Science.gov

Sample records for 10-year-old african-american girls

  1. Measurement characteristics of activity-related psychosocial measures in 8- to 10-year-old African-American girls in the Girls health Enrichment Multisite Study (GEMS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: This paper presents reliability and validity analyses of physical activity-related psychosocial questionnaires completed by 8- to 10-year-old African-American girls at baseline and follow-up assessments of pilot intervention studies in the Girls health Enrichment Multi-site Study (GEMS)....

  2. Measurement Characteristics of Dietary Psychosocial Scales in a Weight Gain Prevention Study with 8- to 10-Year-Old African-American Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherrill-Mittleman, D. A.; Klesges, L. M.; Lanctot, J. Q.; Stockton, M. B.; Klesges, R. C.

    2009-01-01

    Few measurement instruments for children's eating behaviors and beliefs have been specifically validated for African-American children. Validation within this population is important because of potential cultural and ethnic influences. Objectives were to evaluate established and newly developed or adapted dietary psychosocial measures in a sample…

  3. Factitious purpura in a 10-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Kayo; Sakurai, Yoshihiko; Shibata, Mari; Miyagawa, Sachiko; Yoshioka, Akira

    2009-01-01

    We describe a 10-year-old girl who presented with bizarre purpura. Both congenital and autoimmune hemorrhagic disorders were excluded based on her past medical history and physical and laboratory findings. Child abuse was also ruled out as purpura continued to develop after child-family separation. Histologic examination of the skin lesions revealed disruption of collagen fiber bundles. This finding indicated application of external force, leading to a definitive diagnosis of factitious purpura. Although it is very rare in school-age children, the diagnosis of factitious purpura should be included in the differential diagnosis of purpura in children. Histologic analysis of skin biopsies may aid in establishing the diagnosis.

  4. Case Report: Homicide by a 10-Year-Old Girl with Autistic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukaddes, Nahit Motavalli; Topcu, Zerrin

    2006-01-01

    This case study presents a 10-year-old girl with a diagnosis of Autistic Disorder, who killed her 6-month-old sister by throwing her out of a window. Her aggressive-impulsive behavior had a persistent pattern. She had a history of epilepsy, and was frequently exposed to physical abuse. She never attended a structured treatment program. Here, we…

  5. African American girls and the challenges ahead.

    PubMed

    Rozie-Battle, Judith L

    2002-01-01

    The research on the psychosocial development of African American girls is limited. Information that is available focuses on teen pregnancy and health issues such as nutrition and physical activity. African American girls are facing challenges, including poverty, crime, poor self-esteem, and peer pressure. Despite some of the negative characteristics attributed to African American girls, many are achieving some success. Policy makers and service providers need to recognize the resiliency and unique needs of African American girls and develop services that ensure their needs are being fully met.

  6. Diet and physical activity in African-American girls: Seasonal differences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diet and physical activity (PA) may vary by season. Two 24-hour dietary recalls and 7 days of accelerometry were collected from 342 8-10 year-old African-American girls between January 2013 and October 2014. Season was based on time of data collection (fall, spring, winter, summer). Seasonal differe...

  7. [Association between Crohn's disease and primary sclerosing cholangitis in a 10 year old girl].

    PubMed

    Muñoz Lozón, Ana; Iglesias Blázquez, Cristina; Menéndez Arias, Cristina; Domínguez Sánchez, Patricia

    2016-06-01

    A 10 year old girl with diarrhea, abdominal pain, weight loss and fever of one month and a half of evolution. Analytical and sonographic findings raised the possibility of inflammatory bowel disease. Endoscopy and histology showed findings consistent with Crohn's disease. Treatment was initiated with mesalazine and exclusive enteral nutrition. Later corticosteroid treatment, immunosuppressive drugs and ursodeoxycholic acid were added due to cholestasis and persistent hypergammaglobulinemia. Magnetic resonance cholangiography and liver biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of concomitant primary sclerosing cholangitis. The association between Crohn's disease and primary sclerosing cholangitis is rare, predominantly in males between 20 and 40 years old and it presents a great clinical variability. The confirmation of the diagnosis requires magnetic resonance cholangiography or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. The prognosis is poor and there is no treatment to slow the progression of the disease.

  8. Mixed connective tissue disease presenting with progressive scleroderma symptoms in a 10-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Latuśkiewicz-Potemska, Joanna; Zygmunt, Agnieszka; Biernacka-Zielińska, Małgorzata; Stańczyk, Jerzy; Smolewska, Elżbieta

    2013-10-01

    Mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) is a systemic inflammatory disease affecting connective tissue with the underlying autoimmunological mechanism. The core of MCTD is an appearance of symptoms of several other inflammatory diseases of connective tissue - systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic scleroderma, poly- or dermatomyositis, rheumatoid arthritis at the same time, accompanied by a high level of anti-ribonucleoprotein antibodies (anti-U1RNP). The disease was described more than 40 years ago by Sharp et al. During recent years, many efforts to better understand clinical and serological features of MCTD have been made. Diagnosis of MCTD can be difficult. Obligatory international diagnostic criteria are required to be fulfilled. Several versions of such criteria have been proposed, but the most widely used one was described by Kasukawa. There is no consensus about treatment - a choice of drugs depends on symptoms. We present a case of a 10-year-old girl with sclerodactyly and trophic damages of fingers accompanied by symptoms of Raynaud's phenomenon. After an almost 2-year course of the disease, a diagnosis of MCTD has been established.

  9. The baseline characteristics of parents and African American girls in an online obesity prevention program: A feasibility study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of the study was to identify the relationships and associations between child and parent baseline characteristics with child fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption in an online obesity prevention program for 8-10 year old African American girls. Girls and a parent (n=342 child-parent pairs...

  10. Sleeping Beauty Redefined: African American Girls in Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kusimo, Patricia S.

    This paper examines the interests, perceptions, and participation of 16 African American girls in a program designed to improve girls' persistence in science, mathematics, and technology (SMT). The girls are among 33 African American and 73 total original participants in "Rural and Urban Images: Voices of Girls in Science, Mathematics, and…

  11. Incontinentia Pigmenti; a Rare Multisystem Disorder: Case Report of a 10-Year-Old Girl

    PubMed Central

    Rafatjoo, Rezvan; Taghdisi Kashani, Amene

    2016-01-01

    Incontinentia pigmenti is a rare genodermatosis in which the skin involvement occurs in all patients. Additionally, other ectodermal tissues may be affected such as the central nervous system, eyes, hair, nails and teeth. The disease has an X-linked dominant inheritance pattern. But in our case, there was a mutation in the body cells due to incontinentia pigmenti. The dermatological findings occur in four successive phases. We report the case of a 10-year-old female presented cutaneous, dental and ophthalmic characteristic with 3 years follow-up. Dental anomalies such as hypodontia, peg-shaped anterior teeth, malformed primary and permanent teeth, and delayed eruption were seen in our patient. PMID:27602400

  12. Contemporary girlhood: maternal reports on sexualized behaviour and appearance concern in 4-10 year-old girls.

    PubMed

    Tiggemann, Marika; Slater, Amy

    2014-09-01

    It is widely accepted that the sexualization of girls has increased markedly over time. The overall aim of the present study was to offer a description of the behaviours of young girls, with a particular focus on potentially sexualized behaviours and appearance concern. A sample of 815 mothers of 4-10 year-old girls completed a questionnaire about a range of behaviours exhibited by their daughters, in addition to measures of their own self-objectification and material concern. It was found that many girls engaged with teen culture and used a variety of beauty products, but few exhibited more overtly sexualized behaviours. Involvement with teen culture, using beauty products, attention to clothes, and personal grooming were all associated with the measure of appearance concern, as were maternal self-objectification and material concern. It was concluded that young girls do engage in 'grown up' behaviours and that such engagement is not benign for their development.

  13. Stability of somatotypes in 4 to 10 year-old rural South African girls.

    PubMed

    Monyeki, K D; Toriola, A L; de Ridder, J H; Kemper, H C G; Steyn, N P; Nthangeni, M E; Twisk, J W R; van Lenthe, F J

    2002-01-01

    In 1996, a mixed Ellisras longitudinal study (ELS) was initiated to assess the stability of somatotypes in 408 girls who comprised 99 pre-school and 309 primary school children in Ellisras rural area in the Northern Province of South Africa. The children's somatotype was assessed using the Heath-Carter anthropometric method. Anthropometric dimensions were taken according to the protocol of the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK). The most stable pre-school and primary school girl had migratory distances (MDs) of 2.6 and 3.4, respectively, while the least stable pre-school and primary school girl had MDs of 17.9 and 24.4, respectively. The mean somatotype of the pre-school children was mesomorph-ectomorph throughout the complete age range, while the mean somatotype of primary school girls was mesomorph-ectomorph for all the age groups except for the 9.5 years group at which it was in the balanced ectomorph. The inter-age partial correlations for endomorphy and ectomorphy were high and significant, but insignificant with regard to mesomorphy.

  14. Long-Term Effects of Synthetic versus Analytic Phonics Teaching on the Reading and Spelling Ability of 10 Year Old Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Rhona S.; McGeown, Sarah; Watson, Joyce E.

    2012-01-01

    A comparison was made of 10-year-old boys and girls who had learnt to read by analytic or synthetic phonics methods as part of their early literacy programmes. The boys taught by the synthetic phonics method had better word reading than the girls in their classes, and their spelling and reading comprehension was as good. In contrast, with analytic…

  15. Physical Education and Academic Performance in Urban African American Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Bo

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to examine urban African American girls' participation in physical education and its association with academic performance. One hundred eighty four participants completed questionnaires assessing moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and learning engagement in physical education while their academic performance was based…

  16. Critical Readings: African American Girls and Urban Fiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Simone

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this writing is to introduce the reader to the urban fiction genre, explore why adolescent African American girls may be engaging with novels from the genre, and how teachers may be able to use texts from the genre to increase literacy skills.

  17. Eating Disorders in African American Girls: Implications for Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talleyrand, Regine M.

    2010-01-01

    Given the recent focus on eating disorders in children, it is imperative that counselors consider eating concerns that affect children of all racial and ethnic groups and hence are effective in working with this population. The author discusses risk factors that potentially contribute to eating disorders in African American girls given their…

  18. Framing body size among African American women and girls.

    PubMed

    Williams, Ellen P; Wyatt, Sharon B; Winters, Karen

    2013-09-01

    Obesity continues to affect African Americans in epidemic proportions, particularly among women and adolescent females. Perceptions, beliefs, behaviors, and body sizes of adolescents are associated with those of their mothers, yet little is known about the transgenerational meanings and experiences of obese African American adolescent girls and their mothers. An interpretive phenomenological study was conducted with seven African American adolescents between the ages of 11 and 17, and their adult female caregivers. Audio-taped interviews were transcribed and analyzed by a multicultural interpretive team. Two constitutive patterns and associated themes were identified. One pattern, 'Framing: sizing it up; sizing it down', with its three associated themes is presented. Mothers and daughters are engaged in multiple common practices in which they self-define body size, while protecting their self-esteem and self-image. This pattern illustrates how the women and girls created an image of their bodies as they confronted and acknowledged their self-perceptions, compared themselves to others in their environment, and evaluated themselves against specific parameters of acceptable size.

  19. Mathematical Ability of 10-Year-Old Boys and Girls: Genetic and Environmental Etiology of Typical and Low Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovas, Yulia; Haworth, Claire M. A.; Petrill, Stephen A.; Plomin, Robert

    2007-01-01

    The genetic and environmental etiologies of 3 aspects of low mathematical performance (math disability) and the full range of variability (math ability) were compared for boys and girls in a sample of 5,348 children age 10 years (members of 2,674 pairs of same-sex and opposite-sex twins) from the United Kingdom (UK). The measures, which we…

  20. School Influences on the Physical Activity of African American, Latino, and White Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Susan C.; Strycker, Lisa A.; Chaumeton, Nigel R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this research was to examine the impact of school-related variables on the physical activity (PA) levels of early adolescent African American, Latino, and White girls. Methods: Data were collected from 353 African American (N?=?123), Latino (N?=?118), and White (N?=?112) girls. Physical activity levels included a PA…

  1. College and Career Readiness for Gifted African American Girls: A Call to School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Renae D.; Hines, Erik M.

    2014-01-01

    Current literature on college and career readiness highlights the role of educators in promoting the success of all students. However, few studies have focused on the specific needs of gifted African American girls. This article discusses the school experiences and career development of gifted African American girls and it provides a culturally…

  2. Relationships between Weight and Body Dissatisfaction, Body Esteem, and Teasing in African American Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Chermaine; Johnston, Craig A.; Dalton, William T., III; Foreyt, John P.

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed the relation between weight and weight-related factors (i.e., body dissatisfaction, body esteem, teasing frequency, and the effects of teasing) in a community sample of prepubescent African American girls. African American girls (N = 97) in Grades 3 to 5 completed the McKnight Risk Factor Survey-Third Edition and had their…

  3. Urban Middle School African American Girls' Attitudes toward Physical Education and Out-of-School Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Victor

    2012-01-01

    The purposes of this two-part study were (1) to investigate urban middle school African American girls' physical activity levels and their relationships to attitudes and, (2) to explore urban middle school African American girls' attitude toward physical education. A total of (N = 649) African American girls from 14 New York City middle schools…

  4. Empowerment Groups for Urban African American Girls: A Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holcomb-McCoy, Cheryl C.

    2005-01-01

    Although the author wanted to read Bemak, Chung, and Siroskey-Sabdo's article in an objective sense, her response to their article is most likely influenced by her own experiences as an African American female and mother of an African American daughter. To her, the paramount issue facing African American females is the double and sometimes triple…

  5. Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia in a patient with a PRRT2 mutation and centrotemporal spike discharges on electroencephalogram: case report of a 10-year-old girl

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Sun Young

    2016-01-01

    Coexistence of paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD) with benign infantile convulsion (BIC) and centrotemporal spikes (CTS) is very rare. A 10-year-old girl presented with a 3-year history of frequent attacks of staggering while laughing and of suddenly collapsing while walking. Interictal electroencephalogram (EEG) revealed bilateral CTS, but no changes in EEG were observed during movement. The patient's medical history showed afebrile seizures 6 months after birth, while the family history showed that the patient's mother and relatives on the mother's side had similar dyskinesia. Genetic testing demonstrated that the patient had a heterozygous mutation, c.649_650insC, in the PRRT2 gene. To our knowledge, this constitutes only the second report of a patient with PKD, BIC, CTS, and a PRRT2 mutation. PMID:28018471

  6. Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia in a patient with a PRRT2 mutation and centrotemporal spike discharges on electroencephalogram: case report of a 10-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Seo, Sun Young; You, Su Jeong

    2016-11-01

    Coexistence of paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD) with benign infantile convulsion (BIC) and centrotemporal spikes (CTS) is very rare. A 10-year-old girl presented with a 3-year history of frequent attacks of staggering while laughing and of suddenly collapsing while walking. Interictal electroencephalogram (EEG) revealed bilateral CTS, but no changes in EEG were observed during movement. The patient's medical history showed afebrile seizures 6 months after birth, while the family history showed that the patient's mother and relatives on the mother's side had similar dyskinesia. Genetic testing demonstrated that the patient had a heterozygous mutation, c.649_650insC, in the PRRT2 gene. To our knowledge, this constitutes only the second report of a patient with PKD, BIC, CTS, and a PRRT2 mutation.

  7. Media and cultural influences in african-american girls' eating disorder risk.

    PubMed

    Jones, Lakaii A; Cook-Cottone, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To investigate media and cultural influences in eating disorder development in African-American adolescent females. Method. Fifty-seven participants were recruited through churches and community organizations to complete a questionnaire. Results. Mainstream sociocultural identification was associated with more eating disorder behavior in African-American females; cultural ethnic identification was not significantly associated with eating disorder behavior in African-American females, mainstream sociocultural identification, cultural ethnic identification, and body dissatisfaction significantly predicted eating disorder behavior; and cultural ethnic identification was positively correlated with mainstream sociocultural identification. This study provides support for the importance of eating disorder prevention interventions that focus specifically on African-American girls.

  8. Media and Cultural Influences in African-American Girls' Eating Disorder Risk

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Lakaii A.; Cook-Cottone, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To investigate media and cultural influences in eating disorder development in African-American adolescent females. Method. Fifty-seven participants were recruited through churches and community organizations to complete a questionnaire. Results. Mainstream sociocultural identification was associated with more eating disorder behavior in African-American females; cultural ethnic identification was not significantly associated with eating disorder behavior in African-American females, mainstream sociocultural identification, cultural ethnic identification, and body dissatisfaction significantly predicted eating disorder behavior; and cultural ethnic identification was positively correlated with mainstream sociocultural identification. This study provides support for the importance of eating disorder prevention interventions that focus specifically on African-American girls. PMID:24967141

  9. Physical Activities and Sedentary Pursuits in African American and Caucasian Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R.; Felton, Gwen M.; Saunders, Ruth; Ward, Dianne S.; Dishman, Rod K.; Trost, Stewart G.

    2004-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to describe and compare the specific physical activity choices and sedentary pursuits of African American and Caucasian American girls. Participants were 1,124 African American and 1,068 Caucasian American eighth-grade students from 31 middle schools. The 3-Day Physical Activity Recall (3DPAR) was used to measure…

  10. Seeking to Improve African American Girls' Attitudes toward Science: A Participatory Action Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Gayle A.; Cook, Kristin L.; Quigley, Cassie F.; Prince, Pearl; Lucas, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    In this participatory action research study, we answered the question, How can we improve attitudes toward science education of the African American girls at an elementary school? Girls in grades 3-6 completed the Modified Attitudes toward Science Inventory. A purposeful sample of 30 girls participated in several focus-group interviews throughout…

  11. Eating Behaviors among Early Adolescent African American Girls and Their Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Monique; Dancy, Barbara; Holm, Karyn; Wilbur, JoEllen; Fogg, Louis

    2013-01-01

    African American (AA) girls aged 10-12 living in urban communities designated as food deserts have a significantly greater prevalence of overweight and obesity than girls that age in the general population. The purpose of our study was (a) to examine the agreement in nutritional intake between AA girls aged 10-12 and their mothers and (b) to…

  12. Psychocultural Correlates of Mental Health Service Utilization Among African American and European American Girls

    PubMed Central

    Hipwell, Alison E.; Stepp, Stephanie D.; Keenan, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Structural equation modeling was used to examine the effects of cultural factors (ethnic identity, perceived discrimination), family relations, and child problem type on mental health service utilization in a community sample of 1,480 adolescent girls (860 African American, 620 European American) between ages 15 and 17 years enrolled in the Pittsburgh Girls Study. Results revealed ethnic identity, caregiver attachment, and conduct disorder were related to service use among African American girls. Among European American girls, correlate patterns differed by clinical need. Findings highlight the need for research on health disparities to examine racially specific influences on service utilization. PMID:25380787

  13. Psychocultural Correlates of Mental Health Service Utilization Among African American and European American Girls.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Miwa; Hipwell, Alison E; Stepp, Stephanie D; Keenan, Kate

    2015-11-01

    Structural equation modeling was used to examine the effects of cultural factors (ethnic identity, perceived discrimination), family relations, and child problem type on mental health service utilization in a community sample of 1,480 adolescent girls (860 African American, 620 European American) between ages 15 and 17 years enrolled in the Pittsburgh Girls Study. Results revealed ethnic identity, caregiver attachment, and conduct disorder were related to service use among African American girls. Among European American girls, correlate patterns differed by clinical need. Findings highlight the need for research on health disparities to examine racially specific influences on service utilization.

  14. Health-protective effects of attachment among African American girls in psychiatric care.

    PubMed

    Emerson, Erin; Donenberg, Geri R; Wilson, Helen W

    2012-02-01

    African American girls in psychiatric care are at increased risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) through sexual risk taking. Adolescent sexual behavior often reflects peer norms and behavior. Secure attachment patterns with mothers and peers might lessen the effects of negative peer influences and reduce sexual risk taking among African American girls. This study examined the relationships among mother-daughter and peer attachment, peer norms, and sexual-risk behaviors in African American girls seeking outpatient psychiatric care. A group of 12-16-year-old African American girls (N = 262; M age = 14.45 years) reported on their attachment to their mothers and peers, peer risk-taking and dating behaviors, peer pressure, and sexual-risk behaviors (e.g., number of partners, high-risk partners, and condom use). Structural equation modeling examined whether peer attachment and peer norms mediated the relationship between mother attachment and sexual risk. Findings supported peer norms, but not peer attachment, as a mediator of mother attachment and girls' sexual-risk behaviors. Findings revealed important family and peer factors for African American girls in psychiatric care. HIV prevention programs may be strengthened by improving mother-daughter relationships, addressing the importance of peer relationships, and emphasizing how secure mother-daughter relationships can temper the impact of peer norms.

  15. Bidirectional linkages between psychological symptoms and sexual activities among African American adolescent girls in psychiatric care.

    PubMed

    Starr, Lisa R; Donenberg, Geri R; Emerson, Erin

    2012-01-01

    The current study examines longitudinal associations between light and heavy sexual experiences and psychiatric symptoms in African American adolescent girls receiving mental health care. Research supports bidirectional associations between adolescent romantic and sexual behaviors and depression and other mental health problems, but this finding has not been examined among African American youth or in clinical samples. African American girls in psychiatric treatment suffer disparities in HIV/AIDS vulnerability, and understanding the context of girls' risk-taking (and how psychological symptoms contribute) may aid prevention efforts. Two-hundred-sixty-five African American girls seeking psychiatric care were assessed for mental health symptoms and light and heavy sexual behaviors. Participants completed a 6-month follow-up. Baseline light sexual activity predicted increased internalizing and externalizing symptoms and substance use at follow-up. Internalizing and externalizing symptoms predicted increased heavy sexual behaviors over time, including HIV-risk behaviors. Results support the association between romantic involvement and depression. Psychological symptoms may play a key role in the emergence of risky sexual behaviors among African American adolescent girls in psychiatric care and should be considered in prevention program development.

  16. Physical Activity Attitudes, Preferences, and Practices in African American, Hispanic, and Caucasian Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grieser, Mira; Vu, Maihan B.; Bedimo-Rung, Ariane L.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Moody, Jamie; Young, Deborah Rohm; Moe, Stacey G.

    2006-01-01

    Physical activity levels in girls decline dramatically during adolescence, most profoundly among minorities. To explore ethnic and racial variation in attitudes toward physical activity, semistructured interviews (n = 80) and physical activity checklists (n = 130) are conducted with African American, Hispanic, and Caucasian middle school girls in…

  17. Hispanic versus African American Girls: Body Image, Nutrition, and Puberty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talpade, Medha

    2008-01-01

    Public health research has been dominated by the biomedical model, which does not appear to be appropriate for studying public health variables across different populations. For example, when comparing the Hispanic American (HA) and African American (AA) population in the U.S., there are similarities on several demographic and public health…

  18. The influence of urban literature on African-American adolescent girls' sexual behaviors.

    PubMed

    Harris, Allyssa L

    2011-07-01

    Many African-American teenaged girls are reading urban literature. This genre of literature is known for its gritty portrayal of urban life and has themes of violence, promiscuity, substance abuse and misogyny. Although research has demonstrated that the portrayal of sex and violence in the media are influential on adolescent sexual behavior, to date there has been little research on the influence of "urban lit" on adolescent sexual risk behaviors. This qualitative study explores the influence of urban literature on the sexual risk behaviors among a group of African-American adolescent girls. Findings from this study suggest that African-American adolescent girls may be influenced by the sexual themes depicted in this genre of literature. Additional research is needed to gain a greater understanding of this phenomon.

  19. Perceptions of Physical Activity and Influences of Participation in Young African-American Adolescent Girls.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Shannon; Knight, Candace; Crew-Gooden, Annette

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore African-American adolescent girls' perceptions of physical activity participation, examine how physical activity is defined and identify the most preferred forms of physical activity. Qualitative focus group interviews of a convenience sample (N = 30; Mean age = 14.3 years) were used to identifyfactors that influence African-American girls' physical activity participation as well as to explore how physical activity is defined within this population. Four themes emerged: (a) benefits and motivation to engage in physical activity, (b) behaviors consistent with perceived physical activity, (c) most enjoyable physical activity/activities, and (d) barriers to physical activity. Physical activities that promoted normative adolescent development (i.e., autonomy) were perceived as most beneficial, desirable, and most likely to be sustained. Implications of these findings highlight the importance of the incorporation of socialization and peer engagement in physical activity programs designed for African-American adolescent girls.

  20. What's culture got to do with it? Prevention programs for African American adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Corneille, Maya A; Ashcroft, Amie M; Belgrave, Faye Z

    2005-11-01

    This paper examines prevention programming for African American girls by placing the prevention process within the larger African and African American cultural context. We provide an overview of the theories and issues we consider most relevant to African American culture, including Africentric theory, ethnic identity, gender identity and relational theory, developmental issues, the community context, and historical considerations. Drawing from our own drug prevention work, we provide examples of how to incorporate culture into prevention programs to make them most relevant for the target population. We also summarize our own efforts to create culturally appropriate prevention interventions and their impact on the girls in our programs. We conclude with suggested directions for future research into culture-specific prevention programs.

  1. Physical activities and sedentary pursuits in African American and Caucasian girls.

    PubMed

    Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R; Felton, Gwen M; Saunders, Ruth; Ward, Dianne S; Dishman, Rod K; Trost, Stewart G

    2004-12-01

    The purposes of this study were to describe and compare the specific physical activity choices and sedentary pursuits of African American and Caucasian American girls. Participants were 1,124 African American and 1,068 Caucasian American eighth-grade students from 31 middle schools. The 3-Day Physical Activity Recall (3DPAR) was used to measure participation in physical activities and sedentary pursuits. The most frequently reported physical activities were walking, basketball, jogging or running, bicycling, and social dancing. Differences between groups were found in 11 physical activities and 3 sedentary pursuits. Participation rates were higher in African American girls (p < or = .001) for social dancing, basketball, watching television, and church attendance but lower in calisthenics, ballet and other dance, jogging or running, rollerblading, soccer, softball or baseball, using an exercise machine, swimming, and homework. Cultural differences of groups should be considered when planning interventions to promote physical activity.

  2. Teachers' Perception of African American Middle School Girls' Interest in Mathematics and Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Best, Bonnie M.

    Research into African American female underrepresentation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields has become an area of interest due to the fact that a majority of African American middle school females do not possess the high levels of mathematics and science knowledge because of social and cultural barriers both inside and outside school that challenge their academic success. The purpose of this qualitative interpretative phenomenological study was to explore teachers' shared, lived experiences of teaching mathematics and science to African American middle school girls. Delgado and Stefancic's critical race theory, Pratt-Clarke's critical race feminism, and Baker-Miller's relational-cultural theory were used to guide this study. Research questions focused on the perceptions and experiences of teachers' lived experiences teaching mathematics and science to African American middle school females. Criterion, purposive, and maximum variation sampling techniques were used to recruit 10 teachers who have 3 or more years' experience teaching African American middle school girls. Semistructured face-to-face interviews were the primary data collection source. First cycle and second cycle coding methods were used to support the analysis of this study. Findings suggest that there is a connection between a positive student-teacher relationship and academic success. The results of this study contribute to positive social change by providing empirical evidence policymakers and teachers can use to improve the mathematics and science instruction and practices that are needed to meet the needs of African American middle school females and reduce the underrepresentation and underachievement of African American females in mathematics and science.

  3. Promoting the interest of African American teenage girls in science: What can we learn from an exemplary African American science teacher?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMath, Cynthia Stewart

    This study focused on science teaching that promoted the interest of African American teenage girls in the science classroom of an exemplary African American science teacher. It focused on, observed and examined the planning, teaching and learning strategies used by the science teacher. It also described what the science teacher experienced during her high school years, during college, during her teaching career. The case study approach/method was used for this research to capture the description and examination of the practices of the science teacher. This research described how an African American female science teacher serves as a role model and influence a number of African Americans students, especially girls, who experience careers in science. During the interviews and observations the researcher used a system of record keeping for the study to include note taking, audio taping and pictures. It is evident in the findings that the teacher in this study had qualities of an exemplary teacher according to the research. It is further evident that the teacher served as a role model for her students. The results indicated that the exemplary African America science teacher was motivated by her former African American science teacher that served as a role model. The results in this study implied that the lack of the presence of more exemplary African American science teachers has an impact on the level of interest that African American students have in science. Further, it is implied that there is a great need for more practical research that may lead to closing the gap of missing African American science teachers.

  4. Multiple-Lens Paradigm Evaluating African American Girls and their Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Jo-Ann Lipford; Bradley, Carla

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a conceptual context useful for focusing on the missing information on development and resiliency of African American girls. It is a clarion call for additional research in the area of development investigating a relationship between gender, race, ethnicity, social class, and racial socialization practices…

  5. Exploring How School Counselors Position Low-Income African American Girls as Mathematics and Science Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West-Olatunji, Cirecie; Shure, Lauren; Pringle, Rose; Adams, Thomasenia; Lewis, Dadria; Cholewa, Blaire

    2010-01-01

    The underrepresentation of low-income African American girls in science-related careers is of concern. Applying the concept of positionality, the authors explored how three school counselors at low-resourced schools view this population of learners to either support or discourage mathematics and science careers. The results of this study suggest…

  6. Longitudinal Association between Childhood Impulsivity and Bulimic Symptoms in African American Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodell, Lindsay P.; Joiner, Thomas E.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Using a longitudinal design, the authors of this study examined the relationship between externalizing problems and impulsivity in early childhood and symptoms of disordered eating in late adolescence. Method: Participants were urban, African American first-grade girls (N = 119) and their parents who were participating in a longitudinal…

  7. Relationship Characteristics and Sexual Practices of African American Adolescent Girls Who Desire Pregnancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Susan L.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Wingood, Gina M.; Person, Sharina D.; Crosby, Richard A.; Harrington, Kathleen F.; Dix, Emily S.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined associations between African American adolescent girls' desire to become pregnant and their sexual and relationship practices. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were used to detect significant associations between pregnancy desire and the assessed correlates. Of 522 participants (14 to 18 years old), 67 (12.8%) were…

  8. Early Puberty in African-American Girls: Nutrition Past and Present.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talpade, Medha; Talpade, Salil

    2001-01-01

    Early sexual maturation is associated with many high-risk behaviors and a prediction was made that food consumption may contribute to early onset of puberty. A comparison was made between the eating habits of several generations of African-American women. Girls today were found to consume more calcium, grains, and meat then older women did in…

  9. Sexual Risk among African American Girls: Psychopathology and Mother-Daughter Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donenberg, Geri R.; Emerson, Erin; Mackesy-Amiti, Mary Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the associations among mental health problems, maternal monitoring and permissiveness, mother-daughter communication and attachment, and sexual behaviors among African American girls receiving outpatient psychiatric care. Youths with mental health problems report higher rates of HIV-risk behavior than do their peers, and…

  10. Sports Participation and Positive Correlates in African American, Latino, and White Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Susan C.; Strycker, Lisa A.; Chaumeton, Nigel R.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine relations among sports participation and positive correlates across African American, Latino, and White girls. Positive correlate variables were self-perceptions (self-worth, body attractiveness, athletic competence), less depression, and participation in extracurricular activities. The sample comprised 372…

  11. Factors Influencing Elementary Teachers' Positioning of African American Girls as Science and Mathematics Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pringle, Rose M.; Brkich, Katie Milton; Adams, Thomasenia Lott; West-Olatunii, Cirecie; Archer-Banks, Diane A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite recent progress toward gender equity in science and mathematics education, the underachievement of low-income African American girls remains a challenge when compared with their white counterparts. Furthermore, the causes of this persistent underachievement have not been explored thoroughly. We have initiated a three-year longitudinal…

  12. Bidirectional Linkages between Psychological Symptoms and Sexual Activities among African American Adolescent Girls in Psychiatric Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Lisa R.; Donenberg, Geri R.; Emerson, Erin

    2012-01-01

    The current study examines longitudinal associations between light and heavy sexual experiences and psychiatric symptoms in African American adolescent girls receiving mental health care. Research supports bidirectional associations between adolescent romantic and sexual behaviors and depression and other mental health problems, but this finding…

  13. Perceptions of the food marketing environment among African American teen girls and adults.

    PubMed

    Bibeau, Wendy S; Saksvig, Brit I; Gittelsohn, Joel; Williams, Sonja; Jones, Lindsey; Young, Deborah Rohm

    2012-02-01

    Obesity disproportionately affects African American adolescents, particularly girls. While ethnically targeted marketing of unhealthful food products contributes to this disparity, it is not known how African Americans perceive the food marketing environment in their communities. Qualitative methods, specifically photovoice and group discussions, were used to understand perceptions of African American adults and teen girls regarding targeted food marketing to adolescent girls. An advisory committee of four students, two faculty, and two parents was formed, who recruited peers to photograph their environments and participate in group discussions to answer "what influences teen girls to eat what they do." Seven adults and nine teens (all female) participated in the study. Discussions were transcribed, coded, and analyzed with ATLAS.ti to identify common and disparate themes among participants. Results indicated that adults and teens perceived the type of food products, availability of foods, and price to influence the girls' choices. The girls spoke about products that were highly convenient and tasty as being particularly attractive. The adults reported that advertisements and insufficient nutrition education were also influencers. The teens discussed that the places in which food products were available influenced their choices. Results suggest that the marketing of highly available, convenient food at low prices sell products to teen girls. Future work is needed to better understand the consumer's perspective on the food and beverage marketing strategies used.

  14. Physical activity and physical fitness in African-American girls with and without obesity.

    PubMed

    Ward, D S; Trost, S G; Felton, G; Saunders, R; Parsons, M A; Dowda, M; Pate, R R

    1997-11-01

    Lack of physical activity and low levels of physical fitness are thought to be contributing factors to the high prevalence of obesity in African-American girls. To examine this hypothesis, we compared habitual physical activity and physical fitness in 54 African-American girls with obesity and 96 African-American girls without obesity residing in rural South Carolina. Participation in vigorous (> or = 6 METs) (VPA) or moderate and vigorous physical activity (> or = 4 METs) (MVPA) was assessed on three consecutive days using the Previous Day Physical Activity Recall. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed using the PWC 170 cycle ergometer test. Upper body strength was determined at two sites via isometric cable tensiometer tests. Relative to their counterparts without obesity, girls with obesity reported significantly fewer 30-minute blocks of VPA (0.90 +/- 0.14 vs. 1.3 +/- 0.14) and MVPA (1.2 +/- 0.18 vs. 1.7 +/- 0.16) (p < 0.01). Within the entire sample, VPA and MVPA were inversely associated with body mass index (r = -0.17 and r = -0.19) and triceps skinfold thickness (r = -0.19 and r = -0.22) (p < 0.05). In the PWC 170 test and isometric strength tests, girls with obesity demonstrated absolute scores that were similar to, or greater than, those of girls without obesity; however, when scores were expressed relative to bodyweight, girls with obesity demonstrated significantly lower values (p < 0.05). The results support the hypothesis that lack of physical activity and low physical fitness are important contributing factors in the development and/or maintenance of obesity in African-American girls.

  15. Family-focused physical activity, diet, and obesity interventions in African American girls: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Barr-Anderson, Daheia J.; Adams-Wynn, Alexis W.; DiSantis, Katherine I.; Kumanyika, Shiriki

    2012-01-01

    Obesity interventions that involve family members may be effective with racial/ethnic minority youth. This review assessed the nature and effectiveness of family involvement in obesity interventions among African American girls aged 5–18 years, a population group with high rates of obesity. Twenty-six databases were searched between January 2011 and March 2012, yielding 27 obesity pilot or full-length prevention or treatment studies with some degree of family involvement and data specific to African American girls. Interventions varied in type and level of family involvement, cultural adaptation, delivery format, and behavior change intervention strategies; most targeted parent-child dyads. Some similarities in approach based on family involvement were identified. The use of theoretical perspectives specific to African American family dynamics was absent. Across all studies, effects on weight-related behaviors were generally promising but often non-significant. Similar conclusions were drawn for weight-related outcomes among the full-length randomized controlled trials. Many strategies appeared promising on face value, but available data do not permit inferences about whether or how best to involve family members in obesity prevention and treatment interventions with African American girls. Study designs that directly compare different types and levels of family involvement and incorporate relevant theoretical elements may be an important next step. PMID:23057473

  16. Body Size and Social Self-Image among Adolescent African American Girls: The Moderating Influence of Family Racial Socialization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granberg, Ellen M.; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L.

    2009-01-01

    Social psychologists have amassed a large body of work demonstrating that overweight African American adolescent girls have generally positive self-images, particularly when compared with overweight females from other racial and ethnic groups. Some scholars have proposed that elements of African American social experience may contribute to the…

  17. The Relationship between Media Influence and Ethnic Identity Development among Low-Income African American and White Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Kenycia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between media influence and ethnic identity among low-income African American and White adolescent girls. According to the U.S. Census (2008), 98% of Americans have a television in their home. Prior research suggests that low-income African American adolescents are exposed to more media…

  18. Testing the theory of reasoned action in explaining sexual behavior among African American young teen girls.

    PubMed

    Doswell, Willa M; Braxter, Betty J; Cha, Eunseok; Kim, Kevin H

    2011-12-01

    This study tested the Theory of Reasoned Action to examine the prediction of early sexual behavior among African American young teen girls. Baseline data from a longitudinal randomized clinical trial were used. Between 2001 and 2005, 198 middle-school girls aged 11 to 14 years were recruited. As girls aged, they held more permissive attitudes toward engaging in early sexual behavior and had a higher intention to engage in early sexual behavior. Intention was a significant predictor to explain sexual behavior among the girls. There is a need to develop strategies that promote intention related to delay and prevention of early sexual behavior.

  19. African-American teen girls grieve the loss of friends to homicide: meaning making and resilience.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Celeste M

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have examined the bereavement experiences of African-American teen girls who have mourned the loss of friends due to homicide. This qualitative study examined such bereavement experiences with a sample of 20 African-American teen girls, ages 16-19, living in a large northeastern U.S. city. Meaning making, adolescent developmental theory, ideas regarding traumatic loss, and resilience provided a framework to understand how these teens coped with the tragic loss of a friend. The teen girls in this study demonstrated resilience in their ability to adequately "move on" with their lives. They remained achievement oriented and sustained meaningful relationships with family, valued friends, and others. Early, metaphysical, and motivational meaning constructions contributed to the teens' resilience.

  20. Butterfly Girls; promoting healthy diet and physical activity to young African American girls online: Rationale and design

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Young African American girls have a high risk of obesity. Online behavior change programs promoting healthy diet and physical activity are convenient and may be effective for reducing disparities related to obesity. This report presents the protocol guiding the design and evaluation of a culturally ...

  1. The impact of a culturally enhanced drug prevention program on drug and alcohol refusal efficacy among urban African American girls.

    PubMed

    Belgrave, Faye Z; Reed, Melba C; Plybon, Laura E; Corneille, Maya

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the utility of the Specific Event Drug and Alcohol Refusal Efficacy scale (SEDARE) as an outcome of a culturally enhanced drug abuse prevention program for urban African-American girls in early adolescence. The SEDARE captures the perceived likelihood that youth will use drugs and alcohol in specific situations. Ninety-two girls participated in the program. Girls in the intervention group had higher drug refusal efficacy as measured by the SEDARE than girls in the comparison group. Girls varied in situations they perceived they could refuse drugs and alcohol. Findings are discussed with implications for drug abuse prevention programs for urban African-American girls.

  2. Pubertal Timing and Its Link to Behavioral and Emotional Problems among "At-Risk" African American Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Rona; Jaccard, James; Silverman, Wendy K.; Pina, Armando A.

    2009-01-01

    Using an "at-risk" sample of African American girls, the present study examined the link between girls' retrospective reports of pubertal timing, girls' perceived relative pubertal timing, and their behavioral and emotional problems as rated by the girls themselves (N = 102; 11-17 years), as well as teachers and parents. Structural equation…

  3. Development of an Empirically Based Preventive Intervention for Depression in Preadolescent African American Girls.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Sophia; Brown, Tasha M; Katsonga-Phiri, Tiamo; Bouris, Alida; Grant, Kathryn E; Keenan, Kate

    2016-05-01

    We describe the development, feasibility, and acceptability of a novel preventive intervention for depression in African American girls living in urban poverty. Our approach targeted individual and interpersonal vulnerabilities that have been shown to confer risk for depression in samples of African American girls living in low-income, urban settings, including suppression of negative emotion and lack of assertiveness with peers, memory for positive emotion, active coping, and family connection. Focus groups and an open trial were conducted to refine the goals and mechanisms for skill building. A randomized controlled trial (RCT) of the new program (Cities Mother-Daughter Project) was conducted with 3rd-5th grade students from Chicago Public Schools (CPS). Three cycles of screening, randomization, and deployment were conducted to assess feasibility, satisfaction, and usability. Results indicate that feasibility was weak; whereas, satisfaction and usability were high. Future directions for testing efficacy are discussed.

  4. Physical Activity Attitudes, Preferences, and Practices in African American, Hispanic, and Caucasian Girls

    PubMed Central

    Grieser, Mira; Vu, Maihan B.; Bedimo-Rung, Ariane L.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Moody, Jamie; Young, Deborah Rohm; Moe, Stacey G.

    2008-01-01

    Physical activity levels in girls decline dramatically during adolescence, most profoundlyamong minorities. To explore ethnic and racial variation in attitudes toward physical activity, semistructured interviews (n = 80) and physical activity checklists (n = 130) are conducted with African American, Hispanic, and Caucasian middle school girls in six locations across the United States. Girls from all groups have similar perceptions of the benefits of physical activity, with staying in shape as the most important. Girls have similar negative perceptions of physical activity, including getting hurt, sweating, aggressive players, and embarrassment. Chores, runningor jogging, exercises, and dance are common activities for girls regardless of ethnicity. Basketball, swimming, running, and dance are commonly cited favorite activities, although there are slight differences between ethnic groups. The results suggest that factors other than ethnicity contribute to girls’physical activity preferences and that distinct interventions may not be needed for each ethnic group. PMID:16397158

  5. HPV Vaccine Use among African American Girls: Qualitative Formative Research using a Participatory Social Marketing Approach

    PubMed Central

    Hull, Pamela C.; Williams, Elizabeth A.; Khabele, Dineo; Dean, Candace; Bond, Brea; Sanderson, Maureen

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To generate recommendations for framing messages to promote HPV vaccination, specifically for African American adolescents and their parents who have not yet made a decision about the vaccine (the “Undecided” market segment). METHODS Focus groups and interviews were conducted with African American girls ages 11–18 (N=34) and their mothers (N=31), broken into market segments based on daughter’s vaccination status and mother’s intent to vaccinate. RESULTS Findings suggested that the HPV vaccine should be presented to “Undecided” mothers and adolescents as a routine vaccine (just like other vaccines) that helps prevent cancer. Within the “Undecided” segment, we identified two sub-segments based on barriers to HPV vaccination and degree of reluctance. The “Undecided/Ready If Offered” segment would easily accept HPV vaccine if given the opportunity, with basic information and a healthcare provider recommendation. The “Undecided/Skeptical” segment would need more in-depth information to allay concerns about vaccine safety, mistrust of drug companies, and recommended age. Some mothers and girls had the erroneous perception that girls do not need the vaccine until they become sexually active. African American adolescents and their mothers overwhelmingly thought campaigns should target both girls and boys for HPV vaccination. In addition, campaigns and messages may need to be tailored for pre-teens (ages 9–12) versus teens (ages 13–18) and their parents. CONCLUSIONS Findings pointed to the need to “normalize” the perception of HPV vaccine as just another routine vaccine (e.g., part of pre-teen vaccine package). Findings can inform social marketing campaigns targeting Undecided or ethnically diverse families. PMID:24491412

  6. Butterfly Girls; promoting healthy diet and physical activity to young African American girls online: rationale and design

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Young African American girls have a high risk of obesity. Online behavior change programs promoting healthy diet and physical activity are convenient and may be effective for reducing disparities related to obesity. This report presents the protocol guiding the design and evaluation of a culturally and developmental appropriate online obesity prevention program for young African American girls. Methods/Design The Butterfly Girls and the Quest for Founder’s Rock is an 8-episode online program delivered as an animated, interactive comic. The program promotes healthy diet and physical activity and is specifically designed for 8–10 year old African American girls. Girls, parents, and community representatives provided formative feedback on cultural relevance and developmental appropriateness. A three-group (treatment, comparison, wait-list control) randomized design (n = 390 parent/child dyads) is employed, with child as the unit of assignment. Change in body mass index is the primary outcome; change in fruit and vegetable consumption, water, and physical activity are secondary outcomes. Data collection occurs at baseline, approximately 3 months after baseline (i.e., completion of the online program), and approximately three months later (i.e., maintenance assessment). Two dietary recalls are collected at each data collection period by trained interviewers using the Nutrient Data System for Research (NDSR 2012) system. Physical activity is objectively measured by seven days of accelerometry. Psychosocial and process data are also collected. Girls in the treatment and comparison groups will be interviewed at post 1 to obtain information on personal reactions to the program. Discussion This research will develop and evaluate the efficacy of an online program for reducing obesity risk among girls at risk of obesity and related diseases. Online programs offer the potential for wide dissemination, thus reducing disparities related to obesity. Trial

  7. Mother-Daughter Communication about Sex and Sexual Intercourse among Middle- to Upper-Class African American Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usher-Seriki, Kimberly K.; Bynum, Mia Smith; Callands, Tamora A.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated linkages between various dimensions of mother-daughter communication about sex and sexual intercourse in a sample of 274 middle- to upper-income African American adolescent girls, drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Logistic regression analysis revealed that girls who reported closer…

  8. Media Contributions to African American Girls' Focus on Beauty and Appearance: Exploring the Consequences of Sexual Objectification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Maya K.

