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Sample records for 10-year time period

  1. Changes in the American Interventional Radiology Literature: Comparison over a 10-Year Time Period

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, Charles E. Gupta, Rajan; Blackwell, John

    2006-08-15

    < 0.001), the primary field of investigation, with significant increases noted for primary cancer interventions (6.5% vs. 13.3%; p < 0.001), gynecologic interventions (0.2% vs. 4.5%; p < 0.001), stent-grafts (0 vs. 2.9%; p < 0.001), and spine interventions (0 vs. 1.8%; p < 0.01). Studies receiving funding also demonstrated a significant increase when comparing the early and late data sets (11.3% vs. 23.0%, respectively; p < 0.001). Conclusions. Articles published in the American radiologic literature have changed significantly over the past 10 years. Primary authors are more likely to be nonradiologists and less likely to be American. Investigations dealing primarily with nonvascular interventions are less common; however, some forms of intervention (particularly cancer interventions) are seen more frequently in the literature. The percentage of funded projects has more than doubled in the same time frame.

  2. [Bilateral urolithiasis with zonisamide developed for a short period of time in a 10-year-old girl with intractable epilepsy].

    PubMed

    Sato, Shunsuke; Nishinaka, Kazuyuki; Takahashi, Satoshi; Hirobe, Megumi; Tsukamoto, Taiji

    2013-09-01

    Zonisamide is an antiepileptic drug mainly used in patients with refractory epilepsy. One of the urological adverse effects caused by zonisamide is urinary lithiasis. We reported bilateral urinary lithiasis with zonisamide developed for a short period of time. A 10 year-old girl had been treated with zonisamide for intractable epilepsy for nine years. She progressively developed microscopic hematuria as well as crystalluria while being hospitalized for ventriculoperitoneal shunt infection. A computed tomography (CT) showed bilaterally hydronephrotic kidneys obstructed by multiple ureteral calculi. What was impressive was the fact that any single urinary calculus was not identified in a CT image taken just three weeks prior to this event. Then the diagnosis was made of zonisamide-induced bilateral urinary calculi and zonisamide treatment was discontinued. However, since the deterioration of renal function and left-sided hydronephrosis progressed, we performed the construction of right-sided percutaneous nephrostomy (PNS) and the transurethral placement of a left ureteral stent. Subsequently her condition was stabilized and all of these stones were discharged. The analysis of these stones showed mainly calcium phosphatic calculus. We eventually removed both the right PNS and the left ureteral stent. Since then, there has not been any recurrence thus far. We need to recognize the risk of progressively developing renal calculi during zonisamide treatment for a relatively short period of time in the face of dehydration. PMID:24187857

  3. Is it time to bring the “Parent” into the prevention of parent to child transmission programs in India? A study of trends over a 10-year period in a prevention of parent to child transmission clinic in India

    PubMed Central

    Shiradkar, Swati; Mande, Shubhangi; Bapat, Gauri; Setia, Maninder Singh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The present study evaluated the changes in serology and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing behaviors over a 10-year period in a center in India. Methods: We used clinical data collected at the antenatal clinic from 2002 to 2011. The key outcomes were: (1) Proportion of women who opted for HIV test and those who tested positive; (2) proportion of male partners who came in for HIV test and those who tested positive; and (3) proportion of women who opted for continuation of pregnancy or for medical termination of pregnancy. Results: We tested 11,452 women for HIV over the 10-year period from 2002 to 2011. The proportion of women who opted for HIV testing was 72.0% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 70.7–73.4%). The acceptance of test increased from 35.9% (95% CI: 31.7–40.4%) in 2002 to the peak of 82.6% (95% CI: 78.6–86.8%) in 2009 (P < 0.001). The overall HIV prevalence over the decade was 0.70% (95% CI: 0.55–0.87%). The prevalence high at 1.11% (95% CI: 0.23–3.24%) in 2002 and reduced to 0.37% (95% CI: 0.12–0.87%) in 2011 (P < 0.001). Only 0.57% of male partners tested for HIV over this time period. Conclusion: Strategies to improve acceptance of testing in pregnant women should be included in the Indian guidelines. The male partners do not get tested. Thus, this component needs to be strengthened - by targeted interventions for male spouses - to make the program more effective. PMID:27190414

  4. Graft survival rate of renal transplantation during a period of 10 years in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Shahbazi, Fatemeh; Ranjbaran, Mehdi; Karami-far, Simin; Soori, Hamid; Manesh, Hadi Jafari

    2015-01-01

    Background: Kidney transplantation is a preferred treatment for many patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and is far more profitable than hemodialysis. Analyzing renal transplantation data can help to evaluate the effectiveness of transplantation interventions. The aim of this study was to determine the organ survival rate after kidney transplantation during a period of 10 years (March 2001-March 2011) among transplanted patients in Arak, Markazi Province, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this historical cohort study, all recipients of kidney transplantation from Arak, Markazi Province, Iran who had medical records in Valiasr Hospital and “charity for kidney patients” of Arak, Markazi Province, Iran during a period of 10 years from March 2001 to March 2011 were included. Data collected by using checklists were completed from patients’ hospital records. Kaplan-Meier method was used to determine the graft cumulative survival rate, log-rank test to compare survival curves in subgroups, and Cox regression model to define the hazard ratio and for ruling out the intervening factors. Statistical analysis was conducted by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) 20 and Stata 11. Results: Mean duration of follow-up was 55.43 ± 42.02 months. By using the Kaplan-Meier method, the cumulative probability of graft survival at 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 years was 99.1, 97.7, 94.3, 85.7, and 62.1%, respectively. The number of dialysis by controlling the effect of other variables had a significant association with the risk of graft failure [hazard ratios and 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.47 (1.02-2.13)]. Conclusion: This study showed that the graft survival rate was satisfactory in this community and was similar to the results of single-center studies in the world. Dialysis time after transplantation was a significant predictor of survival in the recipients of kidney transplantation that should be considered. PMID:26941807

  5. Incidence of, and reasons for, tooth mortality among mentally retarded adults during a 10-year period.

    PubMed

    Gabre, P; Martinsson, T; Gahnberg, L

    1999-02-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the reasons for, and incidence of, tooth mortality over a 10-year period in mentally retarded adults receiving regular dental care. The number of teeth present in 115 individuals (mean age in 1984 was 41.0, range 19-83 years) was registered in 1984 and 1994. The reasons for tooth mortality, medication utilization, frequency of dental care visits and cooperation during dental treatment were registered and related to tooth loss. The average incidence of tooth mortality was 3.72 teeth during the 10-year period. The mean number of dental care visits per year was 6.6. Most of the 428 teeth (58%) were lost due to periodontal disease. The preventive dental care given was not sufficient to arrest oral diseases. The data indicate, however, that achievement of cooperation in dental care situations not only makes dental treatment possible, but also leads to a decreased incidence of tooth mortality. PMID:10207537

  6. Stability and change in sexual orientation identity over a 10-year period in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Mock, Steven E; Eibach, Richard P

    2012-06-01

    We examined reports of sexual orientation identity stability and change over a 10-year period drawing on data from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS I and II) and tested for three patterns: (1) heterosexual stability, (2) female sexual fluidity, and (3) bisexual fluidity. Fifty-four percent of the 2,560 participants were female and the average age was approximately 47 years. At Wave 1, 2,494 (97.42%) reported a heterosexual identity, 32 (1.25%) a homosexual identity, and 34 (1.33%) a bisexual identity and somewhat more than 2% reported a different sexual orientation identity at Wave 2. Although some support for each hypothesis was found, initial sexual orientation identity interacted with gender to predict a more complex pattern. For the sample as a whole, heterosexuality was the most stable identity. For women, bisexuality and homosexuality were equally unstable and significantly less stable than heterosexuality, suggesting that sexual orientation identity fluidity is a pattern that applies more to sexual minority women than heterosexual women. For men, heterosexuality and homosexuality were both relatively stable compared to bisexuality, which stood out as a particularly unstable identity. This pattern of results was consistent with previous findings and helps to address methodological limitations of earlier research by showing the characteristics of a population-based sample of heterosexual, homosexual, and bisexual identified men and women over time. PMID:21584828

  7. Diagnosis and management of Duchenne muscular dystrophy in a developing country over a 10-year period.

    PubMed

    Thong, Meow-Keong; Bazlin, R I Raja; Wong, Kum-Thong

    2005-07-01

    Clinical data on Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) are lacking in developing countries. The objective of this study was to delineate the demographic characteristics, investigations, and outcome of 21 Malaysian males diagnosed with DMD over a period of 10 years. Mean age presentation was 3 years 8 months (SD 23mo; range 10 to 84mo), mean duration from first presentation to diagnosis was 3y 7mo (SD 26mo; range 5 to 84) and the mean age for loss of ambulation was 11 years (SD 25mo; range 102 to 168). There was family history of DMD in five of the 21 patients. Muscle biopsy showed confirmatory findings of DMD in the 16 patients tested. Molecular genetic analysis showed dystrophin gene deletions in 11 of these 16 patients. Four and seven of the students stopped schooling and had learning difficulties, respectively; only nine had satisfactory school performances. Eight out of 14 patients evaluated were classified as having severe to total dependency levels on the modified Barthel Index for activities of daily living assessment. DMD is associated with significant medical and social needs for a developing country such as Malaysia. Earlier referral, genetic counselling, and provision of support and rehabilitative services are the main priorities. PMID:15991868

  8. Effect of meteorology and soil condition on metolachlor and atrazine volatilization over a 10 year period

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 10-year study was conducted to focus on the impact of soil and climatic factors governing herbicide volatilization from an agricultural field. For the first 5 years, metolachlor [2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N-(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl) acetamide] and atrazine [6-chloro-N-ethyl-N’-(1-methyl...

  9. Effect of meteorology and soil condition on metolachlor and atrazine volatilization over a 10 year period

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Volatilization of pesticides can detrimentally affect the environment by contaminating soil and surface waters far away from where the pesticides were applied. A 10-year study was conducted to focus on the impact of soil and climatic factors governing herbicide volatilization from an agricultural f...

  10. Marked reduction of anemia during pregnancy over a 10-year period in Montserrat.

    PubMed

    Simmons, W K; Simeon, D T; Bramble, D; Buffonge, C; Gallagher, P

    1996-03-01

    Anemia during pregnancy is associated with adverse outcomes including maternal and perinatal mortality. However, health education and other public health strategies seeking to reduce its prevalence have usually met with only limited success. The study reported here surveyed anemia of pregnancy on the island of Montserrat in 1980, 1985, and 1990. This involved examination of clinic and hospital records for over 90% of all women giving birth on Montserrat in 1980 and 1985, as well as 80% of those giving birth in 1990. This examination showed a dramatic reduction in the prevalence of anemia at the time of the first prenatal visit (a drop from 82% of the study women in 1980 to 23% in 1985 and 19% in 1990) and also a marked drop at three days postpartum (from 91% in 1980 to 41% in 1985 and 39% in 1990). Logistic regression analyses indicated that after controlling for three possible confounding factors (maternal age, parity, and weeks of gestation at first prenatal visit) the difference between the risk of developing anemia during pregnancy in 1980 as compared to 1985 or 1990 was still highly significant. The reasons for the observed drop in anemia's prevalence during the survey period are not entirely clear, partly because of the retrospective nature of the study. However, better nutrition resulting from improvement in the standard of living on Montserrat during the survey period could have been important, as could changes in health education and food supplementation activities. PMID:8919721

  11. Contact sensitivity to chromate: comparison at a London contact dermatitis clinic over a 10-year period.

    PubMed

    Olsavszky, R; Rycroft, R J; White, I R; McFadden, J P

    1998-06-01

    It has been argued that for chromate sensitivity to be reduced, then ferrous sulfate should be added to cement. This has not yet been done in the UK. To explore this further, we have looked at the comparative sensitization rates of patients attending the St. John's Institute of Dermatology Contact Dermatitis Clinic between the years 1982-3 and 1992-3. Patch-test-positive rates for females were not significantly different between the 2 populations studied (1982-3, 1.59% and 1992-3, 1.99% p NS). Similarly, there was no significantly different rate between the males (1982-3, 3.99% and 1992-3, 4.25% p NS) in the same time period. There was no difference in the distribution of eczema in chromate-positive subjects, nor of cobalt co-sensitization, a crude indicator of sensitization via cement. This work demonstrates no appreciable difference in the frequency of chromate sensitivity between the early 1980s and 1990s in London. Adding ferrous sulfate to cement may help to lower the frequency in the future. PMID:9687032

  12. Analysis of a single Helicobacter pylori strain over a 10-year period in a primate model.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Fero, Jutta B; Mendez, Melissa; Carpenter, Beth M; Servetas, Stephanie L; Rahman, Arifur; Goldman, Matthew D; Boren, Thomas; Salama, Nina R; Merrell, D Scott; Dubois, Andre

    2015-05-01

    Helicobacter pylori from different individuals exhibits substantial genetic diversity. However, the kinetics of bacterial diversification after infection with a single strain is poorly understood. We investigated evolution of H. pylori following long-term infection in the primate stomach; Rhesus macaques were infected with H. pylori strain USU101 and then followed for 10 years. H. pylori was regularly cultured from biopsies, and single colony isolates were analyzed. At 1-year, DNA fingerprinting showed that all output isolates were identical to the input strain; however, at 5-years, different H. pylori fingerprints were observed. Microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization revealed that long term persistence of USU101 in the macaque stomach was associated with specific whole gene changes. Further detailed investigation showed that levels of the BabA protein were dramatically reduced within weeks of infection. The molecular mechanisms behind this reduction were shown to include phase variation and gene loss via intragenomic rearrangement, suggesting strong selective pressure against BabA expression in the macaque model. Notably, although there is apparently strong selective pressure against babA, babA is required for establishment of infection in this model as a strain in which babA was deleted was unable to colonize experimentally infected macaques. PMID:25804332

  13. Light microscopic hair abnormalities in children: retrospective review of 119 cases in a 10-year period.

    PubMed

    Shao, Lei; Newell, Brandon

    2014-01-01

    Abnormalities in the hair can be congenital or acquired conditions. Examples of genetic disorders with associated hair abnormalities include Menkes syndrome, Netherton syndrome, uncombable hair syndrome, trichothiodystrophy, and loose anagen hair syndrome. Acquired hair abnormalities can be associated with grooming or use of various hair products. There are many patterns of hair abnormalities that can be readily identified under a light microscope. We performed a retrospective review of 129 hair mount samples from 119 patients submitted to the pathology department for microscopic examination over a 10-year span (from January 2002 to December 2011). Of the 119 patients, 63 (53%) had morphologic changes in the hair samples. Thirty-seven patients (31%) showed morphologic changes compatible with specific diagnoses of various genetic conditions, including 25 cases of loose anagen hair syndrome, 6 cases of uncombable hair syndrome, 2 cases of Netherton syndrome, 3 cases of Menkes syndrome, and 1 case of trichothiodystrophy. The other changes were considered nonspecific or nondiagnostic, with trichorrhexis nodosa in 13 patients, presence of loose anagen hairs in 12 patients, and pili torti in 1 patient. We describe the light microscopic patterns of hair abnormalities, clinical findings, and molecular defects related to those genetic conditions. Our study indicates that hair examination can be a 1st-line investigation on various pediatric conditions. PMID:24251687

  14. Changes in Active Commuting to School in Czech Adolescents in Different Types of Built Environment across a 10-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Dygrýn, Jan; Mitáš, Josef; Gába, Aleš; Rubín, Lukáš; Frömel, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Active commuting (AC) to school represents a great opportunity to incorporate walking or cycling into adolescents’ everyday routine. The objective of the study was to describe changes in AC in Czech adolescents across a 10-year period in different built environments. Data from the 2001 and 2011 Czech Census of Population and Housing were used to examine the mode of transportation taken to school in 6236 adolescents. Changes in AC over time were analyzed for low and high walkable areas separately in two Czech regional cities, Olomouc and Hradec Králové. Between 2001 and 2011, the proportion of adolescents actively commuting to school decreased by 47%, from an absolute rate of 49.1% to 26%. The proportion of active commuters fell in low walkable areas by 61% and in high walkable areas by 39%. The results indicated that adolescents in 2011 were 2.7 times less (OR = 0.365, p < 0.001) likely to actively commute than in 2001. The AC behavior in Czech adolescents has a negative tendency to replicate travel-to-school patterns in adolescents previously described in more developed countries. The findings might serve as a recommendation for municipal policy. PMID:26501304

  15. Changes in Active Commuting to School in Czech Adolescents in Different Types of Built Environment across a 10-Year Period.

    PubMed

    Dygrýn, Jan; Mitáš, Josef; Gába, Aleš; Rubín, Lukáš; Frömel, Karel

    2015-10-01

    Active commuting (AC) to school represents a great opportunity to incorporate walking or cycling into adolescents' everyday routine. The objective of the study was to describe changes in AC in Czech adolescents across a 10-year period in different built environments. Data from the 2001 and 2011 Czech Census of Population and Housing were used to examine the mode of transportation taken to school in 6236 adolescents. Changes in AC over time were analyzed for low and high walkable areas separately in two Czech regional cities, Olomouc and Hradec Králové. Between 2001 and 2011, the proportion of adolescents actively commuting to school decreased by 47%, from an absolute rate of 49.1% to 26%. The proportion of active commuters fell in low walkable areas by 61% and in high walkable areas by 39%. The results indicated that adolescents in 2011 were 2.7 times less (OR = 0.365, p < 0.001) likely to actively commute than in 2001. The AC behavior in Czech adolescents has a negative tendency to replicate travel-to-school patterns in adolescents previously described in more developed countries. The findings might serve as a recommendation for municipal policy. PMID:26501304

  16. Epidemiology and clinical outcome of candidaemia among Jordanian newborns over a 10-year period.

    PubMed

    Badran, Eman F; Al Baramki, Jumana H; Al Shamyleh, Abdulqader; Shehabi, Asem; Khuri-Bulos, Najwa

    2008-01-01

    This retrospective study includes all newborn patients with culture proved candidaemia who were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit of Jordan University Hospital through the period January 1995 to June 2006. Among 24 patients included, 13 (54.2%) died. The incidence of candidaemia was 0.27%, the mean age at diagnosis 25.9 d and the mean gestational age at birth 34.6 weeks. Species most frequently isolated were Candida albicans (50%) and C. krusei (20%). Previous gastrointestinal pathology was present in 41.7% of the cases. A comparison of cases due to C. albicans with those due to other species of Candida revealed no statistical differences in terms of demographic factors, age at onset of disease, mortality, clinical manifestations or risk factors. Based on our results, empirical antifungal therapy should be considered in neonates who have gastrointestinal pathology and other risk factors. PMID:17852924

  17. Reconstruction of mandibular defects - clinical retrospective research over a 10-year period -

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Backround Functional and cosmetic defects in the maxillofacial region are caused by various ailments and these defects are addressed according to their need. Simplicity of procedure, intact facial function and esthetic outcome with the least possible donor site morbidity are the minimum requirements of a good reconstruction. Oro-mandibular reconstruction, although a challenge for the head and neck reconstructive surgeon, is now reliable and highly successful with excellent long-term functional and aesthetic outcomes with the use of autogenous bone grafts. Reconstruction of trauma- or mandibular oncologic defects with bony free flaps is considered the gold standard. However the the optimal reconstruction of mandibular defects is still controversial in regards to reconstructive options which include the donor site selection and the timing of surgery. The purpose of this study was to determine the outcome of different osseous reconstruction options using autogenous bone grafts for mandibular reconstructions. Methods This study was carried out on 178 patients with mandibular bone defects. They were reconstructed with autogenous bone grafts from different donor sites. At post operative visits they were evaluated for functional and cosmetic results. Results The success rate found in this study was around 90%. Only 7.6% of the cases showed poor results regarding facial contours and mouth opening. All other patients were satisfied with their cosmesis and mouth opening at the recipient sites was in the normal range during last follow-up visits. Donor sites were primarily closed in all cases and there was no hypertrophic scar. Conclusion Based on this study, autogenous bone grafts are a reliable treatment modality for the reconstruction of mandibular bone defects with predictable aesthetic and functional outcomes. As the free vascularized fibular flap has the least resorption and failure rate, it should be the first choice for most cases of mandiblular reconstruction. PMID

  18. Cytomegalovirus seroprevalence among women of childbearing age during a 10-year period.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Gary S; Stout, Gordon G

    2005-10-01

    The incidence of congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease is dependent on the rate of virus acquisition by susceptible women in temporal proximity to pregnancy. Information about serostatus may help to identify high-risk groups and target interventions. Each year from 1991 to 2000, cord blood specimens (surrogates for maternal serum) from 100 consecutive deliveries were obtained at three hospitals. The presence of CMV immunoglobulin G antibody was correlated with demographic data. Overall, 58% of 2992 women were seropositive. After stratification by socioeconomic status (SES), nonwhite race was strongly associated with seropositivity (odds ratio, 3.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.5 to 3.8), and after stratification by race, lower SES also was associated (odds ratio, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.7 to 2.3). There were no trends in seroprevalence over time in any demographic group. However, among white women 21 to 29 years of age, a significant association was found with later birth cohort. Seropositivity ranged from 40% among older, white primigravidas of upper SES to 89% among older, nonwhite, multigravid women of lower SES. These data suggest high rates of CMV transmission among nonwhite women of lower SES. Because these women tended to deliver infants at younger ages, delaying pregnancy even a few years might reduce the incidence of congenital disease. In contrast, most white, upper SES women remain susceptible to primary infection during their childbearing years. Such women born after 1975 may be more likely to reach the childbearing years with CMV immunity as compared with women born before then. PMID:16215924

  19. Extending the TIME concept: what have we learned in the past 10 years?(*).

    PubMed

    Leaper, David J; Schultz, Gregory; Carville, Keryln; Fletcher, Jacqueline; Swanson, Theresa; Drake, Rebecca

    2012-12-01

    The TIME acronym (tissue, infection/inflammation, moisture balance and edge of wound) was first developed more than 10 years ago, by an international group of wound healing experts, to provide a framework for a structured approach to wound bed preparation; a basis for optimising the management of open chronic wounds healing by secondary intention. However, it should be recognised that the TIME principles are only a part of the systematic and holistic evaluation of each patient at every wound assessment. This review, prepared by the International Wound Infection Institute, examines how new data and evidence generated in the intervening decade affects the original concepts of TIME, and how it is translated into current best practice. Four developments stand out: recognition of the importance of biofilms (and the need for a simple diagnostic), use of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT), evolution of topical antiseptic therapy as dressings and for wound lavage (notably, silver and polyhexamethylene biguanide) and expanded insight of the role of molecular biological processes in chronic wounds (with emerging diagnostics and theranostics). Tissue: a major advance has been the recognition of the value of repetitive and maintenance debridement and wound cleansing, both in time-honoured and novel methods (notably using NPWT and hydrosurgery). Infection/inflammation: clinical recognition of infection (and non infective causes of persisting inflammation) is critical. The concept of a bacterial continuum through contamination, colonisation and infection is now widely accepted, together with the understanding of biofilm presence. There has been a return to topical antiseptics to control bioburden in wounds, emphasised by the awareness of increasing antibiotic resistance. Moisture: the relevance of excessive or insufficient wound exudate and its molecular components has led to the development and use of a wide range of dressings to regulate moisture balance, and to protect

  20. Pattern of Venous Thromboembolism Occurrence in Gynecologic Malignancy: Incidence, Timing, and Distribution a 10-Year Retrospective Single-institutional Study.

    PubMed

    Ye, Shuang; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Jiaxin; Cao, Dongyan; Huang, Huifang; Wu, Ming; Lang, Jinghe; Shen, Keng

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this single-institutional 10-year retrospective study was to investigate the clinical pattern (incidence, type, timing, and location) of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in Chinese patients with gynecologic cancer. Cases were identified by searching institutional Electronic Discharge Database. A comprehensive review of medical documentation was then performed to collect relevant data. The detection of VTE was symptom-triggered. A total of 155 VTE events were identified out of 7562 cases over the past 10-year period in our hospital. The incidence of clinically significant VTE was 2.0% in gynecologic malignancy, with vulvar cancer (3.7%) and ovarian cancer (2.5%) being the high-risk types (P = 0.01, Chi-square test). Perioperative period (35.1%) and preoperation (29.1%) were the 2 incidence peaks. Seventeen cases of pulmonary embolism (PE) occurred prior to surgery. Ovarian cancer patients were more likely to present preoperative PE compared to other site of cancer (76.4%; P = 0.01, Chi-square test). More preoperative VTE cases were complicated by PE than those in the perioperative period (39.5% vs 17.3%, P = 0.02, Chi-square test). Bilateral lower extremity deep vein thrombosis (DVT) accounted for 32.6% and there existed a preponderance of left-sided DVT (47.5% vs 17.0%, ratio 2.79:1). Femoral vein (36.6%) was the most common location for DVT. About 2.0% of the Chinese patients with gynecologic carcinoma developed clinical VTE, mostly during perioperative period and the time of diagnosis. The true incidence might have been under-estimated due to several reasons. The need for increased patient education and awareness of VTE is of importance. PMID:26683971

  1. Processes of physical change to the seabed and bivalve recruitment over a 10-year period following experimental hydraulic clam dredging on Banquereau, Scotian Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilkinson, K.; King, E. L.; Li, M. Z.; Roddick, D.; Kenchington, E.; Han, G.

    2015-01-01

    A previous study on the effects of experimental hydraulic clam dredging on seabed habitat and commercial bivalve populations revealed a lack of recovery after a 3-year post-dredging period (1998-2001) on a deep (65-75 m) offshore sandy bank on the Scotian Shelf, Canada. Follow-up sidescan sonar surveys were carried out 5 and 10 years after dredging (2003, 2008) in order to identify long-term processes of seabed recovery. Grab sampling was carried out 10 years after dredging to identify post-dredging commercial bivalve recruitment. Changes in the seafloor, including dredge tracks, were documented with a series of 7 sidescan sonar surveys between 1998 and 2008. A sediment mobility model was constructed based on modeled tidal current and hindcast wave data over this time period to quantify natural seabed disturbance and interpret changes to the dredge tracks mapped by sidescan sonar surveys. The model indicated that tidal currents had minimal effect on sediment mobilization. The main driving force associated with re-working of surficial sediments as evidenced by deterioration of dredge tracks in sonograms was annual fall/winter storms. While the annual frequency of storms and associated wave heights was variable, the observations and sediment mobility calculations suggest that the most influential variable is the magnitude of individual large storms, specifically storms with a significant wave height of ∼11 m. These storms are capable of generating mobile sediment layers of 20-30 cm thickness, equivalent to the dredge blade cutting depth. It appears that, with minor exceptions, sediment properties have returned to pre-dredging conditions 10 years after dredging in this habitat. Based on known age-length relationships, the four commercial bivalve species showed very low recruitment at the experimental site over the 10-year post-dredging period. However, this is unlikely due to a dredging effect since a similar pattern was observed in non-dredged areas.

  2. Bibliometric analysis of scientific articles published in Brazilian and international orthodontic journals over a 10-year period

    PubMed Central

    Primo, Neudí Antonio; Gazzola, Vivian Bertoglio; Primo, Bruno Tochetto; Tovo, Maximiano Ferreira; Faraco Junior, Italo Medeiros

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study aimed at describing the profiles of Brazilian and international studies published in orthodontic journals. Methods The sample comprised 635 articles selected from two scientific journals, i.e., Dental Press Journal of Orthodontics and American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, which were analyzed at three different intervals over a 10-year period (1999 - 2004 - 2009). Articles were described in terms of knowledge domain, study design, and country of origin (or state of origin for Brazilian papers). Results The most frequent study designs adopted in international studies were cohort (23.9%) and cross-sectional (21.7%) designs. Among Brazilian papers, cross-sectional studies (28.9%) and literature reviews (24.6%) showed greater frequency. The topics most often investigated were dental materials (17%) and treatment devices (12.4%) in international articles, with the latter topic being addressed by 16% of the Brazilian publications, followed by malocclusion, with 12.6%. In all cases, the most frequent countries of origin coincided with the countries of origin of each journal. Conclusions The majority of the studies analyzed featured a low level of scientific evidence. Moreover, the findings showed that journals tend to publish studies produced in their own country of origin, and that there are marked discrepancies in the number of papers published by different Brazilian states. PMID:24945515

  3. Tracking of leisure-time physical activity during adolescence and young adulthood: a 10-year longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Kjønniksen, Lise; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Wold, Bente

    2008-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to show how participation in leisure-time physical activity changes between ages 13 to 23, and to what extent engaging in specific types of sports tracks into young adulthood. Methods The sample comprised 630 subjects who responded to questionnaires at age 13, with seven follow-ups over a 10-year period in the Norwegian Longitudinal Health Behaviour Study. The associations between adolescent participation in global and specific types of leisure-time physical activity were examined by analyses of variance, regression analysis and growth curve analysis. Results The findings suggest that the transition from adolescence to adulthood is, on average, a period of decline in physical activity, but with the decline levelling off into adulthood. The decline was significantly greater among males than females. There were substantial individual differences in the amount of change, in particular among males. Jogging alone and cycling, recreational activities such as skiing and hiking, and ball games, showed a high degree of tracking from age 15 to 23. The findings indicate low associations between participation in specific types of activities during adolescence and global leisure-time physical activity in young adulthood, while participation in several adolescent physical activities simultaneously was moderately related to later activity. Thus, being involved in various types of physical activity may offer good opportunities for establishing lifelong involvement in physical activity, independent of the specific type of activity. Conclusion The observed variation in change might suggest a need for a more targeted approach, with a focus on subgroups of individuals. The group of inactive youth may be considered as a high risk group, and the findings suggest that adolescent males who are inactive early seem likely to continue to be inactive later. The observed heterogeneity in change highlights the limitation of previous approaches to

  4. A Randomized Trial Comparing Part-time Patching with Observation for Children 3–10 Years Old with Intermittent Exotropia

    PubMed Central

    Cotter, Susan A.; Mohney, Brian G.; Chandler, Danielle L.; Holmes, Jonathan M.; Repka, Michael X.; Melia, Michele; Wallace, David K.; Beck, Roy W.; Birch, Eileen E.; Kraker, Raymond T.; Tamkins, Susanna M.; Miller, Aaron M.; Sala, Nicholas A.; Glaser, Stephen R.

    2014-01-01

    over a 6-month period is uncommon with or without patching treatment. Although there is a slightly lower deterioration rate with patching, both management approaches are reasonable for treating 3 to 10 year olds with IXT. PMID:25234012

  5. Hospital Expenditure as a Major Driver of Nurse Labour Force Participation: Evidence from a 10-Year Period in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Vujicic, Marko; Onate, Kanecy; Laporte, Audrey; Deber, Raisa

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines trends in the nursing labour market in Canada over a period of dramatic fluctuations in hospital expenditures. We add to previous analysis that covered the period 1991–1996 and use Census data from 2001 to examine the relationship between hospital expenditure and nurse labour force participation. We find that shifts in labour force participation over the period 1991–2001 had a significant impact on the nursing supply in Canada. Individuals who were trained in nursing but were working outside the profession in 1996 because of budgetary reductions and layoffs in hospitals had largely been reabsorbed back into nursing jobs by 2001. Our analysis provides further empirical evidence that the labour force participation among individuals trained in nursing is driven to a large extent by demand-side factors. PMID:22548099

  6. Cold start extra emissions as a function of engine stop time: Evolution over the last 10 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favez, Jean-Yves; Weilenmann, Martin; Stilli, Jan

    Cars with catalysts show a significant increase in exhaust emissions at engine start. These extra emissions are expressed as the difference, over a particular driving cycle, between emissions generated when the vehicle is started and when the engine or the catalyst are stably warm. Experimental data, suitable for the assessment of cold start emissions, are usually available for completely cooled engines. Most results originate from tests at ambient temperature of 20-30 °C and with an engine stop time of at least 12 h. On the other hand, data including shorter stop times are very rare. The present work investigates the influence of exhaust emissions with shorter stop times, i.e. 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 h. The main goal consists in the comparison of emissions exhausted by recent car models (Euro-4) against emissions assessed in the framework of a similar campaign 10 years ago (FAV1/Euro-1 vehicles). A short survey of the current extra emission estimation methods is presented in this paper. It is shown that some methods are not suited for providing correct estimations in all cases. We discuss the fact that different estimation methods can show either similar or completely different results depending on the evolution behaviour of the hot emissions. Due to new technologies, e.g. the catalyst and improved engine control algorithms, emissions have been considerably reduced over the last 10 years. In this study it is determined how the relative extra emissions, i.e. extra emissions relative to the extra emissions for the standard stop time of 12 h, expressed as a function of stop time have changed. We may claim with caution that for medium stop times of 0.5-4 h the average relative extra emissions of Euro-4 vehicles are well below the average of the relative extra emissions of Euro-1 vehicles.

  7. Formulation of an organic carbon trajectory over a 10-year period on a restored spoil island in south-central Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schafer, T.; Ellis, R.; Osborne, T.; Hicks Pries, C.

    2015-12-01

    Long-term monitoring of restoration projects aims to determine long-term sustainability and stability of restored systems. In coastal wetlands, one indicator of restoration of ecosystem function can be seen with organic matter (specifically carbon) accretion. SL-15, a spoil island in Fort Pierce, Fl was restored in 2005, and has been monitored for return to natural condition over the last 10 years.. To assess sediment carbon accretion, sediment cores were collected in a set of eight plots, located on the SL-15 mangrove island and the surrounding seagrass recruitment area. These were analyzed for organic carbon, microbial biomass carbon, extractable carbon, and total nitrogen. The biogeochemical data collected in the previous year was compared to data collected in 2005-2007. Vegetation surveys were also completed to show the build-up of organic material in accordance with vegetation shift over the 9-year period. From this information, a trajectory has been formulated on organic carbon accretion and vegetation shift from the time of orginal restoration activities. By comparison to control sites nearby, realistic estimates of time required to reach natural levels of carbon and vegetation community structure can be calculated..

  8. Clinical Features and Outcomes of Strabismus Treatment in Third Cranial Nerve Palsy during a 10-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri, Abbas; Borhani, Morteza; Tavakoli, Mehdi; Salehirad, Shahram

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the demographics and management outcomes of strabismus surgery in patients with third cranial nerve palsy. Methods: This retrospective study includes subjects with third cranial nerve palsy. We evaluated age, sex, laterality, severity of involvement, etiology, frequency of clinical findings, and types and results of treatments. Results: 52 patients including 29 male and 23 female subjects with mean age of 21.1±15.5 years were studied between January 1999 and January 2009. Etiologies of third nerve palsy included congenital in 16 (30.8%), trauma in 26 (50%) and other causes in 10 (19.2%) patients. In 24 patients (46.2%), the palsy was complete. The most common type of strabismus was exotropia associated with hypotropia (40%). Medical treatment was used in 25 (48%) and surgical treatment in 46 (88.4%) subjects. One time strabismus surgery was performed in 30 (65.2%), 2 times in 11 (24%) and 3 times in 5 (10.8%) subjects. The most common operation was large horizontal recession and resection in 78.2% of cases. Mean horizontal deviation in primary position was 66±29 prism diopters (PD) before surgery decreasing to 21±19, 13±12 and 6±8 PD after first, second and third surgery, respectively. Corresponding figures for mean vertical deviation were 13±15, 7±12, 4±6 and 1±2 PD, respectively. Abnormal head posture was 10-30° in 11 (21.1%) cases before treatment which completely resolved after surgery. Conclusion: Surgical management of strabismus in patients with third nerve palsy is difficult and challenging, however the majority of patients achieve ideal results with appropriate and stepwise surgical plans. PMID:25667737

  9. What Are the Trends in Tonsillectomy Techniques in Wales? A Prospective Observational Study of 19,195 Tonsillectomies over a 10-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Walijee, Hussein; Al-Hussaini, Ali; Harris, Andrew; Owens, David

    2015-01-01

    There are a multitude of techniques to undertake tonsillectomy, with hot techniques such as diathermy and coblation being associated with a higher risk of secondary haemorrhage. The UK National Prospective Tonsillectomy Audit (2004) advocated cold steel dissection and ties to be the gold standard. This prospective observational study investigates the trends in tonsillectomy techniques across Wales in the last decade to establish if surgeons have adhered to this national guidance. Data relating to tonsillectomy were extracted over a 10-year period from 1 January 2003 to 31 December 2012 from the Wales Surgical Instrument Surveillance Programme database. A total of 19,195 patients were included. Time-series analysis using linear regression showed there was an increase in the number of bipolar diathermy tonsillectomies by 84% (Pearson's r = 0.762, p = 0.010) and coblation tonsillectomies by 120% (r = 0.825, p = 0.003). In contrast, there was a fall in the number of cold steel dissection tonsillectomies with ties by 60% (r = −0.939, p < 0.001). This observational study suggests that the use of bipolar and coblation techniques for tonsillectomy has increased. This deviation from national guidance may be due to these techniques being faster with less intraoperative bleeding. Further study for the underlying reasons for the increase in these techniques is warranted. PMID:26693228

  10. A bibliometric analysis of toxicology research productivity in Middle Eastern Arab countries during a 10-year period (2003–2012)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bibliometric studies are increasingly being used for research assessment by involving the application of statistical methods to scientific publications to obtain the bibliographics for each country. The main objective of this study was to analyse the research productivity originating from 13 Middle Eastern Arab (MEA) countries with articles published in toxicology journals. Methods Data from January 1, 2003 till December 31, 2012 were searched for documents with specific words in the toxicology field as a “source title” in any one of the 13 MEA countries. Research productivity was evaluated based on a methodology developed and used in other bibliometric studies. Research productivity was adjusted to the national population and nominal gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. Results Documents (n = 1,240) were retrieved from 73 international peer-reviewed toxicology journals. The h-index of the retrieved documents was 39. Of the 73 journal titles, 52 (69.9%) have their IF listed in the ISI Journal Citation Reports 2012; 198 documents (16.0%) were published in journals that had no official IF. After adjusting for economy and population power, Egypt (193.6), Palestine (18.1), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) (13.0), and Jordan (11.5) had the highest research productivity. Countries with large economies, such as the Kuwait, United Arab Emirates (UAE), and Oman, tended to rank relatively low after adjustment of GDP. The total number of citations at the time of data analysis (August 4, 2013) was 10,991, with a median (interquartile range) of 4 (1–11). MEA collaborated more with countries in the MEA regions (16.7%), especially KSA, Egypt, and UAE, followed by Europe (14.4%), especially with the United Kingdom and Germany. Conclusions The present data show a promising rise and a good start for toxicology research activity in toxicology journals in the Arab world. Research output is low in some countries, which can be improved by investing in more

  11. Decline in lymphatic filariasis transmission with annual mass drug administration using DEC with and without albendazole over a 10year period in India.

    PubMed

    Sunish, I P; Kalimuthu, M; Rajendran, R; Munirathinam, A; Ashok Kumar, V; Nagaraj, J; Tyagi, B K

    2015-02-01

    The National Programme for the Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis is underway in the endemic districts of Tamil Nadu State, South India, since 2001. Annual mass drug administration (MDA) was carried out by the state health department to all eligible individuals. The impact of MDAs on transmission parameters was evaluated in 2 revenue blocks, viz, one with DEC alone and the other with a combination of albendazole. After 10 years with 6 annual MDAs, the transmission indices reached low levels in both treatment arms, but still persisted. However, the DEC alone arm showed higher transmission rates, compared to the DEC+ALB arm. Few villages which demonstrated persistent transmission need to be targeted with an additional control measure viz, vector control, to achieve LF elimination. It is evident from the 10 year period of the study that inclusion of albendazole along with DEC has significantly reduced the transmission indices to almost nil level, as compared to DEC alone. PMID:25205435

  12. My First Year in Academic Practice: If I Could Turn Back Time, What I Would Do Differently-10 Years Later.

    PubMed

    Liporace, Frank A

    2015-11-01

    "Joining a practice for the first time after training, whether in academia or the private sector is fraught with challenges and a learning curve. Postgraduate education has not sufficiently taught anyone how to manage the nuances of this new arena, or completely how to become successful. Success is not solely a function measured by reportable taxable income. Respect by colleagues, patients, partners, and staff are just as important, if not more so, and the financial attributes will be realized if the tangibles and intangibles discussed are appropriately executed in the correct environment." Although the preceding statements were made as reflecting on the first year of practice, they hold true 10 years later, and always. This article discusses what can be learned from a decade of "doing" even when having "planned well." Some concepts that have not changed are maintained throughout, some have been updated from experience, and some have been completely changed. Just remember, what you do should be dynamic and adaptable over time, but the principles, if sound from the start, never change. PMID:26458003

  13. Variations in Titan's Ionospheric Densities over a 10 Year Time Period of the Cassini Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madanian, H.; Cravens, T.; Richard, M. S.; Edberg, N. J. T.; Westlake, J. H.; Wahlund, J. E.; Waite, J. H., Jr.; Perryman, R.

    2015-12-01

    Titan hosts the most chemically complex atmosphere in the solar system. The first encounter of the Cassini spacecraft with Titan was in October 2004 with a closest approach altitude of 1147km. Since then the Cassini has made measurements of the ionospheric species over multiple flybys and has provided a unique opportunity to study long term effects on Titan's ionosphere including solar activity cycle. It has been shown that solar extreme ultraviolet radiation is the main source of ion production and production rates are highly dependent on solar zenith angle. We use data from the ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) and the Radio and Plasma Wave Science-Langmuir probe (RPWS-LP) instruments onboard the Cassini spacecraft to investigate changes in the ion composition of the ionosphere. We compare the observations with the results of our ionospheric models. Data from 21 targeted Titan flybys are used, covering the declining phase of solar cycle 23 into the double peak of solar cycle 24. We show that the ion densities have in fact increased during the high solar activity, especially at altitudes near the ionospheric peak, and unlike Earth, the Titan's thermosphere is contracted during high solar activity. Charge neutrality is assumed near the peak of the ionosphere, however difference exists between INMS total ion densities and RPWS-LP electron densities and it becomes more noticeable at high solar activity. This may be for several reasons including enhanced negative ion densities and increased electron recombination rates. The model results agree reasonably well with the in-situ measurements for most ion species at low and high solar activity conditions although overproduction exists for some ions (e.g. HCNH+) and underproduction is seen for some heavier species such as C7H7+.

  14. The effect of radiological hip dysplasia and breed on survival in a prospective cohort study of four large dog breeds followed over a 10 year period.

    PubMed

    Krontveit, Randi I; Trangerud, Cathrine; Nødtvedt, Ane; Dohoo, Ian; Moe, Lars; Sævik, Bente K

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the study was to measure the effect of radiological hip and elbow dysplasia status and breed on overall survival in a cohort of four large dog breeds in Norway. Privately owned dogs of the Newfoundland (NF), Labrador Retriever (LR), Leonberger (LEO), and Irish Wolfhound (IW) breeds were followed prospectively from birth to 10 years of age. The age of death/euthanasia was registered. A total of 501 dogs from 103 litters were enrolled. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were used to describe breed differences in survival times. The effects of radiological hip and elbow dysplasia status as well as breed were assessed using a Cox proportional hazards model. The variables 'sex' and 'living region' were explored as potential confounders. Among LRs, 60.2% of the dogs were still alive at 10 years of age, and the corresponding figures for NFs, LEOs, and IWs were 28.8%, 16.11%, and 6.4%, respectively. Radiological hip dysplasia status and breed were found to influence overall survival. Two different time-varying effects were observed in that with the IW the hazard of death increased linearly through time, while the effect of severe radiological hip dysplasia decreased logarithmically with time. Location influenced the death hazard and dogs living in suburban areas or cities had longer mean time to death and a lower hazard compared to dogs living in the countryside. Radiological elbow dysplasia status was not found to have an effect on overall survival. PMID:22093911

  15. Reducing Prescriptions of Long-Acting Benzodiazepine Drugs in Denmark: A Descriptive Analysis of Nationwide Prescriptions during a 10-Year Period.

    PubMed

    Eriksen, Sophie Isabel; Bjerrum, Lars

    2015-06-01

    Prolonged consumption of benzodiazepine drugs (BZD) and benzodiazepine receptor agonists (zolpidem, zaleplon, zopiclone; altogether Z drugs) is related to potential physiological and psychological dependence along with other adverse effects. This study aimed to analyse the prescribing of long-acting BZD (half-life >10 hr), compared to short-acting BZD in Denmark during a 10-year period. Descriptive analysis of total sales data from the Danish Register of Medicinal Product Statistics, to individuals in the primary healthcare sector, of all BZD and Z drugs in the period of 2003-2013. Prescription data derive from all community and hospital pharmacies in Denmark. The prescribing of long-acting BZD was reduced from 25.8 defined daily doses (DDD)/1000 inhabitants/day in 2003 to 8.8 DDD/1000 inhabitants/day in 2013, a relative reduction of 66%. The prescribing of short-acting BZD was reduced from 26.1 DDD/1000 inhabitants/day in 2003 to 16.4 DDD/1000 inhabitants/day in 2013, a relative reduction of 37%. Prescription data in this study did not include information about indications for initiating treatments. In addition, due to compliance problems, some of the prescribed drugs may not have been consumed according to the prescription. The observed reduction in BZD use was correlated to the introduction of new national guidelines on prescription of addictive drugs, but this study was not designed to detect a causal relationship. The prescribing of long-acting BZD decreased considerably more than the prescribing of short-acting BZD in the 10-year period. PMID:25382355

  16. Changes in the types of liver diseases requiring hepatic resection: a single-institution experience of 9016 cases over a 10-year period

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hwui-Dong; Lee, Young-Joo; Park, Kwang-Min; Kim, Ki-Hun; Kim, Jin Cheon; Ahn, Chul-Soo; Moon, Deok-Bog; Ha, Tae-Yong; Lee, Sung-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds/Aims To understand the changing demands for hepatic resection (HR), we collected data regarding HR performed in a tertiary centre over a period of 10 years. Methods We carried out extensive search of institutional databases to identify HR cases performed between January 2005 and December 2014. A study cohort of 9,016 patients were divided into 5 disease categories, namely hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC), intrahepatic duct stone disease (IHDS), colorectal cancer liver metastasis (CRLM), and uncommon/rare diseases (URD). Results There were 5,661 (62.8%) HCC cases, followed by 1441 (16.0%) CRLM, 942 (10.5%) ICC, 638 (7.1%) IHDS and 334 (3.7%) URD. The number of annual HR cases gradually increased from 443 in 2005 to 1,260 in 2015. Annual HCC cases also gradually increased, but the annual proportion of HCC cases fluctuated narrowly between 58.3% and 70.2%. Annual CRLM cases increased rapidly, and their proportion increased progressively from 4.7% to 20.5%. Annual ICC cases increased slowly, and their annual proportion fluctuated between 7.2% and 15.6%. Annual IHDS cases decreased slowly, and their annual proportion decreased progressively from 17.2% to 3.4%, while annual URD cases fluctuated, with annual proportions varying between 2.3% and 5.6%. Conclusions Annual cases of HR increased over the last 10 years in a tertiary center probably due to a center-specific centralization effect. The number of CRLM cases increased rapidly; those of HCC and ICC increased gradually, and those of IHDS declined gradually. We believe that these results reflect real changes in the types of liver disease requiring HR. PMID:27212990

  17. Evaluation of survival and success rates of dental implants reported in longitudinal studies with a follow-up period of at least 10 years: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Moraschini, V; Poubel, L A da C; Ferreira, V F; Barboza, E dos S P

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the survival and success rates of osseointegrated implants determined in longitudinal studies that conducted a follow-up of at least 10 years. A broad electronic search was conducted in MEDLINE/PubMed and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) for relevant publications in indexed journals, evaluating the clinical performance of dental implants. Using inclusion and exclusion criteria, two reviewers analyzed titles, abstracts, and complete articles, prioritizing studies of the randomized clinical trial type. A total of 23 articles were included in this review. Ten prospective studies, nine retrospective studies, and four randomized clinical trials, which evaluated 7711 implants, were selected. The mean follow-up time of the studies included was 13.4 years. All of the studies reported survival rates and mean marginal bone resorption values, with cumulative mean values of 94.6% and 1.3mm, respectively. Fourteen studies related success rates. Taking into consideration the disparate outcome measures employed to assess dental implant performance and within the limitations of this systematic review, we may affirm that osseointegrated implants are safe and present high survival rates and minimal marginal bone resorption in the long term. PMID:25467739

  18. Science Education Policy: A Survey of the Participation of Sixth-Form Pupils in Science and Other Subjects over a 10-year Period, 1985-1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Tony; McEwen, Alex; Knipe, Damien

    1997-01-01

    Surveys of and interviews with year-12 students in Northern Ireland over 10 years examined the impact of government science education policy by noting student participation in advanced science courses. Overall, the number of boys taking advanced courses decreased and the number of girls increased. Students retained certain stereotyped views of…

  19. Association between accelerometer-measured physical activity intensities and sedentary time in 8- to 10-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Herman, Katya M; Paradis, Gilles; Mathieu, Marie-Eve; O'Loughlin, Jennifer; Tremblay, Angelo; Lambert, Marie

    2014-02-01

    This study examines the association between objectively-measured physical activity (PA) intensities and sedentary behavior (SED) in a cohort of 532 children aged 8-10 y. PA and SED were assessed by accelerometer over 7-days. Television and computer/video-game use were self-reported. Associations between PA intensities and SED variables were assessed by Spearman correlations and adjusted multiple linear regression. Higher mean daily moderate-to-vigorous and vigorous PA (MVPA, VPA) were negatively associated with mean daily SED (r = -0.47 and -0.37; p < .001), and positively associated with mean daily total PA (r = .58 and 0.46; p < .001). MVPA was also positively associated with light PA (LPA; r = .26, p < .001). MVPA and VPA were not significantly associated with TV, computer/video or total screen time; accelerometer SED was only weakly associated with specific SED behaviors. On average, for each additional 10 min daily MVPA, children accumulated >14 min less SED, and for each additional 5 min VPA, 11 min less SED. Thus, over the course of a week, higher mean daily MVPA may displace SED time and is associated with higher total PA over and above the additional MVPA, due to concomitant higher levels of LPA. Public health strategies should target both MVPA and SED to improve overall PA and health in children. PMID:24018974

  20. Joint association of physical activity/screen time and diet on CVD risk factors in 10-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Carlson, Joseph J; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Eisenmann, Joey C

    2012-12-01

    The increasing prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity has been associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). While several studies examined the effect of single behaviors such as physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior or diet on CVD risk, there is a lack of research on combined associations, specifically in children. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the joint association of PA or screen time (ST) and diet on CVD risk factors in children. PA, STand diet were assessed via questionnaire in 210 fifth grade students (age: 10.6 ± 0.4 years). The healthy eating index (HEI) was subsequently calculated as indicator for diet quality. Height, weight, % body fat, and resting blood pressure were measured according to standard procedures and blood samples obtained via fingerprick were assayed for blood lipids. Total cholesterol HDL ratio (TC:HDL), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and % body fat were used as indicators of CVD risk. 55% of children did not meet current PA recommendations on at least 5 days/week and 70% exceeded current recommendations for ST. Further, only 2.5% possessed a "good" diet (HEI> 80). There was no significant association of PA or STand diet on CVD risk score. Neither TC:HDL, MAP, and % body fat nor the total CVD risk score was significantly correlated with diet, PA, or ST. Children in the high PA group, however, had significantly better diet scores. Despite the fact that self-reported PA, ST, or dietary intake were not directly related to CVD risk in this sample, higher activity levels were associated with a healthier diet and lower ST indicating an overall healthier lifestyle of this subgroup. PMID:23224418

  1. Incorporating Spectra Into Periodic Timing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connors, Alanna; Hong, J.; Protopapas, P.; Kashyap, V.

    2011-09-01

    The Chandra surveys have resulted in a wealth of data on low-luminosity X-ray sources (Lx 1030-34 erg/s) of Galactic scales beyond the local solar neighborhood. Many of these are compact binaries, in particular, cataclysmic variables, often identified by their periodic X-ray variability and spectra. Hong et al. (2009, 2011) have used energy quantiles (Hong, Schlegel & Grindlay, 2004) as a fast, robust indicator of spectral hardness and absorption of the X-ray sources. Energy quantiles also enable a simple but effective illustration of spectral changes with phase in these periodic systems: e.g. absorption by the accreting material is understood to drive the periodic light-curves. An interesting question is how to best make use of the information encapsulated in the periodic change in energy spectrum, along with the periodic change in intensity, especially for cases of ambiguous period determination? And, how to do it computationally efficiently? A first approach is to do the period search in intensity, as is standard; and then use a criterion of spectral variation to verify possible periods. Huijse, Zegers & Protopapas (2011) recently demonstrated a powerful period estimation technique using information potential and correntropy embedded in the light curve. Similar quantities based on energies (or energy quantiles) of X-ray photons can serve as criteria of spectral variation. A different approach treats the spectrum variations and intensity variations completely independently, searching through period-space in each, and then combining the results. A more general method would include both at the same time, looking for statistically significant variations above what is expected for a constant (in intensity and spectrum).

  2. The Proportion of Diploid 46,XX Cells Increases with Time in Women with Turner Syndrome—A 10-Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Denes, Anna-Maria; Landin-Wilhelmsen, Kerstin; Wettergren, Yvonne; Bryman, Inger

    2015-01-01

    In the normal population, loss of one of the sex chromosomes leading to monosomy (45,X) is a part of the aging process. In Turner syndrome (TS), the classic karyotype 45,X is found in up to 50% at birth, and others have a second cell line; mosaicism. The aim was to study if the chromosomal pattern in TS women changes over time. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed on buccal smear cells obtained twice, 10 years apart, from 42 women with TS aged 26–66 years (mean±standard deviation: 42.0±11.6). DNA probes specific for chromosomes X (DXZ1) and Y (DYZ3) were used and >100 cells were analyzed/patient. Nineteen women had monosomy (45,X) (<10% 46,XX), nine had 45,X/46,XX mosaicism, and 14 had iso, ring, or a marker chromosome at baseline. At 10 years, the percentage of diploid cells had increased in 29 of 42 women (69%), with an average increase of 5.7±13.0%. There was a positive correlation between age and % change in diploid 46,XX or 46,XY cells (r=0.38, p=0.023). This new finding might have relevance for the life expectancy in TS. PMID:25587646

  3. The proportion of diploid 46,XX cells increases with time in women with Turner syndrome--a 10-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Denes, Anna-Maria; Landin-Wilhelmsen, Kerstin; Wettergren, Yvonne; Bryman, Inger; Hanson, Charles

    2015-02-01

    In the normal population, loss of one of the sex chromosomes leading to monosomy (45,X) is a part of the aging process. In Turner syndrome (TS), the classic karyotype 45,X is found in up to 50% at birth, and others have a second cell line; mosaicism. The aim was to study if the chromosomal pattern in TS women changes over time. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed on buccal smear cells obtained twice, 10 years apart, from 42 women with TS aged 26-66 years (mean±standard deviation: 42.0±11.6). DNA probes specific for chromosomes X (DXZ1) and Y (DYZ3) were used and >100 cells were analyzed/patient. Nineteen women had monosomy (45,X) (<10% 46,XX), nine had 45,X/46,XX mosaicism, and 14 had iso, ring, or a marker chromosome at baseline. At 10 years, the percentage of diploid cells had increased in 29 of 42 women (69%), with an average increase of 5.7±13.0%. There was a positive correlation between age and % change in diploid 46,XX or 46,XY cells (r=0.38, p=0.023). This new finding might have relevance for the life expectancy in TS. PMID:25587646

  4. Innovative activities at the State Institution "The National Research Center for Radiation Medicine of the NAMS of Ukraine" during the 10-year period.

    PubMed

    Gurianov, B M; Saienko, A M; Yanovych, L A

    2013-01-01

    The innovative (inventive) activities of the SI "The National Research Center for Radiation Medicine of NAMS of Ukraine" for the period of 2003-2012 years is analyzed. It is established that the institution staff had filed 70 patent applications and has received 70 patents of Ukraine. The characteristic of patents by type is provided and ways to further developing of the innovative capacity of Center are identified. PMID:25191707

  5. Development of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients undergoing surgery for brain tumors: results from a single center over a 10 year period.

