Science.gov

Sample records for 10-year-old child test

  1. 77 FR 11651 - Hybrid III 10-Year-Old Child Test Dummy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ...) for compliance with the Federal motor vehicle safety standard for child restraint systems. The HIII... safety seat, but who cannot adequately fit a vehicle's lap and shoulder belt system. Adopting the HIII... joint submission from ATD manufacturers First Technology Safety Systems (FTSS) and Denton ATD...

  2. Mandibular Dentigerous Cyst in a 10-Year-Old Child

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Bindu; Sharma, Sunil; Agarwal, Prateek; Bhamboo, Amit; Rastogi, Komal

    2016-01-01

    Dentigerous cyst is the most common odontogenic cyst. It is characterized by a unilocular radiolucent lesion that encloses permanent tooth buds or, under certain circumstances, displaced tooth buds. Buccal bony expansion and a missing tooth is the most common clinical feature. Various treatment modalities have been mentioned in the literature for management of dentigerous cysts. This article presents a left mandibular dentigerous cyst in a 10-year-old boy. Marsupialization was the treatment of choice and a denturelike space maintainer was provided. Long-term follow-up revealed good healing of the bony lesion. How to cite this article Bhardwaj B, Sharma S, Chitlangia P, Agarwal P, Bhamboo A, Rastogi K. Mandibular Dentigerous Cyst in a 10-Year-Old Child. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(3): 281-284. PMID:27843264

  3. Gasoline Abuse in a 10-Year-Old Child with Mental Retardation: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Mohit; Vankar, GK

    2015-01-01

    Inahalant abuse is of increasing interest in India. The age of onset is typically during adolescence. Gasoline inhalant use is rarely reported in adolescents with intellectual deficit. We report a case of petrol dependence in a 10-year-old child with mental retardation. Possible effect of petrol huffing on behavior and cognition is discussed. PMID:25733844

  4. Evaluation of 6 and 10 Year-Old Child Human Body Models in Emergency Events.

    PubMed

    Gras, Laure-Lise; Stockman, Isabelle; Brolin, Karin

    2017-01-01

    Emergency events can influence a child's kinematics prior to a car-crash, and thus its interaction with the restraint system. Numerical Human Body Models (HBMs) can help understand the behaviour of children in emergency events. The kinematic responses of two child HBMs-MADYMO 6 and 10 year-old models-were evaluated and compared with child volunteers' data during emergency events-braking and steering-with a focus on the forehead and sternum displacements. The response of the 6 year-old HBM was similar to the response of the 10 year-old HBM, however both models had a different response compared with the volunteers. The forward and lateral displacements were within the range of volunteer data up to approximately 0.3 s; but then, the HBMs head and sternum moved significantly downwards, while the volunteers experienced smaller displacement and tended to come back to their initial posture. Therefore, these HBMs, originally intended for crash simulations, are not too stiff and could be able to reproduce properly emergency events thanks, for instance, to postural control.

  5. Evaluation of 6 and 10 Year-Old Child Human Body Models in Emergency Events

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Emergency events can influence a child’s kinematics prior to a car-crash, and thus its interaction with the restraint system. Numerical Human Body Models (HBMs) can help understand the behaviour of children in emergency events. The kinematic responses of two child HBMs–MADYMO 6 and 10 year-old models–were evaluated and compared with child volunteers’ data during emergency events–braking and steering–with a focus on the forehead and sternum displacements. The response of the 6 year-old HBM was similar to the response of the 10 year-old HBM, however both models had a different response compared with the volunteers. The forward and lateral displacements were within the range of volunteer data up to approximately 0.3 s; but then, the HBMs head and sternum moved significantly downwards, while the volunteers experienced smaller displacement and tended to come back to their initial posture. Therefore, these HBMs, originally intended for crash simulations, are not too stiff and could be able to reproduce properly emergency events thanks, for instance, to postural control. PMID:28099505

  6. Malignant Nonfunctioning Neuroendocrine Neoplasm of the Pancreas in a 10-Year-Old Child.

    PubMed

    Marwan, Ahmed; Christein, John D

    2009-04-17

    Malignant neoplasms of the pancreas are extremely rare in children and only represent a small percentage of pediatric cancer-related deaths. The paucity of cases reported in the literature, in addition to the lack of understanding of biologic behavior, has led to a lack of consensus concerning optimal management strategy. Presentation differs compared to adult counterparts and generally prognosis is improved even when lymph node metastases occur. Here we review the literature and report the case of a 10-year-old autistic female with a malignant nonfunctioning pancreatic endocrine neoplasm of the head of the pancreas successfully extirpated via pancreaticoduodenectomy.

  7. Intercostal myositis ossificans misdiagnosed as osteosarcoma in a 10-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Koob, Mériam; Durckel, Jean; Dosch, Jean-Claude; Entz-Werle, Natacha; Dietemann, Jean-Louis

    2010-12-01

    Myositis ossificans (MO) is a rare benign cause of heterotopic bone formation within soft tissue. It most commonly affects adolescents and young adults, typically in the limbs and following trauma. Very few cases have been reported in children. We report here a case of nontraumatic MO occurring in a 10-year-old girl with an uncommon location in the 5th right intercostal space; it was initially misdiagnosed and treated as osteosarcoma. Imaging findings including plain radiographs, CT, MRI, bone scintigraphy and PET-CT are described. This case highlights the central role played by imaging in diagnosis, thus avoiding biopsy that can erroneously suggest osteosarcoma as the diagnosis, as occurred in this case.

  8. Handclapping Songs: A Spontaneous Platform for Child Development among 5-10-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodsky, Warren; Sulkin, Idit

    2011-01-01

    The impact of music activity on children's motor and cognitive skills has been investigated with music learning, instrument lessons and classroom music. While none have employed natural utterances, singing games or playground/street songs, these musical experiences of childhood are acknowledged as a major platform for child development. The…

  9. Intravitreal tPA Injection and Pneumatic Displacement for Submacular Hemorrhage in a 10-Year-Old Child

    PubMed Central

    Hirose, Hiroshi; Hattori, Tomohiro

    2016-01-01

    Background. Submacular hemorrhage can occur after blunt trauma to the eye. Intravitreal tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and gas injection are often used for treatment and are effective for submacular hemorrhage caused by age-related macular degeneration. This report describes the clinical outcome in a child with submacular hemorrhage caused by traumatic choroidal rupture who underwent successful intravitreal tPA injection and pneumatic displacement. Case Presentation. A 10-year-old boy developed sudden decrease of vision and a central scotoma in his right eye after trauma. Submacular hemorrhage was found in the eye. Visual acuity was 20/70 OD. Tissue plasminogen activator (12.5 μg in 0.05 mL) and 0.3 mL of pure sulfur hexafluoride were injected into the vitreous cavity under general anesthesia. After surgery, the patient was instructed to maintain a prone position. Displacement of the submacular hemorrhage from the fovea revealed a choroidal rupture, presumed to be the cause of the hemorrhage. After 4 months of follow-up, visual acuity was restored and final visual acuity is 20/16. Conclusion. Intravitreal tPA and gas injection can be an effective treatment for children with submacular hemorrhage. PMID:27722001

  10. 75 FR 71648 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards, Child Restraint Systems; Hybrid III 10-Year-Old Child...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... Identifier No. (RIN) 2127-AJ44 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards, Child Restraint Systems; Hybrid III 10... to amend Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 213, Child Restraint Systems, regarding a... child safety seats to be able to be installed in a vehicle by both a vehicle's LATCH system, and...

  11. Surgical treatment of an acetabular fracture and labral tear with suture anchors in a 10-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Mormor, Meir; Matityahu, Amir

    2009-11-01

    This article presents a case of a 10-year-old boy with a right acetabular fracture secondary to a direct blow to the pelvis and back. He sustained a right hip dislocation and transverse with posterior wall acetabular fracture with a nonconcentric hip joint after reduction. The fracture was treated with right labral and articular segment absorbable suture tie-down and relocation of the right hip into an anatomical position. At 32-month follow-up, the patient had returned to activities of daily living, he had a normal and symmetric gait pattern, and no pain on hip adduction, flexion, or internal rotation. This technique reduced the fracture and labrum, relocated the hip joint, and obviated the need for hardware removal that is typically needed in the pediatric population. This case is distinctive due to the patient's young age and treatment method, which has not been described previously for the treatment of this rare pediatric fracture.

  12. Metastatic Primary Signet Ring Cell Carcinoma of Rectum: A Case Report of 10-Year-old Male Child

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Kumkum; Singh, Amit; Bhutra, Shyam; Pachori, Geeta; Jangir, Mahesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Signet ring cell carcinomas of the colon and rectum are well documented in the adult population, but the incidence is very low in the paediatric population. Signet ring cell carcinoma has more malignant potential, mostly present as advanced stage and carries very poor prognosis. We are describing a 10-year-old male patient who presented with acute intestinal obstruction; radiology revealed large bowel obstruction and was diagnosed metastatic primary signet ring cell carcinoma of rectum on biopsy. We have discussed the diagnostic work-up and the management of this rare entity. Due to the high mortality that can be caused by a delay in making the correct diagnosis, signet ring cell carcinoma of colorectum represents a special diagnostic and surgical challenge. PMID:24701526

  13. Gait Analysis before and after Gastrocnemius Fascia Lengthening for Spastic Equinus Foot Deformity in a 10-Year-Old Diplegic Child

    PubMed Central

    Galli, Manuela; Cimolin, Veronica; Santambrogio, Giorgio Cesare; Crivellini, Marcello; Albertini, Giorgio

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. This case study quantified kinematic and kinetic effects of gastrocnemius lengthening on gait in a Cerebral Palsy child with equinus foot. Methods. A 10-year-old diplegic child with Cerebral Palsy was evaluated with Gait Analysis (GA) before and after gastrocnemius fascia lengthening, investigating the lower limb joints kinematics and kinetics. Results. Kinematics improved at the level of distal joints, which are directly associated to gastrocnemius, and also at the proximal joint (like hip); improvements were found in ankle kinetics, too. Conclusions. This case study highlighted that GA was effective not only to quantify the results of the treatment but also to help preoperative decision making in dealing with CP child. PMID:20339527

  14. Secondary absorbed doses from light ion irradiation in anthropomorphic phantoms representing an adult male and a 10 year old child

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hultqvist, Martha; Gudowska, Irena

    2010-11-01

    Secondary organ absorbed doses were calculated by Monte Carlo simulations with the SHIELD-HIT07 code coupled with the mathematical anthropomorphic phantoms CHILD-HIT and ADAM-HIT. The simulated irradiations were performed with primary 1H, 4He, 7Li, 12C and 16O ion beams in the energy range 100-400 MeV/u which were directly impinging on the phantoms, i.e. approximating scanned beams, and with a simplified beamline for 12C irradiation. The evaluated absorbed doses to the out-of-field organs were in the range 10-6 to 10-1 mGy per target Gy and with standard deviations 0.5-20%. While the contribution to the organ absorbed doses from secondary neutrons dominated in the ion beams of low atomic number Z, the produced charged fragments and their subsequent charged secondaries of higher generations became increasingly important for the secondary dose delivery as Z of the primary ions increased. As compared to the simulated scanned 12C ion beam, the implementation of a simplified beamline for prostate irradiation with 12C ions resulted in an increase of 2-50 times in the organ absorbed doses depending on the distance from the target volume. Comparison of secondary organ absorbed doses delivered by 1H and 12C beams showed smaller differences when the RBE for local tumor control of the ions was considered and normalization to the RBE-weighted dose to the target was performed.

  15. Small duct autoimmune sclerosing cholangitis and Crohn colitis in a 10-year-old child. A case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Erling Peter; Bayat, Allan; Vyberg, Mogens

    2012-08-14

    Autoimmune sclerosing cholangitis is an overlap syndrome characterized by features of both autoimmune hepatitis and primary sclerosing cholangitis, the latter usually involving the large bile ducts. Autoimmune sclerosing cholangitis occurs more often in children than in adults and is frequently associated with inflammatory bowel disease, predominantly ulcerative colitis. We report a unique case of a 10-year-old Danish boy with severe small duct autoimmune sclerosing cholangitis and synchronic Crohn colitis. He was referred with a history of weight loss, abdominal pain, vomiting and diarrhea. Biochemical anomalies included elevated alanine aminotransferase, γ-glutamyl transferase and immunoglobulin G levels and the presence of smooth muscle antibodies and perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies but normal alkaline phosphatase. Liver biopsy specimen revealed features of both autoimmune hepatitis and sclerosing cholangitis, the latter characterized by acute, hyperplastic and destructive inflammation--granulocytic epithelial lesion--of the small ducts. Magnetic resonance cholangiography was normal. Colonoscopic biopsies showed chronic inflammatory changes of the caecum and the ascending and transverse colon compatible with Crohn disease. Ursodeoxycholic acid and immunosuppressive treatment was initiated and within four weeks of treatment the general condition improved. Normalization of aminotransferase was seen at 21 weeks and γ-glutamyl transferase at 72 weeks after first admittance, while immunoglobulin G remained slightly increased. Virtual slides: The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1418596609736470.

  16. Factitious purpura in a 10-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Kayo; Sakurai, Yoshihiko; Shibata, Mari; Miyagawa, Sachiko; Yoshioka, Akira

    2009-01-01

    We describe a 10-year-old girl who presented with bizarre purpura. Both congenital and autoimmune hemorrhagic disorders were excluded based on her past medical history and physical and laboratory findings. Child abuse was also ruled out as purpura continued to develop after child-family separation. Histologic examination of the skin lesions revealed disruption of collagen fiber bundles. This finding indicated application of external force, leading to a definitive diagnosis of factitious purpura. Although it is very rare in school-age children, the diagnosis of factitious purpura should be included in the differential diagnosis of purpura in children. Histologic analysis of skin biopsies may aid in establishing the diagnosis.

  17. The use of Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 and Andersen testing for fitness and maximal heart rate assessments of 6- to 10-year-old school children.

    PubMed

    Bendiksen, Mads; Ahler, Thomas; Clausen, Helle; Wedderkopp, Niels; Krustrup, Peter

    2013-06-01

    We evaluated a submaximal and maximal version of the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 children's (YYIR1C) test and the Andersen test for fitness and maximal heart rate assessments of children aged 6-10 years. Two repetitions of the YYIR1C and Andersen tests were carried out within 1 week by 6- to 7-year-olds and 8- to 9-year-olds (grade 0, n = 17; grade 2, n = 16) and 6 weeks apart by 9- to 10-year-olds (grade 3, n = 49). Grade 0-2 pupils also performed an incremental treadmill test (ITT). Grade 2 pupils had a better (p < 0.05) YYIR1C (84%; 994 ± 399 m (±SD) vs. 536 ± 218 m) and Andersen test performance (10%; 1,050 ± 71 m vs. 955 ± 56 m) than grade 0 pupils. For grade 0-2 pupils, YYIR1C, Andersen, and ITT peak heart rates were 205 ± 11, 207 ± 9, and 203 ± 7 b·min(-1), respectively (Andersen > ITT, p < 0.05), and for grade 3 pupils, YYIR1C and Andersen peak heart rates were 208 ± 9 and 204 ± 9 b·min(-1), respectively (YYIR1C > Andersen, p < 0.05). Submaximal YYIR1C heart rate (HR) was inversely correlated (p < 0.05) with YYIR1C test performance (r = -0.54 to -0.67) and VO2peak (r = -0.42). The 6-week change in submaximal HR correlated with the change in YYIR1C test performance (r = -0.42 to -0.53, p < 0.05). In conclusion, YYIR1C and Andersen tests are simple and inexpensive intermittent field tests that can detect differences in fitness levels and determine maximal HR of 6- to 10-year-old children. Additionally, submaximal YYIR1C testing can be used for frequent nonexhaustive fitness assessments.

  18. Scurvy in a 10-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Cole, John A; Warthan, Molly M; Hirano, Stefanie A; Gowen, Clarence W; Williams, Judith V

    2011-01-01

    Scurvy, or hypovitaminosis C, is an uncommon condition that exists today primarily within certain unique populations-particularly the elderly subjects, patients with neurodevelopmental disabilities or psychiatric illnesses, or others with unusual dietary habits. Vitamin C is an essential nutrient in the human body, and is important in synthesizing collagen factor whose faulty production is responsible for most of the clinical manifestations of scurvy. These clinical manifestations can include dystrophic or corkscrew hairs, gingival hyperplasia, and weakened blood vessel walls, causing bleeding in the skin, joints, and other organs. Although rare in the Unites States, the presence of scurvy should not be forgotten because of its presence among susceptible populations. Moreover, with its diagnosis, treatment and cure is one of the simplest in modern medicine. We report a case of scurvy in a 10-year-old autistic child.

  19. Psychosocial Family Treatment for a 10-Year-Old with Schizoaffective Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klaus, Nicole M.; Fristad, Mary A.; Malkin, Catherine; Mackinaw-Koons, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Schizophrenia spectrum disorders are rare in childhood and little is known about their psychosocial treatment. Relevant findings from the adult and child literature are reviewed. The case of 10-year-old "Michael" is presented, who participated in a randomized clinical trial of a psychoeducational family treatment for mood disorders. Following…

  20. Handedness in Swedish 10-year-olds, Some Background and Associated Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillberg, Christopher; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Aims to obtain prevalence figures for left-handedness among 10-year-old Swedish children; to replicate some findings concerning Bishop's (1980) extended pathological left-handedness hypothesis; to evaluate the influence of factors such as the child's sex and reduced optimality in the pre-, peri-, and neonatal period; and to determine the…

  1. Headshaking in a 10-year-old Thoroughbred mare

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Abstract A 10-year-old Thoroughbred mare was presented with a 2.5-week history of headshaking. Based on a thorough physical examination, blood analysis, and a fine needle aspirate of an enlarged thyroid gland, a tentative diagnosis of seasonal idiopathic headshaking was made. Treatment with cyproheptadine was attempted. PMID:15025153

  2. NASA Administrator Dan Goldin greets 10-year-old VIP.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    NASA Administrator Dan Goldin (left) watches as 10-year-old Jonathan Pierce (right), who is garbed in a protective cooling suit designed by NASA, shakes hands with astronaut Dog Wheelock. Behind Jonathan is his mother, Penny. Jonathan suffers from erythropoietic protoporphyria, a rare condition that makes his body unable to withstand ultraviolet rays. The suit allows him to be outside during the day, which would otherwise be impossible. Jonathan's trip was funded by the Make-A-Wish Foundation and included a visit to Disney World. He and his family were among a dozen VIPs at KSC to view the launch of STS-99.

  3. NASA Administrator Dan Goldin greets 10-year-old VIP.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    NASA Administrator Dan Goldin (left) shares a laugh with VIP 10- year-old Jonathan Pierce (right), who is garbed in a protective cooling suit designed by NASA. Behind Goldin is astronaut Doug Wheelock; behind Jonathan is his mother, Penny. Jonathan suffers from erythropoietic protoporphyria, a rare condition that makes his body unable to withstand ultraviolet rays. The suit allows him to be outside during the day, which would otherwise be impossible. Jonathan's trip was funded by the Make-A-Wish Foundation and included a visit to Disney World. He and his family were among a dozen VIPs at KSC to view the launch of STS- 99.

  4. NASA Administrator Dan Goldin greets 10-year-old VIP.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    NASA Administrator Dan Goldin (left) shares a light moment during his meeting with 10-year-old Jonathan Pierce (right), who is garbed in a protective cooling suit designed by NASA. Behind Goldin is astronaut Doug Wheelock; behind Jonathan is his mother, Penny. Jonathan suffers from erythropoietic protoporphyria, a rare condition that makes his body unable to withstand ultraviolet rays. The suit allows him to be outside during the day, which would otherwise be impossible. Jonathan's trip was funded by the Make-A-Wish Foundation and included a visit to Disney World. He and his family were among a dozen VIPs at KSC to view the launch of STS-99.

  5. NASA Administrator Dan Goldin greets 10-year-old VIP.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    NASA Administrator Dan Goldin (left) listens intently to 10-year- old Jonathan Pierce (right), who is garbed in a protective cooling suit designed by NASA. Behind Goldin is astronaut Doug Wheelock; behind Jonathan is his mother, Penny. Jonathan suffers from erythropoietic protoporphyria, a rare condition that makes his body unable to withstand ultraviolet rays. The suit allows him to be outside during the day, which would otherwise be impossible. Jonathan's trip was funded by the Make-A-Wish Foundation and included a visit to Disney World. He and his family were among a dozen VIPs at KSC to view the launch of STS- 99.

  6. NASA Administrator Dan Goldin greets 10-year-old VIP.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    NASA Administrator Dan Goldin (center) greets 10-year-old Jonathan Pierce (right), who is garbed in a protective cooling suit designed by NASA. In the background, between them, are Jonathan's mother, Penny; his grandfather, John Janocka; and his sister, Jaimie.. At left is Mrs. Goldin. Jonathan suffers from erythropoietic protoporphyria, a rare condition that makes his body unable to withstand ultraviolet rays. The suit allows him to be outside during the day, which would otherwise be impossible. Jonathan's trip was funded by the Make-A-Wish Foundation and included a visit to Disney World. He and his family were among a dozen VIPs at KSC to view the launch of STS-99.

  7. NASA Administrator Dan Goldin greets 10-year-old VIP.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    NASA Administrator Dan Goldin (center) presents a bag of special gifts to 10-year-old Jonathan Pierce (right), who is garbed in a protective cooling suit designed by NASA. In the background, between them, are Jonathan's mother, Penny; his grandfather, John Janocka; and his sister, Jaimie.. At left is Mrs. Goldin. Jonathan suffers from erythropoietic protoporphyria, a rare condition that makes his body unable to withstand ultraviolet rays. The suit allows him to be outside during the day, which would otherwise be impossible. Jonathan's trip was funded by the Make-A-Wish Foundation and included a visit to Disney World. He and his family were among a dozen VIPs at KSC to view the launch of STS-99.

  8. NASA Administrator Dan Goldin greets 10-year-old VIP.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    NASA Administrator Dan Goldin (center) talks to 10-year-old Jonathan Pierce (right), who is garbed in a protective cooling suit designed by NASA. In the background, between them, are Jonathan's mother, Penny; his grandfather, John Janocka; and his sister, Jaimie. At left is Mrs. Goldin. Jonathan suffers from erythropoietic protoporphyria, a rare condition that makes his body unable to withstand ultraviolet rays. The suit allows him to be outside during the day, which would otherwise be impossible. Jonathan's trip was funded by the Make-A-Wish Foundation and included a visit to Disney World. He and his family were among a dozen VIPs at KSC to view the launch of STS-99.

  9. Oral squamous cell carcinoma in a 10 year old boy.

    PubMed

    Khan, M H; Naushad, Q N

    2011-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity a type of Oral Cancer in young patients is a very rare occurrence particularly during the first decade of life. Oral cancer is predominantly an aggressive neoplasm of middle-aged people where 96% of the patients are more than 40 years of age and it occurs mainly due to the excessive consumption of tobacco and alcohol. In South-East Asia it has a higher rate of occurrence than the rest of the world, partly due to increased consumption of chewing tobacco and various harmful spices, areca nuts and betel quids. These rare varieties of aggressive neoplasm commonly affect tongue and lip. This report describes a case of squamous cell carcinoma in a 10 year old boy who had an exophytic type of granulomatous lesion with some indurated borders which diffusely involved the left side of the hard palate, alveolar mucosa, left maxillary antrum and aggressively emerged within the left orbit by engulfing the left inferior rectus muscle. The purpose of this case report is to provide information that younger group can suffer from oral squamous cell carcinoma though it is very rare and this younger group would appear to have a biologically more aggressive tumor and they require more complex treatment. The role of more aggressive initial therapy must be considered.

  10. Sharing Telescopes With 10-Year Olds to Celebrate the International Year of Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, Daniel Jonathan; Slater, T. F.; Slater, S. J.; in Astronomy, Cognition; Physics; Earth sciences Research CAPER Team

    2009-05-01

    Precisely four hundred years ago, Italian scientist Galileo's observations of the heavens forever and profoundly altered the way we view our place in the Universe. Throughout 2009, children across Wyoming are joining in a United Nations proclaimed International Year of Astronomy celebration. To commemorate 400 years of the telescope in advancing our understanding of the Universe through astronomy, our goal is that every 10-year old child in Wyoming will experience the excitement and wonder of looking through their very own telescope to observe majestic rings surrounding Saturn, deep craters on the Moon, countless stars lining the Milky Way, brilliant phases of Venus, and orbiting moons of Jupiter. This is being accomplished by a massive, state-wide collaborative effort bringing the collective energy and enthusiasm of professional scientists, amateur astronomers, local teachers, and community outreach enthusiasts together to spark an interest in science among Wyoming's children. Our strategy to bring a telescope to every Wyoming 10-year old child started first with a major year-long fundraising campaign. We estimate the cost of an individual telescope, constructed specifically for the 2009 International Year of Astronomy celebration, to be approximately $13 per child. With 6,489 (in 2007) 10-year old children in Wyoming, this amounts to less than $100,000 as a fund raising goal. University of Wyoming faculty are training teachers in how to use telescopes and how to integrate the excitement of astronomy across the curriculum. To teach children how to use their telescopes, volunteers from around the state are hosting star parties at schools, county fairs, and other regularly scheduled community celebrations.

  11. Sharing the Stars: Bringing Telescopes to 10-year Olds for International Year of Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, S. J.

    2008-12-01

    Precisely four hundred years ago, Italian scientist Galileo's observations of the heavens forever and profoundly altered the way we view our place in the Universe. He dramatically increased our thinking about the size of the known Universe by using his telescope and initiated one of the most important scientific revolutions in history. Throughout 2009, children across Wyoming are joining in a United Nations proclaimed International Year of Astronomy celebration. To commemorate 400 years of the telescope in advancing our understanding of the Universe through astronomy, our goal is that every 10-year old child in Wyoming will experience the excitement and wonder of looking through their very own telescope to observe majestic rings surrounding Saturn, deep craters on the Moon, countless stars lining the Milky Way, brilliant phases of Venus, and orbiting moons of Jupiter. This is being accomplished by a massive, state-wide collaborative effort bringing the collective energy and enthusiasm of professional scientists, amateur astronomers, local teachers, and community outreach enthusiasts together to spark an interest in science among Wyoming's children. Our strategy to bring a telescope to every Wyoming 10-year old child started first with a major year-long fundraising campaign. We estimate the cost of an individual telescope, constructed specifically for the 2009 International Year of Astronomy celebration, to be approximately 13 per child. With 6,489 (in 2007) 10- year old children in Wyoming, this amounts to less than 100,000 as a fund raising goal. University of Wyoming faculty are training teachers in how to use telescopes and how to integrate the excitement of astronomy across the curriculum. To teach children how to use their telescopes, volunteers from around the state are hosting star parties at schools, county fairs, and other regularly scheduled community celebrations.

  12. The Effect of Text Messaging on 9- and 10-Year-Old Children's Reading, Spelling and Phonological Processing Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, C.; Jackson, E.; Hart, L.; Plester, B.; Wilde, L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on an intervention study that considered the impact of text messaging on 9- to 10-year-old children's literacy skills. One hundred and fourteen children who had never owned a mobile phone before were recruited and randomly allocated to either the intervention or control conditions. All children were pre- and post-tested on a…

  13. Development of a 10-year-old full body geometric dataset for computational modeling.

    PubMed

    Mao, Haojie; Holcombe, Sven; Shen, Ming; Jin, Xin; Wagner, Christina D; Wang, Stewart C; Yang, King H; King, Albert I

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to create a computer-aided design (CAD) geometric dataset of a 10-year-old (10 YO) child. The study includes two phases of efforts. At Phase One, the 10 YO whole body CAD was developed from component computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans of 12 pediatric subjects. Geometrical scaling methods were used to convert all component parts to the average size for a 10 YO child, based on available anthropometric data. Then the component surfaces were compiled and integrated into a complete body. The bony structures and flesh were adjusted as symmetrical to minimize the bias from a single subject while maintaining anthropometrical measurements. Internal organs including the liver, spleen, and kidney were further verified by literature data. At Phase Two, internal characteristics for the cervical spine disc, wrist, hand, pelvis, femur, and tibia were verified with data measured from additional 94 10 YO children. The CAD dataset developed through these processes was mostly within the corridor of one standard deviation (SD) of the mean. In conclusion, a geometric dataset for an average size 10 YO child was created. The dataset serves as a foundation to develop computational 10 YO whole body models for enhanced pediatric injury prevention.

  14. Inhibitory control in otherwise healthy overweight 10-year-old children

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, S; Peirano, P; Peigneux, P; Lozoff, B; Algarin, C

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Preventing obesity is a worldwide public health priority. In vulnerable children living in obesogenic environments, with easy access to high-caloric food, alterations in inhibitory control functions might favor excessive food intake and affect energy regulation. We hypothesized that overweight/obese children would present lower inhibitory control in comparison to normal weight children. METHODS We measured inhibitory control functions in 93 otherwise healthy overweight/obese and 92 normal weight 10-year-old children using the Stroop test and the Go/No-Go task. Event-related potentials were recorded during the Go/No-Go task. RESULTS Overweight/obese children showed slower reaction times (1248.6 ms (95% confidence interval (CI): 1182.9–1314.3) vs 1149.0 ms (95% CI: 1083.0–1215.1)) on the Stroop test, higher reaction time variability (0.25 (95% CI: 0.22–0.27) vs 0.21 (95% CI: 0.19–0.24)) on the Go/No-Go task and decreased P300 amplitude (4.1 µV (95% CI: 3.0–5.2) vs 6.4 µV (95% CI: 5.2–7.6)) on event-related potentials compared with normal weight children. CONCLUSIONS Our results indicate altered inhibitory control functions in otherwise healthy overweight/obese children, which might contribute to their excessive food consumption. PMID:25869603

  15. The Effect of Executive Function on Science Achievement Among Normally Developing 10-Year Olds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lederman, Sheri G.

    Executive function (EF) is an umbrella term used to identify a set of discrete but interrelated cognitive abilities that enable individuals to engage in goal-directed, future-oriented action in response to a novel context. Developmental studies indicate that EF is predictive of reading and math achievement in middle childhood. The purpose of this study was to identify the association between EF and science achievement among normally developing 10 year olds. A sample of fifth grade students from a Northeastern suburban community participated in tests of EF, science, and intelligence. Consistent with adult models of EF, principal components analysis identified a three-factor model of EF organization in middle childhood, including cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibition. Multiple regression analyses revealed that executive function processes of cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibition were all predictive of science performance. Post hoc analyses revealed that high-performing science students differed significantly from low-performing students in both cognitive flexibility and working memory. These findings suggest that complex academic demands specific to science achievement rely on the emergence and maturation of EF components.

  16. Psychobiological Effects of Prenatal Glucocorticoid Exposure in 10-Year-Old-Children

    PubMed Central

    Erni, Katja; Shaqiri-Emini, Luljeta; La Marca, Roberto; Zimmermann, Roland; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2012-01-01

    Background: Prenatal stress seems to have long-lasting effects on biological and psychological processes of the offspring. However, to date, there have been no studies investigating the effects of prenatal glucocorticoid exposure on psychological, endocrine, and autonomic responses to a standardized psychosocial stress test in children. Methods: A sample of 115 healthy, 10-year-old children was examined. The Glucocorticoids + Tocolytics group was characterized by tocolytic treatment of the mothers due to preterm labor (n = 43). In addition, the pregnant women received glucocorticoid treatment in order to accelerate fetal lung maturation in case of preterm birth. The first comparison group (Tocolytics) consisted of children whose mothers also experienced preterm labor, but did not receive glucocorticoid treatment (n = 35). In the second comparison group (CONTROL), children whose mothers had a complication-free pregnancy were assessed (n = 37). Psychological parameters (stress appraisal and mood) using self-report questionnaires as well as salivary cortisol, salivary alpha-amylase, and heart rate were measured during a standardized psychosocial stress test (Trier Social Stress Test for Children). Results: Group comparisons revealed that a subscale of stress appraisal, control expectancies, significantly differed in children who were prenatally exposed to glucocorticoids as compared to both comparison groups (F = 4.889, p = 0.009). Furthermore, significant differences between the groups were revealed for salivary cortisol. With respect to overall stress appraisal and heart rate, trends toward significance were observed between the three groups. Conclusion: At the age of ten, those children who have been exposed to prenatal maternal glucocorticoids show changed psychobiological stress reactivity to a standardized psychosocial stress test as compared to control children. PMID:23233841

  17. Getting an Early Start: Communication about Sexuality among Mothers and Children 6-10 Years Old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pluhar, Erika; Jennings, Tanya; DiIorio, Colleen

    2006-01-01

    Little information exists on communication about sexuality between parents and preadolescent children. This study collected qualitative data on family sexuality communication from 3 focus groups conducted with African American mothers of 6-10 year old children. Two broad themes emerged from the data: "Beyond the Birds and the Bees" and "Let's Talk…

  18. Learning Benefits of Self-Controlled Knowledge of Results in 10-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiviacowsky, Suzete; Wulf, Gabriele; Laroque de Medeiros, Franklin; Kaefer, Angelica; Tani, Go

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the learning benefits of self-controlled knowledge of results (KR) would generalize to children. Specifically, the authors chose 10-year-old children representative of late childhood. The authors used a task that required the children to toss beanbags at a target. One group received KR…

  19. Self-Controlled Feedback in 10-Year-Old Children: Higher Feedback Frequencies Enhance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiviacowsky, Suzete; Wulf, Gabriele; de Medeiros, Franklin Laroque; Kaefer, Angelica; Wally, Raquel

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine whether learning in 10-year-old children--that is, the age group for which the Chiviacowsky et al. (2006) study found benefits of self-controlled knowledge of results (KR)--would differ depending on the frequency of feedback they chose. The authors surmised that a relatively high feedback frequency…

  20. Effects of Two Modes of Exercise Training on Physical Fitness of 10 Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribeiro, Ligia G. dos Santos Chaves; Portal, Maria de Nazare Dias; da Silva, Joao Bittencourt; Saraiva, Alan; da Cruz Monte, Gerson, Jr.; Dantas, Estelio H. M.

    2010-01-01

    Study aim: To compare two exercise training modes on the physical fitness of 10 year-old children. Material and methods: A sample of 60 schoolboys aged 10 years were randomly divided into 3 groups: Traditional (TG), trained according to the Brazilian national curricular parameters, Maturational (MG), in which the degree of difficulty of the…

  1. Eating With Your Heart In Mind: 7 to 10 Year Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Heart, Lung, and Blood Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    The purpose of this brightly illustrated guide is to teach 7-10 year old children that all healthy Americans, 2 years of age or older, should eat in a way that is low in saturated fat and cholesterol so as to help reduce the risk of heart disease. The theme reflected throughout the manual is that changes in eating patterns help lower blood…

  2. Case Report: Homicide by a 10-Year-Old Girl with Autistic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukaddes, Nahit Motavalli; Topcu, Zerrin

    2006-01-01

    This case study presents a 10-year-old girl with a diagnosis of Autistic Disorder, who killed her 6-month-old sister by throwing her out of a window. Her aggressive-impulsive behavior had a persistent pattern. She had a history of epilepsy, and was frequently exposed to physical abuse. She never attended a structured treatment program. Here, we…

  3. Langerhans cell histiocytosis: recurrent lesions affecting mandible in a 10-year-old patient.

    PubMed

    Loducca, S V; Mantesso, A; Araújo, N S; Magalhães, M H

    2001-01-01

    Hand-Schuller-Christian disease is a multifocal variant of eosinophilic granuloma, characterised by the classical triad of bony lesions, exophthalmos and diabetes insipidus. This case relates recurrent Langerhans' cell histiocytosis lesions presented as destruction of periodontal support associated with diabetes in a 10-year-old patient. Medical history suggests that the case represents a case of Hand-Schuller Christian disease.

  4. Frontal Electroencephalogram Activation Asymmetry, Emotional Intelligence, and Externalizing Behaviors in 10-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santesso, L. Diane; Dana, L. Reker; Schmidt, Louis A.; Segalowitz, Sidney J.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relations among resting frontal brain electrical activity (EEG) (hypothesized to reflect a predisposition to positive versus negative affect and ability to regulate emotions), emotional intelligence, and externalizing behaviors in a sample of non-clinical 10-year-old children. We found that boys…

  5. Treatment of a severe conversion disorder in a 10-year-old boy: a case study and overview.

    PubMed

    Ozsungur, Berna; Foto-Özdemir, Dilşad; Ozusta, Seniz; Topçu, Meral; Topaloğlu, Haluk

    2012-01-01

    Conversion disorder (CD) in children remains a major challenge both in pediatric and mental health clinics and is still a prevalent psychiatric disorder in developing countries. The authors describe a 10-year-old boy with the complaints of inability to walk, speak or eat, excessive drooling, urinary and fecal incontinence, disturbance from light and sound, and expression of needs only by eye movements. The patient diagnosed with CD was followed by the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry with play therapy, individual psychotherapy and family therapy. At the end of three months, the patient was discharged. This is one of the most challenging cases of CD in children. The most important aim of the treatment is to understand the need for conversion symptoms and to constitute a healthy psychological environment for the child rather than to remove the physical symptoms.

  6. Serum Lipid Levels and Dyslipidaemia Prevalence among 2–10 Year-Old Northern Mexican Children

    PubMed Central

    Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Salas, Rogelio; Novelo, Hilda I.; Villarreal, Jesús Z.; Sureda, Antoni; Tur, Josep A.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims The increase in overweight and obese children may be linked to increased rates of dyslipidaemia. The aim was to assess the prevalence of dyslipidaemia and associated risk factors among the Northern Mexican child population. Methods and Results Four hundred and fifty-one subjects aged between 2 and 10 (47.5% girls) took part in the Nuevo León State Survey of Nutrition and Health 2011–2012. According to the 2011 Expert Panel on Integrated Guidelines for Cardiovascular Health and Risk Reduction in Children and Adolescents, serum lipid levels (mg/dL) were categorized into three subgroups (acceptable, borderline-high/low or high/low) as follows: TChol: acceptable <170, borderline-high 170–199, high ≥200; LDL-chol: acceptable <110, borderline-high 110–129, high ≥130; non-HDL-chol: acceptable <120, borderline-high 120–144, high ≥145; HDL-chol: acceptable >45, borderline-low 40–45, low <40; and TG: acceptable <75, borderline-high 75–99, high ≥100 in ≤9 year-old children, and acceptable <90, borderline-high 90–129, and high ≥130 in 10 year-old children. The overall prevalence of borderline-high + high TG, non-HDL-chol, TChol, and LDL-chol was 63.0%, 44.1%, 43.5%, and 29.9%, respectively. The overall prevalence of borderline-low + low HDL-chol was 46.3%. The overall frequency of dyslipidaemia was 54.3%. Thirteen children (2.9%) had all five symptoms of dyslipidaemia. The most common dyslipidaemia was high TG in combination (26.2%) and in isolation (10.6%). Conclusions Half of the children had at least one abnormal lipid concentration. A high TG level was the most frequent dyslipidaemia. Obesity was associated with the occurrence of at least one abnormal lipid level. These findings emphasize the need to pay further attention to the prevention of cardiovascular disease and obesity from an early age. PMID:25793380

  7. Development of 5- and 10-year-old pediatric phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Melo Lima, V. J. de; Cassola, V. F.; Kramer, R.; Oliveira Lira, C. A. B. de; Khoury, H. J.; Vieira, J. W.

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is the development of reference pediatric phantoms for 5- and 10-year-old children to be used for the calculation of organ and tissue equivalent doses in radiation protection. Methods: The study proposes a method for developing anatomically highly sophisticated pediatric phantoms without using medical images. The 5- and 10-year-old male and female phantoms presented here were developed using 3D modeling software applied to anatomical information taken from atlases and textbooks. The method uses polygon mesh surfaces to model body contours, the shape of organs as well as their positions, and orientations in the human body. Organ and tissue masses comply with the corresponding data given by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for the 5- and 10-year-old reference children. Bones were segmented into cortical bone, spongiosa, medullary marrow, and cartilage to allow for the use of micro computer tomographic ({mu}CT) images of trabecular bone for skeletal dosimetry. Results: The four phantoms, a male and a female for each age, and their organs are presented in 3D images and their organ and tissue masses in tables which show the compliance of the ICRP reference values. Dosimetric data, calculated for the reference pediatric phantoms by Monte Carlo methods were compared with corresponding data from adult mesh phantoms and pediatric stylized phantoms. The comparisons show reasonable agreement if the anatomical differences between the phantoms are properly taken into account. Conclusions: Pediatric phantoms were developed without using medical images of patients or volunteers for the first time. The models are reference phantoms, suitable for regulatory dosimetry, however, the 3D modeling method can also be applied to medical images to develop patient-specific phantoms.

  8. Oral Hygiene Facilitators and Barriers in Greek 10 Years Old Schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    Kavvadia, Katerina; Oulis, Constantine; Reppa, Christina

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the oral hygiene facilitators and barriers for 10 years old Greek children, via a questionnaire and clinical examination. Materials and methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 266, 10 years old, children recruited from schools in 3 locations in Greece. Data were collected via questionnaires and clinical examination. Questionnaires referred to Children’s oral hygiene knowledge, behavior and attitude as well as parents’ oral hygiene behavior and educational level. Children were clinically examined by two calibrated pediatric dentists using a WHO probe and artificial light to assess dental plaque (hygiene index-HI), gingivitis (simplified gingival index-GIs) and dental caries (DMFT-BASCD criteria). Results: Regarding oral hygiene knowledge, although 80% of the children were literate of the proper means of oral hygiene, only 58.64% brushed their teeth twice daily and 36.84% used dental floss. Children’s oral hygiene knowledge was positively correlated with both parental brushing frequency (ρ = 0.175, p < 0.05) and educational level (ρ = -0.216, p < 0.05). Toothpaste use was reported by 92.11% of the children. Regarding Children’s attitude, 62.28% were concerned whether their teeth were clean, with girls showing greater concern than boys (p < 0.001). Their reported beliefs regarding brushing avoidance were boredom (84.06%), low oral health literacy (73.91%) and forgetfulness (56.52%). Conclusion: Oral hygiene facilitators were found to be the concern about how clean were their teeth, oral health literacy of both children and parents and toothpaste appeal to children. Oral hygiene barriers were Children’s boredom, low oral health literacy, forgetfulness and low socioeconomic level. How to cite this article: Angelopoulou M, Kavvadia K, Oulis C, Reppa C. Oral Hygiene Facilitators and Barriers in Greek 10 Years Old Schoolchildren. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(2):87-93. PMID:26379373

  9. Peroral Endoscopic Myotomy for the Treatment of Achalasia in a 10-Year-Old Male Patient.

    PubMed

    Filser, Jörg; Dick, Anke; Meyer, Thomas; Germer, Christoph-Thomas; von Rahden, Burkard H A

    2015-06-01

    Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is a new endoscopic treatment for achalasia with very good short-term results in adults. Data about POEM in pediatric patients are missing. We present the case of a 10-year-old male patient with type I (classic) achalasia, successfully treated with POEM. The procedure was accomplished in a similar fashion to the technique used in adults. Short-term results were fine, with a complete control of dysphagia and absence of reflux. We suggest that POEM is a suitable option in pediatric patients-similar to adults-but long-term results must be awaited.

  10. Tibial nerve intraneural ganglion cyst in a 10-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Squires, Judy H; Emery, Kathleen H; Johnson, Neil; Sorger, Joel

    2014-04-01

    Intraneural ganglion cysts are uncommon cystic lesions of peripheral nerves that are typically encountered in adults. In the lower extremity, the peroneal nerve is most frequently affected with involvement of the tibial nerve much less common. This article describes a tibial intraneural ganglion cyst in a 10-year-old boy. Although extremely rare, intraneural ganglion cysts of the tibial nerve should be considered when a nonenhancing cystic structure with intra-articular extension is identified along the course of the nerve. This report also details the unsuccessful attempt at percutaneous treatment with US-guided cyst aspiration and steroid injection, an option recently reported as a viable alternative to open surgical resection.

  11. Visual search and contextual cueing: differential effects in 10-year-old children and adults.

    PubMed

    Couperus, Jane W; Hunt, Ruskin H; Nelson, Charles A; Thomas, Kathleen M

    2011-02-01

    The development of contextual cueing specifically in relation to attention was examined in two experiments. Adult and 10-year-old participants completed a context cueing visual search task (Jiang & Chun, The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 54A(4), 1105-1124, 2001) containing stimuli presented in an attended (e.g., red) and unattended (e.g., green) color. When the spatial configuration of stimuli in the attended and unattended color was invariant and consistently paired with the target location, adult reaction times improved, demonstrating learning. Learning also occurred if only the attended stimuli's configuration remained fixed. In contrast, while 10 year olds, like adults, showed incrementally slower reaction times as the number of attended stimuli increased, they did not show learning in the standard paradigm. However, they did show learning when the ratio of attended to unattended stimuli was high, irrespective of the total number of attended stimuli. Findings suggest children show efficient attentional guidance by color in visual search but differences in contextual cueing.

  12. [Food avoidance emotional disorder in 3 to 10-year-old children: a clinical reality].

    PubMed

    Goëb, J-L; Azcona, B; Troussier, F; Malka, J; Giniès, J-L; Duverger, P

    2005-09-01

    We underline the clinical importance of a specific eating disorder in 3 to 10 years old children, when the majority of the works about the prepubertal eating disorders focus either on the period just preceding adolescence (often between 10 and 13 years), or on the second half of the first year of the baby. Within the eating disorders described in the literature, we compare the clinical presentation of most of these 3 to 10 years old children with the food avoidance emotional disorder described during adolescence. These problems of eating behaviour (various selective eating with or without provoked vomiting) are ignored for a long time in these young children because of quite a satisfactory growth, but these children are often seen in emergency rooms because of a brutally complete eating refusal. Therapeutic consultations allow these children to express their fears about diseases, poisoning and death, for themselves or for their close relations, in particular the mother, without endangering their body. The early recognition and care of these difficulties of conciliation between the body and the thoughts impose a narrow collaboration between paediatric and psychiatric staffs.

  13. Integration of internal and external facial features in 8- to 10-year-old children and adults.

    PubMed

    Meinhardt-Injac, Bozana; Persike, Malte; Meinhardt, Günter

    2014-06-01

    Investigation of whole-part and composite effects in 4- to 6-year-old children gave rise to claims that face perception is fully mature within the first decade of life (Crookes & McKone, 2009). However, only internal features were tested, and the role of external features was not addressed, although external features are highly relevant for holistic face perception (Sinha & Poggio, 1996; Axelrod & Yovel, 2010, 2011). In this study, 8- to 10-year-old children and adults performed a same-different matching task with faces and watches. In this task participants attended to either internal or external features. Holistic face perception was tested using a congruency paradigm, in which face and non-face stimuli either agreed or disagreed in both features (congruent contexts) or just in the attended ones (incongruent contexts). In both age groups, pronounced context congruency and inversion effects were found for faces, but not for watches. These findings indicate holistic feature integration for faces. While inversion effects were highly similar in both age groups, context congruency effects were stronger for children. Moreover, children's face matching performance was generally better when attending to external compared to internal features. Adults tended to perform better when attending to internal features. Our results indicate that both adults and 8- to 10-year-old children integrate external and internal facial features into holistic face representations. However, in children's face representations external features are much more relevant. These findings suggest that face perception is holistic but still not adult-like at the end of the first decade of life.

  14. [Association between Crohn's disease and primary sclerosing cholangitis in a 10 year old girl].