    2008-01-01

    The media are dominated by images of women as sex objects whose value is based on their appearance. These portrayals can potentially limit girls' self-perceptions and influence their attitudes regarding the importance of appearance. However, relatively little is known about how African American adolescent girls are affected by these images. Using…

  9. School-Based Exercise to Lower Blood Pressure in High-Risk African American Girls: Project Design and Baseline Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewart, Craig K.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes effective methods for identifying and recruiting high risk African American ninth-grade girls to measure their fitness and assess the impact of fitness training on blood pressure. A multistage step test for fitness assessment in such girls is presented. The "Project Heart" aerobics class and control groups are described. (SM)

  10. Body Size and Social Self-Image among Adolescent African American Girls: The Moderating Influence of Family Racial Socialization.

    PubMed

    Granberg, Ellen M; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L

    2009-12-01

    Social psychologists have amassed a large body of work demonstrating that overweight African American adolescent girls have generally positive self-images, particularly when compared with overweight females from other racial and ethnic groups. Some scholars have proposed that elements of African American social experience may contribute to the maintenance of these positive self-views. In this paper, we evaluate these arguments using data drawn from a panel study of socio-economically diverse African American adolescent girls living in Iowa and Georgia. We analyze the relationship between body size and social self-image over three waves of data, starting when the girls were 10 years of age and concluding when they were approximately 14. We find that heavier respondents hold less positive social self-images but also find that being raised in a family that practices racial socialization moderates this relationship.

  11. HIV-Related Sexual Risk Behavior Among African American Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Kate; McCauley, Jenna; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Brown, Jennifer L.; Sales, Jessica M.; Rose, Eve; Wingood, Gina M.; DiClemente, Ralph J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Latent class analysis (LCA) is a useful statistical tool that can be used to enhance understanding of how various patterns of combined sexual behavior risk factors may confer differential levels of HIV infection risk and to identify subtypes among African American adolescent girls. Methods: Data for this analysis is derived from baseline assessments completed prior to randomization in an HIV prevention trial. Participants were African American girls (n=701) aged 14–20 years presenting to sexual health clinics. Girls completed an audio computer-assisted self-interview, which assessed a range of variables regarding sexual history and current and past sexual behavior. Results: Two latent classes were identified with the probability statistics for the two groups in this model being 0.89 and 0.88, respectively. In the final multivariate model, class 1 (the “higher risk” group; n=331) was distinguished by a higher likelihood of >5 lifetime sexual partners, having sex while high on alcohol/drugs, less frequent condom use, and history of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), when compared with class 2 (the “lower risk” group; n=370). The derived model correctly classified 85.3% of participants into the two groups and accounted for 71% of the variance in the latent HIV-related sexual behavior risk variable. The higher risk class also had worse scores on all hypothesized correlates (e.g., self-esteem, history of sexual assault or physical abuse) relative to the lower risk class. Conclusions: Sexual health clinics represent a unique point of access for HIV-related sexual risk behavior intervention delivery by capitalizing on contact with adolescent girls when they present for services. Four empirically supported risk factors differentiated higher versus lower HIV risk. Replication of these findings is warranted and may offer an empirical basis for parsimonious screening recommendations for girls presenting for sexual healthcare services. PMID

  12. Low-income African American adolescents who avoid pregnancy: tough girls who rewrite negative scripts.

    PubMed

    Martyn, K K; Hutchinson, S A

    2001-03-01

    The purpose of this research was to generate a grounded theory that explains the social-psychological processes of low-income African American adolescents who avoided pregnancy. Data collection included focus groups and in-depth interviews with 17 women aged 19 to 26. Data analysis using the grounded theory method revealed that these girls were the recipients of negative social-psychological scripts, putting them at risk for poverty and early childbearing. The "tough girls" struggled to rewrite these scripts by recognizing their negativity, being disenchanted with the scripts, determining to be different, and creating better lives. These aware, introspective young women believed in self-responsibility, self-protection, education, and financial independence. Practice implications and considerations for programmatic interventions can be based on this analysis.

  13. "Doing Hair" and Literacy in an Afterschool Reading and Writing Workshop for African-American Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Daneell

    2005-01-01

    The term "doing hair" is utterly familiar. However, while the term can refer to simple acts of combing, brushing, washing, and styling hair, in the culture of adolescent African-American girls, doing hair is a social practice that represents power, creativity, and sometimes popularity. This article describes a three-month afterschool…

  14. "This Is Not Reality...It's Only TV": African American Girls Respond to Media (Mis)Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Horace R.; Smith, Eleshia L.

    2012-01-01

    This research investigates the ways in which three African American high school girls interpret and challenge racialized and sexualized media representations of their race, class, and gender within music videos. The authors assert that these students' ability to counter stereotypes is a reflection of their cultural orientations, as well as their…

  15. What Makes a Girl (or a Boy) Popular (or Unpopular)? African American Children's Perceptions and Developmental Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Hongling; Li, Yan; Boucher, Signe M.; Hutchins, Bryan C.; Cairns, Beverley D.

    2006-01-01

    Open-ended questions were used to obtain narrative accounts of what makes a girl (or a boy) popular (or unpopular) at school. The participants were 489 African American students in Grades 1, 4, and 7 recruited from high-risk inner-city neighborhoods. Appearance and self-presentation were mentioned the most in Grades 4 and 7. Prosocial…

  16. The Relationship between Body Size and Depressed Mood: Findings from a Sample of African American Middle School Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granberg, Ellen M.; Simons, Ronald L.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Melby, Janet Nieuwsma

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between body weight and depression among adolescent females has been the subject of considerable attention from researchers. The risk of experiencing this distress, however, is not equally distributed across members of all racial groups. African American girls are generally more satisfied with their bodies and thus may be less…

  17. The Role of Literary Mentors in Writing Development: How African American Women's Literature Supported the Writings of Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhammad, Gholnecsar E.

    2015-01-01

    Coupling Royster's (2000) conceptual framework of "zamani" with Rosenblatt's (1978) reader response theory, the researcher explores the ways African American women's writings supported, nurtured, and "mentored" the writings of adolescent girls. Findings show that the mentor texts helped in generating ideas for writing, thinking…

  18. The Impact of Self-Components on Attitudes toward Sex among African American Preadolescent Girls: The Moderating Role of Menarche.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Tiffany G.

    2002-01-01

    Identified factors that helped prevent attitudes tolerant of risky sexual behavior among inner-city, African American, preadolescent girls age 10-13 years. Survey data indicated that feminine gender role orientation, self-concept, and ethnic identity related to attitudes less tolerant of risky sexual behaviors. Masculine gender role orientation…

  19. Getting an Early Start: Communication about Sexuality among Mothers and Children 6-10 Years Old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pluhar, Erika; Jennings, Tanya; DiIorio, Colleen

    2006-01-01

    Little information exists on communication about sexuality between parents and preadolescent children. This study collected qualitative data on family sexuality communication from 3 focus groups conducted with African American mothers of 6-10 year old children. Two broad themes emerged from the data: "Beyond the Birds and the Bees" and "Let's Talk…

  20. Childhood violence exposure and the development of sexual risk in low-income African American girls.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Helen W; Donenberg, Geri R; Emerson, Erin

    2014-12-01

    Low-income, urban African American (AA) girls are at heightened risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and violence exposure may be an important risk factor. AA girls (N = 177) from low-income communities in Chicago completed a 2-year longitudinal study of HIV-risk behavior involving five waves of data collection (ages 12-16 at baseline) and a sixth wave (ages 14-22) assessing lifetime trauma and victimization history. Childhood exposure to violence (CEV) represented reports of physical, sexual, or witnessed violence before age 12. Latent growth curve analysis examined CEV as a covariate of sexual experience, number of sexual partners, and inconsistent condom use trajectories. CEV was associated with greater sexual risk, although the pattern differed across the three outcomes. Overall, findings emphasize the need for early interventions to reduce sexual risk among low-income urban girls who have experienced violence. Efforts to address or prevent violence exposure may also reduce rates of STIs in this population.

  1. Nobody's perfect: a qualitative examination of African American maternal caregivers' and their adolescent girls' perceptions of body image.

    PubMed

    Pope, Michell; Corona, Rosalie; Belgrave, Faye Z

    2014-06-01

    Using semi-structured interviews, we explored African American maternal caregivers' and their adolescent girls' (N=25 dyads) perceptions about the adolescent's body using Grounded Theory. Caregivers and adolescent girls (Mage=13.42) were asked what the adolescent girls liked most/least about their bodies and how peers and media may affect adolescent girls' perceptions. While some adolescent girls reported overall body satisfaction, others described features they would like to change. Belief in God, body acceptance, and appreciation for average/moderate features helped the adolescent girls maintain their positive body image. The body-related messages that adolescent girls received from caregivers and peers included compliments, pressure to lose weight, teasing, and advice. Adolescent girls also reported being either influenced by or skeptical of the images presented in the media. Programs that promote caregiver-adolescent communication about body perceptions and that build on the adolescent girls' media skepticism may prove useful for their health-related attitudes and behaviors.

  2. Stanford GEMS Phase 2 Obesity Prevention Trial for Low-Income African-American Girls: Design and Sample Baseline Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Thomas N.; Kraemer, Helena C.; Matheson, Donna M.; Obarzanek, Eva; Wilson, Darrell M.; Haskell, William L.; Pruitt, Leslie A.; Thompson, Nikko S.; Farish Haydel, K; Fujimoto, Michelle; Varady, Ann; McCarthy, Sally; Watanabe, Connie; Killen, Joel D

    2008-01-01

    Objective African-American girls and women are at high risk of obesity and its associated morbidities. Few studies have tested obesity prevention strategies specifically designed for African-American girls. This report describes the design and baseline findings of the Stanford GEMS (Girls health Enrichment Multi-site Studies) trial to test the effect of a 2-year community- and family-based intervention to reduce weight gain in low-income, preadolescent African-American girls. Design Randomized controlled trial with measurements scheduled in girls’ homes at baseline, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months post randomization. Setting Low-income areas of Oakland, CA. Participants Eight, nine and ten year old African-American girls and their parents/caregivers. Interventions Girls are randomized to a culturally-tailored after school dance program and a home/family-based intervention to reduce screen media use versus an information-based community health education active-placebo comparison intervention. Interventions last for 2-years for each participant. Main Outcome Measure Change in body mass index over the two-year study. Results Recruitment and enrollment successfully produced a predominately low-socioeconomic status sample. 261 families were randomized. One girl per family is randomly chosen for the analysis sample. Randomization produced comparable experimental groups with only a few statistically significant differences. The sample had a mean body mass index (BMI) at the 74th percentile on the 2000 CDC BMI reference, and one-third of the analysis sample had a BMI at the 95th percentile or above. Average fasting total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were above NCEP thresholds for borderline high classifications. Girls averaged low levels of moderate to vigorous physical activity, more than 3 hours per day of screen media use, and diets high in energy from fat. Conclusions The Stanford GEMS trial is testing the benefits of culturally-tailored after-school dance and screen time

  3. Longitudinal Study of the Psychological Effects of Sexual Abuse in African American Girls in Foster Care and Those Who Remain Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leifer, Myra; Shapiro, Jeremy P.

    1995-01-01

    Longitudinally examined the effects of foster care placement versus remaining at home upon the psychological function of 64 African American, sexually abused girls 5-16 years old. Both groups showed declines in affective distress and depression. Overall, there were no significant differences in the psychological function of the girls who remained…

  4. "Adging up" to "Beef on Sight": A Qualitative Study of the Perceived Causes of Interpersonal Conflict and Violence among African-American Girls in an Urban High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Mark; Taggar, Carolyn E.

    2005-01-01

    This qualitative study examined perceptions of the causes and nature of conflicts and violence among African-American girls in an urban high school. In-depth, iterative interviewing was used to explore the perceptions of these girls, male students, teachers, and other school personnel. Ethnographic observation was also used. Conflicts and violence…

  5. "Combing" through Representations of Black Girls' Hair in African American Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Wanda M.; McNair, Jonda C.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we share findings from a content analysis of six picturebooks about hair. The picturebooks selected feature Black female protagonists and are written by African American females. Our content analysis examines the ways in which Black hair is theorized and represented to children (from diverse backgrounds) very early on in their…

  6. Self-image and self-esteem in African-American preteen girls: implications for mental health.

    PubMed

    Doswell, W M; Millor, G K; Thompson, H; Braxter, B

    1998-01-01

    Current research suggests that pubertal development is occurring earlier in African-American preteen girls in response to familial contextual factors, which may make them vulnerable to low self-image and self-esteem dissatisfaction. This lowering in self-image and self-esteem may contribute to the early initiation of sexual behaviors, putting these girls at risk for pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. These potential risks place these girls in need of prepubertal health promotion, yet preadolescents are not frequently a focus of nursing care delivery except when summer camp and back-to-school physicals are performed. This article presents an in-depth overview of selected literature on self-esteem, discusses findings on self-image and self-esteem from a pilot study on pubertal influences on accelerated sexual behavior, and proposes health promotion strategies for pre- and peripubertal girls to promote positive mental health outcomes. More focused attention is needed on health promotion targeting the developmental transition health needs of prepubertal girls. Targeted health promotion activities may foster healthier pre- and peripubertal girls' perceptions of the meaning of their pubertal physical changes and stronger self-image and self-esteem. The goal of these health promotion activities should be to foster continuity of positive self-image and self-esteem among preteen girls, which is essential to prevent initiation of premature-for-age risk of problem behavior, such as early coitus.

  7. Macronutrient Intake Influences the Effect of 25-Hydroxy-Vitamin D Status on Metabolic Syndrome Outcomes in African American Girls

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Anna L.; Hanks, Lynae J.; Ashraf, Ambika P.; Williams, Elizabeth; Davis, Michelle; Casazza, Krista

    2012-01-01

    The objectives were to determine the effect of macronutrient modification on vitamin D status and if change in 25-hydroxy-vitamin D concentration influences components of metabolic syndrome in obese African American girls. Methods. Five-week intervention using reduced CHO (43% carbohydrate; 27% fat: SPEC) versus standard CHO (55% carbohydrate; 40% fat: STAN) eucaloric diet. Subjects were 28 obese African American females, aged 9–14 years. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and meal test were performed at baseline and five weeks. Results. Approximately 30% of girls had metabolic syndrome. Serum 25OHD increased in both groups at five weeks [STAN: 20.3 ± 1.1 to 22.4 ± 1.1 (P < 0.05) versus SPEC: 16.1 ± 1.0 to 16.8 ± 1.0 (P = 0.05)]. The STAN group, increased 25OHD concentration over five weeks (P < 0.05), which was positively related to triglycerides (P < 0.001) and inversely associated with total cholesterol (P < 0.001) and LDL (P < 0.001). The SPEC group, had increase in 25OHD (P = 0.05), which was positively related to fasting insulin (P < 0.001) and insulin sensitivity while inversely associated with fasting glucose (P < 0.05). The contribution of vitamin D status to metabolic syndrome parameters differs according to macronutrient intake. Improvement in 25OHD may improve fasting glucose, insulin sensitivity, and LDL; however, macronutrient intake warrants consideration. PMID:22792449

  8. Urban Lit and Sexual Risk Behavior: A Survey of African-American Adolescent Girls.

    PubMed

    Harris, Allyssa L

    2015-07-01

    Adolescents spend an inordinate amount of time engaged with media, which is highly sexualized. Sexualized material can be found in music, on television and the Internet, as well as in magazines and books. Adolescents engaged with media are often influenced by this sexualized content, leading them to engage in risky sexual behavior. Urban literature (urban lit) is extremely popular among African-American female adolescents due to its portrayal of urban life and hip-hop culture. The purpose of this survey was to ascertain the extent to which African-American adolescent females are reading urban literature and to document whether this genre of literature had an effect on their sexual risk behaviors.

  9. Trajectories of psychopathology and risky behaviors associated with childhood abuse and neglect in low-income urban African American girls.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Helen W; Samuelson, Sarah L; Staudenmeyer, Anna H; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2015-07-01

    The current study examined patterns of psychopathology, drug and alcohol use, and sexual behavior associated with childhood abuse and neglect in a high-risk sample of low-income African American girls seeking mental health treatment. Participants (N=177) were African American girls recruited from mental health clinics serving low-income communities in Chicago, IL and followed over six waves of data collection (T1-T6) reflecting early (mean age 14) to late (mean age 17) adolescence. Child abuse and neglect history was determined from adolescent and caregiver reports. Latent curve modeling examined patterns of internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, drug and alcohol use, sexual experience, and risky sexual behavior reported by girls and associations with reported child abuse and neglect. Overall, these trajectories indicated a decrease in internalizing and externalizing symptoms, stability of drug and alcohol use, and an increase in sexual experience and risky sexual behaviors over time. Child abuse and neglect was associated with increased internalizing symptoms and sexual experience at baseline and with externalizing symptoms and risky sexual behavior both at baseline and the final point. Child abuse and neglect was not significantly associated with alcohol or drug use. This study adds to the literature on the long-term consequences of child abuse and neglect by demonstrating patterns of psychopathology and risky behavior that persist over time in a high-risk group of girls with self or parent reported histories of abuse and neglect. Interventions that address externalizing problems and health risk behaviors may be of particular importance for this population.

  10. Timing and tempo: Exploring the complex association between pubertal development and depression in African American and European American girls.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Kate; Culbert, Kristen M; Grimm, Kevin J; Hipwell, Alison E; Stepp, Stephanie D

    2014-11-01

    The relative contribution of pubertal timing and tempo to the development of depression has not been tested in a large, representative sample, nor has the interface among pubertal maturation, depression, and race been tested. Participants were a community-based sample of 2,450 girls from the Pittsburgh Girls Study who were interviewed annually from ages 9 to 17 years. Pubertal timing and tempo were characterized as a unitary construct and also separately for pubic hair and breast development using child and maternal report. Depression symptoms were assessed annually. African American girls had higher depression symptoms and progressed through puberty earlier, but at a slower tempo than European American girls. Girls with earlier timing had higher levels of depression symptoms at age 10 years. Slower tempo was associated with higher depression symptoms at age 10, and faster tempo was associated with increases in depression from ages 10 to 13. As well, race moderated the associations among timing, tempo, and depression symptoms, and the association between race and depression was partially mediated by pubertal timing and tempo. Pubertal timing and tempo and race contribute to the developmental course of depression from early to late adolescence. The pattern of association varies as a function of the developmental window within which depression is assessed. Thus, repeated measures of depression symptoms and puberty across the span of pubertal development are necessary for exploring the relative importance of dimensions of pubertal development to depression etiology.

  11. In Their Words: An Exploration into How the Construction of Congruent Third Space Creates an Environment for Employment of Scientific Discourse in Urban, African-American Kindergarten Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigley, Cassie

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to understand how young, urban, African American girls learn new science discourse. The research questions focused on three units of analysis: the teacher, the student, and the discourse. These research questions were the following: (1) How is a congruent Third Space constructed by the teacher in this…

  12. The reliability and validity of a questionnaire testing parents’ support for improving the diet of African American girls ages 9–12 yrs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence of overweight in African American (AA) girls is higher than other ethnic groups. Increasing physical activity (PA) or decreasing energy intake is the goal of obesity prevention programs. Identifying factors that influence PA behavior is an important step in developing successful obesi...

  13. An Evaluation Study of the Young Empowered Sisters (YES!) Program: Promoting Cultural Assets among African American Adolescent Girls through a Culturally Relevant School-Based Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Oseela; Davidson, William; McAdoo, Harriette

    2008-01-01

    The present study examines the effects of a culturally relevant school-based intervention in promoting cultural assets (i.e., ethnic identity, collectivist orientation, racism awareness, and liberatory youth activism) among a group of African American adolescent girls. The overall goal of the intervention was to promote cultural factors that can…

  14. The NIA Group. Building a sense of purpose in preadolescent African American girls: a novel approach to nursing leadership in community health.

    PubMed

    Doswell, Willa M; Portis, Shirley; Jemison, Theda; Kaufmann, Judith; Braxter, Betty; Green, Lauren

    2004-01-01

    Many African American girls experience pubertal development early. Earlier pubertal development may place these girls at greater risk of exposure to or engagement in early sexual behavior. Young girls facing this societal context need interventions to help them develop healthy self-esteem, pride in their cultural heritage, good decision-making skills and a sense of purpose. It was from these concerns that the NIA Program of Self-Development for preadolescent girls was initiated as a collaboration of the University of Pittsburgh School of Nursing, a local public school, and the nursing staff of the Matilda Theiss Health Center, a comprehensive community health center that houses the NIA Group. The group's name, "NIA," meaning a sense of purpose, is derived from one of the seven principles of Kwanzaa, a yearly African American celebration of cultural heritage.

  15. Sexualized and Dangerous Relationships: Listening to the Voices of Low-Income African American Girls Placed at Risk for Sexual Exploitation

    PubMed Central

    Kruger, Anne; Harper, Erin; Harris, Patricia; Sanders, DeShelle; Levin, Kerry; Meyers, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Youth from low-income, urban backgrounds face significant challenges to maintaining a positive developmental trajectory. Dangerous neighborhoods and stressed relationships are common in these settings and threaten adaptation by weakening the natural assets that undergird resilience. African American girls in these contexts face specific, multiple risks, including gender stereotyping, violence, and sexual exploitation. The commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) is a multibillion-dollar industry victimizing over 1 million children around the globe. The typical victim in 1 city in the southeastern United States is an African American girl 12–14 years old. There has been little research investigating the characteristics of girls placed at risk for CSEC and even less research on the personal perspectives of these girls. Methods: Over 3 school terms we provided preventive intervention groups for 36 African American middle school girls who were placed at risk because they lived in neighborhoods with high rates of interpersonal violence and CSEC. Two group leaders and a process recorder took detailed notes on each group session. Our focus on group conversations over a period of weeks increased the probability of recording spontaneous, open comments by the children and is a promising method with this population. The data were analyzed qualitatively and resulted in an account of the girls' own views of the environmental challenges and personal experiences that may influence their development. Results: The girls' language during the group sessions contained 4 themes: difficulty forming trusting relationships, frequent peer aggression, familiarity with adult prostitution, and sexuality as a commodity. Conclusion: Our research shows how girls placed at risk for CSEC view their own lives. These children described violence and sexual exploitation and cited limited supports to protect them from these risks. Understanding the perspectives of these girls

  16. Efficacy of an HIV/STI sexual risk-reduction intervention for African American adolescent girls in juvenile detention centers: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    DiClemente, Ralph J; Davis, Teaniese L; Swartzendruber, Andrea; Fasula, Amy M; Boyce, Lorin; Gelaude, Deborah; Gray, Simone C; Hardin, James; Rose, Eve; Carry, Monique; Sales, Jessica M; Brown, Jennifer L; Staples-Horne, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Few HIV/STI interventions exist for African American adolescent girls in juvenile detention. The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of an intervention to reduce incident STIs, improve HIV-preventive behaviors, and enhance psychosocial outcomes. We conducted a randomized controlled trial among African American adolescent girls (13-17 years, N = 188) in juvenile detention from March 2011 to May 2012. Assessments occurred at baseline and 3- and 6-months post-randomization and included: audio computer-assisted self-interview, condom skills assessment, and self-collected vaginal swab to detect Chlamydia and gonorrhea. The Imara intervention included three individual-level sessions and four phone sessions; expedited partner therapy was offered to STI-positive adolescents. The comparison group received the usual care provided by the detention center: STI testing, treatment, and counseling. At the 6-month assessment (3-months post-intervention), Imara participants reported higher condom use self-efficacy (p < 0.001), HIV/STI knowledge (p < 0.001), and condom use skills (p < 0.001) compared to control participants. No significant differences were observed between trial conditions in incident Chlamydia or gonorrhea infections, condom use, or number of vaginal sex partners. Imara for detained African American adolescent girls can improve condom use skills and psychosocial outcomes; however, a critical need for interventions to reduce sexual risk remains.

  17. Efficacy of an HIV/STI Sexual Risk-Reduction Intervention for African American Adolescent Girls in Juvenile Detention Centers: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    DiClemente, Ralph J.; Davis, Teaniese L.; Swartzendruber, Andrea; Fasula, Amy M.; Boyce, Lorin; Gelaude, Deborah; Gray, Simone C.; Hardin, James; Rose, Eve; Carry, Monique; Sales, Jessica M.; Brown, Jennifer L.; Staples-Horne, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Background Few HIV/STI interventions exist for African American adolescent girls in juvenile detention. Objective The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of an intervention to reduce incident STIs, improve HIV-preventive behaviors, and enhance psychosocial outcomes. Methods We conducted a randomized controlled trial among African American adolescent girls (13-17 years, N=188) in juvenile detention from March 2011 to May 2012. Assessments occurred at baseline and 3- and 6-months post-randomization and included: audio computer-assisted self-interview, condom skills assessment, and self-collected vaginal swab to detect Chlamydia and gonorrhea. Intervention The Imara intervention included three individual-level sessions and four phone sessions; expedited partner therapy was offered to STI-positive adolescents. The comparison group received the usual care provided by the detention center: STI testing, treatment and counseling. Results At the 6-month assessment (3-months post-intervention) Imara participants reported higher condom use self-efficacy (p<0.001), HIV/STI knowledge (p<0.001), and condom use skills (p<0.001) compared to control participants. No significant differences were observed between trial conditions in incident Chlamydia or gonorrhea infections, condom use, or number of vaginal sex partners. Conclusions Imara for detained African American adolescent girls can improve condom use skills and psychosocial outcomes; however, a critical need for interventions to reduce sexual risk remains. PMID:25190056

  18. Cultural Signification through Reader's Theatre: An Analysis of African American Girls and Their Hair

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffries, Rhonda; Jeffries, Devair

    2014-01-01

    This article explored the role of hair in Sylviane Diouf's "Bintou's Braids" and focused on the impact of hair as a cultural signifier on girls and the curriculum. The article examined the ability of this children's text to address female beauty standards and suggests the use of literary techniques, such as reader's theatre, to recognize…

  19. Iqra: African American Muslim Girls Reading and Writing for Social Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhammad, Gholnecsar E.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the researcher explores the role of literacy--specifically writing in the lives of adolescent Muslim girls who used writing as a sociopolitical tool when participating in a literacy collaborative grounded in Islamic principles and writing for social change. Previously, researchers have largely focused on the literacies of immigrant…

  20. An initial evaluation of a culturally adapted social problem-solving and relational aggression prevention program for urban African-American relationally aggressive girls.

    PubMed

    Leff, Stephen S; Gullan, Rebecca Lakin; Paskewich, Brooke S; Abdul-Kabir, Saburah; Jawad, Abbas F; Grossman, Michael; Munro, Melissa A; Power, Thomas J

    2009-01-01

    Recent research demonstrating that relational aggression is associated with peer relationship difficulties, internalizing and externalizing behaviors, social processing deficits, and possibly later mental health disorders among girls has emphasized the need to address the unique expression of aggression among females. Despite these findings, almost all aggression interventions have been directed toward physically aggressive boys. In the current article, the authors describe the acceptability and initial effectiveness of a culturally adapted social problem-solving/social skills intervention for inner-city 3rd- to 5th-grade urban, African American, relationally aggressive girls called the Friend to Friend Program. The authors partnered with youth, teachers, parents, and playground supervisors to design the program, and the current study presents preliminary data suggesting that the intervention is viewed as highly acceptable by participating girls and teachers. Further, the intervention appears to have promise for decreasing at-risk girls' levels of relationally and physically aggressive behaviors, hostile attributions, and loneliness.

  1. Feasibility of delivering evidence-based HIV/STI prevention programming to a community sample of African American teen girls via the internet.

    PubMed

    Danielson, Carla Kmett; McCauley, Jenna L; Jones, Andrea M; Borkman, April L; Miller, Stephanie; Ruggiero, Kenneth J

    2013-10-01

    The current study examined the feasibility of an HIV/STI prevention intervention for African American female adolescents. The intervention SiHLEWeb is a web-based adaptation of the evidence-based intervention, Sistas, Informing, Healing, Living, and Empowering (SiHLE). Participants were 41 African American girls aged 13 to 18 years, recruited in collaboration with community partners (local high schools, Department of Juvenile Justice, child advocacy center, medical university). Results support the feasibility of recruitment, screening, and follow-up retention methods. The majority (63.4%) of recruited participants completed the intervention, taking an average of 4.5 (SD = 3.63) site visits. Completers of SiHLEWeb demonstrated increases in knowledge regarding HIV/STI risks and risk reduction behavior [t(18) = 4.74, p < .001], as well as significant increases in condom use self-efficacy [t(16) = 2.41, p = .03]. Findings provide preliminary support for the large-scale, randomized-controlled trial of the efficacy of SiHLEWeb to reduce high-risk sexual behavior among female African American adolescents.

  2. Headshaking in a 10-year-old Thoroughbred mare

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Abstract A 10-year-old Thoroughbred mare was presented with a 2.5-week history of headshaking. Based on a thorough physical examination, blood analysis, and a fine needle aspirate of an enlarged thyroid gland, a tentative diagnosis of seasonal idiopathic headshaking was made. Treatment with cyproheptadine was attempted. PMID:15025153

  3. Predicting Unprotected Sex and Unplanned Pregnancy among Urban African-American Adolescent Girls Using the Theory of Gender and Power.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Janet E; Zenilman, Jonathan; Rose, Eve; Wingood, Gina; DiClemente, Ralph

    2016-06-01

    Reproductive coercion has been hypothesized as a cause of unprotected sex and unplanned pregnancies, but research has focused on a narrow set of potential sources of reproductive coercion. We identified and evaluated eight potential sources of reproductive coercion from the Theory of Gender and Power including economic inequality between adolescent girls and their boyfriends, cohabitation, and age differences. The sample comprised sexually active African-American female adolescents, ages 15-21. At baseline (n = 715), 6 months (n = 607), and 12 months (n = 605), participants completed a 40-min interview and were tested for semen Y-chromosome with polymerase chain reaction from a self-administered vaginal swab. We predicted unprotected sex and pregnancy using multivariate regression controlling for demographics, economic factors, relationship attributes, and intervention status using a Poisson working model. Factors associated with unprotected sex included cohabitation (incidence risk ratio (IRR) 1.48, 95 % confidence interval (1.22, 1.81)), physical abuse (IRR 1.55 (1.21, 2.00)), emotional abuse (IRR 1.31 (1.06, 1.63)), and having a boyfriend as a primary source of spending money (IRR 1.18 (1.00, 1.39)). Factors associated with unplanned pregnancy 6 months later included being at least 4 years younger than the boyfriend (IRR 1.68 (1.14, 2.49)) and cohabitation (2.19 (1.35, 3.56)). Among minors, cohabitation predicted even larger risks of unprotected sex (IRR 1.93 (1.23, 3.03)) and unplanned pregnancy (3.84 (1.47, 10.0)). Adolescent cohabitation is a marker for unprotected sex and unplanned pregnancy, especially among minors. Cohabitation may have stemmed from greater commitment, but the shortage of affordable housing in urban areas could induce women to stay in relationships for housing. Pregnancy prevention interventions should attempt to delay cohabitation until adulthood and help cohabiting adolescents to find affordable housing.

  4. Music Videos and Sexual Risk in African American Adolescent Girls: Gender, Power and the Need for Media Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robillard, Alyssa

    2012-01-01

    Background: Music videos contain sexual content often reflecting women as promiscuous, submissive, or passive. Few studies have examined gender- and sex-related attitudes in African American females, particularly across genres of music videos. Purpose: Using constructs from Cultivation Theory, Theory of Gender and Power and Social Cognitive…

  5. Ethnic Identity, Neighborhood Risk, and Adolescent Drug and Sex Attitudes and Refusal Efficacy: The Urban African American Girls' Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corneille, Maya A.; Belgrave, Faye Z.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the impact of ethnic identity and neighborhood risk on drug and sex attitudes and refusal efficacy among early adolescent urban African American females (n = 175). The model also predicted a moderating relationship of ethnic identity on neighborhood risk for drug and sex attitudes and refusal efficacy. Data were collected as…

  6. The Impact of Body Image and Afrocentric Appearance on Sexual Refusal Self-Efficacy in Early Adolescent African American Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plybon, Laura E.; Holmer, Heidi; Hunter, Alexis; Sheffield, Charity; Stephens, Christopher; Cavolo, Lucas

    2009-01-01

    Research examining the association between body image and sexual risk-taking has been mostly limited to clinical and/or White female samples. It is unclear whether body image plays a role in sexual risk-taking among African American early adolescent females. Moreover, research has neglected to consider body image within a cultural and ethnic…

  7. Food, fun, and fitness internet program for girls: Pilot evaluation of an e-Health youth obesity prevention program examining predictors of obesity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This pilot study tested whether an Internet-based intervention could achieve change in fruit, juice, and vegetable consumption, physical activity, and self-efficacy in youth at-risk of obesity. Participants were 80 8- to 10-year-old African American girls at-risk of obesity, with a home computer, In...

  8. Mandibular Dentigerous Cyst in a 10-Year-Old Child

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Bindu; Sharma, Sunil; Agarwal, Prateek; Bhamboo, Amit; Rastogi, Komal

    2016-01-01

    Dentigerous cyst is the most common odontogenic cyst. It is characterized by a unilocular radiolucent lesion that encloses permanent tooth buds or, under certain circumstances, displaced tooth buds. Buccal bony expansion and a missing tooth is the most common clinical feature. Various treatment modalities have been mentioned in the literature for management of dentigerous cysts. This article presents a left mandibular dentigerous cyst in a 10-year-old boy. Marsupialization was the treatment of choice and a denturelike space maintainer was provided. Long-term follow-up revealed good healing of the bony lesion. How to cite this article Bhardwaj B, Sharma S, Chitlangia P, Agarwal P, Bhamboo A, Rastogi K. Mandibular Dentigerous Cyst in a 10-Year-Old Child. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(3): 281-284. PMID:27843264

  9. Ethnic identity, neighborhood risk, and adolescent drug and sex attitudes and refusal efficacy: the urban African American girls' experience.

    PubMed

    Corneille, Maya A; Belgrave, Faye Z

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the impact of ethnic identity and neighborhood risk on drug and sex attitudes and refusal efficacy among early adolescent urban African American females (n = 175). The model also predicted a moderating relationship of ethnic identity on neighborhood risk for drug and sex attitudes and refusal efficacy. Data were collected as part of a larger drug education program and analyzed via hierarchical multiple regression. The analyses controlled for household structure and menarche. Results indicated a direct relationship of higher ethnic identity and higher sexual refusal efficacy, higher disapproval of drug use, and lowered intentions to use drugs. Neighborhood risk was directly related to lower disapproval of drug use. There was a small moderating effect of ethnic identity on neighborhood risk for intention to use drugs. Findings provide support for prevention programs for African American youth that seek to reduce risk behaviors by increasing ethnic identity, particularly in low resource communities.

  10. African-American Biography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Ron

    1995-01-01

    Suggests sources of information for African American History Month for library media specialists who work with students in grades four through eight. Gale Research's "African-American Reference Library," which includes "African-America Biography,""African-American Chronology," and "African-American Almanac,"…

  11. Risking it for Love: Romantic Relationships and Early Pubertal Development Confer Risk for later Disruptive Behavior Disorders in African-American Girls Receiving Psychiatric Care

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Erin M.; Nichols, Sara; Emerson, Erin; Donenberg, Geri R.

    2014-01-01

    Disruptive behavior problems (DBP) represent a growing concern for young women (e.g., Snyder & Sickmund, 2006), but gender-specific investigations have been traditionally underrepresented in this area. The purpose of this study is to examine the associations among gender-relevant risk factors for DBP among 217 African American girls in psychiatric care. African American girls, 12–16 years old (M=14.6; SD=1.2), and their primary female caregivers (N=254) were recruited from outpatient mental health clinics and reported on girls’ DBP, heterosexual dating experiences (romantic and sexual), peer relationships, pubertal development, and self-silencing at baseline, 6-, and 12-months. Structural Equation Modeling examined evidence for full versus mediated (via self-silencing) models and the structural relationships (direct and indirect) among key study variables. Results suggest that the full model was a significantly better fit than the mediated model as indicated by a Chi-squared difference test (p < .01). In the full model, direct effects of greater romantic dating experiences and lower quality peer relationships at baseline predicted DBP at 12-months. Sexual dating experiences were more strongly linked with DBP at 12-months for early maturing compared to average or later maturing girls. Indirect effects analyses suggested that girls’ suppression of relational needs, assessed through a measure of self-silencing, explained the association between peer relationships and DBP. Findings highlight the importance of the relational context for girls’ DBP, with treatment implications supporting relationship-based models of care, early intervention, and skill building around negotiating needs with peers and partners. PMID:24748499

  12. NASA Administrator Dan Goldin greets 10-year-old VIP.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    NASA Administrator Dan Goldin (left) watches as 10-year-old Jonathan Pierce (right), who is garbed in a protective cooling suit designed by NASA, shakes hands with astronaut Dog Wheelock. Behind Jonathan is his mother, Penny. Jonathan suffers from erythropoietic protoporphyria, a rare condition that makes his body unable to withstand ultraviolet rays. The suit allows him to be outside during the day, which would otherwise be impossible. Jonathan's trip was funded by the Make-A-Wish Foundation and included a visit to Disney World. He and his family were among a dozen VIPs at KSC to view the launch of STS-99.

  13. NASA Administrator Dan Goldin greets 10-year-old VIP.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    NASA Administrator Dan Goldin (left) shares a laugh with VIP 10- year-old Jonathan Pierce (right), who is garbed in a protective cooling suit designed by NASA. Behind Goldin is astronaut Doug Wheelock; behind Jonathan is his mother, Penny. Jonathan suffers from erythropoietic protoporphyria, a rare condition that makes his body unable to withstand ultraviolet rays. The suit allows him to be outside during the day, which would otherwise be impossible. Jonathan's trip was funded by the Make-A-Wish Foundation and included a visit to Disney World. He and his family were among a dozen VIPs at KSC to view the launch of STS- 99.

  14. NASA Administrator Dan Goldin greets 10-year-old VIP.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    NASA Administrator Dan Goldin (left) shares a light moment during his meeting with 10-year-old Jonathan Pierce (right), who is garbed in a protective cooling suit designed by NASA. Behind Goldin is astronaut Doug Wheelock; behind Jonathan is his mother, Penny. Jonathan suffers from erythropoietic protoporphyria, a rare condition that makes his body unable to withstand ultraviolet rays. The suit allows him to be outside during the day, which would otherwise be impossible. Jonathan's trip was funded by the Make-A-Wish Foundation and included a visit to Disney World. He and his family were among a dozen VIPs at KSC to view the launch of STS-99.

  15. NASA Administrator Dan Goldin greets 10-year-old VIP.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    NASA Administrator Dan Goldin (left) listens intently to 10-year- old Jonathan Pierce (right), who is garbed in a protective cooling suit designed by NASA. Behind Goldin is astronaut Doug Wheelock; behind Jonathan is his mother, Penny. Jonathan suffers from erythropoietic protoporphyria, a rare condition that makes his body unable to withstand ultraviolet rays. The suit allows him to be outside during the day, which would otherwise be impossible. Jonathan's trip was funded by the Make-A-Wish Foundation and included a visit to Disney World. He and his family were among a dozen VIPs at KSC to view the launch of STS- 99.

  16. School and Peer Influences on the Academic Outcomes of African American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Estrada-Martinez, Lorena; Colin, Rosa J.; Jones, Brittni D.

    2015-01-01

    Little scholarship explores how adolescents’ beliefs about school and peers influence the academic outcomes of African American boys and girls. The sample included 612 African American boys (N=307, Mage=16.84) and girls (N=305, Mage=16.79). Latent class analysis (LCA) revealed unique patterns for African American boys and girls. Findings indicate that for African American boys, school attachment was protective, despite having peers who endorsed negative achievement values. Furthermore, socio-economic (SES) status was associated with higher grade point averages (GPA) for African American girls. Overall, these findings underscore the unique role of school, peer, and gendered experiences in lives of African American adolescents. PMID:26277404

  17. Multidimensional self-esteem as a mediator of the relationship between sports participation and victimization: a study of African American girls.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Matthew J; Wamser, Rachel A; Welch, Desiree Z; Nanney, John T

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study that focused on African American high school girls was threefold. First, the relationship of sports participation and victimization was explored. Second, the impact of sports participation on self-esteem was assessed. Third, the role of self-esteem and its disaggregated components (social acceptance, competence, and self-confidence) as mediators of the relationship between sports participation and victimization was examined. In accordance with the sport protection hypothesis, it was hypothesized that sports participation would be related to enhanced self-esteem and reduce victimization. Results suggest that sports participation appears to have some relationship to lower rates of victimization. There was also support for our assertion that sports participation was related to enhanced self-esteem. Finally, overall self-esteem and, specifically, the individual component competence mediated the relationship between sports participation and victimization.

  18. Scurvy in a 10-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Cole, John A; Warthan, Molly M; Hirano, Stefanie A; Gowen, Clarence W; Williams, Judith V

    2011-01-01

    Scurvy, or hypovitaminosis C, is an uncommon condition that exists today primarily within certain unique populations-particularly the elderly subjects, patients with neurodevelopmental disabilities or psychiatric illnesses, or others with unusual dietary habits. Vitamin C is an essential nutrient in the human body, and is important in synthesizing collagen factor whose faulty production is responsible for most of the clinical manifestations of scurvy. These clinical manifestations can include dystrophic or corkscrew hairs, gingival hyperplasia, and weakened blood vessel walls, causing bleeding in the skin, joints, and other organs. Although rare in the Unites States, the presence of scurvy should not be forgotten because of its presence among susceptible populations. Moreover, with its diagnosis, treatment and cure is one of the simplest in modern medicine. We report a case of scurvy in a 10-year-old autistic child.

  19. NASA Administrator Dan Goldin greets 10-year-old VIP.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    NASA Administrator Dan Goldin (center) greets 10-year-old Jonathan Pierce (right), who is garbed in a protective cooling suit designed by NASA. In the background, between them, are Jonathan's mother, Penny; his grandfather, John Janocka; and his sister, Jaimie.. At left is Mrs. Goldin. Jonathan suffers from erythropoietic protoporphyria, a rare condition that makes his body unable to withstand ultraviolet rays. The suit allows him to be outside during the day, which would otherwise be impossible. Jonathan's trip was funded by the Make-A-Wish Foundation and included a visit to Disney World. He and his family were among a dozen VIPs at KSC to view the launch of STS-99.

  20. NASA Administrator Dan Goldin greets 10-year-old VIP.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    NASA Administrator Dan Goldin (center) presents a bag of special gifts to 10-year-old Jonathan Pierce (right), who is garbed in a protective cooling suit designed by NASA. In the background, between them, are Jonathan's mother, Penny; his grandfather, John Janocka; and his sister, Jaimie.. At left is Mrs. Goldin. Jonathan suffers from erythropoietic protoporphyria, a rare condition that makes his body unable to withstand ultraviolet rays. The suit allows him to be outside during the day, which would otherwise be impossible. Jonathan's trip was funded by the Make-A-Wish Foundation and included a visit to Disney World. He and his family were among a dozen VIPs at KSC to view the launch of STS-99.

  1. NASA Administrator Dan Goldin greets 10-year-old VIP.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    NASA Administrator Dan Goldin (center) talks to 10-year-old Jonathan Pierce (right), who is garbed in a protective cooling suit designed by NASA. In the background, between them, are Jonathan's mother, Penny; his grandfather, John Janocka; and his sister, Jaimie. At left is Mrs. Goldin. Jonathan suffers from erythropoietic protoporphyria, a rare condition that makes his body unable to withstand ultraviolet rays. The suit allows him to be outside during the day, which would otherwise be impossible. Jonathan's trip was funded by the Make-A-Wish Foundation and included a visit to Disney World. He and his family were among a dozen VIPs at KSC to view the launch of STS-99.

  2. African Americans and Glaucoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Involved News About Us Donate In This Section African Americans and Glaucoma email Send this article to a ... glaucoma is the leading cause of blindness in African Americans. Half of those with glaucoma don't know ...

  3. Oral squamous cell carcinoma in a 10 year old boy.

    PubMed

    Khan, M H; Naushad, Q N

    2011-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity a type of Oral Cancer in young patients is a very rare occurrence particularly during the first decade of life. Oral cancer is predominantly an aggressive neoplasm of middle-aged people where 96% of the patients are more than 40 years of age and it occurs mainly due to the excessive consumption of tobacco and alcohol. In South-East Asia it has a higher rate of occurrence than the rest of the world, partly due to increased consumption of chewing tobacco and various harmful spices, areca nuts and betel quids. These rare varieties of aggressive neoplasm commonly affect tongue and lip. This report describes a case of squamous cell carcinoma in a 10 year old boy who had an exophytic type of granulomatous lesion with some indurated borders which diffusely involved the left side of the hard palate, alveolar mucosa, left maxillary antrum and aggressively emerged within the left orbit by engulfing the left inferior rectus muscle. The purpose of this case report is to provide information that younger group can suffer from oral squamous cell carcinoma though it is very rare and this younger group would appear to have a biologically more aggressive tumor and they require more complex treatment. The role of more aggressive initial therapy must be considered.