    PubMed

    Smith, Timothy R; Nanney, Allan D; Lall, Rishi R; Graham, Randall B; McClendon, Jamal; Lall, Rohan R; Adel, Joseph G; Zakarija, Anaadriana; Cote, David J; Chandler, James P

    2015-03-01

    Patients who undergo craniotomy for brain neoplasms have a high risk of developing venous thromboembolism (VTE), including deep vein thromboses (DVT) and pulmonary emboli (PE). The reasons for this correlation are not fully understood. This retrospective, single-center review aimed to determine the risk factors for VTE in patients who underwent neurosurgical resection of brain tumors at Northwestern University from 1999 to 2010. Our cohort included 1148 patients, 158 (13.7%) of whom were diagnosed with DVT and 38 (3.3%) of whom were diagnosed with PE. A variety of clinical factors were studied to determine predictors of VTE, including sex, ethnicity, medical co-morbidities, surgical positioning, length of hospital stay, tumor location, and tumor histology. Use of post-operative anticoagulants and hemorrhagic complications were also investigated. A prior history of VTE was found to be highly predictive of post-operative DVT (odds ratio [OR]=7.6, p=0.01), as was the patient's sex (OR=14.2, p<0.001), ethnicity (OR=0.5, p=0.04), post-operative intensive care unit days (OR=0.2, p=0.003), and tumor histology (OR=-0.16, p=0.01). Contrary to reports in the literature, the data collected did not indicate that the administration of post-operative medical prophylaxis for VTE was significant in preventing their formation (OR=-0.14, p=0.76). Hemorrhagic complications were low (2.2%) and resultant neurologic deficit was lower still (0.7%). The study indicates that patients with high-grade primary brain tumors and metastatic lesions should receive aggressive preventative measures in the post-operative period. PMID:25533212

  6. 43 CFR 10010.45 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Time periods. 10010.45 Section 10010.45... Environmental Impact Statements § 10010.45 Time periods. (a) The minimum review period for a draft EIS will be... proposed reductions in time periods or any extensions of time periods proposed by those agencies....

  7. 43 CFR 10010.45 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Time periods. 10010.45 Section 10010.45... Environmental Impact Statements § 10010.45 Time periods. (a) The minimum review period for a draft EIS will be... proposed reductions in time periods or any extensions of time periods proposed by those agencies....

  8. 43 CFR 10010.45 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Time periods. 10010.45 Section 10010.45... Environmental Impact Statements § 10010.45 Time periods. (a) The minimum review period for a draft EIS will be... proposed reductions in time periods or any extensions of time periods proposed by those agencies....

  9. 43 CFR 10010.45 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Time periods. 10010.45 Section 10010.45... Environmental Impact Statements § 10010.45 Time periods. (a) The minimum review period for a draft EIS will be... proposed reductions in time periods or any extensions of time periods proposed by those agencies....

  10. Stability in Test-Usage Practices of Clinical Neuropsychologists in the United States and Canada Over a 10-Year Period: A Follow-Up Survey of INS and NAN Members.

    PubMed

    Rabin, Laura A; Paolillo, Emily; Barr, William B

    2016-05-01

    As a 10-year follow up to our original study (Rabin, Barr, & Burton, 2005), we surveyed the test usage patterns of clinical neuropsychologists in the U.S and Canada. We expanded the original questionnaire to include additional cognitive and functional domains and to address current practice-related issues. Participants were randomly selected from the combined membership lists of the National Academy of Neuropsychology and the International Neuropsychological Society. Respondents were 512 doctorate-level members (25% usable response rate; 54% women) who had been practicing neuropsychology for 15 years on average. The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales, followed by the Wechsler Memory Scales, Trail Making Test, California Verbal Learning Test, and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, were the most commonly used tests. These top five responses were identical and in the same order as those from 10 years ago. Participants respectively identified a lack of ecological validity and difficulty comparing the meaning of standardized scores across tests as the greatest challenges associated with the selection of neuropsychological instruments and interpretation of test data. Overall, we found great consistency in assessment practices over the 10-year period. We compare results to those of previous studies and discuss challenges and implications for neuropsychology. PMID:26984127

  11. 24 CFR 58.21 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Time periods. 58.21 Section 58.21...: Environmental Review Procedures § 58.21 Time periods. All time periods in this part shall be counted in calendar days. The first day of a time period begins at 12:01 a.m. local time on the day following...

  12. 24 CFR 58.21 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Time periods. 58.21 Section 58.21...: Environmental Review Procedures § 58.21 Time periods. All time periods in this part shall be counted in calendar days. The first day of a time period begins at 12:01 a.m. local time on the day following...

  13. 24 CFR 58.21 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Time periods. 58.21 Section 58.21...: Environmental Review Procedures § 58.21 Time periods. All time periods in this part shall be counted in calendar days. The first day of a time period begins at 12:01 a.m. local time on the day following...

  14. 24 CFR 58.21 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Time periods. 58.21 Section 58.21...: Environmental Review Procedures § 58.21 Time periods. All time periods in this part shall be counted in calendar days. The first day of a time period begins at 12:01 a.m. local time on the day following...

  15. 24 CFR 58.21 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Time periods. 58.21 Section 58.21...: Environmental Review Procedures § 58.21 Time periods. All time periods in this part shall be counted in calendar days. The first day of a time period begins at 12:01 a.m. local time on the day following...

  16. Results and lessons of the 10 years experiment of large earthquake prediction made in advance with a lead time months using Reverse Tracing of Precursors (RTP) (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shebalin, P.

    2013-12-01

    The experiment in prospective documented earthquake prediction using the algorithm Reverse Tracing of Precursors (RTP) has been started in June 2003. The algorithm is based on the analysis of a set of intermediate-term precursors in an area of a short term long-range activation of seismicity, detected by earthquake chains. Earthquake chains are clusters of moderate-size earthquakes which extend over large distances and are formed by statistically rare pairs of events that are close in space and time. We put predictions on record at http://www.rtptest.org (with a restricted access to current predictions). Predictions are not deterministic: they are expected to be true with some probability exceeding 50%. During the period June 2003 to August 2013, 30 predictions were put on record, five of them were extended in modified area to longer intervals than standard 9 months. Those prolongations are not considered as separate predictions because they largely intersect in time and space with corresponding initial ones. Six earthquakes out of ten have been predicted (Hokkaido earthquake, September, 25, 2003, Mw=8.3; San-Simeon earthquake in California, 25 December, 2003, M=6.5, earthquake in the sea near Sendai, Japan, August 16, 2005, Mw=7.2; Simushir earthquake, Kuril Islands, November 15, 2006, Mw=8.3, Andreanoff Islands earthquake, December 19, 2007, M=7.2; Tohoku earthquake, March 11, 2011, M=9.1, Kurile Islands earthquake, April 19, 2013, M=7.2 and Okhotsk sea earthquake, May 24, 2013, M=8.3). Four earthquakes, in 2009 to 2012, have been missed. One of them is the Aquila earthquake in Central Italy, April 6th, 2009, M=6.3. We might suppose that this miss was due to an evident increase of the magnitude cut-off in the PDE catalogue we use for RTP in Italy. We have tried to complement retrospectively the catalogue with data from CSEM. However, the alarm prior to the Aquila earthquake still was not diagnosed. For three other earthquakes the situation is different. We

  17. How Sensitively Timed Are Sensitive Periods?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zener, Rita Schaefer

    2003-01-01

    Reviews Maria Montessori's view of sensitive periods and examines the kinds of help needed from adults: an open mind, specific help from a prepared learning environment, and challenges presented at the right time. Stresses the universality of sensitive periods and their connection to brain development. Focuses on the unconscious nature and…

  18. DART® Tsunameter Retrospective and Real-Time Data: A Reflection on 10 Years of Processing in Support of Tsunami Research and Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mungov, George; Eblé, Marie; Bouchard, Richard

    2013-09-01

    In the early 1980s, the United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory established the fundamentals of the contemporary tsunameter network deployed throughout the world oceans. The decades of technological and scientific advancements that followed led to a robust network that now provides real-time deep-ocean tsunami observations routinely incorporated into operational procedures of tsunami warning centers around the globe. All aspects of the network, from research to operations, to data archive and dissemination, are conducted collaboratively between the National Data Buoy Center, the Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, and the National Geophysical Data Center, with oversight by the National Weather Service. The National Data Buoy Center manages and conducts all operational network activities and distributes real-time data to the public. The Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory provides the research component in support of modeling and network enhancements for improved forecasting capability. The National Geophysical Data Center is responsible for the processing, archiving, and distribution of all retrospective data and integrates DART® tsunameter data with the National Geophysical Data Center global historical tsunami database. The role each agency plays in collecting, processing, and disseminating observations of deep-ocean bottom pressure is presented along with brief descriptions of data processing procedures. Specific examples of challenges and the approaches taken to address these are discussed. National Geophysical Data Center newly developed and available tsunami event web pages are briefly described and demonstrated with processed data for both the Tohoku 11 March 2011 and the Haiti 12 January 2010 tsunami events.

  19. Twelve months of active musical training in 8- to 10-year-old children enhances the preattentive processing of syllabic duration and voice onset time.

    PubMed

    Chobert, Julie; François, Clément; Velay, Jean-Luc; Besson, Mireille

    2014-04-01

    Musical training has been shown to positively influence linguistic abilities. To follow the developmental dynamics of this transfer effect at the preattentive level, we conducted a longitudinal study over 2 school years with nonmusician children randomly assigned to music or to painting training. We recorded the mismatch negativity (MMN), a cortical correlate of preattentive mismatch detection, to syllables that differed in vowel frequency, vowel duration, and voice onset time (VOT), using a test-training-retest procedure and 3 times of testing: before training, after 6 months and after 12 months of training. While no between-group differences were found before training, enhanced preattentive processing of syllabic duration and VOT, as reflected by greater MMN amplitude, but not of frequency, was found after 12 months of training in the music group only. These results demonstrate neuroplasticity in the child brain and suggest that active musical training rather than innate predispositions for music yielded the improvements in musically trained children. These results also highlight the influence of musical training for duration perception in speech and for the development of phonological representations in normally developing children. They support the importance of music-based training programs for children's education and open new remediation strategies for children with language-based learning impairments. PMID:23236208

  20. The impact of the European Working Time Directive 10 years on: views of the UK medical graduates of 2002 surveyed in 2013–2014

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Trevor W; Goldacre, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To report doctors’ views about the European Working Time Directive (‘the Directive’). Design Survey of the medical graduates of 2002 (surveyed in 2013–2014). Participants Medical graduates. Setting UK. Main outcome measures Questions on views about the Directive. Results The response rate was 64% (2056/3196). Twelve per cent of respondents agreed that the Directive had benefited senior doctors, 39% that it benefited junior doctors, and 17% that it had benefited the NHS. More women (41%) than men (35%) agreed that the Directive had benefited junior doctors. Surgeons (6%) and adult medical specialists (8%) were least likely to agree that the Directive had benefited senior doctors. Surgeons (20%) were less likely than others to agree that the Directive had benefited junior doctors, whilst specialists in emergency medicine (57%) and psychiatry (52%) were more likely to agree. Surgeons (7%) were least likely to agree that the Directive had benefited the NHS. Most respondents (62%) reported a positive effect upon work–life balance. With regard to quality of patient care, 45% reported a neutral effect, 40% reported a negative effect, and 15% a positive effect. Most respondents (71%) reported a negative effect of the Directive on continuity of patient care, and 71% felt that the Directive had a negative effect upon junior doctors’ training opportunities. Fifty-two per cent reported a negative effect on efficiency in managing patient care. Conclusions Senior doctors agreed that the Directive benefited doctors’ work–life balance. In other respects, they were more negative about it. Surgeons were the least positive about aspects of the Directive. PMID:26981257

  1. Swift: 10 Years of Discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The conference Swift: 10 years of discovery was held in Roma at La Sapienza University on Dec. 2-5 2014 to celebrate 10 years of Swift successes. Thanks to a large attendance and a lively program, it provided the opportunity to review recent advances of our knowledge of the high-energy transient Universe both from the observational and theoretical sides. When Swift was launched on November 20, 2004, its prime objective was to chase Gamma-Ray Bursts and deepen our knowledge of these cosmic explosions. And so it did, unveiling the secrets of long and short GRBs. However, its multi-wavelength instrumentation and fast scheduling capabilities made it the most versatile mission ever flown. Besides GRBs, Swift has observed, and contributed to our understanding of, an impressive variety of targets including AGNs, supernovae, pulsars, microquasars, novae, variable stars, comets, and much more. Swift is continuously discovering rare and surprising events distributed over a wide range of redshifts, out to the most distant transient objects in the Universe. Such a trove of discoveries has been addressed during the conference with sessions dedicated to each class of events. Indeed, the conference in Rome was a spectacular celebration of the Swift 10th anniversary. It included sessions on all types of transient and steady sources. Top scientists from around the world gave invited and contributed talks. There was a large poster session, sumptuous lunches, news interviews and a glorious banquet with officials attending from INAF and ASI. All the presentations, as well as several conference pictures, can be found in the conference website (http://www.brera.inaf.it/Swift10/Welcome.html). These proceedings have been collected owing to the efforts of Paolo D’Avanzo who has followed each paper from submission to final acceptance. Our warmest thanks to Paolo for all his work. The Conference has been made possible by the support from La Sapienza University as well as from the ARAP

  2. Instability of time-periodic flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, P.

    1985-01-01

    The instabilities of some spatially and/or time-periodic flows are discussed, in particular, flows with curved streamlines which can support Taylor-Gortler vortices are described in detail. The simplest flow where this type of instability can occur is that due to the torsional oscillations of an infinitely long circular cylinder. For more complicated spatially varying time-periodic flows, a similar type of instability can occur and is spatially localized near the most unstable positions. When nonlinear effects are considered it is found that the instability modifies the steady streaming boundary layer induced by the oscillatory motion. It is shown that a rapidly rotating cylinder in a uniform flow is susceptible to a related type of instability; the appropriate stability equations are shown to be identical to those which govern the instability of a boussinesq fluid of Prandtl number unity heated time periodically from below.

  3. Pediatric lung transplantation: 10 years of experience

    PubMed Central

    Camargo, Priscila C. L. B.; Pato, Eduardo Z. S.; Campos, Silvia V.; Afonso, José E.; Carraro, Rafael M.; Costa, André N.; Teixeira, Ricardo H. O. B.; Samano, Marcos N.; Pêgo-Fernandes, Paulo M.

    2014-01-01

    Lung transplantation is a well-established treatment for advanced lung diseases. In children, the diseases that most commonly lead to the need for a transplantation are cystic fibrosis, pulmonary hypertension, and bronchiolitis. However, the number of pediatric lung transplantations being performed is low compared with the number of transplants performed in the adult age group. The objective of this study was to demonstrate our experience with pediatric lung transplants over a 10-year period in a program initially designed for adults. PMID:24860860

  4. Pennsylvanian time scales and cycle periods

    SciTech Connect

    deV. Klein, G. )

    1990-05-01

    Geochronological results from central Europe indicate that the duration of Pennsylvanian time is only 19 m.y., compared to the Harland et al. and Palmer estimates of 34 m.y. Prior calculations of Pennsylvanian cycle periods from the midcontinent of North America suggesting a fit with Milankovitch orbital parameters may well be in errors; as a consequence, other mechanisms for possible eustatic sea-level changes represented in those cycles are needed. Calculation of cycle periods of 100 ka or less lack precision in stratigraphic intervals representing ages characterized by error margins of millions of years. Thus, cycle periods may be less reliable as an indicator of global process than previously considered, particularly in rocks of Paleozoic and early and middle Mesozoic age.

  5. Administrative Reinstatement Interlock Programs: Florida, a 10-Year Study

    PubMed Central

    Voas, Robert B.; Tippetts, A. Scott; Grosz, Milton

    2013-01-01

    Background Interlocks reduce driving-under-the-influence (DUI) recidivism by 64%, but offenders resist installing them, preferring to risk driving while their driver’s licenses are revoked. One method of motivating offenders to install an interlock is require it for reinstatement of their driver’s license. This report updates an earlier evaluation of the administrative reinstatement interlock program (ARIP) procedure implemented in Florida in 2002. Method Driver records and interlock program records covering 120,000 DUI offenders were followed over 10 years. The flow through the sanction system—conviction, reinstatement, interlock program, and postinterlock period—is described. Logistical regression was used to identify the characteristics of offenders who installed interlocks, and survival analysis was used to evaluate the recidivism of offenders in the various stages in the ARIP. Results At any given time, approximately one third of the convicted offenders were serving their license-revocation periods. Half of the offenders who completed their revocation periods remain unqualified for reinstatement because they do not fulfill other requirements. ARIP offenders who do qualify for reinstatement and install interlocks have lower recidivism rates while the devices are on their vehicles. Conclusions After 10 years, Florida’s ARIP is a mature system that succeeds in forcing all offenders in the program who qualify for reinstatement to install an interlock for at least 6 months. However, half of all offenders who complete their mandatory revocation period are either unable to, or choose not to, qualify for reinstatement. PMID:23442206

  6. The professional code--10 years later.

    PubMed

    Aston-McCrimmon, E

    1986-01-01

    In 1974, following an extensive eight-year review of professional practices in the Province of Quebec, the Professional Code and the 21 professional bills associated with it became operational. Thirty-eight professional corporations encompassing the fields of health, administration, finance, applied sciences and justice were named in the Code, and each was assigned an exclusive mandate to protect the public. The mechanisms outline for controlling professional practice and promoting public service included professional inspection and discipline, as well as regulations regarding ethics, the arbitration of accounts, the keeping of client records, and publicity. This paper discusses the effectiveness of these mechanisms over the past 10-year period. It also looks at the capabilities of the corporations to achieve their mandates in light of the legal status assigned to each--whether that be exclusive right of practice and reserve of title (21 corporations), or reserve of title only (17 corporations). PMID:10275979

  7. Analysis of the time scales in time periodic Darcy flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, T.; Waluga, C.; Wohlmuth, B.; Manhart, M.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate unsteady flow in a porous medium under time - periodic (sinusoidal) pressure gradient. DNS were performed to benchmark the analytical solution of the unsteady Darcy equation with two different expressions of the time scale : one given by a consistent volume averaging of the Navier - Stokes equation [1] with a steady state closure for the flow resistance term, another given by volume averaging of the kinetic energy equation [2] with a closure for the dissipation rate . For small and medium frequencies, the analytical solutions with the time scale obtained by the energy approach compare well with the DNS results in terms of amplitude and phase lag. For large frequencies (f > 100 [Hz]) we observe a slightly smaller damping of the amplitude. This study supports the use of the unsteady form of Darcy's equation with constant coefficients to solve time - periodic Darcy flows at low and medium frequencies. Our DNS simulations, however, indicate that the time scale predicted by the VANS approach together with a steady - state closure for the flow resistance term is too small. The one obtained by the energy approach matches the DNS results well. At large frequencies, the amplitudes deviate slightly from the analytical solution of the unsteady Darcy equation. Note that at those high frequencies, the flow amplitudes remain below 1% of those of steady state flow. This result indicates that unsteady porous media flow can approximately be described by the unsteady Darcy equation with constant coefficients for a large range of frequencies, provided, the proper time scale has been found.

  8. Draft 1992 : Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement 10-Year Plan.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-05-01

    Two years ago, BPA released its first-ever Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement (OM&R) 10-Year Plan. That effort broke new ground and was an extensive look at the condition of Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement on BPA`s power system. This document -- the 1992 OM&R 10-Year Plan -- uses that original plan as its foundation. It takes a look at how well BPA has accomplished the challenging task set out in the 1990 Plan. The 1992 Plan also introduces the Construction Program. Construction`s critical role in these programs is explored, and the pressures of construction workload -- such as the seasonal nature of the work and the broad swings in workload between projects and years -- are discussed. The document then looks at how situations may have changed with issues explored initially in the 1990 Plan. Importantly, this Plan also surfaces and explains some new issues that threaten to impact BPA`s ability to accomplish its OM&R workload. Finally, the document focuses on the revised strategies for Operations, Maintenance, Replacement, Construction, and Environment for the 1992 to 2001 time period, including the financial and human resources needed to accomplish those strategies.

  9. Draft 1992 : Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement 10-Year Plan.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-05-01

    Two years ago, BPA released its first-ever Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement (OM R) 10-Year Plan. That effort broke new ground and was an extensive look at the condition of Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement on BPA's power system. This document -- the 1992 OM R 10-Year Plan -- uses that original plan as its foundation. It takes a look at how well BPA has accomplished the challenging task set out in the 1990 Plan. The 1992 Plan also introduces the Construction Program. Construction's critical role in these programs is explored, and the pressures of construction workload -- such as the seasonal nature of the work and the broad swings in workload between projects and years -- are discussed. The document then looks at how situations may have changed with issues explored initially in the 1990 Plan. Importantly, this Plan also surfaces and explains some new issues that threaten to impact BPA's ability to accomplish its OM R workload. Finally, the document focuses on the revised strategies for Operations, Maintenance, Replacement, Construction, and Environment for the 1992 to 2001 time period, including the financial and human resources needed to accomplish those strategies.

  10. Nutrient intakes of 2- to 10-year-old American children: 10-year trends.

    PubMed

    Albertson, A M; Tobelmann, R C; Engstrom, A; Asp, E H

    1992-12-01

    Nutrient intakes of American children aged 2 to 10 years were compared for the years 1978 and 1988 using a unique nutrient assessment system designed and developed by the Nutrition Department at General Mills. This system integrated data from three sources: 14-day food consumption diaries collected from 4,000 households in the Market Research Corporation of America Menu Census panel surveys; serving-size data from the spring 1977 Nationwide Food Consumption Survey; and nutrient data from the Michigan State University Nutrient Data Bank. The results indicate that energy and macronutrient intakes remained fairly constant over the 10-year period. Average daily vitamin and mineral intakes were lower in 1988 than in 1978 for the majority of those studied; however, most nutrient levels remained over 100% of the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs). For more than 50% of the population, the intakes of calcium, vitamin B-6, and zinc were below the RDAs. Our findings indicate the need for continued monitoring of the impact of changing food consumption patterns on the diets of American children. PMID:1452963

  11. Time periodic solution to the compressible Euler equations with damping in a periodic domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Zhong; Xu, Qiuju; Wang, Huaqiao

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we consider the existence and uniqueness of a time periodic solution to the three-dimensional compressible damped Euler equations in a periodic domain. By adapting a regularized approximation scheme and applying the topological degree theory, we establish the existence of the time periodic solution under some smallness and structure assumptions imposed on a time periodic force. And based on energy estimates, the uniqueness of the periodic solution is proved.

  12. "JPBI" 10 Years Later: Trends in Research Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Dell, Sean M.; Vilardo, Brigid A.; Kern, Lee; Kokina, Anastasia; Ash, Allison N.; Seymour, Kimberly J.; Castrantas, Lauren M.; Kollar, Rachel B.; Wagner, Andrea M.; Bartholomew, Audrey; Thomas, Lisa B.

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, the "Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions" ("JPBI") celebrated 10 years in publication. As the flagship journal of positive behavior support (PBS), it is important to periodically examine the research published in "JPBI" to determine whether it reflects the basic principles of PBS, to explore the ways in which PBS is being…

  13. 7 CFR 1.603 - How are time periods computed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false How are time periods computed? 1.603 Section 1.603 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Conditions in FERC Hydropower Licenses General Provisions § 1.603 How are time periods computed? (a) General. Time periods are...

  14. 7 CFR 1.603 - How are time periods computed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false How are time periods computed? 1.603 Section 1.603 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Conditions in FERC Hydropower Licenses General Provisions § 1.603 How are time periods computed? (a) General. Time periods are...

  15. 7 CFR 1.603 - How are time periods computed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false How are time periods computed? 1.603 Section 1.603 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Conditions in FERC Hydropower Licenses General Provisions § 1.603 How are time periods computed? (a) General. Time periods are...

  16. 7 CFR 1.603 - How are time periods computed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false How are time periods computed? 1.603 Section 1.603 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Conditions in FERC Hydropower Licenses General Provisions § 1.603 How are time periods computed? (a) General. Time periods are...

  17. 7 CFR 1.603 - How are time periods computed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How are time periods computed? 1.603 Section 1.603 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Conditions in FERC Hydropower Licenses General Provisions § 1.603 How are time periods computed? (a) General. Time periods are...

  18. Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement 10-Year Plan, 1990--1999

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    In 1988 Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) began work on this Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement 10-Year Plan to develop a levelized program that would assure high system reliability. During the Programs in Perspective (PIP) meetings in the later summer and fall of 1988, many of the concerns to be addressed in an Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement Plan were identified. Following these PIP meetings BPA established internal work groups. During the winter and spring of 1989, these work groups developed technical background and issue papers on topics that ranged from substation maintenance to environmental protection. In addition, a customer forum group was established and met on several occasions to review work on the plan, to offer ideas and points of view, and to assure that BPA understood customer concerns. Based on recommendations from the work group reports and customer input, BPA's O M Management Team developed the draft Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement 10-Year Plan that was released for public comment during the spring of 1990. During the public review period, BPA received a number of written comments from customers and the interested public. In addition, special meetings were held with interested customers. This final Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement 10-year Plan reflects BPA's response to customers and interested public on each topic discussed in the 10-Year Plan. The plan is a distillation of BPA's strategies to achieve a levelized program over 10 years.

  19. Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement 10-Year Plan, 1990 -1999.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1990-08-01

    In 1988 Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) began work on this Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement 10-Year Plan to develop a levelized program that would assure high system reliability. During the Programs in Perspective (PIP) meetings in the late summer and fall of 1988, many of the concerns to be addressed in an Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement Plan were identified. Following these PIP meetings BPA established internal work groups. During the winter and spring of 1989, these work groups developed technical background and issue papers on topics that ranged from substation maintenance to environmental protection. In addition, a customer forum group was established and met on several occasions to review work on the plan, to offer ideas and points of view, and to assure that BPA understood customer concerns. Based on recommendations from the work group reports and customer input, BPA's O M Management Team developed the draft Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement 10-Year Plan that was released for public comment during the spring of 1990. During the public review period, BPA received a number of written comments from customers and the interested public. In addition, special meetings were held with interested customers. This final Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement 10-Year Plan reflects BPA's response to customers and interested public on each topic discussed in the 10-Year Plan. The plan is a distillation of BPA's strategies to achieve a levelized program over 10 years.

  20. On almost periodic solutions of logistic delay differential equations with almost periodic time dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Rong

    2007-06-01

    In this paper, we study almost periodic logistic delay differential equations. The existence and module of almost periodic solutions are investigated. In particular, we extend some results of Seifert in [G. Seifert, Almost periodic solutions of certain differential equations with piecewise constant delays and almost periodic time dependence, J. Differential Equations 164 (2000) 451-458].

  1. Contact time periods in immunological synapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Daniel R.; Chattopadhyay, Amit K.

    2014-10-01

    This paper resolves the long standing debate as to the proper time scale <τ> of the onset of the immunological synapse bond, the noncovalent chemical bond defining the immune pathways involving T cells and antigen presenting cells. Results from our model calculations show <τ> to be of the order of seconds instead of minutes. Close to the linearly stable regime, we show that in between the two critical spatial thresholds defined by the integrin:ligand pair (Δ2˜ 40-45 nm) and the T-cell receptor TCR:peptide-major-histocompatibility-complex pMHC bond (Δ1˜ 14-15 nm), <τ> grows monotonically with increasing coreceptor bond length separation δ (= Δ2-Δ1˜ 26-30 nm) while <τ> decays with Δ1 for fixed Δ2. The nonuniversal δ-dependent power-law structure of the probability density function further explains why only the TCR:pMHC bond is a likely candidate to form a stable synapse.

  2. 36 CFR 218.10 - Objection time periods and process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Objection time periods and... Objection time periods and process. (a) Time to file an objection. Written objections, including any... of objectors to ensure that their objection is received in a timely manner. (b) Computation of...

  3. Student Instruction Should Be Distributed over Long Time Periods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohrer, Doug

    2015-01-01

    In many academic courses, students encounter a particular fact or concept many times over a period of a few weeks and then do not see it again during the remainder of the course. Are these brief instructional periods sufficient, or should the same amount of instruction be distributed over longer periods of time? This question was the focus of…

  4. Anaerobic bacteraemia: a 10-year retrospective epidemiological survey.

    PubMed

    De Keukeleire, Steven; Wybo, Ingrid; Naessens, Anne; Echahidi, Fedoua; Van der Beken, Mieke; Vandoorslaer, Kristof; Vermeulen, Stefan; Piérard, Denis

    2016-06-01

    In order to identify current trends in anaerobic bacteraemia, a 10-year retrospective study was performed in the University Hospital Brussel, Belgium. All clinically relevant bacteraemia detected from 2004 until 2013 were included. Medical records were reviewed in an attempt to define clinical parameters that might be associated with the occurrence of anaerobic bacteraemia. 437 of the isolated organisms causing anaerobic bacteraemia were thawed, subcultured and reanalyzed using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF). There were an average of 33 cases of anaerobic bacteraemia per year during 2004-2008 compared to an average of 27 cases per year during 2009-2013 (P = 0.017), corresponding to a decrease by 19% between the first and the latter period. Also, the total number of cases of anaerobic bacteraemia per 100,000 patient days decreased from 17.3 in the period from 2004 to 2008 to 13.7 in the period 2009 to 2013 (P = 0.023). Additionally, the mean incidence of anaerobic bacteraemia decreased during the study period (1.27/1000 patients in 2004 vs. 0.94/1000 patients in 2013; P = 0.008). In contrast, the proportion of isolated anaerobic bacteraemia compared to the number of all bacteraemia remained stable at 5%. Bacteroides spp. and Parabacteroides spp. accounted for 47.1% of the anaerobes, followed by 14.4% Clostridium spp., 12.6% non-spore-forming Gram-positive rods, 10.5% anaerobic cocci, 8.2% Prevotella spp. and other Gram-negative rods and 7.1% Fusobacterium spp. The lower gastrointestinal tract (47%) and wound infections (10%) were the two most frequent sources for bacteraemia, with the origin remaining unknown in 62 cases (21%). The overall mortality rate was 14%. Further studies focusing on the antimicrobial susceptibility and demographic background of patients are needed to further objectify the currently observed trends. PMID:26923749

  5. 36 CFR 219.56 - Objection time periods and process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Objection time periods and process. 219.56 Section 219.56 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PLANNING Pre-Decisional Administrative Review Process § 219.56 Objection time periods and process. (a) Time to file an objection. For a...

  6. 36 CFR 219.56 - Objection time periods and process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Objection time periods and... AGRICULTURE PLANNING Pre-Decisional Administrative Review Process § 219.56 Objection time periods and process. (a) Time to file an objection. For a new plan, plan amendment, or plan revision for which...

  7. 36 CFR 219.56 - Objection time periods and process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Objection time periods and... AGRICULTURE PLANNING Pre-Decisional Administrative Review Process § 219.56 Objection time periods and process. (a) Time to file an objection. For a new plan, plan amendment, or plan revision for which...

  8. Mitochondrial ROS Metabolism: 10 Years Later

    PubMed Central

    Kushnareva, Y. E.; Murphy, A. N.

    2015-01-01

    The role of mitochondria in oxidative stress is well recognized, but many questions are still to be answered. This article is intended to update our comprehensive review in 2005 by highlighting the progress in understanding of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism over the past 10 years. We review the recently identified or re-appraised sources of ROS generation in mitochondria, such as p66shc protein, succinate dehydrogenase, and recently discovered properties of the mitochondrial antioxidant system. We also reflect upon some controversies, disputes, and misconceptions that confound the field. PMID:26071769

  9. Neurology--the next 10 years.

    PubMed

    Baron, Ralf; Ferriero, Donna M; Frisoni, Giovanni B; Bettegowda, Chetan; Gokaslan, Ziya L; Kessler, John A; Vezzani, Annamaria; Waxman, Stephen G; Jarius, Sven; Wildemann, Brigitte; Weller, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Since the launch of our journal as Nature Clinical Practice Neurology in 2005, we have seen remarkable progress in many areas of neurology research, but what does the future hold? Will advances in basic research be translated into effective disease-modifying therapies, and will personalized medicine finally become a reality? For this special Viewpoint article, we invited a panel of Advisory Board members and other journal contributors to outline their research priorities and predictions in neurology for the next 10 years. PMID:26503922

  10. Mining approximate periodic pattern in hydrological time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Y. L.; Li, S. J.; Bao, N. N.; Wan, D. S.

    2012-04-01

    There is a lot of information about the hidden laws of nature evolution and the influences of human beings activities on the earth surface in long sequence of hydrological time series. Data mining technology can help find those hidden laws, such as flood frequency and abrupt change, which is useful for the decision support of hydrological prediction and flood control scheduling. The periodic nature of hydrological time series is important for trend forecasting of drought and flood and hydraulic engineering planning. In Hydrology, the full period analysis of hydrological time series has attracted a lot of attention, such as the discrete periodogram, simple partial wave method, Fourier analysis method, and maximum entropy spectral analysis method and wavelet analysis. In fact, the hydrological process is influenced both by deterministic factors and stochastic ones. For example, the tidal level is also affected by moon circling the Earth, in addition to the Earth revolution and its rotation. Hence, there is some kind of approximate period hidden in the hydrological time series, sometimes which is also called the cryptic period. Recently, partial period mining originated from the data mining domain can be a remedy for the traditional period analysis methods in hydrology, which has a loose request of the data integrity and continuity. They can find some partial period in the time series. This paper is focused on the partial period mining in the hydrological time series. Based on asynchronous periodic pattern and partial period mining with suffix tree, this paper proposes to mine multi-event asynchronous periodic pattern based on modified suffix tree representation and traversal, and invent a dynamic candidate period intervals adjusting method, which can avoids period omissions or waste of time and space. The experimental results on synthetic data and real water level data of the Yangtze River at Nanjing station indicate that this algorithm can discover hydrological

  11. 36 CFR 218.26 - Objection time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROJECT-LEVEL PREDECISIONAL ADMINISTRATIVE REVIEW PROCESS Provisions Specific to Project-Level Proposals Not Authorized Under Healthy Forests Restoration Act § 218.26 Objection time periods. (a) Time to...

  12. 36 CFR 218.32 - Objection time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROJECT-LEVEL PREDECISIONAL ADMINISTRATIVE REVIEW PROCESS Provisions Specific to Proposed Projects Authorized Under the Healthy Forests Restoration Act § 218.32 Objection time periods. (a) Time to file...

  13. 36 CFR 218.32 - Objection time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROJECT-LEVEL PREDECISIONAL ADMINISTRATIVE REVIEW PROCESS Provisions Specific to Proposed Projects Authorized Under the Healthy Forests Restoration Act § 218.32 Objection time periods. (a) Time to file...

  14. 36 CFR 218.26 - Objection time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROJECT-LEVEL PREDECISIONAL ADMINISTRATIVE REVIEW PROCESS Provisions Specific to Project-Level Proposals Not Authorized Under Healthy Forests Restoration Act § 218.26 Objection time periods. (a) Time to...

  15. 19 CFR 158.21a - Time period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Time period. 158.21a Section 158.21a Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... While in Customs Custody § 158.21a Time period. An abatement or refund of duties shall be made in...

  16. 19 CFR 158.21a - Time period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Time period. 158.21a Section 158.21a Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... While in Customs Custody § 158.21a Time period. An abatement or refund of duties shall be made in...

  17. 43 CFR 45.3 - How are time periods computed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How are time periods computed? 45.3 Section 45.3 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior CONDITIONS AND PRESCRIPTIONS IN FERC HYDROPOWER LICENSES General Provisions § 45.3 How are time periods computed? (a)...

  18. 43 CFR 45.3 - How are time periods computed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How are time periods computed? 45.3 Section 45.3 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior CONDITIONS AND PRESCRIPTIONS IN FERC HYDROPOWER LICENSES General Provisions § 45.3 How are time periods computed? (a)...

  19. 43 CFR 45.3 - How are time periods computed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true How are time periods computed? 45.3 Section 45.3 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior CONDITIONS AND PRESCRIPTIONS IN FERC HYDROPOWER LICENSES General Provisions § 45.3 How are time periods computed? (a) General....

  20. 43 CFR 45.3 - How are time periods computed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How are time periods computed? 45.3 Section 45.3 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior CONDITIONS AND PRESCRIPTIONS IN FERC HYDROPOWER LICENSES General Provisions § 45.3 How are time periods computed? (a)...

  1. 43 CFR 45.3 - How are time periods computed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How are time periods computed? 45.3 Section 45.3 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior CONDITIONS AND PRESCRIPTIONS IN FERC HYDROPOWER LICENSES General Provisions § 45.3 How are time periods computed? (a)...

  2. 19 CFR 158.21a - Time period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Time period. 158.21a Section 158.21a Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... While in Customs Custody § 158.21a Time period. An abatement or refund of duties shall be made in...

  3. 19 CFR 158.21a - Time period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Time period. 158.21a Section 158.21a Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... While in Customs Custody § 158.21a Time period. An abatement or refund of duties shall be made in...

  4. Aqua's First 10 Years: An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, Claire L.

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Aqua spacecraft was launched at 2:55 a.m. on May 4, 2002, from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California, into a near-polar, sun-synchronous orbit at an altitude of 705 km. Aqua carries six Earth-observing instruments to collect data on water in all its forms (liquid, vapor, and solid) and on a wide variety of additional Earth system variables (Parkinson 2003). The design lifetime for Aqua's prime mission was 6 years, and Aqua is now well into its extended mission, approaching 10 years of successful operations. The Aqua data have been used for hundreds of scientific studies and continue to be used for scientific discovery and numerous practical applications.

  5. Penile injuries: A 10-year experience

    PubMed Central

    Krishna Reddy, S.V.; Shaik, Ahammad Basha; Sreenivas, K.

    2014-01-01

    We report our 10-year experience with penile injuries. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 156 cases of male external genitalia injuries between May 2002 and December 2012. Of these, only 26 patients presented without urethral injuries and were included in this study. Patients were divided into 4 groups: Group 1 (n = 12) with patients with penile fractures injuries; Group 2 (n = 5) with patients with penile amputation injuries; Group 3 (n = 2) with patients with penile penetrating injuries; and Group 4 (n = 7) with patients with penile soft tissue injuries. Grading of injury was done using the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST)-Organ injury scale of penile injury. Penile injuries without urethral injuries are urological emergencies which require immediate attention. PMID:25295134

  6. Threshold dynamics of a time periodic reaction-diffusion epidemic model with latent period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liang; Wang, Zhi-Cheng; Zhao, Xiao-Qiang

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we first propose a time-periodic reaction-diffusion epidemic model which incorporates simple demographic structure and the latent period of infectious disease. Then we introduce the basic reproduction number R0 for this model and prove that the sign of R0 - 1 determines the local stability of the disease-free periodic solution. By using the comparison arguments and persistence theory, we further show that the disease-free periodic solution is globally attractive if R0 < 1, while there is an endemic periodic solution and the disease is uniformly persistent if R0 > 1.

  7. Perceived Partner Responsiveness Predicts Diurnal Cortisol Profiles 10 Years Later

    PubMed Central

    Slatcher, Richard B.; Selcuk, Emre; Ong, Anthony D.

    2015-01-01

    Several decades of research have demonstrated that marital relationships have a powerful influence on physical health. However, surprisingly little is known about how marriage affects health—both in terms of psychological processes and biological ones. We investigated the associations between perceived partner responsiveness—the extent to which people feel understood, cared for and appreciated by their romantic partner—and diurnal cortisol over a 10-year period in a large sample of married and cohabitating couples in the U.S. Partner responsiveness predicted higher wakeup cortisol values and steeper (“healthier”) cortisol slopes at the 10-year follow-up, and these associations remained strong after controlling for demographic factors, depressive symptoms, agreeableness, and other positive and negative relationship factors. Further, declines in negative affect over the 10-year period mediated the prospective association between responsiveness and cortisol slope. These findings suggest that diurnal cortisol may be a key biological pathway through which social relationships impact long-term health. PMID:26015413

  8. Optogenetics: 10 years of microbial opsins in neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Deisseroth, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, the development and convergence of microbial opsin engineering, modular genetic methods for cell-type targeting and optical strategies for guiding light through tissue have enabled versatile optical control of defined cells in living systems, defining modern optogenetics. Despite widespread recognition of the importance of spatiotemporally precise causal control over cellular signaling, for nearly the first half (2005–2009) of this 10-year period, as optogenetics was being created, there were difficulties in implementation, few publications and limited biological findings. In contrast, the ensuing years have witnessed a substantial acceleration in the application domain, with the publication of thousands of discoveries and insights into the function of nervous systems and beyond. This Historical Commentary reflects on the scientific landscape of this decade-long transition. PMID:26308982

  9. 10-year evapotranspiration estimates in a Bornean tropical rainforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kume, T.; Tanaka, N.; Komatsu, H.; Yoshifuji, N.; Saitoh, T. M.; Suzuki, M.; Kumagai, T.

    2010-12-01

    This study was undertaken to quantify 10-year evapotranspiration (ET) in a tropical rainforest, Sarawak, Malaysia. To this aim, a simplified big-leaf model was formulated, which can consider transpiration (Et) and rainfall interception (Ei). The model was independently validated using eddy covariance fluxes, rainfall interception based on throughfall and stemflow measurements, and sap flow measurements conducted for more than two years. Consequently, our big-leaf model could successfully reproduce Et and Ei. By using the model and a 10-year meteorological data set, Et, Ei, and ET was estimated in the period between 2000 and 2009. The annual Et , Ei, and ET averaged over 10 years were estimated as 1114, 209, and 1323 mm, respectively, with the small seasonal fluctuations. The derived estimations for 10 years showed conservative year-to-year variations in Et, Ei, and ET (CV = 5-7%) against considerable year-to-year variations in annual rainfall (CV = 11%). Specific rainfall characteristics in this site could be a reason for conservative year-to-year variations in Ei. Small interannual variations in meteorological conditions and no occurrence of unusually severe drought in this study period could be a reason for the small year-to-year variations in Et. As well, we compared ET, Ei at this site with those of other tropical forests. Our forest ET was smaller than global maximum value of ET estimated in other tropical forests because of the smaller Ei, relative to annual rainfall at this site. Based on the derived characteristics of ET, we also discussed possible changes in ET, Et, and Ei in response to changes in rainfall regime at this site.

  10. Local time dependences of oxygen ENA periodicities at Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbary, J. F.; Mitchell, D. G.; Brandt, P. C.

    2014-08-01

    The periodicities of energetic neutral atoms (90-170 keV oxygens) at Saturn are determined by applying Lomb-Scargle periodogram analyses to energetic neutral atom (ENA) fluxes observed in eight local time sectors of the equatorial plane between 5 and 15 RS (1 RS = 60,268 km). The analyses come from four long intervals (>180 days each) of high-latitude viewing from 2007 to 2013 and represent an essentially global view of Saturn's periodicities. The periodograms display rich and complex structures in local time. Sectors near midnight generally exhibit the strongest periodicities (in terms of highest signal-to-noise ratios) and often show the dual or single periods of the Saturn kilometric radiation (SKR). Sectors near noon display single or multiple periodicities or none. Furthermore, dayside periods may be much shorter (~10.3 h) than SKR periods. Sectors near dawn or dusk display periodicities intermediate between midnight and noon or may show no periodicities whatsoever. These patterns of local time dependence do not remain constant from interval to interval.

  11. Recurrence times and periodicities in 4U 1608-52 as observed by Vela 5B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lochner, James C.; Roussel-Dupre, Diane

    1994-01-01

    We report on the Vela 5B 10 year history of the soft X-ray transient 4U 1608-52, and on the characteristics of its soft X-ray outbursts. The Vela 5B satellite observed the four known outbursts in 1975, 1977, and 1979, and four new outbursts in 1970 and 1971, altering the recurrence pattern of outbursts from this source. One of the 1970 outbursts is symmetric in its intensity profile, while the two outbursts in 1971 have short exponential profiles separated by 80 days. Despite suggestive recurrence periods of approximately 85 and approximately 150 days evident in the time intervals between the outbursts, there is no single statistically significant recurrence time on which the outbursts recur consistently. In the 1970 symmetric event, there is evidence for a period of either 4.10 or 5.19 days. Drawing upon the analogy with SU Ursa Majoris dwarf novae, we suggest that the short period is orbital and any longer period would be associated with a precession period of the accretion disk.

  12. Vesical Calculus 10 Years Post Missing Intrauterine Contraceptive Device

    PubMed Central

    Abdulwahab-Ahmed, Abdullahi; Ogunleye, Oluwagbemiga Olabisi

    2013-01-01

    Intravesical migration of intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) is rare. Early diagnosis of this rare entity is difficult because of its non-specific manifestations and very low index of suspicion. We present this case of bladder stone following intravesical migration of IUCD found to have been missing since insertion 10 years earlier. Lower abdominal discomfort and a missing vaginal string may be the only pointer to this unfortunate event in the immediate post insertion period. It is pertinent to consider the possibility of an intravesical migration of a missing IUCD in a patient presenting with lower abdominal discomfort, urinary frequency, and missing IUCD string on vaginal examination. PMID:24470853

  13. Particle energization through time-periodic helical magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Dhrubaditya; Brandenburg, Axel; Dasgupta, Brahmananda; Niklasson, Eyvind; Ram, Abhay

    2014-04-01

    We solve for the motion of charged particles in a helical time-periodic ABC (Arnold-Beltrami-Childress) magnetic field. The magnetic field lines of a stationary ABC field with coefficients A=B=C=1 are chaotic, and we show that the motion of a charged particle in such a field is also chaotic at late times with positive Lyapunov exponent. We further show that in time-periodic ABC fields, the kinetic energy of a charged particle can increase indefinitely with time. At late times the mean kinetic energy grows as a power law in time with an exponent that approaches unity. For an initial distribution of particles, whose kinetic energy is uniformly distributed within some interval, the probability density function of kinetic energy is, at late times, close to a Gaussian but with steeper tails. PMID:24827325

  14. Highlights of 10 years of immunology in Nature Reviews Immunology

    PubMed Central

    Medzhitov, Ruslan; Shevach, Ethan M.; Trinchieri, Giorgio; Mellor, Andrew L.; Munn, David H.; Gordon, Siamon; Libby, Peter; Hansson, Göran K.; Shortman, Ken; Dong, Chen; Gabrilovich, Dmitry; Gabryšová, Leona; Howes, Ashleigh; O’Garra, Anne

    2013-01-01

    As Nature Reviews Immunology reaches its 10th anniversary, we’ve asked the authors of one of the top-cited articles of each year to look back on the state of research at the time their Review was published, to consider why the article has had the impact it has and to discuss the future directions of their field. This Viewpoint article provides an interesting snapshot of some of the fundamental advances in the field of immunology over the past 10 years — including Toll-like receptor signalling, immune regulation mediated by regulatory T cells, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, myeloid-derived suppressor cells and interleukin-10, the development and heterogeneity of macrophages, dendritic cells and T helper cells, and the immune processes involved in diseases such as atherosclerosis — and looks forward to what the next 10 years may bring. PMID:21941295

  15. Examining the 10-Year Rebuilding Dilemma for U.S. Fish Stocks

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, Wesley S.; Cope, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, fishery managers strive to maintain fish stocks at or above levels that produce maximum sustainable yields, and to rebuild overexploited stocks that can no longer support such yields. In the United States, rebuilding overexploited stocks is a contentious issue, where most stocks are mandated to rebuild in as short a time as possible, and in a time period not to exceed 10 years. Opponents of such mandates and related guidance argue that rebuilding requirements are arbitrary, and create discontinuities in the time and fishing effort allowed for stocks to rebuild due to differences in productivity. Proponents, however, highlight how these mandates and guidance were needed to curtail the continued overexploitation of these stocks by setting firm deadlines on rebuilding. Here we evaluate the statements made by opponents and proponents of the 10-year rebuilding mandate and related guidance to determine whether such points are technically accurate using a simple population dynamics model and a database of U.S. fish stocks to parameterize the model. We also offer solutions to many of the issues surrounding this mandate and its implementation by recommending some fishing mortality based frameworks, which meet the intent of the 10-year rebuilding requirement while also providing more flexibility. PMID:25375788

  16. Childhood AIDS nephropathy: a 10-year experience.

    PubMed Central

    Rajpoot, D.; Kaupke, C. J.; Vaziri, N. D.; Rao, T. K.; Pomrantz, A.; Fikrig, S.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this study was to define the demographic, immunologic, and clinical characteristics of children with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and AIDS nephropathy, and contrast this with the existing adult data. Data from 62 pediatric patients with AIDS who were treated at SUNY Health Science Center, Brooklyn, New York, between 1983 and 1993 were analyzed. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection was acquired during the neonatal period by vertical transmission (n = 60) or blood transfusion (n = 2). All children with AIDS who exhibited clinical nephropathy died (n = 16), with mean survival of 55.3 months. In contrast, 32 of 56 AIDS patients (70%) who did not manifest nephropathy were alive at the end of the study period. Patients with nephropathy were noted to have significantly lower CD4+ lymphocyte counts than those without nephropathy. These observations suggest that the predominant renal lesion in pediatric patients who acquired HIV infection during the perinatal period is focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, although a variety of other histological lesions were present. As in adults, the survival in children is dismal following the onset of clinical renal disease. In contrast to the adult population in whom multiple risk factors can potentially contribute to AIDS-associated nephropathy, occurrence of nephropathy in children with vertical HIV transmission provides convincing evidence for the pathogenetic role of HIV infection. PMID:8803430

  17. Identifying multiple periodicities in sparse photon event time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koen, Chris

    2016-07-01

    The data considered are event times (e.g. photon arrival times, or the occurrence of sharp pulses). The source is multiperiodic, or the data could be multiperiodic because several unresolved sources contribute to the time series. Most events may be unobserved, either because the source is intermittent, or because some events are below the detection limit. The data may also be contaminated by spurious pulses. The problem considered is the determination of the periods in the data. A two-step procedure is proposed: in the first, a likely period is identified; in the second, events associated with this periodicity are removed from the time series. The steps are repeated until the remaining events do not exhibit any periodicity. A number of period-finding methods from the literature are reviewed, and a new maximum likelihood statistic is also introduced. It is shown that the latter is competitive compared to other techniques. The proposed methodology is tested on simulated data. Observations of two rotating radio transients are discussed, but contrary to claims in the literature, no evidence for multiperiodicity could be found.

  18. Identifying Multiple Periodicities in Sparse Photon Event Time Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koen, Chris

    2016-04-01

    The data considered are event times (e.g. photon arrival times, or the occurrence of sharp pulses). The source is multiperiodic, or the data could be multiperiodic because several unresolved sources contribute to the time series. Most events may be unobserved, either because the source is intermittent, or because some events are below the detection limit. The data may also be contaminated by spurious pulses. The problem considered is the determination of the periods in the data. A two-step procedure is proposed: in the first, a likely period is identified; in the second, events associated with this periodicity are removed from the time series. The steps are repeated until the remaining events do not exhibit any periodicity. A number of period-finding methods from the literature are reviewed, and a new maximum likelihood statistic is also introduced. It is shown that the latter is competitive compared to other techniques. The proposed methodology is tested on simulated data. Observations of two rotating radio transients are discussed, but contrary to claims in the literature, no evidence for multiperiodicity could be found.

  19. Optimal health insurance for multiple goods and time periods.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Randall P; Jiang, Shenyi; Manning, Willard G

    2015-05-01

    We examine the efficiency-based arguments for second-best optimal health insurance with multiple treatment goods and multiple time periods. Correlated shocks across health care goods and over time interact with complementarity and substitutability to affect optimal cost sharing. Health care goods that are substitutes or have positively correlated demand shocks should have lower optimal patient cost sharing. Positive serial correlations of demand shocks and uncompensated losses that are positively correlated with covered health services also reduce optimal cost sharing. Our results rationalize covering pharmaceuticals and outpatient spending more fully than is implied by static, one good, or one period models. PMID:25727031

  20. Natural History of Thyroid Function in Adults with Down Syndrome--10-Year Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasher, V.; Gomez, G.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The natural history of thyroid function in adults with Down syndrome (DS) is unknown. Method: This study investigated annual thyroid function tests in 200 adults with DS over a 10-year period. Results: Transient and persistent thyroid dysfunction was common. The 5- and 10-year incidence of definite hypothyroidism was 0.9%-1.64% and…

  1. 7 CFR 625.9 - 10-year restoration cost-share agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false 10-year restoration cost-share agreements. 625.9... restoration cost-share agreements. (a) The restoration plan developed under § 625.13 forms the basis for the... agreement will: (1) Incorporate all portions of a restoration plan; (2) Be for a period of 10 years;...

  2. 7 CFR 625.9 - 10-year restoration cost-share agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false 10-year restoration cost-share agreements. 625.9... restoration cost-share agreements. (a) The restoration plan developed under § 625.13 forms the basis for the... agreement will: (1) Incorporate all portions of a restoration plan; (2) Be for a period of 10 years;...

  3. A Randomized Clinical Trial to Assess the Efficacy and Safety of Real-Time Continuous Glucose Monitoring in the Management of Type 1 Diabetes in Young Children Aged 4 to <10 Years

    PubMed Central

    Mauras, Nelly; Beck, Roy; Xing, Dongyuan; Ruedy, Katrina; Buckingham, Bruce; Tansey, Michael; White, Neil H.; Weinzimer, Stuart A.; Tamborlane, William; Kollman, Craig

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) has been demonstrated to improve glycemic control in adults with type 1 diabetes but less so in children. We designed a study to assess CGM benefit in young children aged 4 to 9 years with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS After a run-in phase, 146 children with type 1 diabetes (mean age 7.5 ± 1.7 years, 64% on pumps, median diabetes duration 3.5 years) were randomly assigned to CGM or to usual care. The primary outcome was reduction in HbA1c at 26 weeks by ≥0.5% without the occurrence of severe hypoglycemia. RESULTS The primary outcome was achieved by 19% in the CGM group and 28% in the control group (P = 0.17). Mean change in HbA1c was −0.1% in each group (P = 0.79). Severe hypoglycemia rates were similarly low in both groups. CGM wear decreased over time, with only 41% averaging at least 6 days/week at 26 weeks. There was no correlation between CGM use and change in HbA1c (rs = −0.09, P = 0.44). CGM wear was well tolerated, and parental satisfaction with CGM was high. However, parental fear of hypoglycemia was not reduced. CONCLUSIONS CGM in 4- to 9-year-olds did not improve glycemic control despite a high degree of parental satisfaction with CGM. We postulate that this finding may be related in part to limited use of the CGM glucose data in day-to-day management and to an unremitting fear of hypoglycemia. Overcoming the barriers that prevent integration of these critical glucose data into day-to-day management remains a challenge. PMID:22210571

  4. 26 CFR 301.7701(b)-4 - Residency time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... statement (described in paragraph (c)(3)(v)(C) of this section) to the individual's income tax return (Form... tax return for the election year, the alien individual may request an extension of time for filing the return until a reasonable period after he or she has satisfied such test, provided that the...

  5. 50 CFR 221.3 - How are time periods computed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How are time periods computed? 221.3 Section 221.3 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS PRESCRIPTIONS IN FERC HYDROPOWER LICENSES...

  6. 50 CFR 221.3 - How are time periods computed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How are time periods computed? 221.3 Section 221.3 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS PRESCRIPTIONS IN FERC HYDROPOWER LICENSES...

  7. 50 CFR 221.3 - How are time periods computed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How are time periods computed? 221.3 Section 221.3 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS PRESCRIPTIONS IN FERC HYDROPOWER LICENSES...

  8. 50 CFR 221.3 - How are time periods computed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How are time periods computed? 221.3 Section 221.3 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS PRESCRIPTIONS IN FERC HYDROPOWER LICENSES...

  9. 50 CFR 221.3 - How are time periods computed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How are time periods computed? 221.3 Section 221.3 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS PRESCRIPTIONS IN FERC HYDROPOWER LICENSES...

