Science.gov

Sample records for 100-200 km wide

  1. Highly reusable space transportation: Approaches for reducing ETO launch costs to $100 - $200 per pound of payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olds, John R.

    1995-01-01

    The Commercial Space Transportation Study (CSTS) suggests that considerable market expansion in earth-to-orbit transportation would take place if current launch prices could be reduced to around $400 per pound of payload. If these low prices can be achieved, annual payload delivered to low earth orbit (LEO) is predicted to reach 6.7 million pounds. The primary market growth will occur in communications, government missions, and civil transportation. By establishing a cost target of $100-$200 per pound of payload for a new launch system, the Highly Reusable Space Transportation (HRST) program has clearly set its sights on removing the current restriction on market growth imposed by today's high launch costs. In particular, achieving the goal of $100-$200 per pound of payload will require significant coordinated efforts in (1) marketing strategy development, (2) business planning, (3) system operational strategy, (4) vehicle technical design, and (5) vehicle maintenance strategy.

  2. Abiogenic synthesis of oligopeptides in solid state under action of vacuum ultraviolet light (100-200 nm)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simakov, M. B.; Kuzicheva, E. A.; Mal'Ko, I. L.; Dodonova, N. Ya.

    Thin films containing a mixture of aliphatic (glycine) and aromatic (tryptophan or tyrosine) amino acids were exposed to a vacuum ultraviolet radiation (VUV) with wavelengths 100-200 nm. Dipeptides (glycyl-tryptophan and glycyltyrosine) were synthesized in these conditions. We compared the actions of VUV and gamma-radiation. Polymerization is an essential step in prebiological evolution and we have shown that this stage probably occured over an early Solar system history.

  3. Reviving the African wolf Canis lupus lupaster in North and West Africa: a mitochondrial lineage ranging more than 6,000 km wide.

    PubMed

    Gaubert, Philippe; Bloch, Cécile; Benyacoub, Slim; Abdelhamid, Adnan; Pagani, Paolo; Djagoun, Chabi Adéyèmi Marc Sylvestre; Couloux, Arnaud; Dufour, Sylvain

    2012-01-01

    The recent discovery of a lineage of gray wolf in North-East Africa suggests the presence of a cryptic canid on the continent, the African wolf Canis lupus lupaster. We analyzed the mtDNA diversity (cytochrome b and control region) of a series of African Canis including wolf-like animals from North and West Africa. Our objectives were to assess the actual range of C. l. lupaster, to further estimate the genetic characteristics and demographic history of its lineage, and to question its taxonomic delineation from the golden jackal C. aureus, with which it has been considered synonymous. We confirmed the existence of four distinct lineages within the gray wolf, including C. lupus/familiaris (Holarctic wolves and dogs), C. l. pallipes, C. l. chanco and C. l. lupaster. Taxonomic assignment procedures identified wolf-like individuals from Algeria, Mali and Senegal, as belonging to C. l. lupaster, expanding its known distribution c. 6,000 km to the west. We estimated that the African wolf lineage (i) had the highest level of genetic diversity within C. lupus, (ii) coalesced during the Late Pleistocene, contemporaneously with Holarctic wolves and dogs, and (iii) had an effective population size of c. 80,000 females. Our results suggest that the African wolf is a relatively ancient gray wolf lineage with a fairly large, past effective population size, as also suggested by the Pleistocene fossil record. Unique field observations in Senegal allowed us to provide a morphological and behavioral diagnosis of the African wolf that clearly distinguished it from the sympatric golden jackal. However, the detection of C. l. lupaster mtDNA haplotypes in C. aureus from Senegal brings the delineation between the African wolf and the golden jackal into question. In terms of conservation, it appears urgent to further characterize the status of the African wolf with regard to the African golden jackal. PMID:22900047

  4. Reviving the African Wolf Canis lupus lupaster in North and West Africa: A Mitochondrial Lineage Ranging More than 6,000 km Wide

    PubMed Central

    Gaubert, Philippe; Bloch, Cécile; Benyacoub, Slim; Abdelhamid, Adnan; Pagani, Paolo; Djagoun, Chabi Adéyèmi Marc Sylvestre; Couloux, Arnaud; Dufour, Sylvain

    2012-01-01

    The recent discovery of a lineage of gray wolf in North-East Africa suggests the presence of a cryptic canid on the continent, the African wolf Canis lupus lupaster. We analyzed the mtDNA diversity (cytochrome b and control region) of a series of African Canis including wolf-like animals from North and West Africa. Our objectives were to assess the actual range of C. l. lupaster, to further estimate the genetic characteristics and demographic history of its lineage, and to question its taxonomic delineation from the golden jackal C. aureus, with which it has been considered synonymous. We confirmed the existence of four distinct lineages within the gray wolf, including C. lupus/familiaris (Holarctic wolves and dogs), C. l. pallipes, C. l. chanco and C. l. lupaster. Taxonomic assignment procedures identified wolf-like individuals from Algeria, Mali and Senegal, as belonging to C. l. lupaster, expanding its known distribution c. 6,000 km to the west. We estimated that the African wolf lineage (i) had the highest level of genetic diversity within C. lupus, (ii) coalesced during the Late Pleistocene, contemporaneously with Holarctic wolves and dogs, and (iii) had an effective population size of c. 80,000 females. Our results suggest that the African wolf is a relatively ancient gray wolf lineage with a fairly large, past effective population size, as also suggested by the Pleistocene fossil record. Unique field observations in Senegal allowed us to provide a morphological and behavioral diagnosis of the African wolf that clearly distinguished it from the sympatric golden jackal. However, the detection of C. l. lupaster mtDNA haplotypes in C. aureus from Senegal brings the delineation between the African wolf and the golden jackal into question. In terms of conservation, it appears urgent to further characterize the status of the African wolf with regard to the African golden jackal. PMID:22900047

  5. Tailoring of nanoporous TiO2 spheres with 100-200 nm sizes for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Sora; You, Ji Su; Yang, In Seok; Kang, Paul; Rawal, Sher Bahadur; Sung, Sang Do; Lee, Wan In

    2016-09-01

    Highly porous and monodispersed TiO2 spheres (SPs) with diameters in the range of 100-200 nm, notably smaller than the conventional SPs reported thus far, were selectively controlled, and found to be an outstanding building block for the mesoporous TiO2 layer in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The prepared TiO2 films employing these SPs are highly transparent, and the fabricated DSCs exhibit significantly enhanced photovoltaic performances. Particularly, the 100 nm-sized TiO2 SP (SP100) provides a photovoltaic conversion efficiency (PCE) of 10.66% with a JSC of 17.98 mA/cm2, VOC of 808 mV, and FF of 0.734, which is higher than the PCE of DSCs with the typical 20 nm-sized TiO2 nanoparticle (NP20) or conventional 250 nm-sized SP (SP250). Transient photoelectron spectroscopic analyses revealed that both the electron diffusion coefficient and electron lifetime of the TiO2 layer increase as the size of the SPs decreases. The tiny TiO2 SPs prepared in this work offer distinct advantages in electron transport as well as dye-soaking and electrolyte diffusion.

  6. Diffusion coefficients for Tl, Pb, Cd, In, Zn, Bi, As, Mo and Sb in hydrous rhyolite at 100-200 MPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berlo, Kim; Brooker, Richard; Wilke, Max

    2014-05-01

    A series of experiments have been conducted to determine the diffusivities of Tl, Pb, Cd, In, Zn, Bi, As, Mo and Sb in hydrous rhyolitic melt. Diffusion experiments used two adjoining glass cylinder of the same hydrous composition, one doped with the elements of interest at ~ 100 ppm. These couples were rapidly heated to 850, 1000 and 1150°C at 100-200 MPa for a few hours. After quenching the sectioned charges were analyzed by both synchrotron XRF (The Diamond Light Source) and LA-ICP-MS (University of Oxford). The data shows excellent correlation between these two techniques. The diffusion profiles were fitted to a 1-D diffusion couple equation to determine the diffusivities and fitting to the different temperature runs defined the Arrhenius parameters. We find that for 850°C the diffusion coefficients follow the trend Tl>Pb>Cd>Zn>In>Bi>As>Sb>Mo. Additional experiments were performed with either S or Cl added (to both sides of the diffusion couple). In general S increases the diffusion rate of all metals except Mo and Sb, which diffuse slower in the presence of S. Chlorine also speeds up the diffusion of metals with the exception of In, Mo and Sb. The systematic change in diffusivities of these metals and their different behaviour in the presence of the ligands that are also observed to be significant in volcanic gases, are important in determining the distribution of these metals during degassing (e.g. MacKenzie and Canil, 2008). This is particularly important in a dynamic environment such as a volcanic conduit. There are also implications for economic exploration and well as hazard mitigation.

