances in basic research be translated into effective disease-modifying therapies, and will personalized medicine finally become a reality? For this special Viewpoint article, we invited a panel of Advisory Board members and other journal contributors to outline their research priorities and predictions in neurology for the next 10 years.

  12. Emergence of time-horizon invariant correlation structure in financial returns by subtraction of the market mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borghesi, Christian; Marsili, Matteo; Miccichè, Salvatore

    2007-08-01

    We investigate the emergence of a structure in the correlation matrix of assets’ returns as the time horizon over which returns are computed increases from the minutes to the daily scale. We analyze data from different stock markets (New York, Paris, London, Milano) and with different methods. In addition to the usual correlations, we also analyze those obtained by subtracting the dynamics of the “center of mass” (i.e., the market mode). We find that when the center of mass is not removed the structure emerges, as the time horizon increases, from splitting a single large cluster into smaller ones. By contrast, when the market mode is removed the structure of correlations observed at the daily scale is already well defined at very high frequency ( 5min in the New York Stock Exchange). Moreover, this structure accounts for 80% of the classification of stocks in economic sectors. Similar results, though less sharp, are found for the other markets. We also find that the structure of correlations in the overnight returns is markedly different from that of intraday activity.

  13. The State of Pluto's Bulk Atmosphere at the Time of the New Horizons Encounter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resnick, Aaron C.; Barry, T.; Buie, M. W.; Carriazo, C. Y.; Cole, A.; Gault, D.; Giles, B.; Giles, D.; Hartig, K.; Hill, K.; Howell, R. R.; Hudson, G.; Loader, B.; Mackie, J.; Nelson, M.; Olkin, C.; Register, J.; Rodgers, T.; Sicardy, B.; Skrutskie, M.; Verbiscer, A.; Wasserman, L.; Watson, C.; Young, E.; Young, L.; Zalucha, A.

    2015-11-01

    On 29-JUL-2015, our team - plus many critical amateur astronomers - observed a stellar occultation by Pluto from sites in Australia and New Zealand. This event was remarkable for two reasons: it preceded the New Horizons flyby of Pluto by just two weeks, and the occulted star was about 10x brighter than Pluto itself, by far the brightest Pluto occultation event observed to date. The separation of ground sites spanned nearly 900 km with respect to the central chord, allowing a good geometric solution for the shadow path. The lightcurves show some inflection points and broad "fangs" that are characteristic of perturbations in the temperature profile. Preliminary fits show that the temperature profile derived from a 2006 occultation (Young et al. 2008) reproduces the 29-JUN-2015 lightcurves well. Assuming a surface radius of 1187 km for Pluto, we find that the surface pressure is 18 +/- 3 µbar. This pressure indicates that Pluto's surface has not yet started to cool down, despite a decrease in absorbed solar flux of more than 17% since perihelion in 1988. A surface pressure of 18 µbar would correspond to a nitrogen ice surface temperature of 38.0 K.References:Young, E.F., et al. "Vertical Structure in Pluto's Atmosphere from the 2006 June 12 Stellar Occultation," AJ 136 1757-1769 (2008)

  14. Water Stress on U.S. Power Production at Decadal Time Horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguli, P.; Kumar, D.; Yun, J.; Short, G.; Klausner, J.; Ganguly, A. R.

    2014-12-01

    Thermoelectric power production at risk, owing to current and projected water scarcity and rising stream temperatures, is assessed for the continental United States (US) at decadal scales. Regional water scarcity is driven by climate variability and change, as well as by multi-sector water demand. While a planning horizon of zero to about thirty years is occasionally prescribed by stakeholders, the challenges to risk assessment at these scales include the difficulty in delineating decadal climate trends from intrinsic natural or multiple model variability. Current generation global climate or earth system models are not credible at the spatial resolutions of power plants, especially for surface water quantity and stream temperatures, which further exacerbates the assessment challenge. Population changes, which are anyway difficult to project, cannot serve as adequate proxies for changes in the water demand across sectors. The hypothesis that robust assessments of power production at risks are possible, despite the uncertainties, has been examined as a proof of concept. An approach is presented for delineating water scarcity and temperature from climate models, observations and population storylines, as well as for assessing power production at risk by examining geospatial correlations of power plant locations within regions where the usable water supply for energy production happens to be scarcer and warmer. Acknowledgment: Funding provided by US DOE's ARPA-E through Award DE-AR0000374.

  15. 10-year survival of total ankle arthroplasties

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose There is an ongoing need to review large series of total ankle replacements (TARs) for monitoring of changes in practice and their outcome. 4 national registries, including the Swedish Ankle Register, have previously reported their 5-year results. We now present an extended series with a longer follow-up, and with a 10-year survival analysis. Patients and methods Records of uncemented 3-component TARs were retrospectively reviewed, determining risk factors such as age, sex, and diagnosis. Prosthetic survival rates were calculated with exchange or removal of components as endpoint—excluding incidental exchange of the polyethylene meniscus. Results Of the 780 prostheses implanted since 1993, 168 (22%) had been revised by June 15, 2010. The overall survival rate fell from 0.81 (95% CI: 0.79–0.83) at 5 years to 0.69 (95% CI: 0.67–0.71) at 10 years. The survival rate was higher, although not statistically significantly so, during the latter part of the period investigated. Excluding the STAR prosthesis, the survival rate for all the remaining designs was 0.78 at 10 years. Women below the age of 60 with osteoarthritis were at a higher risk of revision, but age did not influence the outcome in men or women with rheumatoid arthritis. Revisions due to technical mistakes at the index surgery and instability were undertaken earlier than revisions for other reasons. Interpretation The results have slowly improved during the 18-year period investigated. However, we do not believe that the survival rates of ankle replacements in the near future will approach those of hip and knee replacements—even though improved instrumentation and design of the prostheses, together with better patient selection, will presumably give better results. PMID:22066551

  16. Photovoltaics - 10 years after Cherry Hill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ralph, E. L.

    The status of R&D programs connected with photovoltaic (PV) systems 10 years after the Cherry Hill workshop on 'Photovoltaic Conversion of Solar Energy for Terrestrial Applications' is assessed. The five categories of research recommended by the Cherry Hill Workshop are listed in a table together with their recommended research budget allocations. The workshop categories include: single-crystal Si cells; poly-Si cells; systems and diagnostics. Categories for thin film CdS/Cu2S and CuInSe2 cells are also included. The roles of government and private utility companies in providing adequate financial support for PV research programs is emphasized.

  17. Pediatric lung transplantation: 10 years of experience

    PubMed Central

    Camargo, Priscila C. L. B.; Pato, Eduardo Z. S.; Campos, Silvia V.; Afonso, José E.; Carraro, Rafael M.; Costa, André N.; Teixeira, Ricardo H. O. B.; Samano, Marcos N.; Pêgo-Fernandes, Paulo M.

    2014-01-01

    Lung transplantation is a well-established treatment for advanced lung diseases. In children, the diseases that most commonly lead to the need for a transplantation are cystic fibrosis, pulmonary hypertension, and bronchiolitis. However, the number of pediatric lung transplantations being performed is low compared with the number of transplants performed in the adult age group. The objective of this study was to demonstrate our experience with pediatric lung transplants over a 10-year period in a program initially designed for adults. PMID:24860860

  18. Mitochondrial ROS Metabolism: 10 Years Later

    PubMed Central

    Kushnareva, Y. E.; Murphy, A. N.

    2015-01-01

    The role of mitochondria in oxidative stress is well recognized, but many questions are still to be answered. This article is intended to update our comprehensive review in 2005 by highlighting the progress in understanding of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism over the past 10 years. We review the recently identified or re-appraised sources of ROS generation in mitochondria, such as p66shc protein, succinate dehydrogenase, and recently discovered properties of the mitochondrial antioxidant system. We also reflect upon some controversies, disputes, and misconceptions that confound the field. PMID:26071769

  19. Aqua's First 10 Years: An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, Claire L.

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Aqua spacecraft was launched at 2:55 a.m. on May 4, 2002, from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California, into a near-polar, sun-synchronous orbit at an altitude of 705 km. Aqua carries six Earth-observing instruments to collect data on water in all its forms (liquid, vapor, and solid) and on a wide variety of additional Earth system variables (Parkinson 2003). The design lifetime for Aqua's prime mission was 6 years, and Aqua is now well into its extended mission, approaching 10 years of successful operations. The Aqua data have been used for hundreds of scientific studies and continue to be used for scientific discovery and numerous practical applications.

  20. Adaptive dynamic programming for finite-horizon optimal control of discrete-time nonlinear systems with ε-error bound.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei-Yue; Jin, Ning; Liu, Derong; Wei, Qinglai

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study the finite-horizon optimal control problem for discrete-time nonlinear systems using the adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) approach. The idea is to use an iterative ADP algorithm to obtain the optimal control law which makes the performance index function close to the greatest lower bound of all performance indices within an ε-error bound. The optimal number of control steps can also be obtained by the proposed ADP algorithms. A convergence analysis of the proposed ADP algorithms in terms of performance index function and control policy is made. In order to facilitate the implementation of the iterative ADP algorithms, neural networks are used for approximating the performance index function, computing the optimal control policy, and modeling the nonlinear system. Finally, two simulation examples are employed to illustrate the applicability of the proposed method. PMID:20876014

  1. Neural network-based finite-horizon optimal control of uncertain affine nonlinear discrete-time systems.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qiming; Xu, Hao; Jagannathan, Sarangapani

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, the finite-horizon optimal control design for nonlinear discrete-time systems in affine form is presented. In contrast with the traditional approximate dynamic programming methodology, which requires at least partial knowledge of the system dynamics, in this paper, the complete system dynamics are relaxed utilizing a neural network (NN)-based identifier to learn the control coefficient matrix. The identifier is then used together with the actor-critic-based scheme to learn the time-varying solution, referred to as the value function, of the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equation in an online and forward-in-time manner. Since the solution of HJB is time-varying, NNs with constant weights and time-varying activation functions are considered. To properly satisfy the terminal constraint, an additional error term is incorporated in the novel update law such that the terminal constraint error is also minimized over time. Policy and/or value iterations are not needed and the NN weights are updated once a sampling instant. The uniform ultimate boundedness of the closed-loop system is verified by standard Lyapunov stability theory under nonautonomous analysis. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:25720005

  2. Time horizons and substance use among African American youths living in disadvantaged urban areas.

    PubMed

    Cheong, JeeWon; Tucker, Jalie A; Simpson, Cathy A; Chandler, Susan D

    2014-04-01

    Transitioning from adolescence to full-fledged adulthood is often challenging, and young people who live in disadvantaged urban neighborhoods face additional obstacles and experience disproportionately higher negative outcomes, including substance abuse and related risk behaviors. This study investigated whether substance use among African Americans ages 15 to 25 (M=18.86 years) living in such areas was related to present-dominated time perspectives and higher delay discounting. Participants (N=344, 110 males, 234 females) living in Deep South disadvantaged urban neighborhoods were recruited using Respondent Driven Sampling, an improved peer-referral sampling method suitable for accessing this hard-to-reach target group. Structured field interviews assessed alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use and risk/protective factors, including time perspectives (Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory [ZTPI]) and behavioral impulsivity (delay discounting task). As predicted, substance use was positively related to a greater ZTPI orientation toward present pleasure and a lower tendency to plan and achieve future goals. Although the sample as a whole showed high discounting of delayed rewards, discount rates did not predict substance use. The findings suggest that interventions to lengthen time perspectives and promote enriched views of future possible selves may prevent and reduce substance use among disadvantaged youths. Discontinuities among the discounting and time perspective variables in relation to substance use merit further investigation.

  3. Time horizons and substance use among African American youths living in disadvantaged urban areas.

    PubMed

    Cheong, JeeWon; Tucker, Jalie A; Simpson, Cathy A; Chandler, Susan D

    2014-04-01

    Transitioning from adolescence to full-fledged adulthood is often challenging, and young people who live in disadvantaged urban neighborhoods face additional obstacles and experience disproportionately higher negative outcomes, including substance abuse and related risk behaviors. This study investigated whether substance use among African Americans ages 15 to 25 (M=18.86 years) living in such areas was related to present-dominated time perspectives and higher delay discounting. Participants (N=344, 110 males, 234 females) living in Deep South disadvantaged urban neighborhoods were recruited using Respondent Driven Sampling, an improved peer-referral sampling method suitable for accessing this hard-to-reach target group. Structured field interviews assessed alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use and risk/protective factors, including time perspectives (Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory [ZTPI]) and behavioral impulsivity (delay discounting task). As predicted, substance use was positively related to a greater ZTPI orientation toward present pleasure and a lower tendency to plan and achieve future goals. Although the sample as a whole showed high discounting of delayed rewards, discount rates did not predict substance use. The findings suggest that interventions to lengthen time perspectives and promote enriched views of future possible selves may prevent and reduce substance use among disadvantaged youths. Discontinuities among the discounting and time perspective variables in relation to substance use merit further investigation. PMID:24531637

  4. Impact of curvature divergences on physical observers in a wormhole space-time with horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olmo, Gonzalo J.; Rubiera-Garcia, D.; Sanchez-Puente, A.

    2016-06-01

    The impact of curvature divergences on physical observers in a black hole space-time, which, nonetheless, is geodesically complete is investigated. This space-time is an exact solution of certain extensions of general relativity coupled to Maxwell’s electrodynamics and, roughly speaking, consists of two Reissner-Nordström (or Schwarzschild or Minkowski) geometries connected by a spherical wormhole near the center. We find that, despite the existence of infinite tidal forces, causal contact is never lost among the elements making up the observer. This suggests that curvature divergences may not be as pathological as traditionally thought.

  5. Autonomous real-time adaptive management of soil salinity using a receding horizon control algorithm: a pilot-scale demonstration.

    PubMed

    Park, Yeonjeong; Harmon, Thomas C

    2011-10-01

    Soil salinization is a potentially negative side effect of irrigation with reclaimed water. While optimization schemes have been applied to soil salinity control, these have typically failed to take advantage of real-time sensor feedback. This study incorporates current soil observation technologies into the optimal feedback-control scheme known as Receding Horizon Control (RHC) to enable successful autonomous control of soil salinization. RHC uses real-time sensor measurements, physically-based state prediction models, and optimization algorithms to drive field conditions to a desired environmental state by manipulating application rate or irrigation duration/frequency. A simulation model including the Richards equation coupled to energy and solute transport equations is employed as a state estimator. Vertical multi-sensor arrays installed in the soil provide initial conditions and continuous feedback to the control scheme. An optimization algorithm determines the optimal irrigation rate or frequency subject to imposed constraints protective of soil salinization. A small-scale field test demonstrates that the RHC scheme is capable of autonomously maintaining specified salt levels at a prescribed soil depth. This finding suggests that, given an adequately structured and trained simulation model, sensor networks, and optimization algorithms can be integrated using RHC to autonomously achieve water reuse and agricultural objectives while managing soil salinization.

  6. 1.3 mm WAVELENGTH VLBI OF SAGITTARIUS A*: DETECTION OF TIME-VARIABLE EMISSION ON EVENT HORIZON SCALES

    SciTech Connect

    Fish, Vincent L.; Doeleman, Sheperd S.; Beaudoin, Christopher; Bolin, David E.; Rogers, Alan E. E.; Blundell, Ray; Gurwell, Mark A.; Moran, James M.; Primiani, Rurik; Bower, Geoffrey C.; Plambeck, Richard; Chamberlin, Richard; Freund, Robert; Friberg, Per; Honma, Mareki; Oyama, Tomoaki; Inoue, Makoto; Krichbaum, Thomas P.; Lamb, James; Marrone, Daniel P.

    2011-02-01

    Sagittarius A*, the {approx}4 x 10{sup 6} M{sub sun} black hole candidate at the Galactic center, can be studied on Schwarzschild radius scales with (sub)millimeter wavelength very long baseline interferometry (VLBI). We report on 1.3 mm wavelength observations of Sgr A* using a VLBI array consisting of the JCMT on Mauna Kea, the Arizona Radio Observatory's Submillimeter Telescope on Mt. Graham in Arizona, and two telescopes of the CARMA array at Cedar Flat in California. Both Sgr A* and the quasar calibrator 1924-292 were observed over three consecutive nights, and both sources were clearly detected on all baselines. For the first time, we are able to extract 1.3 mm VLBI interferometer phase information on Sgr A* through measurement of closure phase on the triangle of baselines. On the third night of observing, the correlated flux density of Sgr A* on all VLBI baselines increased relative to the first two nights, providing strong evidence for time-variable change on scales of a few Schwarzschild radii. These results suggest that future VLBI observations with greater sensitivity and additional baselines will play a valuable role in determining the structure of emission near the event horizon of Sgr A*.

  7. The Glacier Peak Tephra: A Continental-Scale Latest Pleistocene Time Horizon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyne-O'Donnell, S.; Cwynar, L. C.; Vincent, J. H.; Spear, R.; Froese, D. G.

    2014-12-01

    The latest Pleistocene eruptions of Glacier Peak in the Cascade Range deposited a widespread set of tephras throughout much of western North America within a short time span where they serve as valuable marker layers for inter-site correlation and chronostratigraphical control. We report the detection of these tephras in microscopic form in three lakes along the Eastern Seaboard (Maine and Nova Scotia). These distinct distal lake layers occur as closely spaced couplets which retain the subtle geochemical variation that characterises the proximal Glacier Peak G and B layers. New radiocarbon dates for the tephras also closely corroborate the most recently revised proximal dates for the tephras (ca. 13,700 - 13,400 cal. yr B.P) which found that they are ca. 400 14C yr older than hitherto thought. Their presence this far eastward implies that their deposition spans the intervening continent (>4000 km) and adds to a developing distal tephrostratigraphical framework with applications to studies of latest Pleistocene deglaciation and environmental change, megafaunal extinction and archaeology.

  8. HORIZON SENSING (PROPOSAL NO.51)

    SciTech Connect

    Larry G. Stolarczyk

    2003-07-01

    Real-time horizon sensing on continuous mining machines is becoming an industry tool. Installation and testing of production-grade Horizon Sensor (HS) systems continued this quarter at Monterey Coal Company (ExxonMobil), Mountain Coal Company West Elk Mine (Arch), and Ohio Valley Coal Company (OVC). Monitoring of system function, user experience, and mining benefits is ongoing. All horizon sensor components have finished MSHA (U.S.) and IEC (International) certification.

  9. HORIZON SENSING (PROPOSAL NO.51)

    SciTech Connect

    Larry G. Stolarczyk

    2003-07-30

    Real-time horizon sensing on continuous mining (CM) machines is becoming an industry tool. Installation and testing of production-grade Horizon Sensor (HS) systems has been ongoing this quarter at Monterey Coal Company (ExxonMobil), Mountain Coal Company West Elk Mine (Arch), Deserado Mining Company (Blue Mountain Energy), and The Ohio Valley Coal Company (TOVCC). Monitoring of system function, user experience, and mining benefits is ongoing. All horizon sensor components have finished MSHA (U.S.) and IEC (International) certification.

  10. A Randomized Clinical Trial to Assess the Efficacy and Safety of Real-Time Continuous Glucose Monitoring in the Management of Type 1 Diabetes in Young Children Aged 4 to <10 Years

    PubMed Central

    Mauras, Nelly; Beck, Roy; Xing, Dongyuan; Ruedy, Katrina; Buckingham, Bruce; Tansey, Michael; White, Neil H.; Weinzimer, Stuart A.; Tamborlane, William; Kollman, Craig

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) has been demonstrated to improve glycemic control in adults with type 1 diabetes but less so in children. We designed a study to assess CGM benefit in young children aged 4 to 9 years with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS After a run-in phase, 146 children with type 1 diabetes (mean age 7.5 ± 1.7 years, 64% on pumps, median diabetes duration 3.5 years) were randomly assigned to CGM or to usual care. The primary outcome was reduction in HbA1c at 26 weeks by ≥0.5% without the occurrence of severe hypoglycemia. RESULTS The primary outcome was achieved by 19% in the CGM group and 28% in the control group (P = 0.17). Mean change in HbA1c was −0.1% in each group (P = 0.79). Severe hypoglycemia rates were similarly low in both groups. CGM wear decreased over time, with only 41% averaging at least 6 days/week at 26 weeks. There was no correlation between CGM use and change in HbA1c (rs = −0.09, P = 0.44). CGM wear was well tolerated, and parental satisfaction with CGM was high. However, parental fear of hypoglycemia was not reduced. CONCLUSIONS CGM in 4- to 9-year-olds did not improve glycemic control despite a high degree of parental satisfaction with CGM. We postulate that this finding may be related in part to limited use of the CGM glucose data in day-to-day management and to an unremitting fear of hypoglycemia. Overcoming the barriers that prevent integration of these critical glucose data into day-to-day management remains a challenge. PMID:22210571

  11. The optimal manufacturing batch size with rework under time-varying demand process for a finite time horizon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musa, Sarah; Supadi, Siti Suzlin; Omar, Mohd

    2014-07-01

    Rework is one of the solutions to some of the main issues in reverse logistic and green supply chain as it reduces production cost and environmental problem. Many researchers focus on developing rework model, but to the knowledge of the author, none of them has developed a model for time-varying demand rate. In this paper, we extend previous works and develop multiple batch production system for time-varying demand rate with rework. In this model, the rework is done within the same production cycle.

  12. 10-year update of Stirling cryogenic coolers in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Jean-Yves

    2000-12-01

    This paper enters in the scope of the session on 10-year update of IR in France. Cryotechnologies is a leader in both the French and European markets as a designer and manufacturer of cryogenic coolers. Serial production of the first generation of Stirling cryocoolers started at Cryotechnologies in the late eighties. A range of integral Stirling coolers is nowadays available and completes the existing range of split Stirling cryocoolers. Technical improvements are keeping up with the market evolutions and new potential applications (costs reduction, fast cooldown time, increase of cooling power, very high reliability, pulse tube cold finger).

  13. New Horizons in Thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayward, Geoffrey Gordon

    1991-02-01

    This thesis collects five papers which treat the theory of horizon thermodynamics and its applications to cosmology. In the first paper I consider general, spherically symmetric spacetimes with cosmological and black hole horizons. I find that a state of thermal equilibrium may exist in classical manifolds with two horizons so long as a matter distribution is present. I calculate the Euclidean action for non-classical manifolds with and without boundary and relate it to the grand canonical weighting factor. I find that the mean thermal energy of the cosmological horizon is negative. In the second paper I derive the first law of thermodynamics for bounded, static, spherically symmetric spacetimes which include a matter distribution and either a black hole or cosmological horizon. I calculate heat capacities associated with matter/horizon systems and find that they may be positive or negative depending on the matter configuration. I discuss the case in which the cosmological constant is allowed to vary and conclude that the Hawking/Coleman mechanisms for explaining the low value of the cosmological constant are not well formulated. In the third paper, co-authored by Jorma Louko, we analyze variational principles for non-smooth metrics. These principles give insight to the problem of constructing minisuperspace path integrals in horizon statistical mechanics and quantum cosmology. We demonstrate that smoothness conditions can be derived from the variational principle as equations of motion. We suggest a new prescription for minisuperspace path integrals on the manifold | D times S^2. In the fourth paper, I examine the contribution of the horizon energy density to black hole temperature. I show the existence of positive heat capacity solutions in the small mass regime. In the fifth paper, co-authored by Diego Pavon we investigate the role of primordial black holes in the very early universe under SU(3) times SU(2) times U (1), SU(5), and their supersymmetric

  14. A Time-Series of Surface Oil Distribution Detected by Satellite SAR During the Deepwater Horizon Blowout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, I. R.; Garcia-Pineda, O. G.; Solow, A.; Daneshgar, S.; Beet, A.

    2013-12-01

    Oil discharged as a result of the Deepwater Horizon disaster was detected on the surface of the Gulf of Mexico by synthetic aperture radar satellites from 25 April 2010 until 4 August 2010. SAR images were not restricted by daylight or cloud-cover. Distribution of this material is a tracer for potential environmental impacts and an indicator of impact mitigation due to response efforts and physical forcing factors. We used a texture classifying neural network algorithm for semi-supervised processing of 176 SAR images from the ENVISAT, RADARSAT I, and COSMO-SKYMED satellites. This yielded an estimate the proportion of oil-covered water within the region sampled by each image with a nominal resolution of 10,000 sq m (100m pixels), which was compiled as a 5-km equal area grid covering the northern Gulf of Mexico. Few images covered the entire impact area, so analysis was required to compile a regular time-series of the oil cover. A Gaussian kernel using a bandwidth of 2 d was used to estimate oil cover percent in each grid at noon and midnight throughout the interval. Variance and confidence intervals were calculated for each grid and for the global 12-h totals. Results animated across the impact region show the spread of oil under the influence of physical factors. Oil cover reached an early peak of 17032.26 sq km (sd 460.077) on 18 May, decreasing to 27% of this total on 4 June, following by sharp increase to an overall maximum of 18424.56 sq km (sd 424.726) on 19 June. There was a significant negative correlation between average wind stress and the total area of oil cover throughout the time-series. Correlation between response efforts including aerial and subsurface application of dispersants and burning of gathered oil was negative, positive, or indeterminate at different time segments during the event. Daily totals for oil-covered surface waters of the Gulf of Mexico during 25 April - 9 August 2010 with upper and lower 0.95 confidence limits on estimate. (No oil

  15. 100% Retention of Snowpack Derived Nitrogen Over 10 Years in High Arctic Tundra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhary, S.; Tye, A. M.; Young, S. D.; West, H. M.; Phoenix, G. K.

    2013-12-01

    Tundra ecosystems are susceptible to atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition, increasing as a result of anthropogenic activities as well as climate change. Depositions that get accumulated within the snowpack during winter months are released in spring during snowmelt, providing a periodic input of reactive N in the melt water to such nutrient limited ecosystems. Identifying ecosystem N retention and allocation and how this change over time is important to understanding the long-term consequences of such N depositions to these ecosystems. We reanalysed 10 years later an atmospheric N deposition study established in Svalbard that in 2001 used 15N isotope tracers to determine the fate of N released from melting snowpack. Applications of 15N (99 atom%) at 0.1 and 0.5 g N m-2 were made immediately after snowmelt in 2001 as either Na15NO3 or 15NH4Cl. These applications were approximately 1 × and 5 × the yearly atmospheric deposition rates. In both the previous short-term (one week to two years after 15N tracer application) and our long-term re-sampling (10 years after 15N tracer application), ~67% of the total applied 15N was retained in the ecosystem, irrespective of the N forms or N dose. This meant the tundra had 100% long-term N retention after initial partitioning, suggesting a highly conservative N cycling. Bryophytes, followed by the organic soil horizon and then the microbial biomass formed the greatest short-term 15N sink. Maximum changes in 15N retention from the short- to long-term were observed in the microbial 15N pools, with ~75% of the 15N in soil located in its biomass during the initial partitioning (July 2001) decreasing to ~17% 10 years later. This indicates significant microbial N turnover mostly into stable humus N. In contrast, vascular plants, particularly Salix polaris, showed significant increases (~60%) in their 15N retention after 10 years, indicating a high capacity for acting as a long-term N sink in this tundra ecosystem. Because the largest

  16. Draft 1992 : Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement 10-Year Plan.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-05-01

    Two years ago, BPA released its first-ever Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement (OM&R) 10-Year Plan. That effort broke new ground and was an extensive look at the condition of Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement on BPA`s power system. This document -- the 1992 OM&R 10-Year Plan -- uses that original plan as its foundation. It takes a look at how well BPA has accomplished the challenging task set out in the 1990 Plan. The 1992 Plan also introduces the Construction Program. Construction`s critical role in these programs is explored, and the pressures of construction workload -- such as the seasonal nature of the work and the broad swings in workload between projects and years -- are discussed. The document then looks at how situations may have changed with issues explored initially in the 1990 Plan. Importantly, this Plan also surfaces and explains some new issues that threaten to impact BPA`s ability to accomplish its OM&R workload. Finally, the document focuses on the revised strategies for Operations, Maintenance, Replacement, Construction, and Environment for the 1992 to 2001 time period, including the financial and human resources needed to accomplish those strategies.

  17. Administrative Reinstatement Interlock Programs: Florida, a 10-Year Study

    PubMed Central

    Voas, Robert B.; Tippetts, A. Scott; Grosz, Milton

    2013-01-01

    Background Interlocks reduce driving-under-the-influence (DUI) recidivism by 64%, but offenders resist installing them, preferring to risk driving while their driver’s licenses are revoked. One method of motivating offenders to install an interlock is require it for reinstatement of their driver’s license. This report updates an earlier evaluation of the administrative reinstatement interlock program (ARIP) procedure implemented in Florida in 2002. Method Driver records and interlock program records covering 120,000 DUI offenders were followed over 10 years. The flow through the sanction system—conviction, reinstatement, interlock program, and postinterlock period—is described. Logistical regression was used to identify the characteristics of offenders who installed interlocks, and survival analysis was used to evaluate the recidivism of offenders in the various stages in the ARIP. Results At any given time, approximately one third of the convicted offenders were serving their license-revocation periods. Half of the offenders who completed their revocation periods remain unqualified for reinstatement because they do not fulfill other requirements. ARIP offenders who do qualify for reinstatement and install interlocks have lower recidivism rates while the devices are on their vehicles. Conclusions After 10 years, Florida’s ARIP is a mature system that succeeds in forcing all offenders in the program who qualify for reinstatement to install an interlock for at least 6 months. However, half of all offenders who complete their mandatory revocation period are either unable to, or choose not to, qualify for reinstatement. PMID:23442206

  18. Self-Esteem during University Studies Predicts Career Characteristics 10 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2007-01-01

    To examine how self-esteem measured during university studies would impact on the characteristics of the work career 10 years later, 297 university students completed the Rosenberg's self-esteem inventory four times while at university and various career-related questionnaires 10 years later. Latent Growth Curve Modeling showed that a high overall…

  19. Mechanics of rotating isolated horizons

    SciTech Connect

    Ashtekar, Abhay; Beetle, Christopher; Lewandowski, Jerzy

    2001-08-15

    Black hole mechanics was recently extended by replacing the more commonly used event horizons in stationary space-times with isolated horizons in more general space-times (which may admit radiation arbitrarily close to black holes). However, so far the detailed analysis has been restricted to nonrotating black holes (although it incorporated arbitrary distortion, as well as electromagnetic, Yang-Mills, and dilatonic charges). We now fill this gap by first introducing the notion of isolated horizon angular momentum and then extending the first law to the rotating case.

  20. Energy-water analysis of the 10-year WECC transmission planning study cases.

    SciTech Connect

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Passell, Howard David; Castillo, Cesar; Moreland, Barbara

    2011-11-01

    calculating water withdrawal and consumption for current and planned electric power generation; projected water demand from competing use sectors; and, surface and groundwater availability. WECC's long range planning is organized according to two target planning horizons, a 10-year and a 20-year. This study supports WECC in the 10-year planning endeavor. In this case the water implications associated with four of WECC's alternative future study cases (described below) are calculated and reported. In future phases of planning we will work with WECC to craft study cases that aim to reduce the thermoelectric footprint of the interconnection and/or limit production in the most water stressed regions of the West.

  1. Cost savings associated with 10 years of road safety policies in Catalonia, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Suelves, Josep M; Barbería, Eneko

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine whether the road safety policies introduced between 2000 and 2010 in Catalonia, Spain, which aimed primarily to reduce deaths from road traffic collisions by 50% by 2010, were associated with economic benefits to society. Methods A cost analysis was performed from a societal perspective with a 10-year time horizon. It considered the costs of: hospital admissions; ambulance transport; autopsies; specialized health care; police, firefighter and roadside assistance; adapting to disability; and productivity lost due to institutionalization, death or sick leave of the injured or their caregivers; as well as material and administrative costs. Data were obtained from a Catalan hospital registry, the Catalan Traffic Service information system, insurance companies and other sources. All costs were calculated in euros (€) at 2011 values. Findings A substantial reduction in deaths from road traffic collisions was observed between 2000 and 2010. Between 2001 and 2010, with the implementation of new road safety policies, there were 26 063 fewer road traffic collisions with victims than expected, 2909 fewer deaths (57%) and 25 444 fewer hospitalizations. The estimated total cost savings were around €18 000 million. Of these, around 97% resulted from reductions in lost productivity. Of the remaining cost savings, 63% were associated with specialized health care, 15% with adapting to disability and 8.1% with hospital care. Conclusion The road safety policies implemented in Catalonia in recent years were associated with a reduction in the number of deaths and injuries from traffic collisions and with substantial economic benefits to society. PMID:23397348

  2. Refraction near the horizon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, Bradley E.; Liller, William

    1990-01-01

    Variations in astronomical refraction near the horizon are examined. Sunset timings, a sextant mounted on a tripod, and a temperature profile are utilized to derive the variations in refraction data, collected from 7 locations. It is determined that the refraction ranges from 0.234 to 1.678 deg with an rms deviation of 0.16, and it is observed that the variation is larger than previously supposed. Some applications for the variation of refraction value are discussed.

  3. New Horizons at Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, S. Alan

    2007-12-01

    New Horizons is NASA's reconnaissance mission to explore the Pluto system and small Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs). I will describe the mission's history, current status, and instrument suite. I will then describe the Jupiter gravity assist flyby New Horizons conducted in early-mid 2007. This flyby involved over 700 observations in the Jupiter system, and represents the only spacecraft encounter with Jupiter planned to occur between the demise of Galileo in 2003 and the arrival of Juno in 2016. I will focus on results obtained, including the first-ever exploration of a giant planet magnetotail, new compositional observations of icy Galilean satellites, exploration of Jupiter's tenuous ring system, the first high-resolution spacecraft imagery of Jupiter's newly-generated little red spot, and the first-ever time-lapse imagery of an Ionian volcano eruption.

  4. HORIZON SENSING (PROPOSAL No.51)

    SciTech Connect

    Larry G. Stolarczyk, Sc.D.

    2002-04-30

    Real-time horizon sensing on continuous mining machines is becoming an industry tool. Installation and testing of production-grade HS systems has been ongoing this quarter at Monterey Coal Company (EXXON), FMC Trona, Twentymile Coal Company (RAG America), and SASOL Coal. Detailed monitoring of system function, user experience, and mining benefits is ongoing. All horizon sensor components have finished MSHA (U.S.) and IEC (International) certification.

  5. ESO and Chile: 10 Years of Productive Scientific Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-06-01

    ESO and the Government of Chile launched today the book "10 Years Exploring the Universe", written by the beneficiaries of the ESO-Chile Joint Committee. This annual fund provides grants for individual Chilean scientists, research infrastructures, scientific congresses, workshops for science teachers and astronomy outreach programmes for the public. In a ceremony held in Santiago on 19 June 2006, the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere (ESO) and the Chilean Ministry of Foreign Affairs marked the 10th Anniversary of the Supplementary Agreement, which granted to Chilean astronomers up to 10 percent of the total observing time on ESO telescopes. This agreement also established an annual fund for the development of astronomy, managed by the so-called "ESO-Chile Joint Committee". ESO PR Photo 21/06 ESO PR Photo 21/06 Ten Years ESO-Chile Agreement Ceremony The celebration event was hosted by ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky, and the Director of Special Policy for the Chilean Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ambassador Luis Winter. "ESO's commitment is, and always will be, to promote astronomy and scientific knowledge in the country hosting our observatories", said ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky. "We hope Chile and Europe will continue with great achievements in this fascinating joint adventure, the exploration of the universe." On behalf of the Government of Chile, Ambassador Luis Winter outlined the historical importance of the Supplementary Agreement, ratified by the Chilean Congress in 1996. "Such is the magnitude of ESO-Chile Joint Committee that, only in 2005, this annual fund represented 8 percent of all financing sources for Chilean astronomy, including those from Government and universities", Ambassador Winter said. The ESO Representative and Head of Science in Chile, Dr. Felix Mirabel, and the appointed Chilean astronomer for the ESO-Chile Joint Committee, Dr. Leonardo Bronfman, also took part in the

  6. METEONETWORK: 2002-2012, 10 years of activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazza, Edoardo

    2013-04-01

    The role of citizen-scientists in collecting data and observations has been increasingly crucial in the last 10 years of atmospheric sciences. Meteonetwork is a non-profit organization founded by citizen scientists in 2002, in Lombardia, with the aim of raising public awareness about meteorological and climatological issues. Throughout the years the organization, besides the continuous holding of events such as meeting, conferences and talks, has been standing out because of its forum and its wide network of weather stations. Meteonetwork's forum is, in this field, the most read and followed in the country and with its 8459 members and over 4,217,505 posts turns out to be the 17th forum over the entire country. Its network is operated in cooperation with Centro Epson Meteo and collects amateur semi-professional stations distributed all over the Italian territory, providing real-time and daily data. It consists of 706 stations, among which more than 400 regularly updated; volunteers constantly work to perform quality control and ensure data reliability. Meteonetwork has also developed several collaborations with private and public institutions, among which DRIHM - Cima Research Foundation, Centro Epson Meteo di Milano, Arpa Veneto, Arpa Emilia-Romagna, Arpa Lombardia, Arpa Friuli - Venezia Giulia, Servizio Glaciologico Lombardo, C. N. R. - C. I. S. A, Università di Pisa, Università di Milano, University of Aberdeen, Protezione Civile - Regione Lombardia, Protezione Civile - Regione Piemonte stand out. As WMO emphasized in 2001 World Meteorological Day "Volunteers for the weather, climate and water" the contribution of citizen-scientists to scientific studies is remarkable. In this perspective Meteonetwork and the University of Milan, in April 2011, started a project of technical and scientific cooperation called Weatherness. The university is provided with data gathered by Meteoneonetwork's stations with the aim of improving the knowledge of the impact that heat

  7. Competition, resources, and vegetation during 10 years in native grassland.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Scott D

    2007-12-01

    A 10-year experiment tested for variation in competition intensity over time in a natural grassland at the northern edge of the Great Plains. Growing-season precipitation varied fivefold during the study. All ecosystem-level variables varied significantly among years, and most covaried in expected ways. The covers of all common grasses possessing the C3 photosynthetic pathway varied significantly among years; in contrast, all common species with traits associated with drought tolerance (a C4 grass, a lichen, a spikemoss, and a subshrub) did not vary. Annual transplant experiments measured the competitive effects of neighbors on the growth of individuals of the native grass Bouteloua gracilis. A significant interaction between year and competition showed that competition intensity varied among years. The size of this effect, however, was small (eta2 = 0.074) relative to the size of the direct effect of competition (eta2 = 0.20) or the year in which the experiment was conducted (eta2 = 0.51). Further, competition intensity was not significantly related to any variable describing standing crop or resources, or species richness. Species richness was highest in years with high precipitation, standing crop, and individual growth, due to the recruitment of rare species that were absent from dry years. In summary, variation in competition intensity was statistically significant but had small effects relative to the direct effects of climate. PMID:18229830

  8. Asian dust properties from 10 years of MISR data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalashnikova, Olga; Sokolik, Irina; Garay, Michael; Wu, Dong

    2010-05-01

    We use the 10-year aerosol data record from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) aboard the Terra satellite to investigate climatological linkages between the dust source activities, mid-range, and long-range transport of Asian dust. The inter-annual and seasonal variability of Asian dust loadings and properties as retrieved by MISR at selected regions along the transport routes was investigated. In particular, we examine the Taklamakan and East and Central Gobi regions (dust sources), South Korea and Japan regions (mid-range transport), and the North Pacific region along the northwestern U.S. coast (long-range transport). To avoid the gridding and averaging effects in Level 3 products, we use the Level 2 MISR data. Within each selected region, the analysis was performed to examine the multi-annual mean and variability of the aerosol optical depth and particle nonsphericity as well as time-lag correlation between the regions, taking into account the effects of MISR sampling and cloud coverage. The results will be presented and interpreted in the context of atmospheric dynamics variability, including variability of meteorological regimes in dust sources and the large-scale atmospheric circulation features controlling the trans-Pacific transport of Asian dust.

  9. South american geochronology: radiometric time scale for middle to late tertiary mammal-bearing horizons in patagonia.

    PubMed

    Marshall, L G; Pascual, R; Curtis, G H; Drake, R E

    1977-03-25

    Radiometric (potassium-argon) age determinations for basalts and tuffs associated with middle to late Tertiary mammal-bearing horizons in Patagonia, southern Argentina, permit refinement of boundaries and hiatuses between beds of Deseadan (early Oligocene) through Friasian (middle to late Miocene) age. At two localities beds of Deseadan age are overlain by basalts, which gave dates of 33.6 and 35.4 million years ago; 34.0 million years ago is tentatively accepted as a terminal date for known Deseadan. At several localities beds of Colhuehuapian age are underlain by basalts, which gave dates ranging from 28.8 to 24.3 million years ago; 25.0 million years is tentatively taken as a basal age for known Colhuehuapian. The paleontological hiatus between known Deseadan and known Colhuehuapian is thus in the order of 9.0 million years. Two tuffs from the Santa Cruz Formation (Santacrucian) gave ages of 21.7 and 18.5 million years. Plagioclase and biotite concentrates of an ignimbrite from the Collón Curá Formation (Friasian) gave ages ranging from 15.4 to 14.0 million years. PMID:17738414

  10. South american geochronology: radiometric time scale for middle to late tertiary mammal-bearing horizons in patagonia.

    PubMed

    Marshall, L G; Pascual, R; Curtis, G H; Drake, R E

    1977-03-25

    Radiometric (potassium-argon) age determinations for basalts and tuffs associated with middle to late Tertiary mammal-bearing horizons in Patagonia, southern Argentina, permit refinement of boundaries and hiatuses between beds of Deseadan (early Oligocene) through Friasian (middle to late Miocene) age. At two localities beds of Deseadan age are overlain by basalts, which gave dates of 33.6 and 35.4 million years ago; 34.0 million years ago is tentatively accepted as a terminal date for known Deseadan. At several localities beds of Colhuehuapian age are underlain by basalts, which gave dates ranging from 28.8 to 24.3 million years ago; 25.0 million years is tentatively taken as a basal age for known Colhuehuapian. The paleontological hiatus between known Deseadan and known Colhuehuapian is thus in the order of 9.0 million years. Two tuffs from the Santa Cruz Formation (Santacrucian) gave ages of 21.7 and 18.5 million years. Plagioclase and biotite concentrates of an ignimbrite from the Collón Curá Formation (Friasian) gave ages ranging from 15.4 to 14.0 million years.

  11. Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement 10-Year Plan, 1990 -1999.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1990-08-01

    In 1988 Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) began work on this Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement 10-Year Plan to develop a levelized program that would assure high system reliability. During the Programs in Perspective (PIP) meetings in the late summer and fall of 1988, many of the concerns to be addressed in an Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement Plan were identified. Following these PIP meetings BPA established internal work groups. During the winter and spring of 1989, these work groups developed technical background and issue papers on topics that ranged from substation maintenance to environmental protection. In addition, a customer forum group was established and met on several occasions to review work on the plan, to offer ideas and points of view, and to assure that BPA understood customer concerns. Based on recommendations from the work group reports and customer input, BPA's O M Management Team developed the draft Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement 10-Year Plan that was released for public comment during the spring of 1990. During the public review period, BPA received a number of written comments from customers and the interested public. In addition, special meetings were held with interested customers. This final Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement 10-Year Plan reflects BPA's response to customers and interested public on each topic discussed in the 10-Year Plan. The plan is a distillation of BPA's strategies to achieve a levelized program over 10 years.

  12. Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement 10-Year Plan, 1990--1999

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    In 1988 Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) began work on this Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement 10-Year Plan to develop a levelized program that would assure high system reliability. During the Programs in Perspective (PIP) meetings in the later summer and fall of 1988, many of the concerns to be addressed in an Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement Plan were identified. Following these PIP meetings BPA established internal work groups. During the winter and spring of 1989, these work groups developed technical background and issue papers on topics that ranged from substation maintenance to environmental protection. In addition, a customer forum group was established and met on several occasions to review work on the plan, to offer ideas and points of view, and to assure that BPA understood customer concerns. Based on recommendations from the work group reports and customer input, BPA's O M Management Team developed the draft Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement 10-Year Plan that was released for public comment during the spring of 1990. During the public review period, BPA received a number of written comments from customers and the interested public. In addition, special meetings were held with interested customers. This final Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement 10-year Plan reflects BPA's response to customers and interested public on each topic discussed in the 10-Year Plan. The plan is a distillation of BPA's strategies to achieve a levelized program over 10 years.

  13. Pluto's Atmosphere from the 2015 June 29 Ground-based Stellar Occultation at the Time of the New Horizons Flyby

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sicardy, B.; Talbot, J.; Meza, E.; Camargo, J. I. B.; Desmars, J.; Gault, D.; Herald, D.; Kerr, S.; Pavlov, H.; Braga-Ribas, F.; Assafin, M.; Benedetti-Rossi, G.; Dias-Oliveira, A.; Gomes-Júnior, A. R.; Vieira-Martins, R.; Bérard, D.; Kervella, P.; Lecacheux, J.; Lellouch, E.; Beisker, W.; Dunham, D.; Jelínek, M.; Duffard, R.; Ortiz, J. L.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Cunniffe, R.; Querel, R.; Yock, P. C.; Cole, A. A.; Giles, A. B.; Hill, K. M.; Beaulieu, J. P.; Harnisch, M.; Jansen, R.; Pennell, A.; Todd, S.; Allen, W. H.; Graham, P. B.; Loader, B.; McKay, G.; Milner, J.; Parker, S.; Barry, M. A.; Bradshaw, J.; Broughton, J.; Davis, L.; Devillepoix, H.; Drummond, J.; Field, L.; Forbes, M.; Giles, D.; Glassey, R.; Groom, R.; Hooper, D.; Horvat, R.; Hudson, G.; Idaczyk, R.; Jenke, D.; Lade, B.; Newman, J.; Nosworthy, P.; Purcell, P.; Skilton, P. F.; Streamer, M.; Unwin, M.; Watanabe, H.; White, G. L.; Watson, D.

    2016-03-01

    We present results from a multi-chord Pluto stellar occultation observed on 2015 June 29 from New Zealand and Australia. This occurred only two weeks before the NASA New Horizons flyby of the Pluto system and serves as a useful comparison between ground-based and space results. We find that Pluto's atmosphere is still expanding, with a significant pressure increase of 5 ± 2% since 2013 and a factor of almost three since 1988. This trend rules out, as of today, an atmospheric collapse associated with Pluto's recession from the Sun. A central flash, a rare occurrence, was observed from several sites in New Zealand. The flash shape and amplitude are compatible with a spherical and transparent atmospheric layer of roughly 3 km in thickness whose base lies at about 4 km above Pluto's surface, and where an average thermal gradient of about 5 K km-1 prevails. We discuss the possibility that small departures between the observed and modeled flash are caused by local topographic features (mountains) along Pluto's limb that block the stellar light. Finally, using two possible temperature profiles, and extrapolating our pressure profile from our deepest accessible level down to the surface, we obtain a possible range of 11.9-13.7 μbar for the surface pressure. Partly based on observations made with the ESO WFI camera at the 2.2 m Telescope (La Silla), under program ID 079.A-9202(A) within the agreement between the ON/MCTI and the Max Planck Society, with the ESO camera NACO at the Very Large Telescope (Paranal), under program ID 089.C-0314(C), and at the Pico dos Dias Observatory/LNA, Brazil.

  14. Looking forward, looking back-10 years in urology.

    PubMed

    Albersen, Maarten; Cartwright, Rufus; Choyke, Peter; Goldenberg, S Larry; Goldman, Howard; Lawrentschuk, Nathan; Linehan, W Marston; Murphy, Declan; Nagler, Harris; Scardino, Peter; Shortliffe, Linda; Stenzl, Arnulf; Theodorescu, Dan

    2014-11-01

    When Nature Reviews Urology launched in 2004, the field of urology was vastly different to that which we work in today, and the past 10 years have seen the field change immensely. As a specialty on the forefront of cutting-edge innovation, urologists are often the first to embrace new technologies and ideas. In this Viewpoint, members of the Nature Reviews Urology advisory board were asked what they thought was the most important change, issue or innovation in urology in the past 10 years, and what they expected to be the most important in the next decade. Here are their opinions. PMID:25348169

  15. Expected innovations of optical lithography in the next 10 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owa, Soichi; Hirayanagi, Noriyuki

    2016-03-01

    In the past 10 years, immersion lithography has been the most effective high volume manufacturing method for the critical layers of semiconductor devices. Thinking of the next 10 years, we can expect continuous improvement on existing 300 mm wafer scanners with better accuracy and throughput to enhance the total output value per input cost. This value productivity, however, can be upgraded also by larger innovations which might happen in optical lithography. In this paper, we will discuss the possibilities and the impossibilities of potential innovation ideas of optical lithography, which are 450 mm wafer, optical maskless, multicolor lithography, and metamaterial.

  16. Looking forward, looking back-10 years in urology.

    PubMed

    Albersen, Maarten; Cartwright, Rufus; Choyke, Peter; Goldenberg, S Larry; Goldman, Howard; Lawrentschuk, Nathan; Linehan, W Marston; Murphy, Declan; Nagler, Harris; Scardino, Peter; Shortliffe, Linda; Stenzl, Arnulf; Theodorescu, Dan

    2014-11-01

    When Nature Reviews Urology launched in 2004, the field of urology was vastly different to that which we work in today, and the past 10 years have seen the field change immensely. As a specialty on the forefront of cutting-edge innovation, urologists are often the first to embrace new technologies and ideas. In this Viewpoint, members of the Nature Reviews Urology advisory board were asked what they thought was the most important change, issue or innovation in urology in the past 10 years, and what they expected to be the most important in the next decade. Here are their opinions.

  17. Anaerobic bacteraemia: a 10-year retrospective epidemiological survey.

    PubMed

    De Keukeleire, Steven; Wybo, Ingrid; Naessens, Anne; Echahidi, Fedoua; Van der Beken, Mieke; Vandoorslaer, Kristof; Vermeulen, Stefan; Piérard, Denis

    2016-06-01

    In order to identify current trends in anaerobic bacteraemia, a 10-year retrospective study was performed in the University Hospital Brussel, Belgium. All clinically relevant bacteraemia detected from 2004 until 2013 were included. Medical records were reviewed in an attempt to define clinical parameters that might be associated with the occurrence of anaerobic bacteraemia. 437 of the isolated organisms causing anaerobic bacteraemia were thawed, subcultured and reanalyzed using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF). There were an average of 33 cases of anaerobic bacteraemia per year during 2004-2008 compared to an average of 27 cases per year during 2009-2013 (P = 0.017), corresponding to a decrease by 19% between the first and the latter period. Also, the total number of cases of anaerobic bacteraemia per 100,000 patient days decreased from 17.3 in the period from 2004 to 2008 to 13.7 in the period 2009 to 2013 (P = 0.023). Additionally, the mean incidence of anaerobic bacteraemia decreased during the study period (1.27/1000 patients in 2004 vs. 0.94/1000 patients in 2013; P = 0.008). In contrast, the proportion of isolated anaerobic bacteraemia compared to the number of all bacteraemia remained stable at 5%. Bacteroides spp. and Parabacteroides spp. accounted for 47.1% of the anaerobes, followed by 14.4% Clostridium spp., 12.6% non-spore-forming Gram-positive rods, 10.5% anaerobic cocci, 8.2% Prevotella spp. and other Gram-negative rods and 7.1% Fusobacterium spp. The lower gastrointestinal tract (47%) and wound infections (10%) were the two most frequent sources for bacteraemia, with the origin remaining unknown in 62 cases (21%). The overall mortality rate was 14%. Further studies focusing on the antimicrobial susceptibility and demographic background of patients are needed to further objectify the currently observed trends.

  18. 10 Years of Media Literacy Education in K-12 Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daunic, Rhys

    2011-01-01

    When the author started working with teachers and students on classroom multimedia productions a little over 10 years ago, he had not yet encountered the term "media literacy", nor did he realize he had joined a long standing international movement of media literacy educators. Serendipitous exposure to "old-media" texts by Neil Postman and Noam…

  19. Headshaking in a 10-year-old Thoroughbred mare

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Abstract A 10-year-old Thoroughbred mare was presented with a 2.5-week history of headshaking. Based on a thorough physical examination, blood analysis, and a fine needle aspirate of an enlarged thyroid gland, a tentative diagnosis of seasonal idiopathic headshaking was made. Treatment with cyproheptadine was attempted. PMID:15025153

  20. Technology for Distance Education: A 10 Year Prospective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, A. W.

    This paper provides an overview of new technologies likely to be widely available within the next 10 years for teaching in Europe. It begins by presenting a framework which draws distinctions between different technologies based on their educational applications, i.e., for teaching or operational purposes, for communicating within or between…

  1. Highlights of 10-Year Remote Sensing Industry Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabin, Ron

    2002-01-01

    A background and highlights of a 10 year remote sensing industry analysis are provided.Included are the following:Training, educational analysis, staff levels, and end-users analysis, market drivers, market segments,application areas, spatial resolution needs, use of image types.

  2. Duodenal adenocarcinoma in a 10-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Zouari; Habib, Bouthour; Rabia, Ben Abdallah; Youssef, Hlel; Riath, Ben Malek; Youssef, Gharbi; Nejib, Kaabar

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal malignancies are extremely rare in the paediatric population and duodenal cancers represent an even more unusual entity. It represents 0.3-1% of all gastrointestinal tumours. A case report of a 10-year-old boy with duodenal adenocarcinoma is reported and the difficulties of diagnosing and treating this rare tumour are discussed. PMID:24647303

  3. "JPBI" 10 Years Later: Trends in Research Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Dell, Sean M.; Vilardo, Brigid A.; Kern, Lee; Kokina, Anastasia; Ash, Allison N.; Seymour, Kimberly J.; Castrantas, Lauren M.; Kollar, Rachel B.; Wagner, Andrea M.; Bartholomew, Audrey; Thomas, Lisa B.

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, the "Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions" ("JPBI") celebrated 10 years in publication. As the flagship journal of positive behavior support (PBS), it is important to periodically examine the research published in "JPBI" to determine whether it reflects the basic principles of PBS, to explore the ways in which PBS is being…

  4. The effects of fire severity on black carbon additions to forest soils - 10 years post fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poore, R.; Wessman, C. A.; Buma, B.

    2013-12-01

    horizon and the top 10cm mineral horizon. The soils were sieved to 2mm and their BC content measured using the Kurth-MacKenzie-DeLuca method of digesting labile carbon using nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide at 95C for 20hrs. We integrated both remotely sensed data and field observations. We used the Relative Difference Normalized Burn Ratio (RdNBR) calculated by Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS). This index used Landsat images from July in the years before and after the fire and is based on differences in bands 4 and 7, with the aim of assessing coarse scale changes in soil and vegetation post fire. For each plot we also collected data on tree mortality and organic soil depth. These metrics were chosen from the Composite Burn Index as those that were most reliable even 10 years after the fire. We observed no significant differences in BC totals between high severity fire and unburned plots, although BC increased slightly on burned plots. Early results for low severity sites (analysis still in progress) suggest that BC increased in plots experiencing lower severity fires compared to unburned and high severity plots. Comparing carbon and BC totals on unburned and severely burned plots, and assuming no loss of BC from mineral soil during the fire, we observed a 1.2% conversion of burned biomass to BC, which corresponds with literature estimates of 1-4%.

  5. Beyond the horizon

    SciTech Connect

    Einhorn, Martin B; Mahato, Manavendra

    2006-05-15

    Cosmic horizons arise in general relativity in the context of black holes and in certain cosmologies. Classically, regions beyond a horizon are inaccessible to causal observers. However, quantum mechanical correlations may exist across horizons that may influence local observations. For the case of de Sitter space, we show how a single particle excitation behind the horizon changes the density matrix governing local observables. As compared to the vacuum state, we calculate the change in the average energy and entropy per unit volume. This illustrates what may be a generic property allowing some features of spacetime beyond a horizon to be inferred.

  6. Hall scrambling on black hole horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischler, Willy; Kundu, Sandipan

    2015-08-01

    We explore the effect of the electrodynamics θ angle on the macroscopic properties of black hole horizons. Using only classical Einstein-Maxwell-Chern-Simons theory in (3 +1 ) dimensions, in the form of the membrane paradigm, we show that in the presence of the θ term, a black hole horizon behaves as a Hall conductor, for an observer hovering outside. We study how localized perturbations created on the stretched horizon scramble on the horizon by dropping a charged particle. We show that the θ angle affects the way perturbations scramble on the horizon, in particular, it introduces vortices without changing the scrambling time. This Hall scrambling of information is also expected to occur on cosmological horizons.

  7. Finite-Horizon Near-Optimal Output Feedback Neural Network Control of Quantized Nonlinear Discrete-Time Systems With Input Constraint.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hao; Zhao, Qiming; Jagannathan, Sarangapani

    2015-08-01

    The output feedback-based near-optimal regulation of uncertain and quantized nonlinear discrete-time systems in affine form with control constraint over finite horizon is addressed in this paper. First, the effect of input constraint is handled using a nonquadratic cost functional. Next, a neural network (NN)-based Luenberger observer is proposed to reconstruct both the system states and the control coefficient matrix so that a separate identifier is not needed. Then, approximate dynamic programming-based actor-critic framework is utilized to approximate the time-varying solution of the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman using NNs with constant weights and time-dependent activation functions. A new error term is defined and incorporated in the NN update law so that the terminal constraint error is also minimized over time. Finally, a novel dynamic quantizer for the control inputs with adaptive step size is designed to eliminate the quantization error overtime, thus overcoming the drawback of the traditional uniform quantizer. The proposed scheme functions in a forward-in-time manner without offline training phase. Lyapunov analysis is used to investigate the stability. Simulation results are given to show the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method. PMID:25794403

  8. Finite-Horizon Near-Optimal Output Feedback Neural Network Control of Quantized Nonlinear Discrete-Time Systems With Input Constraint.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hao; Zhao, Qiming; Jagannathan, Sarangapani

    2015-08-01

    The output feedback-based near-optimal regulation of uncertain and quantized nonlinear discrete-time systems in affine form with control constraint over finite horizon is addressed in this paper. First, the effect of input constraint is handled using a nonquadratic cost functional. Next, a neural network (NN)-based Luenberger observer is proposed to reconstruct both the system states and the control coefficient matrix so that a separate identifier is not needed. Then, approximate dynamic programming-based actor-critic framework is utilized to approximate the time-varying solution of the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman using NNs with constant weights and time-dependent activation functions. A new error term is defined and incorporated in the NN update law so that the terminal constraint error is also minimized over time. Finally, a novel dynamic quantizer for the control inputs with adaptive step size is designed to eliminate the quantization error overtime, thus overcoming the drawback of the traditional uniform quantizer. The proposed scheme functions in a forward-in-time manner without offline training phase. Lyapunov analysis is used to investigate the stability. Simulation results are given to show the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method.