    PubMed

    Muñoz Lozón, Ana; Iglesias Blázquez, Cristina; Menéndez Arias, Cristina; Domínguez Sánchez, Patricia

    2016-06-01

    A 10 year old girl with diarrhea, abdominal pain, weight loss and fever of one month and a half of evolution. Analytical and sonographic findings raised the possibility of inflammatory bowel disease. Endoscopy and histology showed findings consistent with Crohn's disease. Treatment was initiated with mesalazine and exclusive enteral nutrition. Later corticosteroid treatment, immunosuppressive drugs and ursodeoxycholic acid were added due to cholestasis and persistent hypergammaglobulinemia. Magnetic resonance cholangiography and liver biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of concomitant primary sclerosing cholangitis. The association between Crohn's disease and primary sclerosing cholangitis is rare, predominantly in males between 20 and 40 years old and it presents a great clinical variability. The confirmation of the diagnosis requires magnetic resonance cholangiography or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. The prognosis is poor and there is no treatment to slow the progression of the disease.

  15. Incontinentia Pigmenti; a Rare Multisystem Disorder: Case Report of a 10-Year-Old Girl

    PubMed Central

    Rafatjoo, Rezvan; Taghdisi Kashani, Amene

    2016-01-01

    Incontinentia pigmenti is a rare genodermatosis in which the skin involvement occurs in all patients. Additionally, other ectodermal tissues may be affected such as the central nervous system, eyes, hair, nails and teeth. The disease has an X-linked dominant inheritance pattern. But in our case, there was a mutation in the body cells due to incontinentia pigmenti. The dermatological findings occur in four successive phases. We report the case of a 10-year-old female presented cutaneous, dental and ophthalmic characteristic with 3 years follow-up. Dental anomalies such as hypodontia, peg-shaped anterior teeth, malformed primary and permanent teeth, and delayed eruption were seen in our patient. PMID:27602400

  16. The genetic and environmental etiology of high math performance in 10-year-old twins.

    PubMed

    Petrill, Stephen A; Kovas, Yulia; Hart, Sara A; Thompson, Lee A; Plomin, Robert

    2009-07-01

    The genetic and environmental etiology of high math performance (at or above the 85%tile) was examined in a population-based sample of 10-year-old twins (nMZ = 1,279, nDZ = 2,305). Math skills were assessed using a web-based battery of math performance tapping skills related to the UK National Math Curriculum. Probandwise concordance rates and liability threshold models indicated that genetic and shared environmental influences were significant, and that these estimates were generally similar to those obtained across the normal range of ability and did not vary significantly by gender. These results suggest that the genetic and environmental influences at the high end of ability are likely to be continuous with those that affect the entire range of math performance across all children irrespective of gender.

  17. Effects of background and classroom characteristics on the science achievement of 10-year-old students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosier, Malcolm

    1990-01-01

    Effects of characteristics of science classrooms on the science achievement of students were examined in the context of a simple model. The model incorporated prior attributes of the students in terms of home background, sex, and verbal and quantitative ability. The model was estimated by means of partial least squares multivariate procedures using data for 10-year-old Queensland students from the Second International Science Study. The results demonstrated the dominant influence of home background and verbal/mathematical ability. Female students tended to have lower scores after allowing for the influence of the other variables in the model. Students who stated that there were more student initiated activities in their science lessons tended to have lower achievement.

  18. Treatment of Bilateral Refractive Amblyopia in Children 3 to <10 Years Old

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, David; Chandler, Danielle L.; Beck, Roy W.; Arnold, Robert W.; Bacal, Darron A.; Birch, Eileen E.; Felius, Joost; Frazier, Marcela; Holmes, Jonathan M.; Hoover, Darren; Klimek, Deborah A.; Lorenzana, Ingryd; Quinn, Graham E.; Repka, Michael X.; Suh, Donny W.; Tamkins, Susanna

    2007-01-01

    Purpose To determine the amount and time course of binocular visual acuity improvement during treatment of bilateral refractive amblyopia in children age 3 to <10 years old Design Prospective, multicenter noncomparative intervention Methods 113 children (mean age = 5.1 years) with previously untreated bilateral refractive amblyopia were enrolled at 27 community- and university-based sites and were provided optimal spectacle correction. Bilateral refractive amblyopia was defined as 20/40 to 20/400 best-corrected binocular acuity in the presence of ≥ 4.00 D hypermetropia by spherical equivalent and/or ≥ 2.00 D astigmatism in each eye. Best-corrected binocular and monocular visual acuities were measured at baseline and at 5, 13, 26 and 52 weeks. The primary study outcome was binocular acuity at one year. Results Mean binocular visual acuity improved from 0.50 logMAR (20/63) at baseline to 0.11 logMAR (20/25) at one year (mean improvement 3.9 lines, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.5 to 4.2). Mean improvement at one year for the 84 children with baseline binocular acuity of 20/40 to 20/80 was 3.4 lines (95% CI = 3.2 to 3.7) and for the 16 children with baseline binocular acuity of 20/100 to 20/320 was 6.3 lines (95% CI = 5.1 to 7.5). The cumulative probability of binocular acuity of 20/25 or better was 21% at 5 weeks, 46% at 13 weeks, 59% at 26 weeks, and 74% at 52 weeks. Conclusions Treatment of bilateral refractive amblyopia with spectacle correction improves binocular visual acuity in children age 3 to <10 years old, with most improving to 20/25 or better within one year. PMID:17707330

  19. Family meals: perceptions of benefits and challenges among parents of 8- to 10-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Fulkerson, Jayne A; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Rydell, Sarah

    2008-04-01

    The study purpose was to examine parental perceptions of the mealtime environment in families with school-aged children and identify strategies to improve the dietary quality of meals. Cross-sectional surveys were completed by a convenience sample of 107 parents (86% mothers, 14% fathers) of 8- to 10-year-old children who were recruited from afterschool child care programs/elementary schools. SAS (version 9.1) was used to produce descriptive frequencies of parental reports of positive and negative perceptions of mealtime. Parents reported frequent family meals; however, they indicated that family dinners were eaten at full-service restaurants, purchased from fast-food establishments, or picked up as takeout foods at least weekly (47.0%, 28.3%, and 23.8%, respectively). Conflicts about food were problematic for some families (40.2% on at least some days), and appeared to be related to children's food pickiness. Parents reported many benefits of family meals, including time for conversation, feelings of togetherness, shared nutrition, and ceremony. Areas where parents desired change included assistance with meal planning, food preparation, and clean-up; spending more time at meals; assistance with children's food pickiness; new recipes and meal ideas; and decreasing conflict at mealtimes. Findings suggest that interventions to increase family meal frequency and promote healthful foods at mealtimes should address promoting food acceptance among children, sharing responsibilities among parents and children for meal planning and preparation, decreasing conflict at meals, and eating out healthfully.

  20. School level correlates with adiposity in 9-10 year old children

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Flo; Bentham, Graham; Jones, Andrew P; Cassidy, Aedín; van Sluijs, Esther MF; Griffin, Simon J

    2013-01-01

    We examined the associations between the physical, social and policy environments of schools and adiposity in 9-10 year old children in Norfolk, UK. The relationships between 56 school-level variables and Fat Mass Index (FMI; fat mass (kg)/height(m)2) were investigated among 1724 well characterised children from 92 schools in this cross-sectional study. After stepwise removal of variables from multilevel linear regression models stratified by gender, only three variables were significantly associated with FMI. Among girls, attending a school with more pupils in the year group was associated with lower FMI, and attending a school with better cycle provision was associated with higher FMI. In boys being allowed to eat any food at break-time was associated with higher FMI. There was some evidence of moderation of the relationship between cycle provision and FMI by urban-rural location. These data suggest that few school factors are associated with FMI, and provide limited pointers to inform potential future school-based interventions to reduce obesity. PMID:21474361

  1. Discrimination of facial features by adults, 10-year-olds, and cataract-reversal patients.

    PubMed

    Mondloch, Catherine J; Robbins, Rachel; Maurer, Daphne

    2010-01-01

    In previous studies we created 8 new versions of a single face: 4 differed only in the spacing among features and 4 differed in the shape of the eyes and mouth. Compared to the spacing set, results for this feature set indicated little impairment by inversion, earlier adult-like accuracy (Mondloch et al, 2002 Perception 31 553-566), and normal performance after a history of early visual deprivation from bilateral congenital cataract (Le Grand et al, 2001 Nature 410 890, 412 786). Here we addressed the possibility that this pattern might have resulted from our having inadvertently selected easily discriminated features or including some faces with make-up. We created 20 featural versions of a single female face and asked adults, 10-year-old children, and patients treated for bilateral congenital cataract to make same/different judgments for 120 pairings (half different). The results confirm that adults easily discriminate facial features, even after early visual deprivation from cataract, and that inversion has only a small effect. By the age of 10 years, children are close to, but not quite at, adult levels of accuracy. The previous findings cannot be attributed to our having inadvertently created a feature set that was unusually easy to discriminate.

  2. Frontal electroencephalogram activation asymmetry, emotional intelligence, and externalizing behaviors in 10-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Santesso, Diane L; Reker, Dana L; Schmidt, Louis A; Segalowitz, Sidney J

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relations among resting frontal brain electrical activity (EEG) (hypothesized to reflect a predisposition to positive versusnegative affect and ability to regulate emotions), emotional intelligence, and externalizing behaviors in a sample of non-clinical 10-year-old children. We found that boys had significantly lower emotional intelligence than girls, and low emotional intelligence was associated with significantly more externalizing behaviors (i.e., aggression and delinquency), replicating previous work. We also found that children with higher reported externalizing behaviors exhibited significantly greater relative right frontal EEG activity at rest compared with children with little to no externalizing behavioral problems. There was, however, no relation between emotional intelligence and the pattern of resting frontal EEG activity. Thus, emotional intelligence and the pattern of frontal EEG activation at rest are independent predictors of externalizing behaviors in children. Findings also suggest that individual differences in emotional intelligence may not be based on differences in levels of emotional regulation or the generation of positive affect as reflected in frontal EEG asymmetries, but rather other social and cognitive competencies required for adaptive behavior.

  3. Mixed connective tissue disease presenting with progressive scleroderma symptoms in a 10-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Latuśkiewicz-Potemska, Joanna; Zygmunt, Agnieszka; Biernacka-Zielińska, Małgorzata; Stańczyk, Jerzy; Smolewska, Elżbieta

    2013-10-01

    Mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) is a systemic inflammatory disease affecting connective tissue with the underlying autoimmunological mechanism. The core of MCTD is an appearance of symptoms of several other inflammatory diseases of connective tissue - systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic scleroderma, poly- or dermatomyositis, rheumatoid arthritis at the same time, accompanied by a high level of anti-ribonucleoprotein antibodies (anti-U1RNP). The disease was described more than 40 years ago by Sharp et al. During recent years, many efforts to better understand clinical and serological features of MCTD have been made. Diagnosis of MCTD can be difficult. Obligatory international diagnostic criteria are required to be fulfilled. Several versions of such criteria have been proposed, but the most widely used one was described by Kasukawa. There is no consensus about treatment - a choice of drugs depends on symptoms. We present a case of a 10-year-old girl with sclerodactyly and trophic damages of fingers accompanied by symptoms of Raynaud's phenomenon. After an almost 2-year course of the disease, a diagnosis of MCTD has been established.

  4. School level correlates with adiposity in 9-10 year old children.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Flo; Bentham, Graham; Jones, Andrew P; Cassidy, Aedín; van Sluijs, Esther M F; Griffin, Simon J

    2011-05-01

    We examined the associations between the physical, social, and policy environments of schools and adiposity in 9-10 year old children in Norfolk, UK. The relationships between 56 school-level variables and Fat Mass Index (FMI; fat mass (kg)/height (m(2))) were investigated among 1724 well characterised children from 92 schools in this cross-sectional study. After stepwise removal of variables from multilevel linear regression models stratified by gender, only three variables were significantly associated with FMI. Among girls, attending a school with more pupils in the year group was associated with lower FMI, and attending a school with better cycle provision was associated with higher FMI. In boys being allowed to eat any food at break-time was associated with higher FMI. There was some evidence of moderation of the relationship between cycle provision and FMI by urban-rural location. These data suggest that few school factors are associated with FMI, and provide limited pointers to inform potential future school-based interventions to reduce obesity.

  5. Prenatal and postnatal tobacco smoke exposure and development of insulin resistance in 10 year old children.

    PubMed

    Thiering, Elisabeth; Brüske, Irene; Kratzsch, Jürgen; Thiery, Joachim; Sausenthaler, Stefanie; Meisinger, Christa; Koletzko, Sibylle; Bauer, Carl-Peter; Schaaf, Beate; von Berg, Andrea; Berdel, Dietrich; Lehmann, Irina; Herbarth, Olf; Krämer, Ursula; Wichmann, H Erich; Heinrich, Joachim

    2011-09-01

    In this study, we evaluated the association between prenatal and postnatal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and the development of insulin resistance in 10 year old children. Fasting blood samples were collected from 470 children participating in two prospective birth cohorts. Of those 276 were selected population based and enriched with 194 children exceeding the 85th percentile of body mass index in this age group. Children already having diabetes type 1 or 2 at the age of 10 years were excluded. Fasting blood insulin and glucose levels and calculated HOMA index for insulin resistance assessment were analysed using generalised additive models. Potential confounders were adjusted for. Insulin resistance was increased by 24% in children frequently exposed to environmental tobacco smoke during childhood (MR(adj) = 1.24, p = 0.001), while glucose levels were not. Exclusion of prenatally exposed children did not attenuate the association (MR(adj) = 1.25, p = 0.006). After stratification, the effect sizes were identical within overweight children and the population based sample of children. Insulin resistance and fasting insulin levels were increasing with increasing numbers of cigarettes smoked in children's home. Maternal smoking during the third trimester of pregnancy increased children's insulin levels (MR(adj) = 1.19, p = 0.037), and even more so, if children were exclusively breastfed after birth (MR(adj) = 1.31, p = 0.016). Increased mean ratios were found for smoking of a third person in addition to maternal smoking. Positive dose-dependent associations and independent effects of postnatal exposure suggest involvement of environmental tobacco smoke in the risk for development of insulin resistance in children.

  6. Using Bishop’s Card Reaching Task to Assess Hand Preference in 8- to 10-Year-Old Czech Children

    PubMed Central

    Musalek, Martin; Scharoun, Sara Marie; Bryden, Pamela J.

    2016-01-01

    Hand preference is one of the most apparent functional asymmetry in humans. Under contralateral control, performance is more proficient with the preferred hand; however, the difference between the two hands is greater in right handers, considering left handers generally display less cerebral lateralization. One method of evaluating hand preference is Bishop’s card reaching task; however, information regarding validity and sensitivity with children in limited. This study assessed the relationship between Bishop’s card reaching task and five hand preference tasks in 8- to 10-year-old typically-developing children from the Czech Republic (N = 376). Structural equation modelling identified a one factor model as the most suitable, including Bishop’s card reaching task and three hand preference tasks (ringing, throwing, and rolling with dice). The factor validity (.89) and sensitivity of Bishop’s card reaching task (90% to 97%) provided a very good identification of hand preference. These results support the suitability of Bishop’s card reaching task as a separate test for determining hand preference in children. Accordingly, we suggest that the assessment of handedness, particularly in neurodevelopmental disorders where the proportion of right-handers and left-handers is disrupted (e.g., children with DCD or ADHD), should make use of Bishop’s card reaching task alongside other unimanual tasks. PMID:27835677

  7. Quantitative genetics of cortical bone mass in healthy 10-year-old children from the Fels Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Duren, Dana L.; Sherwood, Richard J.; Choh, Audrey C.; Czerwinski, Stefan A.; Chumlea, Wm. Cameron; Lee, Miryoung; Sun, Shumei S.; Demerath, Ellen W.; Siervogel, Roger M.; Towne, Bradford

    2007-01-01

    The genetic influences on bone mass likely change throughout the life span, but most genetic studies of bone mass regulation have focused on adults. There is, however, a growing awareness of the importance of genes influencing the acquisition of bone mass during childhood on lifelong bone health. The present investigation examines genetic influences on childhood bone mass by estimating the residual heritabilities of different measures of second metacarpal bone mass in a sample of 600 10-year-old participants from 144 families in the Fels Longitudinal Study. Bivariate quantitative genetic analyses were conducted to estimate genetic correlations between cortical bone mass measures, and measures of bone growth and development. Using a maximum likelihood-based variance components method for pedigree data, we found a residual heritability estimate of 0.71 for second metacarpal cortical index. Residual heritability estimates for individual measures of cortical bone (e.g., lateral cortical thickness, medial cortical thickness) ranged from 0.47 to 0.58, at this pre-pubertal childhood age. Low genetic correlations were found between cortical bone measures and both bone length and skeletal age. However, after Bonferonni adjustment for multiple testing, ρG was not significantly different from 0 for any of these pairs of traits. Results of this investigation provide evidence of significant genetic control over bone mass largely independent of maturation while bones are actively growing and before rapid accrual of bone that typically occurs during puberty. PMID:17056310

  8. [Measurement of the in vitro immune response of live attenuated measles virus vaccine and antibody levels in 0 to 10-year-old children].

    PubMed

    Unalan, H; Ustaçelebi, S

    1985-10-01

    The present study was carried out in order to test the antigenic effectiveness of the live attenuated meales vaccine which is routinly employed in our country. Sera obtained from 11 children before and after measles vaccination were tested for measles antibodies by complement fixation and neutralization tests. Sera samples were also collected from 0-10 years old children with history of vaccination, passed measles infection and none at all. These sera were also tested for measles antibody by complement fixation test. Virus isolation and seroconversion studies in children who were admitted to the outpatient clinics of Hacettepe hospital is also presented in this communication.

  9. A Cluster-Analytical Approach towards Physical Activity and Eating Habits among 10-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabbe, Dieter; De Bourdeaudhuij, I.; Legiest, E.; Maes, L.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose was to investigate whether clusters--based on physical activity (PA) and eating habits--can be found among children, and to explore subgroups' characteristics. A total of 1725 10-year olds completed a self-administered questionnaire. K-means cluster analysis was based on the weekly quantity of vigorous and moderate PA, the excess index…

  10. Chronic abdominal pain secondary to a mucous cystadenoma of the appendix in a 10-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Blecha, Matthew J; Gupta, Anita; Hoover, J David; Madonna, Mary Beth

    2005-11-01

    Mucocele of the appendix is a thin-walled dilated appendix filled with mucus. It occurs secondary to chronic obstruction of the appendiceal lumen because of a range of pathologies. Cystadenomas in children are exceedingly rare and most frequently of ovarian origin. A mucous cystadenoma of the appendix in a 10-year-old boy with chronic abdominal pain is presented.

  11. Effects of Multiple Planning Constraints on the Development of Grasp Posture Planning in 6- to 10-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stöckel, Tino; Hughes, Charmayne M. L.

    2015-01-01

    This experiment examined how multiple planning constraints affect grasp posture planning in 6- to 10-year-old children (n = 16 in each group) by manipulating the intended object end-orientation (left end-down, right end-down) and initial precision demands (standard, initial precision) of a bar transport task. Results indicated that grasp posture…

  12. Upper Extremity Multifocal Neuropathy in a 10-Year-Old Boy Associated With NS6S Disaccharide Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Edelman, Frederick; Naddaf, Elie; Waclawik, Andrew J

    2015-06-01

    We present a 10-year-old boy with a predominantly motor multifocal neuropathy with demyelinating and axonal changes with sensory involvement, affecting only one upper extremity. Laboratory studies revealed an elevated titer of immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies against the NS6S antigen. He responded to treatment with high dose intravenous immunoglobulins. Focal or multifocal immune-mediated neuropathies are not common in children and may be underdiagnosed.

  13. Septic arthritis and osteomyelitis in a 10-year-old boy, caused by Fusobacterium nucleatum, diagnosed with PCR/16S ribosomal bacterial DNA amplification

    PubMed Central

    Kroon, Elke; Arents, Niek A; Halbertsma, Feico Jan

    2012-01-01

    A 10-year-old boy presented with an atypical non-febrile septic arthritis/osteomyelitis. He was unresponsive to routine antibiotic treatment with flucloxacillin/gentamicin as the pain and fluid collection increased. Synovial fluid cultures are negative and gram stain remained negative. Only after PCR/16S ribosomal bacterial DNA amplification a Fusobacterium nucleatum could be detected, and antibiotic therapy switched to clindamycin with rapid response. Septic osteomyelitis and arthritis are relatively rare but important infections in children needing prompt treatment, and should be considered when a child complaints about joint or bone pain without prior recent trauma. Skin bacteria are the most prevalent causative organisms, whereas Fusobacteria or other anaerobic, Gram-negative microorganisms are very seldom encountered. If cultures remain negative and the patients responds insufficiently to empiric treatment, PCR/16S ribosomal bacterial DNA amplification can be useful to detect the causative microorganisms. PMID:22605875

  14. A Randomized Trial Comparing Part-time Patching with Observation for Children 3–10 Years Old with Intermittent Exotropia

    PubMed Central

    Cotter, Susan A.; Mohney, Brian G.; Chandler, Danielle L.; Holmes, Jonathan M.; Repka, Michael X.; Melia, Michele; Wallace, David K.; Beck, Roy W.; Birch, Eileen E.; Kraker, Raymond T.; Tamkins, Susanna M.; Miller, Aaron M.; Sala, Nicholas A.; Glaser, Stephen R.

    2014-01-01

    over a 6-month period is uncommon with or without patching treatment. Although there is a slightly lower deterioration rate with patching, both management approaches are reasonable for treating 3 to 10 year olds with IXT. PMID:25234012

  15. Effect of sports vision exercise on visual perception and reading performance in 7- to 10-year-old developmental dyslexic children

    PubMed Central

    Badami, Rokhsareh; Mahmoudi, Sahar; Baluch, Bahman

    2016-01-01

    The presented study was aimed at identifying for the first time the influence of sports vision exercises on fundamental motor skills and cognitive skills of 7- to 10-year-old developmental dyslexic Persian children. A pretest-posttest quasi-experimental study was conducted. The statistical population of this study was 7- to 10-year-old dyslexic children referring to two centres of learning disorder in the city of Isfahan. Twenty two of these children were selected using available and purposive sampling from the statistical population and were randomly assigned into two groups of experimental and control. The former (experimental group) participated in sports vision exercise courses for 12 weeks (3 one hr sessions per week) and the latter (control group) continued their routine daily activities during the exercise. Before the beginning and at the end of the exercise, Gardner’s test of visual perception test - revised and Dehkhoda’s reading skills test was administered to both groups. The results showed that the sports vision exercises increases motor skills, visual perceptual skills and reading skills in developmental dyslexic children. Based on the results of the presented study it was concluded that sports vision exercises can be used for fundamental and cognitive skills of developmental dyslexic children. PMID:28119884

  16. Effect of sports vision exercise on visual perception and reading performance in 7- to 10-year-old developmental dyslexic children.

    PubMed

    Badami, Rokhsareh; Mahmoudi, Sahar; Baluch, Bahman

    2016-12-01

    The presented study was aimed at identifying for the first time the influence of sports vision exercises on fundamental motor skills and cognitive skills of 7- to 10-year-old developmental dyslexic Persian children. A pretest-posttest quasi-experimental study was conducted. The statistical population of this study was 7- to 10-year-old dyslexic children referring to two centres of learning disorder in the city of Isfahan. Twenty two of these children were selected using available and purposive sampling from the statistical population and were randomly assigned into two groups of experimental and control. The former (experimental group) participated in sports vision exercise courses for 12 weeks (3 one hr sessions per week) and the latter (control group) continued their routine daily activities during the exercise. Before the beginning and at the end of the exercise, Gardner's test of visual perception test - revised and Dehkhoda's reading skills test was administered to both groups. The results showed that the sports vision exercises increases motor skills, visual perceptual skills and reading skills in developmental dyslexic children. Based on the results of the presented study it was concluded that sports vision exercises can be used for fundamental and cognitive skills of developmental dyslexic children.

  17. Comparing 9 to 10 Years Old Children's Performance in Tennis and Physical Fitness Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olcucu, Burcin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the degree of performance-related physical coordination of elementary education children (male and female) that play tennis according to their age and gender and to investigate the relationship between their motor ability tests and performances. A total of 210 children tennis players (9 to 10 years; 105 males…

  18. Relationship between adiposity and cognitive performance in 9-10 year old children in south India

    PubMed Central

    Veena, Sargoor R; Hegde, Bhavya G; Ramachandraiah, Somashekara; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Fall, Caroline HD; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies in high-income countries have shown inverse associations between adiposity and cognitive performance in children. We aimed to examine the relationship between adiposity and cognitive function in Indian children. Methods At a mean age of 9.7 years, height, weight, triceps and subscapular skinfold thicknesses and waist circumference were recorded for 540 children born in Mysore, India. Body fat percentage was estimated using bio-impedance. Cognitive function was assessed using 3 core tests from the Kaufman Assessment Battery for children-II edition and additional tests measuring learning, short-term memory, reasoning, verbal and visuo-spatial abilities, attention and concentration. Data on the parents’ socio-economic status, education, occupation and income were collected. Results According to WHO definitions, 3.5% of the children were overweight/obese (BMI>+1SD) and 27% underweight (BMI<−2SD). Compared to normal children, overweight/obese children scored higher in tests of learning/long-term retrieval, reasoning and verbal ability (unadjusted p<0.05 for all). All the cognitive test scores increased with increase in BMI and skinfold thickness, (unadjusted β=0.10 to 0.20 SD; p<0.05 for all). The effects, though attenuated, remained mainly significant after adjustment for age, sex and socio-economic factors. Similar associations were found for waist circumference and percentage body fat. Conclusions In this Indian population, in which obesity was uncommon, greater adiposity predicted higher cognitive ability. These associations were only partly explained by socio-economic factors. Our findings suggest that better nutrition is associated with better cognitive function, and that inverse associations between adiposity and cognitive function in high-income countries reflect confounding by socio-economic factors. PMID:24146284

  19. An 18-year-old man with recurrent pneumothorax since he was 10-year-old.

    PubMed

    Demir, Meral; Çobanoğlu, Nazan

    2016-12-01

    An 18-year-old male patient was referred to the department of pediatric pulmonology with a history of recurrent pneumothorax. Initial pneumothorax occurred at the age of 10. Following diagnosis of congenital lobar emphysema, he had five episodes of pneumothorax and subsequently underwent right-lower lobe anterobasal segmentectomy. Based on thoracic computed tomography (CT) and clinical manifestation, Birt-Hogg-Dube (BHD) syndrome was suspected and confirmed following genetic testing. BHD syndrome is a rare tumor predisposition syndrome first described in 1977. The syndrome is characterized by skin fibrofolliculomas, lung cysts, recurrent spontaneous pneumothorax, and renal cell cancer. The underlying cause is a germline mutation in the folliculin (FLCN) gene located on chromosome 17p11.2. Clinical manifestation usually appears after the age of 20 years. In this case, we report a case of BHD with episodes of recurrent pneumothorax, the first of which occurred at the age of 10 years. Pulmonologists should be aware of this syndrome in patients with a personal and family history of pneumothoraces and CT findings of multiple pulmonary cysts as additional evaluation and testing may be warranted. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2016;51:E41-E43. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. A rare CFTR mutation associated with severe disease progression in a 10-year-old Hispanic patient.

    PubMed

    Soe, Katherine; Gregoire-Bottex, M Myrtha

    2017-02-01

    Cystic fibrosis is a life-shortening multisystem genetic disease. While readily tested, few tests analyze rare gene mutations prevalent among ethnic minorities. This case of a Hispanic child with a rare CF-causing c.233dupT mutation and severe disease emphasizes the need for broad CFTR mutation analyses and genotyping particularly in minority populations.

  1. Effect of Training School Teachers on Oral Hygiene Status of 8-10 Years Old Government School Children of Udaipur City, India

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Nagesh; Asawa, Kailash; Tak, Mridula; Singh, Anukriti; Shinde, Kushal; Gandhi, Neha; Doshi, Astha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Provision of oral health knowledge to the children by their teachers at the school level can prove to be more fruitful because it is the time period during which the children begin to learn the basic oral hygiene practices and are most prone to dental caries. Aim This study was carried out to assess the effect of training school teachers on oral hygiene status of 8-10 years old government school children of Udaipur city, India. Materials and Methods A total of nine school teachers and 279, 8-10 year old school children from two government schools were included in the study. The questionnaire on oral health knowledge and practice contained 17 questions to evaluate the knowledge and practice of children towards oral hygiene before and after the teachers training program. Baseline and six months post training data on oral health knowledge and practice was obtained by the questionnaire method. Baseline and six months post training data on oral hygiene status was obtained by OHI-S Index. Statistical analysis was done using software SPSS 22, the test used were McNemar’s test, paired t-test. Results Pre and post training data were compared and it was found that there was a significant improvement in oral health knowledge and practices of school teachers and children. Also oral hygiene status of school children was significantly improved after the program. Conclusion Results of the present study suggest that experiential learning is an effective school based oral health education method for improvement of oral hygiene in primary school children. PMID:27656573

  2. Healthy Homes/Healthy Kids: A Randomized Trial of a Pediatric Primary Care Based Obesity Prevention Intervention for At-Risk 5-10 Year Olds

    PubMed Central

    Sherwood, Nancy E.; Levy, Rona L.; Langer, Shelby L.; Senso, Meghan M.; Crain, A. Lauren; Hayes, Marcia G.; Anderson, Julie D.; Seburg, Elisabeth M.; Jeffery, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    Pediatric primary care is an important setting in which to address obesity prevention, yet relatively few interventions have been evaluated and even fewer have been shown to be effective. The development and evaluation of cost-effective approaches to obesity prevention that leverage opportunities of direct access to families in the pediatric primary care setting, overcome barriers to implementation in busy practice settings, and facilitate sustained involvement of parents is an important public health priority. The goal of the Healthy Homes/Healthy Kids (HHHK 5-10) randomized controlled trial is to evaluate the efficacy of a relatively low-cost primary care-based obesity prevention intervention aimed at 5 to 10 year old children who are at risk for obesity. Four hundred twenty one parent/child dyads were recruited and randomized to either the obesity prevention arm or a contact control condition that focuses on safety and injury prevention. The HHHK 5-10 obesity prevention intervention combines brief counseling with a pediatric primary care provider during routine well-child visits and follow-up telephone coaching that supports parents in making home environmental changes to support healthful eating, activity patterns, and body weight. The contact control condition combines the same provider counseling with telephone coaching focused on safety and injury prevention messages. This manuscript describes the study design and baseline characteristics of participants enrolled in the HHHK 5-10 trial. PMID:23816490

  3. Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia in a patient with a PRRT2 mutation and centrotemporal spike discharges on electroencephalogram: case report of a 10-year-old girl

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Sun Young

    2016-01-01

    Coexistence of paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD) with benign infantile convulsion (BIC) and centrotemporal spikes (CTS) is very rare. A 10-year-old girl presented with a 3-year history of frequent attacks of staggering while laughing and of suddenly collapsing while walking. Interictal electroencephalogram (EEG) revealed bilateral CTS, but no changes in EEG were observed during movement. The patient's medical history showed afebrile seizures 6 months after birth, while the family history showed that the patient's mother and relatives on the mother's side had similar dyskinesia. Genetic testing demonstrated that the patient had a heterozygous mutation, c.649_650insC, in the PRRT2 gene. To our knowledge, this constitutes only the second report of a patient with PKD, BIC, CTS, and a PRRT2 mutation. PMID:28018471

  4. Developmental changes and the effect of self-generated feedback in metacognitive controlled spacing strategies in 7-year-olds, 10-year-olds, and adults.

    PubMed

    Tsalas, Nike; Paulus, Markus; Sodian, Beate

    2015-04-01

    The current study investigated the development of metacognitive monitoring-based control of spacing choices in children and adults. Moreover, we assessed whether metacognitive learning decisions are influenced by the effects of previous metacognitive decisions. We tested groups of 7-year-olds, 10-year-olds, and adults in a task with two learning blocks in which they needed to monitor their learning through judgments of learning (JoL) and in which they then needed to decide whether to space their study, mass it, or terminate it. Extending previous findings, our study provides the first evidence that already by 7 years of age children can make metacognitive controlled scheduling decisions. The results also revealed that adults had more clearly differentiated strategies related to their JoL. Furthermore, our study provides evidence that participants of all age groups improved their relative monitoring accuracy in the second learning block and adjusted their JoL. However, only adults changed their strategy choices.

  5. Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia in a patient with a PRRT2 mutation and centrotemporal spike discharges on electroencephalogram: case report of a 10-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Seo, Sun Young; You, Su Jeong

    2016-11-01

    Coexistence of paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD) with benign infantile convulsion (BIC) and centrotemporal spikes (CTS) is very rare. A 10-year-old girl presented with a 3-year history of frequent attacks of staggering while laughing and of suddenly collapsing while walking. Interictal electroencephalogram (EEG) revealed bilateral CTS, but no changes in EEG were observed during movement. The patient's medical history showed afebrile seizures 6 months after birth, while the family history showed that the patient's mother and relatives on the mother's side had similar dyskinesia. Genetic testing demonstrated that the patient had a heterozygous mutation, c.649_650insC, in the PRRT2 gene. To our knowledge, this constitutes only the second report of a patient with PKD, BIC, CTS, and a PRRT2 mutation.

  6. Contemporary girlhood: maternal reports on sexualized behaviour and appearance concern in 4-10 year-old girls.

    PubMed

    Tiggemann, Marika; Slater, Amy

    2014-09-01

    It is widely accepted that the sexualization of girls has increased markedly over time. The overall aim of the present study was to offer a description of the behaviours of young girls, with a particular focus on potentially sexualized behaviours and appearance concern. A sample of 815 mothers of 4-10 year-old girls completed a questionnaire about a range of behaviours exhibited by their daughters, in addition to measures of their own self-objectification and material concern. It was found that many girls engaged with teen culture and used a variety of beauty products, but few exhibited more overtly sexualized behaviours. Involvement with teen culture, using beauty products, attention to clothes, and personal grooming were all associated with the measure of appearance concern, as were maternal self-objectification and material concern. It was concluded that young girls do engage in 'grown up' behaviours and that such engagement is not benign for their development.

  7. Whole clavicle sequestration from chronic osteomyelitis in a 10 year old boy: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Thaddeus Chika, Agu; Emeka, Ojiaku Mathew

    2016-01-01

    Chronic osteomyelitis is a childhood disease and so it is not uncommon to diagnose it in a 10 year old boy who is suffering from pains and discharging sinuses from the left shoulder girdle. What is not common is the involvement of the clavicle in this infective process and even more uncommon is for the whole length of the clavicle to sequester. This case report describes a rare case of chronic osteomyelitis of the left clavicle in which the entire length was removed as a sequestrum during surgery. And despite the removal of an entire length of the clavicle in the patient, there was no functional deficit and there was also no shoulder asymmetry. PMID:26981238

  8. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Frontal EEG Asymmetry and Alpha Power in 9–10 Year Old Twins

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yu; Tuvblad, Catherine; Raine, Adrian; Lozano, Dora I.; Baker, Laura A.

    2008-01-01

    Modest genetic influences on frontal EEG asymmetry have been found in adults, but little is known about its genetic origins in children. Resting frontal asymmetry and alpha power were examined in 951 9–10-year-old twins. Results showed that in both males and females: (1) a modest but significant amount of variance in frontal asymmetry was accounted for by genetic factors (11–27%) with the remainder accounted for by non-shared environmental influences, and (2) alpha power were highly heritable, with 70–85% of the variance accounted for by genetic factors. Results suggest that the genetic architecture of frontal asymmetry and alpha power in late childhood are similar to that in adulthood and that the high non-shared environmental influences on frontal asymmetry may reflect environmentally-influenced individual differences in the maturation of frontal cortex as well as state-dependent influences on specific measurements. PMID:19386046

  9. An intestinal neuroendocrine tumour associated with paroxysmal ventricular tachycardia and melaena in a 10-year-old boxer.

    PubMed

    Tappin, S; Brown, P; Ferasin, L

    2008-01-01

    A 10-year-old female neutered boxer was presented with a five-week history of episodic collapse and melaena. Twenty-four-hour electrocardiograph (Holter) analysis revealed the collapsing episodes to coincide with episodes of paroxysmal ventricular tachycardia. Investigation of the dog's melaena revealed a gastric ulcer which was treated medically and an ileocaecal mass which was surgically excised. Histopathological examination of the mass was consistent with a neuroendocrine (carcinoid) tumour. The patient's recovery after surgery was unremarkable. At six-week follow-up, there had been no further episodes of melaena or collapse and repeat Holter analysis did not show any significant abnormalities. In this dog the gastric ulceration and paroxysmal ventricular tachycardia could be attributed to a paraneoplastic syndrome as a result of circulating vasoactive substances released by the tumour; this is supported by the evidence that all clinical signs resolved after surgical excision of the mass and the dog was clinically well 18 months after surgery.

  10. Intra-uterine growth restriction as a risk factor for hypertension in children six to 10 years old

    PubMed Central

    Zamecznik, Agata; Niewiadomska-Jarosik, Katarzyna; Zamojska, Justyna; Stańczyk, Jerzy; Wosiak, Agnieszka; Moll, Jadwiga

    2014-01-01

    Summary Introduction Intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) is present in about 3–10% of live-born newborns and it is as high as 20–30% in developing countries. Since the 1990s, it has been known that abnormalities during foetal growth may result in cardiovascular disease, including hypertension in adulthood. Methods This study evaluated blood pressure parameters (using ambulatory blood pressure monitoring) in children aged six to 10 years old, born as small for gestational age (SGA), and compared them to their healthy peers born as appropriate for gestational age (AGA). Results In the SGA group, an abnormal blood pressure level (prehypertension or hypertension) was present significantly more often than in the AGA group (50 vs 16%, p < 0.01). This relationship also occurred in association with the type of IUGR (asymmetric p < 0.01, symmetric p < 0.05). Conclusion In SGA children, abnormal blood pressure values occurred more frequently than in AGA children. PMID:24844552

  11. Effects of multiple planning constraints on the development of grasp posture planning in 6- to 10-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Stöckel, Tino; Hughes, Charmayne M L

    2015-09-01

    This experiment examined how multiple planning constraints affect grasp posture planning in 6- to 10-year-old children (n = 16 in each group) by manipulating the intended object end-orientation (left end-down, right end-down) and initial precision demands (standard, initial precision) of a bar transport task. Results indicated that grasp posture planning was strongly influenced by multiple planning constraints. During the standard condition the sensitivity toward comfortable final hand postures (end-state comfort) was similar for all age groups in right end-down trials, and corresponded to values reported in adult populations. In contrast, there was an age-related increase in end-state comfort compliance during left end-down trials. During the initial precision condition end-state comfort was similar across all groups for left end-down trials. However, end-state comfort compliance was significantly lower for the 6-year-old children than in all other age groups for right end-down trials. In sum, the ability of children to plan their goal-related movements is influenced by the presence of task-related constraints that increase the overall cognitive demands of the task. The demands associated with selecting the appropriate grasp posture during the most cognitive demanding condition required more cognitive resources than 6- to 10-year-old children possess. Removing the conflict between the goal-directed and habitual systems reduces some of these costs, with data indicating that the ability to integrate multiple planning constraints first emerges at 7 years of age, and improves over the developmental spectrum.

  12. Reproducibility and Relative Validity of a Short Food Frequency Questionnaire in 9–10 Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Saeedi, Pouya; Skeaff, Sheila A.; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Skidmore, Paula M. L.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the reproducibility and validity of a non-quantitative 28-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Children aged 9–10 years (n = 50) from three schools in Dunedin, New Zealand, completed the FFQ twice and a four-day estimated food diary (4DEFD) over a two-week period. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and Spearman’s correlation coefficients (SCC) were used to determine reproducibility and validity of the FFQ, respectively. Weekly intakes were estimated for each food item and aggregated into 23 food items/groups. More than half of the food items/groups (52.2%) had an ICC ≥0.5. The median SCC between FFQ administrations was 0.66 (ranging from 0.40 for processed meat to 0.82 for sweets and non-dairy drinks). Cross-classification analysis between the first FFQ and 4DEFD for ranking participants into thirds showed that breakfast cereals had the highest agreement (54.0%) and pasta the lowest (34.0%). In validity analyses, 70% of food items/groups had a SCC ≥0.3. Results indicate that the FFQ is a useful tool for ranking children according to food items/groups intake. The low respondent burden and relative simplicity of the FFQ makes it suitable for use in large cohort studies of 9–10 year-old children in New Zealand. PMID:27164137

  13. Association between the Family Nutrition and Physical Activity screening tool and cardiovascular disease risk factors in 10-year old children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yee, Kimbo Edward

    Purpose. To examine the association of the Family Nutrition and Physical Activity (FNPA) screening tool, a behaviorally based screening tool designed to assess the obesogenic family environment and behaviors, with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in 10-year old children. Methods. One hundred nineteen children were assessed for body mass index (BMI), percent body fat (%BF), waist circumference (WC), total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and resting blood pressure. A continuous CVD risk score was created using total cholesterol to HDL-cholesterol ratio (TC:HDL), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and WC. The FNPA survey was completed by parents. The associations between the FNPA score and individual CVD risk factors and the continuous CVD risk score were examined using correlation analyses. Results. Approximately 35% of the sample were overweight (19%) or obese (16%). The mean FNPA score was 24.6 +/- 2.5 (range 18 to 29). Significant correlations were found between the FNPA score and WC (r = -.35, p<.01), BMI percentile (r = -.38, p<.01), %BF (r = -.43, p<.01), and the continuous CVD risk score (r = -.22, p = .02). No significant association was found between the FNPA score and TC:HDL (r=0.10, p=0.88) or MAP (r=-0.12, p=0.20). Conclusion. Children from a high-risk, obesogenic family environment as indicated with a lower FNPA score have a higher CVD risk factor profile than children from a low-risk family environment.

  14. Reach tracking reveals dissociable processes underlying inhibitory control in 5- to 10-year-olds and adults.

    PubMed

    Erb, Christopher D; Moher, Jeff; Song, Joo-Hyun; Sobel, David M

    2017-02-24

    Researchers have proposed that two processes featuring distinct types of inhibition support inhibitory control: a response threshold adjustment process involving the global inhibition of motor output and a conflict resolution process involving competitive inhibition among co-active response alternatives. To target the development of these processes, we measured the reaching behavior of 5- to 10-year-olds (Experiment 1) and adults (Experiment 2) as they performed an Eriksen flanker task. This method provided two key measures: initiation time (the time elapsed between stimulus onset and movement onset) and reach curvature (the degree to which a movement deviates from a direct path to the selected target). We suggest that initiation time reflects the response threshold adjustment process by indexing the degree of motoric stopping experienced before a movement is started, while reach curvature reflects the conflict resolution process by indexing the degree of co-activation between response alternatives over the course of a movement. Our results support this claim, revealing different patterns effects in initiation time and curvature, and divergent developmental trajectories between childhood and adulthood. These findings provide behavioral evidence for the dissociation between global and competitive inhibition, and offer new insight into the development of inhibitory control.

  15. Environmental correlates of adiposity in 9-10 year old children: considering home and school neighbourhoods and routes to school.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Flo; Jones, Andrew P; van Sluijs, Esther M F; Cassidy, Aedín; Bentham, Graham; Griffin, Simon J

    2011-05-01

    The rapid speed of the recent rise in obesity rates suggest environmental causes. There is therefore a need to determine which components of the environment may be contributing to this increase. In this cross-sectional study, we examined the associations between adiposity and the characteristics of areas around homes, schools and routes to school among 1995 9-10 year old boys and girls in Norfolk, UK. The relationships between Fat Mass Index (FMI, calculated as fat mass (kg)/height (m)(2)) and objectively computed environmental indicators describing access to food outlets and physical activity facilities, the safety and connectivity of the road network, and the mix of land uses present were investigated. Multivariable hierarchical regression models were fitted with log-transformed FMI as the outcome, and stratification by gender and mode of travel to school. Among girls, better access to healthy food outlets (supermarkets and greengrocers) in the home environment was associated with lower FMI while better access to unhealthy outlets (takeaways and convenience stores) around homes and schools was associated with higher FMI. Also in girls, a higher proportion of accessible open land and a lower mix of land uses around the school were associated with higher FMI. Among boys the presence of major roads in the home neighbourhood was associated with higher FMI among non-active travellers, while major roads in the school neighbourhood were associated with lower FMI among active travellers. No significant associations were seen between FMI and any of the route characteristics. While the relative paucity of associations provides few indicators for the design of effective interventions, there was some evidence that environmental characteristics may be more important among active travellers than non-active travellers, and among girls than boys, suggesting that future interventions should be sensitive to such differences.

  16. Fitness Effects of 10-Month Frequent Low-Volume Ball Game Training or Interval Running for 8–10-Year-Old School Children

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Claus Malta; Ørntoft, Christina; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Helge, Eva Wulff; Madsen, Mads; Manniche, Vibeke; Hansen, Lone; Bangsbo, Jens

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the exercise intensity and fitness effects of frequent school-based low-volume high-intensity training for 10 months in 8–10-year-old children. 239 Danish 3rd-grade school children from four schools were cluster-randomised into a control group (CON, n = 116) or two training groups performing either 5 × 12 min/wk small-sided football plus other ball games (SSG, n = 62) or interval running (IR, n = 61). Whole-body DXA scans, flamingo balance, standing long-jump, 20 m sprint, and Yo-Yo IR1 children's tests (YYIR1C) were performed before and after the intervention. Mean running velocity was higher (p < 0.05) in SSG than in IR (0.88 ± 0.14 versus 0.63 ± 0.20 m/s), while more time (p < 0.05) was spent in the highest player load zone (>2; 5.6 ± 3.4 versus 3.7 ± 3.4%) and highest HR zone (>90% HRmax; 12.4 ± 8.9 versus 8.4 ± 8.0%) in IR compared to SSG. After 10 months, no significant between-group differences were observed for YYIR1C performance and HR after 2 min of YYIR1C (HRsubmax), but median-split analyses showed that HRsubmax was reduced (p < 0.05) in both training groups compared to CON for those with the lowest aerobic fitness (SSG versus CON: 3.2%  HRmax [95% CI: 0.8–5.5]; IR versus CON: 2.6%  HRmax [95% CI: 1.1–5.2]). After 10 months, IR had improved (p < 0.05) 20 m sprint performance (IR versus CON: 154 ms [95% CI: 61–241]). No between-group differences (p > 0.05) were observed for whole-body or leg aBMD, lean mass, postural balance, or jump length. In conclusion, frequent low-volume ball games and interval running can be conducted over a full school year with high intensity rate but has limited positive fitness effects in 8–10-year-old children. PMID:28303248

  17. Fitness Effects of 10-Month Frequent Low-Volume Ball Game Training or Interval Running for 8-10-Year-Old School Children.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Malte Nejst; Nielsen, Claus Malta; Ørntoft, Christina; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Helge, Eva Wulff; Madsen, Mads; Manniche, Vibeke; Hansen, Lone; Hansen, Peter Riis; Bangsbo, Jens; Krustrup, Peter

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the exercise intensity and fitness effects of frequent school-based low-volume high-intensity training for 10 months in 8-10-year-old children. 239 Danish 3rd-grade school children from four schools were cluster-randomised into a control group (CON, n = 116) or two training groups performing either 5 × 12 min/wk small-sided football plus other ball games (SSG, n = 62) or interval running (IR, n = 61). Whole-body DXA scans, flamingo balance, standing long-jump, 20 m sprint, and Yo-Yo IR1 children's tests (YYIR1C) were performed before and after the intervention. Mean running velocity was higher (p < 0.05) in SSG than in IR (0.88 ± 0.14 versus 0.63 ± 0.20 m/s), while more time (p < 0.05) was spent in the highest player load zone (>2; 5.6 ± 3.4 versus 3.7 ± 3.4%) and highest HR zone (>90% HRmax; 12.4 ± 8.9 versus 8.4 ± 8.0%) in IR compared to SSG. After 10 months, no significant between-group differences were observed for YYIR1C performance and HR after 2 min of YYIR1C (HRsubmax), but median-split analyses showed that HRsubmax was reduced (p < 0.05) in both training groups compared to CON for those with the lowest aerobic fitness (SSG versus CON: 3.2%  HRmax [95% CI: 0.8-5.5]; IR versus CON: 2.6%  HRmax [95% CI: 1.1-5.2]). After 10 months, IR had improved (p < 0.05) 20 m sprint performance (IR versus CON: 154 ms [95% CI: 61-241]). No between-group differences (p > 0.05) were observed for whole-body or leg aBMD, lean mass, postural balance, or jump length. In conclusion, frequent low-volume ball games and interval running can be conducted over a full school year with high intensity rate but has limited positive fitness effects in 8-10-year-old children.