  7. Imaging Resolution of the 410-km and 660-km Discontinuities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, K.; Zhou, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Structure of seismic discontinuities at depths of about 410 km and 660 km provides important constraints on mantle convection as the associated phase transformations in the transition zone are sensitive to thermal perturbations. Teleseismic P-to-S receiver functions have been widely used to map the depths of the two discontinuities. In this study, we investigate the resolution of receiver functions in imaging topographic variations of the 410-km and 660-km discontinuities based on wave propagation simulations using the Spectral Element Method (SEM). We investigate finite-frequency effects of direct P waves as well as P-to-S converted waves by varying the length scale of discontinuity topography in the transition zone. We show that wavefront healing effects are significant in broadband receiver functions. For example, at a period of 10 to 20 seconds, the arrival anomaly in P-to-S converted waves is about 50% of what predicted by ray theory when the topography length scale is in the order of 400 km. The observed arrival anomaly further reduces to 10-20% when the topography length scale reduces to about 200 km. We calculate 2-D boundary sensitivity kernels for direct P waves as well as receiver functions based on surface wave mode summation and confirm that finite frequency-effects can be properly accounted for. Three-dimensional wavespeed structure beneath seismic stations can also introduce significant artifacts in transition zone discontinuity topography if time corrections are not applied, and, the effects are dependent on frequency.

  8. Heterogeneity between 16S ribosomal RNA gene copies borne by one Desulfitobacterium strain is caused by different 100-200 bp insertions in the 5' region.

    PubMed

    Villemur, Richard; Constant, Philippe; Gauthier, Annie; Shareck, Martine; Beaudet, Réjean

    2007-01-01

    Strains of Desulfitobacterium hafniense, such as strains PCP-1, DP7, TCE1, and TCP-A, have unusual long 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes due to an insertion of approximately 100 bp in the 5' region. In this report, we analyzed the 16S rRNA genes of different Desulfitobacterium strains to determine if such an insertion is a common feature of desulfitobacteria. We amplified this region by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from eight Desulfitobacterium strains (D. hafniense strains PCP-1, DP7, TCP-A, TCE1, and DCB-2; D. dehalogenans; D. chlororespirans; and Desulfitobacterium sp. PCE1) and resolved each PCR product by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). All strains had from two to seven DGGE- migrating bands, suggesting heterogeneity in their 16S rRNA gene copies. For each strain, the 5' region of the 16S rRNA genes was amplified and a clone library was derived. Clones corresponding to most PCR-DGGE migration bands were isolated. Sequencing of representative clones revealed that the heterogeneity was generated by insertions of 100-200 bp. An insertion was found in at least one copy of the 16S rRNA gene in all examined strains. In total, we found eight different types of insertions (INS1-INS8) that varied from 123 to 193 nt in length. Two-dimensional structural analyses of transcribed sequences predicted that all insertions would form an energetically stable loop. Reverse transcriptase-PCR experiments revealed that most of the observed insertions in the Desulfitobacterium strains were excised from the mature 16S rRNA transcripts. Insertions were not commonly found in bacterial 16S rRNA genes, and having a different insertion in several 16S rRNA gene copies borne by a single bacterial species was rarely observed. The function of these insertions is not known, but their occurrence can have an important impact in deriving 16S rRNA oligonucleotidic fluorescence in situ hybridization probes, as these insertions can be excised from 16S rRNA transcripts.

  9. Imaging Resolution of 410-km and 660-km Discontinuities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Kai; Zhou, Ying

    2014-05-01

    Seismic discontinuities in the mantle transition zone at depths of about 410 and 660 km are associated with olivine phase transformations. The depths of the discontinuities provide important constraints on the thermal structure of the mid mantle. Teleseismic receiver functions as well as PP and SS precursors have been widely used in imaging topographic variations of the 410 and 660 discontinuities. Ray-theory based migration and stacking methods are often used to enhance signals of the converted and reflected waves, assuming that the effects of 3-D structure in wavespeed can be averaged out. In this study, we investigate the resolution of traditional methods in imaging the 410-km and 660-km discontinuity topography based on wave propagation simulations using the Spectral Element Method (SEM). We calculate synthetic seismograms in laterally heterogeneous wavespeed models with lateral variations in the 410-km and 660-km discontinuity depths. The SEM synthetics are processed following standard migration and stacking techniques to image the discontinuities. We show that 3-D wave speed structure beneath seismic stations can introduce significant artifacts in transition zone discontinuity topography. We also investigate finite-frequency effects of P-to-S converted waves as well as PP and SS precursors in imaging the discontinuities by varying the length scale of depth variations in the 410-km and 660-km discontinuities in SEM simulations, and show that wave front healing effects depend on the length scale of the depth variation as well as epicentral distances. Finally we compare receiver function delay times with calculations based on finite frequency sensitivity and show that wave front healing effects can be properly accounted for.

  10. Temperature Structure of the 80 Km to 120 Km Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forbes, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    Between 80 and 120 km the CIRA 1972 model is based heavily on NASA Meteorological Sounding Rocket Program (MSRP) data collected prior to 1967. Since about 1970 an abundance of E-region (100-130 km) temperature data from the incoherent scatter facilities at Arecibo, Millstone Hill, and St. Santin have also become available. The present study examines the temperature structure of the 80 to 120 km region given considerable additional MSRP rocket data, thus providing better seasonal, latitudinal, and longitudinal coverage in the 80 to 100 km region, and a combination of incoherent scatter and rocket data in the 100 to 120 km region which allows a much improved delineation of lower thermosphere temperature structue. Although some individual station comparisons indicate measurable asymmetries in longitude and latitude, data are still insufficient to separate these effects. Specific recommendations of the new CIRA are given.

  11. KM Education in LIS Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehman, Sajjad ur; Chaudhry, Abdus Sattar

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the perceptions of the heads of 12 Library and Information Science (LIS) schools on Knowledge Management (KM) education. These heads from North America, Europe and the Pacific region had either been offering KM courses or had an apparent interest in such programs. Data about perceptions were gathered on the nature of their…

  12. KM3NeT

    SciTech Connect

    Jong, M. de; Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration

    2015-07-15

    KM3NeT is a large research infrastructure, that will consist of a network of deep-sea neutrino telescopes in the Mediterranean Sea. The main objective of KM3NeT is the discovery and subsequent observation of high-energy neutrino sources in the Universe. A further physics perspective is the measurement of the mass hierarchy of neutrinos. A corresponding study, ORCA, is ongoing within KM3NeT. A cost effective technology for (very) large water Cherenkov detectors has been developed based on a new generation of low price 3-inch photo-multiplier tubes. Following the successful deployment and operation of two prototypes, the construction of the KM3NeT research infrastructure has started. The prospects of the different phases of the implementation of KM3NeT are summarised.

  13. KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, M.

    2015-07-01

    KM3NeT is a large research infrastructure, that will consist of a network of deep-sea neutrino telescopes in the Mediterranean Sea. The main objective of KM3NeT is the discovery and subsequent observation of high-energy neutrino sources in the Universe. A further physics perspective is the measurement of the mass hierarchy of neutrinos. A corresponding study, ORCA, is ongoing within KM3NeT. A cost effective technology for (very) large water Cherenkov detectors has been developed based on a new generation of low price 3-inch photo-multiplier tubes. Following the successful deployment and operation of two prototypes, the construction of the KM3NeT research infrastructure has started. The prospects of the different phases of the implementation of KM3NeT are summarised.

  14. Origins of the 520-km discontinuity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinnik, Lev

    2016-04-01

    The 520-km discontinuity is often explained by the phase transition from wadsleyite to ringwoodite, although the theoretical impedance of this transition is so small that the related converted and reflected seismic phases could hardly be seen in the seismograms. At the same time there are numerous reports on observations of a large discontinuity at this depth, especially in the data on SS precursors and P-wave wide-angle reflections. Revenaugh and Jordan (1991) argued that this discontinuity is related to the garnet/post-garnet transformation. Gu et al. (1998) preferred very deep continental roots extending into the transition zone. Deuss and Woodhouse proposed splitting of the 520-km discontinuity into two discontinuities, whilst Bock (1994) denied evidence of the 520-km discontinuity in the SS precursors. Our approach to this problem is based on the analysis of S and P receiver functions. Most of our data are related to hot-spots in and around the Atlantic where the appropriate converted phases are often comparable in amplitude with P410s and S410p. Both S and P receiver functions provide strong evidence of a low S velocity in a depth range from 450 km to 510 km at some locations. The 520-km discontinuity appears to be the base of this low-velocity layer. Our observations of the low S velocity in the upper transition zone are very consistent with the indications of a drop in the solidus temperature of carbonated peridotite in the same pressure range (Keshav et al. 2011), and this phenomenon provides a viable alternative to the other explanations of the 520-km discontinuity.

  15. 4-km body(ies?) embedded in Saturn's Huygens Ringlet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spitale, Joseph N.; Hahn, Joseph M.; Tamayo, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    Saturn's 20-km-wide Huygens ringlet, located ~250 km exterior to the B ring, displays unusual kinematics, as evidenced by a time variable width-relation. The cause of this behavior is not clear, but may be related to the presence of large embedded bodies (Spitale and Hahn 2016). The largest such bodies produce half-propeller-shaped disturbances originating at the inner edge of the ringlet, whose radial widths imply a size of ~4 km, based on simple scaling from A-ring propellers. Here, we show that a numerical N-body model of the ringlet with a 4-km body embedded near the inner edge produces features that are consistent with the observed half propellers.