  9. Optogenetics: 10 years of microbial opsins in neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Deisseroth, Karl

    2015-09-01

    Over the past 10 years, the development and convergence of microbial opsin engineering, modular genetic methods for cell-type targeting and optical strategies for guiding light through tissue have enabled versatile optical control of defined cells in living systems, defining modern optogenetics. Despite widespread recognition of the importance of spatiotemporally precise causal control over cellular signaling, for nearly the first half (2005-2009) of this 10-year period, as optogenetics was being created, there were difficulties in implementation, few publications and limited biological findings. In contrast, the ensuing years have witnessed a substantial acceleration in the application domain, with the publication of thousands of discoveries and insights into the function of nervous systems and beyond. This Historical Commentary reflects on the scientific landscape of this decade-long transition.

  10. Optogenetics: 10 years of microbial opsins in neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Deisseroth, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, the development and convergence of microbial opsin engineering, modular genetic methods for cell-type targeting and optical strategies for guiding light through tissue have enabled versatile optical control of defined cells in living systems, defining modern optogenetics. Despite widespread recognition of the importance of spatiotemporally precise causal control over cellular signaling, for nearly the first half (2005–2009) of this 10-year period, as optogenetics was being created, there were difficulties in implementation, few publications and limited biological findings. In contrast, the ensuing years have witnessed a substantial acceleration in the application domain, with the publication of thousands of discoveries and insights into the function of nervous systems and beyond. This Historical Commentary reflects on the scientific landscape of this decade-long transition. PMID:26308982

  11. Primary Nasal Tuberculosis in a 10-Year-Old Girl

    PubMed Central

    Özer, Murat; Özsurekçi, Yasemin; Cengiz, Ali Bülent; Özçelik, Uğur; Yalçın, Ebru; Gököz, Özay

    2016-01-01

    Nasal tuberculosis is a rare clinical entity which mainly presents in elderly people. Nasal tuberculosis has always been considered to be secondary to tuberculosis of the lungs, and in rare instances it is a primary infection, usually when mycobacteria are inhaled. We describe the case of a 10-year-old girl who was successfully treated for primary nasal tuberculosis. This patient is one of the very few children who have been reported to have primary nasal tuberculosis. PMID:27366187

  12. Primary Nasal Tuberculosis in a 10-Year-Old Girl.

    PubMed

    Özer, Murat; Özsurekçi, Yasemin; Cengiz, Ali Bülent; Özçelik, Uğur; Yalçın, Ebru; Gököz, Özay

    2016-01-01

    Nasal tuberculosis is a rare clinical entity which mainly presents in elderly people. Nasal tuberculosis has always been considered to be secondary to tuberculosis of the lungs, and in rare instances it is a primary infection, usually when mycobacteria are inhaled. We describe the case of a 10-year-old girl who was successfully treated for primary nasal tuberculosis. This patient is one of the very few children who have been reported to have primary nasal tuberculosis.

  13. Atypical presentation of macrophagic myofasciitis 10 years post vaccination.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Aisling M; Bermingham, Niamh; Harrington, Hugh J; Keohane, Catherine

    2006-12-01

    Macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF) is an uncommon inflammatory disorder of muscle believed to be due to persistence of vaccine-derived aluminium hydroxide at the site of injection. The condition is characterised by diffuse myalgias, arthralgia and fatigue. We describe a patient with histologically confirmed MMF whose presentation was atypical with left chest and upper limb pain beginning more than 10 years post vaccination. Treatment with steroids led to symptomatic improvement. Although rare, clinicians should consider MMF in cases of atypical myalgia.

  14. 10-year evapotranspiration estimates in a Bornean tropical rainforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kume, T.; Tanaka, N.; Komatsu, H.; Yoshifuji, N.; Saitoh, T. M.; Suzuki, M.; Kumagai, T.

    2010-12-01

    This study was undertaken to quantify 10-year evapotranspiration (ET) in a tropical rainforest, Sarawak, Malaysia. To this aim, a simplified big-leaf model was formulated, which can consider transpiration (Et) and rainfall interception (Ei). The model was independently validated using eddy covariance fluxes, rainfall interception based on throughfall and stemflow measurements, and sap flow measurements conducted for more than two years. Consequently, our big-leaf model could successfully reproduce Et and Ei. By using the model and a 10-year meteorological data set, Et, Ei, and ET was estimated in the period between 2000 and 2009. The annual Et , Ei, and ET averaged over 10 years were estimated as 1114, 209, and 1323 mm, respectively, with the small seasonal fluctuations. The derived estimations for 10 years showed conservative year-to-year variations in Et, Ei, and ET (CV = 5-7%) against considerable year-to-year variations in annual rainfall (CV = 11%). Specific rainfall characteristics in this site could be a reason for conservative year-to-year variations in Ei. Small interannual variations in meteorological conditions and no occurrence of unusually severe drought in this study period could be a reason for the small year-to-year variations in Et. As well, we compared ET, Ei at this site with those of other tropical forests. Our forest ET was smaller than global maximum value of ET estimated in other tropical forests because of the smaller Ei, relative to annual rainfall at this site. Based on the derived characteristics of ET, we also discussed possible changes in ET, Et, and Ei in response to changes in rainfall regime at this site.

  15. Trabecular metal tibial knee component still stable at 10 years

    PubMed Central

    Henricson, Anders; Nilsson, Kjell G

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose Total knee replacement (TKR) in younger patients using cemented components has shown inferior results, mainly due to aseptic loosening. Excellent clinical results have been reported with components made of trabecular metal (TM). In a previous report, we have shown stabilization of the TM tibial implants for up to 5 years. In this study, we compared the clinical and RSA results of these uncemented implants with those of cemented implants. Patients and methods 41 patients (47 knees) aged ≤ 60 years underwent TKR. 22 patients (26 knees) received an uncemented monoblock cruciate-retaining (CR) tibial component (TM) and 19 patients (21 knees) received a cemented NexGen Option CR tibial component. Follow-up examination was done at 10 years, and 16 patients (19 knees) with TM tibial components and 17 patients (18 knees) with cemented tibial components remained for analysis. Results 1 of 19 TM implants was revised for infection, 2 of 18 cemented components were revised for knee instability, and no revisions were done for loosening. Both types of tibial components migrated in the first 3 months, the TM group to a greater extent than the cemented group. After 3 months, both groups were stable during the next 10 years. Interpretation The patterns of migration for uncemented TM implants and cemented tibial implants over the first 10 years indicate that they have a good long-term prognosis regarding fixation PMID:27357222

  16. Avian response to bottomland hardwood reforestation: the first 10 years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, D.J.; Wilson, R.R.; Henne-Kerr, J.L.; Grosshuesch, D.A.

    2002-01-01

    Bttomland hardwood forests were planted on agricultural fields in Mississippi and Louisiana using either predominantly Quercus species (oaks) or Populus deltoides (eastern cottonwood). We assessed avian colonization of these reforested sites between 2 and 10 years after planting. Rapid vertical growth of cottonwoods (circa 2 - 3 m / yr) resulted in sites with forest structure that supported greater species richness of breeding birds, increased Shannon diversity indices, and supported greater territory densities than on sites planted with slower-growing oak species. Grassland birds (Spiza americana [Dickcissel], and Sturnella magna [Eastern Meadowlark]) were indicative of species breeding on oak-dominated reforestation # 10 years old. Agelaius phoeniceus (Red-winged Blackbird) and Colinus virginianus (Northern Bobwhite) characterized cottonwood reforestation # 4 years old, whereas 14 species of shrub-scrub birds (e.g., Passerina cyanea [Indigo Bunting]) and early-successional forest birds (e.g., Vireo gilvus [Warbling Vireo]) typified cottonwood reforestation 5 to 9 years after planting. Rates of daily nest survival did not differ between reforestation strategies. Nest parasitism increased markedly in older cottonwood stands, but was overwhelmed by predation as a cause of nest failure. Based on Partners in Flight prioritization scores and territory densities, the value of cottonwood reforestation for avian conservation was significantly greater than that of oak reforestation during their first 10 years. Because of benefits conferred on breeding birds, we recommend reforestation of bottomland hardwoods include a high proportion of fast-growing, early successional species such as cottonwood.

  17. Trabecular metal tibial knee component still stable at 10 years.

    PubMed

    Henricson, Anders; Nilsson, Kjell G

    2016-10-01

    Background and purpose - Total knee replacement (TKR) in younger patients using cemented components has shown inferior results, mainly due to aseptic loosening. Excellent clinical results have been reported with components made of trabecular metal (TM). In a previous report, we have shown stabilization of the TM tibial implants for up to 5 years. In this study, we compared the clinical and RSA results of these uncemented implants with those of cemented implants. Patients and methods - 41 patients (47 knees) aged ≤ 60 years underwent TKR. 22 patients (26 knees) received an uncemented monoblock cruciate-retaining (CR) tibial component (TM) and 19 patients (21 knees) received a cemented NexGen Option CR tibial component. Follow-up examination was done at 10 years, and 16 patients (19 knees) with TM tibial components and 17 patients (18 knees) with cemented tibial components remained for analysis. Results - 1 of 19 TM implants was revised for infection, 2 of 18 cemented components were revised for knee instability, and no revisions were done for loosening. Both types of tibial components migrated in the first 3 months, the TM group to a greater extent than the cemented group. After 3 months, both groups were stable during the next 10 years. Interpretation - The patterns of migration for uncemented TM implants and cemented tibial implants over the first 10 years indicate that they have a good long-term prognosis regarding fixation. PMID:27357222

  18. MMI's Metadata and Vocabulary Solutions: 10 Years and Growing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graybeal, J.; Gayanilo, F.; Rueda-Velasquez, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    The Marine Metadata Interoperability project (http://marinemetadata.org) held its public opening at AGU's 2004 Fall Meeting. For 10 years since that debut, the MMI guidance and vocabulary sites have served over 100,000 visitors, with 525 community members and continuous Steering Committee leadership. Originally funded by the National Science Foundation, over the years multiple organizations have supported the MMI mission: "Our goal is to support collaborative research in the marine science domain, by simplifying the incredibly complex world of metadata into specific, straightforward guidance. MMI encourages scientists and data managers at all levels to apply good metadata practices from the start of a project, by providing the best guidance and resources for data management, and developing advanced metadata tools and services needed by the community." Now hosted by the Harte Research Institute at Texas A&M University at Corpus Christi, MMI continues to provide guidance and services to the community, and is planning for marine science and technology needs for the next 10 years. In this presentation we will highlight our major accomplishments, describe our recent achievements and imminent goals, and propose a vision for improving marine data interoperability for the next 10 years, including Ontology Registry and Repository (http://mmisw.org/orr) advancements and applications (http://mmisw.org/cfsn).

  19. Deepwater Horizon Situation Report #5

    SciTech Connect

    2010-06-10

    At approximately 11:00 pm EDT April 20, 2010 an explosion occurred aboard the Deepwater Horizon mobile offshore drilling unit (MODU) located 52 miles Southeast of Venice, LA and 130 miles southeast of New Orleans, LA. The MODU was drilling an exploratory well and was not producing oil at the time of the incident. The Deepwater Horizon MODU sank 1,500 feet northwest of the well site. Detailed information on response and recovery operations can be found at: http://www.deepwaterhorizonresponse.com/go/site/2931/

  20. Horizon Report: 2009 Economic Development Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, L.; Levine, A.; Scott, C.; Smith, R.; Stone, S.

    2009-01-01

    The New Media Consortium's Horizon Project is an ongoing research project that seeks to identify and describe emerging technologies likely to have a large impact in education and other industries around the world over a five-year time period. The chief products of the project are the "Horizon Reports", an annual series of publications that…

  1. Project Horizon: How Utah Is Reducing Recidivism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Daimar

    2000-01-01

    Project Horizon, Utah's statute to reduce the economic and social cost of recidivism, shifted funding for correctional education to the state education agency. Parolees who participated in Project Horizon had an 18-20 percent lower recidivism rate than nonparticipants and found post-release jobs 89 percent of the time. (JOW)

  2. Does time heal all wounds? Community attachment, natural resource employment, and health impacts in the wake of the BP Deepwater Horizon disaster.

    PubMed

    Cope, Michael R; Slack, Tim; Blanchard, Troy C; Lee, Matthew R

    2013-05-01

    On April 20, 2010, the BP-leased Deepwater Horizon (BP-DH) oil rig exploded, resulting in the largest marine oil spill in history. In this paper we utilize one-of-a-kind household survey data-the Louisiana Community Oil Spill Survey-to examine the impacts of the BP-DH disaster on the mental and physical health of spill affected residents in coastal Louisiana, with a special focus on the influence of community attachment and natural resource employment. We find that levels of both negative mental and physical health were significantly more pronounced at baseline compared to later time points. We show that greater community attachment is linked to lower levels of negative health impacts in the wake of the oil spill and that the disaster had a uniquely negative impact on households involved in the fishing industry. Further, we find evidence that the relationship between community attachment and mental health is more pronounced at later points in time, and that the negative health impacts on fishers have worsened over time. Implications for research and policy are discussed. PMID:23522000

  3. Time- and Oil-Dependent Transcriptomic and Physiological Responses to Deepwater Horizon Oil in Mahi-Mahi (Coryphaena hippurus) Embryos and Larvae.

    PubMed

    Xu, Elvis Genbo; Mager, Edward M; Grosell, Martin; Pasparakis, Christina; Schlenker, Lela S; Stieglitz, John D; Benetti, Daniel; Hazard, E Starr; Courtney, Sean M; Diamante, Graciel; Freitas, Juliane; Hardiman, Gary; Schlenk, Daniel

    2016-07-19

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill contaminated the spawning habitats for numerous commercially and ecologically important fishes. Exposure to the water accommodated fraction (WAF) of oil from the spill has been shown to cause cardiac toxicity during early developmental stages across fishes. To better understand the molecular events and explore new pathways responsible for toxicity, RNA sequencing was performed in conjunction with physiological and morphological assessments to analyze the time-course (24, 48, and 96 h post fertilization (hpf)) of transcriptional and developmental responses in embryos/larvae of mahi-mahi exposed to WAF of weathered (slick) and source DWH oils. Slick oil exposure induced more pronounced changes in gene expression over time than source oil exposure. Predominant transcriptomic responses included alteration of EIF2 signaling, steroid biosynthesis, ribosome biogenesis and activation of the cytochrome P450 pathway. At 96 hpf, slick oil exposure resulted in significant perturbations in eye development and peripheral nervous system, suggesting novel targets in addition to the heart may be involved in the developmental toxicity of DHW oil. Comparisons of changes of cardiac genes with phenotypic responses were consistent with reduced heart rate and increased pericardial edema in larvae exposed to slick oil but not source oil. PMID:27348429

  4. Developing of 10-year EEZ seafloor mapping and research program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lockwood, M.; Hill, G.W.

    1988-01-01

    The intent of expanding the exploration already begun on the outer continental shelf to the frontier of the EEZ (Exclusive Economic Zone) is to determine the "characteristics' and resource potential of this region. To coordinate this exploration, a Joint Office for Mapping and Research (JOMAR) has been established by the US Geological Survey (in the Department of the Interior) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (in the Department of Commerce). JOMAR's main purpose is to help direct and coordinate ongoing and planned seafloor related activities in the EEZ and prepare a 10-year plan for mapping and research. -from Authors

  5. Motor Speech Disorders: Where Will We Be in 10 Years?

    PubMed

    Duffy, Joseph R

    2016-08-01

    Research and practice in the area of motor speech disorders (MSDs) will change in the next 10 years, most likely in evolutionary rather revolutionary ways. We are likely to see an increase in the understanding of the underpinnings of MSDs and refinements in assessment and diagnosis. Management approaches probably will be refined, as will how outcomes are measured. The evidence base for treatment efficacy will grow. Technology and changes in the health care system will have strong and overarching, but not easily predicted, influences. This article provides a broad overview of these and related issues, with some cautious predictions. PMID:27232096

  6. Recurrent renal cell cancer: 10 years or more after nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Abara, Emmanuel; Chivulescu, Iolanda; Clerk, Nilam; Cano, Pablo; Goth, Alexis

    2010-04-01

    Localized renal cell carcinoma (RCC) responds well to surgery. Patients often question how long they have to be on surveillance after their surgery. Several follow-up patterns have been described in the literature. Until 2009, no published established Canadian guidelines existed to assist Canadian health-care practitioners in the surveillance of these patients. We present 3 cases of RCC that recurred 10 years or longer after the initial nephrectomy. These cases emphasize the need for careful long-term follow-up, as recommended in the Canadian Urological Association guidelines. We also discuss the optimism of prolonged disease survival in the era of novel therapeutic agents that target angiogenesis. PMID:20368882

  7. Early Predictors of Career Development: A 10-Year Follow-up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferreira, Joaquim Armando; Santos, Eduardo J. R.; Fonseca, Antonio C.; Haase, Richard F.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents empirical findings from a 10-year longitudinal study of the educational and occupational socialization of 445 participants who were about 7 years old when first tested, and about 17 years old at the fourth time of measurement. In addition to collecting psychological measurements from the participants, behavioral reports were…

  8. Visual plus nonvisual hallucinations in Parkinson's disease: development and evolution over 10 years.

    PubMed

    Goetz, Christopher G; Stebbins, Glenn T; Ouyang, Bichun

    2011-10-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the development and evolution of visual and nonvisual hallucinations in patients with Parkinson's disease over 10 years. Hallucinations increase over time, but minimal attention has been placed on nonvisual domains. We studied 60 patients with Parkinson's disease who had never hallucinated at baseline and followed them over 10 years. The Rush Hallucination Inventory monitored frequency and type (visual, auditory, tactile, olfactory) of hallucinations at baseline and after 0.5, 1.5, 4, 6, and 10 years. Descriptive statistics were applied, and general estimating equation modeling assessed longitudinal risks. Over 10 years, visual hallucinations were endorsed by patients more frequently than other sensory modalities. Whereas isolated visual hallucinations dominated the early hallucination profile, visual plus nonvisual hallucinations accounted for progressively higher proportions of hallucinators over 10 years: 0.5 years, 0%; 4 years, 26%; 6 years, 47%; 10 years, 60% (odds ratio, 1.17; confidence interval, 1.01-1.37; P = .04). Once visual plus nonvisual hallucinations developed, the risk of continuing to have multidomain hallucinations was high (odds ratio, 3.67; confidence interval, 1.13-11.93; P = .03). Hallucination severity was highly associated with current visual plus nonvisual hallucinations (odds ratio, 4.06; confidence interval, 2.93-5.61; P < .0001) and the continuation of multidomain hallucinations (odds ratio, 1.58; confidence interval, 1.12-2.24; P = .01). Whereas visual hallucinations in isolation are classic in Parkinson's disease, nonvisual hallucinations emerge over time, and the combination of visual with nonvisual hallucinations predominates in late Parkinson's disease. To capture the breadth and severity of hallucinations in chronically hallucinating patients with Parkinson's disease, screening inventories and practice-based interviews must include questions on both visual and nonvisual components.

  9. Citations to Australian Astronomy: 5- and 10-Year Benchmarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenyon, Katherine H.; Paramasivam, Arjun; Tu, Jiachin; Zhang, Albert; Graham, Alister W.

    2012-03-01

    Expanding upon Pimbblet's 2011 analysis of career h-indices for members of the Astronomical Society of Australia, we provide additional citation metrics which are geared to quantifying the current performance of all professional astronomers in Australia. We have trawled the staff web-pages of Australian Universities, Observatories and Research Organisations hosting professional astronomers, and identified 384 PhD-qualified, research-active, astronomers in the nation. 132 of these are not members of the Astronomical Society of Australia. Using the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System, we provide the three following common metrics based on publications in the first decade of the 21st century (2001-2010): h-index, author-normalised citation count and lead-author citation count. We additionally present a somewhat more inclusive analysis, applicable for many early-career researchers, that is based on publications from 2006-2010. Histograms and percentiles, plus top-performer lists, are presented for each category. Finally, building on Hirsch's empirical equation, we find that the (10-year) h-index and (10-year) total citation count T can be approximated by the relation AS12011_IE1.gif for h>~5.

  10. The 2010 Horizon Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, L.; Levine, A.; Smith, R.; Stone, S.

    2010-01-01

    The annual "Horizon Report" describes the continuing work of the New Media Consortium's Horizon Project, a qualitative research project established in 2002 that identifies and describes emerging technologies likely to have a large impact on teaching, learning, or creative inquiry on college and university campuses within the next five years. The…

  11. Two Horizons of Fusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, Mun Ling; Chik, Pakey Pui Man

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we aim to differentiate the internal and external horizons of "fusion." "Fusion" in the internal horizon relates to the structure and meaning of the object of learning as experienced by the learner. It clarifies the interrelationships among an object's critical features and aspects. It also illuminates the…

  12. Semiclassical ultraextremal horizons

    SciTech Connect

    Matyjasek, Jerzy; Zaslavskii, O.B.

    2005-04-15

    We examine backreaction of quantum massive fields on multiply-degenerate (ultraextremal) horizons. It is shown that, under influence of the quantum backreaction, the horizon of such a kind moves to a new position near which the metric does not change its asymptotics, so the ultraextremal black holes and cosmological spacetimes do exist as self-consistent solutions of the semiclassical field equations.

  13. Geochemical and isotopic time series of oil deposited in Barataria Bay and on Grand Isle, Louisiana, after the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finkelstein, D. B.; Schimmelmann, A.; Rosenheim, B. E.

    2012-12-01

    We present time-series of bulk hydrocarbon geochemical and compound specific isotopic data of oiled and tarry sediment deposits from Grand Isle and Barataria Bay, Louisiana. Samples were taken between 46 days and 694 days after the Macondo well blowout, and analyzed for bulk hydrocarbon stable carbon and hydrogen isotope ratios, n-alkane and other organic molecular characteristics, ramped pyrolysis stable carbon ratios and radiocarbon content, and compound specific isotope analysis. Bulk and compound specific stable hydrogen isotopes point to slight 2H-enrichment attributable to water washing during transport to Grand Isle and Barataria Bay, followed by more subtle changes after deposition that depended in part on the wave energy available locally. Characterization of the n-alkane distributions through time identified subtle shifts in the dominant n-alkanes from water washing and terrestrial degradation. The loss of high molecular weight n-alkanes and an increase in the unresolved complex mixture after day 337 is consistent with a shift from slight to moderate biodegradation. More significant variations were observed in elemental H:C ratios, whereas bulk stable carbon isotope values showed small increases through time. Ramped pyrolysis analyses illustrated relatively volatile and reactive petroleum-derived components were present during the first year following the spill, but they ultimately became less apparent during later sampling. Isotope results from different ramped pyrolysis components are discussed. Compound specific isotope analysis indicate that a combination of variables (e.g., tidal water washing and biodegradation) may impact degradation during the first 200 days. This period was followed by a mixing of Macondo and non-Macondo hydrocarbons in the environment. In sum, our analyses show the complementary roles of abiotic and biotic factors in degradation of the Deepwater Horizon oil that was deposited in different environments of coastal Louisiana.

  14. Parathyroid Carcinoma in a 10 Years Old Female Child.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M M; Karim, S S; Joarder, A I; Mubin, S; Abir, M M; Morshed, M S

    2015-07-01

    Parathyroid carcinoma (PC) is a rare cause of hypercalcaemia in children. Only 7 cases of PC have been reported so far in the world journal. The authors report the 8th case of parathyroid carcinoma in children less than 16 years of age. A 10 year old girl presented with difficulty in walking, dorsiflexion and ulnar deviation of both wrist joints and occasional pain in the central abdomen of about two years duration. Biochemical investigations revealed serum calcium 12.2 mg/dL (normal 9-11 mg/dL), serum alkaline phosphate 4992 U/L (normal 50-136 U/L), PTH (parathyroid hormone) 2217 pg/ml (normal 9-80 pg/ml). Parathyroid scintigraphy localized the lesion in the left parathyroid gland. X-ray showed bilateral coxa vera, genu valgus deformity and multiple stress fractures in both wrist joints. Histopathology confirmed PC with capsular and vascular invasion.

  15. [Stability of steroids in plasma over a 10-year period].

    PubMed

    Kley, H K; Schlaghecke, R; Krüskemper, H L

    1985-12-01

    In order to examine whether plasma samples may be used for steroid analysis after long periods of storage, cortisol, testosterone, oestrone and oestradiol were remeasured in samples, which had been analysed 1.3-10.8 years earlier. The method for the measurement of these steroids was unchanged over this period. The results demonstrate that at a temperature of -25 degrees C steroids remained stable. Only cortisol and testosterone concentrations showed a small, insignificant decrease (6-9%) after 3 to 4 years of storage. These differences are well within the range of the precision of the method (interassay variation), which over a period of 11 years was 9.4%, 8.0%, 10.0% and 9.5% for cortisol, testosterone, oestrone and oestradiol, respectively. It is concluded that steroid hormones in human plasma are stable in our laboratory, and that they might be analysed even after more than 10 years of storage at -25 degrees C. PMID:3831227

  16. Seismological network in China celebrates first 10 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y. T.; Zhou, G. W.; Wu, Z. L.

    Located near the boundary of the India, Pacific, and Eurasia plates, the Chinese continent is characterized by complex tectonics and high seismicity. Since the Sino-U.S. cooperative China Digital Seismograph Network (CDSN) began operating 10 years ago, it has played an active role in studying the seismology of China.Studies of the lithospheric structure and earthquake sources using digital seismic data are highly important in the study of geodynamics and the reduction of seismic disasters. Using the CDSN data, extensive studies were carried out by seismologists both in China and abroad. The studies investigated the lithospheric structure, seismic anisotropy within the upper mantle, and inversion of regional centroid moment tensors (RCMTs) of moderate to strong earthquakes. Earthquake sources were imaged based on broadband digital waveform analysis. As a result, over 100 papers have been published in China and abroad since 1990.

  17. Class III treatment using facial mask: Stability after 10 years

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Adilson Luiz

    2014-01-01

    Early Class III malocclusion treatment may not have long-term stability due to mandibular growth. Although some features of this malocclusion point to a better prognosis, it is practically impossible for the orthodontist to foresee cases that require new intervention. Many patients need retreatment, whether compensatory or orthodontic-surgical. The present study reports the case of a Class III patient treated at the end of the mixed dentition with the use of a face mask followed by conventional fixed appliances. The case remains stable 10 years after treatment completion. It was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO) as a requirement for the title of certified by the BBO. PMID:25715726

  18. Class III treatment using facial mask: stability after 10 years.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Adilson Luiz

    2014-01-01

    Early Class III malocclusion treatment may not have long-term stability due to mandibular growth. Although some features of this malocclusion point to a better prognosis, it is practically impossible for the orthodontist to foresee cases that require new intervention. Many patients need retreatment, whether compensatory or orthodontic-surgical. The present study reports the case of a Class III patient treated at the end of the mixed dentition with the use of a face mask followed by conventional fixed appliances. The case remains stable 10 years after treatment completion. It was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO) as a requirement for the title of certified by the BBO.

  19. Scurvy in a 10-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Cole, John A; Warthan, Molly M; Hirano, Stefanie A; Gowen, Clarence W; Williams, Judith V

    2011-01-01

    Scurvy, or hypovitaminosis C, is an uncommon condition that exists today primarily within certain unique populations-particularly the elderly subjects, patients with neurodevelopmental disabilities or psychiatric illnesses, or others with unusual dietary habits. Vitamin C is an essential nutrient in the human body, and is important in synthesizing collagen factor whose faulty production is responsible for most of the clinical manifestations of scurvy. These clinical manifestations can include dystrophic or corkscrew hairs, gingival hyperplasia, and weakened blood vessel walls, causing bleeding in the skin, joints, and other organs. Although rare in the Unites States, the presence of scurvy should not be forgotten because of its presence among susceptible populations. Moreover, with its diagnosis, treatment and cure is one of the simplest in modern medicine. We report a case of scurvy in a 10-year-old autistic child.

  20. New Jersey 10-year energy plan urges cogeneration reliance

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, J.

    1985-03-25

    The New Jersey DOE has drafted a 10-year master plan aimed at expanding state-wide conservation measures and encouraging the development of more than 2000 MW of cogenerated electricity through a combination of tax incentive and financial assistance programs. Although the plan deals with all sectors of energy use, the focus is on reducing industrial fuel and power costs. The incentives include a five-year exemption of new cogeneration facilities from property taxes, new buy-back rates equal to full avoided costs, and utility tariffs that allow the wheeling of cogenerated power. Part of the relicensing of casino-hotels could be a requirement for investigating the feasibility of installing a cogeneration system.

  1. The Troubling Trichotomy 10 Years Later: Where Are We Now?

    PubMed

    Barrocas, Albert

    2016-06-01

    A decade ago, "Nutrition Support and The Troubling Trichotomy: A Call To Action" was published in this journal, identifying existing conflicts among technological, ethical, and legal aspects of nutrition support therapy, particularly in terminal or end-of-life situations. Over the past 10 years, the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition and others have responded to the action call. A "state of the trichotomy" reveals that while much has been achieved, differences in all 3 aspects will continue to exist due to their dynamic and ever-changing states. The technology arena has made it possible to increase the delivery of nutrition support in alternative settings with the use of telemedicine and social media. Critical/crucial conversations and earlier declarations of individual wishes for care and treatment while having decision-making capacity have been enhanced with the focus on patient-centered and family-centered care. The definition of death as brain death has been challenged in at least one instance. Conflicts between the state's interests and the individual's interests have added to recent legal controversies. Notwithstanding the progress made over the past 10 years, several challenges remain. The future challenges presented by the Troubling Trichotomy can be best confronted if we ACT-Accountability, Communication, and Teamwork. The focus of teamwork should move from multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary teams to transdisciplinary teams, reflecting the shift to function rather than form presented by the new healthcare environment. The transdisciplinary team will be able address the opportunities of the Troubling Trichotomy in the next decade by incorporating the 12 Cs, as detailed in the article.

  2. The Troubling Trichotomy 10 Years Later: Where Are We Now?

    PubMed

    Barrocas, Albert

    2016-06-01

    A decade ago, "Nutrition Support and The Troubling Trichotomy: A Call To Action" was published in this journal, identifying existing conflicts among technological, ethical, and legal aspects of nutrition support therapy, particularly in terminal or end-of-life situations. Over the past 10 years, the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition and others have responded to the action call. A "state of the trichotomy" reveals that while much has been achieved, differences in all 3 aspects will continue to exist due to their dynamic and ever-changing states. The technology arena has made it possible to increase the delivery of nutrition support in alternative settings with the use of telemedicine and social media. Critical/crucial conversations and earlier declarations of individual wishes for care and treatment while having decision-making capacity have been enhanced with the focus on patient-centered and family-centered care. The definition of death as brain death has been challenged in at least one instance. Conflicts between the state's interests and the individual's interests have added to recent legal controversies. Notwithstanding the progress made over the past 10 years, several challenges remain. The future challenges presented by the Troubling Trichotomy can be best confronted if we ACT-Accountability, Communication, and Teamwork. The focus of teamwork should move from multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary teams to transdisciplinary teams, reflecting the shift to function rather than form presented by the new healthcare environment. The transdisciplinary team will be able address the opportunities of the Troubling Trichotomy in the next decade by incorporating the 12 Cs, as detailed in the article. PMID:26941110

  3. Functional and anatomic consequences of diabetic pregnancy on memory in 10-year-old children

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Kathleen M.; Langworthy, Sara; Georgieff, Michael K.; Nelson, Charles A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Pregnancies complicated by diabetes mellitus impair offspring memory functions during infancy and early childhood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the long term consequences of such pregnancies on memory and memory-related brain regions in 10-year-old children. Method Nineteen (19) children of diabetic mothers (CDMs) and thirty-five (35) children of non-diabetic mothers participated in this 10 year follow-up study. Memory performance was assessed using a continuous recognition memory task during which children made old/new judgments in response to pictures of concrete and abstract objects presented after different lags or delays. In addition, the volume of the hippocampal formation was measured using high resolution structural images. Results At 10 years of age, recognition memory performance of CDMs did not differ from children of non-diabetic mothers. Similarly, the volume of the hippocampal formation did not differ between groups. However, the size of the hippocampal formation in CDMs predicted the time those children needed to provide accurate responses in the continuous recognition memory task. Conclusion CDMs do not show memory impairments by 10 years of age, despite evidence for such impairments early in life. However, subtle differences in underlying neural processes may still be present. These results have important implications for long-term cognitive development of CDMs. PMID:26348971

  4. 10 years of Terra Outreach over the Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuen, K.; Riebeek, H.; Chambers, L. H.

    2009-12-01

    1 Author Yuen, Karen JPL (818) 393-7716 2 Author Riebeek, Holli Sigma Space Corporation (department) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (Institution), Greenbelt, Maryland 3 Author Chambers, Lin NASA Abstract: Since launch, Terra has returned about 195 gigabytes (level 0) of data per day or 1 terabyte every 5 days. Few outlets were able to accommodate and quickly share that amount of information as well as the Internet. To honor the 10-year anniversary of the launch of Terra, we would like to highlight the education and outreach efforts of the Terra mission on the Internet and its reach to the science attentive public. The Internet or web has been the primary way of delivering Terra content to different groups- from formal and informal education to general public outreach. Through the years, many different web-based projects have been developed, and they were of service to a growing population of the science attentive public. One of Terra’s original EPO activities was the Earth Observatory. It was initially dedicated to telling the remote sensing story of Terra, but quickly grew to include science and imagery from other sensors. The web site allowed for collaboration across NASA centers, universities and other organizations by exchanging and sharing of story ideas, news and images. The award winning Earth Observatory helped pave the way for the more recently funded development of the Climate Change website. With its specific focus on climate change studies, once again, Terra stories and images are shared with an even more specific audience base. During the last 10 years, Terra as a mission has captured the imagination of the public through its visually stunning and artistically arresting images. With its five instruments of complementary but unique capabilities, the mission gave the world not just pretty pictures, but scientific data-based images. The world was able to see from space everything from calving icebergs to volcanic eruption plumes and the eye of a

  5. In Brief: Chandra Observatory marks 10 years in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-08-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, originally envisioned as a 5-year mission, was deployed into an elliptical orbit around Earth 10 years ago, on 23 July 1999. The most powerful X-ray telescope yet, Chandra has provided a peak into the high-energy universe and has independently confirmed the existence of dark energy. Martin Weisskopf, Chandra project scientist at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala., said discoveries made possible by the observatory “have made dramatic changes to our understanding of the universe and its constituents.” “The Great Observatories program—of which Chandra is a major part—shows how astronomers need as many tools as possible to tackle the big questions out there,” said Ed Weiler, associate administrator of NASA's Science Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters in Washington. The Hubble Space Telescope, Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, and Spitzer Space Telescope are NASA's other Great Observatories. For more information, visit http://chandra.harvard.edu/ten/ and http://chandra.nasa.gov.

  6. Circles South East: the first 10 years 2002-2012.

    PubMed

    Bates, Andrew; Williams, Dominic; Wilson, Chris; Wilson, Robin J

    2014-07-01

    This article describes the first 10 years of the implementation of Circles of Support and Accountability (Circles) in the management of sexual offenders in South-East England by Circles South East (CSE). The Circles of 71 core members are reviewed in detail, with reference to demographic data, offense and sentencing histories, risk assessment data, and considerations regarding Multi-Agency Public Protection Arrangements. A group of 71 comparison subjects who were referred to CSE and deemed suitable for but did not receive the service was identified. Follow-up behaviors of both groups are examined (including all forms of reconviction, breach of orders, and prison recall). Over a comparable follow-up period of 55 months, the incidence of violent and contact sexual reconviction in the comparison group was significantly higher than for the Circles cohort. Comparisons are made between expected and actual levels of sexual reconviction, with the Circles cohort showing lower than expected rate of sexual reconviction but not to a statistically significant degree.

  7. Fatal burns in Manipal area: a 10 year study.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Virendra; Mohanty, Manoj Kumar; Kanth, Sarita

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to record and evaluate the causes and the magnitude of the fatal burn injuries retrospectively. An analysis of autopsy records revealed 19.4% cases of burn injuries amongst the total autopsies done over 10years period (1993-2002) in the mortuary of the department of Forensic Medicine of Kasturba medical College, Manipal. The majority of deaths (78.5%) occurred between 11 and 40years of age group with preponderance of females (74.8%). The flame burns were seen in 94.1% of the victims followed by scalds and electrical burns in 2.8% and 2.5% cases, respectively. The majority of burn incidents were accidental (75.8%) in nature followed by suicidal (11.5%) and homicidal (3.1%) deaths. The percentage of burn (TBSA) over 40% were observed in most of the cases (92.5%). The majority of deaths occurred within a week (69.87%) and most the victims died because of septicemia (50.9%). PMID:17046310

  8. Alopecia Areata in the Elderly: A 10-Year Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Yong Hyun; Park, Kyung Hea; Kim, Sang Lim; Lim, Hyun Jung; Lee, Weon Ju; Lee, Seok-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Background Alopecia areata (AA) is an organ-specific autoimmune disease that typically occurs in young adults. AA in the elderly is relatively rare, thus little data have been reported. Objective This study aimed to understand the clinical characteristics of AA in the elderly. Methods We performed a 10-year retrospective study of AA in the elderly who visited our dermatologic clinic from January 2002 to December 2011. A clinical review of medical records and telephone interviews were performed by two dermatologists. Results Among 1,761 patients with newly diagnosed AA, 61 (3.5%) were older than 60 years at the first visit. Among those who completed a telephone interview, 74.3% (26/35) had less than 50% of scalp-localized hair loss. There was no association between the extent of AA and hair graying (p=0.679). Favorable therapeutic response was observed in 62.9% (22/35) of cases. Conclusion AA in the elderly shows mild disease severity and favorable treatment response. There is no association between graying and the extent of AA. However, the influence of aging on the pathogenesis of AA in the elderly deserves further investigation. PMID:26273157

  9. Dnepr Launch Missions: 10 Years Experience of Internatio nal Cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solovey, V. A.; Andreev, V. A.; Mikhailov, V. S.; Smagin, Y. N.; Kalnov, V. V.

    2008-08-01

    International Space Company "Kosmotras" (ISC "Kosmotras") was founded in 1997 by the decisions of the Russian Aviation and Space Agency and the National Space Agency of Ukraine. It incorporated leading space industries of Russia and Ukraine. The first Launch Contract was signed in 1998 and in 1999 Dnepr launch vehicle carrying SSTL UoSAT-12 spacecraft (SC) was launched. During 10 years of its activity in the launch services market, ISC "Kosmotras" has exercised 9 successful space launches as a result of which 39 SC were placed into orbit. The flight reliability of Dnepr Launch Vehicle (LV) is estimated as 0.97. Three configurations of Space Head Module (SHM) are available for payload accommodation: a standard- size SHM for multiple small satellite missions (cluster launches); a standard-size SHM for mid-size satellites; an extended SHM for large-size satellite. ISC "Kosmotras" exercises space launches from two launch bases: Baikonur Cosmodrome (Kazakhstan) and Yasny Launch Base (Russia). This allows flexible planning of launch operations.

  10. Dissociative recombination of H3+: 10 years in retrospect

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, Mats

    2012-01-01

    The dissociative recombination of has been an intriguing problem for more than half a century. The early experiments on during the first 20 years were carried out without mass analysis in decaying plasma afterglows, and thus the measured rates pertained to an uncontrolled mixture of and impurity ions. When mass analysis was used, the rate coefficient was determined to be an uneventful value of about 10−7 cm3 s−1, a very common rate coefficient for many molecular ions. But this was not the end of the story, not even the beginning of the end; it marked only the end of the beginning. The story I will tell in this article started about 10 years ago, when the dissociative recombination of was approaching its deepest crisis. Today, owing to an extensive experimental and theoretical effort, the state of affairs has reached a historically unique level of harmony, although there still remains many things to sort out. PMID:23028159

  11. Snowmobile trauma: 10 years' experience at Manitoba's tertiary trauma centre

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Rena L.; Black, G. Brian

    2004-01-01

    Introduction According to the literature, the increased recreational use of the snowmobile has resulted in an increasing number of musculoskeletal injuries. We wished to examine whether previously described risk factors continue to be associated with snowmobile trauma and to identify previously unrecognized risks and specific patterns of injury. Methods We carried out a chart review of all snowmobile-related injuries over a 10-year period at the Health Sciences Centre in Winnipeg, the only level 1 trauma centre serving the Province of Manitoba, with particular attention to the risk factors of suboptimal lighting, excessive speed and alcohol consumption. Results We identified 480 injuries in 294 patients, and 81 (27.6%) of these patients died. Collisions accounted for 72% of the injury mechanisms. Of the injuries sustained, 31% occurred on roads. Excessive speed was a risk factor in 54% of patients, suboptimal lighting in 86% and a blood alcohol level greater than 0.08 in 70%. Musculoskeletal injuries accounted for 57% of those recorded. There were also brachial plexus injuries (3%) and knee dislocations (2%). To our knowledge, this is the largest study detailing injury associated with recreational use of snowmobiles in Canada. Conclusions Because snowmobile trauma is caused principally by human errors, it is potentially preventable. Efforts aimed at prevention must focus on the driver, who controls the common risk factors. The danger of snowmobiling while intoxicated must be emphasized. Trail-side monitoring is likely to be ineffective, as the majority of accidents do not occur on designated snowmobile trails. PMID:15132460

  12. Proteasome inhibitors in multiple myeloma: 10 years later

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Paul G.; Cavo, Michele; Orlowski, Robert Z.; San Miguel, Jesús F.; Palumbo, Antonio; Harousseau, Jean-Luc

    2012-01-01

    Proteasome inhibition has emerged as an important therapeutic strategy in multiple myeloma (MM). Since the publication of the first phase 1 trials of bortezomib 10 years ago, this first-in-class proteasome inhibitor (PI) has contributed substantially to the observed improvement in survival in MM patients over the past decade. Although first approved as a single agent in the relapsed setting, bortezomib is now predominantly used in combination regimens. Furthermore, the standard twice-weekly schedule may be replaced by weekly infusion, especially when bortezomib is used as part of combination regimens in frontline therapy. Indeed, bortezomib is an established component of induction therapy for patients eligible or ineligible for autologous stem cell transplantation. Bortezomib has also been incorporated into conditioning regimens before autologous stem cell transplantation, as well as into post-ASCT consolidation therapy, and in the maintenance setting. In addition, a new route of bortezomib administration, subcutaneous infusion, has recently been approved. Recently, several new agents have been introduced into the clinic, including carfilzomib, marizomib, and MLN9708, and trials investigating these “second-generation” PIs in patients with relapsed/refractory MMs have demonstrated positive results. This review provides an overview of the role of PIs in the treatment of MM, focusing on developments over the past decade. PMID:22645181

  13. The Cryptophlebia Leucotreta Granulovirus—10 Years of Commercial Field Use

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Sean D.; Kirkman, Wayne; Richards, Garth I.; Stephen, Peter R.

    2015-01-01

    In the last 15 years, extensive work on the Cryptophlebia leucotreta granulovirus (CrleGV) has been conducted in South Africa, initially in the laboratory, but subsequently also in the field. This culminated in the registration of the first CrleGV-based biopesticide in 2004 (hence, the 10 years of commercial use in the field) and the second one three years later. Since 2000, more than 50 field trials have been conducted with CrleGV against the false codling moth, Thaumatotibia leucotreta, on citrus in South Africa. In a representative sample of 13 field trials reported over this period, efficacy (measured by reduction in larval infestation of fruit) ranged between 30% and 92%. Efficacy was shown to persist at a level of 70% for up to 17 weeks after application of CrleGV. This only occurred where the virus was applied in blocks rather than to single trees. The addition of molasses substantially and sometimes significantly enhanced efficacy. It was also established that CrleGV should not be applied at less than ~2 × 1013 OBs per ha in order to avoid compromised efficacy. As CrleGV-based products were shown to be at least as effective as chemical alternatives, persistent and compatible with natural enemies, their use is recommended within an integrated program for control of T. leucotreta on citrus and other crops. PMID:25809025

  14. 10 years of surveillance of human tularaemia in France.

    PubMed

    Mailles, A; Vaillant, V

    2014-11-13

    Tularaemia has been mandatorily notifiable in France since October 2002. The surveillance aims to detect early any infection possibly due to bioterrorism and to follow up disease trends. We report the results of national surveillance from 2002 to 2012. A case is defined as a patient with clinical presentation suggestive of tularaemia and biological confirmation of infection or an epidemiological link with a biologically confirmed case. Clinical, biological and epidemiological data are collected using a standardised notification form. From 2002 to 2012, 433 cases were notified, with a median age of 49 years (range 2 to 95 years) and a male–female sex ratio of 1.8. Most frequent clinical presentations were glandular tularaemia (n=200; 46%) and ulceroglandular tularaemia (n=113; 26%). Most frequent at-risk exposures were handling hares (n=179; 41%) and outdoor leisure exposure to dust aerosols (n=217; 50%). Tick bites were reported by 82 patients (19%). Ten clusters (39 cases) were detected over the 10-year period, as well as a national outbreak during winter 2007/2008. The tularaemia surveillance system is able to detect small clusters as well as major outbreaks. Surveillance data show exposure to dust aerosols during outdoor leisure activities to be a major source of contamination in France.

  15. Past and next 10 years of medical informatics.

    PubMed

    Ückert, Frank; Ammenwerth, Elske; Dujat, Carl; Grant, Andrew; Haux, Reinhold; Hein, Andreas; Hochlehnert, Achim; Knaup-Gregori, Petra; Kulikowski, Casimir; Mantas, John; Maojo, Victor; Marschollek, Michael; Moura, Lincoln; Plischke, Maik; Röhrig, Rainer; Stausberg, Jürgen; Takabayashi, Katsuhiko; Winter, Alfred; Wolf, Klaus-Hendrik; Hasman, Arie

    2014-07-01

    More than 10 years ago Haux et al. tried to answer the question how health care provision will look like in the year 2013. A follow-up workshop was held in Braunschweig, Germany, for 2 days in May, 2013, with 20 invited international experts in biomedical and health informatics. Among other things it had the objectives to discuss the suggested goals and measures of 2002 and how priorities on MI research in this context should be set from the viewpoint of today. The goals from 2002 are now as up-to-date as they were then. The experts stated that the three goals: "patient-centred recording and use of medical data for cooperative care"; "process-integrated decision support through current medical knowledge" and "comprehensive use of patient data for research and health care reporting" have not been reached yet and are still relevant. A new goal for ICT in health care should be the support of patient centred personalized (individual) medicine. MI as an academic discipline carries out research concerning tools that support health care professionals in their work. This research should be carried out without the pressure that it should lead to systems that are immediately and directly accepted in practice. PMID:24952607

  16. Parity horizons in shape dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herczeg, Gabriel

    2016-11-01

    I introduce the notion of a parity horizon, and show that many simple solutions of shape dynamics possess them. I show that the event horizons of the known asymptotically flat black hole solutions of shape dynamics are parity horizons and that this notion of parity implies that these horizons possess a notion of CPT invariance that can in some cases be extended to the solution as a whole. I present three new solutions of shape dynamics with parity horizons and find that not only do event horizons become parity horizons in shape dynamics, but observer-dependent horizons and Cauchy horizons do as well. The fact that Cauchy horizons become (singular) parity horizons suggests a general chronology protection mechanism in shape dynamics that prevents the formation of closed timelike curves.

  17. New Horizons at Pluto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenk, Paul; Nimmo, Francis

    2016-06-01

    The New Horizons mission has revealed Pluto and its moon Charon to be geologically active worlds. The familiar, yet exotic, landforms suggest that geologic processes operate similarly across the Solar System, even in its cold outer reaches.

  18. Endometrial stem/progenitor cells: the first 10 years

    PubMed Central

    Gargett, Caroline E.; Schwab, Kjiana E.; Deane, James A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The existence of stem/progenitor cells in the endometrium was postulated many years ago, but the first functional evidence was only published in 2004. The identification of rare epithelial and stromal populations of clonogenic cells in human endometrium has opened an active area of research on endometrial stem/progenitor cells in the subsequent 10 years. METHODS The published literature was searched using the PubMed database with the search terms ‘endometrial stem cells and menstrual blood stem cells' until December 2014. RESULTS Endometrial epithelial stem/progenitor cells have been identified as clonogenic cells in human and as label-retaining or CD44+ cells in mouse endometrium, but their characterization has been modest. In contrast, endometrial mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) have been well characterized and show similar properties to bone marrow MSCs. Specific markers for their enrichment have been identified, CD146+PDGFRβ+ (platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta) and SUSD2+ (sushi domain containing-2), which detected their perivascular location and likely pericyte identity in endometrial basalis and functionalis vessels. Transcriptomics and secretomics of SUSD2+ cells confirm their perivascular phenotype. Stromal fibroblasts cultured from endometrial tissue or menstrual blood also have some MSC characteristics and demonstrate broad multilineage differentiation potential for mesodermal, endodermal and ectodermal lineages, indicating their plasticity. Side population (SP) cells are a mixed population, although predominantly vascular cells, which exhibit adult stem cell properties, including tissue reconstitution. There is some evidence that bone marrow cells contribute a small population of endometrial epithelial and stromal cells. The discovery of specific markers for endometrial stem/progenitor cells has enabled the examination of their role in endometrial proliferative disorders, including endometriosis, adenomyosis and Asherman

  19. Justification for Rhinoseptoplasty in Children – Our 10 Years Overview

    PubMed Central

    Kopacheva-Barsova, Gabriela; Nikolovski, Nikola

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nasal septal surgery and rhinoplasty are controversial in children. Traditionally, an attitude of restraint has been employed by most surgeons till an empirical age of 16 to 18 years. This is to avoid the possible adverse effects that the growth spurts may have on the nose and midface region. AIM: The aim of this paper was to present the results of rhinoplasty in children in order to restore the anatomy and function or to promote normal development and outgrowth of the nose. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ninety seven children aged 6-14, with severe nose deformities and breathing problems through the nose, were admitted for septo/rhinoplasty at the University Clinic for Ear, Nose and Throat, Faculty of Medicine, Ss Cyril and Methodius University of Skopje, Republic of Macedonia. At our Clinic, they have been observed and photographed (with parent permission) in the period of 10 years (2006-2016). The most frequent cause of these deformities was the nasal trauma in early childhood which was ignored or untreated. All of them rhino/septoplasty were indicated in accordance with the above-mentioned recommendations for rhino/septoplasty in early childhood and in adolescents. RESULTS: In 51 children and adolescents septoplasty were prepared. Mostly there was a group of younger children age from 6-10 (68%) and adolescents (32%). In the other 31 children and adolescents, septorhinoplasty was prepared. Mostly there were children older than 12 years old and adolescents (70%). Only 30% were younger than 12 years, of course with severe nasal breathing problems, nasal septal deformities and deformities of the nasal pyramid. CONCLUSION: The growth centres of the nose have to be avoided if possible; long-term nasal issues will theoretically be minimised. If the surgeon replaces it, the cartilage of the nose becomes straighter but still intact.

  20. Examining the 10-Year Rebuilding Dilemma for U.S. Fish Stocks

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, Wesley S.; Cope, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, fishery managers strive to maintain fish stocks at or above levels that produce maximum sustainable yields, and to rebuild overexploited stocks that can no longer support such yields. In the United States, rebuilding overexploited stocks is a contentious issue, where most stocks are mandated to rebuild in as short a time as possible, and in a time period not to exceed 10 years. Opponents of such mandates and related guidance argue that rebuilding requirements are arbitrary, and create discontinuities in the time and fishing effort allowed for stocks to rebuild due to differences in productivity. Proponents, however, highlight how these mandates and guidance were needed to curtail the continued overexploitation of these stocks by setting firm deadlines on rebuilding. Here we evaluate the statements made by opponents and proponents of the 10-year rebuilding mandate and related guidance to determine whether such points are technically accurate using a simple population dynamics model and a database of U.S. fish stocks to parameterize the model. We also offer solutions to many of the issues surrounding this mandate and its implementation by recommending some fishing mortality based frameworks, which meet the intent of the 10-year rebuilding requirement while also providing more flexibility. PMID:25375788

  1. 10 years of Cassini/VIMS observations at Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotin, C.; Brown, R. H.; Baines, K. H.; Barnes, J.; Buratti, B. J.; Clark, R. N.; Jaumann, R.; LeMouelic, S.; Nicholson, P. D.; Rodriguez, S.; Soderblom, J.; Soderblom, L.; Stephan, K.

    2014-04-01

    The interplanetary space probe Cassini/Huygens reached Saturn in July 2004 after seven years of cruise phase. Today, the German-lead Cosmic Dust Analyser (CDA) is operated continuously for 10 years in orbit around Saturn. During the cruise phase CDA measured the interstellar dust flux at one AU distance from the Sun, the charge and composition of interplanetary dust grains and the composition of the Jovian nanodust streams. The first discovery of CDA related to Saturn was the measurement of nanometer sized dust particles ejected by its magnetosphere to interplanetary space with speeds higher than 100 km/s. Their origin and composition was analysed and an their dynamical studies showed a strong link to the conditions of the solar wind plasma flow. A recent surprising result was, that stream particles stem from the interior of Enceladus. Since 2004 CDA measured millions of dust impacts characterizing the dust environment of Saturn. The instrument showed strong evidence for ice geysers located at the south pole of Saturn's moon Enceladus in 2005. Later, a detailed compositional analysis of the salt-rich water ice grains in Saturn's E ring system lead to the discovery of liquid water below the icy crust connected to an ocean at depth feeding the icy jets. CDA was even capable to derive a spatially resolved compositional profile of the plume during close Enceladus flybys. A determination of the dust-magnetosphere interaction and the discovery of the extended E ring allowed the definition of a dynamical dust model of Saturn's E ring describing the observed properties. The measured dust density profiles in the dense E ring revealed geometric asymmetries. Cassini performed shadow crossings in the ring plane and dust grain charges were measured in shadow regions delivering important data for dust-plasma interaction studies. In the last years, dedicated measurement campaigns were executed by CDA to monitor the flux of interplanetary and interstellar dust particles reaching

  2. Stress Generation, Avoidance Coping, and Depressive Symptoms: A 10-Year Model

    PubMed Central

    Holahan, Charles J.; Moos, Rudolf H.; Holahan, Carole K.; Brennan, Penny L.; Schutte, Kathleen K.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined (a) the role of avoidance coping in prospectively generating both chronic and acute life stressors and (b) the stress-generating role of avoidance coping as a prospective link to future depressive symptoms. Participants were 1,211 late-middle-aged individuals (500 women and 711 men) assessed 3 times over a 10-year period. As predicted, baseline avoidance coping was prospectively associated with both more chronic and more acute life stressors 4 years later. Furthermore, as predicted, these intervening life stressors linked baseline avoidance coping and depressive symptoms 10 years later, controlling for the influence of initial depressive symptoms. These findings broaden knowledge about the stress-generation process and elucidate a key mechanism through which avoidance coping is linked to depressive symptoms. PMID:16173853

  3. Stunted at 10 Years. Linear Growth Trajectories and Stunting from Birth to Pre-Adolescence in a Rural Bangladeshi Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Svefors, Pernilla; Rahman, Anisur; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte; Khan, Ashraful Islam; Lindström, Emma; Persson, Lars Åke; Ekholm Selling, Katarina

    2016-01-01

    Background Few studies in low-income settings analyse linear growth trajectories from foetal life to pre-adolescence. The aim of this study is to describe linear growth and stunting from birth to 10 years in rural Bangladesh and to analyse whether maternal and environmental determinants at conception are associated with linear growth throughout childhood and stunting at 10 years. Methods and Findings Pregnant women participating in the MINIMat trial were identified in early pregnancy and a birth cohort (n = 1054) was followed with 19 growth measurements from birth to 10 years. Analyses of baseline predictors and mean height-for-age Z-scores (HAZ) over time were modelled using GLMM. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the associations between baseline predictors and stunting (HAZ<-2) at 10 years. HAZ decreased to 2 years, followed by an increase up to 10 years, while the average height-for-age difference in cm (HAD) to the WHO reference median continued to increase up to 10 years. Prevalence of stunting was highest at 2 years (50%) decreasing to 29% at 10 years. Maternal height, maternal educational level and season of conception were all independent predictors of HAZ from birth to pre-adolescence (p<0.001) and stunting at 10 years. The highest probability to be stunted at 10 years was for children born by short mothers (<147.5 cm) (ORadj 2.93, 95% CI: 2.06–4.20), mothers with no education (ORadj 1.74, 95% CI 1.17–2.81) or those conceived in the pre-monsoon season (ORadj 1.94, 95% CI 1.37–2.77). Conclusions Height growth trajectories and prevalence of stunting in pre-adolescence showed strong intergenerational associations, social differentials, and environmental influence from foetal life. Targeting women before and during pregnancy is needed for the prevention of impaired child growth. PMID:26934484

  4. Firewall or smooth horizon?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ori, Amos

    2016-01-01

    Almheiri, Marolf, Polchinski, and Sully pointed out that for a sufficiently old black hole (BH), the set of assumptions known as the complementarity postulates appears to be inconsistent with the assumption of local regularity at the horizon. They concluded that the horizon of an old BH is likely to be the locus of local irregularity, a "firewall". Here I point out that if one adopts a different assumption, namely that semiclassical physics holds throughout its anticipated domain of validity, then the inconsistency is avoided, and the horizon retains its regularity. In this alternative view-point, the vast portion of the original BH information remains trapped inside the BH throughout the semiclassical domain of evaporation, and possibly leaks out later on. This appears to be an inevitable outcome of semiclassical gravity (if assumed to apply throughout its anticipated domain of validity).