  18. Prevalence of prematurely lost primary teeth in 5–10-year-old children in Thamar city, Yemen: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Murshid, Sakhr A.; Al-Labani, Mohammed A.; Aldhorae, Khalid A.; Rodis, Omar M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The premature loss of primary teeth is a potential risk factor for poor arch length development. Adequate arch length is important to the progression of the permanent teeth. Poor arch length can lead to crowding, ectopic eruption, or impaction of these teeth. This study is designed to assess the prevalence of premature loss of primary teeth in the 5-10-year-old age group. Materials and Methods: The study group included 185 children, that is, 91 boys and 94 girls. The dental examination was conducted by an experienced examiner under sufficient artificial light. Data including patient age and missing teeth were collected. Descriptive statistics were applied for data analysis, and from the results, Chi-square tests were used at a level of significance of 5% (P < 0.05). Results: We observed a 40.54% prevalence of premature loss of primary teeth with no statistically significant difference between genders. The lower left primary second molar was the most commonly absent tooth in the dental arch (13.5%). Conclusion: The status of premature loss of primary teeth was high in the study group. Implementation of efficient educational and preventive programs to promote oral health would help children maintain a healthy primary dentition and eventually prevent the disturbances in the future development of normal occlusion. Early detection and management of the space problems associated with the early loss of primary teeth would help in reducing malocclusion problems. PMID:27652244

  19. The Relationship between Emotion Comprehension and Internalizing and Externalizing Behavior in 7- to 10-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Göbel, Ariane; Henning, Anne; Möller, Corina; Aschersleben, Gisa

    2016-01-01

    The influence of internalizing and externalizing problems on children’s understanding of others’ emotions has mainly been investigated on basic levels of emotion comprehension. So far, studies assessing more sophisticated levels of emotion comprehension reported deficits in the ability to understand others’ emotions in children with severe internalizing or externalizing symptoms. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between emotion comprehension and interindividual differences, with a focus on internalizing and externalizing behavior in children aged 7–10 years from the general population. A sample of 135 children was tested for emotion understanding using the Test of Emotion Comprehension. Information on internalizing and externalizing behavior was assessed with the Child Behavior Checklist 4/18. Age, bilingual upbringing, and amount of paternal working hours were significant control variables for emotion comprehension. In contrast to prior research, overall level of emotion understanding was not related to externalizing symptoms and correlated positively with elevated levels of somatic complaints and anxious/depressed symptoms. In addition, and in line with previous work, higher levels of social withdrawal were associated with worse performance in understanding emotions elicited by reminders. The present results implicate not only an altered understanding of emotions among more specific internalizing symptoms, but also that these alterations occur already on a low symptom level in a community based sample. PMID:28018262

  20. Long-Term Effects of Synthetic versus Analytic Phonics Teaching on the Reading and Spelling Ability of 10 Year Old Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Rhona S.; McGeown, Sarah; Watson, Joyce E.

    2012-01-01

    A comparison was made of 10-year-old boys and girls who had learnt to read by analytic or synthetic phonics methods as part of their early literacy programmes. The boys taught by the synthetic phonics method had better word reading than the girls in their classes, and their spelling and reading comprehension was as good. In contrast, with analytic…

  1. Measurement characteristics of activity-related psychosocial measures in 8- to 10-year-old African-American girls in the Girls health Enrichment Multisite Study (GEMS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: This paper presents reliability and validity analyses of physical activity-related psychosocial questionnaires completed by 8- to 10-year-old African-American girls at baseline and follow-up assessments of pilot intervention studies in the Girls health Enrichment Multi-site Study (GEMS)....

  2. The World of Tomorrow: Aerospace Activities for 8- to 10-Year-Olds. A Guide for Leaders of Children's Groups and Teachers of the Lower Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This guide is intended for leaders of children's groups and teachers of lower elementary grades. The book is divided into two parts. The first half contains reports by Cub Scout den leaders. The second part gives the entries of the winning 8-, 9-, and 10-year-old participants. In Part I, there are wide margins in which teachers or leaders can make…

  3. Adiposity, insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk factors in 9–10-year-old Indian children: relationships with birth size and postnatal growth

    PubMed Central

    Krishnaveni, G. V.; Veena, S. R.; Wills, A. K.; Hill, J. C.; Karat, S. C.; Fall, C. H. D.

    2011-01-01

    Lower birthweight, and rapid childhood weight gain predict elevated cardiovascular risk factors in children. We examined associations between serial, detailed, anthropometric measurements from birth to 9.5 years of age and cardiovascular risk markers in Indian children. Children (n = 663) born at the Holdsworth Memorial Hospital, Mysore, India were measured at birth and 6–12 monthly thereafter. At 9.5 years, 539 (255 boys) underwent a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test, and blood pressure (BP) and fasting lipid concentrations were measured. Insulin resistance was calculated using the HOMA equation. These outcomes were examined in relation to birth measurements and changes in measurements (growth) during infancy (0–2 years), 2–5 years and 5–9.5 years using conditional s.d. scores. Larger current weight, height and skinfold thickness were associated with higher risk markers at 9.5 years (P<0.05). Lower weight, smaller length and mid-arm circumference at birth were associated with higher fasting glucose concentrations at 9.5 years (P≤0.01). After adjusting for current weight/height, there were inverse associations between birthweight and/or length and insulin concentrations, HOMA, systolic and diastolic BP and plasma triglycerides (P<0.05). Increases in conditional weight and height between 0–2, 2–5 and 5–9.5 years were associated with higher insulin concentrations, HOMA and systolic BP. In conclusion, in 9–10-year-old Indian children, as in other studies, cardiovascular risk factors were highest in children who were light or short at birth but heavy or tall at 9 years. Greater infant and childhood weight and height gain were associated with higher risk markers. PMID:22318657

  4. Correlates of sedentary behaviour in 8- to 10-year-old children at elevated risk for obesity.

    PubMed

    Herman, Katya M; Sabiston, Catherine M; Mathieu, Marie-Eve; Tremblay, Angelo; Paradis, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe correlates of sedentary behaviour (SED) in children at elevated risk of obesity because of parental obesity. Participants were 534 children aged 8-10 years with ≥ 1 obese parent. SED and physical activity (PA) were measured by accelerometer, screen time by self-report, and height, weight, waist circumference, and cardiovascular fitness objectively measured. Data describing the child, parents, friends, and home and neighbourhood environments were from child self-report. Higher total SED time was significantly positively associated with child's age, mother's age, Tanner stage, weight status or waist circumference, less self-reported PA, choosing screen time over PA/sport, mother saying PA/sport good for them, and fewer weekly physical education (PE) classes. Exceeding 2 h/day screen time was significantly associated with child's age, male sex, weight status or waist circumference, choosing screen time over PA/sport, and dinnertime TV viewing. Children regularly watching TV with dinner had 2.3 times greater odds (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.52, 3.58) of exceeding screen time guidelines compared with children rarely watching TV with dinner; children reporting ≤ 2 PE classes/week had 2.4 times greater odds (95% CI 1.41, 4.10) of being in the highest SED tertile compared with children reporting >2 PE classes/week. Hence, the most sedentary children are older, more biologically mature, less active, more overweight/obese, have fewer PE classes, and are more likely to choose screen time over PA and watch TV with dinner compared with less sedentary children. PE opportunities and mealtime TV viewing are potentially modifiable targets for reducing total SED and screen time in children.

  5. The effect of a novel video game on stroke knowledge of 9–10 year old low-income children

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Olajide; Hecht, Mindy F.; DeSorbo, Alexandra L.; Huq, Saima; Noble, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Improving actionable stroke knowledge of a witness or bystander, which in some cases are children, may improve response to an acute stroke event. Methods We used a quasi-experimental pretest (PT) post-test design to evaluate actionable stroke knowledge of 210 children aged 9–10 years in response to a single 15-minute exposure to a stroke education video game conducted in the school computer lab. Following immediate post-testing (IP) we provided remote password-protected online video game access, and encouraged children play at their leisure from home. An unannounced delayed post-test (DP) occurred seven weeks later. Results Two hundred ten children completed PT, 205 completed IP, while 198 completed DP. 156 (74%) children had home Internet access, and 41 (26%), mostly girls, played the video game remotely. There was significant improvement of stroke symptom composite scores, calling 911 and all individual stroke knowledge items, including a distractor across the testing sequence (p<0.05). Children who played the video game remotely demonstrated significant improvement in knowledge of one symptom (sudden imbalance) compared to children who did not (p<0.05), although overall composite scores showed no difference. Conclusions Stroke education video games may represent novel means for improving and sustaining actionable stroke knowledge of children. PMID:24481976

  6. Neuropsychological Assessment of Children With Reading Disabilities From 8 to 10 Years Old: An Exploratory Portuguese Study.

    PubMed

    da Rocha e Silva, Cláudia Susana Rosa Correia; Glória e Silva, Filipe Miguel; Martins, Maria Isabel Pavão

    2015-01-01

    Reading disabilities are one of the most significant causes of school failure and may result from different causes and cognitive processes. A comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests was applied to a control group of 102 children (46 girls, 56 boys) with no history of learning disabilities and 32 children (13 girls, 19 boys) with poor reading achievement (PRA) to characterize their cognitive profile. A principal component analysis of the cognitive measures was undertaken to identify cognitive domains. Age-adjusted normative data were computed from controls for verbal and visuospatial abilities, psychomotor skills, executive functions, and a total score. Significant differences were found between the 2 groups. Although single tests could not identify children with PRA, measures of oral and written language, immediate and working memory, calculation, and verbal learning discriminated the 2 groups. A logistic regression model using these factors allowed us to identify 91.2% of healthy children and 96.9% of children with PRA. PRA may result from different patterns of cognitive difficulties, and it is more common in children with oral language and working-memory deficits. Wide-range cognitive testing is necessary to identify strong and weak areas to plan personalized intervention programs.

  7. De Novo Interstitial Microdeletion at 1q32.1 in a 10-Year-Old Boy with Developmental Delay and Dysmorphism

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Jennifer; Zombor, Melinda; Máté, Adrienn; Sztriha, László; Waters, Jonathan J.

    2016-01-01

    A 10-year-old boy was referred with developmental delay and dysmorphism. Genomewide aCGH microarray analysis detected a de novo 3.7 Mb deletion at 1q32.1: arr 1q32.1(199,985,888-203,690,832)x1 dn [build HG19]. This first report of a deletion in this region implies a critical role for dosage-sensitive genes within 1q32.1 in neurological development. This is consistent with previously reported duplications of this region in patients with a similar phenotype. PMID:26955491

  8. Does exposure to environmental radiofrequency electromagnetic fields cause cognitive and behavioral effects in 10-year-old boys?

    PubMed

    Calvente, Irene; Pérez-Lobato, Rocío; Núñez, María-Isabel; Ramos, Rosa; Guxens, Mònica; Villalba, Juan; Olea, Nicolás; Fernández, Mariana F

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between exposure to electromagnetic fields from non-ionizing radiation and adverse human health effects remains controversial. We aimed to explore the association of environmental radiofrequency-electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) exposure with neurobehavioral function of children. A subsample of 123 boys belonging to the Environment and Childhood cohort from Granada (Spain), recruited at birth from 2000 through 2002, were evaluated at the age of 9-11 years. Spot electric field measurements within the 100 kHz to 6 GHz frequency range, expressed as both root mean-square (S(RMS) and maximum power density (S(MAX)) magnitudes, were performed in the immediate surrounds of childreńs dwellings. Neurocognitive and behavioral functions were assessed with a comprehensive battery of tests. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models were used, adjusting for potential confounders. All measurements were lower than reference guideline limits, with median S(RMS) and S(MAX) values of 285.94 and 2759.68 μW/m(2), respectively. Most of the cognitive and behavioral parameters did not show any effect, but children living in higher RF exposure areas (above median S(RMS) levels) had lower scores for verbal expression/comprehension and higher scores for internalizing and total problems, and obsessive-compulsive and post-traumatic stress disorders, in comparison to those living in areas with lower exposure. These associations were stronger when S(MAX) values were considered. Although some of our results may suggest that low-level environmental RF-EMF exposure has a negative impact on cognitive and/or behavior development in children; given limitations in the study design and that the majority of neurobehavioral functioning tasks were not affected, definitive conclusions cannot be drawn.

  9. Numerical Transcoding Proficiency in 10-Year-Old Schoolchildren is Associated with Gray Matter Inter-Individual Differences: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study

    PubMed Central

    Lubin, Amélie; Rossi, Sandrine; Simon, Grégory; Lanoë, Céline; Leroux, Gaëlle; Poirel, Nicolas; Pineau, Arlette; Houdé, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Are individual differences in numerical performance sustained by variations in gray matter volume in schoolchildren? To our knowledge, this challenging question for neuroeducation has not yet been investigated in typical development. We used the Voxel-Based Morphometry method to search for possible structural brain differences between two groups of 10-year-old schoolchildren (N = 22) whose performance differed only in numerical transcoding between analog and symbolic systems. The results indicated that children with low numerical proficiency have less gray matter volume in the parietal (particularly in the left intraparietal sulcus and the bilateral angular gyri) and occipito-temporal areas. All the identified regions have previously been shown to be functionally involved in transcoding between analog and symbolic numerical systems. Our data contribute to a better understanding of the intertwined relationships between mathematics learning and brain structure in healthy schoolchildren. PMID:23630510

  10. Numerical Transcoding Proficiency in 10-Year-Old Schoolchildren is Associated with Gray Matter Inter-Individual Differences: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study.

    PubMed

    Lubin, Amélie; Rossi, Sandrine; Simon, Grégory; Lanoë, Céline; Leroux, Gaëlle; Poirel, Nicolas; Pineau, Arlette; Houdé, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Are individual differences in numerical performance sustained by variations in gray matter volume in schoolchildren? To our knowledge, this challenging question for neuroeducation has not yet been investigated in typical development. We used the Voxel-Based Morphometry method to search for possible structural brain differences between two groups of 10-year-old schoolchildren (N = 22) whose performance differed only in numerical transcoding between analog and symbolic systems. The results indicated that children with low numerical proficiency have less gray matter volume in the parietal (particularly in the left intraparietal sulcus and the bilateral angular gyri) and occipito-temporal areas. All the identified regions have previously been shown to be functionally involved in transcoding between analog and symbolic numerical systems. Our data contribute to a better understanding of the intertwined relationships between mathematics learning and brain structure in healthy schoolchildren.

  11. 49 CFR 572.172 - Head assembly and test procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Head assembly and test procedure. 572.172 Section... Hybrid III 10-Year-Old Child Test Dummy (HIII-10C) § 572.172 Head assembly and test procedure. (a) The head assembly for this test consists of the complete head (drawing 420-1000), a six-axis...

  12. 49 CFR 572.172 - Head assembly and test procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Head assembly and test procedure. 572.172 Section... Hybrid III 10-Year-Old Child Test Dummy (HIII-10C) § 572.172 Head assembly and test procedure. (a) The head assembly for this test consists of the complete head (drawing 420-1000), a six-axis...

  13. Travel to School and Physical Activity Levels in 9–10 Year-Old UK Children of Different Ethnic Origin; Child Heart and Health Study in England (CHASE)

    PubMed Central

    Owen, Christopher G.; Nightingale, Claire M.; Rudnicka, Alicja R.; van Sluijs, Esther M. F.; Ekelund, Ulf; Cook, Derek G.; Whincup, Peter H.

    2012-01-01

    Background Travel to school may offer a convenient way to increase physical activity levels in childhood. We examined the association between method of travel to school and physical activity levels in urban multi-ethnic children. Methods and Findings 2035 children (aged 9–10 years in 2006–7) provided data on their usual method of travel to school and wore an Actigraph-GT1M activity monitor during waking hours. Associations between method of travel and mean level of physical activity (counts per minute [CPM], steps, time spent in light, moderate or vigorous activity per day) were examined in models adjusted for confounding variables. 1393 children (69%) walked or cycled to school; 161 (8%) used public transport and 481 (24%) travelled by car. White European children were more likely to walk/cycle, black African Caribbeans to travel by public transport and South Asian children to travel by car. Children travelling by car spent less time in moderate to vigorous physical activity (−7 mins, 95%CI-9,-5), and had lower CPM (−32 CPM, 95%CI-44,-19) and steps per day (−813 steps, 95%CI,-1043,-582) than walkers/cyclists. Pupils travelling by public transport had similar activity levels to walkers/cyclists. Lower physical activity levels amongst car travellers' were especially marked at travelling times (school days between 8–9 am, 3–5 pm), but were also evident on weekdays at other times and at weekends; they did not differ by gender or ethnic group. Conclusion Active travel to school is associated with higher levels of objectively measured physical activity, particularly during periods of travel but also at other times. If children travelling by car were to achieve physical activity levels (steps) similar to children using active travel, they would increase their physical activity levels by 9%. However, the population increase would be a modest 2%, because of the low proportion of car travellers in this urban population. PMID:22319596

  14. 49 CFR 572.175 - Upper and lower torso assemblies and torso flexion test procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... threaded attachment holes. Tighten the mountings so that the test material is rigidly affixed to the test... test procedure. 572.175 Section 572.175 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES Hybrid III 10-Year-Old Child Test Dummy (HIII-10C) § 572.175 Upper and lower...

  15. 49 CFR 572.175 - Upper and lower torso assemblies and torso flexion test procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... threaded attachment holes. Tighten the mountings so that the test material is rigidly affixed to the test... test procedure. 572.175 Section 572.175 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES Hybrid III 10-Year-Old Child Test Dummy (HIII-10C) § 572.175 Upper and lower...

  16. Cortical bone health shows significant linkage to chromosomes 2p, 3p, and 17q in 10-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Duren, Dana L; Blangero, John; Sherwood, Richard J; Seselj, Maja; Dyer, Thomas; Cole, Shelley A; Lee, Miryoung; Choh, Audrey C; Chumlea, Wm Cameron; Siervogel, Roger M; Czerwinski, Stefan A; Towne, Bradford

    2011-12-01

    Genes play an important role in lifelong skeletal health. Genes that influence bone building during childhood have the potential to affect bone health not only throughout childhood but also into adulthood. Given that peak bone mass is a significant predictor of adult fracture risk, it is imperative that the genetic underpinnings of the normal pediatric skeleton are uncovered. In a sample of 600 10-year-old children from 144 families in the Fels Longitudinal Study, we examined radiographic cortical bone measures of the second metacarpal. Morphometic measurements included bone width, medial and lateral cortical thicknesses, and the calculated cortical index representing the amount of cortex relative to bone width. We then conducted genome-wide linkage analysis on these traits in 440 genotyped individuals using the SOLAR analytic platform. Significant quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified for bone traits on three separate chromosomes. A QTL for medial cortical thickness was localized to chromosome 2p25.2. A QTL for lateral cortical thickness was localized to chromosomal region 3p26.1-3p25.3. Finally, a QTL detected for cortical index was localized to the 17q21.2 chromosomal region. Each region contains plausible candidate genes for pediatric skeletal health, some of which confirm findings from studies of adulthood bone, and for others represent novel candidate genes for skeletal health.

  17. Scoping design analyses for optimized shipping casks containing 1-, 2-, 3-, 5-, 7-, or 10-year-old PWR spent fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Bucholz, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    This report details many of the interrelated considerations involved in optimizing large Pb, Fe, or U-metal spent fuel shipping casks containing 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, or 10-year-old PWR fuel assemblies. Scoping analyses based on criticality, shielding, and heat transfer considerations indicate that some casks may be able to hold as many as 18 to 21 ten-year-old PWR fuel assemblies. In the criticality section, a new type of inherently subcritical fuel assembly separator is described which uses hollow, borated stainless-steel tubes in the wall-forming structure between the assemblies. In another section, details of many n/..gamma.. shielding optimization studies are presented, including the optimal n/..gamma.. design points and the actual shielding requirements for each type of cask as a function of the age of the spent fuel and the number of assemblies in the cask. Multigroup source terms based on ORIGEN2 calculations at these and other decay times are also included. Lastly, the numerical methods and experimental correlations used in the steady-state and transient heat transfer analyses are fully documented, as are pertinent aspects of the SCOPE code for Shipping Cask Optimization and Parametric Evaluation. (While only casks for square, intact PWR fuel assemblies were considered in this study, the SCOPE code may also be used to design and analyze casks containing canistered spent fuel or other waste material. An abbreviated input data guide is included as an appendix).

  18. Systemic Inflammation during the First Postnatal Month and the Risk of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Characteristics among 10 year-old Children Born Extremely Preterm.

    PubMed

    Allred, Elizabeth N; Dammann, Olaf; Fichorova, Raina N; Hooper, Stephen R; Hunter, Scott J; Joseph, Robert M; Kuban, Karl; Leviton, Alan; O'Shea, Thomas Michael; Scott, Megan N

    2017-04-12

    Although multiple sources link inflammation with attention difficulties, the only human study that evaluated the relationship between systemic inflammation and attention problems assessed attention at age 2 years. Parent and/or teacher completion of the Childhood Symptom Inventory-4 (CSI-4) provided information about characteristics that screen for attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) among 793 10-year-old children born before the 28th week of gestation who had an IQ ≥ 70. The concentrations of 27 proteins in blood spots obtained during the first postnatal month were measured. 151 children with ADHD behaviors were identified by parent report, while 128 children were identified by teacher report. Top-quartile concentrations of IL-6R, TNF-α, IL-8, VEGF, VEFG-R1, and VEGF-R2 on multiple days were associated with increased risk of ADHD symptoms as assessed by a teacher. Some of this increased risk was modulated by top-quartile concentrations of IL-6R, RANTES, EPO, NT-4, BDNF, bFGF, IGF-1, PIGF, Ang-1, and Ang-2. Systemic inflammation during the first postnatal month among children born extremely preterm appears to increase the risk of teacher-identified ADHD characteristics, and high concentrations of proteins with neurotrophic properties appear capable of modulating this increased risk.

  19. Carbon concentrations of components of trees in 10-year-old Populus davidiana stands within the Desertification Combating Program of Northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Huitao; Zhang, Wanjun; Cao, Jiansheng; Zhang, Xiang; Xu, Quanhong; Yang, Xue; Xiao, Dengpan; Zhao, Yanxia

    2016-12-01

    Most studies do not consider the potential variation in carbon concentration among the different tree components of the same species in regional scale. This study examined the carbon concentrations of the components (i.e., foliage, branch, stem, and root) in a 10-year-old poplar species ( Populus davidiana Dode) from the Desertification Combating Program of Northern China. The highest and lowest carbon concentrations were found in the stem and foliage, respectively. There was a significant difference in carbon concentrations among the different tree components. All of the observed carbon concentrations of tree components were lower than those predicted using the conversion factor of 0.5 applied to component biomass. Stem carbon made up 59.7% of the total tree biomass carbon. The power equation estimating proportion of tree biomass carbon against the independent variable of diameter at breast height explained more than 90% of the variability in allocation of carbon among tree components. Tree height, as a second independent variable is also discussed. Our results suggest that the difference in organic carbon concentration among tree components should be incorporated into accurately develop forest carbon budget. Moreover, further investigations on how the diameter at breast height equation developed in the present study performs across broader scales are required.

  20. Summary report on optimized designs for shipping casks containing 2-, 3-, 5-, 7-, or 10-year-old PWR spent fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Bucholz, J.A.

    1983-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop new conceptual designs for large Pb, Fe, and U-shielded spent fuel casks which have been optimized for the shipment of 2-, 3-, 5-, 7-, or 10-year-old PWR spent fuel assemblies. Design specifications for about 100 cases of potential interest are presented along with a brief 20-page synopsis of the associated analyses. Optimized shielding requirements are presented for each type of cask as a function of the age of the spent fuel and the number of assemblies in the cask. With respect to criticality, a new type of inherently subcritical fuel assembly separator is described which uses hollow, borated stainless-steel tubes in the wall-forming structure between the assemblies. Steady-state and transient heat transfer analyses for casks under nominal and accident conditions were performed using the SCOPE code for Shipping Cask Optimization and Parametric Evaluation. Based on criticality, shielding, and heat transfer considerations, it appears that optimized cask designs could be developed to carry 15 to 18 five-year-old PWR fuel assemblies or as many as 18 to 21 ten-year-old PWR fuel assemblies. 4 figures, 4 tables.

  1. Twelve months of active musical training in 8- to 10-year-old children enhances the preattentive processing of syllabic duration and voice onset time.

    PubMed

    Chobert, Julie; François, Clément; Velay, Jean-Luc; Besson, Mireille

    2014-04-01

    Musical training has been shown to positively influence linguistic abilities. To follow the developmental dynamics of this transfer effect at the preattentive level, we conducted a longitudinal study over 2 school years with nonmusician children randomly assigned to music or to painting training. We recorded the mismatch negativity (MMN), a cortical correlate of preattentive mismatch detection, to syllables that differed in vowel frequency, vowel duration, and voice onset time (VOT), using a test-training-retest procedure and 3 times of testing: before training, after 6 months and after 12 months of training. While no between-group differences were found before training, enhanced preattentive processing of syllabic duration and VOT, as reflected by greater MMN amplitude, but not of frequency, was found after 12 months of training in the music group only. These results demonstrate neuroplasticity in the child brain and suggest that active musical training rather than innate predispositions for music yielded the improvements in musically trained children. These results also highlight the influence of musical training for duration perception in speech and for the development of phonological representations in normally developing children. They support the importance of music-based training programs for children's education and open new remediation strategies for children with language-based learning impairments.

  2. Food-related behavior and intake of adult main meal preparers of 9-10 year-old children participating in iCook 4-H: A five-state childhood obesity prevention pilot study.

    PubMed

    Miller, Ashley; Franzen-Castle, Lisa; Aguirre, Trina; Krehbiel, Michelle; Colby, Sarah; Kattelmann, Kendra; Olfert, Melissa D; Mathews, Douglas; White, Adrienne

    2016-06-01

    It is important to understand adult outcomes in childhood obesity prevention programs as parents and caregivers have a significant influence on the eating and physical activity habits of youth. Grounded in the social cognitive theory, the iCook 4-H study was centered on a dyad model (9-10 year-olds and their primary meal preparers) to teach healthy cooking skills, shopping and meal habits, and being active as a family. The program took place in five states and dyads (n = 54) were recruited through flyers, e-mails, and in-person contact. The focus of this article is to provide findings from adult program participants. Demographics and self-reported food intake, procurement, preparation and safety practices, feeding relationships, mealtime routines, and height and weight were collected through surveys at baseline and program completion, which spanned 3 months. Descriptive statistics including two-related samples tests and paired samples t tests were used to assess pre- and post-program survey data responses at p < 0.05 significance level. Most had a bachelor's degree (31%) or some college (29%), about half were white, 66% were married, about 30% of households participated in assistance programs, and 82% were female. At program conclusion, participants significantly improved meal planning, prioritizing healthy meal choices, shopping with a grocery list, and reading Nutrition Facts Labels. There were also significant, positive differences noted in cooking skill confidence (p = 0.015), desire to cook more meals at home, and fewer fast food meals. Adult-youth feeding interactions also significantly improved. There were also significant increases in fruit juice (100%), vegetable soup, and whole grain consumption. Based on results, adults reported improvements in meal planning, cooking, and purchasing skills that were taught in classes.

  3. "If Michael Owen Drinks It, Why Can't I? "--9 and 10 Year Olds' Perceptions of Physical Activity and Healthy Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosling, Rachael; Stanistreet, Debbi; Swami, Viren

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the perceptions of physical activity and healthy eating among children from two north west of England primary schools, with the ultimate aim of improving healthy lifestyle choices. Design: A qualitative study in which each child participated in two focus groups. Setting: Two primary schools in a deprived ward of Warrington,…

  4. Initiation of somatic embryos and regeneration of plants from primordial shoots of 10-year-old somatic white spruce and expression profiles of 11 genes followed during the tissue culture process.

    PubMed

    Klimaszewska, Krystyna; Overton, Catherine; Stewart, Don; Rutledge, Robert G

    2011-03-01

    Adult conifers are notoriously recalcitrant in vegetative propagation and micropropagation that would result in the regeneration of juvenile propagules through somatic embryogenesis (SE) has not been demonstrated to date. Because SE-derived material is more amenable in subsequent tissue culture experiments compared with seed-derived material, a multi-year study was conducted to investigate induction of SE from primordial shoot (PS) explants that were excised from shoot buds of somatic embryo-derived white spruce. The SE induction experiments were carried out first with greenhouse-grown and later with field-grown trees each year from 2002 (2-year-old) to 2010 (10-year-old). Of the four genotypes tested, 893-2 and 893-12 never responded, 893-1 responded up to year 4 and 893-6 consistently responded every year. In 2010, for the first time, three of the 17 893-6 clonal trees produced male strobili as well as SE from cultured PS explants. SE induction was associated with formation of a nodule on the surface of an elongated needle primordium or in callus. Early somatic embryos were detectable after about 3 weeks of culture. Of 11 genes whose expression profiles were followed during the PS cultures, CHAP3A, VP1, WOX2 and SAP2C were expressed exclusively in the early stages of SE, and could potentially be used as markers of embryogenecity. Mature somatic embryos and plants were produced from the explants of responding genotype. Implication of these results for future research on adult conifer recalcitrance in micropropagation is discussed.

  5. Physical activity and dietary behaviour in a population-based sample of British 10-year old children: the SPEEDY study (Sport, Physical activity and Eating behaviour: Environmental Determinants in Young people)

    PubMed Central

    van Sluijs, Esther MF; Skidmore, Paula ML; Mwanza, Kim; Jones, Andrew P; Callaghan, Alison M; Ekelund, Ulf; Harrison, Flo; Harvey, Ian; Panter, Jenna; Wareham, Nicolas J; Cassidy, Aedin; Griffin, Simon J

    2008-01-01

    Background The SPEEDY study was set up to quantify levels of physical activity (PA) and dietary habits and the association with potential correlates in 9–10 year old British school children. We present here the analyses of the PA, dietary and anthropometry data. Methods In a cross-sectional study of 2064 children (926 boys, 1138 girls) in Norfolk, England, we collected anthropometry data at school using standardised procedures. Body mass index (BMI) was used to define obesity status. PA was assessed with the Actigraph accelerometer over 7 days. A cut-off of ≥ 2000 activity counts was used to define minutes of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA). Dietary habits were assessed using the Health Behaviour in School Children food questionnaire. Weight status was defined using published international cut-offs (Cole, 2000). Differences between groups were assessed using independent t-tests for continuous data and chi-squared tests for categorical data. Results Valid PA data (>500 minutes per day on ≥ 3 days) was available for 1888 children. Mean (± SD) activity counts per minute among boys and girls were 716.5 ± 220.2 and 635.6 ± 210.6, respectively (p < 0.001). Boys spent an average of 84.1 ± 25.9 minutes in MVPA per day compared to 66.1 ± 20.8 among girls (p < 0.001), with an average of 69.1% of children accumulating 60 minutes each day. The proportion of children classified as overweight and obese was 15.0% and 4.1% for boys and 19.3% and 6.6% for girls, respectively (p = 0.001). Daily consumption of at least one portion of fruit and of vegetables was 56.8% and 49.9% respectively, with higher daily consumption in girls than boys and in children from higher socioeconomic backgrounds. Conclusion Results indicate that almost 70% of children meet national PA guidelines, indicating that a prevention of decline, rather than increasing physical activity levels, might be an appropriate intervention target. Promotion of daily fruit and vegetable intake in this age group is

  6. Operative management of bilateral Salter-Harris type III fractures of the proximal phalanges of the great toes of a 10-year-old female ballet dancer: a case report.

    PubMed

    Csonka, Akos; Sikarinkul, Eakachit; Gargyan, Istvan; Boa, Kristof; Varga, Endre

    2016-07-01

    Differentiation between the normal variant cleft epiphysis and Salter-Harris type III fracture of the first proximal phalanges of the foot in children might be challenging. The authors describe a case of a 10-year-old ballet dancer girl with bilateral epiphyseal segmentation of the first proximal phalanges of the foot, unresponsive to conservative treatment. Considered a nonhealing stress-induced fracture, operative treatment with closed reduction and Herbert screw insertion was chosen on both sides. Complete union was achieved, with significant reduction of pain. The presented case suggests that internal fixation can be a viable option in the treatment of the problem.

  7. Cognitive predictors of copying and drawing from memory of the Rey-Osterrieth complex figure in 7- to 10-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Senese, Vincenzo Paolo; De Lucia, Natascia; Conson, Massimiliano

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive models of drawing are mainly based on assessment of copying performance of adults, whereas only a few studies have verified these models in young children. Moreover, developmental investigations have only rarely performed a systematic examination of the contribution of perceptual and representational visuo-spatial processes to copying and drawing from memory. In this study we investigated the role of visual perception and mental representation in both copying and drawing from memory skills in a sample of 227 typically developing children (53% females) aged 7-10 years. Participants underwent a neuropsychological assessment and the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure (ROCF). The fit and invariance of the predictive model considering visuo-spatial abilities, working memory, and executive functions were tested by means of hierarchical regressions and path analysis. Results showed that, in a gender invariant way, visual perception abilities and spatial mental representation had a direct effect on copying performance, whereas copying performance was the only specific predictor for drawing from memory. These effects were independent from age and socioeconomic status, and showed that cognitive models of drawing built up for adults could be considered for predicting copying and drawing from memory in children.

  8. The Career Development of 10 Year Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seligman, Linda; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Examined career development of 24 preadolescents and assessed how career development was related to their perceptions of their family, self-image, career awareness, interests, and work/family aspirations. Findings suggest that, by age 10, children have thought about their future and can articulate their career and family aspirations. Career goals…

  9. Agreement between paper and pen visual analogue scales and a wristwatch-based electronic appetite rating system (PRO-Diary©), for continuous monitoring of free-living subjective appetite sensations in 7-10 year old children.

    PubMed

    Rumbold, P L S; Dodd-Reynolds, C J; Stevenson, E

    2013-10-01

    Electronic capture of free-living subjective appetite data can provide a more reliable alternative to traditional pen and paper visual analogue scales (P&P VAS), whilst reducing researcher workload. Consequently, the aim of this study was to explore the agreement between P&P VAS and a wristwatch-based electronic appetite rating system known as the PRO-Diary© technique, for monitoring free-living appetite sensations in 7-10 year old children. On one occasion, using a within-subject design, the 12 children (n=6 boys; n=6 girls) recorded their subjective appetite (hunger, prospective food consumption, and fullness), at two time points before lunch (11:30 and 12:00) and every 60 min thereafter until 21:00. The agreement between the P&P VAS and PRO-Diary© technique was explored using 95% limits of agreement and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) calculated using the Bland and Altman (1986) technique. For hunger, prospective food consumption and fullness, the 95% limits of agreement were -1±25 mm (95% CI: lower limit -8mm; upper limit +6mm), 0±21 mm (95% CI: lower limit -6mm; upper limit +6mm) and -6±24 mm (95% CI: lower limit -14 mm; upper limit +1mm), respectively. Given the advantages associated with electronic data capture (inexpensive; integrated alarm; data easily downloaded), we conclude that the PRO-Diary© technique is an equivalent method to employ when continuously monitoring free-living appetite sensations in 7-10 year old children, but should not be used interchangeably with P&P VAS.

  10. Genetic testing of the short child.

    PubMed

    Johnston Rohrbasser, L B

    2011-01-01

    Increased understanding of the pathogenetics of short stature and readily available genetic testing have changed the face of diagnostic endocrinology. It remains essential, however, that each short child undergoes detailed clinical, auxological and traditional endocrine assessment to determine which gene (or genes) to study. Diagnostic algorithms and clinical scoring systems are reviewed and the implications of genetic testing for determination of therapy type are discussed. At present, results from genetic testing do not reliably indicate which growth-promoting therapy would be most effective. However, pharmacogenetic testing may play a future role in the individualisation of therapy.

  11. Physical activity, obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors in 9- to 10-year-old UK children of white European, South Asian and black African-Caribbean origin: the Child Heart And health Study in England (CHASE)

    PubMed Central

    Nightingale, C. M.; Rudnicka, A. R.; Sattar, N.; Cook, D. G.; Ekelund, U.; Whincup, P. H.

    2010-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Physical inactivity is implicated in unfavourable patterns of obesity and cardiometabolic risk in childhood. However, few studies have quantified these associations using objective physical activity measurements in children from different ethnic groups. We examined these associations in UK children of South Asian, black African-Caribbean and white European origin. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of 2,049 primary school children in three UK cities, who had standardised anthropometric measurements, provided fasting blood samples and wore activity monitors for up to 7 days. Data were analysed using multilevel linear regression and allowing for measurement error. Results Overall physical activity levels showed strong inverse graded associations with adiposity markers (particularly sum of skinfold thicknesses), fasting insulin, HOMA insulin resistance, triacylglycerol and C-reactive protein; for an increase of 100 counts of physical activity per min of registered time, levels of these factors were 12.2% (95% CI 10.2–14.1%), 10.2% (95% CI 7.5–12.8%), 10.2% (95% CI 7.5–12.8%), 5.8% (95% CI 4.0–7.5%) and 19.2% (95% CI 13.9–24.2%) lower, respectively. Similar increments in physical activity levels were associated with lower diastolic blood pressure (1.0 mmHg, 95% CI 0.6–1.5 mmHg) and LDL-cholesterol (0.04 mmol/l, 95% CI 0.01–0.07 mmol/l), and higher HDL-cholesterol (0.02 mmol/l, 95% CI 0.01–0.04 mmol/l). Moreover, associations were broadly similar in strength in all ethnic groups. All associations between physical activity and cardiometabolic risk factors were reduced (albeit variably) after adjustment for adiposity. Conclusions/interpretation Objectively measured physical activity correlates at least as well with obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors in South Asian and African-Caribbean children as in white European children, suggesting that efforts to increase activity levels in such groups would have equally beneficial effects. PMID:20454952

  12. Higher maternal plasma folate but not vitamin B-12 concentrations during pregnancy are associated with better cognitive function scores in 9- to 10- year-old children in South India.

    PubMed

    Veena, Sargoor R; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Wills, Andrew K; Muthayya, Sumithra; Kurpad, Anura V; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Fall, Caroline H D

    2010-05-01

    Folate and vitamin B-12 are essential for normal brain development. Few studies have examined the relationship of maternal folate and vitamin B-12 status during pregnancy and offspring cognitive function. To test the hypothesis that lower maternal plasma folate and vitamin B-12 concentrations and higher plasma homocysteine concentrations during pregnancy are associated with poorer neurodevelopment, 536 children (aged 9-10 y) from the Mysore Parthenon birth cohort underwent cognitive function assessment during 2007-2008 using 3 core tests from the Kaufman Assessment Battery, and additional tests measuring learning, long-term storage/retrieval, attention and concentration, and visuo-spatial and verbal abilities. Maternal folate, vitamin B-12, and homocysteine concentrations were measured at 30 +/- 2 wk gestation. During pregnancy, 4% of mothers had low folate concentrations (<7 nmol/L), 42.5% had low vitamin B-12 concentrations (<150 pmol/L), and 3% had hyperhomocysteinemia (>10 micromol/L). The children's cognitive test scores increased by 0.1-0.2 SD per SD increase across the entire range of maternal folate concentrations (P < 0.001 for all), with no apparent associations at the deficiency level. The associations with learning, long-term storage/retrieval, visuo-spatial ability, attention, and concentration were independent of the parents' education, socioeconomic status, religion, and the child's sex, age, current size, and folate and vitamin B-12 concentrations. There were no consistent associations of maternal vitamin B-12 and homocysteine concentrations with childhood cognitive performance. In this Indian population, higher maternal folate, but not vitamin B-12, concentrations during pregnancy predicted better childhood cognitive ability. It also suggests that, in terms of neurodevelopment, the concentration used to define folate deficiency may be set too low.

  13. Child Maltreatment: Testing the Social Isolation Hypothesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coohey, Carol

    1996-01-01

    This paper examines the construct of social isolation in child maltreatment and reports on a study comparing 300 maltreating and nonmaltreating low-income mothers. Considerable variation was found between the two groups' structural network properties, perception of support, and types of resources received. However, maltreating mothers were not…

  14. Direct Observational Assessment during Test Sessions and Child Clinical Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConaughy, Stephanie H.

    2005-01-01

    Test sessions and child clinical interviews offer opportunities for direct observations of children's behavior in controlled settings. Moreover, standardized instruments for test session and interview observations offer more reliable and valid assessment methods than do anecdotal reports. This article reviews characteristics and psychometric…

  15. Speech outcomes in 10-year-old children with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate after one-stage lip and palate repair in the first year of life.

    PubMed

    Hortis-Dzierzbicka, Maria; Radkowska, Elzbieta; Fudalej, Piotr S

    2012-02-01

    An evaluation of the results of one-stage repair of unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) performed at the Institute of Mother and Child, Warsaw, Poland, has shown that the dentofacial outcomes are comparable with those of the best cleft centres. The aim of this study was to assess speech development after one-stage closure of UCLP. Twenty boys and eight girls at the mean age 9.6 years consecutively treated with one-stage closure of the cleft at the mean age of 8.8 (range, 6-13) months were included. The same surgeon performed palatal repair using a vomerplasty. The evaluated outcomes included (1) perceptual speech evaluations with assessment of hypernasality, audible nasal emissions (ANEs) and compensatory articulations, (2) evaluation of compensatory facial grimacing, (3) clinical intraoral evaluation and (4) videonasendoscopy when indicated. Our results demonstrated that 25 patients (89.3%) had normal nasal resonance. Severe hypernasality and compensatory articulation disorders caused by velopharyngeal insufficiency were assessed in one patient. In 13 patients (46.4%), oronasal fistulas were found. Two children (7%) with larger fistulas presented with mild hypernasality. In 11 cases (39.2%), fistula friction was heard at pronunciation of some anterior sounds. Ten children (35.7%) demonstrated compensatory facial grimacing, mostly inconsistent and mild, in the form of nasal valving. In conclusion, articulation development, velopharyngeal sphincter competence and incidence of compensatory articulations in our sample are satisfactory. However, only 54% of the present groups were rated as having entirely normal speech because of high incidences of anterior palatal fistulas, and mild but frequent fistula-related speech disturbances.

  16. 46 CFR 160.171-19 - Approval testing for child size immersion suit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Approval testing for child size immersion suit. 160.171... Approval testing for child size immersion suit. A child size suit must pass the following tests: (a) The stability test prescribed in § 160.171-17(c)(8), except that only six children need be used as test...

  17. 46 CFR 160.171-19 - Approval testing for child size immersion suit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Approval testing for child size immersion suit. 160.171... Approval testing for child size immersion suit. A child size suit must pass the following tests: (a) The stability test prescribed in § 160.171-17(c)(8), except that only six children need be used as test...

  18. The importance of cohesion and enjoyment for the fitness improvement of 8-10-year-old children participating in a team and individual sport school-based physical activity intervention.

    PubMed

    Elbe, Anne-Marie; Wikman, Johan Michael; Zheng, Miky; Larsen, Malte Nejst; Nielsen, Glen; Krustrup, Peter

    2017-04-01

    This study investigates the enjoyment and cohesion of school children participating in a school-based high-intensity physical activity (PA) intervention. Both enjoyment and cohesion have been found to be important factors for adherence to regular physical and sport activity, an important outcome of PA interventions. The sample consisted of 300 pupils (mean age: 9.3 years; 52.7% female) assigned to a team sport intervention, an individual sport intervention, or a control group for 10 months. The Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale and Youth Sport Environment Questionnaire were used to measure enjoyment and cohesion. The Yo-Yo IR1C test determined fitness improvements. Results showed that enjoyment and cohesion (social) measured at the beginning of the intervention significantly predict fitness improvements achieved after 10 months. No differing developmental effects over time could be found in the intervention groups with regard to cohesion and enjoyment when comparing them to the control group. However, enjoyment and cohesion (social) significantly decreased in the groups that performed individual sports. Team sports seem to be more advantageous for the development of enjoyment and cohesion, which are both factors that positively impact the health outcomes of the intervention.

  19. Prediction of child performance on a parent-child behavioral approach test with animal phobic children.

    PubMed

    Ollendick, Thomas H; Lewis, Krystal M; Cowart, Maria J W; Davis, Thompson

    2012-07-01

    A host of factors including genetic influences, temperament characteristics, learning experiences, information processing biases, parental psychopathology, and specific parenting practices have been hypothesized to contribute to the development and expression of children's phobias. In the present study, the authors focused on parental psychopathology (phobic anxiety) and parenting behaviors (warmth, involvement) in the prediction of child performance on a behavioral approach test (BAT). All children (n = 44) experienced a phobia of animals and were clinic referred. The youth completed two BATs: the first alone and the second one with a parent present. Overall, performance was greater on the parent-present BAT (58% of steps completed) than on the child-alone BAT (38% of steps completed), although considerable variability was present. Performance on the parent-present BAT was associated with parental warmth and involvement but not parental phobic anxiety. Implications of these findings were discussed, and their implications for the use of behavioral analogues tests were explored.

  20. NASA Administrator Dan Goldin greets 10-year-old VIP.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Ten-year-old Jonathan Pierce (second from right), who is garbed in a protective cooling suit, without the helmet, which was designed by NASA, poses with (left to right) NASA Administrator Dan Goldin, Mrs. Goldin, and astronaut Doug Wheelock. Jonathan suffers from erythropoietic protoporphyria, a rare condition that makes his body unable to withstand ultraviolet rays. The suit allows him to be outside during the day, which would otherwise be impossible. Jonathan's trip was funded by the Make-A-Wish Foundation and included a visit to Disney World. He and his family were among a dozen VIPs at KSC to view the launch of STS- 99.

  1. Head impact mechanisms of a child occupant seated in a child restraint system as determined by impact testing.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Ryoichi; Okada, Hiroshi; Nomura, Mitsunori; Mizuno, Koji; Tanaka, Yoshinori; Hosokawa, Naruyuki

    2011-11-01

    In side collision accidents, the head is the most frequently injured body region for child occupants seated in a child restraint system (CRS). Accident analyses show that a child's head can move out of the CRS shell, make hard contact with the vehicle interior, and thus sustain serious injuries. In order to improve child head protection in side collisions, it is necessary to understand the injury mechanism of a child in the CRS whose head makes contact with the vehicle interior. In this research, an SUV-to-car oblique side crash test was conducted to reconstruct such head contacts. A Q3s child dummy was seated in a CRS in the rear seat of the target car. The Q3s child dummy's head moved out beyond the CRS side wing, moved laterally, and made contact with the side window glass and the doorsill. It was demonstrated that the hard head contact, which produced a high HIC value, could occur in side collisions. A series of sled tests was carried out to reproduce the dummy kinematic behavior observed in the SUV-to-car crash test, and the sled test conditions such as sled angle, ECE seat slant angle and velocity-time history that duplicated the kinematic behavior were determined. A parametric study also was conducted with the sled tests; and it was found that the impact angle, harness slack, chest clip, and the CRS side wing shape affected the torso motion and head contact with the vehicle interior.