  16. Neutrophil haptotaxis induced by the lectin KM+.

    PubMed

    Ganiko, L; Martins, A R; Espreáfico, E M; Roque-Barreira, M C

    1998-05-01

    KM+ is a D-mannose binding lectin from Artocarpus integrifolia that induces neutrophil migration in vitro and in vivo. This attractant activity was shown to be caused by haptotaxis rather than chemotaxis. The inhibition by D-mannose of the neutrophil attraction exerted by KM+, both in vitro and in vivo, supports the idea that haptotaxis is triggered in vivo by the sugar binding sites interacting with glycoconjugates located on the neutrophil surface and in the extracellular matrix. In the present study an in vivo haptotaxis assay was performed by intradermally (i.d.) injecting 125I-KM+ (200 ng), which led to a selective staining of loose connective tissue and vascular endothelium. The radiolabelled area exhibited a maximum increase (five-fold) in neutrophil infiltration 3 h after injection, relative to i.d. 200 ng 125I-BSA. We characterized the ex vivo binding of KM+ to tissue elements by immunohistochemistry, using paraformaldehyde-fixed, paraffin-embedded, untreated rat skin. Bound KM+ was detected with an affinity-purified rabbit IgG anti-KM+ and visualized with an alkaline phosphatase based system. KM+ binding to connective tissue and vascular endothelium was inhibited by preincubating KM+ with 0.4 mM D-mannose and was potentiated by heparan sulfate (100 microg ml(-1)). An in vitro assay carried out in a Boyden microchamber showed that heparan sulfate potentiated the attractant effect of 10 microg KM+ by 34%. The present data suggest that KM+ induces neutrophil migration in vivo by haptotaxis and that the haptotactic gradient could be provided by the interaction of the KM+ carbohydrate recognition site(s) with mannose-containing glycoconjugate(s) in vascular endothelium and connective tissue. Heparan sulfate would act as an accessory molecule, enhancing the KM+ tissue binding and potentiating the induced neutrophil haptotaxis.

  17. Impulse gage development for the 100-200 ktap range

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, P.C.; Naumann, W.J. . Advanced Technologies Div.)

    1990-07-31

    Special effects underground test (UGT) material response and source diagnostics data require impulse gages that can be used in the 50--150 ktap range and have equilibrated from electrical and mechanical noise sources within 0.001 s. Such gages were designed, analyzed, and tested under this program. One- and two-dimensional stress propagation calculations were performed and predictions were developed for deformation of the gage specimen cup. These predictions were conservative when compared to gas gun test results. The response of the gage will equilibrate within 5% to its final value within 300 {mu}sec. The impulse delivered to the gages for these tests exceeded 250 ktap. The code and experimental results provides a basis for confidence in the operability of the gage in an actual UGT environment.

  18. News from KM3NeT

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, Ulrich F.; Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    KM3NeT is a future research infrastructure in the Mediterranean Sea, hosting a multi-cubic-kilometre neutrino telescope and nodes for Earth and Sea sciences. In this report we shortly summarise the genesis of the KM3NeT project and present key elements of its technical design. The physics objectives of the KM3NeT neutrino telescope and some selected sensitivity estimates are discussed. Finally, some first results from prototype operations and the next steps towards implementation – in particular the first construction phase in 2014/15 – are described.

  19. Wide-Angle Controlled-Source Receiver Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, I. B.

    2004-12-01

    Receiver function (RF) methodology has become an accepted standard for imaging the Moho, upper mantle, and sometimes crustal discontinuities. However, its present applications to teleseismic waves and deep structures contain virtually no means for independent confirmation of RF images by methods of comparable accuracy, and the resulting images are typically validated on the basis of their geodynamical plausibility. Such lack of corroboration could be partly resolved by an application of RF techniques in controlled-source seismology. Recently, we constructed RFs from the recordings from an ultra-long-range refraction profile QUARTZ in Northern Eurasia and showed that the converted P/S waves could be utilized to map the thickness of the sediments along the profile and to estimate their Poisson's ratio. Here, I present a further application of RF techniques to a high-quality wide-angle crustal dataset acquired in 1994 as a part of ACCRETE project in SE Alaska and Coastal British Columbia. The dataset included 1700 km of marine multichannel (MCS) profiling in BC fjords that were also recorded by ~40 three-component Reftek seismographs deployed at 3-5 km spacing on land. From the perspective of converted-wave studies, this dataset provides thousands of RFs recorded from a highly consistent airgun source fired at 50-m spacings. Three-component particle motion analysis and RF deconvolution reveal consistent P/S mode conversions in the first arrivals in nearly all ACCRETE receiver gathers. Particle motion changes from linear (primary P-wave) to circularly-polarized transverse (P/S converted mode) within 100-200 ms milliseconds of the first arrivals. Notably, and similarly to what had been observed in QUARTZ records, the amplitudes of P/S converted modes exceed those of the first arrivals. Although the RFs for the same receiver are generally consistent, notable variations occur, apparently due to the interplay of scattering modes and the effects of crustal velocity

  20. Status of KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riccobene, G.

    2016-07-01

    The recent observation of cosmic neutrinos by IceCube has pushed the quest towards the identification of cosmic sources of high-energy particles. The KM3NeT Collaboration is now ready to launch the massive construction of detection units to be installed in deep sea to build a km-cubic size neutrino telescope. The main elements of the detector, the status of the project and the expected perfomances are briefly reported.

  1. Towards Mapping the Ocean Surface Topography at 1 km Resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fu, Lee-Lueng; Rodriquez, Ernesto

    2006-01-01

    We propose to apply the technique of synthetic aperture radar interferometry to the measurement of ocean surface topography at spatial resolution approaching 1 km. The measurement will have wide ranging applications in oceanography, hydrology, and marine geophysics. The oceanographic and related societal applications are briefly discussed in the paper. To meet the requirements for oceanographic applications, the instrument must be flown in an orbit with proper sampling of ocean tides.

  2. KM3NeT-ARCA project status and plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coniglione, R.

    2016-04-01

    The KM3NeT Collaboration aims at building a research infrastructure in the depths of the Mediterranean Sea hosting a cubic kilometre neutrino telescope. The KM3NeT/ARCA detector is the ideal instrument to look for high-energy neutrino sources thanks to the latitude of the detector and to the optical characteristics of the sea water. The detector latitude allows for a wide coverage of the observable sky including the region of the Galactic centre and the optical sea water properties allow for the measure of the neutrino direction with excellent angular resolution also for cascade events. The technologically innovative components of the detector and the status of construction will be presented as well as the capability it offers to discover neutrinos.

  3. The estimation of 550 km x 550 km mean gravity anomalies. [from free atmosphere gravimetry data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, M. R.; Gaposchkin, E. M.

    1975-01-01

    The calculation of 550 km X 550 km mean gravity anomalies from 1 degree X 1 degree mean free-air gravimetry data is discussed. The block estimate procedure developed by Kaula was used, and estimates for 1452 of the 1654 blocks were obtained.

  4. Large Circular Basin - 1300-km diameter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Close-up view of one-half of a 1300-km diameter circular basin the largest observed on Mercury. The other half is hidden beyond the terminator to the left. Hills and valleys extend in a radial fashion outward from the main ring. Interior of the large basin is completely flooded by plains materials; adjacent lowlands are also partially flooded and superimposed on the plains are bowl shaped craters. Wrinkle ridges are abundant on the plains materials. The area shown is 1008 miles (1600 km) from the top to the bottom of the picture. Sun's illumination is from the right. Blurred linear lines extending across the picture near bottom are missing data lines that have been filled in by the computer. Mariner 10 encountered Mercury on Friday, March 29th, 1974, passing the planet on the darkside 431 miles (690-km) from the surface.

    The Mariner 10 mission, managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA's Office of Space Science, explored Venus in February 1974 on the way to three encounters with Mercury-in March and September 1974 and in March 1975. The spacecraft took more than 7,000 photos of Mercury, Venus, the Earth and the Moon.

    NOTE: This image was scanned from physical media.

  5. Km3Net Italy - Seafloor network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papaleo, Riccardo

    2016-04-01

    The KM3NeT European project aims to construct a large volume underwater neutrino telescope in the depths of the Mediterranean Sea. INFN and KM3NeT collaboration, thanks to a dedicated funding of 21.000.000 € (PON 2007-2013), are committed to build and deploy the Phase 1 of the telescope, composed of a network of detection units: 8 towers, equipped with single photomultiplier optical modules, and 24 strings, equipped with multi-photomultipliers optical modules. All the towers and strings are connected to the main electro optical cable by means of a network of junction boxes and electro optical interlink cables. Each junction box is an active node able to provide all the necessary power to the detection units and to guarantee the data transmission between the detector and the on-shore control station. The KM3NeT Italia project foresees the realization and the installation of the first part of the deep sea network, composed of three junction boxes, one for the towers and two for the strings. In July 2015, two junction boxes have been deployed and connected to the new cable termination frame installed during the same sea campaign. The third and last one will be installed in November 2015. The status of the deep sea network is presented together with technical details of the project.