  10. 36 CFR 218.10 - Objection time periods and process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Objection time periods and process. 218.10 Section 218.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PREDECISIONAL ADMINISTRATIVE REVIEW PROCESSES Predecisional Administrative Review Process for Hazardous Fuel Reduction Projects Authorized...

  11. Physical Activity in High School during "Free-Time" Periods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Pedro; Sousa, Michael; Sá, Carla; Ribeiro, José; Mota, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine youth physical activity (PA) in free-time periods during high school days and their contribution to total PA. Differences in terms of sex, age, body mass index and school level were assessed in a sample of Portuguese adolescents. Participants totalled 213 (135 girls), aged 14.6 ± 1.7, from two different…

  12. Positive particle frequencies in some time-periodic universes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Droz-Vincent, Philippe

    1996-03-01

    We consider the Klein-Gordon equation in FRW-like universes which are periodic in a suitable scale of time. In a remarkable sector of solutions, the Floquet theory of differential equations allows for generalizing the notion of particle frequency. In this sense, the sesquilinear form associated with Gordon's current is positive definite when restricted to the sub-sector of positive frequencies.

  13. 36 CFR 218.10 - Objection time periods and process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Objection time periods and process. 218.10 Section 218.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Hazardous Fuel Reduction Projects Authorized by the Healthy Forests Restoration Act of 2003 §...

  14. Late Lung Metastasis of a Primary Eccrine Sweat Gland Carcinoma 10 Years after Initial Surgical Treatment: The First Clinical Documentation

    PubMed Central

    Falkenstern-Ge, R. F.; Bode-Erdmann, S.; Ott, G.; Wohlleber, M.; Kohlhäufl, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Sweat gland carcinoma is a rare malignancy with a high metastatic potential seen more commonly in elderly patients. The scalp is the most common site of occurrence and it usually spreads to regional lymph nodes. Liver, lungs, and bones are the most common sites of distant metastasis. Late lung metastasis of sweat gland adenocarcinoma after a time span of 5 years is extremely rare. Aim. We report a patient with late lung metastasis of a primary sweat gland carcinoma 10 years after initial surgical resection. Conclusion. Sweat gland carcinomas are rare cancers with a poor prognosis. Surgery in the form of wide local excision and lymph node dissection is the mainstay of treatment. Late pulmonary metastases with a latency of 10 years have never been reported in the literature. This is the first clinical documentation of late lung metastasis from sweat gland carcinoma with a latency period of 10 years. PMID:23710393

  15. False periodicities in quasar time-domain surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, S.; Uttley, P.; Markowitz, A. G.; Huppenkothen, D.; Middleton, M. J.; Alston, W. N.; Scargle, J. D.; Farr, W. M.

    2016-09-01

    There have recently been several reports of apparently periodic variations in the light curves of quasars, e.g. PG 1302-102 by Graham et al. Any quasar showing periodic oscillations in brightness would be a strong candidate to be a close binary supermassive black hole and, in turn, a candidate for gravitational wave studies. However, normal quasars - powered by accretion on to a single, supermassive black hole - usually show stochastic variability over a wide range of time-scales. It is therefore important to carefully assess the methods for identifying periodic candidates from among a population dominated by stochastic variability. Using a Bayesian analysis of the light curve of PG 1302-102, we find that a simple stochastic process is preferred over a sinusoidal variation. We then discuss some of the problems one encounters when searching for rare, strictly periodic signals among a large number of irregularly sampled, stochastic time series, and use simulations of quasar light curves to illustrate these points. From a few thousand simulations of steep spectrum (`red noise') stochastic processes, we find many simulations that display few-cycle periodicity like that seen in PG 1302-102. We emphasize the importance of calibrating the false positive rate when the number of targets in a search is very large.

  16. Time-periodic solutions of the Benjamin-Ono equation

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrose , D.M.; Wilkening, Jon

    2008-04-01

    We present a spectrally accurate numerical method for finding non-trivial time-periodic solutions of non-linear partial differential equations. The method is based on minimizing a functional (of the initial condition and the period) that is positive unless the solution is periodic, in which case it is zero. We solve an adjoint PDE to compute the gradient of this functional with respect to the initial condition. We include additional terms in the functional to specify the free parameters, which, in the case of the Benjamin-Ono equation, are the mean, a spatial phase, a temporal phase and the real part of one of the Fourier modes at t = 0. We use our method to study global paths of non-trivial time-periodic solutions connecting stationary and traveling waves of the Benjamin-Ono equation. As a starting guess for each path, we compute periodic solutions of the linearized problem by solving an infinite dimensional eigenvalue problem in closed form. We then use our numerical method to continue these solutions beyond the realm of linear theory until another traveling wave is reached (or until the solution blows up). By experimentation with data fitting, we identify the analytical form of the solutions on the path connecting the one-hump stationary solution to the two-hump traveling wave. We then derive exact formulas for these solutions by explicitly solving the system of ODE's governing the evolution of solitons using the ansatz suggested by the numerical simulations.

  17. Periodicity detection method for small-sample time series datasets.

    PubMed

    Tominaga, Daisuke

    2010-01-01

    Time series of gene expression often exhibit periodic behavior under the influence of multiple signal pathways, and are represented by a model that incorporates multiple harmonics and noise. Most of these data, which are observed using DNA microarrays, consist of few sampling points in time, but most periodicity detection methods require a relatively large number of sampling points. We have previously developed a detection algorithm based on the discrete Fourier transform and Akaike's information criterion. Here we demonstrate the performance of the algorithm for small-sample time series data through a comparison with conventional and newly proposed periodicity detection methods based on a statistical analysis of the power of harmonics.We show that this method has higher sensitivity for data consisting of multiple harmonics, and is more robust against noise than other methods. Although "combinatorial explosion" occurs for large datasets, the computational time is not a problem for small-sample datasets. The MATLAB/GNU Octave script of the algorithm is available on the author's web site: http://www.cbrc.jp/%7Etominaga/piccolo/. PMID:21151841

  18. Finding unstable periodic orbits from chaotic time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buhl, Michael

    Contained within a chaotic attractor is an infinite number of unstable periodic orbits (UPOs). Although these orbits have zero measure, they form a skeleton of the dynamics. However, they are difficult to find from an observed time series. In this thesis I present several methods to find UPOs from measured time series. In Chapter 2 I look at data measured from the stomatogastric system of the California spiny lobster as an example to find unstable periodic orbits. With this time series I use two methods. The first creates a local linear model of the dynamics and finds the periodic orbits of the model, and the second applies a linear transform to the model such that unstable orbits are stable. In addition, in this chapter I describe methods of filtering and embedding the chaotic time series. In Chapter 3 I look at a more complicated model system where the dynamics are described by delay differential equations. Now the future state of the system depends on both the current state and the state a time tau earlier. This makes the phase space of the system infinite dimensional. I present a method for modeling systems such as this and finding UPOs in the infinite dimensional phase space. In Chapters 4 and 5 I describe a new method to find UPOs using symbolic dynamics. This has many advantages over the methods described in Chapter 2; more orbits can be found using a smaller time series---even in the presence of noise. First in Chapter 4 I describe how the phase space can be partitioned so that we can use symbolic dynamics. Then in Chapter 5 I describe how the UPOs can be found from the symbolic time series. Here, I model the symbolic dynamics with a Markov chain, represented by a graph, and then the symbolic UPOs are found from the graph. These symbolic cycles can then be localized back in phase space.

  19. Periodic, Quasi-periodic and Chaotic Dynamics in Simple Gene Elements with Time Delays

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Yoko; Lu, Mingyang; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Onuchic, José N.

    2016-01-01

    Regulatory gene circuit motifs play crucial roles in performing and maintaining vital cellular functions. Frequently, theoretical studies of gene circuits focus on steady-state behaviors and do not include time delays. In this study, the inclusion of time delays is shown to entirely change the time-dependent dynamics for even the simplest possible circuits with one and two gene elements with self and cross regulations. These elements can give rise to rich behaviors including periodic, quasi-periodic, weak chaotic, strong chaotic and intermittent dynamics. We introduce a special power-spectrum-based method to characterize and discriminate these dynamical modes quantitatively. Our simulation results suggest that, while a single negative feedback loop of either one- or two-gene element can only have periodic dynamics, the elements with two positive/negative feedback loops are the minimalist elements to have chaotic dynamics. These elements typically have one negative feedback loop that generates oscillations, and another unit that allows frequent switches among multiple steady states or between oscillatory and non-oscillatory dynamics. Possible dynamical features of several simple one- and two-gene elements are presented in details. Discussion is presented for possible roles of the chaotic behavior in the robustness of cellular functions and diseases, for example, in the context of cancer. PMID:26876008

  20. Time periodic perturbations and transport signatures in Floquet topological insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, Aaron; Pereg-Barnea, T.

    A Floquet topological insulator represents an out-of-equilibrium topological state. The topology of these systems emerges only when a time periodic perturbation is carefully applied. In time-periodic systems one can define quasi-energy states, which replace equilibrium stationary states (i.e. energy eigenstates). For appropriate time periodic potential strengths, a Floquet topological insulator exhibits edge localized quasi-energy states which lie in a gap of its quasi-energy spectrum. These edge states are a non-equilibrium analogue of the topologically protected edge-states in equilibrium topological insulators. In an equilibrium system such edge states lead to robust ``signature'' transport properties, e.g. a two-terminal conductivity of 2e2 / h . This talk will explore how these transport signatures translate to Floquet topological insulators. We will do this by developing and generalizing intuition borrowed from the field of photon-assited tunneling. We show that ultimately the signature transport properties of an equilibrium topological insulator do not directly hold in the out-of-equilibrium setting. This fact notwithstanding, we will provide an indirect way of retaining these transport signatures by using a so-called Floquet sum rule.

  1. Short time transient periodicities from Cyg X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auriemma, G.; Cardini, D.; Costa, E.; Giovannelli, F.; Ranieri, M.

    1976-01-01

    The temporal behavior of three new events of modulated optical emission from Cyg X1, detected in July 1975, is presented. Short time periodicities in the optical band are investigated. Single photon pulses from the photomultiplier are recorded on magnetic tape together with a very accurate 1 kHz reference frequency. During playback of the tape, the reference signal gives a 1 ms timing to a scaler interfaced with a small processor and the number of photon per millisecond is recorded on a digital tape.

  2. Krylov-subspace acceleration of time periodic waveform relaxation

    SciTech Connect

    Lumsdaine, A.

    1994-12-31

    In this paper the author uses Krylov-subspace techniques to accelerate the convergence of waveform relaxation applied to solving systems of first order time periodic ordinary differential equations. He considers the problem in the frequency domain and presents frequency dependent waveform GMRES (FDWGMRES), a member of a new class of frequency dependent Krylov-subspace techniques. FDWGMRES exhibits many desirable properties, including finite termination independent of the number of timesteps and, for certain problems, a convergence rate which is bounded from above by the convergence rate of GMRES applied to the static matrix problem corresponding to the linear time-invariant ODE.

  3. Scheduling real-time, periodic jobs using imprecise results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Jane W. S.; Lin, Kwei-Jay; Natarajan, Swaminathan

    1987-01-01

    A process is called a monotone process if the accuracy of its intermediate results is non-decreasing as more time is spent to obtain the result. The result produced by a monotone process upon its normal termination is the desired result; the error in this result is zero. External events such as timeouts or crashes may cause the process to terminate prematurely. If the intermediate result produced by the process upon its premature termination is saved and made available, the application may still find the result unusable and, hence, acceptable; such a result is said to be an imprecise one. The error in an imprecise result is nonzero. The problem of scheduling periodic jobs to meet deadlines on a system that provides the necessary programming language primitives and run-time support for processes to return imprecise results is discussed. This problem differs from the traditional scheduling problems since the scheduler may choose to terminate a task before it is completed, causing it to produce an acceptable but imprecise result. Consequently, the amounts of processor time assigned to tasks in a valid schedule can be less than the amounts of time required to complete the tasks. A meaningful formulation of this problem taking into account the quality of the overall result is discussed. Three algorithms for scheduling jobs for which the effects of errors in results produced in different periods are not cumulative are described, and their relative merits are evaluated.

  4. The 10-year Incidence of Tinnitus Among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Nondahl, DM; Cruickshanks, KJ; Wiley, TL; Klein, BEK; Klein, R; Chappell, R; Tweed, TS

    2010-01-01

    As part of a population-based study in Beaver Dam, Wisconsin, we estimated the 10-year cumulative incidence of tinnitus and its risk factors. Participants (n = 2922, aged 48–92 years) not reporting tinnitus at baseline (1993–1995) were followed for up to ten years. In addition to audiometric testing and anthropometric measures, data on tinnitus, health and other history were obtained via questionnaire. Potential risk factors were assessed with discrete-time proportional hazards models. The 10-year cumulative incidence of tinnitus was 12.7%. The risk of developing tinnitus was significantly associated with: history of arthritis (Hazard ratio (HR) = 1.37), history of head injury (HR = 1.76), history of ever smoking (HR = 1.40), and among women, hearing loss (HR = 2.59). Alcohol consumption (HR = 0.63 for ≥ 141 grams/week vs. < 15 grams/week), age (among women, HR = 0.90 for each 5-year increase in age), and among men, obesity (HR = 0.55), were associated with decreased risk. The risk of developing tinnitus was high for older adults and associated with modifiable health and behavioral factors. PMID:20560859

  5. Self-Esteem during University Studies Predicts Career Characteristics 10 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2007-01-01

    To examine how self-esteem measured during university studies would impact on the characteristics of the work career 10 years later, 297 university students completed the Rosenberg's self-esteem inventory four times while at university and various career-related questionnaires 10 years later. Latent Growth Curve Modeling showed that a high overall…

  6. Mimicking Nonequilibrium Steady States with Time-Periodic Driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raz, Oren; Subasi, Yigit; Jarzynski, Christopher

    Under static conditions, a system satisfying detailed balance generically relaxes to an equilibrium state in which there are no currents: to generate persistent currents, either detailed balance must be broken or the system must be driven in a time-dependent manner. A stationary system that violates detailed balance evolves to a nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) characterized by fixed currents. Conversely, a system that satisfies instantaneous detailed balance but is driven by the time-periodic variation of external parameters - also known as a stochastic pump (SP) - reaches a periodic state with non-vanishing currents. In both cases, these currents are maintained at the cost of entropy production. Are these two paradigmatic scenarios effectively equivalent? For discrete-state systems we establish a mapping between NESS and SP. Given a NESS characterized by a particular set of stationary probabilities, currents and entropy production rates, we show how to construct a SP with exactly the same (time-averaged) values. The mapping works in the opposite direction as well. These results establish a proof of principle: they show that SP are able to mimic the behavior of NESS, and vice-versa, within the theoretical framework of discrete-state stochastic thermodynamics.

  7. Mimicking Nonequilibrium Steady States with Time-Periodic Driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raz, O.; Subaşı, Y.; Jarzynski, C.

    2016-04-01

    Under static conditions, a system satisfying detailed balance generically relaxes to an equilibrium state in which there are no currents. To generate persistent currents, either detailed balance must be broken or the system must be driven in a time-dependent manner. A stationary system that violates detailed balance evolves to a nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) characterized by fixed currents. Conversely, a system that satisfies instantaneous detailed balance but is driven by the time-periodic variation of external parameters—also known as a stochastic pump (SP)—reaches a periodic state with nonvanishing currents. In both cases, these currents are maintained at the cost of entropy production. Are these two paradigmatic scenarios effectively equivalent? For discrete-state systems, we establish a mapping between nonequilibrium stationary states and stochastic pumps. Given a NESS characterized by a particular set of stationary probabilities, currents, and entropy production rates, we show how to construct a SP with exactly the same (time-averaged) values. The mapping works in the opposite direction as well. These results establish a proof of principle: They show that stochastic pumps are able to mimic the behavior of nonequilibrium steady states, and vice versa, within the theoretical framework of discrete-state stochastic thermodynamics. Nonequilibrium steady states and stochastic pumps are often used to model, respectively, biomolecular motors driven by chemical reactions and artificial molecular machines steered by the variation of external, macroscopic parameters. Our results loosely suggest that anything a biomolecular machine can do, an artificial molecular machine can do equally well. We illustrate this principle by showing that kinetic proofreading, a NESS mechanism that explains the low error rates in biochemical reactions, can be effectively mimicked by a constrained periodic driving.

  8. (abstract) Short Time Period Variations in Jupiter's Synchrotron Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolton, S. J.; Klein, M. J.; Gulkis, S.; Foster, R.; Heiles, C.; Pater, I. de

    1994-01-01

    The long term time variability of Jupiter's synchrotron radiation on yearly time scales has been established for some time. For many years, theorists have speculated about the effects variations in the solar wind, solar flux, Io, the Io torus, and Jupiter's magnetic field have on the ultra-relativistic electron population responsible for the emission. Early observational results suggested the additional possibility of a short term time variability, on timescales of days to weeks. In 1989 a program designed to investigate the existence of short term time variability using the 85 foot Hat Creek radio telescope operating at 1400 MHz was initiated. The availability of a dedicated telescope provided the opportunity, for the first time, to obtain numerous observations over the full Jupiter rotation period. These and future observations will enable two important studies, characterization and confirmation of possible short term variations, and the investigation of the stability of Jupiter's synchrotron emission beaming curve. Analysis of Hat Creek observations and early results from the Maryland Point Naval research Laboratory will be presented.

  9. The academic occupational physician as consultant. A 10-year perspective.

    PubMed

    McCunney, R J

    1994-04-01

    The academic community has long served the private sector in a consultant capacity in engineering and in the sciences. With respect to occupational medicine, physicians, when working for industry, have generally practiced in a health care setting. Within the past 10 years, however, the business sector has placed more attention on the health implications of its operations as a result of regulations, liability, and rising health care costs. These issues, which go beyond traditional clinical responsibilities, have furthered the need for businesses to receive strategic medical advice to effectively operate and to maintain a competitive edge. One particular business sector, the chemical industry, has been challenged seriously because of legitimate as well as perceived health risks associated with the production and use of its products. This paper describes the professional experiences over a 10-year period (1983 to 1993) of an occupational physician working as a consultant to an international chemical company. Services have related to epidemiology, health policy, toxicology, plant oversight as well as serving as a health advisor on matters involving the relation between business and health. An academic affiliation with an occupational medicine residency program has facilitated access to related occupational health professionals to assist in problem solving and research. Opportunities for consulting in occupational medicine will depend upon the nature of the organization as well as the personal and professional characteristics of the physician. Requests for these types of services, however, are likely to expand in the near future, primarily as a result of wider awareness of the implications of work on health, increased litigation, and government regulations. PMID:8014716

  10. Polymer dynamics in time-dependent periodic potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauttonen, Janne; Merikoski, Juha; Pulkkinen, Otto

    2008-06-01

    The dynamics of a discrete polymer in time-dependent external potentials is studied with the master equation approach. We consider both stochastic and deterministic switching mechanisms for the potential states and give the essential equations for computing the stationary-state properties of molecules with internal structure in time-dependent periodic potentials on a lattice. As an example, we consider standard and modified Rubinstein-Duke polymers and calculate their mean drift and effective diffusion coefficient in the two-state nonsymmetric flashing potential and symmetric traveling potential. Rich nonlinear behavior of these observables is found. By varying the polymer length, we find current inversions caused by the rebound effect that is only present for molecules with internal structure. These results depend strongly on the polymer type. We also notice increased transport coherence for longer polymers.

  11. Langevin Dynamics with Space-Time Periodic Nonequilibrium Forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joubaud, R.; Pavliotis, G. A.; Stoltz, G.

    2015-01-01

    We present results on the ballistic and diffusive behavior of the Langevin dynamics in a periodic potential that is driven away from equilibrium by a space-time periodic driving force, extending some of the results obtained by Collet and Martinez in (J Math Biol, 56(6):765-792 2008). In the hyperbolic scaling, a nontrivial average velocity can be observed even if the external forcing vanishes in average. More surprisingly, an average velocity in the direction opposite to the forcing may develop at the linear response level—a phenomenon called negative mobility. The diffusive limit of the non-equilibrium Langevin dynamics is also studied using the general methodology of central limit theorems for additive functionals of Markov processes. To apply this methodology, which is based on the study of appropriate Poisson equations, we extend recent results on pointwise estimates of the resolvent of the generator associated with the Langevin dynamics. Our theoretical results are illustrated by numerical simulations of a two-dimensional system.

  12. Desensitization to media violence over a short period of time.

    PubMed

    Fanti, Kostas A; Vanman, Eric; Henrich, Christopher C; Avraamides, Marios N

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the desensitization to violence over a short period of time. Participants watched nine violent movie scenes and nine comedy scenes, and reported whether they enjoyed the violent or comedy scenes and whether they felt sympathetic toward the victim of violence. Using latent growth modeling, analyses were carried out to investigate how participants responded to the different scenes across time. The findings of this study suggested that repeated exposure to media violence reduces the psychological impact of media violence in the short term, therefore desensitizing viewers to media violence. As a result, viewers tended to feel less sympathetic toward the victims of violence and actually enjoy more the violence portrayed in the media. Additionally, desensitization to media violence was better represented by a curvilinear pattern, whereas desensitization to comedy scenes was better represented by a linear pattern. Finally, trait aggression was not related to the pattern of change over time, although significant effects were found for initial reports of enjoyment and sympathy. PMID:19172659

  13. Relaxation Characteristics of 828 DGEBA Epoxy Over Long Time Periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoo, Jasmine; Reprogle, Riley C.; Wisler, Brian; Arechederra, Gabriel K.; McCoy, John D.; Kropka, Jamie M.; Long, Kevin N.

    The mechanical relaxation response in uniaxial compression of a diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A epoxy was studied over long time periods. The epoxy, 828DEA, was Epon 828 cured with diethanolamine (DEA). A sample was compressed at constant strain rate and held at various strain levels for days to allow the sample to relax. The sample was then compressed further and held once more. The relaxation curves were fit with a stretched exponential function. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  14. Swimming and transport of bacteria in time-periodic flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Rebecca; Patteson, Alison; Gagnon, David; Arratia, Paulo

    The transport of bacteria can be highly influenced by external flows in oceans, rivers, and intestinal tracts. This has implications in biological systems for the performance of major biological processes, such as biofilm formation. In this study, we experimentally investigate the aggregation and transport of swimming Vibrio cholerae bacteria in time-periodic flows. Bacteria are placed in a well-characterized flow, and bacterial concentrations are recorded for a range of Reynolds numbers (Re) that spans two orders of magnitude, from 0.1 to 10. It is generally found that bacteria deplete from regions of high deformation rate and accumulate near vortices. This phenomenon seems to be dictated by a combination of bacterial activity and background flow vorticity. R.W. supported by NSF-GRFP.

  15. 14 CFR 221.190 - Time for filing and computation of time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Time for filing and computation of time periods. 221.190 Section 221.190 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Electronically Filed Tariffs § 221.190...

  16. 14 CFR 221.190 - Time for filing and computation of time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Time for filing and computation of time periods. 221.190 Section 221.190 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Electronically Filed Tariffs § 221.190...

  17. 14 CFR 221.190 - Time for filing and computation of time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Time for filing and computation of time periods. 221.190 Section 221.190 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Electronically Filed Tariffs § 221.190...

  18. 14 CFR 221.190 - Time for filing and computation of time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Time for filing and computation of time periods. 221.190 Section 221.190 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Electronically Filed Tariffs § 221.190...

  19. 14 CFR 221.190 - Time for filing and computation of time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Time for filing and computation of time periods. 221.190 Section 221.190 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Electronically Filed Tariffs § 221.190...

  20. The Cryptophlebia Leucotreta Granulovirus—10 Years of Commercial Field Use

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Sean D.; Kirkman, Wayne; Richards, Garth I.; Stephen, Peter R.

    2015-01-01

    In the last 15 years, extensive work on the Cryptophlebia leucotreta granulovirus (CrleGV) has been conducted in South Africa, initially in the laboratory, but subsequently also in the field. This culminated in the registration of the first CrleGV-based biopesticide in 2004 (hence, the 10 years of commercial use in the field) and the second one three years later. Since 2000, more than 50 field trials have been conducted with CrleGV against the false codling moth, Thaumatotibia leucotreta, on citrus in South Africa. In a representative sample of 13 field trials reported over this period, efficacy (measured by reduction in larval infestation of fruit) ranged between 30% and 92%. Efficacy was shown to persist at a level of 70% for up to 17 weeks after application of CrleGV. This only occurred where the virus was applied in blocks rather than to single trees. The addition of molasses substantially and sometimes significantly enhanced efficacy. It was also established that CrleGV should not be applied at less than ~2 × 1013 OBs per ha in order to avoid compromised efficacy. As CrleGV-based products were shown to be at least as effective as chemical alternatives, persistent and compatible with natural enemies, their use is recommended within an integrated program for control of T. leucotreta on citrus and other crops. PMID:25809025

  1. Biliary complications following orthotopic liver transplantation: a 10-year audit

    PubMed Central

    Gunawansa, Nalaka; McCall, John L; Holden, Andrew; Plank, Lindsay; Munn, Stephen R

    2011-01-01

    Background Biliary complications following liver transplantation result in major morbidity. We undertook a 10-year audit of the incidence, management and outcomes of post-transplant biliary complications at the New Zealand Liver Transplant Unit. Methods Prospectively collected data on 348 consecutive liver transplants performed between February 1998 and October 2008 were reviewed. The minimum follow-up was 6 months. Results A total of 309 adult and 39 paediatric transplants were performed over the study period. Of these, 296 (85%) were whole liver grafts and 52 (15%) were partial liver grafts (24 split-liver, eight reduced-size and 20 live-donor grafts). There were 80 biliary complications, which included 63 (18%) strictures and 17 (5%) bile leaks. Partial graft, a paediatric recipient and a Roux-en-Y biliary anastomosis were independent predictors of biliary strictures. Twenty-five (40%) strictures were successfully managed non-operatively and 38 (60%) required surgery (31 biliary reconstructions, three segmental resections and four retransplants). Seven (41%) bile leaks required surgical revision and 10 (59%) were managed non-operatively. There was no mortality related directly to biliary complications. Conclusions Biliary complications affected one in five transplant recipients. Paediatric status, partial graft and Roux-en-Y anastomosis were independently associated with the occurrence of biliary strictures. Over half of the affected patients required surgical revision, but no mortality resulted from biliary complications. PMID:21609371

  2. Circles South East: the first 10 years 2002-2012.

    PubMed

    Bates, Andrew; Williams, Dominic; Wilson, Chris; Wilson, Robin J

    2014-07-01

    This article describes the first 10 years of the implementation of Circles of Support and Accountability (Circles) in the management of sexual offenders in South-East England by Circles South East (CSE). The Circles of 71 core members are reviewed in detail, with reference to demographic data, offense and sentencing histories, risk assessment data, and considerations regarding Multi-Agency Public Protection Arrangements. A group of 71 comparison subjects who were referred to CSE and deemed suitable for but did not receive the service was identified. Follow-up behaviors of both groups are examined (including all forms of reconviction, breach of orders, and prison recall). Over a comparable follow-up period of 55 months, the incidence of violent and contact sexual reconviction in the comparison group was significantly higher than for the Circles cohort. Comparisons are made between expected and actual levels of sexual reconviction, with the Circles cohort showing lower than expected rate of sexual reconviction but not to a statistically significant degree. PMID:23615793

  3. 10 years of surveillance of human tularaemia in France.

    PubMed

    Mailles, A; Vaillant, V

    2014-01-01

    Tularaemia has been mandatorily notifiable in France since October 2002. The surveillance aims to detect early any infection possibly due to bioterrorism and to follow up disease trends. We report the results of national surveillance from 2002 to 2012. A case is defined as a patient with clinical presentation suggestive of tularaemia and biological confirmation of infection or an epidemiological link with a biologically confirmed case. Clinical, biological and epidemiological data are collected using a standardised notification form. From 2002 to 2012, 433 cases were notified, with a median age of 49 years (range 2 to 95 years) and a male–female sex ratio of 1.8. Most frequent clinical presentations were glandular tularaemia (n=200; 46%) and ulceroglandular tularaemia (n=113; 26%). Most frequent at-risk exposures were handling hares (n=179; 41%) and outdoor leisure exposure to dust aerosols (n=217; 50%). Tick bites were reported by 82 patients (19%). Ten clusters (39 cases) were detected over the 10-year period, as well as a national outbreak during winter 2007/2008. The tularaemia surveillance system is able to detect small clusters as well as major outbreaks. Surveillance data show exposure to dust aerosols during outdoor leisure activities to be a major source of contamination in France. PMID:25411688

  4. Presentation of endometriosis to general surgeons: a 10-year experience.

    PubMed

    Singh, K K; Lessells, A M; Adam, D J; Jordan, C; Miles, W F; Macintyre, I M; Greig, J D

    1995-10-01

    The presentation and management of 24 patients with endometriosis (median age 34 (range 21-68)years) presenting to general surgeons over a period of 10 years (1985-1994) was reviewed. Patients presented with an abdominal wall swelling related to a previous Pfannenstiel incision (seven patients), umbilical swelling (four), inguinal canal swelling (two), incidentally following appendicectomy (five), terminal ileal obstruction (two), rectal bleeding (two) and urinary symptoms (two). Endometriosis was not suspected in most patients but was confirmed by surgical excision or resection with minimal morbidity. No recurrence occurred during a median follow-up of 53 (range 9-113) months. Endometriosis is a disease rarely seen by general surgeons and is often diagnosed incidentally or on histological examination. Cyclical symptoms associated with menstruation are present in 50 per cent of patients and should suggest the diagnosis in those presenting with scar-related and/or subcutaneous swellings. Simple excision or resection of the presenting lesion provides adequate treatment but, since pelvic endometriosis may be present, referral to a gynaecologist is recommended in every case. PMID:7489161

  5. 43 CFR 3207.5 - What terms (time periods) apply to my lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... LEASING Lease Terms and Extensions § 3207.5 What terms (time periods) apply to my lease? Your lease may include a number of different time periods. Not every time period applies to every lease. These periods... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What terms (time periods) apply to...

  6. Post-Test Analysis of a 10-Year Sodium Heat Pipe Life Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenfeld, John H.; Locci, Ivan E.; Sanzi, James L.; Hull, David R.; Geng, Steven M.

    2011-01-01

    High-temperature heat pipes are being evaluated for use in energy conversion applications such as fuel cells, gas turbine re-combustors, Stirling cycle heat sources; and with the resurgence of space nuclear power both as reactor heat removal elements and as radiator elements. Long operating life and reliable performance are critical requirements for these applications. Accordingly, long-term materials compatibility is being evaluated through the use of high-temperature life test heat pipes. Thermacore, Inc., has carried out a sodium heat pipe 10-year life test to establish long-term operating reliability. Sodium heat pipes have demonstrated favorable materials compatibility and heat transport characteristics at high operating temperatures in air over long time periods. A representative one-tenth segment Stirling Space Power Converter heat pipe with an Inconel 718 envelope and a stainless steel screen wick has operated for over 87,000 hr (10 years) at nearly 700 C. These life test results have demonstrated the potential for high-temperature heat pipes to serve as reliable energy conversion system components for power applications that require long operating lifetime with high reliability. Detailed design specifications, operating history, and post-test analysis of the heat pipe and sodium working fluid are described. Lessons learned and future life test plans are also discussed.

  7. Prospective Predictors of Body Dissatisfaction in Young Adults: 10-year Longitudinal Findings

    PubMed Central

    Quick, Virginia; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Bucchianeri, Michaela M.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    This study identified longitudinal risk factors for body dissatisfaction (BD) over a 10-year period from adolescence to young adulthood. Participants (N = 2134; age at baseline: M =15.0, SD =1.6 years) provided two waves of survey data. A 6-step hierarchical linear regression analysis examined the predictive contribution of Time 1 BD, weight status, demographics, family and peer environmental factors, and psychological factors. Among females, Asian race/ethnicity, low self-esteem, greater BD, and higher body mass index during adolescence contributed significantly to predicting greater BD at 10-year follow up (R2 = 0.27). Among males, demographics (i.e., Asian, other-mixed ethnicity, education attainment), depressive symptoms, greater BD, higher body mass index, more parent communication, and less peer weight teasing during adolescence contributed to BD at follow-up (R2 = 0.27). Findings indicate who may be at greatest risk for BD in young adulthood and the types of factors that should be addressed during adolescence. PMID:25045599

  8. ESO and Chile: 10 Years of Productive Scientific Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-06-01

    ESO and the Government of Chile launched today the book "10 Years Exploring the Universe", written by the beneficiaries of the ESO-Chile Joint Committee. This annual fund provides grants for individual Chilean scientists, research infrastructures, scientific congresses, workshops for science teachers and astronomy outreach programmes for the public. In a ceremony held in Santiago on 19 June 2006, the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere (ESO) and the Chilean Ministry of Foreign Affairs marked the 10th Anniversary of the Supplementary Agreement, which granted to Chilean astronomers up to 10 percent of the total observing time on ESO telescopes. This agreement also established an annual fund for the development of astronomy, managed by the so-called "ESO-Chile Joint Committee". ESO PR Photo 21/06 ESO PR Photo 21/06 Ten Years ESO-Chile Agreement Ceremony The celebration event was hosted by ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky, and the Director of Special Policy for the Chilean Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ambassador Luis Winter. "ESO's commitment is, and always will be, to promote astronomy and scientific knowledge in the country hosting our observatories", said ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky. "We hope Chile and Europe will continue with great achievements in this fascinating joint adventure, the exploration of the universe." On behalf of the Government of Chile, Ambassador Luis Winter outlined the historical importance of the Supplementary Agreement, ratified by the Chilean Congress in 1996. "Such is the magnitude of ESO-Chile Joint Committee that, only in 2005, this annual fund represented 8 percent of all financing sources for Chilean astronomy, including those from Government and universities", Ambassador Winter said. The ESO Representative and Head of Science in Chile, Dr. Felix Mirabel, and the appointed Chilean astronomer for the ESO-Chile Joint Committee, Dr. Leonardo Bronfman, also took part in the

  9. Emergency Peripartum Hysterectomies at a District General Hospital in United Kingdom: 10-Year Review of Practice

    PubMed Central

    Chester, J.; Sidhu, P.; Sharma, S.; Israfil-Bayli, F.

    2016-01-01

    Peripartum haemorrhage is an obstetric emergency which requires effective and timely management. A retrospective analysis was conducted at a single centre district hospital, over a 10-year period to describe factors that would lead to a peripartum hysterectomy. We sought to establish intraoperative and postoperative risks and review outcomes and complications associated with the procedure. A total of 29 cases (incidence 0.8 per 1000) were reviewed over 2001–2011. The mean parity was 1.8 and the mean maternal age was 33 years. Uterine atony was the most common indication for hysterectomy (12/29) followed by placenta praevia and accreta (4/29 and 5/29 cases, resp.). The commonest postoperative complications were sepsis and paralytic ileus. EPH most commonly occurs due to uterine atony but remains difficult to predict. Hospitals should continue to have robust systems and the necessary resources available to perform EPH where clinically indicated. PMID:27190690

  10. From Exotic to Mainstream: A 10-year Odyssey from Internet Speed to Boundary Spanning with Scrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskerville, Richard; Pries-Heje, Jan; Madsen, Sabine

    Based on four empirical studies conducted over a 10-year time period from 1999 to 2008 we investigate how local software processes interact with global changes in the software development context. In 1999 companies were developing software at high speed in a desperate rush to be first-to-market. In 2001 a new high speed/quick results development process had become established practice. In 2003 changes in the market created the need for a more balanced view on speed and quality, and in 2008 companies were successfully combining agile and plan driven approaches to achieve the benefits of both. The studies reveal a twostage pattern in which dramatic changes in the market causes disruption of established practices, experimentation, and process adaptations followed by consolidation of lessons learnt into a new (and once again mature) software development process. Limitations, implications, and areas for future research are discussed.

  11. Almost periodic dynamics for impulsive delay neural networks of a general type on almost periodic time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; Agarwal, Ravi P.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we improve the new concepts of almost periodic time scales addressed in 2014 to introduce the new concepts of piecewise almost periodic functions. Then we establish some first results for the existence and exponential stability of almost periodic solution for a general type of delay neural networks with impulsive effects. The approaches are based on contraction principle and Gronwall-Bellman's inequality. In addition, the numerical example and simulations are provided to illustrate our time scale methods are feasible and effective. The obtained results are more general and comprehensive than the results obtained on periodic time scales before.

  12. METEONETWORK: 2002-2012, 10 years of activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazza, Edoardo

    2013-04-01

    The role of citizen-scientists in collecting data and observations has been increasingly crucial in the last 10 years of atmospheric sciences. Meteonetwork is a non-profit organization founded by citizen scientists in 2002, in Lombardia, with the aim of raising public awareness about meteorological and climatological issues. Throughout the years the organization, besides the continuous holding of events such as meeting, conferences and talks, has been standing out because of its forum and its wide network of weather stations. Meteonetwork's forum is, in this field, the most read and followed in the country and with its 8459 members and over 4,217,505 posts turns out to be the 17th forum over the entire country. Its network is operated in cooperation with Centro Epson Meteo and collects amateur semi-professional stations distributed all over the Italian territory, providing real-time and daily data. It consists of 706 stations, among which more than 400 regularly updated; volunteers constantly work to perform quality control and ensure data reliability. Meteonetwork has also developed several collaborations with private and public institutions, among which DRIHM - Cima Research Foundation, Centro Epson Meteo di Milano, Arpa Veneto, Arpa Emilia-Romagna, Arpa Lombardia, Arpa Friuli - Venezia Giulia, Servizio Glaciologico Lombardo, C. N. R. - C. I. S. A, Università di Pisa, Università di Milano, University of Aberdeen, Protezione Civile - Regione Lombardia, Protezione Civile - Regione Piemonte stand out. As WMO emphasized in 2001 World Meteorological Day "Volunteers for the weather, climate and water" the contribution of citizen-scientists to scientific studies is remarkable. In this perspective Meteonetwork and the University of Milan, in April 2011, started a project of technical and scientific cooperation called Weatherness. The university is provided with data gathered by Meteoneonetwork's stations with the aim of improving the knowledge of the impact that heat

  13. Competition, resources, and vegetation during 10 years in native grassland.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Scott D

    2007-12-01

    A 10-year experiment tested for variation in competition intensity over time in a natural grassland at the northern edge of the Great Plains. Growing-season precipitation varied fivefold during the study. All ecosystem-level variables varied significantly among years, and most covaried in expected ways. The covers of all common grasses possessing the C3 photosynthetic pathway varied significantly among years; in contrast, all common species with traits associated with drought tolerance (a C4 grass, a lichen, a spikemoss, and a subshrub) did not vary. Annual transplant experiments measured the competitive effects of neighbors on the growth of individuals of the native grass Bouteloua gracilis. A significant interaction between year and competition showed that competition intensity varied among years. The size of this effect, however, was small (eta2 = 0.074) relative to the size of the direct effect of competition (eta2 = 0.20) or the year in which the experiment was conducted (eta2 = 0.51). Further, competition intensity was not significantly related to any variable describing standing crop or resources, or species richness. Species richness was highest in years with high precipitation, standing crop, and individual growth, due to the recruitment of rare species that were absent from dry years. In summary, variation in competition intensity was statistically significant but had small effects relative to the direct effects of climate. PMID:18229830

  14. PCC characteristics at rest in 10-year memory decliners.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Charlotte; Dilharreguy, Bixente; Helmer, Catherine; Chanraud, Sandra; Amieva, Hélène; Dartigues, Jean-François; Allard, Michèle; Catheline, Gwénaëlle

    2015-10-01

    The present research sought to characterize the intrinsic functional networks associated with a 10-year episodic memory decline in elderly using data from a longitudinal population-based cohort (Bordeaux-3City). Complementary measures of whole-brain resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging investigations were combined to compare functional architecture of brain networks both at connectional and topological levels in 22 decliners to 22 nondecliners; episodic memory decline being assessed through a multiple time point Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test. The decliners presented differences in functional architecture centered on the posterior cingulate cortex, characterized by a significant decrease of connectivity intensity, a significant increased centrality. In accordance, a decrease of the functional connectivity inside the default mode network was observed in the decliners. Our results highlight the central role of the posterior cingulate cortex in a slow but reliable memory decline in elderly. Because functional alterations of this region are currently described in Alzheimer's disease, this functional signature could constitute a risk for Alzheimer's disease. PMID:26234756

  15. Surrogacy families 10 years on: relationship with the surrogate, decisions over disclosure and children's understanding of their surrogacy origins

    PubMed Central

    Jadva, V.; Blake, L.; Casey, P.; Golombok, S.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND This study aimed to prospectively examine families created using surrogacy over a 10-year period in the UK with respect to intending parents' and children's relationship with the surrogate mother, parents' decisions over disclosure and children's understanding of the nature of their conception. METHODS Semi-structured interviews were administered by trained researchers to intending mothers, intending fathers and children on four occasions over a 10-year period. Forty-two families (19 with a genetic surrogate mother) participated when the child was 1-year old and by age 10 years, 33 families remained in the study. Data were collected on the frequency of contact with the surrogate mother, relationship with the surrogate, disclosure of surrogacy to the child and the child's understanding of their surrogacy birth. RESULTS Frequency of contact between surrogacy families and their surrogate mother decreased over time, particularly for families whose surrogate was a previously unknown genetic carrier (P < 0.001) (i.e. where they had met through a third party and the surrogate mother's egg was used to conceive the child). Most families reported harmonious relationships with their surrogate mother. At age 10 years, 19 (90%) children who had been informed of the nature of their conception had a good understanding of this and 13 of the 14 children who were in contact with their surrogate reported that they liked her. CONCLUSIONS Surrogacy families maintained good relationships with the surrogate mother over time. Children felt positive about their surrogate mother and their surrogacy birth. The sample size of this study was small and further, larger investigations are needed before firm conclusions can be drawn. PMID:22814484

  16. Convergence Time towards Periodic Orbits in Discrete Dynamical Systems

    PubMed Central

    San Martín, Jesús; Porter, Mason A.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the convergence towards periodic orbits in discrete dynamical systems. We examine the probability that a randomly chosen point converges to a particular neighborhood of a periodic orbit in a fixed number of iterations, and we use linearized equations to examine the evolution near that neighborhood. The underlying idea is that points of stable periodic orbit are associated with intervals. We state and prove a theorem that details what regions of phase space are mapped into these intervals (once they are known) and how many iterations are required to get there. We also construct algorithms that allow our theoretical results to be implemented successfully in practice. PMID:24736594

  17. Convergence time towards periodic orbits in discrete dynamical systems.

    PubMed

    San Martín, Jesús; Porter, Mason A

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the convergence towards periodic orbits in discrete dynamical systems. We examine the probability that a randomly chosen point converges to a particular neighborhood of a periodic orbit in a fixed number of iterations, and we use linearized equations to examine the evolution near that neighborhood. The underlying idea is that points of stable periodic orbit are associated with intervals. We state and prove a theorem that details what regions of phase space are mapped into these intervals (once they are known) and how many iterations are required to get there. We also construct algorithms that allow our theoretical results to be implemented successfully in practice. PMID:24736594

  18. Logic Model Checking of Time-Periodic Real-Time Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Florian, Mihai; Gamble, Ed; Holzmann, Gerard

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we report on the work we performed to extend the logic model checker SPIN with built-in support for the verification of periodic, real-time embedded software systems, as commonly used in aircraft, automobiles, and spacecraft. We first extended the SPIN verification algorithms to model priority based scheduling policies. Next, we added a library to support the modeling of periodic tasks. This library was used in a recent application of the SPIN model checker to verify the engine control software of an automobile, to study the feasibility of software triggers for unintended acceleration events.

  19. 29 CFR 4000.43 - How do I compute a time period?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I compute a time period? 4000.43 Section 4000.43..., ISSUANCE, COMPUTATION OF TIME, AND RECORD RETENTION Computation of Time § 4000.43 How do I compute a time period? (a) In general. If you are computing a time period to which this part applies, whether you...

  20. 29 CFR 4000.43 - How do I compute a time period?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How do I compute a time period? 4000.43 Section 4000.43..., ISSUANCE, COMPUTATION OF TIME, AND RECORD RETENTION Computation of Time § 4000.43 How do I compute a time period? (a) In general. If you are computing a time period to which this part applies, whether you...

  1. 29 CFR 4000.43 - How do I compute a time period?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How do I compute a time period? 4000.43 Section 4000.43..., ISSUANCE, COMPUTATION OF TIME, AND RECORD RETENTION Computation of Time § 4000.43 How do I compute a time period? (a) In general. If you are computing a time period to which this part applies, whether you...

  2. 29 CFR 4000.43 - How do I compute a time period?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How do I compute a time period? 4000.43 Section 4000.43..., ISSUANCE, COMPUTATION OF TIME, AND RECORD RETENTION Computation of Time § 4000.43 How do I compute a time period? (a) In general. If you are computing a time period to which this part applies, whether you...

  3. 29 CFR 4000.43 - How do I compute a time period?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How do I compute a time period? 4000.43 Section 4000.43..., ISSUANCE, COMPUTATION OF TIME, AND RECORD RETENTION Computation of Time § 4000.43 How do I compute a time period? (a) In general. If you are computing a time period to which this part applies, whether you...

  4. Burning invariant manifolds in time-periodic and time-aperiodic vortex flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gowen, Savannah; Solomon, Tom

    2014-11-01

    We present experiments that study reaction fronts in a flow composed of a single, translating vortex. The fronts are produced by the excitable Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) chemical reaction, and the vortex flow is driven magnetohydrodynamically by a radial current in a thin fluid layer above a Nd-Fe-Bo magnet. The magnet is mounted on a pair of perpendicular translation stages, allowing for controlled, two-dimensional movement of the magnet and the resulting vortex. We study reaction fronts that pin to the vortex for time-independent flows (produced by moving the vortex with a constant velocity) and for time-periodic and time-aperiodic flows produced by oscillating the vortex laterally. The steady-state front shape is analyzed in terms of burning invariant manifolds (BIMs) that act as one-way barriers against any propagating reaction fronts. For time independent and time-periodic flows, the location of the BIMs are calculated numerically and are compared with experimental images of the pinned reaction fronts. We investigate extensions of this BIM approach for analyzing fronts in time-aperiodic flows. Supported by NSF Grants DMR-1004744, DMR-1361881 and PHY-1156964.

  5. A 10-Year Assessment of Information and Communication Technology Tasks Required in Undergraduate Agriculture Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgar, Leslie D.; Johnson, Donald M.; Cox, Casandra

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to assess required information and communication technology (ICT) tasks in selected undergraduate agriculture courses in a land-grant university during a 10-year period. Selected agriculture faculty members in the fall 1999 (n = 63), 2004 (n = 55), and 2009 (n = 64) semesters were surveyed to determine the ICT tasks they required…

  6. 7 CFR 625.9 - 10-year restoration cost-share agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... restoration cost-share agreements. (a) The restoration plan developed under § 625.13 forms the basis for the... agreement will: (1) Incorporate all portions of a restoration plan; (2) Be for a period of 10 years; (3... implementation of the approved conservation treatment identified in the restoration plan; and (8) Include...

  7. 7 CFR 625.9 - 10-year restoration cost-share agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... restoration cost-share agreements. (a) The restoration plan developed under § 625.13 forms the basis for the... agreement will: (1) Incorporate all portions of a restoration plan; (2) Be for a period of 10 years; (3... implementation of the approved conservation treatment identified in the restoration plan; and (8) Include...

  8. Optimism, Pessimism, Mutuality, and Gender: Predicting 10-Year Role Strain in Parkinson's Disease Spouses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Karen S.; Stewart, Barbara J.; Archbold, Patricia G.; Carter, Julie H.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: There is wide variability in how spouses providing care respond to their care situations. Few studies focus on the roles of both intra- and interpersonal factors in long-term spousal care, particularly in the context of Parkinson's disease (PD). The current study uses longitudinal data over a 10-year period to examine the roles of…

  9. Students as Teachers: Effectiveness of a Peer-Led STEM Learning Programme over 10 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drane, Denise; Micari, Marina; Light, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Peer-led small-group learning has been used quite extensively in the US to enhance performance and retention of undergraduate students in science, math, and engineering classes. This study presents the results from an evaluation of a peer-led small-group programme at a research university in the US over a 10-year period across five disciplines…

  10. Psychopathy and Offending From Adolescence to Adulthood: A 10-Year Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gretton, Heather M.; Hare, Robert D.; Catchpole, Rosalind E. H.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the predictive validity of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV; A. E. Forth, D. S. Kosson, & R. D. Hare, 2003) from adolescence to early adulthood. The authors coded the PCL:YV using file information and collected criminal record information over a 10-year follow-up period on 157 boys, ages 12 through 18,…

  11. Handedness in Swedish 10-year-olds, Some Background and Associated Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillberg, Christopher; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Aims to obtain prevalence figures for left-handedness among 10-year-old Swedish children; to replicate some findings concerning Bishop's (1980) extended pathological left-handedness hypothesis; to evaluate the influence of factors such as the child's sex and reduced optimality in the pre-, peri-, and neonatal period; and to determine the…

  12. Adolescent Drug Trafficking Trends in the United Kingdom--A 10-Year Retrospective Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vale, Ellen Louise Eva; Kennedy, Patrick John

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports data from HM Customs and Excise (HMCE) of recorded cases of adolescent drug trafficking through all sea and air points of entry into the UK over a 10-year period (May 1992-May 2002). We report the characteristics of 38 cases of mixed gender and nationality ranging in age between 13 and 18 years who have been apprehended by HMCE…

  13. Prematures with and without Regressed Retinopathy of Prematurity: Comparison of Long-Term (6-10 Years) Ophthalmological Morbidity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cats, Bernard P.; Tan, Karel E. W. P.

    Reporting long-term ophthalmologic sequelae among ex-prematures at 6 to 10 years of age, this study compares 42 ex-premature infants who had had regressed forms of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) during the neonatal period with 42 matched non-ROP ex-premature controls at 6 to 10 years of age. Subjects were subdivided into four groups: (1) ROP…

  14. Soil profile nutrient distribution following 10 years of poultry litter application in conventional and conservation tillage systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The distribution of pH, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn and Zn within the soil profile was determined following 10 years of poultry litter application to a Cecil sandy loam soil in the Southern Piedmont. During the 10 year period, 95 Mg ha-1 of poultry litter was applied to five cotton crops and five corn crops. ...

  15. Unsettled Times, Unsettled Prices: Periodical Price Survey 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ketcham, Lee; Born, Kathleen

    1997-01-01

    Presents the results of the thirty-seventh annual periodical price survey conducted by "Library Journal". Highlights include canceling print subscriptions and electronic journals, cost trends by subject and by countries, prices for public and school libraries and for college and medium-sized university libraries, and budgeting for 1988. (LRW)

  16. Asymptotic stability on slow time scales from periodic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Persek, S.C.

    1981-08-01

    Asymptotic stability for a periodic system of ordinary differential equations with a small parameter is shown to follow from the stability of the corresponding iterated-average system. Applications are made to biological systems experiencing varying seasonal factors, to large scale dynamical systems that are principally irrotational and to nuclear reactor dynamics. 7 refs.

  17. Looking forward, looking back-10 years in urology.

    PubMed

    Albersen, Maarten; Cartwright, Rufus; Choyke, Peter; Goldenberg, S Larry; Goldman, Howard; Lawrentschuk, Nathan; Linehan, W Marston; Murphy, Declan; Nagler, Harris; Scardino, Peter; Shortliffe, Linda; Stenzl, Arnulf; Theodorescu, Dan

    2014-11-01

    When Nature Reviews Urology launched in 2004, the field of urology was vastly different to that which we work in today, and the past 10 years have seen the field change immensely. As a specialty on the forefront of cutting-edge innovation, urologists are often the first to embrace new technologies and ideas. In this Viewpoint, members of the Nature Reviews Urology advisory board were asked what they thought was the most important change, issue or innovation in urology in the past 10 years, and what they expected to be the most important in the next decade. Here are their opinions. PMID:25348169

  18. Using travel times to simulate multi-dimensional bioreactive transport in time-periodic flows.

    PubMed

    Sanz-Prat, Alicia; Lu, Chuanhe; Finkel, Michael; Cirpka, Olaf A

    2016-04-01

    In travel-time models, the spatially explicit description of reactive transport is replaced by associating reactive-species concentrations with the travel time or groundwater age at all locations. These models have been shown adequate for reactive transport in river-bank filtration under steady-state flow conditions. Dynamic hydrological conditions, however, can lead to fluctuations of infiltration velocities, putting the validity of travel-time models into question. In transient flow, the local travel-time distributions change with time. We show that a modified version of travel-time based reactive transport models is valid if only the magnitude of the velocity fluctuates, whereas its spatial orientation remains constant. We simulate nonlinear, one-dimensional, bioreactive transport involving oxygen, nitrate, dissolved organic carbon, aerobic and denitrifying bacteria, considering periodic fluctuations of velocity. These fluctuations make the bioreactive system pulsate: The aerobic zone decreases at times of low velocity and increases at those of high velocity. For the case of diurnal fluctuations, the biomass concentrations cannot follow the hydrological fluctuations and a transition zone containing both aerobic and obligatory denitrifying bacteria is established, whereas a clear separation of the two types of bacteria prevails in the case of seasonal velocity fluctuations. We map the 1-D results to a heterogeneous, two-dimensional domain by means of the mean groundwater age for steady-state flow in both domains. The mapped results are compared to simulation results of spatially explicit, two-dimensional, advective-dispersive-bioreactive transport subject to the same relative fluctuations of velocity as in the one-dimensional model. The agreement between the mapped 1-D and the explicit 2-D results is excellent. We conclude that travel-time models of nonlinear bioreactive transport are adequate in systems of time-periodic flow if the flow direction does not change

  19. Using travel times to simulate multi-dimensional bioreactive transport in time-periodic flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz-Prat, Alicia; Lu, Chuanhe; Finkel, Michael; Cirpka, Olaf A.

    2016-04-01

    In travel-time models, the spatially explicit description of reactive transport is replaced by associating reactive-species concentrations with the travel time or groundwater age at all locations. These models have been shown adequate for reactive transport in river-bank filtration under steady-state flow conditions. Dynamic hydrological conditions, however, can lead to fluctuations of infiltration velocities, putting the validity of travel-time models into question. In transient flow, the local travel-time distributions change with time. We show that a modified version of travel-time based reactive transport models is valid if only the magnitude of the velocity fluctuates, whereas its spatial orientation remains constant. We simulate nonlinear, one-dimensional, bioreactive transport involving oxygen, nitrate, dissolved organic carbon, aerobic and denitrifying bacteria, considering periodic fluctuations of velocity. These fluctuations make the bioreactive system pulsate: The aerobic zone decreases at times of low velocity and increases at those of high velocity. For the case of diurnal fluctuations, the biomass concentrations cannot follow the hydrological fluctuations and a transition zone containing both aerobic and obligatory denitrifying bacteria is established, whereas a clear separation of the two types of bacteria prevails in the case of seasonal velocity fluctuations. We map the 1-D results to a heterogeneous, two-dimensional domain by means of the mean groundwater age for steady-state flow in both domains. The mapped results are compared to simulation results of spatially explicit, two-dimensional, advective-dispersive-bioreactive transport subject to the same relative fluctuations of velocity as in the one-dimensional model. The agreement between the mapped 1-D and the explicit 2-D results is excellent. We conclude that travel-time models of nonlinear bioreactive transport are adequate in systems of time-periodic flow if the flow direction does not change.

  20. Accurate frequency domain measurement of the best linear time-invariant approximation of linear time-periodic systems including the quantification of the time-periodic distortions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louarroudi, E.; Pintelon, R.; Lataire, J.