  5. Evaluation of fire-safety programs that use 10-year smoke alarms.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Mark; Wilson, Jonathan; Akoto, Judith; Dixon, Sherry; Jacobs, David E; Ballesteros, Michael F

    2010-10-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention began funding a Smoke Alarm Installation and Fire Safety Education (SAIFE) program in 1998. This program involves the installation of lithium-powered "10-year" smoke alarms in homes at high risk for fires and injuries. This study aimed to (1) determine among original SAIFE homes if the lithium-powered alarms were still present and functional 8-10 years after installation and (2) understand factors related to smoke alarm presence and functionality. Data on a total of 384 homes and 601 smoke alarms in five states were collected and analyzed. Only one-third of alarms were still functional; 37% of installed alarms were missing; and 30% of alarms were present, but not functioning. Alarms were less likely to be functioning if they were installed in the kitchen and if homes had a different resident at follow-up. Of the 351 alarms that were present and had a battery at the time of the evaluation, only 21% contained lithium-powered batteries. Of these, 78% were still functioning. Programs that install lithium-powered alarms should use units that have sealed-in batteries and "hush" buttons. Additionally, education should be given on smoke alarm maintenance that includes a message that batteries in these alarms should not be replaced. Lithium-powered smoke alarms should last up to 10 years if maintained properly. PMID:20177753

  6. Parental stress and perceived vulnerability at 5 and 10 years after pediatric SCT.

    PubMed

    Vrijmoet-Wiersma, C M J; Egeler, R M; Koopman, H M; Bresters, D; Norberg, A L; Grootenhuis, M A

    2010-06-01

    With the aim of assessing parental stress after SCT, 73 parents of children and adolescents who underwent SCT 5 or 10 years ago responded to questionnaires on general distress (General Health Questionnaire (GHQ)), disease-related stress (Pediatric Inventory for Parents-short form (PIP-SF)) and perceptions of child vulnerability (Child Vulnerability Scale (CVS)). General distress scores were comparable with the reference groups, but 40% of the mothers at 5 years after SCT reported increased stress levels as compared with 26% in the community-based reference group. Disease-related stress was comparable with the reference group of parents of children who were just off cancer treatment, 5 years after SCT. At 10 years after SCT, scores were lower than the reference group. Perceived child vulnerability did diminish over time, but remained high in parents of SCT survivors, compared with parents of healthy children: 96% of the parents at 5 years after SCT and 76% of the parents at 10 years after SCT scored above the cutoff point. Perceived vulnerability was found to be a predictor for parental disease-related stress. To conclude, although most parents of SCT survivors are resilient, the majority of parents perceive their child to be much more vulnerable as compared with parents of healthy children. This perception is associated with disease-related stress and may induce overprotective parenting. PMID:19881554

  7. Gravitational memory charges of supertranslation and superrotation on Rindler horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hotta, Masahiro; Trevison, Jose; Yamaguchi, Koji

    2016-10-01

    In a Rindler-type coordinate system spanned in a region outside of a black hole horizon, we have nonvanishing classical holographic charges as soft hairs on the horizon for stationary black holes. Taking a large black hole mass limit, the spacetimes with the charges are described by asymptotic Rindler metrics. We construct a general theory of gravitational holographic charges for a (1 +3 )-dimensional linearized gravity field in the Minkowski background with Rindler horizons. Although matter crossing a Rindler horizon causes horizon deformation and a time-dependent coordinate shift—that is, gravitational memory—the supertranslation and superrotation charges on the horizon can be defined during and after its passage through the horizon. It is generally proven that holographic states on the horizon cannot store any information about absorbed perturbative gravitational waves. However, matter crossing the horizon really excites holographic states. By using gravitational memory operators, which consist of the holographic charge operators, we suggest a resolution of the no-cloning paradox of quantum information between matter falling into the horizon and holographic charges on the horizon from the viewpoint of the contextuality of quantum measurement.

  8. Changes in Pulmonary Function Up to 10 Years After Locoregional Breast Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Erven, Katrien; Weltens, Caroline; Nackaerts, Kristiaan; Fieuws, Steffen; Decramer, Marc; Lievens, Yolande

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the long-term impact of locoregional breast radiotherapy (RT) on pulmonary function tests (PFTs). Methods and Materials: This study included 75 women who underwent postoperative locoregional breast RT. PFTs were performed before RT and 3, 6, and 12 months and 8 to 10 years after RT. By use of univariate and multivariate analyses, the impact of treatment- and patient-related factors on late changes in PFTs was evaluated. Results: During the first year after RT, all PFTs significantly worsened at 3 to 6 months after RT (p < 0.05). At 12 months, forced vital capacity (FVC), vital capacity (VC), and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV{sub 1}) recovered almost to baseline values, whereas total lung capacity (TLC) and diffusion capacity of carbon monoxide (DL{sub CO}) recovered only slightly and were still found to be decreased compared with baseline (p < 0.05). At 8 to 10 years after RT, mean reductions in FEV{sub 1} of 4% (p = 0.03) and in VC, DL{sub CO}, and TLC of 5%, 9%, and 11% (all p < 0.0001), respectively, were observed compared with pre-RT values. On multivariate analysis, tamoxifen use negatively affected TLC at 8 to 10 years after RT (p = 0.033), whereas right-sided irradiation was associated with a late reduction in FEV{sub 1} (p = 0.027). For FEV{sub 1} and DL{sub CO}, an early decrease was predictive for a late decrease (p = 0.003 and p = 0.0009, respectively). Conclusions: The time course of PFT changes after locoregional RT for breast cancer follows a biphasic pattern. An early reduction in PFTs at 3 to 6 months with a partial recovery at 12 months after RT is followed by a late, more important PFT reduction up to 8 to 10 years after RT. Tamoxifen use may have an impact on this late decline in PFTs.

  9. New Horizons Launch Contingency Effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yale; Lear, Matthew H.; McGrath, Brian E.; Heyler, Gene A.; Takashima, Naruhisa; Owings, W. Donald

    2007-01-01

    On 19 January 2006 at 2:00 PM EST, the NASA New Horizons spacecraft (SC) was launched from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS), FL, onboard an Atlas V 551/Centaur/STAR™ 48B launch vehicle (LV) on a mission to explore the Pluto Charon planetary system and possibly other Kuiper Belt Objects. It carried a single Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG). As part of the joint NASA/US Department of Energy (DOE) safety effort, contingency plans were prepared to address the unlikely events of launch accidents leading to a near-pad impact, a suborbital reentry, an orbital reentry, or a heliocentric orbit. As the implementing organization. The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) had expanded roles in the New Horizons launch contingency effort over those for the Cassini mission and Mars Exploration Rovers missions. The expanded tasks included participation in the Radiological Control Center (RADCC) at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), preparation of contingency plans, coordination of space tracking assets, improved aerodynamics characterization of the RTG's 18 General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules, and development of spacecraft and RTG reentry breakup analysis tools. Other JHU/APL tasks were prediction of the Earth impact footprints (ElFs) for the GPHS modules released during the atmospheric reentry (for purposes of notification and recovery), prediction of the time of SC reentry from a potential orbital decay, pre-launch dissemination of ballistic coefficients of various possible reentry configurations, and launch support of an Emergency Operations Center (EOC) on the JHU/APL campus. For the New Horizons launch, JHU/APL personnel at the RADCC and at the EOC were ready to implement any real-time launch contingency activities. A successful New Horizons launch and interplanetary injection precluded any further contingency actions. The New Horizons launch contingency was an interagency effort by several organizations. This paper

  10. Stable predictive control horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrada, Raúl; Favela, Antonio; Raimondi, Angelo; Nevado, Antonio; Requena, Ricardo; Beltrán-Carbajal, Francisco

    2012-04-01

    The stability theory of predictive and adaptive predictive control for processes of linear and stable nature is based on the hypothesis of a physically realisable driving desired trajectory (DDT). The formal theoretical verification of this hypothesis is trivial for processes with a stable inverse, but it is not for processes with an unstable inverse. The extended strategy of predictive control was developed with the purpose of overcoming methodologically this stability problem and it has delivered excellent performance and stability in its industrial applications given a suitable choice of the prediction horizon. From a theoretical point of view, the existence of a prediction horizon capable of ensuring stability for processes with an unstable inverse was proven in the literature. However, no analytical solution has been found for the determination of the prediction horizon values which guarantee stability, in spite of the theoretical and practical interest of this matter. This article presents a new method able to determine the set of prediction horizon values which ensure stability under the extended predictive control strategy formulation and a particular performance criterion for the design of the DDT generically used in many industrial applications. The practical application of this method is illustrated by means of simulation examples.

  11. Horizon as critical phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sung-Sik

    2016-09-01

    We show that renormalization group flow can be viewed as a gradual wave function collapse, where a quantum state associated with the action of field theory evolves toward a final state that describes an IR fixed point. The process of collapse is described by the radial evolution in the dual holographic theory. If the theory is in the same phase as the assumed IR fixed point, the initial state is smoothly projected to the final state. If in a different phase, the initial state undergoes a phase transition which in turn gives rise to a horizon in the bulk geometry. We demonstrate the connection between critical behavior and horizon in an example, by deriving the bulk metrics that emerge in various phases of the U( N ) vector model in the large N limit based on the holographic dual constructed from quantum renormalization group. The gapped phase exhibits a geometry that smoothly ends at a finite proper distance in the radial direction. The geometric distance in the radial direction measures a complexity: the depth of renormalization group transformation that is needed to project the generally entangled UV state to a direct product state in the IR. For gapless states, entanglement persistently spreads out to larger length scales, and the initial state can not be projected to the direct product state. The obstruction to smooth projection at charge neutral point manifests itself as the long throat in the anti-de Sitter space. The Poincare horizon at infinity marks the critical point which exhibits a divergent length scale in the spread of entanglement. For the gapless states with non-zero chemical potential, the bulk space becomes the Lifshitz geometry with the dynamical critical exponent two. The identification of horizon as critical point may provide an explanation for the universality of horizon. We also discuss the structure of the bulk tensor network that emerges from the quantum renormalization group.

  12. Instability of enclosed horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kay, Bernard S.

    2015-03-01

    We point out that there are solutions to the scalar wave equation on dimensional Minkowski space with finite energy tails which, if they reflect off a uniformly accelerated mirror due to (say) Dirichlet boundary conditions on it, develop an infinite stress-energy tensor on the mirror's Rindler horizon. We also show that, in the presence of an image mirror in the opposite Rindler wedge, suitable compactly supported arbitrarily small initial data on a suitable initial surface will develop an arbitrarily large stress-energy scalar near where the two horizons cross. Also, while there is a regular Hartle-Hawking-Israel-like state for the quantum theory between these two mirrors, there are coherent states built on it for which there are similar singularities in the expectation value of the renormalized stress-energy tensor. We conjecture that in other situations with analogous enclosed horizons such as a (maximally extended) Schwarzschild black hole in equilibrium in a (stationary spherical) box or the (maximally extended) Schwarzschild-AdS spacetime, there will be similar stress-energy singularities and almost-singularities—leading to instability of the horizons when gravity is switched on and matter and gravity perturbations are allowed for. All this suggests it is incorrect to picture a black hole in equilibrium in a box or a Schwarzschild-AdS black hole as extending beyond the past and future horizons of a single Schwarzschild (/Schwarzschild-AdS) wedge. It would thus provide new evidence for 't Hooft's brick wall model while seeming to invalidate the picture in Maldacena's ` Eternal black holes in AdS'. It would thereby also support the validity of the author's matter-gravity entanglement hypothesis and of the paper ` Brick walls and AdS/CFT' by the author and Ortíz.

  13. Temporal Validation of the UKPDS Outcomes Model Using 10-Year Posttrial Monitoring Data

    PubMed Central

    Leal, Jose; Hayes, Alison J.; Gray, Alastair M.; Holman, Rury R.; Clarke, Philip M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the accuracy of the UK Prospective Diabetes Study Outcomes Model (UKPDS-OM) in predicting clinical outcomes during the UKPDS posttrial monitoring (PTM) period. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS At trial end in 1997, the 4,031 surviving UKPDS patients, of the 5,102 originally enrolled in the study, returned to their usual care providers, with no attempts made to maintain them in their randomized therapy groups. PTM risk factor data were collected for 5 years and clinical outcome data for 10 years. The UKPDS-OM was used firstly to forecast likely progression of HbA1c, systolic blood pressure, total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio, and smoking status and secondly to estimate the likely first occurrence of seven major diabetes-related complications or death from any cause. Model predictions were compared against observed PTM data for risk factor time paths and survival probabilities for major diabetes complications. RESULTS UKPDS-OM–forecasted risk factor time paths were similar to those observed for HbA1c (up to 3 years) and total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio but underestimated for systolic blood pressure and smoking status. Predicted 10-year event probabilities were similar to those observed for blindness, ischemic heart disease, myocardial infarction, and renal failure but were higher for heart failure and death from any cause and lower for stroke and amputation. CONCLUSIONS The UKPDS-OM has good predictive accuracy for two of four risk factor time paths and for 10-year clinical outcome probabilities with the exception of stroke, amputation, heart failure, and death from any cause. An updated version of the model incorporating PTM data is being developed. PMID:23275370

  14. Where Is Needle- and Root-Derived Soil Organic Matter After 10 Years of Decomposition in a Temperate Forest?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks Pries, C.; Hatton, P.; Castanha, C.; Bird, J. A.; Torn, M. S.

    2013-12-01

    All soil organic matter (SOM) is ultimately derived from plant litter. The fate of plant litter in ecosystems determines soil carbon (C) storage and nutrient availability with far-reaching implications for ecosystems and global change. However, little is known about the process by which litter becomes SOM (as opposed to the well-studied controls on rates of C and nitrogen (N) loss from litter). We are investigating whether litter type affects where in soils litter-derived C and N eventually reside. Specifically, we are investigating whether litter type affects which minerals the C and N are associated with and how much C is in the microbial pool after a decade. We incubated 15N and 13C-labeled Pinus ponderosa needle and fine root litter in the Blodgett Experimental Forest in the Sierra Nevada foothills for 10 years. A two-way factorial design was used with needle and root litter placed into O and A soil horizons. In 2001, litter was inserted into the given horizon within soil mesocosms (10.2 cm diameter x 24 cm long PVC) that had two 5 x 5 cm mesh windows to allow contact with the surrounding soil. After 0.5, 1, 1.5, 4.5, and 10 years, the soil mesocosms were collected from the field. Isotopes were used to measure the percent recovery of the litter C and N in the bulk soil of the O and A horizons. To investigate mineral associations of the added litter C and N after 10 years, we sequentially fractionated the soils by density. The fractions were a free light fraction (<1.75 g cm-3), a fraction dominated by phyllosilicate secondary minerals (1.75-2.5 g cm-3), a quartz and feldspar-dominated fraction (2.5-2.78 g cm-3), and a fraction dominated by biotite with kaolinite and iron oxide coatings (>2.78 g cm-3). To quantify the amount of litter-derived C actively cycling in the microbial pool after 10 years and use of the C by different microbial groups, we measured the 13C in phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs). After 10 years, more root litter C (about 40%) was retained in

  15. Spacetimes containing slowly evolving horizons

    SciTech Connect

    Kavanagh, William; Booth, Ivan

    2006-08-15

    Slowly evolving horizons are trapping horizons that are ''almost'' isolated horizons. This paper reviews their definition and discusses several spacetimes containing such structures. These include certain Vaidya and Tolman-Bondi solutions as well as (perturbatively) tidally distorted black holes. Taking into account the mass scales and orders of magnitude that arise in these calculations, we conjecture that slowly evolving horizons are the norm rather than the exception in astrophysical processes that involve stellar-scale black holes.

  16. Infrared photometry of Venus - Variation during 10 years?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagata, T.; Sato, S.; Mukai, T.; Mukai, S.

    1985-08-01

    Narrowband filter (3.6-micron wavelength, 0.08-micron bandwidth) observations of the infrared flux of Venus are reported. The observations over the period from 1982 through 1984 covered a range of phase angle from 27 to 94 degrees. Normalized values of flux at the Venus-earth distance of 1 AU were (4.0-5.4) x 10 to the -17th watt per square centimeter per inverse centimeter, and the phase angle dependence of the data is rather weak. Furthermore, when the evening terminator of Venus was seen, lower values of flux were obtained, in contrast with higher values at the morning terminator. The phase angle dependence is quite different from that of Martonchik and Beer (1975), the difference possibly suggesting an intrinsic time variation of haze particles over ten years in the upper haze layer of the Venus cloudcover.

  17. 10 years after implementation of TRIPS obligations in India.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Mahesh D

    2015-01-01

    The Patent (Amendment) Act of 2005 enforced after TRIPS raises many issues which hinder growth of Indian pharma companies. To tackle this, Indian pharma companies doubled their R&D expenditure and became significant players in global generic drug market. Indian pharmaceutical companies, which predominantly focused on import-oriented market, shifted to research-based approach by signing various agreements with MNCs that led to M&A and technology transfer. At the same time growth in R&D activities increased ANDA and DMF filing in the USA and Europe. Companies also kept their social responsibility by selling medicines at affordable price to patients. This paper highlights the changing business scenario of Indian pharmaceutical companies to counteract various issues evolved from new patent regime after TRIPS.

  18. 10 years after implementation of TRIPS obligations in India.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Mahesh D

    2015-01-01

    The Patent (Amendment) Act of 2005 enforced after TRIPS raises many issues which hinder growth of Indian pharma companies. To tackle this, Indian pharma companies doubled their R&D expenditure and became significant players in global generic drug market. Indian pharmaceutical companies, which predominantly focused on import-oriented market, shifted to research-based approach by signing various agreements with MNCs that led to M&A and technology transfer. At the same time growth in R&D activities increased ANDA and DMF filing in the USA and Europe. Companies also kept their social responsibility by selling medicines at affordable price to patients. This paper highlights the changing business scenario of Indian pharmaceutical companies to counteract various issues evolved from new patent regime after TRIPS. PMID:26030078

  19. Bacterial nanocellulose production and application: a 10-year overview.

    PubMed

    Jozala, Angela Faustino; de Lencastre-Novaes, Leticia Celia; Lopes, André Moreni; de Carvalho Santos-Ebinuma, Valéria; Mazzola, Priscila Gava; Pessoa-Jr, Adalberto; Grotto, Denise; Gerenutti, Marli; Chaud, Marco Vinicius

    2016-03-01

    Production of bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) is becoming increasingly popular owing to its environmentally friendly properties. Based on this benefit of BNC production, researchers have also begun to examine the capacity for cellulose production through microbial hosts. Indeed, several research groups have developed processes for BNC production, and many studies have been published to date, with the goal of developing methods for large-scale production. During BNC bioproduction, the culture medium represents approximately 30 % of the total cost. Therefore, one important and challenging aspect of the fermentation process is identification of a new cost-effective culture medium that can facilitate the production of high yields within short periods of time, thereby improving BNC production and permitting application of BNC in the biotechnological, medical, pharmaceutical, and food industries. In this review, we addressed different aspects of BNC production, including types of fermentation processes and culture media, with the aim of demonstrating the importance of these parameters. PMID:26743657

  20. A 10-year prognostic model for patients with suspected angina attending a chest pain clinic

    PubMed Central

    Sekhri, Neha; Perel, Pablo; Clayton, Tim; Feder, Gene S; Hemingway, Harry; Timmis, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Background and objective Diagnostic models used in the management of suspected angina provide no explicit information about prognosis. We present a new prognostic model of 10-year coronary mortality in patients presenting for the first time with suspected angina to complement the Diamond-Forrester diagnostic model of disease probability. Methods and results A multicentre cohort of 8762 patients with suspected angina was followed up for a median of 10 years during which 233 coronary deaths were observed. Developmental (n=4412) and validation (n=4350) prognostic models based on clinical data available at first presentation showed good performance with close agreement and the final model utilised all 8762 patients to maximise power. The prognostic model showed strong associations with coronary mortality for age, sex, chest pain typicality, smoking status, diabetes, pulse rate, and ECG findings. Model discrimination was good (C statistic 0.83), patients in the highest risk quarter accounting for 173 coronary deaths (10-year risk of death: 8.7%) compared with a total of 60 deaths in the three lower risk quarters. When the model was simplified to incorporate only Diamond-Forrester factors (age, sex and character of symptoms) it underestimated coronary mortality risk, particularly in patients with reversible risk factors. Conclusions For the first time in patients with suspected angina, a prognostic model is presented based on simple clinical factors available at the initial cardiological assessment. The model discriminated powerfully between patients at high risk and lower risk of coronary death during 10-year follow-up. Clinical utility was reflected in the prognostic value it added to the updated Diamond-Forrester diagnostic model of disease probability. PMID:26928409

  1. Experiences from 10 years of school programmes at GEOMAR Kiel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dengg, Joachim

    2014-05-01

    GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, Germany, started a programme of cooperations with secondary schools in 2003, which has been expanding continually since that time. By active involvement of teachers and students, the Centre's research topics are communicated to schools, and young people are encouraged to develop their interest for biogeosciences. The portfolio of activities includes: project work with schools over periods from one day to several months, individual student theses at the research centre, internships, a weekly "Research Club" allowing individual experiments, summer school programmes, teacher training courses, joint activities with international partners and a video-project in which students portray scientific aspects of oceanic oxygen minimum zones (in the context of the Collaborative Research Center SFB 754) to other students. Essential prerequisites for these activities are the direct involvement of the Centre's researchers who contribute their expertise and act as role-models for the students, dedicated staff for coordination and continuity, and financial and structural support both at the research centre and the schools.

  2. Review of 10-year results of PCA hip arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Hastings, David E.; Tobin, Helen; Sellenkowitsch, Marilyn

    1998-01-01

    Objective To assess the long-term results of the PCA uncemented total hip replacement. Design A prospective nonrandomized clinical trial. Follow-up ranged from 8 to 11 years (mean 10.3 years). Setting A university hospital. Patients One hundred consecutive PCA arthroplasties were performed on 89 patients. All operations were supervised by a single surgeon. The patients’ status was reviewed between September and November 1996 by an independent observer. Seventy-three total hip replacements were available for review. Intervention PCA uncemented acetabular and femoral replacement through a lateral surgical approach. Main outcome measures The need for revision, which was classified as failure, and definite 3-zone acetabular radiolucency, which was considered radiologic evidence of loosening. Results The time to failure of the acetabulum averaged 8 years. Femoral failure occurred in 3 patients an average of 4 years postoperatively. The overall failure rate for the acetabulum was 13% and for the femur 7%. Conclusions The acetabular failure rate is unacceptably high. Patients who have had hip replacement with the PCA prosthesis should be followed over the long term. PMID:9492747

  3. Back to the future: 10 years of European health reforms.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Anna; Poteliakhoff, Emmi

    2012-01-01

    The challenges facing European health systems have changed little over 30 years but the responses to them have. Policy ideas that emerged in some countries spread to others; however, the way policies were implemented and the impact they have had has been shaped by specific national contexts. Comparative policy analysis has evolved in response to this, moving away from simple classifications of health systems and crude rankings to studies that try and understand more deeply what works, where and why. For policymakers interested in how other countries have dealt with common challenges, it is important that they avoid the naïve transplantation of policy solutions but understand the need to translate policies to fit the institutional context of a particular country. Policies that cross borders will necessarily be shaped by the social and political institutions of a country. These dimensions should not be ignored in comparative research. The next decade will require health systems to deliver improved care for people with complex needs while at the same time delivering greater value. Policymakers will benefit from looking backwards as well as to their neighbours in order to develop appropriate policy solutions. PMID:22221926

  4. Coroner consistency - The 10-jurisdiction, 10-year, postcode lottery?

    PubMed

    Mclean, Maxwell

    2015-04-01

    The investigation and classification of deaths in England and Wales relies upon the application by medical practitioners of diverse reporting standards set locally by coroners and thereafter upon the effectively unconstrained decision process of those same coroners. The author has conducted extensive comparative analysis of Ministry of Justice data on reports to the coroner and their inquest and verdict returns alongside Office of National Statistics data pertaining to the numbers of registered deaths in equivalent local jurisdictions. Here, he analyses 10 jurisdictions characterised by almost identical inquest return numbers in 2011. Substantial variation was found in reporting rates to the coroner and in the profile of inquest verdicts. The range of deaths reported varied from 34% to 62% of all registered deaths. Likewise only 2 of the 10 jurisdictions shared the same ranking of proportions in which the six common verdicts were reached. Individual jurisdictions tended to be consistent over time in their use of verdicts. In all cases, proportionately more male deaths were reported to the coroner. Coroners generally seemed prima facie to be 'gendered' in their approach to verdicts; that is, they were consistently more likely to favour a particular verdict when dealing with a death, according to the sex of the deceased. The extent to which coroners seemed gendered varied widely. While similar services such as the criminal courts or the Crown Prosecution Service are subject to extensive national guidance in an attempt to constrain idiosyncratic decision making, there seems no reason why this should apply less to the process of death investigation and classification. Further analysis of coroners' local practices and their determinants seems necessary.

  5. SMART-1 SPEDE: Results and Legacy after 10 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Walter; Mälkki, Anssi

    2014-05-01

    The Spacecraft Potential, Electron and Dust Experiment (SPEDE) [1], one of the instruments on the SMART-1 spacecraft, the European Space Agency's first Lunar mission, was part of the monitoring instruments supervising the propulsion system and supporting corrective actions to its operation when needed. During mission phases with inactive propulsion system the plasma instrument measured electron and ion densities and temperatures of the natural plasma in the vicinity of the spacecraft. While the spacecraft was slowly spiraling out of an Earth orbit towards a Moon trajectory it spent many months inside the Earth radiation belt. During this time SPEDE recorded the plasma parameters as a function of altitude and solar conditions and monitored also the effects of the major solar CME of October 28, the so-called "Halloween Storm" [2], [3]. After reaching the Moon on November 15, 2004, it continued to monitor the plasma and dust impacts onto the spacecraft until the end of the mission on September 3, 2006. Most of the Moon orbits lasted about 5 hours with an initial perilune distance of 2208 and an apolune distance of 4618 km, changing to 300 km and 3000km, respectively towards the end of the mission with a controlled impact onto the Lunar surface. A total of over 200 orbits were covered [4]. Covered by the SPEDE instrument are three areas of scientific interest: - A detailed altitude profile of the plasma parameters inside the radiation belt under different environmental condition - SPEDE was one of the few instruments active inside the radiation belt while normally all instruments on space missions are kept off to prevent damage, - a plasma parameter map in Lunar orbit with the Moon inside and outside the Earth magnetosphere, - plasma wave measurements around the moon with signatures of dust impacts onto the spacecraft monitoring the dust lifting processes on the Moon surface to escape velocities under certain solar wind conditions. Technical legacy: The Langmuir Probe

  6. 10 years of mapping the icy saturnian satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roatsch, Thomas; Kersten, Elke; Matz, Klaus-Dieter; Porco, Carolyn

    2014-05-01

    synoptic map for making planet-wide maps on a single sheet was used for Phoebe [2]. • A quadrangle scheme with 15 tiles for Mercury-sized bodies and high-resolution imaging was used for Enceladus, Tethys, Dione, and Rhea. • A quadrangle scheme with 3 tiles, a subdivision of the synoptic map was used for Mimas and Iapetus. The individual maps and tiles were extracted from global mosaics and reprojected into the defined map projections. We added resolution maps and index maps for every individual tile of the atlas, showing the image resolution, the image numbers and the location of the images for every map, respectively. The entire atlases are available to the public through the Imaging Team's website: http://ciclops.org/maps. The map tiles are also archived as standard products in the Planetary Data System (PDS): http://pds.jpl.nasa.gov/. Nomenclature: The nomenclature proposed by the Cassini-ISS team was approved by the IAU (http://planetarynames.wr.usgs.gov/). By international agreement, the features must be named after people or locations in • "Le Morte d'Arthur" for Mimas • "The Thousand Nights and a Night" for Enceladus • "The Odyssey of Homer" for Tethys • "The Aeneid of Virgil" for Dione • Creation myths (with Asian emphasis) for Rhea • "The Song of Roland" for Iapetus • "The Argonautica" for Phoebe Future work: The Cassini Equinox mission ended in 2010. Cassini is now operating in the Solstice mission hopefully until September 2017. Several additional close satellite flybys are scheduled for this time frame e.g. for Enceladus in October 2015 and for Mimas in January 2017. These upcoming flybys will help to replace the low-resolution parts of these atlases with higher resolu-tion images. The northern polar regions will be illumi-nated during the extended mission providing an oppor-tunity to obtain high-resolution Cassini coverage of high northern latitudes. References: [1] Porco et al., 2004, Cassini imaging science: instrument characteristics and

  7. Cannabis use and the course of schizophrenia: 10-year follow-up after first hospitalization

    PubMed Central

    Foti, Daniel J.; Kotov, Roman; Guey, Lin T.; Bromet, Evelyn J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The authors examined the relationship between cannabis use and the course of illness in schizophrenia over 10 years following first psychiatric hospitalization. Method We assessed 229 patients with a schizophrenia-spectrum disorder five times: during the first admission, and 6 months, 2 years, 4 years, and 10 years later. Ratings of cannabis use and psychiatric symptoms (psychotic, negative, disorganized, and depressive) were made at each assessment. Results The lifetime rate of cannabis use was 66.2%, and survival analysis revealed that this usage was associated with an earlier onset of psychosis. The rates of current use ranged from 10% to 18% across assessments. Cannabis status was moderately stable, with concordance between waves ranging rtet = 0.48 – 0.78. Mixed-effects logistic regression revealed that changes in cannabis use were associated with changes in psychotic symptoms over time even after gender, age, socio-economic status, other drug use, antipsychotic medication use, and other symptoms were controlled. Structural equation modeling indicated that the association with psychotic symptoms was bi-directional. Conclusions Cannabis use is associated with an adverse course of psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia, and vice versa, even after taking into account other clinical, substance, and demographic variables. The specificity of this relationship suggests that clinical interventions to reduce cannabis use may be best targeted at individuals with prominent psychotic symptoms. PMID:20478874

  8. Development of 5- and 10-year-old pediatric phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Melo Lima, V. J. de; Cassola, V. F.; Kramer, R.; Oliveira Lira, C. A. B. de; Khoury, H. J.; Vieira, J. W.

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is the development of reference pediatric phantoms for 5- and 10-year-old children to be used for the calculation of organ and tissue equivalent doses in radiation protection. Methods: The study proposes a method for developing anatomically highly sophisticated pediatric phantoms without using medical images. The 5- and 10-year-old male and female phantoms presented here were developed using 3D modeling software applied to anatomical information taken from atlases and textbooks. The method uses polygon mesh surfaces to model body contours, the shape of organs as well as their positions, and orientations in the human body. Organ and tissue masses comply with the corresponding data given by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for the 5- and 10-year-old reference children. Bones were segmented into cortical bone, spongiosa, medullary marrow, and cartilage to allow for the use of micro computer tomographic ({mu}CT) images of trabecular bone for skeletal dosimetry. Results: The four phantoms, a male and a female for each age, and their organs are presented in 3D images and their organ and tissue masses in tables which show the compliance of the ICRP reference values. Dosimetric data, calculated for the reference pediatric phantoms by Monte Carlo methods were compared with corresponding data from adult mesh phantoms and pediatric stylized phantoms. The comparisons show reasonable agreement if the anatomical differences between the phantoms are properly taken into account. Conclusions: Pediatric phantoms were developed without using medical images of patients or volunteers for the first time. The models are reference phantoms, suitable for regulatory dosimetry, however, the 3D modeling method can also be applied to medical images to develop patient-specific phantoms.

  9. Project Energize: intervention development and 10 years of progress in preventing childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Rush, Elaine; Cairncross, Carolyn; Williams, Margaret Hinepo; Tseng, Marilyn; Coppinger, Tara; McLennan, Steph; Latimer, Kasha

    2016-01-26

    Prevention of childhood obesity is a global priority. The school setting offers access to large numbers of children and the ability to provide supportive environments for quality physical activity and nutrition. This article describes Project Energize, a through-school physical activity and nutrition programme that celebrated its 10-year anniversary in 2015 so that it might serve as a model for similar practices, initiatives and policies elsewhere. The programme was envisaged and financed by the Waikato District Health Board of New Zealand in 2004 and delivered by Sport Waikato to 124 primary schools as a randomised controlled trial from 2005 to 2006. The programme has since expanded to include all 242 primary schools in the Waikato region and 70 schools in other regions, including 53,000 children. Ongoing evaluation and development of Project Energize has shown it to be sustainable (ongoing for >10 years), both effective (lower obesity, higher physical fitness) and cost effective (one health related cost quality adjusted life year between $18,000 and $30,000) and efficient ($45/child/year) as a childhood 'health' programme. The programme's unique community-based approach is inclusive of all children, serving a population that is 42% Māori, the indigenous people of New Zealand. While the original nine healthy eating and seven quality physical activity goals have not changed, the delivery and assessment processes has been refined and the health service adapted over the 10 years of the programme existence, as well as adapted over time to other settings including early childhood education and schools in Cork in Ireland. Evaluation and research associated with the programme delivery and outcomes are ongoing. The dissemination of findings to politicians and collaboration with other service providers are both regarded as priorities.

  10. Project Energize: intervention development and 10 years of progress in preventing childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Rush, Elaine; Cairncross, Carolyn; Williams, Margaret Hinepo; Tseng, Marilyn; Coppinger, Tara; McLennan, Steph; Latimer, Kasha

    2016-01-01

    Prevention of childhood obesity is a global priority. The school setting offers access to large numbers of children and the ability to provide supportive environments for quality physical activity and nutrition. This article describes Project Energize, a through-school physical activity and nutrition programme that celebrated its 10-year anniversary in 2015 so that it might serve as a model for similar practices, initiatives and policies elsewhere. The programme was envisaged and financed by the Waikato District Health Board of New Zealand in 2004 and delivered by Sport Waikato to 124 primary schools as a randomised controlled trial from 2005 to 2006. The programme has since expanded to include all 242 primary schools in the Waikato region and 70 schools in other regions, including 53,000 children. Ongoing evaluation and development of Project Energize has shown it to be sustainable (ongoing for >10 years), both effective (lower obesity, higher physical fitness) and cost effective (one health related cost quality adjusted life year between $18,000 and $30,000) and efficient ($45/child/year) as a childhood 'health' programme. The programme's unique community-based approach is inclusive of all children, serving a population that is 42% Māori, the indigenous people of New Zealand. While the original nine healthy eating and seven quality physical activity goals have not changed, the delivery and assessment processes has been refined and the health service adapted over the 10 years of the programme existence, as well as adapted over time to other settings including early childhood education and schools in Cork in Ireland. Evaluation and research associated with the programme delivery and outcomes are ongoing. The dissemination of findings to politicians and collaboration with other service providers are both regarded as priorities. PMID:26809555

  11. Smooth horizons and quantum ripples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovnev, Alexey

    2015-05-01

    Black holes are unique objects which allow for meaningful theoretical studies of strong gravity and even quantum gravity effects. An infalling and a distant observer would have very different views on the structure of the world. However, a careful analysis has shown that it entails no genuine contradictions for physics, and the paradigm of observer complementarity has been coined. Recently this picture was put into doubt. In particular, it was argued that in old black holes a firewall must form in order to protect the basic principles of quantum mechanics. This AMPS paradox has already been discussed in a vast number of papers with different attitudes and conclusions. Here we want to argue that a possible source of confusion is the neglect of quantum gravity effects. Contrary to widespread perception, it does not necessarily mean that effective field theory is inapplicable in rather smooth neighbourhoods of large black hole horizons. The real offender might be an attempt to consistently use it over the huge distances from the near-horizon zone of old black holes to the early radiation. We give simple estimates to support this viewpoint and show how the Page time and (somewhat more speculative) scrambling time do appear.

  12. [Wavelet analysis on SO2 pollution index changes of Shanghai in recent 10 years].

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiao-ling; Zhang, Bin; Ai, Nan-shan; Liu, Li-jun

    2009-08-15

    Based on the continuous Mexican Hat wavelet transformation of time series of daily SO2 pollution index during last 10 years in Shanghai, the multiscale variations, primary period, catastrophe point and influencing factors are analyzed. The result shows that periodical fluctuation of SO2 pollution index varies at diverse time-scales, and the primary period of the daily variations is about 100 days; pollution pattern takes on serious in winter and light in summer in most scales due to meteorological conditions, and the catastrophe point of serious-light transformation of SO2 pollution index in a year is vernal and autumnal equinox; energy demand and socioeconomic development result in more seriousness in recent years and half result with twice the effort of endeavors of pollution elimination. Wavelet analysis is an effective method to time series of SO2 pollution index, also to multiscale variations of other pollutants. PMID:19799273

  13. Distributed Fusion Receding Horizon Filtering in Linear Stochastic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, IlYoung; Kim, DuYong; Kim, YongHoon; Lee, SukJae; Shin, Vladimir

    2009-12-01

    This paper presents a distributed receding horizon filtering algorithm for multisensor continuous-time linear stochastic systems. Distributed fusion with a weighted sum structure is applied to local receding horizon Kalman filters having different horizon lengths. The fusion estimate of the state of a dynamic system represents the optimal linear fusion by weighting matrices under the minimum mean square error criterion. The key contribution of this paper lies in the derivation of the differential equations for determining the error cross-covariances between the local receding horizon Kalman filters. The subsequent application of the proposed distributed filter to a linear dynamic system within a multisensor environment demonstrates its effectiveness.

  14. Changes in Neuropsychological Functioning over 10 Years Following Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Karen L.; Cummins, Kevin; Tapert, Susan F.; Brown, Sandra A.

    2011-01-01

    Previously, Anderson, Ramo, Cummins, and Brown (2010) described six distinct patterns of alcohol and other drug (AOD) use during the decade following adolescents’ treatment for alcohol and other substance use disorders (A/SUD). This time period represents a phase of significant neurodevelopment and the influence of substance use on the brain is a concern. In the present study we examined patterns of neuropsychological function over these 10 years in relation to the AOD trajectories identified for youth as they transition into their twenties. Participants were part of a longitudinal research project following adolescents with and without A/SUD who received neuropsychological examinations at baseline and up to 7 times thereafter spanning 10 years (N=213; 46% female at baseline). Neuropsychological trajectories were significantly related to substance involvement patterns over time on measures of verbal learning and memory (ps=.011 to <.0001), visuospatial memory (p=.0002), and verbal attention/working memory (p=.020), with heavier use patterns generally followed by poorer cognition. Heavy use of alcohol alone was independently associated with poorer verbal memory over time. Further, substance withdrawal symptoms during each follow-up time point were related to poorer verbal learning and memory scores (ps<.05), while substance abuse/dependence diagnostic criteria were not related to neuropsychological performance levels. These findings suggest that AOD use during adolescence and young adulthood may primarily influence performance that relies on later maturing brain structures, although further research is needed. Higher levels of AOD withdrawal symptoms may signify greater neuropsychological impairment, reflecting potential neurotoxic effects of AOD use. PMID:21443308

  15. On the Bartnik mass of apparent horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantoulidis, Christos; Schoen, Richard

    2015-10-01

    In this paper we characterize the intrinsic geometry of apparent horizons (outermost marginally outer trapped surfaces) in asymptotically flat spacetimes; that is, the Riemannian metrics on the two sphere which can arise. Furthermore we determine the minimal ADM mass of a spacetime containing such an apparent horizon. The results are conveniently formulated in terms of the quasi-local mass introduced by Bartnik (1989 Phys. Rev. Lett. 62 2346-8). The Hawking mass provides a lower bound for Bartnik’s quasilocal mass on apparent horizons by way of Penrose’s conjecture on time symmetric slices, proven in 1997 by Huisken and Ilmanen (2001 J. Differ. Geom. 59 353-437) and in full generality in 1999 by Bray (2001 J. Differ. Geom. 59 177-267). We compute Bartnik’s mass for all non-degenerate apparent horizons and show that it coincides with the Hawking mass. As a corollary we disprove a conjecture due to Gibbons in the spirit of Thorne’s hoop conjecture (Gibbons 2009 arXiv:0903.1580), and construct a new large class of examples of apparent horizons with the integral of the negative part of the Gauss curvature arbitrarily large.

  16. Post-Test Analysis of a 10-Year Sodium Heat Pipe Life Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenfeld, John H.; Locci, Ivan E.; Sanzi, James L.; Hull, David R.; Geng, Steven M.

    2011-01-01

    High-temperature heat pipes are being evaluated for use in energy conversion applications such as fuel cells, gas turbine re-combustors, Stirling cycle heat sources; and with the resurgence of space nuclear power both as reactor heat removal elements and as radiator elements. Long operating life and reliable performance are critical requirements for these applications. Accordingly, long-term materials compatibility is being evaluated through the use of high-temperature life test heat pipes. Thermacore, Inc., has carried out a sodium heat pipe 10-year life test to establish long-term operating reliability. Sodium heat pipes have demonstrated favorable materials compatibility and heat transport characteristics at high operating temperatures in air over long time periods. A representative one-tenth segment Stirling Space Power Converter heat pipe with an Inconel 718 envelope and a stainless steel screen wick has operated for over 87,000 hr (10 years) at nearly 700 C. These life test results have demonstrated the potential for high-temperature heat pipes to serve as reliable energy conversion system components for power applications that require long operating lifetime with high reliability. Detailed design specifications, operating history, and post-test analysis of the heat pipe and sodium working fluid are described. Lessons learned and future life test plans are also discussed.

  17. Overview of Aqua MODIS 10-year On-orbit Calibration and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, X.; Wenny, B.; Sun, J.; Wu, A.; Chen, H.; Angal, A.; Choi, T.; Madhavan, S.; Geng, X.; Link, D.; Toller, G.; Barnes, W.; Salomonson, V.

    2012-01-01

    Since launch in May 2002, Aqua MODIS has successfully operated for nearly 10 years, continuously collecting global datasets for scientific studies of key parameters of the earth's land, ocean, and atmospheric properties and their changes over time. The quality of these geophysical parameters relies on the input quality of sensor calibrated radiances. MODIS observations are made in 36 spectral bands with wavelengths ranging from visible (VIS) to longwave infrared (LWIR). Its reflective solar bands (RSB) are calibrated using data collected from its on-board solar diffuser and regularly scheduled lunar views. The thermal emissive bands (TEB) are calibrated using an on-board blackbody (BB). The changes in the sensor's spectral and spatial characteristics are monitored by an on-board spectroradiometric calibration assembly (SRCA). This paper presents an overview of Aqua MODIS 10-year on-orbit operation and calibration activities, from launch to present, and summarizes its on-orbit radiometric, spectral, and spatial calibration and characterization performance. In addition, it will illustrate and discuss on-orbit changes in sensor characteristics and corrections applied to continuously maintain the sensor level 1B (L1B) data quality, as well as lessons learned that could benefit future calibration efforts.

  18. Evolving Hořava cosmological horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fathi, Mohsen; Mohseni, Morteza

    2016-09-01

    Several sets of radially propagating null congruence generators are exploited in order to form 3-dimensional marginally trapped surfaces, referred to as black hole and cosmological apparent horizons in a Hořava universe. Based on this method, we deal with the characteristics of the 2-dimensional space-like spheres of symmetry and the peculiarities of having trapping horizons. Moreover, we apply this method in standard expanding and contracting FLRW cosmological models of a Hořava universe to investigate the conditions under which the extra parameters of the theory may lead to trapped/anti-trapped surfaces both in the future and in the past. We also include the cases of negative time, referred to as the finite past, and discuss the formation of anti-trapped surfaces inside the cosmological apparent horizons.

  19. New Horizons 20 Years On. Occasional Papers Series: No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Margaret

    New Horizons is a course offered by the University of Edinburgh's Centre for Continuing Education that is aimed at first-time returners to education. In the 20 years since New Horizons was developed for women returners to education and/or employment, it has retained its original developmental outcomes but broadened its target group in response to…

  20. The Horizon Report: 2009 Australia-New Zealand Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, L.; Levine, A.; Smith, R.; Smythe, T.; Stone, S.

    2009-01-01

    The New Media Consortium's Horizon Project is an ongoing research project that aims to identify and describe emerging technologies likely to have a large impact on teaching, learning, or creative inquiry within education around the globe over a five-year time period. The project's central products are the "Horizon Reports", an annual series of…

  1. Hopelessness as a Predictor of Attempted Suicide among First Admission Patients with Psychosis: A 10-Year Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klonsky, E. David; Kotov, Roman; Bakst, Shelly; Rabinowitz, Jonathan; Bromet, Evelyn J.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the longitudinal relationship of hopelessness to attempted suicide in psychotic disorders. This study addresses this gap by assessing hopelessness and attempted suicide at multiple time-points over 10 years in a first-admission cohort with psychosis (n = 414). Approximately one in five participants attempted suicide during…

  2. Counseling in New Orleans 10 Years after Hurricane Katrina: A Commentary on the Aftermath, Recovery and the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remley, Theodore P., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    Ten years after Hurricane Katrina, the counseling profession in New Orleans has changed. The author, along with a group of counseling and other mental health professionals who were providing services at the time of the hurricane and still working in the city 10 years later, provided their impressions of counseling in New Orleans a decade after the…

  3. Longitudinal Effects of a Two-Generation Preschool Programme on Receptive Language Skill in Low-Income Canadian Children to Age 10 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mughal, Muhammad Kashif; Ginn, Carla S.; Perry, Robert L.; Benzies, Karen M.

    2016-01-01

    We explored longitudinal effects of a two-generation preschool programme on receptive language scores in children (n = 78) at age 10 years, living with low income. Scores at four time-points, programme intake, exit, age 7, and age 10 years were measured using the "Peabody picture vocabulary test" (3rd ed.). Effects of culture…

  4. New Horizons at Pluto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Artist's concept of the New Horizons spacecraft as it approaches Pluto and its largest moon, Charon, in July 2015. The craft's miniature cameras, radio science experiment, ultraviolet and infrared spectrometers and space plasma experiments will characterize the global geology and geomorphology of Pluto and Charon, map their surface compositions and temperatures, and examine Pluto's atmosphere in detail. The spacecraft's most prominent design feature is a nearly 7-foot (2.1-meter) dish antenna, through which it will communicate with Earth from as far as 4.7 billion miles (7.5 billion kilometers) away.

  5. Entropy of isolated horizons revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, Rudranil; Kaul, Romesh K.; Majumdar, Parthasarathi

    2010-07-15

    The decade-old formulation of the isolated horizon classically and within loop quantum gravity, and the extraction of the microcanonical entropy of such a horizon from this formulation, is reviewed, in view of recent renewed interest. There are two main approaches to this problem: one employs an SU(2) Chern-Simons theory describing the isolated horizon degrees of freedom, while the other uses a reduced U(1) Chern-Simons theory obtained from the SU(2) theory, with appropriate constraints imposed on the spectrum of boundary states ''living'' on the horizon. It is shown that both these ways lead to the same infinite series asymptotic in the horizon area for the microcanonical entropy of an isolated horizon. The leading area term is followed by an unambiguous correction term logarithmic in area with a coefficient -(3/2), with subleading corrections dropping off as inverse powers of the area.

  6. Evolution of Science Operations after 10 years of the Mars Express Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardesin Moinelo, Alejandro; Martin, Patrick

    2013-10-01

    The Mars Express mission was launched in June 2003 and has been providing great amounts of data since its arrival to Mars in Christmas 2003, covering a wide range of science objectives at all levels, from the surface and sub-surface geology, atmosphere dynamics and composition, up to the interaction with the magnetosphere and the characterization of the Martian sytem including its two moons, Phobos and Deimos. In these last 10 years, the Mars Express Science Operations Center has been responsible for the coordination of the scientific requirements and the implementation of the science plan, aiming to obtain the maximum scientific return of the mission while respecting the operational constraints. In this contribution we will show some of the operational challenges of the mission, focusing on the improvements and adaptations of the past years, not only in terms of technical and scientific requirements which have been varying with time, but also the optimization of the interfaces with all the teams involved.

  7. From Exotic to Mainstream: A 10-year Odyssey from Internet Speed to Boundary Spanning with Scrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskerville, Richard; Pries-Heje, Jan; Madsen, Sabine

    Based on four empirical studies conducted over a 10-year time period from 1999 to 2008 we investigate how local software processes interact with global changes in the software development context. In 1999 companies were developing software at high speed in a desperate rush to be first-to-market. In 2001 a new high speed/quick results development process had become established practice. In 2003 changes in the market created the need for a more balanced view on speed and quality, and in 2008 companies were successfully combining agile and plan driven approaches to achieve the benefits of both. The studies reveal a twostage pattern in which dramatic changes in the market causes disruption of established practices, experimentation, and process adaptations followed by consolidation of lessons learnt into a new (and once again mature) software development process. Limitations, implications, and areas for future research are discussed.

  8. The World Health Organization European Health in Prisons Project After 10 Years: Persistent Barriers and Achievements

    PubMed Central

    Gatherer, Alex; Moller, Lars; Hayton, Paul

    2005-01-01

    The recognition that good prison health is important to general public health has led 28 countries in the European Region of the World Health Organization (WHO) to join a WHO network dedicated to improving health within prisons. Within the 10 years since that time, vital actions have been taken and important policy documents have been produced. A key factor in making progress is breaking down the isolation of prison health services and bringing them into closer collaboration with the country’s public health services. However, barriers to progress remain. A continuing challenge is how best to move from policy recommendations to implementation, so that the network’s fundamental aim of noticeable improvements in the health and care of prisoners is further achieved. PMID:16186449

  9. Transverse deformations of extreme horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Carmen; Lucietti, James

    2016-04-01

    We consider the inverse problem of determining all extreme black hole solutions to the Einstein equations with a prescribed near-horizon geometry. We investigate this problem by considering infinitesimal deformations of the near-horizon geometry along transverse null geodesics. We show that, up to a gauge transformation, the linearised Einstein equations reduce to an elliptic PDE for the extrinsic curvature of a cross-section of the horizon. We deduce that for a given near-horizon geometry there exists a finite dimensional moduli space of infinitesimal transverse deformations. We then establish a uniqueness theorem for transverse deformations of the extreme Kerr horizon. In particular, we prove that the only smooth axisymmetric transverse deformation of the near-horizon geometry of extreme Kerr, such that cross-sections of the horizon are marginally trapped surfaces, corresponds to that of the extreme Kerr black hole. Furthermore, we determine all smooth and biaxisymmetric transverse deformations of the near-horizon geometry of the five-dimensional extreme Myers-Perry black hole with equal angular momenta. We find a three parameter family of solutions such that cross-sections of the horizon are marginally trapped, which is more general than the known black hole solutions. We discuss the possibility that they correspond to new five-dimensional vacuum black holes.

  10. Neurocognition and Duration of Psychosis: A 10-year Follow-up of First-Episode Patients.

    PubMed

    Rund, Bjørn Rishovd; Barder, Helene Eidsmo; Evensen, Julie; Haahr, Ulrik; ten Velden Hegelstad, Wenche; Joa, Inge; Johannessen, Jan Olav; Langeveld, Johannes; Larsen, Tor Ketil; Melle, Ingrid; Opjordsmoen, Stein; Røssberg, Jan Ivar; Simonsen, Erik; Sundet, Kjetil; Vaglum, Per; McGlashan, Thomas; Friis, Svein

    2016-01-01

    A substantial proportion of schizophrenia-spectrum patients exhibit a cognitive impairment at illness onset. However, the long-term course of neurocognition and a possible neurotoxic effect of time spent in active psychosis, is a topic of controversy. Furthermore, it is of importance to find out what predicts the long-term course of neurocognition. Duration of untreated psychosis (DUP), accumulated time in psychosis the first year after start of treatment, relapse rates and symptoms are potential predictors of the long-term course. In this study, 261 first-episode psychosis patients were assessed neuropsychologically on one or more occasions. Patients were tested after remission of psychotic symptoms and reassessed 1, 2, 5, and 10 years after inclusion. The neurocognitive battery consisted of California Verbal Learning Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Controlled Oral Word Association Task, Trail Making A and B, and Finger Tapping. We calculated a composite score by adding the z-scores of 4 tests that were only moderately inter-correlated, not including Finger Tapping. Data were analyzed by a linear mixed model. The composite score was stable over 10 years. No significant relationship between psychosis before (DUP) or after start of treatment and the composite score was found, providing no support for the neurotoxicity hypothesis, and indicating that psychosis before start of treatment has no significant impact on the course and outcome in psychosis. We found no association between symptoms and the neurocognitive trajectory. Stable remission during the first year predicted neurocognitive functioning, suggesting that the early clinical course is a good predictor for the long-term course.

  11. Technologies on the Horizon: Teachers Respond to the Horizon Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Charles B.; Prater, Alyssa H.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate teachers' beliefs regarding the integration of technologies from the 2011 K-12 edition of the "Horizon Report" into their local, public school contexts. Teachers read the "Horizon Report" and then participated in an asynchronous, threaded discussion focusing on technologies they…

  12. Empirical correction for earth sensor horizon radiance variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hashmall, Joseph A.; Sedlak, Joseph; Andrews, Daniel; Luquette, Richard

    1998-01-01

    A major limitation on the use of infrared horizon sensors for attitude determination is the variability of the height of the infrared Earth horizon. This variation includes a climatological component and a stochastic component of approximately equal importance. The climatological component shows regular variation with season and latitude. Models based on historical measurements have been used to compensate for these systematic changes. The stochastic component is analogous to tropospheric weather. It can cause extreme, localized changes that for a period of days, overwhelm the climatological variation. An algorithm has been developed to compensate partially for the climatological variation of horizon height and at least to mitigate the stochastic variation. This method uses attitude and horizon sensor data from spacecraft to update a horizon height history as a function of latitude. For spacecraft that depend on horizon sensors for their attitudes (such as the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer-Earth Probe-TOMS-EP) a batch least squares attitude determination system is used. It is assumed that minimizing the average sensor residual throughout a full orbit of data results in attitudes that are nearly independent of local horizon height variations. The method depends on the additional assumption that the mean horizon height over all latitudes is approximately independent of season. Using these assumptions, the method yields the latitude dependent portion of local horizon height variations. This paper describes the algorithm used to generate an empirical horizon height. Ideally, an international horizon height database could be established that would rapidly merge data from various spacecraft to provide timely corrections that could be used by all.

  13. Resolving Lifshitz Horizons

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Sarah; Kachru, Shamit; Wang, Huajia; /Stanford U., ITP /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC

    2012-04-24

    Via the AdS/CFT correspondence, ground states of field theories at finite charge density are mapped to extremal black brane solutions. Studies of simple gravity + matter systems in this context have uncovered wide new classes of extremal geometries. The Lifshitz metrics characterizing field theories with non-trivial dynamical critical exponent z {ne} 1 emerge as one common endpoint in doped holographic toy models. However, the Lifshitz horizon exhibits mildly singular behaviour - while curvature invariants are finite, there are diverging tidal forces. Here we show that in some of the simplest contexts where Lifshitz metrics emerge, Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theories, generic corrections lead to a replacement of the Lifshitz metric, in the deep infrared, by a re-emergent AdS{sub 2} x R{sup 2} geometry. Thus, at least in these cases, the Lifshitz scaling characterizes the physics over a wide range of energy scales, but the mild singularity is cured by quantum or stringy effects.

  14. Variability of Physical Activity Patterns by Type of Day and Season in 8-10-Year-Old Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowlands, Ann V.; Hughes, Dylan R.

    2006-01-01

    The aims of this study were to: (a) compare physical activity across two seasons and, within those seasons, across school and vacation time, and (b) compare the proportion of children meeting the activity thresholds recommended by Tudor-Locke et al. (2004) at each time point. Thirty-six boys, between the ages of 8 and 10 years (M age = 8.8 years,…

  15. Natural History of Thyroid Function in Adults with Down Syndrome--10-Year Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasher, V.; Gomez, G.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The natural history of thyroid function in adults with Down syndrome (DS) is unknown. Method: This study investigated annual thyroid function tests in 200 adults with DS over a 10-year period. Results: Transient and persistent thyroid dysfunction was common. The 5- and 10-year incidence of definite hypothyroidism was 0.9%-1.64% and…

  16. Effects of Two Modes of Exercise Training on Physical Fitness of 10 Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribeiro, Ligia G. dos Santos Chaves; Portal, Maria de Nazare Dias; da Silva, Joao Bittencourt; Saraiva, Alan; da Cruz Monte, Gerson, Jr.; Dantas, Estelio H. M.

    2010-01-01

    Study aim: To compare two exercise training modes on the physical fitness of 10 year-old children. Material and methods: A sample of 60 schoolboys aged 10 years were randomly divided into 3 groups: Traditional (TG), trained according to the Brazilian national curricular parameters, Maturational (MG), in which the degree of difficulty of the…

  17. 7 CFR 625.9 - 10-year restoration cost-share agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 10-year restoration cost-share agreements. 625.9... restoration cost-share agreements. (a) The restoration plan developed under § 625.12 forms the basis for the...) Incorporate all portions of a restoration plan; (2) Be for a period of 10 years; (3) Include all provisions...

  18. 7 CFR 625.9 - 10-year restoration cost-share agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false 10-year restoration cost-share agreements. 625.9... restoration cost-share agreements. (a) The restoration plan developed under § 625.13 forms the basis for the... agreement will: (1) Incorporate all portions of a restoration plan; (2) Be for a period of 10 years;...

  19. Treatment of Bilateral Refractive Amblyopia in Children 3 to <10 Years Old

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, David; Chandler, Danielle L.; Beck, Roy W.; Arnold, Robert W.; Bacal, Darron A.; Birch, Eileen E.; Felius, Joost; Frazier, Marcela; Holmes, Jonathan M.; Hoover, Darren; Klimek, Deborah A.; Lorenzana, Ingryd; Quinn, Graham E.; Repka, Michael X.; Suh, Donny W.; Tamkins, Susanna

    2007-01-01

    Purpose To determine the amount and time course of binocular visual acuity improvement during treatment of bilateral refractive amblyopia in children age 3 to <10 years old Design Prospective, multicenter noncomparative intervention Methods 113 children (mean age = 5.1 years) with previously untreated bilateral refractive amblyopia were enrolled at 27 community- and university-based sites and were provided optimal spectacle correction. Bilateral refractive amblyopia was defined as 20/40 to 20/400 best-corrected binocular acuity in the presence of ≥ 4.00 D hypermetropia by spherical equivalent and/or ≥ 2.00 D astigmatism in each eye. Best-corrected binocular and monocular visual acuities were measured at baseline and at 5, 13, 26 and 52 weeks. The primary study outcome was binocular acuity at one year. Results Mean binocular visual acuity improved from 0.50 logMAR (20/63) at baseline to 0.11 logMAR (20/25) at one year (mean improvement 3.9 lines, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.5 to 4.2). Mean improvement at one year for the 84 children with baseline binocular acuity of 20/40 to 20/80 was 3.4 lines (95% CI = 3.2 to 3.7) and for the 16 children with baseline binocular acuity of 20/100 to 20/320 was 6.3 lines (95% CI = 5.1 to 7.5). The cumulative probability of binocular acuity of 20/25 or better was 21% at 5 weeks, 46% at 13 weeks, 59% at 26 weeks, and 74% at 52 weeks. Conclusions Treatment of bilateral refractive amblyopia with spectacle correction improves binocular visual acuity in children age 3 to <10 years old, with most improving to 20/25 or better within one year. PMID:17707330

  20. Lamont-Doherty's Secondary School Field Research Program: 10 years of field research-based education.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, R.; Vincent, S.; Gribbin, S.; Peteet, D. M.; Sambrotto, R.; Bostick, B. C.; Corbett, E.; Nguyen, K.; Bjornton, J.; Lee, D.; Dubossi, D.; Reyes, N.