  6. Laboratory 20-km cycle time trial reproducibility.

    PubMed

    Zavorsky, G S; Murias, J M; Gow, J; Kim, D J; Poulin-Harnois, C; Kubow, S; Lands, L C

    2007-09-01

    This study evaluated the reproducibility of laboratory based 20-km time trials in well trained versus recreational cyclists. Eighteen cyclists (age = 34 +/- 8 yrs; body mass index = 23.1 +/- 2.2 kg/m (2); VO(2max) = 4.19 +/- 0.65 L/min) completed three 20-km time trials over a month on a Velotron cycle ergometer. Average power output (PO) (W), speed, and heart rate (HR) were significantly lower in the first time trial compared to the second and third time trial. The coefficients of variation (CV) between the second and third trial of the top eight performers for average PO, time to completion, and speed were 1.2 %, 0.6 %, 0.5 %, respectively, compared to 4.8 %, 2.0 %, and 2.3 % for the bottom ten. In addition, the average HR, VO(2), and percentage of VO(2max) were similar between trials. This study demonstrated that (1) a familiarization session improves the reliability of the measurements (i.e., average PO, time to completion and speed), and (2) the CV was much smaller for the best performers.

  7. Global modeling with GEOS-5 from 50-km to 1-km with a single unified GCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putman, William; Suarez, Max; Molod, Andrea; Barahona, Donifan

    2015-04-01

    The Goddard Earth Observing System model (GEOS-5) of the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is uniquely designed to adapt to increasing resolution. This supports application of GEOS-5 for decadal scale climate simulation and reanalysis with a horizontal resolution of 50-kilometers (km), high-resolution numerical weather prediction at 25- to 14-km, and global mesoscale modeling at resolutions of 7- to 1.5-km. Resolution-aware parameterizations and dynamics support this diverse portfolio of applications within a single unified GEOS-5 GCM code-base. We will discuss the adaptation of physics parameterizations with increasing resolution. This includes the role of deep convective parameterization, the move to an improved two-moment microphysics scheme, the need for shallow convective parameterization, and the role of non-hydrostatic dynamics and implicit/explicit damping. Parameterization and dynamics evaluation are explored not only in global integrations with GEOS-5 but with radiative convective equilibrium tests that permit the rapid exploration of high-resolution simulations in a smaller doubly periodic Cartesian domain. Simulation results will highlight intercomparisons of model biases in cloud forcing and precipitation from the 30-year 50-km MERRA-2 reanalysis, 50- to 25-km free-running AMIP simulations, a 2-year 7-km global mesoscale simulation, and monthly global simulations at 3.5-km. A global 1.5-km simulation with GEOS-5 highlights our pursuit of truly convection permitting global simulations with GEOS-5. The tuning evaluation for this simulation using doubly periodic radiative convective equilibrium experiments will be discussed.

  8. Improved Blocking at 25km Resolution?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiemann, R.; Demory, M. E.; Mizielinski, M.; Roberts, M.; Shaffrey, L.; Strachan, J.; Vidale, P. L.; Matsueda, M.

    2014-12-01

    It has been suggested that relatively coarse resolution of atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs) limits their ability to represent mid-latitude blocking. Assessing the role of model resolution for blocking is computationally expensive, as multi-decadal simulations at the desired resolution are necessary for a robust estimation of blocking statistics. Here, we use an ensemble of three atmosphere-only global models for which simulations that fulfil this requirement are available at resolutions of roughly 25km horizontal grid spacing in the mid-latitudes. This corresponds to about a fourfold increase in resolution over the highest-resolution CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, Phase 5) models. The three models are (i) the ECMWF model (IFS) as used in the project Athena, (ii) the MRI-AGCM 3.2, and (iii) our own HadGEM3-GA3 simulations obtained in the UPSCALE project (UK on PrACE - weather-resolving Simulations of Climate for globAL Environmental risk). We use a two-dimensional blocking index to assess the representation of blocking in these simulations and in three reanalyses (ERA-Interim, ERA-40, MERRA). We evaluate the spatial distribution of climatological blocking frequency, the interannual variability of blocking occurrence as well as the persistence of blocking events. Furthermore, the degree to which blocking biases are associated with mean-state biases is quantified in the different models. We find that the representation of blocking remains very sensitive to atmospheric resolution as the grid spacing is reduced to about 25km. The simulated blocking frequency increases with resolution, mostly so as to reduce the model bias, yet there is considerable variation between the results obtained for different models, seasons, and for the Atlantic and Pacific regions.

  9. 45 Km Horizontal Path Optical Link Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biswas, A.; Ceniceros, J.; Novak, M.; Jeganathan, M.; Portillo, A.; Erickson, D.; Depew, J.; Sanii, B.; Lesh, J. R.

    2000-01-01

    Mountain-top to mountain-top optical link experiments have been initiated at JPL, in order to perform a systems level evaluation of optical communications. Progress made so far is reported. ne NASA, JPL developed optical communications demonstrator (OCD) is used to transmit a laser signal from Strawberry Peak (SP), located in the San Bernadino mountains of California. This laser beam is received by a 0.6 m aperture telescope at JPL's Table Mountain Facility (TMF), located in Wrightwood, California. The optical link is bi-directional with the TMF telescope transmitting a continuous 4-wave (cw) 780 run beacon and the OCD sending back a 840 nm, 100 - 500 Mbps pseudo noise (PN) modulated, laser beam. The optical link path is at an average altitude of 2 km above sea level, covers a range of 46.8 km and provides an atmospheric channel equivalent to approx. 4 air masses. Average received power measured at either end fall well within the uncertainties predicted by link analysis. The reduction in normalized intensity variance (sigma(sup 2, sub I)) for the 4-beam beacon, compared to each individual beam, at SP, was from approx. 0.68 to 0.22. With some allowance for intra-beam mis-alignment, this is consistent with incoherent averaging. The sigma(sup2, sub I) measured at TMF approx. 0.43 +/- 0.22 exceeded the expected aperture averaged value of less than 0.1, probably because of beam wander. The focused spot sizes of approx. 162 +/- 6 microns at the TMF Coude and approx. 64 +/- 3 microns on the OCD compare to the predicted size range of 52 - 172 microns and 57 - 93 microns, respectively. This is consistent with 4 - 5 arcsec of atmospheric "seeing". The preliminary evaluation of OCD's fine tracking indicates that the uncompensated tracking error is approx. 3.3 micro rad compared to approx. 1.7 micro rad observed in the laboratory. Fine tracking performance was intermittent, primarily due to beacon fades on the OCD tracking sensor. The best bit error rates observed while

  10. Teleportation of entanglement over 143 km.

    PubMed

    Herbst, Thomas; Scheidl, Thomas; Fink, Matthias; Handsteiner, Johannes; Wittmann, Bernhard; Ursin, Rupert; Zeilinger, Anton

    2015-11-17

    As a direct consequence of the no-cloning theorem, the deterministic amplification as in classical communication is impossible for unknown quantum states. This calls for more advanced techniques in a future global quantum network, e.g., for cloud quantum computing. A unique solution is the teleportation of an entangled state, i.e., entanglement swapping, representing the central resource to relay entanglement between distant nodes. Together with entanglement purification and a quantum memory it constitutes a so-called quantum repeater. Since the aforementioned building blocks have been individually demonstrated in laboratory setups only, the applicability of the required technology in real-world scenarios remained to be proven. Here we present a free-space entanglement-swapping experiment between the Canary Islands of La Palma and Tenerife, verifying the presence of quantum entanglement between two previously independent photons separated by 143 km. We obtained an expectation value for the entanglement-witness operator, more than 6 SDs beyond the classical limit. By consecutive generation of the two required photon pairs and space-like separation of the relevant measurement events, we also showed the feasibility of the swapping protocol in a long-distance scenario, where the independence of the nodes is highly demanded. Because our results already allow for efficient implementation of entanglement purification, we anticipate our research to lay the ground for a fully fledged quantum repeater over a realistic high-loss and even turbulent quantum channel.

  11. Teleportation of entanglement over 143 km

    PubMed Central

    Herbst, Thomas; Scheidl, Thomas; Fink, Matthias; Handsteiner, Johannes; Wittmann, Bernhard; Ursin, Rupert; Zeilinger, Anton

    2015-01-01

    As a direct consequence of the no-cloning theorem, the deterministic amplification as in classical communication is impossible for unknown quantum states. This calls for more advanced techniques in a future global quantum network, e.g., for cloud quantum computing. A unique solution is the teleportation of an entangled state, i.e., entanglement swapping, representing the central resource to relay entanglement between distant nodes. Together with entanglement purification and a quantum memory it constitutes a so-called quantum repeater. Since the aforementioned building blocks have been individually demonstrated in laboratory setups only, the applicability of the required technology in real-world scenarios remained to be proven. Here we present a free-space entanglement-swapping experiment between the Canary Islands of La Palma and Tenerife, verifying the presence of quantum entanglement between two previously independent photons separated by 143 km. We obtained an expectation value for the entanglement-witness operator, more than 6 SDs beyond the classical limit. By consecutive generation of the two required photon pairs and space-like separation of the relevant measurement events, we also showed the feasibility of the swapping protocol in a long-distance scenario, where the independence of the nodes is highly demanded. Because our results already allow for efficient implementation of entanglement purification, we anticipate our research to lay the ground for a fully fledged quantum repeater over a realistic high-loss and even turbulent quantum channel. PMID:26578764

  12. Teleportation of entanglement over 143 km.

    PubMed

    Herbst, Thomas; Scheidl, Thomas; Fink, Matthias; Handsteiner, Johannes; Wittmann, Bernhard; Ursin, Rupert; Zeilinger, Anton