    2014-10-01

    Time-periodic (TP) phenomena occurring, for instance, in wind turbines, helicopters, anisotropic shaft-bearing systems, and cardiovascular/respiratory systems, are often not addressed when classical frequency response function (FRF) measurements are performed. As the traditional FRF concept is based on the linear time-invariant (LTI) system theory, it is only approximately valid for systems with varying dynamics. Accordingly, the quantification of any deviation from this ideal LTI framework is more than welcome. The “measure of deviation” allows us to define the notion of the best LTI (BLTI) approximation, which yields the best - in mean square sense - LTI description of a linear time-periodic LTP system. By taking into consideration the TP effects, it is shown in this paper that the variability of the BLTI measurement can be reduced significantly compared with that of classical FRF estimators. From a single experiment, the proposed identification methods can handle (non-)linear time-periodic [(N)LTP] systems in open-loop with a quantification of (i) the noise and/or the NL distortions, (ii) the TP distortions and (iii) the transient (leakage) errors. Besides, a geometrical interpretation of the BLTI approximation is provided, leading to a framework called vector FRF analysis. The theory presented is supported by numerical simulations as well as real measurements mimicking the well-known mechanical Mathieu oscillator.

  1. The 10-year course of Alcoholics Anonymous participation and long-term outcomes: a follow-up study of outpatient subjects in Project MATCH.

    PubMed

    Pagano, Maria E; White, William L; Kelly, John F; Stout, Robert L; Tonigan, J Scott

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the 10-year course and impact of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA)-related helping (AAH), step-work, and meeting attendance on long-term outcomes. Data were derived from 226 treatment-seeking alcoholics recruited from an outpatient site in Project MATCH and followed for 10 years post treatment. Alcohol consumption, AA participation, and other-oriented behavior were assessed at baseline, end of the 3-month treatment period, and 1, 3, and 10 years post treatment. Controlling for explanatory baseline and time-varying variables, results showed significant direct effects of AAH and meeting attendance on reduced alcohol outcomes and a direct effect of AAH on improved other-oriented interest. PMID:23327504

  2. 10 Years of Media Literacy Education in K-12 Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daunic, Rhys

    2011-01-01

    When the author started working with teachers and students on classroom multimedia productions a little over 10 years ago, he had not yet encountered the term "media literacy", nor did he realize he had joined a long standing international movement of media literacy educators. Serendipitous exposure to "old-media" texts by Neil Postman and Noam…

  3. Smart Start: Celebrating 10 Years, 1993-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina Partnership for Children, Raleigh.

    Smart Start, a public-private initiative celebrating 10 years of operation, invests in high quality early care and education services for all children, birth to age five, and their families in North Carolina. The initiative funds programs to improve the quality, affordability, and availability of child care as well as children's health and family…

  4. The Mathematical Abilities of Dyslexic 10-Year-Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, T. R.; Haslum, M. N.; Wheeler, T. J.

    2001-01-01

    Seventy-two items testing various aspects of mathematics were given to 12,131 10-year-old British children. Despite the absence of difference in intelligence level, the mean scores on the mathematics test for children with dyslexia was not only lower than that of normal achievers, but also lower than that of underachievers. (Contains references.)…

  5. Interrogating the Subject: Queering Elementary Education, 10 Years On

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sears, James T.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the contributions to this special issue in the context of a wider argument about the notion of queering elementary education. When "Queering Elementary Education" was published 10 years ago there was very little writing or research on matters related to primary education, and just finding experienced educators to…

  6. Highlights of 10-Year Remote Sensing Industry Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabin, Ron

    2002-01-01

    A background and highlights of a 10 year remote sensing industry analysis are provided.Included are the following:Training, educational analysis, staff levels, and end-users analysis, market drivers, market segments,application areas, spatial resolution needs, use of image types.

  7. Headshaking in a 10-year-old Thoroughbred mare

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Abstract A 10-year-old Thoroughbred mare was presented with a 2.5-week history of headshaking. Based on a thorough physical examination, blood analysis, and a fine needle aspirate of an enlarged thyroid gland, a tentative diagnosis of seasonal idiopathic headshaking was made. Treatment with cyproheptadine was attempted. PMID:15025153

  8. Duodenal adenocarcinoma in a 10-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Zouari; Habib, Bouthour; Rabia, Ben Abdallah; Youssef, Hlel; Riath, Ben Malek; Youssef, Gharbi; Nejib, Kaabar

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal malignancies are extremely rare in the paediatric population and duodenal cancers represent an even more unusual entity. It represents 0.3-1% of all gastrointestinal tumours. A case report of a 10-year-old boy with duodenal adenocarcinoma is reported and the difficulties of diagnosing and treating this rare tumour are discussed. PMID:24647303

  9. Flowerpot sequestrum of the Humerus Neglect for 10 years!!

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Rakesh

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Neglected cases of osteomyelitis are not uncommon. We present a case of humerus osteomyelitis neglected for 10 years and presented with a sequestrum protruding out of the arm in the shape of a flowerpot. Such a long duration of neglect and a startling presentation are rare and have implications not only on healthcare but also reflect the socio-economic and cultural fabric of the society. Case Report: 22 year old lady presented with history of bone jutting out of right arm since last 10 years. She had a trivial injury to the arm 10 years back followed by pain and fever. She was treated by local osteopath and ‘registered’ doctors but developed wound over the arm with purulent discharge. On and off treatment with dressing was continued with symptomatic relief but in few weeks bone fragment started protruding out of the wound. The size of bone protruding from the wound increased gradually with on and off history of discharge since 10 years. Clinically a flowerpot shaped sequestrum was seen protruding from the arm. Radiographs showed a defined diaphyseal sequestrum of the humerus with continuity of the bone maintained by new bone formation. Sequestrectomy was done and at one year follow up patient was fine with no recurrence of infection Conclusions: Lack of health infrastructure, ignorance, and other social and cultural factors lead to such bad wounds. Even with such long history a single surgery for debridement and sequestrectomy was all that was needed for healing the patient.

  10. Technology for Distance Education: A 10 Year Prospective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, A. W.

    This paper provides an overview of new technologies likely to be widely available within the next 10 years for teaching in Europe. It begins by presenting a framework which draws distinctions between different technologies based on their educational applications, i.e., for teaching or operational purposes, for communicating within or between…

  11. Anatomical and functional graft survival, 10 years after epikeratoplasty in keratoconus

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Anita; Gupta, Anoop K; Sharma, Namrata; Nindrakrishna, Sasikala; Vajpayee, Rasik

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To report outcomes of epikeratoplasty in keratoconus (KC), utilizing manually-prepared plano donor lenticules in terms of flattening of the cone, reduction in astigmatism and improvement in the visual acuity. Materials and Methods: Patients with KC, having visual acuity <20/200, astigmatism >12 diopters (D) but without corneal opacity underwent epikeratoplasty, using manually prepared plano donor lenticules from fresh or M.K preserved corneas, between 1990 - 2000 and followed for 10 years, were included in this report. Visual acuity slit-lamp-biomicroscopy, keratometry, and refraction were performed at 8 weeks, 12 weeks, and 6 months for all 59 patients. The same were carried out at 1 year, 5 years, and 10 years depending upon the availability of the patient for that period. Results: Of the 59 patients, only 26 were available for follow-up after 10 years. At 3 months, 1 year and 5 years, best corrected visual acuity of (BCVA) ≥20/60 were achieved in 84.7%, 84.4% and 80.3% of eyes, respectively. BCVA was 73% at 10-year follow- up, which was due to the presence of posterior subcapsular cataract (PSC). The average keratometric astigmatism and average flattening in diopters stabilized at the end of 3 months, which remained constant at 1, 5, and 10-year follow-up. The average diopter of myopia was stabilized by 1 year, which was almost same at 10 year. Graft was clear in all but 1 eye at 10 year follow-up. Conclusion: Epikeratoplasty is a useful technique for keratoconic eyes without apical scarring who fail or unable to use contact lenses. PMID:23275216

  12. 100% Retention of Snowpack Derived Nitrogen Over 10 Years in High Arctic Tundra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhary, S.; Tye, A. M.; Young, S. D.; West, H. M.; Phoenix, G. K.

    2013-12-01

    Tundra ecosystems are susceptible to atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition, increasing as a result of anthropogenic activities as well as climate change. Depositions that get accumulated within the snowpack during winter months are released in spring during snowmelt, providing a periodic input of reactive N in the melt water to such nutrient limited ecosystems. Identifying ecosystem N retention and allocation and how this change over time is important to understanding the long-term consequences of such N depositions to these ecosystems. We reanalysed 10 years later an atmospheric N deposition study established in Svalbard that in 2001 used 15N isotope tracers to determine the fate of N released from melting snowpack. Applications of 15N (99 atom%) at 0.1 and 0.5 g N m-2 were made immediately after snowmelt in 2001 as either Na15NO3 or 15NH4Cl. These applications were approximately 1 × and 5 × the yearly atmospheric deposition rates. In both the previous short-term (one week to two years after 15N tracer application) and our long-term re-sampling (10 years after 15N tracer application), ~67% of the total applied 15N was retained in the ecosystem, irrespective of the N forms or N dose. This meant the tundra had 100% long-term N retention after initial partitioning, suggesting a highly conservative N cycling. Bryophytes, followed by the organic soil horizon and then the microbial biomass formed the greatest short-term 15N sink. Maximum changes in 15N retention from the short- to long-term were observed in the microbial 15N pools, with ~75% of the 15N in soil located in its biomass during the initial partitioning (July 2001) decreasing to ~17% 10 years later. This indicates significant microbial N turnover mostly into stable humus N. In contrast, vascular plants, particularly Salix polaris, showed significant increases (~60%) in their 15N retention after 10 years, indicating a high capacity for acting as a long-term N sink in this tundra ecosystem. Because the largest

  13. [Analysis on characteristics of red tide in Fujian coastal waters during the last 10 years].

    PubMed

    Li, Xue-Ding

    2012-07-01

    There were 161 red tide events collected during the last 10 years from 2001 to 2010 in Fujian coastal waters. Comprehensive analysis was performed using statistical methods and the results indicated the following characteristics of the temporal and spatial distribution of red tide in Fujian coastal waters: (1) Outbreaks of red tide often occurred between April and September, and the peak period was in May and June. Most red tide events lasted for 2 to 4 days, and the affected area was below 50 square kilometers. The first outbreak of red tide tended to occur earlier in recent years, and the lasting time became longer. (2) There were 20 species of organisms causing the red tides in Fujian coastal waters, among which 10 species were Bacillariophyta, 9 species were Dinophyta and 1 species was Protozoa. Prorocentrum donghaiense was the most frequent cause of red tides, followed by Noctiluca scintillans, Skeletonema costatum and Chaetoceros sp.. The species caused red tides obeyed the succession law and there were always new species involved. (2) In terms of spatial distribution, outbreaks of red tides mainly occurred in the coastal waters of Ningde, Fuzhou and Xiamen. The species causing red tides were Prorocentrum donghaiense and Noctiluca in the coastal waters in the north of Pingtan, Fujian Province, Skeletonema costatum and Chaetoceros in the coastal waters in the south of Pingtan, Fujian Province. The comprehensive analysis of the characteristics of red tides during the last 10 years is expected to provide scientific and reasonable basis for the prevention, reduction and forecast of red tides in Fujian coastal waters. PMID:23002593

  14. The nature of species interactions shifts profoundly between time periods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Species interactions change through time, for example ontogenetically, successionally, and evolutionarily. They also change as environmental conditions change, both within years (seasonally) and between years (year effects). The former are relatively well-studied, but the latter have received less a...

  15. Load Balancing Using Time Series Analysis for Soft Real Time Systems with Statistically Periodic Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hailperin, Max

    1993-01-01

    This thesis provides design and analysis of techniques for global load balancing on ensemble architectures running soft-real-time object-oriented applications with statistically periodic loads. It focuses on estimating the instantaneous average load over all the processing elements. The major contribution is the use of explicit stochastic process models for both the loading and the averaging itself. These models are exploited via statistical time-series analysis and Bayesian inference to provide improved average load estimates, and thus to facilitate global load balancing. This thesis explains the distributed algorithms used and provides some optimality results. It also describes the algorithms' implementation and gives performance results from simulation. These results show that our techniques allow more accurate estimation of the global system load ing, resulting in fewer object migration than local methods. Our method is shown to provide superior performance, relative not only to static load-balancing schemes but also to many adaptive methods.

  16. New times of minimum and a period study for GO Cygni

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Douglas S.; Louth, Howard

    1990-01-01

    Times of minimum derived from photometry obtained in 1963, 1967, 1978, and 1979 are presented. With these and previously published times, the period is studied. A constant period increase (quadratic ephemeris) represents most of the times but there was a period decrease in 1934 and possibly in 1984. A 50-year magnetic cycle is discussed.

  17. 19 CFR 351.204 - Time periods and persons examined; voluntary respondents; exclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Time periods and persons examined; voluntary... § 351.204 Time periods and persons examined; voluntary respondents; exclusions. (a) Introduction. Because the Act does not specify the precise period of time that the Secretary should examine in...

  18. 20 CFR 261.10 - Increase in future benefits where time period for reopening has expired.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Increase in future benefits where time period... where time period for reopening has expired. If, after the time period for reopening under § 261.2(b) of this part has expired, new evidence is furnished showing a different date of birth or new evidence...

  19. 12 CFR 390.102 - How does the FDIC compute time periods under this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false How does the FDIC compute time periods under... Application Processing Procedures § 390.102 How does the FDIC compute time periods under this subpart? In computing time periods under this subpart, the FDIC does not include the day of the act or event...

  20. 12 CFR 390.102 - How does the FDIC compute time periods under this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false How does the FDIC compute time periods under... Application Processing Procedures § 390.102 How does the FDIC compute time periods under this subpart? In computing time periods under this subpart, the FDIC does not include the day of the act or event...

  1. 12 CFR 116.10 - How does the OCC compute time periods under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false How does the OCC compute time periods under... TREASURY APPLICATION PROCESSING PROCEDURES § 116.10 How does the OCC compute time periods under this part? In computing time periods under this part, the OCC does not include the day of the act or event...

  2. 12 CFR 116.10 - How does the OCC compute time periods under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false How does the OCC compute time periods under... TREASURY APPLICATION PROCESSING PROCEDURES § 116.10 How does the OCC compute time periods under this part? In computing time periods under this part, the OCC does not include the day of the act or event...

  3. 12 CFR 390.102 - How does the FDIC compute time periods under this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false How does the FDIC compute time periods under... Application Processing Procedures § 390.102 How does the FDIC compute time periods under this subpart? In computing time periods under this subpart, the FDIC does not include the day of the act or event...

  4. 12 CFR 116.10 - How does the OCC compute time periods under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false How does the OCC compute time periods under... TREASURY APPLICATION PROCESSING PROCEDURES § 116.10 How does the OCC compute time periods under this part? In computing time periods under this part, the OCC does not include the day of the act or event...

  5. Estimation of Maximum Likelihood of the Unextendable Dead Time Period in a Flow of Physical Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gortsev, A. M.; Solov'ev, A. A.

    2016-03-01

    A flow of physical events (photons, electrons, etc.) is studied. One of the mathematical models of such flows is the MAP-flow of events. The flow circulates under conditions of the unextendable dead time period, when the dead time period is unknown. The dead time period is estimated by the method of maximum likelihood from observations of arrival instants of events.

  6. Primary Nasal Tuberculosis in a 10-Year-Old Girl

    PubMed Central

    Özer, Murat; Özsurekçi, Yasemin; Cengiz, Ali Bülent; Özçelik, Uğur; Yalçın, Ebru; Gököz, Özay

    2016-01-01

    Nasal tuberculosis is a rare clinical entity which mainly presents in elderly people. Nasal tuberculosis has always been considered to be secondary to tuberculosis of the lungs, and in rare instances it is a primary infection, usually when mycobacteria are inhaled. We describe the case of a 10-year-old girl who was successfully treated for primary nasal tuberculosis. This patient is one of the very few children who have been reported to have primary nasal tuberculosis. PMID:27366187

  7. Hypopigmented mycosis fungoides in a 10-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Manzur, A; Zaidi, S T H

    2006-01-01

    Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) presenting with hypopigmented lesions is an uncommon clinical variant of the disease, usually described in dark-skinned patients. We report a case of hypopigmented CTCL in a 10-year-old boy. The disease has responded favorably to narrowband UVB therapy. This case illustrates the importance of clinical suspicion for mycosis fungoides in patients with widespread hypopigmentation. PMID:17083901

  8. Avian response to bottomland hardwood reforestation: the first 10 years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, D.J.; Wilson, R.R.; Henne-Kerr, J.L.; Grosshuesch, D.A.

    2002-01-01

    Bttomland hardwood forests were planted on agricultural fields in Mississippi and Louisiana using either predominantly Quercus species (oaks) or Populus deltoides (eastern cottonwood). We assessed avian colonization of these reforested sites between 2 and 10 years after planting. Rapid vertical growth of cottonwoods (circa 2 - 3 m / yr) resulted in sites with forest structure that supported greater species richness of breeding birds, increased Shannon diversity indices, and supported greater territory densities than on sites planted with slower-growing oak species. Grassland birds (Spiza americana [Dickcissel], and Sturnella magna [Eastern Meadowlark]) were indicative of species breeding on oak-dominated reforestation # 10 years old. Agelaius phoeniceus (Red-winged Blackbird) and Colinus virginianus (Northern Bobwhite) characterized cottonwood reforestation # 4 years old, whereas 14 species of shrub-scrub birds (e.g., Passerina cyanea [Indigo Bunting]) and early-successional forest birds (e.g., Vireo gilvus [Warbling Vireo]) typified cottonwood reforestation 5 to 9 years after planting. Rates of daily nest survival did not differ between reforestation strategies. Nest parasitism increased markedly in older cottonwood stands, but was overwhelmed by predation as a cause of nest failure. Based on Partners in Flight prioritization scores and territory densities, the value of cottonwood reforestation for avian conservation was significantly greater than that of oak reforestation during their first 10 years. Because of benefits conferred on breeding birds, we recommend reforestation of bottomland hardwoods include a high proportion of fast-growing, early successional species such as cottonwood.

  9. MMI's Metadata and Vocabulary Solutions: 10 Years and Growing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graybeal, J.; Gayanilo, F.; Rueda-Velasquez, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    The Marine Metadata Interoperability project (http://marinemetadata.org) held its public opening at AGU's 2004 Fall Meeting. For 10 years since that debut, the MMI guidance and vocabulary sites have served over 100,000 visitors, with 525 community members and continuous Steering Committee leadership. Originally funded by the National Science Foundation, over the years multiple organizations have supported the MMI mission: "Our goal is to support collaborative research in the marine science domain, by simplifying the incredibly complex world of metadata into specific, straightforward guidance. MMI encourages scientists and data managers at all levels to apply good metadata practices from the start of a project, by providing the best guidance and resources for data management, and developing advanced metadata tools and services needed by the community." Now hosted by the Harte Research Institute at Texas A&M University at Corpus Christi, MMI continues to provide guidance and services to the community, and is planning for marine science and technology needs for the next 10 years. In this presentation we will highlight our major accomplishments, describe our recent achievements and imminent goals, and propose a vision for improving marine data interoperability for the next 10 years, including Ontology Registry and Repository (http://mmisw.org/orr) advancements and applications (http://mmisw.org/cfsn).

  10. A Longitudinal Examination of 10-year Change in Vocational and Educational Activities for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Julie Lounds; Center, Vanderbilt Kennedy; Mailick, Marsha R.

    2014-01-01

    The transition from adolescence to adulthood has been shown to be a time of amplified risk for individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). It is unknown, however, whether problems in educational attainment and employment in the years after high school exit represent “momentary perturbations” in development or a “turning point” with long-lasting effects throughout adulthood. The present study addressed this question by examining 10-year trajectories of vocational and educational activities for adults with ASD, as well as the personal characteristics and environmental resources that predicted these activities. Participants were 161 adults with ASD (ages 18-52 at the start of the study, M=30.9 years) who were part of a larger longitudinal study. Data were collected at 6 time points over a 10-year period. Results indicated significant declines in the level of independence and engagement in vocational/educational activities over the study period, particularly for women. Greater independence in vocational activities was found for those with more independence in activities of daily living. Net of personal characteristics, receipt of more services was marginally related to greater improvement in vocational independence. PMID:24001150

  11. A longitudinal examination of 10-year change in vocational and educational activities for adults with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Julie Lounds; Mailick, Marsha R

    2014-03-01

    The transition from adolescence to adulthood has been shown to be a time of amplified risk for individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). It is unknown, however, whether problems in educational attainment and employment in the years after high school exit represent momentary perturbations in development or a turning point with long-lasting effects throughout adulthood. The present study addressed this question by examining 10-year trajectories of vocational and educational activities for adults with ASD, as well as the personal characteristics and environmental resources that predicted these activities. Participants were 161 adults with ASD (ages 18-52 years at the start of the study; M = 30.9) who were part of a larger longitudinal study. Data were collected at 6 time points over a 10-year period. Results indicated significant declines in the level of independence and engagement in vocational/educational activities over the study period, particularly for women. Greater independence in vocational activities was found for those with more independence in activities of daily living. After controlling for personal characteristics, receipt of more services was marginally related to greater improvement in vocational independence. PMID:24001150

  12. Controlling mixing and segregation in time periodic granular flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Tathagata

    Segregation is a major problem for many solids processing industries. Differences in particle size or density can lead to flow-induced segregation. In the present work, we employ the discrete element method (DEM)---one type of particle dynamics (PD) technique---to investigate the mixing and segregation of granular material in some prototypical solid handling devices, such as a rotating drum and chute. In DEM, one calculates the trajectories of individual particles based on Newton's laws of motion by employing suitable contact force models and a collision detection algorithm. Recently, it has been suggested that segregation in particle mixers can be thwarted if the particle flow is inverted at a rate above a critical forcing frequency. Further, it has been hypothesized that, for a rotating drum, the effectiveness of this technique can be linked to the probability distribution of the number of times a particle passes through the flowing layer per rotation of the drum. In the first portion of this work, various configurations of solid mixers are numerically and experimentally studied to investigate the conditions for improved mixing in light of these hypotheses. Besides rotating drums, many studies of granular flow have focused on gravity driven chute flows owing to its practical importance in granular transportation and to the fact that the relative simplicity of this type of flow allows for development and testing of new theories. In this part of the work, we observe the deposition behavior of both mono-sized and polydisperse dry granular materials in an inclined chute flow. The effects of different parameters such as chute angle, particle size, falling height and charge amount on the mass fraction distribution of granular materials after deposition are investigated. The simulation results obtained using DEM are compared with the experimental findings and a high degree of agreement is observed. Tuning of the underlying contact force parameters allows the achievement

  13. 10-year Field Measurement Program of Post-Wildfire Tree Root Decay, Kootenay National Park, British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Y. E.; Johnson, E. A.; Kroeker, S.

    2013-12-01

    Tree population dynamics in subalpine forests of the Canadian Rockies are dominated by wildfire disturbance (Gallaway et al., 2009), with wildfire return intervals most often being shorter than the potential lifespan of trees. These crown wildfires kill all trees, resulting in a gradual decline of tree root strength in shallow soils in the immediate post-wildfire years. Tree root networks have been shown to provide mechanical reinforcement of shear strength in shallow soils (Schmidt et al., 2001; Roering et al., 2003). Therefore, decreases in tree root reinforcement in post-wildfire years may result in increased debris slide and debris flow activity during this time period (e.g., Benda and Dunne, 1997; Martin, 2007; Jackson and Roering, 2009). To our knowledge, our study is the first that has measured tree root strength annually for 10 years following a crown wildfire to document the nature and timing of tree root decay. Suggestions have been made that studies documenting the decay of tree roots following timber harvesting provide a reasonable analogue for post-wildfire tree root decay; drainage basin modeling studies considering hillslope erosion resulting from episodic wildfires have had to rely on this assumption (e.g., Benda and Dunne, 1997; Martin, 2007). Herein, we present our annual field measurements of post-wildfire tree root strength made over the past 10 years at a post-wildfire site in Kootenay National Park, Canadian Rockies. The episodic nature of crown wildfire occurrence over time in these forests results in periods of tree root decay in the immediate post-fire years, and an associated susceptibility for mass wasting during these time periods. In July 2003, two large crown fires were ignited by lightning in Kootenay National Park, British Columbia, Canada and merged to burn approximately 17 000 hectares. Our field measurements were made in the subalpine forest of Hawk Creek drainage basin, Kootenay National Park. Measurements of tree root

  14. Taylor dispersion in the presence of time-periodic convection phenomena. Part I. Local-space periodicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, M.; Brenner, H.

    1990-10-01

    Generalized Taylor dispersion theory is herein extended to circumstances for which the transport of dissolved or suspended chemically reactive (as well as inert) solutes is affected by carrier-solvent flow fields and/or external forces that are time periodic in both their global and local microscale spaces (and possess commensurate frequencies). The local-space- and time-averaged solute transport process is characterized by three time-independent, but frequency-dependent microscale phenomenological coefficients—K¯*, Ū*, and cf6D*, representing the mean chemical reaction rate, velocity vector, and dispersivity dyadic of the solute, respectively. These macroscale transport coefficients are expressed in terms of time-periodic eigenfunctions and corresponding eigenvalues using a recently developed solution scheme. This scheme permits the analysis of phenomena involving time-periodic transport coefficients on a par with that for the classical case of time-independent microscale phenomenological coefficients. The analysis generalizes to time-periodic local-space phenomena a previous treatment, in which only the global-space coefficients were allowed to vary periodically with time. This greatly enlarges the scope of potential applications of the analysis. In addition to the time-averaged phenomenological coefficients K¯*, Ū*, and CF6D*, comparable instantaneous coefficients are defined governing the local-space-averaged instantaneous solute concentration. In contrast with their time-averaged counterparts, K¯*, Ū*, and CF6D*, the latter instantaneous transport coefficients are shown to depend upon the initial solute distribution within the local space. Because of coupling between the local- and global-space transport processes in oscillatory flows and/or oscillatory external force fields, all harmonics of the resulting global-space solute velocity field contribute to the mean convective solute transport. This phenomenon may result, for example, in zero solvent

  15. 14 CFR 135.273 - Duty period limitations and rest time requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duty period limitations and rest time requirements. 135.273 Section 135.273 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Crewmember Flight Time and Duty Period Limitations and Rest Requirements § 135.273 Duty period...

  16. 14 CFR 135.273 - Duty period limitations and rest time requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duty period limitations and rest time requirements. 135.273 Section 135.273 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Crewmember Flight Time and Duty Period Limitations and Rest Requirements § 135.273 Duty period...

  17. CAM research in Britain: the last 10 years.

    PubMed

    Ernst, E; Schmidt, K; Wider, B

    2005-02-01

    Research into complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is not as new as it might appear from a U.K. perspective. Most continental European countries have a long tradition in CAM research. Many studies of homoeopathy, for instance, were published decades ago in languages other than English [The trials of homeopathy. Origins, structure and development. Stiftung: Essen, Karl und Veronica Carstens, 2004]. However, it is probably true to say that, in the English speaking world and particularly in the U.K., CAM has become a respectable area of scientific investigation only during the last decade. In this article, we review the 10 years of CAM research in Britain. PMID:15984219

  18. OPEC: 10 years after the Arab oil boycott

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, M.H.

    1983-09-23

    OPEC's dominance over world oil markets is waning 10 years after precipitating world-wide energy and economic crises. The 1979 revolution in Iran and the start of the Iranian-Iraqi war in 1980 introduced a second shock that caused oil importers to seek non-OPEC supplies and emphasize conservation. No breakup of the cartel is anticipated, however, despite internal disagreements over production and price levels. Forecasters see OPEC as the major price setter as an improved economy increases world demand for oil. Long-term forecasts are even more optimistic. 24 references, 2 figures, 2 tables. (DCK)

  19. Brain imaging of multiple sclerosis: the next 10 years.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Paul M

    2009-02-01

    MR imaging has had a major impact on understanding the dynamic neuropathologic findings of multiple sclerosis (MS), early diagnosis of the disease, and clinical trial conduct. The next 10 years can be expected to see further advances with a greater emphasis on large multicenter studies, new techniques and hardware allowing greater imaging sensitivity and resolution, and the exploitation of positron emission tomography molecular imaging for MS. The impact should be felt with a new emphasis on gray matter disease and processes of repair. With new ways of monitoring the disease, new treatment targets should become practical, helping to translate advances in the understanding of immunology and regenerative medicine into novel therapies. PMID:19064203

  20. NASA Administrator Dan Goldin greets 10-year-old VIP.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    NASA Administrator Dan Goldin (left) shares a light moment during his meeting with 10-year-old Jonathan Pierce (right), who is garbed in a protective cooling suit designed by NASA. Behind Goldin is astronaut Doug Wheelock; behind Jonathan is his mother, Penny. Jonathan suffers from erythropoietic protoporphyria, a rare condition that makes his body unable to withstand ultraviolet rays. The suit allows him to be outside during the day, which would otherwise be impossible. Jonathan's trip was funded by the Make-A-Wish Foundation and included a visit to Disney World. He and his family were among a dozen VIPs at KSC to view the launch of STS-99.

  1. Developing of 10-year EEZ seafloor mapping and research program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lockwood, M.; Hill, G.W.

    1988-01-01

    The intent of expanding the exploration already begun on the outer continental shelf to the frontier of the EEZ (Exclusive Economic Zone) is to determine the "characteristics' and resource potential of this region. To coordinate this exploration, a Joint Office for Mapping and Research (JOMAR) has been established by the US Geological Survey (in the Department of the Interior) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (in the Department of Commerce). JOMAR's main purpose is to help direct and coordinate ongoing and planned seafloor related activities in the EEZ and prepare a 10-year plan for mapping and research. -from Authors

  2. Lithium ion secondary batteries; past 10 years and the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishi, Yoshio

    Technologies of lithium ion secondary batteries (LIB) were pioneered by Sony. Since the introduction of LIB on the market first in the world in 1991, the LIB has been applied to consumer products as diverse as cellular phones, video cameras, notebook computers, portable minidisk players and others. Years of assiduous efforts and researches to improve LIB performances enabled LIB to play a leading role in the portable secondary battery market. In this article, the past 10 years' technological achievement is traced and future possibilities are discussed.

  3. Motor Speech Disorders: Where Will We Be in 10 Years?

    PubMed

    Duffy, Joseph R

    2016-08-01

    Research and practice in the area of motor speech disorders (MSDs) will change in the next 10 years, most likely in evolutionary rather revolutionary ways. We are likely to see an increase in the understanding of the underpinnings of MSDs and refinements in assessment and diagnosis. Management approaches probably will be refined, as will how outcomes are measured. The evidence base for treatment efficacy will grow. Technology and changes in the health care system will have strong and overarching, but not easily predicted, influences. This article provides a broad overview of these and related issues, with some cautious predictions. PMID:27232096

  4. Predictors of temporal patterns of psychiatric distress during 10 years following the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island.

    PubMed

    Dew, M A; Bromet, E J

    1993-04-01

    The present study examines psychiatric symptom levels during a 10-year period in a community sample of mothers of young children. All were identified in the early aftermath of the 1979 Three Mile Island nuclear accident, and followed through the accident's 1989 anniversary. Cluster analysis was used to identify long-term distress profiles during the study period; women's temporal profiles were found to be either (a) stable and at low, clinically nonsignificant levels of distress across all measurement points or (b) at consistently elevated, clinically significant levels that varied with the timing of postaccident events such as the restart of the undamaged reactor and the 10th anniversary. Subsequent multivariate analyses indicated that preaccident characteristics, as well as parameters reflecting respondents' initial involvement with, and reactions to the accident, were important for distinguishing between women within the two temporal profile groups. Implications of the results for both policy formulation and continued research on significant environmental stressors is discussed. PMID:8511662

  5. Early Predictors of Career Development: A 10-Year Follow-up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferreira, Joaquim Armando; Santos, Eduardo J. R.; Fonseca, Antonio C.; Haase, Richard F.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents empirical findings from a 10-year longitudinal study of the educational and occupational socialization of 445 participants who were about 7 years old when first tested, and about 17 years old at the fourth time of measurement. In addition to collecting psychological measurements from the participants, behavioral reports were…

  6. Educational Expectations, Parental Social Class, Gender, and Postsecondary Attainment: A 10-Year Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andres, Lesley; Adamuti-Trache, Maria; Yoon, Ee-Seul; Pidgeon, Michelle; Thomsen, Jens Peter

    2007-01-01

    The authors employ a unique longitudinal data set of British Columbia high school graduates that followed respondents 1, 5, and 10 years after graduation to examine the extent to which educational expectations change over time in relation to parental socioeconomic status and eventual postsecondary attainment. Using the method of correspondence…

  7. Load Balancing Using Time Series Analysis for Soft Real Time Systems with Statistically Periodic Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hailperin, M.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis provides design and analysis of techniques for global load balancing on ensemble architectures running soft-real-time object-oriented applications with statistically periodic loads. It focuses on estimating the instantaneous average load over all the processing elements. The major contribution is the use of explicit stochastic process models for both the loading and the averaging itself. These models are exploited via statistical time-series analysis and Bayesian inference to provide improved average load estimates, and thus to facilitate global load balancing. This thesis explains the distributed algorithms used and provides some optimality results. It also describes the algorithms' implementation and gives performance results from simulation. These results show that the authors' techniques allow more accurate estimation of the global system loading, resulting in fewer object migrations than local methods. The authors' method is shown to provide superior performance, relative not only to static load-balancing schemes but also to many adaptive load-balancing methods. Results from a preliminary analysis of another system and from simulation with a synthetic load provide some evidence of more general applicability.

  8. Bacterial nanocellulose production and application: a 10-year overview.

    PubMed

    Jozala, Angela Faustino; de Lencastre-Novaes, Leticia Celia; Lopes, André Moreni; de Carvalho Santos-Ebinuma, Valéria; Mazzola, Priscila Gava; Pessoa-Jr, Adalberto; Grotto, Denise; Gerenutti, Marli; Chaud, Marco Vinicius

    2016-03-01

    Production of bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) is becoming increasingly popular owing to its environmentally friendly properties. Based on this benefit of BNC production, researchers have also begun to examine the capacity for cellulose production through microbial hosts. Indeed, several research groups have developed processes for BNC production, and many studies have been published to date, with the goal of developing methods for large-scale production. During BNC bioproduction, the culture medium represents approximately 30 % of the total cost. Therefore, one important and challenging aspect of the fermentation process is identification of a new cost-effective culture medium that can facilitate the production of high yields within short periods of time, thereby improving BNC production and permitting application of BNC in the biotechnological, medical, pharmaceutical, and food industries. In this review, we addressed different aspects of BNC production, including types of fermentation processes and culture media, with the aim of demonstrating the importance of these parameters. PMID:26743657

  9. Clinical and Radiographic Evaluation of a Resin-Based Root Canal Sealer: 10-Year Recall Data

    PubMed Central

    Zmener, Osvaldo; Pameijer, Cornelis H.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. This retrospective clinical and radiographical study evaluated the 10-year outcome of one-visit endodontic treatment with gutta-percha and a methacrylate resin-based sealer. Methods. From an initial sample size of 180 patients, 89 patients with 175 root canals responded to a recall. Treatment outcome was based on predetermined clinical and radiographic criteria. Results. Root canals had been adequately filled to the working length in 80 teeth (89.88%), short in 6 instances (6.74%), while 3 (3.37%) with extrusion immediate postoperatively, showed no sealer in periradicular tissues. The difference in the outcomes of treatments with respect to age, gender, preoperative pulp or periapical status, the size of periapical lesions and the type of permanent restorations were not statistically significantly different (P > 0.05). Overall, 7 (7.86%) cases were considered clinically and radiographically a failure. A life table analysis showed a cumulative probability of success of 92.13% after 10 years with a 95% confidence interval of 83.0 to 94.0. Conclusions. The results of this retrospective clinical and radiographical study suggest that the tested methacrylate-resin based sealer used with gutta-percha performed similarly to other root canal sealers over a period 10 years. Clinical Implications. Considering the success rate after 10 years of this methacrylate resin-based sealer can be recommended as an alternative to other commonly used root canal sealers. PMID:22654909

  10. Citations to Australian Astronomy: 5- and 10-Year Benchmarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenyon, Katherine H.; Paramasivam, Arjun; Tu, Jiachin; Zhang, Albert; Graham, Alister W.

    2012-03-01

    Expanding upon Pimbblet's 2011 analysis of career h-indices for members of the Astronomical Society of Australia, we provide additional citation metrics which are geared to quantifying the current performance of all professional astronomers in Australia. We have trawled the staff web-pages of Australian Universities, Observatories and Research Organisations hosting professional astronomers, and identified 384 PhD-qualified, research-active, astronomers in the nation. 132 of these are not members of the Astronomical Society of Australia. Using the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System, we provide the three following common metrics based on publications in the first decade of the 21st century (2001-2010): h-index, author-normalised citation count and lead-author citation count. We additionally present a somewhat more inclusive analysis, applicable for many early-career researchers, that is based on publications from 2006-2010. Histograms and percentiles, plus top-performer lists, are presented for each category. Finally, building on Hirsch's empirical equation, we find that the (10-year) h-index and (10-year) total citation count T can be approximated by the relation AS12011_IE1.gif for h>~5.

  11. Characteristics of Primary Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma in Iran: A 10-Year Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Fatemi Naeini, Farahnaz; Sadeghiyan, Hamidreza; Pourazizi, Mohsen; Najafian, Jamshid; Abtahi-Naeini, Bahareh

    2014-01-01

    Background. Primary cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCLs) are a group of extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphomas that may be present in the skin without any evidence of extracutaneous disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiological characteristics of primary CTCL in Isfahan, Iran. Method. A total of 95 patients who were diagnosed as having primary CTCL were recruited during a 10-year period (2003–2013) and were classified according to the new WHO-EORTC criteria. Results. The patient group consisted of 43 (44.8%) males and 53 (55.2%) females, which indicated a female predominance (M : F ratio 1 : 1.2). The mean age at the time of diagnosis was 41.78 ± 16.88 years (range: 7–84 years). Prior to diagnosis, the lesions had persisted for a mean of 8.34 ± 4.38 years (range: 0–55 years). The age at peak diagnosis was 20–40 years (43%). The most frequent subtypes were mycosis fungoides (MF) (88.5%). Four patients died from CTCL-related complications. Conclusions. The distinguishing epidemiologic characteristics of primary CTCL, particularly those MF, in Iran, are the absence of a male predominance and lower age at diagnosis. This is likely because of the characteristic ethnic group diversity and increased susceptibility among younger population.

  12. Mutual influences between child emotion regulation and parent-child reciprocity support development across the first 10 years of life: Implications for developmental psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Ruth

    2015-11-01

    Elucidating the mechanisms by which infant birth conditions shape development across lengthy periods is critical for understanding typical and pathological development and for targeted early interventions. This study examined how newborns' regulatory capacities impact 10-year outcomes via the bidirectional influences of child emotion regulation (ER) and reciprocal parenting across early development. Guided by dynamic systems theory, 125 infants were tested at seven time points: birth, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months and 5 and 10 years. Initial regulatory conditions were measured by respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA; vagal tone) and neurobehavioral regulation (Brazelton, 1973) at birth. At each assessment between 3 months and 5 years, infant ER was microcoded from age-appropriate paradigms and mother-child reciprocity observed during social interactions. Four regulation-related outcomes were measured at 10 years: child RSA, empathy measured by mother-child conflict discussion and a lab paradigm, accident proneness, and behavior problems. An autoregressive cross-lagged structural model indicated that infant birth conditions impacted 10-year outcomes via three mechanisms. First, child ER and reciprocal parenting were individually stable across development and were each predicted by regulatory birth conditions, describing gradual maturation of ER and reciprocity over time. Second, better ER skills at one time point were related to greater reciprocity at the next time point and vice versa, and these cross-time effects defined a field of individual-context mutual influences that mediated the links between neonatal RSA and 10-year outcomes. Third, direct associations emerged between neonatal regulation and outcome, suggesting that birth conditions may establish a neurobiological milieu that promotes a more mature and resilient system. These mechanisms describe distinct "attractor" states that constrain the system's future options, emphasize the importance of defining behavior

  13. The Remains of the Dam: What Have We Learned From 10 Years of Dam Removals?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, G. E.; O'Connor, J. E.; Major, J. J.

    2012-12-01

    Over the past 10 years in the U.S., dam removal has evolved from an occasionally implemented, rarely studied, and poorly understood intervention to improve rivers, to a much more frequently accomplished and better studied and understood approach to river restoration. Over that same time period, the numbers and sizes of dams and volumes of sediment released have dramatically increased. By some estimates close to 1000 dams have been removed over the last 100 years, with most of those occurring within the last 10. While most of these are small (less than 15 m high) dams, removals of dams up to 70 m high are presently underway. Releases of sediment associated with these removals over the past 10 years have also increased by close to four orders of magnitude; for example removal of the Elwha River dams in Washington is estimated to release almost 107 m3 of sediment into the lower Elwha River. Given a decade's worth of dam removals and, in some cases, well-orchestrated case studies of the effects of removal on the geomorphology and (to a lesser extent) ecology of rivers, what have we learned? More specifically, where do we now stand with respect to being able to predict the consequences of future dam removals? Drawing on both field examples and numerical models of dam removals in the western U.S., several key lessons stand out. Although every dam removal and river are different, removals initiate very rapid upstream river response and reservoir erosion and evacuation of sediment by various mechanisms that are strongly controlled by grain size of the deposit, volumes of residual sediment relative to total reservoir volume, and style of dam removal (instantaneous versus staged). Erosion of sediment accumulations in fully and partially filled (by sediment) reservoirs proceeds by different trajectories and rates, with full reservoirs releasing sediment primarily by upstream knickpoint retreat while erosion and sediment release in partially-filled reservoirs proceeds by

  14. 20 CFR 404.996 - Increase in future benefits where time period for reopening expires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Increase in future benefits where time period for reopening expires. 404.996 Section 404.996 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... § 404.996 Increase in future benefits where time period for reopening expires. If, after the time...

  15. 20 CFR 404.996 - Increase in future benefits where time period for reopening expires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Increase in future benefits where time period for reopening expires. 404.996 Section 404.996 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... § 404.996 Increase in future benefits where time period for reopening expires. If, after the time...

  16. 20 CFR 404.996 - Increase in future benefits where time period for reopening expires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Increase in future benefits where time period for reopening expires. 404.996 Section 404.996 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... § 404.996 Increase in future benefits where time period for reopening expires. If, after the time...

  17. 20 CFR 404.996 - Increase in future benefits where time period for reopening expires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Increase in future benefits where time period for reopening expires. 404.996 Section 404.996 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... § 404.996 Increase in future benefits where time period for reopening expires. If, after the time...

  18. 14 CFR 135.273 - Duty period limitations and rest time requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... time, using Coordinated Universal Time or local time, that begins at midnight and ends 24 hours later... calculated using either Coordinated Universal Time or local time to reflect the total elapsed time. Flight... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duty period limitations and rest...

  19. 14 CFR 135.273 - Duty period limitations and rest time requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... time, using Coordinated Universal Time or local time, that begins at midnight and ends 24 hours later... calculated using either Coordinated Universal Time or local time to reflect the total elapsed time. Flight... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duty period limitations and rest...

  20. 14 CFR 135.273 - Duty period limitations and rest time requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... time, using Coordinated Universal Time or local time, that begins at midnight and ends 24 hours later... calculated using either Coordinated Universal Time or local time to reflect the total elapsed time. Flight... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duty period limitations and rest...

  1. 10 years of NICE: still growing and still controversial.

    PubMed

    Littlejohns, Peter; Garner, Sarah; Doyle, Nick; Macbeth, Fergus; Barnett, David; Longson, Carole

    2009-04-01

    The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) will have existed for 10 years on April 1, 2009. Over the past decade, the institute's methodological approach to the development of guidance and assessment of the value of health-care interventions has received international interest and acclaim. Furthermore, individual decisions, in particular those made on new cancer drugs, have generated enormous controversy. An early example was the appraisal of irinotecan and oxaliplatin for colorectal cancer in 2002. In 2003, NICE described the rationale behind its decision making. The 10th anniversary of the institute provides an opportunity to review some of the key issues affecting cancer appraisals and to explain the development of other NICE guidance programmes relevant to the provision of cancer services. PMID:19341973

  2. Parathyroid Carcinoma in a 10 Years Old Female Child.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M M; Karim, S S; Joarder, A I; Mubin, S; Abir, M M; Morshed, M S

    2015-07-01

    Parathyroid carcinoma (PC) is a rare cause of hypercalcaemia in children. Only 7 cases of PC have been reported so far in the world journal. The authors report the 8th case of parathyroid carcinoma in children less than 16 years of age. A 10 year old girl presented with difficulty in walking, dorsiflexion and ulnar deviation of both wrist joints and occasional pain in the central abdomen of about two years duration. Biochemical investigations revealed serum calcium 12.2 mg/dL (normal 9-11 mg/dL), serum alkaline phosphate 4992 U/L (normal 50-136 U/L), PTH (parathyroid hormone) 2217 pg/ml (normal 9-80 pg/ml). Parathyroid scintigraphy localized the lesion in the left parathyroid gland. X-ray showed bilateral coxa vera, genu valgus deformity and multiple stress fractures in both wrist joints. Histopathology confirmed PC with capsular and vascular invasion. PMID:26329966

  3. 1992 Resource Program, 10 Year Plan : Draft II.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-05-01

    The Resource Program is the Bonneville Power Administration`s primary process for deciding how to meet future electricity resource needs, how much new resources to develop, which types of resources to acquire or option and how to go about acquiring them, and how much BPA will have to spend for these resources. Recognizing that BPA must make a long-term commitment to acquiring conservation effectively, the 1992 Resource Program outlines a 10-year plan. Draft 2 of the 1992 Resource Program provides a framework for discussing the funding levels proposed in the Programs in Perspective (PIP) process. Previous final resource programs have been released prior to the PIP process. This version of the Resource Program recognizes that the PIP discussions are an integral part of the resource decision-making process and, therefore, it will be finalized after PIP.

  4. 1992 Resource Program, 10 Year Plan : Draft II.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-05-01

    The Resource Program is the Bonneville Power Administration's primary process for deciding how to meet future electricity resource needs, how much new resources to develop, which types of resources to acquire or option and how to go about acquiring them, and how much BPA will have to spend for these resources. Recognizing that BPA must make a long-term commitment to acquiring conservation effectively, the 1992 Resource Program outlines a 10-year plan. Draft 2 of the 1992 Resource Program provides a framework for discussing the funding levels proposed in the Programs in Perspective (PIP) process. Previous final resource programs have been released prior to the PIP process. This version of the Resource Program recognizes that the PIP discussions are an integral part of the resource decision-making process and, therefore, it will be finalized after PIP.

  5. A 10-year study of homosexually transmitted infection.

    PubMed Central

    Fluker, J L

    1976-01-01

    A 10-year survey is presented of male cases of homosexually acquired infection seen between 1962 and 1971 at Charing Cross Hospital (West London Branch). Tables showing the number of cases of syphilis, gonorrhea, and other conditions in homosexual and heterosexual males and in females are considered. Tables of other relevant data are also presented. The reasons underlying the changes illustrated, including the Act legalizing homosexual practices between consenting adult males, which became effective in 1968, are discussed. Certain pathological conditions apparently connected with homosexual practices, such as serum hepatitis, local rectal disease, and mucous colitis, are included and also some relevant manifestations of herpes genitalis and genitral warts. Homosexually acquired infection in prisoners is described. Some of the psychiatric effects of homosexuality on clinic patients and also their fears of treatment at clinics are considered, as well as the behavioral differences in response to infection between exclusively homosexuals, bi-sexuals, and married homosexuals. PMID:946948

  6. The Troubling Trichotomy 10 Years Later: Where Are We Now?

    PubMed

    Barrocas, Albert

    2016-06-01

    A decade ago, "Nutrition Support and The Troubling Trichotomy: A Call To Action" was published in this journal, identifying existing conflicts among technological, ethical, and legal aspects of nutrition support therapy, particularly in terminal or end-of-life situations. Over the past 10 years, the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition and others have responded to the action call. A "state of the trichotomy" reveals that while much has been achieved, differences in all 3 aspects will continue to exist due to their dynamic and ever-changing states. The technology arena has made it possible to increase the delivery of nutrition support in alternative settings with the use of telemedicine and social media. Critical/crucial conversations and earlier declarations of individual wishes for care and treatment while having decision-making capacity have been enhanced with the focus on patient-centered and family-centered care. The definition of death as brain death has been challenged in at least one instance. Conflicts between the state's interests and the individual's interests have added to recent legal controversies. Notwithstanding the progress made over the past 10 years, several challenges remain. The future challenges presented by the Troubling Trichotomy can be best confronted if we ACT-Accountability, Communication, and Teamwork. The focus of teamwork should move from multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary teams to transdisciplinary teams, reflecting the shift to function rather than form presented by the new healthcare environment. The transdisciplinary team will be able address the opportunities of the Troubling Trichotomy in the next decade by incorporating the 12 Cs, as detailed in the article. PMID:26941110

  7. 19 CFR 351.204 - Time periods and persons examined; voluntary respondents; exclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... § 351.204 Time periods and persons examined; voluntary respondents; exclusions. (a) Introduction... fiscal quarters (or, in an investigation involving merchandise imported from a nonmarket economy...

  8. Experiences from 10 years of school programmes at GEOMAR Kiel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dengg, Joachim

    2014-05-01

    GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, Germany, started a programme of cooperations with secondary schools in 2003, which has been expanding continually since that time. By active involvement of teachers and students, the Centre's research topics are communicated to schools, and young people are encouraged to develop their interest for biogeosciences. The portfolio of activities includes: project work with schools over periods from one day to several months, individual student theses at the research centre, internships, a weekly "Research Club" allowing individual experiments, summer school programmes, teacher training courses, joint activities with international partners and a video-project in which students portray scientific aspects of oceanic oxygen minimum zones (in the context of the Collaborative Research Center SFB 754) to other students. Essential prerequisites for these activities are the direct involvement of the Centre's researchers who contribute their expertise and act as role-models for the students, dedicated staff for coordination and continuity, and financial and structural support both at the research centre and the schools.

  9. Physical aggression, compromised social support, and 10-year marital outcomes: Testing a relational spillover model.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Kieran T; Pasch, Lauri A; Lawrence, Erika; Bradbury, Thomas N

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to test a relational spillover model of physical aggression whereby physical aggression affects marital outcomes due to its effects on how spouses ask for and provide support to one another. Newlywed couples (n = 172) reported levels of physical aggression over the past year and engaged in interactions designed to elicit social support; marital adjustment, and stability were assessed periodically over the first 10 years of marriage. Multilevel modeling revealed that negative support behavior mediated the relationship between physical aggression and 10-year marital adjustment levels whereas positive support behavior mediated the relationship between physical aggression and divorce status. These findings emphasize the need to look beyond conflict when explaining how aggression affects relationships and when working with couples with a history of physical aggression who are seeking to improve their relationships. PMID:26168263

  10. Rugby injuries to the cervical spine and spinal cord: a 10-year review.

    PubMed

    Scher, A T

    1998-01-01

    A 10-year review (1987-1996) of injuries sustained to the spine and spinal cord in rugby players with resultant paralysis has been undertaken. This article reviews that the incidence of serious rugby spine and spinal cord injuries in South Africa has increased over the 10-year period reviewed, despite stringent new rules instituted in an attempt to decrease the incidence of these injuries. The mechanisms of injury, as previously reported, remain the same as well as the phases of game responsible for injury of the tight scrum, tackle, rucks, and mauls. Two new observations are reported: the first is related to the occurrence of spinal cord concussion with transient paralysis, and the second is related to the increased incidence of osteoarthritis of the cervical spine in rugby players. PMID:9475983

  11. Structure and dating errors in the geologic time scale and periodicity in mass extinctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stothers, Richard B.

    1989-01-01

    Structure in the geologic time scale reflects a partly paleontological origin. As a result, ages of Cenozoic and Mesozoic stage boundaries exhibit a weak 28-Myr periodicity that is similar to the strong 26-Myr periodicity detected in mass extinctions of marine life by Raup and Sepkoski. Radiometric dating errors in the geologic time scale, to which the mass extinctions are stratigraphically tied, do not necessarily lessen the likelihood of a significant periodicity in mass extinctions, but do spread the acceptable values of the period over the range 25-27 Myr for the Harland et al. time scale or 25-30 Myr for the DNAG time scale. If the Odin time scale is adopted, acceptable periods fall between 24 and 33 Myr, but are not robust against dating errors. Some indirect evidence from independently-dated flood-basalt volcanic horizons tends to favor the Odin time scale.

  12. Dynamics of phase slips in systems with time-periodic modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandhi, Punit; Knobloch, Edgar; Beaume, Cédric

    2015-12-01

    The Adler equation with time-periodic frequency modulation is studied. A series of resonances between the period of the frequency modulation and the time scale for the generation of a phase slip is identified. The resulting parameter space structure is determined using a combination of numerical continuation, time simulations, and asymptotic methods. Regions with an integer number of phase slips per period are separated by regions with noninteger numbers of phase slips and include canard trajectories that drift along unstable equilibria. Both high- and low-frequency modulation is considered. An adiabatic description of the low-frequency modulation regime is found to be accurate over a large range of modulation periods.

  13. Seal, replacement or monitoring amalgam restorations with occlusal marginal defects? Results of a 10-year clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Moncada, G; Fernández, E; Mena, K; Martin, J; Vildósola, P; De Oliveira Junior, O B; Estay, J; Mjör, I A; Gordan, V V

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this prospective and blind clinical trial was to assess the effectiveness of sealing localized marginal defects of amalgam restoration that were initially scheduled to be replaced. A cohort of twenty six patients with 60 amalgam restorations (n=44Class I and n=16Class II), that presented marginal defects deviating from ideal (Bravo) according to USPHS criteria, were assigned to either sealing or replacement groups: A: sealing n=20, Replacement n=20, and no treatment (n=20). Two blind examiners evaluated the restorations at baseline (K=0.74) and after ten years (K=0.84) according with USPHS criteria, in four parameters: marginal adaptation (MA), secondary caries (SC), marginal staining (MS) and teeth sensitivity (TS). Multiple comparison of restorations degradation/upgrade was analyzed by Friedman test and the comparisons within groups were performed by Wilcoxon test. After 10 years, 44 restorations were assessed (73.3%), Group A: n=14 and Group B: n=16; and Group C: n=14 sealing and replacement amalgam restorations presented similar level of quality in MA (p=0.76), SC (p=0.25) and TS (p=0.52), while in MS (p=0.007) presented better performance in replacement group after 10-years. Most of the occlusal amalgam restorations with marginal gaps showed similar long term outcomes than the restorations were sealed, replaced, or not treated over a 10-year period. Most of the restorations of the three groups were clinically acceptable, under the studied parameters. All restorations had the tendency to present downgrade/deterioration over time. PMID:26231302

  14. No Outbreak of Vancomycin and Linezolid Resistance in Staphylococcal Pneumonia over a 10-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Yayan, Josef; Ghebremedhin, Beniam; Rasche, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    Background Staphylococci can cause wound infections and community- and nosocomial-acquired pneumonia, among a range of illnesses. Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) have been rapidly increasing as a cause of infections worldwide in recent decades. Numerous reports indicate that S. aureus and MRSA are becoming resistant to many antibiotics, which makes them very dangerous. Therefore, this study retrospectively investigated the resistance to antimicrobial agents in all hospitalized patients suffering from community- or nosocomial-acquired pneumonia due to S. aureus and MRSA. Methods Information from the study groups suffering from either community- or nosocomial-acquired pneumonia caused by S. aureus or MRSA was gathered by searching records from 2004 to 2014 at the HELIOS Clinic Wuppertal, Witten/Herdecke University, Germany. The findings of antibiotic resistance were analyzed after the evaluation of susceptibility testing for S. aureus and MRSA. Results Total of 147 patients (63.9%, 95% CI 57.5%–69.8%), mean age 67.9 ± 18.5 years, with pneumonia triggered by S. aureus, and 83 patients (36.1%, 95% CI 30.2%–42.5%), mean age 72.3 ± 13.8 years, with pneumonia due to MRSA. S. aureus and MRSA developed no resistance to vancomycin (P = 0.019 vs. < 0.0001, respectively) or linezolid (P = 0.342 vs. < 0.0001, respectively). MRSA (95.3%) and S. aureus (56.3%) showed a high resistance to penicillin. MRSA (87.7%) was also found to have a high antibiotic resistance against ß-lactam antibiotics, compared to S. aureus (9.6%). Furthermore, MRSA compared to S. aureus, respectively, had increased antibiotic resistance to ciprofloxacin (90.1% vs. 17.0%), cefazolin (89.7% vs. 10.2%), cefuroxime (89.0% vs. 9.1%), levofloxacin (88.2% vs. 18.4%), clindamycin (78.0% vs. 14.7%), and erythromycin (76.5% vs. 20.8%). Conclusion No development of resistance was found to vancomycin and linezolid in patients with pneumonia caused by S. aureus and MRSA. PMID:26398276

  15. 10 years of Terra Outreach over the Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuen, K.; Riebeek, H.; Chambers, L. H.