  4. Eating breakfast more frequently is cross-sectionally associated with greater physical activity and lower levels of adiposity in overweight Latina and African American girls1234

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Cheng Kun; Davis, Jaimie N; Shen, Ernest; Nguyen-Rodriguez, Selena T; Belcher, Britni R; Hsu, Ya-Wen; Weigensberg, Marc J; Goran, Michael I; Spruijt-Metz, Donna

    2013-01-01

    Background: Eating breakfast is believed to promote a healthy body weight. Yet, few studies have examined the contribution of energy balance–related behavioral factors to this relation in minority youth. Objective: We assessed the associations between breakfast consumption and dietary intake, physical activity (PA), and adiposity before and after accounting for energy intake and PA in minority girls. Design: Cross-sectional data were obtained on body mass index (BMI), percentage body fat (measured by BodPod), dietary intake (measured with 3-d dietary records), and PA (measured with 7-d accelerometry) from 87 Latina and African American girls 8–17 y of age (75% Latina, 80% overweight). Dietary records were used to categorize girls as more frequent breakfast eaters (MF; 2 or 3 of 3 d; n = 57) or less frequent breakfast eaters (LF; 0 or 1 of 3 d; n = 30). Chi-square tests, ANCOVA, and multiple regression analyses were conducted. Mediation was assessed with a Sobel test. Results: Compared with the MF group, the LF group spent 30% less time (12.6 min/d) in moderate-to-vigorous-intensity PA (MVPA; P = 0.004) and had a higher percentage body fat (P = 0.029). MVPA accounted for 25% (95% CI: −8.8%, 58.1%; P = 0.139) of the relation between breakfast consumption and percentage body fat. We were unable to show that energy intake or MVPA was a significant mediator of the relation between breakfast consumption and adiposity in this sample. Conclusions: Evidence suggests that among predominantly overweight minority girls, MVPA, but not energy intake, was associated with both breakfast consumption and adiposity; however, a lack of power reduced our ability to detect a significant mediation effect. Other unobserved variables likely contribute to this relation. PMID:23803890

  5. Overcoming barriers to HPV vaccination: A randomized clinical trial of a culturally-tailored, media intervention among African American girls.

    PubMed

    DiClemente, Ralph J; Murray, Colleen Crittenden; Graham, Tracie; Still, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Although genital HPV is the most prevalent STI in the US, rates of vaccination uptake among high-risk subgroups remain low. Investigations of vaccine compliance have mainly targeted mother-daughter dyads, which in some settings may prove difficult. This study examines an innovative culturally tailored, computer-delivered media-based strategy to promote HPV vaccine uptake. Data, inclusive of sociodemographics, sexual behaviors, knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about HPV and vaccination were collected via ACASI from 216 African American adolescent females (ages 14-18 years) seeking services in family planning and STI public health clinics in metropolitan Atlanta. Data were obtained prior to randomization and participation in an interactive media-based intervention designed to increase HPV vaccination uptake. Medical record abstraction was conducted 7 month post-randomization to assess initial vaccine uptake and compliance. Participants in the intervention were more compliant to vaccination relative to a placebo comparison condition (26 doses vs. Seventeen doses; p=0.12). However, vaccination series initiation and completion were lower than the national average. Thorough evaluation is needed to better understand factors facilitating HPV vaccine uptake and compliance, particularly perceived susceptibility and the influence of the patient-provider encounter in a clinical setting.

  6. Overcoming barriers to HPV vaccination: A randomized clinical trial of a culturally-tailored, media intervention among African American girls

    PubMed Central

    DiClemente, Ralph J; Murray, Colleen Crittenden; Graham, Tracie; Still, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Although genital HPV is the most prevalent STI in the US, rates of vaccination uptake among high-risk subgroups remain low. Investigations of vaccine compliance have mainly targeted mother-daughter dyads, which in some settings may prove difficult. This study examines an innovative culturally tailored, computer-delivered media-based strategy to promote HPV vaccine uptake. Data, inclusive of sociodemographics, sexual behaviors, knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about HPV and vaccination were collected via ACASI from 216 African American adolescent females (ages 14–18 years) seeking services in family planning and STI public health clinics in metropolitan Atlanta. Data were obtained prior to randomization and participation in an interactive media-based intervention designed to increase HPV vaccination uptake. Medical record abstraction was conducted 7 month post-randomization to assess initial vaccine uptake and compliance. Participants in the intervention were more compliant to vaccination relative to a placebo comparison condition (26 doses vs. Seventeen doses; p=0.12). However, vaccination series initiation and completion were lower than the national average. Thorough evaluation is needed to better understand factors facilitating HPV vaccine uptake and compliance, particularly perceived susceptibility and the influence of the patient-provider encounter in a clinical setting. PMID:26378650

  7. Differential Pathways to Violence and Self-Injurious Behavior: African American and White Girls in the Juvenile Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holsinger, Kristi; Holsinger, Alexander M.

    2005-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, research, largely from a feminist perspective, has been devoted to identifying the "gender-specific needs" of delinquent girls. This article explores racial differences between girls and how these differences may affect the commission of violent behavior and self-injurious behavior. Self-report data were collected…

  8. Oral Hygiene Facilitators and Barriers in Greek 10 Years Old Schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    Kavvadia, Katerina; Oulis, Constantine; Reppa, Christina

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the oral hygiene facilitators and barriers for 10 years old Greek children, via a questionnaire and clinical examination. Materials and methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 266, 10 years old, children recruited from schools in 3 locations in Greece. Data were collected via questionnaires and clinical examination. Questionnaires referred to Children’s oral hygiene knowledge, behavior and attitude as well as parents’ oral hygiene behavior and educational level. Children were clinically examined by two calibrated pediatric dentists using a WHO probe and artificial light to assess dental plaque (hygiene index-HI), gingivitis (simplified gingival index-GIs) and dental caries (DMFT-BASCD criteria). Results: Regarding oral hygiene knowledge, although 80% of the children were literate of the proper means of oral hygiene, only 58.64% brushed their teeth twice daily and 36.84% used dental floss. Children’s oral hygiene knowledge was positively correlated with both parental brushing frequency (ρ = 0.175, p < 0.05) and educational level (ρ = -0.216, p < 0.05). Toothpaste use was reported by 92.11% of the children. Regarding Children’s attitude, 62.28% were concerned whether their teeth were clean, with girls showing greater concern than boys (p < 0.001). Their reported beliefs regarding brushing avoidance were boredom (84.06%), low oral health literacy (73.91%) and forgetfulness (56.52%). Conclusion: Oral hygiene facilitators were found to be the concern about how clean were their teeth, oral health literacy of both children and parents and toothpaste appeal to children. Oral hygiene barriers were Children’s boredom, low oral health literacy, forgetfulness and low socioeconomic level. How to cite this article: Angelopoulou M, Kavvadia K, Oulis C, Reppa C. Oral Hygiene Facilitators and Barriers in Greek 10 Years Old Schoolchildren. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(2):87-93. PMID:26379373

  9. Profiles of Urban, Low SES, African American Girls' Attitudes toward Science: A Sequential Explanatory Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Gayle; Cook, Kristin; Quigley, Cassie; Eastwood, Jennifer; Lucas, Yvonne

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to increase the science education community's understanding of the experiences and needs of girls who cross the traditional categorical boundaries of gender, race and socioeconomic status in a manner that has left their needs and experience largely invisible. A first of several in a series, this study sought to…

  10. Intercostal myositis ossificans misdiagnosed as osteosarcoma in a 10-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Koob, Mériam; Durckel, Jean; Dosch, Jean-Claude; Entz-Werle, Natacha; Dietemann, Jean-Louis

    2010-12-01

    Myositis ossificans (MO) is a rare benign cause of heterotopic bone formation within soft tissue. It most commonly affects adolescents and young adults, typically in the limbs and following trauma. Very few cases have been reported in children. We report here a case of nontraumatic MO occurring in a 10-year-old girl with an uncommon location in the 5th right intercostal space; it was initially misdiagnosed and treated as osteosarcoma. Imaging findings including plain radiographs, CT, MRI, bone scintigraphy and PET-CT are described. This case highlights the central role played by imaging in diagnosis, thus avoiding biopsy that can erroneously suggest osteosarcoma as the diagnosis, as occurred in this case.

  11. Associations of free fatty acids with insulin secretion and action among African-American and European-American girls and women.

    PubMed

    Goree, Laura Lee T; Darnell, Betty E; Oster, Robert A; Brown, Marian A; Gower, Barbara A

    2010-02-01

    Ethnic differences in insulin secretion and action between African Americans (AAs) and European Americans (EAs) may influence mobilization of free fatty acids (FFAs). We tested the hypotheses that FFA concentrations would be associated with measures of insulin secretion and action before and during a glucose challenge test. Subjects were 48 prepubertal girls, 60 premenopausal women, and 46 postmenopausal women. Fasting insulin (insulin(0)), the acute insulin response to glucose (AIR(g)), the insulin sensitivity index (S(I)), basal and nadir FFA (FFA(0), FFA(nadir)), and nadir time (TIME(nadir)) were determined during an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT). Stepwise multiple linear regression (MLR) analysis was conducted to identify associations of FFA(0), FFA(nadir), and TIME(nadir) with ethnicity, age group, insulin measures, indexes of body composition from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and measures of fat distribution from computed tomography scan. In this population, insulin(0) and AIR(g) were higher among AAs vs. EAs, whereas S(I) was lower, independent of age group. MLR analyses indicated that FFA(0) was best predicted by lean tissue mass (LTM), leg fat mass, ethnicity (lower in AAs), S(I), and insulin(0). FFA(nadir) was best predicted by FFA(0), age group, and intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT). TIME(nadir) was best predicted by leg fat mass, AIR(g), and S(I). In conclusion, indexes of insulin secretion and action were associated with FFA dynamics in healthy girls and women. Lower FFA(0) among AAs was independent of insulin(0) and S(I). Whether lower FFA(0) is associated with substrate oxidation or risk for obesity remains to be determined.

  12. A trial of reduced carbohydrate diet to improve metabolic outcomes and decrease adiposity in obese peripubertal African American girls: does macronutrient profile matter?

    PubMed Central

    Casazza, Krista; Cardel, Michelle; Dulin-Keita, Akilah; Hanks, Lynae J.; Gower, Barbara A.; Newton, Anna L.; Wallace, Stephenie

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Obesity prevalence among African American (AA) girls is higher than that of other groups. As typical calorie-restriction obesity treatment strategies have had limited success, alterations in macronutrient composition might effectively improve metabolic outcomes in this population and impact future body composition trajectories. The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of a moderately restricted carbohydrate (CHO) versus a standard CHO diet on weight/fat loss and metabolic parameters in overweight/obese AA girls aged 9–14 years. Methods A total of 26 AA girls (ranging from 92nd BMI percentile and above) were assigned to either a reduced- (SPEC: 42% calories from CHO, n=12) or a standard- (STAN: 55% of calories from CHO, n=14) CHO diet (protein held constant) for 16-weeks. All meals were provided and clinically tailored to meet the estimated energy requirements (REE × 1.2 in eucaloric phase and REE × 1.2 – 1000kcal in energy deficit phase). The first five-weeks encompassed a eucaloric phase evaluating metabolic changes in the absence of weight change. The subsequent 11-weeks were hypocaloric (1000kcal/d deficit) in effort to promote weight/fat loss. Meal tests were performed during the eucaloric phase for metabolic analyses. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to evaluate body composition. Results Both groups had reductions in weight/adiposity but the difference did not reach significance. The solid meal test indicated improved glucose/insulin homeostasis on the SPEC diet up to three hours post-ingestion. In addition, significantly lower triglycerides (p<0.001) were observed on the SPEC diet. Conclusions Dietary CHO reduction favorably influences metabolic parameters but did not result in greater weight/fat loss relative to a standard diet in obese AA girls. Future research is needed to determine long-term effectiveness of a reduced CHO diet on glucose and insulin homeostasis and how it may apply to weight maintenance/fat loss during

  13. Understanding African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward Earl

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the socialization skills, self-esteem, and academic readiness of African American males in a school environment. Discussions with students and the School Perceptions Questionnaire provided data for this investigation. The intended targets for this investigation were African American students; however, there…

  14. 16 Extraordinary African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobb, Nancy

    This collection for children tells the stories of 16 African Americans who helped make America what it is today. African Americans can take pride in the heritage of these contributors to society. Biographies are given for the following: (1) Sojourner Truth, preacher and abolitionist; (2) Frederick Douglass, abolitionist; (3) Harriet Tubman, leader…

  15. A Lifeline to Science Careers for African-American Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adenika-Morrow, T. Jean

    1996-01-01

    Two reasons African American females do not pursue science careers are the need for immediate employment and lack of tools to negotiate the racism and sexism that undermine their aspirations for success. This article describes intervention strategies in an Afrocentric school and a medical magnet school that encourage African American girls to…

  16. African American History as Depicted in Recently Published Children's Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamme, Linda Leonard; Astengo, Be; Lowery, Ruth McCoy; Masla, Diane; Russo, Roseanne; Savage, Debbie; Shelton, Nancy Rankie

    2002-01-01

    Exciting stories about African Americans in recently published historical fiction books for children concern Pea Island Life-Station, a private school for African American girls, a biracial slave, a black woman who homesteads for land in 1889, and an orphan who travels on his own to Flint, Michigan, during the Depression. Much of this history…

  17. Obesity and African Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Management System Report to Congress Knowledge Center Capacity Building Information Services Events Calendar Resource Guide Justice ... Workforce Diversity Grants Youth Program Grants Other Grants Planning and Evaluation Grantee Best Practices Black/African American ...

  18. School level correlates with adiposity in 9-10 year old children

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Flo; Bentham, Graham; Jones, Andrew P; Cassidy, Aedín; van Sluijs, Esther MF; Griffin, Simon J

    2013-01-01

    We examined the associations between the physical, social and policy environments of schools and adiposity in 9-10 year old children in Norfolk, UK. The relationships between 56 school-level variables and Fat Mass Index (FMI; fat mass (kg)/height(m)2) were investigated among 1724 well characterised children from 92 schools in this cross-sectional study. After stepwise removal of variables from multilevel linear regression models stratified by gender, only three variables were significantly associated with FMI. Among girls, attending a school with more pupils in the year group was associated with lower FMI, and attending a school with better cycle provision was associated with higher FMI. In boys being allowed to eat any food at break-time was associated with higher FMI. There was some evidence of moderation of the relationship between cycle provision and FMI by urban-rural location. These data suggest that few school factors are associated with FMI, and provide limited pointers to inform potential future school-based interventions to reduce obesity. PMID:21474361

  19. Frontal electroencephalogram activation asymmetry, emotional intelligence, and externalizing behaviors in 10-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Santesso, Diane L; Reker, Dana L; Schmidt, Louis A; Segalowitz, Sidney J

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relations among resting frontal brain electrical activity (EEG) (hypothesized to reflect a predisposition to positive versusnegative affect and ability to regulate emotions), emotional intelligence, and externalizing behaviors in a sample of non-clinical 10-year-old children. We found that boys had significantly lower emotional intelligence than girls, and low emotional intelligence was associated with significantly more externalizing behaviors (i.e., aggression and delinquency), replicating previous work. We also found that children with higher reported externalizing behaviors exhibited significantly greater relative right frontal EEG activity at rest compared with children with little to no externalizing behavioral problems. There was, however, no relation between emotional intelligence and the pattern of resting frontal EEG activity. Thus, emotional intelligence and the pattern of frontal EEG activation at rest are independent predictors of externalizing behaviors in children. Findings also suggest that individual differences in emotional intelligence may not be based on differences in levels of emotional regulation or the generation of positive affect as reflected in frontal EEG asymmetries, but rather other social and cognitive competencies required for adaptive behavior.

  20. School level correlates with adiposity in 9-10 year old children.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Flo; Bentham, Graham; Jones, Andrew P; Cassidy, Aedín; van Sluijs, Esther M F; Griffin, Simon J

    2011-05-01

    We examined the associations between the physical, social, and policy environments of schools and adiposity in 9-10 year old children in Norfolk, UK. The relationships between 56 school-level variables and Fat Mass Index (FMI; fat mass (kg)/height (m(2))) were investigated among 1724 well characterised children from 92 schools in this cross-sectional study. After stepwise removal of variables from multilevel linear regression models stratified by gender, only three variables were significantly associated with FMI. Among girls, attending a school with more pupils in the year group was associated with lower FMI, and attending a school with better cycle provision was associated with higher FMI. In boys being allowed to eat any food at break-time was associated with higher FMI. There was some evidence of moderation of the relationship between cycle provision and FMI by urban-rural location. These data suggest that few school factors are associated with FMI, and provide limited pointers to inform potential future school-based interventions to reduce obesity.

  1. Mental Health and African Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Mental Health Mental Health and African Americans Poverty level affects mental health ... compared to 120% of non-Hispanic whites. 1 MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...

  2. Narcolepsy in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Makoto; O'Hara, Ruth; Einen, Mali; Lin, Ling; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Although narcolepsy affects 0.02–0.05% of individuals in various ethnic groups, clinical presentation in different ethnicities has never been fully characterized. Our goal was to study phenotypic expression across ethnicities in the United States. Design/Setting: Cases of narcolepsy from 1992 to 2013 were identified from searches of the Stanford Center for Narcolepsy Research database. International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Third Edition diagnosis criteria for type 1 and type 2 narcolepsy were used for inclusion, but subjects were separated as with and without cataplexy for the purpose of data presentation. Information extracted included demographics, ethnicity and clinical data, HLA-DQB1*06:02, polysomnography (PSG), multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) data, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypocretin-1 level. Patients: 182 African-Americans, 839 Caucasians, 35 Asians, and 41 Latinos with narcolepsy. Results: Sex ratio, PSG, and MSLT findings did not differ across ethnicities. Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) score was higher and age of onset of sleepiness earlier in African Americans compared with other ethnicities. HLA-DQB1*06:02 positivity was higher in African Americans (91.0%) versus others (76.6% in Caucasians, 80.0% in Asians, and 65.0% in Latinos). CSF hypocretin-1 level, obtained in 222 patients, was more frequently low (≤ 110 pg/ml) in African Americans (93.9%) versus Caucasians (61.5%), Asians (85.7%) and Latinos (75.0%). In subjects with low CSF hypocretin-1, African Americans (28.3%) were 4.5 fold more likely to be without cataplexy when compared with Caucasians (8.1%). Conclusions: Narcolepsy in African Americans is characterized by earlier symptom onset, higher Epworth Sleepiness Scale score, higher HLA-DQB1*06:02 positivity, and low cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin-1 level in the absence of cataplexy. In African Americans, more subjects without cataplexy have type 1 narcolepsy. Citation: Kawai M, O'Hara R, Einen M, Lin L

  3. Educating African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Schools across America spend money, invest in programs, and sponsor workshops, offer teacher incentives, raise accountability standards, and even evoke the name of Obama in efforts to raise the academic achievement of African American males. Incarceration and college retention rates point to a dismal plight for many African American…

  4. African Americans and Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Joan

    2000-01-01

    Reviews the opportunities available in the field of agriculture for African American students and notes efforts of the 136 colleges of agriculture to publicize their offerings and recruit students. Profiles six black leaders in agriculture, highlighting their achievements in research and aid to developing countries. A table provides data on annual…

  5. Coccidioidomycosis in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Ruddy, Barbara E.; Mayer, Anita P.; Ko, Marcia G.; Labonte, Helene R.; Borovansky, Jill A.; Boroff, Erika S.; Blair, Janis E.

    2011-01-01

    Coccidioidomycosis is caused by Coccidioides species, a fungus endemic to the desert regions of the southwestern United States, and is of particular concern for African Americans. We performed a PubMed search of the English-language medical literature on coccidioidomycosis in African Americans and summarized the pertinent literature. Search terms were coccidioidomycosis, Coccidioides, race, ethnicity, African, black, and Negro. The proceedings of the national and international coccidioidomycosis symposia were searched. All relevant articles and their cited references were reviewed; those with epidemiological, immunologic, clinical, and therapeutic data pertaining to coccidioidomycosis in African Americans were included in the review. Numerous studies documented an increased predilection for severe coccidioidal infections, coccidioidomycosis-related hospitalizations, and extrapulmonary dissemination in persons of African descent; however, most of the published studies are variably problematic. The immunologic mechanism for this predilection is unclear. The clinical features and treatment recommendations are summarized. Medical practitioners need to be alert to the possibility of coccidioidomycosis in persons with recent travel to or residence in an area where the disease is endemic. PMID:21193657

  6. Serum Lipid Levels and Dyslipidaemia Prevalence among 2–10 Year-Old Northern Mexican Children

    PubMed Central

    Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Salas, Rogelio; Novelo, Hilda I.; Villarreal, Jesús Z.; Sureda, Antoni; Tur, Josep A.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims The increase in overweight and obese children may be linked to increased rates of dyslipidaemia. The aim was to assess the prevalence of dyslipidaemia and associated risk factors among the Northern Mexican child population. Methods and Results Four hundred and fifty-one subjects aged between 2 and 10 (47.5% girls) took part in the Nuevo León State Survey of Nutrition and Health 2011–2012. According to the 2011 Expert Panel on Integrated Guidelines for Cardiovascular Health and Risk Reduction in Children and Adolescents, serum lipid levels (mg/dL) were categorized into three subgroups (acceptable, borderline-high/low or high/low) as follows: TChol: acceptable <170, borderline-high 170–199, high ≥200; LDL-chol: acceptable <110, borderline-high 110–129, high ≥130; non-HDL-chol: acceptable <120, borderline-high 120–144, high ≥145; HDL-chol: acceptable >45, borderline-low 40–45, low <40; and TG: acceptable <75, borderline-high 75–99, high ≥100 in ≤9 year-old children, and acceptable <90, borderline-high 90–129, and high ≥130 in 10 year-old children. The overall prevalence of borderline-high + high TG, non-HDL-chol, TChol, and LDL-chol was 63.0%, 44.1%, 43.5%, and 29.9%, respectively. The overall prevalence of borderline-low + low HDL-chol was 46.3%. The overall frequency of dyslipidaemia was 54.3%. Thirteen children (2.9%) had all five symptoms of dyslipidaemia. The most common dyslipidaemia was high TG in combination (26.2%) and in isolation (10.6%). Conclusions Half of the children had at least one abnormal lipid concentration. A high TG level was the most frequent dyslipidaemia. Obesity was associated with the occurrence of at least one abnormal lipid level. These findings emphasize the need to pay further attention to the prevention of cardiovascular disease and obesity from an early age. PMID:25793380

  7. Learning Benefits of Self-Controlled Knowledge of Results in 10-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiviacowsky, Suzete; Wulf, Gabriele; Laroque de Medeiros, Franklin; Kaefer, Angelica; Tani, Go

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the learning benefits of self-controlled knowledge of results (KR) would generalize to children. Specifically, the authors chose 10-year-old children representative of late childhood. The authors used a task that required the children to toss beanbags at a target. One group received KR…

  8. Self-Controlled Feedback in 10-Year-Old Children: Higher Feedback Frequencies Enhance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiviacowsky, Suzete; Wulf, Gabriele; de Medeiros, Franklin Laroque; Kaefer, Angelica; Wally, Raquel

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine whether learning in 10-year-old children--that is, the age group for which the Chiviacowsky et al. (2006) study found benefits of self-controlled knowledge of results (KR)--would differ depending on the frequency of feedback they chose. The authors surmised that a relatively high feedback frequency…

  9. Effects of Two Modes of Exercise Training on Physical Fitness of 10 Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribeiro, Ligia G. dos Santos Chaves; Portal, Maria de Nazare Dias; da Silva, Joao Bittencourt; Saraiva, Alan; da Cruz Monte, Gerson, Jr.; Dantas, Estelio H. M.

    2010-01-01

    Study aim: To compare two exercise training modes on the physical fitness of 10 year-old children. Material and methods: A sample of 60 schoolboys aged 10 years were randomly divided into 3 groups: Traditional (TG), trained according to the Brazilian national curricular parameters, Maturational (MG), in which the degree of difficulty of the…

  10. Psychosocial Family Treatment for a 10-Year-Old with Schizoaffective Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klaus, Nicole M.; Fristad, Mary A.; Malkin, Catherine; Mackinaw-Koons, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Schizophrenia spectrum disorders are rare in childhood and little is known about their psychosocial treatment. Relevant findings from the adult and child literature are reviewed. The case of 10-year-old "Michael" is presented, who participated in a randomized clinical trial of a psychoeducational family treatment for mood disorders. Following…

  11. Handedness in Swedish 10-year-olds, Some Background and Associated Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillberg, Christopher; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Aims to obtain prevalence figures for left-handedness among 10-year-old Swedish children; to replicate some findings concerning Bishop's (1980) extended pathological left-handedness hypothesis; to evaluate the influence of factors such as the child's sex and reduced optimality in the pre-, peri-, and neonatal period; and to determine the…

  12. Eating With Your Heart In Mind: 7 to 10 Year Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Heart, Lung, and Blood Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    The purpose of this brightly illustrated guide is to teach 7-10 year old children that all healthy Americans, 2 years of age or older, should eat in a way that is low in saturated fat and cholesterol so as to help reduce the risk of heart disease. The theme reflected throughout the manual is that changes in eating patterns help lower blood…

  13. Gasoline Abuse in a 10-Year-Old Child with Mental Retardation: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Mohit; Vankar, GK

    2015-01-01

    Inahalant abuse is of increasing interest in India. The age of onset is typically during adolescence. Gasoline inhalant use is rarely reported in adolescents with intellectual deficit. We report a case of petrol dependence in a 10-year-old child with mental retardation. Possible effect of petrol huffing on behavior and cognition is discussed. PMID:25733844

  14. Langerhans cell histiocytosis: recurrent lesions affecting mandible in a 10-year-old patient.

    PubMed

    Loducca, S V; Mantesso, A; Araújo, N S; Magalhães, M H

    2001-01-01

    Hand-Schuller-Christian disease is a multifocal variant of eosinophilic granuloma, characterised by the classical triad of bony lesions, exophthalmos and diabetes insipidus. This case relates recurrent Langerhans' cell histiocytosis lesions presented as destruction of periodontal support associated with diabetes in a 10-year-old patient. Medical history suggests that the case represents a case of Hand-Schuller Christian disease.

  15. Frontal Electroencephalogram Activation Asymmetry, Emotional Intelligence, and Externalizing Behaviors in 10-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santesso, L. Diane; Dana, L. Reker; Schmidt, Louis A.; Segalowitz, Sidney J.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relations among resting frontal brain electrical activity (EEG) (hypothesized to reflect a predisposition to positive versus negative affect and ability to regulate emotions), emotional intelligence, and externalizing behaviors in a sample of non-clinical 10-year-old children. We found that boys…

  16. Elder Abuse among African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tauriac, Jesse J.; Scruggs, Natoschia

    2006-01-01

    Perceptions of extreme, moderate, and mild forms of elder abuse among African-American women (n=25) and men (n=10) were examined. African-American respondents emphasized physical abuse when giving examples of extremely abusive behavior. Along with physical abuse, verbal abuse was the most frequently identified form of abuse, and was significantly…

  17. African American Administrators and Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Dianne; Taylor, Janice D.; Burrell, Charlotte; Stewart, Gregory

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the issues of African American participation in the administrative ranks of the academy. The authors find that African Americans tend to hold positions that are marginal in academic organizations, lacking power and influence, and that not much has changed over recent decades. Forces influencing this condition are explored,…

  18. African-Americans and Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigmon, Scott B.

    To better serve people in a counseling relationship, it is useful to understand them not only culturally, but demographically as well. This paper traces historical, religious, demographic aspects and treatment of alcohol abuse in African Americans. Historically, alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence have varied for African Americans. During the…

  19. Contextual Influences on Gendered Racial Identity Development of African American Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Anita Jones; Hoxha, Denada; Hacker, Jason Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the contextual factors and socialization experiences most salient to the identity development of African American girls. Seventeen African American young women participated in dyadic focus groups. Themes that emerged included exposure to stereotypes, negative classroom environments, and parental and peer…

  20. Cancer statistics for African Americans.

    PubMed

    Ghafoor, Asma; Jemal, Ahmedin; Cokkinides, Vilma; Cardinez, Cheryll; Murray, Taylor; Samuels, Alicia; Thun, Michael J

    2002-01-01

    The American Cancer Society provides estimates on the number of new cancer cases and deaths, and compiles health statistics on African Americans in a biennial publication, Cancer Facts and Figures for African Americans. The compiled statistics include cancer incidence, mortality, survival, and lifestyle behaviors using the most recent data on incidence and survival from the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program, mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), and behavioral information from the Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), and National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). It is estimated that 132,700 new cases of cancer and 63,100 deaths will occur among African Americans in the year 2003. Although African Americans have experienced higher incidence and mortality rates of cancer than whites for many years, incidence rates have declined by 2.7 percent per year in African-American males since 1992, while stabilizing in African-American females. During the same period, death rates declined by 2.1 percent and 0.4 percent per year among African-American males and females, respectively. The decrease in both incidence and death rates from cancer among African-American males was the largest of any racial or ethnic group. Nonetheless, African Americans still carry the highest cancer burden among US racial and ethnic groups. Most cancers detectable by screening are diagnosed at a later stage and survival rates are lower within each stage of disease in African Americans than in whites. The extent to which these disparities reflect unequal access to health care versus other factors is an active area of research.

  1. Environmental correlates of adiposity in 9-10 year old children: considering home and school neighbourhoods and routes to school.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Flo; Jones, Andrew P; van Sluijs, Esther M F; Cassidy, Aedín; Bentham, Graham; Griffin, Simon J

    2011-05-01

    The rapid speed of the recent rise in obesity rates suggest environmental causes. There is therefore a need to determine which components of the environment may be contributing to this increase. In this cross-sectional study, we examined the associations between adiposity and the characteristics of areas around homes, schools and routes to school among 1995 9-10 year old boys and girls in Norfolk, UK. The relationships between Fat Mass Index (FMI, calculated as fat mass (kg)/height (m)(2)) and objectively computed environmental indicators describing access to food outlets and physical activity facilities, the safety and connectivity of the road network, and the mix of land uses present were investigated. Multivariable hierarchical regression models were fitted with log-transformed FMI as the outcome, and stratification by gender and mode of travel to school. Among girls, better access to healthy food outlets (supermarkets and greengrocers) in the home environment was associated with lower FMI while better access to unhealthy outlets (takeaways and convenience stores) around homes and schools was associated with higher FMI. Also in girls, a higher proportion of accessible open land and a lower mix of land uses around the school were associated with higher FMI. Among boys the presence of major roads in the home neighbourhood was associated with higher FMI among non-active travellers, while major roads in the school neighbourhood were associated with lower FMI among active travellers. No significant associations were seen between FMI and any of the route characteristics. While the relative paucity of associations provides few indicators for the design of effective interventions, there was some evidence that environmental characteristics may be more important among active travellers than non-active travellers, and among girls than boys, suggesting that future interventions should be sensitive to such differences.

  2. African American Child-Women: Nutrition Theory Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talpade, Medha

    2006-01-01

    Past research indicates a significantly higher prevalence of early sexual maturation in African American (AA) girls, which is associated with a number of psychological and behavioral problems as well as with health problems such as childhood obesity and diabetes. Both nutrition and body image perceptions have never before been empirically…

  3. Sharing Telescopes With 10-Year Olds to Celebrate the International Year of Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, Daniel Jonathan; Slater, T. F.; Slater, S. J.; in Astronomy, Cognition; Physics; Earth sciences Research CAPER Team

    2009-05-01

    Precisely four hundred years ago, Italian scientist Galileo's observations of the heavens forever and profoundly altered the way we view our place in the Universe. Throughout 2009, children across Wyoming are joining in a United Nations proclaimed International Year of Astronomy celebration. To commemorate 400 years of the telescope in advancing our understanding of the Universe through astronomy, our goal is that every 10-year old child in Wyoming will experience the excitement and wonder of looking through their very own telescope to observe majestic rings surrounding Saturn, deep craters on the Moon, countless stars lining the Milky Way, brilliant phases of Venus, and orbiting moons of Jupiter. This is being accomplished by a massive, state-wide collaborative effort bringing the collective energy and enthusiasm of professional scientists, amateur astronomers, local teachers, and community outreach enthusiasts together to spark an interest in science among Wyoming's children. Our strategy to bring a telescope to every Wyoming 10-year old child started first with a major year-long fundraising campaign. We estimate the cost of an individual telescope, constructed specifically for the 2009 International Year of Astronomy celebration, to be approximately $13 per child. With 6,489 (in 2007) 10-year old children in Wyoming, this amounts to less than $100,000 as a fund raising goal. University of Wyoming faculty are training teachers in how to use telescopes and how to integrate the excitement of astronomy across the curriculum. To teach children how to use their telescopes, volunteers from around the state are hosting star parties at schools, county fairs, and other regularly scheduled community celebrations.

  4. Sharing the Stars: Bringing Telescopes to 10-year Olds for International Year of Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, S. J.

    2008-12-01

    Precisely four hundred years ago, Italian scientist Galileo's observations of the heavens forever and profoundly altered the way we view our place in the Universe. He dramatically increased our thinking about the size of the known Universe by using his telescope and initiated one of the most important scientific revolutions in history. Throughout 2009, children across Wyoming are joining in a United Nations proclaimed International Year of Astronomy celebration. To commemorate 400 years of the telescope in advancing our understanding of the Universe through astronomy, our goal is that every 10-year old child in Wyoming will experience the excitement and wonder of looking through their very own telescope to observe majestic rings surrounding Saturn, deep craters on the Moon, countless stars lining the Milky Way, brilliant phases of Venus, and orbiting moons of Jupiter. This is being accomplished by a massive, state-wide collaborative effort bringing the collective energy and enthusiasm of professional scientists, amateur astronomers, local teachers, and community outreach enthusiasts together to spark an interest in science among Wyoming's children. Our strategy to bring a telescope to every Wyoming 10-year old child started first with a major year-long fundraising campaign. We estimate the cost of an individual telescope, constructed specifically for the 2009 International Year of Astronomy celebration, to be approximately 13 per child. With 6,489 (in 2007) 10- year old children in Wyoming, this amounts to less than 100,000 as a fund raising goal. University of Wyoming faculty are training teachers in how to use telescopes and how to integrate the excitement of astronomy across the curriculum. To teach children how to use their telescopes, volunteers from around the state are hosting star parties at schools, county fairs, and other regularly scheduled community celebrations.

  5. Development of 5- and 10-year-old pediatric phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Melo Lima, V. J. de; Cassola, V. F.; Kramer, R.; Oliveira Lira, C. A. B. de; Khoury, H. J.; Vieira, J. W.

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is the development of reference pediatric phantoms for 5- and 10-year-old children to be used for the calculation of organ and tissue equivalent doses in radiation protection. Methods: The study proposes a method for developing anatomically highly sophisticated pediatric phantoms without using medical images. The 5- and 10-year-old male and female phantoms presented here were developed using 3D modeling software applied to anatomical information taken from atlases and textbooks. The method uses polygon mesh surfaces to model body contours, the shape of organs as well as their positions, and orientations in the human body. Organ and tissue masses comply with the corresponding data given by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for the 5- and 10-year-old reference children. Bones were segmented into cortical bone, spongiosa, medullary marrow, and cartilage to allow for the use of micro computer tomographic ({mu}CT) images of trabecular bone for skeletal dosimetry. Results: The four phantoms, a male and a female for each age, and their organs are presented in 3D images and their organ and tissue masses in tables which show the compliance of the ICRP reference values. Dosimetric data, calculated for the reference pediatric phantoms by Monte Carlo methods were compared with corresponding data from adult mesh phantoms and pediatric stylized phantoms. The comparisons show reasonable agreement if the anatomical differences between the phantoms are properly taken into account. Conclusions: Pediatric phantoms were developed without using medical images of patients or volunteers for the first time. The models are reference phantoms, suitable for regulatory dosimetry, however, the 3D modeling method can also be applied to medical images to develop patient-specific phantoms.

  6. African-Americans and Alzheimer's

    MedlinePlus

    ... African-Americans are at a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease. Many Americans dismiss the warning signs of Alzheimer's, ... two times more likely to develop late-onset Alzheimer's disease than whites and less likely to have a ...

  7. Peroral Endoscopic Myotomy for the Treatment of Achalasia in a 10-Year-Old Male Patient.

    PubMed

    Filser, Jörg; Dick, Anke; Meyer, Thomas; Germer, Christoph-Thomas; von Rahden, Burkard H A

    2015-06-01

    Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is a new endoscopic treatment for achalasia with very good short-term results in adults. Data about POEM in pediatric patients are missing. We present the case of a 10-year-old male patient with type I (classic) achalasia, successfully treated with POEM. The procedure was accomplished in a similar fashion to the technique used in adults. Short-term results were fine, with a complete control of dysphagia and absence of reflux. We suggest that POEM is a suitable option in pediatric patients-similar to adults-but long-term results must be awaited.

  8. Malignant Nonfunctioning Neuroendocrine Neoplasm of the Pancreas in a 10-Year-Old Child.

    PubMed

    Marwan, Ahmed; Christein, John D

    2009-04-17

    Malignant neoplasms of the pancreas are extremely rare in children and only represent a small percentage of pediatric cancer-related deaths. The paucity of cases reported in the literature, in addition to the lack of understanding of biologic behavior, has led to a lack of consensus concerning optimal management strategy. Presentation differs compared to adult counterparts and generally prognosis is improved even when lymph node metastases occur. Here we review the literature and report the case of a 10-year-old autistic female with a malignant nonfunctioning pancreatic endocrine neoplasm of the head of the pancreas successfully extirpated via pancreaticoduodenectomy.

  9. Tibial nerve intraneural ganglion cyst in a 10-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Squires, Judy H; Emery, Kathleen H; Johnson, Neil; Sorger, Joel

    2014-04-01

    Intraneural ganglion cysts are uncommon cystic lesions of peripheral nerves that are typically encountered in adults. In the lower extremity, the peroneal nerve is most frequently affected with involvement of the tibial nerve much less common. This article describes a tibial intraneural ganglion cyst in a 10-year-old boy. Although extremely rare, intraneural ganglion cysts of the tibial nerve should be considered when a nonenhancing cystic structure with intra-articular extension is identified along the course of the nerve. This report also details the unsuccessful attempt at percutaneous treatment with US-guided cyst aspiration and steroid injection, an option recently reported as a viable alternative to open surgical resection.

  10. Hepatitis C in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Saab, Sammy; Jackson, Christian; Nieto, Jose; Francois, Fritz

    2014-10-01

    The care of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in African Americans represents an opportunity to address a major health disparity in medicine. In all facets of HCV infection, African Americans are inexplicably affected, including in the prevalence of the virus, which is higher among them compared with most of the racial and ethnic groups. Ironically, although fibrosis rates may be slow, hepatocellular carcinoma and mortality rates appear to be higher among African Americans. Sustained viral response (SVR) rates have historically significantly trailed behind Caucasians. The reasons for this gap in SVR are related to both viral and host factors. Moreover, low enrollment rates in clinical trials hamper the study of the efficacy of anti-viral therapy. Nevertheless, the gap in SVR between African Americans and Caucasians may be narrowing with the use of direct-acting agents. Gastroenterologists, hepatologists, primary care physicians, and other health-care providers need to address modifiable risk factors that affect the natural history, as well as treatment outcomes, for HCV among African Americans. Efforts need to be made to improve awareness among health-care providers to address the differences in screening and referral patterns for African Americans.

  11. Evaluation of 6 and 10 Year-Old Child Human Body Models in Emergency Events

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Emergency events can influence a child’s kinematics prior to a car-crash, and thus its interaction with the restraint system. Numerical Human Body Models (HBMs) can help understand the behaviour of children in emergency events. The kinematic responses of two child HBMs–MADYMO 6 and 10 year-old models–were evaluated and compared with child volunteers’ data during emergency events–braking and steering–with a focus on the forehead and sternum displacements. The response of the 6 year-old HBM was similar to the response of the 10 year-old HBM, however both models had a different response compared with the volunteers. The forward and lateral displacements were within the range of volunteer data up to approximately 0.3 s; but then, the HBMs head and sternum moved significantly downwards, while the volunteers experienced smaller displacement and tended to come back to their initial posture. Therefore, these HBMs, originally intended for crash simulations, are not too stiff and could be able to reproduce properly emergency events thanks, for instance, to postural control. PMID:28099505

  12. Visual search and contextual cueing: differential effects in 10-year-old children and adults.

    PubMed

    Couperus, Jane W; Hunt, Ruskin H; Nelson, Charles A; Thomas, Kathleen M

    2011-02-01

    The development of contextual cueing specifically in relation to attention was examined in two experiments. Adult and 10-year-old participants completed a context cueing visual search task (Jiang & Chun, The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 54A(4), 1105-1124, 2001) containing stimuli presented in an attended (e.g., red) and unattended (e.g., green) color. When the spatial configuration of stimuli in the attended and unattended color was invariant and consistently paired with the target location, adult reaction times improved, demonstrating learning. Learning also occurred if only the attended stimuli's configuration remained fixed. In contrast, while 10 year olds, like adults, showed incrementally slower reaction times as the number of attended stimuli increased, they did not show learning in the standard paradigm. However, they did show learning when the ratio of attended to unattended stimuli was high, irrespective of the total number of attended stimuli. Findings suggest children show efficient attentional guidance by color in visual search but differences in contextual cueing.

  13. Evaluation of 6 and 10 Year-Old Child Human Body Models in Emergency Events.

    PubMed

    Gras, Laure-Lise; Stockman, Isabelle; Brolin, Karin

    2017-01-01

    Emergency events can influence a child's kinematics prior to a car-crash, and thus its interaction with the restraint system. Numerical Human Body Models (HBMs) can help understand the behaviour of children in emergency events. The kinematic responses of two child HBMs-MADYMO 6 and 10 year-old models-were evaluated and compared with child volunteers' data during emergency events-braking and steering-with a focus on the forehead and sternum displacements. The response of the 6 year-old HBM was similar to the response of the 10 year-old HBM, however both models had a different response compared with the volunteers. The forward and lateral displacements were within the range of volunteer data up to approximately 0.3 s; but then, the HBMs head and sternum moved significantly downwards, while the volunteers experienced smaller displacement and tended to come back to their initial posture. Therefore, these HBMs, originally intended for crash simulations, are not too stiff and could be able to reproduce properly emergency events thanks, for instance, to postural control.

  14. [Food avoidance emotional disorder in 3 to 10-year-old children: a clinical reality].

    PubMed

    Goëb, J-L; Azcona, B; Troussier, F; Malka, J; Giniès, J-L; Duverger, P

    2005-09-01

    We underline the clinical importance of a specific eating disorder in 3 to 10 years old children, when the majority of the works about the prepubertal eating disorders focus either on the period just preceding adolescence (often between 10 and 13 years), or on the second half of the first year of the baby. Within the eating disorders described in the literature, we compare the clinical presentation of most of these 3 to 10 years old children with the food avoidance emotional disorder described during adolescence. These problems of eating behaviour (various selective eating with or without provoked vomiting) are ignored for a long time in these young children because of quite a satisfactory growth, but these children are often seen in emergency rooms because of a brutally complete eating refusal. Therapeutic consultations allow these children to express their fears about diseases, poisoning and death, for themselves or for their close relations, in particular the mother, without endangering their body. The early recognition and care of these difficulties of conciliation between the body and the thoughts impose a narrow collaboration between paediatric and psychiatric staffs.

  15. The genetic and environmental etiology of high math performance in 10-year-old twins.

    PubMed

    Petrill, Stephen A; Kovas, Yulia; Hart, Sara A; Thompson, Lee A; Plomin, Robert

    2009-07-01

    The genetic and environmental etiology of high math performance (at or above the 85%tile) was examined in a population-based sample of 10-year-old twins (nMZ = 1,279, nDZ = 2,305). Math skills were assessed using a web-based battery of math performance tapping skills related to the UK National Math Curriculum. Probandwise concordance rates and liability threshold models indicated that genetic and shared environmental influences were significant, and that these estimates were generally similar to those obtained across the normal range of ability and did not vary significantly by gender. These results suggest that the genetic and environmental influences at the high end of ability are likely to be continuous with those that affect the entire range of math performance across all children irrespective of gender.

  16. Effects of background and classroom characteristics on the science achievement of 10-year-old students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosier, Malcolm

    1990-01-01

    Effects of characteristics of science classrooms on the science achievement of students were examined in the context of a simple model. The model incorporated prior attributes of the students in terms of home background, sex, and verbal and quantitative ability. The model was estimated by means of partial least squares multivariate procedures using data for 10-year-old Queensland students from the Second International Science Study. The results demonstrated the dominant influence of home background and verbal/mathematical ability. Female students tended to have lower scores after allowing for the influence of the other variables in the model. Students who stated that there were more student initiated activities in their science lessons tended to have lower achievement.