    2015-11-17

    As a direct consequence of the no-cloning theorem, the deterministic amplification as in classical communication is impossible for unknown quantum states. This calls for more advanced techniques in a future global quantum network, e.g., for cloud quantum computing. A unique solution is the teleportation of an entangled state, i.e., entanglement swapping, representing the central resource to relay entanglement between distant nodes. Together with entanglement purification and a quantum memory it constitutes a so-called quantum repeater. Since the aforementioned building blocks have been individually demonstrated in laboratory setups only, the applicability of the required technology in real-world scenarios remained to be proven. Here we present a free-space entanglement-swapping experiment between the Canary Islands of La Palma and Tenerife, verifying the presence of quantum entanglement between two previously independent photons separated by 143 km. We obtained an expectation value for the entanglement-witness operator, more than 6 SDs beyond the classical limit. By consecutive generation of the two required photon pairs and space-like separation of the relevant measurement events, we also showed the feasibility of the swapping protocol in a long-distance scenario, where the independence of the nodes is highly demanded. Because our results already allow for efficient implementation of entanglement purification, we anticipate our research to lay the ground for a fully fledged quantum repeater over a realistic high-loss and even turbulent quantum channel. PMID:26578764

  13. Lectin KM+-induced neutrophil haptotaxis involves binding to laminin.

    PubMed

    Ganiko, Luciane; Martins, Antônio R; Freymüller, Edna; Mortara, Renato A; Roque-Barreira, Maria-Cristina

    2005-01-18

    The lectin KM+ from Artocarpus integrifolia, also known as artocarpin, induces neutrophil migration by haptotaxis. The interactions of KM+ with both the extracellular matrix (ECM) and neutrophils depend on the lectin ability to recognize mannose-containing glycans. Here, we report the binding of KM+ to laminin and demonstrate that this interaction potentiates the KM+-induced neutrophil migration. Labeling of lung tissue by KM+ located its ligands on the endothelial cells, in the basement membrane, in the alveolus, and in the interstitial connective tissue. Such labeling was inhibited by 400 mM D-mannose, 10 mM Manalpha1-3[Manalpha1-6]Man or 10 microM peroxidase (a glycoprotein-containing mannosyl heptasaccharide). Laminin is a tissue ligand for KM+, since both KM+ and anti-laminin antibodies not only reacted with the same high molecular mass components of a lung extract, but also determined colocalized labeling in basement membranes of the lung tissue. The relevance of the KM+-laminin interaction to the KM+ property of inducing neutrophil migration was evaluated. The inability of low concentrations of soluble KM+ to induce human neutrophil migration was reversed by coating the microchamber filter with laminin. So, the interaction of KM+ with laminin promotes the formation of a substrate-bound KM+ gradient that is able to induce neutrophil haptotaxis.

  14. MODIS 3km Aerosol Product: Algorithm and Global Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remer, L. A.; Mattoo, S.; Levy, R. C.; Munchak, L.

    2013-01-01

    After more than a decade of producing a nominal 10 km aerosol product based on the dark target method, the MODIS aerosol team will be releasing a nominal 3 km product as part of their Collection 6 release. The new product differs from the original 10 km product only in the manner in which reflectance pixels are ingested, organized and selected by the aerosol algorithm. Overall, the 3 km product closely mirrors the 10 km product. However, the finer resolution product is able to retrieve over ocean closer to islands and coastlines, and is better able to resolve fine aerosol features such as smoke plumes over both ocean and land. In some situations, it provides retrievals over entire regions that the 10 km product barely samples. In situations traditionally difficult for the dark target algorithm, such as over bright or urban surfaces the 3 km product introduces isolated spikes of artificially high aerosol optical depth (AOD) that the 10 km algorithm avoids. Over land, globally, the 3 km product appears to be 0.01 to 0.02 higher than the 10 km product, while over ocean, the 3 km algorithm is retrieving a proportionally greater number of very low aerosol loading situations. Based on collocations with ground-based observations for only six months, expected errors associated with the 3 km land product are determined to be greater than for the 10 km product: 0.05 0.25 AOD. Over ocean, the suggestion is for expected errors to be the same as the 10 km product: 0.03 0.05 AOD. The advantage of the product is on the local scale, which will require continued evaluation not addressed here. Nevertheless, the new 3 km product is expected to provide important information complementary to existing satellite-derived products and become an important tool for the aerosol community.

  15. Microphysical Model of the Venus clouds between 40km and 80km

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGouldrick, Kevin

    2013-10-01

    I am continuing to adapt the Community Aerosol and Radiation Model for Atmospheres (CARMA) to successfully simulate the multi-layered clouds of Venus. The present version of the one-dimensional model now includes a simple parameterization of the photochemicial production of sulfuric acid around altitudes of 62km, and its thermochemical destruction below cloud base. Photochemical production in the model is limited by the availability of water vapor and insolation. Upper cloud particles are introduced into the model via binary homogeneous nucleation, while the lower and middle cloud particles are created via activation of involatile cloud condensation nuclei. Growth by condensation and coagulation and coalescence are also treated. Mass loadings and particle sizes compare favorably with the in situ observations by the Pioneer Venus Large Probe Particle Size Spectrometer, and mixing ratios of volatiles compare favorably with remotely sensed observations of water vapor and sulfuric acid vapor. This work was supported by the NASA Planetary Atmospheres Program, grant number NNX11AD79G.

  16. Exploring the Benefits of KM Education for LIS Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazeri, Afsaneh; Martin, Bill; Sarrafzadeh, Maryam

    2009-01-01

    It is to be expected that in a new and emerging discipline like knowledge management (KM) there still will be ambivalence among both LIS educational institutions and their students, as to the need to have KM courses. Investigating the benefits of engaging with these programs might help to clear up this ambiguity. The present paper seeks to shed…

  17. 7 CFR 29.1035 - Mixed color (KM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mixed color (KM). 29.1035 Section 29.1035 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1035 Mixed color (KM). Distinctly different colors of the type mingled together....

  18. 7 CFR 29.1035 - Mixed color (KM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mixed color (KM). 29.1035 Section 29.1035 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1035 Mixed color (KM). Distinctly different colors of the type mingled together....

  19. 7 CFR 29.1035 - Mixed color (KM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mixed color (KM). 29.1035 Section 29.1035 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1035 Mixed color (KM). Distinctly different colors of the type mingled together....

  20. 7 CFR 29.1035 - Mixed color (KM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mixed color (KM). 29.1035 Section 29.1035 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1035 Mixed color (KM). Distinctly different colors of the type mingled together....

  1. 7 CFR 29.1035 - Mixed color (KM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mixed color (KM). 29.1035 Section 29.1035 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1035 Mixed color (KM). Distinctly different colors of the type mingled together....

  2. Hundred lightcurves of sub-km main-belt asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, F.; Souami, D.; Bouquillon, S.; Nakamura, T.; Dermawan, B.; Yagi, M.; Souchay, J.

    2014-07-01

    We observed a single sky field near opposition and near the ecliptic plane using the Subaru telescope equipped with the Suprime-Cam. Taking advantage of the wide field of view (FOV) for the Suprime-Cam, the plan was to obtain 100 lightcurves of asteroids at the same time. The total observing time interval was about 8 hours on September 2, 2002, with 2-min exposures. We detected 147 moving objects in the single FOV (34'×27') on the Suprime-Cam (see Figure). Of those, 112 detections corresponded to different objects. We used the R filter during almost the entire observing run, but we took a few images with the B filter at the beginning, the middle, and the end of the run. We classified main-belt asteroids into S- and C-complexes with the B-R color of the object (Yoshida & Nakamura 2007). Although we carefully avoided regions of bright stars, the sky in the images taken by Suprime-Cam were actually crowded with faint objects. Therefore, the asteroids overlapped with background stars very often. Thus, it was very difficult to get lightcurves with high accuracy. We modified the GAIA-GBOT (Ground Based Optical Tracking) PIPELINE to measure the position and brightness of each object (Bouquillon et al. 2012). Once the objects were identified and their positions measured in pixel coordinates, the pipeline proceeded to the astrometric calibration and then to the photometric calibrations with the Guide Star Catalog II (Lasker et al. 2008). The pipeline produced time series of photometry for each object. The average brightness of each lightcurve ranged between 19--24 mag. We then estimated the rotational period from the lightcurve of each object. In our presentation, we will show the spin-period distribution of sub- km main-belt asteroids and compare it with that of large main-belt asteroids obtained from the lightcurve catalogue.

  3. Exploring KM Features of High-Performance Companies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wei-Wen

    2007-12-01

    For reacting to an increasingly rival business environment, many companies emphasize the importance of knowledge management (KM). It is a favorable way to explore and learn KM features of high-performance companies. However, finding out the critical KM features of high-performance companies is a qualitative analysis problem. To handle this kind of problem, the rough set approach is suitable because it is based on data-mining techniques to discover knowledge without rigorous statistical assumptions. Thus, this paper explored KM features of high-performance companies by using the rough set approach. The results show that high-performance companies stress the importance on both tacit and explicit knowledge, and consider that incentives and evaluations are the essentials to implementing KM.

  4. Role of the transition zone and 660 km discontinuity in mantle dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ringwood, A. E.