    2014-12-01

    This fall marks the 10th year in which we have run a research-project-based educational program for high school students and science teachers at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory. This summer's cohort included 31 teenagers, 7 science teachers, and 16 college students, most of whom are returning to the program to help run the research projects. Nearly all of our students attend non-competitive-entry public schools in NYC or the neighborhoods around the Observatory. Over 80% are from under-served minority populations. Most receive Title I/III assistance. About 60% are young women. During the past 10 years, nearly all of our participants have gone on to 4-year colleges. About half are declaring science and engineering majors. Our students receive scholarship support at rates several times higher than their graduating peers, including 5 Gates Millennium scholars over the past 5 years. Our science is centered on studies of a nearby tidal wetland, where we have expanded from fish collections in year one to include everything from sediment core analysis to soil chemistry to nutrient cycles to the local food web. In this presentation we will look back over 10 years of experience and focus on what lessons can be learned about (1) how to engage teams of young investigators in authentic scientific research; (2) what cultural/organizational structures encourage them to make use of place- and project-based learning and (3) what the participants themselves report as the most useful aspects of our programming. The presentation will include video clips from the students' field experiences and from reflective interviews with "graduates".

  1. [Analysis on characteristics of red tide in Fujian coastal waters during the last 10 years].

    PubMed

    Li, Xue-Ding

    2012-07-01

    There were 161 red tide events collected during the last 10 years from 2001 to 2010 in Fujian coastal waters. Comprehensive analysis was performed using statistical methods and the results indicated the following characteristics of the temporal and spatial distribution of red tide in Fujian coastal waters: (1) Outbreaks of red tide often occurred between April and September, and the peak period was in May and June. Most red tide events lasted for 2 to 4 days, and the affected area was below 50 square kilometers. The first outbreak of red tide tended to occur earlier in recent years, and the lasting time became longer. (2) There were 20 species of organisms causing the red tides in Fujian coastal waters, among which 10 species were Bacillariophyta, 9 species were Dinophyta and 1 species was Protozoa. Prorocentrum donghaiense was the most frequent cause of red tides, followed by Noctiluca scintillans, Skeletonema costatum and Chaetoceros sp.. The species caused red tides obeyed the succession law and there were always new species involved. (2) In terms of spatial distribution, outbreaks of red tides mainly occurred in the coastal waters of Ningde, Fuzhou and Xiamen. The species causing red tides were Prorocentrum donghaiense and Noctiluca in the coastal waters in the north of Pingtan, Fujian Province, Skeletonema costatum and Chaetoceros in the coastal waters in the south of Pingtan, Fujian Province. The comprehensive analysis of the characteristics of red tides during the last 10 years is expected to provide scientific and reasonable basis for the prevention, reduction and forecast of red tides in Fujian coastal waters.

  2. [Analysis on characteristics of red tide in Fujian coastal waters during the last 10 years].

    PubMed

    Li, Xue-Ding

    2012-07-01

    There were 161 red tide events collected during the last 10 years from 2001 to 2010 in Fujian coastal waters. Comprehensive analysis was performed using statistical methods and the results indicated the following characteristics of the temporal and spatial distribution of red tide in Fujian coastal waters: (1) Outbreaks of red tide often occurred between April and September, and the peak period was in May and June. Most red tide events lasted for 2 to 4 days, and the affected area was below 50 square kilometers. The first outbreak of red tide tended to occur earlier in recent years, and the lasting time became longer. (2) There were 20 species of organisms causing the red tides in Fujian coastal waters, among which 10 species were Bacillariophyta, 9 species were Dinophyta and 1 species was Protozoa. Prorocentrum donghaiense was the most frequent cause of red tides, followed by Noctiluca scintillans, Skeletonema costatum and Chaetoceros sp.. The species caused red tides obeyed the succession law and there were always new species involved. (2) In terms of spatial distribution, outbreaks of red tides mainly occurred in the coastal waters of Ningde, Fuzhou and Xiamen. The species causing red tides were Prorocentrum donghaiense and Noctiluca in the coastal waters in the north of Pingtan, Fujian Province, Skeletonema costatum and Chaetoceros in the coastal waters in the south of Pingtan, Fujian Province. The comprehensive analysis of the characteristics of red tides during the last 10 years is expected to provide scientific and reasonable basis for the prevention, reduction and forecast of red tides in Fujian coastal waters. PMID:23002593

  3. Just-in-Time Training: The Lessons of Hurricane Katrina, 10 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boerner, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina reshaped college workforce development programs as thoroughly as it did the coastline--but in this case, the changes were for the good of students, employers and the community. This article discusses the effects and changes made by 4 community colleges who were effected by Hurricane Katrina: (1) Louisiana Community and Technical…

  4. Variations in Titan's Ionospheric Densities over a 10 Year Time Period of the Cassini Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madanian, H.; Cravens, T.; Richard, M. S.; Edberg, N. J. T.; Westlake, J. H.; Wahlund, J. E.; Waite, J. H., Jr.; Perryman, R.

    2015-12-01

    Titan hosts the most chemically complex atmosphere in the solar system. The first encounter of the Cassini spacecraft with Titan was in October 2004 with a closest approach altitude of 1147km. Since then the Cassini has made measurements of the ionospheric species over multiple flybys and has provided a unique opportunity to study long term effects on Titan's ionosphere including solar activity cycle. It has been shown that solar extreme ultraviolet radiation is the main source of ion production and production rates are highly dependent on solar zenith angle. We use data from the ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) and the Radio and Plasma Wave Science-Langmuir probe (RPWS-LP) instruments onboard the Cassini spacecraft to investigate changes in the ion composition of the ionosphere. We compare the observations with the results of our ionospheric models. Data from 21 targeted Titan flybys are used, covering the declining phase of solar cycle 23 into the double peak of solar cycle 24. We show that the ion densities have in fact increased during the high solar activity, especially at altitudes near the ionospheric peak, and unlike Earth, the Titan's thermosphere is contracted during high solar activity. Charge neutrality is assumed near the peak of the ionosphere, however difference exists between INMS total ion densities and RPWS-LP electron densities and it becomes more noticeable at high solar activity. This may be for several reasons including enhanced negative ion densities and increased electron recombination rates. The model results agree reasonably well with the in-situ measurements for most ion species at low and high solar activity conditions although overproduction exists for some ions (e.g. HCNH+) and underproduction is seen for some heavier species such as C7H7+.

  5. Global Tpw and Uth Trends Inferred from 10 Years of Hiirs and MODIS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borbas, E. E.; Menzel, P.; Frey, R.; Heidinger, A. K.; Bearson, N.

    2014-12-01

    The HIRS and MODIS (MOD07) TPW and UTH algorithm retrieves total column precipitable water vapor and integrated high (UTH), mid, and low layer tropospheric humidity. It is a statistical regression (Seemann et al 2003 and 2008) developed from an atmospheric profile data base (SeeBor, Borbas et al, 2005) that consists of geographically and seasonally distributed radiosonde, ozonesonde, and ECMWF ReAnalysis data. TPW and UTH are determined for clear sky radiances measured by HIRS (at 20km and later 10km resolution) and MODIS (5km resolution) over land and ocean both day and night. The Space Time Gridding (STG) framework is used to calculate daily and monthly composites of the moisture properties. It has two components. (1) Space gridding where geophysical properties are first filtered based on a set of criteria (e.g. time of day, etc.) and then aggregated into equal-angle grid cells. (2) Time gridding where daily statistics are computed from the aggregate of pixels in each grid cell. Longer-term, such as monthly, statistics are derived from the daily gridded statistics. The HIRS and MODIS TPW and UTH products are binned into a global map of 0.5 degree lat-lon boxes daily, compiled into monthly amounts, and inspected for trends over a 10-year time period (2000-2009). The HIRS and MODIS TPW data is also compared to the NASA NVAP dataset.

  6. The Horizon Report. 2005 Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Media Consortium, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This second edition of the New Media Consortium's (NMC) annual "Horizon Report" describes the continuing work of the Horizon Project, a research-oriented effort that seeks to identify and describe emerging technologies likely to have a large impact on teaching, learning, or creative expression within higher education. Drawing on an ongoing series…

  7. The Horizon Report. 2006 Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Media Consortium, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This third edition of the New Media Consortium's (NMC) annual "Horizon Report" describes the continuing work of the Horizon Project, a research-oriented effort that seeks to identify and describe emerging technologies likely to have a large impact on teaching, learning, or creative expression within higher education. Drawing on ongoing discussions…

  8. The Horizon Report. 2004 Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Media Consortium, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This first edition of the New Media Consortium's (NMC) annual "Horizon Report" details findings of the Horizon Project, a research-oriented effort that seeks to identify and describe emerging technologies likely to have a large impact on teaching, learning, or creative expression within higher education. Drawing on an ongoing series of interviews…

  9. Are We Under-Estimating Mercury in Soils? Experimental Acidification and Sample Collection Timing Demonstrate Variability in Estimates of Mercury in O-Horizon Soils at a Maine Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, S. J.; Johnson, K. B.

    2009-12-01

    Sampling protocols, including sample timing, collection methods, preservation, and preparation, can strongly influence the results of any analysis. Organic soil horizons are a large pool of mercury (Hg) in most temperate, forested sites; minimizing the potential for under- or over- estimates in this medium is critical for discerning the fate and transport of Hg. Detailed guidance is available for ultra-clean and semi-clean handling for Hg sampling in surface waters. However, neither guidance regarding the proper time of year to sample soils nor methodological studies regarding post-sampling preservation and handling were available in the scientific literature for soil Hg sampling. Here we report on pilot work that (1) provides data for Hg in soils (O-horizon) through an entire year, to determine whether seasonality affects Hg estimates; and (2) documents the effect of treating a soil with acidic water prior to preparation and analysis. We collected O-horizon soil samples monthly from a single plot during 2008, and analyzed them for total Hg. Each month, samples were split; half were ‘control’ samples (dried then analyzed) and half were ‘acidified’ (treated with acidic (pH 2.0) ultrapure water prior to drying and analysis). We observed: (1) a three-fold range of Hg values (148-446 ppb) for the control samples (all collected within the same 2-m2 plot), varying across the twelve months in 2008 during which samples were collected; (2) differences of ~15-20% between acidified and control samples; and, (3) an apparent loss of ~100 ppb of Hg (~22%) if acidification of the dry sample was delayed a day or more. Soils collected when the antecedent period had been wet lost Hg when soils were treated with pH 2.0 solution, potentially because soluble Hg in solution could have been leached during acid treatment. This finding may help to explain why researchers have seen large pulses of Hg in streamwater flux during snowmelt. Further, our results may help to inform

  10. Falling through the black hole horizon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brustein, Ram; Medved, A. J. M.

    2015-06-01

    We consider the fate of a small classical object, a "stick", as it falls through the horizon of a large black hole (BH). Classically, the equivalence principle dictates that the stick is affected by small tidal forces, and Hawking's quantum-mechanical model of BH evaporation makes essentially the same prediction. If, on the other hand, the BH horizon is surrounded by a "firewall", the stick will be consumed as it falls through. We have recently extended Hawking's model by taking into account the quantum fluctuations of the geometry and the classical back-reaction of the emitted particles. Here, we calculate the train exerted on the falling stick for our model. The strain depends on the near-horizon state of the Hawking pairs. We find that, after the Page time when the state of the pairs deviates significantly from maximal entanglement (as required by unitarity), the induced strain in our semiclassical model is still parametrically small. This is because the number of the disentangled pairs is parametrically smaller than the BH entropy. A firewall does, however, appear if the number of disentangled pairs near the horizon is of order of the BH entropy, as implicitly assumed in previous discussions in the literature.

  11. On the differentiability order of horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szeghy, D.

    2016-06-01

    Let M be a time oriented Lorentzian manifold and H\\subset M a horizon. We will show that the differentiability order of the horizon can change only once along a generator, i.e. the following holds. If γ :I\\to H is a generator, thus, an inextendable past directed light-like geodesic on the horizon, where I=(α ,β ) or [α ,β ), then there exists a unique parameter {t}0\\in [α ,β ] and a positive integer k≥slant 1 such that the following is true. The horizon H is exactly of class {C}k at γ (t), for every t\\in ({t}0,β ), moreover H is only differentiable, but not of class {C}1 at every point γ (t), for which t\\in (α ,{t}0]. Moreover, if γ (α ) is the endpoint of only one generator then for a suitable space-like submanifold R\\subset H the first cut point of R along γ is γ (α ). Furthermore, all the points γ (t), for which t\\in [α ,{t}0], are non-injectivity points of R along γ . Moreover, if H is smooth at an interior point of γ, then H is smooth at every point of γ. MSC 53C50

  12. The 10-year Course of PTSD in Borderline Patients and Axis II Comparison Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Zanarini, Mary C.; Hörz, Susanne; Frankenburg, Frances R.; Weingeroff, Jolie; Reich, D. Bradford; Fitzmaurice, Garrett

    2011-01-01

    Objective The first objective is to detail the prevalence of PTSD over a decade of follow-up for those in both study groups. The second is to determine time-to-remission, recurrence, and new onset of PTSD and the third is to assess the relationship between sexual adversity and the likelihood of remission and recurrence of PTSD. Method The SCID I was administered to 290 borderline inpatients and 72 axis II comparison subjects during their index admission and re-administered at five contiguous two-year follow-up periods. Results The prevalence of PTSD declined significantly over time for patients with BPD (61%). Over 85% of borderline patients meeting criteria for PTSD at baseline experienced a remission by the time of the 10-year follow-up. Recurrences (40%) and new onsets (27%) were less common. A childhood history of sexual abuse significantly decreased the likelihood of remission from PTSD and an adult history of sexual assault significantly increased the likelihood of a recurrence of PTSD. Conclusion Taken together, the results of this study suggest that PTSD is not a chronic disorder for the majority of borderline patients. They also suggest a strong relationship between sexual adversity and the course of PTSD among patients with BPD. PMID:21564040

  13. Predicting disability pension - depression as hazard: a 10 year population-based cohort study in Norway.

    PubMed

    Lassemo, Eva; Sandanger, Inger; Nygård, Jan F; Sørgaard, Knut W

    2016-03-01

    Disability pension (DP) is an escalating challenge to individuals and the welfare state, with mental health problems as imminent hazard. The objective of the present paper was to determine if a diagnosis of depression increased the risk of subsequent DP, and whether the risk differed by gender. A population cohort of 1230 persons were diagnostically interviewed (Composite International Diagnostic Interview, CIDI) in a population study examining mental health, linked to the DP registry and followed for 10 years. The risk for DP following depression was estimated using Cox regression. Life-time depression, as well as current depression, increased the risk of subsequent DP for both genders. The fully adjusted [baseline health, health behavior and socio-economic status (SES)] hazard ratios (HRs) for life-time depressed men and women were 2.9 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5-5.8] and 1.6 (95% CI 1.0-2.5) respectively. Men were significantly older at time of DP. There are reasons to believe that depression went under-recognized and under-treated. To augment knowledge in the field, without underestimating depression as risk for DP, a deeper understanding of the nature and effects of other distress is needed.

  14. Fatal firearm injuries in autopsy cases at central Bangkok, Thailand: a 10-year retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Myint, Sithu; Rerkamnuaychoke, Budsaba; Peonim, Vichan; Riengrojpitak, Suda; Worasuwannarak, Wisarn

    2014-11-01

    Even though there have been previously published reports on firearm injuries in various countries, the incidence and pattern of death from firearm injuries in Thailand have not been studied before. In present study, 149 fatal firearm injuries from 2002 to 2011 were reviewed. At total of 7126 autopsies, fatal firearm injuries comprised of 2.09% (n = 149) of total autopsies cases. Among those victims, 136 were male (91.3%), 13 (8.7%) were female. The youngest age of victim was 10 years and the oldest was 79 years. Mean age of the victims was 33.79 years and median age was 30 years. Outdoor incident was the most common scene of crime. Night time incident (18:00 PM-05:59 AM) was higher than day time one. Most of the cases occurred in week ends (n = 52). Homicide (77.2%) was the most frequent manner of death. Head/face and chest were the most common sites of entrance. The autopsy report also study on entrance wound, range and types of projectiles. Blood alcohol concentration was examined in 122 cases and 38 victims showed positive results, 11 cases revealed using of illegal substances in blood and urine analysis. This study also included the association between manner of death and other factors. Age group, time of incidence, place of incidence, number of entrance wound and range showed statistically significant association with manner of death.

  15. Fatal firearm injuries in autopsy cases at central Bangkok, Thailand: a 10-year retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Myint, Sithu; Rerkamnuaychoke, Budsaba; Peonim, Vichan; Riengrojpitak, Suda; Worasuwannarak, Wisarn

    2014-11-01

    Even though there have been previously published reports on firearm injuries in various countries, the incidence and pattern of death from firearm injuries in Thailand have not been studied before. In present study, 149 fatal firearm injuries from 2002 to 2011 were reviewed. At total of 7126 autopsies, fatal firearm injuries comprised of 2.09% (n = 149) of total autopsies cases. Among those victims, 136 were male (91.3%), 13 (8.7%) were female. The youngest age of victim was 10 years and the oldest was 79 years. Mean age of the victims was 33.79 years and median age was 30 years. Outdoor incident was the most common scene of crime. Night time incident (18:00 PM-05:59 AM) was higher than day time one. Most of the cases occurred in week ends (n = 52). Homicide (77.2%) was the most frequent manner of death. Head/face and chest were the most common sites of entrance. The autopsy report also study on entrance wound, range and types of projectiles. Blood alcohol concentration was examined in 122 cases and 38 victims showed positive results, 11 cases revealed using of illegal substances in blood and urine analysis. This study also included the association between manner of death and other factors. Age group, time of incidence, place of incidence, number of entrance wound and range showed statistically significant association with manner of death. PMID:25440139

  16. What happens to Petrov classification, on horizons of axisymmetric dirty black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Tanatarov, I. V.; Zaslavskii, O. B.

    2014-02-15

    We consider axisymmetric stationary dirty black holes with regular non-extremal or extremal horizons, and compute their on-horizon Petrov types. The Petrov type (PT) in the frame of the observer crossing the horizon can be different from that formally obtained in the usual (but singular in the horizon limit) frame of an observer on a circular orbit. We call this entity the boosted Petrov type (BPT), as the corresponding frame is obtained by a singular boost from the regular one. The PT off-horizon can be more general than PT on-horizon and that can be more general than the BPT on horizon. This is valid for all regular metrics, irrespective of the extremality of the horizon. We analyze and classify the possible relations between the three characteristics and discuss the nature and features of the underlying singular boost. The three Petrov types can be the same only for space-times of PT D and O off-horizon. The mutual alignment of principal null directions and the generator in the vicinity of the horizon is studied in detail. As an example, we also analyze a special class of metrics with utra-extremal horizons (for which the regularity conditions look different from the general case) and compare their off-horizon and on-horizon algebraic structure in both frames.

  17. Conservative management of a type III acromioclavicular separation: a case report and 10-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Robb, Andrew J.; Howitt, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study is to present a 10-year prospective case of a right incomplete type III acromioclavicular (AC) separation in a 26-year-old patient. Clinical Features A 26-year-old male patient fell directly on his right shoulder with the arm in an outstretched and overhead position. Pain and swelling were immediate and were associated with a “step deformity.” The patient had limited right shoulder range of motion (ROM), strength, and function. Radiographic findings confirmed a type III AC separation on the right. At 1-year follow-up, the patient did not report any deficits in ROM or function, but did note a prominent distal clavicle on the right. At 3-, 5-, 7-, and 10-year follow-up, the patient did not report changes from 1 year. The radiographic findings at the 10-year follow-up indicated mild degenerative joint disease in both AC joints and mild elevation of the distal clavicle on the right. Intervention and Outcome The patient received chiropractic care to control for pain, swelling, and loss of ROM. The patient received acupuncture, joint mobilizations, palliative adhesive taping of the AC joint, Active Release Technique, and progressive resisted exercises. Radiographic study was done at the time of the injury and at 10 years to observe for any osseous changes in the AC joint. Conclusion The patient yielded excellent results from conservative chiropractic management that was reflected in a prompt return to work 19 days after the injury. Follow-up at 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 years exhibited absence of residual deficits in ROM and function. The “step deformity” was still present after the injury on the right. PMID:22654684

  18. Inhibitory control in otherwise healthy overweight 10-year-old children

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, S; Peirano, P; Peigneux, P; Lozoff, B; Algarin, C

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Preventing obesity is a worldwide public health priority. In vulnerable children living in obesogenic environments, with easy access to high-caloric food, alterations in inhibitory control functions might favor excessive food intake and affect energy regulation. We hypothesized that overweight/obese children would present lower inhibitory control in comparison to normal weight children. METHODS We measured inhibitory control functions in 93 otherwise healthy overweight/obese and 92 normal weight 10-year-old children using the Stroop test and the Go/No-Go task. Event-related potentials were recorded during the Go/No-Go task. RESULTS Overweight/obese children showed slower reaction times (1248.6 ms (95% confidence interval (CI): 1182.9–1314.3) vs 1149.0 ms (95% CI: 1083.0–1215.1)) on the Stroop test, higher reaction time variability (0.25 (95% CI: 0.22–0.27) vs 0.21 (95% CI: 0.19–0.24)) on the Go/No-Go task and decreased P300 amplitude (4.1 µV (95% CI: 3.0–5.2) vs 6.4 µV (95% CI: 5.2–7.6)) on event-related potentials compared with normal weight children. CONCLUSIONS Our results indicate altered inhibitory control functions in otherwise healthy overweight/obese children, which might contribute to their excessive food consumption. PMID:25869603

  19. Soil physical quality changes under different management systems after 10 years in Argentinian Humid Pampa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, J. L.; Aparicio, V. C.; Cerda, A.

    2014-08-01

    The Argentinian Humid Pampa extends over about 60 million ha, 90% of which are agricultural lands. The southeast of the Buenos Aires Province is part of the Humid Pampa (1 206 162 ha). The main crops are wheat, sunflower, corn and soybean. The management systems used in the area are: moldboard plow (MP), chisel plow (CP) and no-till (NT). Excessive soil cultivation under MP causes decreases in the soil organic carbon content (SOC). Adopting NT may reduce the effects of intensive agriculture, through the maintenance and accumulation of SOC. However, the soil compaction under NT causes degradation of the soil structure, reduces the soil water availability and reduces the soil hydraulic conductivity. We evaluated the evolution of the soil physical parameters in three management systems. After 10 years of experiments in four farmers' fields, we found that: soil bulk density was significantly higher under NT. The change in mean weight diameter (CMWD) of aggregates increased as the management system became more intensive. We did not find significant differences in time and management systems in hydraulic conductivity at tension (h)0 cm and h=20 cm. The reduction in total porosity under NT is mainly a product of a reduction in the percentage of mesopores in the soil. Time had no statistically significant effect on the SOC content. The management system did not affect the yields of crop. In this work, the results indicate a modification of some soil physical parameters (porosity, near-saturated hydraulic conductivity, soil structure) due to uninterrupted agricultural production.

  20. Apparent horizons in binary black hole spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoemaker, Deirdre Marie

    Over the last decade, advances in computing technology and numerical techniques have lead to the possible theoretical prediction of astrophysically relevant waveforms in numerical simulations. With the building of gravitational wave detectors such as the Laser Interferometric Gravitational-Wave Observatory, we stand at the epoch that will usher in the first experimental study of strong field general relativity. One candidate source for ground based detection of gravitational waveforms, the orbit and merger of two black holes, is of great interest to the relativity community. The binary black hole problem is the two-body problem in general relativity. It is a stringent dynamical test of the theory. The problem involves the evolution of the Einstein equation, a complex system of non-linear, dynamic, elliptic-hyperbolic equations intractable in closed form. Numerical relativists are now developing the technology to evolve the Einstein equation using numerical simulations. The generation of these numerical I codes is a ``theoretical laboratory'' designed to study strong field phenomena in general relativity. This dissertation reports the successful development and application of the first multiple apparent horizon tracker applied to the generic binary black hole problem. I have developed a method that combines a level set of surfaces with a curvature flow method. This method, which I call the level flow method, locates the surfaces of any apparent horizons in the spacetime. The surface location then is used to remove the singularities from the computational domain in the evolution code. I establish the following set of criteria desired in an apparent horizon tracker: (1)The robustness of the tracker due to its lack of dependence on small changes to the initial guess; (2)The generality of the tracker in its applicability to generic spacetimes including multiple back hole spacetimes; and (3)The efficiency of the tracker algorithm in CPU time. I demonstrate the apparent

  1. Social Pharmacology: Expanding horizons

    PubMed Central

    Maiti, Rituparna; Alloza, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    In the current modern and global society, social changes are in constant evolution due to scientific progress (technology, culture, customs, and hygiene) and produce the freedom in individuals to take decisions by themselves or with their doctors toward drug consumption. In the arena of marketed drug products which includes society, individual, administration, and pharmaceutical industry, the young discipline emerged is social pharmacology or sociopharmacology. This science arises from clinical pharmacology, and deals with different parameters, which are important in creating knowledge on marketed drugs. However, the scope of “social pharmacology” is not covered by the so-called “Phase IV” alone, but it is the science that handles the postmarketing knowledge of drugs. The social pharmacology studies the “life cycle” of any marketed pharmaceutical product in the social terrain, and evaluates the effects of the real environment under circumstances totally different in the drug development process. Therefore, there are far-reaching horizons, plural, and shared predictions among health professionals and other, for beneficial use of a drug, toward maximizing the benefits of therapy, while minimizing negative social consequences. PMID:24987168

  2. The Remains of the Dam: What Have We Learned From 10 Years of Dam Removals?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, G. E.; O'Connor, J. E.; Major, J. J.

    2012-12-01

    Over the past 10 years in the U.S., dam removal has evolved from an occasionally implemented, rarely studied, and poorly understood intervention to improve rivers, to a much more frequently accomplished and better studied and understood approach to river restoration. Over that same time period, the numbers and sizes of dams and volumes of sediment released have dramatically increased. By some estimates close to 1000 dams have been removed over the last 100 years, with most of those occurring within the last 10. While most of these are small (less than 15 m high) dams, removals of dams up to 70 m high are presently underway. Releases of sediment associated with these removals over the past 10 years have also increased by close to four orders of magnitude; for example removal of the Elwha River dams in Washington is estimated to release almost 107 m3 of sediment into the lower Elwha River. Given a decade's worth of dam removals and, in some cases, well-orchestrated case studies of the effects of removal on the geomorphology and (to a lesser extent) ecology of rivers, what have we learned? More specifically, where do we now stand with respect to being able to predict the consequences of future dam removals? Drawing on both field examples and numerical models of dam removals in the western U.S., several key lessons stand out. Although every dam removal and river are different, removals initiate very rapid upstream river response and reservoir erosion and evacuation of sediment by various mechanisms that are strongly controlled by grain size of the deposit, volumes of residual sediment relative to total reservoir volume, and style of dam removal (instantaneous versus staged). Erosion of sediment accumulations in fully and partially filled (by sediment) reservoirs proceeds by different trajectories and rates, with full reservoirs releasing sediment primarily by upstream knickpoint retreat while erosion and sediment release in partially-filled reservoirs proceeds by

  3. Quantum correlations across the black hole horizon

    SciTech Connect

    Schuetzhold, Ralf; Unruh, William G.

    2010-06-15

    Inspired by the condensed-matter analogues of black holes, we study the quantum correlations across the event horizon reflecting the entanglement between the outgoing particles of the Hawking radiation and their in-falling partners. For a perfectly covariant theory, the total correlation is conserved in time and piles up arbitrary close to the horizon in the past, where it merges into the singularity of the vacuum two-point function at the light cone. After modifying the dispersion relation (i.e., breaking Lorentz invariance) for large k, on the other hand, the light cone is smeared out and the entanglement is not conserved but actually created in a given rate per unit time.

  4. Unruh effect without Rindler horizon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolaevici, Nistor

    2015-02-01

    We investigate the Unruh effect for a massless scalar field in the two-dimensional Minkowski space in the presence of a uniformly accelerated perfect mirror, with the trajectory of the mirror chosen in such a way that the mirror completely masks the Rindler horizon from the space-time region of interest. We find that the characteristic thermodynamical properties of the effect remain unchanged, i.e. the response of a uniformly co-accelerated Unruh detector and the distribution of the Rindler particles retain their thermal form. However, since in this setup there are no unobserved degrees of freedom of the field, the thermal statistics of the Rindler particles are inconsistent with an initial pure vacuum, which leads us to reconsider the problem for the more physical case when the mirror is inertial in the past. In these conditions we find that the distribution of the Rindler particles is non-thermal even in the limit of infinite acceleration times, but effective thermal statistics can be recovered provided that one is restricted to the expectation values of smeared operators associated with finite norm Rindler states. We explain how the thermal statistics in our problem can be understood in analogy with those in the conventional version of the effect.

  5. Area Theorem and Smoothness of Compact Cauchy Horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minguzzi, E.

    2015-10-01

    We obtain an improved version of the area theorem for not necessarily differentiable horizons which, in conjunction with a recent result on the completeness of generators, allows us to prove that under the null energy condition every compactly generated Cauchy horizon is smooth and compact. We explore the consequences of this result for time machines, topology change, black holes and cosmic censorship. For instance, it is shown that compact Cauchy horizons cannot form in a non-empty spacetime which satisfies the stable dominant energy condition wherever there is some source content.

  6. Quantum correlations through event horizons: Fermionic versus bosonic entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Martin-Martinez, Eduardo; Leon, Juan

    2010-03-15

    We disclose the behavior of quantum and classical correlations among all the different spatial-temporal regions of a space-time with an event horizon, comparing fermionic with bosonic fields. We show the emergence of conservation laws for entanglement and classical correlations, pointing out the crucial role that statistics plays in the information exchange (and more specifically, the entanglement tradeoff) across horizons. The results obtained here could shed new light on the problem of information behavior in noninertial frames and in the presence of horizons, giving better insight into the black-hole information paradox.

  7. MISR observations at dust source regions: 10-year analysis of aerosol properties and plume heights.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalashnikova, Olga; Sokolik, Irina; Garay, Michael; Wu, Dong

    Multiangle remote sensing, in particular from Terra/MISR, provides a unique, independent source of data for study dust emission and transport. MISR/Terra is an imaging instrument that uses combination of multi-spectral and multi-angle data to retrieve aerosol properties and aerosol plume heights. A number of validation studies have shown that MISR provides reliable optical depth values over the bright desert. We use the 10-year aerosol data record from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) aboard the Terra satellite to investigate the inter-annual and seasonal variability of dust loadings and properties as retrieved by MISR at selected dust source regions. In particular, we examine the Taklamakan, East and Central Gobi regions in Asia, and Mauritania desert and Bodélé Basin regions in Africa. Within each ee selected region, the analysis was performed to examine the multi-annual mean and variability of the aerosol optical depth and particle properties, taking into account the effects of MISR sampling and cloud coverage. To avoid the gridding and averaging effects as much as possible we use the instantaneous Level 2 MISR data for the analysis. We use AERONET data and other independent measurements where available to supplement and constrain MISR product. In addition to the optical depth/property analysis, we report 10-year climatology of dust plume heights over Bodélé Basin as function of the distance from the source. We demonstrate that, ee while there are some effects of large-scale dynamics on dust loadings and heights, the various differences in anomaly time series (including month-to-month differences) reveal the role of meso-scale systems specific to the each source region. These source-specific differences provide valuable information for testing/validating the regional dust transport models. The results will be presented and interpreted in the context of atmospheric dynamics variability, including variability of meteorological regimes in dust

  8. Characteristics of Primary Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma in Iran: A 10-Year Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Fatemi Naeini, Farahnaz; Sadeghiyan, Hamidreza; Pourazizi, Mohsen; Najafian, Jamshid; Abtahi-Naeini, Bahareh

    2014-01-01

    Background. Primary cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCLs) are a group of extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphomas that may be present in the skin without any evidence of extracutaneous disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiological characteristics of primary CTCL in Isfahan, Iran. Method. A total of 95 patients who were diagnosed as having primary CTCL were recruited during a 10-year period (2003–2013) and were classified according to the new WHO-EORTC criteria. Results. The patient group consisted of 43 (44.8%) males and 53 (55.2%) females, which indicated a female predominance (M : F ratio 1 : 1.2). The mean age at the time of diagnosis was 41.78 ± 16.88 years (range: 7–84 years). Prior to diagnosis, the lesions had persisted for a mean of 8.34 ± 4.38 years (range: 0–55 years). The age at peak diagnosis was 20–40 years (43%). The most frequent subtypes were mycosis fungoides (MF) (88.5%). Four patients died from CTCL-related complications. Conclusions. The distinguishing epidemiologic characteristics of primary CTCL, particularly those MF, in Iran, are the absence of a male predominance and lower age at diagnosis. This is likely because of the characteristic ethnic group diversity and increased susceptibility among younger population. PMID:27437467

  9. Postmortem analysis of cardiovascular deaths in schizophrenia: a 10-year review.

    PubMed

    Sweeting, Joanna; Duflou, Johan; Semsarian, Christopher

    2013-11-01

    Schizophrenia is a devastating mental disorder, associated with mortality rates up to three times higher than those in the general population. This post-mortem study sought to investigate the causes of death in a consecutive series of schizophrenia cases, with a specific focus on cardiovascular disease and sudden death. A 10-year review of autopsies in schizophrenia related-cases performed at the Department of Forensic Medicine in Sydney, Australia was undertaken. Premorbid clinical and demographic information was recorded, as well as the key pathological findings and final cause of death. From 2003 to 2012, there were 19,478 postmortem examinations performed of which 683 (3.5%) were deaths in people with a history of schizophrenia. In these cases, the mean age at death was 51years (range 18-93years), with 43% in the 41-60year age group. Males comprised 67% of cases. Overall, 62% of cases had a BMI≥25kg/m(2), indicating overweight or obese individuals. The three primary causes of death were "cardiovascular" (23%), "suicide" (20%), and "drug toxicity" (17%). In 11% of cases (n=72), no definitive cause of death was found, the so-called "unexplained" cases. In conclusion, patients with schizophrenia have premature mortality. The major contributing factors include cardiovascular diseases, suicide and drug toxicity. The "unexplained" and frequently sudden deaths may suggest underlying cardiac arrhythmias as a cause of death in a subgroup of schizophrenia patients. PMID:24028743

  10. Aggression and Violence among Iranian Adolescents and Youth: A 10-year Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Saeid; Farajzadegan, Ziba; Kelishadi, Roya; Heidari, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although the overwhelming majority of Iranian adolescents are well-adjusted, a substantial group exhibits high levels of maladjustment and deficient functioning. Escalation of criminal violence among the youth population has become a major public policy issue and a serious public health problem. In reviewing a 10-year literature, this article aimed to describe and propose primary assumptions regarding the correlates of aggressive and violent behaviors in Iranian adolescents and youth. Methods: Bibliographic databases such as PubMed and Google Scholar along with Iranian databases including PubMed, IranMedex, Magiran, Irandoc, Psychoinfo, and Emrofor Scientific Information Database, and Magiran constituted the databases which we searched for the relevant literature. Overall 98 articles met the inclusion criteria, allowing us to initiate the discussion. Results: Reportedly, prevalence of violence and aggression among the Iranian adolescents and youth ranged from 30% to 65.5% while males being 2½ times more affected than females. The role of gender, family environment, family size, socioeconomic status, and victimization in perpetuating the circumstances was apparent. Conclusions: Relatively high prevalence of violence and aggression among Iranian youth and adolescents is a warning sign and a great challenge to the social system. Reviewed studies suffer from certain methodological and conceptual limitations. Undertaking community-based studies to estimate the actual extent of the problem is warranted. PMID:26157572

  11. Isentropic tracking of lower-stratospheric potential vorticity anomalies: A 10-year winter climatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kew, S.; Sprenger, M.

    2009-04-01

    Isentropic charts exhibit many mesoscale potential vorticity (PV) maxima in the weak background PV field of the lowermost stratosphere. Such PV anomalies are known to act as precursors to cyclogenesis when in the vicinity of the tropopause. A feature-tracking tool is developed and applied to ten consecutive winters of the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Reanalysis (ERA-40) to establish the general characteristics and life cycle of these anomalies and thus shed light on an earlier phase of cyclogenesis. The tool identifies the anomalies as local maxima, whose amplitudes are defined with respect to the surrounding local background PV. The isentropic wind field is used to advect structures forward to the next time step, thus predicting their subsequent position and form. A tracking is enabled when there is a satisfactory overlap between the predicted and observed structures. The routine detects the merger and splitting of PV entities as well as their genesis and lysis. The 10-year climatology reveals that the anomalies are frequently located near high topography in a quasi-annular band at about 70 °N, can be long-lived (days to weeks) and their core PV is typically 2 PV units above that of their local surroundings. Clear life cycles in along-track composites of amplitude, PV, shape (isotropy) and velocity indicate that the anomalies have their own distinctive dynamics. The tracking methodology is being adapted for cyclone tracking to take part in the Intercomparison of Mid-Latitudinal Storm Diagnostics (IMILAST) project.

  12. Assessment of 10-Year Global Record of Aerosol Products from the OMI Near-UV Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, C.; Torres, O.; Jethva, H. T.

    2014-12-01

    Global observations of aerosol properties from space are critical for understanding climate change and air quality applications. The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) onboard the EOS-Aura satellite provides information on aerosol optical properties by making use of the large sensitivity to aerosol absorption and dark surface albedo in the UV spectral region. These unique features enable us to retrieve both aerosol extinction optical depth (AOD) and single scattering albedo (SSA) successfully from radiance measurements at 354 and 388 nm by the OMI near UV aerosol algorithm (OMAERUV). Recent improvements to algorithms in conjunction with the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) and Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) carbon monoxide data also reduce uncertainties due to aerosol layer heights and types significantly in retrieved products. We present validation results of OMI AOD against space and time collocated Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) measured AOD values over multiple stations representing major aerosol episodes and regimes. We also compare the OMI SSA against the inversion made by AERONET as well as an independent network of ground-based radiometer called SKYNET in Japan, China, South-East Asia, India, and Europe. The outcome of the evaluation analysis indicates that in spite of the "row anomaly" problem, affecting the sensor since mid-2007, the long-term aerosol record shows remarkable sensor stability. The OMAERUV 10-year global aerosol record is publicly available at the NASA data service center web site (http://disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/Aura/data-holdings/OMI/omaeruv_v003.shtml).

  13. Depression Amplifies the Influence of Central Obesity on 10-Year Incidence of Diabetes: Findings from MIDUS

    PubMed Central

    Karlamangla, Arun

    2016-01-01

    Background Central obesity is a major risk factor for diabetes but many obese individuals never develop diabetes, suggesting the presence of important effect modifiers. Depression has emerged as a key risk factor for poor glycemic control, but to our knowledge, no previous work has investigated whether depression amplifies the effect of central obesity on glucoregulation. Methods and Findings We used a national sample of adults without prevalent diabetes (MIDUS; N = 919) to test for synergy between central obesity and depression in the development of diabetes 10 years later. We found that depression amplified the association of waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) with incident diabetes adjusted for age, race, gender, education, physical activity, and sleep problems (p = 0.01 for test of interaction). The relative risk for incident diabetes per every 0.1 increment in WHR was 1.75 (95% CI: 1.31; 2.33) in those without depression and 3.78 in those with depression (95% CI: 2.14; 6.66). Conclusions These results confirm the role of depression as a robust risk factor for the development of diabetes and for the first time, demonstrate a synergy between depression and central obesity. Identifying and addressing depression could prove to be an effective approach to preventing diabetes in at risk individuals. Ultimately, elucidating the interplay among risk factors from different domains will be key to understanding multifactorial diseases such as diabetes and informing theory-based, patient-centered interventions aimed at reducing diabetes risk. PMID:27755576

  14. Properties and transport of Asian dust from 10 years of MISR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalashnikova, O. V.; Sokolik, I. N.; Garay, M. J.; Wu, D. L.

    2009-12-01

    We use the 10-year aerosol data record from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) aboard the Terra satellite to investigate climatological linkages between the dust source activities, mid-range, and long-range transport of Asian dust. The inter-annual and seasonal variability of Asian dust loadings and properties as retrieved by MISR at selected regions along the transport routes was investigated. In particular, we examine the Taklamakan and East and Central Gobi regions (dust sources), South Korea and Japan regions (mid-range transport), and the North Pacific region along the northwestern U.S. coast (long-range transport). To avoid the gridding and averaging effects in Level 3 products, we use the Level 2 MISR swath data. Within each selected region, the analysis was performed to examine the multi-annual mean and variability of the aerosol optical depth and particle nonsphericity as well as time-lag correlation between the regions, taking into account the effects of MISR sampling and cloud screening. The results will be presented and interpreted in the context of atmospheric dynamics variability, including variability of meteorological regimes in dust sources and the large-scale atmospheric circulation features controlling the trans-Pacific transport of Asian dust.

  15. Stability and change in sexual orientation identity over a 10-year period in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Mock, Steven E; Eibach, Richard P

    2012-06-01

    We examined reports of sexual orientation identity stability and change over a 10-year period drawing on data from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS I and II) and tested for three patterns: (1) heterosexual stability, (2) female sexual fluidity, and (3) bisexual fluidity. Fifty-four percent of the 2,560 participants were female and the average age was approximately 47 years. At Wave 1, 2,494 (97.42%) reported a heterosexual identity, 32 (1.25%) a homosexual identity, and 34 (1.33%) a bisexual identity and somewhat more than 2% reported a different sexual orientation identity at Wave 2. Although some support for each hypothesis was found, initial sexual orientation identity interacted with gender to predict a more complex pattern. For the sample as a whole, heterosexuality was the most stable identity. For women, bisexuality and homosexuality were equally unstable and significantly less stable than heterosexuality, suggesting that sexual orientation identity fluidity is a pattern that applies more to sexual minority women than heterosexual women. For men, heterosexuality and homosexuality were both relatively stable compared to bisexuality, which stood out as a particularly unstable identity. This pattern of results was consistent with previous findings and helps to address methodological limitations of earlier research by showing the characteristics of a population-based sample of heterosexual, homosexual, and bisexual identified men and women over time.

  16. Dinophyceae fluctuations in two alpine lakes of contrasting size during a 10-year fortnightly survey.

    PubMed

    Trevisan, Renata; Pertile, Riccardo; Bronamonte, Valentina; Dazzo, Frank B; Squartini, Andrea

    2012-06-01

    Colbricon Superiore and Inferiore are two small adjacent high-mountain lakes located in the Paneveggio Natural Park (Italy) that offer the rare opportunity to study two iso-ecologic water environments differing only by area and volume in a ratio of 2:1 and 3:1, respectively. We took advantage of this setting to investigate phytoplankton dynamics, compare variability and productivity differences between the two basins, and assess size-dependent issues. The phytoplankton group of the Dinophyceae was chosen as the indicator organisms of ecological perturbation owing to their high sensitivity to environmental variations, as well as their acknowledged nature of versatile proxy to report global climatic changes. The study was conducted for over 10 years with fortnightly samplings. Results indicated that (a) the Dinophyceae communities in the smaller lake were significantly more resistant to changes exerted by the fluctuation of lakewater transparency and pH; and (b) the smaller lake sustained a consistently higher production with an average Dinophyceae density 1.73 fold higher than that of the larger lake. The coefficients of variation show that the chemical parameters in the smaller lake display higher time-related fluctuation while being spatially homogeneous and that such conditions correlate with a higher stability of the Dinophyceae assemblage. The use of this setting is also proposed as a model to test relationships between ecosystem production and physical stability.

  17. Relationship Status Predicts Lower Restrictive Eating Pathology for Bisexual and Gay Men across 10-year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Tiffany A.; Keel, Pamela K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Cross-sectional studies support that bisexual and gay (BG) men are at increased risk for eating pathology, and romantic relationships may buffer against risk; however, no studies have examined this association longitudinally. The current study examined how romantic relationships impact the trajectory of eating pathology in BG versus heterosexual men. Method BG (n=51) and heterosexual (n=522) men completed surveys of health and eating behaviors at baseline and 10-year follow-up. Results For BG men, being single at baseline prospectively predicted an increase in Drive for Thinness scores over 10-year follow-up. Additionally, for BG men in relationships at baseline, lower relationship satisfaction predicted an increase in Drive for Thinness scores over time. Conversely, these relationship variables did not predict trajectory of eating pathology for heterosexual men. Discussion Implications for theoretical models of risk, including objectification theory and sexual minority stress theory, and prevention, including peer-led cognitive dissonance based interventions, are discussed. PMID:26172055

  18. A personal perspective and update on erosive tooth wear - 10 years on: Part 1 - Diagnosis and prevention.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, D

    2016-08-12

    Tooth wear has been recognised as an increasing problem over the past 10 years. Recent data from epidemiological studies indicate that the condition is common with prevalence of dentine exposure in adults ranging between 2% and 10% and visible surface changes on teeth observed up to 30% of European adults. The Basic Erosive Wear Examination (BEWE) was designed for general practitioners to score the severity using similar protocols as the Basic Periodontal Examination (BPE). The role of the BEWE is partly to increase awareness, but also a means to record the severity in the clinical notes. Over the past 10 years toothpaste manufacturers have launched products to prevent progression of erosive tooth wear using specially formulated fluorides or calcium based products. Probably the most important preventive advice is to reduce the frequency of acidic foods and drinks, particularly outside meal times. PMID:27514340

  19. Nighttime Sleep Macrostructure Is Altered in Otherwise Healthy 10-Year-Old Overweight Children

    PubMed Central

    Chamorro, Rodrigo; Algarín, Cecilia; Garrido, Marcelo; Causa, Leonardo; Held, Claudio; Lozoff, Betsy; Peirano, Patricio

    2014-01-01

    Objective Epidemiological evidence shows an inverse relationship between sleep duration and overweight/obesity risk. However, there are few polysomnographic studies that relate the organization of sleep stages to pediatric overweight (OW). We compared sleep organization in otherwise healthy OW and normal weight (NW) 10-year-old children. Subjects Polysomnographic assessments were performed in 37 NW and 59 OW children drawn from a longitudinal study beginning in infancy. Weight and height were used to evaluate body-mass index (BMI) according to international criteria. Non-REM (NREM) sleep (stages N1, N2 and N3), rapid eye movement (REM) sleep (stage R), and wakefulness (stage W) were visually scored. Sleep parameters were compared in NW and OW groups for the whole total sleep period (SPT) and for each successive third of it using independent student t-tests or non-parametric tests. The relationship between BMI and sleep variables was evaluated by correlation analyses controlling for relevant covariates. Results The groups were similar in timing of sleep onset and offset, and sleep period time. BMI was inversely related to total sleep time (TST) and sleep efficiency. OW children showed reduced TST, sleep efficiency, and stage R amount, but higher stage W amount. In analysis by thirds of the SPT, the duration of stage N3 episodes, was shorter in the first third and longer in the second third in OW children, compared with NW children. Conclusions Our results show reduced sleep amount and quality in otherwise healthy OW children. The lower stage R amount and changes involving stage N3 throughout the night suggest that OW in childhood is associated with modifications not only in sleep duration, but also in the ongoing nighttime patterns of NREM sleep and REM sleep stages. PMID:24352291

  20. Status of the JPL Horizons Ephemeris System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giorgini, Jon D.

    2015-08-01

    Since 1996, the NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory on-line Horizons system has provided open access to the latest JPL orbit solutions through customizable ephemeris generation and searches. Currently, high-precision ephemerides for more than 683,000 objects are available: all known solar system bodies, several dozen spacecraft, system barycenters, and some libration points.Since inception, Horizons has produced 150 million ephemeris products in response to 70.4 million connections by 800,000 unique IP addresses. Recent usage is typically 6000 unique users requesting 4,000,000 ephemeris products per month.Horizons is freely accessible without an account and may be used and automated through any of three interfaces: interactive telnet connection, web-browser form, or by sending e-mail command-files.Asteroid and comet ephemerides are numerically integrated on request using JPL's DASTCOM5 database of initial conditions which is kept current by a separate process; as new measurements and discoveries are reported by the Minor Planet Center, they are automatically processed into new JPL orbit solutions. Radar targets and other objects of high interest have their orbit solutions manually examined and updated into the database.For asteroids and comets, SPK files may be dynamically created using Horizons. This is effectively a recording of the integrator output. The binary files may then be efficiently interpolated by user software to exactly reproduce the trajectory without having to duplicate the numerically integrated n-body dynamical model or PPN equations of motion.Other Horizons output is numerical and in the form of plain-text observer, vector, osculating element, and close-approach tables. More than one hundred quantities can be requested in various time-scales and coordinate systems. For asteroids and comets, statistical uncertainties can be mapped to output times to assess position and motion uncertainties.Horizons is consistent with the DE431 solar system solution

  1. Surrogacy families 10 years on: relationship with the surrogate, decisions over disclosure and children's understanding of their surrogacy origins

    PubMed Central

    Jadva, V.; Blake, L.; Casey, P.; Golombok, S.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND This study aimed to prospectively examine families created using surrogacy over a 10-year period in the UK with respect to intending parents' and children's relationship with the surrogate mother, parents' decisions over disclosure and children's understanding of the nature of their conception. METHODS Semi-structured interviews were administered by trained researchers to intending mothers, intending fathers and children on four occasions over a 10-year period. Forty-two families (19 with a genetic surrogate mother) participated when the child was 1-year old and by age 10 years, 33 families remained in the study. Data were collected on the frequency of contact with the surrogate mother, relationship with the surrogate, disclosure of surrogacy to the child and the child's understanding of their surrogacy birth. RESULTS Frequency of contact between surrogacy families and their surrogate mother decreased over time, particularly for families whose surrogate was a previously unknown genetic carrier (P < 0.001) (i.e. where they had met through a third party and the surrogate mother's egg was used to conceive the child). Most families reported harmonious relationships with their surrogate mother. At age 10 years, 19 (90%) children who had been informed of the nature of their conception had a good understanding of this and 13 of the 14 children who were in contact with their surrogate reported that they liked her. CONCLUSIONS Surrogacy families maintained good relationships with the surrogate mother over time. Children felt positive about their surrogate mother and their surrogacy birth. The sample size of this study was small and further, larger investigations are needed before firm conclusions can be drawn. PMID:22814484

  2. The absence of horizon in black-hole formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Pei-Ming

    2016-08-01

    With the back-reaction of Hawking radiation taken into consideration, the work of Kawai, Matsuo and Yokokura [1] has shown that, under a few assumptions, the collapse of matter does not lead to event horizon nor apparent horizon. In this paper, we relax their assumptions and elaborate on the space-time geometry of a generic collapsing body with spherical symmetry. The geometry outside the collapsing sphere is found to be approximated by the geometry outside the white-hole horizon, hence the collapsing matter remains outside the Schwarzschild radius. As particles in Hawking radiation are created in the vicinity of the collapsing matter, the information loss paradox is alleviated. Assuming that the collapsing body evaporates within finite time, there is no event horizon.

  3. Dynamical AdS strings across horizons

    DOE PAGES

    Ishii, Takaaki; Murata, Keiju

    2016-03-01

    We examine the nonlinear classical dynamics of a fundamental string in anti-deSitter spacetime. The string is dual to the flux tube between an external quark-antiquark pair in $N = 4$ super Yang-Mills theory. We perturb the string by shaking the endpoints and compute its time evolution numerically. We find that with sufficiently strong perturbations the string continues extending and plunges into the Poincare´ horizon. In the evolution, effective horizons are also dynamically created on the string worldsheet. The quark and antiquark are thus causally disconnected, and the string transitions to two straight strings. The forces acting on the endpoints vanishmore » with a power law whose slope depends on the perturbations. Lastly, the condition for this transition to occur is that energy injection exceeds the static energy between the quark-antiquark pair.« less

  4. Dynamical AdS strings across horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Takaaki; Murata, Keiju

    2016-03-01

    We examine the nonlinear classical dynamics of a fundamental string in anti-de Sitter spacetime. The string is dual to the flux tube between an external quark-antiquark pair in {N}=4 super Yang-Mills theory. We perturb the string by shaking the endpoints and compute its time evolution numerically. We find that with sufficiently strong perturbations the string continues extending and plunges into the Poincaré horizon. In the evolution, effective horizons are also dynamically created on the string worldsheet. The quark and antiquark are thus causally disconnected, and the string transitions to two straight strings. The forces acting on the endpoints vanish with a power law whose slope depends on the perturbations. The condition for this transition to occur is that energy injection exceeds the static energy between the quark-antiquark pair.

  5. A 10-year spatial and temporal trend of sulfate across the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malm, William C.; Schichtel, Bret A.; Ames, Rodger B.; Gebhart, Kristi A.

    2002-11-01

    Legislative and regulatory mandates have resulted in reduced sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions in both the eastern and western United States with anticipation that concurrent levels of ambient SO2, SO42-, and rainwater acidity would decrease. This paper examines spatial and temporal trends in ambient SO42- concentration from 1988 to 1999, SO2 emissions from 1990 to 1999, and the relationship between these two variables. The SO42- concentration data came from combining data from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) and the Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNet). Over 70 sites spread across the continental United States are considered in this analysis. From a spatial perspective, the 90th percentile summer sulfate concentrations are highest along the Ohio River Valley and in central Tennessee where the emission density of SO2 is greatest. These concentrations are a factor of 2 greater than the Northeast, northern Michigan, and coastal areas of the Southeast and about a factor of 15 greater than the central western United States. In the East, the largest SO42- decreases in the 80th percentile concentrations occurred north of the Ohio River Valley, while most monitoring sites south of Kentucky and Virginia showed increasing and decreasing trends that were not statistically significant. Big Bend National Park, Texas, Cranberry, North Carolina, and Lassen Volcanic National Park, California, are the only areas that show a statistically significant increase in SO42- mass concentrations. The 1990-1999 annual 80th percentile SO42- time series were compared to the annual SO2 emissions over four broad United States regions. Each region had a unique time series pattern with the SO42- concentrations and SO2 emissions closely tracking each other over the 10-year period. Both the SO42- and SO2 emissions decreased in the Northeast (28%) and the West (15%), while there was little change in the Southeast and a 15% increase over Texas, New Mexico

  6. Overview of the New Horizons Science Payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, H. A.; Gibson, W. C.; Tapley, M. B.; Young, L. A.; Stern, S. A.

    2008-10-01

    The New Horizons mission was launched on 2006 January 19, and the spacecraft is heading for a flyby encounter with the Pluto system in the summer of 2015. The challenges associated with sending a spacecraft to Pluto in less than 10 years and performing an ambitious suite of scientific investigations at such large heliocentric distances (>32 AU) are formidable and required the development of lightweight, low power, and highly sensitive instruments. This paper provides an overview of the New Horizons science payload, which is comprised of seven instruments. Alice provides moderate resolution (˜3 10 Å FWHM), spatially resolved ultraviolet (˜465 1880 Å) spectroscopy, and includes the ability to perform stellar and solar occultation measurements. The Ralph instrument has two components: the Multicolor Visible Imaging Camera (MVIC), which performs panchromatic (400 975 nm) and color imaging in four spectral bands (Blue, Red, CH4, and NIR) at a moderate spatial resolution of 20 μrad/pixel, and the Linear Etalon Imaging Spectral Array (LEISA), which provides spatially resolved (62 μrad/pixel), near-infrared (1.25 2.5 μm), moderate resolution ( λ/ δ λ˜240 550) spectroscopic mapping capabilities. The Radio Experiment (REX) is a component of the New Horizons telecommunications system that provides both radio (X-band) solar occultation and radiometry capabilities. The Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) provides high sensitivity ( V<18), high spatial resolution (5 μrad/pixel) panchromatic optical (350 850 nm) imaging capabilities that serve both scientific and optical navigation requirements. The Solar Wind at Pluto (SWAP) instrument measures the density and speed of solar wind particles with a resolution Δ E/ E<0.4 for energies between 25 eV and 7.5 keV. The Pluto Energetic Particle Spectrometer Science Investigation (PEPSSI) measures energetic particles (protons and CNO ions) in 12 energy channels spanning 1 1000 keV. Finally, an instrument designed and

  7. Thermal history of the Sabero Coalfield (Southern Cantabrian Zone, NW Spain) as revealed by apatite fission track analyses from tonstein horizons: implications for timing of coalification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botor, Dariusz; Anczkiewicz, Aneta A.

    2015-10-01

    Apatite fission track (AFT) central ages from Carboniferous (Stephanian) tonsteins of the Sabero Coalfield, NW Spain, range from 140.8 ± 7.5 to 65.8 ± 8.1 Ma (Cretaceous), with mean c-axis projected track length values ranging from 12.5 to 13.4 μm. Mean random vitrinite reflectance ( R r) of these samples ranges from 0.91 to 1.20 %, which can be translated into maximum palaeotemperatures of ca. 130 to 180 °C. All analysed samples experienced substantial post-depositional annealing. The considerably younger AFT ages compared to the depositional ages of the samples and R r data indicate the certainty of the occurrence of at least one heating event after the deposition of strata. The unimodal track length distributions, the relatively short mean track length, and the rather low standard deviation (SD) (1.0-1.6 μm) indicate a relatively simple thermal history that could be related to the post-Late Variscan heating event followed by prolonged residence in the apatite partial annealing zone (APAZ). Geological data combined with thermal models of AFT data indicate that Stephanian strata reached the maximum palaeotemperatures in the Permian period, which was therefore the major time of the coalification processes. The Permian magmatic activity was responsible for a high heat flow, which, with the added effect of sedimentary burial, could account for the resetting of the AFT system. It appears that the fault-related hydrothermal activity could have redistributed heat in areas of significant subsidence. Cooling occurred in the Triassic-Cretaceous times after a high heat flow Permian regime. A post-Permian maturation of the Stephanian organic matter is not very likely, since there is no evidence of a high Mesozoic burial that was sufficient to cause a significant increase in the palaeotemperatures. Finally, exhumation and associated erosion rates may possibly have been faster in the Tertiary, causing the present exposure of the studied rocks.