  2. Evidence-Informed, Individual Treatment of a Child with Sexual Behavior Problems: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Allen, Brian; Berliner, Lucy

    2015-11-01

    Children with sexual behavior problems pose a significant challenge for community-based mental health clinicians. Very few clinical trials are available to guide intervention and those interventions that are available are based in a group format. The current case study demonstrates the application of evidence-informed treatment techniques during the individual treatment of a 10-year-old boy displaying interpersonal sexual behavior problems. Specifically, the clinician adapts and implements a group-based model developed and tested by Bonner et al. (1999) for use with an individual child and his caregivers. Key points of the case study are discussed within the context of implementing evidence-informed treatments for children with sexual behavior problems.

  3. Testing the 8-Syndrome Structure of the Child Behavior Checklist in 30 Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivanova, Masha Y.; Dobrean, Anca; Dopfner, Manfred; Erol, Nese; Fombonne, Eric; Fonseca, Antonio Castro; Frigerio, Alessandra; Grietens, Hans; Hannesdottir, Helga; Kanbayashi, Yasuko; Lambert, Michael; Achenbach, Thomas M.; Larsson, Bo; Leung, Patrick; Liu, Xianchen; Minaei, Asghar; Mulatu, Mesfin S.; Novik, Torunn S.; Oh, Kyung Ja; Roussos, Alexandra; Sawyer, Michael; Simsek, Zeynep; Dumenci, Levent; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Metzke, Christa Winkler; Wolanczyk, Tomasz; Yang, Hao-Jan; Zilber, Nelly; Zukauskiene, Rita; Verhulst, Frank C.; Rescorla, Leslie A.; Almqvist, Fredrik; Weintraub, Sheila; Bilenberg, Niels; Bird, Hector; Chen, Wei J.

    2007-01-01

    There is a growing need for multicultural collaboration in child mental health services, training, and research. To facilitate such collaboration, this study tested the 8-syndrome structure of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) in 30 societies. Parents' CBCL ratings of 58,051 6- to 18-year-olds were subjected to confirmatory factor analyses,…

  4. Testing for Thresholds in Associations between Child Care Quality and Child Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burchinal, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Most of the literature has examined linear associations, yielding findings that higher quality is better and lower quality is worse (Vandell, 2004), but identification of thresholds in the association between quality and child outcomes has been a goal of researchers and policy makers for several reasons. A primary goal has been to identify levels…

  5. Testing the Sexually Abused Child for the HIV Antibody: Issues for the Social Worker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gellert, George A.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Discusses identifying children infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) through sexual abuse. Reviews testing guidelines. Sees social workers contributing to test decision making when perinatal HIV transmissions is possibility, when assailant may be tested, and when parents/legal guardians insist on testing child. Discusses family…

  6. Social influence in child care centers: a test of the theory of normative social behavior.

    PubMed

    Lapinski, Maria Knight; Anderson, Jenn; Shugart, Alicia; Todd, Ewen

    2014-01-01

    Child care centers are a unique context for studying communication about the social and personal expectations about health behaviors. The theory of normative social behavior (TNSB; Rimal & Real, 2005 ) provides a framework for testing the role of social and psychological influences on handwashing behaviors among child care workers. A cross-sectional survey of child care workers in 21 centers indicates that outcome expectations and group identity increase the strength of the relationship between descriptive norms and handwashing behavior. Injunctive norms also moderate the effect of descriptive norms on handwashing behavior such that when strong injunctive norms are reported, descriptive norms are positively related to handwashing, but when weak injunctive norms are reported, descriptive norms are negatively related to handwashing. The findings suggest that communication interventions in child care centers can focus on strengthening injunctive norms in order to increase handwashing behaviors in child care centers. The findings also suggest that the theory of normative social behavior can be useful in organizational contexts.

  7. Achievement Testing in the No Child Left Behind Era: The Arkansas Benchmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, John D.; Howerton, D. Lynn; Jones, Craig H.

    2008-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act and the accountability movement in public education caused many states to develop criterion-referenced academic achievement tests. Scores from these tests are often used to make high stakes decisions. Even so, these tests typically do not receive independent psychometric scrutiny. We evaluated the 2005 Arkansas…

  8. CDA (Child Development Associate) Instructional Materials. Assessing Competency: Tests for CDA Competencies (Experimental Edition). Book 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hotvedt, Kathleen J.; Hotvedt, Martyn O.

    This book of tests is designed to assess the competencies of the Child Development Associate (CDA) trainee: both what the trainee knows and how well the trainee works with children. The tests are designed as posttests to be administered after the trainee's completion of the relevant learning module. Each test consists of multiple choice questions,…

  9. Testing causal models of the relationship between childhood gender atypical behaviour and parent-child relationship.

    PubMed

    Alanko, Katarina; Santtila, Pekka; Salo, Benny; Jern, Patrik; Johansson, Ada; Sandnabba, N Kenneth

    2011-06-01

    An association between childhood gender atypical behaviour (GAB) and a negative parent-child relationship has been demonstrated in several studies, yet the causal relationship of this association is not fully understood. In the present study, different models of causation between childhood GAB and parent-child relationships were tested. Direction of causation modelling was applied to twin data from a population-based sample (n= 2,565) of Finnish 33- to 43-year-old twins. Participants completed retrospective self-report questionnaires. Five different models of causation were then fitted to the data: GAB → parent-child relationship, parent-child relationship → GAB, reciprocal causation, a bivariate genetic model, and a model assuming no correlation. It was found that a model in which GAB and quality of mother-child, and father-child relationship reciprocally affect each other best fitted the data. The findings are discussed in light of how we should understand, including causality, the association between GAB and parent-child relationship.

  10. Preparing Child Witnesses: The Efficacy of Memory Strategy Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saywitz, Karen J.; And Others

    An intervention to prepare children for pretrial interviews and testimony was tested. The goal of the intervention was to increase the completeness of young children's eyewitness accounts because their free recall is typically less complete than that of older children or adults. Seven- and 10-year-old children (N=132) were randomly assigned,…

  11. Parental Expressivity, Child Physiological and Behavioral Regulation, and Child Adjustment: Testing a Three-Path Mediation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liew, Jeffrey; Johnson, Audrea Y.; Smith, Tracy R.; Thoemmes, Felix

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: Parental expressivity, child physiological regulation (indexed by respiratory sinus arrhythmia suppression), child behavioral regulation, and child adjustment outcomes were examined in 45 children (M age = 4.32 years, SD = 1.30) and their parents. With the exception of child adjustment (i.e., internalizing and externalizing…

  12. The Serial Use of Child Neurocognitive Tests: Development versus Practice Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slade, Peter D.; Townes, Brenda D.; Rosenbaum, Gail; Martins, Isabel P.; Luis, Henrique; Bernardo, Mario; Martin, Michael D.; DeRouen, Timothy A.

    2008-01-01

    When serial neurocognitive assessments are performed, 2 main factors are of importance: test-retest reliability and practice effects. With children, however, there is a third, developmental factor, which occurs as a result of maturation. Child tests recognize this factor through the provision of age-corrected scaled scores. Thus, a ready-made…

  13. 75 FR 76636 - Anthropomorphic Test Devices; Hybrid III 6-Year-Old Child Test Dummy, Hybrid III 6-Year-Old...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-09

    ... Results of the Modified HIII-6C Test in the Marathon, Boulevard, and Decathlon Child Restraint Systems ii. Comparing the Results of the Britax Marathon Test of the Modified HIII-6C (test H06337) to Those of a Test... ``modified dummy'') in a Britax Marathon child restraint, Britax Boulevard and Britax Decathlon to the...

  14. My Child Doesn't Test Well. Carnegie Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Lloyd

    2007-01-01

    The writer examines a variety of reasons why test performance may not always be a valid measure of a person's competence or potential. Citing that a sizable percentage of students perform well in their schoolwork but poorly on standardized, multiple-choice tests, Bond defines and discusses four candidates as source factors for the phenomenon: (1)…

  15. Nucleic Acid Amplification Testing in Suspected Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esernio-Jenssen, Debra; Barnes, Marilyn

    2011-01-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that site-specific cultures be obtained, when indicated, for sexually victimized children. Nucleic acid amplification testing is a highly sensitive and specific methodology for identifying sexually transmitted infections. Nucleic acid amplification tests are also less invasive than culture, and this…

  16. Comparison of Hybrid III child test dummies to pediatric PMHS in blunt thoracic impact response.

    PubMed

    Parent, D P; Crandall, J R; Bolton, J R; Bass, C R; Ouyang, J; Lau, S H

    2010-08-01

    The limited availability of pediatric biomechanical impact response data presents a significant challenge to the development of child dummies. In the absence of these data, the development of the current generation of child dummies has been driven by scaling of the biomechanical response requirements of the existing adult test dummies. Recently published pediatric blunt thoracic impact response data provide a unique opportunity to evaluate the efficacy of these scaling methodologies. However, the published data include several processing anomalies and nonphysical features. These features are corrected by minimizing instrumentation and processing error to improve the fidelity of the individual force-deflection responses. Using these data, biomechanical impact response corridors are calculated for a 3-year-old child and a 6-year-old child. These calculated corridors differ from both the originally published postmortem human subject (PMHS) corridors and the impact response requirements of the current child dummies. Furthermore, the response of the Hybrid III 3-year-old test dummy in the same impact condition shows a similar deflection but a significantly higher force than the 3-year-old corridor. The response of the Hybrid III 6-year-old dummy, on the other hand, correlates well with the calculated 6-year-old corridor. The newly developed 3-year-old and 6-year-old blunt thoracic impact response corridors can be used to define data-driven impact response requirements as an alternative to scaling-driven requirements.

  17. [Test Reviews in Child Psychology: Test Users Wish to Obtain Practical Information Relevant to their Respective Field of Work].

    PubMed

    Renner, Gerolf; Irblich, Dieter

    2016-11-01

    Test Reviews in Child Psychology: Test Users Wish to Obtain Practical Information Relevant to their Respective Field of Work This study investigated to what extent diagnosticians use reviews of psychometric tests for children and adolescents, how they evaluate their quality, and what they expect concerning content. Test users (n = 323) from different areas of work (notably social pediatrics, early intervention, special education, speech and language therapy) rated test reviews as one of the most important sources of information. Readers of test reviews value practically oriented descriptions and evaluations of tests that are relevant to their respective field of work. They expect independent reviews that critically discuss opportunities and limits of the tests under scrutiny. The results show that authors of test reviews should not only have a background in test theory but should also be familiar with the practical application of tests in various settings.

  18. Using Epidemiologic Methods to Test Hypotheses regarding Causal Influences on Child and Adolescent Mental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahey, Benjamin B.; D'Onofrio, Brian M.; Waldman, Irwin D.

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiology uses strong sampling methods and study designs to test refutable hypotheses regarding the causes of important health, mental health, and social outcomes. Epidemiologic methods are increasingly being used to move developmental psychopathology from studies that catalogue correlates of child and adolescent mental health to designs that…

  19. Child Development, Care and Guidance. Performance Objectives and Criterion-Referenced Test Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This document contains competencies and criterion-referenced test items for the Child Development, Care and Guidance semester course in Missouri that were derived from the duties and tasks of the Missouri homemaker and identified and validated by home economics teachers and subject matter specialists. The guide is designed to assist home economics…

  20. "No Child" Effect on English-Learners Mulled: Teachers Welcome Attention, Fault Focus on Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2006-01-01

    Educators who specialize in teaching English-language learners agree that the 4-year-old No Child Left Behind Act has brought unprecedented attention to those students by requiring schools to isolate test-score data for them. They disagree, though, on whether changes in instruction spurred by the law have been positive or negative overall. Such…

  1. Testing Multicultural Robustness of the Child Behavior Checklist in a National Epidemiological Sample in Uruguay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viola, Laura; Garrido, Gabriela; Rescorla, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    Comparisons of Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) scores from 31 societies (Rescorla et al. "Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders" 15:13-142 2007) supported the instrument's multicultural robustness, but none of these societies was in South America. The present study tested the multicultural robustness of the 2001 CBCL using data…

  2. Speechreading Development in Deaf and Hearing Children: Introducing the Test of Child Speechreading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyle, Fiona E.; Campbell, Ruth; Mohammed, Tara; Coleman, Mike; MacSweeney, Mairead

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this article, the authors describe the development of a new instrument, the Test of Child Speechreading (ToCS), which was specifically designed for use with deaf and hearing children. Speechreading is a skill that is required for deaf children to access the language of the hearing community. ToCS is a deaf-friendly, computer-based test…

  3. The Reliability of Child-Friendly Race-Attitude Implicit Association Tests

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Amanda; Steele, Jennifer R.

    2016-01-01

    Implicit attitudes are evaluations that are made automatically, unconsciously, unintentionally, or without conscious and deliberative processing (Nosek et al., 2007; Gawronski and De Houwer, 2014). For the last two decades implicit measures have been developed and used to assess people’s attitudes and social cognition, with the most widely used measure being the Implicit Association Test (IAT; Greenwald et al., 2003). This measure has been used extensively to assess racial biases and a number of studies have examined the reliability of the IAT when administered to adults (Cunningham et al., 2001; Gawronski, 2002; Greenwald et al., 2003; Nosek et al., 2005; Nosek and Smyth, 2007; Bar-Anan and Nosek, 2014). In recent years, the IAT has also been modified for use with children. Despite the potential of this measure to provide insight into the early emergence of implicit racial attitudes, little is known about the psychometric properties of these modified child-friendly IATs (Child-IATs). In the current research we examined the internal consistency of race-attitude Child-IATs when either reduced (Study 1) or traditional-length (Study 2) versions were administered to children (Studies 1 and 2) and adults (Study 2). We also examined the test–retest reliability of this measure with both child and adult participants (Study 2). We found that these measures demonstrate an internal consistency comparable to what has been seen in previous research with adults. In addition, the internal consistency of traditional-length Child-IATs completed in succession depended on the order in which they were completed; the first Child-IAT demonstrated higher internal consistency than the second for both children and adults (Study 2). Finally, we provide the first evidence that the test–retest reliability of the Child-IAT is comparable to what has been found previously with adults (Study 2). The implications of these findings for future research examining children’s implicit social

  4. Testing a Social Ecological Model for Relations between Political Violence and Child Adjustment in Northern Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, E. Mark; Merrilees, Christine E.; Schermerhorn, Alice C.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2013-01-01

    Relations between political violence and child adjustment are matters of international concern. Past research demonstrates the significance of community, family and child psychological processes in child adjustment, supporting study of inter-relations between multiple social ecological factors and child adjustment in contexts of political violence. Testing a social ecological model, 300 mothers and their children (M= 12.28 years, SD = 1.77) from Catholic and Protestant working class neighborhoods in Belfast, Northern Ireland completed measures of community discord, family relations, and children’s regulatory processes (i.e., emotional security) and outcomes. Historical political violence in neighborhoods based on objective records (i.e., politically motivated deaths) were related to family members’ reports of current sectarian and non-sectarian antisocial behavior. Interparental conflict and parental monitoring and children’s emotional security about both the community and family contributed to explanatory pathways for relations between sectarian antisocial behavior in communities and children’s adjustment problems. The discussion evaluates support for social ecological models for relations between political violence and child adjustment and its implications for understanding relations in other parts of the world. PMID:20423550

  5. Testing a social ecological model for relations between political violence and child adjustment in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Cummings, E Mark; Merrilees, Christine E; Schermerhorn, Alice C; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2010-05-01

    Relations between political violence and child adjustment are matters of international concern. Past research demonstrates the significance of community, family, and child psychological processes in child adjustment, supporting study of interrelations between multiple social ecological factors and child adjustment in contexts of political violence. Testing a social ecological model, 300 mothers and their children (M = 12.28 years, SD = 1.77) from Catholic and Protestant working class neighborhoods in Belfast, Northern Ireland, completed measures of community discord, family relations, and children's regulatory processes (i.e., emotional security) and outcomes. Historical political violence in neighborhoods based on objective records (i.e., politically motivated deaths) were related to family members' reports of current sectarian antisocial behavior and nonsectarian antisocial behavior. Interparental conflict and parental monitoring and children's emotional security about both the community and family contributed to explanatory pathways for relations between sectarian antisocial behavior in communities and children's adjustment problems. The discussion evaluates support for social ecological models for relations between political violence and child adjustment and its implications for understanding relations in other parts of the world.

  6. Diagnostic yield of hair and urine toxicology testing in potential child abuse cases.

    PubMed

    Stauffer, Stephanie L; Wood, Stephanie M; Krasowski, Matthew D

    2015-07-01

    Detection of drugs in a child may be the first objective finding that can be reported in cases of suspected child abuse. Hair and urine toxicology testing, when performed as part of the initial clinical evaluation for suspected child abuse or maltreatment, may serve to facilitate the identification of at-risk children. Furthermore, significant environmental exposure to a drug (considered by law to constitute child abuse in some states) may be identified by toxicology testing of unwashed hair specimens. In order to determine the clinical utility of hair and urine toxicology testing in this population we performed a retrospective chart review on all children for whom hair toxicology testing was ordered at our academic medical center between January 2004 and April 2014. The medical records of 616 children aged 0-17.5 years were reviewed for injury history, previous medication and illicit drug use by caregiver(s), urine drug screen result (if performed), hair toxicology result, medication list, and outcome of any child abuse evaluation. Hair toxicology testing was positive for at least one compound in 106 cases (17.2%), with unexplained drugs in 82 cases (13.3%). Of these, there were 48 cases in which multiple compounds (including combination of parent drugs and/or metabolites within the same drug class) were identified in the sample of one patient. The compounds most frequently identified in the hair of our study population included cocaine, benzoylecgonine, native (unmetabolized) tetrahydrocannabinol, and methamphetamine. There were 68 instances in which a parent drug was identified in the hair without any of its potential metabolites, suggesting environmental exposure. Among the 82 cases in which hair toxicology testing was positive for unexplained drugs, a change in clinical outcome was noted in 71 cases (86.5%). Urine drug screens (UDS) were performed in 457 of the 616 reviewed cases. Of these, over 95% of positive UDS results could be explained by iatrogenic drug

  7. Validation of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire 8-10 in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    PubMed Central

    Hadzipasic-Nazdrajic, Amra

    2012-01-01

    Background: Paediatric oral disorders are numerous and it can be assumed that those have negative effect on the life quality in children. From 2002 to 2006 were developed the life quality measures for children aged 8-10 and 11-14 years, Child Perceptions Questionnaires, CPQs. Those are the components of the Child Oral Health Quality of Life Questionnaire (COHQOL). Aim: The aim of this study was to translate the CPQ for children 8 to 10 years into the one of the languages in Bosnia and Herzegovina, to cross-culturaly adapt the instrument, and to evaluate its comprehensibility among Bosnian language speaking children. Methods: Instrument was translated from English into the Bosnian language according to the recommended translation procedure. After the cultural adaptation, questionnaire was tested among 8–10 years old children (N=18). Results: During the cultural adaptation of the instrument, changes were made on three questions. One question had to be changed due to understanding difficulties. Conclusion: CPQ8-10 was translated and culturaly adapted. Testing among children showed that the Bosnia-Herzegovina version of the CPQ8–10 is comprehensive and it can be used for measuring oral health-related quality of life in children this age. PMID:23922523

  8. Transumbilical approach to intraoperative enteroscopy in a child with intussusception and Peutz-Jeghers syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chui, Chan Hon; Jacobsen, Anette Sundfor

    2006-10-01

    Intraoperative enteroscopy has been known to reduce reoperation rates in complicated Peutz- Jeghers polyposis. It is usually performed during a laparotomy. This case report illustrates the feasibility of performing intraoperative transenterotomy enteroscopy together with extracorporeal ileal resection using the transumbilical approach after successfully reducing an intussusception laparoscopically in a 10-year-old child with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. This technique obviates the need for a laparotomy.

  9. Is the test of senior friendly/child resistant packaging ethical?

    PubMed

    Bix, Laura; de la Fuente, Javier; Pimple, Kenneth D; Kou, Eric

    2009-12-01

    Research has documented the drastic reduction of unintentional poisonings of children since the introduction of child resistant (CR) packaging. However, studies also indicate that consumers report difficulty using CR packages, in part because tests which determine the 'senior friendliness' of CR designs that are used throughout the world disallow people with 'overt or obvious' disabilities from being test subjects. Our review of drug package usability suggests that the current tests of CR packaging can and should be revised to correct this problem. We use US legislation, regulation and data to exemplify these points, but the conclusions are applicable to all protocols that include the exclusionary provision.

  10. Political Violence and Child Adjustment: Longitudinal Tests of Sectarian Antisocial Behavior, Family Conflict, and Insecurity as Explanatory Pathways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Edward M.; Merrilees, Christine E.; Schermerhorn, Alice C.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the impact of political violence on child maladjustment is a matter of international concern. Recent research has advanced a social ecological explanation for relations between political violence and child adjustment. However, conclusions are qualified by the lack of longitudinal tests. Toward examining pathways longitudinally,…

  11. Head Trajectories of Restrained Child Dummy in Sled Tests Over 56 kph Delta-V

    PubMed Central

    Hauschild, Hans W.

    2000-01-01

    Child restraint devices (CRDs) have been used for many years to protect children in automotive crashes. The following data was collected to find out whether current restraints would be able to pass more stringent dynamic testing at higher changes in velocity (delta-v), such as the NHTSA NCAP program or the IIHS offset barrier test, and to look at one possible misuse mode. Three basic types of CRDs were sled tested at a delta-v between 57.5 & 61.4 kph (35.7 & 38.1 mph). Data from each test are presented and compared. Comparisons are made between each seat’s sled test results and various countries’ standards. PMID:11558089

  12. 'A Mental Test for Every Child': The Use of Intelligence Tests in Progressive School Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Paul Davis

    This essay shows that the adoption of intelligence tests by the schools was a complex development. Tests were adopted during the 1920s as part of the reform program fashioned by the network of applied psychologists and school people. While the network itself often viewed testing as a means to improve the schools and society, immigrants and blacks…

  13. Are Child Abusers Sexually Attracted to Submissiveness? Assessment of Sex-Related Cognition With the Implicit Association Test.

    PubMed

    Kanters, Thijs; Hornsveld, Ruud H J; Nunes, Kevin L; Huijding, Jorg; Zwets, Almar J; Snowden, Robert J; Muris, Peter; van Marle, Hjalmar J C

    2016-08-01

    Child sexual abuse is associated with social anxiety, low self-esteem, and intimacy deficits. This, in combination with the core belief of a dangerous world, might suggest that child abusers are sexually attracted to submissiveness. The Implicit Association Test (IAT) was used to examine this hypothesis. Results indicated that child abusers have a stronger sexual preference for submissiveness than rapists, although there were no differences between child abusers and non-sexual offenders. Multinomial logistic regression analysis revealed that submissive-sexy associations have incremental value over child-sex associations in differentiating child abusers from other offenders. The predictive value of both implicit associations was explored by correlating IAT scores with measures for recidivism risk, aggression, and interpersonal anxiety. Child abusers with stronger child-sex associations reported higher levels of interpersonal anxiety and hostility. More research on implicit cognition in sex offenders is required for a better understanding of what these and similar implicit measures are exactly measuring and what role implicit cognition may play in sexual offending.

  14. An Observational Approach to Testing Bi-Directional Parent-Child Interactions as Influential to Child Eating and Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir, Defne; Skouteris, Helen; Dell'Aquila, Daniela; Aksan, Nazan; McCabe, Marita P.; Ricciardelli, Lina A.; Milgrom, Jeannette; Baur, Louise A.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity among children has been on the rise globally for the past few decades. Previous research has centred mainly on self/parent-reported measures examining only uni-directional parental feeding styles and practices. Recent discussions in the literature have raised the importance of bi-directional parent-child interactions in influencing…

  15. Mothers' depressive symptoms and infant negative emotionality in the prediction of child adjustment at age 3: testing the maternal reactivity and child vulnerability hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Dix, Theodore; Yan, Ni

    2014-02-01

    This study examined individual differences in how mothers' depressive symptoms affect children's early adjustment. It tested whether problematic development among children high in negative emotionality is accentuated by (a) maternal reactivity, the negative reactivity of mothers with depressive symptoms to difficult child characteristics; and (b) child vulnerability, the susceptibility of negatively emotional children to the negative parenting of mothers with depressive symptoms. Based on 1,364 participants from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care, results showed that mothers' depressive symptoms predicted greater risk for adjustment problems at age 3 among children who as infants were high rather than low in negative emotionality. Increased risk was evident for behavior problems, low responsiveness, high separation distress, and low social competence. Mediational tests suggested that increased risk reflected maternal reactivity: the stronger mothers' depressive symptoms, the more they responded with negative parenting to children high in negative emotionality. The proposal that child vulnerability mediates the greater impact of mothers' depressive symptoms on negatively emotional children was verified only for separation distress. The results support the proposal that, when mothers are high in depressive symptoms, aversive characteristics of children and their behavior increasingly influence early adjustment and do so because they elicit negative parent behavior.

  16. Unraveling sexual associations in contact and noncontact child sex offenders using the single category - implicit association test.

    PubMed

    Hempel, I S; Buck, N M L; Goethals, K R; van Marle, H J C

    2013-10-01

    Previous studies found associations between children and sex in child sex offenders (CSOs) using the Implicit Association Test (IAT). We used a modification of this task, the Single Category-Implicit Association Test (SC-IAT) to unravel child-sex associations in CSOs. Using the SC-IAT, we were able to test whether CSOs indeed hold stronger child-sex associations relative to adult-sex associations, compared to adult sex offenders and nonoffenders. Furthermore, we examined whether contact CSOs differed from noncontact CSOs in their child-sex associations. The hypothesis that CSOs would have stronger child-sex associations, relative to their adult-sex associations, than adult sex offenders and nonoffenders was confirmed. No difference between contact CSOs and noncontact CSOs was found. Although the Sex SC-IAT was able to distinguish CSOs from nonoffenders, the sensitivity and specificity of the test was poor (AUC of .65) and needs refinement. The results of this study support the existence of a child-sex association as a distinctive characteristic of CSOs. These findings are discussed in the context of theories on deviant cognitions in CSOs and risk for sexual offending.

  17. The relationship between maternal education and mental retardation in 10-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Decouflé, P; Boyle, C A

    1995-09-01

    We conducted a case-control study of mental retardation (MR) in which case children (aged 10 years) were identified from existing records at multiple sources, primarily the public school systems. Control children were drawn from a roster of public school students not receiving special education services. We found that maternal educational level at the time of delivery was strongly and inversely related to a form of MR not accompanied by other serious neurologic conditions. For this isolated form of MR, maternal educational level was by far the most important predictor from among seven sociodemographic variables examined. There was a significant race-education interaction that indicated a steeper gradient in risk among white mothers than among black mothers. Relative to children of white mothers with 12 years of education, all children of black mothers, except those whose mothers had 16 or more years of education, were at increased risk. The results may be useful as a guide for selecting high-risk groups as candidates for early childhood intervention programs.

  18. Relationship between Motor Skill and Body Mass Index in 5- to 10-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Hondt, Eva; Deforche, Benedicte; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate gross and fine motor skill in overweight and obese children compared with normal-weight peers. According to international cut-off points for Body Mass Index (BMI) from Cole et al. (2000), all 117 participants (5-10 year) were classified as being normal-weight, overweight, or obese. Level of motor skill…

  19. Hypotonic hyponatremia by primary polydipsia caused brain death in a 10-year-old boy

    PubMed Central

    Ko, A Ra; Kim, Soo Jung; Jung, Mo Kyung; Kim, Ki Eun; Chae, Hyun Wook; Kim, Duk Hee; Kim, Ho-Seong

    2015-01-01

    Hypotonic hyponatremia by primary polydipsia can cause severe neurologic complications due to cerebral edema. A 10-year-and-4-month-old boy with a psychiatric history of intellectual disability and behavioral disorders who presented with chief complaints of seizure and mental change showed severe hypotonic hyponatremia with low urine osmolality (serum sodium, 101 mmol/L; serum osmolality, 215 mOsm/kg; urine osmolality, 108 mOsm/kg). The patient had been polydipsic for a few months prior, and this had been worse in the previous few days. A diagnosis of hypotonic hyponatremia caused by primary polydipsia was made. The patient was in a coma, and developed respiratory arrest and became brain death shortly after admission, despite the treatment. The initial brain magnetic resonance imaging showed severe brain swelling with tonsillar and uncal herniation, and the patient was declared as brain death. It has been reported that antidiuretic hormone suppression is inadequate in patients with chronic polydipsia, and that this inadequate suppression of antidiuretic hormone is aggravated in patients with acute psychosis. Therefore, hyponatremia by primary polydipsia, although it is rare, can cause serious and life-threatening neurologic complications. PMID:26512354

  20. Variability and Stability in Daily Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity among 10 Year Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Sara; Gomes, Thayse Natacha; Borges, Alessandra; Santos, Daniel; Souza, Michele; dos Santos, Fernanda K.; Chaves, Raquel N.; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Maia, José A. R.

    2015-01-01

    Day-to-day variability and stability of children’s physical activity levels across days of the week are not well understood. Our aims were to examine the day-to-day variability of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), to determine factors influencing the day-to-day variability of MVPA and to estimate stability of MVPA in children. The sample comprises 686 Portuguese children (10 years of age). MVPA was assessed with an accelerometer, and BMI was computed from measured height and weight. Daily changes in MVPA and their correlates (gender, BMI, and maturity) were modeled with a multilevel approach, and tracking was calculated using Foulkes & Davies γ. A total of 51.3% of boys and 26.2% of girls achieved 60 min/day of MVPA on average. Daily MVPA was lower during the weekend (23.6% of boys and 13.6% of girls comply with the recommended 60 min/day of MVPA) compared to weekdays (60.8% and 35.4%, boys and girls, respectively). Normal weight children were more active than obese children and no effect was found for biological maturation. Tracking is low in both boys (γ = 0.59 ± 0.01) and girls (γ = 0.56 ± 0.01). Children’s MVPA levels during a week are highly unstable. In summary, boys are more active than girls, maturation does not affect their MVPA, and obese children are less likely to meet 60 min/day of MVPA. These results highlight the importance of providing opportunities for increasing children’s daily MVPA on all days of week, especially on the weekend. PMID:26262632

  1. Inattentional Blindness in 9- to 10-Year-Old Intellectually Gifted Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Xingli; He, Yunfeng; Shi, Jiannong

    2016-01-01

    Researchers suggest that while intellectually gifted children might not always display adequate focus on their general life, they perform very well on experimental attentional tasks. The current study used inattentional blindness (IB) paradigm to understand better the attentional abilities of intellectually gifted children. Specifically, we…

  2. Educational Attainment of 10-Year-Old Children with Treated and Untreated Visual Defects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart-Brown, Sarah; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Children with visual impairments who participated in a 10-year survey were compared with peers on measures of intelligence, reading, mathematics, and sporting ability. Results are consistent with earlier findings of increased intelligence among Ss with myopia and slightly reduced intelligence among Ss with amblyopia. It was concluded that the…

  3. Educational attainment of 10-year-old children with treated and untreated visual defects.

    PubMed

    Stewart-Brown, S; Haslum, M N; Butler, N

    1985-08-01

    Children with visual defects who took part in a 10-year survey were compared with their peers on measures of intelligence, reading, mathematics and sporting ability. Results are consistent with earlier findings of increased intelligence among children with myopia and slightly reduced intelligence among children with amblyopia. Those with other visual defects had normal intelligence scores. Once intelligence had been taken into account, only children with mild hypermetropia were under-achieving at reading. Those with severe myopia were reading better than expected. None of the children could be shown to be over- or under-achieving at maths, any variation being due to intelligence. The mothers of children with visual defects perceived them to be less able at sport. Comparison of the performances of children with minor visual defects who had and had not been prescribed spectacles did not suggest any disadvantage for those without spectacles, with the possible exception of children with mild hypermetropia. It is concluded that the majority of visual defects do not affect children's learning, and that current indications for prescribing spectacles need to be validated.

  4. Mantle of the Expert: Turning British 10 Year Olds Into Antarctic Researchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, E. C.

    2011-12-01

    Schools at all levels welcome a visit from Antarctic research scientists who can combine science, a tale of adventure and cute pictures of penguins, but how can this opportunity be used to build an activity that lasts longer than a one hour visit? In the UK some primary schools have adopted a methodology termed 'Mantle of the Expert' in which the class do all their curriculum work as if they are an imagined group of experts. The approach allows different areas of the curriculum to be brought together in a challenging but fun activity. This paper will describe 'An Antarctic Quest: the Mystery of the Box' in which a class of 28 children were given the imaginary challenge of recovering an equipment box buried in Antarctica. To complete the task, the children found themselves investigating glaciology, climate, geography, history, international politics, clothing technology and transport. A few can now imagine themselves as Antarctic scientists.

  5. The Effect of School Uniform on Incidental Physical Activity among 10-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norrish, Hannah; Farringdon, Fiona; Bulsara, Max; Hands, Beth

    2012-01-01

    The school setting provides a unique opportunity to promote physical activity in children by ensuring adequate time, appropriate facilities and education guidance is offered. However school uniform design could also limit physical activity. A repeated measures crossover design was used to compare school recess and lunchtime physical activity over…

  6. Comparison of Diachronic Thinking and Event Ordering in 5- to 10-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Brandy D.; Brooks, Patricia J.; Rabin, Laura A.

    2014-01-01

    Two main theoretical constructs seek to describe the elaborated sense of time that may be a uniquely human attribute: diachronic thinking (the ability to think about the past and use that information to predict future events) and event ordering (the ability to sequence events in temporal order). Researchers utilize various tasks to measure the…

  7. Error-Related Electrocortical Responses in 10-Year-Old Children and Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santesso, Diane L.; Segalowitz, Sidney J.; Schmidt, Louis A.

    2006-01-01

    Recent anatomical and electrophysiological evidence suggests that the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is relatively late to mature. This brain region appears to be critical for monitoring, evaluating, and adjusting ongoing behaviors. This monitoring elicits characteristic ERP components including the error-related negativity (ERN), error…

  8. The Effect of Executive Function on Science Achievement among Normally Developing 10-Year Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lederman, Sheri G.

    2012-01-01

    Executive function (EF) is an umbrella term used to identify a set of discrete but interrelated cognitive abilities that enable individuals to engage in goal-directed, future-oriented action in response to a novel context. Developmental studies indicate that EF is predictive of reading and math achievement in middle childhood. The purpose of this…

  9. Stability of somatotypes in 4 to 10 year-old rural South African girls.

    PubMed

    Monyeki, K D; Toriola, A L; de Ridder, J H; Kemper, H C G; Steyn, N P; Nthangeni, M E; Twisk, J W R; van Lenthe, F J

    2002-01-01

    In 1996, a mixed Ellisras longitudinal study (ELS) was initiated to assess the stability of somatotypes in 408 girls who comprised 99 pre-school and 309 primary school children in Ellisras rural area in the Northern Province of South Africa. The children's somatotype was assessed using the Heath-Carter anthropometric method. Anthropometric dimensions were taken according to the protocol of the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK). The most stable pre-school and primary school girl had migratory distances (MDs) of 2.6 and 3.4, respectively, while the least stable pre-school and primary school girl had MDs of 17.9 and 24.4, respectively. The mean somatotype of the pre-school children was mesomorph-ectomorph throughout the complete age range, while the mean somatotype of primary school girls was mesomorph-ectomorph for all the age groups except for the 9.5 years group at which it was in the balanced ectomorph. The inter-age partial correlations for endomorphy and ectomorphy were high and significant, but insignificant with regard to mesomorphy.

  10. Do Computers Improve the Drawing of a Geometrical Figure for 10 Year-Old Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Perrine; Velay, Jean-Luc

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, computer aided design (CAD) is widely used by designers. Would children learn to draw more easily and more efficiently if they were taught with computerised tools? To answer this question, we made an experiment designed to compare two methods for children to do the same drawing: the classical "pen and paper" method and a CAD…

  11. Bilateral Femoral Neck Stress Fracture in Child: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gun-Woo; Yoon, Taek-Rim; Eshnazarovich, Eshnazarov Kamolhuja

    2016-01-01

    A femoral neck stress fracture in child is rare, particularly in bilateral case. It is easy to miss initially or may be misdiagnosed. The authors experienced a case of bilateral femoral neck stress fracture in a 10-year-old boy with bilateral hip. The patient was successfully healed by conservative treatment. We report this rare case with a review of the literature. A femoral neck stress fracture should be included in the differential diagnosis in children who present with sustained hip or groin pain. PMID:27777920

  12. Anesthetic Implications in a Child with Crouzon Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ajeet; Goel, Nitika; Sinha, Chandni; Singh, Abhishek

    2017-01-01

    Crouzon syndrome (CS) is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder characterized by craniofacial dysostosis. Premature fusion of skull base leads to midfacial hypoplasia, shallow orbit, mandibular prognathism, overcrowding of upper teeth, high-arched palate, and upper airway obstruction. It is important for anesthesiologists managing such patients to recognize and avoid potential airway complications. Here, we present a case of a 10-year-old child with CS posted for ptosis correction surgery. Use of peripheral nerve blocks to cut down opioid requirement, inhalational induction, and maintenance are key aspects in successful management of such cases. PMID:28298794

  13. Measurement characteristics of the childhood Asthma-Control Test and a shortened, child-only version

    PubMed Central

    Bime, Christian; Gerald, Joe K; Wei, Christine Y; Holbrook, Janet T; Teague, William G; Wise, Robert A; Gerald, Lynn B

    2016-01-01

    The childhood Asthma-Control Test (C-ACT) is validated for assessing asthma control in paediatric asthma. Among children aged 4–11 years, the C-ACT requires the simultaneous presence of both parent and child. There is an unmet need for a tool that can be used to assess asthma control in children when parents or caregivers are not present such as in the school setting. We assessed the psychometric properties and estimated the minimally important difference (MID) of the C-ACT and a modified version, comprising only the child responses (C-ACTc). Asthma patients aged 6–11 years (n=161) from a previously completed multicenter randomised trial were included. Demographic information, spirometry and questionnaire scores were obtained at baseline and during follow-up. Participants or their guardians kept a daily asthma diary. Internal consistency reliabilities of the C-ACT and C-ACTc were 0.76 and 0.67 (Cronbach’s α), respectively. Test–retest reliabilities of the C-ACT and C-ACTc were 0.72 and 0.66 (intra-class correlation), respectively. Significant correlations were noted between C-ACT scores and ACQ scores (Spearman’s correlation r=−0.56, 95% CI (−0.66, −0.44), P<0.001). The strength of the correlation between C-ACTc scores and ACQ scores was weaker (Spearman’s correlation r=−0.46, 95% CI (−0.58, −0.33), P<0.001). We estimated the MID for the C-ACT and C-ACTc to be 2 points and 1 point, respectively. Among asthma patients aged 6–11 years, the C-ACT had good psychometric properties. The psychometric properties of a shortened child-only version (C-ACTc), although acceptable, are not as strong. PMID:27763622

  14. Differences in American College Test Performance after Seven Years of No Child Left Behind Reform in an Urban School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Craig Alan

    2010-01-01

    This study addressed the effectiveness of No Child Left Behind reform in an urban school district. The researcher obtained American College Test composite scores from a diverse, urban, public school district and a private school within the same city for years 2001 and 2008. Statistical tests were run to determine if seniors' scores were…

  15. Growing up with No Child Left Behind: An Initial Assessment of the Understanding of College Students' Knowledge of Accountability Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zilberberg, Anna; Anderson, Robin D.; Swerdzewski, Peter J.; Finney, Sara J.; Marsh, Kimberly R.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the extensive testing for federal accountability mandates, college students' understanding of federal accountability testing (e.g., No Child Left Behind, Race to the Top, Spellings) has not been examined, resulting in a lack of knowledge regarding how such understanding (or lack thereof) impacts college students' behavior on accountability…

  16. Testing aspects of Carl Rogers's theory of creative environments: child-rearing antecedents of creative potential in young adolescents.

    PubMed

    Harrington, D M; Block, J H; Block, J

    1987-04-01

    Longitudinal data involving 106 children and their parents were used to test preschool child-rearing implications of Carl Rogers's theory of creativity-fostering environments (Rogers, 1954). Indices were developed for each parent and for each mother-father combination that reflected the degree to which the parents' child-rearing practices and interactions with their preschool children matched the recommendations implicit in Rogers's description of a creativity-fostering environment. The three indices of Rogers-prescribed child-rearing practices each correlated positively (rs = .38 to .46) and significantly (all ps less than .001) with a composite index of creative potential in early adolescence, 7 to 11 years later. Rogers-prescribed preschool child-rearing practices also emerged as significant antecedents of adolescent creative potential in regression/path analyses that held constant the influence of sex, preschool intelligence, and preschool creative potential. Theoretical and methodological aspects of the study are discussed.

  17. Performance evaluation of child safety seats in far-side lateral sled tests at varying speeds.

    PubMed

    Ghati, Yoganand; Menon, Rajiv A; Milone, Mary; Lankarani, Hamid; Oliveres, Gerardo

    2009-10-01

    Protection of children in Child Safety Seats (CSS) in side impact crashes has been a topic of recent studies. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of CSS in far-side impacts through a series of sled tests conducted at varying test speeds. Forty eight sled tests were conducted at three speeds (24 km/h, 29 km/h and 36 km/h), under two different CSS attachment conditions (LATCH and seat belt attached), using rear facing and forward facing CSS from four different manufacturers. Analyses were conducted to examine head retention within the CSS, velocity of the head as it passes an imaginary plane (cross over into other occupant space or door), lateral trajectory of the head and knee; head, chest and pelvis accelerations; neck and lumbar loads and moments. In addition to these parameters, the CSS were visually inspected for structural integrity after each test. Results from these sled tests highlighted the differential performance of CSS in far-side impacts. During the tests, all CSS experienced significant lateral movement irrespective of attachment type. In rear facing CSS tests, one of the designs failed as the seat disengaged from its base. In forward facing CSS tests, it was observed that the seat belt attached CSS experienced less rotational motion than the LATCH attached CSS. ATD head retention within the seat was not achieved with either CSS attachments at any speed. The findings from this study augment the current efforts to define regulatory sled setup procedure for far-side impact crashes involving children in CSS, which currently does not exist and will eventually further the protection of children in automobiles.

  18. Nurses' intention to report child abuse in Taiwan: a test of the theory of planned behavior.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jui-Ying; Wu, Yow-Wu B

    2005-08-01

    The purposes of this study were to identify factors associated with nurses' intention to report suspected child abuse in Taiwan, and to determine the empirical adequacy of the extended theory of planned behavior (TPB) to explain nurses' intention to report child abuse. A stratified quota sampling technique was used to select registered nurses in emergency rooms, psychiatric units, and pediatric units in Taiwan. A total of 1,362 questionnaires from 1,617 nurses were used for the analyses. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that nurses' attitudes toward reporting child abuse, perceived behavioral control, subjective norms, and knowledge of the child abuse and reporting law explained 85% to 91% of the variance in nurses' intention to report child abuse for the less severe and severe child abuse cases in vignettes, respectively. The findings support the use of the extended TPB in identifying factors associated with nurses' intention to report child abuse in Taiwan.

  19. Testing a theory of organizational culture, climate and youth outcomes in child welfare systems: a United States national study.

    PubMed

    Williams, Nathaniel J; Glisson, Charles

    2014-04-01

    Theories of organizational culture and climate (OCC) applied to child welfare systems hypothesize that strategic dimensions of organizational culture influence organizational climate and that OCC explains system variance in youth outcomes. This study provides the first structural test of the direct and indirect effects of culture and climate on youth outcomes in a national sample of child welfare systems and isolates specific culture and climate dimensions most associated with youth outcomes. The study applies multilevel path analysis (ML-PA) to a U.S. nationwide sample of 2,380 youth in 73 child welfare systems participating in the second National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being. Youths were selected in a national, two-stage, stratified random sample design. Youths' psychosocial functioning was assessed by caregivers' responses to the Child Behavior Checklist at intake and at 18-month follow-up. OCC was assessed by front-line caseworkers' (N=1,740) aggregated responses to the Organizational Social Context measure. Comparison of the a priori and subsequent trimmed models confirmed a reduced model that excluded rigid organizational culture and explained 70% of the system variance in youth outcomes. Controlling for youth- and system-level covariates, systems with more proficient and less resistant organizational cultures exhibited more functional, more engaged, and less stressful climates. Systems with more proficient cultures and more engaged, more functional, and more stressful climates exhibited superior youth outcomes. Findings suggest child welfare administrators can support service effectiveness with interventions that improve specific dimensions of culture and climate.

  20. Developing and testing a framework for evaluating the quality of comprehensive family assessment in child welfare.

    PubMed

    Smithgall, Cheryl; Jarpe-Ratner, Elizabeth; Gnedko-Berry, Natalya; Mason, Sally

    2015-06-01

    Over the last decade, Comprehensive Family Assessment (CFA) has become a best practice in child welfare. Comprehensive Family Assessments go beyond risk assessment to develop a full picture of the child's and family's situation. When appropriately synthesized, assessment information can lead to a clear articulation of the patterns of child or family functioning which are related to child abuse and maltreatment or which can be strengthened to facilitate change. This study defines and provides concrete examples of dimensions of quality in child welfare assessment reports that are consistent with the CFA guidelines and best practices embraced by child welfare agencies, courts, and other key stakeholders. Leveraging a random assignment design, the study compares the quality of reports written by a caseworker alone versus those written by a caseworker paired with a licensed Integrated Assessment (IA) screener. Findings are discussed in the context of the dual professional model and factors contributing to the timely completion of high quality assessment reports.

  1. Testing multicultural robustness of the Child Behavior Checklist in a national epidemiological sample in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Viola, Laura; Garrido, Gabriela; Rescorla, Leslie

    2011-08-01

    Comparisons of Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) scores from 31 societies (Rescorla et al. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders 15:13-142 2007) supported the instrument's multicultural robustness, but none of these societies was in South America. The present study tested the multicultural robustness of the 2001 CBCL using data from a national epidemiological survey in Uruguay. Participants were 1,374 6- to 11-year-olds recruited through 65 schools nationwide; 1,098 (80%) had received no mental health or special education services in the past year (non-referred group), whereas 276 (referred group) had been referred for mental health services, had repeated ≥ 2 grades, or had significant developmental disabilities. Mean item ratings, factor structure, and scale internal consistencies were very similar to findings reported by Rescorla et al. (Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders 15:13-142 2007) and Ivanova et al. (Journal of Clinical Child and Adoloescent Psychology 36: 405-417 2007). Children from low SES school environments obtained higher problem scores, especially in the referred group. Gender, age, and referral status effects paralleled those in the U.S. Non-referred children obtained somewhat higher mean problem scores in Uruguay than in the U.S., but mean score differences between non-referred and referred children were smaller in Uruguay than the U.S. Findings supporting the CBCL's multicultural robustness in a South American country extend the generalizability of findings reported by Rescorla et al. (Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders 15:13-142 2007) for 31 societies.