    2009-12-01

    1 Author Yuen, Karen JPL (818) 393-7716 2 Author Riebeek, Holli Sigma Space Corporation (department) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (Institution), Greenbelt, Maryland 3 Author Chambers, Lin NASA Abstract: Since launch, Terra has returned about 195 gigabytes (level 0) of data per day or 1 terabyte every 5 days. Few outlets were able to accommodate and quickly share that amount of information as well as the Internet. To honor the 10-year anniversary of the launch of Terra, we would like to highlight the education and outreach efforts of the Terra mission on the Internet and its reach to the science attentive public. The Internet or web has been the primary way of delivering Terra content to different groups- from formal and informal education to general public outreach. Through the years, many different web-based projects have been developed, and they were of service to a growing population of the science attentive public. One of Terra’s original EPO activities was the Earth Observatory. It was initially dedicated to telling the remote sensing story of Terra, but quickly grew to include science and imagery from other sensors. The web site allowed for collaboration across NASA centers, universities and other organizations by exchanging and sharing of story ideas, news and images. The award winning Earth Observatory helped pave the way for the more recently funded development of the Climate Change website. With its specific focus on climate change studies, once again, Terra stories and images are shared with an even more specific audience base. During the last 10 years, Terra as a mission has captured the imagination of the public through its visually stunning and artistically arresting images. With its five instruments of complementary but unique capabilities, the mission gave the world not just pretty pictures, but scientific data-based images. The world was able to see from space everything from calving icebergs to volcanic eruption plumes and the eye of a

  16. 17 CFR 260.7a-24 - Words relating to periods of time in the past.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Words relating to periods of time in the past. 260.7a-24 Section 260.7a-24 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Requirements As to Contents § 260.7a-24 Words relating to periods of time in the past. Unless the...

  17. 17 CFR 260.7a-24 - Words relating to periods of time in the past.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Words relating to periods of time in the past. 260.7a-24 Section 260.7a-24 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Requirements As to Contents § 260.7a-24 Words relating to periods of time in the past. Unless the...

  18. 47 CFR 54.724 - Time periods for Commission approval of Administrator decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Time periods for Commission approval of...) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Review of Decisions Issued by the Administrator § 54.724 Time periods for Commission approval of Administrator decisions. (a) The Wireline...

  19. 47 CFR 54.724 - Time periods for Commission approval of Administrator decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Time periods for Commission approval of...) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Review of Decisions Issued by the Administrator § 54.724 Time periods for Commission approval of Administrator decisions. (a) The Wireline...

  20. 47 CFR 54.724 - Time periods for Commission approval of Administrator decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Time periods for Commission approval of...) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Review of Decisions Issued by the Administrator § 54.724 Time periods for Commission approval of Administrator decisions. (a) The Wireline...

  1. 47 CFR 54.724 - Time periods for Commission approval of Administrator decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Time periods for Commission approval of Administrator decisions. 54.724 Section 54.724 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Review of Decisions Issued by the Administrator § 54.724 Time periods for...

  2. 47 CFR 54.724 - Time periods for Commission approval of Administrator decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Time periods for Commission approval of...) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Review of Decisions Issued by the Administrator § 54.724 Time periods for Commission approval of Administrator decisions. (a) The Wireline...

  3. 12 CFR 516.10 - How does OTS compute time periods under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false How does OTS compute time periods under this part? 516.10 Section 516.10 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY APPLICATION PROCESSING PROCEDURES § 516.10 How does OTS compute time periods under this part? In...

  4. 12 CFR 516.10 - How does OTS compute time periods under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How does OTS compute time periods under this part? 516.10 Section 516.10 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY APPLICATION PROCESSING PROCEDURES § 516.10 How does OTS compute time periods under this part? In...

  5. 12 CFR 516.10 - How does OTS compute time periods under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true How does OTS compute time periods under this part? 516.10 Section 516.10 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY APPLICATION PROCESSING PROCEDURES § 516.10 How does OTS compute time periods under this part? In...

  6. 12 CFR 516.10 - How does OTS compute time periods under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true How does OTS compute time periods under this part? 516.10 Section 516.10 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY APPLICATION PROCESSING PROCEDURES § 516.10 How does OTS compute time periods under this part? In...

  7. 12 CFR 516.10 - How does OTS compute time periods under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false How does OTS compute time periods under this part? 516.10 Section 516.10 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY APPLICATION PROCESSING PROCEDURES § 516.10 How does OTS compute time periods under this part? In...

  8. 17 CFR 260.7a-24 - Words relating to periods of time in the past.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Words relating to periods of time in the past. 260.7a-24 Section 260.7a-24 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Requirements As to Contents § 260.7a-24 Words relating to periods of time in the past. Unless the...

  9. 17 CFR 260.7a-24 - Words relating to periods of time in the past.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Words relating to periods of time in the past. 260.7a-24 Section 260.7a-24 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Requirements As to Contents § 260.7a-24 Words relating to periods of time in the past. Unless the...

  10. 26 CFR 1.676(b)-1 - Powers exercisable only after a period of time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Powers exercisable only after a period of time...)-1 Powers exercisable only after a period of time. Section 676(b) provides an exception to the general rule of section 676(a) when the exercise of a power can only affect the beneficial enjoyment...

  11. Ureteroscopy with conscious sedation for distal ureteric calculi: 10-year experience

    PubMed Central

    Kroczak, Tadeusz J.; Kaler, Kamaljot Singh; Patel, Premal; Al-Essawi, Turki

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Distal ureteroscopy for stone extraction is a common procedure that is generally performed with spinal or general anesthesia. We retrospectively reviewed all distal ureteroscopy performed for ureteric stone extraction with conscious sedation at our institution over a 10-year period to determine its efficacy and safety. Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed of all distal ureteroscopy performed for calculus removal from 2004 to 2014. Patient characteristics, analgesic requirement, tolerability, procedure time, stone size and composition, method of stone extraction, success rate, and complications were collected. Results: Between 2004 and 2014, 314 procedures were performed. Mean age was 53.74 years, with 160 males and 154 females. A success rate of 97% and 10 (3.2%) complications were reported. Mean analgesic requirement was 189 μg of fentanyl (range: 50–400) and 2.79 mg of midazolam (range: 0–8). A total of 263 patients (83.7%) tolerated the procedure well, with only seven (2.2%) having poor tolerability. When comparing females to males, females were found to require less fentanyl (p=0.0001) and midazolam (p=0.0001). When calculi >5 mm were compared to those <5 mm, there was no statistically significant difference in success rate, procedure time, analgesic requirement, tolerability, or complications. Conclusion: Distal ureteroscopy with conscious sedation is safe and efficacious. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating stones >5 mm can be safely and effectively treated with conscious sedation during this procedure. The context of our findings must be understood within the limitations of our retrospective analysis. PMID:26858781

  12. Pediatric Germ Cell Tumors; A 10-year Experience

    PubMed Central

    Khaleghnejad-Tabari, Ahmad; Mirshemirani, Alireza; Rouzrokh, Mohsen; Mohajerzadeh, Leily; Khaleghnejad-Tabari, Nasibeh; Hasas-Yeganeh, Shaghayegh

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of germ cell tumors in patients admitted to our center during a ten year period. Methods: In a retrospective descriptive study, patients with the pathological diagnosis of germ cell tumor (GCT) were included. All records were evaluated and patients followed by personal visit in clinic or phone call. Data regarding age, sex, tumor site, bio-chemical assay, pathology, treatment and outcomes were gathered. For qualitative variables we computed frequency and percentage and for quantitative variables, mean and standard deviation. Survival analysis was performed using Kaplan-Meier. All statistical analyses were performed by SPSS version16.0. Findings : Forty four patients consisted of 32 girls (72.7%) and 12 boys (27.3%). Their median age was 23 months. The most common pathological tumor types were 18 (40.9%) mature teratomas and 14 (31.8%) yolk sac tumors. Extra gonadal tumors were more prevalent (32 cases) and consisted of 21 (47.7%) sacrcoccygeal, 7 (15.9%) retroperitoneal, 2 (4.4%) mediastinal and 2 (4.4%) cervical tumors. In gonadal tumors 9 patients had ovarian and 3 patients testicular involvement. Staging at the time of diagnosis revealed stage one in 23 (52.3%) cases. All patients were treated surgically and the most common procedure was total resection in 41 (93.2%) patients. Fifteen (34.1%) patients received chemotherapy. In follow-up 31 (77.5%) patients were in complete remission, 9 (22.5%) had died, and 4 cases did not appear to follow-up visits. The median survival was 16 months (IQR 4-49 months). The highest mortality rate was found in patients with yolk sac tumors (8 of 13 cases). Conclusion: The patients with extra-gonadal GCT and a high AFP level have the worst prognosis and lower survival rate. Combination of surgery and chemotherapy can lead to a better prognosis. PMID:25755868

  13. Alopecia Areata in the Elderly: A 10-Year Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Yong Hyun; Park, Kyung Hea; Kim, Sang Lim; Lim, Hyun Jung; Lee, Weon Ju; Lee, Seok-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Background Alopecia areata (AA) is an organ-specific autoimmune disease that typically occurs in young adults. AA in the elderly is relatively rare, thus little data have been reported. Objective This study aimed to understand the clinical characteristics of AA in the elderly. Methods We performed a 10-year retrospective study of AA in the elderly who visited our dermatologic clinic from January 2002 to December 2011. A clinical review of medical records and telephone interviews were performed by two dermatologists. Results Among 1,761 patients with newly diagnosed AA, 61 (3.5%) were older than 60 years at the first visit. Among those who completed a telephone interview, 74.3% (26/35) had less than 50% of scalp-localized hair loss. There was no association between the extent of AA and hair graying (p=0.679). Favorable therapeutic response was observed in 62.9% (22/35) of cases. Conclusion AA in the elderly shows mild disease severity and favorable treatment response. There is no association between graying and the extent of AA. However, the influence of aging on the pathogenesis of AA in the elderly deserves further investigation. PMID:26273157

  14. In Brief: Chandra Observatory marks 10 years in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-08-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, originally envisioned as a 5-year mission, was deployed into an elliptical orbit around Earth 10 years ago, on 23 July 1999. The most powerful X-ray telescope yet, Chandra has provided a peak into the high-energy universe and has independently confirmed the existence of dark energy. Martin Weisskopf, Chandra project scientist at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala., said discoveries made possible by the observatory “have made dramatic changes to our understanding of the universe and its constituents.” “The Great Observatories program—of which Chandra is a major part—shows how astronomers need as many tools as possible to tackle the big questions out there,” said Ed Weiler, associate administrator of NASA's Science Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters in Washington. The Hubble Space Telescope, Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, and Spitzer Space Telescope are NASA's other Great Observatories. For more information, visit http://chandra.harvard.edu/ten/ and http://chandra.nasa.gov.

  15. Dissociative recombination of H3+: 10 years in retrospect

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, Mats

    2012-01-01

    The dissociative recombination of has been an intriguing problem for more than half a century. The early experiments on during the first 20 years were carried out without mass analysis in decaying plasma afterglows, and thus the measured rates pertained to an uncontrolled mixture of and impurity ions. When mass analysis was used, the rate coefficient was determined to be an uneventful value of about 10−7 cm3 s−1, a very common rate coefficient for many molecular ions. But this was not the end of the story, not even the beginning of the end; it marked only the end of the beginning. The story I will tell in this article started about 10 years ago, when the dissociative recombination of was approaching its deepest crisis. Today, owing to an extensive experimental and theoretical effort, the state of affairs has reached a historically unique level of harmony, although there still remains many things to sort out. PMID:23028159

  16. Language Disorders: A 10-Year Research Update Review

    PubMed Central

    TOPPELBERG, CLAUDIO O.; SHAPIRO, THEODORE

    2012-01-01

    Objective To review the past 10 years of research in child language or communication disorders, which are highly prevalent in the general population and comorbid with childhood psychiatric disorders. Method A literature search of 3 major databases was conducted. The child language literature, describing the domains of language development—phonology, grammar, semantics, and pragmatics—is reviewed. Results Disorders of grammar, semantics, and pragmatics, but not phonology, overlap significantly with childhood psychiatric disorders. Receptive language disorders have emerged as high-risk indicators, often undiagnosed. Language disorders and delays are psychiatric risk factors and have implications for evaluation, therapy, and research. However, they are often undiagnosed in child mental health and community settings. The research has focused mostly on monolingual English-speaking children. Conclusion Awareness of basic child language development, delay, and deviance is crucial for the practicing child and adolescent psychiatrist, who must diagnose and refer relevant cases for treatment and remediation. Future research needs to address the growing language diversity of our clinical populations. PMID:10673823

  17. Monitoring the Affordability of Healthy Eating: A Case Study of 10 Years of the Illawarra Healthy Food Basket

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Healthy food baskets have been used around the world for a variety of purposes, including: examining the difference in cost between healthy and unhealthy food; mapping the availability of healthy foods in different locations; calculating the minimum cost of an adequate diet for social policy planning; developing educational material on low cost eating and examining trends on food costs over time. In Australia, the Illawarra Healthy Food Basket was developed in 2000 to monitor trends in the affordability of healthy food compared to average weekly wages and social welfare benefits for the unemployed. It consists of 57 items selected to meet the nutritional requirements of a reference family of five. Bi-annual costing from 2000–2009 has shown that the basket costs have increased by 38.4% in the 10-year period, but that affordability has remained relatively constant at around 30% of average household incomes. PMID:22254001

  18. Endometrial stem/progenitor cells: the first 10 years

    PubMed Central

    Gargett, Caroline E.; Schwab, Kjiana E.; Deane, James A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The existence of stem/progenitor cells in the endometrium was postulated many years ago, but the first functional evidence was only published in 2004. The identification of rare epithelial and stromal populations of clonogenic cells in human endometrium has opened an active area of research on endometrial stem/progenitor cells in the subsequent 10 years. METHODS The published literature was searched using the PubMed database with the search terms ‘endometrial stem cells and menstrual blood stem cells' until December 2014. RESULTS Endometrial epithelial stem/progenitor cells have been identified as clonogenic cells in human and as label-retaining or CD44+ cells in mouse endometrium, but their characterization has been modest. In contrast, endometrial mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) have been well characterized and show similar properties to bone marrow MSCs. Specific markers for their enrichment have been identified, CD146+PDGFRβ+ (platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta) and SUSD2+ (sushi domain containing-2), which detected their perivascular location and likely pericyte identity in endometrial basalis and functionalis vessels. Transcriptomics and secretomics of SUSD2+ cells confirm their perivascular phenotype. Stromal fibroblasts cultured from endometrial tissue or menstrual blood also have some MSC characteristics and demonstrate broad multilineage differentiation potential for mesodermal, endodermal and ectodermal lineages, indicating their plasticity. Side population (SP) cells are a mixed population, although predominantly vascular cells, which exhibit adult stem cell properties, including tissue reconstitution. There is some evidence that bone marrow cells contribute a small population of endometrial epithelial and stromal cells. The discovery of specific markers for endometrial stem/progenitor cells has enabled the examination of their role in endometrial proliferative disorders, including endometriosis, adenomyosis and Asherman

  19. Factors influencing infection in 10 years of battlefield open tibia fractures.

    PubMed

    Penn-Barwell, J G; Bennett, P M; Mortiboy, D E; Fries, C A; Groom, A F G; Sargeant, I D

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise severe open tibial shaft fractures sustained by the UK military personnel over 10 years of combat in Iraq and Afghanistan. The UK military Joint Theatre Trauma Registry was searched for all such injuries, and clinical records were reviewed for all patients. One hundred Gustilo-Anderson III tibia fractures in 89 patients were identified in the 10 year study period; the majority sustained injuries through explosive weapons (63, 68 %) with the remainder being injured from gunshot wounds. Three fractures were not followed up for 12 months and were therefore excluded. Twenty-two (23 %) of the remaining 97 tibial fractures were complicated by infection, with S. aureus being the causative agent in 13/22 infected fractures (59 %). Neither injury severity, mechanism, the use of an external fixator, the need for vascularised tissue transfer nor smoking status was associated with subsequent infection. Bone loss was significantly associated with subsequent infection (p < 0.0001, Fisher's exact test). This study presents 10 years of open tibial fractures sustained in Iraq and Afghanistan. Most infection in combat open tibia fractures is caused by familiar organisms, i.e. S. aureus. While the overall severity of a casualty's injuries was not associated with infection, the degree of bone loss from the fracture was. PMID:26993111

  20. 10-year ionospheric equivalent current statistics from the ECLAT project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauristie, Kirsti; Vanhamäki, Heikki; Viljanen, Ari; Van de Kamp, Max; Juusola, Liisa; Partamies, Noora; Amm, Olaf; Zivkovic, Tatjana; Ågren, Karin; Opgenoorth, Hermann

    2013-04-01

    The ECLAT (European Cluster Assimilation Technology,) is an EU FP7 project which develops value added data products to support the Cluster Active Archive (CAA). The supporting data set will include 10 years of spatial maps of ionospheric equivalent currents (Jeq) calculated from the data of the magnetometers in the MIRACLE network operated in the Fennoscandian mainland and extending poleward until Svalbard. The Jeq database combined with the other data in Cluster Active Archive will offer a unique opportunity to conduct statistical studies on ionospheric current systems and their linkage with different magnetospheric processes. In this presentation we will introduce the process used to generate the Jeq data base, demonstrate how Jeq data can be browsed with an on-line tool and show some examples how the data can be used in magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling studies. In particular, we will show results from a preliminary study where Jeq recorded during 2003 are used to study the spatial distribution of Jeq and its curl (which in certain conditions can be used as a proxy for field-aligned currents) in different geophysical conditions. With this example we want to emphasize that the ECLAT Jeq database, in contrast to previously used data bases (e.g. from LEO satellites), is constructed from a 2-dimensional magnetometer network, which allows statistical studies on the horizontal gradients of Jeq in both latitudinal and longitudinal directions simultaneously. More information about ECLAT and the associated data archives is available from the following links: http://www.space.irfu.se/ECLAT/eclat-web/eclat_detail.html; http://caa.estec.esa.int/; http://www.space.fmi.fi/MIRACLE/; http://www.space.fmi.fi/image/.

  1. Almotriptan: a review of 10 years' clinical experience.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Julio; Vila, Carlos; McGown, Caroline C

    2010-10-01

    Almotriptan, a serotonin 5-HT 1B/1D agonist, was developed for the acute treatment of migraine with or without aura and has been available for 10 years. This article evaluates the wealth of experience that has been obtained with almotriptan, including large randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and post-marketing studies that more closely reflect everyday clinical practice. Initial RCTs required patients to take almotriptan when migraine pain was of moderate or severe intensity, and found that 12.5 mg provided optimal outcomes for both pain relief and tolerability. Almotriptan effectively improved 2-h pain-relief, reduced migraine-associated symptoms and demonstrated low recurrence rates. These findings were also shown in patient subgroups, such as adolescents and menstrual migraineurs. A secondary finding in these trials was that patients who took almotriptan early, when the pain was still mild, achieved better outcomes. This prompted the initiation of studies designed to assess the effect of almotriptan in early intervention. Open-label trials reported improvements in pain-free end points (2 h, 24 h), and subsequent RCTs confirmed these findings. Pharmacovigilance data from more than 100 million tablets dispensed worldwide have confirmed that almotriptan is associated with a low occurrence of adverse effects, which, in clinical trials, has been shown to be similar to that observed with placebo. The clinical evidence obtained and comparisons made over a decade of use have demonstrated that almotriptan is one of the more effective and fast-acting triptans available, with a placebo-like tolerability profile. This suggests that almotriptan is an excellent choice for patients requiring specific acute migraine treatment. PMID:20945537

  2. Haiti's progress in achieving its 10-year plan to eliminate cholera: hidden sickness cannot be cured.

    PubMed

    Koski-Karell, Victoria; Farmer, Paul E; Isaac, Benito; Campa, Elizabeth M; Viaud, Loune; Namphy, Paul C; Ternier, Ralph; Ivers, Louise C

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of the cholera epidemic in Haiti 5 years ago, the prevalence of this deadly water-borne disease has fallen far below the initial rates registered during its explosive outset. However, cholera continues to cause extensive suffering and needless deaths across the country, particularly among the poor. The urgent need to eliminate transmission of cholera persists: compared to the same period in 2014, the first 4 months of 2015 saw three times the number of cholera cases. Drawing upon epidemiology, clinical work (and clinical knowledge), policy, ecology, and political economy, and informed by ethnographic data collected in a rural area of Haiti called Bocozel, this paper evaluates the progress of the nation's 10-year Plan for the Elimination of Cholera. Bocozel is a rice-producing region where most people live in extreme poverty. The irrigation network is decrepit, the land is prone to environmental shocks, fertilizer is not affordable, and the government's capacity to assist farmers is undermined by resource constraints. When peasants do have rice to sell, the price of domestically grown rice is twice that of US-imported rice. Canal water is not only used to irrigate thousands of acres of rice paddies and sustain livestock, but also to bathe, wash, and play, while water from wells, hand pumps, and the river is used for drinking, cooking, and bathing. Only one out of the three government-sponsored water treatment stations in the research area is still functional and utilized by those who can afford it. Latrines are scarce and often shared by up to 30 people; open defecation remains common. Structural vulnerabilities cut across all sectors - not just water, sanitation, health care, and education, but agriculture, environment, (global and local) commerce, transportation, and governance as well. These are among the hidden sicknesses that impede Haiti and its partners' capacity to eliminate cholera. PMID:27307774

  3. A 10-Year Climatology of Amazonian Rainfall Derived from Passive Microwave Satellite Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Negri, Andrew J.; Anagnostou, Emmanouil N.; Adler, Robert F.

    1998-01-01

    In this study we present and describe a satellite-derived precipitation climatology over northern South America using a passive microwave technique, the Goddard Profiling Algorithm. A period of data slightly longer than 10 years is examined. The climatologies take the form of the mean estimated (adjusted) rainfall for a 10-year (+) period, with sub-divisions by month and meteorological season. For the six-year period 1992-1997, when two satellites were in operation, diurnal variability (to the extent it is discerned by four unequally spaced observations) is presented. We find an alternating pattern of morning and maxima stretching from the northeast (Atlantic coast) clear across the continent to the Pacific. The effects of topography, coastlines and geography (river valleys) on the rainfall patterns are clear. Interannual variability is examined by computing the deviations of yearly and warm season (DJF) rainfall from their respective long-term means. Interannual variability of the diurnal nature of the rainfall is presented, and the strong El Nino event of 1997-1998 is discussed.

  4. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis in a 10-year-old girl masquerading as tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Baro, Abhamoni; Shah, Ira; Chandane, Parmarth; Khosla, Indu

    2015-06-01

    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare pulmonary disease. Diagnosis is established by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), which has macroscopic 'milky appearance', and in the presence of typical computed tomography, findings are diagnostic of PAP but, however, the feature of periodic acid-Schiff-positive eosinophilic proteinaceous fluid raises the confidence of the diagnosis. We report late-onset PAP in a 10-year-old girl who had acid fast bacilli on an initial BAL examination, but was subsequently diagnosed as PAP. PMID:26069841

  5. Influence of allowable interruption period on estimates of accelerometer wear time and sedentary time in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Mailey, Emily L.; Gothe, Neha P.; Wójcicki, Thomas R.; Szabo, Amanda N.; Olson, Erin A.; Mullen, Sean P.; Fanning, Jason T.; Motl, Robert W.; McAuley, Edward

    2013-01-01

    The criteria one uses to reduce accelerometer data can profoundly influence the interpretation of research outcomes. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of three different interruption periods (i.e., 20, 30, and 60 minutes) on the amount of data retained for analyses and estimates of sedentary time among older adults. Older adults (N=311; Mage=71.1) wore an accelerometer for seven days and reported wear time on an accelerometer log. Accelerometer data were downloaded and scored using 20, 30, and 60-minute interruption periods. Estimates of wear time derived using each interruption period were compared to self-reported wear time, and descriptive statistics were used to compare estimates of sedentary time. Results showed a longer interruption period (i.e., 60 minutes) yields the largest sample size and the closest approximation of self-reported wear time. A short interruption period (i.e., 20 minutes) is likely to underestimate sedentary time among older adults. PMID:23752299

  6. The GLOBE Program 10 Years On: Challenges and Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blurton, C.

    2004-12-01

    ). This session will examine what was accomplished during GLOBE's first 10 years as a Federal program, what challenges the Program faces, and what plans are afoot for GLOBE's next ten years under UCAR's leadership.

  7. Existence of time-periodic weak solutions to the stochastic Navier-Stokes equations around a moving body

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Feng E-mail: hanyc@jlu.edu.cn; Han, Yuecai E-mail: hanyc@jlu.edu.cn

    2013-12-15

    The existence of time-periodic stochastic motions of an incompressible fluid is obtained. Here the fluid is subject to a time-periodic body force and an additional time-periodic stochastic force that is produced by a rigid body moves periodically stochastically with the same period in the fluid.

  8. Breast Cancer-Specific Mortality Pattern and Its Changing Feature According to Estrogen Receptor Status in Two Time Periods

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yizhou; Shao, Zhimin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether and how the patterns of breast cancer-specific mortality (BCSM) changed along with time periods. Methods We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results registry to identify 228209 female patients diagnosed with invasive breast cancer between 1990 and 2000 (cohort 1 [C1], 112981) and between 2001 and 2005 (cohort 2 [C2], 115228). BCSM was compared in two cohorts using Cox proportional hazard regression models. We analysed the relative hazard ratios (HRs) and absolute BCSM rates by flexible parametric survival modelling. Results The patterns of BCSM were similar between the two cohorts, with the peak of mortality presenting in the first 2–3 years after diagnosis, and mortality rate significantly decreased in C2 in all cases. In C2, the annual BCSM rate of all cases was 9.64 (per 1000 persons per year) in year 10 with a peak rate of 23.34 in year 2. In ER-negative and high-risk patients, marked survival improvements were achieved mostly in the first 5 years, while in ER-positive and low-risk patients, survival improvements were less but constant up to 10 years. Conclusion There has been a significant improvement of BCSM with substantially decreased mortality within 5 years. The current pattern of BCSM and its changing feature differs according to ER status. Our findings have some clinical implications both for treatment decisions and adjuvant treatment trial design. PMID:27299729

  9. 40 CFR 93.162 - Emissions beyond the time period covered by the SIP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... covered by the SIP. 93.162 Section 93.162 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 93.162 Emissions beyond the time period covered by the SIP. If a Federal action would result in total... period covered by the SIP, the Federal agency can: (a) Demonstrate conformity with the last...

  10. NHEXAS PHASE I REGION 5 STUDY--TIME-ACTIVITY DIARY QUESTIONNAIRE DATA (ALL MONITORING PERIODS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set includes responses for 249 participants with a total of 428 time-activity diaries. Some participants were studied for more than one monitoring period. The Time Diary and Activity Questionnaire was used for collecting data on detailed (daily) time and location inform...

  11. Existence and exponential stability of positive almost periodic solution for Nicholson's blowflies models on time scales.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongkun; Li, Bing

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we first give a new definition of almost periodic time scales, two new definitions of almost periodic functions on time scales and investigate some basic properties of them. Then, as an application, by using a fixed point theorem in Banach space and the time scale calculus theory, we obtain some sufficient conditions for the existence and exponential stability of positive almost periodic solutions for a class of Nicholson's blowflies models on time scales. Finally, we present an illustrative example to show the effectiveness of obtained results. Our results show that under a simple condition the continuous-time Nicholson's blowflies model and its discrete-time analogue have the same dynamical behaviors. PMID:27468397

  12. Stunted at 10 Years. Linear Growth Trajectories and Stunting from Birth to Pre-Adolescence in a Rural Bangladeshi Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Svefors, Pernilla; Rahman, Anisur; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte; Khan, Ashraful Islam; Lindström, Emma; Persson, Lars Åke; Ekholm Selling, Katarina

    2016-01-01

    Background Few studies in low-income settings analyse linear growth trajectories from foetal life to pre-adolescence. The aim of this study is to describe linear growth and stunting from birth to 10 years in rural Bangladesh and to analyse whether maternal and environmental determinants at conception are associated with linear growth throughout childhood and stunting at 10 years. Methods and Findings Pregnant women participating in the MINIMat trial were identified in early pregnancy and a birth cohort (n = 1054) was followed with 19 growth measurements from birth to 10 years. Analyses of baseline predictors and mean height-for-age Z-scores (HAZ) over time were modelled using GLMM. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the associations between baseline predictors and stunting (HAZ<-2) at 10 years. HAZ decreased to 2 years, followed by an increase up to 10 years, while the average height-for-age difference in cm (HAD) to the WHO reference median continued to increase up to 10 years. Prevalence of stunting was highest at 2 years (50%) decreasing to 29% at 10 years. Maternal height, maternal educational level and season of conception were all independent predictors of HAZ from birth to pre-adolescence (p<0.001) and stunting at 10 years. The highest probability to be stunted at 10 years was for children born by short mothers (<147.5 cm) (ORadj 2.93, 95% CI: 2.06–4.20), mothers with no education (ORadj 1.74, 95% CI 1.17–2.81) or those conceived in the pre-monsoon season (ORadj 1.94, 95% CI 1.37–2.77). Conclusions Height growth trajectories and prevalence of stunting in pre-adolescence showed strong intergenerational associations, social differentials, and environmental influence from foetal life. Targeting women before and during pregnancy is needed for the prevention of impaired child growth. PMID:26934484

  13. An infinite branching hierarchy of time-periodic solutions of the Benjamin-Ono equation

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkening, Jon

    2008-07-01

    We present a new representation of solutions of the Benjamin-Ono equation that are periodic in space and time. Up to an additive constant and a Galilean transformation, each of these solutions is a previously known, multi-periodic solution; however, the new representation unifies the subset of such solutions with a fixed spatial period and a continuously varying temporal period into a single network of smooth manifolds connected together by an infinite hierarchy of bifurcations. Our representation explicitly describes the evolution of the Fourier modes of the solution as well as the particle trajectories in a meromorphic representation of these solutions; therefore, we have also solved the problem of finding periodic solutions of the ordinary differential equation governing these particles, including a description of a bifurcation mechanism for adding or removing particles without destroying periodicity. We illustrate the types of bifurcation that occur with several examples, including degenerate bifurcations not predicted by linearization about traveling waves.

  14. Parental stress and perceived vulnerability at 5 and 10 years after pediatric SCT.

    PubMed

    Vrijmoet-Wiersma, C M J; Egeler, R M; Koopman, H M; Bresters, D; Norberg, A L; Grootenhuis, M A

    2010-06-01

    With the aim of assessing parental stress after SCT, 73 parents of children and adolescents who underwent SCT 5 or 10 years ago responded to questionnaires on general distress (General Health Questionnaire (GHQ)), disease-related stress (Pediatric Inventory for Parents-short form (PIP-SF)) and perceptions of child vulnerability (Child Vulnerability Scale (CVS)). General distress scores were comparable with the reference groups, but 40% of the mothers at 5 years after SCT reported increased stress levels as compared with 26% in the community-based reference group. Disease-related stress was comparable with the reference group of parents of children who were just off cancer treatment, 5 years after SCT. At 10 years after SCT, scores were lower than the reference group. Perceived child vulnerability did diminish over time, but remained high in parents of SCT survivors, compared with parents of healthy children: 96% of the parents at 5 years after SCT and 76% of the parents at 10 years after SCT scored above the cutoff point. Perceived vulnerability was found to be a predictor for parental disease-related stress. To conclude, although most parents of SCT survivors are resilient, the majority of parents perceive their child to be much more vulnerable as compared with parents of healthy children. This perception is associated with disease-related stress and may induce overprotective parenting. PMID:19881554

  15. Evaluation of fire-safety programs that use 10-year smoke alarms.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Mark; Wilson, Jonathan; Akoto, Judith; Dixon, Sherry; Jacobs, David E; Ballesteros, Michael F

    2010-10-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention began funding a Smoke Alarm Installation and Fire Safety Education (SAIFE) program in 1998. This program involves the installation of lithium-powered "10-year" smoke alarms in homes at high risk for fires and injuries. This study aimed to (1) determine among original SAIFE homes if the lithium-powered alarms were still present and functional 8-10 years after installation and (2) understand factors related to smoke alarm presence and functionality. Data on a total of 384 homes and 601 smoke alarms in five states were collected and analyzed. Only one-third of alarms were still functional; 37% of installed alarms were missing; and 30% of alarms were present, but not functioning. Alarms were less likely to be functioning if they were installed in the kitchen and if homes had a different resident at follow-up. Of the 351 alarms that were present and had a battery at the time of the evaluation, only 21% contained lithium-powered batteries. Of these, 78% were still functioning. Programs that install lithium-powered alarms should use units that have sealed-in batteries and "hush" buttons. Additionally, education should be given on smoke alarm maintenance that includes a message that batteries in these alarms should not be replaced. Lithium-powered smoke alarms should last up to 10 years if maintained properly. PMID:20177753

  16. A statistical model for the timing of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions influenced by periodic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jupp, Tim E.; Pyle, David M.; Mason, Ben G.; Dade, W. Brian

    2004-02-01

    Evidence of nonuniformity in the rate of seismicity and volcanicity has been sought on a variety of timescales ranging from ˜12.4 hours (tidal) to 103-104 years (climatic), but the results are mixed. Here, we propose a simple conceptual model for the influence of periodic processes on the frequency of geophysical "failure events" such as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. In our model a failure event occurs at a "failure time" tF = tI + tR which is controlled by an "initiation event" at the "initiation time" tI and by the "response time" of the system tR. We treat each of the initiation time, the response time, and the failure time as random variables. In physical terms, we define the initiation time to be the time at which a "load function" exceeds a "strength function," and we imagine that the response time tR corresponds to a physical process such as crack propagation or the movement of magma. Assuming that the magnitude and frequency of the periodic process are known, we calculate the statistical distribution of the initiation times on the assumption that the load and strength functions are otherwise linear in time. This allows the distribution of the failure times to be calculated if the distribution of the response times is known also. The quantitative predictions of this simple theory are compared with some examples of observed periodicity in seismic and volcanic activity at tidal and annual timescales.

  17. Changes in Pulmonary Function Up to 10 Years After Locoregional Breast Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Erven, Katrien; Weltens, Caroline; Nackaerts, Kristiaan; Fieuws, Steffen; Decramer, Marc; Lievens, Yolande

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the long-term impact of locoregional breast radiotherapy (RT) on pulmonary function tests (PFTs). Methods and Materials: This study included 75 women who underwent postoperative locoregional breast RT. PFTs were performed before RT and 3, 6, and 12 months and 8 to 10 years after RT. By use of univariate and multivariate analyses, the impact of treatment- and patient-related factors on late changes in PFTs was evaluated. Results: During the first year after RT, all PFTs significantly worsened at 3 to 6 months after RT (p < 0.05). At 12 months, forced vital capacity (FVC), vital capacity (VC), and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV{sub 1}) recovered almost to baseline values, whereas total lung capacity (TLC) and diffusion capacity of carbon monoxide (DL{sub CO}) recovered only slightly and were still found to be decreased compared with baseline (p < 0.05). At 8 to 10 years after RT, mean reductions in FEV{sub 1} of 4% (p = 0.03) and in VC, DL{sub CO}, and TLC of 5%, 9%, and 11% (all p < 0.0001), respectively, were observed compared with pre-RT values. On multivariate analysis, tamoxifen use negatively affected TLC at 8 to 10 years after RT (p = 0.033), whereas right-sided irradiation was associated with a late reduction in FEV{sub 1} (p = 0.027). For FEV{sub 1} and DL{sub CO}, an early decrease was predictive for a late decrease (p = 0.003 and p = 0.0009, respectively). Conclusions: The time course of PFT changes after locoregional RT for breast cancer follows a biphasic pattern. An early reduction in PFTs at 3 to 6 months with a partial recovery at 12 months after RT is followed by a late, more important PFT reduction up to 8 to 10 years after RT. Tamoxifen use may have an impact on this late decline in PFTs.

  18. Time periodic spatial disorder in a complex Ginzburg{endash}Landau equation

    SciTech Connect

    Bazhenov, M.; Rabinovich, M.; Rubchinsky, L.

    1996-06-01

    The phenomenon of time-periodic evolution of spatial chaos (1) is investigated in the frame of a one and two-dimensional complex Ginzburg{endash}Landau equation. It is found that there exists a region of the parameters at which a disordered spatial distribution of the field behaves periodically in time; the boundaries of this region are determined. A system of ordinary differential equations describing spatial disorder is derived. The effect of the size of the system on the shape and period of oscillations is investigated. It is established that in a two-dimensional case the regime of time periodic spatial disorder arises only in the narrow band and the critical width of the band is estimated. The phenomenon investigated in this paper indicates that a family of limit cycles with finite basins may exist in the functional phase space of complex Ginzburg{endash}Landau equation in finite regions of the parameters. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  19. Dynamics of phase slips in systems with time-periodic modulation.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Punit; Knobloch, Edgar; Beaume, Cédric

    2015-12-01

    The Adler equation with time-periodic frequency modulation is studied. A series of resonances between the period of the frequency modulation and the time scale for the generation of a phase slip is identified. The resulting parameter space structure is determined using a combination of numerical continuation, time simulations, and asymptotic methods. Regions with an integer number of phase slips per period are separated by regions with noninteger numbers of phase slips and include canard trajectories that drift along unstable equilibria. Both high- and low-frequency modulation is considered. An adiabatic description of the low-frequency modulation regime is found to be accurate over a large range of modulation periods. PMID:26764781

  20. Orbit optimization and time delay interferometry for inclined ASTROD-GW formation with half-year precession-period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gang; Ni, Wei-Tou

    2015-05-01

    ASTROD-GW (ASTROD [astrodynamical space test of relativity using optical devices] optimized for gravitational wave detection) is a gravitational-wave mission with the aim of detecting gravitational waves from massive black holes, extreme mass ratio inspirals (EMRIs) and galactic compact binaries together with testing relativistic gravity and probing dark energy and cosmology. Mission orbits of the 3 spacecrafts forming a nearly equilateral triangular array are chosen to be near the Sun-Earth Lagrange points L3, L4, and L5. The 3 spacecrafts range interferometrically with one another with arm length about 260 million kilometers. For 260 times longer arm length, the detection sensitivity of ASTROD-GW is 260 fold better than that of eLISA/NGO in the lower frequency region by assuming the same acceleration noise. Therefore, ASTROD-GW will be a better cosmological probe. In previous papers, we have worked out the time delay interferometry (TDI) for the ecliptic formation. To resolve the reflection ambiguity about the ecliptic plane in source position determination, we have changed the basic formation into slightly inclined formation with half-year precession-period. In this paper, we optimize a set of 10-year inclined ASTROD-GW mission orbits numerically using ephemeris framework starting at June 21, 2035, including cases of inclination angle with 0° (no inclination), 0.5°, 1.0°, 1.5°, 2.0°, 2.5°, and 3.0°. We simulate the time delays of the first and second generation TDI configurations for the different inclinations, and compare/analyse the numerical results to attain the requisite sensitivity of ASTROD-GW by suppressing laser frequency noise below the secondary noises. To explicate our calculation process for different inclination cases, we take the 1.0° as an example to show the orbit optimization and TDI simulation.

  1. The Dynamics of Free Recall and Their Relation to Rehearsal between 8 and 10 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehmann, Martin; Hasselhorn, Marcus

    2010-01-01

    The present study longitudinally examined changes in recall in children between the ages of 8 and 10 years. Given the increasingly sophisticated use of memory strategies during this developmental period, correspondences between study and recall dynamics were of particular interest. Seventy-six children performed free-recall tasks on 5 occasions…

  2. Pregnancy outcomes in cystic fibrosis: a 10-year experience from a UK centre

    PubMed Central

    Priestley, L; Bennett, L; Mackillop, L; Chapman, SJ

    2015-01-01

    Background Cystic fibrosis manifests as a multisystem disease, despite this female fertility is relatively preserved with levels approaching that of the non-cystic fibrosis population. We reviewed pregnancies in cystic fibrosis patients over a 10-year period from a UK adult cystic fibrosis centre by considering maternal and fetal outcomes. Methods We conducted a retrospective case-note review of pregnancies during 2003–2013 using respiratory and obstetric records. Results We observed moderate falls in lung function immediately after delivery, which persisted at 12 months postpartum. We found that a decline in lung function at delivery was a marker for further decline in function during the subsequent postpartum period. We found baseline lung function was predictive of gestational age at delivery. We observed a high incidence of haemoptysis. Conclusion Consistent with current guidance we found pregnancy is feasible and well tolerated in the majority of patients with cystic fibrosis. There was a high incidence of haemoptysis, which warrants further study.

  3. Solar p modes in 10 years of the IRIS network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salabert, D.; Fossat, E.; Gelly, B.; Kholikov, S.; Grec, G.; Lazrek, M.; Schmider, F. X.

    2004-01-01

    IRIS data (the low degree ℓ≤ 3 helioseismology network) have been analysed for the study of p-mode parameters variability over the falling phase of the solar activity cycle 22 and the rising phase of the solar activity cycle 23. The IRIS duty cycle has been improved by the so-called ``repetitive music method'', a method of partial gap filling. We present in this paper an analysis of the dependence of p-mode frequencies and linewidths with frequency and with solar magnetic activity. We confirm also the periodicity of about 70 μHz of the high-frequency pseudo modes, with a much reduced visibility during the phase of higher activity.

  4. Frequency domain system identification of helicopter rotor dynamics incorporating models with time periodic coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Sunghwan

    1997-08-01

    One of the most prominent features of helicopter rotor dynamics in forward flight is the periodic coefficients in the equations of motion introduced by the rotor rotation. The frequency response characteristics of such a linear time periodic system exhibits sideband behavior, which is not the case for linear time invariant systems. Therefore, a frequency domain identification methodology for linear systems with time periodic coefficients was developed, because the linear time invariant theory cannot account for sideband behavior. The modulated complex Fourier series was introduced to eliminate the smearing effect of Fourier series expansions of exponentially modulated periodic signals. A system identification theory was then developed using modulated complex Fourier series expansion. Correlation and spectral density functions were derived using the modulated complex Fourier series expansion for linear time periodic systems. Expressions of the identified harmonic transfer function were then formulated using the spectral density functions both with and without additive noise processes at input and/or output. A procedure was developed to identify parameters of a model to match the frequency response characteristics between measured and estimated harmonic transfer functions by minimizing an objective function defined in terms of the trace of the squared frequency response error matrix. Feasibility was demonstrated by the identification of the harmonic transfer function and parameters for helicopter rigid blade flapping dynamics in forward flight. This technique is envisioned to satisfy the needs of system identification in the rotating frame, especially in the context of individual blade control. The technique was applied to the coupled flap-lag-inflow dynamics of a rigid blade excited by an active pitch link. The linear time periodic technique results were compared with the linear time invariant technique results. Also, the effect of noise processes and initial

  5. Bromus Tectorum (Cheatgrass): Monitoring An Invasion For 10 Years

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a Krascheninnikovia lanata (winterfat) community in the Honey Lake Valley of northeastern, CA we have monitored the effect of B. tectorum (a Eurasian exotic annual grass) invasion on surface soil properties. In 1990 a transect of 13 plots, 50 m apart was established, at which time only plots 1-5 ...

  6. A framework for periodic outlier pattern detection in time-series sequences.

    PubMed

    Rasheed, Faraz; Alhajj, Reda

    2014-05-01

    Periodic pattern detection in time-ordered sequences is an important data mining task, which discovers in the time series all patterns that exhibit temporal regularities. Periodic pattern mining has a large number of applications in real life; it helps understanding the regular trend of the data along time, and enables the forecast and prediction of future events. An interesting related and vital problem that has not received enough attention is to discover outlier periodic patterns in a time series. Outlier patterns are defined as those which are different from the rest of the patterns; outliers are not noise. While noise does not belong to the data and it is mostly eliminated by preprocessing, outliers are actual instances in the data but have exceptional characteristics compared with the majority of the other instances. Outliers are unusual patterns that rarely occur, and, thus, have lesser support (frequency of appearance) in the data. Outlier patterns may hint toward discrepancy in the data such as fraudulent transactions, network intrusion, change in customer behavior, recession in the economy, epidemic and disease biomarkers, severe weather conditions like tornados, etc. We argue that detecting the periodicity of outlier patterns might be more important in many sequences than the periodicity of regular, more frequent patterns. In this paper, we present a robust and time efficient suffix tree-based algorithm capable of detecting the periodicity of outlier patterns in a time series by giving more significance to less frequent yet periodic patterns. Several experiments have been conducted using both real and synthetic data; all aspects of the proposed approach are compared with the existing algorithm InfoMiner; the reported results demonstrate the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed approach. PMID:23757597

  7. 10 years of surprises at Saturn: CAPS and INMS highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coates, A. J.; Waite, J. H.

    2014-04-01

    The Cassini mission at Saturn has provided many surprises on Saturn's rapidly rotating magnetosphere and its interaction with the diverse moons, as well as its interaction with the solar wind. One of the early discoveries was the water-rich composition of the magnetosphere. Its structure and dynamics indicate remarkable injections, periodicities and interchange events. Enceladus, orbiting at 4 RS, was found to have plumes of water vapour and ice which are the dominant source for the inner magnetosphere. Charged water clusters, charged dust and photoelectrons provide key populations in the 'dusty plasma' seen here, as well as chemical complexity in the plume material. Direct pickup is seen near Enceladus and field aligned currents create a spot in Saturn's aurora. At Titan, orbiting at 20 RS, heavy negative and positive ions are seen in the ionosphere, as well as neutrals, all of which have surprising chemical complexity. These provide the source for Titan's haze. Ionospheric plasma is seen in Titan's tail, enabling ion escape to be estimated at 7 tonnes per day. Saturn's ring ionosphere was seen early in the mission, which was oxygen rich and produced photoelectrons; a return will be made in 2017. At Rhea, pickup positive and negative ions indicated weak atmospheres sustained by energetic particle impact, seen in the neutrals also. A weak atmosphere was also seen at Dione. The exosphere production process operates at Jupiter's moons also. Here we review some of the key new results, and discuss the implications for other solar system contexts.

  8. Finding hidden periodic signals in time series - an application to stock prices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Shea, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Data in the form of time series appear in many areas of science. In cases where the periodicity is apparent and the only other contribution to the time series is stochastic in origin, the data can be `folded' to improve signal to noise and this has been done for light curves of variable stars with the folding resulting in a cleaner light curve signal. Stock index prices versus time are classic examples of time series. Repeating patterns have been claimed by many workers and include unusually large returns on small-cap stocks during the month of January, and small returns on the Dow Jones Industrial average (DJIA) in the months June through September compared to the rest of the year. Such observations imply that these prices have a periodic component. We investigate this for the DJIA. If such a component exists it is hidden in a large non-periodic variation and a large stochastic variation. We show how to extract this periodic component and for the first time reveal its yearly (averaged) shape. This periodic component leads directly to the `Sell in May and buy at Halloween' adage. We also drill down and show that this yearly variation emerges from approximately half of the underlying stocks making up the DJIA index.

  9. The 10-Year Risk of Verified Motor Vehicle Crashes in Relation to Physiologic Sleepiness

    PubMed Central

    Drake, Christopher; Roehrs, Timothy; Breslau, Naomi; Johnson, Eric; Jefferson, Catherine; Scofield, Holly; Roth, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the risk of DMV documented crashes as a function of physiological sleepiness in a population-based sample. Design: 24-hour laboratory assessment (nocturnal polysomnogram and daytime MSLT) and 10-year crash rate based on DMV obtained accident records. Participants: 618 individuals (mean age = 41.6 ± 12.8; 48.5% male) were recruited from the general population of southeastern Michigan using random-digit dialing techniques. Results: Subjects were divided into 3 groups based on their average MSLT latency (in minutes) as follows: excessively sleepy, 0.0 to ≤ 5.0 (n = 69); moderately sleepy, 5.0 to ≤ 10.0 (n = 204); and alert, > 10 (n = 345). Main outcome measures were DMV data on accidents from 1995-2005. Rates for all accidents in the 3 MSLT groups were: excessively sleepy = 59.4%, moderately sleepy = 52.5%, alert = 47.3%. Excessively sleepy subjects were at significantly greater risk of an accident over the 10-year period compared to alert subjects. A similar relation was observed when we limited the database to those accident victims with severe injury (excessively sleepy = 4.3%, moderately sleepy = 0.5%, alert = 0.6%; P = 0.028). When the victim was the only occupant of the car, subjects in the lowest MSLT group (highest sleepiness) had the greatest crash rate compared with alert individuals (excessively sleepy = 52.2%, moderately sleepy = 42.2%, alert = 37.4%; P = 0.022). Interventions: N/A Conclusions: These data demonstrate that the MSLT, a physiological measure of sleepiness, is predictive of an increased risk of DMV documented automotive crashes in the general population. Citation: Drake C; Roehrs T; Breslau N; Johnson E; Jefferson C; Scofield H; Roth T. The 10-year risk of verified motor vehicle crashes in relation to physiologic sleepiness. SLEEP 2010;33(6):745-752. PMID:20550014

  10. Rank One Strange Attractors in Periodically Kicked Predator-Prey System with Time-Delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wenjie; Lin, Yiping; Dai, Yunxian; Zhao, Huitao

    2016-06-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of the problem of rank one strange attractor in a periodically kicked predator-prey system with time-delay. Our discussion is based on the theory of rank one maps formulated by Wang and Young. Firstly, we develop the rank one chaotic theory to delayed systems. It is shown that strange attractors occur when the delayed system undergoes a Hopf bifurcation and encounters an external periodic force. Then we use the theory to the periodically kicked predator-prey system with delay, deriving the conditions for Hopf bifurcation and rank one chaos along with the results of numerical simulations.

  11. A Recurrence Time versus Orbital Period Relation for the Z Camelopardalis Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafter, Allen W.; Cannizzo, John K.; Waagen, Elizabeth O.

    2005-09-01

    We examine AAVSO (American Association of Variable Star Observers) light curves of 16 Z Camelopardalis systems with measured orbital periods, with particular focus on intervals away from standstill. During these times, most of the systems display a sawtooth-like outburst behavior, with quiescent intervals comparable to the outburst durations. We report the discovery of a linear relation between the characteristic outburst period and orbital period for these systems, which is given by =62.0(+/-7.7)Porb(days)+2.41(+/-1.87).

  12. Trends and predictors of asthma costs: results from a 10-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Tan, Ngiap Chuan; Nguyen, Hai V; Lye, Weng Kit; Sankari, Usha; Nadkarni, Nivedita V

    2016-03-01

    Research on asthma costs often focuses on estimating average asthma costs. Trends in asthma costs and patterns of medication use, especially for those who have been followed up and under treatment, have received much less attention. This study's objective was to document asthma costs over time for asthma patients who are enrolled in an asthma care programme in Singapore and to identify its predictors, using a 10-year longitudinal dataset.The study population comprised different cohorts of 939 asthma patients entering the programme at different times during 2004-2013. Average asthma costs were estimated and the trends over time examined graphically, within and across patient cohorts. Regression analyses were conducted to examine cost predictors, with a focus on the relationship between risk factors at programme enrolment and subsequent asthma costs.The results indicate that 10-year average annual asthma cost was GBP 341 per patient. The main drivers of costs were asthma medications and consultation fees. Use of combined inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting β-agonist medications increased over time, but this was accompanied by declines in controller drug use, doctor visits and total asthma drug costs. Obesity, smoking and asthma severity were the main predictors of subsequent asthma costs, especially for females. PMID:26647437

  13. Physiological status of broiler chicks at pulling time and the relationship to duration of holding period.

    PubMed

    Tong, Q; Demmers, T; Romanini, C E B; Bergoug, H; Roulston, N; Exadaktylos, V; Bahr, C; Berckmans, D; Guinebretière, M; Eterradossi, N; Garain, P; McGonnell, I M

    2015-07-01

    Newly hatched chicks may be held longer than 48 h and experience long periods of fasting in commercial hatcheries. Limited information is known about the physiological status of chicks in such situations, due to the difficulty of precisely recording time of hatch. This study investigated the effect of the time from hatch to pulling (holding period) on physiological measures/parameters in 109 broiler chicks. Fertile Ross 308 eggs were incubated in a custom built small-scale incubator. The individual hatching time of each focal chick was determined using eggshell temperature monitoring. At 'pulling' (512 h of incubation time), the quality of focal chicks was assessed using the chick scoring method and physiological parameters were measured including BW, organ (heart, liver and stomach) weights, blood values and plasma corticosterone level. The time from hatch to pulling varied from 7.58 to 44.97 h. Egg weight at setting was significantly correlated with chick BW and weight of organs at pulling, but had no effect on chick quality, blood values and plasma corticosterone. Relative BW at pulling was negatively associated with the duration of holding period (P=0.002). However, there was a positive correlation between relative stomach weight and the duration of the holding period (P<0.001). As the holding period duration increased, there was a trend that blood partial pressure of oxygen, haematocrit and haemoglobin also increased, and blood partial pressure of carbon dioxide, total carbon dioxide and bicarbonate decreased (P<0.05). A wide range of plasma corticosterone was observed from chicks that had experienced different durations of holding period. We conclude that shortening the hatch window and minimising the number of chicks that experience a long holding period before pulling may improve chick quality and physiological status, which may be due to unfavourable environmental conditions that include feed and water deprivation. PMID:25711527

  14. A New Framework For Helicopter Vibration Suppression; Time-Periodic System Identification and Controller Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulker, Fatma Demet

    In forward flight, helicopter rotor blades function within a highly complex aerodynamic environment that includes both near-blade and far-blade aerodynamic phenomena. These aerodynamic phenomena cause fluctuating aerodynamic loads on the rotor blades. These loads when coupled with the dynamic characteristics and elastic motion of the blade create excessive amount of vibration. These vibrations degrade helicopter performance, passenger comfort and contributes to high cost maintenance problems. In an effort to suppress helicopter vibration, recent studies have developed active control strategies using active pitch links, flaps, twist actuation and higher harmonic control of the swash plate. In active helicopter vibration control, designing a controller in a computationally efficient way requires accurate reduced-order models of complex helicopter aeroelasticity. In previous studies, controllers were designed using aeroelastic models that were obtained by coupling independently reduced aerodynamic and structural dynamic models. Unfortunately, these controllers could not satisfy stability and performance criteria when implemented in high-fidelity computer simulations or real-time experiments. In this thesis, we present a novel approach that provides accurate time-periodic reduced-order models and time-periodic H2 and H infinity controllers that satisfy the stability and performance criteria. Computational efficiency and the necessity of using the approach were validated by implementing an actively controlled flap strategy. In this proposed approach, the reduced-order models were directly identified from high-fidelity coupled aeroelastic analysis by using the time-periodic subspace identification method. Time-periodic H2 and Hinfinity controllers that update the control actuation at every time step were designed. The control synthesis problem was solved using Linear Matrix Inequality and periodic Riccati Equation based formulations, for which an in-house periodic

  15. Identification of periods of clear sky irradiance in time series of GHI measurements

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Reno, Matthew J.; Hansen, Clifford W.