  8. Hepatitis C virus recurrence after liver transplantation: A 10-year evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Gitto, Stefano; Belli, Luca Saverio; Vukotic, Ranka; Lorenzini, Stefania; Airoldi, Aldo; Cicero, Arrigo Francesco Giuseppe; Vangeli, Marcello; Brodosi, Lucia; Panno, Arianna Martello; Di Donato, Roberto; Cescon, Matteo; Grazi, Gian Luca; De Carlis, Luciano; Pinna, Antonio Daniele; Bernardi, Mauro; Andreone, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the predictors of 10-year survival of patients with hepatitis C recurrence. METHODS: Data from 358 patients transplanted between 1989 and 2010 in two Italian transplant centers and with evidence of hepatitis C recurrence were analyzed. A χ2, Fisher’s exact test and Kruskal Wallis’ test were used for categorical and continuous variables, respectively. Survival analysis was performed at 10 years after transplant using the Kaplan-Meier method, and a log-rank test was used to compare groups. A P level less than 0.05 was considered significant for all tests. Multivariate analysis of the predictive role of different variables on 10-year survival was performed by a stepwise Cox logistic regression. RESULTS: The ten-year survival of the entire population was 61.2%. Five groups of patients were identified according to the virological response or lack of a response to antiviral treatment and, among those who were not treated, according to the clinical status (mild hepatitis C recurrence, “too sick to be treated” and patients with comorbidities contraindicating the treatment). While the 10-year survival of treated and untreated patients was not different (59.1% vs 64.7%, P = 0.192), patients with a sustained virological response had a higher 10-year survival rate than both the “non-responders” (84.7% vs 39.8%, P < 0.0001) and too sick to be treated (84.7% vs 0%, P < 0.0001). Sustained virological responders had a survival rate comparable to patients untreated with mild recurrence (84.7% vs 89.3%). A sustained virological response and young donor age were independent predictors of 10-year survival. CONCLUSION: Sustained virological response significantly increased long-term survival. Awaiting the interferon-free regimen global availability, antiviral treatment might be questionable in selected subjects with mild hepatitis C recurrence. PMID:25852276

  9. Influence of the isolation method on the 10-year clinical behaviour of posterior resin composite restorations.

    PubMed

    Raskin, A; Setcos, J C; Vreven, J; Wilson, N H

    2000-09-01

    The aims of this prospective randomised clinical study were to clinically evaluate a radiopaque, highly filled, hybrid, light-activated resin-based composite for posterior teeth (Occlusin, ICI Dental, Macclesfield, UK and GC Dental, Tokyo, Japan) and compare the performance of restorations placed using rubber dam or cotton roll isolation. One clinician placed 100 (42 Class I and 58 Class II) restorations of the material under investigation. The isolation mode for each restoration was determined randomly: 52 preparations were protected from contamination with cotton rolls and aspiration, and 48 preparations were isolated under rubber dam. At baseline and periodically thereafter (0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 10 years), each composite was evaluated by two practitioners using a modified (USPHS) rating system. After 10 years, 37 restorations were reviewed. The results showed satisfactory clinical performance with and without rubber dam after 10 years. A concern was the number of failures at 10 years due to unsatisfactory proximal contact. The evaluations for the surviving restorations were acceptable but with a large reduction in the percentage with ideal occlusal and proximal anatomy. The 10-year comparison of isolation modes showed no statistically significant differences (Kruskal-Wallis test) for each of the evaluation criteria. Furthermore, survival analysis showed no significant difference between the groups (Mantel-Haenszel method). It was concluded that the 10-year clinical behaviour of the restorations of a posterior composite placed under well-controlled, effective isolation with cotton rolls and aspiration, was not significantly different from the behaviour of restorations placed using rubber dam isolation.

  10. Exact event horizon of a black hole merger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emparan, Roberto; Martínez, Marina

    2016-08-01

    We argue that the event horizon of a binary black hole merger, in the extreme-mass-ratio limit where one of the black holes is much smaller than the other, can be described in an exact analytic way. This is done by tracing in the Schwarzschild geometry a congruence of null geodesics that approaches a null plane at infinity. Its form can be given explicitly in terms of elliptic functions, and we use it to analyze and illustrate the time-evolution of the horizon along the merger. We identify features such as the line of caustics at which light rays enter the horizon, and the critical point at which the horizons touch. We also compute several quantities that characterize these aspects of the merger.

  11. Hip arthroscopy in the warrior athlete: 2 to 10 year outcomes.

    PubMed

    Byrd, J W Thomas; Jones, Kay S; Schmitz, LtCol Matthew R; Doner, Geoffrey P

    2016-04-01

    Hip disorders are increasingly recognized among athletic populations. The rigors of military service expose individuals to the same risks as those participating in competitive sports, compounded by potential exposure to violent macrotrauma. This is a retrospective review of prospectively collected data among 62 active duty military personnel (64 hips) with 2-10-year follow-up. Follow-up averaged 47 months (range 24-120 months). The average age was 30 years (range 17-53 years) with 45 males and 17 females; 37 right and 27 left hips. Duration of symptoms prior to arthroscopy averaged 28 months (range 6-168 months). The average improvement was 22 points (pre-op 63; post-op 85) using the 100-point modified Harris hip score and was statistically significant (P <  0.001). Patients were improved after 60 of 64 procedures (94%) and returned to active duty following 52 (80%) and an average of 5 months (range 1 week-15 months). Forty-six (72%) underwent correction of FAI including 27 combined, 17 cam and two pincer lesions. Overall diagnoses and procedures are detailed. One patient underwent repeat arthroscopy and remained improved at 2-year follow-up; none were converted to total hip arthroplasty. There were two minor complications, a transient ulnar nerve neurapraxia and superficial sensory dysesthesias of the foot, both of which resolved within a few days. This is a heterogeneous cohort of pathology, but illustrates that hip disorders may exist among active duty military personnel and may benefit from arthroscopic intervention. A sense of awareness is important for accurate diagnosis and timely treatment.

  12. Outcomes of combined phacoemulsification and deep sclerectomy: a 10-year UK single-centre study

    PubMed Central

    Mercieca, K; Shevade, B; Anand, N

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To report the outcomes of combined phacoemulsification and -deep sclerectomy (phaco-DS) from a single UK centre over a 10-year period. Methods Retrospective analysis of phaco-DS data extracted from an ongoing glaucoma surgery database within Calderdale and Huddersfield NHS Trust. Two hundred and ninety-six eyes of 282 patients were included. Data included patient demographics, pre- and postoperative intraocular pressure (IOP), use of mitomycin C (MMC), spacer device implantation, and follow-up details including surgical success rates. IOP success criteria were: (A) IOP <19 mm Hg and/or 20% decrease from baseline and (B) IOP <16 mm Hg and/or 30% drop from baseline. Results Mean follow-up was 63.5±35.3 months. MMC was applied in 145 eyes (49%). Kaplan–Meier success rates in all eyes for criteria A were 89.1% and 80% with glaucoma medications (qualified success) and 81.2% and 68.3% without medications (unqualified success) at 2 and 5 years, respectively. Qualified success for criteria B was 72.4 and 61.4% and unqualified rates were 67.2 and 55.2% for the same time periods. Repeated-measures ANOVA showed significantly lower IOP in the phaco-DS with MMC group up to 3 years postoperatively (P=0.002). Cox's proportional hazards for criteria B, however, showed no significant effect of MMC application in the long term (P=0.2). Increasing age and laser goniopuncture were positively associated with success, whereas the absence of spacer devices was negatively associated. At last follow-up, 20% of eyes were on glaucoma medications. Complication rates were low with hypotony rates of 0.68%. Conclusions This study confirms the long-term safety and efficacy of phaco-DS as a primary glaucoma procedure. PMID:26337945

  13. 10 years after rio-concepts on the contribution of chemistry to a sustainable development.

    PubMed

    Eissen, Marco; Metzger, Jürgen O; Schmidt, Eberhard; Schneidewind, Uwe

    2002-02-01

    The principles of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), held in June 1992 in Rio de Janeiro, and Agenda 21, the comprehensive plan of action for the 21st century, adopted 10 years ago by more than 170 governments, address the pressing problems of today and also aim at preparing the world for the challenges of this century. The conservation and management of resources for development are the main focus of interest, to which the sciences will have to make a considerable contribution. Natural, economic, and social sciences will have to be integrated in order to achieve this aim. In their future programs, the associations of the chemical industries in Europe, Japan, and the USA have explicitly accepted their obligation to foster a sustainable development. In this review we investigate innovations in chemistry exemplarily for such a development with regard to their ecological, economical, and social dimensions from an integrated and interdisciplinary perspective. Since base chemicals are produced in large quantities and important product lines are synthesized from them, their resource-saving production is especially important for a sustainable development. This concept has been shown, amongst others, by the example of the syntheses of propylene oxide and adipic acid. In the long run, renewable resources that are catalytically processed could replace fossil raw materials. Separation methods existing today must be improved considerably to lower material and energy consumption. Chemistry might become the pioneer of an innovative energy technique. The design of chemical products should make possible a sustainable processing and recycling and should prevent their bio-accumulation. Methods and criteria to assess their contribution to a sustainable development are necessary. The time taken to introduce the new more sustainable processes and products has to be diminished by linking their development with operational innovation management and with

  14. Ciguatera fish poisoning in Hong Kong--a 10-year perspective on the class of ciguatoxins.

    PubMed

    Wong, Chun-Kwan; Hung, Patricia; Lo, Janice Y C

    2014-08-01

    The present study used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to investigate retrospectively ciguatoxin (CTX)-positive samples as determined by mouse bioassay (MBA) in the past 10 years in Hong Kong. The results showed that Pacific CTXs (P-CTX-1, -2 and -3) were the most commonly observed toxins found in the samples, indicating Pacific Ocean areas as the most important origin of ciguatera fish poisoning. Clinical diagnosis from ciguatera patients also revealed the predominance of neurological illnesses in most cases, supporting intoxication of Pacific origin. This study demonstrated the ability of laboratory analysis to identify and quantify Pacific CTXs in suspected fish samples, so as to support the clinical diagnosis of ciguatera. Comparative analysis (Student's t-test and Spearman's rank correlation analysis) on the two CTX detection methods showed approximate linearity for overall P-CTXs (P-CTX-1, -2 and -3)/P-CTX-1 alone as derived by LC-MS/MS and total toxicity levels (P-CTX-1 equivalent) as determined by MBA. The LC-MS/MS method coupled with the rapid extraction method could allow the detection of trace amount of CTXs at levels below the clinically relevant limit, 0.1 ppb P-CTX-1 in fish flesh. For practical application, the adoption of a two-tiered approach for testing, chemical analysis by LC-MS/MS for toxic fish screening, coupled with biological assay by MBA for final toxicity confirmation, was proposed for first-line screening of CTX in potentially contaminated fish samples in the market, with an aim to minimizing the use of laboratory mice and at the same time providing reasonably effective means for routine analysis.

  15. An adequacy evaluation of a 10-year, four-country nutrition and health programme

    PubMed Central

    Berti, Peter R; Mildon, Alison; Siekmans, Kendra; Main, Barbara; MacDonald, Carolyn

    2010-01-01

    Background Evaluations of large-scale health and nutrition programmes in developing countries are needed for determining the effectiveness of interventions. This article critically analyses a non-governmental organization (NGO)-led large-scale, multi-country, 10-year micronutrient and health (MICAH) programme with an ‘adequacy evaluation’, that is, a documentation of time trends in the expected direction. Methods MICAH was implemented from 1996 to 2005 in selected areas of Ethiopia, Ghana, Malawi and Tanzania, reaching >6 million people with numerous health and nutrition interventions. Coverage and impact were monitored through surveys at baseline, midpoint and end of funding. The data were subjected to post-hoc methods of quality determination, and, if of suitable quality, included in the adequacy evaluation. Results Most collected data were of moderate or high quality and therefore included in the adequacy evaluation. There were moderate to large improvements in vitamin A status in Ethiopian school-age children, children <5 years of age in Tanzania and Ghana and mothers in Ghana. Iodine status improved in Malawi and Tanzania. Anaemia rates and malaria prevalence decreased in women, pregnant women and pre-school children in Ghana, Malawi and Tanzania, but anaemia increased in Ethiopian women. Large increases were reported for rates of exclusive breastfeeding and immunization. Child growth improved to the maximum that would be predicted with the given interventions. Conclusions Numerous nutrition and health impacts were observed in the intervention areas, often of a magnitude equal to or larger than observed in controlled interventions or trials. These results show the value of integrated long-term interventions. PMID:20202929

  16. Haiti's progress in achieving its 10-year plan to eliminate cholera: hidden sickness cannot be cured.

    PubMed

    Koski-Karell, Victoria; Farmer, Paul E; Isaac, Benito; Campa, Elizabeth M; Viaud, Loune; Namphy, Paul C; Ternier, Ralph; Ivers, Louise C

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of the cholera epidemic in Haiti 5 years ago, the prevalence of this deadly water-borne disease has fallen far below the initial rates registered during its explosive outset. However, cholera continues to cause extensive suffering and needless deaths across the country, particularly among the poor. The urgent need to eliminate transmission of cholera persists: compared to the same period in 2014, the first 4 months of 2015 saw three times the number of cholera cases. Drawing upon epidemiology, clinical work (and clinical knowledge), policy, ecology, and political economy, and informed by ethnographic data collected in a rural area of Haiti called Bocozel, this paper evaluates the progress of the nation's 10-year Plan for the Elimination of Cholera. Bocozel is a rice-producing region where most people live in extreme poverty. The irrigation network is decrepit, the land is prone to environmental shocks, fertilizer is not affordable, and the government's capacity to assist farmers is undermined by resource constraints. When peasants do have rice to sell, the price of domestically grown rice is twice that of US-imported rice. Canal water is not only used to irrigate thousands of acres of rice paddies and sustain livestock, but also to bathe, wash, and play, while water from wells, hand pumps, and the river is used for drinking, cooking, and bathing. Only one out of the three government-sponsored water treatment stations in the research area is still functional and utilized by those who can afford it. Latrines are scarce and often shared by up to 30 people; open defecation remains common. Structural vulnerabilities cut across all sectors - not just water, sanitation, health care, and education, but agriculture, environment, (global and local) commerce, transportation, and governance as well. These are among the hidden sicknesses that impede Haiti and its partners' capacity to eliminate cholera. PMID:27307774

  17. The DOTS strategy in China: results and lessons after 10 years.

    PubMed Central

    Xianyi, Chen; Fengzeng, Zhao; Hongjin, Duanmu; Liya, Wan; Lixia, Wang; Xin, Du; Chin, Daniel P.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse the five-point tuberculosis (TB) strategy, DOTS, 10 years after its implementation in one-half of China's population, and to suggest lessons for future implementation of the DOTS strategy. METHODS: We analysed trends in case-finding and treatment outcome over time following implementation of the DOTS strategy in each county, using routine reporting data from the Infectious and Endemic Disease Control (IEDC) project (1991 - 2000). We also determined the proportion of counties with different levels of case-finding for the fifth and sixth years of DOTS implementation. FINDINGS: From 1991 to 1995, DOTS expanded rapidly to cover more than 90% of target population and counties. By 2000, 8 million TB suspects had received free diagnostic evaluation: 1.8 million TB cases were diagnosed, free treatment was provided to 1.3 million smear-positive cases, and more than 90% were cured. During DOTS implementation, the percentage of previously treated cases decreased among all smear-positive cases and treatment outcomes improved. Despite these achievements, the detection rate for new smear-positive cases in the project was estimated to be only 54% in 1998, and 41.2% of the counties had a below average or low level of case-finding (with substantial variation between provinces). CONCLUSIONS: The IEDC project demonstrated that it is feasible to rapidly expand DOTS on a large scale. The global target of an 85% cure rate was quickly achieved, and the level of drug-resistance was probably reduced by this project. However, case-detection did not reach the 70% global target, and more research is needed on how to enhance this. PMID:12131998

  18. Haiti's progress in achieving its 10-year plan to eliminate cholera: hidden sickness cannot be cured.

    PubMed

    Koski-Karell, Victoria; Farmer, Paul E; Isaac, Benito; Campa, Elizabeth M; Viaud, Loune; Namphy, Paul C; Ternier, Ralph; Ivers, Louise C

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of the cholera epidemic in Haiti 5 years ago, the prevalence of this deadly water-borne disease has fallen far below the initial rates registered during its explosive outset. However, cholera continues to cause extensive suffering and needless deaths across the country, particularly among the poor. The urgent need to eliminate transmission of cholera persists: compared to the same period in 2014, the first 4 months of 2015 saw three times the number of cholera cases. Drawing upon epidemiology, clinical work (and clinical knowledge), policy, ecology, and political economy, and informed by ethnographic data collected in a rural area of Haiti called Bocozel, this paper evaluates the progress of the nation's 10-year Plan for the Elimination of Cholera. Bocozel is a rice-producing region where most people live in extreme poverty. The irrigation network is decrepit, the land is prone to environmental shocks, fertilizer is not affordable, and the government's capacity to assist farmers is undermined by resource constraints. When peasants do have rice to sell, the price of domestically grown rice is twice that of US-imported rice. Canal water is not only used to irrigate thousands of acres of rice paddies and sustain livestock, but also to bathe, wash, and play, while water from wells, hand pumps, and the river is used for drinking, cooking, and bathing. Only one out of the three government-sponsored water treatment stations in the research area is still functional and utilized by those who can afford it. Latrines are scarce and often shared by up to 30 people; open defecation remains common. Structural vulnerabilities cut across all sectors - not just water, sanitation, health care, and education, but agriculture, environment, (global and local) commerce, transportation, and governance as well. These are among the hidden sicknesses that impede Haiti and its partners' capacity to eliminate cholera.

  19. Accelerating to New Aviation Horizons

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA has a 10-year plan to accelerate aviation research that includes the design, build and flight of a series of piloted X-planes -- experimental aircraft -- which will test advanced technologies ...

  20. New Horizons Pluto Flyby Guest Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, M.; Turney, D.; Fisher, S.; Carr, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    On July 14, 2015, after 9.5 years of cruise, NASA's New Horizons spacecraft flew past the Pluto system to gather first images humankind had ever seen on Pluto and its five moons. While much has been discovered about the Pluto system since New Horizons launch in 2006, the system has never been imaged at high resolution and anticipation of the "First Light" of the Pluto system had been anticipated by planetary enthusiasts for decades. The Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory (APL), which built and operates New Horizons, was the focal point for gathering three distinct groups: science and engineering team members; media and public affairs representatives; and invited public, including VIP's. Guest operations activities were focused on providing information primarily to the invited public and VIP's. High level objectives for the Guest Operations team was set to entertain and inform the general public, offer media reaction shots, and to deconflict activities for the guests from media activities wherever possible. Over 2000 people arrived at APL in the days surrounding closest approach for guest, science or media operations tracks. Reaction and coverage of the Guest Operations events was universally positive and global in impact: iconic pictures of the auditorium waving flags during the moment of closest approach were published in media outlets on every continent. Media relations activities ensured coverage in all key media publications targeted for release, such as the New York Times, Science, Le Monde, and Nature. Social and traditional media coverage of the events spanned the globe. Guest operations activities are designed to ensure that a guest has a memorable experience and leaves with a lifelong memory of the mission and their partnership in the activity. Results, lessons learned, and other data from the New Horizons guest operations activity will be presented and analyzed.

  1. A Content Analysis of 10 Years of Clinical Supervision Articles in Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard, Janine M.; Luke, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    This content analysis follows Borders's (2005) review of counseling supervision literature and includes 184 counselor supervision articles published over the past 10 years. Articles were coded as representing 1 of 3 research types or 1 of 3 conceptual types. Articles were then analyzed for main topics producing 11 topic categories.

  2. Educational Attainment of 10-Year-Old Children with Treated and Untreated Visual Defects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart-Brown, Sarah; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Children with visual impairments who participated in a 10-year survey were compared with peers on measures of intelligence, reading, mathematics, and sporting ability. Results are consistent with earlier findings of increased intelligence among Ss with myopia and slightly reduced intelligence among Ss with amblyopia. It was concluded that the…

  3. Personnel Needs in School Psychology: A 10-Year Follow-Up Study on Predicted Personnel Shortages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castillo, Jose M.; Curtis, Michael J.; Tan, Sim Yin

    2014-01-01

    Concerns regarding whether a sufficient supply of school psychologists exists have been evident for decades. Studies have predicted that school psychology would face a critical personnel shortage that would peak in 2010, but continue into the foreseeable future. The current study is a 10-year follow-up investigation based on previously published…

  4. Bullying and Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder in 10-Year-Olds in a Swedish Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmberg, Kirsten; Hjern, Anders

    2008-01-01

    The association of attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with bullying in the peer group in school was studied in an entire population of 577 fourth graders (10-year-olds) in one municipality in Stockholm, Sweden. The schoolchildren were screened for ADHD in a two-step procedure that included Conners' ratings of behavioural problems:…

  5. Handedness in Swedish 10-year-olds, Some Background and Associated Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillberg, Christopher; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Aims to obtain prevalence figures for left-handedness among 10-year-old Swedish children; to replicate some findings concerning Bishop's (1980) extended pathological left-handedness hypothesis; to evaluate the influence of factors such as the child's sex and reduced optimality in the pre-, peri-, and neonatal period; and to determine the…

  6. Is the Party Over? Cannabis and Juvenile Psychiatric Disorder: The Past 10 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rey, Joseph M.; Martin, Andres; Krabman, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To critically review cannabis research during the past 10 years in relation to rates of use, behavioral problems, and mental disorders in young people. Method: Studies published in English between 1994 and 2004 were identified through systematic searches of literature databases. The material was selectively reviewed focusing on child…

  7. Students as Teachers: Effectiveness of a Peer-Led STEM Learning Programme over 10 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drane, Denise; Micari, Marina; Light, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Peer-led small-group learning has been used quite extensively in the US to enhance performance and retention of undergraduate students in science, math, and engineering classes. This study presents the results from an evaluation of a peer-led small-group programme at a research university in the US over a 10-year period across five disciplines…

  8. Childhood Peer Reputation as a Predictor of Competence and Symptoms 10 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gest, Scott D.; Sesma, Arturo, Jr.; Masten, Ann S.; Tellegen, Auke

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the differential developmental significance of multiple domains of peer reputation in childhood for current and future competence and symptoms. Participants were 205 children from a normative school cohort who completed assessments in grades 3-6 and then again 10 years later. Through re-analysis of original data from the…

  9. Getting an Early Start: Communication about Sexuality among Mothers and Children 6-10 Years Old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pluhar, Erika; Jennings, Tanya; DiIorio, Colleen

    2006-01-01

    Little information exists on communication about sexuality between parents and preadolescent children. This study collected qualitative data on family sexuality communication from 3 focus groups conducted with African American mothers of 6-10 year old children. Two broad themes emerged from the data: "Beyond the Birds and the Bees" and "Let's Talk…

  10. Psychosocial Family Treatment for a 10-Year-Old with Schizoaffective Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klaus, Nicole M.; Fristad, Mary A.; Malkin, Catherine; Mackinaw-Koons, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Schizophrenia spectrum disorders are rare in childhood and little is known about their psychosocial treatment. Relevant findings from the adult and child literature are reviewed. The case of 10-year-old "Michael" is presented, who participated in a randomized clinical trial of a psychoeducational family treatment for mood disorders. Following…

  11. Case Report: Homicide by a 10-Year-Old Girl with Autistic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukaddes, Nahit Motavalli; Topcu, Zerrin

    2006-01-01

    This case study presents a 10-year-old girl with a diagnosis of Autistic Disorder, who killed her 6-month-old sister by throwing her out of a window. Her aggressive-impulsive behavior had a persistent pattern. She had a history of epilepsy, and was frequently exposed to physical abuse. She never attended a structured treatment program. Here, we…

  12. Frontal Electroencephalogram Activation Asymmetry, Emotional Intelligence, and Externalizing Behaviors in 10-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santesso, L. Diane; Dana, L. Reker; Schmidt, Louis A.; Segalowitz, Sidney J.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relations among resting frontal brain electrical activity (EEG) (hypothesized to reflect a predisposition to positive versus negative affect and ability to regulate emotions), emotional intelligence, and externalizing behaviors in a sample of non-clinical 10-year-old children. We found that boys…

  13. Computer Card Games in Computer Science Education: A 10-Year Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kordaki, Maria; Gousiou, Anthi

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a 10-year review study that focuses on the investigation of the use of computer card games (CCGs) as learning tools in Computer Science (CS) Education. Specific search terms keyed into 10 large scientific electronic databases identified 24 papers referring to the use of CCGs for the learning of CS matters during the last…

  14. Impact of Adolescent Alcohol and Drug Use on Neuropsychological Functioning in Young Adulthood: 10-Year Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Karen L.; Medina, Krista Lisdahl; Padula, Claudia B.; Tapert, Susan F.; Brown, Sandra A.

    2011-01-01

    Because of ongoing neuromaturation, youth with chronic alcohol/substance use disorders (AUD/SUD) are at risk for cognitive decrements during young adulthood. We prospectively examined cognition over 10 years based on AUD/SUD history. Youth (N = 51) with no AUD/SUD history (n = 14), persisting AUD/SUD (n = 18), or remitted AUD/SUD (n = 19) were…

  15. Maintenance of Response Suppression Following Overcorrection: A 10-Year Retrospective Examination of Eight Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foxx, Richard M.; Livesay, Jim

    1984-01-01

    A retrospective analysis of the progress of eight institutionalized subjects who had been successfully treated in overcorrection procedures 10 years earlier revealed that maladaptive behaviors of the highest functioning individuals showed the longest term and best suppression, and that staff tend to return to the status quo after the expert…

  16. Optimism, Pessimism, Mutuality, and Gender: Predicting 10-Year Role Strain in Parkinson's Disease Spouses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Karen S.; Stewart, Barbara J.; Archbold, Patricia G.; Carter, Julie H.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: There is wide variability in how spouses providing care respond to their care situations. Few studies focus on the roles of both intra- and interpersonal factors in long-term spousal care, particularly in the context of Parkinson's disease (PD). The current study uses longitudinal data over a 10-year period to examine the roles of…

  17. Psychiatric Aspects of Child and Adolescent Obesity: A Review of the Past 10 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zametkin, Alan J.; Zoon, Christine K.; Klein, Hannah W.; Munson, Suzanne

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To review the past 10 years of published research on psychiatric aspects of child and adolescent obesity and highlight information mental health professionals need for preventing obesity in youths and diagnosing and treating it. Method: Researchers performed computerized and manual searches of the literature and summarized the most…

  18. Physical Activity Patterns During School Recess: A Study in Children 6 to 10 Years Old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopes, Victor; Vasques, Catarina Margarida Silva; de Oliveira Pereira, Maria Beatriz Ferreira Leite

    2006-01-01

    The aims of this study were to characterize the spontaneous physical activity of children during school recess, and to estimate variation in physical activity associated with gender and age. A MTI actigraph (Model 7164) was used with a sample of 140 boys and 131 girls, 6 to 10 years of age. MTI counts were converted to METs using a regression…

  19. Effect of meteorology and soil condition on metolachlor and atrazine volatilization over a 10 year period

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 10-year study was conducted to focus on the impact of soil and climatic factors governing herbicide volatilization from an agricultural field. For the first 5 years, metolachlor [2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N-(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl) acetamide] and atrazine [6-chloro-N-ethyl-N’-(1-methyl...

  20. Effect of meteorology and soil condition on metolachlor and atrazine volatilization over a 10 year period

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Volatilization of pesticides can detrimentally affect the environment by contaminating soil and surface waters far away from where the pesticides were applied. A 10-year study was conducted to focus on the impact of soil and climatic factors governing herbicide volatilization from an agricultural f...

  1. Public School Voice Clinics, Part II: Diagnosis and Recommendations--A 10-Year Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Sandra Q.; Madison, Charles L.

    1984-01-01

    In 10 years of school district voice clinics, 249 cases were reviewed. Vocal nodules, chronic laryngitis and thickened cords were frequently noted. One-third of the cases had concomitant allergies, ear, and/or upper respiratory problems. Direct voice therapy was recommended for 65 percent of attendees. (Author/CL)

  2. 7 CFR 625.9 - 10-year restoration cost-share agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... restoration cost-share agreements. (a) The restoration plan developed under § 625.13 forms the basis for the... agreement will: (1) Incorporate all portions of a restoration plan; (2) Be for a period of 10 years; (3... implementation of the approved conservation treatment identified in the restoration plan; and (8) Include...

  3. Colon perforation during percutaneous renal surgery: a 10-year experience in a single endourology centre.

    PubMed

    Kachrilas, Stefanos; Stefanos, Kachrilas; Papatsoris, Athanasios; Athanasios, Papatsoris; Bach, Christian; Christian, Bach; Kontos, Stylianos; Stylianos, Kontos; Faruquz, Zaman; Zaman, Faruquz; Goyal, Anuj; Anuj, Goyal; Masood, Junaid; Junaid, Masood; Buchholz, Noor; Noor, Buchholz

    2012-06-01

    The use of percutaneous renal surgery has been recently revolutionised with novel endourological instruments and techniques. However, the incidence, prevention and management of severe complications such as colon perforation still lack consensus. By presenting our 10-year experience, we would like to highlight the diagnosis and management of the rare complication of colon perforation.

  4. Individual Oral Exams in Mathematics Courses: 10 Years of Experience at the Air Force Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boedigheimer, Ralph; Ghrist, Michelle; Peterson, Dale; Kallemyn, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Over the last 10 years faculty members in the Department of Mathematical Sciences at the United States Air Force Academy have incorporated individual oral exams into mathematics courses. We have experimented with various approaches, shared results and ideas with other department members, and refined our techniques. We have found that this…

  5. A 10-Year Assessment of Information and Communication Technology Tasks Required in Undergraduate Agriculture Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgar, Leslie D.; Johnson, Donald M.; Cox, Casandra

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to assess required information and communication technology (ICT) tasks in selected undergraduate agriculture courses in a land-grant university during a 10-year period. Selected agriculture faculty members in the fall 1999 (n = 63), 2004 (n = 55), and 2009 (n = 64) semesters were surveyed to determine the ICT tasks they required…

  6. Adolescents’ attitudes toward sports, exercise and fitness predict physical activity 5 and 10 years later

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Dan J.; Sirard, John R.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine whether adolescent attitudes towards sports, exercise and fitness predict moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) 5 and 10 years later. Method A diverse group of 1902 adolescents participating in Project EAT (Eating and Activity in Teens), reported weekly MVPA and attitudes toward sports, exercise and fitness in EAT-I (1998-99), EAT-II (2003-04), and EAT-III (2008-09). Results Mean MVPA was 6.4, 4.8, and 4.0 hrs/wk at baseline, 5-yr, and 10-yr follow-up, respectively. Attitudes toward sports, exercise, and fitness together predicted MVPA at 5- and 10-years. Among the predictors of 5- and 10-year MVPA, attitude’s effect size, though modest, was comparable to the effect sizes for sports participation and BMI. Adolescents with more-favorable attitudes toward sports, exercise and fitness engaged in approximately 30-40% more weekly MVPA at follow-up (1.7 hr/wk at 5 years and 1.2 hr/wk at 10 years) than those with less-favorable attitudes. Conclusion Adolescents’ exercise-related attitudes predict subsequent MVPA independent of baseline behavior suggesting that youth MVPA promotion efforts may provide long-term benefits by helping youth develop favorable exercise attitudes. PMID:21130803

  7. Re-Visited: A Tracer Study 10 Years Later--Detective Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin-Rozalis, Miry

    2004-01-01

    Does an early childhood program have an influence on its participants that is detectable 10 years later? The answer is "yes". This research managed to detect differences between children of Ethiopian origin who had immigrated to Israel. It also managed to generalize and conceptualize these differences and provide an explanation of them: The…

  8. Psychopathy and Offending From Adolescence to Adulthood: A 10-Year Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gretton, Heather M.; Hare, Robert D.; Catchpole, Rosalind E. H.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the predictive validity of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV; A. E. Forth, D. S. Kosson, & R. D. Hare, 2003) from adolescence to early adulthood. The authors coded the PCL:YV using file information and collected criminal record information over a 10-year follow-up period on 157 boys, ages 12 through 18,…

  9. Eastern Michigan University's Automated Storage and Retrieval System: 10 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullard, Rita; Wrosch, Jackie

    2009-01-01

    Automated storage/retrieval systems (ASRSs) are playing an integral part in today's library operations and collections management. Eastern Michigan University installed an ASRS as part of the new Halle Library, which opened in May 1998, to provide "storage" for up to 800,000 items. Over the past 10 years our policies and procedures have been…

  10. Eating With Your Heart In Mind: 7 to 10 Year Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Heart, Lung, and Blood Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    The purpose of this brightly illustrated guide is to teach 7-10 year old children that all healthy Americans, 2 years of age or older, should eat in a way that is low in saturated fat and cholesterol so as to help reduce the risk of heart disease. The theme reflected throughout the manual is that changes in eating patterns help lower blood…

  11. Self-Controlled Feedback in 10-Year-Old Children: Higher Feedback Frequencies Enhance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiviacowsky, Suzete; Wulf, Gabriele; de Medeiros, Franklin Laroque; Kaefer, Angelica; Wally, Raquel

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine whether learning in 10-year-old children--that is, the age group for which the Chiviacowsky et al. (2006) study found benefits of self-controlled knowledge of results (KR)--would differ depending on the frequency of feedback they chose. The authors surmised that a relatively high feedback frequency…

  12. Learning Benefits of Self-Controlled Knowledge of Results in 10-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiviacowsky, Suzete; Wulf, Gabriele; Laroque de Medeiros, Franklin; Kaefer, Angelica; Tani, Go

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the learning benefits of self-controlled knowledge of results (KR) would generalize to children. Specifically, the authors chose 10-year-old children representative of late childhood. The authors used a task that required the children to toss beanbags at a target. One group received KR…

  13. If We Could Plan the Next 10 Years in Science Education...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansell, Warwick

    2013-01-01

    Two major sessions at the 2013 ASE Summer Celebration Conference in Hatfield offered teachers (and other educators) the chance to debate and define the key issues facing science education over the next 10 years. Participants were asked to suggest the important issues. Then those with similar proposals were put into groups to develop the idea ready…

  14. Motor Performance and Dyslexia in a National Cohort of 10-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haslum, M. N.; Miles, T. R.

    2007-01-01

    Data from the 10-year follow-up of the 1970 British Births Survey were examined for associations between motor performance and dyslexia. Five tests of motor performance were used: (a) balancing on one leg, (b) throwing a ball in the air, clapping and catching it, (c) walking backwards, (d) sorting matches and (e) graphaesthesia (recognizing shapes…

  15. Motor Skills in Children Aged 7-10 Years, Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whyatt, Caroline P.; Craig, Cathy M.

    2012-01-01

    This study used the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC2) to assess motor skills in children aged 7-10 years with autism (n = 18) in comparison to two groups of age-matched typically developing children; a receptive vocabulary matched group (n = 19) and a nonverbal IQ matched group (n = 22). The results supported previous work, as…

  16. Relationship between Motor Skill and Body Mass Index in 5- to 10-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Hondt, Eva; Deforche, Benedicte; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate gross and fine motor skill in overweight and obese children compared with normal-weight peers. According to international cut-off points for Body Mass Index (BMI) from Cole et al. (2000), all 117 participants (5-10 year) were classified as being normal-weight, overweight, or obese. Level of motor skill…

  17. Childhood Reactions to Terrorism-Induced Trauma: A Review of the Past 10 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fremont, Wanda P.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To summarize the literature about the clinical presentation and treatment interventions of childhood reactions to terrorism-induced trauma. Method: The literature on children's responses to terrorist activities was reviewed. Results: Over the past 10 years, more research has emerged on the subject of terrorism in children. Many of the…

  18. Parent-Child Relations and Adolescent Self-Image Following Divorce: A 10-Year Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlop, Rosemary; Burns, Ailsa; Bermingham, Suzanne

    2001-01-01

    Explored links between self-image, family structure (divorced or intact), parent-child relations, and gender at 3 intervals over 10 years during adolescence to early adulthood. Results suggest a consistent relationship between high parental care, low overprotective control, and better self-image scores with a stronger effect among subjects from…

  19. Langerhans cell histiocytosis: recurrent lesions affecting mandible in a 10-year-old patient.

    PubMed

    Loducca, S V; Mantesso, A; Araújo, N S; Magalhães, M H

    2001-01-01

    Hand-Schuller-Christian disease is a multifocal variant of eosinophilic granuloma, characterised by the classical triad of bony lesions, exophthalmos and diabetes insipidus. This case relates recurrent Langerhans' cell histiocytosis lesions presented as destruction of periodontal support associated with diabetes in a 10-year-old patient. Medical history suggests that the case represents a case of Hand-Schuller Christian disease.

  20. Anticipatory Action Planning Increases from 3 to 10 Years of Age in Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jongbloed-Pereboom, Marjolein; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W. G.; Saraber-Schiphorst, Nicole; Craje, Celine; Steenbergen, Bert

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to assess the development of action planning in a group of typically developing children aged 3 to 10 years (N = 351). The second aim was to assess reliability of the action planning task and to relate the results of the action planning task to results of validated upper limb motor performance tests. Participants…

  1. 24 CFR 203.203 - Issuance and nature of insured 10-year protection plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Issuance and nature of insured 10-year protection plans. 203.203 Section 203.203 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to... Underwriting Procedures Insured Ten-Year Protection Plans (plan) § 203.203 Issuance and nature of insured...

  2. The Course of Positive Affective and Cognitive States in Borderline Personality Disorder: A 10-year Follow-up Study

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Lawrence Ian; Fitzmaurice, Garrett; Zanarini, Mary C.

    2013-01-01

    This study had two aims. The first was to identify and define the course of positive affective and cognitive states present in borderline personality disorder (BPD) and compare them to those of comparison subjects with other personality disorders. The second was to compare the positive affective and cognitive states of borderline patients who recovered from BPD to those who did not. Two hundred ninety patients with BPD and 72 non-borderline axis II subjects (OPD) completed the Positive Affect Scale (PAS), a 50-item self-report measure designed to assess positive states thought to be common among and characteristic of BPD over a 10-year course of prospective follow-up. Affective, cognitive, and mixed PAS items were separately analyzed, based on respective subscores. Borderline patients reported positive affective, cognitive, and mixed states less frequently than OPD subjects. Additionally, affective, and cognitive subscores increased significantly for both groups taken together over 10-years of follow-up though at greater rates among borderline patients. Mixed subscores showed a significant increase over time and at similar rates for both groups. Within the BPD group, recovered patients reported more positive affective, cognitive, and mixed states compared to non-recovered patients. Results also showed a significant increase in affective and cognitive states at similar rates for both groups taken together over 10-years of follow-up. Mixed subscores also showed a significant increase for both groups taken over time, though at greater rates among recovered borderline patients. Taken together, these results suggest a characteristic profile of positive states within borderline patients that is far lower than those reported by axis II comparison subjects. They also suggest that this characteristic profile is predictive of recovery of BPD over time. PMID:23606922

  3. 10-year clinical evaluation of a self-etching adhesive system.

    PubMed

    Akimoto, Naotake; Takamizu, Masaaki; Momoi, Yasuko

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the long-term clinical performance of a self-etching adhesive system, Clearfil Liner Bond 2. Two operators placed a total of 87 restorations among 42 patients. Carious dentin was identified with the help of Caries Detector and was removed using only a low speed round bur. Clearfil Liner Bond 2 was applied following the manufacturer's directions, and the resin composite was then placed. The number of restorations placed by cavity classification were: 8-Class I, 11-Class II, 21-Class III, 2-Class IV and 45-Class V. The restorations were evaluated in 5 categories according to modified USPHS criteria: pulpal response, marginal integrity, marginal discoloration, retention and secondary caries. Assessments were done at baseline, immediately after placement and at 6-months and 1, 5, 7 and 10 years. Recall rates at each assessment period were 83.9% (6-months), 82.8% (1 year), 59.8% (5 years), 77.0% (7 years) and 50.6% (10 years). In terms of assessment categories, there were no recorded sensitivity, retention loss or secondary caries at any of the five recall periods. At the 10-year assessment, 40 out of 44 restorations (90.9%) were rated Bravo for marginal integrity and 39 restorations (88.6%) were rated Bravo for marginal discoloration (Wilcoxon signed-ranks test p < 0.05). This data demonstrates the retention rate and pulpal response of the self-etching adhesive system Clearfil Liner Bond 2 was excellent at 10 years. Most cases showed slight marginal changes during clinical function; however, these changes were not clinically severe by USPHS criteria. These data demonstrate that placement of the Clearfil Liner Bond 2 self-etching adhesive system was demonstrated to be acceptable for the clinical restoration of human teeth following 10 years of clinical function.

  4. The 10-Year Cost-Effectiveness of Lifestyle Intervention or Metformin for Diabetes Prevention

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) and its Outcomes Study (DPPOS) demonstrated that either intensive lifestyle intervention or metformin could prevent type 2 diabetes in high-risk adults for at least 10 years after randomization. We report the 10-year within-trial cost-effectiveness of the interventions. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Data on resource utilization, cost, and quality of life were collected prospectively. Economic analyses were performed from health system and societal perspectives. RESULTS Over 10 years, the cumulative, undiscounted per capita direct medical costs of the interventions, as implemented during the DPP, were greater for lifestyle ($4,601) than metformin ($2,300) or placebo ($769). The cumulative direct medical costs of care outside the DPP/DPPOS were least for lifestyle ($24,563 lifestyle vs. $25,616 metformin vs. $27,468 placebo). The cumulative, combined total direct medical costs were greatest for lifestyle and least for metformin ($29,164 lifestyle vs. $27,915 metformin vs. $28,236 placebo). The cumulative quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) accrued over 10 years were greater for lifestyle (6.81) than metformin (6.69) or placebo (6.67). When costs and outcomes were discounted at 3%, lifestyle cost $10,037 per QALY, and metformin had slightly lower costs and nearly the same QALYs as placebo. CONCLUSIONS Over 10 years, from a payer perspective, lifestyle was cost-effective and metformin was marginally cost-saving compared with placebo. Investment in lifestyle and metformin interventions for diabetes prevention in high-risk adults provides good value for the money spent. PMID:22442395

  5. [Tumors of the adipose tissue during 10 years of diagnostic activities (1979-1988)].

    PubMed

    Grandi, E; Trisolini, M P

    1990-01-01

    Adipose tissue tumors in ten years of diagnostic activity (1979-1988). We have reconsidered our material on tumors of adipose tissue, which were observed for 10 years, from 1979 to 1988, at Istituto di Anatomia Patologica dell'Università degli Studi - Arcispedale S. Anna di Ferrara. The whole collection consists of 772 tumors, 742 lipomas and 30 liposarcomas. We have intended to examine the development of our diagnostic experience through time and compare our data with those of literature. Simple lipomas and fibrolipomas are the most common histological types (78.8%), followed by angiolipomas (3.6%) and intramuscular lipomas (2.5%). The other types have a lower percentage. In every cases the morphologic and clinicopathologic features are shown, as well as compared with those of literature, and discordances that may result are interpreted. We are firmly convinced that routine diagnosis is not always compatible with rigid classifications and that it is not easy to use morphologic criteria which vary in quality and quantity. We have consequently aimed at reducing any possible distortion in diagnosis due to subjectivity, by sticking rigorously to consolidated morphology. Although our findings mostly agree with those of literature, some discordances still exist; the most significant of them regard age incidence. Among spindle cell lipomas there are two cases diagnosed in early childhood; the number of angiolipomas as well seems to be very high in this period of life. Particularly important from the clinical point of view has been the decision of diagnosing a thigh tumor as lipoblastoma in an eighteen-year-old boy. Other discordances seem to us less significant, as, for example, the absence of intramuscular lipomas in the thigh, which is to be considered, in our opinion, a chance event that we could not explain otherwise. Liposarcomas represent the 4% of the cases. Only one cases has been diagnosed in a patient less than 40 years old. The location sites agree with those

  6. Acute paediatric bite injuries treated on inpatient basis: a 10-year retrospective study and criteria for hospital admission.

    PubMed

    Shipkov, Hristo; Stefanova, Penka; Sirakov, Vladimir; Stefanov, Rumen; Dachev, Dimitar; Simeonov, Martin; Ivanov, Biser; Nenov, Momchil

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the acute bite wounds in children treated on an inpatient basis over a 10-year period and the criteria for inpatient treatment. This study comprised all acute mammalian bite injuries in relation to all paediatric bite injuries seen at the Emergency Surgical Department (ESD). Inclusion criteria were: aged between 0-18 years; acute human or animal bite injuries (presenting for the first time); and inpatient treatment. Exclusion criteria were: bite wounds treated elsewhere and referred for complications; bites treated on an outpatient basis referred for complications; and all insect bites. Over 10 years, 12,948 children were seen at the ESD. There were 167 children (0.77%) with mammalian bite wounds. Twelve of them responded to the inclusion criteria. They presented 7.18% of all mammalian bite injuries and 0.09% of all paediatric emergency visits at the ESD. The average age was 3.82 ± 1.63 years (from 1.3-7 years). The time elapsed between the accident to the wound debridement was 118.64 ± 101.39 minutes. There were 10 dogs, one horse, and one rabbit bite. Surgical treatment comprised debridement, saline irrigation, and primary closure or reconstruction. All patients received antibiotics in the postoperative period. The average hospital stay was 5.92 ± 2.39 days. In one case a partial distal flap necrosis occurred. Animal bite injuries treated on an inpatient basis are predominantly dog bites in young children under 10 years of age, with deep, extended, and commonly multiple injuries. Only 7% of paediatric bite injuries require inpatient treatment.

  7. Common Ground: Expanding Our Horizons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDevitt, Michele J.

    In "Common Ground: Dialogue, Understanding, and the Teaching of Composition," Kurt Spellmeyer seeks to familiarize students and teachers with the linguistic and cultural no-man's-land separating them. Reinstating the value of two writing conventions often used by traditional students--expressive and commonplaces--can help expand on the horizons of…

  8. NIF featured on BBC "Horizon"

    ScienceCinema

    Brian Cox

    2016-07-12

    The National Ignition Facility, the world's largest laser system, located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, was featured in the BBC broadcast "Horizon" hosted by physicist Brian Cox. Here is the NIF portion of the program, which was entitled "Can We Make A Star On Earth?" This video is used with the express permission of the BBC.

  9. New Horizons Mission to Pluto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delgado, Luis G.

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the trajectory that will take the New Horizons Mission to Pluto. Included are photographs of the spacecraft, the launch vehicle, the assembled vehicle as it is being moved to the launch pad and the launch. Also shown are diagrams of the assembled parts with identifying part names.

  10. New Horizons in Education, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Kwok Keung, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This document contains the May and November 2000 issues of "New Horizons in Education," with articles in English and Chinese. The May issue includes the following articles: "A Key to Successful Environmental Education: Teacher Trainees' Attitude, Behaviour, and Knowledge" (Kevin Chung Wai Lui, Eric Po Keung Tsang, Sing Lai Chan); "Critical…

  11. NIF featured on BBC "Horizon"

    SciTech Connect

    Brian Cox

    2010-01-12

    The National Ignition Facility, the world's largest laser system, located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, was featured in the BBC broadcast "Horizon" hosted by physicist Brian Cox. Here is the NIF portion of the program, which was entitled "Can We Make A Star On Earth?" This video is used with the express permission of the BBC.

  12. Optimal investment horizons for stocks and markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansen, A.; Simonsen, I.; Jensen, M. H.

    2006-10-01

    The inverse statistics is the distribution of waiting times needed to achieve a predefined level of return obtained from (detrended) historic asset prices [I. Simonsen, M.H. Jensen, A. Johansen, Eur. Phys. J. 27 (2002) 583; M.H. Jensen, A. Johansen, I. Simonsen, Physica A 234 (2003) 338]. Such a distribution typically goes through a maximum at a time coined the optimal investment horizon, τρ*, which defines the most likely waiting time for obtaining a given return ρ. By considering equal positive and negative levels of return, we reported in [M.H. Jensen, A. Johansen, I. Simonsen, Physica A 234 (2003) 338] on a quantitative gain/loss asymmetry most pronounced for short horizons. In the present paper, the inverse statistics for {2}/{3} of the individual stocks presently in the DJIA is investigated. We show that this gain/loss asymmetry established for the DJIA surprisingly is not present in the time series of the individual stocks nor their average. This observation points towards some kind of collective movement of the stocks of the index (synchronization).

  13. A Unique Case of Mycophenolate Induced Colitis after 10 Years of Use

    PubMed Central

    Govil, Yogesh

    2016-01-01

    A 31-year-old female with a history of lupus nephritis on Hydroxychloroquine, Prednisone, and Mycophenolate Mofetil (MMF) for 10 years presented to the hospital for ankle swelling. On day four, she started to have severe, nonbloody, watery diarrhea with abdominal distension and tenderness. Stool PCR was negative for C. difficile. CT abdomen/pelvis showed gaseous distension of the colon without any obstruction. Flexible sigmoidoscopy revealed a normal looking mucosa. Histopathology showed crypt atrophy and increased crypt apoptosis, consistent with MMF colitis. The diarrhea resolved three days after stopping MMF. Although generally well tolerated, diarrhea is a common side effect of MMF. Most cases occur in the first six months of starting MMF. This case is unique because it describes MMF colitis in lupus after more than 10 years. Thus, MMF colitis should be considered as a differential in patients taking it, regardless of the duration of use.

  14. A Unique Case of Mycophenolate Induced Colitis after 10 Years of Use.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Abhinav; Salahuddin, Moiz; Govil, Yogesh

    2016-01-01

    A 31-year-old female with a history of lupus nephritis on Hydroxychloroquine, Prednisone, and Mycophenolate Mofetil (MMF) for 10 years presented to the hospital for ankle swelling. On day four, she started to have severe, nonbloody, watery diarrhea with abdominal distension and tenderness. Stool PCR was negative for C. difficile. CT abdomen/pelvis showed gaseous distension of the colon without any obstruction. Flexible sigmoidoscopy revealed a normal looking mucosa. Histopathology showed crypt atrophy and increased crypt apoptosis, consistent with MMF colitis. The diarrhea resolved three days after stopping MMF. Although generally well tolerated, diarrhea is a common side effect of MMF. Most cases occur in the first six months of starting MMF. This case is unique because it describes MMF colitis in lupus after more than 10 years. Thus, MMF colitis should be considered as a differential in patients taking it, regardless of the duration of use. PMID:27668102

  15. Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) in Hungary; The First 10 Years.

    PubMed

    Varga, Endre; Endre, Endre; Kószó, Balázs; Pető, Zoltán; Ágoston, Zsuzsanna; Gyura, Erika; Nardai, Gábor; Boa, Kristóf; Süveges, Gábor

    2016-01-01

    Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) programs are recognized as the standard educational trauma program worldwide. Data suggest that ATLS has a positive impact on the value of trauma care. The ATLS Hungary program has been started in 2005, celebrating its 10-year anniversary this year. In the present brief communication a brief overview is provided on the program.Student evaluation and statistical data about the participants were collected throughout the 10-year history of the Hungarian program.Student evaluation shows a high level of satisfaction amongst the participating doctors. Most participants are working in higher level centers. The Hungarian program shows good quality according to the participants. Establishing at least one new center is crucial to be able to provide the course for every professional interested in it or required to take it. PMID:27162927

  16. Rugby injuries to the cervical spine and spinal cord: a 10-year review.

    PubMed

    Scher, A T

    1998-01-01

    A 10-year review (1987-1996) of injuries sustained to the spine and spinal cord in rugby players with resultant paralysis has been undertaken. This article reviews that the incidence of serious rugby spine and spinal cord injuries in South Africa has increased over the 10-year period reviewed, despite stringent new rules instituted in an attempt to decrease the incidence of these injuries. The mechanisms of injury, as previously reported, remain the same as well as the phases of game responsible for injury of the tight scrum, tackle, rucks, and mauls. Two new observations are reported: the first is related to the occurrence of spinal cord concussion with transient paralysis, and the second is related to the increased incidence of osteoarthritis of the cervical spine in rugby players. PMID:9475983

  17. Physical aggression, compromised social support, and 10-year marital outcomes: Testing a relational spillover model.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Kieran T; Pasch, Lauri A; Lawrence, Erika; Bradbury, Thomas N

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to test a relational spillover model of physical aggression whereby physical aggression affects marital outcomes due to its effects on how spouses ask for and provide support to one another. Newlywed couples (n = 172) reported levels of physical aggression over the past year and engaged in interactions designed to elicit social support; marital adjustment, and stability were assessed periodically over the first 10 years of marriage. Multilevel modeling revealed that negative support behavior mediated the relationship between physical aggression and 10-year marital adjustment levels whereas positive support behavior mediated the relationship between physical aggression and divorce status. These findings emphasize the need to look beyond conflict when explaining how aggression affects relationships and when working with couples with a history of physical aggression who are seeking to improve their relationships.

  18. Physical aggression, compromised social support, and 10-year marital outcomes: Testing a relational spillover model.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Kieran T; Pasch, Lauri A; Lawrence, Erika; Bradbury, Thomas N

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to test a relational spillover model of physical aggression whereby physical aggression affects marital outcomes due to its effects on how spouses ask for and provide support to one another. Newlywed couples (n = 172) reported levels of physical aggression over the past year and engaged in interactions designed to elicit social support; marital adjustment, and stability were assessed periodically over the first 10 years of marriage. Multilevel modeling revealed that negative support behavior mediated the relationship between physical aggression and 10-year marital adjustment levels whereas positive support behavior mediated the relationship between physical aggression and divorce status. These findings emphasize the need to look beyond conflict when explaining how aggression affects relationships and when working with couples with a history of physical aggression who are seeking to improve their relationships. PMID:26168263

  19. A Unique Case of Mycophenolate Induced Colitis after 10 Years of Use

    PubMed Central

    Govil, Yogesh

    2016-01-01

    A 31-year-old female with a history of lupus nephritis on Hydroxychloroquine, Prednisone, and Mycophenolate Mofetil (MMF) for 10 years presented to the hospital for ankle swelling. On day four, she started to have severe, nonbloody, watery diarrhea with abdominal distension and tenderness. Stool PCR was negative for C. difficile. CT abdomen/pelvis showed gaseous distension of the colon without any obstruction. Flexible sigmoidoscopy revealed a normal looking mucosa. Histopathology showed crypt atrophy and increased crypt apoptosis, consistent with MMF colitis. The diarrhea resolved three days after stopping MMF. Although generally well tolerated, diarrhea is a common side effect of MMF. Most cases occur in the first six months of starting MMF. This case is unique because it describes MMF colitis in lupus after more than 10 years. Thus, MMF colitis should be considered as a differential in patients taking it, regardless of the duration of use. PMID:27668102

  20. Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) in Hungary; The First 10 Years.

    PubMed

    Varga, Endre; Endre, Endre; Kószó, Balázs; Pető, Zoltán; Ágoston, Zsuzsanna; Gyura, Erika; Nardai, Gábor; Boa, Kristóf; Süveges, Gábor

    2016-01-01

    Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) programs are recognized as the standard educational trauma program worldwide. Data suggest that ATLS has a positive impact on the value of trauma care. The ATLS Hungary program has been started in 2005, celebrating its 10-year anniversary this year. In the present brief communication a brief overview is provided on the program.Student evaluation and statistical data about the participants were collected throughout the 10-year history of the Hungarian program.Student evaluation shows a high level of satisfaction amongst the participating doctors. Most participants are working in higher level centers. The Hungarian program shows good quality according to the participants. Establishing at least one new center is crucial to be able to provide the course for every professional interested in it or required to take it.

  1. Art, the Urban Skyscraper, and Horizon Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mooney, J. D.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation delineates the historiography and the iconography of my urban public sculptures which use skyscrapers as today's standing stones, markers for horizon astronomy. From 1977 to the present time, my work has engaged the public to “look up and see.” Through ephemeral works in the sky and over the water to large-scale rooftop sculptures in Los Angeles, Chicago, Atlanta, and Europe, viewers are oriented to the Milky Way, the summer triangle, and other celestial phenomena. This new urban scale art, transformative in context and gesture, has become part of the new cultural landscape.

  2. Generic isolated horizons and their applications

    PubMed

    Ashtekar; Beetle; Dreyer; Fairhurst; Krishnan; Lewandowski; Wisniewski

    2000-10-23

    The notion of isolated horizons is extended to allow for distortion and rotation. Space-times containing a black hole, itself in equilibrium but possibly surrounded by radiation, satisfy these conditions. The framework has three types of applications: (i) it provides new tools to extract physics from strong field geometry; (ii) it leads to a generalization of the zeroth and first laws of black hole mechanics and sheds new light on the "origin" of the first law; and (iii) it serves as a point of departure for black hole entropy calculations in nonperturbative quantum gravity. PMID:11030951

  3. The Future of Federated Search, or What Will the World Look like in 10 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Rich

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author contends that in 10 years, federated search--or search of any kind for that matter--won't exist. He elaborates that the "function" of search will exist--but not in a context with which anyone is familiar today. So if "search" doesn't exist in 2018, how will people find the information that they need across vast volumes…

  4. Impact of Adolescent Alcohol and Drug Use on Neuropsychological Functioning in Young Adulthood: 10-Year Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Karen L.; Medina, Krista Lisdahl; Padula, Claudia B.; Tapert, Susan F.; Brown, Sandra A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Alcohol and other substance use disorders (AUD/SUD) are common among youth and often continue into adulthood; therefore, the neurocognitive effects of substance use are of great concern. Because neuromaturation continues into young adulthood, youth with AUD/SUD may be at risk for lasting cognitive decrements. This study prospectively examines neuropsychological functioning over 10 years as a function of AUD/SUD history and outcomes. Methods The 51 participants consisted of 18 youth with persisting AUD/SUD, 19 youth with remitted AUD/SUD, and 14 community youth with no AUD/SUD history followed over 10 years (ages 16 to 27 on average) with neuropsychological testing and substance use interviews on 8 occasions. Neuropsychological performance from baseline to 10-year follow-up was compared between the three groups. Results Despite scoring higher than controls at intake, both AUD/SUD groups showed a relative decline in visuospatial construction at 10-year follow-up (p=.001). Regressions showed that alcohol use (β=−.33, p < .01) and drug withdrawal symptoms (β=−.31, p<.05) over follow-up were predictive of year 10 visuospatial function. Alcohol use also predicted verbal learning and memory (β=−.28, p<.05), while stimulant use predicted visual learning and memory function (β=−.33, p=.01). More recent substance use was associated with poorer executive function (β=.28, p<.05). Discussion These findings confirm prior studies suggesting that heavy, chronic alcohol and other substance use persisting from adolescence to young adulthood may produce cognitive disadvantages, primarily in visuospatial and memory abilities. Youth who chronically consume heavy quantities of alcohol and/or experience drug withdrawal symptoms may be particularly at risk for cognitive deterioration by young adulthood. PMID:21532924

  5. A Longitudinal Examination of 10-year Change in Vocational and Educational Activities for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Julie Lounds; Center, Vanderbilt Kennedy; Mailick, Marsha R.