  2. Some Effects of Testing Procedure on Divergent Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholls, John G.

    1971-01-01

    Game-like and test-like methods of divergent thinking assessment were compared with 10-year olds. Effects of method on score correlates were sufficient to allow the possibility that method may be implicated in outcomes of many studies of divergent thinking. (Author)

  3. An "Appropriate" Test Taker: The Everyday Classroom during the National Testing Period in School Year Three in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silfver, Eva; Sjöberg, Gunnar; Bagger, Anette

    2016-01-01

    This article draws on data from a bigger project where we explore what is taking place in the daily life of classrooms during the national testing period in mathematics for 9-10-year-old children in Sweden. Data were produced by observations, video-recordings and interviews with children. The article shows on a micro level how assessment trends,…

  4. High-Stakes Testing under the No Child Left Behind Act: How Has It Impacted School Culture?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tingey, RaShel Anderson

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of high-stakes testing under the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act on school culture. Individual interviews and focus groups were conducted with first grade through sixth grade teachers and principals from two of Nebo School District's schools located in Utah. Their responses were categorized…

  5. Amidst the Test: The Lived Experience of Teaching "under" No Child Left Behind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodward, Barbara Agard

    2011-01-01

    In this hermeneutic phenomenological inquiry I explore the lived experience of public school teachers teaching amidst the federal law entitled No Child Left Behind. My research question wonders, "What is the lived experience of teaching under the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB)?" My exploration relies heavily upon the work of Ted…

  6. Manual for Replication of the Mother-Child Home Program. (Preliminary Version, for Field-Testing).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levenstein, Phyllis; And Others

    Information to assist local institutions in operating Mother-Child Programs i s provided in this manual as part of the Verbal Interaction Project. Following an introduction, the manual discusses the following topics: (1) Ingredients and Procedures of a Mother-Child Program, (2) Major Program Components, (3) Administrative and Other Practical…

  7. Automation Analysis System of Child's Development Test and Multi-Viewpoints Input Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiura, Akihiko; Kirana, Rini Pura; Yonemura, Keiichi

    This study presents a simple method for examining a child's development by automatically analyzing the child's reactions while feedback images are displayed for 2 min. This computer analysis recognizes some features of an image of the child's reactions. This system can perform that analysis in a shorter time than conventional methods, as typified by the Enjoji-method. Moreover, evaluation results of our system verify its validity compared to conventional methods. This system is applicable to achieve automatic analyses through a network to thereby realize telemedicine as part of a Multimedia Communication System.

  8. Perception and Production in Child Phonology: The Testing of Four Hypotheses. Papers and Reports on Child Language Development, No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Mary Louise

    1974-01-01

    Perception and production data were collected from 28 children, ages 1 year 8 months to 3 years 11 months to test four specific hypotheses on the acquisition of initial fricatives and glides in English, based on the assumptions that perception precedes production and unmarked precedes marked. Perception data were collected by the Shvachkin-Garnica…

  9. Disobedient Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... of growing up and testing adult guidelines and expectations. It is one way for children to learn ... At times, it is due to unreasonable parental expectations. Or it might be related to the child's ...

  10. Child Abuse: Its Relationship to Birthweight, Apgar Score, and Developmental Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldson, Edward; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The relationship of child abuse to birthweight, five-minute Apgar score, and performance on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development was studied in 75 low socioeconomic infants (ages 2-30 months). Journal availability: see EC 111 042. (Author)

  11. Brief Report: The Smiles of a Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder during an Animal-Assisted Activity May Facilitate Social Positive Behaviors--Quantitative Analysis with Smile-Detecting Interface

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funahashi, Atsushi; Gruebler, Anna; Aoki, Takeshi; Kadone, Hideki; Suzuki, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    We quantitatively measured the smiles of a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD-C) using a wearable interface device during animal-assisted activities (AAA) for 7 months, and compared the results with a control of the same age. The participant was a 10-year-old boy with ASD, and a normal healthy boy of the same age was the control. They…

  12. The co-existence of pure red cell aplasia and autoimmune haemolytic anaemia in a child with malignant lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Suhair Abbas; Hassan, Rosline

    2005-07-01

    The association between pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) and autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (AIHA) has rarely been reported. PRCA represents an isolated process, characterized by normochromic, normocytic anaemia, reticulocytopenia and erythroid hypoplasia in the bone marrow, and may be attributable to infection with Parvo virus B19. AIHA is a condition in which peripheral red blood cell destruction is induced by the presence of autoantibodies. However, the co-existence of these conditions is very rare, since only few cases of PRCA and AIHA associated with malignant lymphoma (ML) were reported. A case of PRCA and AIHA was detected and described, for the first time in Malaysia, in a 10-year-old child suffering from non-Hodgkin lymphoma from the Department of Haematology, Universiti Sains Malaysia. Following the induction course of chemotherapy, the patient turned anaemic, with tendency for red cell clumping, reticulocytopenia and anisocytosis. AIHA was suspected in spite of the weak Coomb reaction obtained. The bone marrow aspirate revealed the presence of giant pronormoblasts, suggesting PRCA. Serological tests for Parvo virus and other viruses were negative.

  13. Political violence and child adjustment: longitudinal tests of sectarian antisocial behavior, family conflict, and insecurity as explanatory pathways.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Edward M; Merrilees, Christine E; Schermerhorn, Alice C; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the impact of political violence on child maladjustment is a matter of international concern. Recent research has advanced a social ecological explanation for relations between political violence and child adjustment. However, conclusions are qualified by the lack of longitudinal tests. Toward examining pathways longitudinally, mothers and their adolescents (M = 12.33, SD = 1.78, at Time 1) from 2-parent families in Catholic and Protestant working class neighborhoods in Belfast, Northern Ireland, completed measures assessing multiple levels of a social ecological model. Utilizing autoregressive controls, a 3-wave longitudinal model test (T1, n = 299; T2, n = 248; T3, n = 197) supported a specific pathway linking sectarian community violence, family conflict, children's insecurity about family relationships, and adjustment problems.

  14. Does My Baby Really Look Like Me? Using Tests for Resemblance between Parent and Child to Teach Topics in Categorical Data Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froelich, Amy G.; Nettleton, Dan

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we present a study to test whether neutral observers perceive a resemblance between a parent and a child. We demonstrate the general approach for two separate parent/ child pairs using survey data collected from introductory statistics students serving as neutral observers. We then present ideas for incorporating the study design…

  15. Political Violence and Child Adjustment in Northern Ireland: Testing Pathways in a Social-Ecological Model Including Single- and Two-Parent Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, E. Mark; Schermerhorn, Alice C.; Merrilees, Christine E.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2010-01-01

    Moving beyond simply documenting that political violence negatively impacts children, we tested a social-ecological hypothesis for relations between political violence and child outcomes. Participants were 700 mother-child (M = 12.1 years, SD = 1.8) dyads from 18 working-class, socially deprived areas in Belfast, Northern Ireland, including…

  16. Effects of defendant sexual orientation on jurors' perceptions of child sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Tisha R A; Bottoms, Bette L

    2009-02-01

    We examined mock jurors' reactions to a sexual abuse case involving a male teacher and a 10-year-old child. Because gay men are sometimes stereotyped as child molesters, we portrayed defendant sexual orientation as either gay or straight and the victim as either a boy or girl. Jurors made more pro-prosecution decisions in cases involving a gay versus straight defendant, particularly when the victim was a boy. In boy-victim cases, jurors' emotional feelings of moral outrage toward the defendant mediated these effects. On average, women jurors were more pro-prosecution than were men. Results have implications for understanding social perceptions of cross- and same-gender child sexual abuse and juror decision making in child sexual assault cases perpetrated by homosexual and heterosexual men.

  17. Late endocarditis of Amplatzer atrial septal occluder device in a child

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Neerod K; Kiraly, Laszlo; Murala, John SK; Tamas, Csaba; Talo, Haitham; El Badaoui, Hazem; Tofeig, Magdi; Mendonca, Malaika; Sajwani, Sameer; Thomas, Mary A; Al Doory, Sura Ahmed; Khan, Mohammad D

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial endocarditis following atrial septal defect closure using Amplatzer device in a child is extremely rare. We report a 10-year-old girl who developed late bacterial endocarditis, 6 years after placement of an Amplatzer atrial septal occluder device. Successful explantation of the device and repair of the resultant septal defect was carried out using a homograft patch. The rare occurrence of this entity prompted us to highlight the importance of long-term follow up, review the management and explore preventive strategies for similar patients who have multiple co-morbidities and a cardiac device. A high index of suspicion is warranted particularly in pediatric patients. PMID:26516426

  18. Late endocarditis of Amplatzer atrial septal occluder device in a child.

    PubMed

    Jha, Neerod K; Kiraly, Laszlo; Murala, John Sk; Tamas, Csaba; Talo, Haitham; El Badaoui, Hazem; Tofeig, Magdi; Mendonca, Malaika; Sajwani, Sameer; Thomas, Mary A; Al Doory, Sura Ahmed; Khan, Mohammad D

    2015-10-26

    Bacterial endocarditis following atrial septal defect closure using Amplatzer device in a child is extremely rare. We report a 10-year-old girl who developed late bacterial endocarditis, 6 years after placement of an Amplatzer atrial septal occluder device. Successful explantation of the device and repair of the resultant septal defect was carried out using a homograft patch. The rare occurrence of this entity prompted us to highlight the importance of long-term follow up, review the management and explore preventive strategies for similar patients who have multiple co-morbidities and a cardiac device. A high index of suspicion is warranted particularly in pediatric patients.

  19. Child who presented with hematohidrosis (sweating blood) with oppositional defiant disorder

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Manjiri; Indla, Vishal; Kumar, Varinder; Reddy, Indla Ramasubba

    2014-01-01

    Hematohidrosis is a very rare condition of sweating blood. A child's case who presented to us with hematohidrosis is reported. There are only few reports in the literature. A 10-year-old boy presented to our hospital with a history of repeated episodes of oozing of blood from navel, eyes, ear lobules, and nose. During the examination, it disappeared as soon as it was mopped leaving behind no sign of trauma only to reappear within a few seconds. Bleeding time, clotting time, and prothrombin time were normal. Patient was diagnosed with hematohidrosis and oppositional defiant disorder clinically. Management of this condition at our center is discussed below. PMID:25316941

  20. Disseminated varicella zoster virus in an immunized child as the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-defining illness.

    PubMed

    Chilek, Katherine; Routhouska, Shannon; Tamburro, Joan

    2010-01-01

    Varicella zoster virus (VZV) immunization aids in the prevention of future VZV infections in immunocompetent patients; however, severely immunocompromised patients remain at increased risk of VZV infection. We report a case of a 10-year-old boy previously immunized to Varicella who presented with herpes zoster with hematogenous dissemination as the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome-defining illness. Disseminated VZV is more commonly seen in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals with more advanced disease, as was the case with our patient. Disseminated VZV infection in a previously immunized child should raise suspicion for underlying immunosuppression.

  1. Comparison of the Koppitz and Watkins Scoring Systems for the Bender Gestalt Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Cris W.; Lanak, Brenda

    1985-01-01

    The Bender Gestalt Test was administered to 25 children (7-10 years old) referred for neuropsychological assessment and scored using the Koppitz system and the Watkins system. Although the scores obtained using the two different sets of criteria were highly correlated, the Watkins rules produced generally better performance. (Author/CL)

  2. A Factorial Study of the Carrow Auditory-Visual Abilities Test with Normal and Clinical Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodward, Paul J.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    A factor analysis of the Carrow Auditory-Visual Abilities Test identified common factors in a population of 1,032 nondisabled 4- through 10-year-olds and a clinical population of language-disordered or learning-disabled peers with auditory and/or visual perception problems. Most subtests fell into factors attributed to auditory or visual…

  3. Antenatal testing and the subsequent birth of a child with Down syndrome: a phenomenological study of parents' experiences.

    PubMed

    Sooben, Roja D

    2010-06-01

    The objective was to gain a deeper insight into the lived experiences of parents during antenatal testing for Down syndrome and the subsequent birth of their baby. A phenomenological research inquiry used unstructured interviews and thematic framework analysis. Conversations between parents and midwives about Down syndrome, when they occurred, were brief, functional and had a biomedical problem orientation. Antenatal screening failed to meet parents' expectations of better preparation for birth. After birth, children's 'differentness' rather than health needs was the main focus of care interventions. The inquiry revealed the 'invisibility' of the potential child with Down syndrome. Professionals in maternity care services must be equipped with appropriate knowledge about Down syndrome in order to better support parents. Such preparation must include a balanced view of the future of the child, consistent with the principle of reproductive autonomy. Appropriate support after birth is also essential in helping parents to adapt to their new situation.

  4. No Child Left Behind: A Legislative Catalyst for Superintendent Action to Eliminate Test-Score Gaps?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Whitney H.

    2008-01-01

    Proponents of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) hail it as vital legislation that supports a civil rights agenda because of explicit recognition that achievement gaps are unacceptable. One way to make sense of NCLB's impact on school divisions and to understand whether NCLB recognizes the complexity of why minority and low-socioeconomic-background…

  5. It Takes a Village to Deliver and Test Child and Family-Focused Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Mary M.; Gopalan, Geetha; Franco, Lydia M.; Kalogerogiannis, Kosta; Umpierre, Mari; Olshtain-Mann, Orly; Bannon, William; Elwyn, Laura; Goldstein, Leah

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this article is to highlight the benefits of collaboration in child focused mental health services research. Method: Three unique research projects are described. These projects address the mental health needs of vulnerable, urban, minority children and their families. In each one, service delivery was codesigned,…

  6. Responses of the Q6/Q6s ATD Positioned in Booster Seats in the Far-Side Seat Location of Side Impact Passenger Car and Sled Tests.

    PubMed

    Tylko, Suzanne; Bohman, Katarina; Bussières, Alain

    2015-11-01

    Passenger car side impact crash tests and sled tests were conducted to investigate the influence of booster seats, near-side occupant characteristics and vehicle interiors on the responses of the Q6/Q6s child ATD positioned in the rear, far-side seating location. Data from nine side impact sled tests simulating a EuroNCAP AEMD barrier test were analyzed with data obtained from 44 side impact crash tests. The crash tests included: FMVSS 214 and IIHS MDB, moving car-to-stationary car and moving car-to-moving car. A Q6 or prototype Q6s ATD was seated on the far-side, using a variety of low and high back booster seats. Head and chest responses were recorded and ATD motions were tracked with high-speed videos. The vehicle lateral accelerations resulting from MDB tests were characterized by a much earlier and more rapid rise to peak than in tests where the bullet was another car. The near-side seating position was occupied by a Hybrid III 10-year-old ATD in the sled tests, and a rear or front facing child restraint or a 5th percentile side impact ATD in the crash tests. Head impacts occurred more frequently in vehicles where a forward facing child restraint was present behind the driver seat for both the low and high back booster seats. Pretensioners were found to reduce lateral head displacements in all sled test configurations but the greatest reduction in lateral excursion was obtained with a high back booster seat secured with LATCH and tested in combination with pretensioners.

  7. A Baseline Evaluation Procedure for Federal Standards on the Prevention, Identification and Treatment of Child Abuse and Neglect. Volume I: Development, Field Testing and Recommended Procedure. Volume II: State of Washington Field Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaberg, James R.; And Others

    The National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect funded a project to develop and field-test an evaluation procedure that could be used by interested states or communities to determine the extent of congruity between (1) their provisions for responding to the problems of child abuse and neglect, and (2) provisions prescribed in the Federal Standards…

  8. Successful anesthetic management of a child with blepharophimosis syndrome and atrial septal defect for reconstructive ocular surgery

    PubMed Central

    Baidya, Dalim Kumar; Khanna, Puneet; Kumar, Anil; Shende, Dilip

    2011-01-01

    Blepharophimosis syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by eyelid malformation, involvement of reproductive system and abnormal facial morphology leading to difficult airway. We report a rare association of blepharophimosis syndrome and atrial septal defect in a 10-year-old girl who came for reconstruction surgery of eyelid. The child had dyspnea on exertion. Atrial septal defect was identified preoperatively by clinical examination and echocardiography. Anesthesia management was complicated by failure in laryngeal mask airway placement and Cobra perilaryngeal airway was subsequently used. PMID:22096296

  9. Testing specificity among parents' depressive symptoms, parenting, and child internalizing and externalizing symptoms.

    PubMed

    Gruhn, Meredith A; Dunbar, Jennifer P; Watson, Kelly H; Reising, Michelle M; McKee, Laura; Forehand, Rex; Cole, David A; Compas, Bruce E

    2016-04-01

    The present study examined the specificity in relations between observed withdrawn and intrusive parenting behaviors and children's internalizing and externalizing symptoms in an at-risk sample of children (ages 9 to 15 years old) of parents with a history of depression (N = 180). Given past findings that parental depression and parenting behaviors may differentially impact boys and girls, gender was examined as a moderator of the relations between these factors and child adjustment. Correlation and linear regression analyses showed that parental depressive symptoms were significantly related to withdrawn parenting for parents of boys and girls and to intrusive parenting for parents of boys only. When controlling for intrusive parenting, preliminary analyses demonstrated that parental depressive symptoms were significantly related to withdrawn parenting for parents of boys, and this association approached significance for parents of girls. Specificity analyses yielded that, when controlling for the other type of problem (i.e., internalizing or externalizing), withdrawn parenting specifically predicted externalizing problems but not internalizing problems in girls. No evidence of specificity was found for boys in this sample, suggesting that impaired parenting behaviors are diffusely related to both internalizing and externalizing symptoms for boys. Overall, results highlight the importance of accounting for child gender and suggest that targeting improvement in parenting behaviors and the reduction of depressive symptoms in interventions with parents with a history of depression may have potential to reduce internalizing and externalizing problems in this high-risk population.

  10. Testing Specificity Among Parents’ Depressive Symptoms, Parenting, and Child Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Gruhn, Meredith A.; Dunbar, Jennifer P.; Watson, Kelly H.; Reising, Michelle M.; McKee, Laura; Forehand, Rex; Cole, David A.; Compas, Bruce E.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the specificity in relations between observed withdrawn and intrusive parenting behaviors and children's internalizing and externalizing symptoms in an at risk sample of children (ages 9 to 15-years-old) of parents with a history of depression (N = 180). Given past findings that parental depression and parenting behaviors may differentially impact boys and girls, gender was examined as a moderator of the relations between these factors and child adjustment. Correlation and linear regression analyses showed that parental depressive symptoms were significantly related to withdrawn parenting for parents of boys and girls and to intrusive parenting for parents of boys only. When controlling for intrusive parenting, preliminary analyses demonstrated that parental depressive symptoms were significantly related to withdrawn parenting for parents of boys, and this association approached significance for parents of girls. Specificity analyses yielded that, when controlling for the other type of problem (i.e., internalizing or externalizing), withdrawn parenting specifically predicted externalizing problems but not internalizing problems in girls. No evidence of specificity was found for boys in this sample, suggesting that impaired parenting behaviors are diffusely related to both internalizing and externalizing symptoms for boys. Overall, results highlight the importance of accounting for child gender and suggest that targeting improvement in parenting behaviors and the reduction of depressive symptoms in interventions with parents with a history of depression may have potential to reduce internalizing and externalizing problems in this high-risk population. PMID:26882467

  11. Frontal sled tests comparing rear and forward facing child restraints with 1-3 year old dummies.

    PubMed

    Sherwood, C P; Crandall, J R

    2007-01-01

    Although most countries recommend transitioning children from rear facing (RF) to forward facing (FF) child restraints at one year of age, Swedish data suggests that RF restraints are more effective. The objective of this study was to compare RF and FF orientations in frontal sled tests. Four dummies (CRABI 12 mo, Q1.5, Hybrid III 3 yr, and Q3) were used to represent children from 1 to 3 years of age. Restraint systems tested included both 1) LATCH and 2) rigid ISOFIX with support leg designs. Rear facing restraints with support legs provided the best results for all injury measures, while RF restraints in general provided the lowest chest displacements and neck loads.

  12. Political violence and child adjustment in Northern Ireland: Testing pathways in a social-ecological model including single-and two-parent families.

    PubMed

    Cummings, E Mark; Schermerhorn, Alice C; Merrilees, Christine E; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2010-07-01

    Moving beyond simply documenting that political violence negatively impacts children, we tested a social-ecological hypothesis for relations between political violence and child outcomes. Participants were 700 mother-child (M = 12.1 years, SD = 1.8) dyads from 18 working-class, socially deprived areas in Belfast, Northern Ireland, including single- and two-parent families. Sectarian community violence was associated with elevated family conflict and children's reduced security about multiple aspects of their social environment (i.e., family, parent-child relations, and community), with links to child adjustment problems and reductions in prosocial behavior. By comparison, and consistent with expectations, links with negative family processes, child regulatory problems, and child outcomes were less consistent for nonsectarian community violence. Support was found for a social-ecological model for relations between political violence and child outcomes among both single- and two-parent families, with evidence that emotional security and adjustment problems were more negatively affected in single-parent families. The implications for understanding social ecologies of political violence and children's functioning are discussed.

  13. Novel Metaphors Comprehension in a Child with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Study on Assessment and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Melogno, Sergio; Pinto, Maria A; Orsolini, Margherita

    2016-01-01

    Until the first decade of the current millennium, the literature on metaphor comprehension highlighted typical difficulties in children with high-functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). More recently, some scholars have devised special programs for enhancing the capability of understanding metaphors in these children. This article presents a case study based on a treatment aiming at enhancing novel metaphor comprehension in a high-functioning child with ASD. M.M., a pseudoacronym for an 8;10 year-old boy, diagnosed with high-functioning ASD, was first assessed with a metaphor comprehension test. This testing (at time T0) highlighted a rigid refusal of metaphors and a marked tendency toward literal interpretation. A baseline treatment (8 sessions of 45-60 min each, twice a week) was implemented, based on a series of recognition, denomination and emotion comprehension activities. M.M.'s metaphor comprehension was assessed a second time (T1), followed by the experimental treatment (same duration and frequency as the first one), specifically focused on metaphor comprehension. Finally, a third assessment of metaphor comprehension took place (T2), followed by a last assessment 4 months later (follow-up, T3). The comparison between the performances at the metaphor comprehension test across the four assessments, from T0 to T3, showed that the baseline treatment produced no effect at all, whereas a significant improvement appeared at T2, just after the experimental treatment, later confirmed at the follow up. Both quantitative and qualitative results showed an evident improvement in the way M.M. handled the semantic issues posed by the metaphors of the test, in line with the strategies he was taught during the treatment.

  14. Novel Metaphors Comprehension in a Child with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Study on Assessment and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Melogno, Sergio; Pinto, Maria A.; Orsolini, Margherita

    2017-01-01

    Until the first decade of the current millennium, the literature on metaphor comprehension highlighted typical difficulties in children with high-functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). More recently, some scholars have devised special programs for enhancing the capability of understanding metaphors in these children. This article presents a case study based on a treatment aiming at enhancing novel metaphor comprehension in a high-functioning child with ASD. M.M., a pseudoacronym for an 8;10 year-old boy, diagnosed with high-functioning ASD, was first assessed with a metaphor comprehension test. This testing (at time T0) highlighted a rigid refusal of metaphors and a marked tendency toward literal interpretation. A baseline treatment (8 sessions of 45–60 min each, twice a week) was implemented, based on a series of recognition, denomination and emotion comprehension activities. M.M.'s metaphor comprehension was assessed a second time (T1), followed by the experimental treatment (same duration and frequency as the first one), specifically focused on metaphor comprehension. Finally, a third assessment of metaphor comprehension took place (T2), followed by a last assessment 4 months later (follow-up, T3). The comparison between the performances at the metaphor comprehension test across the four assessments, from T0 to T3, showed that the baseline treatment produced no effect at all, whereas a significant improvement appeared at T2, just after the experimental treatment, later confirmed at the follow up. Both quantitative and qualitative results showed an evident improvement in the way M.M. handled the semantic issues posed by the metaphors of the test, in line with the strategies he was taught during the treatment. PMID:28101069

  15. The Impact of the Correlation between the No Child Left Behind Act's High Stakes Testing and the High Drop-Out Rates of Minority Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walden, Lavada M.; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2008-01-01

    The author looks at critical dialogue surrounding the causes for the alarming high numbers of high school dropouts in states that use high stakes standardized testing mandated by the No Child Left Behind Act, and investigates the perceived correlations between high stakes testing and high numbers of high school dropouts of minority students.

  16. Child maltreatment, parent alcohol and drug-related problems, polydrug problems, and parenting practices: a test of gender differences and four theoretical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Locke, Thomas F; Newcomb, Michael

    2004-03-01

    The authors tested how adverse childhood experiences (child maltreatment and parent alcohol- and drug-related problems) and adult polydrug use (as a mediator) predict poor parenting in a community sample (237 mothers and 81 fathers). These relationships were framed within several theoretical perspectives, including observational learning, impaired functioning, self-medication, and parentification-pseudomaturity. Structural models revealed that child maltreatment predicted poor parenting practices among mothers. Parent alcohol- and drug-related problems had an indirect detrimental influence on mothers' parenting and practices through self-drug problems. Among fathers, emotional neglect experienced as a child predicted lack of parental warmth more parental neglect, and sexual abuse experienced as a child predicted a rejecting style of parenting.

  17. Fatal Toxic Megacolon in a Child of Hirschsprung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sathe, Pragati A; Taware, Annapurna C; Surve, Ketaki M

    2016-01-01

    Hirschsprung disease (HD) in late childhood is uncommon and often undiagnosed or misdiagnosed. However, in a patient with Hirschsprung disease, of greater significance is the occurrence of life threatening enterocolitis. In its more severe form, this is associated with gross dilatation of the colon and profound toxaemia, the combination being termed toxic megacolon. Because of its relative rarity, we report a case of 10-year-old child who had a history of chronic constipation for nine years. He later developed complications and presented to the emergency department with toxic megacolon, a rare occurrence due to neglected constipation. Though patient’s condition was unstable, laparotomy with right transverse colostomy was performed after appropriate intravenous rehydration. The dilated bowel loops were decompressed and intraoperatively multiple site biopsies were done. Histopathological examination of transition zone biopsy revealed absence of ganglion cells suggestive of Hirschsprung disease. But few hours later patient’s condition worsened and he succumbed. PMID:28208866

  18. [The 'ideal therapy process': testing a new approach for assessing process quality in inpatient parent-child facilities].

    PubMed

    Musekamp, G; Lukasczik, M; Gerlich, C; Saupe-Heide, M; Löbmann, R; Vogel, H; Neuderth, S

    2014-12-01

    Instruments for external quality assurance in inpatient parent-child rehabilitation and prevention facilities were developed in 2 projects. For the assessment of process quality, we sought an alternative test to the peer review procedure which also places a stronger emphasis on patient perspectives. The aim was to define an "ideal process" as a standard, to develop quantifiable criteria, and to test a multimethod approach which involves different data levels. On the basis of different sources, the "ideal process" for parent-child rehabilitation and prevention and associated criteria were defined by involving an accompanying expert group during a consensus process. Criteria were assessed on different levels: on the rehabilitation/prevention centre level, a questionnaire of process-relevant structural features was used; on the patient level, a case-related routine documentation filled in by clinic staff and an incident-related patient questionnaire were applied. Data were collected in 37 centres (prevention: 19; rehabilitation: 11; 7 offering both types of programmes). Analysis of patient-related data is based on a sample of 1 513 prevention patients and 286 rehabilitation patients. The resulting "ideal process" consists of the stages "preparation", "arrival", "treatment planning", "treatment", "completion of treatment", and "organisation", each containing specific criteria. Exemplarily, the outcomes for the stages "treatment planning" and "treatment" are presented. There is variability both between features and between clinics. The majority of the patients report that the criteria are fulfilled while there are medium to high levels of fulfillment regarding the routine documentation. The criteria of the questionnaire of process-relevant structural features are mostly fulfilled according to the clinics. Agreement between the 3 data levels can be observed. On the basis of the defined "ideal process", the methods that were tested seem to be appropriate to illustrate

  19. Helping Your Child Perform Well on Tests. Assessment Brief. Number 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietel, Ron

    2004-01-01

    To gain some insight into test preparation, some testing experts were asked to share their thoughts from their own parenting experiences. A crucial performance factor for a substantial number of students is test anxiety. According to University of Southern California Professor Harold O'Neil, Jr., "The relationship between high anxiety and…

  20. Joint association of physical activity/screen time and diet on CVD risk factors in 10-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Carlson, Joseph J; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Eisenmann, Joey C

    2012-12-01

    The increasing prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity has been associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). While several studies examined the effect of single behaviors such as physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior or diet on CVD risk, there is a lack of research on combined associations, specifically in children. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the joint association of PA or screen time (ST) and diet on CVD risk factors in children. PA, STand diet were assessed via questionnaire in 210 fifth grade students (age: 10.6 ± 0.4 years). The healthy eating index (HEI) was subsequently calculated as indicator for diet quality. Height, weight, % body fat, and resting blood pressure were measured according to standard procedures and blood samples obtained via fingerprick were assayed for blood lipids. Total cholesterol HDL ratio (TC:HDL), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and % body fat were used as indicators of CVD risk. 55% of children did not meet current PA recommendations on at least 5 days/week and 70% exceeded current recommendations for ST. Further, only 2.5% possessed a "good" diet (HEI> 80). There was no significant association of PA or STand diet on CVD risk score. Neither TC:HDL, MAP, and % body fat nor the total CVD risk score was significantly correlated with diet, PA, or ST. Children in the high PA group, however, had significantly better diet scores. Despite the fact that self-reported PA, ST, or dietary intake were not directly related to CVD risk in this sample, higher activity levels were associated with a healthier diet and lower ST indicating an overall healthier lifestyle of this subgroup.

  1. Mathematical Ability of 10-Year-Old Boys and Girls: Genetic and Environmental Etiology of Typical and Low Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovas, Yulia; Haworth, Claire M. A.; Petrill, Stephen A.; Plomin, Robert

    2007-01-01

    The genetic and environmental etiologies of 3 aspects of low mathematical performance (math disability) and the full range of variability (math ability) were compared for boys and girls in a sample of 5,348 children age 10 years (members of 2,674 pairs of same-sex and opposite-sex twins) from the United Kingdom (UK). The measures, which we…

  2. The Effect of Regular Breakfast on Body Mass Index in 9- to 10-Year-Old Czech Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klimesova, Iva; Miklankova, Ludmila; Stelzer, Jiri; Ernest, James

    2016-01-01

    Background: Eating habits play a crucial role in weight control management; however, little research has examined whether frequency of breakfast consumption influences body mass index (BMI) in middle childhood. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to (a) determine the relationship between BMI and the frequency of breakfast consumption, (b)…

  3. Sex Specific Association of Physical Activity on Proximal Femur BMD in 9 to 10 Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Cardadeiro, Graça; Baptista, Fátima; Ornelas, Rui; Janz, Kathleen F.; Sardinha, Luís B.

    2012-01-01

    The results of physical activity (PA) intervention studies suggest that adaptation to mechanical loading at the femoral neck (FN) is weaker in girls than in boys. Less is known about gender differences associated with non-targeted PA levels at the FN or other clinically relevant regions of the proximal femur. Understanding sex-specific relationships between proximal femur sensitivity and mechanical loading during non-targeted PA is critical to planning appropriate public health interventions. We examined sex-specific associations between non-target PA and bone mineral density (BMD) of three sub-regions of the proximal femur in pre- and early-pubertal boys and girls. BMD at the FN, trochanter (TR) and intertrochanter (IT) regions, and lean mass of the whole body were assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in 161 girls (age: 9.7±0.3 yrs) and 164 boys (age: 9.7±0.3 yrs). PA was measured using accelerometry. Multiple linear regression analyses (adjusted for body height, total lean mass and pubertal status) revealed that vigorous PA explained 3–5% of the variability in BMD at all three sub-regions in boys. In girls, vigorous PA explained 4% of the variability in IT BMD and 6% in TR BMD. PA did not contribute to the variance in FN BMD in girls. An additional 10 minutes per day of vigorous PA would be expected to result in a ∼1% higher FN, TR, and IT BMD in boys (p<0.05) and a ∼2% higher IT and TR BMD in girls. In conclusion, vigorous PA can be expected to contribute positively to bone health outcomes for boys and girls. However, the association of vigorous PA to sub-regions of the proximal femur varies by sex, such that girlś associations are heterogeneous and the lowest at the FN, but stronger at the TR and the IT, when compared to boys. PMID:23209801

  4. Variability of Physical Activity Patterns by Type of Day and Season in 8-10-Year-Old Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowlands, Ann V.; Hughes, Dylan R.

    2006-01-01

    The aims of this study were to: (a) compare physical activity across two seasons and, within those seasons, across school and vacation time, and (b) compare the proportion of children meeting the activity thresholds recommended by Tudor-Locke et al. (2004) at each time point. Thirty-six boys, between the ages of 8 and 10 years (M age = 8.8 years,…

  5. Proposal for a universal measurement system for school chairs and desks for children from 6 to 10 years old.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Vitor; Gomes, Ângela; Rangel, Bárbara

    2017-01-01

    In a primary education classroom of any country, children of the same age have very different statures, reaching variations of 200 mm (Gonçalves, 2012). However, the school furniture provided is not suitable or adaptable to these differences. Designing school furniture able to respond to these variations is, therefore, a challenge for ergonomics and design in a global market. It is clearly not viable for industries to adapt productions for each country. When competitiveness and limitation of resources are essential for the viability of any product it becomes essential to find a universal system adapted to the requisites of any country. Taking as prescription measure the popliteal height obtained from the data of different countries, a universal measurement system for the school chair and desk set is proposed, combining the ellipse methodology used by Molenbroek et al. (2003) and the (mis)match equations mentioned by Castellucci et al. (2014b). From the results obtained, it can be concluded that only 5 sizes are needed to implement this new measurement system of evolutionary school furniture for the primary education classroom.

  6. Persistence of 10-year old Exxon Valdez oil on Gulf of Alaska beaches: the importance of boulder-armoring.

    PubMed

    Irvine, Gail V; Mann, Daniel H; Short, Jeffrey W

    2006-09-01

    Oil stranded as a result of the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill has persisted for >10 years at study sites on Gulf of Alaska shores distant from the spill's origin. These sites were contaminated by "oil mousse", which persists in these settings due to armoring of underlying sediments and their included oil beneath boulders. The boulder-armored beaches that we resampled in 1999 showed continued contamination by subsurface oil, despite their exposure to moderate to high wave energies. Significant declines in surface oil cover occurred at all study sites. In contrast, mousse has persisted under boulders in amounts similar to what was present in 1994 and probably in 1989. Especially striking is the general lack of weathering of this subsurface oil over the last decade. Oil at five of the six armored-beach sites 10 years after the spill is compositionally similar to 11-day old Exxon Valdez oil. Analysis of movements in the boulder-armor that covers the study beaches reveals that only minor shifts have occurred since 1994, suggesting that over the last five, and probably over the last 10 years, boulder-armors have remained largely unmoved at the study sites. These findings emphasize the importance of particular geomorphic parameters in determining stranded oil persistence. Surface armoring, combined with stranding of oil mousse, results in the unexpectedly lengthy persistence of only lightly to moderately weathered oil within otherwise high-energy wave environments.

  7. Persistence of 10-year old Exxon Valdez oil on Gulf of Alaska beaches: The importance of boulder-armoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irvine, Gail V.; Mann, Daniel H.; Short, Jeffrey W.

    2006-01-01

    Oil stranded as a result of the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill has persisted for >10 years at study sites on Gulf of Alaska shores distant from the spill's origin. These sites were contaminated by "oil mousse", which persists in these settings due to armoring of underlying sediments and their included oil beneath boulders. The boulder-armored beaches that we resampled in 1999 showed continued contamination by subsurface oil, despite their exposure to moderate to high wave energies. Significant declines in surface oil cover occurred at all study sites. In contrast, mousse has persisted under boulders in amounts similar to what was present in 1994 and probably in 1989. Especially striking is the general lack of weathering of this subsurface oil over the last decade. Oil at five of the six armored-beach sites 10 years after the spill is compositionally similar to 11-day old Exxon Valdez oil. Analysis of movements in the boulder-armor that covers the study beaches reveals that only minor shifts have occurred since 1994, suggesting that over the last five, and probably over the last 10 years, boulder-armors have remained largely unmoved at the study sites. These findings emphasize the importance of particular geomorphic parameters in determining stranded oil persistence. Surface armoring, combined with stranding of oil mousse, results in the unexpectedly lengthy persistence of only lightly to moderately weathered oil within otherwise high-energy wave environments.

  8. Internet Use and Psychological Well-Being among 10-Year-Old and 11-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devine, Paula; Lloyd, Katrina

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses data from the 2009 Kids' Life and Times Survey, involving 3657 children aged 10 or 11 years old in Northern Ireland. The survey indicated high levels of use of Internet applications, including social-networking sites and online games. Using the KIDSCREEN-27 instrument, the data indicate that the use of social-networking sites and…

  9. Associations between physical activity, screen time, and fitness among 6- to 10-year-old children living in Edmonton, Canada.

    PubMed

    Potter, Morgan; Spence, John C; Boulé, Normand G; Stearns, Jodie A; Carson, Valerie

    2017-01-03

    The objectives of this study were to describe fitness levels; examine associations between physical activity (PA), screen time (ST), and fitness; and examine sex-moderating effects in a sample of children. Participants were 649 children (age, 7.8 ± 0.6 years; 52.4% female) from Edmonton, Canada. Hours/week of PA and ST were parent-reported. PA was also objectively measured with pedometers and expressed in increments of 1000 steps/day. Fitness components (i.e., vertical jump, sit-and-reach, waist circumference, grip strength, predicted maximal oxygen consumption, push-ups, partial curl-ups, overall fitness) were measured according to the Canadian Physical Activity, Fitness, and Lifestyle Approach protocols and expressed as z scores or low/high fitness. Positive associations were observed between PA and overall fitness for both the complete (subjective: β = 0.009, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.001-0.017) and partial (≥3 available fitness measures; subjective: β = 0.006, 95% CI: 0.000-0.011; objective: β = 0.025, 95% CI: 0.007-0.042) fitness scores. Subjective (β = 0.011, 95% CI: 0.000-0.022) and objective (β = 0.043, 95% CI: 0.008-0.078) PAs were positively associated with vertical jump. Children with higher objective PA were more likely to be in the high push-ups group (odds ratio = 1.156, 95% CI: 1.054-1.267). PA was positively associated with predicted maximal oxygen uptake (subjective: β = 0.040, 95% CI: 0.018-0.063; objective: β = 0.084, 95% CI: 0.012-0.157) and grip strength (subjective: β = 0.025, 95% CI: 0.011-0.040) in boys only. ST was negatively associated with grip strength (β = -0.016, 95% CI: -0.028 to -0.004) in boys. PA was associated with several components of fitness, especially in boys. However, few associations were observed between ST and fitness. Promoting regular PA in young children may address declining fitness levels.

  10. Socio-Cognitive Dynamics of Knowledge Building in the Work of 9- and 10-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jianwei; Scardamalia, Marlene; Lamon, Mary; Messina, Richard; Reeve, Richard

    2007-01-01

    This study examines four months of online discourse of 22 Grade 4 students engaged in efforts to advance their understanding of optics. Their work is part of a school-wide knowledge building initiative, the essence of which is giving students collective responsibility for idea improvement. This goal is supported by software--Knowledge…

  11. Follow-up of 6-10-Year-Old Stuttering Children after Lidcombe Program Treatment: A Phase I Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koushik, Sarita; Shenker, Rosalee; Onslow, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This Phase I trial sought to establish (1) whether the Lidcombe Program is viable for school-age children, (2) whether there is any indication that it requires modification for school-age children, (3) whether treatment effects are durable, (4) how many treatment sessions appear to be required to significantly reduce stuttering frequency…

  12. A Description and an Analysis of Tests for the Bilingual Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Symes, Dal S.

    Because of the recent Lau vs. Nichols decision by the Supreme Court, school districts will be looking for various instruments to determine language functionality in bilingual students. Nine tests are reviewed: the Leiter International Performance Scale (LIPS), the Michigan Oral Language Productive Tests Structured Response, the Michigan Oral…

  13. 46 CFR 160.171-19 - Approval testing for child size immersion suit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Immersion Suits § 160.171-19...). (c) The body strength test prescribed in § 160.171-17(k) except that the cylinders must be 50 mm...

  14. Incidental detection of ascariasis worms on USG in a protein energy malnourished (PEM) child with abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Suthar, Pokhraj Prakashchandra; Doshi, Rajkumar Prakashbhai; Mehta, Chetan; Vadera, Khyati P

    2015-03-12

    A 10-year-old child presented with dull aching periumbilical abdominal pain for 15 days. The child was not gaining weight despite a good appetite. Physical examination of the child revealed grade-I protein energy malnourishment (PEM) according to IAP (Indian Academic of Paediatrics) classification. The rest of the systemic examination was normal. Routine blood investigation revealed anaemia with eosinophilia. Abdominal ultrasonography did not show any abnormality with curvilinear transducer (3.5-5 MHz), however, linear ultrasound transducer (7.5-12 MHz) with harmonic tissue imaging showed worms in the lumen of the small intestine with curling movement on real time scanning. Stool examination for the eggs of ascariasis was positive. The patient was treated with antihelminthic drugs. Dietary modification for the PEM was advised. After 3 months of treatment, the patient improved and stool examination for Ascaris was negative on follow-up.

  15. What every clinical geneticist should know about testing for osteogenesis imperfecta in suspected child abuse cases.

    PubMed

    Pepin, Melanie G; Byers, Peter H

    2015-12-01

    Non-accidental injury (NAI) is a major medical concern in the United States. One of the challenges in evaluation of children with unexplained fractures is that genetic forms of bone fragility are one of the differential diagnoses. Infants who present with fractures with mild forms of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) (OI type I or OI type IV), the most common genetic form of bone disease leading to fractures might be missed if clinical evaluation alone is used to make the diagnosis. Diagnostic clinical features (blue sclera, dentinogenesis imperfecta, Wormian bones on X-rays or positive family history) may not be present or apparent at the age of evaluation. The evaluating clinician faces the decision about whether genetic testing is necessary in certain NAI cases. In this review, we outline clinical presentations of mild OI and review the history of genetic testing for OI in the NAI versus OI setting. We summarize our data of molecular testing in the Collagen Diagnostic Laboratory (CDL) from 2008 to 2014 where NAI was noted on the request for DNA sequencing of COL1A1 and COL1A2. We provide recommendations for molecular testing in the NAI versus OI setting. First, DNA sequencing of COL1A1, COL1A2, and IFITM5 simultaneously and duplication/deletion testing is recommended. If a causative variant is not identified, in the absence of a pathologic clinical phenotype, no additional gene testing is indicated. If a VUS is found, parental segregation studies are recommended.

  16. Relations between Political Violence and Child Adjustment: A Four-Wave Test of the Role of Emotional Insecurity about Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, E. Mark; Taylor, Laura K.; Merrilees, Christine E.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2013-01-01

    This study further explored the impact of sectarian violence and children's emotional insecurity about community on child maladjustment using a 4-wave longitudinal design. The study included 999 mother-child dyads in Belfast, Northern Ireland (482 boys, 517 girls). Across the 4 waves, child mean age was 12.19 (SD = 1.82), 13.24 (SD = 1.83), 13.61…

  17. State Test Programs Mushroom as NCLB Mandate Kicks in: Nearly Half of States Are Expanding Their Testing Programs to Additional Grades This School Year to Comply with the Federal No Child Left Behind Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lynn

    2005-01-01

    Twenty-three states are expanding their testing programs to additional grades this school year to comply with the federal No Child Left Behind Act. In devising the new tests, most states have defied predictions and chosen to go beyond multiple-choice items, by including questions that ask students to construct their own responses. But many state…

  18. Affective Films for the Hearing Impaired Child: A Test of Captioned Inside/Out Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middleton, John

    Two captioned affective films from the AIT series Inside/Out were tested with 14 intermediate (ages 13 to 15) and 39 elementary (ages 11 and 12) hearing impaired children at the Hawaii School for the Deaf and Blind. Measures of attention, post-film discussion, student comprehension, and student and teacher opinions were taken to determine the…

  19. Using NAEP to Confirm State Test Results in the No Child Left Behind Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoneberg, Bert D.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Education has not yet published an official guidance document for using NAEP achievement level scores to confirm state testing results. A review of the literature, however, identified four principles that inform the valid use of NAEP scores in a confirming analysis. The principles address the appropriate NAEP statistics to…

  20. Validating the Student-Teacher Relationship Scale: Testing Factor Structure and Measurement Invariance across Child Gender and Age in a Dutch Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koomen, Helma M. Y.; Verschueren, Karine; van Schooten, Erik; Jak, Suzanne; Pianta, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    The Student-Teacher Relationship Scale (STRS) is widely used to examine teachers' relationships with young students in terms of closeness, conflict, and dependency. This study aimed to verify the dimensional structure of the STRS with confirmatory factor analysis, test its measurement invariance across child gender and age, improve its measurement…

  1. Evaluation of the Battelle Developmental Inventory, 2nd Edition, Screening Test for Use in States' Child Outcomes Measurement Systems under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elbaum, Batya; Gattamorta, Karina A.; Penfield, Randall D.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the Battelle Developmental Inventory, 2nd Edition, Screening Test (BDI-2 ST) for use in states' child outcomes accountability systems under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Complete Battelle Developmental Inventory, 2nd Edition (BDI-2), assessment data were obtained for 142 children, ages 2 to 62 months, who…

  2. Keep Your Eye on Texas and California: A Look at Testing, School Reform, No Child Left Behind, and Implications for Students of Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Causey-Bush, Tonia

    2005-01-01

    This review looks at the reform movements in the nation's two most populous states--Texas and California. Both states are in a desperate pursuit to demonstrate student competency of standards and achievement by way of student performance on standardized tests to meet federal No Child Left Behind (NCLB) compliance. In examining the accountability…

  3. Tests of the accuracy and speed of categorizing foods into child vs. professional categories using two methods of browsing with children.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research tested whether children could categorize foods more accurately and speedily when presented with child-generated rather than professionally-generated food categories; and whether a graphically appealing browse procedure similar to the Apple, Inc, "cover flow" graphical user interface ac...

  4. The value of respiratory muscle testing in a child with congenital muscular dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Khirani, Sonia; Dabaj, Ivana; Amaddeo, Alessandro; Ramirez, Adriana; Quijano-Roy, Susana; Fauroux, Brigitte

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory muscle testing is often limited to noninvasive volitional tests such as vital capacity and maximal static pressures. We report the case of a 12-year-old boy with congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD) in whom invasive and non-volitional respiratory muscle tests showed an elective diaphragmatic dysfunction with the preservation of expiratory muscle strength. This finding, coupled with a clinical phenotype associating diffuse muscle atrophy with finger hyperlaxity and proximal contractures, strengthened the suspicion of Ullrich CMD. Skin-cultured fibroblasts showed intracellular retention of collagen 6 (COL6), muscle magnetic resonance imaging was typical of COL6 myopathy, and molecular studies identified a COL6 gene mutation (COL6A2 c.954+2T>C). The diagnosis of a diaphragmatic dysfunction led to a sleep study that evidenced periods of hypoxemia which justified nocturnal noninvasive ventilation. This case report highlights the benefit of assessing respiratory muscles, through invasive procedure, to assist in clinical diagnosis and to guide clinical management. PMID:25473580

  5. Revising the Child and Adolescent Perfectionism Scale: A Test of the Four-Factor Structure in a Chinese Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Hongfei; Hong, Chaoqin; Tao, Xiaodan; Zhu, Lingyi

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the structure, reliability, and validity of the revised Chinese version of the Child and Adolescent Perfectionism Scale (N = 933). The results confirmed the four-factor structure of the Chinese version of the Child and Adolescent Perfectionism Scale. Implications, limitations, and suggestions for future research are provided.