    2016-01-18

    In this study, we present a simple algorithm for identifying periods of time with broadband global horizontal irradiance (GHI) similar to that occurring during clear sky conditions from a time series of GHI measurements. Other available methods to identify these periods do so by identifying periods with clear sky conditions using additional measurements, such as direct or diffuse irradiance. Our algorithm compares characteristics of the time series of measured GHI with the output of a clear sky model without requiring additional measurements. We validate our algorithm using data from several locations by comparing our results with those obtained from amore » clear sky detection algorithm, and with satellite and ground-based sky imagery.« less

  16. Periodic trim solutions with hp-version finite elements in time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, David A.; Hou, Lin-Jun

    1990-01-01

    Finite elements in time as an alternative strategy for rotorcraft trim problems are studied. The research treats linear flap and linearized flap-lag response both for quasi-trim and trim cases. The connection between Fourier series analysis and hp-finite elements for periodic a problem is also examined. It is proved that Fourier series is a special case of space-time finite elements in which one element is used with a strong displacement formulation. Comparisons are made with respect to accuracy among Fourier analysis, displacement methods, and mixed methods over a variety parameters. The hp trade-off is studied for the periodic trim problem to provide an optimum step size and order of polynomial for a given error criteria. It is found that finite elements in time can outperform Fourier analysis for periodic problems, and for some given error criteria. The mixed method provides better results than does the displacement method.

  17. Wave height analysis from 10 years of observations in the Norwegian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xiangbo; Tsimplis, M. N.; Quartly, G. D.; Yelland, M. J.

    2014-01-01

    Large waves pose risks to ships, offshore structures, coastal infrastructure and ecosystems. This paper analyses 10 years of in-situ measurements of significant wave height (Hs) and maximum wave height (Hmax) from the ocean weather ship Polarfront in the Norwegian Sea. During the period 2000 to 2009, surface elevation was recorded every 0.59 s during sampling periods of 30 min. The Hmax observations scale linearly with Hs on average. A widely-used empirical Weibull distribution is found to estimate average values of Hmax/Hs and Hmax better than a Rayleigh distribution, but tends to underestimate both for all but the smallest waves. In this paper we propose a modified Rayleigh distribution which compensates for the heterogeneity of the observed dataset: the distribution is fitted to the whole dataset and improves the estimate of the largest waves. Over the 10-year period, the Weibull distribution approximates the observed Hs and Hmax well, and an exponential function can be used to predict the probability distribution function of the ratio Hmax/Hs. However, the Weibull distribution tends to underestimate the occurrence of extremely large values of Hs and Hmax. The persistence of Hs and Hmax in winter is also examined. Wave fields with Hs>12 m and Hmax>16 m do not last longer than 3 h. Low-to-moderate wave heights that persist for more than 12 h dominate the relationship of the wave field with the winter NAO index over 2000-2009. In contrast, the inter-annual variability of wave fields with Hs>5.5 m or Hmax>8.5 m and wave fields persisting over ~2.5 days is not associated with the winter NAO index.

  18. People's preference patterns for gains/losses in multiple time period situations.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shin-Shin; Chang, Jung-Hua

    2013-10-01

    Little research to date has been devoted to investigating whether people treat time differently from money when facing multiple gains or losses. This study tested the hypothesis that because time is characterized by perishability, fixed supply, and infungibility, people with strong motivation to obtain a long period of uninterrupted discretionary time would strive to trim the time needed for non-discretionary activities or to combine several non-discretionary activities. As a result, people prefer integration over segregation of multiple time losses or gains, which is not consistent with the prediction based on hedonic editing theory or the renewable resource model. This proposition is supported by results from four experiments. PMID:24597454

  19. 10 years after implementation of TRIPS obligations in India.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Mahesh D

    2015-01-01

    The Patent (Amendment) Act of 2005 enforced after TRIPS raises many issues which hinder growth of Indian pharma companies. To tackle this, Indian pharma companies doubled their R&D expenditure and became significant players in global generic drug market. Indian pharmaceutical companies, which predominantly focused on import-oriented market, shifted to research-based approach by signing various agreements with MNCs that led to M&A and technology transfer. At the same time growth in R&D activities increased ANDA and DMF filing in the USA and Europe. Companies also kept their social responsibility by selling medicines at affordable price to patients. This paper highlights the changing business scenario of Indian pharmaceutical companies to counteract various issues evolved from new patent regime after TRIPS. PMID:26030078

  20. Responsibility-centered management: a 10-year nursing assessment.

    PubMed

    McBride, A B; Neiman, S; Johnson, J

    2000-01-01

    In 1988-89, Indiana University became the first public university to implement responsibility-centered management (RCM) comprehensively. This article describes and assesses the implementation of RCM on the core campus of Indiana University School of Nursing in Indianapolis. It describes how RCM encouraged an information-rich environment, particularly with the advent of economic modeling; decision making linked to strategic goals/objectives; and a performance-based reward structure (e.g., merit pay increases and incentive plans). It ends with a discussion about the worth of RCM and the changes that frame-work produced, particularly in reconceptualizing the roles of the business officer and dean. The most profound consequence of RCM may be the effect it has in encouraging rethinking of what it means to be a school of nursing at this point in time. PMID:10932994

  1. Seyfert Spectral Database: 10 Years Of Rxte Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattson, Barbara; Weaver, K.; Reynolds, C.

    2008-05-01

    What does the core of an active galactic nucleus truly look like? Do all Seyfert 2s have a Seyfert 1 at their core? How does the environment of their central regions affect our view of the central engine? We explore these questions with a systematic X-ray spectral study of bright Seyfert galaxies observed by the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). We develop a database of spectral fits of 821 time-resolved spectra from 39 Seyfert galaxies fitted to a standard model including the effects of a power-law X-ray spectrum reprocessed and absorbed by material around the black hole. We find a complex relationship between the iron line equivalent width (EW) and the underlying power law index (Γ) in the Seyfert 1 sample, which may be caused by dilution of a disk spectrum (which includes the narrow iron line) by a beamed jet component and, hence, could be used as a diagnostic of jet-dominance. The same relationship does not hold for the Seyfert 2 sample, and may indicate that these sources show more complex environments. We also see the X-ray Baldwin effect (an anti-correlation between the 2-10 keV X-ray luminosity and EW) for the Seyfert 1 sample and Seyfert 1 sub-classifications, but not for each individual galaxy. In addition, our sample shows a strong correlation between R and Γ for all spectra in the sample, but we find that it is likely the result of a modeling degeneracy.

  2. [The National Mental Health Plan in Chile: 10 years of experience].

    PubMed

    Minoletti, Alberto; Zaccaria, Alessandra

    2005-01-01

    Dealing with mental health problems is undoubtedly an increasingly important public health responsibility around the world. In Chile, because of the changes in the epidemiological profile of the population, the lifetime prevalence of mental and behavioral disorders has reached 36%. In response, the Ministry of Health of Chile, through its Mental Health Unit, prepared the National Plan for Mental Health and Psychiatry. The Plan establishes objectives, strategies, and steps to improve the well-being and mental health of Chileans. This piece describes the model of care for mental health and psychiatry used in Chile's public health care system, analyzes the main difficulties encountered and the achievements made in the 10 years that the Plan has been in place, and makes recommendations for improving the Plan. Over the 10-year period, the new model for mental health and psychiatry has managed to make a place for itself in the public health care system. Indicators show that the beneficiaries of the public health care system in Chile now have greater access to mental health services than before the new model of community care was established, have broader health care coverage, and receive better quality services. PMID:16354432

  3. Treatment of the edentulous atrophic maxilla using zygomatic implants: evaluation of survival rates over 5-10 years.

    PubMed

    Yates, J M; Brook, I M; Patel, R R; Wragg, P F; Atkins, S A; El-Awa, A; Bakri, I; Bolt, R

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this retrospective observational cohort study was to analyse and report the 5-10-year survival rates of endosseous zygomatic implants used in the rehabilitation of the atrophic maxilla. Forty-three consecutive zygomatic implant placements in 25 patients were evaluated over a 5-10-year period. All zygomatic implant surgery was carried out under general anaesthesia. Nobel Biocare zygomatic machined-surface implants were used, and placement was undertaken using the modified sinus slot method. The main outcome measures and determinants for success were survival of the restored implants and the proportion of originally planned prostheses delivered to patients. Of the 25 patients treated, 12 were male and 13 were female; 19 were non-smokers, and the mean age at time of surgery was 64 years. Patients were treatment-planned for implant-retained bridgework, a removable prosthesis retained by fixed cast gold or milled titanium beams, or magnet-retained removable prostheses. A combination of zygomatic and conventional implants was used in all but one patient. In this study it was shown that the overall success rate for zygomatic implants was 86%, with six of the implants either failing to integrate or requiring removal due to persistent infection associated with the maxillary sinus. All patients received their planned prosthesis, although in six cases the method of retention required modification. This study illustrates that zygomatic implants are a successful and important treatment option when trying to restore the atrophic maxilla, with the potential to avoid additional augmentation/grafting procedures and resulting in a high long-term success rate. PMID:24120903

  4. Adaptive time-delayed stabilization of steady states and periodic orbits.

    PubMed

    Selivanov, Anton; Lehnert, Judith; Fradkov, Alexander; Schöll, Eckehard

    2015-01-01

    We derive adaptive time-delayed feedback controllers that stabilize fixed points and periodic orbits. First, we develop an adaptive controller for stabilization of a steady state by applying the speed-gradient method to an appropriate goal function and prove global asymptotic stability of the resulting system. For an example we show that the advantage of the adaptive controller over the nonadaptive one is in a smaller controller gain. Second, we propose adaptive time-delayed algorithms for stabilization of periodic orbits. Their efficiency is confirmed by local stability analysis. Numerical examples demonstrate the applicability of the proposed controllers. PMID:25679681

  5. A Time-Delayed Mathematical Model for Tumor Growth with the Effect of a Periodic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shihe; Wei, Xiangqing; Zhang, Fangwei

    2016-01-01

    A time-delayed mathematical model for tumor growth with the effect of periodic therapy is studied. The establishment of the model is based on the reaction-diffusion dynamics and mass conservation law and is considered with a time delay in cell proliferation process. Sufficient conditions for the global stability of tumor free equilibrium are given. We also prove that if external concentration of nutrients is large the tumor will not disappear and the conditions under which there exist periodic solutions to the model are also determined. Results are illustrated by computer simulations. PMID:27274763

  6. Adaptive time-delayed stabilization of steady states and periodic orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selivanov, Anton; Lehnert, Judith; Fradkov, Alexander; Schöll, Eckehard

    2015-01-01

    We derive adaptive time-delayed feedback controllers that stabilize fixed points and periodic orbits. First, we develop an adaptive controller for stabilization of a steady state by applying the speed-gradient method to an appropriate goal function and prove global asymptotic stability of the resulting system. For an example we show that the advantage of the adaptive controller over the nonadaptive one is in a smaller controller gain. Second, we propose adaptive time-delayed algorithms for stabilization of periodic orbits. Their efficiency is confirmed by local stability analysis. Numerical examples demonstrate the applicability of the proposed controllers.

  7. A Time-Delayed Mathematical Model for Tumor Growth with the Effect of a Periodic Therapy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shihe; Wei, Xiangqing; Zhang, Fangwei

    2016-01-01

    A time-delayed mathematical model for tumor growth with the effect of periodic therapy is studied. The establishment of the model is based on the reaction-diffusion dynamics and mass conservation law and is considered with a time delay in cell proliferation process. Sufficient conditions for the global stability of tumor free equilibrium are given. We also prove that if external concentration of nutrients is large the tumor will not disappear and the conditions under which there exist periodic solutions to the model are also determined. Results are illustrated by computer simulations. PMID:27274763

  8. Back to the future: 10 years of European health reforms.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Anna; Poteliakhoff, Emmi

    2012-01-01

    The challenges facing European health systems have changed little over 30 years but the responses to them have. Policy ideas that emerged in some countries spread to others; however, the way policies were implemented and the impact they have had has been shaped by specific national contexts. Comparative policy analysis has evolved in response to this, moving away from simple classifications of health systems and crude rankings to studies that try and understand more deeply what works, where and why. For policymakers interested in how other countries have dealt with common challenges, it is important that they avoid the naïve transplantation of policy solutions but understand the need to translate policies to fit the institutional context of a particular country. Policies that cross borders will necessarily be shaped by the social and political institutions of a country. These dimensions should not be ignored in comparative research. The next decade will require health systems to deliver improved care for people with complex needs while at the same time delivering greater value. Policymakers will benefit from looking backwards as well as to their neighbours in order to develop appropriate policy solutions. PMID:22221926

  9. Developmental critical windows and sensitive periods as three-dimensional constructs in time and space.

    PubMed

    Burggren, Warren W; Mueller, Casey A

    2015-01-01

    A critical window (sensitive period) represents a period during development when an organism's phenotype is responsive to intrinsic or extrinsic (environmental) factors. Such windows represent a form of developmental phenotypic plasticity and result from the interaction between genotype and environment. Critical windows have typically been defined as comprising discrete periods in development with a distinct starting time and end time, as identified by experiments following an on and an off protocol. Yet in reality, periods of responsiveness during development are likely more ambiguous that depicted. Our goal is to extend the concept of the developmental critical window by introducing a three-dimensional construct in which time during development, dose of the stressor applied, and the resultant phenotypic modification can be utilized to more realistically define a critical window. Using the example of survival of the brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) during exposure to different salinity levels during development, we illustrate that it is not just stressor dose or exposure time but the interaction of these two factors that results in the measured phenotypic change, which itself may vary within a critical window. We additionally discuss a systems approach to critical windows, in which the components of a developing system--whether they be molecular, physiological, or morphological--may show differing responses with respect to time and dose. Thus, the plasticity of each component may contribute to a broader overall system response. PMID:25730265

  10. Coroner consistency - The 10-jurisdiction, 10-year, postcode lottery?

    PubMed

    Mclean, Maxwell

    2015-04-01

    The investigation and classification of deaths in England and Wales relies upon the application by medical practitioners of diverse reporting standards set locally by coroners and thereafter upon the effectively unconstrained decision process of those same coroners. The author has conducted extensive comparative analysis of Ministry of Justice data on reports to the coroner and their inquest and verdict returns alongside Office of National Statistics data pertaining to the numbers of registered deaths in equivalent local jurisdictions. Here, he analyses 10 jurisdictions characterised by almost identical inquest return numbers in 2011. Substantial variation was found in reporting rates to the coroner and in the profile of inquest verdicts. The range of deaths reported varied from 34% to 62% of all registered deaths. Likewise only 2 of the 10 jurisdictions shared the same ranking of proportions in which the six common verdicts were reached. Individual jurisdictions tended to be consistent over time in their use of verdicts. In all cases, proportionately more male deaths were reported to the coroner. Coroners generally seemed prima facie to be 'gendered' in their approach to verdicts; that is, they were consistently more likely to favour a particular verdict when dealing with a death, according to the sex of the deceased. The extent to which coroners seemed gendered varied widely. While similar services such as the criminal courts or the Crown Prosecution Service are subject to extensive national guidance in an attempt to constrain idiosyncratic decision making, there seems no reason why this should apply less to the process of death investigation and classification. Further analysis of coroners' local practices and their determinants seems necessary. PMID:24644227

  11. Modeling laser-induced periodic surface structures: Finite-difference time-domain feedback simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Skolski, J. Z. P. Vincenc Obona, J.; Römer, G. R. B. E.; Huis in 't Veld, A. J.

    2014-03-14

    A model predicting the formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSSs) is presented. That is, the finite-difference time domain method is used to study the interaction of electromagnetic fields with rough surfaces. In this approach, the rough surface is modified by “ablation after each laser pulse,” according to the absorbed energy profile, in order to account for inter-pulse feedback mechanisms. LIPSSs with a periodicity significantly smaller than the laser wavelength are found to “grow” either parallel or orthogonal to the laser polarization. The change in orientation and periodicity follow from the model. LIPSSs with a periodicity larger than the wavelength of the laser radiation and complex superimposed LIPSS patterns are also predicted by the model.

  12. Natural convection in an enclosure under time periodic heating: An experimental study

    SciTech Connect

    Antohe, B.V.; Lage, J.L.

    1996-12-31

    The effect of the heating period on the heat transfer across a water filled rectangular enclosure is examined experimentally. The enclosure is designed such that periodic heat by Joule effect is delivered at one wall while the opposite wall is maintained at an approximately constant temperature. All other surfaces are insulated. Several heating power levels are chosen with equivalent time averaged heat-flux based Rayleigh number varying from 2.5 {times} 10{sup 8} to 1.0 {times} 10{sup 9}. The heating period varies from 32 seconds to 1600 seconds. For the highest Rayleigh number, Ra = 1.0 {times} 10{sup 9}, the oscillatory heating process leads to a cycle averaged heat transfer coefficient 20 percent higher than obtained with steady averaged-heat flux heating. Results, presented in terms of temperature time series, phase-plane portrait, and time evolution of cooling and heating wall temperatures, indicate that for low heating frequencies the heat transfer across the enclosure is hindered, with the time averaged heat transfer coefficient decreasing by as much as 13 percent of the equivalent steady heating value. A plausible explanation for the phenomenon is offered and discussed. The instantaneous and cycle averaged heat transfer coefficients, and the corresponding Nusselt numbers, are also presented for various heating frequencies.

  13. Relaxation Time of Artificial Periodic Irregularities of the Ionospheric Plasma and Diffusion in the Inhomogeneous Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigor'ev, G. I.; Bakhmet'eva, N. V.; Tolmacheva, A. V.; Kalinina, E. E.

    2013-09-01

    We consider diffusion of the ionospheric-plasma irregularities as applied to the problem of experimental determination of the lower-ionosphere parameters by artificial periodic irregularities of the electron number density. A rigorous solution to the problem of diffusion of one-dimensional plasma irregularities in a weakly ionized medium, whose diffusion coefficient exponentially decreases with the altitude, is obtained. The Green's function for this problem is found. Three parameters are taken into account in the solution, namely, the size of the region occupied by the irregularities, the size of the irregularities, and a typical spatial scale of the e-fold decrease in the diffusion coefficient. Theoretical relaxation times of the irregularities as functions of these parameters are analyzed. Calculated relaxation times are compared with the times measured in the observation of the artificial periodic irregularities created by the SURA facility. Calculated relaxation times of these irregularities are in good agreement with the observed values.

  14. The risk of losing 10 years of life put in perspective: views of college student smokers.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Shu-Hui; Huang, Song-Lih

    2015-03-01

    Health messages have limited effects on young smokers. The health effects typically have long latent periods, and the appreciation of risk depends on the meaning given to longevity. This study aims to understand how college student smokers interpreted the risks of losing 10 years of life because of smoking. In-depth semistructured interviews were conducted with 23 male smokers from a relatively low-achieving college in southern Taiwan. The participants had vague ideas about the future; were not expecting a successful life, thought life was stressful and boring; and expressed that there was no need to live too long. Many believed that removing the stress and having a composed lifestyle was the way to becoming healthy, which could be achieved only by people with economic success. They would quit had they been rich. Empowerment to help young smokers gain control over their life events may be the key to tobacco control. PMID:23695539

  15. Diagnostic Approach to Childhood-onset Cerebellar Atrophy: A 10-Year Retrospective Study of 300 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Al-Maawali, Almundher; Blaser, Susan; Yoon, Grace

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary ataxias associated with cerebellar atrophy are a heterogeneous group of disorders. Selection of appropriate clinical and genetic tests for patients with cerebellar atrophy poses a diagnostic challenge. Neuroimaging is a crucial initial investigation in the diagnostic evaluation of ataxia in childhood, and the presence of cerebellar atrophy helps guide further investigations. We performed a detailed review of 300 patients with confirmed cerebellar atrophy on magnetic resonance imaging over a 10-year period. A diagnosis was established in 47% of patients: Mitochondrial disorders were most common, followed by the neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses, ataxia telangectasia, and late GM2-gangliosidosis. We review the common causes of cerebellar atrophy in childhood and propose a diagnostic approach based on correlating specific neuroimaging patterns with clinical and genetic diagnoses. PMID:22764178

  16. Mining injuries in Serbian underground coal mines -- a 10-year study.

    PubMed

    Stojadinović, Saša; Svrkota, Igor; Petrović, Dejan; Denić, Miodrag; Pantović, Radoje; Milić, Vitomir

    2012-12-01

    Mining, especially underground coal mining, has always been a dangerous occupation. Injuries, unfortunately, even those resulting in death, are one of the major occupational risks that all miners live with. Despite the fact that all workers are aware of the risk, efforts must be and are being made to increase the safety of mines. Injury monitoring and data analysis can provide us with valuable data on the causes of accidents and enable us to establish a correlation between the conditions in the work environment and the number of injuries, which can further lead to proper preventive measures. This article presents the data on the injuries in Serbian coal mines during a 10-year period (2000-2009). The presented results are only part of an ongoing study whose aim is to assess the safety conditions in Serbian coal mines and classify them according to that assessment. PMID:21920518

  17. 10 years of mapping the icy saturnian satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roatsch, Thomas; Kersten, Elke; Matz, Klaus-Dieter; Porco, Carolyn

    2014-05-01

    synoptic map for making planet-wide maps on a single sheet was used for Phoebe [2]. • A quadrangle scheme with 15 tiles for Mercury-sized bodies and high-resolution imaging was used for Enceladus, Tethys, Dione, and Rhea. • A quadrangle scheme with 3 tiles, a subdivision of the synoptic map was used for Mimas and Iapetus. The individual maps and tiles were extracted from global mosaics and reprojected into the defined map projections. We added resolution maps and index maps for every individual tile of the atlas, showing the image resolution, the image numbers and the location of the images for every map, respectively. The entire atlases are available to the public through the Imaging Team's website: http://ciclops.org/maps. The map tiles are also archived as standard products in the Planetary Data System (PDS): http://pds.jpl.nasa.gov/. Nomenclature: The nomenclature proposed by the Cassini-ISS team was approved by the IAU (http://planetarynames.wr.usgs.gov/). By international agreement, the features must be named after people or locations in • "Le Morte d'Arthur" for Mimas • "The Thousand Nights and a Night" for Enceladus • "The Odyssey of Homer" for Tethys • "The Aeneid of Virgil" for Dione • Creation myths (with Asian emphasis) for Rhea • "The Song of Roland" for Iapetus • "The Argonautica" for Phoebe Future work: The Cassini Equinox mission ended in 2010. Cassini is now operating in the Solstice mission hopefully until September 2017. Several additional close satellite flybys are scheduled for this time frame e.g. for Enceladus in October 2015 and for Mimas in January 2017. These upcoming flybys will help to replace the low-resolution parts of these atlases with higher resolu-tion images. The northern polar regions will be illumi-nated during the extended mission providing an oppor-tunity to obtain high-resolution Cassini coverage of high northern latitudes. References: [1] Porco et al., 2004, Cassini imaging science: instrument characteristics and

  18. SMART-1 SPEDE: Results and Legacy after 10 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Walter; Mälkki, Anssi

    2014-05-01

    The Spacecraft Potential, Electron and Dust Experiment (SPEDE) [1], one of the instruments on the SMART-1 spacecraft, the European Space Agency's first Lunar mission, was part of the monitoring instruments supervising the propulsion system and supporting corrective actions to its operation when needed. During mission phases with inactive propulsion system the plasma instrument measured electron and ion densities and temperatures of the natural plasma in the vicinity of the spacecraft. While the spacecraft was slowly spiraling out of an Earth orbit towards a Moon trajectory it spent many months inside the Earth radiation belt. During this time SPEDE recorded the plasma parameters as a function of altitude and solar conditions and monitored also the effects of the major solar CME of October 28, the so-called "Halloween Storm" [2], [3]. After reaching the Moon on November 15, 2004, it continued to monitor the plasma and dust impacts onto the spacecraft until the end of the mission on September 3, 2006. Most of the Moon orbits lasted about 5 hours with an initial perilune distance of 2208 and an apolune distance of 4618 km, changing to 300 km and 3000km, respectively towards the end of the mission with a controlled impact onto the Lunar surface. A total of over 200 orbits were covered [4]. Covered by the SPEDE instrument are three areas of scientific interest: - A detailed altitude profile of the plasma parameters inside the radiation belt under different environmental condition - SPEDE was one of the few instruments active inside the radiation belt while normally all instruments on space missions are kept off to prevent damage, - a plasma parameter map in Lunar orbit with the Moon inside and outside the Earth magnetosphere, - plasma wave measurements around the moon with signatures of dust impacts onto the spacecraft monitoring the dust lifting processes on the Moon surface to escape velocities under certain solar wind conditions. Technical legacy: The Langmuir Probe

  19. A Gaussian Process Based Online Change Detection Algorithm for Monitoring Periodic Time Series

    SciTech Connect

    Chandola, Varun; Vatsavai, Raju

    2011-01-01

    Online time series change detection is a critical component of many monitoring systems, such as space and air-borne remote sensing instruments, cardiac monitors, and network traffic profilers, which continuously analyze observations recorded by sensors. Data collected by such sensors typically has a periodic (seasonal) component. Most existing time series change detection methods are not directly applicable to handle such data, either because they are not designed to handle periodic time series or because they cannot operate in an online mode. We propose an online change detection algorithm which can handle periodic time series. The algorithm uses a Gaussian process based non-parametric time series prediction model and monitors the difference between the predictions and actual observations within a statistically principled control chart framework to identify changes. A key challenge in using Gaussian process in an online mode is the need to solve a large system of equations involving the associated covariance matrix which grows with every time step. The proposed algorithm exploits the special structure of the covariance matrix and can analyze a time series of length T in O(T^2) time while maintaining a O(T) memory footprint, compared to O(T^4) time and O(T^2) memory requirement of standard matrix manipulation methods. We experimentally demonstrate the superiority of the proposed algorithm over several existing time series change detection algorithms on a set of synthetic and real time series. Finally, we illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm for identifying land use land cover changes using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data collected for an agricultural region in Iowa state, USA. Our algorithm is able to detect different types of changes in a NDVI validation data set (with ~80% accuracy) which occur due to crop type changes as well as disruptive changes (e.g., natural disasters).

  20. Thinking inside the Block Schedule: Strategies for Teaching in Extended Periods of Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Pam; Gregory, Gayle; Herndon, Lynne E.

    This book provides an array of strategies that can help teachers, administrators, and staff-development personnel as they plan, develop, and deliver content within extended periods of instructional time. It emphasizes the importance of teachers and administrators working together to improve instruction and contends that staff development remains…

  1. 20 CFR 261.10 - Increase in future benefits where time period for reopening has expired.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Increase in future benefits where time period for reopening has expired. 261.10 Section 261.10 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT ADMINISTRATIVE FINALITY § 261.10 Increase in future...

  2. 9 CFR 201.217 - Reasonable period of time to remedy a breach of contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reasonable period of time to remedy a breach of contract. 201.217 Section 201.217 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND... contract or agreement where food safety or animal welfare is concerned. These criteria, include, but...

  3. 9 CFR 201.217 - Reasonable period of time to remedy a breach of contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reasonable period of time to remedy a breach of contract. 201.217 Section 201.217 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND... contract or agreement where food safety or animal welfare is concerned. These criteria, include, but...

  4. 9 CFR 201.217 - Reasonable period of time to remedy a breach of contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reasonable period of time to remedy a breach of contract. 201.217 Section 201.217 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND... contract or agreement where food safety or animal welfare is concerned. These criteria, include, but...

  5. The Role of Thermal Properties in Periodic Time-Varying Phenomena

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marin, E.

    2007-01-01

    The role played by physical parameters governing the transport of heat in periodical time-varying phenomena within solids is discussed. Starting with a brief look at the conduction heat transport mechanism, the equations governing heat conduction under static, stationary and non-stationary conditions, and the physical parameters involved, are…

  6. Asymptotic bounds for the time-periodic solutions to the singularly perturbed ordinary differential equations.

    PubMed

    Amiraliyev, Gabil M; Ucar, Aysenur

    2013-01-01

    The periodical in time problem for singularly perturbed second order linear ordinary differential equation is considered. The boundary layer behavior of the solution and its first and second derivatives have been established. An example supporting the theoretical analysis is presented. PMID:24369452

  7. Forum Page Letters in the "Straits Times" of Singapore during Relatively Free and Restricted Press Periods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramaprasad, Jyotika; Ong, James

    In order to identify the scope or limits of the practice of development journalism, a study examined the content of the Forum page in the "Straits Times" of Singapore during relatively free (1979-1980) and restricted (1986-1987) press periods. The study had two major objectives: (1) to study the nature of the Forum page (a readers' letter page in…

  8. 41 CFR 105-8.150-3 - Time period for compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Time period for compliance. 105-8.150-3 Section 105-8.150-3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION 8-ENFORCEMENT OF...

  9. 41 CFR 105-8.150-3 - Time period for compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Time period for compliance. 105-8.150-3 Section 105-8.150-3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION 8-ENFORCEMENT OF...

  10. 41 CFR 105-8.150-3 - Time period for compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Time period for compliance. 105-8.150-3 Section 105-8.150-3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION 8-ENFORCEMENT OF...

  11. 41 CFR 105-8.150-3 - Time period for compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Time period for compliance. 105-8.150-3 Section 105-8.150-3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION 8-ENFORCEMENT OF...

  12. 20 CFR 261.10 - Increase in future benefits where time period for reopening has expired.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Increase in future benefits where time period for reopening has expired. 261.10 Section 261.10 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT ADMINISTRATIVE FINALITY § 261.10 Increase in future...

  13. Determination of the Conservation Time of Periodicals for Optimal Shelf Maintenance of a Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyamoto, Sadaaki; Nakayama, Kazuhiko

    1981-01-01

    Presents a method based on a constrained optimization technique that determines the time of removal of scientific periodicals from the shelf of a library. A geometrical interpretation of the theoretical result is given, and a numerical example illustrates how the technique is applicable to real bibliographic data. (FM)

  14. 45 CFR 96.14 - Time period for obligation and expenditure of grant funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Time period for obligation and expenditure of grant funds. 96.14 Section 96.14 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... first allotted shall remain available for obligation during the succeeding fiscal year for all...

  15. 45 CFR 96.14 - Time period for obligation and expenditure of grant funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Time period for obligation and expenditure of grant funds. 96.14 Section 96.14 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... first allotted shall remain available for obligation during the succeeding fiscal year for all...

  16. 42 CFR 87.7 - For what period of time will grants be awarded?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false For what period of time will grants be awarded? 87.7 Section 87.7 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY...

  17. 42 CFR 87.7 - For what period of time will grants be awarded?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false For what period of time will grants be awarded? 87.7 Section 87.7 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY...

  18. Identifying the Critical Time Period for Information Extraction when Recognizing Sequences of Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North, Jamie S.; Williams, A. Mark

    2008-01-01

    The authors attempted to determine the critical time period for information extraction when recognizing play sequences in soccer. Although efforts have been made to identify the perceptual information underpinning such decisions, no researchers have attempted to determine "when" this information may be extracted from the display. The authors…

  19. 45 CFR 96.14 - Time period for obligation and expenditure of grant funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Time period for obligation and expenditure of grant funds. 96.14 Section 96.14 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... first allotted shall remain available for obligation during the succeeding fiscal year for all...

  20. A Comparison of Terminally Ill Persons at Various Time Periods to Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baugher, Robert J.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examined responses of 1,110 terminally ill persons with cancer at varying time periods prior to death. Disengagement and Objective Self-Awareness theories, which suggest that people nearing death would increase desire to separate from others, were not supported. Found few differences in responses of persons further from, or closer to, death.…

  1. 42 CFR 87.7 - For what period of time will grants be awarded?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND... awards will be of such factors as the grantee's progress and management practices, and the availability... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false For what period of time will grants be awarded?...

  2. Practitioners' Perceptions of the Soccer Extra-Time Period: Implications for Future Research.

    PubMed

    Harper, Liam D; Fothergill, Melissa; West, Daniel J; Stevenson, Emma; Russell, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative research investigating soccer practitioners' perceptions can allow researchers to create practical research investigations. The extra-time period of soccer is understudied compared to other areas of soccer research. Using an open-ended online survey containing eleven main and nine sub questions, we gathered the perceptions of extra-time from 46 soccer practitioners, all working for different professional soccer clubs. Questions related to current practices, views on extra-time regulations, and ideas for future research. Using inductive content analysis, the following general dimensions were identified: 'importance of extra-time', 'rule changes', 'efficacy of extra-time hydro-nutritional provision', 'nutritional timing', 'future research directions', 'preparatory modulations' and 'recovery'. The majority of practitioners (63%) either agreed or strongly agreed that extra-time is an important period for determining success in knockout football match-play. When asked if a fourth substitution should be permitted in extra-time, 67% agreed. The use of hydro-nutritional strategies prior to extra-time was predominately considered important or very important. However; only 41% of practitioners felt that it was the most important time point for the use of nutritional products. A similar number of practitioners account (50%) and do not (50%) account for the potential of extra-time when training and preparing players and 89% of practitioners stated that extra-time influences recovery practices following matches. In the five minute break prior to extra-time, the following practices (in order of priority) were advocated to players: hydration, energy provision, massage, and tactical preparations. Additionally, 87% of practitioners advocate a particular nutritional supplementation strategy prior to extra-time. In order of importance, practitioners see the following as future research areas: nutritional interventions, fatigue responses, acute injury risk, recovery

  3. Cannabis use and the course of schizophrenia: 10-year follow-up after first hospitalization

    PubMed Central

    Foti, Daniel J.; Kotov, Roman; Guey, Lin T.; Bromet, Evelyn J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The authors examined the relationship between cannabis use and the course of illness in schizophrenia over 10 years following first psychiatric hospitalization. Method We assessed 229 patients with a schizophrenia-spectrum disorder five times: during the first admission, and 6 months, 2 years, 4 years, and 10 years later. Ratings of cannabis use and psychiatric symptoms (psychotic, negative, disorganized, and depressive) were made at each assessment. Results The lifetime rate of cannabis use was 66.2%, and survival analysis revealed that this usage was associated with an earlier onset of psychosis. The rates of current use ranged from 10% to 18% across assessments. Cannabis status was moderately stable, with concordance between waves ranging rtet = 0.48 – 0.78. Mixed-effects logistic regression revealed that changes in cannabis use were associated with changes in psychotic symptoms over time even after gender, age, socio-economic status, other drug use, antipsychotic medication use, and other symptoms were controlled. Structural equation modeling indicated that the association with psychotic symptoms was bi-directional. Conclusions Cannabis use is associated with an adverse course of psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia, and vice versa, even after taking into account other clinical, substance, and demographic variables. The specificity of this relationship suggests that clinical interventions to reduce cannabis use may be best targeted at individuals with prominent psychotic symptoms. PMID:20478874

  4. Injuries in a Professional Ballet Dance Company: A 10-year Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Ramkumar, Prem N; Farber, Joseph; Arnouk, Johnny; Varner, Kevin E; Mcculloch, Patrick C

    2016-03-01

    Ballet dancers are high-performance athletes who are particularly susceptible to a wide variety of musculoskeletal injuries. However, they are relatively understudied, and data on their injury rates are lacking. This retrospective study features the largest aggregate data on professional ballet dancers to date and aims to identify the most common diagnoses and areas of injury in this unique population to better direct preventative and clinical practices. The study encompassed a 10-year period from January 2000 to December 2010 of dancers from a single company. Data regarding the dancers' age, gender, location of injury, and diagnosis were collected from workers' compensation claims, company records, and medical records maintained by the treating doctors. These were analyzed to determine metrics on injury incidence, frequency, and diagnosis. Over the 10-year span, 574 injuries occurred. There were approximately 52 dancers per year for a total of 153 who danced at least one complete season during the study period. The average age was 27, and 53% were female. Given turnover with retirement and replacements, the total number of dancer-years was 520, indicating an injury incidence per annum of 1.10 (574 injuries per 520 dancer-years). The most common locations of injury were foot and ankle and the lumbar spine, with the three most common diagnoses making up greater than a third (37%) of the total. As the current largest study in professional ballet, the findings set the benchmark metrics for musculoskeletal injury to the foot, ankle, and lumbar spine sites. Future studies should aim to identify injury risk factors and modalities for prevention of these injuries. PMID:27025450

  5. Time Periods of Unusual Density Behavior Observed by GRACE and CHAMP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, C. A.; Fattig, E.; Mysore Krishna, D.; Locke, T.; Mehta, P. M.

    2011-12-01

    Time periods of low cross correlation between precision orbit ephemeris (POE) derived density and accelerometer density for CHAMP and GRACE are examined. In particular, the cross correlation for GRACE dropped from typical values near 0.9 to much lower values and then returned to typical over the time period of late October to late December of 2005. This time period includes a maneuver where GRACE-A and GRACE-B swapped positions. However, the drop in cross correlation begins and reaches its low point before the maneuvers begin. In addition, the densities were found using GRACE-A, but GRACE-B did most of the maneuvering. The time period is characterized by high frequency variations in accelerometer density of the same magnitude as the daylight to eclipse variations over the course of an orbit. However, the daylight to eclipse variations are particularly small during this time period because the orbit plane is near the terminator. Additionally, the difference between the accelerometer and POE derived densities are not unusually large during this time period. This implies the variations are not unusual, just more significant when the orbit plane is near terminator. Cyclical variations in correlation of the POE derived densities with accelerometer derived densities are seen for both GRACE and CHAMP, but the magnitude of the variations are much larger for GRACE, possibly because of the higher altitude of GRACE. The cycles seem to be phased so that low correlations occur with low beta angle when the orbit plane is near the terminator. The low correlation is possibly caused by the lower amplitude of the daylight to eclipse signal making higher frequency variations relatively more important. However, another possible explanation is terminator waves in density that propagate to the thermosphere from lower in the atmosphere. These waves have been observed in CHAMP accelerometer data and global circulation model simulations. Further investigation is needed to see if the

  6. Project Energize: intervention development and 10 years of progress in preventing childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Rush, Elaine; Cairncross, Carolyn; Williams, Margaret Hinepo; Tseng, Marilyn; Coppinger, Tara; McLennan, Steph; Latimer, Kasha

    2016-01-01

    Prevention of childhood obesity is a global priority. The school setting offers access to large numbers of children and the ability to provide supportive environments for quality physical activity and nutrition. This article describes Project Energize, a through-school physical activity and nutrition programme that celebrated its 10-year anniversary in 2015 so that it might serve as a model for similar practices, initiatives and policies elsewhere. The programme was envisaged and financed by the Waikato District Health Board of New Zealand in 2004 and delivered by Sport Waikato to 124 primary schools as a randomised controlled trial from 2005 to 2006. The programme has since expanded to include all 242 primary schools in the Waikato region and 70 schools in other regions, including 53,000 children. Ongoing evaluation and development of Project Energize has shown it to be sustainable (ongoing for >10 years), both effective (lower obesity, higher physical fitness) and cost effective (one health related cost quality adjusted life year between $18,000 and $30,000) and efficient ($45/child/year) as a childhood 'health' programme. The programme's unique community-based approach is inclusive of all children, serving a population that is 42% Māori, the indigenous people of New Zealand. While the original nine healthy eating and seven quality physical activity goals have not changed, the delivery and assessment processes has been refined and the health service adapted over the 10 years of the programme existence, as well as adapted over time to other settings including early childhood education and schools in Cork in Ireland. Evaluation and research associated with the programme delivery and outcomes are ongoing. The dissemination of findings to politicians and collaboration with other service providers are both regarded as priorities. PMID:26809555

  7. Development of 5- and 10-year-old pediatric phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Melo Lima, V. J. de; Cassola, V. F.; Kramer, R.; Oliveira Lira, C. A. B. de; Khoury, H. J.; Vieira, J. W.

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is the development of reference pediatric phantoms for 5- and 10-year-old children to be used for the calculation of organ and tissue equivalent doses in radiation protection. Methods: The study proposes a method for developing anatomically highly sophisticated pediatric phantoms without using medical images. The 5- and 10-year-old male and female phantoms presented here were developed using 3D modeling software applied to anatomical information taken from atlases and textbooks. The method uses polygon mesh surfaces to model body contours, the shape of organs as well as their positions, and orientations in the human body. Organ and tissue masses comply with the corresponding data given by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for the 5- and 10-year-old reference children. Bones were segmented into cortical bone, spongiosa, medullary marrow, and cartilage to allow for the use of micro computer tomographic ({mu}CT) images of trabecular bone for skeletal dosimetry. Results: The four phantoms, a male and a female for each age, and their organs are presented in 3D images and their organ and tissue masses in tables which show the compliance of the ICRP reference values. Dosimetric data, calculated for the reference pediatric phantoms by Monte Carlo methods were compared with corresponding data from adult mesh phantoms and pediatric stylized phantoms. The comparisons show reasonable agreement if the anatomical differences between the phantoms are properly taken into account. Conclusions: Pediatric phantoms were developed without using medical images of patients or volunteers for the first time. The models are reference phantoms, suitable for regulatory dosimetry, however, the 3D modeling method can also be applied to medical images to develop patient-specific phantoms.

  8. Determination of Optimum Period between Inspections for Distribution System based on Availability Accounting Uncertainties in Inspection Time and Repair Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwary, A.; Arya, R.; Choube, S. C.; Arya, L. D.

    2012-06-01

    This paper describes a technique for determination of optimum duration between inspections for each distributor segment of a distribution system. The optimum period between inspections is decided based on maximization of availability of the distribution system. The view point presented is that after inspection a minor maintenance is carried out which may otherwise cause failure of the system in future, for example, trimming of tree branches, arcing and damages of jumper connections and to avoid breakdown of insulators. Such stray causes may have small failure rates in total but periodic inspection and maintenance will increase the availability. Exponential failure law has been assumed. Inspection time and repair time, if required after inspection, have been assumed to be normally distributed. Two-membered evolution strategy has been used for optimization. The algorithm has been implemented on a sample radial distribution system.

  9. Reliability of Fitness Tests Using Methods and Time Periods Common in Sport and Occupational Management

    PubMed Central

    Burnstein, Bryan D.; Steele, Russell J.; Shrier, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Context: Fitness testing is used frequently in many areas of physical activity, but the reliability of these measurements under real-world, practical conditions is unknown. Objective: To evaluate the reliability of specific fitness tests using the methods and time periods used in the context of real-world sport and occupational management. Design: Cohort study. Setting: Eighteen different Cirque du Soleil shows. Patients or Other Participants: Cirque du Soleil physical performers who completed 4 consecutive tests (6-month intervals) and were free of injury or illness at each session (n = 238 of 701 physical performers). Intervention(s): Performers completed 6 fitness tests on each assessment date: dynamic balance, Harvard step test, handgrip, vertical jump, pull-ups, and 60-second jump test. Main Outcome Measure(s): We calculated the intraclass coefficient (ICC) and limits of agreement between baseline and each time point and the ICC over all 4 time points combined. Results: Reliability was acceptable (ICC > 0.6) over an 18-month time period for all pairwise comparisons and all time points together for the handgrip, vertical jump, and pull-up assessments. The Harvard step test and 60-second jump test had poor reliability (ICC < 0.6) between baseline and other time points. When we excluded the baseline data and calculated the ICC for 6-month, 12-month, and 18-month time points, both the Harvard step test and 60-second jump test demonstrated acceptable reliability. Dynamic balance was unreliable in all contexts. Limit-of-agreement analysis demonstrated considerable intraindividual variability for some tests and a learning effect by administrators on others. Conclusions: Five of the 6 tests in this battery had acceptable reliability over an 18-month time frame, but the values for certain individuals may vary considerably from time to time for some tests. Specific tests may require a learning period for administrators. PMID:22488138

  10. Time-space Variability of Weekly to Monthly Period Equatorial Waves in the Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durland, T.; Farrar, J. T.

    2015-12-01

    Data from satellite altimetry are used to characterize wavelike variability in the tropical Pacific Ocean at periods of days to two months. This period band is of interest because the space-time scales of oceanic equatorial waves at these frequencies have historically made adequate observation of the variability difficult. These waves have zonal scales that are very large (exceeding 3000 km) and meridional scales that are relatively short (~100 km), making in situ measurements difficult, and the short temporal scales pose challenges for observation with satellite altimeters because the wave periods are short compared to orbit repeat periods. As a result, there has been relatively little progress since the early 1980s in characterizing and understanding these equatorial inertia-gravity and mixed Rossby-gravity waves. In this analysis, we seek to exploit the long zonal length scales of these high-frequency equatorial waves in an analysis of satellite scatterometer and altimeter data to shed new light on the properties and dynamics of these waves. At periods of 2-14 days, there is clear evidence for the presence of several basin-scale equatorial wave modes, including mixed Rossby-gravity waves and inertia-gravity waves associated with baroclinic modes one and two. Here, we focus on equatorial Kelvin waves and mixed Rossby-gravity waves forced in the western Pacific, and examine their variability in time and space and their relation to wind.

  11. The Varying Light Curve and Timings of the Ultrashort-period Contact Binary KIC 9532219

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae Woo; Hong, Kyeongsoo; Koo, Jae-Rim; Park, Jang-Ho

    2016-03-01

    KIC 9532219 is a W UMa-type eclipsing binary with an orbital period of 0.1981549 days that is below the short-period limit (˜0.22 days) of the period distribution for contact binaries. The Kepler light curve of the system exhibits striking changes in both eclipse depths and light maxima. Applying third-body and spot effects, the light-curve synthesis indicates that the eclipsing pair is currently in a marginal contact stage with a mass ratio of q = 1.20, an orbital inclination of i = 66.°0, a temperature difference of T1-T2 = 172 K, and a third light of l3 = 75.9%. To understand the light variations with time, we divided up the light curve into 312 segments and analyzed them separately. The results reveal that variation of eclipse depth is primarily caused by changing amounts of contamination due to the nearby star KIC 9532228 between the Kepler Quarters and that the variable O’Connell effect originates from the starspot activity on the less massive primary component. Based on our light-curve timings, a period study of KIC 9532219 indicates that the orbital period has varied as a combination of a downward parabola and a light-travel-time (LTT) effect due to a third body, which has a period of 1196 days and a minimum mass of 0.0892 M⊙ in an orbit of eccentricity 0.150. The parabolic variation could be a small part of a second LTT orbit due to a fourth component in a wider orbit, instead of either mass transfer or angular momentum loss.

  12. Estimating the incubation period of raccoon rabies: a time-space clustering approach.

    PubMed

    Tinline, Rowland; Rosatte, Rick; MacInnes, Charles

    2002-11-29

    We used a time-space clustering approach to estimate the incubation period of raccoon rabies in the wild using data from the 1999-2001 invasion of raccoon rabies into eastern Ontario from northern New York State. The time differences and geographical distances between all possible pairs of rabies cases were computed, classified and assembled into a time-space matrix. The rows of that matrix represented differences in cases in weeks and the columns represent distances between cases in kilometers and the values in the cells of the matrix represent the counts of cases at specific time and distance intervals. There was a significant cluster of pairs 5 weeks apart with apparent harmonics at additional 5-week intervals. These results are explained by assuming the incubation period of raccoon rabies had a mode of 5 weeks. The time clusters appeared consistently at distance intervals of 5 km. We discuss the possibility that the spatial intervals were influenced by the 5 km radius of the point infection control depopulation process used in 1999 and the 10-15 km radial areas used in 2000. With the practical limits of those radii, there was an intensive effort to eliminate raccoons. Our procedure is easy to implement and provides an estimate of the shape of the distribution of incubation periods for raccoon rabies. PMID:12419602

  13. Periodic modulation in pulse arrival times from young pulsars: a renewed case for neutron star precession

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, M.; Hobbs, G.; Johnston, S.; Shannon, R. M.

    2016-01-01

    In a search for periodic variation in the arrival times of pulses from 151 young, energetic pulsars, we have identified seven cases of modulation consistent with one or two harmonics of a single fundamental with time-scale 0.5-1.5 yr. We use simulations to show that these modulations are statistically significant and of high quality (sinusoidal) even when contaminated by the strong stochastic timing noise common to young pulsars. Although planetary companions could induce such modulation, the large implied masses and 2:1 mean motion resonances challenge such an explanation. Instead, the modulation is likely to be intrinsic to the pulsar, arising from quasi-periodic switching between stable magnetospheric states, and we propose that precession of the neutron star may regulate this switching.

  14. Periodic trim solutions with HP-version finite elements in time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Finite Element in Time has been proven to be a powerful alternative solving strategy for the rotor craft trim problem. Additionally, Finite Element Method in Time has been developed in various versions like time-marching framework, Galerkin framework, Rayleigh-Ritz framework, and mixed formulation. Recently, this method was applied to the rotorcraft trim problem to obtain linearized solutions. The rotorcraft trim problem consists of trying to find a period solution for period-coefficient, differential equations subject to side constraints where certain force and momentum balance equations are forced to be equal to zero. There are free (or trim) parameters that are chosen to meet these side constraints. This project aims at expanding the application, in terms of the rotorcraft trim problem, from a linearized solution to nonlinear solution.

  15. Association of intrinsic circadian period with morningness-eveningness, usual wake time, and circadian phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duffy, J. F.; Rimmer, D. W.; Czeisler, C. A.

    2001-01-01

    The biological basis of preferences for morning or evening activity patterns ("early birds" and "night owls") has been hypothesized but has remained elusive. The authors reported that, compared with evening types, the circadian pacemaker of morning types was entrained to an earlier hour with respect to both clock time and wake time. The present study explores a chronobiological mechanism by which the biological clock of morning types may be set to an earlier hour. Intrinsic period, a fundamental property of the circadian system, was measured in a month-long inpatient study. A subset of participants also had their circadian phase assessed. Participants completed a morningness-eveningness questionnaire before study. Circadian period was correlated with morningness-eveningness, circadian phase, and wake time, demonstrating that a fundamental property of the circadian pacemaker is correlated with the behavioral trait of morningness-eveningness.

  16. Sex difference in the near-24-hour intrinsic period of the human circadian timing system

    PubMed Central

    Duffy, Jeanne F.; Cain, Sean W.; Chang, Anne-Marie; Phillips, Andrew J. K.; Münch, Mirjam Y.; Gronfier, Claude; Wyatt, James K.; Dijk, Derk-Jan; Czeisler, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    The circadian rhythms of melatonin and body temperature are set to an earlier hour in women than in men, even when the women and men maintain nearly identical and consistent bedtimes and wake times. Moreover, women tend to wake up earlier than men and exhibit a greater preference for morning activities than men. Although the neurobiological mechanism underlying this sex difference in circadian alignment is unknown, multiple studies in nonhuman animals have demonstrated a sex difference in circadian period that could account for such a difference in circadian alignment between women and men. Whether a sex difference in intrinsic circadian period in humans underlies the difference in circadian alignment between men and women is unknown. We analyzed precise estimates of intrinsic circadian period collected from 157 individuals (52 women, 105 men; aged 18–74 y) studied in a month-long inpatient protocol designed to minimize confounding influences on circadian period estimation. Overall, the average intrinsic period of the melatonin and temperature rhythms in this population was very close to 24 h [24.15 ± 0.2 h (24 h 9 min ± 12 min)]. We further found that the intrinsic circadian period was significantly shorter in women [24.09 ± 0.2 h (24 h 5 min ± 12 min)] than in men [24.19 ± 0.2 h (24 h 11 min ± 12 min); P < 0.01] and that a significantly greater proportion of women have intrinsic circadian periods shorter than 24.0 h (35% vs. 14%; P < 0.01). The shorter average intrinsic circadian period observed in women may have implications for understanding sex differences in habitual sleep duration and insomnia prevalence. PMID:21536890

  17. A General Approach to Time Periodic Incompressible Viscous Fluid Flow Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geissert, Matthias; Hieber, Matthias; Nguyen, Thieu Huy

    2016-06-01

    This article develops a general approach to time periodic incompressible fluid flow problems and semilinear evolution equations. It yields, on the one hand, a unified approach to various classical problems in incompressible fluid flow and, on the other hand, gives new results for periodic solutions to the Navier-Stokes-Oseen flow, the Navier-Stokes flow past rotating obstacles, and, in the geophysical setting, for Ornstein-Uhlenbeck and various diffusion equations with rough coefficients. The method is based on a combination of interpolation and topological arguments, as well as on the smoothing properties of the linearized equation.

  18. Time Periodic Solutions to the One-Dimensional Nonlinear Wave Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Shuguan; Li, Yong

    2011-02-01

    This paper is concerned with the time periodic solutions to the one-dimensional nonlinear wave equation with either variable or constant coefficients. By adjusting the basis of L 2 function space, we can circumvent the difficulties caused by η u = 0 and obtain the existence of a weak periodic solution, which was posed as an open problem by Baubu and Pavel in (Trans Am Math Soc 349:2035-2048, 1997). Finally, an application to the forced Sine-Gordon equation is presented to illustrate the utility of this technique.

  19. Spatiotemporal Trends Analysis of Pyrethroid Sediment Concentrations Spanning 10 Years in a Residential Creek in California.

    PubMed

    Hall, Lenwood W; Anderson, Ronald D; Killen, William D

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to assess temporal and spatial trends for eight pyrethroids monitored in sediment spanning 10 years from 2006 to 2015 in a residential stream in California (Pleasant Grove Creek). The timeframe for this study included sampling 3 years during a somewhat normal non-drought period (2006-2008) and 3 years during a severe drought period (2013-2015). Regression analysis of pyrethroid concentrations in Pleasant Grove Creek for 2006, 2007, 2008, 2012, 2013, 2014, and 2015 using ½ the detection limit for nondetected concentrations showed statistically significant declining trends for cyfluthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, permethrin, and total pyrethoids. Additional trends analysis of the Pleasant Grove Creek pyrethroid data using only measured concentrations, without nondetected values, showed similar statistically significant declining trends for cyfluthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, esfenvalerate, fenpropathrin, permethrin, and total pyrethroids. Spatial trends analysis for the specific creek sites showed that six of the eight pyrethroids had a greater number of sites with statistically significant declining concentrations. Possible reasons for reduced pyrethroid concentrations in the stream bed in Pleasant Grove Creek during this 10-year period are label changes in 2012 that reduced residential use and lack of precipitation during the later severe drought years of 2013-2015. PMID:26643307

  20. Plasticity of the Intrinsic Period of the Human Circadian Timing System

    PubMed Central

    Scheer, Frank A.J.L.; Wright, Kenneth P.; Kronauer, Richard E.; Czeisler, Charles A.

    2007-01-01

    Human expeditions to Mars will require adaptation to the 24.65-h Martian solar day-night cycle (sol), which is outside the range of entrainment of the human circadian pacemaker under lighting intensities to which astronauts are typically exposed. Failure to entrain the circadian time-keeping system to the desired rest-activity cycle disturbs sleep and impairs cognitive function. Furthermore, differences between the intrinsic circadian period and Earth's 24-h light-dark cycle underlie human circadian rhythm sleep disorders, such as advanced sleep phase disorder and non-24-hour sleep-wake disorders. Therefore, first, we tested whether exposure to a model-based lighting regimen would entrain the human circadian pacemaker at a normal phase angle to the 24.65-h Martian sol and to the 23.5-h day length often required of astronauts during short duration space exploration. Second, we tested here whether such prior entrainment to non-24-h light-dark cycles would lead to subsequent modification of the intrinsic period of the human circadian timing system. Here we show that exposure to moderately bright light (∼450 lux; ∼1.2 W/m2) for the second or first half of the scheduled wake episode is effective for entraining individuals to the 24.65-h Martian sol and a 23.5-h day length, respectively. Estimations of the circadian periods of plasma melatonin, plasma cortisol, and core body temperature rhythms collected under forced desynchrony protocols revealed that the intrinsic circadian period of the human circadian pacemaker was significantly longer following entrainment to the Martian sol as compared to following entrainment to the 23.5-h day. The latter finding of after-effects of entrainment reveals for the first time plasticity of the period of the human circadian timing system. Both findings have important implications for the treatment of circadian rhythm sleep disorders and human space exploration. PMID:17684566

  1. Functional status and quality of life in patients surviving 10 years after lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, Robert M; Fisher, Andrew J; Hilton, Colin; Forty, Jonathan; Hasan, Asif; Gould, Francis K; Dark, John H; Corris, Paul A

    2005-05-01

    Although many lung allograft recipients achieve long-term survival, there is a lack of published data regarding these patients' functional status and quality of life (QoL). We evaluated all 10-year survivors at our institution and, utilizing the SF-36 questionnaire, compared their QoL to population normative and chronic illness data. Twenty-eight (29%) of 96 patients survived > or =10 years following 11 single, 6 bilateral and 11 heart-lung procedures. At the most recent evaluation, median FEV(1) in single and double lung recipients was predicted to be 54% and 74%, respectively. Five (18%) patients had BOS score 0, 13 (46%) BOS 1, 5 (18%) BOS 2 and 5 (18%) BOS 3 and median time to BOS was 7 years. Four (14%) patients required renal replacement therapy. Three patients (11%) developed symptomatic osteoporosis, 2 (7%) post-transplant lymphoma and 1 (4%) an ischaemic stroke. Scores for physical function, role-physical/emotional and general health, but not mental health and bodily pain, were significantly lower compared to normative and chronic illness data. Energy and social-function scores were significantly lower than normative data alone. Long-term survival after lung transplantation is characterized by an absence or delayed development of BOS, low iatrogenic morbidity and preserved mental, but reduced physical health status. PMID:15816892

  2. Overview of Aqua MODIS 10-year On-orbit Calibration and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, X.; Wenny, B.; Sun, J.; Wu, A.; Chen, H.; Angal, A.; Choi, T.; Madhavan, S.; Geng, X.; Link, D.; Toller, G.; Barnes, W.; Salomonson, V.