    2014-01-01

    The transition from adolescence to adulthood has been shown to be a time of amplified risk for individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). It is unknown, however, whether problems in educational attainment and employment in the years after high school exit represent “momentary perturbations” in development or a “turning point” with long-lasting effects throughout adulthood. The present study addressed this question by examining 10-year trajectories of vocational and educational activities for adults with ASD, as well as the personal characteristics and environmental resources that predicted these activities. Participants were 161 adults with ASD (ages 18-52 at the start of the study, M=30.9 years) who were part of a larger longitudinal study. Data were collected at 6 time points over a 10-year period. Results indicated significant declines in the level of independence and engagement in vocational/educational activities over the study period, particularly for women. Greater independence in vocational activities was found for those with more independence in activities of daily living. Net of personal characteristics, receipt of more services was marginally related to greater improvement in vocational independence. PMID:24001150

  6. A longitudinal examination of 10-year change in vocational and educational activities for adults with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Julie Lounds; Mailick, Marsha R

    2014-03-01

    The transition from adolescence to adulthood has been shown to be a time of amplified risk for individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). It is unknown, however, whether problems in educational attainment and employment in the years after high school exit represent momentary perturbations in development or a turning point with long-lasting effects throughout adulthood. The present study addressed this question by examining 10-year trajectories of vocational and educational activities for adults with ASD, as well as the personal characteristics and environmental resources that predicted these activities. Participants were 161 adults with ASD (ages 18-52 years at the start of the study; M = 30.9) who were part of a larger longitudinal study. Data were collected at 6 time points over a 10-year period. Results indicated significant declines in the level of independence and engagement in vocational/educational activities over the study period, particularly for women. Greater independence in vocational activities was found for those with more independence in activities of daily living. After controlling for personal characteristics, receipt of more services was marginally related to greater improvement in vocational independence.

  7. 10-year Field Measurement Program of Post-Wildfire Tree Root Decay, Kootenay National Park, British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Y. E.; Johnson, E. A.; Kroeker, S.

    2013-12-01

    Tree population dynamics in subalpine forests of the Canadian Rockies are dominated by wildfire disturbance (Gallaway et al., 2009), with wildfire return intervals most often being shorter than the potential lifespan of trees. These crown wildfires kill all trees, resulting in a gradual decline of tree root strength in shallow soils in the immediate post-wildfire years. Tree root networks have been shown to provide mechanical reinforcement of shear strength in shallow soils (Schmidt et al., 2001; Roering et al., 2003). Therefore, decreases in tree root reinforcement in post-wildfire years may result in increased debris slide and debris flow activity during this time period (e.g., Benda and Dunne, 1997; Martin, 2007; Jackson and Roering, 2009). To our knowledge, our study is the first that has measured tree root strength annually for 10 years following a crown wildfire to document the nature and timing of tree root decay. Suggestions have been made that studies documenting the decay of tree roots following timber harvesting provide a reasonable analogue for post-wildfire tree root decay; drainage basin modeling studies considering hillslope erosion resulting from episodic wildfires have had to rely on this assumption (e.g., Benda and Dunne, 1997; Martin, 2007). Herein, we present our annual field measurements of post-wildfire tree root strength made over the past 10 years at a post-wildfire site in Kootenay National Park, Canadian Rockies. The episodic nature of crown wildfire occurrence over time in these forests results in periods of tree root decay in the immediate post-fire years, and an associated susceptibility for mass wasting during these time periods. In July 2003, two large crown fires were ignited by lightning in Kootenay National Park, British Columbia, Canada and merged to burn approximately 17 000 hectares. Our field measurements were made in the subalpine forest of Hawk Creek drainage basin, Kootenay National Park. Measurements of tree root

  8. Factors associated with arterial stiffness in children aged 9-10 years

    PubMed Central

    Batista, Milena Santos; Mill, José Geraldo; Pereira, Taisa Sabrina Silva; Fernandes, Carolina Dadalto Rocha; Molina, Maria del Carmen Bisi

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the factors associated with stiffness of the great arteries in prepubertal children. METHODS This study with convenience sample of 231 schoolchildren aged 9-10 years enrolled in public and private schools in Vitória, ES, Southeastern Brazil, in 2010-2011. Anthropometric and hemodynamic data, blood pressure, and pulse wave velocity in the carotid-femoral segment were obtained. Data on current and previous health conditions were obtained by questionnaire and notes on the child’s health card. Multiple linear regression was applied to identify the partial and total contribution of the factors in determining the pulse wave velocity values. RESULTS Among the students, 50.2% were female and 55.4% were 10 years old. Among those classified in the last tertile of pulse wave velocity, 60.0% were overweight, with higher mean blood pressure, waist circumference, and waist-to-height ratio. Birth weight was not associated with pulse wave velocity. After multiple linear regression analysis, body mass index (BMI) and diastolic blood pressure remained in the model. CONCLUSIONS BMI was the most important factor in determining arterial stiffness in children aged 9-10 years. PMID:25902563

  9. Factors influencing infection in 10 years of battlefield open tibia fractures.

    PubMed

    Penn-Barwell, J G; Bennett, P M; Mortiboy, D E; Fries, C A; Groom, A F G; Sargeant, I D

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise severe open tibial shaft fractures sustained by the UK military personnel over 10 years of combat in Iraq and Afghanistan. The UK military Joint Theatre Trauma Registry was searched for all such injuries, and clinical records were reviewed for all patients. One hundred Gustilo-Anderson III tibia fractures in 89 patients were identified in the 10 year study period; the majority sustained injuries through explosive weapons (63, 68 %) with the remainder being injured from gunshot wounds. Three fractures were not followed up for 12 months and were therefore excluded. Twenty-two (23 %) of the remaining 97 tibial fractures were complicated by infection, with S. aureus being the causative agent in 13/22 infected fractures (59 %). Neither injury severity, mechanism, the use of an external fixator, the need for vascularised tissue transfer nor smoking status was associated with subsequent infection. Bone loss was significantly associated with subsequent infection (p < 0.0001, Fisher's exact test). This study presents 10 years of open tibial fractures sustained in Iraq and Afghanistan. Most infection in combat open tibia fractures is caused by familiar organisms, i.e. S. aureus. While the overall severity of a casualty's injuries was not associated with infection, the degree of bone loss from the fracture was. PMID:26993111

  10. RECONSTRUCTION OF THE ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT WITH THE CENTRAL THIRD OF THE QUADRICEPS MUSCLE TENDON: ANALYSIS OF 10-YEAR RESULTS

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Marcus Valladares; Junior, Lúcio Honório de Carvalho; Terra, Dalton Lopes

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Assess clinical results using two different protocols, 10 years after ACL reconstruction surgery with the central third of quadriceps muscle tendon (QT). Method: Between November /1997 and April/1998, 25 patients were submitted to 25 ACL reconstructions with QT by transtibial technique. The bone portion of the graft was fixated on femoral tunnel with interference screw and the tendinous portion of tibial tunnel with screw with washer. Two patients injured the new when playing soccer. Six patients were not available for follow-up (24%). Seventeen patients were evaluated, 15 men and two women, with mean age at surgery time of 28.53 ± 6.64 years. All patients were examined at six months, one year, and ten years after surgery. Clinical evaluation was made by the Lysholm scale, and the knee evaluation, with the Hospital for Special Surgery scale. Results: The patients had their injuries operated after 9.87 ± 14.42 months of the accident. According to Lysholm scale, the results at the end of the first year were 98.71 ± 2.47 and, after 10 years, 97.35 ± 3.12. Using the Hospital for Special Surgery scale, the mean score was 95.07 ± 5.23 in one year, and 94.87 ± 4.16 in 10 years. All patients returned to their professional activities with the same previous status. Fifteen (88.24%) patients were able to return to their sports activities, one by modifying the practice, while another one switched to another sport. No patient complained of pain on the donor area in the medium and long term. The sports return rate was excellent, and no changes were found on the femoropatellar joint. PMID:27022511

  11. Seal, replacement or monitoring amalgam restorations with occlusal marginal defects? Results of a 10-year clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Moncada, G; Fernández, E; Mena, K; Martin, J; Vildósola, P; De Oliveira Junior, O B; Estay, J; Mjör, I A; Gordan, V V

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this prospective and blind clinical trial was to assess the effectiveness of sealing localized marginal defects of amalgam restoration that were initially scheduled to be replaced. A cohort of twenty six patients with 60 amalgam restorations (n=44Class I and n=16Class II), that presented marginal defects deviating from ideal (Bravo) according to USPHS criteria, were assigned to either sealing or replacement groups: A: sealing n=20, Replacement n=20, and no treatment (n=20). Two blind examiners evaluated the restorations at baseline (K=0.74) and after ten years (K=0.84) according with USPHS criteria, in four parameters: marginal adaptation (MA), secondary caries (SC), marginal staining (MS) and teeth sensitivity (TS). Multiple comparison of restorations degradation/upgrade was analyzed by Friedman test and the comparisons within groups were performed by Wilcoxon test. After 10 years, 44 restorations were assessed (73.3%), Group A: n=14 and Group B: n=16; and Group C: n=14 sealing and replacement amalgam restorations presented similar level of quality in MA (p=0.76), SC (p=0.25) and TS (p=0.52), while in MS (p=0.007) presented better performance in replacement group after 10-years. Most of the occlusal amalgam restorations with marginal gaps showed similar long term outcomes than the restorations were sealed, replaced, or not treated over a 10-year period. Most of the restorations of the three groups were clinically acceptable, under the studied parameters. All restorations had the tendency to present downgrade/deterioration over time. PMID:26231302

  12. The Malcolm horizon: History and future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malcolm, R.

    1984-01-01

    The development of the Malcolm Horizon, a peripheral vision horizon used in flight simulation, is discussed. A history of the horizon display is presented as well as a brief overview of vision physiology, and the role balance plays is spatial orientation. Avenues of continued research in subconscious cockpit instrumentation are examined.

  13. On tunneling across horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanzo, L.

    2011-07-01

    The tunneling method for stationary black holes in the Hamilton-Jacobi variant is reconsidered in the light of some critiques that have been moved against. It is shown that once the tunneling trajectories have been correctly identified the method is free from internal inconsistencies, it is manifestly covariant, it allows for the extension to spinning particles and it can even be used without solving the Hamilton-Jacobi equation. These conclusions borrow support on a simple analytic continuation of the classical action of a pointlike particle, made possible by the unique assumption that it should be analytic in the complexified Schwarzschild or Kerr-Newman space-time. A more general version of the Parikh-Wilczek method will also be proposed along these lines.

  14. Geometric properties of static Einstein-Maxwell dilaton horizons with a Liouville potential

    SciTech Connect

    Abdolrahimi, Shohreh; Shoom, Andrey A.

    2011-05-15

    We study nondegenerate and degenerate (extremal) Killing horizons of arbitrary geometry and topology within the Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton model with a Liouville potential (the EMdL model) in d-dimensional (d{>=}4) static space-times. Using Israel's description of a static space-time, we construct the EMdL equations and the space-time curvature invariants: the Ricci scalar, the square of the Ricci tensor, and the Kretschmann scalar. Assuming that space-time metric functions and the model fields are real analytic functions in the vicinity of a space-time horizon, we study the behavior of the space-time metric and the fields near the horizon and derive relations between the space-time curvature invariants calculated on the horizon and geometric invariants of the horizon surface. The derived relations generalize similar relations known for horizons of static four- and five-dimensional vacuum and four-dimensional electrovacuum space-times. Our analysis shows that all the extremal horizon surfaces are Einstein spaces. We present the necessary conditions for the existence of static extremal horizons within the EMdL model.

  15. Black holes or firewalls: A theory of horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, Yasunori; Varela, Jaime; Weinberg, Sean J.

    2013-10-01

    We present a quantum theory of black hole (and other) horizons, in which the standard assumptions of complementarity are preserved without contradicting information theoretic considerations. After the scrambling time, the quantum mechanical structure of a black hole becomes that of an eternal black hole at the microscopic level. In particular, the stretched horizon degrees of freedom and the states entangled with them can be mapped into the near-horizon modes in the two exterior regions of an eternal black hole, whose mass is taken to be that of the evolving black hole at each moment. Salient features arising from this picture include (i) the number of degrees of freedom needed to describe a black hole is eA/2lP2, where A is the area of the horizon; (ii) black hole states having smooth horizons, however, span only an eA/4lP2-dimensional subspace of the relevant eA/2lP2-dimensional Hilbert space; (iii) internal dynamics of the horizon is such that an infalling observer finds a smooth horizon with a probability of 1 if a state stays in this subspace. We identify the structure of local operators responsible for describing semiclassical physics in the exterior and interior spacetime regions and show that this structure avoids the arguments for firewalls—the horizon can keep being smooth throughout the evolution. We discuss the fate of infalling observers under various circumstances, especially when the observers manipulate degrees of freedom before entering the horizon, and we find that an observer can never see a firewall by making a measurement on early Hawking radiation. We also consider the presented framework from the viewpoint of an infalling reference frame and argue that Minkowski-like vacua are not unique. In particular, the number of true Minkowski vacua is infinite, although the label discriminating these vacua cannot be accessed in usual nongravitational quantum field theory. An application of the framework to de Sitter horizons is also discussed.

  16. Effective hydraulic properties on a highly heterogeneous soil horizon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samouëlian, A.; Cousin, I.; Frison, A.; Richard, G.

    2009-04-01

    Knowing the soil hydraulic functioning for agricultural practices is more and more important in the context of global change. In that context, soil horizons represent the reference soil volume in term of soil functioning. Nevertheless they can be heterogeneous as for example, stony horizons, cultivated horizons, or also specific weathering horizons like those in Albeluvisol. The determination of effective hydraulic properties in these heterogeneous horizons can not be done by classical laboratory experiments like Multi-Step-Outflow or evaporative Wind experiment. So it remains a real challenge to get the effective hydraulic properties. The aim of this paper is to propose a methodology for the determination of effective hydraulic properties of heterogeneous soil horizons based on the knowledge of the: on one hand the 3D soil structure and on the other hand the local hydraulic properties. The studied soil is an Albeluvisol that exhibits some horizons composed by the juxtaposition of two Elementary Pedological Volumes (EPVs); they can be visually distinguished by their colours (ochre and white) and they have differential hydraulic functioning: the clayey ochre ones conduct less water than the loamy white ones. Local hydraulic properties were determined on each type of volumes. The 3D structure of the heterogeneous horizon was obtained by electrical resistivity measurements. Several two-dimensional cuts with different structures were extracted from this 3D block so that we can simulate on them the hydraulic functioning of the horizon by the Hydrus2D software. The equivalent water retention curve was obtained thanks to the additive properties of the water retention curves at the local scale. The equivalent unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of the horizon was determined on each 2D cut, which requires the knowledge of the structure. The calculations were done by two methods, a numerical one that simulated the water flow for a constant hydraulic potential, a analytical

  17. Fermion tunneling from dynamical horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Criscienzo, R.; Vanzo, L.

    2008-06-01

    The instability against emission of fermionic particles by the trapping horizon of an evolving black hole is analyzed and confirmed using the Hamilton-Jacobi tunneling method. This method automatically selects one special expression for the surface gravity of a changing horizon. The results also apply to point masses embedded in an expanding universe. As a bonus of the tunneling method, we gain the insight that the surface gravity still defines a temperature parameter as long as the evolution is sufficiently slow that the black-hole pass through a sequence of quasi-equilibrium states, and that black holes should be semi-classically unstable even in a hypothetical world without bosonic fields.

  18. Penrose inequality and apparent horizons

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Dov, Ishai

    2004-12-15

    A spherically symmetric spacetime is presented with an initial data set that is asymptotically flat, satisfies the dominant energy condition, and such that on this initial data M<{radical}(A/16{pi}), where M is the total mass and A is the area of the apparent horizon. This provides a counterexample to a commonly stated version of the Penrose inequality, though it does not contradict the true Penrose inequality.

  19. Meningococcal disease epidemiology in Australia 10 years after implementation of a national conjugate meningococcal C immunization programme.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, G L; Wang, H; Lahra, M; Booy, R; McINTYRE, P B

    2016-08-01

    Australia implemented conjugate meningococcal C immunization in 2003 with a single scheduled dose at age 12 months and catch-up for individuals aged 2-19 years. Several countries have recently added one or more booster doses to their programmes to maintain disease control. Australian disease surveillance and vaccine coverage data were used to assess longer term vaccine coverage and impact on invasive serogroup C disease incidence and mortality, and review vaccine failures. Coverage was 93% in 1-year-olds and 70% for catch-up cohorts. In 10 years, after adjusting for changes in diagnostic practices, population invasive serogroup C incidence declined 96% (95% confidence interval 94-98) to 0·4 and 0·6 cases/million in vaccinated and unvaccinated cohorts, respectively. Only three serogroup C deaths occurred in 2010-2012 vs. 68 in 2000-2002. Four (<1/million doses) confirmed vaccine failures were identified in 10 years with no increasing trend. Despite published evidence of waning antibody over time, an ongoing single dose of meningococcal C conjugate vaccine in the second year of life following widespread catch-up has resulted in near elimination of serogroup C disease in all age groups without evidence of vaccine failures in the first decade since introduction. Concurrently, serogroup B incidence declined independently by 55%. PMID:27094814

  20. Circulation and rainfall climatology of a 10-year (1979 - 1988) integration with the Goddard Laboratory for atmospheres general circulation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, J.-H.; Sud, Y. C.

    1993-01-01

    A 10-year (1979-1988) integration of Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheres (GLA) general circulation model (GCM) under Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) is analyzed and compared with observation. The first momentum fields of circulation variables and also hydrological variables including precipitation, evaporation, and soil moisture are presented. Our goals are (1) to produce a benchmark documentation of the GLA GCM for future model improvements; (2) to examine systematic errors between the simulated and the observed circulation, precipitation, and hydrologic cycle; (3) to examine the interannual variability of the simulated atmosphere and compare it with observation; and (4) to examine the ability of the model to capture the major climate anomalies in response to events such as El Nino and La Nina. The 10-year mean seasonal and annual simulated circulation is quite reasonable compared to the analyzed circulation, except the polar regions and area of high orography. Precipitation over tropics are quite well simulated, and the signal of El Nino/La Nina episodes can be easily identified. The time series of evaporation and soil moisture in the 12 biomes of the biosphere also show reasonable patterns compared to the estimated evaporation and soil moisture.

  1. Hopelessness as a predictor of attempted suicide among first admission patients with psychosis: a 10-year cohort study.

    PubMed

    David Klonsky, E; Kotov, Roman; Bakst, Shelly; Rabinowitz, Jonathan; Bromet, Evelyn J

    2012-02-01

    Little is known about the longitudinal relationship of hopelessness to attempted suicide in psychotic disorders. This study addresses this gap by assessing hopelessness and attempted suicide at multiple time-points over 10 years in a first-admission cohort with psychosis (n = 414). Approximately one in five participants attempted suicide during the 10-year follow-up, and those who attempted suicide scored significantly higher at baseline on the Beck Hopelessness Scale. In general, a given assessment of hopelessness (i.e., baseline, 6, 24, and 48 months) reliably predicted attempted suicide up to 4 to 6 years later, but not beyond. Structural equation modeling indicated that hopelessness prospectively predicted attempted suicide even when controlling for previous attempts. Notably, a cut-point of 3 or greater on the Beck Hopelessness Scale yielded sensitivity and specificity values similar to those found in nonpsychotic populations using a cut-point of 9. Results suggest that hopelessness in individuals with psychotic disorders confers information about suicide risk above and beyond history of attempted suicide. Moreover, in comparison with nonpsychotic populations, even relatively modest levels of hopelessness appear to confer risk for suicide in psychotic disorders.

  2. [Statistical observations on the cases of unnatural deaths examined at our department during the past 10 years].

    PubMed

    Nagamori, H; Mukai, T; Uchima, E; Tamaki, N; Ohshiro, T; Une, Y

    1993-02-01

    Medicolegal evaluation of 1495 cases of unnatural death of last 10 years was carried out in our department and the data so obtained were statistically analysed. The cases consisted of 260 inspections, 865 judicial autopsies and 370 administrative autopsies. The most frequent category was death from diseases followed by suicide, homicide, traffic accidents, other accidents and self originated accidents. In homicide cases, sharp objects were mainly used. Six cases of accident of scuba diving were included within the group of 28 cases of drowning of self originated variety. Although Okinawa is subtropical 12 cases of death by accidental hypothermia were found. Gangland fight using rifles cost 7 lives, 2 policemen, a high school student and 4 members of locally originated gangsters during last 18 months. Cardiac insufficiency was the most common of sudden unexpected death cases that complied with the data of Tokyo and Osaka. Death from alimentary disorder in Okinawa was 1.5 times more frequent than that in Tokyo and Osaka and liver disorder accounted for about 41%. The 68 cases of death from suckling contained 10 SIDS cases. Complication of medical treatment was encountered in 9 cases during the past 10 years.

  3. Persistent Psychological Well-being Predicts Improved Self-Rated Health Over 9-10 Years: Longitudinal Evidence from MIDUS

    PubMed Central

    Ryff, Carol D.; Radler, Barry T.; Friedman, Elliot M.

    2015-01-01

    Psychological well-being has been linked with better health, but mostly with cross-sectional evidence. Using MIDUS, a national sample of U.S. adults (N = 4,963), longitudinal profiles of well-being were used to predict in cross-time change over a 9-10 years in self-reported health. Well-being was largely stable, although adults differed in whether they had persistently high versus persistently low or moderate levels of well-being. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, those with persistently high well-being reported better health (subjective health, chronic conditions, symptoms, functional impairment) across time compared to those with persistently low well-being. Further, persistently high well-being was protective of improved health especially among the educationally disadvantaged. The findings underscore the importance of intervention and educational programs designed to promote well-being for greater segments of society. PMID:26617988

  4. The 10-year course of Alcoholics Anonymous participation and long-term outcomes: a follow-up study of outpatient subjects in Project MATCH.

    PubMed

    Pagano, Maria E; White, William L; Kelly, John F; Stout, Robert L; Tonigan, J Scott

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the 10-year course and impact of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA)-related helping (AAH), step-work, and meeting attendance on long-term outcomes. Data were derived from 226 treatment-seeking alcoholics recruited from an outpatient site in Project MATCH and followed for 10 years post treatment. Alcohol consumption, AA participation, and other-oriented behavior were assessed at baseline, end of the 3-month treatment period, and 1, 3, and 10 years post treatment. Controlling for explanatory baseline and time-varying variables, results showed significant direct effects of AAH and meeting attendance on reduced alcohol outcomes and a direct effect of AAH on improved other-oriented interest. PMID:23327504

  5. The 10 Year Course of AA Participation and Long-Term Outcomes: A Follow-up Study of Outpatient Subjects in Project MATCH

    PubMed Central

    White, William L.; Kelly, John F.; Stout, Robert L.; Carter, Rebecca R.; Tonigan, J. Scott

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the 10-year course and impact of AA-related helping (AAH), step-work, and meeting attendance on long-term outcomes. Data were derived from 226 treatment-seeking alcoholics recruited from an outpatient site in Project MATCH and followed for 10 years post-treatment. Alcohol consumption, AA participation, and other-oriented behavior were assessed at baseline, end of the 3-month treatment period, and one year, three years, and 10 years post-treatment. Controlling for explanatory baseline and time-varying variables, results showed significant direct effects of AAH and meeting attendance on reduced alcohol outcomes and a direct effect of AAH on improved other-oriented interest. PMID:23327504

  6. Natrelle Round Silicone Breast Implants: Core Study Results at 10 Years

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Diane K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Allergan’s Natrelle round silicone-filled breast implants were approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 2006 based on interim results from the Core Study; final 10-year study results are now available. Methods: Seven hundred fifteen subjects were implanted with smooth and Biocell textured Natrelle round silicone implants and attended clinic visits at 0 to 4 weeks, 6 months, 1 year, and annually through 10 years. Approximately one-third of subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging at years 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 to assess rupture. Results: Complication rates showed modest increases over the previously published 6-year rates. The Kaplan-Meier capsular contracture rate was 18.9 percent for augmentation, 28.7 percent for revision-augmentation, and 24.6 percent for reconstruction. Among augmentation subjects, capsular contracture was significantly lower (p = 0.023) for submuscular (15.7 percent) versus subglandular (26.3 percent) placement. The overall rupture rate in the magnetic resonance imaging cohort was 13.0 percent for subjects and 7.7 percent for implants. By the end of the study, 81.8 percent of augmentation subjects still had an original implant in place. Using a five-point scale, 94.2 percent of augmentation, 83.8 percent of revision-augmentation, and 90.7 percent of reconstruction subjects reported being satisfied or definitely satisfied with their implants. Significant improvement over baseline was also seen in overall breast satisfaction and satisfaction with breast size, shape, feel, and how well they matched. Conclusion: The 10-year data from the Natrelle Core Study, which can guide surgeons and patients in decision-making, demonstrate safety and high levels of patient satisfaction. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, III. PMID:24867717

  7. Toroidal horizons in binary black hole mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohn, Andy; Kidder, Lawrence E.; Teukolsky, Saul A.

    2016-09-01

    We find the first binary black hole event horizon with a toroidal topology. It has been predicted that generically the event horizons of merging black holes should briefly have a toroidal topology. However, such a phase has never been seen in numerical simulations. Instead, in all previous simulations, the topology of the event horizon transitions directly from two spheres during the inspiral to a single sphere as the black holes merge. We find a coordinate transformation to a foliation of spacelike hypersurfaces that "cut a hole" through the event horizon surface, resulting in a toroidal event horizon, thus reconciling the numerical work with theoretical expectations. The demonstration requires extremely high numerical precision, which is made possible by a new event horizon code described in a companion paper. A torus could potentially provide a mechanism for violating topological censorship. However, these toroidal event horizons satisfy topological censorship by construction, because we can always trivially apply the inverse coordinate transformation to remove the topological feature.

  8. ESA SMART-1 mission: review of results and legacy 10 years after launch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, Bernard

    2014-05-01

    We review ESA's SMART-1 highlights and legacy 10 years after launch. The SMART-1 mission to the Moon achieved record firsts such as: 1) first Small Mission for Advanced Research and Technology; with spacecraft built and integrated in 2.5 years and launched 3.5 years after mission approval; 2) first mission leaving the Earth orbit using solar power alone with demonstration for future deep space missions such as BepiColombo; 3) most fuel effective mission (60 litres of Xenon) and longest travel (13 month) to the Moon!; 4) first ESA mission reaching the Moon and first European views of lunar poles; 5) first European demonstration of a wide range of new technologies: Li-Ion modular battery, deep-space communications in X- and Ka-bands, and autonomous positioning for navigation; 6) first lunar demonstration of an infrared spectrometer and of a Swept Charge Detector Lunar X-ray fluorescence spectrometer ; 7) first ESA mission with opportunity for lunar science, elemental geochemistry, surface mineralogy mapping, surface geology and precursor studies for exploration; 8) first controlled impact landing on the Moon with real time observations campaign; 9) first mission supporting goals of the ILEWG/COSPAR International Lunar Exploration Working Group in technical and scientific exchange, international collaboration, public and youth engagement; 10) first mission preparing the ground for ESA collaboration in Chandrayaan-1, Chang'E1-2-3 and near-future landers, sample return and human lunar missions. The SMART-1 technology legacy is applicable to geostationary satellites and deep space missions using solar electric propulsion. The SMART-1 archive observations have been used to support scientific research and prepare subsequent lunar missions and exploration. Most recent SMART-1 results are relevant to topics on: 1) the study of properties of the lunar dust, 2) impact craters and ejecta, 3) the study of illumination, 4) observations and science from the Moon, 5) support to

  9. Maturogenesis of Two Maxillary Central Incisors: A Case Report with 10 Years of Follow Up

    PubMed Central

    Ghorbanzadeh, Abdollah

    2015-01-01

    This case report describes the treatment of two immature maxillary central incisors in a 7-year-old female patient. She suffered complicated crown fracture because of trauma, and the root formation was incomplete. White mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) was selected as the pulp-capping material after cervical pulpotomy to preserve the pulp tissue vitality and achieve maturogenesis. Follow-up evaluations showed successful treatment in terms of preservation of pulp vitality and demonstrated marked continuous physiological root development. During 10 years of follow-up, both teeth were clinically asymptomatic, and radiographic evaluations showed apparent root regeneration with apical root-end closure without pulp or periapical pathosis. PMID:26622286

  10. SATVI - after 10 years closing in on a new and better vaccine to prevent tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Hanekom, Willem A; Hawkridge, Anthony; Mahomed, Hassan; Scriba, Thomas J; Tameris, Michele; Hughes, Jane; Hatherill, Mark; Day, Cheryl L; Hussey, Gregory D

    2012-03-02

    The vision of the South African Tuberculosis Vaccine Initiative (SATVI) (www.satvi.uct.ac.za) is 'A World Without TB' and our mission is 'Innovative and high-quality TB vaccine research in Africa, to impact the global epidemic'. Over the last 10 years, our focus has been twofold: first, clinical trials of BCG and of new candidate vaccines, and second, complementary research that addresses critical questions in TB vaccine development. SATVI is now widely regarded as the leading TB vaccine clinical research site in the world.

  11. Adolescent drug trafficking trends in the United Kingdom--a 10-year retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Vale, Ellen Louise Eva; Kennedy, Patrick John

    2004-12-01

    This paper reports data from HM Customs and Excise (HMCE) of recorded cases of adolescent drug trafficking through all sea and air points of entry into the UK over a 10-year period (May 1992-May 2002). We report the characteristics of 38 cases of mixed gender and nationality ranging in age between 13 and 18 years who have been apprehended by HMCE due to the illegal importation of drugs. Highlighted is an increasing trend in UK national male and female adolescents being apprehended for drug trafficking. Of particular note is the observation that more young adolescent females were apprehended importing large consignments of Class A substances than their male counterparts.

  12. Othering: difference understood??: a 10-year analysis and critique of the nursing literature.

    PubMed

    Canales, Mary K

    2010-01-01

    It has been 10 years since Advances in Nursing Science (ANS) published the first article that articulated othering within a nursing framework. This issue's topic, Critique and Replication, provided an opportunity for analysis of the influence of the original ANS article on the visibility and application of othering within nursing literature. Comprehensive searches of major health databases identified 32 publications citing the original ANS article. The analysis focused on exclusionary and inclusionary othering, role taking, and constructions of the other. Results indicate that although othering has become more visible within nursing literature, exclusionary othering dominates. The article concludes with thoughts for moving beyond othering and toward engagement.

  13. A case of choroidal osteoma in a 10-year-old child

    PubMed Central

    Behera, Madhusmita; Das, Manmath Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Choroidal osteoma is a rare, benign tumor, usually diagnosed in healthy adult women in their second or third decade of life. Though its etiology and pathogenesis are unclear, it is usually diagnosed due to its typical clinical features of yellowish-orange colored subretinal lesion at posterior pole and a dense echogenic plaque persisting even in lower gains on B-scan ultrasonography. Mostly unilateral (79%), the median age of diagnosis is 26 years. It is relatively rare in children. We report a case of choroidal osteoma in a 10-year-old boy. PMID:26586966

  14. Solitary fibrous tumor arising slowly in the vulva over 10 years: case report and review.

    PubMed

    Taki, Mana; Baba, Tsukasa; Mandai, Masaki; Suzuki, Ayako; Mikami, Yoshiki; Matsumura, Noriomi; Konishi, Ikuo

    2012-05-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT), which was first described as a pleural lesion by Klemperer and Rabin in 1931, is a rare, slow-growing neoplasm characterized by the proliferation of fibroblast-like spindle cells arranged in a patternless manner with few nuclear atypia. Extrathoracic SFT have increasingly been recognized, but those in the genital tract are extremely rare. Gynecological SFT behave as tumors with low malignant potential to recur, metastasize, or affect nearby organs resulting in infertility. We report a case of vulvar SFT slowly growing for 10 years, and propose a strategy for the diagnosis and treatment of gynecological SFT.

  15. Incontinentia Pigmenti; a Rare Multisystem Disorder: Case Report of a 10-Year-Old Girl

    PubMed Central

    Rafatjoo, Rezvan; Taghdisi Kashani, Amene

    2016-01-01

    Incontinentia pigmenti is a rare genodermatosis in which the skin involvement occurs in all patients. Additionally, other ectodermal tissues may be affected such as the central nervous system, eyes, hair, nails and teeth. The disease has an X-linked dominant inheritance pattern. But in our case, there was a mutation in the body cells due to incontinentia pigmenti. The dermatological findings occur in four successive phases. We report the case of a 10-year-old female presented cutaneous, dental and ophthalmic characteristic with 3 years follow-up. Dental anomalies such as hypodontia, peg-shaped anterior teeth, malformed primary and permanent teeth, and delayed eruption were seen in our patient.

  16. Peroral Endoscopic Myotomy for the Treatment of Achalasia in a 10-Year-Old Male Patient

    PubMed Central

    Filser, Jörg; Dick, Anke; Meyer, Thomas; Germer, Christoph-Thomas; von Rahden, Burkard H.A.

    2014-01-01

    Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is a new endoscopic treatment for achalasia with very good short-term results in adults. Data about POEM in pediatric patients are missing. We present the case of a 10-year-old male patient with type I (classic) achalasia, successfully treated with POEM. The procedure was accomplished in a similar fashion to the technique used in adults. Short-term results were fine, with a complete control of dysphagia and absence of reflux. We suggest that POEM is a suitable option in pediatric patients—similar to adults—but long-term results must be awaited. PMID:26171309

  17. 10-year experience of injuries sustained during clearance of anti-personnel mines.

    PubMed

    Brown, R; Chaloner, E; Mannion, S; Cheatle, T

    2001-12-15

    Clearance of anti-personnel mines and unexploded ordnance in countries recovering from war usually continues long after conflict has ceased. We prospectively recorded 92 traumatic injuries sustained by 73 mineclearers working in seven countries over a period of 10 years. 15% of injuries were fatal, with an incidence of 116 injuries per 100000 workers per year. Limb injury occurred in 59% of cases, with an overall amputation rate of 30%. 44% of injuries were sustained by workers handling a mine, resulting in severe upper limb and facial injuries. The incidence of facial injuries fell after the introduction of visors.

  18. Mycoplasma pneumoniae associated organising pneumonia in a 10 year old boy.

    PubMed

    Wachowski, O; Demirakça, S; Müller, K-M; Scheurlen, W

    2003-03-01

    We describe a 10 year old boy with organising pneumonia associated with acute Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. The diagnosis of organising pneumonia was made by open lung biopsy and the M pneumoniae infection was proven serologically. Antibiotic and long term corticosteroid treatment resulted in steadily improving pulmonary function monitored by spirometry. The introduction of anti-inflammatory treatment with NSAIDs/immunosuppressive agents in order to spare steroids was well tolerated and resulted in further improvement of the pulmonary function. To our knowledge this is the first documented case of Mycoplasma pneumoniae associated organising pneumonia to be reported in a child.

  19. Parathyroidectomy in the treatment of patients with chronic renal failure: a 10-year review.

    PubMed

    Bessell, J R; Proudman, W D; Parkyn, R F; Disney, A P

    1993-01-01

    The technique and outcome of surgery for the manifestations of secondary hyperparathyroidism are described. Forty-seven patients were analysed retrospectively over a 10-year period. Total parathyroidectomy and autotransplantation to the forearm was performed in all but five patients. Improvement occurred in 87 per cent of patients and there were no graft failures. Of six deaths, none was related to surgery. Four patients had recurrent hyperparathyroidism, three being graft dependent and one requiring re-exploration of the neck. Total parathyroidectomy and autotransplantation is a safe and effective approach. The major management problem was graft hyperplasia, seen in three of the 47 patients and managed by simple excision.

  20. [Multicenter retrospective analysis of the patients with sarcoidosis with a 10 year interval in observations].

    PubMed

    Vizel', I Iu; Shmelev, E I; Baranova, O P; Barlamov, P N; Borodina, G L; Denisova, O A; Dobin, V L; Kulbaisov, A M; Kupaev, V I; Listopadova, M V; Ovsiannikov, N V; Os'kin, D N; Petrov, D V; Solov'ev, K I; Shul'zhenko, L V; Vizel', A A

    2014-01-01

    Comparison of the state of 83 patients with histologically confirmed sarcoidosis observed with a 10 year interval revealed remission in 47% of the cases. The main factors having negative effect on prognosis of the disease included extrapulmonary symptoms, the use ofcorticosteroids (at all stages, especially at stage I and in Lofgren syndrome) and antituberculosis drugs, positive TB test. Risk factors of relapses were stage II sarcoidosis, the use of systemic corticosteroids in patients with Lofgren syndrome and antituberculosis drugs, initially low FEV1/FVLC ratio and the number of lymphocytes in peripheral blood. PMID:25799827

  1. Photodynamic therapy for bronchial carcinoid tumours: complete response over a 10-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Moghissi, Keyvan; Dixon, Kate; Gibbins, Sally

    2013-06-01

    A 63-year old woman diagnosed in September 2001 with a typical bronchial carcinoid of the left upper lobe bronchus extending into the left main stem bronchus is presented. The patient was unsuitable for standard surgical treatment, and the topography was not amenable for a parenchyma-saving bronchoplastic procedure. Two cycles of bronchoscopic photodynamic therapy (PDT) were undertaken at 6 monthly intervals. The patient has now been followed up regularly for over 10 years without signs of recurrence bronchoscopically or radiologically. To our knowledge, this is the first case of a carcinoid tumour treated solely by PDT. PMID:23284100

  2. Isolated intramedullary spinal cysticercosis in a 10-year-old female showing dramatic response with albendazole

    PubMed Central

    Azfar, Shah F.; Kirmani, Sanna; Badar, Farheen; Ahmad, Ibne

    2011-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis is the most common parasitic infection of the central nervous system caused by larvae of Taenia solium. Spinal cysticercosis is an uncommon site of cysticercal infection, and isolated intramedullary involvement is even rarer. We present a case of 10-year-old girl who presented with gradual onset paraparesis with sensory loss and bowel and bladder incontinence. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of spine revealed a cystic lesion with mural nodule (scolex) which was diagnostic for cysticercosis. Patient was treated with antihelminthic, which led to marked clinico-radiological improvement. PMID:21977090

  3. Quality and Quantity of Published Studies Evaluating Lumbar Fusion during the Past 10 Years: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Robert; Hermsmeyer, Jeffrey T.; Sethi, Rajiv K.; Norvell, Daniel C.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Systematic review. Clinical Questions (1) Has the proportion and number of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) as an indicator of quality of evidence regarding lumbar fusion increased over the past 10 years? (2) Is there a difference in the proportion of RCTs among the four primary fusion diagnoses (degenerative disk disease, spondylolisthesis, deformity, and adjacent segment disease) over the past 10 years? (3) Is there a difference in the type and quality of clinical outcomes measures reported among RCTs over time? (4) Is there a difference in the type and quality of adverse events measures reported among RCTs over time? (5) Are there changes in fusion surgical approach and techniques over time by diagnosis over the past 10 years? Methods Electronic databases and reference lists of key articles were searched from January 1, 2004, through December 31, 2013, to identify lumbar fusion RCTs. Fusion studies designed specifically to evaluate recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 or other bone substitutes, revision surgery studies, nonrandomized comparison studies, case reports, case series, and cost-effectiveness studies were excluded. Results Forty-two RCTs between January 1, 2004, and December 31, 2013, met the inclusion criteria and form the basis for this report. There were 35 RCTs identified evaluating patients diagnosed with degenerative disk disease, 4 RCTs evaluating patients diagnosed with degenerative spondylolisthesis, and 3 RCTs evaluating patients with a combination of degenerative disk disease and degenerative spondylolisthesis. No RCTs were identified evaluating patients with deformity or adjacent segment disease. Conclusions This structured review demonstrates that there has been an increase in the available clinical database of RCTs using patient-reported outcomes evaluating the benefit of lumbar spinal fusion for the diagnoses of degenerative disk disease and degenerative spondylolisthesis. Gaps remain in the

  4. Elective treatment of bleeding varices with the Sugiura operation over 10 years.

    PubMed

    Orozco, H; Mercado, M A; Takahashi, T; Hernández-Ortiz, J; Capellán, J F; Garcia-Tsao, G

    1992-06-01

    A 10-year experience with the devascularization operation described by Sugiura is reported here. The operation was performed electively in 100 patients in whom it was not possible to place a shunt, all of whom had different kinds of hepatopathies (63 Child's A, 32 Child's B, and 5 Child's C). In 15 patients, the procedure was done in one stage (6% operative mortality, 1 patient), and, in 51, it was performed in two stages. Eight deaths were recorded in the 63 patients of the Child's A group, with a total of 111 operations. The operative mortality rate for this group was 12% and, as related to the number of operative procedures, 7% (8 of 111 operations). Seventeen patients were not considered for a second stage. Rebleeding in the early postoperative period was 4% and at long-term 6%. Incapacitating encephalopathy was found in 2 of the 71 surviving patients (3%). Survival (as determined by Kaplan-Meier tests) was 75% (1 year), 70% (5 years), and 69.2% (10 years). Six esophageal fistulas were observed secondary to transection. The Sugiura operation is an excellent complement to the therapeutic armamentarium used to treat portal hypertension, with low rebleeding and encephalopathy rates.

  5. HIV-positive shopper who bit employee gets 10 years in jail.

    PubMed

    1996-05-31

    Judge John Goshgarian sentenced John [name removed] to 10 years in prison for biting a store employee and then declaring he was HIV-positive. An unidentified employee at the Sam's Club store in Gurnee, IL tried to block [name removed] from exiting during questioning about a check he had just written. The bite [name removed] made on the employee's arm left teeth marks and drew blood. [Name removed] was charged with criminal transmission of HIV, a charge rarely used. He pled guilty to a lesser offense-aggravated battery in a public way, as well as related charges of forgery, possession of a fictitious driver's license, and obstruction of justice. The judge sentenced [name removed] to the maximum of 10 years in prison on the battery charge; criminal transmission punishment is 3 to 7 years in prison. [Name removed]'s test results remain sealed, although the store employee has been notified of the results and is undergoing monthly testing for HIV antibodies. Thus far, the results show he does not have the virus.

  6. A 10-Year Climatology of Amazonian Rainfall Derived from Passive Microwave Satellite Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Negri, Andrew J.; Anagnostou, Emmanouil N.; Adler, Robert F.

    1998-01-01

    In this study we present and describe a satellite-derived precipitation climatology over northern South America using a passive microwave technique, the Goddard Profiling Algorithm. A period of data slightly longer than 10 years is examined. The climatologies take the form of the mean estimated (adjusted) rainfall for a 10-year (+) period, with sub-divisions by month and meteorological season. For the six-year period 1992-1997, when two satellites were in operation, diurnal variability (to the extent it is discerned by four unequally spaced observations) is presented. We find an alternating pattern of morning and maxima stretching from the northeast (Atlantic coast) clear across the continent to the Pacific. The effects of topography, coastlines and geography (river valleys) on the rainfall patterns are clear. Interannual variability is examined by computing the deviations of yearly and warm season (DJF) rainfall from their respective long-term means. Interannual variability of the diurnal nature of the rainfall is presented, and the strong El Nino event of 1997-1998 is discussed.

  7. The EnviSAT ASAR Mission: A Look Back At 10 Years Of Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, N.; Rosich, B.; Meadows, P. J.; Haria, K.; Small, D.; Schubert, A.; Lavalle, M.; Collard, F.; Johnsen, H.; Guarnieri, A. Monti; D'Aria, D.

    2013-12-01

    The Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) on- board Envisat operated successfully for just over 10 years until the failure of Envisat in April 2012. ASAR was ESA's very first deployment of a C-band phased- array antenna, allowing extended imaging capacity in comparison to its ERS SAR predecessors. As such it operated in various acquisition modes - Image (IM), Alternating Polarisation (AP), Wide Swath (WS), Global Monitoring (GM), and Wave (WV). For IM and AP modes there was a selection of 7 swaths with swath width from 100 km to 56 km: IM was single- polarisation, while AP was dual-pol, offering a choice from HH&VV, HH&HV, or VV&VH. WS and GM modes had a total swath width of 405 km based on the combination of 5 sub-swaths. WV acquired imagettes of 10 km by 10 km every 100 km along the satellite track. This paper is a look back to the 10 years of ASAR operations, covering topics such as the ASAR Instrument (characteristics, acquisition modes, product tree and observation scenario), Instrument Calibration and Performance Verification (including instrument stability, internal calibration, external calibration, absolute radiometric calibration, localisation accuracy, absolute geolocation accuracy, performance verification and product calibration), ASAR specific missions (wave and polarimetric), particular ASAR events such as antenna resets, burst synchronisation, AP swath modifications and the Envisat orbit change in October 2010.

  8. 10 Years of Height Resolved, Cloud-Track, Vector Winds from MISR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garay, M. J.; Mueller, K. J.; Moroney, C. M.; Jovanovic, V.; Wu, D. L.; Diner, D. J.

    2009-12-01

    By utilizing multiple camera views and fast image matching algorithms to identify common features and determine feature motion, the MISR instrument on NASA’s Terra satellite has now collected nearly 10 years of height-resolved, cloud-track, vector winds using a single, globally consistent algorithm. The MISR cloud-track winds are reported globally on mesoscale domains of 70.4 km × 70.4 km and referenced to stereoscopically derived heights above the earth ellipsoid, which have a nominal vertical resolution of approximately 500 m. Importantly, from the standpoint of climate research, the stereo height assignment and wind retrieval are largely insensitive to instrument calibration changes because the pattern matcher relies only on relative brightness values, rather than the absolute magnitude of the brightness. We will describe comparisons with other wind datasets, including geostationary cloud drift winds, scatterometer surface winds, and reanalysis model winds, that demonstrate the quality of the MISR winds. We will also show the coverage and resolution advantages that MISR provides relative to these other datasets. Additionally, because the global winds are driven primarily by the global (im)balance of heating, monitoring variations in the winds over 10 years promises to yield important insights into the processes related to the hydrologic cycle and transport of heat and water vapor, such as the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) and the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO).

  9. Cementless total knee arthroplasty with Profix: a 8- to 10-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Hardeman, François; Vandenneucker, Hilde; Van Lauwe, Johan; Bellemans, Johan

    2006-12-01

    A consecutive series of 115 cementless Profix (Smith and Nephew, Memphis, USA) Total Knee Arthroplasties performed in 113 patients were followed in order to determine the functional results and survivorship at 8 to 10 years. All patients were included in a prospective database and were reviewed annually until final follow-up. Patients overall satisfaction was excellent or good in 91.3% of cases. The mean Knee Society's knee and function scores increased respectively from 49.3 and 36.7 preoperatively to 93.1 and 82.2 postoperatively. The Kaplan-Meier estimate of implant survival at 10 years was 97.1%. Two patients underwent revision and were considered as failures. One patient had a fracture of the medial condyle at 4 days post-surgery, and the other was revised for aseptic loosening of the tibial component at 6 years post-surgery. On the basis of this long-term follow-up study, we can conclude that the Profix Total Knee System is effective and safe. PMID:17064905

  10. Bibliometric Analysis of Orthopedic Literature on Total Knee Arthroplasty in Asian Countries: A 10-year Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Eom, Sang Hwa; Bamne, Ankur B.; Chowdhry, Madhav; Chae, Ihn Seok

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We aimed to determine the quantity and quality of research output of selected Asian countries in the field of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in the last 10 years. Materials and Methods Top 15 Asian countries were selected according to their gross domestic product. The Science Citation Index Expanded database was used to search for the literature published between 2004 and 2013 using "Total Knee Arthroplasty". The numbers of articles, journals and citations and the contribution of each country were analyzed. The articles were classified according to the type of study and the relative proportion of each type was analyzed. Results Asian surgeons have increasingly contributed to orthopedic literature on TKA for the past 10 years, but the dominant contribution came from only a few countries. The total number of articles published by Asian countries increased by 261%, with Japan producing most of the studies and China showing the maximum growth rate. The majority of studies were published in low impact factor journals. Korea published the highest proportion of articles in high impact factor journals. Clinical papers were most frequent. Conclusions Our identification of research productivity pertaining to TKA among Asian countries gives a unique insight into the level of academic research in the field of TKA in these countries. There is a need to improve the quality of research to enhance the publishing power in high impact journals as well as the need for more basic research and epidemiological studies considering the unique differences among Asian patients undergoing TKA. PMID:26389067

  11. Enteroviruses in Spain: virological and epidemiological studies over 10 years (1988-97).

    PubMed Central

    Trallero, G.; Casas, I.; Tenorio, A.; Echevarria, J. E.; Castellanos, A.; Lozano, A.; Breña, P. P.

    2000-01-01

    A total of 15,662 clinical samples were analysed for enterovirus (EV) isolation in cell cultures during a 10-year period (1988-97). Furthermore, 210 isolates of EV obtained in primary laboratories within Spain from patients with meningitis were characterized. The total number of EV typed was 758, including 727 non-polio EV and 31 Sabin-like (SL) polioviruses. Twenty-eight EV serotypes were represented. Echoviruses comprised 90% (653/727) of fully typed non-polio EV. The four most prevalent serotypes were echovirus 30, echovirus 9, echovirus 6 and echovirus 4. Echovirus 30 was the main serotype associated with meningitis. Echovirus 9 was the aetiological agent in 20 outbreaks of meningitis while the occurrence of echovirus 6 was localized in 1 year (1997). Coxsackieviruses A and B occurred in 3 and 7% of the non-polio EV respectively. Coxsackievirus B5 presented the relative greater abundance. This paper examines the epidemiology of EV in Spain to serotype level over a 10-year period with special attention to non-polio EV associated with meningitis. PMID:10982074

  12. Highlights from 10 Years of NASA/KNMI/FMI Collaboration on UV Remote Sensing from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhartia, Pawan K.

    2010-01-01

    The first joint meeting between NASA, KNMI and FMI scientists was held on 13 & 14 June, 2000, almost exactly 10 years ago. NASA had recently selected 14 US scientists to work on instrument calibration, science algorithms, and validation activities related to the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) that we being built by collaboration between the Netherlands and Finland for flight on NASA's EOS Aura satellite. The progress on this project had been remarkable for a space based instrument. Only two years before this meeting my colleague Ernest Hilsenrath and I had visited Netherlands at the invitation of Fokker Space to persuade KNMI management to collaborate with NASA on this mission. And only 4 years after the first science meeting was held OMI was lunched on the Aura spacecraft. Next month will be the 6 th anniversary of this launch and very successful operation of OMI. All this was possible because of the leadership from Dr. Hennie Kelder and KNMI management who in 1998 saw the opportunity for Netherlands in the mission and stepped up to the challenge by creating a young and talented team of scientists at KNMI under the leadership of Dr. Pieterenel Levelt. This vision has now put Netherlands as the leading country in the world in monitoring air quality from space. Recent selection of TROPOMI by ESA attests to the success of this vision. I will present some selected highlights of our very successful collaboration on this project over the past 10 years.

  13. Prenatal alcohol and marijuana exposure: effects on neuropsychological outcomes at 10 years.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Gale A; Ryan, Christopher; Willford, Jennifer; Day, Nancy L; Goldschmidt, Lidush

    2002-01-01

    This report from a longitudinal study of the effects of prenatal alcohol and marijuana exposure investigates whether these drugs affect neuropsychological development at 10 years of age. Women were recruited from a medical assistance prenatal clinic and interviewed about their substance use at the end of each trimester of pregnancy, at 8 and 18 months, and at 3, 6, 10, 14, and 16 years. Half of the women were African American, and half were Caucasian. The women were generally from lower socioeconomic status families and had obtained high school degrees. At the 10-year follow-up, 593 children completed a neuropsychological battery, which focused on problem solving, learning and memory, mental flexibility, psychomotor speed, attention, and impulsivity. Prenatal alcohol use was found to have a significant negative impact on learning and memory skills, as measured by the WRAML. Prenatal marijuana exposure also had an effect on learning and memory, as well as on impulsivity, as measured by a continuous performance task. The effects of prenatal alcohol and marijuana exposure persisted when other predictors of learning and memory were controlled. We continue to follow these offspring into the adolescent years when further neuropsychological deficits may become evident.

  14. Personality disorder risk factors for suicide attempts over 10 years of follow-up.

    PubMed

    Ansell, Emily B; Wright, Aidan G C; Markowitz, John C; Sanislow, Charles A; Hopwood, Christopher J; Zanarini, Mary C; Yen, Shirley; Pinto, Anthony; McGlashan, Thomas H; Grilo, Carlos M

    2015-04-01

    Identifying personality disorder (PD) risk factors for suicide attempts is an important consideration for research and clinical care alike. However, most prior research has focused on single PDs or categorical PD diagnoses without considering unique influences of different PDs or of severity (sum) of PD criteria on the risk for suicide-related outcomes. This has usually been done with cross-sectional or retrospective assessment methods. Rarely are dimensional models of PDs examined in longitudinal, naturalistic prospective designs. In addition, it is important to consider divergent risk factors in predicting the risk of ever making a suicide attempt versus the risk of making an increasing number of attempts within the same model. This study examined 431 participants who were followed for 10 years in the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study. Baseline assessments of personality disorder criteria were summed as dimensional counts of personality pathology and examined as predictors of suicide attempts reported at annual interviews throughout the 10-year follow-up period. We used univariate and multivariate zero-inflated Poisson regression models to simultaneously evaluate PD risk factors for ever attempting suicide and for increasing numbers of attempts among attempters. Consistent with prior research, borderline PD was uniquely associated with ever attempting. However, only narcissistic PD was uniquely associated with an increasing number of attempts. These findings highlight the relevance of both borderline and narcissistic personality pathology as unique contributors to suicide-related outcomes. PMID:25705977

  15. Beyond the veil: Inner horizon instability and holography

    SciTech Connect

    Balasubramanian, Vijay; Levi, Thomas S.

    2004-11-15

    We show that scalar perturbations of the eternal, rotating Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole should lead to an instability of the inner (Cauchy) horizon, preserving strong cosmic censorship. Because of backscattering from the geometry, plane-wave modes have a divergent stress tensor at the event horizon, but suitable wave packets avoid this difficulty, and are dominated at late times by quasinormal behavior. The wave packets have cuts in the complexified coordinate plane that are controlled by requirements of continuity, single-valuedness, and positive energy. Due to a focusing effect, regular wave packets nevertheless have a divergent stress energy at the inner horizon, signaling an instability. We propose that this instability, which is localized behind the event horizon, is detected holographically as a breakdown in the semiclassical computation of dual conformal field theory (CFT) expectation values in which the analytic behavior of wave packets in the complexified coordinate plane plays an integral role. In the dual field theory, this is interpreted as an encoding of physics behind the horizon in the entanglement between otherwise independent CFTs.

  16. Mutual influences between child emotion regulation and parent-child reciprocity support development across the first 10 years of life: Implications for developmental psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Ruth

    2015-11-01

    Elucidating the mechanisms by which infant birth conditions shape development across lengthy periods is critical for understanding typical and pathological development and for targeted early interventions. This study examined how newborns' regulatory capacities impact 10-year outcomes via the bidirectional influences of child emotion regulation (ER) and reciprocal parenting across early development. Guided by dynamic systems theory, 125 infants were tested at seven time points: birth, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months and 5 and 10 years. Initial regulatory conditions were measured by respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA; vagal tone) and neurobehavioral regulation (Brazelton, 1973) at birth. At each assessment between 3 months and 5 years, infant ER was microcoded from age-appropriate paradigms and mother-child reciprocity observed during social interactions. Four regulation-related outcomes were measured at 10 years: child RSA, empathy measured by mother-child conflict discussion and a lab paradigm, accident proneness, and behavior problems. An autoregressive cross-lagged structural model indicated that infant birth conditions impacted 10-year outcomes via three mechanisms. First, child ER and reciprocal parenting were individually stable across development and were each predicted by regulatory birth conditions, describing gradual maturation of ER and reciprocity over time. Second, better ER skills at one time point were related to greater reciprocity at the next time point and vice versa, and these cross-time effects defined a field of individual-context mutual influences that mediated the links between neonatal RSA and 10-year outcomes. Third, direct associations emerged between neonatal regulation and outcome, suggesting that birth conditions may establish a neurobiological milieu that promotes a more mature and resilient system. These mechanisms describe distinct "attractor" states that constrain the system's future options, emphasize the importance of defining behavior

  17. Mutual influences between child emotion regulation and parent-child reciprocity support development across the first 10 years of life: Implications for developmental psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Ruth

    2015-11-01

    Elucidating the mechanisms by which infant birth conditions shape development across lengthy periods is critical for understanding typical and pathological development and for targeted early interventions. This study examined how newborns' regulatory capacities impact 10-year outcomes via the bidirectional influences of child emotion regulation (ER) and reciprocal parenting across early development. Guided by dynamic systems theory, 125 infants were tested at seven time points: birth, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months and 5 and 10 years. Initial regulatory conditions were measured by respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA; vagal tone) and neurobehavioral regulation (Brazelton, 1973) at birth. At each assessment between 3 months and 5 years, infant ER was microcoded from age-appropriate paradigms and mother-child reciprocity observed during social interactions. Four regulation-related outcomes were measured at 10 years: child RSA, empathy measured by mother-child conflict discussion and a lab paradigm, accident proneness, and behavior problems. An autoregressive cross-lagged structural model indicated that infant birth conditions impacted 10-year outcomes via three mechanisms. First, child ER and reciprocal parenting were individually stable across development and were each predicted by regulatory birth conditions, describing gradual maturation of ER and reciprocity over time. Second, better ER skills at one time point were related to greater reciprocity at the next time point and vice versa, and these cross-time effects defined a field of individual-context mutual influences that mediated the links between neonatal RSA and 10-year outcomes. Third, direct associations emerged between neonatal regulation and outcome, suggesting that birth conditions may establish a neurobiological milieu that promotes a more mature and resilient system. These mechanisms describe distinct "attractor" states that constrain the system's future options, emphasize the importance of defining behavior

  18. Oil sheen weathering post Deepwater Horizon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellermann, M. Y.; Redmond, M. C.; Reddy, C. M.; Aeppli, C.; Nelson, R. K.; Valentine, D. L.