  6. ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tools Retrospective Version (ICAST-R): Delphi Study and Field Testing in Seven Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunne, Michael P.; Zolotor, Adam J.; Runyan, Desmond K.; Andreva-Miller, Inna; Choo, Wan Yuen; Dunne, Simon K.; Gerbaka, Bernard; Isaeva, Oksana; Jain, Dipty; Kasim, Mohd Sham; Macfarlane, Bonnie; Mamyrova, Nurgul; Ramirez, Clemencia; Volkova, Elena; Youssef, Randa

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To gain consensus among an ethnically and linguistically diverse group of international child protection experts on the structure and content of a new survey tool for retrospective measurement of child abuse, and to determine the performance of the instrument through an international field trial with young adults. Methods: The…

  7. Investigating the Relationship between Effective Communication of Spouse and Father-Child Relationship (Test Pattern Causes to Education Parents)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ataeifar, Robabeh; Amiri, Sholeh; Ali Nadi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    This research is targeted with the plan of father-child model or effective relationship mediating of spouses or investigating attachment style, personality traits, communication skills, and spouses' sexual satisfaction. Based on this, 260 people (father and child) were selected through random sampling method based on share. Participants were…

  8. ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tool Children's Version (ICAST-C): Instrument Development and Multi-National Pilot Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zolotor, Adam J.; Runyan, Desmond K.; Dunne, Michael P.; Jain, Dipty; Peturs, Helga R.; Ramirez, Clemencia; Volkova, Elena; Deb, Sibnath; Lidchi, Victoria; Muhammad, Tufail; Isaeva, Oksana

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To develop a child victimization survey among a diverse group of child protection experts and examine the performance of the instrument through a set of international pilot studies. Methods: The initial draft of the instrument was developed after input from scientists and practitioners representing 40 countries. Volunteers from the…

  9. Use of Child Development Assessment in Early Childhood Education: Early Childhood Practitioner and Student Attitudes toward Formal and Informal Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jacqueline; Rolfe, Sharne A.

    2005-01-01

    Twenty early childhood practitioners (ECPs) and final-year Bachelor of Early Childhood Studies students completed a questionnaire about their use (or planned use) of formal and informal child development assessment instruments, their choice of specific instruments, and factors influencing decisions to conduct child development assessments within…

  10. Neighborhood Social Context and Individual Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Exposures Associated with Child Cognitive Test Scores

    PubMed Central

    Eldred-Skemp, Nicolia; Quinn, James W.; Chang, Hsin-wen; Rauh, Virginia A.; Rundle, Andrew; Orjuela, Manuela A.; Perera, Frederica P.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood cognitive and test-taking abilities have long-term implications for educational achievement and health, and may be influenced by household environmental exposures and neighborhood contexts. This study evaluates whether age 5 scores on the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised (WPPSI-R, administered in English) are associated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure and neighborhood context variables including poverty, low educational attainment, low English language proficiency, and inadequate plumbing. The Columbia Center for Children’s Environmental Health enrolled African-American and Dominican-American New York City women during pregnancy, and conducted follow-up for subsequent childhood health outcomes including cognitive test scores. Individual outcomes were linked to data characterizing 1-km network buffers around prenatal addresses, home observations, interviews, and prenatal PAH exposure data from personal air monitors. Prenatal PAH exposure above the median predicted 3.5 point lower total WPPSI-R scores and 3.9 point lower verbal scores; the association was similar in magnitude across models with adjustments for neighborhood characteristics. Neighborhood-level low English proficiency was independently associated with 2.3 point lower mean total WPPSI-R score, 1.2 point lower verbal score, and 2.7 point lower performance score per standard deviation. Low neighborhood-level educational attainment was also associated with 2.0 point lower performance scores. In models examining effect modification, neighborhood associations were similar or diminished among the high PAH exposure group, as compared with the low PAH exposure group. Early life exposure to personal PAH exposure or selected neighborhood-level social contexts may predict lower cognitive test scores. However, these results may reflect limited geographic exposure variation and limited generalizability. PMID:24994947

  11. Costs along the service cascades for HIV testing and counselling and prevention of mother-to-child transmission

    PubMed Central

    Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio; Sosa-Rubí, Sandra G.; Opuni, Marjorie; Contreras-Loya, David; Kwan, Ada; Chaumont, Claire; Chompolola, Abson; Condo, Jeanine; Galárraga, Omar; Martinson, Neil; Masiye, Felix; Nsanzimana, Sabin; Ochoa-Moreno, Ivan; Wamai, Richard; Wang’ombe, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We estimate facility-level average annual costs per client along the HIV testing and counselling (HTC) and prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) service cascades. Design: Data collected covered the period 2011–2012 in 230 HTC and 212 PMTCT facilities in Kenya, Rwanda, South Africa, and Zambia. Methods: Input quantities and unit prices were collected, as were output data. Annual economic costs were estimated from the service providers’ perspective using micro-costing. Average annual costs per client in 2013 United States dollars (US$) were estimated along the service cascades. Results: For HTC, average cost per client tested ranged from US$5 (SD US$7) in Rwanda to US$31 (SD US$24) in South Africa, whereas average cost per client diagnosed as HIV-positive ranged from US$122 (SD US$119) in Zambia to US$1367 (SD US$2093) in Rwanda. For PMTCT, average cost per client tested ranged from US$18 (SD US$20) in Rwanda to US$89 (SD US$56) in South Africa; average cost per client diagnosed as HIV-positive ranged from US$567 (SD US$417) in Zambia to US$2021 (SD US$3210) in Rwanda; average cost per client on antiretroviral prophylaxis ranged from US$704 (SD US$610) in South Africa to US$2314 (SD US$3204) in Rwanda; and average cost per infant on nevirapine ranged from US$888 (SD US$884) in South Africa to US$2359 (SD US$3257) in Rwanda. Conclusion: We found important differences in unit costs along the HTC and PMTCT service cascades within and between countries suggesting that more efficient delivery of these services is possible. PMID:27753679

  12. Child Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... or puts a child at risk of harm. Child abuse can be physical, sexual or emotional. Neglect, or not providing for a child's needs, is also a form of abuse. Most abused children suffer greater emotional than physical ...

  13. Parent-child talk about the origins of living things.

    PubMed

    Tenenbaum, Harriet R; Hohenstein, Jill M

    2016-10-01

    This study examined relations between 124 British children's and their parents' endorsements about the origins of three living things (human, non-human animal, and plant) as reported on questionnaires. In addition to completing questionnaires, half of the sample discussed the origins of entities (n=64) in parent-child dyads before completing the questionnaires. The 7-year-old age group endorsed creationism more than evolution, and the 10-year-old age group endorsed both concepts equally for all three living things. Children's endorsements were correlated with their parents' endorsements for all three living things. Children's endorsement of evolutionary theory was more closely related to parent-child conversational mentions of evolution than to parents' endorsement of evolutionary theory in questionnaires. A similar pattern was found for children's endorsement of creationism. Parent-child conversations did not consistently invoke evolution or creationism even when parents endorsed a particular theory. Findings are interpreted in relation to the pivotal role of joint collaborative conversation in children's appropriation of scientific content.

  14. Reliability and validity testing for the Child Oral Health Impact Profile-Reduced (COHIP-SF 19)

    PubMed Central

    Broder, Hillary L.; Wilson-Genderson, Maureen; Sischo, Lacey

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This study assessed the reliability and validity of the Child Oral Health Impact Profile–Short Form 19 (COHIP-SF 19) from the validated 34-item COHIP. Methods Participants included 205 pediatric, 107 orthodontic, and 863 patients with craniofacial anomalies (CFAs). Item level evaluations included examining content overlap, distributional properties, and use of the response set. Confirmatory factor analysis identified potential items for deletion. Scale reliability was assessed with Cronbach's alpha. Discriminant validity of the COHIP-SF 19 was evaluated as follows: among pediatric participants, scores were compared with varying amounts of decayed and filled surfaces (DFS) and presence of caries on permanent teeth; for orthodontic patients, scores were correlated with anterior tooth spacing/crowding; and for those with CFA, scores were compared with clinicians’ ratings of extent of defect (EOD) for nose and lip and/or speech hypernasality. Convergent validity was assessed by examining the partial Spearman correlation between the COHIP scores and a standard Global Health self-rating. Comparisons between the COHIP and the COHIP-SF 19 were completed across samples. Results The reduced questionnaire consists of 19 items: Oral Health (five items), Functional Well-Being (four items), and a combined subscale named Socio-Emotional Well-Being (10 items). Internal reliability is ≥0.82 for the three samples. Results demonstrate that the COHIP-SF 19 discriminates within and across treatment groups by EOD and within a community-based pediatric sample. The measure is associated with the Global Health rating (P < 0.05), thereby indicating convergent validity. Conclusions Reliability and validity testing demonstrate that the COHIP-SF 19 is a psychometrically sound instrument to measure oral health-related quality of life across school-aged pediatric populations. PMID:22536873

  15. Testing the Impact of Child Characteristics × Instruction Interactions on Third Graders’ Reading Comprehension by Differentiating Literacy Instruction

    PubMed Central

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Morrison, Fredrick J.; Fishman, Barry; Giuliani, Sarah; Luck, Melissa; Underwood, Phyllis S.; Bayraktar, Aysegul; Crowe, Elizabeth C.; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    There is accumulating correlational evidence that the effect of specific types of reading instruction depends on children’s initial language and literacy skills, called child characteristics × instruction (C×I) interactions. There is, however, no experimental evidence beyond first grade. This randomized control study examined whether C×I interactions might present an underlying and predictable mechanism for explaining individual differences in how students respond to third-grade classroom literacy instruction. To this end, we designed and tested an instructional intervention (Individualizing Student Instruction [ISI]). Teachers (n = 33) and their students (n = 448) were randomly assigned to the ISI intervention or a vocabulary intervention, which was not individualized. Teachers in both conditions received professional development. Videotaped classroom observations conducted in the fall, winter, and spring documented the instruction that each student in the classroom received. Teachers in the ISI group were more likely to provide differentiated literacy instruction that considered C×I interactions than were the teachers in the vocabulary group. Students in the ISI intervention made greater gains on a standardized assessment of reading comprehension than did students in the vocabulary intervention. Results indicate that C×I interactions likely contribute to students’ varying response to literacy instruction with regard to their reading comprehension achievement and that the association between students’ profile of language and literacy skills and recommended instruction is nonlinear and dependent on a number of factors. Hence, dynamic and complex theories about classroom instruction and environment impacts on student learning appear to be warranted and should inform more effective literacy instruction in third grade. PMID:27867226

  16. Testing the Impact of Child Characteristics × Instruction Interactions on Third Graders' Reading Comprehension by Differentiating Literacy Instruction.

    PubMed

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Morrison, Fredrick J; Fishman, Barry; Giuliani, Sarah; Luck, Melissa; Underwood, Phyllis S; Bayraktar, Aysegul; Crowe, Elizabeth C; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    There is accumulating correlational evidence that the effect of specific types of reading instruction depends on children's initial language and literacy skills, called child characteristics × instruction (C×I) interactions. There is, however, no experimental evidence beyond first grade. This randomized control study examined whether C×I interactions might present an underlying and predictable mechanism for explaining individual differences in how students respond to third-grade classroom literacy instruction. To this end, we designed and tested an instructional intervention (Individualizing Student Instruction [ISI]). Teachers (n = 33) and their students (n = 448) were randomly assigned to the ISI intervention or a vocabulary intervention, which was not individualized. Teachers in both conditions received professional development. Videotaped classroom observations conducted in the fall, winter, and spring documented the instruction that each student in the classroom received. Teachers in the ISI group were more likely to provide differentiated literacy instruction that considered C×I interactions than were the teachers in the vocabulary group. Students in the ISI intervention made greater gains on a standardized assessment of reading comprehension than did students in the vocabulary intervention. Results indicate that C×I interactions likely contribute to students' varying response to literacy instruction with regard to their reading comprehension achievement and that the association between students' profile of language and literacy skills and recommended instruction is nonlinear and dependent on a number of factors. Hence, dynamic and complex theories about classroom instruction and environment impacts on student learning appear to be warranted and should inform more effective literacy instruction in third grade.

  17. Preschool Psychopathology Reported by Parents in 23 Societies: Testing the Seven-Syndrome Model of the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1.5-5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivanova, Masha Y.; Achenbach, Thomas M.; Rescorla, Leslie A.; Harder, Valerie S.; Ang, Rebecca P.; Bilenberg, Niels; Bjarnadottir, Gudrun; Capron, Christiane; De Pauw, Sarah S. W.; Dias, Pedro; Dobrean, Anca; Doepfner, Manfred; Duyme, Michele; Eapen, Valsamma; Erol, Nese; Esmaeili, Elaheh Mohammad; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Frigerio, Alessandra; Goncalves, Miguel M.; Gudmundsson, Halldor S.; Jeng, Suh-Fang; Jetishi, Pranvera; Jusiene, Roma; Kim, Young-Ah; Kristensen, Solvejg; Lecannelier, Felipe; Leung, Patrick W. L.; Liu, Jianghong; Montirosso, Rosario; Oh, Kyung Ja; Plueck, Julia; Pomalima, Rolando; Shahini, Mimoza; Silva, Jaime R.; Simsek, Zynep; Sourander, Andre; Valverde, Jose; Van Leeuwen, Karla G.; Woo, Bernardine S. C.; Wu, Yen-Tzu; Zubrick, Stephen R.; Verhulst, Frank C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To test the fit of a seven-syndrome model to ratings of preschoolers' problems by parents in very diverse societies. Method: Parents of 19,106 children 18 to 71 months of age from 23 societies in Asia, Australasia, Europe, the Middle East, and South America completed the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1.5-5 (CBCL/1.5-5). Confirmatory…

  18. Testing the economic independence hypothesis: the effect of an exogenous increase in child support on subsequent marriage and cohabitation.

    PubMed

    Cancian, Maria; Meyer, Daniel R

    2014-06-01

    We examine the effects of an increase in income on the cohabitation and marriage of single mothers. Using data from an experiment that resulted in randomly assigned differences in child support receipt for welfare-receiving single mothers, we find that exogenous income increases (as a result of receiving all child support that was paid) are associated with significantly lower cohabitation rates between mothers and men who are not the fathers of their child(ren). Overall, these results support the hypothesis that additional income increases disadvantaged women's economic independence by reducing the need to be in the least stable type of partnerships. Our results also show the potential importance of distinguishing between biological and social fathers.

  19. Repeated Self- and Peer-Review Leads to Continuous Improvement in Child Interviewing Performance

    PubMed Central

    Stolzenberg, Stacia N.; Lyon, Thomas D.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined whether a training model that focuses on consistent exposure to protocol procedure, self-evaluation, and intensive peer-review sessions could improve interviewers’ ability to adhere to best practices. Law students (N = 19) interviewed 5- to 10-year-old children on a weekly basis as part of a semester-long forensic child interviewing class. They transcribed their interviews, and participated in one-hour self and peer-reviews. The proportion of each question type was calculated (option-posing, Wh-, and open-invitations) within each interview for each interviewer. Across ten weeks of interviews, interviewers consistently improved their performance, decreasing the proportion of option-posing questions by 31% and increasing the proportion of open-invitations by 47%. All interviewers improved. The present study suggests that with consistent self-evaluation and peer-review, forensic interviewers can incrementally improve their performance. PMID:27239248

  20. A Child with elemental mercury poisoning and unusual brain MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Abbaslou, Parvin; Zaman, Talieh

    2006-01-01

    Mercury vapor poisoning is a serious and potentially fatal problem. Neurological manifestations involving the central nervous system are seen with chronic mercury intoxication. We present the case of a 10-year-old child who demonstrated acrodynia, seizures, and visual impairment following 20 days of exposure to elemental mercury at home. The initial blood mercury concentration was 27.7 microg/L (normal <2 microg/L) and the initial 24-hour urine mercury concentration was 34.4 microg/L (normal =10 microg/L). After 9 months of treatment with D-penicillamine, the patient's clinical condition, biochemical laboratory parameters, and mercury concentrations all returned to normal. The T2-weighted MRI images of the patient's brain initially showed multiple hyperintense lesions in cerebral white matter, left globus pallidus, and putamen, which also improved.

  1. Interparental conflict, community violence, and child problems: making sense of counterintuitive findings.

    PubMed

    Rosenfield, David; Jouriles, Ernest N; McDonald, Renee; Mueller, Victoria

    2014-05-01

    This research examines children's exposure to community violence as a potential moderator of the link between destructive interparental conflict (IPC) and child adjustment problems. In addition, this research extends the literature by evaluating children's threat appraisals of IPC as a process that might help explain moderator effects. Participants were 539 mothers and their 7-10-year-old children. Children reported on their exposure to community violence and IPC, their threat appraisals of IPC, and their adjustment outcomes. Mothers reported on children's adjustment outcomes as well. Exposure to community violence mitigated the association between IPC and children's self-reported internalizing problems. Children's threat appraisals helped explain this effect. Exposure to high levels of community violence may weaken the extent to which children feel threatened by IPC, which may attenuate the relation between children's exposure to IPC and their self-reported internalizing problems.

  2. The Relationship of No Child Left Behind Mandates on Elementary Teacher Instructional Practices, Test Preparation, Professional Development, and School Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowry, Amanda J.

    2010-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) calls for 100 percent proficiency in reading and mathematics by 2014. The Act was supported overwhelming by both political parties and signified a major overhaul of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965. Using a questionnaire, this study examined teachers' perceptions regarding NCLB and the…

  3. Relations between political violence and child adjustment: a four-wave test of the role of emotional insecurity about community.

    PubMed

    Cummings, E Mark; Taylor, Laura K; Merrilees, Christine E; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2013-12-01

    This study further explored the impact of sectarian violence and children's emotional insecurity about community on child maladjustment using a 4-wave longitudinal design. The study included 999 mother-child dyads in Belfast, Northern Ireland (482 boys, 517 girls). Across the 4 waves, child mean age was 12.19 (SD = 1.82), 13.24 (SD = 1.83), 13.61 (SD = 1.99), and 14.66 years (SD = 1.96), respectively. Building on previous studies of the role of emotional insecurity in child adjustment, the current study examines within-person change in emotional insecurity using latent growth curve analyses. The results showed that children's trajectories of emotional insecurity about community were related to risk for developing conduct and emotion problems. These findings controlled for earlier adjustment problems, age, and gender, and took into account the time-varying nature of experience with sectarian violence. Discussion considers the implications for children's emotional insecurity about community for relations between political violence and children's adjustment, including the significance of trajectories of emotional insecurity over time.

  4. Testing the Impact of Child Characteristics x Instruction Interactions on Third Graders' Reading Comprehension by Differentiating Literacy Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Morrison, Fredrick J.; Fishman, Barry; Giuliani, Sarah; Luck, Melissa; Underwood, Phyllis S.; Bayraktar, Aysegul; Crowe, Elizabeth C.; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    There is accumulating correlational evidence that the effect of specific types of reading instruction depends on children's initial language and literacy skills, called child characteristics x instruction (CxI) interactions. There is, however, no experimental evidence beyond first grade. This randomized control study examined whether CxI…

  5. "Every Child Counts": Testing Policy Effectiveness Using a Randomised Controlled Trial, Designed, Conducted and Reported to CONSORT Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torgerson, Carole; Wiggins, Andy; Torgerson, David; Ainsworth, Hannah; Hewitt, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    We report a randomised controlled trial evaluation of an intensive one-to-one numeracy programme--"Numbers Count"--which formed part of the previous government's numeracy policy intervention--"Every Child Counts." We rigorously designed and conducted the trial to CONSORT guidelines. We used a pragmatic waiting list design to…

  6. Relations between Political Violence and Child Adjustment: A Four-Wave Test of the Role of Emotional Insecurity about Community

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, E. Mark; Taylor, Laura K.; Merrilees, Christine E.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2015-01-01

    This study further explored the impact of sectarian violence and children’s emotional insecurity about community on child maladjustment using a four-wave longitudinal design. The study included 999 mother-child dyads in Belfast, Northern Ireland (482 boys, 517 girls). Across the four-waves, child mean age was 12.19 (SD = 1.82), 13.24 (SD = 1.83), 13.61 (SD = 1.99), and 14.66 years (SD = 1.96), respectively. Building on previous studies of the role of emotional insecurity in child adjustment, the current study examines within-person change in emotional insecurity using latent growth curve analyses. The results showed that children’s trajectories of emotional insecurity about community were related to risk for developing conduct and emotion problems. These findings controlled for earlier adjustment problems, age and gender, and took into account the time-varying nature of experience with sectarian violence. Discussion considers the implications for children’s emotional insecurity about community for relations between political violence and children’s adjustment, including the significance of trajectories of emotional insecurity over time. PMID:23527495

  7. Corporal punishment, maternal warmth, and child adjustment: a longitudinal study in eight countries.

    PubMed

    Lansford, Jennifer E; Sharma, Chinmayi; Malone, Patrick S; Woodlief, Darren; Dodge, Kenneth A; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Skinner, Ann T; Sorbring, Emma; Tapanya, Sombat; Tirado, Liliana Maria Uribe; Zelli, Arnaldo; Al-Hassan, Suha M; Alampay, Liane Peña; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Bornstein, Marc H; Chang, Lei; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Di Giunta, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Two key tasks facing parents across cultures are managing children's behaviors (and misbehaviors) and conveying love and affection. Previous research has found that corporal punishment generally is related to worse child adjustment, whereas parental warmth is related to better child adjustment. This study examined whether the association between corporal punishment and child adjustment problems (anxiety and aggression) is moderated by maternal warmth in a diverse set of countries that vary in a number of sociodemographic and psychological ways. Interviews were conducted with 7- to 10-year-old children (N = 1,196; 51% girls) and their mothers in 8 countries: China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Thailand, and the United States. Follow-up interviews were conducted 1 and 2 years later. Corporal punishment was related to increases, and maternal warmth was related to decreases, in children's anxiety and aggression over time; however, these associations varied somewhat across groups. Maternal warmth moderated the effect of corporal punishment in some countries, with increases in anxiety over time for children whose mothers were high in both warmth and corporal punishment. The findings illustrate the overall association between corporal punishment and child anxiety and aggression as well as patterns specific to particular countries. Results suggest that clinicians across countries should advise parents against using corporal punishment, even in the context of parent-child relationships that are otherwise warm, and should assist parents in finding other ways to manage children's behaviors.

  8. Corporal Punishment, Maternal Warmth, and Child Adjustment: A Longitudinal Study in Eight Countries

    PubMed Central

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Sharma, Chinmayi; Malone, Patrick S.; Woodlief, Darren; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Skinner, Ann T.; Sorbring, Emma; Tapanya, Sombat; Tirado, Liliana Maria Uribe; Zelli, Arnaldo; Al-Hassan, Suha M.; Alampay, Liane Peña; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Bornstein, Marc H.; Chang, Lei; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Di Giunta, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Objective Two key tasks facing parents across cultures are managing children’s behaviors (and misbehaviors) and conveying love and affection. Previous research has found that corporal punishment generally is related to worse child adjustment, whereas parental warmth is related to better child adjustment. This study examined whether the association between corporal punishment and child adjustment problems (anxiety and aggression) is moderated by maternal warmth in a diverse set of countries that vary in a number of sociodemographic and psychological ways. Method Interviews were conducted with 7- to 10-year-old children (N = 1,196; 51% girls) and their mothers in eight countries: China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Thailand, and the United States. Follow-up interviews were conducted one and two years later. Results Corporal punishment was related to increases, and maternal warmth was related to decreases, in children’s anxiety and aggression over time; however, these associations varied somewhat across groups. Maternal warmth moderated the effect of corporal punishment in some countries, with increases in anxiety over time for children whose mothers were high in both warmth and corporal punishment. Conclusions The findings illustrate the overall association between corporal punishment and child anxiety and aggression as well as patterns specific to particular countries. Results suggest that clinicians across countries should advise parents against using corporal punishment, even in the context of parent-child relationships that are otherwise warm, and should assist parents in finding other ways to manage children’s behaviors. PMID:24885184

  9. Testing the Fundamental Difference Hypothesis: L2 Adult, L2 Child, and L1 Child Comparisons in the Acquisition of Korean "Wh"-Constructions with Negative Polarity Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Hyang Suk; Schwartz, Bonnie D.

    2009-01-01

    The fundamental difference hypothesis (FDH; Bley-Vroman, 1989, 1990) contends that the nature of language in natives is fundamentally different from the nature of language in adult nonnatives. This study tests the FDH in two ways: (a) via second language (L2) poverty-of-the-stimulus (POS) problems (e.g., Schwartz & Sprouse, 2000) and (b) via a…

  10. Standing the test of time: Reflecting on the relevance today of Levinson's Pet-Oriented Child Psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Fine, Aubrey H

    2017-01-01

    Having the opportunity to re-read Pet-Oriented Child Psychotherapy was like visiting an old friend and reminiscing about times gone by all too fast. The re-read allowed me an opportunity to conceptualize how many of Levinson's early tenets continue to be relevant today. As a trailblazer, Levinson made a discovery that drastically changed the way we view and understand the power of the human animal bond.

  11. Child Development

    MedlinePlus

    ... Children™ study. Multimedia & Tools Videos, podcasts and widgets. Child Development: What's New Article: Differences in health care, family, ... and share it with the child’s doctor. More Child Development Basics Developmental Screening Screening for Professionals Positive Parenting ...

  12. [The extension of the Leipzig questionnaire of motives to have a child (LKM) for use in oncology--test construction and psychometric review].

    PubMed

    Geue, Kristina; Schmidt, Ricarda; Nielsen, Thorid; Hilgendorf, Inken; Kropp, Peter; Richter, Diana; Sender, Annekathrin; Friedrich, Michael; Brähler, Elmar; Stöbel-Richter, Yve

    2015-03-01

    Many young cancer patients had not completed family planning at the time of diagnosis. A cancer disease may change procreative attitudes and the development of specific motivations of having a child (for and against) is possible. This paper addresses the extension of the Leipzig questionnaire on motives for wanting children (LKM) in the context of cancer. Specific motivations of cancer patients are presented and test-statistically verified. Based on previous findings and a qualitative questioning (patients, professionals) items for specific motivations were developed and pre-tested. The revised version (20 items) was tested on a sample of 175 young cancer patients. Good to adequate item discrimination parameter and reliability (α=0.86) were shown. The factor analysis revealed the 2 scales "PRO - motivations for having children after cancer" and "CON - motivations against having children after cancer". These additional scales of specific motivations allow for a reliable and economical measure of motivations to have a child in young cancer patients. In the future the scales can be also used for other serious physical disease in young adulthood.

  13. Toxoplasmosis with chorioretinitis in an HIV-infected child with no visual complaints-importance of fundus examination.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Noella Maria Delia; Shah, Ira; Lala, Mamatha

    2017-01-01

    Central nervous system lesions are common in HIV-infected patients. In the combination anti-retroviral therapy (ART) era, Toxoplasma reactivation has been observed only in patients with unrecognized HIV infection or refusing therapy. We present the case of 10-year-old girl with AIDS who initially presented with pneumonia. She was treated for pneumonia and thereafter started on ART as her CD4 count was low. However, 5 days after starting ART she presented with left ptosis and right-sided monoparesis. She was diagnosed with neurotoxoplasmosis and responded successfully to pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine therapy. Though she had no vision difficulties, her fundus examination revealed chorioretinitis during the hospital stay. We emphasize the importance of routine fundus examination prior to starting ART to rule out chorioretinitis even in an older child with no visual complaints.

  14. Partial and full own-body illusions of epileptic origin in a child with right temporoparietal epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Heydrich, Lukas; Lopez, Christophe; Seeck, Margitta; Blanke, Olaf

    2011-03-01

    Partial and full own-body illusions of neurological origin have been claimed crucial to understand the contribution of bodily experience and perception to self-consciousness. Whereas partial body illusions are relatively common and well defined, much less is known about full own-body illusions, and even less is known about these illusions in children. Here we describe a 10-year-old patient with the association of partial and full own-body illusions (somatoparaphrenia and out-of-body experience) that occurred sequentially during an epileptic seizure caused by right temporoparietal epilepsy. This report shows that partial and full own-body illusions share functional and neuroanatomical properties and highlights the importance of the right temporoparietal junction for bodily self-consciousness. This is the first report of out-of-body experiences in a child with focal epilepsy.

  15. Toxoplasmosis with chorioretinitis in an HIV-infected child with no visual complaints—importance of fundus examination

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Noella Maria Delia; Shah, Ira; Lala, Mamatha

    2017-01-01

    Central nervous system lesions are common in HIV-infected patients. In the combination anti-retroviral therapy (ART) era, Toxoplasma reactivation has been observed only in patients with unrecognized HIV infection or refusing therapy. We present the case of 10-year-old girl with AIDS who initially presented with pneumonia. She was treated for pneumonia and thereafter started on ART as her CD4 count was low. However, 5 days after starting ART she presented with left ptosis and right-sided monoparesis. She was diagnosed with neurotoxoplasmosis and responded successfully to pyrimethamine–sulfadoxine therapy. Though she had no vision difficulties, her fundus examination revealed chorioretinitis during the hospital stay. We emphasize the importance of routine fundus examination prior to starting ART to rule out chorioretinitis even in an older child with no visual complaints. PMID:28058107

  16. "Smoking in Children's Environment Test": a qualitative study of experiences of a new instrument applied in preventive work in child health care

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite knowledge of the adverse health effects of passive smoking, children are still being exposed. Children's nurses play an important role in tobacco preventive work through dialogue with parents aimed at identifying how children can be protected from environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure. The study describes the experiences of Child Health Care (CHC) nurses when using the validated instrument SiCET (Smoking in Children's Environment Test) in dialogue with parents. Method In an intervention in CHC centres in south-eastern Sweden nurses were invited to use the SiCET. Eighteen nurses participated in focus group interviews. Transcripts were reviewed and their contents were coded into categories by three investigators using the method described for focus groups interviews. Results The SiCET was used in dialogue with parents in tobacco preventive work and resulted in focused discussions on smoking and support for behavioural changes among parents. The instrument had both strengths and limitations. The nurses experienced that the SiCET facilitated dialogue with parents and gave a comprehensive view of the child's ETS exposure. This gave nurses the possibility of taking on a supportive role by offering parents long-term help in protecting their child from ETS exposure and in considering smoking cessation. Conclusion Our findings indicate that the SiCET supports nurses in their dialogue with parents on children's ETS exposure at CHC. There is a need for more clinical use and evaluation of the SiCET to determine its usefulness in clinical practice under varying circumstances. PMID:22172056

  17. Child Care Quality in Different State Policy Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigby, Elizabeth; Ryan, Rebecca M.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2007-01-01

    Using data from the Child Care Supplement to the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, we test associations between the quality of child care and state child care policies. These data, which include observations of child care and interviews with care providers and mothers for 777 children across 14 states, allow for comparisons across a…

  18. Acoustic radiation force impulse elastography for chronic liver disease: comparison with ultrasound-based scores of experienced radiologists, Child-Pugh scores and liver function tests.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Eun; Lee, Jae Young; Kim, Yoon Jun; Yoon, Jung Hwan; Kim, Se Hyung; Lee, Jeong Min; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate whether acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography provides better diagnostic performance for diagnosis of chronic liver disease and correlates better with Child-Pugh scores and liver function tests, compared with an ultrasound (US) scoring system based on visual assessment of conventional B-mode US images by experienced radiologists. Five hundred and twenty-one patients with clinically proven chronic liver disease (n = 293), fatty liver (n = 95) or normal liver (n = 133) were included in this study. B-mode liver US and ARFI elastography were performed in all patients. ARFI elastography was performed at least five times, with each measurement obtained at a different area of the right hepatic lobe; mean shear wave velocity (SWV) was calculated for each patient. The mean SWV was compared with US-based scores from two radiologists (based on liver surface nodularity, parenchyma echotexture and hepatic vein contour), Child-Pugh scores and liver function tests. The mean SWV of the normal liver group was 1.08 m/s ± 0.15; of the fatty liver group, 1.02 m/s ± 0.16; and of the chronic liver disease group, 1.66 m/s ± 0.60 (p < 0.001). The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve of the mean SWV in ARFI elastography was significantly higher than that of the conventional B-mode US-based scores by two radiologists (0.89 vs. 0.74 and 0.77, p < 0.05), with a sensitivity of 75.4% and a specificity of 89.5% at the cut-off value of 1.22 m/s. The sensitivity of the mean SWV was significantly higher than the US-based scores (p < 0.001), although the specificity was not (p > 0.05). The mean SWV was better correlated with Child-Pugh scores and all liver function tests (except total protein) than the US-based scores from two radiologists. In conclusion, ARFI elastography showed better diagnostic performance than visual assessment of experienced radiologists for diagnosis of chronic liver disease, as well as for

  19. Validating the Student-Teacher Relationship Scale: testing factor structure and measurement invariance across child gender and age in a Dutch sample.

    PubMed

    Koomen, Helma M Y; Verschueren, Karine; van Schooten, Erik; Jak, Suzanne; Pianta, Robert C

    2012-04-01

    The Student-Teacher Relationship Scale (STRS) is widely used to examine teachers' relationships with young students in terms of closeness, conflict, and dependency. This study aimed to verify the dimensional structure of the STRS with confirmatory factor analysis, test its measurement invariance across child gender and age, improve its measurement of the dependency construct, and extend its age range. Teachers completed a slightly adapted STRS for a Dutch sample of 2335 children aged 3 to 12. Overall, the 3-factor model showed an acceptable fit. Results indicated metric invariance across gender and age up to 8years. Scalar invariance generally did not hold. Lack of metric invariance at ages 8 to 12 primarily involved Conflict items, whereas scale differences across gender and age primarily involved Closeness items. The adapted Dependency scale showed strong invariance and higher internal consistencies than the original scale for this Dutch sample. Importantly, the revealed non-invariance for gender and age did not influence mean group comparisons.

  20. TRANSPORTING CHILDREN IN CARS AND THE USE OF CHILD SAFETY RESTRAINT SYSTEMS

    PubMed Central

    GARCÊS, ALLAN QUADROS; COIMBRA, IGOR BONIFACIO ANDRADE; SILVA, DIEGO SALVADOR MUNIZ DA

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the transport of children in automobiles and the use of child restraints systems (CRS). Methods: This is a transversal descriptive study which included 200 vehicle drivers who carried 0-10 year old children in the city of São Luis, MA, Brazil. The drivers' passengers' and children's features were properly identified. The children's transportation using CRS were analyzed according to the Resolution 277/8 of the Brazilian National Traffic Department. Results: The transportation of children was classified as inappropriate in 70.5% of the vehicles analyzed. The most common way for children transportation was free on the back seats (47%) or on the lap of passengers/drivers (17%). The main reasons to justify the improper transportation were either not understanding the importance of CRS use (64.5%) or not having financial resources to buy the devices. The child safety seat was the most used CRS (50.8 %) among vehicles with proper child transportation system. Conclusion: The transportation of children was inappropriate in most of the vehicles analyzed, reflecting the need for creating awareness among automobile drivers, including education, supervision and improvement of policies for health improvement and prevention of accidents involving children transportation. Level of Evidence III, Cross Sectional Study. PMID:28149196

  1. Promoting uptake of child HIV testing: an evaluation of the role of a home visiting program for orphans and vulnerable children in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Thurman, Tonya R; Luckett, Brian; Taylor, Tory; Carnay, Melissa

    2016-03-01

    HIV counseling and testing (HCT) is critical for children in generalized epidemic settings, but significant shortfalls in coverage persist, notably among orphans and others at disproportionate risk of infection. This study investigates the impact of a home visiting program in South Africa on orphaned and vulnerable children's uptake of HCT. Using propensity score matching, survey data for children receiving home visits from trained community-based care workers were compared to data from children living in similar households that had not yet received home visits (n = 1324). Home visits by community-based care workers increased the odds of a child being tested by 97% (OR = 1.97, 95% CI = 1.34-2.92). The home visitation program had an especially pronounced effect on orphans, more than doubling their odds of being tested (OR = 2.12, 95% CI = 1.00-4.47) compared to orphans living in similar households that did not receive home visits. Orphan status alone had no effect on HCT independent of program exposure, suggesting that the program was uniquely able to increase testing in this subgroup. Results highlight the potential for increasing HCT access among children at high risk through targeted community-based initiatives.

  2. Promoting uptake of child HIV testing: an evaluation of the role of a home visiting program for orphans and vulnerable children in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Thurman, Tonya R.; Luckett, Brian; Taylor, Tory; Carnay, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT HIV counseling and testing (HCT) is critical for children in generalized epidemic settings, but significant shortfalls in coverage persist, notably among orphans and others at disproportionate risk of infection. This study investigates the impact of a home visiting program in South Africa on orphaned and vulnerable children’s uptake of HCT. Using propensity score matching, survey data for children receiving home visits from trained community-based care workers were compared to data from children living in similar households that had not yet received home visits (n = 1324). Home visits by community-based care workers increased the odds of a child being tested by 97% (OR = 1.97, 95% CI = 1.34–2.92). The home visitation program had an especially pronounced effect on orphans, more than doubling their odds of being tested (OR = 2.12, 95% CI = 1.00–4.47) compared to orphans living in similar households that did not receive home visits. Orphan status alone had no effect on HCT independent of program exposure, suggesting that the program was uniquely able to increase testing in this subgroup. Results highlight the potential for increasing HCT access among children at high risk through targeted community-based initiatives. PMID:27306743

  3. Child Care and Child Nutrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karolak, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The weak economy is challenging the child care program budget. Fluctuations in enrollment come up against rising costs making every penny count. So for many reasons a federal program that helps defray the costs of snacks and meals in child care programs is particularly important and timely. In this article, the author pushes for the…

  4. Test Selection, Adaptation, and Evaluation: A Systematic Approach to Assess Nutritional Influences on Child Development in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prado, Elizabeth L.; Hartini, Sri; Rahmawati, Atik; Ismayani, Elfa; Hidayati, Astri; Hikmah, Nurul; Muadz, Husni; Apriatni, Mandri S.; Ullman, Michael T.; Shankar, Anuraj H.; Alcock, Katherine J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Evaluating the impact of nutrition interventions on developmental outcomes in developing countries can be challenging since most assessment tests have been produced in and for developed country settings. Such tests may not be valid measures of children's abilities when used in a new context. Aims: We present several principles for the…

  5. Selecting Child Care Administrative Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalinowski, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Offers advice on the selection of child care administrative software. Directors should consider needs, computer experience, budget, time, and temperament, and should also ask lots of questions and test demo versions. Choices range from custom programs and existing business products to child care administrative software packages. Includes directory…

  6. If Your Child is Raped

    MedlinePlus

    ... look for and take samples of the rapist's hair, skin, nails, or bodily fluids from your child's clothes or body. If you think your child has been given a rape drug, a doctor or technician can test for this, too. Pictures of any injuries may ...

  7. [Summary of the Pilot Study Short-term Psychoanalytic Child Therapy (PaCT) of Anxious Children].

    PubMed

    Klein, Annette M; Müller-Göttken, Tanja; White, Lars O; Keitel-Korndörfer, Anja; von Klitzing, Kai

    2015-01-01

    We provide a summary of a recently published study on Psychoanalytic Child Therapy (PaCT; Göttken, White, Klein, von Klitzing, 2014) for young children with emotional and affective symptoms. Consisting of approximately 20 psychotherapy sessions, therapists treat families in parent-child, child-alone, parent-alone settings, aiming to uncover and work through a relational theme underlying the symptoms. Thirty families were entered into a wait-list controlled study in an outpatient setting (n = 18 treatment group; n = 12 waitlist) with the aim of assessing the effectiveness of PaCT (Göttken u. von Klitzing, 2014) for 4- to 10-year-olds with anxiety disorders. After treatment, over half of the children of the treatment group no longer met criteria for anxiety disorder while no children of the control group remitted during the wait-list interval. In addition, parent, child and teacher reports showed significant symptom reduction. The pattern of results lend preliminary support to psychodynamic intervention as an effective tool for treating childhood anxiety and affective disorders and call for future randomized controlled trials to provide additional evidence for these promising effects.

  8. [Child abuse].

    PubMed

    V Essen, H; Schlickewei, W; Dietz, H-G

    2005-02-01

    Child abuse is most often diagnosed by an emergency doctor on call who sometimes "feels" more than knows what he is confronted with. He should nevertheless always take a medical history and make a physical and radiological examination. X-ray imaging and an ophthalmologic retinal examination are the most important diagnostic steps. Typical findings are multiple and/or dorsal rib fractures, complex skull fractures, physeal fractures, all fractures within the first 12 months, multiple fractures in different localisations and stages of healing, all injuries with uncommon distributions, all patterned bruises, immersion burns, intramural hematoma and every unexplained loss of consciousness. The first step towards victim protection is always the removal of the abused child from its caregivers by admitting it to hospital, as 95% of all cases of reported child abuse take place within the child's family.

  9. [Child labour].

    PubMed

    Marsella, L T; Savastano, L; Saracino, V; Del Vecchio, R

    2005-01-01

    The authors emphasize the violation of children's and adolescents' rights as a result of the exploitation of child labour. Besides the legal aspect, they pointed out the medical features related to the delicate growing process of the child in the phases of development and adaptation of the main organs to hard work. Currently the problem is being supervised by those states that recognize the right for minors to be protected against any kind of physical, mental, spiritual and moral risk.

  10. HIGHER HORIZONS, A PROGRAM FOR YOUR CHILD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY.

    PARENTS ARE TOLD THAT HIGHER HORIZONS WILL HELP DEVELOP THE CAPACITIES OF EVERY CHILD, INCREASE HIS SELF CONFIDENCE, AND HELP HIM COMPLETE HIGH SCHOOL. RESULTS OF TESTS AND INTERVIEWS TO DISCOVER A CHILD'S ABILITIES, INTERESTS, AND NEEDS ARE DISCUSSED IN PARENT-TEACHER CONFERENCES. INSTRUCTION IS AIMED AT DEVELOPING ABILITIES. THE CHILD IS…

  11. From Child Study to Efficiency: District Administrators and the Use of Testing in the Chicago Public Schools, 1899 to 1928

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Ann Marie

    2011-01-01

    Historians have documented the dramatic battle over the mass introduction of IQ testing waged by Chicago's unionised teachers in 1924 against Superintendent McAndrew and the Chicago Board of Education. The efforts of Chicago's mid-level district administrators and their work with principals and teachers to address the real and perceived…

  12. The Overscheduled Child?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chronicle of Higher Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Before all those extracurricular activities and community-service projects listed on college applications, there were play groups, library hours, Pop Warner football games, swimming lessons, ballet, drama, soccer. Not to mention preparation for high-stakes tests mandated by the No Child Left Behind law, or the mounting minutes, even hours, of…

  13. Parental perceptions, feeding practices, feeding styles, and level of acculturation of Chinese Americans in relation to their school-age child's weight status.

    PubMed

    Pai, Hsiao-Liang; Contento, Isobel

    2014-09-01

    Parents influence their child's eating behavior and attitudes directly as food providers and indirectly through their parental feeding styles and feeding concerns and practices. Chinese American parents' practices are likely influenced by culture. The objective of this study was to explore the relationships between parental perceptions, feeding practices, feeding styles, level of parental acculturation (LPA), and child weight status via a self-administered questionnaire. This survey study involved a convenience sample of 712 individuals who were parents of 5- to 10-year old children attending Chinese language after-school programs. The prevalence of overweight was 11.5% and obesity was 11.1%. LPA was not directly predictive of child overweight in multiple regression but from categorical data, Chinese American parents tended to use indulgent (33.2%) and authoritarian (27.9%) feeding styles, with the former increasing with acculturation and the latter decreasing. Indulgent parents had more than expected overweight and obese children, and authoritarian and authoritative parents, fewer. LPA was negatively predictive of pressure to eat healthy foods (p < .01), which was negatively correlated with child weight status (p < .01). LPA was also independently positively correlated to responsiveness to child needs (p < .01), monitoring of child intake (p < .01), and perceived responsibility for child feeding. Parental perceptions and concerns about child weight were predictors of child weight. Consequently, parental concerns and responsiveness to child needs without also encouragement (demandingness) to eat healthy foods (indulgent feeding style) may promote overweight. The authoritative parental feeding style may contribute to children having healthy weights and therefore healthy lives.

  14. Parents' description of conduct problems in their children - a test of the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI) in a Swedish sample aged 3-10.

    PubMed

    Axberg, Ulf; Johansson Hanse, Jan; Broberg, Anders G

    2008-12-01

    The Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI) is a widely used 36-item uni-dimensional parent rating scale constructed to measure disruptive behavior problems in children. However, in an American sample a 22-item version, including three subscales, has been suggested in order to increase the usefulness of the ECBI. Two studies were conducted to test the ECBI in a Swedish sample (N = 841). The aims of Study I were (a) examine the psychometric properties of the ECBI (b) to investigate the correspondence between mothers' and fathers' ratings, and (c) to obtain Swedish norms. The aim of Study II was to test the suggested three-factor solution in the Swedish sample using a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The ECBI showed good psychometric properties also in the present study, and Swedish normative data is presented. The best-fitting CFA-model was identical to the previously suggested three-factor model, which thus might be a useful alternative to the 36-item version.

  15. Parent-child attitude congruence on type and intensity of physical activity: Testing multiple mediators of sedentary behavior in older children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined parent–child attitudes on value of specific types and intensities of physical activity, which may explain gender differences in child activity, and evaluated physical activity as a mechanism to reduce time spent in sedentary behaviors. A community sample of 681 parents and 433 ch...

  16. Testing the Cycle of Violence Hypothesis: Child Abuse and Adolescent Dating Violence as Predictors of Intimate Partner Violence in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Anu Manchikanti

    2011-01-01

    Child abuse is an important determinant of future violence perpetration and victimization. Past research examining linkages between child abuse and adult intimate partner violence (IPV) has predominantly focused on married individuals and not considered adolescent dating violence. In the present study, data from three waves of the National…

  17. The "Test-Tube" Generation: Parent-Child Relationships and the Psychological Well-Being of In Vitro Fertilization Children at Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golombok, Susan; MacCallum, Fiona; Goodman, Emma

    2001-01-01

    Compared parent-child relationships and early adolescent well-being in families with children conceived by in vitro fertilization (IVF), adoptive families, and families with a naturally conceived child. Found that IVF children were functioning well and did not differ from other children in social or emotional adjustment. (Author/KB)

  18. Child Care and Development Fund: Undercover Tests Show Five State Programs Are Vulnerable to Fraud and Abuse. Report to Congressional Addressees. GAO-10-1062

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutz, Gregory D.

    2010-01-01

    Through the Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF), the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) subsidizes child care for low-income families whose parents work or attend education or training programs. In fiscal year 2009, the CCDF budget was $7 billion. States are responsible for determining program priorities and overseeing funds.…

  19. Successful Kids from Immigrant Families: An Investigation of the Complex Multilingual Worlds of 10-Year-Old Gifted Writers in Suburban Toronto

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lotherington, Heather; Eamer, Allyson

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses a case study of a small cluster of 10- and 11-year-old multilingual children, all first- or second-generation Canadians living in suburban Toronto, who collaboratively wrote an elaborate adventure book in English as a Grade 5 enrichment activity. We explore the language worlds of these gifted young writers to trace their…

  20. Measurement Characteristics of Dietary Psychosocial Scales in a Weight Gain Prevention Study with 8- to 10-Year-Old African-American Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherrill-Mittleman, D. A.; Klesges, L. M.; Lanctot, J. Q.; Stockton, M. B.; Klesges, R. C.

    2009-01-01

    Few measurement instruments for children's eating behaviors and beliefs have been specifically validated for African-American children. Validation within this population is important because of potential cultural and ethnic influences. Objectives were to evaluate established and newly developed or adapted dietary psychosocial measures in a sample…

  1. Complete Genome Sequence of Bordetella pertussis Strain VA-190 Isolated from a Vaccinated 10-Year-Old Patient with Whooping Cough.

    PubMed

    Eby, Joshua C; Turner, Lauren; Nguyen, Bryan; Kang, June; Neville, Carly; Temple, Louise

    2016-09-15

    The number of cases of pertussis has increased in the United States despite vaccination. We present the genome of an isolate of Bordetella pertussis from a vaccinated patient from Virginia. The genome was sequenced by long-read methodology and compared to that of a clinical isolate used for laboratory studies, D420.

  2. Complete Genome Sequence of Bordetella pertussis Strain VA-190 Isolated from a Vaccinated 10-Year-Old Patient with Whooping Cough

    PubMed Central

    Eby, Joshua C.; Turner, Lauren; Nguyen, Bryan; Kang, June; Neville, Carly

    2016-01-01

    The number of cases of pertussis has increased in the United States despite vaccination. We present the genome of an isolate of Bordetella pertussis from a vaccinated patient from Virginia. The genome was sequenced by long-read methodology and compared to that of a clinical isolate used for laboratory studies, D420. PMID:27634997

  3. Diagnostic value of CT compared to ultrasound in the evaluation of acute abdominal pain in children younger than 10 years old.