    2012-01-01

    Since launch in May 2002, Aqua MODIS has successfully operated for nearly 10 years, continuously collecting global datasets for scientific studies of key parameters of the earth's land, ocean, and atmospheric properties and their changes over time. The quality of these geophysical parameters relies on the input quality of sensor calibrated radiances. MODIS observations are made in 36 spectral bands with wavelengths ranging from visible (VIS) to longwave infrared (LWIR). Its reflective solar bands (RSB) are calibrated using data collected from its on-board solar diffuser and regularly scheduled lunar views. The thermal emissive bands (TEB) are calibrated using an on-board blackbody (BB). The changes in the sensor's spectral and spatial characteristics are monitored by an on-board spectroradiometric calibration assembly (SRCA). This paper presents an overview of Aqua MODIS 10-year on-orbit operation and calibration activities, from launch to present, and summarizes its on-orbit radiometric, spectral, and spatial calibration and characterization performance. In addition, it will illustrate and discuss on-orbit changes in sensor characteristics and corrections applied to continuously maintain the sensor level 1B (L1B) data quality, as well as lessons learned that could benefit future calibration efforts.

  3. Dealing with periodical loads and harmonics in operational modal analysis using time-varying transmissibility functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weijtjens, Wout; Lataire, John; Devriendt, Christof; Guillaume, Patrick

    2014-12-01

    Periodical loads, such as waves and rotating machinery, form a problem for operational modal analysis (OMA). In OMA only the vibrations of a structure of interest are measured and little to nothing is known about the loads causing these vibrations. Therefore, it is often assumed that all dynamics in the measured data are linked to the system of interest. Periodical loads defy this assumption as their periodical behavior is often visible within the measured vibrations. As a consequence most OMA techniques falsely associate the dynamics of the periodical load with the system of interest. Without additional information about the load, one is not able to correctly differentiate between structural dynamics and the dynamics of the load. In several applications, e.g. turbines and helicopters, it was observed that because of periodical loads one was unable to correctly identify one or multiple modes. Transmissibility based OMA (TOMA) is a completely different approach to OMA. By using transmissibility functions to estimate the structural dynamics of the system of interest, all influence of the load-spectrum can be eliminated. TOMA therefore allows to identify the modal parameters without being influenced by the presence of periodical loads, such as harmonics. One of the difficulties of TOMA is that the analyst is required to find two independent datasets, each associated with a different loading condition of the system of interest. This poses a dilemma for TOMA; how can an analyst identify two different loading conditions when little is known about the loads on the system? This paper tackles that problem by assuming that the loading conditions vary continuously over time, e.g. the changing wind directions. From this assumption TOMA is developed into a time-varying framework. This development allows TOMA to not only cope with the continuously changing loading conditions. The time-varying framework also enables the identification of the modal parameters from a single dataset

  4. Stability and attractivity of periodic solutions of parabolic systems with time delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pao, C. V.

    2005-04-01

    This paper is concerned with the existence, stability, and global attractivity of time-periodic solutions for a class of coupled parabolic equations in a bounded domain. The problem under consideration includes coupled system of parabolic and ordinary differential equations, and time delays may appear in the nonlinear reaction functions. Our approach to the problem is by the method of upper and lower solutions and its associated monotone iterations. The existence of time-periodic solutions is for a class of locally Lipschitz continuous reaction functions without any quasimonotone requirement using Schauder fixed point theorem, while the stability and attractivity analysis is for quasimonotone nondecreasing and mixed quasimonotone reaction functions using the monotone iterative scheme. The results for the general system are applied to the standard parabolic equations without time delay and to the corresponding ordinary differential system. Applications are also given to three Lotka-Volterra reaction diffusion model problems, and in each problem a sufficient condition on the reaction rates is obtained to ensure the stability and global attractivity of positive periodic solutions.

  5. Primate enamel evinces long period biological timing and regulation of life history.

    PubMed

    Bromage, Timothy G; Hogg, Russell T; Lacruz, Rodrigo S; Hou, Chen

    2012-07-21

    The factor(s) regulating the combination of traits that define the overall life history matrix of mammalian species, comprising attributes such as brain and body weight, age at sexual maturity, lifespan and others, remains a complete mystery. The principal objectives of the present research are (1) to provide evidence for a key variable effecting life history integration and (2) to provide a model for how one would go about investigating the metabolic mechanisms responsible for this rhythm. We suggest here that a biological rhythm with a period greater than the circadian rhythm is responsible for observed variation in primate life history. Evidence for this rhythm derives from studies of tooth enamel formation. Enamel contains an enigmatic periodicity in its microstructure called the striae of Retzius, which develops at species specific intervals in units of whole days. We refer to this enamel rhythm as the repeat interval (RI). For primates, we identify statistically significant relationships between RI and all common life history traits. Importantly, RI also correlates with basal and specific metabolic rates. With the exception of estrous cyclicity, all relationships share a dependence upon body mass. This dependence on body mass informs us that some aspect of metabolism is responsible for periodic energy allocations at RI timescales, regulating cell proliferation rates and growth, thus controlling the pace, patterning, and co-variation of life history traits. Estrous cyclicity relates to the long period rhythm in a body mass-independent manner. The mass-dependency and -independency of life history relationships with RI periodicity align with hypothalamic-mediated neurosecretory anterior and posterior pituitary outputs. We term this period the Havers-Halberg Oscillation (HHO), in reference to Clopton Havers, a 17th Century hard tissue anatomist, and Franz Halberg, a long-time explorer of long-period rhythms. We propose a mathematical model that may help elucidate

  6. Time domain spectral method and its application on antenna array and PCB trace with periodic roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Minshen

    The primary interest of the electromagnetic behavior of a periodic structure is in its near field and far field. However, it is still numerically difficult to analyze either one in the time domain. The primary goal of this dissertation is to develop corresponding time domain technique to analyze two topics. The first one is to evaluate the far field of a realistic, large antenna array using an efficient method. The second one is to evaluate the propagation characteristic of a commercially available printed circuit board (PCB) with intentional roughness. Both of which are hot topics in the antenna and signal integrity (SI) society respectively; however, none of them have ever been solved in the time domain. To efficiently evaluate the far field pattern of a realistically large antenna array, the spectral domain method and the reciprocity theorem are implemented in the finite difference time domain (FDTD) technique to avoid the simulation of the near field. By taking advantage of the periodic boundary condition (PBC), the proposed method demonstrates its capability to speed up far field evaluation from hours to minutes. Good agreement of the results is provided for various cases: circular antenna array, arbitrary feeding array, and highly directional leaky wave antenna, etc. Periodic structure modeling with finite sized feedings is developed by the array scanning method (ASM) implemented in the FDTD technique. The minimally coupled electric and magnetic co-mingled antenna array is evaluated by the method. Moreover, a commercially available PCB with very small roughness is modeled by the ASM-FDTD and the propagation characteristic is evaluated. Both are evaluated by time domain method for the first time. Efficiency in terms of memory and computing time is shown for this method and parallelization in the future is proposed.

  7. Spin-dependent tunneling time in periodic diluted-magnetic-semiconductor/nonmagnetic-barrier superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ping-Fan; Guo, Yong

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the tunneling time (dwell time) in periodic diluted-magnetic-semiconductor/nonmagnetic-barrier (DMS/NB) superlattices subjected to an external magnetic field. It is found that spin-dependent resonant bands form in the spectra of dwell time, which can be effectively manipulated by not only the external magnetic field but also the geometric parameters of the system. Moreover, an intuitive semiclassical delay is defined to illustrate the behavior of the dwell time, and the former one is shown to be the result of "smoothing out" the latter one. We also find that the dwell time in diluted-magnetic-semiconductor/semiconductor superlattices behaves surprisingly different from the DMS/NB case, especially for spin-down electrons.

  8. Computation of symmetric, time-periodic solutions of the vortex sheet with surface tension

    PubMed Central

    Ambrose, David M.; Wilkening, Jon

    2010-01-01

    A numerical method is introduced for the computation of time-periodic vortex sheets with surface tension separating two immiscible, irrotational, two-dimensional ideal fluids of equal density. The approach is based on minimizing a nonlinear functional of the initial conditions and supposed period that is positive unless the solution is periodic, in which case it is zero. An adjoint-based optimal control technique is used to efficiently compute the gradient of this functional. Special care is required to handle singular integrals in the adjoint formulation. Starting with a solution of the linearized problem about the flat rest state, a family of smooth, symmetric breathers is found that, at quarter-period time intervals, alternately pass through a flat state of maximal kinetic energy, and a rest state in which all the energy is stored as potential energy in the interface. In some cases, the interface overturns before returning to the initial, flat configuration. It is found that the bifurcation diagram describing these solutions contains several disjoint curves separated by near-bifurcation events. PMID:20133691

  9. First-Passage and Residence Times in a Periodically Driven Integrate-and-Fire Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talkner, Peter; Schindler, Michael; Hänggi, Peter

    2004-03-01

    The stochastic integrate-and-fire model presents a simple description of the spiking behavior of neurons.In this model a neuron ``fires'' if an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process crosses a prescribed threshold. After the firing the process is assumed to be in a refractory state, and from there it is put back into its initial, active state.This process can be characterized by the distribution of the first passage times of the threshold and by the residence times in the active states.We determined the distributions of these times for the integrate-and-fire model for short refractory times in the presence of a periodic signal.This is done by numerical solutions both of the respective Langevin equation and the equivalent Fokker-Planck equation. The results are compared with an approximate analytic theory. If the period of the signal is large compared to the relaxation time of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process and if the threshold is higher than a few times the noise strength we find theory and numerics to be in excellent agreement.

  10. Hopelessness as a Predictor of Attempted Suicide among First Admission Patients with Psychosis: A 10-Year Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klonsky, E. David; Kotov, Roman; Bakst, Shelly; Rabinowitz, Jonathan; Bromet, Evelyn J.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the longitudinal relationship of hopelessness to attempted suicide in psychotic disorders. This study addresses this gap by assessing hopelessness and attempted suicide at multiple time-points over 10 years in a first-admission cohort with psychosis (n = 414). Approximately one in five participants attempted suicide during…

  11. Tracing temperature in a nanometer size region in a picosecond time period.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Kaoru; Kitayama, Takumi; Hayashi, Hiroaki; Matsuda, Makoto; Sataka, Masao; Tsujimoto, Masahiko; Toulemonde, Marcel; Bouffard, Serge; Kimura, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Irradiation of materials with either swift heavy ions or slow highly charged ions leads to ultrafast heating on a timescale of several picosecond in a region of several nanometer. This ultrafast local heating result in formation of nanostructures, which provide a number of potential applications in nanotechnologies. These nanostructures are believed to be formed when the local temperature rises beyond the melting or boiling point of the material. Conventional techniques, however, are not applicable to measure temperature in such a localized region in a short time period. Here, we propose a novel method for tracing temperature in a nanometer region in a picosecond time period by utilizing desorption of gold nanoparticles around the ion impact position. The feasibility is examined by comparing with the temperature evolution predicted by a theoretical model. PMID:26293488

  12. Is the use of underwater polarized light by fish restricted to crepuscular time periods?

    PubMed

    Novales Flamarique, I; Hawryshyn, C W

    1997-04-01

    We measured the spectral distributions of the underwater total and polarized light fields in the upper photic zone of meso-eutrophic waters (i.e., blue-green waters containing medium to high chlorophyll a concentrations). Per cent polarization levels during the day were always lower than 40%, but at crepuscular times these values could increase to 67%. A corresponding change occurred in the spectral distribution, with proportionately more shorter wavelength photons contributing to the total spectrum during crepuscular periods. Electrophysiological recordings from the optic nerve of rainbow trout subjected to light stimuli of varying polarization percentages show that the animal's threshold for detecting polarized light is between 63 and 72%. These physiological findings suggest that the use of water-induced polarized light cues by rainbow trout and similar percomorph fish should be restricted to crepuscular time periods. PMID:9196717

  13. Tracing temperature in a nanometer size region in a picosecond time period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Kaoru; Kitayama, Takumi; Hayashi, Hiroaki; Matsuda, Makoto; Sataka, Masao; Tsujimoto, Masahiko; Toulemonde, Marcel; Bouffard, Serge; Kimura, Kenji

    2015-08-01

    Irradiation of materials with either swift heavy ions or slow highly charged ions leads to ultrafast heating on a timescale of several picosecond in a region of several nanometer. This ultrafast local heating result in formation of nanostructures, which provide a number of potential applications in nanotechnologies. These nanostructures are believed to be formed when the local temperature rises beyond the melting or boiling point of the material. Conventional techniques, however, are not applicable to measure temperature in such a localized region in a short time period. Here, we propose a novel method for tracing temperature in a nanometer region in a picosecond time period by utilizing desorption of gold nanoparticles around the ion impact position. The feasibility is examined by comparing with the temperature evolution predicted by a theoretical model.

  14. Tracing temperature in a nanometer size region in a picosecond time period

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Kaoru; Kitayama, Takumi; Hayashi, Hiroaki; Matsuda, Makoto; Sataka, Masao; Tsujimoto, Masahiko; Toulemonde, Marcel; Bouffard, Serge; Kimura, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Irradiation of materials with either swift heavy ions or slow highly charged ions leads to ultrafast heating on a timescale of several picosecond in a region of several nanometer. This ultrafast local heating result in formation of nanostructures, which provide a number of potential applications in nanotechnologies. These nanostructures are believed to be formed when the local temperature rises beyond the melting or boiling point of the material. Conventional techniques, however, are not applicable to measure temperature in such a localized region in a short time period. Here, we propose a novel method for tracing temperature in a nanometer region in a picosecond time period by utilizing desorption of gold nanoparticles around the ion impact position. The feasibility is examined by comparing with the temperature evolution predicted by a theoretical model. PMID:26293488

  15. Periodic solutions of a nonautonomous predator-prey system with stage structure and time delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Rui; Wang, Zhiqiang

    2006-11-01

    A nonautonomous Lotka-Volterra type predator-prey model with stage structure and time delays is investigated. It is assumed in the model that the individuals in each species may belong to one of two classes: the immatures and the matures, the age to maturity is presented by a time delay, and that the immature predators do not feed on prey and do not have the ability to reproduce. By some comparison arguments we first discuss the permanence of the model. By using the continuation theorem of coincidence degree theory, sufficient conditions are derived for the existence of positive periodic solutions to the model. By means of a suitable Lyapunov functional, sufficient conditions are obtained for the uniqueness and global stability of the positive periodic solutions to the model.

  16. Time functions of deep earthquakes from broadband and short-period stacks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houston, H.; Benz, H.M.; Vidale, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    To constrain dynamic source properties of deep earthquakes, we have systematically constructed broadband time functions of deep earthquakes by stacking and scaling teleseismic P waves from U.S. National Seismic Network, TERRAscope, and Berkeley Digital Seismic Network broadband stations. We examined 42 earthquakes with depths from 100 to 660 km that occurred between July 1, 1992 and July 31, 1995. To directly compare time functions, or to group them by size, depth, or region, it is essential to scale them to remove the effect of moment, which varies by more than 3 orders of magnitude for these events. For each event we also computed short-period stacks of P waves recorded by west coast regional arrays. The comparison of broadband with short-period stacks yields a considerable advantage, enabling more reliable measurement of event duration. A more accurate estimate of the duration better constrains the scaling procedure to remove the effect of moment, producing scaled time functions with both correct timing and amplitude. We find only subtle differences in the broadband time-function shape with moment, indicating successful scaling and minimal effects of attenuation at the periods considered here. The average shape of the envelopes of the short-period stacks is very similar to the average broadband time function. The main variations seen with depth are (1) a mild decrease in duration with increasing depth, (2) greater asymmetry in the time functions of intermediate events compared to deep ones, and (3) unexpected complexity and late moment release for events between 350 and 550 km, with seven of the eight events in that depth interval displaying markedly more complicated time functions with more moment release late in the rupture than most events above or below. The first two results are broadly consistent with our previous studies, while the third is reported here for the first time. The greater complexity between 350 and 550 km suggests greater heterogeneity in

  17. Cementless porous-coated total knee arthroplasty: 10-year results in a consecutive series.

    PubMed

    Schrøder, H M; Berthelsen, A; Hassani, G; Hansen, E B; Solgaard, S

    2001-08-01

    We report the results of 114 AGC 2000 porous-coated, cementless total knee arthroplasties (TKA) performed consecutively in 102 patients during the period 1984-1986. After 10 years, 58 TKAs in 52 patients were evaluated with patient assessment, Hospital for Special Surgery knee score, weight-bearing radiographs done under fluoroscopic control, and survivorship analysis. All dropouts within the first 9 years were patients dying with a functioning TKA except 1 revision secondary to a supracondylar fracture after 8.5 years. Of the patients, 53 (92%) were satisfied or very satisfied with their TKA, and 55 (95%) of the knees were rated good or excellent. There was no pain in 53 knees, and the median knee flexion was 110 degrees. Six radiolucencies >1 mm were found beneath parts of the tibial component, and 5 radiolucencies were seen beneath the femoral component. None had progressed compared with the 5-year follow-up, and in all cases trabeculae could be seen reaching the prosthetic component. No migrations had occurred since the 5-year follow-up. No obvious joint space reduction was seen. Osteolysis presenting as an isolated cyst was found in 1 knee in the lateral tibial condyle and was not progressive. Two tibial components had been revised because of aseptic loosening and 1 because of septic loosening, all within the first 3 years. No femoral or patellar components were revised. The cumulative prosthesis survival rate after 10 to 11 years was 97%. When pain and radiographic loosening also were considered, the success rate was 87%. Cementless insertion of a nonmodular, porous-coated TKA resulted in a long-term durable bone-prosthesis interface. The flat-on-flat articulation did not result in catastrophic polyethylene wear or osteolysis within the first 10 years. PMID:11503114

  18. Sobolev type equations of time-fractional order with periodical boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plekhanova, Marina

    2016-08-01

    The existence of a unique local solution for a class of time-fractional Sobolev type partial differential equations endowed by the Cauchy initial conditions and periodical with respect to every spatial variable boundary conditions on a parallelepiped is proved. General results are applied to study of the unique solvability for the initial boundary value problem to Benjamin-Bona-Mahony-Burgers and Allair partial differential equations.

  19. Conditions for Recurrence of a Flow of Physical Events with Unextendable Dead Time Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nezhel'skaya, L. A.

    2016-04-01

    A flow of physical events (photons, electrons, etc.) is studied. One of the mathematical models of such flows is the modulated MAP flow of events circulating under conditions of unextendable dead time period. The explicit form of the probability density of interarrival interval of the flow is presented together with the explicit form of the joint probability density of two adjacent intervals in the observed flow. The conditions for recurrence of the observable flow of events are presented.

  20. Thermal characteristics of time-periodic electroosmotic flow in a circular microchannel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghadam, Ali Jabari

    2015-10-01

    A theoretical analysis is performed to explore the thermal characteristics of electroosmotic flow in a circular microchannel under an alternating electric field. An analytical approach is presented to solve energy equation, and then, the exact solution of temperature profiles is obtained by using the Green's function method. This study reveals that the temperature field repeats itself for each half-period. Frequency has a strong influence on the thermal behavior of the flow field. For small values of the dimensionless frequency (small channel size, large kinematic viscosity, or small frequency), the advection mechanism is dominant in the whole domain and the resultant heating (Joule heating and wall heat flux) can be transferred by the complete flow field in the axial direction; while, the middle portion of the flow field at high dimensionless frequencies does not have sufficient time to transfer heat by advection, and the bulk fluid temperature, especially in heating, may consequently become greater than the wall temperature. In a particular instance of cooling mode, a constant surface temperature case is temporarily occurred in which the axial temperature gradient will be zero. For relatively high frequencies, the unsteady bulk fluid temperature in some radial positions at some moments may be equal to the wall temperature; hence instantaneous cylindrical surfaces with zero radial heat flux may occur over a period of time. Depending on the value and sign of the thermal scale ratio, the quasi-steady-state Nusselt number (time-averaged at one period) approaches a specific value as the electrokinetic radius becomes infinity.

  1. Enhancement in dentin collagen’s biological stability after proanthocyanidins treatment in clinically relevant time periods

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yi; Chen, Mingsheng; Yao, Xiaomei; Xu, Changqi; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether proanthocyanidins (PA) is capable of improving dentin collagen’s biological stability through cross-linking within time periods that are clinically relevant. Materials and methods Demineralized dentin collagen slabs were treated with 3.75 wt% PA solution for 10 s, 1 min, 30 min, 60 min, 120 min, 360 min, and 720 min, respectively. The resultant cross-linked collagen samples were subject to digestion with 0.1% collagenase at 37 °C for 2 h, 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, 36 h, and 48 h. The percentage of weight loss after digestion was calculated to evaluate PA-treated collagen’s resistance toward enzymatic degradation. Fourier-Transformed Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to probe evidences of PA-collagen interactions after various periods of PA treatment. Results The collagenase digestion assay suggests that PA treatment as short as 10 s can enhance collagen’s resistance toward enzymatic challenge. The FTIR spectroscopy further verifies that PA is indeed incorporated into collagen regardless of treatment time, possibly via a mechanism involving the chemical interactions between PA and collagen. Significance This study confirmed that PA can effectively cross-link collagen and improve its biological stability in time periods as short as 10 s. The use of PA as a priming agent is therefore clinically feasible and is a promising approach to improving the durability of current dentin bonding systems. PMID:23434233

  2. Time-frequency manifold correlation matching for periodic fault identification in rotating machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Qingbo; Wang, Xiangxiang

    2013-05-01

    For rotating machines, the localized faults of key components generally represent as periodic transient impulses in vibration signals. The existence of background noise will corrupt transient impulses in practice, and will thus increase the difficulty to identify specific faults. This paper combines the concepts of time-frequency manifold (TFM) and image template matching, and proposes a novel TFM correlation matching method to enhance identification of the periodic faults. This method is to conduct correlation matching of a vibration signal in the time-frequency domain by using the TFM with a short duration as a template. By this method, the time-frequency distribution (TFD) of a vibration signal is firstly achieved by the Smoothed Pseudo-Wigner-Ville distribution (SPWVD) method. Then the TFM template is learned to do correlation matching with the TFD of the analyzed signal. Finally, the ridge is extracted from the correlation matching image and the ridge coefficients are analyzed for periodic fault identification. The proposed method takes advantages of the TFM in noise suppression and template matching in object enhancement, and can enhance the fault impulses of interest in a unified scale. The novel method is verified to be superior to traditional enveloping method with providing smoother and clearer fault impulse component via applications to gearbox fault detection and bearing defect identification.

  3. An approach to identify time consistent model parameters: sub-period calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gharari, S.; Hrachowitz, M.; Fenicia, F.; Savenije, H. H. G.

    2013-01-01

    Conceptual hydrological models rely on calibration for the identification of their parameters. As these models are typically designed to reflect real catchment processes, a key objective of an appropriate calibration strategy is the determination of parameter sets that reflect a "realistic" model behavior. Previous studies have shown that parameter estimates for different calibration periods can be significantly different. This questions model transposability in time, which is one of the key conditions for the set-up of a "realistic" model. This paper presents a new approach that selects parameter sets that provide a consistent model performance in time. The approach consists of testing model performance in different periods, and selecting parameter sets that are as close as possible to the optimum of each individual sub-period. While aiding model calibration, the approach is also useful as a diagnostic tool, illustrating tradeoffs in the identification of time-consistent parameter sets. The approach is applied to a case study in Luxembourg using the HyMod hydrological model as an example.

  4. Periodic Time-Domain Nonlocal Nonreflecting Boundary Conditions for Duct Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Willie R.; Zorumski, William E.

    1996-01-01

    Periodic time-domain boundary conditions are formulated for direct numerical simulation of acoustic waves in ducts without flow. Well-developed frequency-domain boundary conditions are transformed into the time domain. The formulation is presented here in one space dimension and time; however, this formulation has an advantage in that its extension to variable-area, higher dimensional, and acoustically treated ducts is rigorous and straightforward. The boundary condition simulates a nonreflecting wave field in an infinite uniform duct and is implemented by impulse-response operators that are applied at the boundary of the computational domain. These operators are generated by convolution integrals of the corresponding frequency-domain operators. The acoustic solution is obtained by advancing the Euler equations to a periodic state with the MacCormack scheme. The MacCormack scheme utilizes the boundary condition to limit the computational space and preserve the radiation boundary condition. The success of the boundary condition is attributed to the fact that it is nonreflecting to periodic acoustic waves. In addition, transient waves can pass rapidly out of the solution domain. The boundary condition is tested for a pure tone and a multitone source in a linear setting. The effects of various initial conditions are assessed. Computational solutions with the boundary condition are consistent with the known solutions for nonreflecting wave fields in an infinite uniform duct.

  5. Time-varying singular value decomposition for periodic transient identification in bearing fault diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shangbin; Lu, Siliang; He, Qingbo; Kong, Fanrang

    2016-09-01

    For rotating machines, the defective faults of bearings generally are represented as periodic transient impulses in acquired signals. The extraction of transient features from signals has been a key issue for fault diagnosis. However, the background noise reduces identification performance of periodic faults in practice. This paper proposes a time-varying singular value decomposition (TSVD) method to enhance the identification of periodic faults. The proposed method is inspired by the sliding window method. By applying singular value decomposition (SVD) to the signal under a sliding window, we can obtain a time-varying singular value matrix (TSVM). Each column in the TSVM is occupied by the singular values of the corresponding sliding window, and each row represents the intrinsic structure of the raw signal, namely time-singular-value-sequence (TSVS). Theoretical and experimental analyses show that the frequency of TSVS is exactly twice that of the corresponding intrinsic structure. Moreover, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of TSVS is improved significantly in comparison with the raw signal. The proposed method takes advantages of the TSVS in noise suppression and feature extraction to enhance fault frequency for diagnosis. The effectiveness of the TSVD is verified by means of simulation studies and applications to diagnosis of bearing faults. Results indicate that the proposed method is superior to traditional methods for bearing fault diagnosis.

  6. VARIABILITY OF LUMINOUS STARS IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD USING 10 YEARS OF ASAS DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Szczygiel, D. M.; Stanek, K. Z.; Bonanos, A. Z.; Pojmanski, G.; Pilecki, B.; Prieto, J. L. E-mail: kstanek@astronomy.ohio-state.ed E-mail: gp@astrouw.edu.p E-mail: jose@obs.carnegiescience.ed

    2010-07-15

    Motivated by the detection of a recent outburst of the massive luminous blue variable LMC-R71, which reached an absolute magnitude M{sub V} = -9.3 mag, we undertook a systematic study of the optical variability of 1268 massive stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud, using a recent catalog by Bonanos et al. as the input. The ASAS All Star Catalog provided well-sampled light curves of these bright stars spanning 10 years. Combining the two catalogs resulted in 599 matches, on which we performed a variability search. We identified 117 variable stars, 38 of which were not known before, despite their brightness and large amplitude of variation. We found 13 periodic stars that we classify as eclipsing binary (EB) stars, 8 of which are newly discovered bright massive EBs composed of OB-type stars. The remaining 104 variables are either semi- or non-periodic, the majority (85) being red supergiants (RSGs). Most (26) of the newly discovered variables in this category are also RSGs with only three B and four O stars.

  7. Nail Psoriasis in Children: Common or Uncommon? Results from a 10-Year Double-Center Study

    PubMed Central

    Piraccini, Bianca Maria; Triantafyllopoulou, Ioanna; Prevezas, Christos; Starace, Michela; Neri, Iria; Patrizi, Annalisa; Caserini, Maurizio; Palmieri, Renata; Rigopoulos, Dimitrios

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the Study Our aim was to perform an extensive search of the literature on the prevalence of nail psoriasis in the pediatric population and to estimate it on our own database. Procedures Searching the most important databases yielded results of 16 papers published in a 40-year period which reported the prevalence of nail psoriasis in children. Furthermore, data gathered between 2004 and 2013 at two centers specialized in nail disorders were analyzed. Results The selected papers encompassed a total of 4,853 psoriatic children, of whom 762 (15.7%) had nail involvement. Concerning our data, a total of 68,839 children were seen in pediatric skin consultation in both clinics over a period of 10 years, 0.11% of which had nail involvement. The rate of psoriatic children presenting nail alterations was 19.4% in the Greek and 15.5% in the Italian patient groups. Conclusions and Message This is the retrospective study including the largest number of cases of nail psoriasis in the pediatric population. Our data are in line with the incidence estimation of the rest of Europe. PMID:27172521

  8. Spacecraft stability and control using new techniques for periodic and time-delayed systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    NAzari, Morad

    This dissertation addresses various problems in spacecraft stability and control using specialized theoretical and numerical techniques for time-periodic and time-delayed systems. First, the effects of energy dissipation are considered in the dual-spin spacecraft, where the damper masses in the platform (?) and the rotor (?) cause energy loss in the system. Floquet theory is employed to obtain stability charts for different relative spin rates of the subsystem [special characters omitted] with respect to the subsystem [special characters omitted]. Further, the stability and bifurcation of delayed feedback spin stabilization of a rigid spacecraft is investigated. The spin is stabilized about the principal axis of the intermediate moment of inertia using a simple delayed feedback control law. In particular, linear stability is analyzed via the exponential-polynomial characteristic equations and then the method of multiple scales is used to obtain the normal form of the Hopf bifurcation. Next, the dynamics of a rigid spacecraft with nonlinear delayed multi-actuator feedback control are studied, where a nonlinear feedback controller using an inverse dynamics approach is sought for the controlled system to have the desired linear delayed closed-loop dynamics (CLD). Later, three linear state feedback control strategies based on Chebyshev spectral collocation and the Lyapunov Floquet transformation (LFT) are explored for regulation control of linear periodic time delayed systems. First , a delayed feedback control law with discrete delay is implemented and the stability of the closed-loop response is investigated in the parameter space of available control gains using infinite-dimensional Floquet theory. Second, the delay differential equation (DDE) is discretized into a large set of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) using the Chebyshev spectral continuous time approximation (CSCTA) and delayed feedback with distributed delay is applied. The third strategy involves

  9. Quasiequilibrium directed hopping in a time-dependent two-well periodic potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozenbaum, V. M.; Shapochkina, I. V.

    2011-11-01

    We consider the directed motion of a Brownian particle in a two-well periodic potential with time-varying barriers and wells described by arbitrary periodic functions of time, v(t) and u(t), alternating with the period τ. In the framework of the low-temperature kinetic approach, we obtain explicit formulas for the probabilities of finding the particle in potential wells, average velocity of directed motion, input energy Pin and useful work Pout against additionally introduced stationary load force f. These formulas are considerably simplified by the assumption of the quasiequilibrium regime of motion corresponding to small values of u(t) and f. It is shown that depending on the same or opposite parity of the functions v(t) and u(t) with respect to time reversal, the motion direction of a Brownian particle is retained or reversed under the reversal of the direction of movement along the (v-u) loop in the phase space of the functions v(t) and u(t), and the nondiagonal kinetic coefficients are mutually symmetric or antisymmetric. In the adiabatic limit τ→∞, the average velocity is proportional to τ-1 in two cases: (i) the above loop has a nonzero area, (ii) the functions v(t) and u(t) are proportional to each other (zero loop area) and include intervals of fast changes with small durations τ0 on the period τ of their variations. In both of these cases, the efficiency of energy conversion, η=Pout/Pin, tends to unity at large variations of the barriers v(t). In the second case, the deviation of η from unity can be split into two contributions: The former decreases exponentially with increasing amplitude v0 of v(t), while the latter is a small nonadiabatic correction proportional to v0-3/2. It is the nonadiabatic correction that limits high efficiencies at large variations of barriers.

  10. Infrared Time Lags for the Periodic Quasar PG 1302-102

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Hyunsung D.; Stern, Daniel; Graham, Matthew J.; Djorgovski, S. G.; Mainzer, Amy; Cutri, Roc M.; Drake, Andrew J.; Mahabal, Ashish A.

    2015-11-01

    The optical light curve of the quasar PG 1302-102 at z=0.278 shows a strong, smooth 5.2 year periodic signal, detectable over a period of ∼20 years. Although the interpretation of this phenomenon is still uncertain, the most plausible mechanisms involve a binary system of two supermassive black holes with a subparsec separation. At this close separation, the nuclear black holes in PG 1302-102 will likely merge within ∼ {10}5 years due to gravitational wave emission alone. Here, we report the rest-frame near-infrared time lags for PG 1302-102. Compiling data from WISE and Akari, we confirm that the periodic behavior reported in the optical light curve from Graham et al. is reproduced at infrared wavelengths, with best-fit observed-frame 3.4 and 4.6 μ {{m}} time lags of (2219 ± 153, 2408 ± 148) days for a near face-on orientation of the torus, or (4103 ± 153, 4292 ± 148) days for an inclined system with relativistic Doppler boosting in effect. The periodicity in the infrared light curves and the light-travel time of the accretion disk photons to reach the dust glowing regions support that a source within the accretion disk is responsible for the optical variability of PG 1302-102, echoed at the farther out dusty regions. The implied distance of this dusty, assumed toroidal region is ∼1.5 pc for a near face-on geometry or ∼1.1 pc for the relativistic Doppler-boosted case.

  11. Acute Cholangitis following Intraductal Migration of Surgical Clips 10 Years after Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Cookson, Natalie E; Mirnezami, Reza; Ziprin, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy represents the gold standard approach for treatment of symptomatic gallstones. Surgery-associated complications include bleeding, bile duct injury, and retained stones. Migration of surgical clips after cholecystectomy is a rare complication and may result in gallstone formation "clip cholelithiasis". Case Report. We report a case of a 55-year-old female patient who presented with right upper quadrant pain and severe sepsis having undergone an uncomplicated laparoscopic cholecystectomy 10 years earlier. Computed tomography (CT) imaging revealed hyperdense material in the common bile duct (CBD) compatible with retained calculus. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) revealed appearances in keeping with a migrated surgical clip within the CBD. Balloon trawl successfully extracted this, alleviating the patient's jaundice and sepsis. Conclusion. Intraductal clip migration is a rarely encountered complication after laparoscopic cholecystectomy which may lead to choledocholithiasis. Appropriate management requires timely identification and ERCP. PMID:25874138

  12. Acute Cholangitis following Intraductal Migration of Surgical Clips 10 Years after Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Cookson, Natalie E.; Mirnezami, Reza; Ziprin, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy represents the gold standard approach for treatment of symptomatic gallstones. Surgery-associated complications include bleeding, bile duct injury, and retained stones. Migration of surgical clips after cholecystectomy is a rare complication and may result in gallstone formation “clip cholelithiasis”. Case Report. We report a case of a 55-year-old female patient who presented with right upper quadrant pain and severe sepsis having undergone an uncomplicated laparoscopic cholecystectomy 10 years earlier. Computed tomography (CT) imaging revealed hyperdense material in the common bile duct (CBD) compatible with retained calculus. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) revealed appearances in keeping with a migrated surgical clip within the CBD. Balloon trawl successfully extracted this, alleviating the patient's jaundice and sepsis. Conclusion. Intraductal clip migration is a rarely encountered complication after laparoscopic cholecystectomy which may lead to choledocholithiasis. Appropriate management requires timely identification and ERCP. PMID:25874138

  13. Timing Studies of X Persei and the Discovery of Its Transient Quasi-periodic Oscillation Feature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acuner, Z.; Inam,S. C.; Sahiner, S.; Serim, M. M.; Baykal, A.; Swank, J.

    2014-01-01

    We present a timing analysis of X Persei (X Per) using observations made between 1998 and 2010 with the Proportional Counter Array (PCA) onboard the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) and with the INTEGRAL Soft Gamma-Ray Imager (ISGRI). All pulse arrival times obtained from the RXTE-PCA observations are phase-connected and a timing solution is obtained using these arrival times. We update the long-term pulse frequency history of the source by measuring its pulse frequencies using RXTE-PCA and ISGRI data. From the RXTEPCA data, the relation between the frequency derivative and X-ray flux suggests accretion via the companion's stellar wind. However, the detection of a transient quasi-periodic oscillation feature, peaking at approximately 0.2 Hz, suggests the existence of an accretion disc. We find that doublebreak models fit the average power spectra well, which suggests that the source has at least two different accretion flow components dominating the overall flow. From the power spectrum of frequency derivatives, we measure a power-law index of approximately - 1, which implies that, on short time-scales, disc accretion dominates over noise, while on time-scales longer than the viscous time-scales, the noise dominates. From pulse profiles, we find a correlation between the pulse fraction and the count rate of the source.

  14. Escape rate for a quantum particle moving in a time-periodic rapidly oscillating potential: a time-independent approach.

    PubMed

    Shit, Anindita; Chattopadhyay, Sudip; Chaudhuri, Jyotipratim Ray

    2012-05-01

    We explore, in the quantum regime, the stochastic dynamics of a time-periodic, rapidly oscillating potential (having a characteristic frequency of ω) within the framework of a time-dependent system-reservoir Hamiltonian. We invoke the idea of a quantum gauge transformation in light of the standard Floquet theorem in an attempt to construct a Langevin equation (bearing a time-independent effective potential) by employing a systematic perturbative expansion in powers of ω^{-1} using the natural time-scale separation. The time-independent effective potential (corrected to ω^{-2} in leading order) that acts on the slow motion of the driven particle can be employed for trapping. We proceed further to evaluate the rate of escape of the driven particle from the metastable state in the high-temperature limit. We also envisage a resonance phenomena, a true hallmark of the system-reservoir quantization. This development would thus serve as a model template to investigate the trapping mechanism, as well as an appropriate analog to understand the dynamics of a fluctuation-induced escape process from the trap. PMID:23004698

  15. Transfer-matrix approach for finite-difference time-domain simulation of periodic structures.

    PubMed

    Deinega, Alexei; Belousov, Sergei; Valuev, Ilya

    2013-11-01

    Optical properties of periodic structures can be calculated using the transfer-matrix approach, which establishes a relation between amplitudes of the wave incident on a structure with transmitted or reflected waves. The transfer matrix can be used to obtain transmittance and reflectance spectra of finite periodic structures as well as eigenmodes of infinite structures. Traditionally, calculation of the transfer matrix is performed in the frequency domain and involves linear algebra. In this work, we present a technique for calculation of the transfer matrix using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method and show the way of its implementation in FDTD code. To illustrate the performance of our technique we calculate the transmittance spectra for opal photonic crystal slabs consisting of multiple layers of spherical scatterers. Our technique can be used for photonic band structure calculations. It can also be combined with existing FDTD methods for the analysis of periodic structures at an oblique incidence, as well as for modeling point sources in a periodic environment. PMID:24329377

  16. In Italy, healthy life expectancy drop dramatically: from 2004 to 2008 there was a 10 years drop among newborn girls

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction In this short essay, we would like to address a severe divergence observed in Italy between Life Expectancy (LE) and Healthy Life Expectancy (Healthy LE) and a unique trend of worsening in Healthy LE, compared to the other European countries. Both issues emerge in recent data by EUROSTAT Report. Methods The analysis used by the authors of the EUROSTAT report is based on Sullivan method which combines 2 type of variables: mortality and morbidity data. Results While several European countries started to deal with comparable data about LE since 1960, in Italy, analogous data were available for the first time in EUROSTAT Report only in 1985. In Italy, in the period 1985-2008, there was a good progressive increase in L.E., following the best European values. Nevertheless, while until 2004 Italy was among the European best countries in terms of both LE and Healthy LE at birth, four years later in 2008 there was a shocking loss of 10 years of Healthy LE at birth in newborn girls. In the process, they lost their 2-years previous advantage with respect to males (the latter lost only 6 years of Healthy LE, in the same time span). Looking at healthy LE at age 65 in respect to 2004, Italian women in 2008 could expect to live healthy only about 7 years (as much as men) versus the almost 15 years of the European best values (14 years for men). Conclusions It is legitimate to wonder why no one official comment has been produced as a reaction after the first year of spectacular decline in Healthy Life Years in Italy: in counter-tendency with European values, from 2004 to 2008 there is a clear evidence of a 10 years drop in Healthy LE among newborn girls. The problem has not been taken into consideration even when the situation clearly appeared to worsen in the following years, dropping 4-6 more years for males and females in 2006 (for newborn babies); two more years of healthy life expectancy have been lost between 2006 and 2007 for each gender. One more year of

  17. Practitioners' Perceptions of the Soccer Extra-Time Period: Implications for Future Research

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Liam D.; Fothergill, Melissa; West, Daniel J.; Stevenson, Emma; Russell, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative research investigating soccer practitioners’ perceptions can allow researchers to create practical research investigations. The extra-time period of soccer is understudied compared to other areas of soccer research. Using an open-ended online survey containing eleven main and nine sub questions, we gathered the perceptions of extra-time from 46 soccer practitioners, all working for different professional soccer clubs. Questions related to current practices, views on extra-time regulations, and ideas for future research. Using inductive content analysis, the following general dimensions were identified: ‘importance of extra-time’, ‘rule changes’, ‘efficacy of extra-time hydro-nutritional provision’, ‘nutritional timing’, ‘future research directions’, ‘preparatory modulations’ and ‘recovery’. The majority of practitioners (63%) either agreed or strongly agreed that extra-time is an important period for determining success in knockout football match-play. When asked if a fourth substitution should be permitted in extra-time, 67% agreed. The use of hydro-nutritional strategies prior to extra-time was predominately considered important or very important. However; only 41% of practitioners felt that it was the most important time point for the use of nutritional products. A similar number of practitioners account (50%) and do not (50%) account for the potential of extra-time when training and preparing players and 89% of practitioners stated that extra-time influences recovery practices following matches. In the five minute break prior to extra-time, the following practices (in order of priority) were advocated to players: hydration, energy provision, massage, and tactical preparations. Additionally, 87% of practitioners advocate a particular nutritional supplementation strategy prior to extra-time. In order of importance, practitioners see the following as future research areas: nutritional interventions, fatigue responses

  18. Neurocognition and Duration of Psychosis: A 10-year Follow-up of First-Episode Patients.

    PubMed

    Rund, Bjørn Rishovd; Barder, Helene Eidsmo; Evensen, Julie; Haahr, Ulrik; ten Velden Hegelstad, Wenche; Joa, Inge; Johannessen, Jan Olav; Langeveld, Johannes; Larsen, Tor Ketil; Melle, Ingrid; Opjordsmoen, Stein; Røssberg, Jan Ivar; Simonsen, Erik; Sundet, Kjetil; Vaglum, Per; McGlashan, Thomas; Friis, Svein

    2016-01-01

    A substantial proportion of schizophrenia-spectrum patients exhibit a cognitive impairment at illness onset. However, the long-term course of neurocognition and a possible neurotoxic effect of time spent in active psychosis, is a topic of controversy. Furthermore, it is of importance to find out what predicts the long-term course of neurocognition. Duration of untreated psychosis (DUP), accumulated time in psychosis the first year after start of treatment, relapse rates and symptoms are potential predictors of the long-term course. In this study, 261 first-episode psychosis patients were assessed neuropsychologically on one or more occasions. Patients were tested after remission of psychotic symptoms and reassessed 1, 2, 5, and 10 years after inclusion. The neurocognitive battery consisted of California Verbal Learning Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Controlled Oral Word Association Task, Trail Making A and B, and Finger Tapping. We calculated a composite score by adding the z-scores of 4 tests that were only moderately inter-correlated, not including Finger Tapping. Data were analyzed by a linear mixed model. The composite score was stable over 10 years. No significant relationship between psychosis before (DUP) or after start of treatment and the composite score was found, providing no support for the neurotoxicity hypothesis, and indicating that psychosis before start of treatment has no significant impact on the course and outcome in psychosis. We found no association between symptoms and the neurocognitive trajectory. Stable remission during the first year predicted neurocognitive functioning, suggesting that the early clinical course is a good predictor for the long-term course. PMID:26101305

  19. Concentration of hydrogen ions in several calcium hydroxide pastes over different periods of time.

    PubMed

    Vianna, Morgana Eli; Zilio, Danila M; Ferraz, Caio Cezar Randi; Zaia, Alexandre Augusto; de Souza-Filho, Francisco José; Gomes, Brenda Paula Figueiredo de Almeida

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to measure the concentration of hydrogen ions (pH) of calcium hydroxide [(Ca(OH)2] pastes combined with different vehicles over 7 periods of time. The Ca(OH)2 was manipulated with the following vehicles: i: sterile water; ii: iodoform plus sterile water; iii: local anesthetics (Lydocaine 2% with 1: 100,000 epinephrine); iv: polyethyleneglycol; v: glycerin; vi: 2.0% chlorhexidine gel; vii: camphorated paramonochlorophenol (CMCP); viii: (CMCP) + glycerin; and ix: polyethyleneglycol plus CMCP. The pastes were made on a glass plate to toothpaste consistency and the pH was measured at the following times: 5 min, 1, 24, 48 h; 7, 14 and 28 days. The data were statistically analyzed (Kruskal-Wallis at p<0.05). At 5 min, 1 and 24 h, the pH of all tested pastes ranged from 13.05 to 11.16. At 48 h and 7 days the pH of all tested pastes ranged from 11.66 to 8.92. At 14 and 28 days almost all pastes had pH means lower than 10. In conclusion, the mean pH of all tested calcium hydroxide pastes decreased with the time. Pastes made with aqueous vehicles (especially with sterile water), followed by oily vehicles (especially with CMCP + glycerin), held the highest pH means over the periods of time tested. PMID:20126906

  20. Performance of ROB's near real-time ionospheric product during normal and disturbed space weather periods.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeot, Nicolas; Chevalier, Jean-Marie; Bruyninx, Carine

    2015-04-01

    Several agencies are routinely monitoring the vertical Total Electron Content (vTEC) using GNSS data. Derived maps are available with different latencies, area extents, and grid/time resolutions. However, no high-resolution maps are publically available over Europe in near real-time. In this frame, the Royal Observatory of Belgium (ROB) developed the ROB-IONO software which takes advantage of the dense EUREF Permanent GNSS Network (EPN) to monitor the ionosphere. The main ROB products consist of ionospheric vTEC maps over Europe and their variability estimated in near real-time every 15 min on 0.5° x 0.5° grids using GPS observations. The maps are available online with a latency of ~3 min in the IONEX format at ftp://gnss.oma.be and as interactive web pages at www.gnss.be. During normal ionospheric activity, the ROB-TEC maps show a good agreement with widely used post-processed global products from IGS, CODE and ESA, with mean differences of 1.3 ± 0.9, 0.6 ± 0.7 and 0.4 ± 1.6 TECu respectively for the period 2012 to mid-2013. For a disturbed period, such as the 2003 Halloween ionospheric storm, the mean differences with IGS, CODE and ESA maps are respectively 0.9 ± 2.2, 0.1 ± 2.0 and 0.6 ± 6.8 TECu, with maximum differences (>38 TECu) occurring during the major phase of the storm. These differences are due to the lower resolution of global products in time and space compared to the ROB-TEC maps. A description of two recent events, on March 17, 2013 and February 27, 2014 highlights the capability of the method adopted to detect in near real-time abnormal ionospheric behaviour over Europe. The potential of the variability maps as an indicator of rapid ionospheric variations during the 15 min of observations is also highlighted. More than 30 ionospheric events associated with Space weather were detected during the period 2012-2014. The ionospheric perturbations are associated with Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs, ~70% of the time), active geomagnetic conditions

  1. Dynamic effective properties of heterogeneous geological formations with spherical inclusions under periodic time variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabinovich, A.; Dagan, G.; Miloh, T.

    2013-04-01

    In unsteady groundwater flow (or similar processes of heat/electrical conduction), the heterogeneous medium structure is characterized by two random properties, the conductivity K and the specific storativity S. The average head field ⟨H ⟩and the associated effective properties Kef, Sef are determined for a layer with a periodic head drop between boundaries, such that H is periodic in time, and a medium made up of a matrix with a dilute concentration of spherical inclusions. In the common quasi-steady approximation, Kef is equal to the classical steady solution while Sef = SA, the arithmetic mean. We derive expressions for the frequency dependent Kef, Sef, which are generally complex, i.e., dynamic. The main result is the delineation of the ranges of the parameters: dimensionless frequency (ω) and contrasts of conductivity (κ) and storativity (s) between the matrix and the inclusions, for which dynamic effects are significant.

  2. Ultrafast time dynamics studies of periodic lattices with free electron laser radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Quevedo, W.; Busse, G.; Hallmann, J.; More, R.; Petri, M.; Rajkovic, I.; Krasniqi, F.; Rudenko, A.; Tschentscher, T.; Stojanovic, N.; Duesterer, S.; Treusch, R.; Tolkiehn, M.; Techert, S.

    2012-11-01

    It has been proposed that radiation from free electron laser (FEL) at Hamburg (FLASH) can be used for ultrafast time-resolved x-ray diffraction experiments based on the near-infrared (NIR) pump/FEL probe scheme. Here, investigation probing the ultrafast structural dynamics of periodic nano-crystalline organic matter (silver behenate) with such a scheme is reported. Excitation with a femtosecond NIR laser leads to an ultrafast lattice modification which time evolution has been studied through the scattering of vacuum ultraviolet FEL pulses. The found effect last for 6 ps and underpins the possibility for studying nanoperiodic dynamics down to the FEL source time resolution. Furthermore, the possibility of extending the use of silver behenate (AgBh) as a wavelength and temporal calibration tool for experiments with soft x-ray/FEL sources is suggested.

  3. Evaluation of indoor air composition time variation in air-tight occupied spaces during night periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markov, Detelin

    2012-11-01

    This paper presents an easy-to-understand procedure for prediction of indoor air composition time variation in air-tight occupied spaces during the night periods. The mathematical model is based on the assumptions for homogeneity and perfect mixing of the indoor air, the ideal gas model for non-reacting gas mixtures, mass conservation equations for the entire system and for each species, a model for prediction of basal metabolic rate of humans as well as a model for prediction of O2 consumption rate and both CO2 and H2O generation rates by breathing. Time variation of indoor air composition is predicted at constant indoor air temperature for three scenarios based on the analytical solution of the mathematical model. The results achieved reveal both the most probable scenario for indoor air time variation in air-tight occupied spaces as well as the cause for morning tiredness after having a sleep in a modern energy efficient space.

  4. Time-headway distribution for periodic totally asymmetric exclusion process with various updates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrabák, P.; Krbálek, M.

    2016-03-01

    The totally asymmetric exclusion process (TASEP) with periodic boundaries is considered as traffic flow model. The large-L approximation of the stationary state is used for the derivation of the time-headway distribution (an important microscopic characteristic of traffic flow) for the model with generalized update (genTASEP) in both, forward- and backward-sequential representations. The usually used updates, fully-parallel and regular forward- and backward-sequential, are analyzed as special cases of the genTASEP. It is shown that only for those cases, the time-headway distribution is determined by the flow regardless to the density. The qualitative comparison of the results with traffic data demonstrates that the genTASEP with backward order and attractive interaction evinces similar properties of time-headway distribution as the real traffic sample.

  5. Timing and periodicity of paraglacial rock-slope failures in the Scottish Highlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballantyne, Colin K.; Stone, John O.

    2013-03-01

    Many formerly-glaciated mountains exhibit a high density of postglacial rock-slope failures (RSFs) in the form of rockslides, rock avalanches or deep-seated gravitational slope deformations. Such RSFs are often termed 'paraglacial' as they reflect pre-conditioning by glaciation and deglaciation. The temporal pattern of paraglacial RSFs is unknown. We employ 47 cosmogenic isotope exposure ages obtained for 17 catastrophic RSFs in the Scottish Highlands to test models of changes in RSF frequency since deglaciation. Our results show that RSF activity spans almost the entire postglacial period from ~ 17 ka until ~ 1.5 ka, and that the periodicity of sampled postglacial RSFs is statistically indistinguishable from a pattern of uniform periodicity (~ 1 ka- 1). Our data do not conform to proposed models of declining RSF frequency with time elapsed since deglaciation, but suggest that the temporal distribution of postglacial RSFs is best described by a combination of rapid response (enhanced RSF frequency during or immediately after deglaciation) followed by approximately constant periodicity. Our findings are consistent with near-surface fracturing of rock when glacially-induced confining stresses are removed, causing some failures during or immediately after deglaciation and reducing other slopes to critical conditional stability so that failure is triggered by progressive rock-mass weakening or by transient triggering mechanisms. Neither permafrost degradation (thaw of ice in joints) nor seismic activity offers a general explanation for triggering Scottish RSFs, but could be contributory in some cases. The quasi-constant periodicity inferred for Holocene RSFs implies that the probability of RSFs in this seismically-quiescent intraplate area has not changed in the past ~ 10 ka, and that further (though infrequent) catastrophic RSFs are likely to occur in the future.

  6. A 10-year analysis of "revenues," costs, staffing, and workload in an academic medical center clinical chemistry laboratory.

    PubMed

    Benge, H; Csako, G; Parl, F F

    1993-09-01

    From 1980 to 1990 we found progressive increases in workload (number of billable tests; 12.1% per year), staffing [number of full-time equivalents (FTEs); 5.6% per year], "revenues" (gross billings; 25.8% per year), and direct cost (12.9% per year) in the clinical chemistry laboratory of a large tertiary-care university medical center. The increase in direct cost was mainly attributable to an increase in salary cost (23.7% per year), whereas the impact of increasing "consumable" cost was relatively small (5.3% per year). In fact, after adjustment for inflation, the consumable cost was virtually unchanged or decreased during the 10-year study period. Initially, consumables represented about 60% of the direct cost, and the remaining 40% was for salaries. After 1982/83, however, the relative contribution of consumables and salaries to direct cost gradually reversed. Because the workload grew at a higher rate than staffing, the workload per FTE increased from 1980 to 1990. This was paralleled by gradual increases in both "revenue" per FTE and salary per FTE in actual dollars, but by lesser increases to no increases in inflation-corrected dollars. After adjusting for inflation with different indices, the direct cost per test, the consumable cost per test, and the salary cost per test either remained unchanged or decreased in the 1980s. The findings are discussed in the context of technical advancements in laboratory testing, nationwide shortages of medical technologists, and implementation of prospective fixed-fee reimbursement practices during the study period. PMID:8375047

  7. Time-Periodic Solutions of Driven-Damped Trimer Granular Crystals

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Charalampidis, E. G.; Li, F.; Chong, C.; Yang, J.; Kevrekidis, P. G.