    1994-10-01

    of differentiated oceanic lithosphere, with discrete lithological domains of former oceanic crust, former harzburgite and former lherzolite. However, in the upper mantle, these lithologies have been homogenized via convective mixing and partial melting to form a uniform pyrolite composition. Seismic velocity gradients in the heterogeneous mixture of lithologies of the transition zone are higher than they would be in homogeneous pyrolite, because of the survival of clinopyroxene to a depth of about 500 km. This may contribute towards high seismic velocity gradients observed in the transition zone. The behavior during partial melting of heterogeneous lithologies from the transition zone is also quite different from the partial melting of homogeneous pyrolite. The transition zone provides the principal source region for alkaline intraplate basalts world-wide (including ocean island basalts) whereas the homogeneous pyrolite source region of the upper mantle yields mid-ocean ridge basalt magmas.

  5. Marshall Space Flight Center Propulsion Systems Department (PSD) KM Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caraccioli, Paul; Varnadoe, Tom; McCarter, Mike

    2006-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center s Propulsion Systems Department (PSD) is four months into a fifteen month Knowledge Management (KM) initiative to support enhanced engineering decision making and analyses, faster resolution of anomalies (near-term) and effective, efficient knowledge infused engineering processes, reduced knowledge attrition, and reduced anomaly occurrences (long-term). The near-term objective of this initiative is developing a KM Pilot project, within the context of a 3-5 year KM strategy, to introduce and evaluate the use of KM within PSD. An internal NASA/MSFC PSD KM team was established early in project formulation to maintain a practitioner, user-centric focus throughout the conceptual development, planning and deployment of KM technologies and capabilities with in the PSD. The PSD internal team is supported by the University of Alabama's Aging Infrastructure Systems Center Of Excellence (AISCE), Intergraph Corporation, and The Knowledge Institute. The principle product of the initial four month effort has been strategic planning of PSD KM implementation by first determining the "as is" state of KM capabilities and developing, planning and documenting the roadmap to achieve the desired "to be" state. Activities undertaken to support the planning phase have included data gathering; cultural surveys, group work-sessions, interviews, documentation review, and independent research. Assessments and analyses have been performed including industry benchmarking, related local and Agency initiatives, specific tools and techniques used and strategies for leveraging existing resources, people and technology to achieve common KM goals. Key findings captured in the PSD KM Strategic Plan include the system vision, purpose, stakeholders, prioritized strategic objectives mapped to the top ten practitioner needs and analysis of current resource usage. Opportunities identified from research, analyses, cultural/KM surveys and practitioner interviews include

  6. The KM phase in semi-realistic heterotic orbifold models

    SciTech Connect

    Giedt, Joel

    2000-07-05

    In string-inspired semi-realistic heterotic orbifolds models with an anomalous U(1){sub X},a nonzero Kobayashi-Masakawa (KM) phase is shown to arise generically from the expectation values of complex scalar fields, which appear in nonrenormalizable quark mass couplings. Modular covariant nonrenormalizable superpotential couplings are constructed. A toy Z{sub 3} orbifold model is analyzed in some detail. Modular symmetries and orbifold selection rules are taken into account and do not lead to a cancellation of the KM phase. We also discuss attempts to obtain the KM phase solely from renormalizable interactions.

  7. Making minor rural road networks safer: The effects of 60 km/h-zones.

    PubMed

    Jaarsma, Rinus; Louwerse, Robert; Dijkstra, Atze; de Vries, Jasper; Spaas, Jac-Paul

    2011-07-01

    For safety reasons a maximum speed limit of 60km/h has been applied to minor rural roads in the Netherlands since 1998. To support this structurally, a part of these roads have also received additional physical measures in a so-called "low cost design" that is expected to reduce the number of traffic casualties by 10-20%. This measure has been implemented as much as possible in an area oriented way. To measure the design's effectivity, road safety in 20 specific rural areas was studied for 5 years before changes were implemented and, on average, 3.5 years thereafter. The study examined 851km of roads, and a control study was done on 2105km of comparable roads with a speed limit of 80km/h. Both the study and the control roads are managed by water boards. Results show that the measures implemented on the roads in the 60km/h-zones had statistically significant effects (p<0.05) on casualty accidents (-24% overall), especially at intersections (-44%). This high reduction is probably caused by the concentration of technical interventions at intersections. Both outcomes are somewhat higher than previously expected and are comparable with the outcome of a meta-analysis of safety effects on area-wide urban traffic calming schemes. However, the cost-effectiveness ratio of the 60km/h zones measures (€33,000 per prevented KSI-casualty) is much more favourable than the ratio in urban 30km/h-zones (€86,000 per prevented KSI-casualty).

  8. The -145 km/s Absorption System of Eta Carinae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vieira, G.; Gull, Theodore R.; Danks, A.; Johansson, S.

    2002-01-01

    With the STIS E230H mode (R approx. 118,000), we have identified about twenty absorption components in line of sight from Eta Carinae. Two components, one at -513 km/s and another at -145 km/s, are quite different in character from the others, mostly at intermediate velocities. The -145 km/s component is significantly wider in fwhm, is seen in many more species, and the lower level can be above 20,000/cm, well above the 2000/cm noted in the -513 km/s component. In the spectral region from 2400 to 3160A, approximately 500 absorption lines have been identified. In this poster, we will present line identifications and atomic parameters of the measured lines, hopefully providing insight as to what levels are being excited and by what processes. Observations were accomplished through STScI under proposal 9242. Funding is through the STIS GTO resources.

  9. High energy neutrino detection with KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migliozzi, Pasquale; KM3NeT Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    The KM3NeT Collaboration has started the construction of a next generation high-energy neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea: the largest and most sensitive neutrino research infrastructure. The full KM3NeT detector will be a several cubic kilometres distributed, networked infrastructure. In Italy, off the coast of Capo Passero, and in France, off the coast of Toulon. Thanks to its location in the Northern hemisphere and to its large instrumented volume, KM3NeT will be the optimal instrument to search for neutrinos from the Southern sky and in particular from the Galactic plane, thus making it complementary to IceCube. In this work the technologically innovative component of the detector, the status of construction and the first results from prototypes of the KM3NeT detector will be described as well as its capability to discover neutrino sources are reported.

  10. Akeno 20 km (2) air shower array (Akeno Branch)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teshima, M.; Ohoka, H.; Matsubara, Y.; Hara, T.; Hatano, Y.; Hayashida, N.; He, C. X.; Honda, M.; Ishikawa, F.; Kamata, K.

    1985-01-01

    As the first stage of the future huge array, the Akeno air shower array was expanded to about 20 sq. km. by adding 19 scintillation detectors of 2.25 sq m area outside the present 1 sq. km. Akeno array with a new data collection system. These detectors are spaced about 1km from each other and connected by two optical fiber cables. This array has been in partial operation from 8th, Sep. 1984 and full operation from 20th, Dec. 1984. 20 sq m muon stations are planned to be set with 2km separation and one of them is now under construction. The origin of the highest energy cosmic rays is studied.

  11. The relationship between narrow and wide bandwidth filter settings during an EMG scanning procedure.

    PubMed

    Cram, J R; Garber, A

    1986-06-01

    This study examined the correlation between EMG values measured with wide (25-1000 Hz) and narrow (100-200 Hz) band-width filters. An EMG diagnostic scan was conducted on 32 chronic pain patients admitted to an inpatient treatment unit. EMG readings were taken from a total of 44 sites (11 sites X 2 sides X 2 postures). Each EMG measure was passed in parallel through a narrow and wide band-pass filter and the stable readings were recorded. Correlated t tests and Pearson correlations were used to compare the data from the narrow and wide filter settings. The measures from the wide filter were significantly higher than the measures from the narrow filter. In addition, 61% of the correlations were greater than .90. The majority of the correlations below the median (.93) occurred in the neck region and the abdomen. The implications of the findings are discussed.

  12. How does music aid 5 km of running?

    PubMed

    Bigliassi, Marcelo; León-Domínguez, Umberto; Buzzachera, Cosme F; Barreto-Silva, Vinícius; Altimari, Leandro R

    2015-02-01

    This research investigated the effects of music and its time of application on a 5-km run. Fifteen well-trained male long-distance runners (24.87 ± 2.47 years; 78.87 ± 10.57 kg; 178 ± 07 cm) participated in this study. Five randomized experimental conditions during a 5-km run on an official track were tested (PM: motivational songs, applied before 5 km of running; SM: slow motivational songs, applied during 5 km of running; FM: fast and motivational songs, applied during 5 km of running; CS: calm songs, applied after 5 km of running; CO: control condition). Psychophysiological assessments were performed before (functional near-infrared spectroscopy, heart rate variability [HRV], valence, and arousal), during (performance time, heart rate, and rate of perceived exertion [RPE]), and after (mood, RPE, and HRV) tests. The chosen songs were considered pleasurable and capable of activating. Furthermore, they activated the 3 assessed prefrontal cortex (PFC) areas (medial, right dorsolateral, and left dorsolateral) similarly, generating positive emotional consequences by autonomous system analysis. The first 800 m was accomplished faster for SM and FM compared with other conditions (p ≤ 0.05); moreover, there was a high probability of improving running performance when music was applied (SM: 89%; FM: 85%; PM: 39%). Finally, music was capable of accelerating vagal tonus after 5 km of running with CS (p ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, music was able to activate the PFC area, minimize perceptions, improve performance, and accelerate recovery during 5 km of running.