    PubMed

    Simanovsky, Natalia; Dola, Tamar; Hiller, Nurith

    2016-02-01

    To assess the diagnostic value of ultrasound compared to CT in evaluating acute abdominal pain of different causes in children 10 years of age and under, hospital records and imaging files of 4052 patients under age of 10 who had imaging for abdominal pain were reviewed. One-hundred-thirty-two patients (3 %), (74 males/58 females) who underwent ultrasound and CT within 24 h were divided by age: group I, ages 0-48 months (25 patients); group II, 49-84 months (53 patients); and group III, 85-120 months (54 patients). Diagnoses at ultrasound, CT, and discharge were compared. Cases of a change in diagnosis following CT and impact of the changed diagnosis on patient management were assessed. Non-diagnostic ultrasound or a diagnostic conundrum was present in a small percentage (3 %) of our patients. In the group of patients imaged with two modalities, CT changed the diagnosis in 73/132 patients (55.3 %). Patient management changed in 63/132 patients (47.7 %). CT changed the diagnosis in 46/64 patients with surgical conditions (71.8 %, p < 0.001). Among patients with surgical conditions, the difference between ultrasonography (US) and CT diagnoses was significant in groups 2 (p = 0.046) and 3 (p =  .001). The impact of the change in diagnosis in surgical patients imaged with two modalities was significant in the group as a whole and in each age group separately. Non-diagnostic or equivocal US in a small percentage of patients is probably sufficient to justify the additional radiation burden.

  4. A fair share for the orphans: ethical guidelines for a fair distribution of resources within the bounds of the 10-year-old European Orphan Drug Regulation.

    PubMed

    Pinxten, Wim; Denier, Yvonne; Dooms, Marc; Cassiman, Jean-Jacques; Dierickx, Kris

    2012-03-01

    For a significant number of patients, there exists no, or only little, interest in developing a treatment for their disease or condition. Especially with regard to rare diseases, the lack of commercial interest in drug development is a burning issue. Several interventions have been made in the regulatory field in order to address the commercial disinterest in these conditions. However, existing regulations mainly focus on the provision of incentives to the sponsors of clinical trials of orphan drugs, and leave unanswered the overarching question about the rightful place of orphan drugs in resource allocation systems. In this article, we analyse the ethical aspects of funding research and development in the field of rare diseases. We then propose an ethical framework that can help health policy makers move forward in the difficult matter of fairly allocating resources for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of rare diseases.

  5. The world of tomorrow: Aerospace activities for 8- to 10-year olds. A guide for leaders of children's groups and teachers of the lower grades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    During January 1977, NASA helped the Cub Scout Division of the Boy Scouts of America in the conduct of its The World of Tomorrow monthly theme. In this period, 249 Cub Scout packs participated in a nationwide aerospace activities project, a pilot project in which den leaders and Cubmasters conducted local programs for their Cub Scouts and Webelos Scouts. The products of these local programs are presented with the written accounts submitted by adult leaders and written compositions, pictures, and photographs of models submitted by the youngsters.

  6. Larger amygdala but no change in hippocampal volume in 10-year-old children exposed to maternal depressive symptomatology since birth

    PubMed Central

    Lupien, Sonia J.; Parent, Sophie; Evans, Alan C.; Tremblay, Richard E.; Zelazo, Philip David; Corbo, Vincent; Pruessner, Jens C.; Séguin, Jean R.

    2011-01-01

    Maternal separation and poor maternal care in animals have been shown to have important effects on the developing hippocampus and amygdala. In humans, children exposed to abuse/maltreatment or orphanage rearing do not present changes in hippocampal volumes. However, children reared in orphanages present enlarged amygdala volumes, suggesting that the amygdala may be particularly sensitive to severely disturbed (i.e., discontinous, neglectful) care in infancy. Maternal depressive symptomatology has been associated with reductions in overall sensitivity to the infant, and with an increased rate of withdrawn, disengaged behaviors. To determine if poor maternal care associated with maternal depressive symptomatology has a similar pattern of association to the volumes of the hippocampus and amygdala in children, as is the case for severely disturbed infant care (orphanage rearing), we measured hippocampal and amygdala volumes as well as stress hormone (glucocorticoid) levels in children exposed (n = 17) or not (n = 21) to maternal depressive symptomatology since birth. Results revealed no group difference in hippocampal volumes, but larger left and right amygdala volumes and increased levels of glucocorticoids in the children of mothers presenting depressive symptomatology since birth. Moreover, a significant positive correlation was observed between mothers' mean depressive scores and amygdala volumes in their children. The results of this study suggest that amygdala volume in human children may represent an early marker of biological sensitivity to quality of maternal care. PMID:21844357

  7. Larger amygdala but no change in hippocampal volume in 10-year-old children exposed to maternal depressive symptomatology since birth.

    PubMed

    Lupien, Sonia J; Parent, Sophie; Evans, Alan C; Tremblay, Richard E; Zelazo, Philip David; Corbo, Vincent; Pruessner, Jens C; Séguin, Jean R

    2011-08-23

    Maternal separation and poor maternal care in animals have been shown to have important effects on the developing hippocampus and amygdala. In humans, children exposed to abuse/maltreatment or orphanage rearing do not present changes in hippocampal volumes. However, children reared in orphanages present enlarged amygdala volumes, suggesting that the amygdala may be particularly sensitive to severely disturbed (i.e., discontinous, neglectful) care in infancy. Maternal depressive symptomatology has been associated with reductions in overall sensitivity to the infant, and with an increased rate of withdrawn, disengaged behaviors. To determine if poor maternal care associated with maternal depressive symptomatology has a similar pattern of association to the volumes of the hippocampus and amygdala in children, as is the case for severely disturbed infant care (orphanage rearing), we measured hippocampal and amygdala volumes as well as stress hormone (glucocorticoid) levels in children exposed (n = 17) or not (n = 21) to maternal depressive symptomatology since birth. Results revealed no group difference in hippocampal volumes, but larger left and right amygdala volumes and increased levels of glucocorticoids in the children of mothers presenting depressive symptomatology since birth. Moreover, a significant positive correlation was observed between mothers' mean depressive scores and amygdala volumes in their children. The results of this study suggest that amygdala volume in human children may represent an early marker of biological sensitivity to quality of maternal care.

  8. Peer Interaction Does Not Always Improve Children’s Mental State Talk Production in Oral Narratives. A Study in 6- to 10-Year-Old Italian Children

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Giuliana; Tarchi, Christian; Bigozzi, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Joint narratives are a mean through which children develop and practice their Theory of Mind (ToM), thus they represent an ideal means to explore children’s use and development of mental state talk. However, creating a learning environment for storytelling based on peer interaction, does not necessarily mean that students will automatically exploit it by engaging in productive collaboration, thus it is important to explore under what conditions peer interaction promotes children’s ToM. This study extends our understanding of social aspects of ToM, focusing on the effect of joint narratives on school-age children’s mental state talk. Fifty-six Italian primary school children participated in the study (19 females and 37 males). Children created a story in two different experimental conditions (individually and with a partner randomly assigned). Each story told by the children, as well as their dialogs were recorded and transcribed. Transcriptions of narratives were coded in terms of text quality and mental state talk, whereas transcriptions of dialogs were coded in terms of quality of interaction. The results from this study confirmed that peer interaction does not always improve children’s mental state talk performances in oral narratives, but certain conditions need to be satisfied. Peer interaction was more effective on mental state talk with lower individual levels and productive interactions, particularly in terms of capacity to regulate the interactions. When children were able to focus on the interaction, as well as the product, they were also exposed to each other’s reasoning behind their viewpoint. This level of intersubjectivity, in turn, allowed them to take more in consideration the contribution of mental states to the narrative. PMID:27826283

  9. A Common Genetic Factor Explains the Covariation among ADHD ODD and CD Symptoms in 9-10 Year Old Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuvblad, Catherine; Zheng, Mo; Raine, Adrian; Baker, Laura A.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies examining the covariation among Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Conduct Disorder (CD) have yielded inconsistent results. Some studies have concluded that the covariation among these symptoms is due to common genetic influences, whereas others have found a common…

  10. Short-term psychoanalytic child therapy for anxious children: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Göttken, Tanja; White, Lars O; Klein, Annette M; von Klitzing, Kai

    2014-03-01

    Few studies report treatment outcome for early childhood internalizing disorders following psychotherapy, especially psychodynamic techniques. We aimed to investigate effectiveness of a novel, developmentally appropriate, short-term psychodynamic treatment program for 4- to 10-year-olds with anxiety disorders in an outpatient setting. We conducted a quasi-experimental wait-list controlled study. Thirty children (12 females) with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) anxiety disorders and their families received 20-25 sessions of manualized short-term Psychoanalytic Child Therapy (PaCT). We assessed outcome with standardized diagnostic interviews and parent reports of internalizing and total problems at all time points. Child puppet interviews and teacher reports were also available for pre-post treatment and follow-up analyses. While 18 families entered treatment immediately, 12 families were first wait-listed before receiving treatment. Analyses of symptom improvement were based on comparisons between groups (treatment vs. wait-list) as well as pre-post and 6-month follow-up data across all families (including wait-listed families). Among the 27 completers, 66.67% (n = 18) no longer met criteria for any anxiety disorder (59.88% in intent-to-treat analysis) while no children remitted across the wait-list interval. Parent-reported child internalizing and total problems significantly declined during treatment relative to wait-list. Child and teacher reports also revealed significant pre-post symptom reductions on internalizing and total problems. Diagnostic and symptom remission rates were maintained at 6-month follow-up except on child reports. This preliminary study adds to a growing database showing that psychodynamic treatments may offer an effective line of treatment for childhood internalizing symptoms and disorders in the eyes of clinicians, children, parents, and teachers.

  11. "Looking at Evil": The Liverpool Child Murder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrie, Ian R.

    1994-01-01

    Examines case of 2 10-year-old English boys who murdered 2-year-old boy. Briefly reviews trial and defendants, examining the world of these two young murderers. Discusses public attitudes and mental health, economic and social disadvantages, violent videos, importance of early identification and intervention, affective and personal needs, and…

  12. My Child Is Stealing

    MedlinePlus

    ... a habit with your child or teen, consider speaking with a doctor or therapist to get to ... Can Be Done About a Child Who Steals? Teaching Your Child Self-Control Disciplining Your Child Childhood ...

  13. Office of Child Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Early Head Start-Child Care Partnerships. Review the profiles. > What is the Office of Child Care (OCC)? The Office of Child Care supports low-income working families through child care financial assistance and ...

  14. Child Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Child Sexual Abuse Public This section is for Veterans, General Public, Family, & Friends Child Sexual Abuse What is child sexual abuse? Child sexual abuse ...

  15. Child sex moderates the association between negative parenting and childhood conduct problems.

    PubMed

    Tung, Irene; Li, James J; Lee, Steve S

    2012-01-01

    Although multiple dimensions of negative parenting behavior are associated with childhood conduct problems (CP), there is relatively little research on whether the association is equally robust in boys and girls. To improve the specificity of current models of negative parenting and offspring CP, we explored the potential moderating role of child sex in a sample of 179 5- to 10-year-old ethnically diverse boys and girls with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who were assessed using multiple methods (i.e., rating scales, semistructured interviews) and informants (i.e., parents, teachers). Controlling for children's age, race-ethnicity, and ADHD diagnostic status (i.e., ADHD vs. non-ADHD), inconsistent discipline was positively associated with offspring aggression and rule-breaking behavior, whereas harsh punishment was positively associated with aggression, rule-breaking behavior, and oppositional defiant disorder symptoms. Furthermore, child sex significantly moderated the association of inconsistent discipline and aggression and rule-breaking behavior, such that inconsistent discipline was positively associated with CP for boys, but not for girls. Given the centrality of negative parenting to theories of and efficacious interventions for aggression and CP, we discuss these findings within a developmental psychopathology framework and consider their implications for intervention.

  16. Geographical information system and access to HIV testing, treatment and prevention of mother-to-child transmission in conflict affected Northern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Chamla, Dick D; Olu, Olushayo; Wanyana, Jennifer; Natseri, Nasan; Mukooyo, Eddie; Okware, Sam; Alisalad, Abdikamal; George, Melville

    2007-01-01

    Objectives Using Geographical Information System (GIS) as a tool to determine access to and gaps in providing HIV counselling and testing (VCT), treatment (ART) and mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services in conflict affected northern Uganda. Methods Cross-sectional data on availability and utilization, and geo-coordinates of health facilities providing VCT, PMTCT, and ART were collected in order to determine access. ArcView software produced maps showing locations of facilities and Internally Displaced Population(IDP) camps. Findings There were 167 health facilities located inside and outside 132 IDP camps with VCT, PMTCT and ART services provided in 32 (19.2%), 15 (9%) and 10 (6%) facilities respectively. There was uneven availability and utilization of services and resources among districts, camps and health facilities. Inadequate staff and stock-out of essential commodities were found in lower health facility levels. Provision of VCT was 100% of the HSSP II target at health centres IV and hospitals but 28% at HC III. For PMTCT and ART, only 42.9% and 20% of the respective targets were reached at the health centres IV. Conclusion Access to VCT, PMTCT and ART services was geographically limited due to inadequacy and heterogeneous dispersion of these services among districts and camps. GIS mapping can be effective in identifying service delivery gaps and presenting complex data into simplistic results hence can be recommended in need assessments in conflict settings. PMID:18053189

  17. Project CHILD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robison, Helen F.; And Others

    This document described Project CHILD, a program of educational change and curriculum development for disadvantaged prekindergarten and kindergarten children. The historical part of this report indicates that the project began in 1966 with a small-scale study of teacher behavior and children's responses in a few classrooms in a Harlem school…

  18. Child Development

    MedlinePlus

    ... same sex. Peer approval becomes very important. Your child may try new behaviors to be part of "the group." This can also be the time that parents or teachers recognize learning disabilities or ... can get worse as time goes on, so it is important to get help early.

  19. Infant Child Care and Attachment Security: Results of the NICHD Study of Early Child Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development (NIH), Bethesda, MD. Early Child Care Network.

    A longitudinal study explored the effects of different aspects of child care on infants' attachment security. Child care variables examined included age of entry; the quality, amount, stability, and type of care; and mother's sensitivity to the child's needs. When the validity of the Strange Situation was tested by comparing children with low and…

  20. Engaging Parents in Child Welfare Services: Bridging Family Needs and Child Welfare Mandates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp, Susan P.; Marcenko, Maureen O.; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Vesneski, William

    2009-01-01

    Calls for expanded use of tested child mental health interventions in child welfare practice add new urgency to the longstanding question of how to enhance parent engagement in child welfare services, where low and uneven levels of engagement are pervasive, and services to parents and children tend to be separated, leaving important opportunities…

  1. Toddler test or procedure preparation

    MedlinePlus

    Preparing toddler for test/procedure; Test/procedure preparation - toddler; Preparing for a medical test or procedure - toddler ... Before the test, know that your child will probably cry. Even if you prepare, your child may feel some discomfort or ...

  2. Mother-Child and Father-Child Mutually Responsive Orientation in the First 2 Years and Children's Outcomes at Preschool Age: Mechanisms of Influence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Aksan, Nazan; Prisco, Theresa R.; Adams, Erin E.

    2008-01-01

    Mechanisms accounting for the effects of mutually responsive orientation (MRO) at 7, 15, and 25 months in 102 mother-child and father-child dyads on child internalization and self-regulation at 52 months were examined. Two mediators at 38 months were tested: parental power assertion and child self-representation. For mother-child relationships,…

  3. 16 CFR 1210.4 - Test protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARD FOR CIGARETTE LIGHTERS Requirements for Child Resistance § 1210.4 Test protocol. (a) Child test... operating components that could affect child resistance to verify that they are within reasonable...

  4. 16 CFR 1210.4 - Test protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARD FOR CIGARETTE LIGHTERS Requirements for Child Resistance § 1210.4 Test protocol. (a) Child test... operating components that could affect child resistance to verify that they are within reasonable...

  5. Test Series 2: seismic-fragility tests of naturally-aged Class 1E Exide FHC-19 battery cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bonzon, L. L.; Hente, D. B.; Kukreti, B. M.; Schendel, J.; Tulk, J. D.; Janis, W. J.; Black, D. A.; Paulsen, G. D.; Aucoin, B. D.

    1985-03-01

    The seismic-fragility of naturally-aged nuclear station safety-related batteries is of interest for two reasons: (1) to determine actual failure modes and their thresholds and (2) to determine the validity of using the electrical capacity of individual cells as an indicator of the ''end-of-life'' of a battery if subjected to a seismic event. This report, the second in a test series of an extensive seismic research program, covers the testing of 10-year old lead-calcium Exide FHC-19 cells from the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Station operated by the Baltimore Gas and Electric Company. The Exide cells were tested in two configurations using a triaxial shake table: single-cell tests, both rigidly and loosely mounted; and multicell (three-cell) tests, mounted in a typical battery rack. A total of six electrically active cells was used in the two different cell configurations.

  6. Overprotective parenting and child anxiety: the role of co-occurring child behavior problems.

    PubMed

    Gere, Martina K; Villabø, Marianne A; Torgersen, Svenn; Kendall, Philip C

    2012-08-01

    The relationship between overprotective parenting and child anxiety has been examined repeatedly because theories emphasize its role in the maintenance of child anxiety. No study has yet tested whether this relationship is unique to child anxiety, by controlling for commonly co-occurring behavior problems within the same children. The current study examined 190 children (age 7-13, 118 [corrected] boys) referred to mental health clinics and their parents. Results revealed that significant correlations between overprotective parenting and child anxiety symptoms disappear after controlling for co-occurring child behavior symptoms. It appears that overprotection is not uniquely related to child anxiety. Furthermore, overprotective parenting was significantly and uniquely related to child behavior symptoms. Researchers and practitioners need to consider co-occurring child behavior problems when working with the parents of anxious children.

  7. Child Care Aware

    MedlinePlus

    ... Aware of America Symposium 2016 Looking for child care? Need resources for your child care business? There are more than 500 local Child Care Resource & Referral (CCR&R) agencies across the United ...

  8. Ileostomy and your child

    MedlinePlus

    ... embarrassment. You may see some changes in your child's behavior at first. Sometimes teenagers have a harder time ... You being open and natural will help your child's behavior stay positive. Help your child learn how to ...

  9. Investigating the use of appropriation in the writing of a child with autism: A case study.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Jamie; Weill, Christine; Damico, Jack

    This case study investigated how a 10year old child with ASD (Autism Spectrum Disorder), Kameron (pseudonym), utilized appropriation as a writing strategy in the context of group therapy. Using the same questions as Lensmire and Beals (1994) in their study of a typically developing third-grader, written products were collected over the course of one semester and analyzed, along with video, audio, and participant observation data, to consider the following questions: 1) Where did the material come from? 2) What was taken? and 3) How was it used? Analysis of the process of Kameron's writing revealed utilization of appropriation as a strategy for 2 of the 4 written products. Material was appropriated from both adult authored texts performed via read alouds and from topics and values located in the local peer culture. Kameron's appropriation of shared experiences provided substance to initiate and engage in a shared peer culture. Increased engagement in the writing process and fewer off task behaviors were noted when appropriations were evidenced compared to the writing pieces where no appropriation occurred. The results demonstrate the powerful implications of both a process oriented and strength-based approach to writing and greater social awareness than expected in children with ASD.

  10. Child Depression: Prevalence and Comparison between Self-Reports and Teacher Reports.

    PubMed

    Jaureguizar, Joana; Bernaras, Elena; Garaigordobil, Maite

    2017-02-22

    Depression is one of the most worrying diseases nowadays. The study had three main purposes: 1) to identify the prevalence of depressive symptomatology in 7-10 year olds, exploring differences according to gender and age; 2) to analyze the consistency between self-reports and teacher reports; and 3) to explore the relationship between depression and academic performance. Regarding the methodology, the sample comprised 420 students aged between 7 and 10 years from the Basque Country (53.3% boys, 46.7% girls). With a descriptive, comparative and correlational design, 4 assessment instruments were used. Results from the self-reports showed a depression rate fluctuating between 4.6% and 4.8% (clinically significant), and between 4.3% and 5% (moderate depression). However, prevalence rates from teacher reports varied between 0.2% and 3.6% (clinically significant) and between 4.6% and 7.7% (moderate depression). The consistency rate between self-reports and teacher reports was small. Differences according to gender varied depending on the instruments used and depression was higher in boys (BASC, d = .23; SPECI d = .36). Symptomatology did not increase with age. Depression correlated negatively with academic performance (self-reported depression: CDS-T r = -.12, SPECI r = -.17; depression reported by teachers: CDS-T r = -.24, SPECI r = -.50). The importance of training teachers to better identify child depression is discussed, as well as the relevance of developing prevention programs.

  11. Seismic-fragility tests of new and accelerated-aged Class 1E battery cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bonzon, L.L.; Janis, W.J.; Black, D.A.; Paulsen, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    The seismic-fragility response of naturally-aged nuclear station safety-related batteries is of interest for two reasons: (1) to determine actual failure modes and thresholds and (2) to determine the validity of using the electrical capacity of individual cells as an indicator of the potential survivability of a battery given a seismic event. Prior reports in this series discussed the seismic-fragility tests and results for three specific naturally-aged cell types: 12-year old NCX-2250, 10-year old LCU-13, and 10-year old FHC-19. This report focuses on the complementary approach, namely, the seismic-fragility response of accelerated-aged batteries. Of particular interest is the degree to which such approaches accurately reproduce the actual failure modes and thresholds. In these tests the significant aging effects observed, in terms of seismic survivability, were: embrittlement of cell cases, positive bus material and positive plate grids; and excessive sulphation of positive plate active material causing hardening and expansion of positive plates. The IEEE Standard 535 accelerated aging method successfully reproduced seismically significant aging effects in new cells but accelerated grid embrittlement an estimated five years beyond the conditional age of other components.

  12. Validation of the Child Sport Cohesion Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Luc J.; Carron, Albert V.; Eys, Mark A.; Loughead, Todd

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to test the validity evidence of the Child Sport Cohesion Questionnaire (CSCQ). To accomplish this task, convergent, discriminant, and known-group difference validity were examined, along with factorial validity via confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Child athletes (N = 290, M[subscript age] = 10.73 plus or…

  13. The child dream and the child transference.

    PubMed

    De Francisco, D

    1986-01-01

    This paper explores the symbolic meaning of dreams in which children appear with special attention to the way children in dreams symbolize the self, particularly the dependent and developing self. It is suggested that patients' growth in analysis can be monitored by observing what happens to the children in their dreams. This paper also explores the vicissitudes of the child transference, in which the patient treats the analyst as a child. An analysis is described in which the child dream and the child transference played an important role in elucidating the patient's neurotic behaviors. The author contends that the child dream and the child transference are common and clinically useful phenomena, especially important in the analysis of dependency conflicts. An additional thesis of this paper is that the child transference is most likely to be found in instances where a patient played a parental role with one of their parents during childhood.

  14. Child Support Report, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharman, Phil, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This document comprises the 12 issues for 2001 of the "Child Support Report," which explores problems related to child support enforcement, reports on federal and state government child support enforcement initiatives, and summarizes research related to child support. Featured regularly are editorials and information on events of…

  15. Child Support Report, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharman, Phil, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This document comprises the 12 issues for 1999 of the "Child Support Report," which explores problems related to child support enforcement, reports on federal and state government child support enforcement initiatives, and summarizes research related to child support. Editorials and information on events and conferences of interest and…

  16. Child Support Report, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharman, Phil, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This document comprises the 12 issues for 2000 of the "Child Support Report," which explores problems related to child support enforcement, reports on federal and state government child support enforcement initiatives, and summarizes research related to child support. Featured regularly are editorials and information on events of…

  17. Child Abuse: Definition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Timothy L.-Y.

    The purpose of this paper was to elaborate on the definitions of child abuse in order to improve the understanding of child abuse. The definitions given by the U.S. House Joint Committee on Child Abuse in the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act, and in research by Holden (1984), are cited. These definitions refer to the nature of abusive acts…

  18. Child Support Report, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharman, Phil, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This document consists of the twelve issues of "Child Support Report" newsletter published during 1997. Monthly issues typically explore problems related to child support enforcement, report on federal and state government child support enforcement initiatives, and summarize research related to child support. Editorials and information…

  19. 16 CFR 1212.4 - Test protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARD FOR MULTI-PURPOSE LIGHTERS Requirements for Child-Resistance § 1212.4 Test protocol. (a) Child... could affect child resistance to verify that they are within reasonable operating tolerances for...

  20. 16 CFR 1212.4 - Test protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARD FOR MULTI-PURPOSE LIGHTERS Requirements for Child-Resistance § 1212.4 Test protocol. (a) Child... could affect child resistance to verify that they are within reasonable operating tolerances for...

  1. Avoiding False Claims of Child Sexual Abuse: Empty Promises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pezdek, Kathy

    1994-01-01

    Responds to previous article by Fincham, Beach, Moore, and Diener (this issue) on child sexual abuse. Focuses on importance of recognizing that attempts to reduce probability of false claims of child abuse would result in increasing probability of missing true claims of child abuse. Offers hypothesis-testing framework as useful heuristic for…

  2. Blood Test: Lead (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... and when based on a child's risk for lead poisoning. Those who are considered at risk — such as ... How Do I Get My Child Tested for Lead Poisoning? Lead Poisoning Pica Getting a Blood Test (Video) ...

  3. China and the Whole Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Yong

    2007-01-01

    Despite a policy focus on educating the whole child, China continues to struggle with a culture of testing, placing a premium on academic knowledge to the detriment of a more well-rounded curriculum. Students are overworked, lack adequate sleep, and have little time for anything beyond school work. The Chinese Ministry of Education has enumerated…

  4. Stressful Life Events and Child Anxiety: Examining Parent and Child Mediators

    PubMed Central

    Platt, Rheanna; Williams, Sarah R.; Ginsburg, Golda S.

    2015-01-01

    While a number of factors have been linked with excessive anxiety (e.g., parenting, child temperament), the impact of stressful life events remains under-studied. Moreover, much of this literature has examined bivariate associations rather than testing more complex theoretical models. The current study extends the literature on life events and child anxiety by testing a theory-driven meditational model. Specifically, one child factor (child cognitions/locus of control), two parent factors (parent psychopathology and parenting stress), and two parent-child relationship factors (parent-child dysfunctional interaction and parenting style) were examined as mediators in the relationship between stressful life events and severity of child anxiety. One hundred and thirty anxious parents and their nonanxious, high-risk children (ages ranged from 7 to 13 years) participated in this study. Results indicated that levels of parenting stress, parental anxious rearing, and dysfunctional parent-child interaction mediated the association between stressful life events and severity of anxiety symptoms. Child cognition and parent psychopathology factors failed to emerge as mediators. Findings provide support for more complex theoretical models linking life events and child anxiety and suggest potential targets of intervention. PMID:25772523

  5. Stressful Life Events and Child Anxiety: Examining Parent and Child Mediators.

    PubMed

    Platt, Rheanna; Williams, Sarah R; Ginsburg, Golda S

    2016-02-01

    While a number of factors have been linked with excessive anxiety (e.g., parenting, child temperament), the impact of stressful life events remains under-studied. Moreover, much of this literature has examined bivariate associations rather than testing more complex theoretical models. The current study extends the literature on life events and child anxiety by testing a theory-driven meditational model. Specifically, one child factor (child cognitions/locus of control), two parent factors (parent psychopathology and parenting stress), and two parent-child relationship factors (parent-child dysfunctional interaction and parenting style) were examined as mediators in the relationship between stressful life events and severity of child anxiety. One hundred and thirty anxious parents and their nonanxious, high-risk children (ages ranged from 7 to 13 years) participated in this study. Results indicated that levels of parenting stress, parental anxious rearing, and dysfunctional parent-child interaction mediated the association between stressful life events and severity of anxiety symptoms. Child cognition and parent psychopathology factors failed to emerge as mediators. Findings provide support for more complex theoretical models linking life events and child anxiety and suggest potential targets of intervention.

  6. A child-to-child programme in rural Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Knight, J; Grantham-McGregor, S; Ismail, S; Ashley, D

    1991-01-01

    A child-to-child programme was carried out in six rural schools in Jamaica. School children in grades 4 and 5 were taught concepts of nutrition, environmental and personal hygiene, and child development. The children were encouraged to take messages home to their parents and improve the care of their younger siblings. Four hundred and twenty-three children and 90 mothers and guardians from four of the project schools were evaluated and compared with 199 children and 47 parents from two control schools. The project children showed higher scores on a test of knowledge in the topics at the end of the year. They also improved in some practices at home. The mothers improved in knowledge in some areas but not in their practices. We consider the results sufficiently encouraging to justify incorporating the programme into the country's education curriculum for primary schools.

  7. Greater years of maternal schooling and higher scores on academic achievement tests are independently associated with improved management of child diarrhea by rural Guatemalan mothers.

    PubMed

    Webb, Aimee L; Ramakrishnan, Usha; Stein, Aryeh D; Sellen, Daniel W; Merchant, Moeza; Martorell, Reynaldo

    2010-09-01

    Appropriate home management can alleviate many of the consequences of diarrhea including malnutrition, impaired development, growth faltering, and mortality. Maternal cognitive ability, years of schooling, and acquired academic skills are hypothesized to improve child health by improving maternal child care practices, such as illness management. Using information collected longitudinally in 1996-1999 from 466 rural Guatemalan women with children <36 months, we examined the independent associations between maternal years of schooling, academic skills, and scores on the Raven's Progressive Matrices and an illness management index (IMI). Women scoring in the lowest and middle tertiles of academic skills scored lower on the IMI compared to women in the highest tertile (-0.24 [95% CI: -0.54, 0.07]; -0.30 [95% CI: -0.54, -0.06], respectively) independent of sociodemographic factors, schooling, and Raven's scores. Among mothers with less than 1 year of schooling, scoring in the lowest tertile on the Raven's Progressive Matrices compared to the highest was significantly associated with scoring one point lower on the IMI (-1.18 [95% CI: -2.20, -0.17]). Greater academic skills were independently associated with maternal care during episodes of infant diarrhea. Schooling of young girls and/or community based programs that provide women with academic skills such as literacy, numeracy and knowledge could potentially improve mothers' care giving practices.

  8. Extradural frontal abscess complicating nasal septal abscess in a child.

    PubMed

    Thomson, C J; Berkowitz, R G

    1998-10-02

    Nasal septal abscess (NSA) is an uncommon sequel to minor nasal trauma. Abscess extension beyond the nasal cavity is rarely documented. A case of a 10-year-old boy who presented with a NSA associated with a large extradural frontal abscess is presented and indications for CT scanning in the workup of pediatric patients with NSA is discussed.

  9. Prepare Your Child For Reading Tests: Tips for Parents = Prepare a sus hijos para tomar pruebas de lectura: Ideas para padres.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachman, Tori Mello

    Parents can help their children prepare for reading tests in a number of ways, not only just before the test, but also with everyday activities. There are generally two types of reading tests given to students: tests given by teachers throughout the year to see what information students have retained, and more formal, often standardized, tests…

  10. Does the gender of parent or child matter in child maltreatment in China?

    PubMed

    Cui, Naixue; Xue, Jia; Connolly, Cynthia A; Liu, Jianghong

    2016-04-01

    Child maltreatment is a public health problem worldwide, and China is no exception. However, the pattern of child maltreatment remains unknown, including whether the gender of children and their parents has an impact on the occurrence of maltreatment. This study aims at examining the rates and frequency of child maltreatment, including physical abuse, psychological abuse and neglect perpetrated by mothers and fathers. We also test whether the interaction between parents' gender and their child's gender affects the occurrence of child maltreatment in China. 997 children from the China Jintan Child Cohort Study participated in the present study and reported their maltreatment experience perpetrated by their mothers and fathers using the questionnaire, Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale (CTSPC_CA). Generalized linear model analyses show that boys were more likely than girls to report physical abuse, and, in particular, boys were more likely than girls to be physically abused by their fathers. On the other hand, mothers were more likely than fathers to exhibit psychological aggression and use corporal punishment for both boys and girls. There was no difference based on the child's or parent's gender in the occurrence of neglect. The findings present empirical evidence that enhances the understanding of the pattern of child maltreatment in China, provide implications for social workers and health professionals to identify children at risk of child maltreatment, and shed light on future research studies.

  11. Teacher Candidates Reconcile "The Child and the Curriculum" with "No Child Left Behind"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuel, Francis A.; Suh, Bernadyn

    2012-01-01

    What relevance does John Dewey have for students and teachers of the 21st century? Can his educational philosophy be reconciled with "No Child Left Behind" (NCLB) and its emphasis on accountability and high-stakes testing? In this article, the authors discuss Dewey's ideas about the child and the curriculum; delineate how teacher…

  12. Parent-Child Hostility and Child ADHD Symptoms: A Genetically Sensitive and Longitudinal Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lifford, Kate J.; Harold, Gordon T.; Thapar, Anita

    2009-01-01

    Background: Families of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) report higher rates of conflict within the family and more negative parent-child relationships. This study aimed to test whether negative parent-child relationships have a risk effect on ADHD symptoms using two complementary designs. Method: The first sample…

  13. A Call for Field-Relevant Research about Child Forensic Interviewing for Child Protection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olafson, Erna

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews some sensitivity versus specificity imbalances in forensic investigations of child sexual abuse. It then proposes the development or further testing of additional approaches for those children who do not respond to the current, single-interview National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) protocol. Although…

  14. Parental Cognitive Impairment, Mental Health, and Child Outcomes in a Child Protection Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Maurice; McConnell, David; Aunos, Marjorie

    2012-01-01

    Parents with cognitive impairments (CI) are overrepresented in child custody cases and their children are at risk for adverse outcomes. Ecological-transactional researchers propose that child outcomes are a function of the interaction of multiple distal, intermediate, and proximal risk and resilience factors. This study tested the fit of, and…

  15. Spleen removal - child - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... activity restrictions will depend on: The type of surgery (open or laparoscopic) Your child's age The reason for the operation Ask your doctor about specific activity instructions and ... other pain medicines to use at home if your child needs them.

  16. Cholesterol and Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Cholesterol and Your Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Cholesterol and ... child's risk of developing heart disease later. About Cholesterol Cholesterol is a waxy substance produced by the ...

  17. FPG Child Development Institute

    MedlinePlus

    ... and 'alternative facts,' science can reliably inform policy. Child development research advises that a sense of security provided ... Development, Teaching, and Learning The Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute will partner with Zero to Three to ...

  18. Your Child's Growth

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development (Birth to 3 Years) Feeding Your 1- to ... There's a Problem Some parents worry about their child's growth and development. So it can be reassuring to know that ...

  19. Your Child's Development: Newborn

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Your Child's Development: Newborn KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Development: Newborn ... changed; or goes to sleep ) Movement and Physical Development moves in response to sights and sounds rooting ...

  20. Fussy or irritable child

    MedlinePlus

    ... home Irregular day-to-day schedule Using your parenting skills, you should be able to calm your child and make things better. Getting your child on a regular eating, sleeping, and daily schedule can also help.

  1. Child Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... for pornography is also sexual abuse. Most sexual abusers know the child they abuse. They may be ... friends, neighbors or babysitters. About one-third of abusers are related to the child. Most abusers are ...

  2. Child Dental Health

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy teeth are important to your child's overall health. From the time your child is born, there are things you can do to promote healthy teeth and prevent cavities. For babies, you should clean ...

  3. Child abuse - physical

    MedlinePlus

    ... way Uses harsh discipline Was abused as a child Alcohol or drug problems Emotional problems or mental illness ... Physical abuse - children References Berkowitz CD, Stewart ST. Child maltreatment. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, eds. ...

  4. Surviving Your Child's Hospitalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, David A.

    1988-01-01

    The parent of a young child who required major open heart surgery shares his suggestions for coping with a young child's hospitalization including parent visitation, relating to the hospital staff, getting answers to questions, and utilizing available services. (DB)

  5. Child Behavior Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... a death in the family may cause a child to act out. Behavior disorders are more serious. ... The behavior is also not appropriate for the child's age. Warning signs can include Harming or threatening ...

  6. Child poverty and changes in child poverty.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Hao; Corak, Miles

    2008-08-01

    This article offers a cross-country overview of child poverty, changes in child poverty, and the impact of public policy in North America and Europe. Levels and changes in child poverty rates in 12 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries during the 1990s are documented using data from the Luxembourg Income Study project, and a decomposition analysis is used to uncover the relative role of demographic factors, labor markets, and income transfers from the state in determining the magnitude and direction of the changes. Child poverty rates fell noticeably in only three countries and rose in three others. In no country were demographic factors a force for higher child poverty rates, but these factors were also limited in their ability to cushion children from adverse shocks originating in the labor market or the government sector. Increases in the labor market engagement of mothers consistently lowered child poverty rates, while decreases in the employment rates and earnings of fathers were a force for higher rates. Finally, there is no single road to lower child poverty rates. Reforms to income transfers intended to increase labor supply may or may not end up lowering the child poverty rate.

  7. Child-to-Child programme in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Kasim, M S; Abraham, S

    1982-09-01

    Even though Malaysia is a relatively prosperous country amongst the developing nations, it is still be set by problems of a rapidly increasing population. The economic cake is also unevenly distributed and there are pockets of poverty in the slums surrounding the towns as well as in the rural areas. Added to that is the problem of ignorance and superstition especially amongst its adult population. It is due to these problems that the Child-to-Child programme has found special application in Malaysia. The Child-to-Child has been introduced through either the government agencies or the voluntary organizations. Through the Ministry of Education, the concept has found its ways through the schools and the state department of education. The Ministry of Information and Broadcasting has also introduced the concept of Child-to-Child in the media. The voluntary organizations have also introduced the concept of Child-to-Child in their projects. The Sang Kancil project has to some extent used the idea in the running of its activities. The Health and Nutrition Education House have found that by applying the concept and using older children to help in running its activities, its over all objective which is the improvement of the health of the children in the slums could be reached more easily.

  8. Child Care Subsidies and Child Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbst, Chris M.; Tekin, Erdal

    2010-01-01

    Child care subsidies are an important part of federal and state efforts to move welfare recipients into employment. One of the criticisms of the current subsidy system, however, is that it overemphasizes work and does little to encourage parents to purchase high-quality child care. Consequently, there are reasons to be concerned about the…

  9. Child Study and Observation: Child Development 101.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Joanna

    This syllabus outlines the structure, objectives, and lesson plans for Child Development 101, a twelve-week course on child study and observation offered at Chaffey Community College. A statement of the educational philosophy upon which the course was developed precedes a list of course objectives, competencies, and the grading system. The bulk of…

  10. Holocaust Child Survivors and Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; Amir, Marianne

    2005-01-01

    This study utilized a qualitative analysis of child survivors of the Holocaust who were sexually abused during World War II. The research study aimed to give this specific group of survivors a voice and to explore the impact of multiple extreme traumas, the Holocaust and childhood sexual abuse, on the survivors. Twenty-two child survivors of the…

  11. Implementation and Testing of VLBI Software Correlation at the USNO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fey, Alan; Ojha, Roopesh; Boboltz, Dave; Geiger, Nicole; Kingham, Kerry; Hall, David; Gaume, Ralph; Johnston, Ken

    2010-01-01

    The Washington Correlator (WACO) at the U.S. Naval Observatory (USNO) is a dedicated VLBI processor based on dedicated hardware of ASIC design. The WACO is currently over 10 years old and is nearing the end of its expected lifetime. Plans for implementation and testing of software correlation at the USNO are currently being considered. The VLBI correlation process is, by its very nature, well suited to a parallelized computing environment. Commercial off-the-shelf computer hardware has advanced in processing power to the point where software correlation is now both economically and technologically feasible. The advantages of software correlation are manifold but include flexibility, scalability, and easy adaptability to changing environments and requirements. We discuss our experience with and plans for use of software correlation at USNO with emphasis on the use of the DiFX software correlator.

  12. The Limping Child

    PubMed Central

    Tredwell, Stephen J.

    1979-01-01

    The challenge of the limping child demands that the primary care physician identify those problems which are urgent, when neglect can harm the child, and to provide appropriate supportive care for those which are not. The approach to the limping child should consider the child's age, whether or not the limp is painful, and certain key physical findings. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7aFig. 7b PMID:21297725

  13. Maternal Overcontrol and Child Anxiety: The Mediating Role of Perceived Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Affrunti, Nicholas W.; Ginsburg, Golda S.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown that maternal overcontrol is related to higher levels of child anxiety. It has been theorized, though not empirically tested, that maternal overcontrol decreases child perceived competence and mastery, which increases child anxiety. The present study investigated this theory using a sample of 89 mother-child dyads…

  14. Child Care Services Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duval County School Board, Jacksonville, FL.

    A companion document to the curriculum guide for a secondary level child care services curriculum, this handbook contains a variety of administrative and program resources for the teacher: The vocational curriculum outline for child care services; a calendar of suggested public relations activities; procedures for building child care services…

  15. Child Care Design Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olds, Anita Rui

    This book provides architects, interior designers, developers, and child-care professionals with detailed information on the planning and design of child care centers. Part 1 examines the current state of child care in the United States and offers an overall philosophical concert--the spirit of place--as the framework for all center design. Part 2…

  16. Mother-Child Bonding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Joseph Chilton

    1994-01-01

    Examines the nature of mother-child bonding from the prenatal stage through early infancy, discussing how the mother's actions, even before birth, stimulate her child's senses. Explains the crucial role that physical contact, breastfeeding, and visual stimuli have on mother-child bonding in human and animal newborns. (MDM)

  17. Your Child's Development: Newborn

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Your Child's Development: Newborn KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Development: Newborn Print A A A en español El ... the sole of the foot Social and Emotional Development soothed by a parent's ... When to Talk to Your Doctor Every child develops at his or her own pace, but ...

  18. Your Child's Checkups

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development (Birth to 3 Years) Feeding Your 1- to 3- ... 2-Year-Old Your Child's Checkups KidsHealth > ... en español Las revisiones médicas de su hijo From your child's birth to young adulthood, you'll be visiting the ...

  19. Child Nutrition. Beginnings Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Jacqueline; Eastman, Wayne; Aird, Laura Dutil; McCrea, Nadine L.

    2002-01-01

    Four workshops focus on nutrition for infants and children in child care settings. Articles are: (1) "Nutrition and Child Development: Global Perspectives" (Jacqueline Hayden); (2) "Working with Families around Nutritional Issues" (Wayne Eastman); (3) "Breastfeeding Promotion in Child Care" (Laura Dutil Aird); and (4) "Food as Shared…

  20. Child Care Bulletin, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGhee, Marilyn, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This document is comprised of six issues of the Child Care Bulletin, a bimonthly publication of the National Child Care Information Center. The January-February issue focuses on involving communities in child care planning. Topics discussed in this issue include: community mobilization strategies, assessing needs and establishing goals, and…

  1. Brief report: the smiles of a child with autism spectrum disorder during an animal-assisted activity may facilitate social positive behaviors--quantitative analysis with smile-detecting interface.

    PubMed

    Funahashi, Atsushi; Gruebler, Anna; Aoki, Takeshi; Kadone, Hideki; Suzuki, Kenji

    2014-03-01

    We quantitatively measured the smiles of a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD-C) using a wearable interface device during animal-assisted activities (AAA) for 7 months, and compared the results with a control of the same age. The participant was a 10-year-old boy with ASD, and a normal healthy boy of the same age was the control. They voluntarily participated in this study. Neither child had difficulty putting on the wearable device. They kept putting on the device comfortably through the entire experiment (duration of a session was about 30-40 min). This study was approved by the Ethical Committee based on the rules established by the Institute for Developmental Research, Aichi Human Service Center. The behavior of the participants during AAA was video-recorded and coded by the medical examiner (ME). In both groups, the smiles recognized by the ME corresponded with the computer-detected smiles. In both groups, positive social behaviors increased when the smiles increased. Also, negative social behaviors decreased when the smiles increased in the (ASD-C). It is suggested that by leading the (ASD-C) into a social environment that may cause smiling, the child's social positive behaviors may be facilitated and his social negative behaviors may be decreased.

  2. What "No Child Left Behind" Leaves behind: The Roles of IQ and Self-Control in Predicting Standardized Achievement Test Scores and Report Card Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Quinn, Patrick D.; Tsukayama, Eli

    2012-01-01

    The increasing prominence of standardized testing to assess student learning motivated the current investigation. We propose that standardized achievement test scores assess competencies determined more by intelligence than by self-control, whereas report card grades assess competencies determined more by self-control than by intelligence. In…

  3. Teacher-Child Relationships: Contribution of Teacher and Child Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Ji Young; Dobbs-Oates, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates potential predictors of teacher-child relationships (i.e., closeness and conflict) focusing on child gender, teacher-child ethnicity match, and teacher education. Additionally, the study explores the possible moderation effect of teacher education on the associations between teacher-child relationships and child gender or…

  4. Testing the hypothesis that diphtheria–tetanus–pertussis vaccine has negative non-specific and sex-differential effects on child survival in high-mortality countries

    PubMed Central

    Benn, Christine; Nielsen, Jens; Lisse, Ida Maria; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Ravn, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Background Measles vaccines (MV) have sex-differential effects on mortality not explained by protection against measles infection. Objective The authors examined whether whole-cell diphtheria–tetanus–pertussis (DTP) vaccine has sex-differential and non-specific effects. Data sources and eligibility Following previous reviews and a new search, the effect of DTP on mortality up to the next vaccination was assessed in all studies where DTP was given after BCG or DTP was given after MV and there was prospective follow-up after ascertainment of vaccination status. Setting High-mortality countries in Africa and Asia. Methods The initial observation of negative effect of DTP generated six hypotheses, which were examined in all available studies and two randomised trials reducing the time of exposure to DTP. Main outcome Consistency between studies. Results In the first study, DTP had negative effects on survival in contrast to the beneficial effects of BCG and MV. This pattern was repeated in the six other studies available. Second, the two ‘natural experiments’ found significantly higher mortality for DTP-vaccinated compared with DTP-unvaccinated children. Third, the female–male mortality ratio was increased after DTP in all nine studies; in contrast, the ratio was decreased after BCG and MV in all studies. Fourth, the increased female mortality associated with high-titre measles vaccine was found only among children who had received DTP after high-titre measles vaccine. Fifth, in six randomised trials of early MV, female but not male mortality was increased if DTP was likely to be given after MV. Sixth, the mortality rate declined markedly for girls but not for boys when DTP-vaccinated children received MV. The authors reduced exposure to DTP as most recent vaccination by administering a live vaccine (MV and BCG) shortly after DTP. Both trials reduced child mortality. Conclusions These observations are incompatible with DTP merely protecting against the

  5. Preschool education impact on child development.

    PubMed

    Gur, Gokce; Cakar, Nilgun; Kiremitci, Saba; Taktak, Aysel; Basaran, Ozge; Uncu, Nermin

    2016-10-01

    Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP) is the most common vasculitis in children. Vasculitic processes can involve the lung. Although diffuse alveolar hemorrhage may be seen as one of the manifestation of HSP, it is not a frequent presentation. Here we reported the case of a 10-year-old girl with HSP nephritis who developed pulmonary hemorrhage. The patient was treated successfully with intravenous methylprednisolone. A review of the literature revealed that young age may be a good prognostic sign and that immunosuppressive drugs and supportive management are essential in the treatment.