    2015-01-01

    We consider time-periodic structures of granular crystals consisting of alternate chrome steel (S) and tungsten carbide (W) spherical particles where each unit cell follows the pattern of a 2 : 1 trimer: S-W-S. The configuration at the left boundary is driven by a harmonic in-time actuation with given amplitude and frequency while the right one is a fixed wall. Similar to the case of a dimer chain, the combination of dissipation, driving of the boundary, and intrinsic nonlinearity leads to complex dynamics. For fixed driving frequencies in each of the spectral gaps, we find that the nonlinear surface modes and the statesmore » dictated by the linear drive collide in a saddle-node bifurcation as the driving amplitude is increased, beyond which the dynamics of the system becomes chaotic. While the bifurcation structure is similar for solutions within the first and second gap, those in the first gap appear to be less robust. We also conduct a continuation in driving frequency, where it is apparent that the nonlinearity of the system results in a complex bifurcation diagram, involving an intricate set of loops of branches, especially within the spectral gap. The theoretical findings are qualitatively corroborated by the experimental full-field visualization of the time-periodic structures.« less

  8. Hydromagnetic natural convection flow between vertical parallel plates with time-periodic boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adesanya, S. O.; Oluwadare, E. O.; Falade, J. A.; Makinde, O. D.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, the free convective flow of magnetohydrodynamic fluid through a channel with time periodic boundary condition is investigated by taking the effects of Joule dissipation into consideration. Based on simplifying assumptions, the coupled governing equations are reduced to a set of nonlinear boundary valued problem. Approximate solutions are obtained by using semi-analytical Adomian decomposition method. The effect of pertinent parameters on the fluid velocity, temperature distribution, Nusselt number and skin friction are presented graphically and discussed. The result of the computation shows that an increase in the magnetic field intensity has significant influence on the fluid flow.

  9. The Cluster Science Archive: from Time Period to Physics Based Search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson, A.; Escoubet, C. P.; Laakso, H. E.; Perry, C. H.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2000, the Cluster spacecraft relay the most detailed information on how the solar wind affects our geospace in three dimensions. Science output from Cluster is a leap forward in our knowledge of space plasma physics: the science behind space weather. It has been key in improving the modeling of the magnetosphere and understanding its various physical processes. Cluster data have enabled the publication of more than 2000 refereed papers and counting. This substantial scientific return is often attributed to the online availability of the Cluster data archive, now called the Cluster Science Archive (CSA). It is being developed by the ESAC Science Data Center (ESDC) team and maintained alongside other science ESA archives at ESAC (ESA Space Astronomy Center, Madrid, Spain). CSA is a public archive, which contains the entire set of Cluster high-resolution data, and other related products in a standard format and with a complete set of metadata. Since May 2015, it also contains data from the CNSA/ESA Double Star mission (2003-2008), a mission operated in conjunction with Cluster. The total amount of data format now exceeds 100 TB. Accessing CSA requires to be registered to enable user profiles and CSA accounts more than 1,500 users. CSA provides unique tools for visualizing its data including - on-demand particle distribution functions visualization - fast data browsing with more than 15TB of pre-generated plots - inventory plots It also offers command line capabilities (e.g. data access via Matlab or IDL softwares, data streaming). Despite its reliability, users can only request data for a specific time period while scientists often focus on specific regions or data signatures. For these reasons, a data-mining tool is being developed to do just that. It offers an interface to select data based not only on a time period but on various criteria including: key physical parameters, regions of space and spacecraft constellation geometry. The output of this tool is a

  10. Geometric tools for solving the FDI problem for linear periodic discrete-time systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longhi, Sauro; Monteriù, Andrea

    2013-07-01

    This paper studies the problem of detecting and isolating faults in linear periodic discrete-time systems. The aim is to design an observer-based residual generator where each residual is sensitive to one fault, whilst remaining insensitive to the other faults that can affect the system. Making use of the geometric tools, and in particular of the outer observable subspace notion, the Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI) problem is formulated and necessary and solvability conditions are given. An algorithmic procedure is described to determine the solution of the FDI problem.

  11. Thermomagnetic convection in a ferrofluid layer exposed to a time-periodic magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matura, P.; Lücke, M.

    2009-08-01

    We have investigated the influence of a time-periodic and spatially homogeneous magnetic field on the linear stability properties and on the nonlinear response of a ferrofluid layer heated from below and from above. A competition between stabilizing thermal and viscous diffusion and destabilizing buoyancy and Kelvin forces occurs. Floquet theory is used to determine the stability boundaries of the motionless conductive state for a harmonic and subharmonic response. Full numerical simulations with a finite difference method were made to obtain nonlinear convective states. The effect of low- and high-frequency modulation on the stability boundaries as well as on the nonlinear oscillations that may occur is investigated.

  12. Treatment of Bilateral Refractive Amblyopia in Children 3 to <10 Years Old

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, David; Chandler, Danielle L.; Beck, Roy W.; Arnold, Robert W.; Bacal, Darron A.; Birch, Eileen E.; Felius, Joost; Frazier, Marcela; Holmes, Jonathan M.; Hoover, Darren; Klimek, Deborah A.; Lorenzana, Ingryd; Quinn, Graham E.; Repka, Michael X.; Suh, Donny W.; Tamkins, Susanna

    2007-01-01

    Purpose To determine the amount and time course of binocular visual acuity improvement during treatment of bilateral refractive amblyopia in children age 3 to <10 years old Design Prospective, multicenter noncomparative intervention Methods 113 children (mean age = 5.1 years) with previously untreated bilateral refractive amblyopia were enrolled at 27 community- and university-based sites and were provided optimal spectacle correction. Bilateral refractive amblyopia was defined as 20/40 to 20/400 best-corrected binocular acuity in the presence of ≥ 4.00 D hypermetropia by spherical equivalent and/or ≥ 2.00 D astigmatism in each eye. Best-corrected binocular and monocular visual acuities were measured at baseline and at 5, 13, 26 and 52 weeks. The primary study outcome was binocular acuity at one year. Results Mean binocular visual acuity improved from 0.50 logMAR (20/63) at baseline to 0.11 logMAR (20/25) at one year (mean improvement 3.9 lines, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.5 to 4.2). Mean improvement at one year for the 84 children with baseline binocular acuity of 20/40 to 20/80 was 3.4 lines (95% CI = 3.2 to 3.7) and for the 16 children with baseline binocular acuity of 20/100 to 20/320 was 6.3 lines (95% CI = 5.1 to 7.5). The cumulative probability of binocular acuity of 20/25 or better was 21% at 5 weeks, 46% at 13 weeks, 59% at 26 weeks, and 74% at 52 weeks. Conclusions Treatment of bilateral refractive amblyopia with spectacle correction improves binocular visual acuity in children age 3 to <10 years old, with most improving to 20/25 or better within one year. PMID:17707330

  13. Lamont-Doherty's Secondary School Field Research Program: 10 years of field research-based education.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, R.; Vincent, S.; Gribbin, S.; Peteet, D. M.; Sambrotto, R.; Bostick, B. C.; Corbett, E.; Nguyen, K.; Bjornton, J.; Lee, D.; Dubossi, D.; Reyes, N.

    2014-12-01

    This fall marks the 10th year in which we have run a research-project-based educational program for high school students and science teachers at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory. This summer's cohort included 31 teenagers, 7 science teachers, and 16 college students, most of whom are returning to the program to help run the research projects. Nearly all of our students attend non-competitive-entry public schools in NYC or the neighborhoods around the Observatory. Over 80% are from under-served minority populations. Most receive Title I/III assistance. About 60% are young women. During the past 10 years, nearly all of our participants have gone on to 4-year colleges. About half are declaring science and engineering majors. Our students receive scholarship support at rates several times higher than their graduating peers, including 5 Gates Millennium scholars over the past 5 years. Our science is centered on studies of a nearby tidal wetland, where we have expanded from fish collections in year one to include everything from sediment core analysis to soil chemistry to nutrient cycles to the local food web. In this presentation we will look back over 10 years of experience and focus on what lessons can be learned about (1) how to engage teams of young investigators in authentic scientific research; (2) what cultural/organizational structures encourage them to make use of place- and project-based learning and (3) what the participants themselves report as the most useful aspects of our programming. The presentation will include video clips from the students' field experiences and from reflective interviews with "graduates".

  14. Effects of Two Modes of Exercise Training on Physical Fitness of 10 Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribeiro, Ligia G. dos Santos Chaves; Portal, Maria de Nazare Dias; da Silva, Joao Bittencourt; Saraiva, Alan; da Cruz Monte, Gerson, Jr.; Dantas, Estelio H. M.

    2010-01-01

    Study aim: To compare two exercise training modes on the physical fitness of 10 year-old children. Material and methods: A sample of 60 schoolboys aged 10 years were randomly divided into 3 groups: Traditional (TG), trained according to the Brazilian national curricular parameters, Maturational (MG), in which the degree of difficulty of the…

  15. The Career Trap. Breaking through the 10-Year Barrier To Get the Job You Really Want.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Jeffrey G.

    This book, which is intended for individuals who have been in a job for a decade and feel that their career development has stalled, explains how to break through the 10-year career barrier and get a desired job. The following topics are discussed in the book's 15 chapters: career stalls and their causes; the 10-year career barrier; the legality…

  16. Changes in the Capacity of Visual Working Memory in 5- to 10-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggs, Kevin J.; McTaggart, James; Simpson, Andrew; Freeman, Richard P. J.

    2006-01-01

    Using the Luck and Vogel change detection paradigm, we sought to investigate the capacity of visual working memory in 5-, 7-, and 10-year-olds. We found that performance on the task improved significantly with age and also obtained evidence that the capacity of visual working memory approximately doubles between 5 and 10 years of age, where it…

  17. 10 Years Later, Another Look at Big-Time College Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suggs, Welch

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of the newly reconstituted Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics focuses on issues facing the commission, including its role in preventing an "arms race" in salaries, facilities, and other aspects of athletic departments; the need to empower college/university presidents to take more control of athletics; and…

  18. Just-in-Time Training: The Lessons of Hurricane Katrina, 10 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boerner, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina reshaped college workforce development programs as thoroughly as it did the coastline--but in this case, the changes were for the good of students, employers and the community. This article discusses the effects and changes made by 4 community colleges who were effected by Hurricane Katrina: (1) Louisiana Community and Technical…

  19. Time series modelling of increased soil temperature anomalies during long period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirvani, Amin; Moradi, Farzad; Moosavi, Ali Akbar

    2015-10-01

    Soil temperature just beneath the soil surface is highly dynamic and has a direct impact on plant seed germination and is probably the most distinct and recognisable factor governing emergence. Autoregressive integrated moving average as a stochastic model was developed to predict the weekly soil temperature anomalies at 10 cm depth, one of the most important soil parameters. The weekly soil temperature anomalies for the periods of January1986-December 2011 and January 2012-December 2013 were taken into consideration to construct and test autoregressive integrated moving average models. The proposed model autoregressive integrated moving average (2,1,1) had a minimum value of Akaike information criterion and its estimated coefficients were different from zero at 5% significance level. The prediction of the weekly soil temperature anomalies during the test period using this proposed model indicated a high correlation coefficient between the observed and predicted data - that was 0.99 for lead time 1 week. Linear trend analysis indicated that the soil temperature anomalies warmed up significantly by 1.8°C during the period of 1986-2011.

  20. Periodic boundary conditions for long-time nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of incompressible flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobson, Matthew

    2014-11-01

    This work presents a generalization of the Kraynik-Reinelt (KR) boundary conditions for nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. In the simulation of steady, homogeneous flows with periodic boundary conditions, the simulation box deforms with the flow, and it is possible for image particles to become arbitrarily close, causing a breakdown in the simulation. The KR boundary conditions avoid this problem for planar elongational flow and general planar mixed flow [T. A. Hunt, S. Bernardi, and B. D. Todd, J. Chem. Phys. 133, 154116 (2010)] through careful choice of the initial simulation box and by periodically remapping the simulation box in a way that conserves image locations. In this work, the ideas are extended to a large class of three-dimensional flows by using multiple remappings for the simulation box. The simulation box geometry is no longer time-periodic (which was shown to be impossible for uniaxial and biaxial stretching flows in the original work by Kraynik and Reinelt [Int. J. Multiphase Flow 18, 1045 (1992)]. The presented algorithm applies to all flows with nondefective flow matrices, and in particular, to uniaxial and biaxial flows.

  1. Symbolic dynamics of pulse transit time and heart period in children with upper airway obstruction.

    PubMed

    Baumert, Mathias; Kohler, Mark; Pamula, Yvonne; Immanuel, Sarah A

    2015-08-01

    Upper airway obstruction (UAO) is a relatively common condition during childhood that is characterized by periods of partial or complete upper airway closure, resulting in restless sleep. It has also been suggested that UAO triggers early cardiovascular changes that may predispose to an increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases later in life. The aim of this study was to assess the temporal dynamics of heart period (HP) and pulse transit time (PTT) during quite, event-free periods of sleep in children with UAO (n = 40) and matched healthy controls. The dynamics of HP and PTT were symbolized based on the sextiles of their distribution and words of length three were formed and classified into four types based on their patterns. Joint symbolic dynamics represent the concomitant occurrence of words in HP and PTT. Children with UAO showed a significantly increased frequency in word types of monotonously increasing and decreasing HP and PTT as well as joint dynamics across all stages of sleep. The dynamics of HP showed a marked sleep stage dependence, while PTT dynamics appeared to be relatively unaffected. In conclusion, cardiovascular dynamics are altered in children with UAO during scored event-free sleep, indicative of frequent bursts in sympathetic nervous system activity, possibly reflecting subcortical arousal responses to brief and subtle increases in UAO. PMID:26736629

  2. Respiratory rate: measurement of variability over time and accuracy at different counting periods.

    PubMed Central

    Simoes, E A; Roark, R; Berman, S; Esler, L L; Murphy, J

    1991-01-01

    The respiratory rates/minute of 97 children were monitored every 10-15 minutes over one hour, by an observer and by pneumogram, at which times two 30 second and one 60 second counts were obtained. The children were under 5 years of age with lower respiratory tract infections (n = 20), upper respiratory tract infections (n = 34), or controls without acute respiratory infection (n = 43). The difference between respiratory rate count determined simultaneously by observation and pneumogram in relation to their mean count was analysed for the 60 second counting period, 30 plus 30 second period, and the 30 second period doubled. The mean difference for the 60 second period was 1.79, for the 30 plus 30 second period 1.42, and for the 30 second period doubled 1.72. The variability between respiratory rate counts determined by observation and pneumogram was significantly lower in counts obtained when the subject was sleeping and higher when agitated compared with obtaining a count when the subject was awake and calm or feeding. The variability was also significantly lower in subjects with lower respiratory tract infections compared with those with upper respiratory tract infections and control subjects without respiratory symptoms. In the same patient, over the one hour, 50% of the 60 second counts varied by up to 14 breaths/minute and 75% by up to 21 breaths/minute. The least variability was seen in children with a lower respiratory tract infection, who tended to maintain their rapid breathing in contrast to those with an upper respiratory tract infection and controls without respiratory symptoms. About 10% of initial 30 second counts, 12% of 60 second, and 16% of initial and repeat 30 second attempts to obtain accurate counts failed. Failures occurred more frequently in children <2 months of age and those agitated. The data from this study suggest that one minute's counting either at a stretch or in two blocks of 30 second intervals is better than counting the respiratory

  3. Time-dependent Mott transition in the periodic Anderson model with nonlocal hybridization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Felix; Potthoff, Michael

    2016-08-01

    The time-dependent Mott transition in a periodic Anderson model with off-site, nearest-neighbor hybridization is studied within the framework of nonequilibrium self-energy functional theory. Using the two-site dynamical-impurity approximation, we compute the real-time dynamics of the optimal variational parameter and of different observables initiated by sudden quenches of the Hubbard-U and identify the critical interaction. The time-dependent transition is orbital selective, i.e., in the final state, reached in the long-time limit after the quench to the critical interaction, the Mott gap opens in the spectral function of the localized orbitals only. We discuss the dependence of the critical interaction and of the final-state effective temperature on the hybridization strength and point out the various similarities between the nonequilibrium and the equilibrium Mott transition. It is shown that these can also be smoothly connected to each other by increasing the duration of a U-ramp from a sudden quench to a quasi-static process. The physics found for the model with off-site hybridization is compared with the dynamical Mott transition in the single-orbital Hubbard model and with the dynamical crossover found for the real-time dynamics of the conventional Anderson lattice with on-site hybridization.

  4. Tracking rhythmicity in nonstationary quasi-periodic biomedical signals using adaptive time-varying covariance.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Jung, Ranu

    2002-07-01

    A time-varying covariance method for detecting and quantifying the evolution of rhythmicity (frequency) in persistently varying quasi-periodic nonstationary signals is presented. The basic method, evaluated using chirp signals, utilizes a shifting window of fixed length. A substantial reduction in estimation bias and variability are obtained by utilizing an adaptive window whose length is dependent on past frequency estimates. The adaptive window yields estimates that are comparable in accuracy to those obtained using high-resolution time-frequency representation but with lower computation requirements and the potential for on-line application. Finally, an example of the application of the method for analyzing a neural recording is also illustrated. PMID:11931864

  5. Spectral factorization in periodically time-varying systems and application to navigation problems.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishimura, T.

    1972-01-01

    Spectral factorization has been used previously to derive the steady-state solution of Kalman filtering equations without iteration for constant coefficient systems. The present work extends the spectral factorization algorithm to time-varying systems having periodic coefficient matrices for cases of both discrete and continuous systems. Time-consuming, expensive iterations of sequential covariance equations are not required to reach the final solution since this is an algebraic algorithm employing existing eigenvalue, eigenvector subroutines. The computer program incorporating the algorithm is suitable for sensitivity studies in formulating navigation and guidance strategies of low-thrust interplanetary missions. The determination of an optimum tracking pattern from an earth station is examined as an example.

  6. Nonlinear time-periodic models of the longitudinal flight dynamics of desert locusts Schistocerca gregaria

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Graham K; Żbikowski, Rafał

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies of insect flight control have been statistical in approach, simply correlating wing kinematics with body kinematics or force production. Kinematics and forces are linked by Newtonian mechanics, so adopting a dynamics-based approach is necessary if we are to place the study of insect flight on its proper physical footing. Here we develop semi-empirical models of the longitudinal flight dynamics of desert locusts Schistocerca gregaria. We use instantaneous force–moment measurements from individual locusts to parametrize the nonlinear rigid body equations of motion. Since the instantaneous forces are approximately periodic, we represent them using Fourier series, which are embedded in the equations of motion to give a nonlinear time-periodic (NLTP) model. This is a proper mathematical generalization of an earlier linear-time invariant (LTI) model of locust flight dynamics, developed using previously published time-averaged versions of the instantaneous force recordings. We perform various numerical simulations, within the fitted range of the model, and across the range of body angles used by free-flying locusts, to explore the likely behaviour of the locusts upon release from the tether. Solutions of the NLTP models are compared with solutions of the nonlinear time-invariant (NLTI) models to which they reduce when the periodic terms are dropped. Both sets of models are unstable and therefore fail to explain locust flight stability fully. Nevertheless, whereas the measured forces include statistically significant harmonic content up to about the eighth harmonic, the simulated flight trajectories display no harmonic content above the fundamental forcing frequency. Hence, manoeuvre control in locusts will not directly reflect subtle changes in the higher harmonics of the wing beat, but must operate on a coarser time-scale. A state-space analysis of the NLTP models reveals orbital trajectories that are impossible to capture in the LTI and NLTI models

  7. Human Brucellosis in Macedonia – 10 Years of Clinical Experience in Endemic Region

    PubMed Central

    Bosilkovski, Mile; Krteva, Ljiljana; Dimzova, Marija; Vidinic, Ivan; Sopova, Zaklina; Spasovska, Katerina

    2010-01-01

    Aim To present our 10-year clinical experience with brucellosis patients at the University Clinic for Infectious Diseases and Febrile Conditions in Skopje, Republic of Macedonia. Methods A total of 550 patients with brucellosis treated between 1998 and 2007 were retrospectively assessed for their demographic, epidemiological, and clinical characteristics and outcomes. Results Of the 550 patients, 395 (72%) were male. The median age was 34.5 years (range, 1-82). Direct contact with infected animals was recorded in 333 (61%) patients and positive family history in 310 (56%). The most frequently seen symptoms were arthralgia (438, 80%), fever (419, 76%), and sweating (394, 72%). The most common signs were fever and hepatomegaly, which were verified in 357 (65%) and 273 (50%) patients, respectively. Focal brucellosis was found in 362 patients (66%) and osteoarticular in 299 (54%). Therapeutic failures were registered in 37 (6.7%) patients. Of the 453 (82%) patients who completed a follow-up period of at least 6 months, relapses occurred in 60 (13%). Conclusion Due to non-specific clinical manifestation and laboratory parameters, brucellosis should be considered one of the differential diagnoses of any patient suffering from obscure involvement of various organs in a brucellosis-endemic region. High percentage of relapses and therapeutic failures in spite of the use of currently recommended therapeutic regimens indicates the seriousness of this zoonosis and the need to control it. PMID:20718086

  8. Heterotopic ossification: review of histologic findings and tissue distribution in a 10-year experience.

    PubMed

    Liu, Katharine; Tripp, Sheryl; Layfield, Lester J

    2007-01-01

    Heterotopic ossification (HO) within tissues involved by a pathologic process is a well-recognized phenomenon. It is most frequently observed in atherosclerotic plaques, in soft tissue around joints, and in the central nervous system. Less frequently, carcinomas and some benign neoplasms will undergo heterotopic ossification. We performed a retrospective review of our experience with HO over a 10-year period to determine the frequency and tissue site distribution of heterotopic ossification. A computerized review of surgical pathology records of approximately 126,000 reports revealed 85 cases in which heterotopic ossification, ectopic bone or metaplastic bone was specifically mentioned in the surgical pathology diagnosis. Twenty-two cases were neoplasms of non-osseous tissues, and 63 cases were non-neoplastic lesions. Immunohistochemical staining for bone morphogenic proteins (BMP) 1, 4, and 6 was performed. Fourteen cases showed staining for BMP-1, 22 cases showed staining for BMP-4, and five cases showed weak staining for BMP-6. HO is a relatively infrequent finding and is more commonly seen in degenerative and reparative conditions than in neoplasms. PMID:17728073

  9. A tentative 10-year sediment budget of the lower River Ebro (NE Iberian Peninsula)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tena, A.; Batalla, R. J.; Vericat, D.; López-Tarazón, J. A.

    2009-04-01

    Dams in the Ebro basin alter flow regime and sediment transport of most rivers in the catchment. This fact, together with changes in land use, results in a sustained decrease of the sediment load since the beginning of the 20th century, with special impact on the sediment load of the lower reaches of the river. The aim of this work is to develop a long-term suspended sediment budget for the river reach downstream the largest complex of dams in the basin (Mequinenza-Ribarroja-Flix, impounding around 1.7 km3 of water). As a first step we have estimated the river's sediment load over a 10-year period based on turbidity and water discharge records continuously measured by the Ebro Water Authorities. Turbidity measurements have been calibrated by means of five-hundred manual water samples collected during all flow conditions (i.e. floods and low flows) between 2002 and 2008. Water samples have been collected 28 km downstream from the lowermost Flix Dam, at the Mora d'Ebre Monitoring Section (hereafter MEMS). Discharge at MEMS is estimated by routing the flow hydrographs from the Asc

  10. Gluteal Fascial Advancement for Pilonidal Cyst Disease: A 10-year Review.

    PubMed

    Powell, Benjamin C; Webb, Colin B; Ewing, Joseph A; Smith, Dane E

    2016-07-01

    Elective excision of noninfected pilonidal cysts has historically been plagued by a high rate of complications, such as wound breakdown and recurrence. Debate remains regarding the most effective method of wound closure. We previously reported a small group of patients (n = 17 out of 83 patients) in which a novel technique decreased wound complications and recurrence. The purpose of this article was to build on that prior study by evaluating the utility of the gluteal fascial advancement method to decrease complications over a 10-year period. All patients who underwent elective pilonidal cyst excision from 2008 to 2015 were retrospectively reviewed (n = 150); this was added to the data from 2004 to 2007. Patients were divided into two cohorts: those who underwent elective excision with simple closure (n = 172) and those who underwent bilateral gluteal fascial advancement flaps (n = 61). Primary end points included recurrence and dehiscence. Overall demographic characteristics were statistically comparable between groups. The rate of recurrence was not significantly different between groups. However, wound closure using bilateral gluteal fascial advancement flaps was associated with a significantly lower rate of dehiscence when compared with standard primary closure (12% vs 40%, P < 0.001). The use of bilateral gluteal fascial advancement flaps is a superior method for closing elective pilonidal cyst excisions. PMID:27457861

  11. Impacts of Natural Hazards on Primary Health Care Facilities of Iran: A 10-Year Retrospective Survey

    PubMed Central

    Ardalan, Ali; Mowafi, Hani; Yousefi, Homa

    2013-01-01

    Public health facilities in Iran are exposed to a wide range of natural hazards. This article presents the first survey of the impacts of such natural hazards on primary health care (PHC) centers in Iran from 2001 to 2011. A retrospective survey was conducted in 25 out of 30 provinces of Iran. Archival reports at provincial public health departments were cross-referenced with key informant interviews. During a 10-year period, 119 natural hazard events were recorded that led to physical damage and/or functional failure in 1,401 health centers, 127 deaths and injury or illness in 644 health staff. Earthquakes accounted for the most physical damage and all health-worker deaths. However, there was an increasing trend of impacts due to hydro-meteorological hazards. Iran’s health system needs to establish a registry to track the impact of natural hazards on health facilities, conduct regular hazard and vulnerability assessments and increase mitigation and preparedness measures. Keywords: Disaster, primary health care, facility, Iran, natural hazard Corresponding author: Ali Ardalan MD, PhD. Iran’s National Institute of Health Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Harvard Humanitarian Initiative. Email: aardalan@tums.ac.ir PMID:23863871

  12. Cancer incidence and mortality due to alcohol: an analysis of 10-year data.

    PubMed

    Laffoy, M; McCarthy, T; Mullen, L; Byrne, D; Martin, J

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is causally related to cancer of the upper aero-digestive tract, liver, colon, rectum, female breast and pancreas. The dose response relationship varies for each site. We calculated Ireland's cancer incidence and mortality attributable to alcohol over a 10-year period. Between 2001 and 2010, 4,585 (4.7%) male and 4,593 (4.2%) female invasive cancer diagnoses were attributable to alcohol. The greatest risk was for the upper aero-digestive tract where 2,961 (52.9%) of these cancers in males and 866 (35.2%) in females were attributable to alcohol. Between 2001 and 2010, 2,823 (6.7%) of male cancer deaths and 1,700 (4.6%) of female cancer deaths were attributable to alcohol. Every year approximately 900 new cancers and 500 cancer deaths are attributable to alcohol. Alcohol is a major cause of cancer after smoking, obesity and physical inactivity. Public awareness of risk must improve. Over half of alcohol related cancers are preventable by adhering to Department of Health alcohol consumption guidelines. PMID:24579406

  13. A 10-year systematic review of HIV/AIDS mass communication campaigns: Have we made progress?

    PubMed

    Noar, Seth M; Palmgreen, Philip; Chabot, Melissa; Dobransky, Nicole; Zimmerman, Rick S

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to conduct a 10-year systematic review of HIV/AIDS mass communication campaigns focused on sexual behavior, HIV testing, or both (1998-2007) and to compare the results with the last comprehensive review of such campaigns, conducted by Myhre and Flora (2000). A comprehensive search strategy yielded 38 HIV/AIDS campaign evaluation articles published in peer-reviewed journals, representing 34 distinct campaign efforts conducted in 23 countries. The articles were coded on a variety of campaign design and evaluation dimensions by two independent coders. Results indicated that compared with the previous systematic review (1986-1998 period), campaigns increasingly have employed the following strategies: (1) targeted defined audiences developed through audience segmentation procedures; (2) designed campaign themes around behavior change (rather than knowledge change); (3) used behavioral theories; (4) achieved high message exposure; (5) used stronger research designs for outcome evaluation; and (6) included measures of behavior (or behavioral intentions) in outcome assessments. In addition, an examination of 10 campaign efforts that used more rigorous quasi-experimental designs revealed that the majority (8 of 10) demonstrated effects on behavior change or behavioral intentions. Despite these positive developments, most HIV/AIDS campaigns continue to use weak (i.e., preexperimental) outcome evaluation designs. Implications of these results for improved design, implementation, and evaluation of HIV/AIDS campaign efforts are discussed. PMID:19180369

  14. Medical Malpractice in Wuhan, China: A 10-Year Autopsy-Based Single-Center Study.

    PubMed

    He, Fanggang; Li, Liliang; Bynum, Jennifer; Meng, Xiangzhi; Yan, Ping; Li, Ling; Liu, Liang

    2015-11-01

    Medical disputes in China are historically poorly documented. In particular, autopsy-based evaluation and its impact on medical malpractice claims remain largely unstudied. This study aims to document autopsy findings and medical malpractice in one of the largest cities of China, Wuhan, located in Hubei Province. A total of 519 autopsies were performed by the Department of Forensic Medicine, Wuhan University School of Medicine, Wuhan, China, over a 10-year period between 2004 and 2013. Of these cases, 190 (36.6%) were associated with medical malpractice claims. Joint evaluation by forensic pathologists and clinicians confirmed that 97 (51.1%) of the 190 claims were approved medical malpractice cases. The percentage of approved malpractice cases increased with patient age and varied according to medical setting, physician specialty, and organ system. The clinico-pathological diagnostic discrepancy was significantly different among various physician specialties (P = 0.031) and organ systems (P = 0.000). Of those cases involved in malpractice claims, aortic dissection, coronary heart disease, and acute respiratory infection were most common. Association between incorrect diagnosis and malpractice was significant (P = 0.001). This is the first report on China's medical malpractice and findings at autopsy which reflects the current state of health care services in one of the biggest cities in China. PMID:26559306

  15. Prevalence and geographical distribution of Escherichia coli O157 in India: a 10-year survey.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Rakesh; Kumar, Yashwant; Kumar, Sunil

    2008-04-01

    Escherichia coli colonizes the human gastrointestinal tract and produces a variety of diseases. Escherichia coli O157 is one of the most important pathogenic strains reported from food-borne illnesses leading to enterohemorrhagic colitis. The National Salmonella and Escherichia Centre is a national reference centre for Salmonella and Escherichia for India; it receives samples from research laboratories, hospitals and institutions for serological identification. The present study is an epidemiological survey of E. coli O157 in different regions of India. The data are based on samples received from humans, food items, animals and the environment. A total of 17 093 isolates cultured from samples were received during the 10-year period of which 5678 were from human sources. Thirty (0.5%) human samples were positive for E. coli O157. A significantly high percentage of E. coli O157 were isolated from meat (0.9%, 13/1376), milk and milk products (1.8%, 10/553), seafood (8.4%, 16/190) and water (1.6%, 8/486). The isolates were found to be distributed among domestic and wild animals, and the maximum number of isolates of E. coli O157 was detected in samples received from coastal belt areas. Escherichia coli O157 is widely distributed among humans and animals, food and environment in different geographical regions of India. PMID:18321544

  16. A 10-year review of four academic nurse-managed centers: challenges and survival strategies.

    PubMed

    King, Eunice S

    2008-01-01

    Since 1985, there has been rapid growth in nurse-managed health centers (NMHCs). Many were established by academic schools of nursing, and several have closed. The Independence Foundation undertook this study to identify the challenges and survival strategies employed by four academic nurse-managed center grantees during a 10-year period. Data from Foundation records, interviews with directors and staff from the centers and the National Nursing Centers Consortium, a focus group with center founders, and field notes were analyzed for themes related to the centers' challenges and survival strategies. Although the centers faced many challenges from the sociopolitical environment, the community, and their parent organizations, the most difficult challenge was achieving financial sustainability, which was attainable only by obtaining cost-based reimbursement. Because of existing health policies, that was possible only through organizational restructuring and affiliation with an existing federally qualified health center. The future of nursing centers depends upon favorable health policies, data documenting centers' effectiveness, and adequate preparation of the next generation of nursing center directors and practitioners. PMID:18206838

  17. Period-independent novel circadian oscillators revealed by timed exercise and palatable meals

    PubMed Central

    Flôres, Danilo E. F. L.; Bettilyon, Crystal N.; Yamazaki, Shin

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian circadian system is a hierarchical network of oscillators organized to optimally coordinate behavior and physiology with daily environmental cycles. The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus is at the top of this hierarchy, synchronizing to the environmental light-dark cycle, and coordinates the phases of peripheral clocks. The Period genes are critical components of the molecular timekeeping mechanism of these clocks. Circadian clocks are disabled in Period1/2/3 triple mutant mice, resulting in arrhythmic behavior in constant conditions. We uncovered rhythmic behavior in this mutant by simply exposing the mice to timed access to a palatable meal or running wheel. The emergent circadian behavior rhythms free-ran for many cycles under constant conditions without cyclic environmental cues. Together, these data demonstrate that the palatable meal-inducible circadian oscillator (PICO) and wheel-inducible circadian oscillator (WICO) are generated by non-canonical circadian clocks. Entrainment of these novel oscillators by palatable snacks and timed exercise could become novel therapeutics for human conditions caused by disruptions of the circadian clocks. PMID:26904978

  18. Period-independent novel circadian oscillators revealed by timed exercise and palatable meals.

    PubMed

    Flôres, Danilo E F L; Bettilyon, Crystal N; Yamazaki, Shin

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian circadian system is a hierarchical network of oscillators organized to optimally coordinate behavior and physiology with daily environmental cycles. The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus is at the top of this hierarchy, synchronizing to the environmental light-dark cycle, and coordinates the phases of peripheral clocks. The Period genes are critical components of the molecular timekeeping mechanism of these clocks. Circadian clocks are disabled in Period1/2/3 triple mutant mice, resulting in arrhythmic behavior in constant conditions. We uncovered rhythmic behavior in this mutant by simply exposing the mice to timed access to a palatable meal or running wheel. The emergent circadian behavior rhythms free-ran for many cycles under constant conditions without cyclic environmental cues. Together, these data demonstrate that the palatable meal-inducible circadian oscillator (PICO) and wheel-inducible circadian oscillator (WICO) are generated by non-canonical circadian clocks. Entrainment of these novel oscillators by palatable snacks and timed exercise could become novel therapeutics for human conditions caused by disruptions of the circadian clocks. PMID:26904978

  19. Migration to the Downtown Eastside neighbourhood of Vancouver and changes in service use in a cohort of mentally ill homeless adults: a 10-year retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Somers, Julian M; Moniruzzaman, Akm; Rezansoff, Stefanie N

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Little research has investigated the role of migration as a potential contributor to the spatial concentration of homeless people with complex health and social needs. In addition, little is known concerning the relationship between possible migration and changes in levels of service use over time. We hypothesised that homeless, mentally ill individuals living in a concentrated urban setting had migrated from elsewhere over a 10-year period, in association with significant increases in the use of public services. Setting Recruitment was concentrated in the Downtown Eastside neighbourhood of Vancouver, Canada. Participants Participants (n=433) met criteria for chronic homelessness and serious mental illness, and provided consent to access administrative data. Methods Linked administrative data were used to retrospectively examine geographic relocation as well as rates of health, justice, and social welfare service utilisation in each of the 10 years prior to recruitment. Generalised estimating equations were used to estimate the effect of migration on service use. Results Over a 10-year period there was significant movement into Vancouver's Downtown Eastside neighbourhood (from 17% to 52% of the cohort). During the same period, there were significant annual increases in community medical services (adjusted rate ratio (ARR) per year=1.08; 95% CI 1.06 to 1.10), hospital admissions (ARR=1.08; 95% CI 1.04 to 1.11), criminal convictions (ARR=1.08; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.13), and financial assistance payments (ARR=1.04; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.06). Migration was significantly associated with financial assistance, but not with other types of services. Conclusions Significant increases in service use over a 10-year period coincided with significant migration into an urban area where relevant services were concentrated. These results highlight opportunities for early intervention in spatially diverse neighbourhoods to interrupt trajectories marked by worsening health and

  20. High-Dose-Rate Rotte 'Y' Applicator Brachytherapy for Definitive Treatment of Medically Inoperable Endometrial Cancer: 10-Year Results

    SciTech Connect

    Coon, Devin; Beriwal, Sushil Heron, Dwight E.; Kelley, Joseph L.; Edwards, Robert P.; Sukumvanich, Paniti; Zorn, Kristin K.; Krivak, Thomas C.

    2008-07-01

    Purpose: To assess the intermediate clinical outcomes of medically inoperable patients with endometrial cancer treated with definitive Rotte 'Y' applicator high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDRB) over a 10-year period. Methods and Materials: Forty-nine inoperable patients were treated with HDRB from 1997 to 2007. Forty three (84%) were markedly obese (body mass index >35 kg/m{sup 2}). Thirty-one patients (63.3%) underwent two-dimensional treatment planning, whereas 18 patients (36.7%) underwent three-dimensional treatment planning. Thirty five of the patients (71.4%) were first treated with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). For patients receiving EBRT in addition to HDRB, the median Y-applicator dose was 20 Gy in 5 fractions; for patients receiving HDRB alone it was 35 Gy in 5 fractions. All patients received two Y-applicator treatments per day. Results: Median follow-up time for all patients was 33 months. Acute HDRB toxicities were limited to Grade 1 and 2 occurring in 5 patients. One patient had a myocardial infarction. Four patients had late Grade 2 or 3 toxicity. Three patients had local recurrence (median time to recurrence, 16 months). The 3- and 5-year actuarial cause-specific survival rates were 93% and 87%, respectively; the overall survival rate was 83% and 42%, respectively, at 3 and 5 years. Conclusions: Twice-daily HDRB using a Y-applicator is a well-tolerated and efficacious regimen for the definitive treatment of medically inoperable patients with early-stage endometrial cancer. The recent incorporation of three-dimensional treatment planning has the potential to further decrease treatment morbidities.

  1. Secondary tumors of the pancreas diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration: a 10-year experience.

    PubMed

    Waters, Lindsay; Si, Quisheng; Caraway, Nancy; Mody, Dina; Staerkel, Gregg; Sneige, Nour

    2014-09-01

    Determining whether a pancreatic mass is a primary or secondary neoplasm is necessary for appropriate treatment. We reviewed our experience using endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) for diagnosis of pancreatic tumors to identify clinical and cytopathologic characteristics of metastatic disease. We reviewed all cases of tumors metastatic to the pancreas evaluated at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center and The Methodist Hospital in Houston, Texas during the period from 2002 to 2012. The review included cytologic specimens, clinical history, radiologic findings, primary tumor type, and clinical follow-up. We identified 66 patients with disease metastatic to the pancreas for which cytologic material was available: 38 (58%) men and 28 (42%) women, with an average age of 63 years (range, 40-89 years). Most metastases (98%) were single lesions, and nearly half were located in the head of the pancreas (30/66). The most common site of origin for these metastases was kidney (27 [41%] cases). Follow-up information was available for 65 (98%) patients, and duration of follow-up ranged from <1 to 10 years (mean, 2.3 years). Thirty-three patients (50%) were alive at the time of the most recent follow-up contact. Of the 25 patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma, clear cell type, 19 (76%) were alive at the time of the most recent follow-up. It was concluded that metastases may mimic primary pancreatic carcinomas both clinically and cytologically. Ancillary studies in conjunction with clinical history are necessary for the accurate diagnosis of FNAs of secondary pancreatic tumors. PMID:24554612

  2. Climatological Analysis of the Exclusive Economic Zone of Mexico Based on 10 Years of Satellite Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez Rodriguez, E.; Trasviña-Castro, A.; Aguirre Bahena, F.

    2013-05-01

    low (<25 mg m-3) and are not found associated to low temperatures and/or low depths of the euphotic zone. The oceanic region shows maximum values for both sea surface temperatures and depth of the euphotic zone as is to be expected in oligotrophic regions of the sea. Anomalies for all three variables will also shown to discuss the interannual variability of this 10-years period of study.

  3. Course of Depression in a 10-year Prospective Study: Evidence for Qualitatively Distinct Subgroups

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Daniel N.; Kotov, Roman

    2016-01-01

    The course of depressive disorders can vary considerable, with some individuals exhibiting a chronic course and poor outcomes, while others have a more episodic course and better outcomes. However it is unclear whether degree of chronicity is continuous or reflects qualitatively distinct subgroups. Using data from a 5-wave, 10-year, naturalistic study of 127 depressed outpatients, we examined whether depression chronicity lies on a continuum or manifests natural boundaries. Spline regression was used to test 7 continuous and discontinuous models of the relationship between depression during the first follow-up interval and multiple outcomes at subsequent follow-ups. In order to further validate the findings, we also created empirically-derived subgroups based on the results of the spline regression analyses and compared them on baseline clinical characteristics and long-term outcomes. There was a clear and consistent discontinuity indicating that for higher levels of chronicity during the first 30 month period, depression was linearly related to outcome; in contrast, for lower levels of chronicity, depression in the initial interval was unrelated to subsequent outcomes. The findings were strikingly consistent across the 4 follow-up evaluations using multiple outcomes and goodness-of-fit indices. In addition, the chronic group--as defined by the first follow-up period--exhibited more baseline chronic depression, anxiety and personality disorders, family history of dysthymia, and childhood adversity, and was more likely to attempt suicide and be hospitalized during follow-up, than the non-chronic group. Results suggest that there are qualitatively distinct classes of patients with more and less chronic depressions, and support the utility of longitudinal course as a means of parsing depression into more homogeneous subgroups. PMID:26845258

  4. PLANT POISONING IN THAILAND: A 10-YEAR ANALYSIS FROM RAMATHIBODI POISON CENTER.

    PubMed

    Sriapha, Charuwan; Tongpoo, Achara; Wongvisavakorn, Sunun; Rittilert, Panee; Trakulsrichai, Satariya; Srisuma, Sahaphume; Wananukul, Winai

    2015-11-01

    Plant poisoning is not uncommon in Thailand. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence, type, clinical manifestations, severity and outcomes of plant poisoned patients in Thailand over a 10-year period. We retrospectively reviewed data from the Ramathibodi Poison Center Toxic Exposure Surveillance System for 2001-2010. A total of 2,901 poisonous plant exposure cases were identified, comprising 3.1% of the 92,392 poison cases recorded during the study period. This was the fifth most common type of poisoning recorded. Children aged < 13 years comprised the largest percent (69.8%) of the cases. The major type of exposure was unintentional ingestion. Ninety-nine types of poisonous plants were recorded as the causative agents among 99.1%of the cases. Gastrointestinal symptoms were reported in 72.0% of cases with Jatropha curcas (physic nut) comprising 54.1% of these. Most patients had only minor signs and symptoms. The mortality rate among the total plant poisoning cases was 0.9%, with 26 deaths. Thirteen deaths occurred in children aged < 13 years. The greatest number of fatalities were due to ingestion of Manihot esculenta (cassava), primarily due to multi-system organ failure. Children aged < 13 years are at the greatest risk for plant poisoning in Thailand; mostly unintentional. Most cases were minor and the mortality rate was low. Jatropha curcas was the most common cause of poisoning and Manihot esculenta was the most common cause of death. Public education is important to minimize these poisonings. PMID:26867365

  5. Course of depression in a 10-year prospective study: Evidence for qualitatively distinct subgroups.

    PubMed

    Klein, Daniel N; Kotov, Roman

    2016-04-01

    The course of depressive disorders can vary considerable, with some individuals exhibiting a chronic course and poor outcomes, while others have a more episodic course and better outcomes. However, it is unclear whether degree of chronicity is continuous or reflects qualitatively distinct subgroups. Using data from a 5-wave, 10-year, naturalistic study of 127 depressed outpatients, we examined whether depression chronicity lies on a continuum or manifests natural boundaries. Spline regression was used to test 7 continuous and discontinuous models of the relationship between depression during the first follow-up interval and multiple outcomes at subsequent follow-ups. In order to further validate the findings, we also created empirically derived subgroups based on the results of the spline regression analyses and compared them on baseline clinical characteristics and long-term outcomes. There was a clear and consistent discontinuity indicating that for higher levels of chronicity during the first 30-month period, depression was linearly related to outcome; in contrast, for lower levels of chronicity, depression in the initial interval was unrelated to subsequent outcomes. The findings were strikingly consistent across the 4 follow-up evaluations using multiple outcomes and goodness-of-fit indices. In addition, the chronic group-as defined by the first follow-up period-exhibited more baseline chronic depression, anxiety and personality disorders, family history of dysthymia, and childhood adversity, and was more likely to attempt suicide and be hospitalized during follow-up, than the nonchronic group. Results suggest that there are qualitatively distinct classes of patients with more and less chronic depressions, and support the utility of longitudinal course as a means of parsing depression into more homogeneous subgroups. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26845258

  6. Enhanced Transport of Passive Tracers In A Time Periodic Two-dimensional Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boffetta, G.; Cencini, M.; Espa, S.; Musacchio, S.

    , investigating systems in which the second condition is violated is much more inter- esting. With this purpose, some experiments have shown how superdiffusion arises in a two-dimensional quasi-geostrophic (planetary-type) flow, where particles can jump for very long time in the same direction performing a Levy flight (Castiglione et al., 2001 ). Moreover, two recent papers (Vulpiani, 1998; Solomon, 2001) show how, also in very simple two-dimensional, time and space periodic cellular flows,anomalous diffusive behaviours can appear. In this paper we present an experimental study of transport in an electromagnetically forced time periodic two-dimensional flow. The flow is generated by applying an electromagnetic forcing on a thin layer of an elec- trolyte solution and reveals in a square grid of alternating vortices. Time dependence can be easily obtained by changing the time dependence of the electric fields. In par- ticular, considering certain values of the imposed oscillation frequencies, particles can display very long jump. Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV) is used to measure the flow field. This technique is the most suitable for studying dispersion phenomena in a Lagrangian framework allowing the direct evaluation of particle displacements and related quantities (Cenedese, Querzoli; 2000). Moreover, due to the characteristics of the analyzed flow and to the improvement of the tracking procedure, we have been able to track a great number of particles for time intervals greater than the charac- teristic time-scales of the flow. In order to characterize the time correlations we will evaluate the so-called jumps probabilities with memory which represent the probabil- ities to jump in a given direction conditioned to having experienced jumps in the same direction at previous times. Such statistics will revealed very useful and suitable for detecting the onset of the aforementioned correlations. 2

  7. Evolution of illustrations in anatomy: a study from the classical period in Europe to modern times.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sanjib Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Illustrations constitute an essential element of learning anatomy in modern times. However it required a significant evolutionary process spread over centuries, for illustrations to achieve the present status in the subject of anatomy. This review article attempts to outline the evolutionary process by highlighting on the works of esteemed anatomists in a chronological manner. Available literature suggests that illustrations were not used in anatomy during the classical period when the subject was dominated by the descriptive text of Galen. Guido da Vigevano was first to use illustrations in anatomy during the Late Middle Ages and this concept developed further during the Renaissance period when Andreas Vesalius pioneered in illustrations becoming an indispensable tool in conveying anatomical details. Toward later stages of the Renaissance period, Fabricius ab Aquapendente endeavored to restrict dramatization of anatomical illustrations which was a prevalent trend in early Renaissance. During the 18th century, anatomical artwork was characterized by the individual styles of prominent anatomists leading to suppression of anatomical details. In the 19th century, Henry Gray used illustrations in his anatomical masterpiece that focused on depicting anatomical structures and were free from any artistic style. From early part of the 20th century medical images and photographs started to complement traditional handmade anatomical illustrations. Computer technology and advanced software systems played a key role in the evolution of anatomical illustrations during the late 20th century resulting in new generation 3D image datasets that are being used in the 21st century in innovative formats for teaching and learning anatomy. PMID:25053471

  8. Female bisexuality from adolescence to adulthood: results from a 10-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Lisa M

    2008-01-01

    Debates persist over whether bisexuality is a temporary stage of denial or transition, a stable "3rd type" of sexual orientation, or a heightened capacity for sexual fluidity. The present study uses 5 waves of longitudinal data collected from 79 lesbian, bisexual, and "unlabeled" women to evaluate these models. Both the "3rd orientation" and "fluidity" models had support, but the "transitional stage" model did not. Over 10 years, 2/3 of women changed the identity labels they had claimed at the beginning of the study, and 1/3 changed labels 2 or more times. Yet, contrary to the "transitional stage" model, more women adopted bisexual/unlabeled identities than relinquished these identities; few bisexual/unlabeled women ended up identifying as lesbian or heterosexual. Overall, the most commonly adopted identity was "unlabeled." Bisexual/unlabeled women had stable overall distributions of same-sex/other-sex attractions but greater absolute fluctuations in attractions from assessment to assessment than lesbians. All women reported declines in their ratio of same-sex to other-sex behavior over time. These findings demonstrate that the distinction between lesbianism and bisexuality is a matter of degree rather than kind. PMID:18194000

  9. Soil physical quality changes under different management systems after 10 years in Argentinian Humid Pampa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, J. L.; Aparicio, V. C.; Cerda, A.

    2014-08-01

    The Argentinian Humid Pampa extends over about 60 million ha, 90% of which are agricultural lands. The southeast of the Buenos Aires Province is part of the Humid Pampa (1 206 162 ha). The main crops are wheat, sunflower, corn and soybean. The management systems used in the area are: moldboard plow (MP), chisel plow (CP) and no-till (NT). Excessive soil cultivation under MP causes decreases in the soil organic carbon content (SOC). Adopting NT may reduce the effects of intensive agriculture, through the maintenance and accumulation of SOC. However, the soil compaction under NT causes degradation of the soil structure, reduces the soil water availability and reduces the soil hydraulic conductivity. We evaluated the evolution of the soil physical parameters in three management systems. After 10 years of experiments in four farmers' fields, we found that: soil bulk density was significantly higher under NT. The change in mean weight diameter (CMWD) of aggregates increased as the management system became more intensive. We did not find significant differences in time and management systems in hydraulic conductivity at tension (h)0 cm and h=20 cm. The reduction in total porosity under NT is mainly a product of a reduction in the percentage of mesopores in the soil. Time had no statistically significant effect on the SOC content. The management system did not affect the yields of crop. In this work, the results indicate a modification of some soil physical parameters (porosity, near-saturated hydraulic conductivity, soil structure) due to uninterrupted agricultural production.

  10. Periodic coupling strength-dependent multiple coherence resonance by time delay in Newman-Watts neuronal networks.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yanan; Gong, Yubing; Xu, Bo

    2013-12-01

    Recently, multiple coherence resonance induced by time delay has been observed in neuronal networks with constant coupling strength. In this paper, by employing Newman-Watts Hodgkin-Huxley neuron networks with time-periodic coupling strength, we study how the temporal coherence of spiking behavior and coherence resonance by time delay change when the frequency of periodic coupling strength is varied. It is found that delay induced coherence resonance is dependent on periodic coupling strength and increases when the frequency of periodic coupling strength increases. Periodic coupling strength can also induce multiple coherence resonance, and the coherence resonance occurs when the frequency of periodic coupling strength is approximately multiple of the spiking frequency. These results show that for periodic coupling strength time delay can more frequently optimize the temporal coherence of spiking activity, and periodic coupling strength can repetitively optimize the temporal coherence of spiking activity as well. Frequency locking may be the mechanism for multiple coherence resonance induced by periodic coupling strength. These findings imply that periodic coupling strength is more efficient for enhancing the temporal coherence of spiking activity of neuronal networks, and thus it could play a more important role in improving the time precision of information processing and transmission in neural networks. PMID:24060612

  11. Stochastic extinction of tumor cells due to synchronization effect through time periodic treatment in a tumor-immune interaction model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aisu, Ryota; Horita, Takehiko

    The response to a time periodic treatment of the immunotherapy in a stochastic model of tumor-immune interaction is numerically investigated. Due to the effect of synchronization among the intrinsic oscillation and the treatment, an enhanced extinction of the tumor cells is observed. It suggests that compared with the static treatment, by controlling the period of the treatment, the time periodic treatment could be an effective way of treatment leading to tumor extinction.

  12. 40 CFR 270.215 - How are time periods in the requirements in this subpart and my RAP computed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... requirements in this subpart and my RAP computed? 270.215 Section 270.215 Protection of Environment... HAZARDOUS WASTE PERMIT PROGRAM Remedial Action Plans (RAPs) Operating Under Your Rap § 270.215 How are time periods in the requirements in this subpart and my RAP computed? (a) Any time period scheduled to begin...

  13. 40 CFR 270.215 - How are time periods in the requirements in this subpart and my RAP computed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... requirements in this subpart and my RAP computed? 270.215 Section 270.215 Protection of Environment... HAZARDOUS WASTE PERMIT PROGRAM Remedial Action Plans (RAPs) Operating Under Your Rap § 270.215 How are time periods in the requirements in this subpart and my RAP computed? (a) Any time period scheduled to begin...

  14. 40 CFR 270.215 - How are time periods in the requirements in this subpart and my RAP computed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... requirements in this subpart and my RAP computed? 270.215 Section 270.215 Protection of Environment... HAZARDOUS WASTE PERMIT PROGRAM Remedial Action Plans (RAPs) Operating Under Your Rap § 270.215 How are time periods in the requirements in this subpart and my RAP computed? (a) Any time period scheduled to begin...

  15. 40 CFR 270.215 - How are time periods in the requirements in this subpart and my RAP computed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... requirements in this subpart and my RAP computed? 270.215 Section 270.215 Protection of Environment... HAZARDOUS WASTE PERMIT PROGRAM Remedial Action Plans (RAPs) Operating Under Your Rap § 270.215 How are time periods in the requirements in this subpart and my RAP computed? (a) Any time period scheduled to begin...

  16. 40 CFR 270.215 - How are time periods in the requirements in this subpart and my RAP computed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements in this subpart and my RAP computed? 270.215 Section 270.215 Protection of Environment... HAZARDOUS WASTE PERMIT PROGRAM Remedial Action Plans (RAPs) Operating Under Your Rap § 270.215 How are time periods in the requirements in this subpart and my RAP computed? (a) Any time period scheduled to begin...

  17. 45 CFR 2526.40 - What is the time period during which an individual may use an education award?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the time period during which an individual may use an education award? 2526.40 Section 2526.40 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE ELIGIBILITY FOR AN EDUCATION AWARD § 2526.40 What is the time period during which...

  18. 41 CFR 302-8.203 - What is the authorized time period for extended storage of my HHG?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... time period for extended storage of my HHG? 302-8.203 Section 302-8.203 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE OF PROPERTY 8... Continental United States (OCONUS) § 302-8.203 What is the authorized time period for extended storage of...

  19. Sustained and transient attentional processes modulate neural predictors of memory encoding in consecutive time periods

    PubMed Central

    Padovani, Tullia; Koenig, Thomas; Eckstein, Doris; Perrig, Walter J

    2013-01-01

    Memory formation is commonly thought to rely on brain activity following an event. Yet, recent research has shown that even brain activity previous to an event can predict later recollection (subsequent memory effect, SME). In order to investigate the attentional sources of the SME, event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by task cues preceding target words were recorded in a switched task paradigm that was followed by a surprise recognition test. Stay trials, that is, those with the same task as the previous trial, were contrasted with switch trials, which included a task switch compared to the previous trial. The underlying assumption was that sustained attention would be dominant in stay trials and that transient attentional reconfiguration processes would be dominant in switch trials. To determine the SME, local and global statistics of scalp electric fields were used to identify differences between subsequently remembered and forgotten items. Results showed that the SME in stay trials occurred in a time window from 2 to 1 sec before target onset, whereas the SME in switch trials occurred subsequently, in a time window from 1 to 0 sec before target onset. Both SMEs showed a frontal negativity resembling the topography of previously reported effects, which suggests that sustained and transient attentional processes contribute to the prestimulus SME in consecutive time periods. PMID:24381815

  20. A General Time-Periodic Driving Approach to Realize Topological Phases in Cold Atomic Systems

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Zhongbo; Li, Bo; Yang, Xiaosen; Wan, Shaolong

    2015-01-01

    For time-reversal symmetric cold atomic insulating systems, it is found that the usual driving approach based on electromagnetic field used in solid state systems loses its power to drive them from trivial regimes to topological regimes if the driven systems still hold time-reversal symmetry (TRS). For such systems, we point out that simply varying the optical lattice potential periodically provides a general and effective way to drive them into topological regimes without breaking their symmetries. Based on this approach, we find that the time-reversal symmetric Kane-Mele model can be effectively driven from the trivial phase to topological phases named as Floquet Quantum Spin Hall insulator. Due to the existence of two gaps in the Floquet system, this novel state of matter can stably host one or two pair of gapless helical states on the same boundary, which suggests this state is not a simple analog of the Quantum Spin Hall insulator. This new driving approach to a system without TRS is also investigated. PMID:26541611