  17. Treatment of Bilateral Refractive Amblyopia in Children 3 to <10 Years Old

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, David; Chandler, Danielle L.; Beck, Roy W.; Arnold, Robert W.; Bacal, Darron A.; Birch, Eileen E.; Felius, Joost; Frazier, Marcela; Holmes, Jonathan M.; Hoover, Darren; Klimek, Deborah A.; Lorenzana, Ingryd; Quinn, Graham E.; Repka, Michael X.; Suh, Donny W.; Tamkins, Susanna

    2007-01-01

    Purpose To determine the amount and time course of binocular visual acuity improvement during treatment of bilateral refractive amblyopia in children age 3 to <10 years old Design Prospective, multicenter noncomparative intervention Methods 113 children (mean age = 5.1 years) with previously untreated bilateral refractive amblyopia were enrolled at 27 community- and university-based sites and were provided optimal spectacle correction. Bilateral refractive amblyopia was defined as 20/40 to 20/400 best-corrected binocular acuity in the presence of ≥ 4.00 D hypermetropia by spherical equivalent and/or ≥ 2.00 D astigmatism in each eye. Best-corrected binocular and monocular visual acuities were measured at baseline and at 5, 13, 26 and 52 weeks. The primary study outcome was binocular acuity at one year. Results Mean binocular visual acuity improved from 0.50 logMAR (20/63) at baseline to 0.11 logMAR (20/25) at one year (mean improvement 3.9 lines, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.5 to 4.2). Mean improvement at one year for the 84 children with baseline binocular acuity of 20/40 to 20/80 was 3.4 lines (95% CI = 3.2 to 3.7) and for the 16 children with baseline binocular acuity of 20/100 to 20/320 was 6.3 lines (95% CI = 5.1 to 7.5). The cumulative probability of binocular acuity of 20/25 or better was 21% at 5 weeks, 46% at 13 weeks, 59% at 26 weeks, and 74% at 52 weeks. Conclusions Treatment of bilateral refractive amblyopia with spectacle correction improves binocular visual acuity in children age 3 to <10 years old, with most improving to 20/25 or better within one year. PMID:17707330

  18. Ecological influences of sexuality on early adolescent African American females.

    PubMed

    Aronowitz, Teri; Rennells, Rachel E; Todd, Erin

    2006-01-01

    African Americans make up the greater proportion of AIDS cases in adolescent girls but little is understood about the development of sexual risk behaviors during the early adolescent years. This article will explore ecological factors influencing adolescent sexual risk behaviors. In the focus groups, which were conducted using 28 African American mothers and their early adolescent daughters, 2 major themes emerged: exposure and support systems. Mothers described the impact community had on their daughters and how monitoring and support systems worked together to control exposure. The girls detailed the different ways they were impacted by the community. Attitudes the girls adopted from their exposures resulted in risk-taking behaviors or a determination to positively impact the community. Community was shown to be the context of the acquisition of sexual knowledge and attitudes. These findings support the development of interventions to address the impact of community on the participation of sexual risk behaviors.

  19. Technical Consulting: The African-American Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitfield, Tracy N.

    2010-01-01

    The qualitative research study explored the organizational characteristics necessary in addressing the low concentration of African American technical consultants employed in the information technology industry. Using research participants' professional experience, participants responded to a developed questionnaire. African American technical…

  20. Heart failure in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Yancy, Clyde W

    2005-10-10

    The demographics of the United States are changing, and in the next few decades there will no longer be a racial/ethnic majority population. Increased awareness of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in special populations is warranted as these populations increase. Heart failure carries a substantial burden on those affected, particularly African Americans, who have a disproportionate burden of heart disease. Current treatments for heart failure include angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, beta-blockers, angiotensin II-receptor antagonists, and vasodilating agents. This review discusses the unique characteristics of CVD in African Americans and addresses the need for targeted treatments to reduce the excess burden found in this population.

  1. The Mediating and Moderating Effects of Parent and Peer Influences upon Drug Use among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Trenette T.; Belgrave, Faye Z.; Abell, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    This study recruited 567 African American youth (mean age = 15.27 years; 65.1% girls) to examine the role of parent and peer contexts on drug use among African American adolescents. Data were collected on demographics, drug refusal efficacy, drug use, and various psychosocial factors including family and peer factors. When controlling for age and…

  2. Freedom Road: Adult Education of African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Elizabeth A., Ed.

    This book contains six chapters by various authors about the history of African Americans' contributions and participation in adult education. The book reports on how some African American leaders saw the connection between education and the eventual freedom or uplift of the African American people. Following a foreword (Phyllis M. Cunningham) and…

  3. Engaging African Americans in Smoking Cessation Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallen, Jacqueline; Randolph, Suzanne; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Feldman, Robert; Kanamori-Nishimura, Mariano

    2014-01-01

    Background: African Americans are disproportionately exposed to and targeted by prosmoking advertisements, particularly menthol cigarette ads. Though African Americans begin smoking later than whites, they are less likely to quit smoking than whites. Purpose: This study was designed to explore African American smoking cessation attitudes,…

  4. Increasing Reading Engagement in African American Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husband, Terry

    2014-01-01

    Much has been written concerning the challenges many teachers face in engaging African American males in reading practices. While much of this extant scholarship focuses on African American males at the pre-adolescent stage of development and beyond, little has been written regarding increasing reading engagement in African American boys in P-5…

  5. African-American parents' racial and ethnic socialization and adolescent academic grades: teasing out the role of gender.

    PubMed

    Brown, Tiffany L; Linver, Miriam R; Evans, Melanie; DeGennaro, Donna

    2009-02-01

    This study examined the relationship of racial and ethnic socialization and academic achievement in a sample of 218 African American adolescents (grades 9-12; 52% girls) attending a public high school in the northeastern United States. Researchers were particularly interested in whether adolescent gender moderated the relationship between racial and ethnic socialization and academic grades. Results indicated that aspects of ethnic socialization, African American cultural values and African American heritage were linked to adolescent grades. Additionally, adolescent gender was found to moderate the association between these socialization variables and grades. The findings also suggest that socialization provided by paternal caregivers around African American cultural values and African American heritage may have differential effects for academic grades than the socialization messages provided by maternal caregivers. Information generated from this study broadens the understanding of socialization factors that can facilitate positive academic outcomes in African American youth and has practical implications for parents and educators.

  6. Discrimination of facial features by adults, 10-year-olds, and cataract-reversal patients.

    PubMed

    Mondloch, Catherine J; Robbins, Rachel; Maurer, Daphne

    2010-01-01

    In previous studies we created 8 new versions of a single face: 4 differed only in the spacing among features and 4 differed in the shape of the eyes and mouth. Compared to the spacing set, results for this feature set indicated little impairment by inversion, earlier adult-like accuracy (Mondloch et al, 2002 Perception 31 553-566), and normal performance after a history of early visual deprivation from bilateral congenital cataract (Le Grand et al, 2001 Nature 410 890, 412 786). Here we addressed the possibility that this pattern might have resulted from our having inadvertently selected easily discriminated features or including some faces with make-up. We created 20 featural versions of a single female face and asked adults, 10-year-old children, and patients treated for bilateral congenital cataract to make same/different judgments for 120 pairings (half different). The results confirm that adults easily discriminate facial features, even after early visual deprivation from cataract, and that inversion has only a small effect. By the age of 10 years, children are close to, but not quite at, adult levels of accuracy. The previous findings cannot be attributed to our having inadvertently created a feature set that was unusually easy to discriminate.

  7. Development of a 10-year-old full body geometric dataset for computational modeling.

    PubMed

    Mao, Haojie; Holcombe, Sven; Shen, Ming; Jin, Xin; Wagner, Christina D; Wang, Stewart C; Yang, King H; King, Albert I

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to create a computer-aided design (CAD) geometric dataset of a 10-year-old (10 YO) child. The study includes two phases of efforts. At Phase One, the 10 YO whole body CAD was developed from component computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans of 12 pediatric subjects. Geometrical scaling methods were used to convert all component parts to the average size for a 10 YO child, based on available anthropometric data. Then the component surfaces were compiled and integrated into a complete body. The bony structures and flesh were adjusted as symmetrical to minimize the bias from a single subject while maintaining anthropometrical measurements. Internal organs including the liver, spleen, and kidney were further verified by literature data. At Phase Two, internal characteristics for the cervical spine disc, wrist, hand, pelvis, femur, and tibia were verified with data measured from additional 94 10 YO children. The CAD dataset developed through these processes was mostly within the corridor of one standard deviation (SD) of the mean. In conclusion, a geometric dataset for an average size 10 YO child was created. The dataset serves as a foundation to develop computational 10 YO whole body models for enhanced pediatric injury prevention.

  8. The Effect of Executive Function on Science Achievement Among Normally Developing 10-Year Olds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lederman, Sheri G.

    Executive function (EF) is an umbrella term used to identify a set of discrete but interrelated cognitive abilities that enable individuals to engage in goal-directed, future-oriented action in response to a novel context. Developmental studies indicate that EF is predictive of reading and math achievement in middle childhood. The purpose of this study was to identify the association between EF and science achievement among normally developing 10 year olds. A sample of fifth grade students from a Northeastern suburban community participated in tests of EF, science, and intelligence. Consistent with adult models of EF, principal components analysis identified a three-factor model of EF organization in middle childhood, including cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibition. Multiple regression analyses revealed that executive function processes of cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibition were all predictive of science performance. Post hoc analyses revealed that high-performing science students differed significantly from low-performing students in both cognitive flexibility and working memory. These findings suggest that complex academic demands specific to science achievement rely on the emergence and maturation of EF components.

  9. Inhibitory control in otherwise healthy overweight 10-year-old children

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, S; Peirano, P; Peigneux, P; Lozoff, B; Algarin, C

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Preventing obesity is a worldwide public health priority. In vulnerable children living in obesogenic environments, with easy access to high-caloric food, alterations in inhibitory control functions might favor excessive food intake and affect energy regulation. We hypothesized that overweight/obese children would present lower inhibitory control in comparison to normal weight children. METHODS We measured inhibitory control functions in 93 otherwise healthy overweight/obese and 92 normal weight 10-year-old children using the Stroop test and the Go/No-Go task. Event-related potentials were recorded during the Go/No-Go task. RESULTS Overweight/obese children showed slower reaction times (1248.6 ms (95% confidence interval (CI): 1182.9–1314.3) vs 1149.0 ms (95% CI: 1083.0–1215.1)) on the Stroop test, higher reaction time variability (0.25 (95% CI: 0.22–0.27) vs 0.21 (95% CI: 0.19–0.24)) on the Go/No-Go task and decreased P300 amplitude (4.1 µV (95% CI: 3.0–5.2) vs 6.4 µV (95% CI: 5.2–7.6)) on event-related potentials compared with normal weight children. CONCLUSIONS Our results indicate altered inhibitory control functions in otherwise healthy overweight/obese children, which might contribute to their excessive food consumption. PMID:25869603

  10. Wellness among African American Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day-Vines, Norma L.; Holcomb-McCoy, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    Although there are various definitions of wellness, few conceptual definitions have addressed the contextual dimensions of wellness relative to African American counselors. The authors present an overview of generic models of wellness, discuss factors that both inhibit and promote wellness, offer some culture-specific models of wellness, and…

  11. African American Men in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuyjet, Michael J., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This book is a much-needed resource that includes examples of real-world programs and activities to enhance academic success in the college environment for African American men. The examples are collected from a variety of institutions across the country. With contributions from leading practitioners and scholars in the field, this book explores…

  12. African-American spirituality: a concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Newlin, Kelley; Knafl, Kathleen; Melkus, Gail D'Eramo

    2002-12-01

    Culturally competent care for African Americans requires sensitivity to spirituality as a component of the cultural context. To foster understanding, measurement, and delivery of the spiritual component of culturally competent care, this article presents an evolutionary concept analysis of African-American spirituality. The analysis is based on a sample of multidisciplinary research studies reflecting spirituality of African Americans. Findings indicate that African-American spirituality involves quintessential, internal, external, consoling, and transformative attributive dimensions. Findings are considered in relation to previous conceptual analyses of spirituality and suggest that defining attributes of African-American spirituality are both global and culturally prominent. Implications for practice and research are discussed.

  13. Prenatal and postnatal tobacco smoke exposure and development of insulin resistance in 10 year old children.

    PubMed

    Thiering, Elisabeth; Brüske, Irene; Kratzsch, Jürgen; Thiery, Joachim; Sausenthaler, Stefanie; Meisinger, Christa; Koletzko, Sibylle; Bauer, Carl-Peter; Schaaf, Beate; von Berg, Andrea; Berdel, Dietrich; Lehmann, Irina; Herbarth, Olf; Krämer, Ursula; Wichmann, H Erich; Heinrich, Joachim

    2011-09-01

    In this study, we evaluated the association between prenatal and postnatal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and the development of insulin resistance in 10 year old children. Fasting blood samples were collected from 470 children participating in two prospective birth cohorts. Of those 276 were selected population based and enriched with 194 children exceeding the 85th percentile of body mass index in this age group. Children already having diabetes type 1 or 2 at the age of 10 years were excluded. Fasting blood insulin and glucose levels and calculated HOMA index for insulin resistance assessment were analysed using generalised additive models. Potential confounders were adjusted for. Insulin resistance was increased by 24% in children frequently exposed to environmental tobacco smoke during childhood (MR(adj) = 1.24, p = 0.001), while glucose levels were not. Exclusion of prenatally exposed children did not attenuate the association (MR(adj) = 1.25, p = 0.006). After stratification, the effect sizes were identical within overweight children and the population based sample of children. Insulin resistance and fasting insulin levels were increasing with increasing numbers of cigarettes smoked in children's home. Maternal smoking during the third trimester of pregnancy increased children's insulin levels (MR(adj) = 1.19, p = 0.037), and even more so, if children were exclusively breastfed after birth (MR(adj) = 1.31, p = 0.016). Increased mean ratios were found for smoking of a third person in addition to maternal smoking. Positive dose-dependent associations and independent effects of postnatal exposure suggest involvement of environmental tobacco smoke in the risk for development of insulin resistance in children.

  14. Psychobiological Effects of Prenatal Glucocorticoid Exposure in 10-Year-Old-Children

    PubMed Central

    Erni, Katja; Shaqiri-Emini, Luljeta; La Marca, Roberto; Zimmermann, Roland; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2012-01-01

    Background: Prenatal stress seems to have long-lasting effects on biological and psychological processes of the offspring. However, to date, there have been no studies investigating the effects of prenatal glucocorticoid exposure on psychological, endocrine, and autonomic responses to a standardized psychosocial stress test in children. Methods: A sample of 115 healthy, 10-year-old children was examined. The Glucocorticoids + Tocolytics group was characterized by tocolytic treatment of the mothers due to preterm labor (n = 43). In addition, the pregnant women received glucocorticoid treatment in order to accelerate fetal lung maturation in case of preterm birth. The first comparison group (Tocolytics) consisted of children whose mothers also experienced preterm labor, but did not receive glucocorticoid treatment (n = 35). In the second comparison group (CONTROL), children whose mothers had a complication-free pregnancy were assessed (n = 37). Psychological parameters (stress appraisal and mood) using self-report questionnaires as well as salivary cortisol, salivary alpha-amylase, and heart rate were measured during a standardized psychosocial stress test (Trier Social Stress Test for Children). Results: Group comparisons revealed that a subscale of stress appraisal, control expectancies, significantly differed in children who were prenatally exposed to glucocorticoids as compared to both comparison groups (F = 4.889, p = 0.009). Furthermore, significant differences between the groups were revealed for salivary cortisol. With respect to overall stress appraisal and heart rate, trends toward significance were observed between the three groups. Conclusion: At the age of ten, those children who have been exposed to prenatal maternal glucocorticoids show changed psychobiological stress reactivity to a standardized psychosocial stress test as compared to control children. PMID:23233841

  15. African American adolescents' academic persistence: a strengths-based approach.

    PubMed

    Butler-Barnes, Sheretta T; Chavous, Tabbye M; Hurd, Noelle; Varner, Fatima

    2013-09-01

    African American adolescents are faced with the challenge to be successful academically, even though they may experience racial discrimination within school settings. Unfortunately, relatively little scholarship explores how African American adolescents draw on personal and cultural assets to persist and thrive in the face of discriminatory experiences. Additionally, little research has explored the buffering role of assets (e.g., racial pride, self-efficacy, and self-acceptance) on the relationship between school-based racial discriminatory experiences and the academic persistence of African American adolescents. Participants in the current study included 220 (58 % girls) socioeconomically diverse African American adolescents. Latent class analysis was utilized to identify clusters based on participants' racial pride, self-efficacy, and self-acceptance. Three cluster groups were identified. The majority of the students belonged to the average group in which adolescents reported average levels of the three study assets. Adolescents in the higher group reported higher assets relative to their peers in the study and those in the lower group reported lower strength-based assets relative to their peers. Results indicated that school-based racial discrimination was associated with lower levels of academic persistence. Additionally, adolescents in the higher assets group reported higher academic persistence in comparison to the average and low group. Our model reflected a promotive but not protective influence of adolescents' assets on their academic persistence.

  16. Variability and Stability in Daily Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity among 10 Year Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Sara; Gomes, Thayse Natacha; Borges, Alessandra; Santos, Daniel; Souza, Michele; dos Santos, Fernanda K.; Chaves, Raquel N.; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Maia, José A. R.

    2015-01-01

    Day-to-day variability and stability of children’s physical activity levels across days of the week are not well understood. Our aims were to examine the day-to-day variability of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), to determine factors influencing the day-to-day variability of MVPA and to estimate stability of MVPA in children. The sample comprises 686 Portuguese children (10 years of age). MVPA was assessed with an accelerometer, and BMI was computed from measured height and weight. Daily changes in MVPA and their correlates (gender, BMI, and maturity) were modeled with a multilevel approach, and tracking was calculated using Foulkes & Davies γ. A total of 51.3% of boys and 26.2% of girls achieved 60 min/day of MVPA on average. Daily MVPA was lower during the weekend (23.6% of boys and 13.6% of girls comply with the recommended 60 min/day of MVPA) compared to weekdays (60.8% and 35.4%, boys and girls, respectively). Normal weight children were more active than obese children and no effect was found for biological maturation. Tracking is low in both boys (γ = 0.59 ± 0.01) and girls (γ = 0.56 ± 0.01). Children’s MVPA levels during a week are highly unstable. In summary, boys are more active than girls, maturation does not affect their MVPA, and obese children are less likely to meet 60 min/day of MVPA. These results highlight the importance of providing opportunities for increasing children’s daily MVPA on all days of week, especially on the weekend. PMID:26262632

  17. Some African American Males' Perspectives on the Black Woman.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrow, Rufus, Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Presents views of Frederick Douglass, W. E. B. Du Bois, Malcolm X, and James Hal Cone (African-American male leaders) toward African-American women in the United States. Discusses the role of African-American men in addressing and eradicating sexism in African-American churches and the African-American community. (SLD)

  18. The Effect of Text Messaging on 9- and 10-Year-Old Children's Reading, Spelling and Phonological Processing Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, C.; Jackson, E.; Hart, L.; Plester, B.; Wilde, L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on an intervention study that considered the impact of text messaging on 9- to 10-year-old children's literacy skills. One hundred and fourteen children who had never owned a mobile phone before were recruited and randomly allocated to either the intervention or control conditions. All children were pre- and post-tested on a…

  19. A Cluster-Analytical Approach towards Physical Activity and Eating Habits among 10-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabbe, Dieter; De Bourdeaudhuij, I.; Legiest, E.; Maes, L.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose was to investigate whether clusters--based on physical activity (PA) and eating habits--can be found among children, and to explore subgroups' characteristics. A total of 1725 10-year olds completed a self-administered questionnaire. K-means cluster analysis was based on the weekly quantity of vigorous and moderate PA, the excess index…

  20. Chronic abdominal pain secondary to a mucous cystadenoma of the appendix in a 10-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Blecha, Matthew J; Gupta, Anita; Hoover, J David; Madonna, Mary Beth

    2005-11-01

    Mucocele of the appendix is a thin-walled dilated appendix filled with mucus. It occurs secondary to chronic obstruction of the appendiceal lumen because of a range of pathologies. Cystadenomas in children are exceedingly rare and most frequently of ovarian origin. A mucous cystadenoma of the appendix in a 10-year-old boy with chronic abdominal pain is presented.

  1. Effects of Multiple Planning Constraints on the Development of Grasp Posture Planning in 6- to 10-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stöckel, Tino; Hughes, Charmayne M. L.

    2015-01-01

    This experiment examined how multiple planning constraints affect grasp posture planning in 6- to 10-year-old children (n = 16 in each group) by manipulating the intended object end-orientation (left end-down, right end-down) and initial precision demands (standard, initial precision) of a bar transport task. Results indicated that grasp posture…

  2. Rhinoplasty in the African-American patient.

    PubMed

    Rohrich, Rod J; Muzaffar, Arshad R

    2003-03-01

    Because of the increasing popularity of rhinoplasty in the African-American patient, we delineate how a rhinoplasty surgeon can perform this challenging technique to obtain uniform and consistent results. First, we address how one can appreciate and analyze the various aesthetic concepts of beauty and the unique anatomic characteristics of the African-American nose. Second, we present a pragmatic, systematic analysis of the African-American nose. Last, we describe the techniques consistently used to modify the African-American nose while achieving or maintaining facial harmony using the open approach to rhinoplasty. Specific case analyses are presented to demonstrate utilization of the technique.

  3. African American Preschoolers' Language, Emergent Literacy Skills, and Use of African American English: A Complex Relation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Craig, Holly K.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the relation between African American preschoolers' use of African American English (AAE) and their language and emergent literacy skills in an effort to better understand the perplexing and persistent difficulties many African American children experience learning to read proficiently. Method: African American…

  4. Investigating Instructional Practices of an African American Male Mathematics Teacher with Underachieving African American Male Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhammad, Rhonda K.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the instructional practices of an experienced African American mathematics teacher to determine his perceived capabilities in augmenting academic proficiency for his African American male students. Provided in this descriptive case study are the lived experiences of an African American male teacher working to move…

  5. Academic Growth Trajectories and Family Relationships among African American Youth

    PubMed Central

    Dotterer, Aryn M.; Lowe, Katie; McHale, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    This study explored trajectories of African American youths’ academic functioning and assessed whether changes in parent-adolescent relationships were associated with changes in youths’ academic functioning. The data were drawn from a three-year longitudinal study of gender socialization and development in two-parent African American families and included 197 families. Findings revealed gender differences in achievement trajectories and indicated that boys not only had lower levels of academic achievement compared to girls, but also experienced steeper declines in school self-esteem during adolescence. Changes in parent-adolescent relationship quality were linked to changes in academic functioning: Increases in conflict were related to decreases in GPA, school bonding, and school self-esteem and increases in warmth were related to increases in school bonding and school self-esteem. PMID:27122959

  6. African American Teaching and the Matriarchal Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffries, Rhonda Baynes

    This paper discusses the role of matriarchs in African-American culture, explaining that traditionally, African-American matriarchs arise from a combination of African norms and American social positions that naturally forces them to assume leadership conditions. The roles these women assume are a response to the desire to survive in a society…

  7. Multicultural Curriculum: African American Children's Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Violet J.

    1991-01-01

    Traces and analyzes the history of African American children's literature defined as "culturally conscious," an authentic body of literature written about and for African American children. Discusses the current status of this literature and indicates a change in focus in the last century. Authors' perspectives, and the implications for…

  8. African American Undergraduates and the Academic Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitmire, Ethelene

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the academic library experiences of African American undergraduates attending a research university in the Midwest. Data collection techniques included questionnaires and ethnographic observations. The results indicated that African American undergraduates are using the academic library primarily to read and to study with their…

  9. Smoking Cessation in African-Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    1996-01-01

    Because the smoking behavior of African Americans differs considerably from that of other groups, researchers examined differences between African Americans who did and did not use the nicotine patch as an adjunct to counseling and education for smoking cessation. Results indicated the nicotine patch significantly improved six-month cessation…

  10. Cultural Expressions of the African American Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akbar, Na'im

    Interpretations of the differences between the African American child and the Caucasian child in North America follow two major trends. In one the differences in the African American child are viewed as deviance from the Euro-American norm and therefore inferior or pathological. In the other, the differences are viewed as deviant but adaptive…

  11. A Mirror Image African American Student Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon Dawson, Candice

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is a narrative inquiry research project that focuses on the collegiate experiences of African American students at both historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and predominantly white institutions (PWIs). I look at how African American college students who engage in race or culturally specific activities, the degree…

  12. Experiences of African American College Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Aundria Chephan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the reasons that African-American alumni from a historically Black university (HBCU) and a predominantly White university (PWI) chose to attend, remain in, and graduate from college. The central research question was how do African Americans describe their college experiences? The secondary research…

  13. Hidden Education among African Americans during Slavery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gundaker, Grey

    2007-01-01

    Background/Context: Historical studies examine aspects of African American education in and out of school in detail (Woodson 1915, 1933, Bullock 1970, Anderson 1988, Morris 1982, Rachal 1986, Rose 1964, Webber 1978, Williams 2005). Scholars of African American literacy have noted ways that education intersects other arenas such as religion and…

  14. African Americans in the Early Republic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Gary B.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses five topics on African Americans that are essential to studying United States History in the years between 1760 and 1830: (1) African Americans in the Revolutionary War ; (2) the rise of free black communities; (3) early abolitionism; (4) the spread of slavery; and (5) black resistance to slavery. (CMK)

  15. Depression, Sociocultural Factors, and African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunn, Vanessa Lynn; Craig, Carlton David

    2009-01-01

    The authors discuss depression in African American women from a sociocultural perspective, including aspects of oppression and racism that affect symptom manifestation. The authors highlight John Henryism as a coping mechanism, the history and continuing role of the African American church as a safe haven, and strategies for culturally competent…

  16. Prostate Cancer Genetics in African Americans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-11-1-0566 TITLE: Prostate Cancer Genetics in African Americans PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Henry T. Lynch, MD CONTRACTING...W81XWH-11-1-0566 November 2015 Final 15Aug2011 - 14Aug2015 Prostate Cancer Genetics in African Americans Henry T. Lynch Nothing listed 36

  17. Improving African American Achievement in Geometry Honors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mims, Adrian B.

    2010-01-01

    This case study evaluated the significance of implementing an enrichment mathematics course during the summer to rising African American ninth graders entitled, "Geometry Honors Preview." In the past, 60 to 70 percent of African American students in this school district had withdrawn from Geometry Honors by the second academic quarter. This study…

  18. African Americans and World War II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kersten, Andrew E.

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on the experience of African Americans during World War II on the homefront and in the armed forces. States that African Americans not only fought fascism overseas but also apartheid in the United States, also known as the "Double V." (CMK)

  19. Intimate partner violence in African American women.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Doris Williams; Sharps, Phyllis W; Gary, Faye A; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Lopez, Loretta M

    2002-01-01

    Violence against African American women, specifically intimate partner abuse, has a significant impact on their health and well being. Intimate partner femicide and near fatal intimate partner femicide are the major causes of premature death and disabling injuries for African American women. Yet, despite this, there is a paucity of research and interventions specific and culturally relevant for these women. This article focuses on issues relevant to intimate partner violence and abuse against African American women by examining existing empirical studies of prevalence and health outcomes of intimate partner violence against women in general, plus what limited research there is about African American women, specifically. It includes a discussion of specific recommendations for research, practice, education, and policy to reduce and prevent intimate partner violence against African American women.

  20. African Americans and the medical establishment.

    PubMed

    Smith, C

    1999-09-01

    The African American community's response to the AIDS epidemic has reflected the profound mistrust of the medical establishment which many African Americans feel. Among African Americans, the belief that the epidemic originated in a genocidal plot is widespread. It is thought that organized medicine has been significantly involved in this plot. If we look at African Americans' historical relationship to the medical establishment from the era of slavery to the recent past, the suspicious attitudes which make such beliefs possible can be seen as an intelligible response to a new disease which disproportionately affects African Americans. Successful medical and public health responses to the epidemic have depended and will continue to depend upon overcoming the historical legacy of suspicion and gaining the trust of the community.

  1. Upper Extremity Multifocal Neuropathy in a 10-Year-Old Boy Associated With NS6S Disaccharide Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Edelman, Frederick; Naddaf, Elie; Waclawik, Andrew J

    2015-06-01

    We present a 10-year-old boy with a predominantly motor multifocal neuropathy with demyelinating and axonal changes with sensory involvement, affecting only one upper extremity. Laboratory studies revealed an elevated titer of immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies against the NS6S antigen. He responded to treatment with high dose intravenous immunoglobulins. Focal or multifocal immune-mediated neuropathies are not common in children and may be underdiagnosed.

  2. HMO employment and African-American physicians.

    PubMed Central

    Briscoe, Forrest; Konrad, Thomas R.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the level and determinants of African-American physicians' employment in health maintenance organizations (HMOs), particularly early in their careers. METHODS: We analyzed data from the 1991 and 1996 Young Physicians Surveys to assess racial differences in the likelihood of HMO employment (n = 3,705). Using multinomial logistic regression, we evaluated four explanations for an observed relationship between African-American physicians and HMO employment: human capital stratification among organizations, race-based affinity between physicians and patients, financial constraints due to debt burden, and different organizational hiring practices. Using binomial logistic regression, we also evaluated differences in the odds of being turned down for a prior practice position, of subsequently leaving the current practice organization and of later having career doubts. RESULTS: Without any controls, African-American physicians were 4.52 times more likely to practice in HMOs than Caucasian physicians. After controlling for human capital stratification, racial concordance and financial constraints, African-American physicians remained 2.48 times more likely to practice in HMOs than Caucasian physicians. In addition, 19.2% of African-American physicians in HMOs reported being turned down for another job, far more than any other racial/ethnic group in the HMO setting and any racial/ethnic group, including African-American physicians in the non-HMO setting (including all other practice locations). Five years later, those same African-American physicians from HMOs also reported significantly more turnover (7.50 times more likely than non-HMO African-American physicians to leave their current practice) and doubt about their careers (2.17 times more likely than non-HMO African-American physicians to express serious career doubts). CONCLUSIONS: African-American physicians were disproportionately hired into HMO settings, impacting their subsequent careers. PMID

  3. A Longitudinal Study of Racial Discrimination and Risk for Death Ideation in African American Youth.

    PubMed

    Walker, Rheeda; Francis, David; Brody, Gene; Simons, Ronald; Cutrona, Carolyn; Gibbons, Frederick

    2017-02-01

    Although multiple studies have found that African Americans commonly experience racial discrimination, available studies have yet to examine how perceived racism might be related to suicide vulnerability in African American youth. The purpose of this study was to examine a framework for how perceived racial discrimination contributes to symptoms of depression and anxiety as well as subsequent suicide ideation and morbid ideation. Data were obtained from 722 African American youth at mean age 10.56 years (SD = 0.64); a second wave of data was obtained 2 years later. Results revealed both a direct effect and mediated effects of perceived racism on later suicide and morbid ideation. For boys and girls, the effect of perceived racism was mediated by symptoms of depression. However, the association was mediated by anxiety for girls, but not for boys in the current sample. Implications for future research and interventions are discussed.

  4. Effects of parental marital status, income, and family functioning on African American adolescent self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Mandara, J; Murray, C B

    2000-09-01

    This study examined the effects of marital status, family income, and family functioning on African American adolescents' self-esteem. One hundred sixteen adolescents participated, 64% of whom were female. Compared with boys with nonmarried parents, boys with married parents had higher overall self-esteem, even when family income and family functioning were controlled. Parental marital status had no effect on girls' self-esteem. Family functioning was a very strong predictor of self-esteem for both sexes. However, family relational factors were more important to girls' self-esteem, whereas structural and growth factors were more important for boys. It was concluded that African American adolescent boys with nonmarried parents are at risk for developing low self-esteem compared with other African American adolescents, but a more controlled and structured environment may buffer the effects of having nonmarried parents.

  5. African American cancer patients' pain experience.

    PubMed

    Im, Eun-Ok; Lim, Hyun-Ju; Clark, Maresha; Chee, Wonshik

    2008-01-01

    Although very little is known about African American cancer patients' pain experience, a few studies have indicated that their cancer pain experience is unique and somewhat different from that of other ethnic groups. The purpose of the study reported in this article was to explore African American cancer patients' pain experience using an online forum. This study was a qualitative online forum designed from a feminist perspective and conducted among 11 African American cancer patients who were recruited through both Internet and real settings. Nine online forum topics were used to administer the 6-month online forum, and the data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Four themes emerged through the data analysis process. First, participants viewed cancer as a challenge in life that they should fight against. Second, cancer pain was differentiated from ordinary pain because cancer was stigmatized in their culture. Third, participants viewed that African Americans, especially women, were culturally raised to be strong, and this African American cultural heritage inhibited cancer patients from expressing pain and seeking help for pain management. Finally, the findings indicated certain changes in perspectives among African American cancer patients during the disease process, which might make them tolerate pain through praying to God and reading the Bible. Based on the findings, we suggest further studies among diverse groups of African American cancer patients, with a focus on cultural attitudes toward cancer pain and influences of family on cancer pain experience.

  6. Neighborhood environment and internalizing problems in African American children.

    PubMed

    Milam, Adam J; Furr-Holden, C Debra; Whitaker, Damiya; Smart, Mieka; Leaf, Philip; Cooley-Strickland, Michele

    2012-02-01

    This study examines gender differences in the association between environment and internalizing problems in a sample of predominately African American schoolchildren. Internalizing problems was assessed using the Youth Self Report. Violence and alcohol and other drug (AOD) exposure subscales were created using observational assessments of neighborhood blocks. Logistic regression models were used to assess the relationship between neighborhood environment and internalizing problems. For each AOD item present on the block the odds of internalizing problems among girls increased by 17% (OR = 1.17, CI: 1.01, 1.35, P = 0.039). The relationship was not significant among boys. Violence exposure did not predict internalizing problems in boys or girls. These preliminary findings suggest that primary school-aged girls' emotional well-being is more negatively impacted by deleterious environments. Future investigations will examine the relationship between deleterious neighborhood environments and internalizing problems as the children age into adolescence.

  7. Anxiety Symptoms in African American Youth: The Role of Puberty and Biological Sex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Rona

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of pubertal status, pubertal timing (actual and perceived), and youth biological sex on symptom dimensions of anxiety (i.e., social, separation, harm avoidance, physical) in African Americans (n = 252; ages 8-12). For girls, results indicated that pubertal status and timing (actual) exerted similar effects for some…

  8. "Funga Alafia": Toward Welcoming, Understanding, and Respecting African American Speakers' Bilingualism and Biliteracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boutte, Gloria Swindler; Johnson, George L., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on the development and experiences of two African American Language speakers who are on the precipice of biliteracy and bilingualism. Using a composite counterstory that integrates samples of the girls' language during daily routines as a critical race theoretical analytic tool, we examine their language virtuosity as…

  9. Young African American Children Constructing Identities in an Urban Integrated Science-Literacy Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Justine M.

    2009-01-01

    This is a qualitative study of identities constructed and enacted by four 3rd-grade African American children (two girls and two boys) in an urban classroom that engaged in a year-long, integrated science-literacy project. Juxtaposing narrative and discursive identity lenses, coupled with race and gender perspectives, I examined the ways in which…

  10. Monitoring knowledge among family, sexually transmitted infections, and sexual partnership characteristics of African American adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Riley J; Swartzendruber, Andrea L; Rose, Eve; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2014-10-01

    Among 284 African American girls aged 14 to 17 years, frequent family monitoring knowledge was associated with a reduced likelihood of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and having a casual sex partner but was not associated with other partnership characteristics. Family monitoring may offer an additional STI prevention opportunity for this vulnerable population.

  11. MyPyramid.gov knowledge and access among rural southwest Mississippi African American adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study used a qualitative approach to identify knowledge of food recommendations found on MyPyramid.gov and access to MyPyramid.gov among limited-income African American youth. We conducted 5 single-sex focus groups with 9 boys and 30 girls (grades 5th and 6th). Data processing and analysis incl...

  12. Culture Clash: Interactions between Afrocultural and Mainstream Cultural Styles in Classrooms Serving African American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouland, Karmen; Matthews, Jamaal S.; Byrd, Christy M.; Meyer, Rika M. L.; Rowley, Stephanie J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relation between classroom cultural and achievement-related characteristics and their influence on social outcomes in a sample of 74 fifth grade African American youth (41 girls; 33 boys) ages 10-13 years. Trained observers rated classrooms according to Boykin's (Boykin, Tyler, & Miller, 2005) definition of mainstream…

  13. Social and Psychological Factors Associated with AIDS Risk Behaviors among Low Income, Urban, African American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Maureen M.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Studied factors associated with sexual intercourse and substance use among young, low income, African-American adolescents. Found that sexual activity was associated with parental conflict and having sexually active friends. Boys reported less parental monitoring and family and community support than girls and were more likely to report sexual…

  14. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Coombs, Catherine C; Falchi, Lorenzo; Weinberg, J Brice; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Lanasa, Mark C

    2012-11-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most prevalent leukemia in the United States with almost 4390 attributable deaths per year. Epidemiologic data compiled by the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program identifies important differences in incidence and survival for African Americans with CLL. Although the incidence of CLL is lower among African Americans than among Caucasians (4.6 and 6.2 per 100 000 men, respectively), age-adjusted survival is inferior. African American patients with CLL are almost twice as likely to die from a CLL-related complication in the first 5 years after diagnosis as are Caucasian patients with CLL. The biologic basis for these observations is almost entirely unexplored, and a comprehensive clinical analysis of African American patients with CLL is lacking. This is the subject of the present review.

  15. HIV/AIDS among African Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... person’s chance of getting or transmitting HIV. The poverty rate is higher among African Americans than other racial/ethnic groups. The socioeconomic issues associated with poverty—including limited access to high-quality health care, ...

  16. Mellonee Burnim on African American Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Patricia Shehan

    1995-01-01

    Describes the role and influence of Mellonee Burnim on U.S. music education. Discusses the origins and impact of African American gospel music. Includes a list of selected resources and two lesson plans featuring gospel music. (CFR)

  17. African-American/white differences in the age of menarche: accounting for the difference.

    PubMed

    Reagan, Patricia B; Salsberry, Pamela J; Fang, Muriel Z; Gardner, William P; Pajer, Kathleen

    2012-10-01

    Lifetime health disparity between African-American and white females begins with lower birthweight and higher rates of childhood overweight. In adolescence, African-American girls experience earlier menarche. Understanding the origins of these health disparities is a national priority. There is growing literature suggesting that the life course health development model is a useful framework for studying disparities. The purpose of this study was to quantify the influence of explanatory factors from key developmental stages on the age of menarche and to determine how much of the overall race difference in age of menarche they could explain. The factors were maternal age of menarche, birthweight, poverty during early childhood (age 0 through 5 years), and child BMI z-scores at 6 years. The sample, drawn from the US National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth Child-Mother file, consisted of 2337 girls born between 1978 and 1998. Mean age of menarche in months was 144 for African-American girls and 150 for whites. An instrumental variable approach was used to estimate a causal effect of child BMI z-score on age of menarche. The instrumental variables were pre-pregnancy BMI, high gestational weight gain and smoking during pregnancy. We found strong effects of maternal age of menarche, birthweight, and child BMI z-score (-5.23, 95% CI [-7.35,-3.12]) for both African-Americans and whites. Age of menarche declined with increases in exposure to poverty during early childhood for whites. There was no effect of poverty for African-Americans. We used Oaxaca decomposition techniques to determine how much of the overall race difference in age of menarche was attributable to race differences in observable factors and how much was due to race dependent responses. The African-American/white difference in childhood BMI explained about 18% of the overall difference in age of menarche and birthweight differences explained another 11%.

  18. Prevalence of prematurely lost primary teeth in 5–10-year-old children in Thamar city, Yemen: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Murshid, Sakhr A.; Al-Labani, Mohammed A.; Aldhorae, Khalid A.; Rodis, Omar M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The premature loss of primary teeth is a potential risk factor for poor arch length development. Adequate arch length is important to the progression of the permanent teeth. Poor arch length can lead to crowding, ectopic eruption, or impaction of these teeth. This study is designed to assess the prevalence of premature loss of primary teeth in the 5-10-year-old age group. Materials and Methods: The study group included 185 children, that is, 91 boys and 94 girls. The dental examination was conducted by an experienced examiner under sufficient artificial light. Data including patient age and missing teeth were collected. Descriptive statistics were applied for data analysis, and from the results, Chi-square tests were used at a level of significance of 5% (P < 0.05). Results: We observed a 40.54% prevalence of premature loss of primary teeth with no statistically significant difference between genders. The lower left primary second molar was the most commonly absent tooth in the dental arch (13.5%). Conclusion: The status of premature loss of primary teeth was high in the study group. Implementation of efficient educational and preventive programs to promote oral health would help children maintain a healthy primary dentition and eventually prevent the disturbances in the future development of normal occlusion. Early detection and management of the space problems associated with the early loss of primary teeth would help in reducing malocclusion problems. PMID:27652244

  19. African American Pastors' Beliefs and Actions Regarding Childhood Incest in the African American Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Tesia Denis

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative study sought to explore African American pastors' beliefs and actions regarding childhood incest in the African American community and their decisions to inform the proper authorities. This exploratory study was developed in order to draw both public and academic attention to the understudied phenomenon of childhood incest within…

  20. The Pedagogy of African American Parents: Learning from Educational Excellence in the African American Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Audrey P.

    2006-01-01

    This qualitative study of how parents teach their children to excel academically in the African American community seeks to establish the validity of the pedagogical practices of working class African American families by investigating the educational leadership of two families on Chicago's south side. The study acknowledges the significance of…

  1. Social cognition in context: validating a cartoon-based attributional measure for urban girls.

    PubMed

    Leff, Stephen S; Crick, Nicki R; Angelucci, Jennifer; Haye, Kisha; Jawad, Abbas F; Grossman, Michael; Power, Thomas J

    2006-01-01

    Standard approaches to the development of psychological measures emphasize the role of the research team in identifying constructs, generating and retaining items, and establishing psychometric soundness. Although there are a number of strengths associated with these methods, the resulting measures may not be culturally sensitive to minority cultural groups. In order to address this need, the authors partnered with African American inner-city 3rd- and 4th-grade girls (predominantly 9- and 10-year-olds) to design and validate a cartoon-based hostile attributional bias measure that is developmentally and culturally sensitive. This paper illustrates how a partnership-based research model can be used to design measurement tools sensitive to the ways in which developmental processes are influenced by an urban, low-income, ecological context.

  2. Surgical treatment of an acetabular fracture and labral tear with suture anchors in a 10-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Mormor, Meir; Matityahu, Amir

    2009-11-01

    This article presents a case of a 10-year-old boy with a right acetabular fracture secondary to a direct blow to the pelvis and back. He sustained a right hip dislocation and transverse with posterior wall acetabular fracture with a nonconcentric hip joint after reduction. The fracture was treated with right labral and articular segment absorbable suture tie-down and relocation of the right hip into an anatomical position. At 32-month follow-up, the patient had returned to activities of daily living, he had a normal and symmetric gait pattern, and no pain on hip adduction, flexion, or internal rotation. This technique reduced the fracture and labrum, relocated the hip joint, and obviated the need for hardware removal that is typically needed in the pediatric population. This case is distinctive due to the patient's young age and treatment method, which has not been described previously for the treatment of this rare pediatric fracture.

  3. Metastatic Primary Signet Ring Cell Carcinoma of Rectum: A Case Report of 10-Year-old Male Child

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Kumkum; Singh, Amit; Bhutra, Shyam; Pachori, Geeta; Jangir, Mahesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Signet ring cell carcinomas of the colon and rectum are well documented in the adult population, but the incidence is very low in the paediatric population. Signet ring cell carcinoma has more malignant potential, mostly present as advanced stage and carries very poor prognosis. We are describing a 10-year-old male patient who presented with acute intestinal obstruction; radiology revealed large bowel obstruction and was diagnosed metastatic primary signet ring cell carcinoma of rectum on biopsy. We have discussed the diagnostic work-up and the management of this rare entity. Due to the high mortality that can be caused by a delay in making the correct diagnosis, signet ring cell carcinoma of colorectum represents a special diagnostic and surgical challenge. PMID:24701526

  4. Whole clavicle sequestration from chronic osteomyelitis in a 10 year old boy: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Thaddeus Chika, Agu; Emeka, Ojiaku Mathew

    2016-01-01

    Chronic osteomyelitis is a childhood disease and so it is not uncommon to diagnose it in a 10 year old boy who is suffering from pains and discharging sinuses from the left shoulder girdle. What is not common is the involvement of the clavicle in this infective process and even more uncommon is for the whole length of the clavicle to sequester. This case report describes a rare case of chronic osteomyelitis of the left clavicle in which the entire length was removed as a sequestrum during surgery. And despite the removal of an entire length of the clavicle in the patient, there was no functional deficit and there was also no shoulder asymmetry. PMID:26981238

  5. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Frontal EEG Asymmetry and Alpha Power in 9–10 Year Old Twins

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yu; Tuvblad, Catherine; Raine, Adrian; Lozano, Dora I.; Baker, Laura A.

    2008-01-01

    Modest genetic influences on frontal EEG asymmetry have been found in adults, but little is known about its genetic origins in children. Resting frontal asymmetry and alpha power were examined in 951 9–10-year-old twins. Results showed that in both males and females: (1) a modest but significant amount of variance in frontal asymmetry was accounted for by genetic factors (11–27%) with the remainder accounted for by non-shared environmental influences, and (2) alpha power were highly heritable, with 70–85% of the variance accounted for by genetic factors. Results suggest that the genetic architecture of frontal asymmetry and alpha power in late childhood are similar to that in adulthood and that the high non-shared environmental influences on frontal asymmetry may reflect environmentally-influenced individual differences in the maturation of frontal cortex as well as state-dependent influences on specific measurements. PMID:19386046

  6. An intestinal neuroendocrine tumour associated with paroxysmal ventricular tachycardia and melaena in a 10-year-old boxer.