  13. How does music aid 5 km of running?

    PubMed

    Bigliassi, Marcelo; León-Domínguez, Umberto; Buzzachera, Cosme F; Barreto-Silva, Vinícius; Altimari, Leandro R

    2015-02-01

    This research investigated the effects of music and its time of application on a 5-km run. Fifteen well-trained male long-distance runners (24.87 ± 2.47 years; 78.87 ± 10.57 kg; 178 ± 07 cm) participated in this study. Five randomized experimental conditions during a 5-km run on an official track were tested (PM: motivational songs, applied before 5 km of running; SM: slow motivational songs, applied during 5 km of running; FM: fast and motivational songs, applied during 5 km of running; CS: calm songs, applied after 5 km of running; CO: control condition). Psychophysiological assessments were performed before (functional near-infrared spectroscopy, heart rate variability [HRV], valence, and arousal), during (performance time, heart rate, and rate of perceived exertion [RPE]), and after (mood, RPE, and HRV) tests. The chosen songs were considered pleasurable and capable of activating. Furthermore, they activated the 3 assessed prefrontal cortex (PFC) areas (medial, right dorsolateral, and left dorsolateral) similarly, generating positive emotional consequences by autonomous system analysis. The first 800 m was accomplished faster for SM and FM compared with other conditions (p ≤ 0.05); moreover, there was a high probability of improving running performance when music was applied (SM: 89%; FM: 85%; PM: 39%). Finally, music was capable of accelerating vagal tonus after 5 km of running with CS (p ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, music was able to activate the PFC area, minimize perceptions, improve performance, and accelerate recovery during 5 km of running. PMID:25029009

  14. Local fluctuations of ozone from 16 km to 45 km deduced from in situ vertical ozone profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreau, G.; Robert, C.

    1994-01-01

    A vertical ozone profile obtained by an in situ ozone sonde from 16 km to 45 km, has allowed to observe local ozone concentration variations. These variations can be observed, thanks to a fast measurement system based on a UV absorption KrF excimer laser beam in a multipass cell. Ozone standard deviation versus altitude calculated from the mean is derived. Ozone variations or fluctuations are correlated with the different dynamic zones of the stratosphere.

  15. The KM3NeT Digital Optical Module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivolo, Daniele

    2016-04-01

    KM3NeT is a European deep-sea multidisciplinary research infrastructure in the Mediterranean Sea. It will host a km3-scale neutrino telescope and dedicated instruments for long-term and continuous measurements for Earth and Sea sciences. The KM3NeT neutrino telescope is a 3-dimensional array of Digital Optical Modules, suspended in the sea by means of vertical string structures, called Detection Units, supported by two pre-stretched Dyneema ropes, anchored to the seabed and kept taut with a system of buoys. The Digital Optical Module represents the active part of the neutrino telescope. It is composed by a 17-inch, 14 mm thick borosilicate glass (Vitrovex) spheric vessel housing 31 photomultiplier tubes with 3-inch photocathode diameter and the associated front-end and readout electronics. The technical solution adopted for the KM3NeT optical modules is characterized by an innovative design, considering that existing neutrino telescopes, Baikal, IceCube and ANTARES, all use large photomultipliers, typically with a diameter of 8″ or 10″. It offers several advantages: higher sensitive surface (1260 cm2), weaker sensitivity to Earth's magnetic field, better distinction between single-photon and multi-photon events (photon counting) and directional information with an almost isotropic field of view. In this contribution the design and the performance of the KM3NeT Digital Optical Modules are discussed, with a particular focus on enabling technologies and integration procedure.

  16. Gravity Waves Near 300 km Over the Polar Caps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, F. S.; Hanson, W. B.; Hodges, R. R.; Coley, W. R.; Carignan, G. R.; Spencer, N. W.

    1995-01-01

    Distinctive wave forms in the distributions of vertical velocity and temperature of both neutral particles and ions are frequently observed from Dynamics Explorer 2 at altitudes above 250 km over the polar caps. These are interpreted as being due to internal gravity waves propagating in the neutral atmosphere. The disturbances characterized by vertical velocity perturbations of the order of 100 m/s and horizontal wave lengths along the satellite path of about 500 km. They often extend across the entire polar cap. The associated temperature perturbations indicate that the horizontal phase progression is from the nightside to the dayside. Vertical displacements are inferred to be of the order of 10 km and the periods to be of the order of 10(exp 3) s. The waves must propagate in the neutral atmosphere, but they usually are most clearly recognizable in the observations of ion vertical velocity and ion temperature. By combining the neutral pressure calculated from the observed neutral concentration and temperature with the vertical component of the neutral velocity, an upward energy flux of the order of 0.04 erg/sq cm-s at 250 km has been calculated, which is about equal to the maximum total solar ultraviolet heat input above that altitude. Upward energy fluxes calculated from observations on orbital passes at altitudes from 250 to 560 km indicate relatively little attenuation with altitude.

  17. The -145 km/S Absorption System of Eta Carinae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vieira, G.; Gull, T. R.; Danks, A.; Johansson, S.

    2002-01-01

    With the STIS E230H mode (R-118,000) , we have identified about twenty absorption components in line of sight from Eta Carinae. Two components, one at -513 km/s and another at -145 W s , are quite different in character from the others, mostly at intermediate velocities. The -145 km/s component is significantly wider in fwhm, is seen in many more species, and the lower level can be above 20,000/cm, well above the 2000/cm noted in the -513 km/s component. In the spectral region from 2400 to 3160A, approximately 500 absorption lines have been identified. In this poster, we will present line identifications and atomic parameters of the measured lines, hopefully providing insight as to what levels are being excited and by what processes.

  18. Potential of KM+ lectin in immunization against Leishmania amazonensis infection.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Clarissa R; Cavassani, Karen A; Gomes, Regis B; Teixeira, Maria Jania; Roque-Barreira, Maria-Cristina; Cavada, Benildo S; da Silva, João Santana; Barral, Aldina; Barral-Netto, Manoel

    2006-04-01

    In the present study we evaluated Canavalia brasiliensis (ConBr), Pisum arvense (PAA) and Artocarpus integrifolia (KM+) lectins as immunostimulatory molecules in vaccination against Leishmania amazonensis infection. Although they induced IFN-gamma production, the combination of the lectins with SLA antigen did not lead to lesion reduction. However, parasite load was largely reduced in mice immunized with KM+ lectin and SLA. KM+ induced a smaller inflammatory reaction in the air pouch model and was able to inhibit differentiation of dendritic cells (BMDC), but to induce maturation by enhancing the expression of MHC II, CD80 and CD86. These observations indicate the modulatory role of plant lectins in leishmaniasis vaccination may be related to their action on the initial innate response.

  19. Seismological detection of "730-km" discontinuity beneath Japan subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z.; Park, J. J.; Karato, S. I.

    2015-12-01

    Because the mantle transition zone likely contains a large amount of water (Karato, 2011; Pearson et al., 2014), vertical material transport across the transition would cause partial melting that may produce seismic signals above and/or below the transition zone. Schmandt et al. (2014) observed a seismic low-velocity zone (LVZ) at the top of the lower mantle (~730 km) beneath the southwestern US, arguing for dehydration melting due to downward flow across the 670-km discontinuity (670) from the transition zone. These authors further proposed a correlation between seismic velocity reductions and the direction of water transport, in which LVZ at ~730 km indicates materials moving downward from the transition zone, while the lack of LVZ at this depth would suggest an upward flow of mantle materials. Other regions also need to be investigated to confirm the correlation between this seismic feature and mantle water transport. We test their model by detecting "730-km" discontinuity beneath the Japan subduction zone using frequency-dependent receiver functions. In addition, water transport above the 410-km discontinuity (410) also plays an important role in global water circulation (Bercovici and Karato, 2003). Seismological studies (e.g. Courtier and Revenaugh, 2007; Schaeffer and Bostock, 2010) have observed LVZs above the 410, which might be caused by dehydration melting due to the upwelling of hydrated materials across the 410-km discontinuity from the transition zone. In this study, we also detect potential LVZs above 410 to establish a correlation between seismic velocity drop and flow direction. Around the Japan subduction zone, our preliminary results show evidence of low velocity zones below 670 in regions where stagnant slab is present for a substantial amount of time but not in other regions suggesting a variety of vertical mass transport in this region. Key words: transition zone, water transport, subduction zone, melting, receiver functions

  20. Simulation of CO2 release at 800 km altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setayesh, A.

    1993-08-01

    The SOCRATES contamination-interaction code has been used to simulate the reactions of 0 + CO2 yields CO2(v) + O, O + CO2 - CO(v) + O2, and CO2 + H - CO + OH(v) at an altitude of 800 km in both ram and wake directions of the spacecraft. These simulations show that the radiation from these reactions can be measurable for the parameters which have been used in these calculations. The investigation carries out the simulations as much as 30 km from the spacecraft. The radiative intensity of CO(v) and OH(v) show the highest and lowest, respectively.

  1. Cascade sensitivity studies for KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fusco, Luigi Antonio

    2016-07-01

    KM3NeT is a future research infrastructure in the deep seas of the Mediterranean housing a large scale neutrino telescope. The first phase of construction of the telescope has started. Next step is an intermediate phase realising a detector volume of about one-third of the final detector volume. We report on calculations of the sensitivity of the KM3NeT detector to showering neutrino events, the strategy to optimise the detector to a cosmic neutrino flux analogous to the one reported by the IceCube Collaboration and the results of this strategy applied to the intermediate phase detector.