    2013-12-01

    A recently published study identified the source of the reoccurred oil sheens close to the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) disaster site as a finite contamination most likely derived from tanks and pits on the DWH wreckage itself. Here we use geochemical fingerprinting and microbial community analysis to better understand the fate and weathering processes affecting these surface oils. Both, alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are shown to reflect a linear decrease of hydrocarbon compounds with increasing distance to the DWH wreckage site (equivalent to exposure time on the sea surface). These results indicate that in the early stage of weathering the combined effects of dissolution and evaporation dominate the degradation of these surface oils. Sheen microbial communities were dominated by Cyanobacteria, Planctomycetes, Verrucomicrobia, Flavobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, and Deltaproteobacteria, with low relative abundances of Gammaproteobacteria likely to be hydrocarbon degraders (no more than 15% of sequences in each sample). However, some of these Gammaproteobacteria were closely related to putative hydrocarbon degraders observed in abundance in deep water plumes during the primary Deepwater Horizon spill, suggesting that very low levels of biodegradation may be also occurring. This in situ weathering experiment provides new insights in hydrocarbon weathering dynamics and shows how chemical and biological changes can potentially be masked by large evaporative losses of compounds smaller than C18 n-alkanes.

  19. Monitoring the affordability of healthy eating: a case study of 10 years of the Illawarra Healthy Food Basket.

    PubMed

    Williams, Peter

    2010-11-01

    Healthy food baskets have been used around the world for a variety of purposes, including: examining the difference in cost between healthy and unhealthy food; mapping the availability of healthy foods in different locations; calculating the minimum cost of an adequate diet for social policy planning; developing educational material on low cost eating and examining trends on food costs over time. In Australia, the Illawarra Healthy Food Basket was developed in 2000 to monitor trends in the affordability of healthy food compared to average weekly wages and social welfare benefits for the unemployed. It consists of 57 items selected to meet the nutritional requirements of a reference family of five. Bi-annual costing from 2000-2009 has shown that the basket costs have increased by 38.4% in the 10-year period, but that affordability has remained relatively constant at around 30% of average household incomes. PMID:22254001

  20. From methadone to buprenorphine: changes during a 10 year period within a national opioid maintenance treatment programme.

    PubMed

    Riksheim, Marianne; Gossop, Michael; Clausen, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    Opioid maintenance treatment (OMT) is the most widely used treatment for opioid dependence. Maintenance programmes differ in various aspects and may also change over time. This paper investigates the changes in treatment practices within a national OMT programme during a 10 year period (2002-2011), especially with regard to the prescribing of methadone and buprenorphine. Data (n=34,001) were collected by annual assessments questionnaires. In 2002, only 16% of the OMT patients received buprenorphine as their maintenance medication. By 2011 this percentage had increased significantly (p<.001) to 50.3%. In the same period the number of patients more than tripled (from 1,984 to 6,640, p<.001), and programme attrition rates decreased (p=.020). This relatively rapid shift is a part of the increasing reliance of addiction medicine upon a range of medications administered by different routes which has not been previously charted within a national treatment programme.

  1. Predictors of temporal patterns of psychiatric distress during 10 years following the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island.

    PubMed

    Dew, M A; Bromet, E J

    1993-04-01

    The present study examines psychiatric symptom levels during a 10-year period in a community sample of mothers of young children. All were identified in the early aftermath of the 1979 Three Mile Island nuclear accident, and followed through the accident's 1989 anniversary. Cluster analysis was used to identify long-term distress profiles during the study period; women's temporal profiles were found to be either (a) stable and at low, clinically nonsignificant levels of distress across all measurement points or (b) at consistently elevated, clinically significant levels that varied with the timing of postaccident events such as the restart of the undamaged reactor and the 10th anniversary. Subsequent multivariate analyses indicated that preaccident characteristics, as well as parameters reflecting respondents' initial involvement with, and reactions to the accident, were important for distinguishing between women within the two temporal profile groups. Implications of the results for both policy formulation and continued research on significant environmental stressors is discussed. PMID:8511662

  2. Gravitational radiations of generic isolated horizons and nonrotating dynamical horizons from asymptotic expansions

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Y.-H.; Wang, C.-H.

    2009-09-15

    Instead of using a three-dimensional analysis on quasilocal horizons, we adopt a four-dimensional asymptotic expansion analysis to study the next order contributions from the nonlinearity of general relativity. From the similarity between null infinity and horizons, the proper reference frames are chosen from the compatible constant spinors for an observer to measure the energy-momentum and flux near quasilocal horizons. In particular, we focus on the similarity of Bondi-Sachs gravitational radiation for the quasilocal horizons and compare our results with Ashtekar-Kirshnan flux formula. The quasilocal energy-momentum and flux of generic isolated horizons and nonrotating dynamical horizons are discussed in this paper.

  3. Topological deformation of isolated horizons

    SciTech Connect

    Liko, Tomas

    2008-03-15

    We show that the Gauss-Bonnet term can have physical effects in four dimensions. Specifically, the entropy of a black hole acquires a correction term that is proportional to the Euler characteristic of the cross sections of the horizon. While this term is constant for a single black hole, it will be a nontrivial function for a system with dynamical topologies such as black-hole mergers: it is shown that for certain values of the Gauss-Bonnet parameter, the second law of black-hole mechanics can be violated.

  4. [Effects of Slope Position and Soil Horizon on Soil Microbial Biomass and Abundance in Karst Primary Forest of Southwest China].

    PubMed

    Feng, Shu-zhen; Su, Yi-rong; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Xiang-bi; He, Xun-yang

    2015-10-01

    To explore the effects of slope position and soil horizon on soil microbial biomass and abundance, chloroform fumigation extraction methods and real-time fluorescence-based quantitative PCR (Real-time PCR) were adopted to quantify the changes of soil microbial biomass C, N and abundance of bacteria and fungi, respectively. Soil samples were harvested from three horizons along profile, i. e., leaching horizon (A, 0-10 cm), transitional horizon (AB, 30-50 cm) and alluvial horizon (B, 70-100 cm), which were collected from the upper, middle and lower slope positions of a karst primary forest ecosystem. The results showed that slope position, soil horizon and their interaction significantly influenced the soil microbial biomass and abundance (P < 0.05). Different from A horizon, where SMBC was greater in lower than in upper slope position (P < 0.05), SMBC in AB and B horizons were highest in middle slope position. Similarly, SMBN was greater in lower than in upper slope position for A, AB and B horizons. Besides soil bacterial abundance in B horizon and fungal abundance in AB layer, the middle slope position had the highest value for all the three soil horizons (P < 0.05). Stepwise regression analysis showed that soil organic carbon, available nitrogen and pH were the key factors responsible for SMBC and SMBN variation, respectively, while the important factors responsible for the variation of bacteria abundance were available nitrogen and available phosphorus, and that for fungi abundance variation were available potassium.

  5. Effects of background and classroom characteristics on the science achievement of 10-year-old students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosier, Malcolm

    1990-01-01

    Effects of characteristics of science classrooms on the science achievement of students were examined in the context of a simple model. The model incorporated prior attributes of the students in terms of home background, sex, and verbal and quantitative ability. The model was estimated by means of partial least squares multivariate procedures using data for 10-year-old Queensland students from the Second International Science Study. The results demonstrated the dominant influence of home background and verbal/mathematical ability. Female students tended to have lower scores after allowing for the influence of the other variables in the model. Students who stated that there were more student initiated activities in their science lessons tended to have lower achievement.

  6. Incontinentia Pigmenti; a Rare Multisystem Disorder: Case Report of a 10-Year-Old Girl

    PubMed Central

    Rafatjoo, Rezvan; Taghdisi Kashani, Amene

    2016-01-01

    Incontinentia pigmenti is a rare genodermatosis in which the skin involvement occurs in all patients. Additionally, other ectodermal tissues may be affected such as the central nervous system, eyes, hair, nails and teeth. The disease has an X-linked dominant inheritance pattern. But in our case, there was a mutation in the body cells due to incontinentia pigmenti. The dermatological findings occur in four successive phases. We report the case of a 10-year-old female presented cutaneous, dental and ophthalmic characteristic with 3 years follow-up. Dental anomalies such as hypodontia, peg-shaped anterior teeth, malformed primary and permanent teeth, and delayed eruption were seen in our patient. PMID:27602400

  7. Incontinentia Pigmenti; a Rare Multisystem Disorder: Case Report of a 10-Year-Old Girl.

    PubMed

    Rafatjoo, Rezvan; Taghdisi Kashani, Amene

    2016-09-01

    Incontinentia pigmenti is a rare genodermatosis in which the skin involvement occurs in all patients. Additionally, other ectodermal tissues may be affected such as the central nervous system, eyes, hair, nails and teeth. The disease has an X-linked dominant inheritance pattern. But in our case, there was a mutation in the body cells due to incontinentia pigmenti. The dermatological findings occur in four successive phases. We report the case of a 10-year-old female presented cutaneous, dental and ophthalmic characteristic with 3 years follow-up. Dental anomalies such as hypodontia, peg-shaped anterior teeth, malformed primary and permanent teeth, and delayed eruption were seen in our patient. PMID:27602400

  8. The Effects of Lack of Joint Goal Planning on Divorce over 10 Years

    PubMed Central

    Gere, Judith; Almeida, David M.; Martire, Lynn M.

    2016-01-01

    Given the negative consequences of divorce on health and well-being, it is important to try to identify its predictors. In the current study we used data from the National Survey of Midlife Development (N = 2801) to examine the longitudinal effects of lack of joint goal planning with a romantic relationship partner on divorce over a 10-year period. Multilevel regression analyses showed that lack of joint planning with the relationship partner was associated with a 19% increase in the odds of divorce, even when controlling for various demographic (i.e., age, gender, relationship length, number of children in the household), individual (i.e., neuroticism, positive affect, negative affect, physical symptoms, planning), and relationship (i.e., marital empathy, partner strain, partner disagreement, marital satisfaction, commitment). These results demonstrate the importance of considering one’s partner when making decisions and plans for the future, given that it has clear implications for relationship dissolution. PMID:27668863

  9. [Association between Crohn's disease and primary sclerosing cholangitis in a 10 year old girl].

    PubMed

    Muñoz Lozón, Ana; Iglesias Blázquez, Cristina; Menéndez Arias, Cristina; Domínguez Sánchez, Patricia

    2016-06-01

    A 10 year old girl with diarrhea, abdominal pain, weight loss and fever of one month and a half of evolution. Analytical and sonographic findings raised the possibility of inflammatory bowel disease. Endoscopy and histology showed findings consistent with Crohn's disease. Treatment was initiated with mesalazine and exclusive enteral nutrition. Later corticosteroid treatment, immunosuppressive drugs and ursodeoxycholic acid were added due to cholestasis and persistent hypergammaglobulinemia. Magnetic resonance cholangiography and liver biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of concomitant primary sclerosing cholangitis. The association between Crohn's disease and primary sclerosing cholangitis is rare, predominantly in males between 20 and 40 years old and it presents a great clinical variability. The confirmation of the diagnosis requires magnetic resonance cholangiography or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. The prognosis is poor and there is no treatment to slow the progression of the disease.

  10. The genetic and environmental etiology of high math performance in 10-year-old twins.

    PubMed

    Petrill, Stephen A; Kovas, Yulia; Hart, Sara A; Thompson, Lee A; Plomin, Robert

    2009-07-01

    The genetic and environmental etiology of high math performance (at or above the 85%tile) was examined in a population-based sample of 10-year-old twins (nMZ = 1,279, nDZ = 2,305). Math skills were assessed using a web-based battery of math performance tapping skills related to the UK National Math Curriculum. Probandwise concordance rates and liability threshold models indicated that genetic and shared environmental influences were significant, and that these estimates were generally similar to those obtained across the normal range of ability and did not vary significantly by gender. These results suggest that the genetic and environmental influences at the high end of ability are likely to be continuous with those that affect the entire range of math performance across all children irrespective of gender.

  11. Health Care Finance Executive Personalities Revisited: A 10-Year Follow-up Study.

    PubMed

    Lieneck, Cristian; Nowicki, Michael

    2015-01-01

    A dynamic health care industry continues to call upon health care leaders to possess not one but multiple competencies. Inherent personality characteristics of leaders often play a major role in personal as well as organizational success to include those in health care finance positions of responsibility. A replication study was conducted to determine the Myers-Briggs personality-type differences between practicing health care finance professionals in 2014, as compared with a previous 2003 study. Results indicate a significant shift between both independent samples of health care finance professionals over the 10-year period from original high levels of introversion to that of extraversion, as well as higher sensing personality preferences, as compared with the original sample's high level of intuition preferences. Further investigation into the evolving role of the health care finance manager is suggested, while continued alignment of inherent, personal characteristics is suggested to meet ongoing changes in the industry.

  12. Tracking 10-year competitive winning performance of judo athletes across age groups.

    PubMed

    Julio, Ursula F; Takito, Monica Y; Mazzei, Leandro; Miarka, Bianca; Sterkowicz, Stanislaw; Franchini, Emerson

    2011-08-01

    Little information is available concerning early specialization and competitive success in judo across the early training years. Thus, the present objective was to verify the stability of individual competitive performance of a state-level championship for judo athletes who had been previously successful. For this, 406 athletes from six age groups (9 to 20+ years old) of each sex were followed for 10 years. Using recorded data from the São Paulo State Judo Federation beginning in 1999, the scores and standings for these judo players were analyzed. The proportion of medal winners during this period was not constant, differing from the grand mean in all groups of both 204 males and 202 females. At the end of this period, only 7% of the male and 5% of the female athletes had maintained their competitive levels. Successful competitive performance in early judo competition was not associated with success later in adulthood. PMID:21987915

  13. Perceived neighborhood safety, recovery capital, and successful outcomes among mothers 10 years after substance abuse treatment

    PubMed Central

    Evans, E.; Li, L.; Buoncristiani, S.; Hser, Y.I.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines perceived neighborhood characteristics associated with successful outcome among mothers 10 years after being treated for substance use disorders. Data were obtained from 713 mothers first studied at admission to drug treatment in California in 2000-2002 and followed-up in 2009-2011. At follow-up, 53.6% of mothers had a successful outcome (i.e., no use of illicit drugs and not involved with the criminal justice system). Perceived neighborhood safety almost doubled the odds of success. Perceived neighborhood safety interacted with social involvement, decreasing the odds of success among mothers who reported more versus less neighborhood social involvement. Perceived neighborhood climate is associated with long-term outcomes among mothers with substance use disorders independent of individual-level characteristics, underscoring the need for further efforts to understand its interaction with recovery capital in ways that promote and impede health. PMID:24832914

  14. A review of Internet pornography use research: methodology and content from the past 10 years.

    PubMed

    Short, Mary B; Black, Lora; Smith, Angela H; Wetterneck, Chad T; Wells, Daryl E

    2012-01-01

    Internet pornography (IP) use has increased over the past 10 years. The effects of IP use are widespread and are both negative (e.g., relationship and interpersonal distress) and positive (e.g., increases in sexual knowledge and attitudes toward sex). Given the possible negative effects of IP use, understanding the definition of IP, the types of IP used, and reasons for IP use is important. The present study reviews the methodology and content of available literature regarding IP use in nondeviant adult populations. The study seeks to determine how the studies defined IP, utilized validated measures of pornography use, examined variables related to IP, and addressed form and function of IP use. Overall, studies were inconsistent in their definitions of IP, measurement, and their assessment of the form and function of IP use. Discussion regarding how methodological differences between studies may impact the results and the ability to generalize findings is provided, and suggestions for future studies are offered. PMID:22032795

  15. Organic anti-corrosion systems in FGD lignite-fired units -- 10 years of operation experience

    SciTech Connect

    Schwart, G.; Moellmann, A.

    1998-07-01

    In order to meet the limitation of sulfur dioxide emission that came into force at the 1st July 1988 RWE Energie installed 37 flue gas desulfurizing plants (FGD) in 4 lignite fired stations. These FGD's are operated on basis of the limestone process. The types of scrubber are different. To protect the inner steel surfaces of the scrubbers and the ducts from corrosion by the flue gas and the condensate, rubbers and coatings are used. During 10 years of operation experience with FGD's several types of corrosion protection systems in the surface in the scrubber and the ducts were used. The reliability and break down mechanism of different types of soft rubber linings and resin systems is discussed.

  16. Prospects for Emerging Infections in East and Southeast Asia 10 Years after Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, Dirk; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2013-01-01

    It is 10 years since severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) emerged, and East and Southeast Asia retain a reputation as a hot spot of emerging infectious diseases. The region is certainly a hot spot of socioeconomic and environmental change, and although some changes (e.g., urbanization and agricultural intensification) may reduce the probability of emerging infectious diseases, the effect of any individual emergence event may be increased by the greater concentration and connectivity of livestock, persons, and products. The region is now better able to detect and respond to emerging infectious diseases than it was a decade ago, but the tools and methods to produce sufficiently refined assessments of the risks of disease emergence are still lacking. Given the continued scale and pace of change in East and Southeast Asia, it is vital that capabilities for predicting, identifying, and controlling biologic threats do not stagnate as the memory of SARS fades. PMID:23738977

  17. Voice disorders without organic diseases of the larynx. A 10-year review of 62 patients.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Y; Miura, M; Shoji, H

    1983-01-01

    We reviewed the clinical records of 62 patients with voice disorders without organic diseases of the larynx who were examined in the Department of Otolaryngology, Kurume University Hospital during the 10 years from 1971 to 1980. There were 9 patients with psychogenic dysphonia, 24 with vocal abuse, 4 with spastic dysphonia, 9 with mutational voice disturbance, 8 with virilization of voice, 7 with dysphonia attributed to diseases of other organs than the larynx, and 1 with senile change of voice. The clinical service to the patients with these kinds of dysphonia has been poor in Japan for lack of trained voice pathologists. This has been also the case with our department. Recognition for the necessity of voice pathologists is strongly demanded.

  18. Tracking 10-year competitive winning performance of judo athletes across age groups.

    PubMed

    Julio, Ursula F; Takito, Monica Y; Mazzei, Leandro; Miarka, Bianca; Sterkowicz, Stanislaw; Franchini, Emerson

    2011-08-01

    Little information is available concerning early specialization and competitive success in judo across the early training years. Thus, the present objective was to verify the stability of individual competitive performance of a state-level championship for judo athletes who had been previously successful. For this, 406 athletes from six age groups (9 to 20+ years old) of each sex were followed for 10 years. Using recorded data from the São Paulo State Judo Federation beginning in 1999, the scores and standings for these judo players were analyzed. The proportion of medal winners during this period was not constant, differing from the grand mean in all groups of both 204 males and 202 females. At the end of this period, only 7% of the male and 5% of the female athletes had maintained their competitive levels. Successful competitive performance in early judo competition was not associated with success later in adulthood.

  19. Prospects for emerging infections in East and southeast Asia 10 years after severe acute respiratory syndrome.

    PubMed

    Horby, Peter W; Pfeiffer, Dirk; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2013-06-01

    It is 10 years since severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) emerged, and East and Southeast Asia retain a reputation as a hot spot of emerging infectious diseases. The region is certainly a hot spot of socioeconomic and environmental change, and although some changes (e.g., urbanization and agricultural intensification) may reduce the probability of emerging infectious diseases, the effect of any individual emergence event may be increased by the greater concentration and connectivity of livestock, persons, and products. The region is now better able to detect and respond to emerging infectious diseases than it was a decade ago, but the tools and methods to produce sufficiently refined assessments of the risks of disease emergence are still lacking. Given the continued scale and pace of change in East and Southeast Asia, it is vital that capabilities for predicting, identifying, and controlling biologic threats do not stagnate as the memory of SARS fades.

  20. Pertussis Accompanying Recent Mycoplasma Infection in a 10-Year-Old Girl.

    PubMed

    Cheon, Mi Kyung; Na, Hyunju; Han, Seung Beom; Kwon, Hyo Jin; Chun, Yoon Hong; Kang, Jin Han

    2015-09-01

    Recently, the incidence of pertussis has been increasing; however, reports on mixed infection of pertussis with other respiratory pathogens are rare in highly immunized populations. We report the case of a 10-year-old girl who presented with cough, post-tussive emesis, and fever. She was subsequently diagnosed with bronchopneumonia. Although she had received five doses of diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine, polymerase chain reaction of her nasopharyngeal aspirate confirmed Bordetella pertussis infection. In addition, serologic testing for Mycoplasma pneumoniae was also positive. The patient was treated with roxithromycin without any complications. This is the first report of mixed B. pertussis and M. pneumoniae infection in Korea. To avoid under-diagnosis, pertussis should be considered in patients with chronic cough even when other respiratory pathogens have been documented. PMID:26483996

  1. Tuskegee Bioethics Center 10th anniversary presentation: "Commemorating 10 years: ethical perspectives on origin and destiny".

    PubMed

    Prograis, Lawrence J

    2010-08-01

    More than 70 years have passed since the beginning of the Public Health Service syphilis study in Tuskegee, Alabama, and it has been over a decade since President Bill Clinton formally apologized for it and held a ceremony for the Tuskegee study participants. The official launching of the Tuskegee University National Center for Bioethics in Research and Health Care took place two years after President Clinton's apology. How might we fittingly discuss the Center's 10th Anniversary and the topic 'Commemorating 10 Years: Ethical Perspectives on Origin and Destiny'? Over a decade ago, a series of writers, many of them African Americans, wrote a text entitled 'African-American Perspectives on Biomedical Ethics'; their text was partly responsible for a prolonged reflection by others to produce a subsequent work, 'African American Bioethics: Culture, Race and Identity'. What is the relationship between the discipline of bioethics and African American culture? This and related questions are explored in this commentary.

  2. A 10-year plan to study the aquifer system of Indian Wells Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lipinski, Paul; Knochenmus, Darwin D.

    1981-01-01

    Water needs of the population of Indian Wells Valley, Calif., must be met through further development of ground-water resources. Studies show that annual ground-water pumpage there has increased since 1945 and has exceeded mean annual recharge since 1966. Continued and increased stress on the aquifer system of the valley is expected because population in the valley is predicted to double by 1998 and triple by 2020, based on 1977 population figures. The U.S. Geological Survey proposes a 10-year program to develop a data base to aid in evaluation of future water-management alternatives. A study plan has been developed that describes present and potential problems and objectives of the program, and outlines work items to be undertaken in the study area. (USGS)

  3. Use of Qualitative Methods in Published Health Services and Management Research: A 10-Year Review

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, Bryan J.; Amick, Halle R.; Lund, Jennifer L.; Lee, Shoou-Yih Daniel; Hoff, Timothy J.

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, the field of health services and management research has seen renewed interest in the use of qualitative research methods. This article examines the volume and characteristics of qualitative research articles published in nine major health services and management journals between 1998 and 2008. Qualitative research articles comprise 9% of research articles published in these journals. Although the publication rate of qualitative research articles has not kept pace with that of quantitative research articles, citation analysis suggests that qualitative research articles contribute comparably to the field’s knowledge base. A wide range of policy and management topics has been examined using qualitative methods. Case study designs, interviews, and documentary sources were the most frequently used methods. Half of qualitative research articles provided little or no detail about key aspects the study’s methods. Implications are discussed and recommendations are offered for promoting the publication of qualitative research. PMID:20675353

  4. Inflammation in end-stage renal disease--what have we learned in 10 years?

    PubMed

    Carrero, Juan J; Stenvinkel, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The first reports connecting uremic inflammation with a wasted and atherogenic phenotype and poor outcome initiated in the late 1990s. Since then, about 3500 publications appear on Medline, reflecting the exponential interest that this topic has evoked in nephrology. What was described as a "novel" risk factor 10 years ago has now evolved into an established finding in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The purpose of this review is to summarize the main advances contributing to our current understanding of the complex inflammatory processes present in ESRD. Causes and consequences of inflammation, genetic heritability of the inflammatory response, implications on outcome prognostication, and contemporary therapeutic evidence are some of the various topics discussed.

  5. [10 years after Chernobyl--radioactivity of mother's milk-- measurements from Tirol, Tibet and Nepal].

    PubMed

    Lechner, W; Brunner, P; Bergant, A; Pastner, E; Müller, D

    1997-11-28

    10 years after the Chernobyl disaster gamma radioactivity from Cs-137 was determined in 53 breast milk samples from Tyrol, as well as 9 samples from Tibet and 2 from Nepal by means of a gamma-spectrometer with a germanium detector. In contrast to the values obtained within a few days, and again 1 year after the nuclear plant catastrophe, all samples from Tyrol showed gamma radioactivity levels (median 0.07 nCi/l; range 0.02-0.20 nCi/l) which were now below the limit laid down for baby food in Austria (0.3 nCi/l-11.1 Bq). The samples from Tibet and Nepal registered a slightly higher level of gamma radioactivity (median 0.16 nCi/l; range 0.16-0.41 nCi/l).

  6. A review of Internet pornography use research: methodology and content from the past 10 years.

    PubMed

    Short, Mary B; Black, Lora; Smith, Angela H; Wetterneck, Chad T; Wells, Daryl E

    2012-01-01

    Internet pornography (IP) use has increased over the past 10 years. The effects of IP use are widespread and are both negative (e.g., relationship and interpersonal distress) and positive (e.g., increases in sexual knowledge and attitudes toward sex). Given the possible negative effects of IP use, understanding the definition of IP, the types of IP used, and reasons for IP use is important. The present study reviews the methodology and content of available literature regarding IP use in nondeviant adult populations. The study seeks to determine how the studies defined IP, utilized validated measures of pornography use, examined variables related to IP, and addressed form and function of IP use. Overall, studies were inconsistent in their definitions of IP, measurement, and their assessment of the form and function of IP use. Discussion regarding how methodological differences between studies may impact the results and the ability to generalize findings is provided, and suggestions for future studies are offered.

  7. Minimum 10-Year Wear Analysis of Highly Cross-Linked Polyethylene in Cementless Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    So, Kazutaka; Goto, Koji; Kuroda, Yutaka; Matsuda, Shuichi

    2015-12-01

    Fifty-four patients (64 hips) underwent cementless total hip arthroplasty between 2000 and 2003 with a 22-mm zirconia ceramic bearing on highly cross-linked polyethylene, and were evaluated with a mean 11.9-year postoperative follow-up (range, 10-14 years). Linear wear was measured on the anteroposterior radiograph of the hip. No evidence of osteolysis and loosening was found on the final radiograph in any of the cases, and the steady-state linear wear rate was 0.017±0.018 mm/year. No significant correlation was found between the linear wear rate and age, body weight, cup inclination angle, or polyethylene thickness. Highly cross-linked polyethylene showed excellent wear resistance for >10 years when used in combination with 22-mm zirconia heads.

  8. Total knee arthroplasty using cementless keels and cemented tibial trays: 10-year results

    PubMed Central

    Kolisek, Frank R.; Mont, Michael A.; Seyler, Thorsten M.; Marker, David R.; Jessup, Nenette M.; Siddiqui, Junaed A.; Monesmith, Eric

    2008-01-01

    The problem of early mechanical stability of cemented and cementless keels of the tibial component in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is controversial. The purpose of this study was to assess clinical and radiographic outcomes of a cohort of 51 TKAs using a cemented platform with cementless keel fixation. At a mean follow-up of 10.4 years (range, 7 to 14 years), the mean Knee Society Score (KSS) was 93 points (range, 59 to 100 points), and the mean functional score was 73 points (range, 0 to 100 points). Only one patient demonstrated progressive tibial radiolucencies at 13.1 years follow-up, which resolved with a revision with an exchange of components. The results of this study suggest that a proximally cemented tibial tray with a press-fit keel TKA provides excellent mean 10-year outcomes. PMID:18185931

  9. Predictors Associated with Changes of Weight and Total Cholesterol among two Occupational Cohorts over 10 Years

    PubMed Central

    Stanford, Joseph B.; Murtaugh, Maureen A.; Greenwood, Jessica L.J.; Gren, Lisa H.; Hegmann, Kurt T.; Thiese, Matthew S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To ascertain worker health characteristics and psychosocial factors associated with changes in body weight and total cholesterol (TC) among two production operation populations. Methods We performed descriptive and predictive analysis of questionnaire data and biomedical measurements from two prospective cohort studies. Our key outcomes were changes in weight, and TC over 5–10 years between baseline and exit assessments. Results 146 subjects were analyzed. Increases in weight were associated with belief in being overweight and baseline overweight and obesity. Increases in TC levels were associated with female gender, belief that TC levels were “not good,” and feeling depressed. Conclusion Most of the reported associations with increases in weight and TC levels are amenable to interventions and may be a target for workplace intervention programs. PMID:26147542

  10. Tuberculosis in Israel: a 10-year survey of an immigrant society.

    PubMed

    Dolberg, O T; Alkan, M; Schlaeffer, F

    1991-07-01

    Over a 10-year period (1978-87), 279 tuberculosis (TB) patients were diagnosed at the Soroka Medical Center. Of these, 48% were Ethiopian Jews, 28% Bedouin Arabs, and 24% were Jews of other origins. The Bedouin and Ethiopian patients were younger and had fewer concomitant diseases. The Ethiopian patients were hospitalized longer than other patients. Ethiopian and Bedouin patients were less compliant with therapy. There were 187 cases of pulmonary TB (67%), and 92 cases of extrapulmonary TB (33%). The majority of the Bedouin and Ethiopian patients had pulmonary tuberculosis, while extrapulmonary TB was more frequent among the rest of the patients. It is concluded that TB in the Negev reflects the diversity of its population, with characteristics of both a developing and a developed country. PMID:2071375

  11. After more than 10 years of Gulf War veteran medical evaluations, what have we learned?

    PubMed

    Gray, Gregory C; Gackstetter, Gary D; Kang, Han K; Graham, John T; Scott, Ken C

    2004-06-01

    Since the 1991 Gulf War, more than 10 years and 1 billion dollars of health evaluations and research have been invested in understanding illnesses among Gulf War veterans. We examined the extensive published healthcare utilization data in an effort to summarize what has been learned. Using multiple search techniques, data as of June 2003 from four different national Gulf War health registries and numerous hospitalization and ambulatory care reports were reviewed. Thus far, published reports have not revealed a unique Gulf War syndrome nor identified specific exposures that might explain postwar morbidity. Instead, they have demonstrated that Gulf War veterans have had an increase in multi-symptom condition, injury, and mental health diagnoses. While these diagnoses are similar to those experienced by other comparable military populations, their explanation is not fully understood. New strategies to identify risk factors for, and to reduce, such postdeployment conditions are summarized.

  12. Federal Transit Administration's noise and vibration Guidance Manual: Updates after 10 years of experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Carl E.

    2005-09-01

    In April 1995, the Federal Transit Administration of the U.S. Department of Transportation issued its guidance manual, ``Transit Noise and Vibration Impact Assessment.'' The manual was written to provide direction for the preparation of noise and vibration sections of environmental documents for public transportation projects in the interest of promoting quality and uniformity in assessments. In the 10 years since its release, the guidance manual has been used as the basis of noise and vibration assessments in over 80 environmental documents and has been used worldwide as a standard method for performing transit noise analyses. An updated version has recently been prepared that takes account of improvements in tools, changes in the environmental assessment procedures, modifications of impact criteria, and experience with mitigation measures. These factors, and other background information, will be discussed to provide insight regarding the revisions in the new edition.

  13. Pertussis Accompanying Recent Mycoplasma Infection in a 10-Year-Old Girl

    PubMed Central

    Cheon, Mi Kyung; Na, Hyunju; Han, Seung Beom; Kwon, Hyo Jin; Chun, Yoon Hong

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the incidence of pertussis has been increasing; however, reports on mixed infection of pertussis with other respiratory pathogens are rare in highly immunized populations. We report the case of a 10-year-old girl who presented with cough, post-tussive emesis, and fever. She was subsequently diagnosed with bronchopneumonia. Although she had received five doses of diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine, polymerase chain reaction of her nasopharyngeal aspirate confirmed Bordetella pertussis infection. In addition, serologic testing for Mycoplasma pneumoniae was also positive. The patient was treated with roxithromycin without any complications. This is the first report of mixed B. pertussis and M. pneumoniae infection in Korea. To avoid under-diagnosis, pertussis should be considered in patients with chronic cough even when other respiratory pathogens have been documented. PMID:26483996

  14. Use of qualitative methods in published health services and management research: a 10-year review.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Bryan J; Amick, Halle R; Lund, Jennifer L; Lee, Shoou-Yih Daniel; Hoff, Timothy J

    2011-02-01

    Over the past 10 years, the field of health services and management research has seen renewed interest in the use of qualitative research methods. This article examines the volume and characteristics of qualitative research articles published in nine major health services and management journals between 1998 and 2008. Qualitative research articles comprise 9% of research articles published in these journals. Although the publication rate of qualitative research articles has not kept pace with that of quantitative research articles, citation analysis suggests that qualitative research articles contribute comparably to the field's knowledge base. A wide range of policy and management topics has been examined using qualitative methods. Case study designs, interviews, and documentary sources were the most frequently used methods. Half of qualitative research articles provided little or no detail about key aspects the study's methods. Implications are discussed and recommendations are offered for promoting the publication of qualitative research.

  15. [Mosaic trisomy of chromosome 20 in a patient with congenital anomalies--10-years observation].

    PubMed

    Barg, Ewa; Gil, Justyna; Wikiera, Beata; Smigiel, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Trisomy 20 is one of the most often identified disorders in amniocytes, but in a postnatal analysis is detected rather rarely. We present a girl with dysmorphic features, congenital defects, tumor of a suprarenal gland, hypothyroidism and abnormal intelligence. The recognition of mosaic trisomy 20 was confirmed after cytogenetic examination of the skin fibroblast. The karyotype is described as mos 47,XX,+20/46,XX. The karyotype from peripheral blood lymphocytes, which was examined in the 1st year of life, was normal female (46,XX) and the Turner syndrome was excluded. During 10 years we observed that the dysmorphic features were increased and suggested genetic reasons of these features. In children with dysmorphic features and normal karyotype of blood lymphocytes a wide-ranged genetic counseling is necessary.

  16. Education status determines 10-year (2002-2012) survival from cardiovascular disease in Athens metropolitan area: the ATTICA study, Greece.

    PubMed

    Panagiotakos, Demosthenes; Georgousopoulou, Ekavi; Notara, Venetia; Pitaraki, Evangelia; Kokkou, Eleni; Chrysohoou, Christina; Skoumas, Yannis; Metaxa, Vassiliki; Pitsavos, Christos; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2016-05-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and educational level seems to be an important determinant of the disease occurrence. The aim of this work was to investigate the association between education status and 10-year incidence of CVD, controlling for various socio-demographic lifestyle and clinical factors. From May 2001 to December 2002, 1514 men and 1528 women (>18 years) without any clinical evidence of CVD or any other chronic disease, at baseline, living in greater Athens area, Greece, were enrolled. In 2011-2012, the 10-year follow-up was performed in 2583 participants (15% of the participants were lost to follow-up). Incidence of fatal or non-fatal CVD was defined according to WHO-ICD-10 criteria. Education status was measured in years of schooling. The 10-year incidence of CVD was 15.7% [95% confidence intervals (CI) 14.1%-17.4%], 19.7% in men and 11.7% in women (Pgender < 0.001). Age-and gender-adjusted analyses revealed that those with low education (<9 years of schooling) were 1.52 times more likely (95% CI 1.03-2.23%) to have CVD compared with those with high education (>12 years of schooling). People in the low education group had higher prevalence of hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidaemias, were more likely to be smokers and sedentary, had less healthy dietary habits, as compared with those in the high education group. When controlling for participants' medical history, smoking, dietary and lifestyle habits, low education was no longer significantly associated with CVD, illustrating the mediating effect of clinical and behavioural factors in the link between education and disease. It was of interest that low education status interacted with alcohol drinking, enhancing the adverse effect of low education on CVD risk (relative risk 1.44, 95% CI 0.94%-2.20%), after various adjustments made. In this study, it was concluded that low educational level was associated with increased CVD risk. This was

  17. Impact of the Active Healthy Kids Canada report card: a 10-year analysis.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Mark S; Barnes, Joel D; Cowie Bonne, Jennifer

    2014-05-01

    For 20 years Active Healthy Kids Canada (AHKC) has worked to inspire the country to engage all children and youth in physical activity (PA). The primary vehicle to achieve this is the AHKC Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth, which has been released annually since 2005. Using 10 years of experience with this knowledge translation and synthesis mechanism, this paper aggregates and consolidates diverse evidence demonstrating the impact of the Report Card and related knowledge translation activities. Over the years many evaluations, consultations, assessments, and surveys have helped inform changes in the Report Card to improve its impact. Guided by a logic model, the various assessments have traversed areas related to distribution and reach, meeting stakeholder needs, use of the Report Card, its influence on policy, and advancing the mission of AHKC. In the past 10 years, the Report Card has achieved > 1 billion media impressions, distributed > 120,000 printed copies and > 200,000 electronic copies, and benefited from a collective ad value > $10 million. The Report Card has been replicated in 14 countries, 2 provinces, 1 state and 1 city. AHKC has received consistent positive feedback from stakeholders and end-users, who reported that the Report Card has been used for public awareness/education campaigns and advocacy strategies, to strengthen partnerships, to inform research and program design, and to advance and adjust policies and strategies. Collectively, the evidence suggests that the Report Card has been successful at powering the movement to get kids moving, and in achieving demonstrable success on immediate and intermediate outcomes, although the long-term goal of improving the PA of Canadian children and youth remains to be realized. PMID:25426911

  18. Effect of Ocular Alignment on Emmetropization in Children <10 years with Amblyopia

    PubMed Central

    Kulp, Marjean T.; Foster, Nicole C.; Holmes, Jonathan M.; Kraker, Raymond T.; Melia, B. Michele; Repka, Michael X.; Tien, D. Robbins

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether change in refractive error is associated with ocular alignment in 105 children 3 to <7 years of age who previously participated in a randomized trial comparing atropine and patching for moderate amblyopia. Design Prospective cohort study Methods One hundred five children 3 to <7 years of age previously participated in a randomized trial comparing atropine with patching for moderate amblyopia. Cycloplegic refraction was measured at baseline and 10 years of age. Ocular alignment at baseline was categorized as orthotropic, microtropic (1–8Δ horizontal tropia), or heterotropic (>8Δ horizontal tropia). Multivariate regression models evaluated whether change in spherical equivalent refractive error was associated with alignment category, after adjusting for age, baseline spherical equivalent refractive error, and type of amblyopia treatment. Results Between enrollment and the age 10-year exam there was a decrease in spherical equivalent refractive error from hyperopia to less hyperopia (amblyopic eye: − 0.65D, 95%CI −0.85, −0.46; fellow eye: −0.39D, 95%CI −0.58, −0.20). A greater decrease in amblyopic eye refractive error was associated with better ocular alignment category (p=0.004), with the greatest decrease occurring in orthotropic patients. There was no relationship between ocular alignment category and change in fellow-eye refractive error. Conclusions Among children treated for anisometropic, strabismic, or combined mechanism amblyopia, there is a decrease in amblyopic eye spherical equivalent refractive error to less hyperopia after controlling for baseline refractive error. This negative shift toward emmetropia is associated with ocular alignment, which supports the suggestion that better motor and sensory fusion promote emmetropization. PMID:22633344

  19. Community Structure and Quality After 10 Years in Two Central Ohio Mitigation Bank Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spieles, Douglas J.; Coneybeer, Meagan; Horn, Jonathan

    2006-11-01

    We evaluate two 10-year-old mitigation bank wetlands in central Ohio, one created and one with restored and enhanced components, by analysis of vegetation characteristics and by comparison of the year-10 vegetation and macroinvertebrate communities with reference wetlands. To assess different measures of wetland development, we compare the prevalence of native hydrophytes with an index of floristic quality and we evaluate the predictability of these parameters in year 10, given 5 years of data. Results show that the mitigation wetlands in this study meet vegetation performance criteria of native hydrophyte establishment by year 5 and maintain these characteristics through year 10. Species richness and floristic quality, as well as vegetative similarity with reference wetlands, differ among mitigation wetlands in year 1 and also in their rate of change during the first 10 years. The prevalence of native hydrophytes is reasonably predictable by year 10, but 5 years of monitoring is not sufficient to predict future trends of floristic quality in either the created or restored wetland. By year 10, macroinvertebrate taxa richness does not statistically differ among these wetlands, but mitigation wetlands differ from reference sites by tolerance index and by trophic guild dominance. The created wetland herbivore biomass is significantly smaller than its reference, whereas detritivore biomass is significantly greater in the created wetland and smaller in the restored wetland as compared with respective reference wetlands. These analyses illustrate differences in measures of wetland performance and contrast the monitoring duration necessary for legal compliance with the duration required for development of more complex indicators of ecosystem integrity.

  20. Injuries in a Professional Ballet Dance Company: A 10-year Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Ramkumar, Prem N; Farber, Joseph; Arnouk, Johnny; Varner, Kevin E; Mcculloch, Patrick C

    2016-03-01

    Ballet dancers are high-performance athletes who are particularly susceptible to a wide variety of musculoskeletal injuries. However, they are relatively understudied, and data on their injury rates are lacking. This retrospective study features the largest aggregate data on professional ballet dancers to date and aims to identify the most common diagnoses and areas of injury in this unique population to better direct preventative and clinical practices. The study encompassed a 10-year period from January 2000 to December 2010 of dancers from a single company. Data regarding the dancers' age, gender, location of injury, and diagnosis were collected from workers' compensation claims, company records, and medical records maintained by the treating doctors. These were analyzed to determine metrics on injury incidence, frequency, and diagnosis. Over the 10-year span, 574 injuries occurred. There were approximately 52 dancers per year for a total of 153 who danced at least one complete season during the study period. The average age was 27, and 53% were female. Given turnover with retirement and replacements, the total number of dancer-years was 520, indicating an injury incidence per annum of 1.10 (574 injuries per 520 dancer-years). The most common locations of injury were foot and ankle and the lumbar spine, with the three most common diagnoses making up greater than a third (37%) of the total. As the current largest study in professional ballet, the findings set the benchmark metrics for musculoskeletal injury to the foot, ankle, and lumbar spine sites. Future studies should aim to identify injury risk factors and modalities for prevention of these injuries. PMID:27025450

  1. Impact of the Active Healthy Kids Canada report card: a 10-year analysis.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Mark S; Barnes, Joel D; Cowie Bonne, Jennifer

    2014-05-01

    For 20 years Active Healthy Kids Canada (AHKC) has worked to inspire the country to engage all children and youth in physical activity (PA). The primary vehicle to achieve this is the AHKC Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth, which has been released annually since 2005. Using 10 years of experience with this knowledge translation and synthesis mechanism, this paper aggregates and consolidates diverse evidence demonstrating the impact of the Report Card and related knowledge translation activities. Over the years many evaluations, consultations, assessments, and surveys have helped inform changes in the Report Card to improve its impact. Guided by a logic model, the various assessments have traversed areas related to distribution and reach, meeting stakeholder needs, use of the Report Card, its influence on policy, and advancing the mission of AHKC. In the past 10 years, the Report Card has achieved > 1 billion media impressions, distributed > 120,000 printed copies and > 200,000 electronic copies, and benefited from a collective ad value > $10 million. The Report Card has been replicated in 14 countries, 2 provinces, 1 state and 1 city. AHKC has received consistent positive feedback from stakeholders and end-users, who reported that the Report Card has been used for public awareness/education campaigns and advocacy strategies, to strengthen partnerships, to inform research and program design, and to advance and adjust policies and strategies. Collectively, the evidence suggests that the Report Card has been successful at powering the movement to get kids moving, and in achieving demonstrable success on immediate and intermediate outcomes, although the long-term goal of improving the PA of Canadian children and youth remains to be realized.

  2. Deaths in the Cook County jail: 10-year report, 1995-2004.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seijeoung; Ting, Andrew; Puisis, Michael; Rodriguez, Sergio; Benson, Roger; Mennella, Connie; Davis, Faith

    2007-01-01

    The aims of this study were to describe causes of death during the 10-year period between 1995 and 2004 in a large urban jail in Chicago; to compare disease specific mortality rates between the jail population and the general population; to explore demographic and incarceration characteristics of the inmates who died in the jail by cause of death; and to examine gender difference in demographic characteristics, incarceration patterns, and causes of death. A total of 178 deaths occurring in the jail over a 10-year period (1995-2004) were reviewed. Age-adjusted disease-specific mortality rates were computed for the jail population and compared with the rates in the US general population. Cause of death, demographic variables, and incarceration related factors were retrieved from multiple computerized databases. Descriptive analyses were performed to examine demographic and incarceration-related patterns by cause of death and gender. Heart disease was the most frequent cause of death in the jail population, followed by cerebrovascular disease and suicide. Mortality rates for heart diseases, infectious/inflammatory conditions and suicide were higher for jail inmates than the general population. Black inmates accounted for the majority of deaths due to illnesses and homicide, and a much higher proportion of white and Hispanic inmates were involved in suicide deaths. Deaths due to drug overdose or withdrawal were disproportionately higher among female inmates compared with male inmates. Consistent review of mortality rates and causes of deaths in jail can be a useful tool to better understand health issues and needs of jail inmates. Surveillance of acute and chronic illnesses and strategic reengineering of jail health care is a key to quality improvement for incarcerated populations for whom the jail system becomes their primary care provider. PMID:17136629

  3. Injuries in a Professional Ballet Dance Company: A 10-year Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Ramkumar, Prem N; Farber, Joseph; Arnouk, Johnny; Varner, Kevin E; Mcculloch, Patrick C

    2016-03-01

    Ballet dancers are high-performance athletes who are particularly susceptible to a wide variety of musculoskeletal injuries. However, they are relatively understudied, and data on their injury rates are lacking. This retrospective study features the largest aggregate data on professional ballet dancers to date and aims to identify the most common diagnoses and areas of injury in this unique population to better direct preventative and clinical practices. The study encompassed a 10-year period from January 2000 to December 2010 of dancers from a single company. Data regarding the dancers' age, gender, location of injury, and diagnosis were collected from workers' compensation claims, company records, and medical records maintained by the treating doctors. These were analyzed to determine metrics on injury incidence, frequency, and diagnosis. Over the 10-year span, 574 injuries occurred. There were approximately 52 dancers per year for a total of 153 who danced at least one complete season during the study period. The average age was 27, and 53% were female. Given turnover with retirement and replacements, the total number of dancer-years was 520, indicating an injury incidence per annum of 1.10 (574 injuries per 520 dancer-years). The most common locations of injury were foot and ankle and the lumbar spine, with the three most common diagnoses making up greater than a third (37%) of the total. As the current largest study in professional ballet, the findings set the benchmark metrics for musculoskeletal injury to the foot, ankle, and lumbar spine sites. Future studies should aim to identify injury risk factors and modalities for prevention of these injuries.

  4. Type 2 Diabetes and 10-Year Risk of Dementia and Cognitive Impairment Among Older Mexican Americans

    PubMed Central

    Mayeda, Elizabeth R.; Haan, Mary N.; Kanaya, Alka M.; Yaffe, Kristine; Neuhaus, John

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Type 2 diabetes has been linked with increased risk of dementia and cognitive impairment among older adults and with premature mortality in young and middle-aged adults. No studies have evaluated the association between diabetes and dementia among Mexican Americans, a population with a high burden of diabetes. We evaluated the association of diabetes with incidence of dementia and cognitive impairment without dementia (CIND) among older Mexican Americans while accounting for competing risk from death. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This study included 1,617 participants 60–98 years of age from the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging followed up to 10 years from 1998. We evaluated the association between diabetes and dementia/CIND with competing risk regression models. RESULTS Participants free of dementia/CIND at baseline (n = 1,617) were followed annually up to 10 years. There were 677 (41.9%) participants with diabetes, 159 (9.8%) incident dementia/CIND cases, and 361 (22.3%) deaths. Treated and untreated diabetes (hazard ratio 2.12 [95% CI 1.65–2.73] and 2.15 [1.58–2.95]) and dementia/CIND (2.48 [1.75–3.51]) were associated with an increased risk of death. In models adjusted for competing risk of death, those with treated and untreated diabetes had an increased risk of dementia/CIND (2.05 [1.41–2.97] and 1.55 [0.93–2.58]) compared with those without diabetes. CONCLUSIONS These findings provide evidence that the association between type 2 diabetes and dementia/CIND among Mexican Americans remains strong after accounting for competing risk of mortality. Treatments that modify risk of death among those with diabetes may change future dementia risk. PMID:23514732

  5. Holography beyond the horizon and cosmic censorship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levi, Thomas S.; Ross, Simon F.

    2003-08-01

    We investigate the description of the region behind the event horizon in rotating black holes in the AdS conformal field theory correspondence, using the rotating Bañados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black hole as a concrete example. We extend a technique introduced by Kraus, Ooguri, and Shenker, based on analytically continuing amplitudes defined in a Euclidean space, to include rotation. In the rotating case, boundary amplitudes again have two different bulk descriptions, involving either integration only over the regions outside the black holes’ event horizon, or integration over this region and the region between the event horizon and the Cauchy horizon (inner horizon). We argue that generally, the holographic map will relate the field theory to the region bounded by the Cauchy horizons in spacetime. We also argue that these results suggest that the holographic description of black holes will satisfy strong cosmic censorship.

  6. Variable horizon in a peridynamic medium.

    SciTech Connect

    Silling, Stewart Andrew; Littlewood, David John; Seleson, Pablo

    2014-10-01

    A notion of material homogeneity is proposed for peridynamic bodies with vari- able horizon but constant bulk properties. A relation is derived that scales the force state according to the position-dependent horizon while keeping the bulk properties un- changed. Using this scaling relation, if the horizon depends on position, artifacts called ghost forces may arise in a body under homogeneous deformation. These artifacts de- pend on the second derivative of horizon and can be reduced by use of a modified equilibrium equation using a new quantity called the partial stress . Bodies with piece- wise constant horizon can be modeled without ghost forces by using a technique called a splice between the regions. As a limiting case of zero horizon, both partial stress and splice techniques can be used to achieve local-nonlocal coupling. Computational examples, including dynamic fracture in a one-dimensional model with local-nonlocal coupling, illustrate the methods.

  7. Variable horizon in a peridynamic medium

    DOE PAGES

    Silling, Stewart A.; Littlewood, David J.; Seleson, Pablo

    2015-12-10

    Here, a notion of material homogeneity is proposed for peridynamic bodies with variable horizon but constant bulk properties. A relation is derived that scales the force state according to the position-dependent horizon while keeping the bulk properties unchanged. Using this scaling relation, if the horizon depends on position, artifacts called ghost forces may arise in a body under a homogeneous deformation. These artifacts depend on the second derivative of the horizon and can be reduced by employing a modified equilibrium equation using a new quantity called the partial stress. Bodies with piecewise constant horizon can be modeled without ghost forcesmore » by using a simpler technique called a splice. As a limiting case of zero horizon, both the partial stress and splice techniques can be used to achieve local-nonlocal coupling. Computational examples, including dynamic fracture in a one-dimensional model with local-nonlocal coupling, illustrate the methods.« less

  8. Variable horizon in a peridynamic medium

    SciTech Connect

    Silling, Stewart A.; Littlewood, David J.; Seleson, Pablo

    2015-12-10

    Here, a notion of material homogeneity is proposed for peridynamic bodies with variable horizon but constant bulk properties. A relation is derived that scales the force state according to the position-dependent horizon while keeping the bulk properties unchanged. Using this scaling relation, if the horizon depends on position, artifacts called ghost forces may arise in a body under a homogeneous deformation. These artifacts depend on the second derivative of the horizon and can be reduced by employing a modified equilibrium equation using a new quantity called the partial stress. Bodies with piecewise constant horizon can be modeled without ghost forces by using a simpler technique called a splice. As a limiting case of zero horizon, both the partial stress and splice techniques can be used to achieve local-nonlocal coupling. Computational examples, including dynamic fracture in a one-dimensional model with local-nonlocal coupling, illustrate the methods.

  9. Correlates of sedentary behaviour in 8- to 10-year-old children at elevated risk for obesity.

    PubMed

    Herman, Katya M; Sabiston, Catherine M; Mathieu, Marie-Eve; Tremblay, Angelo; Paradis, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe correlates of sedentary behaviour (SED) in children at elevated risk of obesity because of parental obesity. Participants were 534 children aged 8-10 years with ≥ 1 obese parent. SED and physical activity (PA) were measured by accelerometer, screen time by self-report, and height, weight, waist circumference, and cardiovascular fitness objectively measured. Data describing the child, parents, friends, and home and neighbourhood environments were from child self-report. Higher total SED time was significantly positively associated with child's age, mother's age, Tanner stage, weight status or waist circumference, less self-reported PA, choosing screen time over PA/sport, mother saying PA/sport good for them, and fewer weekly physical education (PE) classes. Exceeding 2 h/day screen time was significantly associated with child's age, male sex, weight status or waist circumference, choosing screen time over PA/sport, and dinnertime TV viewing. Children regularly watching TV with dinner had 2.3 times greater odds (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.52, 3.58) of exceeding screen time guidelines compared with children rarely watching TV with dinner; children reporting ≤ 2 PE classes/week had 2.4 times greater odds (95% CI 1.41, 4.10) of being in the highest SED tertile compared with children reporting >2 PE classes/week. Hence, the most sedentary children are older, more biologically mature, less active, more overweight/obese, have fewer PE classes, and are more likely to choose screen time over PA and watch TV with dinner compared with less sedentary children. PE opportunities and mealtime TV viewing are potentially modifiable targets for reducing total SED and screen time in children. PMID:25415850

  10. Correlates of sedentary behaviour in 8- to 10-year-old children at elevated risk for obesity.

    PubMed

    Herman, Katya M; Sabiston, Catherine M; Mathieu, Marie-Eve; Tremblay, Angelo; Paradis, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe correlates of sedentary behaviour (SED) in children at elevated risk of obesity because of parental obesity. Participants were 534 children aged 8-10 years with ≥ 1 obese parent. SED and physical activity (PA) were measured by accelerometer, screen time by self-report, and height, weight, waist circumference, and cardiovascular fitness objectively measured. Data describing the child, parents, friends, and home and neighbourhood environments were from child self-report. Higher total SED time was significantly positively associated with child's age, mother's age, Tanner stage, weight status or waist circumference, less self-reported PA, choosing screen time over PA/sport, mother saying PA/sport good for them, and fewer weekly physical education (PE) classes. Exceeding 2 h/day screen time was significantly associated with child's age, male sex, weight status or waist circumference, choosing screen time over PA/sport, and dinnertime TV viewing. Children regularly watching TV with dinner had 2.3 times greater odds (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.52, 3.58) of exceeding screen time guidelines compared with children rarely watching TV with dinner; children reporting ≤ 2 PE classes/week had 2.4 times greater odds (95% CI 1.41, 4.10) of being in the highest SED tertile compared with children reporting >2 PE classes/week. Hence, the most sedentary children are older, more biologically mature, less active, more overweight/obese, have fewer PE classes, and are more likely to choose screen time over PA and watch TV with dinner compared with less sedentary children. PE opportunities and mealtime TV viewing are potentially modifiable targets for reducing total SED and screen time in children.

  11. Rosetta begins its 10-year journey to the origins of the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-03-01

    Rosetta’s mission began at 08h17 CET (07h17 GMT) on 2 March when a European Ariane 5 launch vehicle liftered off from the Guiana Space Centre, Europe’s spaceport in Kourou, French Guiana. The launcher successfully placed its upper stage and payload into an eccentric coast orbit (200 x 4000 km). About two hours later, at 10h14 CET (09h14 GMT) the upper stage ignited its own engine to reach an escape velocity in order to leave the Earth’s gravity field and enter heliocentric orbit. The Rosetta probe was released about 18 minutes later. “After the recent success of Mars Express, Europe is now heading to deep space with another fantastic mission. We will have to be patient, as the rendezvous with the comet will not take place until ten years from now, but I think it’s worth the wait” said ESA’s Director General Jean-Jacques Dordain witnessing the launch from Kourou. ESA’s Operations Centre (ESOC) in Darmstadt, Germany, has established contact with the probe as it flies away from Earth at a relative speed of about 3.4 km/s. ESOC will be in charge of Rosetta operations and orbit determination throughout the mission. During the next eight months, the spacecraft’s onboard systems will be checked and its science payload will be commissioned. A 10-year odyssey Rosetta will be reactivated for planetary flybys, which will be used to modify its trajectory through gravity assist manoeuvres. During the trip, the probe could also observe one or more asteroids, observation of asteroids being one of the mission's secondary objectives. The first planetary encounter will be in March 2005, as Rosetta flies by the Earth for the first time. The gravity assist will boost Rosetta into an orbit that will take it to Mars two years later. During its close encounter with Mars in February 2007, Rosetta will approach to a distance of about 200 km and conduct science observations. This Martian flyby will be followed by another Earth flyby in November the same year. Both

  12. Theory underlying the peripheral vision horizon device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Money, K. E.

    1984-01-01

    Peripheral Vision Horizon Device (PVHD) theory states that the likelihood of pilot disorientation in flight is reduced by providing an artificial horizon that provides orientation information to peripheral vision. In considering the validity of the theory, three areas are explored: the use of an artificial horizon device over some other flight instrument; the use of peripheral vision over foveal vision; and the evidence that peripheral vision is well suited to the processing of orientation information.

  13. Horizons of semiclassical black holes are cold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brustein, Ram; Medved, A. J. M.