  6. Child Care and the Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, David B.; And Others

    The booklet examines child care as a major resource for the prevention of child abuse, and is intended to bring child care and child abuse workers together. An introductory section on child abuse is followed by an update on the family, including historical perspectives and a case study illustrating cooperation of parents and day care staff. A…

  7. Beginning Child Care Fact Sheets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tweedie, Pat

    These six fact sheets from Child Care Aware are designed to help parents ease their children's transition to child care. The first fact sheet, "Before Your Child's First Day," discusses tips such as: (1) "prepare your child"; (2) read and look at picture books about child care; and (3) "prepare yourself." The second fact sheet, "First Day Tips,"…

  8. Early Mother-Child Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    d'Agostino, Micheline

    1986-01-01

    This journal issue presents an overview of mother-child interaction during the first year of the child's life. Contents of the first section, which concern the development of the mother-child relationship, focus on the concept of the maternal instinct, mother and child during intrauterine life, birth of the child, the postnatal period (including…

  9. Child Development and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, William C., Ed.

    Previously published articles on child development and learning are collected in this textbook for college students. Topics include cognitive development, achievement behavior, and social development. (SBT)

  10. The Association between Parent Early Adult Drug Use Disorder and Later Observed Parenting Practices and Child Behavior Problems: Testing Alternate Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Jennifer A.; Hill, Karl G.; Guttmannova, Katarina; Oesterle, Sabrina; Hawkins, J. David; Catalano, Richard F.; McMahon, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    This study tested the association between parent illicit drug use disorder (DUD) in early adulthood and observed parenting practices at ages 27-28 and examined the following 3 theoretically derived models explaining this link: (a) a disrupted parent adult functioning model,(b) a preexisting parent personality factor model, and (c) a disrupted…

  11. What No Child Left Behind Leaves Behind: The Roles of IQ and Self-Control in Predicting Standardized Achievement Test Scores and Report Card Grades.

    PubMed

    Duckworth, Angela L; Quinn, Patrick D; Tsukayama, Eli

    2012-05-01

    The increasing prominence of standardized testing to assess student learning motivated the current investigation. We propose that standardized achievement test scores assess competencies determined more by intelligence than by self-control, whereas report card grades assess competencies determined more by self-control than by intelligence. In particular, we suggest that intelligence helps students learn and solve problems independent of formal instruction, whereas self-control helps students study, complete homework, and behave positively in the classroom. Two longitudinal, prospective studies of middle school students support predictions from this model. In both samples, IQ predicted changes in standardized achievement test scores over time better than did self-control, whereas self-control predicted changes in report card grades over time better than did IQ. As expected, the effect of self-control on changes in report card grades was mediated in Study 2 by teacher ratings of homework completion and classroom conduct. In a third study, ratings of middle school teachers about the content and purpose of standardized achievement tests and report card grades were consistent with the proposed model. Implications for pedagogy and public policy are discussed.

  12. What No Child Left Behind Leaves Behind: The Roles of IQ and Self-Control in Predicting Standardized Achievement Test Scores and Report Card Grades

    PubMed Central

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Quinn, Patrick D.; Tsukayama, Eli

    2013-01-01

    The increasing prominence of standardized testing to assess student learning motivated the current investigation. We propose that standardized achievement test scores assess competencies determined more by intelligence than by self-control, whereas report card grades assess competencies determined more by self-control than by intelligence. In particular, we suggest that intelligence helps students learn and solve problems independent of formal instruction, whereas self-control helps students study, complete homework, and behave positively in the classroom. Two longitudinal, prospective studies of middle school students support predictions from this model. In both samples, IQ predicted changes in standardized achievement test scores over time better than did self-control, whereas self-control predicted changes in report card grades over time better than did IQ. As expected, the effect of self-control on changes in report card grades was mediated in Study 2 by teacher ratings of homework completion and classroom conduct. In a third study, ratings of middle school teachers about the content and purpose of standardized achievement tests and report card grades were consistent with the proposed model. Implications for pedagogy and public policy are discussed. PMID:24072936

  13. Testing Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2003-01-01

    Analyzes Georgia high-stakes testing case involving administrative law judge's recommendation (subsequently approved) that fifth-grade science teacher's teaching certificate be suspended for giving his students pretest copies of the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills. Suggests No Child Left Behind Act will spawn similar litigation in the future. (PKP)

  14. Double child burial from Sunghir (Russia): pathology and inferences for upper paleolithic funerary practices.

    PubMed

    Formicola, Vincenzo; Buzhilova, Alexandra P

    2004-07-01

    The double child burial from Sunghir (Russia) is a spectacular Mid Upper Palaeolithic funerary example dated to about 24,000 BP. A boy (Sunghir 2) and a girl (Sunghir 3), about 12-13 and 9-10 years old, respectively, were buried at the same time, head to head, covered by red ocher and ornamented with extraordinarily rich grave goods. Examination of the two skeletons reveals that the Sunghir 3 femora are short and exhibit marked antero-posterior bowing. The two femora do not show any asymmetry in the degree of shortening and bowing. Bowing affects the whole diaphysis and shows a regularly incurved profile, with the highest point at midshaft. Pathology is confined to the femora, and no other part of this well-preserved specimen shows abnormality. The isolated nature of the Sunghir 3 anomalies points to cases reported in the medical literature under the label of "congenital bowing of long bones" (CBLB). These are a group of rare conditions exhibiting localized, sometimes bilateral, bowing and shortening which are nonspecific and may result from different causes, including abnormalities of the primary cartilaginous anlage (i.e., the aggregation of cells representing the first trace of an organ). Localized ossification disturbances, possibly linked to a diabetic maternal condition, might explain the shortening and the coincidence of maximum midshaft curvature with the position of the primary ossification center, as well as the lack of involvement of other skeletal parts. This scenario, rather than other possibilities (early bilateral midshaft fracture, acute plastic bowing deformities, or faulty fetal posture), provides the most likely explanation for the Sunghir 3 femoral deformities. The intriguing combination of a pathological condition apparent since birth with a spectacular burial of unusually positioned young individuals of different sexes recalls significant aspects of the triple burial from the contemporary site of Dolní Vestonice (Moravia), evoking a patterned

  15. Integrated management of childhood illness: field test of the WHO/UNICEF training course in Arusha, United Republic of Tanzania. WHO Division of Child Health and Development & WHO Regional Office for Africa.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    The 11-day training course on integrated management of childhood illness was field tested with three types of first-level facility health workers: medical assistants, rural medical aides, and MCH (maternal and child health) aides. The objective of the field test was to determine whether the materials were effective in preparing participants to manage correctly sick children and to suggest improvements in the course materials and teaching procedures. The course combined classroom work and daily inpatient and outpatient clinical sessions. Each participant individually examined 9-10 inpatients and managed more than 30 sick children as outpatients. Individual feedback from facilitators during clinical practice and module work, combined with data collection documenting the adequacy of the assessment, classification, treatment and counselling carried out by the participants, allowed an assessment of the participants' mastery of key clinical skills. Although some participants had difficulty in reading the modules in English, all three groups overall were able to assess, classify, and treat most sick children by the end of the course, and most of them were able to provide adequate counselling. Specific improvements were suggested and subsequently incorporated into the guidelines and training materials.

  16. Integrated management of childhood illness: field test of the WHO/UNICEF training course in Arusha, United Republic of Tanzania. WHO Division of Child Health and Development & WHO Regional Office for Africa.

    PubMed Central

    1997-01-01

    The 11-day training course on integrated management of childhood illness was field tested with three types of first-level facility health workers: medical assistants, rural medical aides, and MCH (maternal and child health) aides. The objective of the field test was to determine whether the materials were effective in preparing participants to manage correctly sick children and to suggest improvements in the course materials and teaching procedures. The course combined classroom work and daily inpatient and outpatient clinical sessions. Each participant individually examined 9-10 inpatients and managed more than 30 sick children as outpatients. Individual feedback from facilitators during clinical practice and module work, combined with data collection documenting the adequacy of the assessment, classification, treatment and counselling carried out by the participants, allowed an assessment of the participants' mastery of key clinical skills. Although some participants had difficulty in reading the modules in English, all three groups overall were able to assess, classify, and treat most sick children by the end of the course, and most of them were able to provide adequate counselling. Specific improvements were suggested and subsequently incorporated into the guidelines and training materials. PMID:9529718

  17. Child Nutrition: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    MedlinePlus

    ... HealthDay) Savvy Marketing Gets Schoolkids to Eat Their Greens (03/16/2017, HealthDay) More News on Child Nutrition Diagnosis and Tests Prealbumin Test (American Association for Clinical Chemistry) Related Issues 5 Things To Know About Dietary ...

  18. Maternal Employment, Migration, and Child Development

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Haiyong; Mroz, Thomas A.; van der Klaauw, Wilbert

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the roles of and interrelationships among school inputs and parental inputs in affecting child development through the specification and estimation of a behavioral model of household migration and maternal employment decisions. We integrate information on these decisions with observations on child outcomes over a 13-year period from the NLSY. We find that the impact of our school quality measures diminish by factors of 2 to 4 after accounting for the fact that families may choose where to live in part based on school characteristics and labor market opportunities. The positive statistical relationship between child outcomes and maternal employment reverses sign and remains statistically significant after controlling for its possible endogeneity. Our estimates imply that when parental responses are taken into account, policy changes in school quality end up having only minor impacts on child test scores. PMID:20440376

  19. Talking to Your Child's Doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development (Birth to 3 Years) Feeding Your 1- to ... help you monitor your child's health explain your child's growth and development and what you can expect diagnose and treat ...

  20. Loss of a child - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Child death - resources; Resources - loss of a child ... The following organizations are good resources for information on the loss of a child: The Compassionate Friends -- www.compassionatefriends.org Bereaved Parents of the USA -- www.bereavedparentsusa. ...

  1. Predictors of child molestation: adult attachment, cognitive distortions, and empathy.

    PubMed

    Wood, Eric; Riggs, Shelley

    2008-02-01

    A conceptual model derived from attachment theory was tested by examining adult attachment style, cognitive distortions, and both general and victim empathy in a sample of 61 paroled child molesters and 51 community controls. Results of logistic multiple regression showed that attachment anxiety, cognitive distortions, high general empathy but low victim empathy significantly increased the odds of child molester status. Findings supported theoretically based hypotheses, suggesting that attachment theory may be useful in the conceptualization and treatment of child molesters.

  2. The Child Welfare Cartel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoesz, David

    2016-01-01

    The probity of the Children's Bureau's National Child Welfare Workforce Institute (NCWWI) is examined with respect to the status of child welfare as well as the performance of social work education. By requiring that funding go only to accredited schools of social work, which is not authorized by relevant provisions of the Social Security Act,…

  3. Child Wellness and Happiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rettew, David C.

    2009-01-01

    Wellness and happiness should be considered in the clinical treatment of child and adolescent psychiatry, in addition with thinking about illness. Meanwhile, various studies on child and adolescent psychiatry,which includes an article from the "Journal of Happiness Studies," are discussed.

  4. Headstart for Every Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Annie L.

    An early learning kit provides a booklet of ten articles on educational head starts for children along with an activity packet for classroom use. The articles deal with: the crucial early school years; emotional preparation of the child; broadening a child's background; selecting toys and games; reading readiness; mathematical skills; learning to…

  5. Bullying and Your Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Christy D.

    2011-01-01

    Bullying happens every day in classrooms and on playgrounds all over the world. Parents, when faced with the fact that their child has become the target of a bully, experience a stream of emotions: anger, fear, the need to protect, and the realization that the child must go back to school or out to play and face the bully again the next day. Many…

  6. Introduction: Understanding Child Labour.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miljeteig, Per

    1999-01-01

    Explores contributions from the Urban Childhood Conference for the purpose of developing the child-labor discourse further and indicating the implications of the new understandings for further research and policy development. Highlights the nine articles in this issue, which address child labor at the international level, children's viewpoints,…

  7. Child Poverty & Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chafel, Judith A., Ed.

    This collection documents how far we still are in the United States from putting our knowledge about child well being and policy into practice. It provides an overview of the changing nature of child poverty in the United States through the contributions of authors who use a number of qualitative and quantitative approaches to look at children in…

  8. Building the Biocentric Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchison, David

    2002-01-01

    Advocates an environmentally congruent conception of child development and includes Montessori theory as part of a biocentric view where child development connects to the laws of nature. Explains orientations to the world informing development of a biocentric vision of childhood: mastery, immersion, and engagement. Discusses how mastery and…

  9. Every Child, Every Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allington, Richard L.; Gabriel, Rachael E.

    2012-01-01

    We know more now than we ever did before about how to make every child a successful reader, write Allington and Gabriel in this research review. Yet, few students regularly receive the best reading instruction we know how to give. The authors present research supporting their recommendation that every child, every day, should (1) read something he…

  10. Protecting the Hoosier Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

    Presented are proceedings of a conference designed to provide a statewide forum for the exploration of the issues of child abuse and neglect, to maximize interdisciplinary communication as well as communication between the professional and lay communities of Indiana concerned with child protection, and to develop strategies for future coordinated…

  11. Child Development and Playgrounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Joe L.

    Four major issues are explored in this study of child development research and its implications for children's playgrounds: (1) theories and philosophies of play; (2) the historical evolution of playgrounds; (3) research on child development, play, and playgrounds; and (4) creating playgrounds that meet children's developmental needs. Discussion…

  12. Child Safety Curriculum Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National School Safety Center, Malibu, CA.

    This document presents a set of child safety curriculum guidelines intended to help prevent child victimization and to promote safer living and learning environments for children and adolescents across America. These guidelines were developed to help educators, law enforcement personnel, and members of other youth-serving agencies teach children…

  13. Tutoring Your Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohn, Joanne

    The parents' role as teacher is important to a child's learning process. Parents tutoring their children are advised to remain positive and patient, be aware of the child's feelings, keep the tutoring time short, select a quiet place away from distractions, use games and manipulative objects rather than more abstract experiences, etc. Informal…

  14. Child Care Resource Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Jeanne, Comp.; Pennington, Marnee, Comp.

    "Child Care Resource Materials" is an annotated bibliography of books, films, and filmstrips on various topics related to the education and development of young children. Categories include: learning activities for children; caring for children - infants through adolescents and children with special needs; parent-child relationships; day care -…

  15. Child Transportation Safety Tips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This document presents nine tips regarding safe infant and child transportation, each tip explained in one to two pages. The tips are as follows: (1) quick safety seat checkup; (2) where should your child ride? (3) how to protect your new baby in the car; (4) what safety seat to use for a big baby or toddler? (5) how should preschool and school…

  16. Child prostitution in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Lau, Carmen

    2008-06-01

    Child prostitution is an old, global and complex phenomenon, which deprives children of their childhood, human rights and dignity. Child prostitution can be seen as the commercial sexual exploitation of children involving an element of forced labour, and thus can be considered as a contemporary form of slavery. Globally, child prostitution is reported to be a common problem in Central and South America and Asia. Of all the south-east Asian nations, the problem is most prolific in Thailand. In Thailand, there appears to be a long history of child prostitution, and this article explores the factors that underpin the Thai child sex industry and the lessons and implications that can be drawn for health care and nursing around the world.

  17. Multiple Family Groups to reduce child disruptive behavior difficulties: Moderating effects of child welfare status on child outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Small, Latoya; Fuss, Ashley; Bowman, Melissa; Jackson, Jerrold; Marcus, Sue; Chacko, Anil

    2015-01-01

    Children who remain at home with their permanent caregivers following a child welfare (CW) involvement (e.g., investigation, out-of-home placement) manifest high rates of behavioral difficulties, which is a risk factor for further maltreatment and out-of-home placement if not treated effectively. A recently tested Multiple Family Group (MFG) service delivery model to treat youth Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBDs) has demonstrated effectiveness in improving child behavior difficulties among hard-to-engage, socioeconomically disadvantaged families by addressing parenting skills, parent-child relationships, family communication and organization, social support, and stress. This exploratory study examines whether child behavioral outcomes for MFG differ for families with self-reported lifetime involvement in CW services compared to other families, as families with CW involvement struggle with additional stressors that can diminish treatment success. Youth (aged 7–11) and their families were assigned to MFG or services as usual (SAU) using a block comparison design. Caregivers reported on child behavior, social skills, and functional impairment. Mixed effects regression modeled multilevel outcomes across 4 assessment points (i.e., baseline, mid-test, post-test, 6 month follow-up). Among CW-involved families, MFG participants reported significantly reduced child oppositional defiant disorder symptoms at 6-month follow-up compared with SAU participants. No other differences were found in the effect of MFG treatment between CW and non-CW involved families. Findings suggest that MFG may be as effective in reducing child behavior difficulties for both CW and non-CW involved families. As a short-term, engaging, and efficient intervention, MFG may be a particularly salient service offering for families involved in the CW system. PMID:26188424

  18. Multiple Family Groups to reduce child disruptive behavior difficulties: moderating effects of child welfare status on child outcomes.

    PubMed

    Gopalan, Geetha; Small, Latoya; Fuss, Ashley; Bowman, Melissa; Jackson, Jerrold; Marcus, Sue; Chacko, Anil

    2015-08-01

    Children who remain at home with their permanent caregivers following a child welfare (CW) involvement (e.g., investigation, out-of-home placement) manifest high rates of behavioral difficulties, which is a risk factor for further maltreatment and out-of-home placement if not treated effectively. A recently tested Multiple Family Group (MFG) service delivery model to treat youth Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBDs) has demonstrated effectiveness in improving child behavior difficulties among hard-to-engage, socioeconomically disadvantaged families by addressing parenting skills, parent-child relationships, family communication and organization, social support, and stress. This exploratory study examines whether child behavioral outcomes for MFG differ for families with self-reported lifetime involvement in CW services compared to other families, as families with CW involvement struggle with additional stressors that can diminish treatment success. Youth (aged 7-11) and their families were assigned to MFG or services as usual (SAU) using a block comparison design. Caregivers reported on child behavior, social skills, and functional impairment. Mixed effects regression modeled multilevel outcomes across 4 assessment points (i.e., baseline, mid-test, post-test, 6-month follow-up). Among CW-involved families, MFG participants reported significantly reduced child oppositional defiant disorder symptoms at 6-month follow-up compared with SAU participants. No other differences were found in the effect of MFG treatment between CW and non-CW involved families. Findings suggest that MFG may be as effective in reducing child behavior difficulties for both CW and non-CW involved families. As a short-term, engaging, and efficient intervention, MFG may be a particularly salient service offering for families involved in the CW system.

  19. Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Child Behavior Problems among Latina Adolescent Mothers: The Buffering Effect of Mother-Reported Partner Child Care Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Erin N.; Grau, Josefina M.; Duran, Petra A.; Castellanos, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    We examined the relations between maternal depressive symptoms and child internalizing and externalizing problems in a sample of 125 adolescent Latina mothers (primarily Puerto Rican) and their toddlers. We also tested the influence of mother-reported partner child care involvement on child behavior problems and explored mother-reported partner…

  20. A Genome-Wide Test of the Differential Susceptibility Hypothesis Reveals a Genetic Predictor of Differential Response to Psychological Treatments for Child Anxiety Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Keers, Robert; Coleman, Jonathan R.I.; Lester, Kathryn J.; Roberts, Susanna; Breen, Gerome; Thastum, Mikael; Bögels, Susan; Schneider, Silvia; Heiervang, Einar; Meiser-Stedman, Richard; Nauta, Maaike; Creswell, Cathy; Thirlwall, Kerstin; Rapee, Ronald M.; Hudson, Jennifer L.; Lewis, Cathryn; Plomin, Robert; Eley, Thalia C.

    2016-01-01

    Background The differential susceptibly hypothesis suggests that certain genetic variants moderate the effects of both negative and positive environments on mental health and may therefore be important predictors of response to psychological treatments. Nevertheless, the identification of such variants has so far been limited to preselected candidate genes. In this study we extended the differential susceptibility hypothesis from a candidate gene to a genome-wide approach to test whether a polygenic score of environmental sensitivity predicted response to cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) in children with anxiety disorders. Methods We identified variants associated with environmental sensitivity using a novel method in which within-pair variability in emotional problems in 1,026 monozygotic twin pairs was examined as a function of the pairs' genotype. We created a polygenic score of environmental sensitivity based on the whole-genome findings and tested the score as a moderator of parenting on emotional problems in 1,406 children and response to individual, group and brief parent-led CBT in 973 children with anxiety disorders. Results The polygenic score significantly moderated the effects of parenting on emotional problems and the effects of treatment. Individuals with a high score responded significantly better to individual CBT than group CBT or brief parent-led CBT (remission rates: 70.9, 55.5 and 41.6%, respectively). Conclusions Pending successful replication, our results should be considered exploratory. Nevertheless, if replicated, they suggest that individuals with the greatest environmental sensitivity may be more likely to develop emotional problems in adverse environments but also benefit more from the most intensive types of treatment. PMID:27043157

  1. Child Development Associate. Child Growth and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oscar Rose Junior Coll., Midwest City, OK.

    The purpose of this Child Development Associate (CDA) training module, one of a series of 18, is to help the CDA intern understand the factors and principles which affect the total growth and development of children. Early sections of the module stipulate the module's competency-based objectives, define terms, and suggest procedures by which…

  2. Child Advocacy: Implications for Child Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGowan, Brenda G.

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the many diverse activities going on under the child advocacy label in order to determine if there was anything new or different about this phenomenon and to attempt some conceptual ordering of the field. Interviews were conducted with a number of people knowledgeable in children's service, and an attempt…

  3. Child maltreatment in India.

    PubMed

    Singhi, Pratibha; Saini, Arushi Gahlot; Malhi, Prabhjot

    2013-11-01

    Child maltreatment is a global problem but is more difficult to assess and manage in developing countries such as India where one-fifth of the world's total child population resides. Certain forms of maltreatment such as feticide, infanticide, abandonment, child labour, street-begging, corporal punishment and battered babies are particularly prevalent in India. Most physicians still need to be sensitized in order to suspect child abuse on the basis of unexplained trauma, multiple fractures, parental conflict and other corroborative evidence. This article summarizes the various aspects of this major problem in resource-poor settings in the hope that it will assist in the planning of services addressing child physical and sexual abuse and neglect in India and in other developing countries. A culture of non-violence towards children needs to be built into communities in order to provide an environment conducive to the overall development of the child. Rehabilitation of abused children and their families requires a multi-disciplinary service including paediatricians, child psychologists and social workers, and the training of police forces in how to tackle the problem.

  4. Toddler test (image)

    MedlinePlus

    With proper preparation prior to a test or procedure, a toddler's fear and anxiety may be reduced. Preparing a child for a test may include going through the steps of the procedure, explaining the body part ...

  5. Child effects and child care: Implications for risk and adjustment.

    PubMed

    Snell, Emily K; Hindman, Annemarie H; Belsky, Jay

    2015-11-01

    Evocative effects of child characteristics on the quality and quantity of child care were assessed in two studies using longitudinal data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care. We focus on the influence of child characteristics on two important aspects of the child care experience: language stimulation provided by caregivers and quantity of care. In Study 1, associations between the developmental status of children aged 15 to 54 months and the language stimulation provided by their caregivers were examined using path models, and longitudinal child effects were detected across the earliest time points of the study. In Study 2, the associations among child behavior, temperament, development, and time in care were examined. Little evidence was found for such child effects on time in care. The results are discussed in terms of the effects of child care on child development and implications for developmental processes, particularly for children at greatest risk for developmental delay or psychopathology.

  6. Cyber child sexual exploitation.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Ann Wolbert; Mahoney, Meghan; Visk, Julie; Morgenbesser, Leonard

    2008-09-01

    A 2-year review of 285 child cyber crime cases reported in the newspaper revealed how the Internet offenders were apprehended, the content of child pornography, and crime classification. A subsample of 100 cases with data on offender occupation revealed 73% of cases involved people in positions of authority. The dynamics of child cyber crime cases direct the implications for nursing practice in terms of evidence-based suspicion for reporting, categorizing the content of Internet images, referral of children for counseling, and treatment of offenders.

  7. No Child Left Thinking: Democracy at Risk in Canada's Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westheimer, Joel

    2010-01-01

    The author titled this article "No Child Left Thinking" because for the past 10 years he has been studying the effects of education initiatives such as the U.S. "No Child Left Behind Act" or the various provincial testing and accountability policies in Canada and their impact on teachers' ability to teach critical thinking and…

  8. Relationships Between Classroom Instructional Practices and Child Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stallings, Jane

    Relationships between first and third grade classroom instructional practices and child outcomes (i.e. test scores, days absent, and observed child behavior) were assessed in seven Project Follow Through educational programs. The programs chosen represented a wide spectrum of innovative educational theories. The range included two models based on…

  9. Child Emotional Aggression and Abuse: Definitions and Prevalence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slep, Amy M. Smith; Heyman, Richard E.; Snarr, Jeffery D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Research on and intervention for child emotional abuse and emotional aggression toward children have been severely hampered because there have been no agreed-upon, clinically usable definitions. Methods: We have (a) proposed and field-tested a set of criteria to operationally define child emotional abuse for clinical settings and (b)…

  10. Child Abuse and Neglect: Training Needs of Student Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, Bronagh E.; Dillenburger, Karola

    2009-01-01

    Increasing awareness of child abuse and neglect (CAN) raises questions about how well teachers are prepared for their role in child protection. This paper assesses and differentiates training needs of first-year students (n = 216) in Northern Ireland. Multiple-choice tests were used to assess knowledge of CAN statistics; recognising and reporting;…

  11. Effectiveness of Child Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy in a Clinical Outpatient Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deakin, Elisabeth Kuhn; Tiellet Nunes, Maria Lucia

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the outcome of child psychoanalytic psychotherapy in a clinical outpatient setting in a city in southern Brazil. Three psychological tests (Rorschach, Bender and WISC III) were administered to 23 children, aged 6-11 years old, and the Child Behaviour Check List (CBCL) was completed by the parents. All…

  12. Evaluation for bleeding disorders in suspected child abuse.

    PubMed

    Anderst, James D; Carpenter, Shannon L; Abshire, Thomas C

    2013-04-01

    Bruising or bleeding in a child can raise the concern for child abuse. Assessing whether the findings are the result of trauma and/or whether the child has a bleeding disorder is critical. Many bleeding disorders are rare, and not every child with bruising/bleeding concerning for abuse requires an evaluation for bleeding disorders. In some instances, however, bleeding disorders can present in a manner similar to child abuse. The history and clinical evaluation can be used to determine the necessity of an evaluation for a possible bleeding disorder, and prevalence and known clinical presentations of individual bleeding disorders can be used to guide the extent of the laboratory testing. This clinical report provides guidance to pediatricians and other clinicians regarding the evaluation for bleeding disorders when child abuse is suspected.

  13. ABC of child abuse. Role of the child psychiatry team.

    PubMed Central

    Nicol, A. R.

    1989-01-01

    In summary, a child psychiatrist can make an important contribution to the management of child abuse. At least one child psychiatrist in each district should take an interest in this work and should be given the time to do so. As for other professionals, child abuse is an aspect of the work of child psychiatrists that is particularly harrowing and time consuming. Images p452-a PMID:2507011

  14. A Psychodynamic Child Rating Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szapocznik, Jose; And Others

    Research showing psychodynamic child therapy to be less effective than other forms of child treatment have used outcome measures focusing on symptomatic and behavioral change rather than on psychodynamic processes. A child therapy assessment procedure than measures the psychological functioning of the child in a psychodynamically meaningful way is…

  15. Child Abuse Amendments of 1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    The booklet presents the report of the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Education and Labor regarding the 1983 Child Abuse Amendments to the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act and the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment and Adoption Reform Act of 1978. The Amendment expands the definition of child abuse to include abuse by…

  16. Trends in Family Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neugebauer, Roger

    2011-01-01

    The author presents insights from various readers of "ExchangeEveryDay" regarding trends in the world of family child care. Kathleen Reticker of Acre Family Child Care in Lowell, Massachusetts thinks an increasing trend in Family Child Care is the pressure to emulate a Center, instead of seeing family child care as a different model. Over the…

  17. Parents' child-directed communication and child language development: a longitudinal study with Italian toddlers.

    PubMed

    Majorano, Marinella; Rainieri, Chiara; Corsano, Paola

    2013-09-01

    The present study focuses on the characteristics of parental child-directed communication and its relationship with child language development. For this purpose, thirty-six toddlers (18 males and 18 females) and their parents were observed in a laboratory during triadic free play at ages 1 ; 3 and 1 ; 9. The characteristics of the maternal and paternal child-directed language (characteristics of communicative functions and lexicon as reported in psycholinguistic norms for Italian language) were coded during free play. Child language development was assessed during free play and at ages 2 ; 6 and 3 ; 0 using the Italian version of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (2 ; 6) and the revised Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT-R) (3 ; 0). Data analysis indicated differences between mothers and fathers in the quantitative characteristics of communicative functions and language, such as the mean length of utterances (MLU), and the number of tokens and types. Mothers also produced the more frequent nouns in the child lexicon. There emerged a relation between the characteristics of parental child-directed language and child language development.

  18. Mother-child reminiscing at risk: Maternal attachment, elaboration, and child autobiographical memory specificity.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, Christina G; Valentino, Kristin; Comas, Michelle; Nuttall, Amy K

    2016-03-01

    Mother-child reminiscing, the process by which mothers and their children discuss past events and emotional experiences, has been robustly linked with child outcomes, including autobiographical memory. To advance previous work linking elaborative maternal reminiscing with child autobiographical memory specificity, the ability to generate and retrieve specific memories from one's past, it is essential to make distinctions among aspects of elaboration and to consider how maternal risk factors may influence the reminiscing context. The current study evaluated (a) an interaction between emotional and structural elaboration predicting child autobiographical memory specificity and (b) the potential moderating role of maternal adult attachment. Participants consisted of 95 preschool-aged children and their mothers. The sample was predominantly low income and racially diverse. Dyads completed a reminiscing task that was coded for emotional and structural elaboration. Mothers completed the Experiences in Close Relationships questionnaire (ECR-R) to assess attachment-related avoidance and anxiety, and children completed the Autobiographical Memory Test-Preschool Version (AMT-PV) to assess memory specificity. Results indicated that the association between structural reminiscing and child memory specificity was moderated by emotional elements of reminiscing. At high levels of emotional elaboration, mothers with high levels of structural elaboration had children with more specific memory than mothers with low levels of structural elaboration. Moreover, emotional elaboration (a) predicted less specific child memory without high structural support and (b) negatively predicted child specificity at high levels of maternal attachment avoidance and anxiety, a profile associated with fearful avoidance. Future directions and implications are discussed.

  19. The Limits of Child Effects: Evidence for Genetically Mediated Child Effects on Corporal Punishment but Not on Physical Maltreatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffee, Sara R.; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Polo-Tomas, Monica; Price, Thomas S.; Taylor, Alan

    2004-01-01

    Research on child effects has demonstrated that children's difficult and coercive behavior provokes harsh discipline from adults. Using a genetically sensitive design, the authors tested the limits of child effects on adult behavior that ranged from the normative (corporal punishment) to the nonnormative (physical maltreatment). The sample was a…

  20. Child ADHD Severity and Positive and Negative Parenting as Predictors of Child Social Functioning: Evaluation of Three Theoretical Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Nina M.; McBurnett, Keith; Pfiffner, Linda J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Prior research has established links between child social functioning and both parenting and child ADHD severity; however, research examining the way that these variables work together is lacking. The current article aims to test three possible models (main effects, mediation, and moderation) by which ADHD severity and positive and…

  1. A Combined Motivation and Parent-Child Interaction Therapy Package Reduces Child Welfare Recidivism in a Randomized Dismantling Field Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaffin, Mark; Funderburk, Beverly; Bard, David; Valle, Linda Anne; Gurwitch, Robin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: A package of parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT) combined with a self-motivational (SM) orientation previously was found in a laboratory trial to reduce child abuse recidivism compared with services as usual (SAU). Objectives of the present study were to test effectiveness in a field agency rather than in a laboratory setting and to…

  2. Investigating the effect of child maltreatment on early adolescent peer-on-peer sexual aggression: testing a multiple mediator model in a non-incarcerated sample of Danish adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bramsen, Rikke Holm; Lasgaard, Mathias; Koss, Mary P.; Elklit, Ask; Banner, Jytte

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between child maltreatment and severe early adolescent peer-on-peer sexual aggression, using a multiple mediator model. Methods The study comprised 330 male Grade 9 students with a mean age of 14.9 years (SD=0.5). Results Estimates from the mediation model indicated significant indirect effects of child physical abuse on sexual aggression via peer influence and insecure-hostile masculinity. No significant total effect of child sexual abuse and child neglect on sexual aggression was found. Conclusions Findings of the present study identify risk factors that are potentially changeable and therefore of value in informing the design of prevention programs aiming at early adolescent peer-on-peer sexual aggression in at-risk youth. PMID:24987497

  3. Juror perceptions of child eyewitness testimony in a sexual abuse trial.

    PubMed

    Holcomb, Matthew J; Jacquin, Kristine M

    2007-01-01

    A mock child sexual abuse trial was used to study juror perceptions of child eyewitnesses. The child's age (5, 11, or 16) and level of involvement (victim or bystander) were varied across conditions in order to test their impact on juror perceptions and verdict. Results indicated a significant effect of level of involvement on the verdict; defendants in trials involving a bystander witness received higher guilt ratings than defendants in trials with a victim-witness. In addition, jurors perceived the child's eyewitness testimony to be more believable when the child was younger. Implications for the impact of these findings on real-life child sexual abuse cases are discussed.

  4. Prevention of Child Maltreatment

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Wendy Gwirtzman

    2014-01-01

    Pediatricians and other health care providers can play a number of important roles in the prevention of child maltreatment. As part of routine patient care, pediatricians can provide anticipatory guidance for effective discipline and parent-child communication, screen for maltreatment risk factors, and refer parents and families to effective community-based programs. This article will help pediatricians incorporate child abuse prevention into their practice. Resources for systematizing anticipatory guidance and child maltreatment risk factor screening will be described. The modalities and strengths and weaknesses of community-based prevention programs will be discussed, and providers will be given tools to identify the effectiveness of available community-based programs. At a broader level, the article will describe ways that pediatricians can advocate at the local, state, and national level for policies and programs that support families and children. PMID:25242703

  5. FAQ: Child Sexual Exploitation

    MedlinePlus

    ... C. §2256(8)) defines child pornography as any visual depiction, including any photograph, film, video, picture or ... sexually explicit conduct, where the: Production of the visual depiction involves the use of a minor engaging ...

  6. Concussion - child - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000125.htm Concussion in children - discharge To use the sharing features ... enable JavaScript. Your child was treated for a concussion . This is a mild brain injury that can ...

  7. Caffeine and Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Caffeine and Your Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Caffeine and ... 12-ounce (355-milliliter) can of soda. How Caffeine Affects Kids A stimulant that affects kids and ...

  8. Calcium and Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... Looking for Health Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development ( ... the nutrients needed, talk to your doctor about changing their diet or using vitamin supplements. continue Good ...

  9. Weaning Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... Looking for Health Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development ( ... cup, or maybe even just a cuddle. Try changing your daily routine so that you're otherwise ...

  10. Toilet Teaching Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... Looking for Health Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development ( ... when traveling, around the birth of a sibling , changing from the crib to the bed, moving to ...

  11. Child Safety Seats

    MedlinePlus

    ... contacting the manufacturer, or by looking up safety complaints records on your child's safety seat at www. ... ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow ...

  12. Disciplining Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... Give your child one warning (unless it is aggression). If it happens again, send her to the ... are less likely to be consistent. Spanking increases aggression and anger instead of teaching responsibility. Parents may ...

  13. Your Child's Vision

    MedlinePlus

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development (Birth to 3 Years) Feeding ... wear glasses and contacts. Keep these tips in mind for kids who wear glasses: Let kids pick ...

  14. Toilet Training Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... sitting on the potty chair, you may begin teaching your child to go to the bathroom. Keep ... education, patient information, potty training, stool soiling, timing method, toilet training Family Health, Infants and Toddlers January ...

  15. Child Labour in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnet, Michel

    1993-01-01

    The question of child labor in Africa is complicated by the failures of the educational system, family relations, traditional forms of apprenticeship, proliferation of the informal economic sector, and continuing existence of a rural economy. Hazardous working conditions prevail. (SK)

  16. Dental care - child

    MedlinePlus

    ... hygiene. In: Dean JA, ed. McDonald and Avery's Dentistry for the Child and Adolescent . 10th ed. St. ... Updated by: Michael Kapner, DDS, general and aesthetic dentistry, Norwalk Medical Center, Norwalk, CT. Review provided by ...

  17. Your Child's Vision

    MedlinePlus

    ... visual loss and whiteness in the pupil. Infantile cataracts can occur in newborns. A cataract is a clouding of the eye's lens. Congenital ... a child more likely to develop retinoblastoma or cataracts, may require kids to have eye exams at ...

  18. Feeding Your Child Athlete

    MedlinePlus

    ... snacks. The child athlete, however, will have higher energy and fluid requirements. Kids and teens who are ... consume more food to keep up with increased energy demands. Most athletes will naturally eat the right ...

  19. Well-child visits

    MedlinePlus

    ... listening to heart, breath, and stomach sounds) Heart sounds Infantile reflexes and deep tendon reflexes as the child gets older Neonatal jaundice -- first few visits only Palpation Percussion Standard ophthalmic exam Temperature measurement (see also normal body temperature ) Immunization information: ...

  20. Child Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... For all questions please contact the AACAP Communications & Marketing Coordinator, ext. 154. If you need immediate assistance, please dial 911. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. ... {1} ##LOC[OK]## ##LOC[Cancel]## { ...

  1. Asthma - child - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Pediatric asthma - discharge; Wheezing - discharge; Reactive airway disease - discharge ... Your child has asthma , which causes the airways of the lungs to swell and narrow. In the hospital, the doctors and nurses helped ...

  2. Scoliosis surgery - child

    MedlinePlus

    ... will use steel rods, hooks, screws, or other metal devices to straighten your child's spine and support ... will often be put in to replace them. Metal instruments, such as rods, screws, hooks, or wires ...

  3. Navy Child Care, 1980.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    34 1. Reenlistment or Retention Intentions and Career Satisfaction --------------------------- 34 2. Number ( Present ...about how best to support those families arise. One family support system is the base child-care center. Does the Navy’s present child-care system...problems and experiences of Navy active-duty women. The results of this survey are presented in Chapter II. The second survey was of primary Navy

  4. Wormholes and Child Universes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guendelman, E. I.

    Evidence to the case that classical gravitation provides the clue to make sense out of quantum gravity is presented. The key observation is the existence in classical gravitation of child universe solutions or "almost" solutions, "almost" because of some singularity problems. The difficulties of these child universe solutions that are due to their generic singularity problems will be very likely be cured by quantum effects, just like for example "almost" instanton solutions are made relevant in gauge theories with the breaking of conformal invariance. Some well-motivated modifcations of general relativity where these singularity problems are absent even at the classical level are discussed. High energy density excitations, responsible for UV divergences in quantum field theories, including quantum gravity, are likely to be the source of child universes which carry them out of the original space-time. This decoupling could prevent these high UV excitations from having any influence on physical amplitudes. Child universe production could therefore be responsible for UV regularization in quantum field theories which take into account semiclassically gravitational effects. Child universe production in the last stages of black hole evaporation, the prediction of absence of trans-Planckian primordial perturbations, connection to the minimum length hypothesis, and in particular the connection to the maximal curvature hypothesis are discussed. Some discussion of superexcited states in the case these states such as Kaluza-Klein excitations are carried out. Finally, the possibility of obtaining "string like" effects from the wormholes associated with the child universes is discussed.

  5. Juror Perceptions of Child Eyewitness Testimony in a Sexual Abuse Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holcomb, Matthew J.; Jacquin, Kristine M.

    2007-01-01

    A mock child sexual abuse trial was used to study juror perceptions of child eyewitnesses. The child's age (5, 11, or 16) and level of involvement (victim or bystander) were varied across conditions in order to test their impact on juror perceptions and verdict. Results indicated a significant effect of level of involvement on the verdict;…

  6. Association of Educational Level and Child Sex Ratio in Rural and Urban India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inchani, Lisa R.; Lai, Dejian

    2008-01-01

    Utilizing data from the Census of India, this study compared child sex ratio in rural and urban regions of India and analyzed whether the child sex ratio was associated with mother's education level. The child sex ratios in the rural and urban regions throughout India were analyzed using the two-sample and paired Student's t-test. Further, the…

  7. Marital Birth and Early Child Outcomes: The Moderating Influence of Marriage Propensity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Rebecca M.

    2012-01-01

    Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being Study, the present study tested whether the benefits of a marital birth for early child development diminish as parents' risk of having a nonmarital birth increases (N = 2,285). It was hypothesized that a child's likelihood of being born to unmarried parents is partly a function of father…

  8. Using Capture-Recapture Methods to Better Ascertain the Incidence of Fatal Child Maltreatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palusci, Vincent J.; Wirtz, Stephen J.; Covington, Theresa M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To (1) test the use of capture-recapture methods to estimate the total number of child maltreatment deaths in a single state using information from death certificates, child welfare reports, child death review teams, and uniform crime reports; and to (2) compare these estimates to the number of maltreatment deaths identified through an…

  9. Creating Trauma-Informed Child Welfare Systems Using a Community Assessment Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendricks, Alison; Conradi, Lisa; Wilson, Charles

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a community assessment process designed to evaluate a specific child welfare jurisdiction based on the current definition of trauma-informed child welfare and its essential elements. This process has recently been developed and pilot tested within three diverse child welfare systems in the United States. The purpose of the…

  10. Family Routine Moderates the Relation between Child Impulsivity and Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanza, H. Isabella; Drabick, Deborah A. G.

    2011-01-01

    Although child impulsivity is associated with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms, few studies have examined whether family processes moderate this association. To address this gap, we tested whether child-reported family routine moderated the relation between child hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI) and ODD symptoms among a sample of…

  11. Health Instruction Packages: Consumer--Child Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojcik, Bonnie; And Others

    Text, illustrations, and exercises are utilized in these four learning modules to instruct parents and nursing students in topics related to child care and development. The first module, "Growth and Development: Let's Test Your Baby's Reflexes" by Bonnie Wojcik, describes the behavioral signs that are indicative of eight normal primitive…

  12. Physiological Studies of the Hyperkinetic Child I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satterfield, James H.; And Others

    Reported were results of the first year of a 3-year physiological study of the hyperkinetic child. The male subjects were 6 to 9 years of age, attending school, without sensory defects, 80 or above in Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Full Scale, off medication for 3 months prior to testing, and diagnosed as hyperactive.…

  13. Child Emotional Security and Interparental Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Patrick T.; Harold, Gordon T.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Cummings, E. Mark

    2002-01-01

    Four studies tested a theory that high interparental conflict increases child mental health risk by shaking children's sense of security in the family. Findings showed that children's fear, avoidance, and involvement were prominent responses, especially relative to reactions predicted by other theories. Interparental conflict related to greater…

  14. Parenting Practices, Child Adjustment, and Family Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amato, Paul R.; Fowler, Frieda

    2002-01-01

    Uses data from the National Survey of Families and Households to test the generality of the links between parenting practices and child outcomes. Parents' reports of support, monitoring, and harsh punishment were associated in the expected direction with parents' reports of children's adjustment, school grades, and behavior problems, and with…

  15. Evaluation of a Child Health Associate Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dungy, Claiborne I.; Sander, Daryl L.

    1977-01-01

    The staff of the University of Colorado Child Health Associate Program critically reviewed the effectiveness of the program's structure and content during an intensive two-day seminar. Focus was on basic and clinical sciences, psychosocial skills, and proficiency testing, and the evaluations were used to improve the program. (Editor/LBH)

  16. Caring for a Seriously Ill Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... home, normalcy is the goal. Dealing With Siblings Family dynamics can be severely tested when a child is sick. Clinic visits, surgical procedures, and frequent checkups can throw big ... toll on the entire family. To ease the pressure, seek help to keep ...

  17. The Future of No Child Left Behind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravitch, Diane; Chubb, John E.

    2009-01-01

    More than seven years ago, President George W. Bush signed No Child Left Behind (NCLB) into law. Sweeping calls for testing, intervening in persistently low-performing schools, and policing teacher quality made it the most ambitious legislation on K-12 schooling in American history. The law, due for congressional reauthorization in 2007, still…

  18. Personality Characteristics of Child Abusing Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanagan, Clyde; And Others

    A study involving 22 fathers and 21 mothers was conducted to explore several personality characteristics of child abusive parents which may set them apart from nonabusive peers. A social history was taken, and each parent completed both the Motivation Analysis Test (MAT) and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). Among findings…

  19. Anthropometric Measures of 9- to 10-Year-Old Native Tibetan Children Living at 3700 and 4300 m Above Sea Level and Han Chinese Living at 3700 m

    PubMed Central

    Bianba, Bianba; Yangzong, Yangzong; Gonggalanzi, Gonggalanzi; Berntsen, Sveinung; Andersen, Lars Bo; Stigum, Hein; Nafstad, Per; Bjertness, Espen

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A high residential altitude impacts on the growth of children, and it has been suggested that linear growth (height) is more affected than body mass. The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of obesity, overweight, underweight, and stunting in groups of native Tibetan children living at different residential altitudes (3700 vs 4300 m above sea level) and across ancestry (native Tibetan vs Han Chinese children living at the same altitude of 3700 m), as well as to examine the total effect of residential altitude and ancestry with stunting. Two cross-sectional studies of 1207 school children aged 9 to 10 years were conducted in Lhasa in 2005 and Tingri in 2007. Conventional age- and sex-specific cutoff values were used for defining underweight, normal weight, overweight, or obesity, whereas stunting was defined from sex-specific height-for-age z-scores (≤−2.0). The prevalence of underweight was high at 36.7% among Tingri Tibetan girls and 31.1% in Tingri Tibetan boys. The prevalence was statistically significant lower in Lhasa Tibetan girls (20.2%) than in both Tingri Tibetan girls and Han Chinese girls (33.7%), with a similar trend seen among boys. Severe and moderate stunting were found in 14.6% and 35.7%, respectively, of Tingri children, and near null among Han Chinese and native Tibetans in Lhasa. In logistic regression analyses, socioeconomic status and diet did not substantially change the observed crude association (total effect) (odds ratio [OR] = 3.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1–10.3) between ancestry and stunting. Similarly, adjustment for diet did not alter the crude association (direct effect) (OR = 101.3; 95% CI 37.1–276.4) between residential altitude and stunting. The prevalence estimates of stunting and underweight were high, and clearly higher among native Tibetan children living at a higher residential altitude (Tingri) than the lower residential altitude (Lhasa), in addition to being higher among Han Chinese children than Tibetan children living at the same residential altitude (Lhasa). Thus, physical growth according to age, in terms of both height and weight, affected children living at an altitude of 4300 m above sea level. PMID:26496254

  20. Updated prevalence rates of overweight and obesity in 4- to 10-year-old children in Germany. Results from the telephone-based KiGGS Wave 1 after correction for bias in parental reports.

    PubMed

    Brettschneider, Anna-Kristin; Schienkiewitz, Anja; Schmidt, Steffen; Ellert, Ute; Kurth, Bärbel-Maria

    2017-04-01

    The nationwide 'German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents' (KiGGS), conducted in 2003-2006, showed an increase in the prevalence rates of overweight and obesity compared to the early 1990s, indicating the need for regular monitoring. Recently, a follow-up-KiGGS Wave 1 (2009-2012)-was carried out as a telephone-based survey, providing parent-reported height and weight from 5155 children aged 4-10 years. Since parental reports lead to a bias in prevalence rates of weight status, a correction is needed. From a subsample of KiGGS Wave 1 participants, measurements for height and weight were collected in a physical examination. In order to correct prevalence rates derived from parent reports, weight status categories based on parent-reported and measured height and weight were used to estimate a correction formula according to an established procedure. The corrected prevalence rates derived from KiGGS Wave 1 for overweight, including obesity, in children aged 4-10 years in Germany showed that stagnation is reached compared to the KiGGS baseline study (2003-2006).