    PubMed

    Tappin, S; Brown, P; Ferasin, L

    2008-01-01

    A 10-year-old female neutered boxer was presented with a five-week history of episodic collapse and melaena. Twenty-four-hour electrocardiograph (Holter) analysis revealed the collapsing episodes to coincide with episodes of paroxysmal ventricular tachycardia. Investigation of the dog's melaena revealed a gastric ulcer which was treated medically and an ileocaecal mass which was surgically excised. Histopathological examination of the mass was consistent with a neuroendocrine (carcinoid) tumour. The patient's recovery after surgery was unremarkable. At six-week follow-up, there had been no further episodes of melaena or collapse and repeat Holter analysis did not show any significant abnormalities. In this dog the gastric ulceration and paroxysmal ventricular tachycardia could be attributed to a paraneoplastic syndrome as a result of circulating vasoactive substances released by the tumour; this is supported by the evidence that all clinical signs resolved after surgical excision of the mass and the dog was clinically well 18 months after surgery.

  7. Treatment of a severe conversion disorder in a 10-year-old boy: a case study and overview.

    PubMed

    Ozsungur, Berna; Foto-Özdemir, Dilşad; Ozusta, Seniz; Topçu, Meral; Topaloğlu, Haluk

    2012-01-01

    Conversion disorder (CD) in children remains a major challenge both in pediatric and mental health clinics and is still a prevalent psychiatric disorder in developing countries. The authors describe a 10-year-old boy with the complaints of inability to walk, speak or eat, excessive drooling, urinary and fecal incontinence, disturbance from light and sound, and expression of needs only by eye movements. The patient diagnosed with CD was followed by the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry with play therapy, individual psychotherapy and family therapy. At the end of three months, the patient was discharged. This is one of the most challenging cases of CD in children. The most important aim of the treatment is to understand the need for conversion symptoms and to constitute a healthy psychological environment for the child rather than to remove the physical symptoms.

  8. Intra-uterine growth restriction as a risk factor for hypertension in children six to 10 years old

    PubMed Central

    Zamecznik, Agata; Niewiadomska-Jarosik, Katarzyna; Zamojska, Justyna; Stańczyk, Jerzy; Wosiak, Agnieszka; Moll, Jadwiga

    2014-01-01

    Summary Introduction Intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) is present in about 3–10% of live-born newborns and it is as high as 20–30% in developing countries. Since the 1990s, it has been known that abnormalities during foetal growth may result in cardiovascular disease, including hypertension in adulthood. Methods This study evaluated blood pressure parameters (using ambulatory blood pressure monitoring) in children aged six to 10 years old, born as small for gestational age (SGA), and compared them to their healthy peers born as appropriate for gestational age (AGA). Results In the SGA group, an abnormal blood pressure level (prehypertension or hypertension) was present significantly more often than in the AGA group (50 vs 16%, p < 0.01). This relationship also occurred in association with the type of IUGR (asymmetric p < 0.01, symmetric p < 0.05). Conclusion In SGA children, abnormal blood pressure values occurred more frequently than in AGA children. PMID:24844552

  9. Operative management of bilateral Salter-Harris type III fractures of the proximal phalanges of the great toes of a 10-year-old female ballet dancer: a case report.

    PubMed

    Csonka, Akos; Sikarinkul, Eakachit; Gargyan, Istvan; Boa, Kristof; Varga, Endre

    2016-07-01

    Differentiation between the normal variant cleft epiphysis and Salter-Harris type III fracture of the first proximal phalanges of the foot in children might be challenging. The authors describe a case of a 10-year-old ballet dancer girl with bilateral epiphyseal segmentation of the first proximal phalanges of the foot, unresponsive to conservative treatment. Considered a nonhealing stress-induced fracture, operative treatment with closed reduction and Herbert screw insertion was chosen on both sides. Complete union was achieved, with significant reduction of pain. The presented case suggests that internal fixation can be a viable option in the treatment of the problem.

  10. Effects of multiple planning constraints on the development of grasp posture planning in 6- to 10-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Stöckel, Tino; Hughes, Charmayne M L

    2015-09-01

    This experiment examined how multiple planning constraints affect grasp posture planning in 6- to 10-year-old children (n = 16 in each group) by manipulating the intended object end-orientation (left end-down, right end-down) and initial precision demands (standard, initial precision) of a bar transport task. Results indicated that grasp posture planning was strongly influenced by multiple planning constraints. During the standard condition the sensitivity toward comfortable final hand postures (end-state comfort) was similar for all age groups in right end-down trials, and corresponded to values reported in adult populations. In contrast, there was an age-related increase in end-state comfort compliance during left end-down trials. During the initial precision condition end-state comfort was similar across all groups for left end-down trials. However, end-state comfort compliance was significantly lower for the 6-year-old children than in all other age groups for right end-down trials. In sum, the ability of children to plan their goal-related movements is influenced by the presence of task-related constraints that increase the overall cognitive demands of the task. The demands associated with selecting the appropriate grasp posture during the most cognitive demanding condition required more cognitive resources than 6- to 10-year-old children possess. Removing the conflict between the goal-directed and habitual systems reduces some of these costs, with data indicating that the ability to integrate multiple planning constraints first emerges at 7 years of age, and improves over the developmental spectrum.

  11. Integration of internal and external facial features in 8- to 10-year-old children and adults.

    PubMed

    Meinhardt-Injac, Bozana; Persike, Malte; Meinhardt, Günter

    2014-06-01

    Investigation of whole-part and composite effects in 4- to 6-year-old children gave rise to claims that face perception is fully mature within the first decade of life (Crookes & McKone, 2009). However, only internal features were tested, and the role of external features was not addressed, although external features are highly relevant for holistic face perception (Sinha & Poggio, 1996; Axelrod & Yovel, 2010, 2011). In this study, 8- to 10-year-old children and adults performed a same-different matching task with faces and watches. In this task participants attended to either internal or external features. Holistic face perception was tested using a congruency paradigm, in which face and non-face stimuli either agreed or disagreed in both features (congruent contexts) or just in the attended ones (incongruent contexts). In both age groups, pronounced context congruency and inversion effects were found for faces, but not for watches. These findings indicate holistic feature integration for faces. While inversion effects were highly similar in both age groups, context congruency effects were stronger for children. Moreover, children's face matching performance was generally better when attending to external compared to internal features. Adults tended to perform better when attending to internal features. Our results indicate that both adults and 8- to 10-year-old children integrate external and internal facial features into holistic face representations. However, in children's face representations external features are much more relevant. These findings suggest that face perception is holistic but still not adult-like at the end of the first decade of life.

  12. Trichomonas vaginalis, HIV, and African-Americans.

    PubMed Central

    Sorvillo, F.; Smith, L.; Kerndt, P.; Ash, L.

    2001-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis may be emerging as one of the most important cofactors in amplifying HIV transmission, particularly in African-American communities of the United States. In a person co-infected with HIV, the pathology induced by T. vaginalis infection can increase HIV shedding. Trichomonas infection may also act to expand the portal of entry for HIV in an HIV-negative person. Studies from Africa have suggested that T. vaginalis infection may increase the rate of HIV transmission by approximately twofold. Available data indicate that T. vaginalis is highly prevalent among African-Americans in major urban centers of the United States and is often the most common sexually transmitted infection in black women. Even if T. vaginalis increases the risk of HIV transmission by a small amount, this could translate into an important amplifying effect since Trichomonas is so common. Substantial HIV transmission may be attributable to T. vaginalis in African-American communities of the United States. PMID:11747718

  13. Cancer statistics for African Americans, 2013.

    PubMed

    DeSantis, Carol; Naishadham, Deepa; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2013-05-01

    In this article, the American Cancer Society estimates the number of new cancer cases and deaths for African Americans and compiles the most recent data on cancer incidence, mortality, survival, and screening prevalence based upon incidence data from the National Cancer Institute, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries and mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics. It is estimated that 176,620 new cases of cancer and 64,880 deaths will occur among African Americans in 2013. From 2000 to 2009, the overall cancer death rate among males declined faster among African Americans than whites (2.4% vs 1.7% per year), but among females, the rate of decline was similar (1.5% vs 1.4% per year, respectively). The decrease in cancer death rates among African American males was the largest of any racial or ethnic group. The reduction in overall cancer death rates since 1990 in men and 1991 in women translates to the avoidance of nearly 200,000 deaths from cancer among African Americans. Five-year relative survival is lower for African Americans than whites for most cancers at each stage of diagnosis. The extent to which these disparities reflect unequal access to health care versus other factors remains an active area of research. Overall, progress in reducing cancer death rates has been made, although more can and should be done to accelerate this progress through ensuring equitable access to cancer prevention, early detection, and state-of-the-art treatments.

  14. The management of hypertension in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Ferdinand, Keith C; Armani, Annemarie M

    2007-06-01

    The prevalence of hypertension in blacks in the United States is among the highest in the world. Compared with whites, blacks develop hypertension at an earlier age, their average blood pressures are much higher and they experience worse disease severity. Consequently, blacks have a 1.3 times greater rate of nonfatal stroke, 1.8 times greater rate of fatal stroke, 1.5 times greater rate of heart disease death, 4.2 times greater rate of end-stage kidney disease, and a 50% higher frequency of heart failure; overall, mortality due to hypertension and its consequences is 4 to 5 times more likely in African Americans than in whites. The increased prevalence of hypertension and excessive target organ damage is due to a combination of genetic and, most likely, environmental factors. There are no clinical trial data at present to suggest that lower-than-usual BP targets should be set for high-risk demographic groups such as African Americans. The primary means of prevention and early treatment of hypertension in African Americans will be the appropriate use of lifestyle modification. The International Society of Hypertension in Blacks guidelines realize that most patients will require combination therapy, many of them first-line, to reach appropriate BP goals. Although certain classes and combinations of antihypertensive agents have been well-established to be effective, the choice of drugs for combination therapy in African American patients may be different. Within the African American group, the responsiveness to monotherapy with ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and beta blockers may be less than the responsiveness to diuretics and calcium channel blockers, but these differences are corrected when diuretics are added to the neurohormonal antagonists. Of note, African American patients with systolic BP >15 mm Hg or a diastolic BP >10 mm Hg above goal should be treated with first-line combination therapy.

  15. Early sexual behavior in a sample of low-income, African American Children.

    PubMed

    Thigpen, Jeffry W

    2009-01-01

    This study describes the sexual behavior of 2- to 12-year-old African American children without known histories of sexual abuse and explores the relation of this behavior to gender and age. Primary caregivers were recruited from a public "Well Child" clinic and administered the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory (CSBI), a parental report measure that assesses a broad range of childhood sexual behaviors within 9 specific domains. CSBI data were collected on 249 African American children. Results indicate that African American children display a broad range of sexual behavior that was not reported to frequently occur. Sexual behaviors that involved requesting, planning, or forcing other children and adults into sexual activity were not reported. Although significant differences were not found between frequency levels of sexual behavior reported for boys and girls, the range of sexual behavior observed and reported for girls was narrower in comparison to boys. Significant differences were found between frequency levels of sexual behavior observed and reported for children of different ages. Analysis of the behavioral differences found between children of different ages indicates the emergence of a marked interest in sexuality as African American children approached puberty.

  16. What about African Americans and High Blood Pressure?

    MedlinePlus

    ANSWERS by heart Lifestyle + Risk Reduction High Blood Pressure What About African Americans and High Blood Pressure? The prevalence of high blood pressure in African Americans is among the highest in ...

  17. "Oh, Those Loud Black Girls!": A Phenomenological Study of Black Girls Talking with an Attitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koonce, Jacqueline B.

    2012-01-01

    Current research suggests that it is imperative for researchers and educators to pay more attention to the needs of African American adolescent girls and how their race and gender affect schooling (Fordham, 1993; Morris, 2007). The purpose of this study was to highlight the lived experiences of two African American adolescent girls when they used…

  18. Reproducibility and Relative Validity of a Short Food Frequency Questionnaire in 9–10 Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Saeedi, Pouya; Skeaff, Sheila A.; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Skidmore, Paula M. L.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the reproducibility and validity of a non-quantitative 28-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Children aged 9–10 years (n = 50) from three schools in Dunedin, New Zealand, completed the FFQ twice and a four-day estimated food diary (4DEFD) over a two-week period. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and Spearman’s correlation coefficients (SCC) were used to determine reproducibility and validity of the FFQ, respectively. Weekly intakes were estimated for each food item and aggregated into 23 food items/groups. More than half of the food items/groups (52.2%) had an ICC ≥0.5. The median SCC between FFQ administrations was 0.66 (ranging from 0.40 for processed meat to 0.82 for sweets and non-dairy drinks). Cross-classification analysis between the first FFQ and 4DEFD for ranking participants into thirds showed that breakfast cereals had the highest agreement (54.0%) and pasta the lowest (34.0%). In validity analyses, 70% of food items/groups had a SCC ≥0.3. Results indicate that the FFQ is a useful tool for ranking children according to food items/groups intake. The low respondent burden and relative simplicity of the FFQ makes it suitable for use in large cohort studies of 9–10 year-old children in New Zealand. PMID:27164137

  19. Family meals: perceptions of benefits and challenges among parents of 8- to 10-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Fulkerson, Jayne A; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Rydell, Sarah

    2008-04-01

    The study purpose was to examine parental perceptions of the mealtime environment in families with school-aged children and identify strategies to improve the dietary quality of meals. Cross-sectional surveys were completed by a convenience sample of 107 parents (86% mothers, 14% fathers) of 8- to 10-year-old children who were recruited from afterschool child care programs/elementary schools. SAS (version 9.1) was used to produce descriptive frequencies of parental reports of positive and negative perceptions of mealtime. Parents reported frequent family meals; however, they indicated that family dinners were eaten at full-service restaurants, purchased from fast-food establishments, or picked up as takeout foods at least weekly (47.0%, 28.3%, and 23.8%, respectively). Conflicts about food were problematic for some families (40.2% on at least some days), and appeared to be related to children's food pickiness. Parents reported many benefits of family meals, including time for conversation, feelings of togetherness, shared nutrition, and ceremony. Areas where parents desired change included assistance with meal planning, food preparation, and clean-up; spending more time at meals; assistance with children's food pickiness; new recipes and meal ideas; and decreasing conflict at mealtimes. Findings suggest that interventions to increase family meal frequency and promote healthful foods at mealtimes should address promoting food acceptance among children, sharing responsibilities among parents and children for meal planning and preparation, decreasing conflict at meals, and eating out healthfully.

  20. Association between the Family Nutrition and Physical Activity screening tool and cardiovascular disease risk factors in 10-year old children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yee, Kimbo Edward

    Purpose. To examine the association of the Family Nutrition and Physical Activity (FNPA) screening tool, a behaviorally based screening tool designed to assess the obesogenic family environment and behaviors, with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in 10-year old children. Methods. One hundred nineteen children were assessed for body mass index (BMI), percent body fat (%BF), waist circumference (WC), total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and resting blood pressure. A continuous CVD risk score was created using total cholesterol to HDL-cholesterol ratio (TC:HDL), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and WC. The FNPA survey was completed by parents. The associations between the FNPA score and individual CVD risk factors and the continuous CVD risk score were examined using correlation analyses. Results. Approximately 35% of the sample were overweight (19%) or obese (16%). The mean FNPA score was 24.6 +/- 2.5 (range 18 to 29). Significant correlations were found between the FNPA score and WC (r = -.35, p<.01), BMI percentile (r = -.38, p<.01), %BF (r = -.43, p<.01), and the continuous CVD risk score (r = -.22, p = .02). No significant association was found between the FNPA score and TC:HDL (r=0.10, p=0.88) or MAP (r=-0.12, p=0.20). Conclusion. Children from a high-risk, obesogenic family environment as indicated with a lower FNPA score have a higher CVD risk factor profile than children from a low-risk family environment.

  1. Using Bishop’s Card Reaching Task to Assess Hand Preference in 8- to 10-Year-Old Czech Children

    PubMed Central

    Musalek, Martin; Scharoun, Sara Marie; Bryden, Pamela J.

    2016-01-01

    Hand preference is one of the most apparent functional asymmetry in humans. Under contralateral control, performance is more proficient with the preferred hand; however, the difference between the two hands is greater in right handers, considering left handers generally display less cerebral lateralization. One method of evaluating hand preference is Bishop’s card reaching task; however, information regarding validity and sensitivity with children in limited. This study assessed the relationship between Bishop’s card reaching task and five hand preference tasks in 8- to 10-year-old typically-developing children from the Czech Republic (N = 376). Structural equation modelling identified a one factor model as the most suitable, including Bishop’s card reaching task and three hand preference tasks (ringing, throwing, and rolling with dice). The factor validity (.89) and sensitivity of Bishop’s card reaching task (90% to 97%) provided a very good identification of hand preference. These results support the suitability of Bishop’s card reaching task as a separate test for determining hand preference in children. Accordingly, we suggest that the assessment of handedness, particularly in neurodevelopmental disorders where the proportion of right-handers and left-handers is disrupted (e.g., children with DCD or ADHD), should make use of Bishop’s card reaching task alongside other unimanual tasks. PMID:27835677

  2. Intravitreal tPA Injection and Pneumatic Displacement for Submacular Hemorrhage in a 10-Year-Old Child

    PubMed Central

    Hirose, Hiroshi; Hattori, Tomohiro

    2016-01-01

    Background. Submacular hemorrhage can occur after blunt trauma to the eye. Intravitreal tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and gas injection are often used for treatment and are effective for submacular hemorrhage caused by age-related macular degeneration. This report describes the clinical outcome in a child with submacular hemorrhage caused by traumatic choroidal rupture who underwent successful intravitreal tPA injection and pneumatic displacement. Case Presentation. A 10-year-old boy developed sudden decrease of vision and a central scotoma in his right eye after trauma. Submacular hemorrhage was found in the eye. Visual acuity was 20/70 OD. Tissue plasminogen activator (12.5 μg in 0.05 mL) and 0.3 mL of pure sulfur hexafluoride were injected into the vitreous cavity under general anesthesia. After surgery, the patient was instructed to maintain a prone position. Displacement of the submacular hemorrhage from the fovea revealed a choroidal rupture, presumed to be the cause of the hemorrhage. After 4 months of follow-up, visual acuity was restored and final visual acuity is 20/16. Conclusion. Intravitreal tPA and gas injection can be an effective treatment for children with submacular hemorrhage. PMID:27722001

  3. Reach tracking reveals dissociable processes underlying inhibitory control in 5- to 10-year-olds and adults.

    PubMed

    Erb, Christopher D; Moher, Jeff; Song, Joo-Hyun; Sobel, David M

    2017-02-24

    Researchers have proposed that two processes featuring distinct types of inhibition support inhibitory control: a response threshold adjustment process involving the global inhibition of motor output and a conflict resolution process involving competitive inhibition among co-active response alternatives. To target the development of these processes, we measured the reaching behavior of 5- to 10-year-olds (Experiment 1) and adults (Experiment 2) as they performed an Eriksen flanker task. This method provided two key measures: initiation time (the time elapsed between stimulus onset and movement onset) and reach curvature (the degree to which a movement deviates from a direct path to the selected target). We suggest that initiation time reflects the response threshold adjustment process by indexing the degree of motoric stopping experienced before a movement is started, while reach curvature reflects the conflict resolution process by indexing the degree of co-activation between response alternatives over the course of a movement. Our results support this claim, revealing different patterns effects in initiation time and curvature, and divergent developmental trajectories between childhood and adulthood. These findings provide behavioral evidence for the dissociation between global and competitive inhibition, and offer new insight into the development of inhibitory control.

  4. Quantitative genetics of cortical bone mass in healthy 10-year-old children from the Fels Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Duren, Dana L.; Sherwood, Richard J.; Choh, Audrey C.; Czerwinski, Stefan A.; Chumlea, Wm. Cameron; Lee, Miryoung; Sun, Shumei S.; Demerath, Ellen W.; Siervogel, Roger M.; Towne, Bradford

    2007-01-01

    The genetic influences on bone mass likely change throughout the life span, but most genetic studies of bone mass regulation have focused on adults. There is, however, a growing awareness of the importance of genes influencing the acquisition of bone mass during childhood on lifelong bone health. The present investigation examines genetic influences on childhood bone mass by estimating the residual heritabilities of different measures of second metacarpal bone mass in a sample of 600 10-year-old participants from 144 families in the Fels Longitudinal Study. Bivariate quantitative genetic analyses were conducted to estimate genetic correlations between cortical bone mass measures, and measures of bone growth and development. Using a maximum likelihood-based variance components method for pedigree data, we found a residual heritability estimate of 0.71 for second metacarpal cortical index. Residual heritability estimates for individual measures of cortical bone (e.g., lateral cortical thickness, medial cortical thickness) ranged from 0.47 to 0.58, at this pre-pubertal childhood age. Low genetic correlations were found between cortical bone measures and both bone length and skeletal age. However, after Bonferonni adjustment for multiple testing, ρG was not significantly different from 0 for any of these pairs of traits. Results of this investigation provide evidence of significant genetic control over bone mass largely independent of maturation while bones are actively growing and before rapid accrual of bone that typically occurs during puberty. PMID:17056310

  5. Oral Cancer in African Americans: Addressing Health Disparities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodd, Virginia J.; Watson, Jennifer M.; Choi, Youjin; Tomar, Scott L.; Logan, Henrietta L.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To explore factors underlying African Americans' perceptions of oral cancer and the oral cancer exam. Study findings were used to guide development of oral cancer messages designed to increase oral cancer exams among African Americans. Methods: Focus groups were conducted to understand African Americans' attitudes and expectations…

  6. African American Acculturation and Black Racial Identity: A Preliminary Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope-Davis, Donald B.; Liu, William M.; Ledesma-Jones, Shannon; Nevitt, Jonathan

    2000-01-01

    Examines the relationship between acculturation and racial identity among African Americans. One hundred eighty-seven African American students completed the Black Racial Identity Attitude Scale and the African American Acculturation Scale (AAAS). Acculturation was associated with three of the five AAAS subscales: Dissonance, Immersion, and…

  7. Exposure of African-American Youth to Alcohol Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    The marketing of alcohol products in African-American communities has, on occasion, stirred national controversy and met with fierce resistance from African Americans and others. Despite occasional media and community spotlights on the marketing of alcohol products in the African-American community, there has been no systematic review of the…

  8. Exploring How African American Faculty Cope with Classroom Racial Stressors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittman, Chavella T.

    2010-01-01

    This study was an examination of how African American faculty discussed their coping with racially stressful classrooms. Despite aims for racial equality in higher education, the classroom has been a significant site of racial stressors for African American facility. Analysis of interviews with 16 (8 women, 8 men) African American faculty at a…

  9. African-American Males' Health Perceptions and Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeal, CoSandra; Perkins, Isaac; Lyons, Shenia

    2006-01-01

    Research on African American men's health is limited. Perception and knowledge of health may have a significant effect on health seeking behavior and self care. This study was designed to examine factors that may influence health perception and knowledge among African American males. This is a cross-sectional study of 343 African American males…

  10. Perceptions of Domestic Violence: A Dialogue with African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bent-Goodley, Tricia B.

    2004-01-01

    Although empirical research has accumulated over the past 20 years regarding African Americans and domestic violence, many questions remain about African American perceptions of domestic violence. This article explores African American women's perceptions about domestic violence through three focus groups held at a New York social services agency.…

  11. African American Educational Leadership in the School Superintendency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Eva C.

    2013-01-01

    African American educational leadership has long been part of American education and African American activism to resist oppression. However, the field of educational leadership has rarely included the contributions of African American leaders, particularly women leaders, into mainstream leadership theory and practices. This omission is difficult…

  12. 77 FR 5375 - National African American History Month, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8776 of January 31, 2012 National African American History Month, 2012 By the... for the better. During National African American History Month, we celebrate the rich legacy of... African American women are not limited to those recorded and retold in our history books. Their impact...

  13. 76 FR 6519 - National African American History Month, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-04

    ... February 4, 2011 Part II The President Proclamation 8627--National African American History Month, 2011 #0..., 2011 National African American History Month, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A... breaking down barriers. During National African American History Month, we celebrate the vast...

  14. From Crisis to Empowerment: African American Women in Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Marcie Ann

    2012-01-01

    Social challenges tear at the fabric of the African American family, revealing complexities that identify a de facto leader, the African American woman. She exists in a chasm of overt circumstances which heavily influences her successes. The purpose of this study is to identify factors that motivated seven female African American community college…

  15. Barriers to Hospice Use among African Americans: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Karla T.; Bickel-Swenson, Denise; Stephens, Nathan

    2008-01-01

    The present review was undertaken to explore recent evidence in the professional literature pertaining to use of hospice services by African Americans. The article addresses the research methods that have been used to study African American hospice use, obstacles to African American participation in hospice that have been identified, and…

  16. School Counseling for African American Adolescents: The Alfred Adler Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapp, Marty

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses how Adlerian counseling can be used as a form of school counseling for African American adolescents. Moreover, school counseling for African American adolescents is discussed within the context of African American culture. Due to the strength-based nature of Adlerian approach, it can capitalize on African American…

  17. Persistence among African American Males in the Honors College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson Goins, Johnell Roxann

    2014-01-01

    Retaining African American students, specifically African American males, is an issue that plagues the American higher education system. Research shows that African American male students are the lowest represented group in the gifted studies programs (Ford, 2010). Lockie and Burke (1999); Chen and DeJardins (2010) and Bell (2010a) found that…

  18. African American Males in Counseling: Who's Pulling the Trigger Now?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bethea-Whitfield, Patricia

    African American males face numerous challenges to their physical and psychological well-being. This project is a survey of the literature and trends relative to African American males from 1987 to the present. In reviewing the fifteen years since Parham and McDavis published their now famous article on African American men as an endangered…

  19. Representing African American Women in U.S. History Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schocker, Jessica B.; Woyshner, Christine

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the dearth of African American women in high school U.S. history textbooks. The authors conducted a content analysis of the images in an African American history textbook and found that black women are underrepresented. Women are found in less than 15 percent of the images in the African American history text, while they…

  20. An Exploration of African American Students' Attitudes toward Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okwumabua, Theresa M.; Walker, Kristin M.; Hu, Xiangen; Watson, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    The current work presents exploratory research findings concerning African American students' attitudes toward online learning. The Online Tutoring Attitudes Scale (OTAS; Graff, 2003) was administered to 124 African American students in a positive youth development program. Findings suggest that African American students' attitudes toward…

  1. Vitamin D insufficiency in preadolescent African-American children.

    PubMed

    Rajakumar, Kumaravel; Fernstrom, John D; Janosky, Janine E; Greenspan, Susan L

    2005-10-01

    To determine the proportion of vitamin D insufficiency in 6- to 10-year-old preadolescent African-American children residing in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania and to estimate their therapeutic response to vitamin D 400 IU/day for 1-month, an open-label pre- and post-comparison of vitamin D status following vitamin D 400 IU daily for 1 month during winter and early spring was conducted. Outcomes included serum calcium, phosphorus, albumin, 25 hydroxyvitamin D [25 (OH) D], 1, 25 dihydroxyvitamin D [1, 25 (OH) (2) D], parathyroid hormone (PTH), and markers of bone turnover (serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and urine n-telopeptide crosslinked collagen type 1 [NTX]). Dietary intake of vitamin D was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. Forty-one of the 42 enrolled subjects (mean age: 8.9 +/- 1.2 yrs [SD]) were analyzed, and 20/41 (49%) were vitamin D insufficient. Vitamin D insufficient group had a suggestive trend of being older (9.2 +/- 1.0 years vs. 8.5 +/- 1.3 years, p = 0.06) and more pubertally advanced (Tanner II: 7/20 vs. Tanner II: 1/21, p = 0.02). Mean dietary intake of vitamin D was 277 ( 146 IU/day (n = 41). Adequate intake for vitamin D (200 IU/day) was not met in 16/41 (39%); however, the dietary intake of vitamin D was not significantly different between the vitamin D insufficient and vitamin D sufficient groups.

  2. Toward Understanding Korean and African American Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Edward Taehan

    1996-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan that examines the economic, cultural, and ideological factors that influence Korean and African American relations. Discusses how the two groups perceive each other and situates the role of race and class in this relationship. Includes informational handouts and discussion questions. (MJP)

  3. African-American Axioms and Maxims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zulu, Itibari M.

    1998-01-01

    Examines and describes 30 African-American centered quotation and motivational books, all but one of which were published between 1993 and 1997. The books articulate a diversity of genres and themes. Annotations are divided into: (1) general quotation; (2) daily words and meditation/motivation sources; (3) religion and theology; and (4)…

  4. Reconceptualization of African American Self-Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braithwaite, Harold, Jr.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Focuses on how African American students define self-concept, and whether there is a specific black self-concept. Questionnaires completed by 60 undergraduates at a historically black college provide insight into student self-esteem and support the existence of a specific black self-concept. (SLD)

  5. African American's Perceptions of Psychotherapy and Psychotherapists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Vetta L. Sanders; Akbar, Maysa D.; Bazile, Anita

    The attitudes and beliefs about utilization of mental health services of 201 African Americans, 18 years and older, are explored. One hundred and thirty-four females and 66 males participated in mixed sex focus groups conducted in an urban, Midwestern city. Discussion probes addressed participant perceptions of psychotherapists and psychotherapy,…

  6. Growing Up African American in Catholic Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvine, Jacqueline Jordan, Ed.; Foster, Michele, Ed.

    Contributors to this volume use their own stories to demonstrate success of one institution, the Catholic school system, in educating many African Americans who have gone on to make important contributions to the community. Their own experiences are the starting points for their reflections on the historical and sociological treatment of the…

  7. Colorectal Cancer in African Americans: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Renee; White, Pascale; Nieto, Jose; Vieira, Dorice; Francois, Fritz; Hamilton, Frank

    2016-01-01

    This review is an update to the American College of Gastroenterology (ACG) Committee on Minority Affairs and Cultural Diversity's paper on colorectal cancer (CRC) in African Americans published in 2005. Over the past 10 years, the incidence and mortality rates of CRC in the United States has steadily declined. However, reductions have been strikingly much slower among African Americans who continue to have the highest rate of mortality and lowest survival when compared with all other racial groups. The reasons for the health disparities are multifactorial and encompass physician and patient barriers. Patient factors that contribute to disparities include poor knowledge of benefits of CRC screening, limited access to health care, insurance status along with fear and anxiety. Physician factors include lack of knowledge of screening guidelines along with disparate recommendations for screening. Earlier screening has been recommended as an effective strategy to decrease observed disparities; currently the ACG and American Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopists recommend CRC screening in African Americans to begin at age 45. Despite the decline in CRC deaths in all racial and ethnic groups, there still exists a significant burden of CRC in African Americans, thus other strategies including educational outreach for health care providers and patients and the utilization of patient navigation systems emphasizing the importance of screening are necessary. These strategies have been piloted in both local communities and Statewide resulting in notable significant decreases in observed disparities. PMID:27467183

  8. African American College Women's Suicide Buffers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marion, Michelle S.; Range, Lillian M.

    2003-01-01

    To examine the relationships buffers may have with suicide ideation, 300 African American female college students completed measures of suicide ideation and buffers. Three variables accounted for a significant and unique portion of the variance in suicide ideation: family support, a view that suicide is unacceptable, and a collaborative religious…

  9. African American Women Counselors, Wellness, and Spirituality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowles, Debora; Bryant, Rhonda M.

    2011-01-01

    Given their tremendous professional responsibilities, professional counselors face daunting challenges to remaining healthy and avoiding role stress and overload. This article explores the intersection of race, gender, wellness, and spirituality in the self-care of African American women counselors. The authors give particular attention to…

  10. 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In the Early Space Exploration Conference Center at the KSC Visitor Complex, Dr. Julian M. Earls (left), deputy director for Operations, Glenn Research Center, receives a plaque from astronaut Joan Higginbotham (right) during the 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon. Dr. Earls was guest speaker at the luncheon.

  11. 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In the Early Space Exploration Conference Center at the KSC Visitor Complex, the planning committee for the 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon gather in the lobby. At the far left is Mack McKinney, chief, Programs Resources Management, who was chairperson for the event.

  12. 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Mack McKinney (left), chief, Programs Resources Management, and Delores Abraham (right), with the Astronaut office, flank one of the posters decorating the Early Space Exploration Conference Center at the KSC Visitor Complex for the 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon. McKinney is chairperson for the event.

  13. Violent Behaviors among African-American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Darhyl

    1995-01-01

    Explores the development of behaviors by using Erik Erikson's psychosocial developmental theory, with emphasis on adolescents. Examines factors, such as identity versus identity diffusion, that may be contributing to increasing acts of violence by African American adolescents. Other factors are examined that may contribute to increased violence.…

  14. African American Female Superintendents: Resilient School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Bernadeia H.

    2012-01-01

    Six African American female superintendents who had served as superintendents in at least 2 school districts were interviewed to understand ways in which they responded to barriers and adversity in their roles, with a particular emphasis on issues related to sexism and racism. Study participants shared that they work to engage the community and…

  15. African-American Males: Education or Incarceration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Robert L.

    This paper analyzes the relationship between levels of educational attainment and outcomes for African American males, in particular the likelihood of conflict with the criminal justice system. The analysis begins with a look at society's belief system and political and economic forces, and argues that these have combined to promote failure among…

  16. Promotive Parenting Practices among African American Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams-Wheeler, Meeshay

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine communication/reasoning, behavioral control, and trust as predictors of resourcefulness among African American children during middle childhood (6-12 years of age). Mothers who practice promotive socialization strategies are more likely to rear children who are socially competent and well adjusted. Multiple…

  17. Five Types of African-American Marriages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, William D.; Olson, David H.

    2001-01-01

    Developed a marital typology based on a nonrandom, national sample of 415 African American couples who took the Enriching Relationship Issues, Communication and Happiness (ENRICH) marital assessment inventory. Five marriage types were labeled as vitalized; harmonious; traditional; conflicted; and devitalized. Results were similar to findings in…

  18. African American Homeschooling Practices: Empirical Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazama, Ama

    2016-01-01

    Despite a significant increase in scholarly interest for homeschooling, some of its most critical aspects, such as instructional daily practices, remain grossly understudied. This essay thus seeks to fill that void by presenting empirical evidence regarding the homeschooling practices of a specific group, African Americans. Most specifically, the…

  19. Legacy of a Pioneer African American Educator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cazers, Gunars; Curtner-Smith, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose was to reconstruct the historical and legendary contribution of one exemplary African American physical education teacher educator who lived and worked in the Deep South prior to and immediately following the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education court case. The following questions guided data collection and analysis: To what…

  20. Prevalence of Stuttering in African American Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor, Adele; Yairi, Ehud; Duff, Melissa C.; Zhang, Jie

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors sought to determine the prevalence of stuttering in African American (AA) 2- to 5-year-olds as compared with same-age European Americans (EAs). Method: A total of 3,164 children participated: 2,223 AAs and 941 EAs. Data were collected using a 3-pronged approach that included investigators' individual…

  1. African American Biographies: A Collection Development Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woody, Donna

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the lack of African American biographies for elementary school libraries and reports the results of a study that surveyed publishers from the Children's Book Council. Examines book reviews, discusses the number of sports figures included, and considers problems with a lack of appropriate materials to support the curriculum. (LRW)

  2. Language and the African American Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Lisa J.

    2011-01-01

    How do children acquire African American English? How do they develop the specific language patterns of their communities? Drawing on spontaneous speech samples and data from structured elicitation tasks, this book explains the developmental trends in the children's language. It examines topics such as the development of tense/aspect marking,…

  3. The Persistence of African American College Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beale, Tyson J.

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the family dynamics of persistent African American college men. These students were typical Black males, not those pre-categorized as high-achieving or unprepared for college. The stories of participants revealed their strength, ambition, and intentions to successfully gain a baccalaureate degree. In general Black males are…

  4. "Brothers Gonna Work It Out:" Understanding the Pedagogic Performance of African American Male Teachers Working with African American Male Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Anthony L.

    2009-01-01

    Drawing from ethnographic data, this paper explores how African American male teachers working with African American male students performed their pedagogy. This paper highlights how teachers' understanding of African American males social and educational needs shaped their pedagogical performance. Interestingly however, teachers' performance was…

  5. Neighborhood matters: racial socialization of African American children.

    PubMed

    Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; Nettles, Saundra Murray; O'Campo, Patricia J; Lohrfink, Kimberly Fraleigh

    2006-01-01

    Differences in racial socialization practices and their effects were examined in a sample of 241 African American 1st graders (average age 6.59 years) living in an urban area. Child outcomes included cognitive development, receptive language skills, and child problem behavior. The cultural environment of the home was associated with higher cognitive scores for boys living in high negative social climate and low social capital neighborhoods and for girls living in high social capital neighborhoods. The positive association of promotion of mistrust and child behavior problems was magnified in neighborhoods that had low levels of social capital. A high negative social climate in the neighborhood attenuated the positive association between preparation for bias/promotion of mistrust and externalizing problems.

  6. African-American women and abortion: a neglected history.

    PubMed

    Ross, L J

    1992-01-01

    The history of African-American women's efforts to control their fertility is largely unknown. From slavery to the present, the growth rate of the African-American population has been cut in half. Demographers and historians frequently attribute this change to external factors such as poverty, disease, and coerced birth control, rather than the deliberate agency of African-American women. This essay assembles a brief historical record of the ways African-American women have sought to control their fertility through the use of abortion and birth control. It also examines the activism of African-American women in the establishment of family planning clinics and in defense of abortion rights.

  7. Sex Specific Association of Physical Activity on Proximal Femur BMD in 9 to 10 Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Cardadeiro, Graça; Baptista, Fátima; Ornelas, Rui; Janz, Kathleen F.; Sardinha, Luís B.

    2012-01-01

    The results of physical activity (PA) intervention studies suggest that adaptation to mechanical loading at the femoral neck (FN) is weaker in girls than in boys. Less is known about gender differences associated with non-targeted PA levels at the FN or other clinically relevant regions of the proximal femur. Understanding sex-specific relationships between proximal femur sensitivity and mechanical loading during non-targeted PA is critical to planning appropriate public health interventions. We examined sex-specific associations between non-target PA and bone mineral density (BMD) of three sub-regions of the proximal femur in pre- and early-pubertal boys and girls. BMD at the FN, trochanter (TR) and intertrochanter (IT) regions, and lean mass of the whole body were assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in 161 girls (age: 9.7±0.3 yrs) and 164 boys (age: 9.7±0.3 yrs). PA was measured using accelerometry. Multiple linear regression analyses (adjusted for body height, total lean mass and pubertal status) revealed that vigorous PA explained 3–5% of the variability in BMD at all three sub-regions in boys. In girls, vigorous PA explained 4% of the variability in IT BMD and 6% in TR BMD. PA did not contribute to the variance in FN BMD in girls. An additional 10 minutes per day of vigorous PA would be expected to result in a ∼1% higher FN, TR, and IT BMD in boys (p<0.05) and a ∼2% higher IT and TR BMD in girls. In conclusion, vigorous PA can be expected to contribute positively to bone health outcomes for boys and girls. However, the association of vigorous PA to sub-regions of the proximal femur varies by sex, such that girlś associations are heterogeneous and the lowest at the FN, but stronger at the TR and the IT, when compared to boys. PMID:23209801

  8. African-American Parents' Racial and Ethnic Socialization and Adolescent Academic Grades: Teasing out the Role of Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Tiffany L.; Linver, Miriam R.; Evans, Melanie; DeGennaro, Donna

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of racial and ethnic socialization and academic achievement in a sample of 218 African American adolescents (grades 9-12; 52% girls) attending a public high school in the northeastern United States. Researchers were particularly interested in whether adolescent gender moderated the relationship between racial…

  9. Maternal Models of Risk: Links between Substance Use and Risky Sexual Behavior in African American Female Caregivers and Daughters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brakefield, Tiffany; Wilson, Helen; Donenberg, Geri

    2012-01-01

    African American (AA) adolescent girls are at heightened risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and thus knowledge of factors related to risky sexual behavior in this population is crucial. Using Social Learning Theory (Bandura, 1977), this paper examines pathways from female caregivers' risky sexual behavior and substance use to…

  10. Guilt Trips and Love Withdrawal: Does Mothers' Use of Psychological Control Predict Depressive Symptoms among African American Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandara, Jelani; Pikes, Crysta L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effects of maternal psychological control on the depressive symptoms of 152 lower socioeconomic status African American adolescents. After controlling for the effects of other parenting practices, psychological control had a strong positive relationship with girls' depressive symptoms, but none for boys, even though the 2…

  11. It's about Timing and Change: Pubertal Transition Effects on Symptoms of Major Depression among African American Youths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ge, Xiaojia; Kim, Irene J.; Brody, Gene H.; Conger, Rand D.; Simons, Ronald L.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Cutrona, Carolyn E.

    2003-01-01

    Examined effects of early physical maturation and accelerated pubertal changes on symptoms of major depression among 639 African American adolescents. Found that for girls, early maturation was consistently associated with elevated levels of depressive symptoms. For boys, early maturers showed elevated depression only at age 11, with symptoms…

  12. Informing cancer prevention strategies for African Americans: the relationship of African American acculturation to fruit, vegetable, and fat intake.

    PubMed

    Ard, Jamy D; Skinner, Celette Sugg; Chen, Chuhe; Aickin, Mikel; Svetkey, Laura P

    2005-06-01

    Acculturation has been associated with health-related behaviors in African Americans. We sought to determine if there is a relationship between acculturation and dietary intake in African Americans. African Americans in the PREMIER trial completed the African American Acculturation Scale (AAAS) and 2 nonconsecutive 24-h dietary recalls (n = 238). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and canonical correlation were used to assess relationships between acculturation and dietary intakes. Canonical correlation (p = 0.05) showed that traditional African Americans had lower intakes of fruits/vegetables and milk/dairy with higher intakes of fats, meat, and nuts. This pattern was supported by differences in the ANOVA. African American acculturation is related to dietary intake. These findings have implications for the design of cancer-related public health messages targeted to African Americans.

  13. A Randomized Trial Comparing Part-time Patching with Observation for Children 3–10 Years Old with Intermittent Exotropia

    PubMed Central

    Cotter, Susan A.; Mohney, Brian G.; Chandler, Danielle L.; Holmes, Jonathan M.; Repka, Michael X.; Melia, Michele; Wallace, David K.; Beck, Roy W.; Birch, Eileen E.; Kraker, Raymond T.; Tamkins, Susanna M.; Miller, Aaron M.; Sala, Nicholas A.; Glaser, Stephen R.

    2014-01-01

    over a 6-month period is uncommon with or without patching treatment. Although there is a slightly lower deterioration rate with patching, both management approaches are reasonable for treating 3 to 10 year olds with IXT. PMID:25234012

  14. Postpartum depression among African-American women.

    PubMed

    Amankwaa, Linda Clark

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe the nature of postpartum depression (PPD) among African-American women. Twelve women, who had experienced PPD within the last three years, were interviewed for approximately one hour at two intervals. Nudist-4 software and the constant comparative method were used to analyze the data. Five themes "Stressing Out," "Feeling Down," "Losing It," "Seeking Help," and "Feeling Better" represented aspects of PPD as experienced by the participants. The last theme, "Dealing with It," represented the cultural ways in which African-American mothers managed their depression. These included Keeping the Faith, Trying to Be a Strong Black Woman, Living with Myths, and Keeping Secrets. Suggestions for future directions in nursing research are included.

  15. Prostate Cancer Genetics in African Americans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    grant from the U.S. Department of Defense to study the role heredity plays in prostate cancer among African Americans. "Prostate cancer is the...visit our website at: www.creighton.edu. Creighton gets grant to study heredity -cancer link - Houston Chronicle Coogle offers Google Offers Deals on...traffic Nahan & world Politics Health News bizarre Deaths Hurncanes Creighton gets grant to study heredity -cancer link Published 04 :40a.m., Monday

  16. African American teen mothers' perceptions of parenting.

    PubMed

    Wayland, J; Rawlins, R

    1997-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the childbearing African American teens' perceptions of parenting based on their own experiences. Focus group discussions were held with 17 teens in their school setting for 50 minutes each week. Group discussions were audiotaped, tapes were transcribed, and then analyzed for common themes. The unmarried teens ranged in age from 15 to 18 years. Findings indicated that the teens depended on grandmothers to provide child care and for information about parenting. The teens identified parenting problems including crying, discipline, and conflicts dealing with grandmothers and the child's father. Teens wanted more information about breastfeeding and minor childhood diseases. The researchers identified that teens lacked information about their children's growth and development and safety issues. Findings have implications for nurses who care for childbearing teens and their children; and those involved in planning and implementing parent education programs for African American teen mothers and their families. Further research is indicated with larger samples of African American teens; and to explore the context of family relationships in which teen mothers and grandmothers share parenting for the teens' children.

  17. Neuropsychological screening tests in African Americans.

    PubMed Central

    Lampley-Dallas, V. T.