    2014-06-01

    We calculate, using our recently proposed semiclassical framework, the quantum state of the Hawking pairs that are produced during the evaporation of a black hole (BH). Our framework adheres to the standard rules of quantum mechanics and incorporates the quantum fluctuations of the collapsing shell spacetime in Hawking's original calculation, while accounting for back-reaction effects. We argue that the negative-energy Hawking modes need to be regularly integrated out; and so these are effectively subsumed by the BH and, as a result, the number of coherent negative-energy modes N coh at any given time is parametrically smaller than the total number of the Hawking particles N total emitted during the lifetime of the BH. We find that N coh is determined by the width of the BH wavefunction and scales as the square root of the BH entropy. We also find that the coherent negative-energy modes are strongly entangled with their positive-energy partners. Previously, we have found that N coh is also the number of coherent outgoing particles and that information can be continually transferred to the outgoing radiation at a rate set by N coh . Our current results show that, while the BH is semiclassical, information can be released without jeopardizing the nearly maximal inside-out entanglement and imply that the state of matter near the horizon is approximately the vacuum. The BH firewall proposal, on the other hand, is that the state of matter near the horizon deviates substantially from the vacuum, starting at the Page time. We find that, under the usual assumptions for justifying the formation of a firewall, one does indeed form at the Page time. However, the possible loophole lies in the implicit assumption that the number of strongly entangled pairs can be of the same order of N total .

  14. Prematures with and without Regressed Retinopathy of Prematurity: Comparison of Long-Term (6-10 Years) Ophthalmological Morbidity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cats, Bernard P.; Tan, Karel E. W. P.

    Reporting long-term ophthalmologic sequelae among ex-prematures at 6 to 10 years of age, this study compares 42 ex-premature infants who had had regressed forms of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) during the neonatal period with 42 matched non-ROP ex-premature controls at 6 to 10 years of age. Subjects were subdivided into four groups: (1) ROP…

  15. Midline Crossing: Developmental Trend from 3 to 10 Years of Age in a Preferential Card-Reaching Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlier, M.; Doyen, A.-L.; Lamard, C.

    2006-01-01

    We assessed 110 left-handed and 322 right-handed children aged from 3 to 10 years, using Bishop's card-reaching task. Manual body midline crossings were observed. A regular developmental trend was observed from 3 to 10 years: older children crossed the body midline more frequently when reaching for cards than did younger children. The factor age…

  16. Treatment of the edentulous atrophic maxilla using zygomatic implants: evaluation of survival rates over 5-10 years.

    PubMed

    Yates, J M; Brook, I M; Patel, R R; Wragg, P F; Atkins, S A; El-Awa, A; Bakri, I; Bolt, R

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this retrospective observational cohort study was to analyse and report the 5-10-year survival rates of endosseous zygomatic implants used in the rehabilitation of the atrophic maxilla. Forty-three consecutive zygomatic implant placements in 25 patients were evaluated over a 5-10-year period. All zygomatic implant surgery was carried out under general anaesthesia. Nobel Biocare zygomatic machined-surface implants were used, and placement was undertaken using the modified sinus slot method. The main outcome measures and determinants for success were survival of the restored implants and the proportion of originally planned prostheses delivered to patients. Of the 25 patients treated, 12 were male and 13 were female; 19 were non-smokers, and the mean age at time of surgery was 64 years. Patients were treatment-planned for implant-retained bridgework, a removable prosthesis retained by fixed cast gold or milled titanium beams, or magnet-retained removable prostheses. A combination of zygomatic and conventional implants was used in all but one patient. In this study it was shown that the overall success rate for zygomatic implants was 86%, with six of the implants either failing to integrate or requiring removal due to persistent infection associated with the maxillary sinus. All patients received their planned prosthesis, although in six cases the method of retention required modification. This study illustrates that zygomatic implants are a successful and important treatment option when trying to restore the atrophic maxilla, with the potential to avoid additional augmentation/grafting procedures and resulting in a high long-term success rate. PMID:24120903

  17. Horizon entropy with loop quantum gravity methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pranzetti, Daniele; Sahlmann, Hanno

    2015-06-01

    We show that the spherically symmetric isolated horizon can be described in terms of an SU (2) connection and an su (2)-valued one-form, obeying certain constraints. The horizon symplectic structure is precisely the one of 3d gravity in a first order formulation. We quantize the horizon degrees of freedom in the framework of loop quantum gravity, with methods recently developed for 3d gravity with non-vanishing cosmological constant. Bulk excitations ending on the horizon act very similarly to particles in 3d gravity. The Bekenstein-Hawking law is recovered in the limit of imaginary Barbero-Immirzi parameter. Alternative methods of quantization are also discussed.

  18. Spectroscopy of a weakly isolated horizon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ge-Rui; Huang, Yong-Chang

    2016-06-01

    The spectroscopy of a weakly isolated horizon has been investigated. We obtain an equally spaced entropy spectrum with its quantum equal to the one given by Bekenstein (Phys Rev D 7:2333, 1973). We demonstrate that the quantization of entropy and area is a generic property of horizons which exists in a wide class of spacetimes admitting weakly isolated horizons. Our method based on the tunneling method also indicates that the entropy quantum of black hole horizons is closely related to Hawking temperature.

  19. Apparent horizon in fluid-gravity duality

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, Ivan; Heller, Michal P.; Plewa, Grzegorz; Spalinski, Michal

    2011-05-15

    This article develops a computational framework for determining the location of boundary-covariant apparent horizons in the geometry of conformal fluid-gravity duality in arbitrary dimensions. In particular, it is shown up to second order and conjectured to hold to all orders in the gradient expansion that there is a unique apparent horizon which is covariantly expressible in terms of fluid velocity, temperature, and boundary metric. This leads to the first explicit example of an entropy current defined by an apparent horizon and opens the possibility that in the near-equilibrium regime there is preferred foliation of apparent horizons for black holes in asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetimes.

  20. A MIP Model for Rolling Horizon Surgery Scheduling.

    PubMed

    Luo, Li; Luo, Yong; You, Yang; Cheng, Yuanjun; Shi, Yingkang; Gong, Renrong

    2016-05-01

    Most surgery scheduling is done 1 day in advance. Caused by lack of overall planning, this scheduling scheme often results in unbalanced occupancy time of the operating rooms. So we put forward a rolling horizon mixed integer programming model for the scheduling. Rolling horizon scheduling refers to a scheduling scheme in which cyclic surgical requests are taken into account. Surgical requests are updated daily. The completed surgeries are eliminated, and new surgeries are added to the scheduling list. Considering day-to-day demand for surgery, we develop a non-rolling scheduling model (NRSM) and a rolling horizon scheduling model (RSM). By comparing the two, we find that the quality of surgery scheduling is significantly influenced by the variation in demand from day to day. A rolling horizon scheduling will enable a more flexible planning of the pool of surgeries that have not been scheduled into this main blocks, and hence minimize the idle time of operating rooms. The strategy of the RSM helps balance the occupancy time among operating rooms. Using surgical data from five departments of the West China Hospital (WCH), we generate surgical demands randomly to compare the NRSM and the RSM. The results show the operating rooms' average utilization rate using RSM is significantly higher than when applying NRSM.

  1. Priority Questions and Horizon Scanning for Conservation: A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Kark, Salit; Sutherland, William J; Shanas, Uri; Klass, Keren; Achisar, Hila; Dayan, Tamar; Gavrieli, Yael; Justo-Hanani, Ronit; Mandelik, Yael; Orion, Nir; Pargament, David; Portman, Michelle; Reisman-Berman, Orna; Safriel, Uriel N; Schaffer, Gad; Steiner, Noa; Tauber, Israel; Levin, Noam

    2016-01-01

    Several projects aimed at identifying priority issues for conservation with high relevance to policy have recently been completed in several countries. Two major types of projects have been undertaken, aimed at identifying (i) policy-relevant questions most imperative to conservation and (ii) horizon scanning topics, defined as emerging issues that are expected to have substantial implications for biodiversity conservation and policy in the future. Here, we provide the first overview of the outcomes of biodiversity and conservation-oriented projects recently completed around the world using this framework. We also include the results of the first questions and horizon scanning project completed for a Mediterranean country. Overall, the outcomes of the different projects undertaken (at the global scale, in the UK, US, Canada, Switzerland and in Israel) were strongly correlated in terms of the proportion of questions and/or horizon scanning topics selected when comparing different topic areas. However, some major differences were found across regions. There was large variation among regions in the percentage of proactive (i.e. action and response oriented) versus descriptive (non-response oriented) priority questions and in the emphasis given to socio-political issues. Substantial differences were also found when comparing outcomes of priority questions versus horizon scanning projects undertaken for the same region. For example, issues related to climate change, human demography and marine ecosystems received higher priority as horizon scanning topics, while ecosystem services were more emphasized as current priority questions. We suggest that future initiatives aimed at identifying priority conservation questions and horizon scanning topics should allow simultaneous identification of both current and future priority issues, as presented here for the first time. We propose that further emphasis on social-political issues should be explicitly integrated into future

  2. Priority Questions and Horizon Scanning for Conservation: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Kark, Salit; Sutherland, William J.; Shanas, Uri; Klass, Keren; Achisar, Hila; Dayan, Tamar; Gavrieli, Yael; Justo-Hanani, Ronit; Mandelik, Yael; Orion, Nir; Pargament, David; Portman, Michelle; Reisman-Berman, Orna; Safriel, Uriel N.; Schaffer, Gad; Steiner, Noa; Tauber, Israel; Levin, Noam

    2016-01-01

    Several projects aimed at identifying priority issues for conservation with high relevance to policy have recently been completed in several countries. Two major types of projects have been undertaken, aimed at identifying (i) policy-relevant questions most imperative to conservation and (ii) horizon scanning topics, defined as emerging issues that are expected to have substantial implications for biodiversity conservation and policy in the future. Here, we provide the first overview of the outcomes of biodiversity and conservation-oriented projects recently completed around the world using this framework. We also include the results of the first questions and horizon scanning project completed for a Mediterranean country. Overall, the outcomes of the different projects undertaken (at the global scale, in the UK, US, Canada, Switzerland and in Israel) were strongly correlated in terms of the proportion of questions and/or horizon scanning topics selected when comparing different topic areas. However, some major differences were found across regions. There was large variation among regions in the percentage of proactive (i.e. action and response oriented) versus descriptive (non-response oriented) priority questions and in the emphasis given to socio-political issues. Substantial differences were also found when comparing outcomes of priority questions versus horizon scanning projects undertaken for the same region. For example, issues related to climate change, human demography and marine ecosystems received higher priority as horizon scanning topics, while ecosystem services were more emphasized as current priority questions. We suggest that future initiatives aimed at identifying priority conservation questions and horizon scanning topics should allow simultaneous identification of both current and future priority issues, as presented here for the first time. We propose that further emphasis on social-political issues should be explicitly integrated into future

  3. Priority Questions and Horizon Scanning for Conservation: A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Kark, Salit; Sutherland, William J; Shanas, Uri; Klass, Keren; Achisar, Hila; Dayan, Tamar; Gavrieli, Yael; Justo-Hanani, Ronit; Mandelik, Yael; Orion, Nir; Pargament, David; Portman, Michelle; Reisman-Berman, Orna; Safriel, Uriel N; Schaffer, Gad; Steiner, Noa; Tauber, Israel; Levin, Noam

    2016-01-01

    Several projects aimed at identifying priority issues for conservation with high relevance to policy have recently been completed in several countries. Two major types of projects have been undertaken, aimed at identifying (i) policy-relevant questions most imperative to conservation and (ii) horizon scanning topics, defined as emerging issues that are expected to have substantial implications for biodiversity conservation and policy in the future. Here, we provide the first overview of the outcomes of biodiversity and conservation-oriented projects recently completed around the world using this framework. We also include the results of the first questions and horizon scanning project completed for a Mediterranean country. Overall, the outcomes of the different projects undertaken (at the global scale, in the UK, US, Canada, Switzerland and in Israel) were strongly correlated in terms of the proportion of questions and/or horizon scanning topics selected when comparing different topic areas. However, some major differences were found across regions. There was large variation among regions in the percentage of proactive (i.e. action and response oriented) versus descriptive (non-response oriented) priority questions and in the emphasis given to socio-political issues. Substantial differences were also found when comparing outcomes of priority questions versus horizon scanning projects undertaken for the same region. For example, issues related to climate change, human demography and marine ecosystems received higher priority as horizon scanning topics, while ecosystem services were more emphasized as current priority questions. We suggest that future initiatives aimed at identifying priority conservation questions and horizon scanning topics should allow simultaneous identification of both current and future priority issues, as presented here for the first time. We propose that further emphasis on social-political issues should be explicitly integrated into future

  4. Recurrent Gram-Negative Bloodstream Infection: A 10-Year Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hasan, Majdi N.; Eckel-Passow, Jeanette E.; Baddour, Larry M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Recurrent gram-negative bloodstream infection (BSI) has not been evaluated in a population-based setting; therefore, we performed a population-based retrospective cohort study to examine the incidence, recurrence, and mortality rates of gram-negative BSI. Methods We identified 944 episodes of gram-negative BSI, including 98 recurrent episodes, among Olmsted County, Minnesota, residents from 1/1/1998 to 12/31/2007. Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate the cumulative incidence rate of recurrence and 28-day all-cause mortality rate of gram-negative BSI. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to determine risk factors for recurrence. Results The overall age- and gender-adjusted incidence rate of gram-negative BSI per 100,000 person-years was 84.5 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 79.1–90.0), including 75.7 (95% CI: 70.6–80.8) for first episodes and 8.8 (95% CI: 7.1–10.6) for recurrent episodes. Among 846 patients with first episodes of gram-negative BSI, the cumulative incidence rates of recurrence after 1, 5, and 10 years of the initial episode were 5.6%, 9.2%, and 14.6%, respectively, with death treated as a competing risk. Patients with Klebsiella species were more likely than those with Escherichia coli BSI to develop recurrent gram-negative BSI (hazard ratio: 2.33 [95% CI: 1.34–3.92], p=0.003). The 28-day all-cause mortality rates following the initial and second episodes of gram-negative BSI were 10.0% (95% CI: 8.0–12.0) and 11.3% (95% CI: 4.4–18.2), respectively. Conclusions Even though recurrent gram-negative BSI was relatively uncommon in the general population, up to 15% of patients with gram-negative BSI developed a recurrent episode within 10 years of the initial episode. PMID:20378069

  5. Climatological Analysis of the Exclusive Economic Zone of Mexico Based on 10 Years of Satellite Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez Rodriguez, E.; Trasviña-Castro, A.; Aguirre Bahena, F.

    2013-05-01

    To visualize the variability of inorganic carbon in the waters of the Exclusive Economic Zone of Mexico we analysed over 10 years of monthly data 4-km resolution from the MODIS-AQUA satellite. This sensor provides various types of information and for this discussion we selected particulate organic carbon, sea surface temperature and euphotic zone depth. We constructed climatological maps for each month of the year to show the average, maximum, minimum and standard deviation of the three variables. The result of the average particulate organic carbon climatology indicates that the main areas of inorganic carbon production (> 200 mg m3) are the Gulf of California, the west coast of the peninsula of Baja California, the coast of Colima, the Gulf of Tehuantepec and in the Gulf of Mexico the coasts of Yucatan, Tabasco and Tamaulipas. The months presenting higher production occur between December and April. In comparison, lowest climatological mean sea surface temperature (below 14 oC) occurs on the west coast of the Baja California peninsula and it is observed associated with the highest mean particulate organic carbon (>250 mg m-3). Climatological mean sea surface temperature on the coast of Colima, Yucatan, Tabasco and Tamaulipas are about 25 °C and coincide with high values of particulate organic carbon (> 200 mg m-3). The climatological mean euphotic zone depth show lowest values (<50 m) coincide with the highest mean particulate organic carbon values indicating a clear relationship with a reduction of light penetration in the water column. Inspection of the standard deviation maps shows greatest variability of particulate organic carbon from December to February in the Gulf of California, the coast of Colima and the Gulf of Tehuantepec. In the west coast of the peninsula of Baja California greater variability of particulate organic carbon occurs from June to December. In the oceanic domain beyond the continental shelf, particulate organic carbon values are very

  6. Estimating Monthly, Annual, and Low 7-Day, 10-Year Streamflows for Ungaged Rivers in Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dudley, Robert W.

    2004-01-01

    Regression equations to estimate monthly, annual, and low 7-day, 10-year (7Q10) streamflows were derived for rivers in Maine. The derived regression equations for estimating mean monthly, mean annual, median monthly, median annual, and low 7Q10 streamflows for ungaged rivers in Maine presented in this report supersede those derived in previous studies. Twenty-six U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations on unregulated, rural rivers in Maine with 10 years or more of recorded streamflow were used to develop the regression equations. Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression techniques were used to select the explanatory variables (basin and climatic characteristics) that would appear in the final regression equations. OLS regression of all possible subsets was done with 62 explanatory variables for each of 27 response variables. Five explanatory variables were chosen for the final regression equations: drainage basin area, areal fraction of the drainage basin underlain by sand and gravel aquifers, distance from the coast to the drainage basin centroid, mean drainage basin annual precipitation, and mean drainage basin winter precipitation (the sum of mean monthly precipitation for December, January, and February). Generalized least-squares regression techniques were used to derive the final coefficients and measures of uncertainty for the regression equations. The forms of many of the derived regression equations indicate some physical, mechanistic processes. Drainage basin area is the most statistically important explanatory variable and appears in all derived regression equations. Monthly streamflows are related inversely to the distance from the coast to the drainage basin centroid during December, January, February, and March; that is, the closer a river basin is to the coast, the higher monthly streamflows are per unit drainage basin area during the winter. The relation reverses in May when higher streamflows are attributed to basins farther from the coast

  7. Rosetta begins its 10-year journey to the origins of the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-03-01

    Rosetta’s mission began at 08h17 CET (07h17 GMT) on 2 March when a European Ariane 5 launch vehicle liftered off from the Guiana Space Centre, Europe’s spaceport in Kourou, French Guiana. The launcher successfully placed its upper stage and payload into an eccentric coast orbit (200 x 4000 km). About two hours later, at 10h14 CET (09h14 GMT) the upper stage ignited its own engine to reach an escape velocity in order to leave the Earth’s gravity field and enter heliocentric orbit. The Rosetta probe was released about 18 minutes later. “After the recent success of Mars Express, Europe is now heading to deep space with another fantastic mission. We will have to be patient, as the rendezvous with the comet will not take place until ten years from now, but I think it’s worth the wait” said ESA’s Director General Jean-Jacques Dordain witnessing the launch from Kourou. ESA’s Operations Centre (ESOC) in Darmstadt, Germany, has established contact with the probe as it flies away from Earth at a relative speed of about 3.4 km/s. ESOC will be in charge of Rosetta operations and orbit determination throughout the mission. During the next eight months, the spacecraft’s onboard systems will be checked and its science payload will be commissioned. A 10-year odyssey Rosetta will be reactivated for planetary flybys, which will be used to modify its trajectory through gravity assist manoeuvres. During the trip, the probe could also observe one or more asteroids, observation of asteroids being one of the mission's secondary objectives. The first planetary encounter will be in March 2005, as Rosetta flies by the Earth for the first time. The gravity assist will boost Rosetta into an orbit that will take it to Mars two years later. During its close encounter with Mars in February 2007, Rosetta will approach to a distance of about 200 km and conduct science observations. This Martian flyby will be followed by another Earth flyby in November the same year. Both

  8. The course of dysphoric affective and cognitive states in borderline personality disorder: a 10-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Lawrence Ian; Fitzmaurice, Garrett; Zanarini, Mary C.

    2011-01-01

    The current study aimed to assess dysphoric states among 290 patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and 72 non-borderline axis II comparison subjects (OPD) over a 10-year course of prospective follow-up. Additionally, we assessed the severity of these states among borderline patients who had and had not recovered both symptomatically and psychosocially. The Dysphoric Affect Scale (DAS) – a 50-item self-report measure of affective and cognitive states thought to be common among borderline patients and specific to the disorder – was administered at five waves of prospective follow-up. Affective and cognitive DAS items were separately analyzed, yielding respective subscores. Borderline patients reported more severe dysphoric states compared to OPD subjects at baseline. However, the severity of affective and cognitive states declined significantly for both groups taken together over 10–years of follow-up. Within the BPD group, recovered subjects reported less severe dysphoric states compared to non-recovered subjects at baseline. Results also showed a significant decline in DAS scores over time, but at a greater rate for recovered subjects. In sum, while the severity of dysphoric states declines significantly over time, inner distress remains an area of vulnerability for borderline subjects. Additionally, the severity and pervasiveness of these states may affect recovery over time. PMID:22326877

  9. Heterotopic ossification: review of histologic findings and tissue distribution in a 10-year experience.

    PubMed

    Liu, Katharine; Tripp, Sheryl; Layfield, Lester J

    2007-01-01

    Heterotopic ossification (HO) within tissues involved by a pathologic process is a well-recognized phenomenon. It is most frequently observed in atherosclerotic plaques, in soft tissue around joints, and in the central nervous system. Less frequently, carcinomas and some benign neoplasms will undergo heterotopic ossification. We performed a retrospective review of our experience with HO over a 10-year period to determine the frequency and tissue site distribution of heterotopic ossification. A computerized review of surgical pathology records of approximately 126,000 reports revealed 85 cases in which heterotopic ossification, ectopic bone or metaplastic bone was specifically mentioned in the surgical pathology diagnosis. Twenty-two cases were neoplasms of non-osseous tissues, and 63 cases were non-neoplastic lesions. Immunohistochemical staining for bone morphogenic proteins (BMP) 1, 4, and 6 was performed. Fourteen cases showed staining for BMP-1, 22 cases showed staining for BMP-4, and five cases showed weak staining for BMP-6. HO is a relatively infrequent finding and is more commonly seen in degenerative and reparative conditions than in neoplasms. PMID:17728073

  10. Bonneville Power Administration, Office of Engineering 10-Year Plan, 1992-2001 : Draft.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration. Office of Engineering.

    1992-05-01

    For over 50 years, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has evolved to supply electric power to more than 170 customer utilities and direct service industries across 14,800 miles of high voltage transmission lines. BPA's Office of Engineering provides the planning, development, and engineering for the required expansion, upgrade, and replacement of the transmission system. The purpose of this 10-Year Plan is to present strategies to maintain a reliable energy delivery system within changing public, business, technological, and environmental climates. The issues and trends discussed in this document and our strategies for addressing them provide the background for the Office of Engineering programs and projects. With a budget in the hundreds of millions annually and increasing public concern, we welcome the opportunity to communicate with our customers. In addition to the factors, trends and issues described in this document are two appendices containing project costs and program and staffing levels. These figures are preliminary with estimates current as of May 13, 1992.

  11. Bonneville Power Administration, Office of Engineering 10-Year Plan, 1992-2001 : Draft.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration. Office of Engineering.

    1992-05-01

    For over 50 years, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has evolved to supply electric power to more than 170 customer utilities and direct service industries across 14,800 miles of high voltage transmission lines. BPA`s Office of Engineering provides the planning, development, and engineering for the required expansion, upgrade, and replacement of the transmission system. The purpose of this 10-Year Plan is to present strategies to maintain a reliable energy delivery system within changing public, business, technological, and environmental climates. The issues and trends discussed in this document and our strategies for addressing them provide the background for the Office of Engineering programs and projects. With a budget in the hundreds of millions annually and increasing public concern, we welcome the opportunity to communicate with our customers. In addition to the factors, trends and issues described in this document are two appendices containing project costs and program and staffing levels. These figures are preliminary with estimates current as of May 13, 1992.

  12. Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement 10-Year Plan 1990-1999 : Environmental Strategy. Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1990-09-01

    In operating and maintaining its regional power transmission system, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) must address environmental concerns. Pollution sources and pathways for pollution migration, including potential contamination from hazardous or toxic materials, are present. BPA must develop and follow precautionary measures, respond to emergencies, minimize wastes, redress past problems, alert and train employees to problems and safety needs, constantly evaluate this effort and update the program for improvements and changes in regulations and technology. Part of BPA's mission is to conduct its operation, maintenance, and replacement programs in an environmentally sound manner. BPA recognizes its responsibility to be good stewards of the environment. BPA will meet its environmental obligations as set forth in environmental laws and regulations. BPA intends to make consistent and measurable progress toward meeting these responsibilities. The target for the 10-Year Plan is to achieve environmental compliance and meet the following goals: (1) protect human health and the environment; (2) avoid or limit liability (3) set up an effective internal management structure to maintain compliance; and (4) achieve cost-effective compliance. 6 figs.

  13. Good stability and minimal osteolysis with a biconical threaded cup at 10 years.

    PubMed

    Zweymüller, Karl A; Steindl, Martin; Schwarzinger, Ulrike

    2007-10-01

    In the literature there is no consensus on the value of threaded cementless cups. We primarily asked whether the newly constructed threaded double-cone cup without additional screw fixation would provide high survival at intermediate followup. We retrospectively reviewed 365 patients (376 hips) who underwent primary total hip arthroplasty using this cup made of pure titanium with ceramic-on-polyethylene articulating surfaces. At a minimum followup of 10.0 years (mean, 10.3 years; range, 10.0-13.1 years), 232 cups (61.7%) were available for analysis. We performed two revisions for early infection and cup breakage. No polyethylene liner was exchanged because of wear or instability. Three of the cup shells were radiographically loose at followup; one had periacetabular osteolysis. The mean liner wear rate was 0.13 mm per year. The Kaplan-Meier 10-year survivorship with revision of the cup shell for any reason was 99.3% (95% confidence interval, 96.9-99.8%) and with revision and radiographic loosening of the cup shell 98.6% (95% confidence interval, 96.0-99.5%). These intermediate results compare favorably with survivorship and periacetabular bone reaction data observed with the best cementless acetabular implant designs. PMID:17960675

  14. 10 years of MS instrumental developments--impact on LC-MS/MS in clinical chemistry.

    PubMed

    Himmelsbach, Markus

    2012-02-01

    The combination of liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is a powerful and indispensable analytical tool that is widely applied in many areas of chemistry, medicine, pharmaceutics and biochemistry. In this review recent MS instrumental developments are presented as part of a special issue covering various aspects of liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in clinical chemistry. Improvements, new inventions as well as new combinations in ion source technology are described focusing on dual or multimode sources and atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI). Increasing demands regarding sensitivity, accuracy, resolution and both quantitation and identification guarantee on-going improvements in mass analyzer technology. This paper discusses new hybrid MS instruments that can perform novel scan modes as well as high-resolution mass spectrometers (HRMS) that finally seem to be able to overcome, or at least significantly reduce, their weaknesses in quantitative applications. Ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IMMS) itself is not an invention of the last 10 years, but a lot of progress was made within the last decade that reveals the potential benefits of this combination. This is clearly reflected by the increased number of commercially available instruments and the various designs of IMMS are covered in detail in this review. Selected applications for all these instrumental developments are given focusing on the perspective of clinical chemistry.

  15. Impacts of Natural Hazards on Primary Health Care Facilities of Iran: A 10-Year Retrospective Survey

    PubMed Central

    Ardalan, Ali; Mowafi, Hani; Yousefi, Homa

    2013-01-01

    Public health facilities in Iran are exposed to a wide range of natural hazards. This article presents the first survey of the impacts of such natural hazards on primary health care (PHC) centers in Iran from 2001 to 2011. A retrospective survey was conducted in 25 out of 30 provinces of Iran. Archival reports at provincial public health departments were cross-referenced with key informant interviews. During a 10-year period, 119 natural hazard events were recorded that led to physical damage and/or functional failure in 1,401 health centers, 127 deaths and injury or illness in 644 health staff. Earthquakes accounted for the most physical damage and all health-worker deaths. However, there was an increasing trend of impacts due to hydro-meteorological hazards. Iran’s health system needs to establish a registry to track the impact of natural hazards on health facilities, conduct regular hazard and vulnerability assessments and increase mitigation and preparedness measures. Keywords: Disaster, primary health care, facility, Iran, natural hazard Corresponding author: Ali Ardalan MD, PhD. Iran’s National Institute of Health Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Harvard Humanitarian Initiative. Email: aardalan@tums.ac.ir PMID:23863871

  16. Nanotechnology in glucose monitoring: advances and challenges in the last 10 years.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, Viviana

    2013-09-15

    In the last decades, a wide multitude of research activity has been focused on the development of biosensors for glucose monitoring, devoted to overcome the challenges associated with smart analytical performances with commercial implications. Crucial issues still nowadays elude biosensors to enter the market, such as sensitivity, stability, miniaturisation, continuous and in situ monitoring in a complex matrix. A noteworthy tendency of biosensor technology is likely to push towards nanotechnology, which allows to reduce dimensions at the nanoscale, consenting the construction of arrays for high throughput analysis with the integration of microfluidics, and enhancing the performance of the biological components by using new nanomaterials. This review aims to highlight current trends in biosensors for glucose monitoring based on nanotechnology, reporting widespread representative examples of the recent approaches for nanobiosensors over the past 10 years. Progress in nanotechnology for the development of biosensing systems for blood glucose level monitoring will be discussed, in view of their design and construction on the bases of the new materials offered by nanotechnology.

  17. VARIABILITY OF LUMINOUS STARS IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD USING 10 YEARS OF ASAS DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Szczygiel, D. M.; Stanek, K. Z.; Bonanos, A. Z.; Pojmanski, G.; Pilecki, B.; Prieto, J. L. E-mail: kstanek@astronomy.ohio-state.ed E-mail: gp@astrouw.edu.p E-mail: jose@obs.carnegiescience.ed

    2010-07-15

    Motivated by the detection of a recent outburst of the massive luminous blue variable LMC-R71, which reached an absolute magnitude M{sub V} = -9.3 mag, we undertook a systematic study of the optical variability of 1268 massive stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud, using a recent catalog by Bonanos et al. as the input. The ASAS All Star Catalog provided well-sampled light curves of these bright stars spanning 10 years. Combining the two catalogs resulted in 599 matches, on which we performed a variability search. We identified 117 variable stars, 38 of which were not known before, despite their brightness and large amplitude of variation. We found 13 periodic stars that we classify as eclipsing binary (EB) stars, 8 of which are newly discovered bright massive EBs composed of OB-type stars. The remaining 104 variables are either semi- or non-periodic, the majority (85) being red supergiants (RSGs). Most (26) of the newly discovered variables in this category are also RSGs with only three B and four O stars.

  18. The Ecology of Sustainable Implementation: Reflection on a 10-Year Case History Illustration.

    PubMed

    Rimehaug, Tormod

    2014-01-01

    The primary aim of this paper is to illustrate the strategic and ecological nature of implementation. The ultimate aim of implementation is not dissemination but sustainability beyond the implementation effort. A case study is utilized to illustrate these broad and long-term perspectives of sustainable implementation based on qualitative analyses of a 10-year implementation effort. The purveyors aimed to develop selective community prevention services for children in families burdened by parental psychiatric or addictive problems. Services were gradually disseminated to 23 sites serving 40 municipalities by 2013. Up to 2013, only one site terminated services after initial implementation. Although many sites suspended services for shorter periods, services are still offered at 22 sites. This case analysis is based on project reports, user evaluations, practitioner interviews, and service statistics. The paper focuses on the analyses and strategies utilized to cope with quality decay and setbacks as well as progress and success in disseminating and sustaining the services and their quality. Low-cost multilevel strategies to implement services at the community level were organized by a prevention unit in child psychiatry, supervised by a university department (purveyors). The purveyors were also involved in national and international collaboration and development. Multilevel strategies included manualized intervention, in-practice training methods, organizational responsibility, media strategies, service evaluation, staff motivation maintenance, quality assurance, and proposals for new law regulations. These case history aspects will be discussed in relation to the implementation literature, focusing on possible applicability across settings.

  19. Gesture Frequency Linked Primarily to Story Length in 4-10-Year Old Children's Stories.

    PubMed

    Nicoladis, Elena; Marentette, Paula; Navarro, Samuel

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that older children gesture more while telling a story than younger children. This increase in gesture use has been attributed to increased story complexity. In adults, both narrative complexity and imagery predict gesture frequency. In this study, we tested the strength of three predictors of children's gesture use in a narrative context: age, narrative complexity (measured by discourse connectors), and use of imagery (measured by story length). French-, Spanish-, and English-speaking children between 4 and 10 years participated in this study. Including these three groups allows us to test for the generalizability of our results and for cross-linguistic differences in gesture frequency. All the children watched cartoons and retold the story. The results showed that the length of the story was a significant predictor of children's gesture rate while age and discourse connectors were not. There were no differences between language groups. One possible in interpretation of these results is that children's gesture frequency is strongly linked to activation of imagery.

  20. Does gymnastics practice improve vertical jump reliability from the age of 8 to 10 years?

    PubMed

    Marina, Michel; Torrado, Priscila

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to confirm whether gymnastics practice from a young age can induce greater vertical jump reliability. Fifty young female gymnasts (8.84 ± 0.62 years) and 42 females in the control group (8.58 ± 0.92 years) performed the following jump tests on a contact mat: squat jump, countermovement jump, countermovement jump with arm swing and drop jump from heights of 40 and 60 cm. The two testing sessions had three trials each and were separated by one week. A 2 (groups) × 2 (sessions) × 3 (trials) repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and a test-retest correlation analysis were used to study the reliability. There was no systematic source of error in either group for non-plyometric jumps such as squat jump, countermovement jump, and countermovement jump with arm swing. A significant group per trial interaction revealed a learning effect in gymnasts' drop jumps from 40 cm height. Additionally, the test-retest correlation analysis and the higher minimum detectable error suggest that the quick drop jump technique was not fully consolidated in either group. At an introductory level of gymnastics and between the ages of 8-10 years, the condition of being a gymnast did not lead to conclusively higher reliability, aside from better overall vertical jump performance. PMID:23414426

  1. Cryobanking of Korean allium germplasm collections: results from a 10 year experience.

    PubMed

    Kim, H H; Popova, E; Shin, D J; Yi, J Y; Kim, C H; Lee, J S; Yoon, M K; Engelmann, F

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews a 10-year experience in establishing a cryopreserved Allium germplasm collection at the genebank of the National Agrobiodiversity Center, Republic of Korea. A systematic approach to Allium cryopreservation included: 1. revealing the most critical factors that affected regeneration after cryostorage; 2. understanding the mechanisms of cryoprotection by analyzing the thermal behavior of explants and cryoprotectant solutions using DSC and influx/efflux of cryoprotectants using HPLC; 3. assessing genetic stability of regenerants; and 4. revealing the efficiency of cryotherapy. Bulbil primordia, i.e. asexual bulbs formed on unripe inflorescences, proved to be the most suitable material for conservation of bolting varieties due to high post-cryopreservation regrowth and lower microbial infection level, followed by apical shoot apices from single bulbs and cloves. A total of 1,158 accessions of garlic as well as some Allium species have been cryopreserved during 2005-2010 using the droplet-vitrification technique with a mean regeneration percentage of 65.9 percent after cryostorage. These results open the door for large-scale implementation of cryostorage and for simplifying international exchange for clonal Allium germplasm.

  2. Isolated Myxoma in the External Auditory Canal of a 10-Year-Old Girl.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Hee; Jeong, Su Hee; Kim, Hojong; Shin, Eunhye

    2015-12-01

    Myxoma is a benign connective tissue tumor that is most commonly found in the heart. Because myxoma of the external ear is extremely rare, its diagnosis may be easily delayed or it may be misdiagnosed as another disease. Moreover, because it can be a part of Carney complex (autosomal dominant syndrome), its correct diagnosis is very important. We experienced a 10-year-old girl who had a mass on the posterior surface of the tragus at the entrance of the left ear canal. Fine-needle aspiration revealed mucoid content of the cystic mass, but its cytology did not confirm the diagnosis. The whole mass was surgically removed, and the diagnosis was confirmed as myxoma with a stellate spindle cell proliferation in the hypocellular matrix. Thorough examination failed to determine any presentation of Carney complex, and her final diagnosis was isolated myxoma of the external auditory canal. This is the first reported study regarding myxoma of the external auditory canal in the Korean literature. PMID:26915162

  3. Wave Resource Characteristics Near Humboldt Bay - Results from a 10-year Hindcast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallman, A.; Neary, V. S.

    2014-12-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) marine and hydrokinetic energy (MHK) Program has identified a need to improve modeling capabilities for near-shore wave climate hind-casting, among other applications. The potential wave energy converter (WEC) test or commercial deployment site offshore of Humboldt Bay, CA was selected to investigate the performance of a nearshore SWAN model and the spatial variability of wave statistics. SNL performed a 10-year hindcast using SWAN (Simulating Waves Nearshore), forced by spectral output from a WAVEWATCH III hindcast. The model was found to be insensitive to bottom friction and whitecapping parameterizations for the locations of interest, which included depths of 40m or greater. Predicted significant wave heights were found to be overbiased due to an overbias in the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) winds used to drive WAVEWATCH III. The spatial variability of the wave statistics calculated from the hindcast simulation were found to vary by season and were affected by the wind direction due to geographic features north of Humboldt Bay. Further details of the model performance along with possible areas of improvement will be discussed.

  4. Lessons from high-throughput protein crystallization screening: 10 years of practical experience

    PubMed Central

    JR, Luft; EH, Snell; GT, DeTitta

    2011-01-01

    Introduction X-ray crystallography provides the majority of our structural biological knowledge at a molecular level and in terms of pharmaceutical design is a valuable tool to accelerate discovery. It is the premier technique in the field, but its usefulness is significantly limited by the need to grow well-diffracting crystals. It is for this reason that high-throughput crystallization has become a key technology that has matured over the past 10 years through the field of structural genomics. Areas covered The authors describe their experiences in high-throughput crystallization screening in the context of structural genomics and the general biomedical community. They focus on the lessons learnt from the operation of a high-throughput crystallization screening laboratory, which to date has screened over 12,500 biological macromolecules. They also describe the approaches taken to maximize the success while minimizing the effort. Through this, the authors hope that the reader will gain an insight into the efficient design of a laboratory and protocols to accomplish high-throughput crystallization on a single-, multiuser-laboratory or industrial scale. Expert Opinion High-throughput crystallization screening is readily available but, despite the power of the crystallographic technique, getting crystals is still not a solved problem. High-throughput approaches can help when used skillfully; however, they still require human input in the detailed analysis and interpretation of results to be more successful. PMID:22646073

  5. The incidence of secondary tumors of the heart and pericardium: a 10-year study.

    PubMed

    Mukai, K; Shinkai, T; Tominaga, K; Shimosato, Y

    1988-09-01

    Secondary tumors of the heart and pericardium are much more common than primary tumors. During a 10-year period (1976-1985), only one instance of a primary tumor (malignant mesothelioma) was identified among 2,649 autopsies of malignant tumors at the National Cancer Center Hospital. In contrast, there were 407 cases in which heart and/or pericardium were secondarily involved with a malignant tumor from other organs. In 78 cases, the secondary tumors were present only in the pericardium, while in 329 cases, the tumors involved the heart itself with or without pericardial involvement. Among the primary tumors, three-quarters were carcinomas of various organs. In addition there were 53 hematologic malignancies, 19 melanomas and 17 sarcomas. In 31 cases, cardiac failure was the direct cause of death. The secondary tumors of the heart were often overlooked clinically because the cardiac dysfunction appeared to be part of the deteriorating general condition. Electrocardiography and echocardiography were often helpful in suggesting the presence of cardiac metastases. Appropriate diagnostic procedures and therapeutic intervention should be considered for the care of patients with advanced malignancy and sudden onset of cardiac failure.

  6. European Competence Network on Mastocytosis (ECNM): 10-year jubilee, update, and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Valent, Peter; Arock, Michel; Bonadonna, Patrizia; Brockow, Knut; Broesby-Olsen, Sigurd; Escribano, Luis; Gleixner, Karoline V; Grattan, Clive; Hadzijusufovic, Emir; Hägglund, Hans; Hermine, Olivier; Horny, Hans-Peter; Kluin-Nelemans, Hanneke C; Maurer, Marcus; Niedoszytko, Marek; Nedoszytko, Boguslaw; Nilsson, Gunnar; Oude-Elberink, Hanneke N G; Orfao, Alberto; Radia, Deepti; Reiter, Andreas; Siebenhaar, Frank; Sotlar, Karl; Sperr, Wolfgang R; Triggiani, Massimo; VanDoormaal, Jaap J; Várkonyi, Judit; Yavuz, Selim; Hartmann, Karin

    2012-12-01

    The European Competence Network on Mastocytosis (ECNM) was initiated in 2002 as a multidisciplinary and multinational cooperative approach to increase awareness and to improve diagnosis and therapy of mastocytosis. The network is composed of local centers, physicians, and scientists who have dedicated their work to patients with mastocytosis. A strategic goal of the ECNM is to provide the best available information about the disease to patients and physicians. During the past 10 years, the ECNM has expanded to various countries and contributed successfully to the development of markers, definitions, and standards in the field of mastocytosis. Members of the ECNM organized Annual Meetings in Europe and two Working Conferences on Mastocytosis in Vienna (in 2005 and 2010), and initiated and supported several preclinical and clinical trials. In all these activities, representatives of the ECNM cooperate closely with their US colleagues, with patient-organizations in Europe and in the USA, and with other scientific networks. The ECNM also launched a mastocytosis registry that has been activated in 2012. Using the central database of this registry, cooperative multicenter studies, which should include sufficient numbers of patients and robust evaluations, will be conducted. These studies will increase our knowledge about optimal management and therapy of patients with mastocytosis in the future.

  7. Early treatment of Class III malocclusion: 10-year clinical follow-up

    PubMed Central

    de ALMEIDA, Marcio Rodrigues; de ALMEIDA, Renato Rodrigues; OLTRAMARI-NAVARRO, Paula Vanessa Pedron; CONTI, Ana Cláudia de Castro Ferreira; NAVARRO, Ricardo de Lima; CAMACHO, José Gustavo Dala Déa

    2011-01-01

    Angle Class III malocclusion has been a challenge for researchers concerning diagnosis, prognosis and treatment. It has a prevalence of 5% in the Brazilian population, and may have a genetic or environmental etiology. This malocclusion can be classified as dentoalveolar, skeletal or functional, which will determine the prognosis. Considering these topics, the aim of this study was to describe and discuss a clinical case with functional Class III malocclusion treated by a two-stage approach (interceptive and corrective), with a long-term follow-up. In this case, the patient was treated with a chincup and an Eschler arch, used simultaneously during 14 months, followed by corrective orthodontics. It should be noticed that, in this case, initial diagnosis at the centric relation allowed visualizing the anterior teeth in an edge-to-edge relationship, thereby favoring the prognosis. After completion of the treatment, the patient was followed for a 10-year period, and stability was observed. The clinical treatment results showed that it is possible to achieve favorable outcomes with early management in functional Class III malocclusion patients. PMID:21952927

  8. Predicting future suicide attempts among depressed suicide ideators: a 10-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    May, Alexis M; Klonsky, E David; Klein, Daniel N

    2012-07-01

    Suicidal ideation and attempts are a major public health problem. Research has identified many risk factors for suicidality; however, most fail to identify which suicide ideators are at greatest risk of progressing to a suicide attempt. Thus, the present study identified predictors of future suicide attempts in a sample of psychiatric patients reporting suicidal ideation. The sample comprised 49 individuals who met full DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder and/or dysthymic disorder and reported suicidal ideation at baseline. Participants were followed for 10 years. Demographic, psychological, personality, and psychosocial risk factors were assessed using validated questionnaires and structured interviews. Phi coefficients and point-biserial correlations were used to identify prospective predictors of attempts, and logistic regressions were used to identify which variables predicted future attempts over and above past suicide attempts. Six significant predictors of future suicide attempts were identified - cluster A personality disorder, cluster B personality disorder, lifetime substance abuse, baseline anxiety disorder, poor maternal relationship, and poor social adjustment. Finally, exploratory logistic regressions were used to examine the unique contribution of each significant predictor controlling for the others. Comorbid cluster B personality disorder emerged as the only robust, unique predictor of future suicide attempts among depressed suicide ideators. Future research should continue to identify variables that predict transition from suicidal thoughts to suicide attempts, as such work will enhance clinical assessment of suicide risk as well as theoretical models of suicide. PMID:22575331

  9. Improving the TNM classification: findings from a 10-year continuous literature review.

    PubMed

    Webber, Colleen; Gospodarowicz, Mary; Sobin, Leslie H; Wittekind, Christian; Greene, Frederick L; Mason, Malcolm D; Compton, Carolyn; Brierley, James; Groome, Patti A

    2014-07-15

    The Union for International Cancer Control's (UICC) TNM classification is a globally accepted system to describe the anatomic extent of malignant tumors. Since its development seventy years ago, the TNM classification has undergone significant revisions to reflect the current understanding of extent of disease and its role in prognosis. To ensure that revisions are evidence-based, the UICC implemented a process for continuous improvement of the TNM classification that included a formalized system for submitting proposals for revisions directly to the UICC and an annual review of the scientific literature on staging that assessed, criticized or made suggestions for changes. The process involves review of the proposals and literature by a group of international, multidisciplinary Expert Panels. The process has been in place for 10 years and informed the development of the 7th edition of the TNM classification published in 2009. The purpose of this article is to provide a description of the annual literature review process, including the search strategy, article selection process and the roles and requirements of the Expert Panels in the review of the literature. Since 2002, 147 Expert Panel members in 11 cancer sites have reviewed over 770 articles. The results of the annual literature reviews, Expert Panel feedback and documentation and dissemination of results are described.

  10. Keratin Durability Has Implications for the Fossil Record: Results from a 10 Year Feather Degradation Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Moyer, Alison E.; Zheng, Wenxia; Schweitzer, Mary H.

    2016-01-01

    Keratinous ‘soft tissue’ structures (i.e. epidermally derived and originally non-biomineralized), include feathers, skin, claws, beaks, and hair. Despite their relatively common occurrence in the fossil record (second only to bone and teeth), few studies have addressed natural degradation processes that must occur in all organic material, including those keratinous structures that are incorporated into the rock record as fossils. Because feathers have high preservation potential and strong phylogenetic signal, in the current study we examine feathers subjected to different burial environments for a duration of ~10 years, using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and in situ immunofluorescence (IF). We use morphology and persistence of specific immunoreactivity as indicators of preservation at the molecular and microstructural levels. We show that feather keratin is durable, demonstrates structural and microstructural integrity, and retains epitopes suitable for specific antibody recognition in even the harshest conditions. These data support the hypothesis that keratin antibody reactivity can be used to identify the nature and composition of epidermal structures in the rock record, and to address evolutionary questions by distinguishing between alpha- (widely distributed) and beta- (limited to sauropsids) keratin. PMID:27384819

  11. Keratin Durability Has Implications for the Fossil Record: Results from a 10 Year Feather Degradation Experiment.

    PubMed

    Moyer, Alison E; Zheng, Wenxia; Schweitzer, Mary H

    2016-01-01

    Keratinous 'soft tissue' structures (i.e. epidermally derived and originally non-biomineralized), include feathers, skin, claws, beaks, and hair. Despite their relatively common occurrence in the fossil record (second only to bone and teeth), few studies have addressed natural degradation processes that must occur in all organic material, including those keratinous structures that are incorporated into the rock record as fossils. Because feathers have high preservation potential and strong phylogenetic signal, in the current study we examine feathers subjected to different burial environments for a duration of ~10 years, using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and in situ immunofluorescence (IF). We use morphology and persistence of specific immunoreactivity as indicators of preservation at the molecular and microstructural levels. We show that feather keratin is durable, demonstrates structural and microstructural integrity, and retains epitopes suitable for specific antibody recognition in even the harshest conditions. These data support the hypothesis that keratin antibody reactivity can be used to identify the nature and composition of epidermal structures in the rock record, and to address evolutionary questions by distinguishing between alpha- (widely distributed) and beta- (limited to sauropsids) keratin. PMID:27384819

  12. Spatiotemporal Trends Analysis of Pyrethroid Sediment Concentrations Spanning 10 Years in a Residential Creek in California.

    PubMed

    Hall, Lenwood W; Anderson, Ronald D; Killen, William D

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to assess temporal and spatial trends for eight pyrethroids monitored in sediment spanning 10 years from 2006 to 2015 in a residential stream in California (Pleasant Grove Creek). The timeframe for this study included sampling 3 years during a somewhat normal non-drought period (2006-2008) and 3 years during a severe drought period (2013-2015). Regression analysis of pyrethroid concentrations in Pleasant Grove Creek for 2006, 2007, 2008, 2012, 2013, 2014, and 2015 using ½ the detection limit for nondetected concentrations showed statistically significant declining trends for cyfluthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, permethrin, and total pyrethoids. Additional trends analysis of the Pleasant Grove Creek pyrethroid data using only measured concentrations, without nondetected values, showed similar statistically significant declining trends for cyfluthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, esfenvalerate, fenpropathrin, permethrin, and total pyrethroids. Spatial trends analysis for the specific creek sites showed that six of the eight pyrethroids had a greater number of sites with statistically significant declining concentrations. Possible reasons for reduced pyrethroid concentrations in the stream bed in Pleasant Grove Creek during this 10-year period are label changes in 2012 that reduced residential use and lack of precipitation during the later severe drought years of 2013-2015. PMID:26643307

  13. PCDD/Fs in the soils in the province of Trento: 10 years of monitoring.

    PubMed

    Rada, E C; Ragazzi, M; Marconi, M; Chistè, A; Schiavon, M; Fedrizzi, S; Tava, M

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a 10-year overview of the dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) content in soils in the province of Trento (Italy). The aim was to compare the results found in the Valsugana valley where there is a steel-making plant with other locations within the province. During 2002 and from 2005 to 2010, campaigns were carried out in order to obtain a background reference in terms of micropollutants, in view of the possible construction of a municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerator in Trento. In 2009, a campaign was performed for the environmental characterization of the Valsugana valley, the town of Trento and its surroundings, in order to help assess the impact of the steel-making plant. In 2012, another campaign was carried out by the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering of Trento, in order to monitor the soils in the area around the steel mill. All the campaigns showed relatively low concentrations of PCDD/Fs, both in protected areas and in the areas close to the industrial plants. No critical situations were identified, as also confirmed by an estimation of the potential daily PCDD/F intake by children subject to accidental ingestion of soil. PMID:25381582

  14. Wheezing, asthma, and pulmonary dysfunction 10 years after infection with respiratory syncytial virus in infancy.

    PubMed Central

    Pullan, C R; Hey, E N

    1982-01-01

    Of the 180 children admitted to hospitals in Tyneside in the first year of life with proved respiratory syncytial virus lower respiratory tract infection, 130 were seen for review 10 years later and 34 of the remaining 50 children accounted for. Skin tests, lung function tests, and histamine-challenge and exercise tests for bronchial lability were undertaken in over 100 of the index children and a similar number of control children. A total of 55 (42%) of the 130 index children had had further episodes of wheeze, while only 21 (19%) out of 111 controls had ever wheezed; but few (6.2% v 4.5%) had troublesome symptoms at the age of 10. There was a threefold increase in the incidence of bronchial lability in the index children but no excess of atopy. Maximum expiratory air flow was reduced throughout the vital capacity manoeuvre in the index children, even when those with a history of recurrent wheeze were excluded. Results of single-breath nitrogen washout tests were normal, however, suggesting that ventilation was not appreciably uneven, even though expiratory flow was restricted. These differences might have been caused by infection damaging the growing lung but might also be explained by pre-existing differences in the airway, rendering certain children more susceptible to symptomatic infection when first challenged by the virus in infancy. PMID:6805648

  15. Atmospheric emissions and trends of nitrous oxide deduced from 10 years of ALE-GAGE data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinn, R.; Cunnold, D.; Alyea, F.; Rasmussen, R.; Simmonds, P.

    1990-01-01

    Long-term measurements of nitrous oxide (N2O) obtained during the Atmospheric Lifetime Experiment (ALE) and the Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (GAGE) for a period from 1978 to 1988 are presented and interpreted. It is observed that the average concentration in the Northern Hemisphere is 0.75 +/- 0.16 ppbv higher than in the Southern Hemisphere and that the global average linear trend in N2O lies in the range from 0.25 to 0.31 percent/year. The measured trends and latitudinal distributions are shown to be consistent with the hypothesis that stratospheric photodissociation is the major atmospheric sink for N2O, while the cause of the N2O trend is suggested to be a combination of a growing tropical source and a growing Northern mid-latitude source. A 10-year average global N2O emission rate of (20.5 +/- 2.4) x 10 to the 12th g N2O/year is deduced from the ALE/GAGE data.

  16. Ecosystem Service Restoration after 10 Years of Rewetting Peatlands in NE Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerbe, Stefan; Steffenhagen, Peggy; Parakenings, Karsten; Timmermann, Tiemo; Frick, Annett; Gelbrecht, Jörg; Zak, Dominik

    2013-06-01

    The restoration of ecosystem services, i.e., production, regulation, and information, is a global challenge, which the federal state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern in NE Germany addressed in 2000 by rewetting over 20,000 ha of degraded peatlands within the Mire Restoration Program. We evaluated ecosystem services in 23 rewetted sites by assessing the following mire parameters within a ten year period: (a) dominant vegetation at the ecosystem level, (b) peat formation potential at the landscape level, and (c) aboveground biomass and nutrient levels. Seven to 10 years after rewetting, the wetlands formed a mosaic of vegetation types with the highest potential for peat formation and several dominant, peat-forming species accumulated high levels of aboveground biomass and nutrients (C, N, P). Common reed ( Phragmites australis) accumulated the most biomass (up to 24 t dry matter/ha), and N+P during the growing season. A future management option is to annually harvest aquatic and wetland plants to reduce nutrient levels in restored mire ecosystems.

  17. The paediatric flat foot and general anthropometry in 140 Australian school children aged 7 - 10 years

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Many studies have found a positive relationship between increased body weight and flat foot posture in children. Methods From a study population of 140 children aged seven to 10 years, a sample of 31 children with flat feet was identified by screening with the FPI-6. Basic anthropometric measures were compared between subjects with and without flat feet as designated. Results The results of this study, in contrast to many others, question the association of flat feet and heavy children. A significant relationship between foot posture and weight (FPI (L) r = -0.186 (p < 0.05), FPI(R) r = -0.194 (p < 0.05), waist girth (FPI (L) r = -0.213 (p < 0.05), FPI(R) r = -0.228 (p < 0.01) and BMI (FPI (L) r = -0.243 (p < 0.01), FPI(R) r = -0.263 (p < 0.01) was identified, but was both weak and inverse. Conclusions This study presents results which conflict with those of many previous investigations addressing the relationship between children's weight and foot posture. In contrast to previous studies, the implication of these results is that heavy children have less flat feet. Further investigation is warranted using a standardized approach to assessment and a larger sample of children to test this apparent contradiction. PMID:21513507

  18. Argon laser panretinal photocoagulation in ischemic central retinal vein occlusion. A 10-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Hayreh, S S; Klugman, M R; Podhajsky, P; Servais, G E; Perkins, E S

    1990-01-01

    We conducted a prospective, planned study of argon laser panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) in ischemic central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) over a 10-year period in 123 eyes. On comparing the lasered eyes versus the nonlasered eyes, there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in the incidence of development of angle neovascularization (NV), neovascular glaucoma (NVG), retinal and/or optic disc NV, or vitreous hemorrhage, or in visual acuity. Our study, however, did show a statistically significant (P = 0.04) difference in the incidence of iris NV between the two groups, with iris NV less prevalent in the laser group than in the nonlaser group, but only when the PRP was performed within 90 days after the onset of CRVO. The other parameter which showed a statistically significant difference between the two groups was the peripheral visual fields-the laser group suffered a significantly (P less than or equal to 0.03) greater loss than the non-laser group. We discuss the implications of these findings in light of the natural history of ischemic CRVO and of ocular NV. Since the original rationale for advocating PRP in ischemic CRVO was the proven beneficial effect of PRP on ocular NV in proliferative diabetic retinopathy, we also discuss the disparities in the disease process between ischemic CRVO and proliferative diabetic retinopathy and in their responses to PRP. PMID:1698170

  19. Rapid and Complete Remission of Metastatic Adrenocortical Carcinoma Persisting 10 Years After Treatment With Mitotane Monotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Ghorayeb, Nada El; Rondeau, Geneviève; Latour, Mathieu; Cohade, Christian; Olney, Harold; Lacroix, André; Perrotte, Paul; Sabourin, Alexis; Mazzuco, Tania L; Bourdeau, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Mitotane has been used for more than 5 decades as therapy for adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). However its mechanism of action and the extent of tumor response remain incompletely understood. To date no cases of rapid and complete remission of metastatic ACC with mitotane monotherapy has been reported. A 52-year-old French Canadian man presented with metastatic disease 2 years following a right adrenalectomy for stage III nonsecreting ACC. He was started on mitotane which was well tolerated despite rapid escalation of the dose. The patient course was exceptional as he responded to mitotane monotherapy after only few months of treatment. Initiation of chemotherapy was not needed and he remained disease-free with good quality of life on low maintenance dose of mitotane during the following 10 years. A germline heterozygous TP53 exon 4 polymorphism c.215C>G (p. Pro72Arg) was found. Immunohistochemical stainings for IGF-2 and cytoplasmic β-catenin were positive. Advanced ACC is an aggressive disease with poor prognosis and the current therapeutic options remain limited. These findings suggest that mitotane is a good option for the treatment of metastatic ACC and might result in rapid complete remission in selected patients. PMID:27043680

  20. Motor performance and dyslexia in a national cohort of 10-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Haslum, M N; Miles, T R

    2007-11-01

    Data from the 10-year follow-up of the 1970 British Births Survey were examined for associations between motor performance and dyslexia. Five tests of motor performance were used: (a) balancing on one leg, (b) throwing a ball in the air, clapping and catching it, (c) walking backwards, (d) sorting matches and (e) graphaesthesia (recognizing shapes drawn on the palm of the hand). These tests were given to 12 950 children aged between 10 and 11 years old. The cohort was divided into nine groups based on three levels of literacy achievement and three levels of possible indicators of dyslexia. The group with the most severe underachievement and most possible indicators (children most likely to be severely dyslexic) comprised about 2% of the total. Of this group, 35.3% failed one motor test and 16.4% failed more than one (51.7% in total), compared with 26.8% and 7.7% of normal achievers. The children had greater problems with balance than those in the other two severely underachieving groups but the effects were small. It is suggested that the use of a balance test only as a screener for dyslexia could result in a proportion of dyslexics being missed and that remedial motor training programmes for children with dyslexia should be offered only to those with co-occurring motor difficulties.