    2001-01-01

    Neuropsychological tests are instruments used to diagnose a variety of cognitive conditions. This article will review a few of the brief scales commonly used in screening for dementia. It will also discuss the properties of and problems with some of the brief scales that are commonly used to screen African Americans for dementia, highlighting the various biases. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is the most widely known and utilized cognitive impairment instrument in the United States. Whether or not it is biased to race after adjusting the scores for educational attainment remains controversial. The Blessed Information-Memory-Concentration Test (BIMC), Blessed Orientation-Memory-Concentration Test (BOMC), Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ), and Neurobehavioral Cognitive Status Examination (NCSE) are other screening tests used to diagnose dementia. Some of these tests have been found to misclassify many more African Americans as demented compared to the proportion of whites that are misclassified. The Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMCOG) is the only brief neuropsychological scale designed to actually diagnose early dementia, but it is not known if it is biased for African Americans. PMID:11560287

  18. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in older African Americans.

    PubMed

    Funnyé, Allen S; Akhtar, Abbasi J; Biamby, Gisele

    2002-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if older African Americans are disproportionately affected by acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and to review the clinical impact of AIDS and the importance of prevention and treatment efforts. A review of the literature and statistics was obtained using Medline and the AIDS Public Information Data Set offered by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Twenty-seven percent of the U.S. population is above the age of 50, and the number of AIDS cases in this group is growing, with African Americans accounting for the highest proportion of cases and deaths. Testing for HIV may be delayed and symptoms attributed to other illnesses. Though 5% of new cases occur in those over 50, prevention programs, testing, and the perception of risk by providers may be insufficient. There are few research studies on HIV treatment in older patients and no specific guidelines for antiretroviral treatments available. Although death rates for AIDS has been declining, adults over 50 still have the highest mortality rate. Co-morbid conditions, such as heart disease and hypertension, may require taking multiple drugs, which may complicate treatment. Increasing heterosexual transmission rates and a lack of information on HIV reinforces the need for specific prevention programs targeted toward older African Americans.

  19. HIV/STD Prevention Benefits of Living in Supportive Families: A Prospective Analysis of High Risk African-American Female Teens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Richard A.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Wingood, Gina M.; Harrington, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    Investigated whether living in a supportive family was an HIV/STD-protective factor for at-risk African American adolescent girls. Surveys supported the association between living in perceived supportive families and HIV/STD protective benefits. Supportive families enhanced girls' confidence in their ability to negotiate condom use and helped them…

  20. The Lived Experience of African American Caregivers Caring for Adult African American Patients With Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Heather

    2016-04-01

    Assistance from informal caregivers such as family members, friends, or neighbors is crucial to adequately managing the complex care of heart failure (HF) patients. This study examined the lived experience of African American caregivers caring for African American patients with HF. Purposive sampling was used to recruit 10 participants who were formally interviewed. The interviews, analyzed using Colaizzi's steps, revealed six themes: layers of support, realization of self-neglect, experiencing the "blues," connecting with healthcare providers, unmet financial needs, and perception of nonadherence. The information regarding the experience of African American caregivers of HF patients obtained through this research will inform the delivery of culturally competent support to caregivers, thereby improving quality of life for both the HF patients and their caregivers.

  1. The World of Tomorrow: Aerospace Activities for 8- to 10-Year-Olds. A Guide for Leaders of Children's Groups and Teachers of the Lower Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This guide is intended for leaders of children's groups and teachers of lower elementary grades. The book is divided into two parts. The first half contains reports by Cub Scout den leaders. The second part gives the entries of the winning 8-, 9-, and 10-year-old participants. In Part I, there are wide margins in which teachers or leaders can make…

  2. Exploration of Depressive Symptoms in African American Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Amy Y.; Gary, Faye; Zhu, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Background Accurately assessing depression in African American cancer patients is difficult because of the similarities of physical symptoms observed in cancer and depression. Aim To identify universal and distinctive depressive symptoms in African American cancer patients. Methods Seventy-four cancer patients (34 depressed and 23 nondepressed African Americans, and 17 depressed Whites) were interviewed. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were conducted. Results Compared to nondepressed African Americans, depressed African Americans reported irritability, social isolation, insomnia, fatigue, and crying (p ≤ .05) more frequently over time. Compared to depressed Whites, they reported sadness, frustration, and intrusive thoughts less frequently (p ≤ .05), but insomnia and fatigue more frequently (p ≤ .05) during cancer treatment. There was little racial difference at the time of interview. Conclusion Depressed African American cancer patients may benefit from more culturally sensitive depression measures that consider symptoms of irritability, social isolation, and altered expressions of depressive mood. PMID:25564890

  3. Variables affecting racial-identity salience among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Thompson, V L

    1999-12-01

    The author clarified the African American racial-group identification process by addressing the issue of salience and its relationship to racial-group attitudes. A sample of 409 African American adults responded to surveys pertaining to their racial-group salience, racial-group attitudes, racial socialization, racial-group interaction, political activism, experiences of discrimination, and demographic data (e.g., sex, age, and income). The author tested 3 hypotheses: (a) Racial socialization and interaction with other African Americans are predictive of African American racial-identity salience; (b) discriminatory experiences are predictive of African American racial-identity salience; and (c) racial-identity salience is a stronger predictor of African American racial-group identification than are previously identified predictive variables (D. H. Demo & H. Hughes, 1990; V. L. Thompson Sanders, 1991, 1995). The results supported the 1st and 3rd hypotheses.

  4. Managing the hair and skin of African American pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Smith, W; Burns, C

    1999-01-01

    In Africa, the ancestral home of most African Americans, hair is viewed as the epitome of beauty. However, when Africans were brought to America as slaves, they were unable to care for their hair and skin adequately and were exposed to the predominant white culture, which valued straight hair and light skin. As a result, many African Americans lost self-esteem because of the characteristics of their hair and skin. In this article we examine the anatomic and physiologic features of African American hair and skin and typical African American hair and skin care practices. Common African American hair and skin disorders and their management are discussed. The goal of this article is to help primary care providers understand the special hair and skin care required for African American children (as well as other dark-skinned patients). With good patient education, understanding one's own hair and skin characteristics can also support positive self-esteem.

  5. KSC kicks off African-American History Month

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Clothed in her traditional African garb, Michelle Amos, mistress of ceremonies, welcomes the audience on Feb. 3 at the kick-off of African-American History Month. The theme for this year's observation is 'Heritage and Horizons: The African-American Legacy and the Challenges of the 21st Century.' February is designated each year as a time to celebrate the achievements and contributions of African Americans to Kennedy Space Center, NASA and the nation.

  6. KSC kicks off African-American History Month

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Michelle Amos, mistress of ceremonies for the kick-off of African-American History Month, works with the audience to assist them in the pronunciation of a few token words in native Swahili. The theme for this year's observation is 'Heritage and Horizons: The African-American Legacy and the Challenges of the 21st Century.' February is designated each year as a time to celebrate the achievements and contributions of African Americans to Kennedy Space Center, NASA and the nation.

  7. BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutations in African Americans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-10-01

    cancer syndromes that are prevalent among African Americans? Little information exists about other familial cancer syndromes unique to African...Americans but two African-American families with Cowden’s syndrome have been reported (Fackenthal et al, 2000). The same germline p53 coding mutation and...familial syndromes based on pedigree analysis, calculation of risk estimates, and effective communication of risk status at a level that the patient can

  8. Lift every voice: voices of African-American lesbian elders.

    PubMed

    Woody, Imani

    2015-01-01

    Old lesbians of African descent have experienced racism, heterosexism, homophobia, and ageism. This article explores the topics of aging, ageism, heterosexism, and minority stress among older African-American lesbians. The narratives and subsequent analysis offer significant contributions to the dialogue regarding Black aging lesbians in the aging and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) communities generally and in the African-American and African-American lesbian communities specifically.

  9. Childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus: a comparative study of African Americans and Latin Americans.

    PubMed Central

    Gedalia, A.; Molina, J. F.; Molina, J.; Uribe, O.; Malagon, C.; Espinoza, L. R.

    1999-01-01

    This study compared the clinical and serologic features in two different ethnic groups of patients with childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). One hundred seventy-one SLE patients comprised the study population; 61 (55 girls and 6 boys) were African American with age at onset of 13 +/- 2.9 years, and 110 (97 girls and 13 boys) were Latin American (Colombian) with age at onset of 13 +/- 3.2 years. Clinical, demographic, and laboratory data were obtained by chart review using a standard data collection form. African-American patients more commonly manifested discoid skin lesions, malar rash, pulmonary fibrosis, and pleuritis, and less commonly manifested photosensitivity, livedo reticularis, and vascular thrombosis than did Latin Americans. In addition, there was a higher frequency of anti-dsDNA, anti-Sm, anti-RNP, and anti-Ro positivity among African-Americans compared with Latin-American patients. These results suggest the presence of ethnic differences in the clinical expression of SLE. PMID:10517068

  10. From Fathers to Sons: The Intergenerational Transmission of Parenting Behavior among African American Young Men.

    PubMed

    Brown, Geoffrey L; Kogan, Steven M; Kim, Jihyoung

    2017-02-13

    This study examined the intergenerational transmission of fathering among young, African American fathers in rural communities. A sample of 132 African American young men living in the rural South reported on the quality of their relationship with their biological and social fathers in the family of origin, their own involvement with their young children, and relational schemas of close, intimate relationships. Results of path analyses supported the hypothesized mediational model, such that a better relationship with one's biological (but not social) father predicted increased father involvement in the next generation, and this association was partially mediated through positive relational schema after controlling for a range of covariates. Tests of moderated mediation indicated that the link between relational schema and father involvement was significantly stronger among fathers of girls than fathers of boys. Findings highlight the unique influence of close, nurturing father-child relationships for downstream father involvement, and the role of relational schemas as a mechanism for intergenerational transmission among young, rural, African American fathers of girls.

  11. The myth of meritocracy and African American health.

    PubMed

    Kwate, Naa Oyo A; Meyer, Ilan H

    2010-10-01

    Recent theoretical and empirical studies of the social determinants of health inequities have shown that economic deprivation, multiple levels of racism, and neighborhood context limit African American health chances and that African Americans' poor health status is predicated on unequal opportunity to achieve the American Dream. President Obama's election has been touted as a demonstration of American meritocracy-the belief that all may obtain the American Dream-and has instilled hope in African Americans. However, we argue that in the context of racism and other barriers to success, meritocratic ideology may act as a negative health determinant for African Americans.

  12. Challenges in internet study recruitment of African American cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Bender, Melinda; Clark, Maresha; Guevara, Enrique; Chee, Wonshik; Im, Eun-Ok

    2006-01-01

    Health care inequities continue to plague African Americans. For African American cancer patients these inequities include access to health care, availability of treatment modalities, support groups, and participation in nursing cancer research. A support group setting is better for recruitment than a clinical setting. Referrals to the researcher from individuals who personally know the African American cancer patients generated the best response rates. If the researcher has no previous connection with the potential participant, interest in the study may be generated but recruitment is minimal or absent. Ethnically sensitive recruitment of African American cancer patients is therefore essential to improving participatory responses in cancer nursing research.

  13. Critical social theory and the domination of African American Women.

    PubMed

    Davis, S P

    1995-01-01

    This historical reconstruction of the experiences of African American women in America from slavery to the present exposes the prevailing and enduring system of White male domination. From White men having control of their reproductive choices, to conspiracy to withhold the right to vote, African American women were victims of both sexism and racism. Later, as a result of the myth conceived by White sociologists of the super African American woman, further divisiveness became apparent in the African American home. As African American women took advantage of educational opportunities only to find that there was a dearth of similarly educated African American males to marry, increasing numbers of African American men were reported as parties to violent acts, drugs or illness. All of these variables are conjectured as impacting on the African American woman's experience. Lastly, data were presented depicting the increasing trend of African American women marrying White men, and the emergence of a more diverse workforce. It was concluded that economics serve as a catalyst for this change in human relations.

  14. African American legislators' perceptions of firearm violence prevention legislation.

    PubMed

    Payton, Erica; Thompson, Amy; Price, James H; Sheu, Jiunn-Jye; Dake, Joseph A

    2015-06-01

    Firearm mortality is the leading cause of death for young African American males, however, few studies have focused on racial/ethnic minority populations and firearm violence. The National Black Caucus of State Legislators advocates for legislation that promotes the health of African Americans. Thus, the purpose of this study was to collect baseline data on African American legislators' perceptions regarding firearm violence in the African American community. A cross-sectional study of African American legislators (n = 612) was conducted to investigate the research questions. Of the 612 questionnaires mailed, 12 were not deliverable, and 170 were returned (28%). Utilizing a three wave mailing process, African American legislators were invited to participate in the study. The majority (88%) of respondents perceived firearm violence to be very serious among African Americans. Few (10%) legislators perceived that addressing legislative issues would be an effective strategy in reducing firearm violence among African Americans. The majority (72%) of legislators perceived the most effective strategy to reducing firearm violence in the African American community should focus on addressing societal issues (e.g. crime and poverty). After adjusting for the number of perceived barriers, the number of perceived benefits was a significant predictor of legislators' perceived effectiveness of firearm violence prevention legislation for 8 of the 24 potential firearm violence prevention legislative bills.

  15. Black and Blue: Depression and African American Men.

    PubMed

    Plowden, Keith O; Thompson Adams, Linda; Wiley, Dana

    2016-10-01

    Depression is a common mental disorder affecting individuals. Although many strides have been made in the area of depression, little is known about depression in special populations, especially African American men. African American men often differ in their presentation of depression and are often misdiagnosed. African American men are at greater risk for depression, but they are less likely to participate in mental health care. This article explores depression in African American by looking at environmental factors, sigma, role, and other unique to this populations, such as John Henryism. Interventions to encourage early screening and participation in care are also discussed.

  16. Novel recurrently mutated genes in African American colon cancers

    PubMed Central

    Guda, Kishore; Veigl, Martina L.; Varadan, Vinay; Nosrati, Arman; Ravi, Lakshmeswari; Lutterbaugh, James; Beard, Lydia; Willson, James K. V.; Sedwick, W. David; Wang, Zhenghe John; Molyneaux, Neil; Miron, Alexander; Adams, Mark D.; Elston, Robert C.; Markowitz, Sanford D.; Willis, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    We used whole-exome and targeted sequencing to characterize somatic mutations in 103 colorectal cancers (CRC) from African Americans, identifying 20 new genes as significantly mutated in CRC. Resequencing 129 Caucasian derived CRCs confirmed a 15-gene set as a preferential target for mutations in African American CRCs. Two predominant genes, ephrin type A receptor 6 (EPHA6) and folliculin (FLCN), with mutations exclusive to African American CRCs, are by genetic and biological criteria highly likely African American CRC driver genes. These previously unsuspected differences in the mutational landscapes of CRCs arising among individuals of different ethnicities have potential to impact on broader disparities in cancer behaviors. PMID:25583493

  17. Neuropsychological Assessment of Children With Reading Disabilities From 8 to 10 Years Old: An Exploratory Portuguese Study.

    PubMed

    da Rocha e Silva, Cláudia Susana Rosa Correia; Glória e Silva, Filipe Miguel; Martins, Maria Isabel Pavão

    2015-01-01

    Reading disabilities are one of the most significant causes of school failure and may result from different causes and cognitive processes. A comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests was applied to a control group of 102 children (46 girls, 56 boys) with no history of learning disabilities and 32 children (13 girls, 19 boys) with poor reading achievement (PRA) to characterize their cognitive profile. A principal component analysis of the cognitive measures was undertaken to identify cognitive domains. Age-adjusted normative data were computed from controls for verbal and visuospatial abilities, psychomotor skills, executive functions, and a total score. Significant differences were found between the 2 groups. Although single tests could not identify children with PRA, measures of oral and written language, immediate and working memory, calculation, and verbal learning discriminated the 2 groups. A logistic regression model using these factors allowed us to identify 91.2% of healthy children and 96.9% of children with PRA. PRA may result from different patterns of cognitive difficulties, and it is more common in children with oral language and working-memory deficits. Wide-range cognitive testing is necessary to identify strong and weak areas to plan personalized intervention programs.

  18. Grade-related changes in the production of African American English.

    PubMed

    Craig, Holly K; Washington, Julie A

    2004-04-01

    This investigation examined grade as a source of systematic variation in the African American English (AAE) produced by students in preschool through fifth grades. Participants were 400 typically developing African American boys and girls residing in low- or middle-income homes in an urban-fringe community or midsize central city in the metropolitan Detroit area. Between preschoolers and kindergartners, and between first through fifth graders, there were no significant differences in the amounts of dialect produced during a picture description language elicitation context. However, there was a significant downward shift in dialect production at first grade. Students who evidenced dialect shifting outperformed their nonshifting peers on standardized tests of reading achievement and vocabulary breadth.

  19. Increasing information-seeking about HPV vaccination through community partnerships in African American and Hispanic communities

    PubMed Central

    Kreuter, Matthew W.; Fernandez, Maria E.; Brown, Melissa; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila; Pfeiffer, Debbie; Adams-Piphus, Brandie; Krebill, Hope; Gonzalez, Dora Alice; Campos, Daisy Morales; Kirklin, Ginny Thompson; Betsworth, Sarah; Casey, Chris; Luke, Doug

    2013-01-01

    This study tested the feasibility of promoting 1-800-4-CANCER through partnerships with organizations serving African American and Hispanic communities. Small media and client reminders about HPV vaccination were made available through local agents to 28 community organizations. Organizations ordered 79,932 resources and distributed them to young women and parents of girlsAfrican Americans in St. Louis, MO and Hispanics in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Pre-to post-intervention calls to 1-800-4-CANCER increased 38% in these communities, while declining 15% in comparison communities of Kansas City, MO and El Paso, TX (F=8.6, p=.004) and 1.4% in the U.S. as a whole. PMID:22143485

  20. Screening for Depression in African American Churches

    PubMed Central

    Hankerson, Sidney H.; Lee, Young A; Brawley, David K.; Braswell, Kenneth; Wickramaratne, Priya J.; Weissman, Myrna M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Substantial racial/ethnic disparities exist in the identification and management of major depression.1 Faith-Based Health Promotion interventions reduce disparities in health screenings for numerous medical conditions.2 However, the feasibility of systematically screening for depression in faith-based settings has not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of using a validated instrument to screen for depression in African American churches. Methods Participants were recruited between October and November 2012 at three predominantly African American churches in New York City. A participatory research approach was used to determine screening days. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) was administered to 122 participants. Positive depression screen was defined as a PHQ-9 score ≥10. Descriptive statistics were used to report sample characteristics, prevalence of participants who screened positive, and history of help seeking. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the association of positive depression screen and sociodemographic characteristics. Initial analyses were conducted in 2013, with additional analyses in 2014. Results The prevalence estimate for positive depression screen was 19.7%. More men (22.5%) screened positive than women (17.7%). Total household income was inversely related to positive depression screen. A similar percentage of respondents had previously sought help from primary care providers as from clergy. Conclusions It was feasible to screen for depression with the PHQ-9 in African American churches. The prevalence of positive depression screen was high, especially among black men. Churches may be an important setting in which to identify depressive symptoms in this underserved population. PMID:26232907

  1. Assessment of the Status of African-Americans. Volume III: The Education of African-Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willie, Charles V., Ed.; Garibaldi, Antoine M., Ed.; Reed, Wornie L., Ed.

    In 1987 a project was undertaken to assess the status of African Americans in the United States in the topical areas to be addressed by the National Research Council's Study Committee on the Status of Black Americans: education, employment, income and occupations, political participation and the administration of justice, social and cultural…

  2. Equipping African American Clergy to Recognize Depression.

    PubMed

    Anthony, Jean Spann; Morris, Edith; Collins, Charles W; Watson, Albert; Williams, Jennifer E; Ferguson, Bʼnai; Ruhlman, Deborah L

    2016-01-01

    Many African Americans (AAs) use clergy as their primary source of help for depression, with few being referred to mental health providers. This study used face-to-face workshops to train AA clergy to recognize the symptoms and levels of severity of depression. A pretest/posttest format was used to test knowledge (N = 42) about depression symptoms. Results showed that the participation improved the clergy's ability to recognize depression symptoms. Faith community nurses can develop workshops for clergy to improve recognition and treatment of depression.

  3. Genomics of Colorectal Cancer in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Brim, Hassan; Ashktorab, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide studies are increasingly becoming a must, especially for complex diseases such as cancer where multiple genes and diverse molecular mechanisms are known to be involved in genes’ function alteration. In this review, we report our latest genomic and epigenomic findings in African-American colorectal cancer patients. This population suffers a higher burden of the disease and most investigators in this field are looking for the underlying genetic and epigenetic targets that might be responsible for this disparity. We here report genome-wide copy number variations, single nucleotide mutations and DNA methylation findings that might be specific to this population. PMID:27917406

  4. The effect of a novel video game on stroke knowledge of 9–10 year old low-income children

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Olajide; Hecht, Mindy F.; DeSorbo, Alexandra L.; Huq, Saima; Noble, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Improving actionable stroke knowledge of a witness or bystander, which in some cases are children, may improve response to an acute stroke event. Methods We used a quasi-experimental pretest (PT) post-test design to evaluate actionable stroke knowledge of 210 children aged 9–10 years in response to a single 15-minute exposure to a stroke education video game conducted in the school computer lab. Following immediate post-testing (IP) we provided remote password-protected online video game access, and encouraged children play at their leisure from home. An unannounced delayed post-test (DP) occurred seven weeks later. Results Two hundred ten children completed PT, 205 completed IP, while 198 completed DP. 156 (74%) children had home Internet access, and 41 (26%), mostly girls, played the video game remotely. There was significant improvement of stroke symptom composite scores, calling 911 and all individual stroke knowledge items, including a distractor across the testing sequence (p<0.05). Children who played the video game remotely demonstrated significant improvement in knowledge of one symptom (sudden imbalance) compared to children who did not (p<0.05), although overall composite scores showed no difference. Conclusions Stroke education video games may represent novel means for improving and sustaining actionable stroke knowledge of children. PMID:24481976

  5. Race Consciousness. African-American Studies for the New Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fossett, Judith Jackson, Ed.; Tucker, Jeffrey A., Ed.

    This collection of essays represents new scholarship in African American studies, drawing lessons from the past and providing insights into current intellectual trends. Topics such as the culture of America as a culture of race, legacies of slavery and colonialism, crime and welfare politics, and African American cultural studies are addressed.…

  6. Discrimination, Mastery, and Depressive Symptoms among African American Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Daphne C.; Hudson, Darrell L.; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Siefert, Kristine; Jackson, James S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines the influence of discrimination and mastery on depressive symptoms for African American men at young (18-34), middle (35-54), and late (55+) adulthood. Method: Analyses are based on responses from 1,271 African American men from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL). Results: Discrimination was significantly…

  7. Psychosocial Correlates of Smoking Trajectories Among Urban African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fergus, Stevenson; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.

    2005-01-01

    Little is known of smoking trajectories or of the correlates of smoking trajectories among African American youth. Ninth-grade African American adolescents (n = 566) were interviewed in Year 1 and then were subsequently interviewed annually for 3 additional years. Five trajectories of cigarette smokers were identified: abstainers,…

  8. Social Achievement Goals: Validation among Rural African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Martin H.; Mueller, Christian E.; Royal, Kenneth D.; Shim, Sungok Serena; Hart, Caroline O.

    2013-01-01

    Little extant research attempts to understand why rural African Americans engage in social relationships with peers in school. This is somewhat surprising as rural students' peer interactions often affect their scholastic desires, and peers can alter African Americans' academic performance. Hence, the current study examined both the presence and…

  9. Clustering of Risk Behaviours among African American Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baruth, M.; Addy, C. L.; Wilcox, S.; Dowda, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Individuals may engage in more than one risk behaviour at any given time. The extent to which risk behaviours cluster among African American adults has been largely unexplored. This study examined the prevalence and clustering of three risk behaviours among African American church members: smoking; low moderate-to-vigorous intensity…

  10. Food Group Categories of Low-Income African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Holmes, Shane

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Describe lay food group categories of low-income African American women and assess the overlap of lay food groups and MyPyramid food groups. Design: A convenience sample of African American mothers from a low-income Chicago neighborhood performed a card-sorting task in which they grouped familiar food items into food groups. Setting:…

  11. 20 African-Americans Your Students Should Meet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardeen, Tara

    2008-01-01

    There is more to Black History Month than honoring Martin Luther King Jr. Black History Month is a time to honor the significant contributions of African-Americans throughout history. This article presents 20 super-achievers new generation of African-Americans heroes students should meet: (1) Kimberly Oliver; (2) John Lewis; (3) Rita Dove; (4)…

  12. Educating African American Males: Examining Teacher Perceptions and Cultural Interpretations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivers, Celeste A.

    2010-01-01

    For many decades, society has struggled with academic underachievement, particularly among African American males. Although a myriad of studies have identified significant causal factors of African American academic underachievement from the perspectives and circumstances of the student, limited studies focus on this problem from the perspective…

  13. Culturally Competent Counseling for Religious and Spiritual African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore-Thomas, Cheryl; Day-Vines, Norma L.

    2008-01-01

    Religion and spirituality are deeply rooted in traditional African American culture. Data suggest that African American adolescents maintain higher baseline rates of religious activities and beliefs than their peers (Bachman, Johnston, & O'Malley, 2005; Smith, Faris, Denton, & Regnerus, 2003). Recognizing these data, this article examines…

  14. Higher Education and the Early Education of African American Ministers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooks, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The education of African American ministers in the United States has been little researched. Numerous books address the profession of ministry and the education of Blacks in general, but most do not specifically address issues pertaining to the professional education of Black ministers. The majority of the hurdles African Americans faced were…

  15. African American English: An Interview with Marcyliena Morgan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rymes, Betsy

    1995-01-01

    Discusses an interview in which Marcyliena Morgan elaborates on the necessity to analyze both microlinguistic issues of grammar and phonology as well as larger issues of discourse pragmatics and language ideology. The interview touches on African American poetry, the convergence of African American and standard English, and oases and indirectness.…

  16. Perceived Racism and Encouragement among African American Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowles, Joanna; Duan, Changming

    2012-01-01

    Racial discrimination has negatively affected African Americans in the United States for centuries and produced one of the most publicly recognized histories of social oppression. Extensive research has shown the deleterious effects of racism on African American people and clearly demonstrated that perceived racism and discrimination may…

  17. Parental Attachments and Psychological Distress among African American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Keisha McGhee

    2008-01-01

    African American college students attending predominately White institutions often encounter stressors that their Caucasian peers do not experience. Because of these unique stressors, African American students are more prone to experience psychological distress. Identifying factors that counteract psychological distress among these students is…

  18. Boys into Men: Raising Our African American Teenage Sons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd-Franklin, Nancy; Franklin, A. J.

    This guide to rearing African American boys offers simple and effective strategies for problem-solving, improving communication, and instilling a positive racial identity. The book draws on strong African American family values and cultural and spiritual strengths. The chapters are: (1) "You Must Act As If It Is Impossible To Fail: Challenges…

  19. Patterns of Violent Behavior and Victimization among African American Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Zina T.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews types of reported problems among African American youth exposed to violence and victimization. A substantial number of African American youth reported being exposed to direct victimization while in transit to and from school. Discusses the impact of violence on mental health status, in that subjects exposed to violence exhibited…

  20. African Americans' Access to Vocational Rehabilitation Services after Antidiscrimination Legislation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mwachofi, Ari K.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine changes in African Americans' access to occasional rehabilitation (VR) services subsequent to landmark legislative and judicial antidiscrimination provisions of the mid-20th century. This study compared African American VR access before the antidiscrimination legislation in 1937 and after the legislation…

  1. A Profile of Bereavement Supports in African American Church Congregations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Penelope J.; Hazell, LaVone V.; Honeyghan, Edna M.

    Bereavement educators, counselors, clergy, and other specialists have observed that African Americans tend to under-utilize end-of-life palliative care services and general bereavement resources. The literature suggests that involving clergy in outreach to the African American community may be a viable strategy for developing bereavement supports.…

  2. Perceptions of Teacher Expectations by African American High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pringle, Beverley E.; Lyons, James E.; Booker, Keonya C.

    2010-01-01

    African American high school students are performing behind their White classmates regardless of whether they are in majority or minority populations at school. Teacher expectations, among school-related factors that can impact the academic achievement of African American high school students, are the focus of this study. Interviews were conducted…

  3. Self-Esteem and Anger among African-American Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryujin, Donald H.; Abitia, Fred B.

    Self-esteem may be an issue for certain minority groups more than others. In particular, given their long and difficult history, this issue may be of more relevance to minorities of African-American descent. To assess whether renewed signs of racism at a college were negatively affecting the self-esteem of African-American students the Race…

  4. African American English: Implications for School Counseling Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day-Vines, Norma L.; Barto, Heather H.; Booker, Beverly L.; Smith, Kim V.; Barna, Jennifer; Maiden, Brian S.; Zegley, Linda; Felder, Monique T.

    2009-01-01

    African American English (AAE) refers to the systematic, rule-governed linguistic patterns of found among African Americans. This article provides an overview of AAE. More specifically, the article enumerates the historical underpinnings associated with AAE, identifies a representative set of AAE characteristics, reviews relevant research, and…

  5. African American Youth Unemployment: Current Trends and Future Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Herbert M.

    1990-01-01

    Examines African American employment trends compared with increases or decreases in economic growth and Federal welfare spending during the 1970s and 1980s, focusing primarily on unemployment and labor force participation rates among African American youth. Studies the impact of structural unemployment, racial discrimination, and immigration on…

  6. Dimensions of Academic Contingencies among African American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Tiffany Monique; Chavous, Tabbye; Cogburn, Courtney; Branch, LaToya; Sellers, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Drawing from existing literature, the authors conceptualized a two-dimensional framework of African American students' academic contingencies of self-worth. The results from exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses with a sample of African American college freshmen (N = 330) supported this prediction. Self-Worth Dependent academic…

  7. General Dissociation Scale and Hypnotizability with African American College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapp, Marty; Hitchcock, Kim

    The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability of the General Dissociation Scale with African American college students, and provide additional data on how to assess hypnotizability with these students. Two-hundred and two undergraduate African American college students participated in this study. Students completed the HGSHS:A, a measure…

  8. Academic Achievement and the Third Grade African American Male

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shropshire, Delia F. B.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine to what extent teaching style relates to third grade African American male academic achievement. The problem in this study addressed the factors affecting the academic achievement of the African American third grade male. This problem led the researcher to investigate the teaching styles of the…

  9. EPEC-O - Plenary AA - Cancer & the African American Experience

    Cancer.gov

    The first plenary of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans explores the many factors that lead to inequalities in cancer care outcomes for African Americans.

  10. EPEC-O for African Americans - Module 16 AA - Spirituality

    Cancer.gov

    The sixteenth module of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans explores the importance of spirituality in the lived experience of most African Americans, and how they utilize spirituality and religion to cope with serious stressors such as life-threatening illness.

  11. Interaction of African American Learners Online: An Adult Education Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Haijun; Yang, Yang

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how various life factors and personal attributes affect African American adult learners' use of the three types of learning interaction-learner-content, learner-instructor, and learner-learner. Multivariate multiple regression analyses were used. The aggregate effect of life factors on African American adult learners' use of…

  12. African-American Grandmothers as Health Educators in the Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jeffrey A.; Randolph, Suzanne M.; Lyons, James L.

    2005-01-01

    More than 18,000 adolescents die each year in the United States from bicycle, motorcycle, car, and truck accidents. This study sought to understand the role of African-American grandmothers as prevention-oriented health educators in the family. Full Model Fitted Regression Analyses were conducted on a sample of African-American grandmothers (N =…

  13. The Struggle of African American Students in the Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mubenga, Pascal

    2006-01-01

    The long road of slavery from generation to generation has left a legacy in the mind of African American students that has impacted their achievements in schools. In this project, the struggle of African American students in the public school education will be analyzed from the historical standpoint of view and its impact on their achievements.…

  14. Indigenous Systems within the African-American Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marbley, Aretha Faye; Rouson, Leon

    2011-01-01

    For the African-American family, life ain't been no crystal stair. The African-American family has trotted for over 400 years through a wilderness of racism, poverty, discrimination of all kinds, crossing seas of monsters and forests of demons. Yet, despite the numerous obstacles and attacks that society has mounted against it since slavery, the…

  15. Teaching African-American History in the Age of Obama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millward, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    When the author proposed a spring course on major topics in African-American history, drawing a large enrollment was her chief concern. She had previously taught the course under a different title at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, a campus with a sizable African-American presence among students and faculty members. She now teaches…

  16. Poverty, safety net programs, and African Americans' mental health.

    PubMed

    Snowden, Lonnie R

    2014-11-01

    African Americans' poverty and deep-poverty rates are higher than those of Whites, and African Americans' poverty spells last longer. Furthermore, nonpoor African Americans are especially likely to slip into poverty, and over the course of a lifetime, very many African Americans will experience poverty. Accordingly, African Americans are disproportionately likely to be assisted by safety net programs providing income support and health and social assistance. When mental health-related outcomes are assessed, U.S.-focused and international studies of safety net programs sometimes find that adults and children show a decline in symptoms of mental illness after participating. All things being equal, these improvements can disproportionately benefit African Americans' mental health. Safety net programs' mental health-related impact should be routinely assessed when evaluating the programs' economic and social outcomes and the impact they have on African Americans' mental health. Policy research of this kind can help us to understand whether these very large interventions show society-wide mental health-related improvement in the disproportionately large number of African Americans who participate in them.

  17. Designing Effective Library Services for African American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes-Hassell, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    President Obama signed the "White House Initiative on Educational Excellence for African Americans" on July 26, 2012. This executive order recognizes that many "African Americans lack equal access to highly effective teachers and principals, safe schools, and challenging college preparatory classes, and disproportionately experience…

  18. Epidemiology of STD disparities in African American communities.

    PubMed

    Newman, Lori M; Berman, Stuart M

    2008-12-01

    This article reviews the epidemiology of sexually transmitted disease (STD) disparities for African American communities in the United States. Data are reviewed from a variety of sources such as national case reporting and population-based studies. Data clearly show a disproportionately higher burden of STDs in African American communities compared with white communities. Although disparities exist for both viral and bacterial STDs, disparities are greatest for bacterial STDs such as gonorrhea, chlamydia, and syphilis. Gonorrhea rates among African Americans are highest for adolescents and young adults, and disparities are greatest for adolescent men. Although disparities for men who have sex with men (MSM) are not as great as for heterosexual populations, STD rates for both white and African American MSM populations are high, so efforts to address disparities must also include African American MSM. Individual risk behavior and sociodemographic characteristics of African Americans do not seem to account fully for increased STD rates for African Americans. Population-level determinants such as sexual networks seem to play an important role in STD disparities. An understanding of the epidemiology of STD disparities is critical for identifying appropriate strategies and tailoring strategies for African American communities. Active efforts are needed to reduce not only the physical consequences of STDs, such as infertility, ectopic pregnancy, chronic pelvic pain, newborn disease, and increased risk of HIV infection, but also the social consequences of STDs such as economic burden, shame, and stigma.

  19. Perceived Racism as a Predictor of Paranoia among African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combs, Dennis R.; Penn, David L.; Cassisi, Jeffrey; Michael, Chris; Wood, Terry; Wanner, Jill; Adams, Scott

    2006-01-01

    Recent theoretical models suggest that perceived racism acts as a stressor for African Americans and may be associated with a variety of negative psychological consequences, notably paranoia. Paranoia among African Americans is believed to reflect the lower end of the paranoia continuum based on experiences with racism. Thus, it may be beneficial…

  20. Support Needs of Overweight African American Women for Weight Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Janet L.; Stewart, Diana W.; Lynam, Ian M.; Daley, Christine M.; Befort, Christie; Scherber, Robyn M.; Mercurio, Andrea E.; Okuyemi, Kolawole S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To examine social support needs of obese and overweight African American women for weight loss. Methods: Focus groups were conducted with overweight and obese African American women. Data were analyzed using standard grounded theory text analysis. Results: Our middle-aged (45.7 years; SD = 12.6) women (N = 66) were interested in…

  1. Koreans in the Hood: Conflict with African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kwang Chung, Ed.

    The essays in this collection examine relationships between the Korean American and African American communities in Los Angeles, Chicago, and New York. The contrast between the economic power and lack of political power of Korean Americans and the political power and lack of economic power of African Americans is traced. Essays 2-5 cover Los…

  2. Enriching Inclusive Learning: African Americans in Historic Costume

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratute, Ashley; Marcketti, Sara B.

    2009-01-01

    Educating students to embrace diversity and value all people is a core value of educators in family and consumer sciences (FCS). For instructors in FCS, integrating the contributions of African Americans--particularly in textiles and clothing--can be an inclusive learning opportunity. The authors compiled resources on African Americans and…

  3. Prospective Teachers Experiences Teaching Mathematics to African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an effort to provide prospective teachers opportunities to better understand African American male students and better focus on how they learn mathematics. Prospective teachers spent 15 hours over an eight week span mentoring and tutoring African American males without the guise of practicing teachers. Qualitative data drawn…

  4. 78 FR 8347 - National African American History Month, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8930 of January 31, 2013 National African American History Month, 2013 By the... beginnings or the circumstances of your birth, you can make it if you try. Yet, for many and for much of our Nation's history, that dream has gone unfulfilled. For African Americans, it was a dream denied until...

  5. Serving African American Children: Child Welfare Perspectives Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Sondra, Ed.; Brissett-Chapman, Sheryl, Ed.

    This collection brings together articles by African American authors who are committed to research, policies, and programs affecting African American children and families. The articles are grouped into sections on policy, research, and practice issues; clinical techniques and treatment models; and new perspectives in child welfare. The following…

  6. Parenting African American Children in the Context of Racism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyes, Angela W.; Smyke, Anna T.; Middleton, Melissa; Black, Corey L.

    2015-01-01

    The legacy of slavery in the United States has impacted generations of African Americans, especially parents who must prepare their children to face the challenges associated with being a person of color in this country. The authors explore aspects of racism, White privilege, racial socialization, and African American parents' fears as they equip…

  7. African American Homeschooling and the Question of Curricular Cultural Relevance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazama, Ama; Lundy, Garvey

    2013-01-01

    Homeschooling, and academic interest in this phenomenon, have increased tremendously over the last decade. The surge of African American involvement in the homeschool movement has also become noticeable. However, there continues to be a general paucity of research on the motivations of African American parents that choose homeschooling. In order…

  8. African Americans Respond Poorly to Hepatitis C Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black Issues in Higher Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    African Americans have a significantly lower response rate to treatment for chronic hepatitis C than non-Hispanic Whites, according to a new study led by Duke University Medical Center researchers. Some African Americans--19 percent--did respond to the drug combination of peginterferon alfa-2b and ribavirin. But in non-Hispanic Whites with the…

  9. Lessons Learned: Research within an Urban, African American District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Kimberly Ann

    2012-01-01

    For an African American female researcher whose race, class, and gender work as oppressive intersecting units shaping my contextualized experiences, meaning-making, and self-definition, the implications of my work with African American communities are complicated. In this article, I draw on culturally sensitive research practices, critical race…

  10. The Classroom and the Community: African American Youth Speak Out.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clardy, Pauline; Cole-Robinson, Cynthia; Jones, Terrence O'C.; Michie, Gregory

    In studying urban schools, researchers have identified several critical curriculum issues related to the miseducation and alienation of African American students. This paper looks at three such issues: the disconnection between the school curriculum and African American students' cultural backgrounds and environments (e.g., black dialect versus…

  11. Building on Strengths: Intergenerational Practice with African American Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waites, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    Intergenerational kinship and multigenerational families (three or more generations) have been a source of strength for African Americans. This article presents a culturally responsive intergenerational practice model for working with African American families that draws on this legacy. The model looks at intergenerational kinship and…

  12. Raising African American Student Achievement: California Goals, Local Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EdSource, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Although academic performance is a concern, African American students represent less than 8 percent of California's K-12 students, and at times get lost in California policy debates about improving student performance. Findings of this study indicate that: (1) California's African American students are concentrated in relatively few counties and…

  13. Beyond Statistics: African American Male Persistence in Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickens, Manuel Dewayne

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study that consists of six African American male participants is to examine, describe, and analyze African American male persistence factors at a community college in the midwest of the United States. The study uses qualitative content analysis as a research method that provides a systematic and objective means…

  14. 77 FR 33595 - African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-07

    ... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8832 of June 1, 2012 African-American Music... piece of American culture, music offers a vibrant soundtrack to the story of our people and our Union... tradition, and during African-American Music Appreciation Month, we pay special tribute to...

  15. 78 FR 34241 - African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... June 6, 2013 Part III The President Proclamation 8992--African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2013... May 31, 2013 African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2013 By the President of the United States of... lasting freedom. Through every generation, music has reflected and renewed our national...

  16. 76 FR 32851 - African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-07

    ...#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8684 of May 31, 2011 African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation The music of our...-American Music Appreciation Month, we honor the rich musical traditions of African-American musicians...

  17. 75 FR 32075 - African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-07

    ...#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8527 of May 28, 2010 African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Music can tell a story..., music unites individuals through a shared heritage. During African-American Music Appreciation Month,...

  18. Phonological Awareness Skills in Young African American English Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitri, Souraya Mansour; Terry, Nicole Patton

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine African American children's performance on a phonological awareness task that included items reflecting differences between African American English (AAE) and mainstream American English. The relationship between spoken production of AAE forms and performance on phonological awareness, vocabulary, and…

  19. Math Blitz Afterschool Program: Reclaiming Excellence for African American Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smalls, Ruth R.

    2013-01-01

    An academic achievement gap exists between European American and African American students in the United States elementary educational system. At present, the achievement gap is currently being measured by local, state, and national standardized assessments and reveals that there is a great disparity among African American and European American…

  20. These Hallowed Halls: African American Women College and University Presidents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Gerri

    2007-01-01

    Early laws prohibited African Americans from learning to read and write in the United States. The right to an education has produced a significant number of African American women acquiring higher education. Racial and gender diversity at the presidential level in higher education 4-year institutions appears to be changing rapidly. The data…

  1. Recent African American Migration Trends in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, James H., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Presents a geographical analysis of African American migration estimates compiled by the Census Bureau for the 1980-85 period. Argues that structural changes in employment opportunities and the housing affordability crisis in some of the nation's largest metropolitan areas are the dominant forces influencing current African American population…

  2. Counseling African American Clients: Professional Counselors and Religious Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ennis, Willie, Jr.; Ennis, Willie, III; Durodoye, Beth A.; Ennis-Cole, Demetria; Bolden, Vernie L.

    2004-01-01

    In this article the authors describe a model counseling ministry within an African American church and discuss how the larger body of professional counselors can interface with similar programs and institutions that are a source of strength for many African Americans. Implications of the model for professional counselors are also discussed. The…

  3. Eating Behaviors and Obesity in African American and Caucasian Women

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-16

    relationship between affective eating and depressive symptoms [6] has been found in Caucasian females. Cultural dietary practices, body weight ideals, and...dissatisfaction among Caucasian compared to African American college students [15]; however, African American subsamples including postpartum [16...reported history of heart disease, uncontrolled hypertension, thyroid disease, diabetes, tobacco use, mental health disorder diagnosis, anti- depressant

  4. Scholarly Productivity and Social Work Doctorates: Patterns among African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiele, Jerome H.

    1992-01-01

    Surveyed 300 African-American social work faculty concerning their scholarly productivity in terms of published journal articles. Found that African-American social work doctorates publish just as much as do other social work doctorates and that younger age (31-40) for receiving the doctorate is associated with higher publication rates. (KS)

  5. Asthma Management Disparities: A Photovoice Investigation with African American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans-Agnew, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Disparities in asthma management are a burden on African American youth. The objective of this study is to describe and compare the discourses of asthma management disparities (AMDs) in African American adolescents in Seattle to existing youth-related asthma policies in Washington State. Adolescents participated in a three-session photovoice…

  6. The Future of African-Americans to the Year 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congressional Task Force on the Future of African-Americans, Washington, DC.

    This study considers the present condition of African-Americans and makes projections for the year 2000, emphasizing the relative conditions of European-Americans and African-Americans, and considering the public and private policy implications of these projections. Section 1, an overview of the subject, covers the following topics: (1) "The…

  7. African-American Women's Voices: Expanding Theories of Women's Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Diane J.

    1990-01-01

    Focuses on the experiences of African-American women; and considers the interaction of sex and race in the development of sense of self, sense of self in relation to others, and ontology through interviews with 12 African-American women. Similarities among women across race are suggested. (SLD)

  8. African-American Press Coverage of Clarence Thomas Nomination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fearn-Banks, Kathleen

    1994-01-01

    Examines pressures facing the African American press by focusing on its coverage of the 1991 nomination of Clarence Thomas to the United States Supreme Court. Discusses the dilemma these newspapers faced in choosing between supporting African Americans and supporting civil rights, with their mixed coverage of the story reflecting this dilemma. (SR)

  9. Bone and mineral metabolism in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Bell, N H

    1997-08-01

    Important differences exist in the metabolism of bone and mineral and the vitamin D endocrine system between whites and African Americans and include rate o f skeletal remodeling, bone mass, and vitamin D metabolism. A higher bone mineral density (BMD) in African Americans is associated with a diminished incidence o f osteoporosis and fractures. Serum 17beta-estradiol and the rate of GH secretion are higher in black than in white men, but there is no racial difference in women in this regard. The mechanisms for reduced rate o f skeletal remodeling and for greater BMD in blacks are not known, but diminished rate of skeletal remodeling could be a contributing factor for greater bone mass. Reduction in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in blacks is attributed to increased skin pigment and to diminished dermal production of vitamin D(3) and consequent decreased hepatic synthesis o f the metabolite. There is no evidence that alteration of the vitamin D endocrine system contributes to or is responsible for racial differences in skeletal remodeling and bone mass. Black infants, however, are at risk for developing vitamin D-deficient rickets, particularly when breast-fed.

  10. Correlates of African American Men's Sexual Schemas

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Dawn A.; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; St. Lawrence, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Sexual schemas are cognitive representations of oneself as a sexual being and aid in the processing of sexually relevant information. We examined the relationship between sociosexuality (attitudes about casual sex), masculine ideology (attitudes toward traditional men and male roles), and cultural centrality (strength of identity with racial group) as significant psychosocial and sociocultural predictors in shaping young, heterosexual African American men's sexual schemas. A community sample (n=133) of men in a southeastern city of the United States completed quantitative self-report measures examining their attitudes and behavior related to casual sex, beliefs about masculinity, racial and cultural identity, and self-views of various sexual aspects of themselves. Results indicated that masculine ideology and cultural centrality were both positively related to men's sexual schemas. Cultural centrality explained 12 % of the variance in level of sexual schema, and had the strongest correlation of the predictor variables with sexual schema (r=.36). The need for more attention to the bidirectional relationships between masculinity, racial/cultural identity, and sexual schemas in prevention, intervention, and public health efforts for African American men is discussed. PMID:24031118

  11. Culturally Specific Dance to Reduce Obesity in African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Murrock, Carolyn J.; Gary, Faye A.

    2013-01-01

    This article provides evidence of a culturally specific dance intervention to decrease obesity as measured by body fat and body mass index (BMI) in African American women. A community partnership was formed with two African American churches to develop an intervention to address the issue of obesity. The culturally specific dance intervention was delivered two times per week for 8 weeks, choreographed to gospel music selected by the experimental group participants, and taught by an African American woman. Body fat and BMI were assessed at three time points and revealed significant differences between the two groups. Attending a minimum of 7 classes was enough to show an observed dose effect and the intervention was found to be culturally specific by understanding their roles as African American women. This community partnership was an effective way to promote a church-based, culturally specific dance intervention to improve the health of African American women. PMID:19098267

  12. Tenancy and African American Marriage in the Postbellum South.

    PubMed

    Bloome, Deirdre; Muller, Christopher

    2015-10-01

    The pervasiveness of tenancy in the postbellum South had countervailing effects on marriage between African Americans. Tenancy placed severe constraints on African American women's ability to find independent agricultural work. Freedwomen confronted not only planters' reluctance to contract directly with women but also whites' refusal to sell land to African Americans. Marriage consequently became one of African American women's few viable routes into the agricultural labor market. We find that the more counties relied on tenant farming, the more common was marriage among their youngest and oldest African American residents. However, many freedwomen resented their subordinate status within tenant marriages. Thus, we find that tenancy contributed to union dissolution as well as union formation among freedpeople. Microdata tracing individuals' marital transitions are consistent with these county-level results.

  13. Black-white unions: West Indians and African Americans compared.

    PubMed

    Model, S; Fisher, G

    2001-05-01

    In this research we use 1990 PUMS data to compare the propensity for unions between African Americans and native whites with the propensity for unions between British West Indians and native whites. In addition, we distinguish women and men. Descriptive statistics indicate that West Indians, with the exception of men who arrived as adults, are more likely than African Americans to have white partners. After the introduction of controls for several correlates of intermarriage, however, West Indian men of any generation have lower exogamy rates than African American men, while exogamy rates are higher among West Indian women who arrived as children or who were born in the United States than among African American women. Thus we find no consistent evidence of greater exogamy for British West Indians than for African Americans.

  14. Factors influencing prostate cancer screening in African American men.

    PubMed

    Lehto, Rebecca H; Song, Lixin; Stein, Karen F; Coleman-Burns, Patricia

    2010-10-01

    African American men have the highest prostate cancer incidence and mortality rates worldwide, but have lower screening rates compared with Caucasian men. The purpose of the study was to identify social ecological factors that affect screening behaviors in African American men, knowledge that could be integral to the design of culturally appropriate interventions. The exploratory study included 60 African American males recruited from the greater Detroit metropolitan area. Social ecological variables examined included age, marital status, presence of health insurance, education, health values and behaviors, physician trust, and perceived stress coping (John Henryism). Analyses included descriptives, chi-square tests, one-way ANOVAs, and logistic regression. Findings concluded that a parsimonious model consisting of two variables (age and health values) was predictive. African American males, > or =50 years, with higher positive health values were more likely to obtain screening. Findings imply the importance of health values and targeted educational and screening interventions for younger African American men.

  15. African Americans, hypertension and the renin angiotensin system

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Sandra F; Nicholas, Susanne B; Vaziri, Nosratola D; Norris, Keith C

    2014-01-01

    African Americans have exceptionally high rates of hypertension and hypertension related complications. It is commonly reported that the blood pressure lowering efficacy of renin angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors is attenuated in African Americans due to a greater likelihood of having a low renin profile. Therefore these agents are often not recommended as initial therapy in African Americans with hypertension. However, the high prevalence of comorbid conditions, such as diabetes, cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease makes treatment with RAS inhibitors more compelling. Despite lower circulating renin levels and a less significant fall in blood pressure in response to RAS inhibitors in African Americans, numerous clinical trials support the efficacy of RAS inhibitors to improve clinical outcomes in this population, especially in those with hypertension and risk factors for cardiovascular and related diseases. Here, we discuss the rationale of RAS blockade as part of a comprehensive approach to attenuate the high rates of premature morbidity and mortality associated with hypertension among African Americans. PMID:25276290

  16. Tenancy and African American Marriage in the Postbellum South

    PubMed Central

    Bloome, Deirdre; Muller, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The pervasiveness of tenancy in the postbellum South had countervailing effects on marriage between African Americans. Tenancy placed severe constraints on African American women’s ability to find independent agricultural work. Freedwomen confronted not only planters’ reluctance to contract directly with women but also whites’ refusal to sell land to African Americans. Marriage consequently became one of African American women’s few viable routes into the agricultural labor market. We find that the more counties relied on tenant farming, the more common was marriage among their youngest and oldest African American residents. However, many freedwomen resented their subordinate status within tenant marriages. Thus, we find that tenancy contributed to union dissolution as well as union formation among freedpeople. Microdata tracing individuals’ marital transitions are consistent with these county-level results. PMID:26223562

  17. Agreement between paper and pen visual analogue scales and a wristwatch-based electronic appetite rating system (PRO-Diary©), for continuous monitoring of free-living subjective appetite sensations in 7-10 year old children.

    PubMed

    Rumbold, P L S; Dodd-Reynolds, C J; Stevenson, E

    2013-10-01

    Electronic capture of free-living subjective appetite data can provide a more reliable alternative to traditional pen and paper visual analogue scales (P&P VAS), whilst reducing researcher workload. Consequently, the aim of this study was to explore the agreement between P&P VAS and a wristwatch-based electronic appetite rating system known as the PRO-Diary© technique, for monitoring free-living appetite sensations in 7-10 year old children. On one occasion, using a within-subject design, the 12 children (n=6 boys; n=6 girls) recorded their subjective appetite (hunger, prospective food consumption, and fullness), at two time points before lunch (11:30 and 12:00) and every 60 min thereafter until 21:00. The agreement between the P&P VAS and PRO-Diary© technique was explored using 95% limits of agreement and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) calculated using the Bland and Altman (1986) technique. For hunger, prospective food consumption and fullness, the 95% limits of agreement were -1±25 mm (95% CI: lower limit -8mm; upper limit +6mm), 0±21 mm (95% CI: lower limit -6mm; upper limit +6mm) and -6±24 mm (95% CI: lower limit -14 mm; upper limit +1mm), respectively. Given the advantages associated with electronic data capture (inexpensive; integrated alarm; data easily downloaded), we conclude that the PRO-Diary© technique is an equivalent method to employ when continuously monitoring free-living appetite sensations in 7-10 year old children, but should not be used interchangeably with P&P VAS.

  18. African American Male Achievement: Using a Tenet of Critical Theory to Explain the African American Male Achievement Disparity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Robert T.; Maramba, Dina C.

    2011-01-01

    Although African Americans continue to demonstrate a desire for education, Black male enrollment and completion rates in higher education are dismal when compared to other ethnic groups. Researchers and scholars have noted various theories and philosophies responsible for the academic disengagement of African American men in higher education. This…

  19. Conceptualizing the African American Mathematics Teacher as a Key Figure in the African American Education Historical Narrative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Lawrence M.; Jones Frank, Toya; Davis, Julius

    2013-01-01

    Background/Context: Historians and researchers have documented and explored the work and role of African American teachers in the U.S. educational system, yet there has been limited attention to the specific work, role, and experiences of African American mathematics teachers. To meaningfully and responsibly conceptualize the role of African…

  20. Assessing Social Anxiety in African American Youth using the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for Children

    PubMed Central

    Pina, Armando A.; Little, Michelle; Wynne, Henry; Beidel, Deborah C.

    2013-01-01

    Examined measurement invariance and cut-off scores of the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for Children (SPAI-C) using data corresponding to a convenience sample of 501 African American and Caucasian youth (Mage = 11.62 years, 249 girls; 49% with social anxiety disorder) using exploratory structural equation modeling and a weighted least squares mean variance estimator. For the cut-off scores, Receiver Operator Characteristic analyses were used along with Youden’s index to evaluate the balance between sensitivity and specificity. Overall, results supported the SPAI-C’s cross-race invariance but a few items emerged as non-invariant. Compared to past research, lower SPAI-C cutoff scores were found (13 to 15 range). Findings support research showing that African American youth generally have significantly lower (or similar) social anxiety levels than their White counterparts. Suggestions for using the SPAI-C with African American under non-invariant conditions youth are provided and implications of using lower cutoff scores are discussed. PMID:23872906

  1. A Dietary Intervention in Urban African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Edgar R.; Cooper, Lisa A.; Carson, Kathryn A.; Wang, Nae-Yuh; Appel, Lawrence J.; Gayles, Debra; Charleston, Jeanne; White, Karen; You, Na; Weng, Yingjie; Martin-Daniels, L. Michelle; Bates-Hopkins, Barbara; Robb, Inez; Franz, Whitney K.; Brown, Emily L.; Halbert, Jennifer P.; Albert, Michael C.; Dalcin, Arlene T.; Yeh, Hsin-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Unhealthy diets, often low in potassium, likely contribute to racial disparities in blood pressure. We tested the effectiveness of providing weekly dietary advice, assistance with selection of higher potassium grocery items, and a $30 per week food allowance on blood pressure and other outcomes in African American adults with hypertension. Design We conducted an 8-week RCT with two parallel arms between May 2012 and November 2013. Setting/participants We randomized 123 African Americans with controlled hypertension from an urban primary care clinic in Baltimore, Maryland and implemented the trial in partnership with a community supermarket and the Baltimore City Health Department. Mean (SD) age was 58.6 (9.5) years, 71% were female, blood pressure was 131.3 (14.7)/77.2 (10.5) mmHg, BMI was 34.5 (8.2) kg/m2, and 28% had diabetes. Intervention Participants randomized to the active intervention group (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension [DASH]-Plus) received coach-directed dietary advice and assistance with weekly online ordering and purchasing of high-potassium foods ($30/week) delivered by a community supermarket to a neighborhood library. Participants in the control group received a printed DASH diet brochure along with debit account of equivalent value to that of the DASH-Plus group. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was blood pressure change. Analyses were conducted in January to October 2014. Results Compared with the control group, the DASH-Plus group increased self-reported consumption of fruits and vegetables (mean=1.4, 95% CI=0.7, 2.1 servings/day), estimated intake of potassium (mean=0.4, 95% CI=0.1, 0.7 grams/day), and urine potassium excretion (mean=19%, 95% CI=1%, 38%). There was no significant effect on blood pressure. Conclusions A program providing dietary advice, assistance with grocery ordering, and $30/week of high-potassium foods in African American patients with controlled hypertension in a community-based clinic did not

  2. A Common Genetic Factor Explains the Covariation among ADHD ODD and CD Symptoms in 9-10 Year Old Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuvblad, Catherine; Zheng, Mo; Raine, Adrian; Baker, Laura A.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies examining the covariation among Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Conduct Disorder (CD) have yielded inconsistent results. Some studies have concluded that the covariation among these symptoms is due to common genetic influences, whereas others have found a common…

  3. Takotsubo Syndrome in African American vs. Non-African American Women

    PubMed Central

    QaQa, Ashraf; Daoko, Joseph; Jallad, Nesreen; Aburomeh, Omar; Goldfarb, Irvin; Shamoon, Fayez

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) is a reversible cause of heart failure rarely described in African-American patients. This study aimed to compare and contrast the clinical characteristics of TTS in African-American (AA) and non-African-American (NAA) patients. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of eight patients (four AA and four NAA) diagnosed with TTS, between June 2006 and August 2008, in four different teaching hospitals: St Michael’s Medical Center, St Joseph’s Medical Center, Trinitas hospital and St Louis’ University Hospital. We compared the patients with regard to presenting symptoms, precipitating stressors, electrocardiographic findings, troponin levels, ejection fraction and in-hospital course. Results: All patients were females (mean age 64 for AA and 67 for NAA). All patients experienced chest pain and had elevated troponin levels. Two AA and three NAA patients had associated shortness of breath and one NAA had syncope. All AA and three NAA had T-wave inversions. Three NAA and one AA had ST segment elevation. Three patients in both groups developed prolongation of the QT interval. Coronary angiograms did not reveal any significant obstructive coronary artery disease. Three patients, all NAA, needed hemodynamic support during their hospital stay but none died. Conclusion: AA and NAA women with TTS have similar presenting symptoms but may differ in the electrocardiographic findings and in-hospital course of the disease. PMID:21691531

  4. Parenting Needs of Urban, African American Fathers.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tyler K; Tandon, S Darius; Bair-Merritt, Megan H; Hanson, Janice L

    2015-07-01

    Fathers play a critical role in children's development; similarly, fatherhood positively affects men's health. Among the larger population of fathers relatively little is known about the parenting knowledge of urban, African American fathers. Focusing on urban, African American fathers, the objectives of this study were to (1) understand the primary sources from which fathers learn about parenting, (2) determine where and how fathers prefer to receive future parenting education, and (3) explore the information perceived as most valuable to fathers and how this compares with the recommended anticipatory guidance (Bright Futures-based) delivered during well visits. Five focus groups, with a total of 21 participants, were conducted with urban fathers at a community-based organization. Study eligibility included being more than 18 years old, English speaking, and having at least one child 0 to 5 years old. During the focus groups, fathers were asked where they received parenting information, how and where they preferred to receive parenting information, and what they thought about Bright Futures parenting guidelines. Fathers most commonly described receiving parenting information from their own relatives rather than from their child's health care provider. Most fathers preferred to learn parenting from a person rather than a technology-based source and expressed interest in learning more about parenting at community-based locations. Although fathers viewed health care providers' role as primarily teaching about physical health, they valued Bright Futures anticipatory guidance about parenting. Fathers valued learning about child rearing, health, and development. Augmenting physician counseling about Bright Futures with community-based parenting education may be beneficial for fathers.

  5. Conducting Precision Medicine Research with African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Halbert, Chanita Hughes; McDonald, Jasmine; Vadaparampil, Susan; Rice, LaShanta; Jefferson, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Importance Precision medicine is an approach to detecting, treating, and managing disease that is based on individual variation in genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors. Precision medicine is expected to reduce health disparities, but this will be possible only if studies have adequate representation of racial minorities. Objective It is critical to anticipate the rates at which individuals from diverse populations are likely to participate in precision medicine studies as research initiatives are being developed. We evaluated the likelihood of participating in a clinical study for precision medicine. Design, Setting, Participants Observational study conducted between October 2010 and February 2011 in a national sample of African Americans. Main Outcome Measure Intentions to participate in a government sponsored study that involves providing a biospecimen and generates data that could be shared with other researchers to conduct future studies. Results One third of respondents would participate in a clinical study for precision medicine. Only gender had a significant independent association with participation intentions. Men had a 1.86 (95% CI = 1.11, 3.12, p = 0.02) increased likelihood of participating in a precision medicine study compared to women in the model that included overall barriers and facilitators. In the model with specific participation barriers, distrust was associated with a reduced likelihood of participating in the research described in the vignette (OR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.34, 0.96, p = 0.04). Conclusion and Relevance African Americans may have low enrollment in PMI research. As PMI research is implemented, extensive efforts will be needed to ensure adequate representation. Additional research is needed to identify optimal ways of ethically describing precision medicine studies to ensure sufficient recruitment of racial minorities. PMID:27441706

  6. Stroke Risk Factor Profiles in African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Worrall, Bradford B.; Johnston, Karen C.; Kongable, Gail; Hung, Elena; Richardson, DeJuran; Gorelick, Philip B.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Purpose If sex differences in stroke risk factor profiles exist among African Americans in the United States, prevention strategies will need to reflect those differences. African Americans and women have been underrepresented in stroke prevention studies. The purpose of this study was to determine whether medical and lifestyle factors differ among women and men who have enrolled in the African-American Antiplatelet Stroke Prevention Study (AAASPS). Methods We performed a planned exploratory analysis of differences in baseline characteristics and risk factors between women and men enrolled in AAASPS, a double-blind, randomized, multicenter, controlled trial. Frequencies of vascular risk factors and related conditions, medical therapies, stroke subtypes, and vascular territories were compared between women and men by 1-way ANOVA and Fisher’s exact test where appropriate. Results A total of 1087 African American patients (574 women, 513 men) enrolled between December 1995 and June 1999. Women had higher rates of hypertension, diabetes, family history of stroke, and no reported leisure exercise. Men had higher rates of smoking and heavy alcohol use. Few differences were noted in proportions of stroke subtype or proportions receiving preventive therapy. Conclusions AAASPS represents the largest enrollment of African American women in a recurrent stroke prevention study. Our data suggest that African American women in a clinical trial differ from men in the frequency of key vascular risk factors. Although limited, these data provide an important first characterization of sex differences in African Americans with stroke. PMID:11935036

  7. Effectiveness of Diabetes Prevention Program translations among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Samuel-Hodge, C D; Johnson, C M; Braxton, D F; Lackey, M

    2014-10-01

    The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) demonstrated risk reduction for incident diabetes through weight loss among all participants, including African Americans. Several DPP translations have been conducted in less controlled settings, including primary care practices and communities; however, there is no detailed compilation of how effective these translations have been for African Americans. This systematic literature review evaluated DPP translations from 2003 to 2012. Eligible records were retrieved using a search strategy of relevant databases and gray literature. Retrieved records (n=1,272) were screened using a priori criteria, which resulted in 21 full-text studies for review. Seventeen studies were included in the full-text qualitative synthesis. Seven studies had 100% African American samples and 10 studies had mixed samples with African American subgroups. African American participants' average weight loss was roughly half of that achieved in the DPP intervention. However, with few higher-quality studies, small sample sizes and differences in intervention designs and implementation, comparisons across interventions were difficult. The suboptimal effectiveness of DPP translations among African American adults, particularly women, signals the need for enhancements to existing evidence-based interventions and more high-quality research that includes other at-risk African American subgroups such as men and younger adults of lower socioeconomic status.

  8. The Great Migration and African-American Genomic Diversity.

    PubMed

    Baharian, Soheil; Barakatt, Maxime; Gignoux, Christopher R; Shringarpure, Suyash; Errington, Jacob; Blot, William J; Bustamante, Carlos D; Kenny, Eimear E; Williams, Scott M; Aldrich, Melinda C; Gravel, Simon

    2016-05-01

    We present a comprehensive assessment of genomic diversity in the African-American population by studying three genotyped cohorts comprising 3,726 African-Americans from across the United States that provide a representative description of the population across all US states and socioeconomic status. An estimated 82.1% of ancestors to African-Americans lived in Africa prior to the advent of transatlantic travel, 16.7% in Europe, and 1.2% in the Americas, with increased African ancestry in the southern United States compared to the North and West. Combining demographic models of ancestry and those of relatedness suggests that admixture occurred predominantly in the South prior to the Civil War and that ancestry-biased migration is responsible for regional differences in ancestry. We find that recent migrations also caused a strong increase in genetic relatedness among geographically distant African-Americans. Long-range relatedness among African-Americans and between African-Americans and European-Americans thus track north- and west-bound migration routes followed during the Great Migration of the twentieth century. By contrast, short-range relatedness patterns suggest comparable mobility of ∼15-16km per generation for African-Americans and European-Americans, as estimated using a novel analytical model of isolation-by-distance.

  9. The Great Migration and African-American Genomic Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Barakatt, Maxime; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Errington, Jacob; Blot, William J.; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Kenny, Eimear E.; Williams, Scott M.; Aldrich, Melinda C.; Gravel, Simon

    2016-01-01

    We present a comprehensive assessment of genomic diversity in the African-American population by studying three genotyped cohorts comprising 3,726 African-Americans from across the United States that provide a representative description of the population across all US states and socioeconomic status. An estimated 82.1% of ancestors to African-Americans lived in Africa prior to the advent of transatlantic travel, 16.7% in Europe, and 1.2% in the Americas, with increased African ancestry in the southern United States compared to the North and West. Combining demographic models of ancestry and those of relatedness suggests that admixture occurred predominantly in the South prior to the Civil War and that ancestry-biased migration is responsible for regional differences in ancestry. We find that recent migrations also caused a strong increase in genetic relatedness among geographically distant African-Americans. Long-range relatedness among African-Americans and between African-Americans and European-Americans thus track north- and west-bound migration routes followed during the Great Migration of the twentieth century. By contrast, short-range relatedness patterns suggest comparable mobility of ∼15–16km per generation for African-Americans and European-Americans, as estimated using a novel analytical model of isolation-by-distance. PMID:27232753

  10. The moderating influence of mother-adolescent discussion on early and middle African-American adolescent sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    DiIorio, Colleen; McCarty, Frances; Denzmore, Pamela; Landis, Andrea

    2007-04-01

    We examined how African-American mothers' discussions with their adolescents about sex moderated the relationship between adolescents' sex-based discussions with their friends and adolescents' involvement in sexual behaviors. The 425 African-American adolescents were 12 through 15 years of age and had participated in an HIV prevention research project with their mothers. Linear and logistic regression analyses showed that, for girls, age, discussions with friends, and the interaction between mother and friend's sex-based discussions were statistically significant predictors of sexual behaviors. These findings suggest that the level of discussion with mothers had a moderating effect on the relationship between friends' discussions about sex and a girl's involvement in sexual behaviors. Although these results were not apparent for boys, there was a strong relationship between discussions with friends about sex and sexual behaviors among boys.

  11. "Ladies" or "Loudies"?: Perceptions and Experiences of Black Girls in Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Edward W.

    2007-01-01

    Although much scholarship has focused on the schooling experiences of African American boys, this article demonstrates that African American girls encounter unique educational perceptions and obstacles. Black girls in a predominately minority school performed well academically, but educators often questioned their manners and behavior. Some tried…

  12. The impact of mental health problems and religiosity on African-American girls’ HIV-risk

    PubMed Central

    Udell, Wadiya; Donenberg, Geri; Emerson, Erin

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between religiosity, mental health problems, and two sexual risk behaviors – condom use and number of partners. Participants were 80 sexually active African American girls in psychiatric care and their caregivers. Results indicated differential relationships, depending on parent versus youth report. Mother’s religiosity, was positively related to girls’ condom use and not to girls’ number of partners. Controlling for other predictors in the models, mother’s religiosity explained as much as 15% of the variance in girls’ condom use. Whereas, parent and adolescent reports of girls’ depression/anxiety and rule-breaking were positively associated with number of partners, reports of aggression was associated with having fewer partners. Neither parent nor youth report of girls’ mental health problems were associated with condom use. Controlling for other predictors in the models, girls’ mental health problems accounted for as much as 31% of the variance in number of partners. Findings underscore of the importance of adopting an ecological framework to understand both the risk and promotive factors for sexual risk taking among troubled girls. The roles of specific aspects of psychopathology and religiosity in relation to sexual risk behavior among African American girls in psychiatric care are discussed. PMID:21604846

  13. African American teens and the neo-juvenile justice system.

    PubMed

    Rozie-Battle, Judith L

    2002-01-01

    African American youth continue to be overrepresented in the juvenile justice system. As a result of the current political environment and the perceived increase in crime among young people, the nation has moved away from rehabilitation and toward harsher treatment of delinquents. The African American community must encourage policy makers and community leaders to continue to address the disproportionate representation of African American youth in the system. Current policing and prosecutorial policies must also be examined and challenged to end the perception of an unjust system.

  14. Under the shadow of Tuskegee: African Americans and health care.

    PubMed Central

    Gamble, V N

    1997-01-01

    The Tuskegee Syphilis Study continues to cast its long shadow on the contemporary relationship between African Americans and the biomedical community. Numerous reports have argued that the Tuskegee Syphilis Study is the most important reason why many African Americans distrust the institutions of medicine and public health. Such an interpretation neglects a critical historical point: the mistrust predated public revelations about the Tuskegee study. This paper places the syphilis study within a broader historical and social context to demonstrate that several factors have influenced--and continue to influence--African American's attitudes toward the biomedical community. PMID:9366634

  15. De Novo Interstitial Microdeletion at 1q32.1 in a 10-Year-Old Boy with Developmental Delay and Dysmorphism

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Jennifer; Zombor, Melinda; Máté, Adrienn; Sztriha, László; Waters, Jonathan J.

    2016-01-01

    A 10-year-old boy was referred with developmental delay and dysmorphism. Genomewide aCGH microarray analysis detected a de novo 3.7 Mb deletion at 1q32.1: arr 1q32.1(199,985,888-203,690,832)x1 dn [build HG19]. This first report of a deletion in this region implies a critical role for dosage-sensitive genes within 1q32.1 in neurological development. This is consistent with previously reported duplications of this region in patients with a similar phenotype. PMID:26955491

  16. [Measurement of the in vitro immune response of live attenuated measles virus vaccine and antibody levels in 0 to 10-year-old children].

    PubMed

    Unalan, H; Ustaçelebi, S

    1985-10-01

    The present study was carried out in order to test the antigenic effectiveness of the live attenuated meales vaccine which is routinly employed in our country. Sera obtained from 11 children before and after measles vaccination were tested for measles antibodies by complement fixation and neutralization tests. Sera samples were also collected from 0-10 years old children with history of vaccination, passed measles infection and none at all. These sera were also tested for measles antibody by complement fixation test. Virus isolation and seroconversion studies in children who were admitted to the outpatient clinics of Hacettepe hospital is also presented in this communication.

  17. African American Culture and Heritage in Higher Education Research and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Kassie, Ed.

    Fifteen papers examine the cultural context and history of African Americans in higher education research and practice. Papers are grouped in three parts: African American culture in higher education research; African American higher education research issues and paradigms; and African American culture and higher education policy and practice.…

  18. The English History of African American English. Language and Society Series; 28.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poplack, Shana, Ed.

    Essays on the history of African American Vernacular English (AAVE) include: an introduction to the evolution of AAVE within the African American diaspora (Shana Poplack); "Rephrasing the Copula: Contraction and Zero in Early African American English" (James A. Walker); "Reconstructing the Source of Early African American English…

  19. Is No Child Left Behind "Wise Schooling" for African American Male Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillian, M. Monique

    2004-01-01

    To improve achievement among African American students, education professionals must pay special attention to African American male achievement and reframe the academic achievement gap as a treatment gap. Engagement studies suggest that African American students, and African American boys in particular, are susceptible to academic disengagement.…

  20. Strength-Based Assessment of Rural African American Early Adolescents: Characteristics of Students in High and Low Groups on the Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Thomas W.; Clemmer, Jason T.; Leung, Man-Chi; Goforth, Jennifer B.; Thompson, Jana H.; Keagy, Kristin; Boucher, Signe

    2005-01-01

    Early adolescents' strengths were examined in relation to factors that are associated with developmental risk or resilience in two rural low-income southern communities. The sample was comprised of 279 students (101 boys, 178 girls), all of whom were African American and reflected the public school attendance of this community. Parent reports on…

  1. From Thunder Rose to when Marian Sang . . . Behold the Power of African American Female Characters! Reading to Encourage Self-Worth, Inform/Inspire, and Bring Pleasure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinson, Sabrina A.

    2009-01-01

    Stories are important teaching tools. To ensure that young children are informed and experience more than a handful of African American women and girls' stories and authors, this article showcases notable and little-known accomplishments of exceptional women, real and imaginary. Brinson offers an annotated list of children's literature, fiction…

  2. Dating Violence Perpetration and/or Victimization and Associated Sexual Risk Behaviors among a Sample of Inner-City African American and Hispanic Adolescent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alleyne-Green, Binta; Coleman-Cowger, Victoria H.; Henry, David B.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence of physical and psychological dating violence victimization and perpetration reported by inner-city African American and Hispanic adolescent girls as well as associated risky sexual behaviors among this population. Participants in this study were 10th- and 11th-grade female students from seven…

  3. Effect of sports vision exercise on visual perception and reading performance in 7- to 10-year-old developmental dyslexic children

    PubMed Central

    Badami, Rokhsareh; Mahmoudi, Sahar; Baluch, Bahman

    2016-01-01

    The presented study was aimed at identifying for the first time the influence of sports vision exercises on fundamental motor skills and cognitive skills of 7- to 10-year-old developmental dyslexic Persian children. A pretest-posttest quasi-experimental study was conducted. The statistical population of this study was 7- to 10-year-old dyslexic children referring to two centres of learning disorder in the city of Isfahan. Twenty two of these children were selected using available and purposive sampling from the statistical population and were randomly assigned into two groups of experimental and control. The former (experimental group) participated in sports vision exercise courses for 12 weeks (3 one hr sessions per week) and the latter (control group) continued their routine daily activities during the exercise. Before the beginning and at the end of the exercise, Gardner’s test of visual perception test - revised and Dehkhoda’s reading skills test was administered to both groups. The results showed that the sports vision exercises increases motor skills, visual perceptual skills and reading skills in developmental dyslexic children. Based on the results of the presented study it was concluded that sports vision exercises can be used for fundamental and cognitive skills of developmental dyslexic children. PMID:28119884

  4. Effect of sports vision exercise on visual perception and reading performance in 7- to 10-year-old developmental dyslexic children.

    PubMed

    Badami, Rokhsareh; Mahmoudi, Sahar; Baluch, Bahman

    2016-12-01

    The presented study was aimed at identifying for the first time the influence of sports vision exercises on fundamental motor skills and cognitive skills of 7- to 10-year-old developmental dyslexic Persian children. A pretest-posttest quasi-experimental study was conducted. The statistical population of this study was 7- to 10-year-old dyslexic children referring to two centres of learning disorder in the city of Isfahan. Twenty two of these children were selected using available and purposive sampling from the statistical population and were randomly assigned into two groups of experimental and control. The former (experimental group) participated in sports vision exercise courses for 12 weeks (3 one hr sessions per week) and the latter (control group) continued their routine daily activities during the exercise. Before the beginning and at the end of the exercise, Gardner's test of visual perception test - revised and Dehkhoda's reading skills test was administered to both groups. The results showed that the sports vision exercises increases motor skills, visual perceptual skills and reading skills in developmental dyslexic children. Based on the results of the presented study it was concluded that sports vision exercises can be used for fundamental and cognitive skills of developmental dyslexic children.

  5. 75 FR 6081 - National African American History Month, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    .... Structural inequalities--from disparities in education and health care to the vicious cycle of poverty--still... Economic Empowerment,'' calls upon us to honor the African Americans who overcame injustice and...

  6. Assessing Stigma among African Americans Living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Deepa; Molina, Yamile; Lambert, Nina; Cohn, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose In the present study, we validated a culturally adapted stigma scale designed to assess stigma among African Americans living with HIV. Methods We collected data on the scale using an audio computer assisted self-interview (ACASI) format. We validated the scale with a sample of 62 African American participants living with HIV. Results Findings demonstrated that stigma can be measured succinctly and effectively in a 14-item scale with two subscales measuring enacted and internalized stigma. Discussion We identified many advantages to using the scale, which demonstrated good psychometric properties when used with an audio computer assisted self-interview format and with an African American sample. We recommend this scale’s use in both clinical practice and research study of HIV-stigma reduction interventions with African American populations. PMID:27761520

  7. KSC kicks off African-American History Month

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Mack McKinney, chief, program resources management at NASA and chairperson for African-American History Month, presents a plaque to Bhetty Waldron at the kick-off ceremony of African-American History Month on Feb. 3 at the NASA Training Auditorium. The award was given in thanks for Waldron's portrayal of Dr. Mary McLeod Bethune and Zora Neal Hurston during the ceremony. The theme for this year's observation is 'Heritage and Horizons: The African-American Legacy and the Challenges of the 21st Century.' February is designated each year as a time to celebrate the achievements and contributions of African Americans to Kennedy Space Center, NASA and the nation.

  8. Structural and Social Contexts of HIV Risk Among African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Hannah L. F.; Osborne, Andrew H.

    2009-01-01

    HIV continues to be transmitted at unacceptably high rates among African Americans, and most HIV-prevention interventions have focused on behavioral change. To theorize additional approaches to HIV prevention among African Americans, we discuss how sexual networks and drug-injection networks are as important as behavior for HIV transmission. We also describe how higher-order social structures and processes, such as residential racial segregation and racialized policing, may help shape risk networks and behaviors. We then discuss 3 themes in African American culture—survival, propriety, and struggle—that also help shape networks and behaviors. Finally, we conclude with a discussion of how these perspectives might help reduce HIV transmission among African Americans. PMID:19372519

  9. African American marriage in the 20th century.

    PubMed

    Pinderhughes, Elaine B

    2002-01-01

    It is not possible to understand African American marriages fully without attention to the social, economic, racial, and historical factors that have stressed male-female relationships beyond those stresses experienced by majority couples. I propose that the societal projection process (Bowen, 1978) has entrapped African Americans in ways that have continually and severely strained their marital and couple relationships. These experiences, and the ways in which African Americans have responded to them, have created a vulnerability that is compounded by societal shifts and changes, and is manifest in the precipitous decline of marriages at a rate higher than that found in all other racial groups in the U.S. I will examine the state of African American marriages in this cultural context, with specific attention to the effects of the unequal sex ratio, socioeconomic conditions, and overstressed male-female relationships. I will then discuss implications and offer suggestions for therapists who work with this population.

  10. African Americans and Hospice Care: A Narrative Analysis.

    PubMed

    Dillon, Patrick J; Roscoe, Lori A

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that terminally ill African Americans' care is generally more expensive and of lower quality than that of comparable non-Hispanic white patients. Scholars argue that increasing hospice enrollment among African Americans will help improve end-of-life care for this population, yet few studies have examined the experiences of African American patients and their loved ones after accessing hospice care. In this article, we explore how African American patients and lay caregivers evaluated their hospice experiences. Drawing from 39 in-depth interviews with 26 participants, we use a modified version of Bute and Jensen's (2011) narrative typology to organize patients' and caregivers' stories into three general categories: narratives of satisfaction, narratives of regret, and narratives of ambivalence. Building from these categories, we discuss the implications of this research for understanding hospice experiences, promoting hospice access, and improving end-of-life care for marginalized populations.

  11. African American Women's Breastfeeding Experiences: Cultural, Personal, and Political Voices.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Becky; Wambach, Karen; Domain, Elaine Williams

    2015-07-01

    The low rate of breastfeeding among African American women in the United States is a poorly understood, persistent disparity. Our purpose in this study was to gain an understanding of how African American women experience breastfeeding in the context of their day-to-day lives. The Sequential-Consensual Qualitative Design (SCQD), a 3-stage qualitative methodology aimed at exploring the cultural, personal, and political context of phenomena, was used to explore the experiences of African American women who felt successful with breastfeeding. An integration of qualitative content analysis and Black feminist theory was used to analyze the data. Themes that emerged from Stage-2 data analysis included self-determination, spirituality and breastfeeding, and empowerment. In Stage 3 of the study, participant recommendations regarding breastfeeding promotion and support initiatives for African American breastfeeding were categorized into three themes, including engaging spheres of influence, sparking breastfeeding activism, and addressing images of the sexual breast vs. the nurturing breast.

  12. Effective screening for Alzheimer's disease among older African Americans.

    PubMed

    Mast, B T; Fitzgerald, J; Steinberg, J; MacNeill, S E; Lichtenberg, P A

    2001-05-01

    Relatively little data exist concerning the utility of brief cognitive measures to detect dementia among African Americans. The current study evaluated the clinical utility of the Mini-Mental Status Exam (MMSE) and the Fuld Object Memory Evaluation (FOME) in detecting Alzheimer's disease (AD) among both African American and European American older adults. One hundred and forty geriatric patients from a large urban academic medical center were examined. Overall, the FOME appeared to be more effective in detecting AD than was the MMSE (93% sensitivity vs. 75% sensitivity, respectively), although both measures suffered from relatively low specificity (63.5) in the full sample. The FOME demonstrated exceptional clinical utility among African American patients (sensitivity 98.3%; specificity = 64.5; positive predictive power 83.8%; negative predictive power 95.2%). The results of this study support the use of the FOME among older African Americans to detect dementia.

  13. Transgenerational Consequences of Racial Discrimination for African American Health

    PubMed Central

    Goosby, Bridget J.; Heidbrink, Chelsea

    2014-01-01

    Disparities in African American health remain pervasive and persist transgenerationally. There is a growing consensus that both structural and interpersonal racial discrimination are key mechanisms affecting African American health. The Biopsychosocial Model of Racism as a Stressor posits that the persistent stress of experiencing discrimination take a physical toll on the health of African Americans and is ultimately manifested in the onset of illness. However, the degree to which the health consequences of racism and discrimination can be passed down from one generation to the next is an important avenue of exploration. In this review, we discuss and link literature across disciplines demonstrating the harmful impact of racism on African American physical health and the health of their offspring. PMID:24855488

  14. Genetic Counseling for Breast Cancer Susceptibility in African American Women

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    African American women. J Couns Dev 1992;71: 184–90. [35] Myers LJ. Understanding an Afrocentric worldview: introduction to an optimal psychology Dubuque...this study is to develop a Culturally Tailored Genetic Counseling (CTGC) protocol for African American women and evaluate its impact on psychological ...prophylactic surgery. Reductions in psychological distress will be mediated by increased use of spiritual coping strategies. Secondary Aim To identify

  15. BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutations in African Americans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-04-01

    genetic testing in African Americans must include the entire coding and flanking non-coding regions of the BRCA2 gene . "* It is noteworthy that BRCA ...Over 80% of inherited breast cancer is due to mutations in the breast cancer predisposing genes BRCA ] and BRCA2. In one of the largest studies of high...population 25-27,32. Therefore, genetic testing in African Americans must include complete sequencing of both BRCA 1 and BRCA2 genes . Familial cancer

  16. Dietary patterns and blood pressure in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Tucker, K

    1999-11-01

    Hypertension is a highly prevalent risk factor for vascular disease, particularly among African Americans. The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) study demonstrated that providing diets with 8-10 fruits and vegetables and 2-3 low-fat dairy foods per day significantly lowered blood pressure. A recent reanalysis showed even stronger effects for African Americans. Studies are needed to translate these findings into methods of effecting dietary change in high-risk populations.

  17. Unique Genomic Alterations in Prostate Cancers in African American Men

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    analysis of DNAs and RNAs from cancer and benign tissues from African American men with prostate followed by an in depth analysis of the 4p16.3 region...Cancer Tissue Bank. Samples will be from African American (AA) men undergoing radical prostatectomy for treatment of prostate cancer and were...collected with informed consent. Prostate cancer (PCa) samples will have 80% tumor and will have a matched benign tissue available from the same patient

  18. Outcomes in African Americans and Hispanics with lupus nephritis.

    PubMed

    Contreras, G; Lenz, O; Pardo, V; Borja, E; Cely, C; Iqbal, K; Nahar, N; de La Cuesta, C; Hurtado, A; Fornoni, A; Beltran-Garcia, L; Asif, A; Young, L; Diego, J; Zachariah, M; Smith-Norwood, B

    2006-05-01

    Poor outcomes have been reported in African Americans and Hispanics compared to Caucasians with lupus nephritis. The purpose of this retrospective analysis was to identify independent predictors of outcomes in African Americans and Hispanics with lupus nephritis. In total, 93 African Americans, 100 Hispanics, and 20 Caucasians with a mean age of 28 +/- 13 years and an annual household income of 32.9 +/- 17.3 (in 1000 US dollars) were studied. World Health Organization (WHO) lupus nephritis classes II, III, IV, and V were seen in 9, 13, 52, and 26%, respectively. Important baseline differences were higher mean arterial pressure (MAP) in African Americans compared to Hispanics and Caucasians (107 +/- 19, 102 +/- 15, and 99 +/- 13 mmHg, P < 0.05), and higher serum creatinine (1.66 +/- 1.3, 1.25 +/- 1.0, and 1.31 +/- 1.0 mg/dl, P < 0.025). African Americans had lower hematocrit compared to Hispanics and Caucasians (29 +/- 5, and 31 +/- 6, and 32 +/- 7%, P < 0.05), and lower annual household income (30.8 +/- 14.9, 33.1 +/- 15.9, and 42.2 +/- 29.3 in 1000 US dollars; P < 0.05). Lower prevalence of WHO class IV was seen in Caucasians (30%) compared to Hispanics (57%, P = 0.03) and African Americans (51%, P = 0.09). Development of doubling creatinine or end-stage renal disease was higher in African Americans and Hispanics than in Caucasians (31, 18, and 10%; P < 0.05), as was the development of renal events or death (34, 20, and 10%; P < 0.025). Our results suggest that both biological factors indicating an aggressive disease and low household income are common in African Americans and Hispanics with lupus nephritis, and outcomes in these groups are worse than in Caucasians.

  19. Changing psychiatric perception of African-Americans with affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, G Eric

    2012-12-01

    This article explored the origins and implications of the underdiagnosis of affective disorders in African-Americans. MEDLINE and old collections were searched using relevant key words. Reference lists from the articles that were gathered from this procedure were reviewed. The historical record indicated that the psychiatric perception of African-Americans with affective disorders changed significantly during the last 200 years. In the antebellum period, the mental disorders of slaves mostly went unnoticed. By the early 20th century, African-Americans were reported to have high rates of manic-depressive disorder compared with whites. By the mid-century, rates of manic-depressive disorder in African-Americans plummeted, whereas depression remained virtually nonexistent. In recent decades, diagnosed depression and bipolar disorder, whether in clinical or research settings, were inexplicably low in African-Americans compared with whites. Given these findings, American psychiatry needs to appraise the deep-seated effects of historical stereotypes on the diagnosis and treatment of African-Americans.

  20. Review: Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Shah, Sachil

    2012-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) affects 5,700 000 people in the United States, with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF) being responsible for between 30%-50% of acute admissions. Epidemiological studies and HF registries have found HFPEF patients to be older, hypertensive and to have a history of atrial fibrillation. These findings, however, may not be fully applicable to African Americans, as they have been poorly studied making up only a minority of the test subjects. This review article is intended to discuss the pathophysiology and epidemiology of HFPEF within African Americans, highlight the differences compared to Caucasian populations and review current treatment guidelines. Studies looking at African Americans in particular have shown them to be younger, female and have worse diastolic dysfunction compared to Caucasian populations. African Americans also have been shown to have a worse mortality outcome especially in patients without coronary artery disease. The treatment of HFPEF is primarily symptomatic with no survival benefit seen in randomized controlled trials. Mechanisms postulated for the worse prognosis in African Americans with HFPEF include: greater incidence of hypertension and diastolic dysfunction, undefined race-driven genetic predispositions or relative resistance to medications that treat HF in general. The biological predispositions may also be compounded by inequality of healthcare access; something still felt to exist today. Prospective studies and randomized controlled trials need to be conducted with particular emphasis on African American populations to fully elucidate this disease and to formulate race specific treatment outcomes for the future.

  1. Advancing Breast Cancer Survivorship among African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Coughlin, Steven S.; Yoo, Wonsuk; Whitehead, Mary S.; Smith, Selina A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Advances have occurred in breast cancer survivorship but, for many African American women, challenges and gaps in relevant information remain. Methods This article identifies opportunities to address disparities in breast cancer survival and quality of life, and thereby to increase breast cancer survivorship among African American women. Results For breast cancer survivors, common side effects, lasting for long periods after cancer treatment, include fatigue, loss of strength, difficulty sleeping, and sexual dysfunction. For addressing physical and mental health concerns, a variety of interventions have been evaluated, including exercise and weight training, dietary interventions, yoga and mindfulness-based stress reduction, and support groups or group therapy. Obesity has been associated with breast cancer recurrence and poorer survival. Relative to white survivors, African American breast cancer survivors are more likely to be obese and less likely to engage in physical activity, although exercise improves overall quality of life and cancer-related fatigue. Considerable information exists about the effectiveness of such interventions for alleviating distress and improving quality of life among breast cancer survivors, but few studies have focused specifically on African American women with a breast cancer diagnosis. Studies have identified a number of personal factors that are associated with resilience, increased quality of life, and positive adaptation to a breast cancer diagnosis. Conclusions There is a need for a better understanding of breast cancer survivorship among African American women. Additional evaluations of interventions for improving the quality of life and survival of African American breast cancer survivors are desirable. PMID:26303657

  2. Cultural barriers to African American participation in anxiety disorders research.

    PubMed

    Williams, Monnica T; Beckmann-Mendez, Diana A; Turkheimer, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are understudied, underdiagnosed, and undertreated in African Americans. Research focused on the phenomenology, etiology, and treatment of anxiety in African Americans has been hampered by lack of inclusion of this population in clinical research studies. The reason for exclusion is not well understood, although cultural mistrust has been hypothesized as a major barrier to research participation. This article reviews the relevant literature to date and examines the experience of 6 African American adults who participated in a larger clinical assessment study about anxiety. Drawing upon in-depth semistructured interviews about their subjective experiences, we examined participant perspectives about the assessment process, opinions about African American perception of anxiety studies, and participant-generated ideas about how to improve African American participation. Based on a qualitative analysis of responses, feelings of mistrust emerged as a dominant theme. Concerns fell under 6 categories, including not wanting to speak for others, confidentiality, self and group presentation concerns, repercussions of disclosure, potential covert purposes of the study, and the desire to confide only in close others. Suggestions for increasing African American participation are discussed, including assurances of confidentiality, adequate compensation, and a comfortable study environment.

  3. African American leadership groups: smoking with the enemy

    PubMed Central

    Yerger, V; Malone, R

    2002-01-01

    Background: Among all racial and ethnic groups in the USA, African Americans bear the greatest burden from tobacco related disease. The tobacco industry has been highly influential in the African American community for decades, providing funding and other resources to community leaders and emphasising publicly its support for civil rights causes and groups, while ignoring the negative health effects of its products on those it claims to support. However, the industry's private business reasons for providing such support were unknown. Objective: To understand how and for what purposes the tobacco industry sought to establish and maintain relationships with African American leaders. Methods: Review and analysis of over 700 previously secret internal tobacco industry documents available on the internet. Results: The tobacco industry established relationships with virtually every African American leadership organisation and built longstanding social connections with the community, for three specific business reasons: to increase African American tobacco use, to use African Americans as a frontline force to defend industry policy positions, and to defuse tobacco control efforts. Conclusion: As the tobacco industry expands its global reach, public health advocates should anticipate similar industry efforts to exploit the vulnerabilities of marginalised groups. The apparent generosity, inclusion, and friendship proffered by the industry extract a price from groups in the health of their members. Helping groups anticipate such efforts, confront industry co-optation, and understand the hidden costs of accepting tobacco industry largesse should be part of worldwide tobacco control efforts. PMID:12432159

  4. Isolated sleep paralysis in African Americans with panic disorder.

    PubMed

    Paradis, C M; Friedman, S; Hatch, M

    1997-01-01

    Isolated sleep paralysis (ISP) was assessed in African Americans and Whites diagnosed with panic disorder and other anxiety disorders. Participants were recruited from an outpatient clinic where they were diagnosed with panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, social phobia, and simple phobia. Control groups of volunteers without a history of psychiatric disorder were included. All research participants completed a questionnaire to assess for ISP. Group differences were analysed through a series of chi-square analyses. The incidence of recurrent ISP was significantly higher in African Americans with panic disorder (59.6%) as compared with African Americans with other anxiety disorders (11.1%), African American control group participants (23%), Whites with panic disorder (7.5%), Whites with other anxiety disorders (0%), and White control group participants (6%). Recurrent ISP was found to be more common among African American participants, particularly for those with panic disorder. African Americans with panic disorder may experience recurrent ISP as a feature of their disorder.

  5. Physical activity interventions in African American women: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Bland, Vanessa; Sharma, Manoj

    2017-01-01

    Background: African American women are at high risk of acquiring chronic diseases due to sedentary lifestyles. This objective of this article was to perform a narrative systematic review of physical activity interventions among African American women published between 2009 and 2015. Methods: A review of literature in following databases: Academic Search Premier, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health), ERIC (Education Resources Information Center), MEDLINE, PsychInfo, and SPORTDiscus was performed to locate interventions promoting physical activity among African American women. Results: The search yielded 13 interventions. All the studies were conducted within the United States. It was found that walking coupled with healthy food choices were salient strategies in the interventions. Studies using social support along with healthy diet were found to be more efficacious in fostering physical activity among African American women. Conclusion: Walking, social support and a healthy diet were found to be significant strategies promoting physical activity in African American women. Physical activity for African American women must build on the constructs of healthier food choices and social support. PMID:28326284

  6. African Americans in bereavement: grief as a function of ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Laurie, Anna; Neimeyer, Robert A

    2008-01-01

    Few empirical studies have explored the grieving process among different ethnic groups within the United States, and very little is known about how African Americans and Caucasians may differ in their experience of loss. The purpose of this study was to examine the African-American experience of grief, with particular emphasis on issues of identity change, interpersonal dimensions of the loss, and continuing attachments with the deceased. Participants were 1,581 bereaved college students (940 Caucasians and 641 African Americans) attending classes at a large southern university. Each participant completed the Inventory of Complicated Grief-Revised, the Continuing Bonds Scale, and questions regarding the circumstances surrounding his or her loss. Results revealed that African Americans experienced more frequent bereavement by homicide, maintenance of a stronger continuing bond with the deceased, greater grief for the loss of extended kin beyond the immediate family, and a sense of support in their grief, despite their tendency to talk less with others about the loss or seek professional support for it. Overall, African Americans reported higher levels of complicated grief symptoms than Caucasians, especially when they spent less time speaking to others about their loss experience. Implications of these findings for bereavement support services for African Americans were briefly noted.

  7. The landscape of recombination in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Hinch, Anjali G.; Tandon, Arti; Patterson, Nick; Song, Yunli; Rohland, Nadin; Palmer, Cameron D.; Chen, Gary K.; Wang, Kai; Buxbaum, Sarah G.; Akylbekova, Meggie; Aldrich, Melinda C.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Amos, Christopher; Bandera, Elisa V.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Bernstein, Leslie; Blot, William J.; Bock, Cathryn H.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Cai, Qiuyin; Caporaso, Neil; Casey, Graham; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Deming, Sandra L.; Diver, W. Ryan; Divers, Jasmin; Fornage, Myriam; Gillanders, Elizabeth M.; Glessner, Joseph; Harris, Curtis C.; Hu, Jennifer J.; Ingles, Sue A.; Isaacs, Williams; John, Esther M.; Kao, W. H. Linda; Keating, Brendan; Kittles, Rick A.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Larkin, Emma; Le Marchand, Loic; McNeill, Lorna H.; Millikan, Robert C.; Murphy, Adam; Musani, Solomon; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Nyante, Sarah; Papanicolaou, George J.; Press, Michael F.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Reiner, Alex P.; Rich, Stephen S.; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Rybicki, Benjamin A.; Schwartz, Ann G.; Signorello, Lisa B.; Spitz, Margaret; Strom, Sara S.; Thun, Michael J.; Tucker, Margaret A.; Wang, Zhaoming; Wiencke, John K.; Witte, John S.; Wrensch, Margaret; Wu, Xifeng; Yamamura, Yuko; Zanetti, Krista A.; Zheng, Wei; Ziegler, Regina G.; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Redline, Susan; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Henderson, Brian E.; Taylor, Herman A.; Price, Alkes L.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Chanock, Stephen J.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Wilson, James G.; Reich, David; Myers, Simon R.

    2011-01-01

    Recombination, together with mutation, is the ultimate source of genetic variation in populations. We leverage the recent mixture of people of African and European ancestry in the Americas to build a genetic map measuring the probability of crossing-over at each position in the genome, based on about 2.1 million crossovers in 30,000 unrelated African Americans. At intervals of more than three megabases it is nearly identical to a map built in Europeans. At finer scales it differs significantly, and we identify about 2,500 recombination hotspots that are active in people of West African ancestry but nearly inactive in Europeans. The probability of a crossover at these hotspots is almost fully controlled by the alleles an individual carries at PRDM9 (P<10−245). We identify a 17 base pair DNA sequence motif that is enriched in these hotspots, and is an excellent match to the predicted binding target of African-enriched alleles of PRDM9. PMID:21775986

  8. The landscape of recombination in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Hinch, Anjali G; Tandon, Arti; Patterson, Nick; Song, Yunli; Rohland, Nadin; Palmer, Cameron D; Chen, Gary K; Wang, Kai; Buxbaum, Sarah G; Akylbekova, Ermeg L; Aldrich, Melinda C; Ambrosone, Christine B; Amos, Christopher; Bandera, Elisa V; Berndt, Sonja I; Bernstein, Leslie; Blot, William J; Bock, Cathryn H; Boerwinkle, Eric; Cai, Qiuyin; Caporaso, Neil; Casey, Graham; Cupples, L Adrienne; Deming, Sandra L; Diver, W Ryan; Divers, Jasmin; Fornage, Myriam; Gillanders, Elizabeth M; Glessner, Joseph; Harris, Curtis C; Hu, Jennifer J; Ingles, Sue A; Isaacs, William; John, Esther M; Kao, W H Linda; Keating, Brendan; Kittles, Rick A; Kolonel, Laurence N; Larkin, Emma; Le Marchand, Loic; McNeill, Lorna H; Millikan, Robert C; Murphy, Adam; Musani, Solomon; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Nyante, Sarah; Papanicolaou, George J; Press, Michael F; Psaty, Bruce M; Reiner, Alex P; Rich, Stephen S; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L; Rotter, Jerome I; Rybicki, Benjamin A; Schwartz, Ann G; Signorello, Lisa B; Spitz, Margaret; Strom, Sara S; Thun, Michael J; Tucker, Margaret A; Wang, Zhaoming; Wiencke, John K; Witte, John S; Wrensch, Margaret; Wu, Xifeng; Yamamura, Yuko; Zanetti, Krista A; Zheng, Wei; Ziegler, Regina G; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Redline, Susan; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Henderson, Brian E; Taylor, Herman A; Price, Alkes L; Hakonarson, Hakon; Chanock, Stephen J; Haiman, Christopher A; Wilson, James G; Reich, David; Myers, Simon R

    2011-07-20

    Recombination, together with mutation, gives rise to genetic variation in populations. Here we leverage the recent mixture of people of African and European ancestry in the Americas to build a genetic map measuring the probability of crossing over at each position in the genome, based on about 2.1 million crossovers in 30,000 unrelated African Americans. At intervals of more than three megabases it is nearly identical to a map built in Europeans. At finer scales it differs significantly, and we identify about 2,500 recombination hotspots that are active in people of West African ancestry but nearly inactive in Europeans. The probability of a crossover at these hotspots is almost fully controlled by the alleles an individual carries at PRDM9 (P value < 10(-245)). We identify a 17-base-pair DNA sequence motif that is enriched in these hotspots, and is an excellent match to the predicted binding target of PRDM9 alleles common in West Africans and rare in Europeans. Sites of this motif are predicted to be risk loci for disease-causing genomic rearrangements in individuals carrying these alleles. More generally, this map provides a resource for research in human genetic variation and evolution.

  9. Evaluating Academic Achievement of African-American Male Students in Relationship to African-American Male Teachers in Guilford County, North Carolina Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Byron L.

    2010-01-01

    The home and the public school classroom have been key environments in the African American community and have been instrumental in developing identity and encouraging academic progress. Despite this, the dropout rates of African American males in secondary grades have increased, while academic achievement scores of African American males in the…

  10. The Influence of the African American Father on Level of Self-Efficacy, Career Achievement, and Aspirations of His African American Daughter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, April E.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this correlational study was to investigate the influence of perceived and desired paternal involvement of the African American father on his African American daughter. The research problem is how father involvement may influence self-efficacy, career achievements, and aspirations of African American females. This study sought to…

  11. Racial group regard, barrier socialization, and African American adolescents' engagement: patterns and processes by gender.

    PubMed

    Smalls, Ciara; Cooper, Shauna M

    2012-08-01

    The current study examined gendered processes via 1) profiles of racial barrier socialization, regard for one's racial group (private regard), and behavioral engagement and grades and, 2) gender and private regard as a moderator in the link between barrier messages and academic engagement outcomes. One-hundred and twenty-five African American adolescents (ages 10-14, M = 12.39, SD = 1.07) completed measures of socialization, private regard, grades and behavioral engagement. Latent Profile Analysis revealed a 2-cluster solution fit the data best - 1) High Engagement-Race Salient (HERS) cluster and 2) Low Engagement-Non-Salient cluster (LENS). Girls had higher representation in the HERS cluster. When private regard was examined as a moderator, girls' grades were unrelated to barrier socialization and private regard. In contrast, barrier socialization was associated with lower grades for low private regard boys. Findings are discussed in the context of gendered racial school contexts that African American youth must navigate to be academically successful.

  12. Physical activity and dietary behaviour in a population-based sample of British 10-year old children: the SPEEDY study (Sport, Physical activity and Eating behaviour: Environmental Determinants in Young people)

    PubMed Central

    van Sluijs, Esther MF; Skidmore, Paula ML; Mwanza, Kim; Jones, Andrew P; Callaghan, Alison M; Ekelund, Ulf; Harrison, Flo; Harvey, Ian; Panter, Jenna; Wareham, Nicolas J; Cassidy, Aedin; Griffin, Simon J

    2008-01-01

    Background The SPEEDY study was set up to quantify levels of physical activity (PA) and dietary habits and the association with potential correlates in 9–10 year old British school children. We present here the analyses of the PA, dietary and anthropometry data. Methods In a cross-sectional study of 2064 children (926 boys, 1138 girls) in Norfolk, England, we collected anthropometry data at school using standardised procedures. Body mass index (BMI) was used to define obesity status. PA was assessed with the Actigraph accelerometer over 7 days. A cut-off of ≥ 2000 activity counts was used to define minutes of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA). Dietary habits were assessed using the Health Behaviour in School Children food questionnaire. Weight status was defined using published international cut-offs (Cole, 2000). Differences between groups were assessed using independent t-tests for continuous data and chi-squared tests for categorical data. Results Valid PA data (>500 minutes per day on ≥ 3 days) was available for 1888 children. Mean (± SD) activity counts per minute among boys and girls were 716.5 ± 220.2 and 635.6 ± 210.6, respectively (p < 0.001). Boys spent an average of 84.1 ± 25.9 minutes in MVPA per day compared to 66.1 ± 20.8 among girls (p < 0.001), with an average of 69.1% of children accumulating 60 minutes each day. The proportion of children classified as overweight and obese was 15.0% and 4.1% for boys and 19.3% and 6.6% for girls, respectively (p = 0.001). Daily consumption of at least one portion of fruit and of vegetables was 56.8% and 49.9% respectively, with higher daily consumption in girls than boys and in children from higher socioeconomic backgrounds. Conclusion Results indicate that almost 70% of children meet national PA guidelines, indicating that a prevention of decline, rather than increasing physical activity levels, might be an appropriate intervention target. Promotion of daily fruit and vegetable intake in this age group is

  13. Septic arthritis and osteomyelitis in a 10-year-old boy, caused by Fusobacterium nucleatum, diagnosed with PCR/16S ribosomal bacterial DNA amplification

    PubMed Central

    Kroon, Elke; Arents, Niek A; Halbertsma, Feico Jan

    2012-01-01

    A 10-year-old boy presented with an atypical non-febrile septic arthritis/osteomyelitis. He was unresponsive to routine antibiotic treatment with flucloxacillin/gentamicin as the pain and fluid collection increased. Synovial fluid cultures are negative and gram stain remained negative. Only after PCR/16S ribosomal bacterial DNA amplification a Fusobacterium nucleatum could be detected, and antibiotic therapy switched to clindamycin with rapid response. Septic osteomyelitis and arthritis are relatively rare but important infections in children needing prompt treatment, and should be considered when a child complaints about joint or bone pain without prior recent trauma. Skin bacteria are the most prevalent causative organisms, whereas Fusobacteria or other anaerobic, Gram-negative microorganisms are very seldom encountered. If cultures remain negative and the patients responds insufficiently to empiric treatment, PCR/16S ribosomal bacterial DNA amplification can be useful to detect the causative microorganisms. PMID:22605875

  14. Gait Analysis before and after Gastrocnemius Fascia Lengthening for Spastic Equinus Foot Deformity in a 10-Year-Old Diplegic Child

    PubMed Central

    Galli, Manuela; Cimolin, Veronica; Santambrogio, Giorgio Cesare; Crivellini, Marcello; Albertini, Giorgio

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. This case study quantified kinematic and kinetic effects of gastrocnemius lengthening on gait in a Cerebral Palsy child with equinus foot. Methods. A 10-year-old diplegic child with Cerebral Palsy was evaluated with Gait Analysis (GA) before and after gastrocnemius fascia lengthening, investigating the lower limb joints kinematics and kinetics. Results. Kinematics improved at the level of distal joints, which are directly associated to gastrocnemius, and also at the proximal joint (like hip); improvements were found in ankle kinetics, too. Conclusions. This case study highlighted that GA was effective not only to quantify the results of the treatment but also to help preoperative decision making in dealing with CP child. PMID:20339527

  15. Numerical Transcoding Proficiency in 10-Year-Old Schoolchildren is Associated with Gray Matter Inter-Individual Differences: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study

    PubMed Central

    Lubin, Amélie; Rossi, Sandrine; Simon, Grégory; Lanoë, Céline; Leroux, Gaëlle; Poirel, Nicolas; Pineau, Arlette; Houdé, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Are individual differences in numerical performance sustained by variations in gray matter volume in schoolchildren? To our knowledge, this challenging question for neuroeducation has not yet been investigated in typical development. We used the Voxel-Based Morphometry method to search for possible structural brain differences between two groups of 10-year-old schoolchildren (N = 22) whose performance differed only in numerical transcoding between analog and symbolic systems. The results indicated that children with low numerical proficiency have less gray matter volume in the parietal (particularly in the left intraparietal sulcus and the bilateral angular gyri) and occipito-temporal areas. All the identified regions have previously been shown to be functionally involved in transcoding between analog and symbolic numerical systems. Our data contribute to a better understanding of the intertwined relationships between mathematics learning and brain structure in healthy schoolchildren. PMID:23630510

  16. Numerical Transcoding Proficiency in 10-Year-Old Schoolchildren is Associated with Gray Matter Inter-Individual Differences: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study.

    PubMed

    Lubin, Amélie; Rossi, Sandrine; Simon, Grégory; Lanoë, Céline; Leroux, Gaëlle; Poirel, Nicolas; Pineau, Arlette; Houdé, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Are individual differences in numerical performance sustained by variations in gray matter volume in schoolchildren? To our knowledge, this challenging question for neuroeducation has not yet been investigated in typical development. We used the Voxel-Based Morphometry method to search for possible structural brain differences between two groups of 10-year-old schoolchildren (N = 22) whose performance differed only in numerical transcoding between analog and symbolic systems. The results indicated that children with low numerical proficiency have less gray matter volume in the parietal (particularly in the left intraparietal sulcus and the bilateral angular gyri) and occipito-temporal areas. All the identified regions have previously been shown to be functionally involved in transcoding between analog and symbolic numerical systems. Our data contribute to a better understanding of the intertwined relationships between mathematics learning and brain structure in healthy schoolchildren.

  17. Developmental changes and the effect of self-generated feedback in metacognitive controlled spacing strategies in 7-year-olds, 10-year-olds, and adults.

    PubMed

    Tsalas, Nike; Paulus, Markus; Sodian, Beate

    2015-04-01

    The current study investigated the development of metacognitive monitoring-based control of spacing choices in children and adults. Moreover, we assessed whether metacognitive learning decisions are influenced by the effects of previous metacognitive decisions. We tested groups of 7-year-olds, 10-year-olds, and adults in a task with two learning blocks in which they needed to monitor their learning through judgments of learning (JoL) and in which they then needed to decide whether to space their study, mass it, or terminate it. Extending previous findings, our study provides the first evidence that already by 7 years of age children can make metacognitive controlled scheduling decisions. The results also revealed that adults had more clearly differentiated strategies related to their JoL. Furthermore, our study provides evidence that participants of all age groups improved their relative monitoring accuracy in the second learning block and adjusted their JoL. However, only adults changed their strategy choices.

  18. Effect of Training School Teachers on Oral Hygiene Status of 8-10 Years Old Government School Children of Udaipur City, India

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Nagesh; Asawa, Kailash; Tak, Mridula; Singh, Anukriti; Shinde, Kushal; Gandhi, Neha; Doshi, Astha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Provision of oral health knowledge to the children by their teachers at the school level can prove to be more fruitful because it is the time period during which the children begin to learn the basic oral hygiene practices and are most prone to dental caries. Aim This study was carried out to assess the effect of training school teachers on oral hygiene status of 8-10 years old government school children of Udaipur city, India. Materials and Methods A total of nine school teachers and 279, 8-10 year old school children from two government schools were included in the study. The questionnaire on oral health knowledge and practice contained 17 questions to evaluate the knowledge and practice of children towards oral hygiene before and after the teachers training program. Baseline and six months post training data on oral health knowledge and practice was obtained by the questionnaire method. Baseline and six months post training data on oral hygiene status was obtained by OHI-S Index. Statistical analysis was done using software SPSS 22, the test used were McNemar’s test, paired t-test. Results Pre and post training data were compared and it was found that there was a significant improvement in oral health knowledge and practices of school teachers and children. Also oral hygiene status of school children was significantly improved after the program. Conclusion Results of the present study suggest that experiential learning is an effective school based oral health education method for improvement of oral hygiene in primary school children. PMID:27656573

  19. Genetic testing for inherited breast cancer risk in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Halbert, Chanita Hughes; Kessler, Lisa Jay; Mitchell, Edith

    2005-01-01

    As genetic testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) mutations is increasingly integrated into the clinical management of high-risk women, it will be important to understand barriers and motivations for genetic counseling among women from underserved minority groups to ensure equitable access to these services. Therefore, the purpose of this review was to synthesize literature on knowledge and attitudes about genetic counseling and testing for inherited breast cancer risk in African Americans. We also review studies that evaluated genetic testing intentions in this population. We conducted a search of the PubMed database to identify studies related to BRCA1/2 testing in African Americans that were published between 1995 and 2003. Overall, studies have evaluated ethnic differences in knowledge and attitudes about genetic testing or have compared African American and Caucasian women in terms of genetic testing intentions. These studies have shown that knowledge about breast cancer genetics and exposure to information about the availability of testing is low among African Americans, whereas expectations about the benefits of genetic testing are endorsed highly. However, much less is known about the psychological and behavioral impact of genetic testing for BRCA1/2 mutations in African Americans. Additional research is needed to understand barriers and motivations for participating in genetic testing for inherited cancer risk in African Americans. The lack of studies on psychological functioning, cancer surveillance, and preventive behaviors following testing is a significant void; however, for these studies to be conducted, greater access to genetic counseling and testing in African Americans will be needed.

  20. Bessie Coleman, First African American Pilot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1921-01-01

    Born on January 26, 1892 in Atlanta, Texas to a family of sharecroppers, Bessie Coleman grew up in poverty. Her father abandoned the family when she was nine, and her elder brothers soon left as well, leaving her mother with the four youngest of her thirteen children. While taking care of her younger sisters, Bessie completed all eight available years of primary education, excelling in math. She enrolled at the Colored Agricultural and Normal University in Langston, Oklahoma in 1910, but lack of funds forced her to leave after only one term. Five years later, she left the South and moved to Chicago to join two of her brothers, Walter and John, where she worked as a beautician for several years. An avid reader, she learned about World War I pilots in the newspaper and became intrigued by the prospect of flying. As a black woman, she had no chance of acceptance at any American pilot school, so she moved to France in 1919 and enrolled at the Ecole d'Aviation des Freres Caudon at Le Crotoy. After returning briefly to the United States, she spent one more term in France practicing more advanced flying before finally settling back in her birth country. She did exhibition flying and gave lectures across the country from 1922 to 1926. While flying, she refused to perform unless the audiences were desegregated. She was test flying a new plane on April 30, 1926 when it malfunctioned, killing both her and the mechanic who was piloting it. Her career as the world's first African American pilot inspired many who followed.

  1. Selecting renal replacement therapies: what do African American and non-African American patients and their families think others should know? A mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known regarding the types of information African American and non-African American patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and their families need to inform renal replacement therapy (RRT) decisions. Methods In 20 structured group interviews, we elicited views of African American and non-African American patients with CKD and their families about factors that should be addressed in educational materials informing patients’ RRT selection decisions. We asked participants to select factors from a list and obtained their open-ended feedback. Results Ten groups of patients (5 African American, 5 non-African American; total 68 individuals) and ten groups of family members (5 African American, 5 non-African American; total 62 individuals) participated. Patients and families had a range (none to extensive) of experiences with various RRTs. Patients identified morbidity or mortality, autonomy, treatment delivery, and symptoms as important factors to address. Family members identified similar factors but also cited the effects of RRT decisions on patients’ psychological well-being and finances. Views of African American and non-African American participants were largely similar. Conclusions Educational resources addressing the influence of RRT selection on patients’ morbidity and mortality, autonomy, treatment delivery, and symptoms could help patients and their families select RRT options closely aligned with their values. Including information about the influence of RRT selection on patients’ personal relationships and finances could enhance resources’ cultural relevance for African Americans. PMID:23317336

  2. A Prospective Study of Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels and Mortality Among African Americans and Non-African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Signorello, Lisa B.; Han, Xijing; Cai, Qiuyin; Cohen, Sarah S.; Cope, Elizabeth L.; Zheng, Wei; Blot, William J.

    2013-01-01

    The beneficial biologic effects attributed to vitamin D suggest a potential to influence overall mortality. Evidence addressing this hypothesis is limited, especially for African Americans who have a high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency. The authors conducted a nested case-control study within the prospective Southern Community Cohort Study to relate baseline serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) with subsequent mortality. Cases were 1,852 participants who enrolled from 2002 to 2009 and died >12 months postenrollment. Controls (n = 1,852) were matched on race, sex, age, enrollment site, and blood collection date. The odds ratios for quartile 1 (<10.18 ng/mL) versus quartile 4 (>21.64 ng/mL) levels of 25(OH)D were 1.60 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.20, 2.14) for African Americans and 2.11 (95% CI: 1.39, 3.21) for non-African Americans. The effects were strongest for circulatory disease death, where quartile 1 versus quartile 4 odds ratios were 2.53 (95% CI: 1.44, 4.46) and 3.25 (95% CI: 1.33, 7.93) for African Americans and non-African Americans, respectively. The estimated odds of total mortality were minimized in the 25(OH)D range of 35–40 ng/mL. These findings provide support for the hypothesis that vitamin D status may have an important influence on mortality for both African Americans and non-African Americans. PMID:23125439

  3. A prospective study of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin d levels and mortality among African Americans and non-African Americans.

    PubMed

    Signorello, Lisa B; Han, Xijing; Cai, Qiuyin; Cohen, Sarah S; Cope, Elizabeth L; Zheng, Wei; Blot, William J

    2013-01-15

    The beneficial biologic effects attributed to vitamin D suggest a potential to influence overall mortality. Evidence addressing this hypothesis is limited, especially for African Americans who have a high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency. The authors conducted a nested case-control study within the prospective Southern Community Cohort Study to relate baseline serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) with subsequent mortality. Cases were 1,852 participants who enrolled from 2002 to 2009 and died >12 months postenrollment. Controls (n = 1,852) were matched on race, sex, age, enrollment site, and blood collection date. The odds ratios for quartile 1 (<10.18 ng/mL) versus quartile 4 (>21.64 ng/mL) levels of 25(OH)D were 1.60 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.20, 2.14) for African Americans and 2.11 (95% CI: 1.39, 3.21) for non-African Americans. The effects were strongest for circulatory disease death, where quartile 1 versus quartile 4 odds ratios were 2.53 (95% CI: 1.44, 4.46) and 3.25 (95% CI: 1.33, 7.93) for African Americans and non-African Americans, respectively. The estimated odds of total mortality were minimized in the 25(OH)D range of 35-40 ng/mL. These findings provide support for the hypothesis that vitamin D status may have an important influence on mortality for both African Americans and non-African Americans.

  4. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels in African American and Nigerian Women

    PubMed Central

    Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon A.; Aloia, John F.; Dugas, Lara R.; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Shoham, David A.; Bertino, Anne-Marie; Yeh, James K.; Cooper, Richard S.; Luke, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Objectives African Americans have substantially lower levels of circulating 25(OH)D than whites. We compared population-based samples of 25(OH)D in women of African descent from Nigeria and metropolitan Chicago. Methods 100 Women of Yoruba ethnicity from southwest Nigeria and 94 African American women from metropolitan Chicago were recruited and compared using a standardized survey protocol and the same laboratory assay for 25(OH)D. Results Mean 25(OH)D levels were 64 nmol/L among the Nigerians and 29 nmol/L among the African Americans. Only 10% of the values were shared in common between the groups, and 76% of the Nigerians were above the currently defined threshold for adequate circulating 25(OH)D compared to 5% of the African Americans. Modest associations were seen between 25(OH)D and measures of obesity, although adjustment for these traits did not materially affect the group differences. Conclusion These data support the presumption that skin color is an adaptive trait which has evolved in part to regulate 25(OH)D. It remains undetermined, however, whether lower values observed in African Americans have negative health consequences. PMID:23559500

  5. Hematologic reference values for African American children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Robins, Edwin B; Blum, Steve

    2007-07-01

    Anemia is prevalent among African American children. When evaluating pediatric patients for anemia, clinicians refer to the normative hematological reference values in reference textbooks. These reference values are used in spite of evidence that healthy African American people of all ages have average hemoglobin concentrations from 0.5 to 0.73 g/dl below those of Whites. In an earlier study, using samples from 2,161 healthy African American children from 2 to 18 years old, we found a statistically significant difference (P < 0.0001) in the mean hemoglobin value for each age group as compared to reference normative mean hemoglobin values. Here we present the results of a comparative analysis of the data set from our previous study and the data set from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys III (NHANES III) 1988-1994. We found no statistically significant difference between these data sets with respect to the hemoglobin values for any age or sex group, confirming that African American children and adolescents have lower mean hemoglobin values than do Whites. Use of the reference hemoglobin values presented here will help prevent the misdiagnosis of anemia in African American children and thereby minimize unnecessary hematological workups and treatment.

  6. Beliefs and Preferences for Medical Research Among African-Americans

    PubMed Central

    Kalu, Nnenna; Kwagyan, John; Marshall, Vanessa J.; Ewing, Altovise T.; Bland, Walter P.; Hesselbrock, Victor; Taylor, Robert E.; Scott, Denise M.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Numerous factors contribute to underrepresentation of African-Americans in medical research, including beliefs, historical events, structural, and health access obstacles. This study examined beliefs about medical research and the types of study methods preferred among potential African-American research participants. Methods A sample of 304 African-American participants from the Washington, DC Metropolitan area, completed a survey evaluating beliefs about medical research and preferred research study methods. Multiple Regression analyses were performed to examine how age, gender, and education may influence these beliefs and preferences for research study methods. Results The beliefs and preferences surveyed did not differ by age, gender, or educational attainment. There was an overwhelmingly favorable belief (90 %) that medical research was necessary and assists in finding a cure for a disease. Most respondents preferred participating in research related to issues with which they were familiar (e.g., diabetes, hypertension) or working with researchers of a similar ethnic background to themselves. Interestingly, though nonsignificant, those with higher levels of educational trended toward the belief that participation in research was risky. Conclusion The findings of this study indicate that certain beliefs about medical research participation and preferred study methodologies reported by African-Americans did not differ by age, gender, or level of education. This information about African-American’s beliefs and preferences regarding medical research should lead to an awareness of potential gains in African-American participation through the development of culturally sensitive medical research studies and methodologies. PMID:26896107

  7. Unheard Voices: African American Fathers Speak about their Parenting Practices

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Otima; Clark, Trenette T.; Cryer-Coupet, Qiana; Nebbitt, Von E.; Goldston, David B.; Estroff, Sue E.; Magan, Ifrah

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have called for qualitative investigations into African American fathers’ parenting practices that consider their social context and identify specific practices. Such investigations can inform the way we conceptualize African American fathers’ parenting practices, which can in turn contribute to prevention interventions with at-risk youth. We conducted semi-structured, qualitative interviews about parenting with 30 self-identified, African American, biological fathers of pre-adolescent sons at-risk for developing aggressive behaviors, depressive symptoms, or both. Fathers provided descriptions of their parenting practices, which were at times influenced by their environmental context, fathers’ residential status, and masculine ideologies. Our systematic analysis revealed four related themes that emerged from the data: managing emotions, encouragement, discipline, and monitoring. Of particular note, fathers in the current sample emphasized the importance of teaching their sons to manage difficult emotions, largely utilized language consistent with male ideologies (i.e., encouragement rather than love or nurturance), and engaged in high levels of monitoring and discipline in response to perceived environmental challenges and the developmental needs of their sons. The findings provide deeper insight into the parenting practices of African American fathers who are largely understudied, and often misunderstood. Further, these findings highlight considerations that may have important implications for father-focused prevention interventions that support African American fathers, youth, and families. PMID:26366126

  8. Dance for health: improving fitness in African American and Hispanic adolescents.

    PubMed Central

    Flores, R

    1995-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease begins early in life but might be prevented or delayed by primary prevention programs designed for children and adolescents. Regular physical activity is an important part of primary prevention programs, and school physical education programs have potential for the promotion of regular physical activity. Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of death among Hispanics and African Americans in the United States. Low levels of fitness and increased body mass index are common in African American and Hispanic adolescents. Increased physical activity and the adoption of healthy eating habits would increase fitness and reduce body mass index among these adolescents. The purpose of the study was to undertake a small-scale controlled trial to determine if Dance for Health, an intervention program designed to provide an enjoyable aerobic program for African American and Hispanic adolescents, has a significant effect on improving aerobic capacity, helping students maintain or decrease weight, and on improving attitudes toward physical activity and physical fitness. In the first year of the program (1990-91), approximately 110 boys and girls ages 10-13 years participated in an aerobic dance pilot program three times per week for 12 weeks. Dance for Health was revised and continued in the 1992-93 school year with seventh grade students and an added culturally sensitive health curriculum. Forty-three students were randomized to Dance for Health and 38 to usual physical activity. Those in the intervention class received a health education curriculum twice a week and a dance oriented physical education class three times a week. The usual physical activity consisted mostly of playground activities.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7630998

  9. Associations of racial discrimination and parental discrimination coping messages with African American adolescent racial identity.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Bridget L; Macon, Tamarie A; Mustafaa, Faheemah N; Bogan, Erin D; Cole-Lewis, Yasmin; Chavous, Tabbye M

    2015-06-01

    Research links racial identity to important developmental outcomes among African American adolescents, but less is known about the contextual experiences that shape youths' racial identity. In a sample of 491 African American adolescents (48% female), associations of youth-reported experiences of racial discrimination and parental messages about preparation for racial bias with adolescents' later racial identity were examined. Cluster analysis resulted in four profiles of adolescents varying in reported frequency of racial discrimination from teachers and peers at school and frequency of parental racial discrimination coping messages during adolescents' 8th grade year. Boys were disproportionately over-represented in the cluster of youth experiencing more frequent discrimination but receiving fewer parental discrimination coping messages, relative to the overall sample. Also examined were clusters of adolescents' 11th grade racial identity attitudes about the importance of race (centrality), personal group affect (private regard), and perceptions of societal beliefs about African Americans (public regard). Girls and boys did not differ in their representation in racial identity clusters, but 8th grade discrimination/parent messages clusters were associated with 11th grade racial identity cluster membership, and these associations varied across gender groups. Boys experiencing more frequent discrimination but fewer parental coping messages were over-represented in the racial identity cluster characterized by low centrality, low private regard, and average public regard. The findings suggest that adolescents who experience racial discrimination but receive fewer parental supports for negotiating and coping with discrimination may be at heightened risk for internalizing stigmatizing experiences. Also, the findings suggest the need to consider the context of gender in adolescents' racial discrimination and parental racial socialization.

  10. Why African Americans may not be participating in clinical trials.

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Y.; Gorelick, P. B.; Samuels, P.; Bempong, I.

    1996-01-01

    African Americans have been underrepresented in clinical trials. This study was designed to determine factors that may help explain the low participation rate of African Americans in clinical trials. A historical review documented past medical experimentation and other practices on blacks that were often brutal and unethical. These experiences may have served to fortify the legacy of African-American mistrust in the medical system and culminated in the infamous Tuskegee Syphilis Study. Four major barriers to participation in clinical trials were identified: lack of awareness about trials, economic factors, communication issues, and mistrust. These barriers, as well as others, can be surmounted with proper pretrial planning, patient education, genuine commitment and concern by study staff, and hard work to overcome deficiencies. PMID:8918067

  11. African American parents' HPV vaccination intent and concerns.

    PubMed

    Sanders Thompson, Vetta L; Arnold, Lauren D; Notaro, Sheri R

    2012-02-01

    This study describes attitudes and social and environmental factors that affect African American parents' intent to vaccinate their daughters against human papillomavirus (HPV). Thirty African American parents of daughters aged nine to 17 years and no history of HPV infection completed semi-structured interviews. Interviews addressed factors that influenced intent to vaccinate, perception of community norms related to vaccination, vaccination scenarios involving place of vaccination, and vaccination prior to or after the child's initiation of sexual activity. A recurring theme was the influence of physician recommendation on African American parents' intent to obtain HPV vaccination for their daughters. Most parents reported that they could overcome barriers to vaccination, except vaccine costs and lack of insurance. While religious beliefs were important to parents, they reported that they would not interfere with vaccination decisions; fears of early sexuality due to vaccination were limited. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  12. Sexual health communication within religious African-American families.

    PubMed

    Williams, Terrinieka T; Pichon, Latrice C; Campbell, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    While research suggests youth prefer parents and family members to serve as the primary sources of sexual health information, fear and discomfort around discussing sex with their parents may leave youth misinformed and underinformed. This study explored sexual heath communication within religious African-American families. Thirty adolescents participated in four focus groups, and 19 adults and 30 adolescents participated in six focus groups, at two predominantly African-American Christian churches in Flint, MI. All data were analyzed inductively using a constant comparison approach. Nearly all participants reported attending church weekly. Three themes emerged and are described: initiating sex talks, using mistakes as teaching tools, and clarifying prevention messages. Participants highlighted the need for religious parents to offer both religious and practical guidance to adolescents about sexual health. Findings from this study may be used to inform future sexual health promotion interventions for religious African-American families.

  13. Psychosocial determinants of marijuana use among African American youth.

    PubMed

    Vidourek, Rebecca A; King, Keith A; Montgomery, LaTrice

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the psychosocial determinants of marijuana use among youth. A total of 7,488 African American middle and high school students from 133 metropolitan private and public schools completed a survey assessing psychosocial factors associated with annual marijuana use. The PRIDE survey, a nationally recognized survey on substance use, was used to assess the frequency of marijuana use and the influence of psychosocial factors on marijuana use among African American students. Results indicated that 18.5% of African American youth used marijuana in the past year. Males were significantly more likely than females to report using marijuana. Engaging in risky behaviors, such as getting in trouble at school and with police and attending a party with alcohol and other drugs, were significantly correlated with annual marijuana use. Conversely, having multiple parent, teacher, and school protective factors reduced annual marijuana use in this population. Such findings may assist prevention specialists in developing interventions to reduce and prevent marijuana use.

  14. Family therapy with unmarried African American mothers and their adolescents.

    PubMed

    Becker, D; Liddle, H A

    2001-01-01

    Almost two-thirds of African American births are to unmarried mothers, and these single parents are among the most economically vulnerable in the United States. The effects of chronic stressors such as poverty can compromise the ability of these mothers to parent effectively, particularly during the developmental period of adolescence, typically a stressful phase of parenting. This article describes a multidimensional family therapy (MDFT) approach to working with African American adolescents who have drug and/or behavior problems. It is maintained that addressing the intrapersonal functioning of African American single mothers is vital if they are to re-establish the attachment bonds necessary for the maintenance of essential parental influence in the lives of their adolescents. Through systematic attention to the parent as an individual, leading to a balance between self-care and care for others, parental supervision is more easily achieved and relational impasses between parent and adolescent more equitably resolved.

  15. African American men's perceptions of power in intimate relationships.

    PubMed

    Senn, Theresa E; Carey, Michael P; Vanable, Peter A; Seward, Derek X

    2009-12-01

    Power in intimate relationships is an important predictor of sexual risk behavior. The purpose of this study was to better understand African American men's perceptions of interpersonal power. A total of 20 African American men participated in focus groups to elicit their perceptions of power in intimate relationships; their responses were analyzed using grounded theory. From this analysis, a conceptual framework was developed that, among African American men, power in relationships was largely determined by the contribution of financial resources, and/or withholding sex. These findings were then considered in light of existing social-psychological theories of power in relationships. Future research should consider how to incorporate this understanding of interpersonal power into current theories of sexual risk behavior in order to develop more effective HIV risk reduction programs.

  16. The genetic structure and history of Africans and African Americans.

    PubMed

    Tishkoff, Sarah A; Reed, Floyd A; Friedlaender, Françoise R; Ehret, Christopher; Ranciaro, Alessia; Froment, Alain; Hirbo, Jibril B; Awomoyi, Agnes A; Bodo, Jean-Marie; Doumbo, Ogobara; Ibrahim, Muntaser; Juma, Abdalla T; Kotze, Maritha J; Lema, Godfrey; Moore, Jason H; Mortensen, Holly; Nyambo, Thomas B; Omar, Sabah A; Powell, Kweli; Pretorius, Gideon S; Smith, Michael W; Thera, Mahamadou A; Wambebe, Charles; Weber, James L; Williams, Scott M

    2009-05-22

    Africa is the source of all modern humans, but characterization of genetic variation and of relationships among populations across the continent has been enigmatic. We studied 121 African populations, four African American populations, and 60 non-African populations for patterns of variation at 1327 nuclear microsatellite and insertion/deletion markers. We identified 14 ancestral population clusters in Africa that correlate with self-described ethnicity and shared cultural and/or linguistic properties. We observed high levels of mixed ancestry in most populations, reflecting historical migration events across the continent. Our data also provide evidence for shared ancestry among geographically diverse hunter-gatherer populations (Khoesan speakers and Pygmies). The ancestry of African Americans is predominantly from Niger-Kordofanian (approximately 71%), European (approximately 13%), and other African (approximately 8%) populations, although admixture levels varied considerably among individuals. This study helps tease apart the complex evolutionary history of Africans and African Americans, aiding both anthropological and genetic epidemiologic studies.

  17. Religiosity, self-efficacy for exercise, and African American women.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Bridget K; Wicks, Mona Newsome

    2012-09-01

    Physical inactivity among African American women persists despite health promotion efforts targeting this population. In the African American faith community, thinking patterns related to personal versus divine control over health status could affect self-efficacy beliefs and physical activity behavior. Religiosity, a determinate of self-efficacy for exercise, is influenced by culture. This exploratory pilot study assessed the psychometric properties and relevance of selected study instruments and relationships among the study variables in African American women recruited through a rural church. Findings indicated a trend toward significance among study variables and that the God Locus of Health Control and Physical Exercise Self-Efficacy Scales were reliable for capturing attitudes about ability to engage in physical activity and religiosity in this sample. Six of the twenty-five women recruited failed to complete the Stanford Brief Activity Survey for Work and Leisure Time Activity correctly, suggesting the need to revise instructions prior to future instrument administration.

  18. Culturally Conscientious Pain Measurement in Older African Americans.

    PubMed

    Booker, Staja Q; Herr, Keela A; Tripp-Reimer, Toni

    2016-10-01

    Despite considerable pain disparities across the care continuum, pain is an understudied health problem in older ethnic minority groups, such as African Americans. Quality pain measurement is a core task in pain management and a mechanism by which pain disparities may be reduced. Pain measurement includes the methods (e.g., assessment approaches, tools) and metrics that researchers and clinicians use to understand the characteristics of pain. However, there are significant issues and gaps that negatively affect pain measurement in older African Americans. Of concern is insufficient representation in pain research, which impedes the testing and refinement of many standardized self-report, behavioral and surrogate report, physiological, and composite measures of pain. The purposes for this article are to discuss the status of pain measurement and factors that affect our knowledge on pain measurement in older African Americans, and to provide guidance for culturally conscientious pain measurement using the available literature.

  19. African American fathers and incarceration: paternal involvement and child outcomes.

    PubMed

    Perry, Armon R; Bright, Mikia

    2012-01-01

    Despite only accounting for 6% of the general population, African American males represent nearly 50% of the prison population. To investigate the impact of mass incarceration on African American families, data from the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being study were analyzed. Specifically, the purpose of this study was to examine the impact of previous incarceration on African American fathers' instrumental and affective involvement with their children, and the extent to which their previous incarceration influences their children's behavior. Results revealed that 51% of the fathers in the sample had been incarcerated by their child's fifth birthday. The results also revealed that these fathers fared worse economically and were less involved with their children. Moreover, the children of previously incarcerated fathers had significantly worse behavioral problems than the children of fathers who had never been incarcerated.

  20. Why African Americans may not be participating in clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Harris, Y; Gorelick, P B; Samuels, P; Bempong, I

    1996-10-01

    African Americans have been underrepresented in clinical trials. This study was designed to determine factors that may help explain the low participation rate of African Americans in clinical trials. A historical review documented past medical experimentation and other practices on blacks that were often brutal and unethical. These experiences may have served to fortify the legacy of African-American mistrust in the medical system and culminated in the infamous Tuskegee Syphilis Study. Four major barriers to participation in clinical trials were identified: lack of awareness about trials, economic factors, communication issues, and mistrust. These barriers, as well as others, can be surmounted with proper pretrial planning, patient education, genuine commitment and concern by study staff, and hard work to overcome deficiencies.