  2. From NEMO to KM3NeT-Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolau, Carlo A.

    2014-04-01

    The KM3NeT-Italy Collaboration has entered the production stage of an 8 tower apparatus that will be deployed at about 100 km off the Sicily coast. The architecture of the system is based on the NEMO Phase2 prototype tower which is taking data since the deployment in March 2013. In order to optimize production costs, power consumption, and usability, some components have been re-engineered by taking advantage of the previously gained experience and technological progress. The aim of this contribution is to give an overview of the main features that characterize the new apparatus.

  3. Body Composition Measurements of 161-km Ultramarathon Participants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study compares body composition characteristics with performance among participants in a 161-km trail ultramarathon. Height, mass, and percent body fat from bioimpedence spectroscopy were measured on 72 starters. Correlation analyses were used to compare body characteristics with finish time, ...

  4. The -145 km/s Absorption System of Eta Carinae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, G. L.; Gull, T. R.; Danks, A. C.; Johansson, S.

    2002-12-01

    With the STIS E230H mode (R 118,000), we have identified about twenty absorption components in line of sight from Eta Carinae. Two components, one at -513 km/s and another at -145 km/s, are quite different in character from the others, mostly at intermediate velocities (See adjacent posters by T. Gull and A. Danks). The -145 km/s component is significantly wider in fwhm, is seen in many more species, and the lower level can be above 20,000 cm-1, well above the 2000 cm-1 noted in the -513 km/s component. In the spectral region from 2400 to 3160A, approximately 500 absorption lines have been identified. In this poster, we will present line identifications and atomic parameters of the measured lines, hopefully providing insight as to what levels are being excited and by what processes. Observations were accomplished through STScI under proposal 9242 (Danks, P.I.). Funding is through the STIS GTO resources.

  5. Models of earth's atmosphere (90 to 2500 km)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    This monograph replaces a monograph on the upper atmosphere which was a computerized version of Jacchia's model. The current model has a range from 90 to 2500 km. In addition to the computerized model, a quick-look prediction method is given that may be used to estimate the density for any time and spatial location without using a computer.

  6. Gravity wave vertical energy flux at 95 km

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, P. G.; Jacka, F.

    1985-01-01

    A three-field photometer (3FP) located at Mt. Torrens near Adelaide, is capable of monitoring different airglow emissions from three spaced fields in the sky. A wheel containing up to six different narrow bandpass interference filters can be rotated, allowing each of the filters to be sequentially placed into each of the three fields. The airglow emission of interest is the 557.7 nm line which has an intensity maximum at 95 km. Each circular field of view is located at the apexes of an equilateral triangle centered on zenith with diameters of 5 km and field separations of 13 km when projected to the 95-km level. The sampling period was 30 seconds and typical data lengths were between 7 and 8 hours. The analysis and results from the interaction of gravity waves on the 557.7 nm emission layer are derived using an atmospheric model similar to that proposed by Hines (1960) where the atmosphere is assumed isothermal and perturbations caused by gravity waves are small and adiabatic, therefore, resulting in linearized equations of motion. In the absence of waves, the atmosphere is also considered stationary. Thirteen nights of quality data from January 1983 to October 1984, covering all seasons, are used in this analysis.

  7. Fact Sheet for KM200 Front-end Electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Ianakiev, Kiril Dimitrov; Iliev, Metodi; Swinhoe, Martyn Thomas

    2015-07-08

    The KM200 device is a versatile, configurable front-end electronics boards that can be used as a functional replacement for Canberra’s JAB-01 boards based on the Amptek A-111 hybrid chip, which continues to be the preferred choice of electronics for large number of the boards in junction boxes of multiplicity counters that process the signal from an array of 3He detectors. Unlike the A-111 chip’s fixed time constants and sensitivity range, the shaping time and sensitivity of the new KM200 can be optimized for demanding applications such as spent fuel, and thus could improve the safeguards measurements of existing systems where the A-111 or PDT electronics does not perform well.

  8. Remote (250 km) Fiber Bragg Grating Multiplexing System

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Vallejo, Montserrat; Rota-Rodrigo, Sergio; Lopez-Amo, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate two ultra-long range fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor interrogation systems. In the first approach four FBGs are located 200 km from the monitoring station and a signal to noise ratio of 20 dB is obtained. The second improved version is able to detect the four multiplexed FBGs placed 250 km away, offering a signal to noise ratio of 6–8 dB. Consequently, this last system represents the longest range FBG sensor system reported so far that includes fiber sensor multiplexing capability. Both simple systems are based on a wavelength swept laser to scan the reflection spectra of the FBGs, and they are composed by two identical-lengths optical paths: the first one intended to launch the amplified laser signal by means of Raman amplification and the other one is employed to guide the reflection signal to the reception system. PMID:22164101

  9. Remote (250 km) fiber Bragg grating multiplexing system.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Vallejo, Montserrat; Rota-Rodrigo, Sergio; Lopez-Amo, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate two ultra-long range fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor interrogation systems. In the first approach four FBGs are located 200 km from the monitoring station and a signal to noise ratio of 20 dB is obtained. The second improved version is able to detect the four multiplexed FBGs placed 250 km away, offering a signal to noise ratio of 6-8 dB. Consequently, this last system represents the longest range FBG sensor system reported so far that includes fiber sensor multiplexing capability. Both simple systems are based on a wavelength swept laser to scan the reflection spectra of the FBGs, and they are composed by two identical-lengths optical paths: the first one intended to launch the amplified laser signal by means of Raman amplification and the other one is employed to guide the reflection signal to the reception system. PMID:22164101

  10. Real Km-synthesis via generalized Popov multipliers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiang, R. Y.; Safonov, M. G.

    1992-01-01

    The authors refine their H-infinity control designs presented at the 1990 and 1991 American Control Conference by introducing a new real Km-synthesis technique involving the use of generalized Popov multipliers. This multiplier technique substantially reduces, and in some cases may even eliminate altogether, the conservativeness associated with traditional Km-synthesis solutions in which all uncertainties are treated as complex, even when they arise from real parameters such as the masses and spring constants in the benchmark problem. The design results demonstrate how this approach permits a very precise analysis of the intrinsic tradeoffs between robustness, performance, and control energy requirements. Also included is an open-loop H-infinity prefilter design that makes it possible to address the command response shaping issue. The design concept has been applied to the benchmark problem no. 4 and successfully removes the initial undesired transient and cuts down the percent overshoot.

  11. Kinematic characteristics of elite men's 50 km race walking.

    PubMed

    Hanley, Brian; Bissas, Athanassios; Drake, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Race walking is an endurance event which also requires great technical ability, particularly with respect to its two distinguishing rules. The 50 km race walk is the longest event in the athletics programme at the Olympic Games. The aims of this observational study were to identify the important kinematic variables in elite men's 50 km race walking, and to measure variation in those variables at different distances. Thirty men were analysed from video data recorded during a World Race Walking Cup competition. Video data were also recorded at four distances during the European Cup Race Walking and 12 men analysed from these data. Two camcorders (50 Hz) recorded at each race for 3D analysis. The results of this study showed that walking speed was associated with both step length (r=0.54,P=0.002) and cadence (r=0.58,P=0.001). While placing the foot further ahead of the body at heel strike was associated with greater step lengths (r=0.45,P=0.013), it was also negatively associated with cadence (r= -0.62,P<0.001). In the World Cup, knee angles ranged between 175 and 186° at initial contact and between 180 and 195° at midstance. During the European Cup, walking speed decreased significantly (F=9.35,P=0.002), mostly due to a decrease in step length between 38.5 and 48.5 km (t=8.59,P=0.014). From this study, it would appear that the key areas a 50 km race walker must develop and coordinate are step length and cadence, although it is also important to ensure legal walking technique is maintained with the onset of fatigue. PMID:23679143

  12. Towards a 1km resolution global flood risk model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Paul; Neal, Jeff; Sampson, Chris; Smith, Andy

    2014-05-01

    Recent advances in computationally efficient numerical algorithms and new High Performance Computing architectures now make high (1-2km) resolution global hydrodynamic models a realistic proposition. However in many areas of the world the data sets and tools necessary to undertake such modelling do not currently exist. In particular, five major problems need to be resolved: (1) the best globally available terrain data (SRTM) was generated from X-band interferometric radar data which does not penetrate vegetation canopies and which has significant problems in determining ground elevations in urban areas; (2) a global river bathymetry data set does not currently exist; (3) most river channels globally are less than the smallest currently resolvable grid scale (1km) and therefore require a sub-grid treatment; (4) a means to estimate the magnitude of the T year flood at any point along the global river network does not currently exist; and (5) a large proportion of flood losses are generated by off-floodplain surface water flows which are not well represented in current hydrodynamic modelling systems. In this paper we propose solutions to each of these five issues as part of a concerted effort to develop a 1km (or better) resolution global flood hazard model. We describe the new numerical algorithms, computer architectures and computational resources used, and demonstrate solutions to the five previously intractable problems identified above. We conduct a validation study of the modelling against satellite imagery of major flooding on the Mississippi-Missouri confluence plain in the central USA before outlining a proof-of-concept regional study for SE Asia as a step towards a global scale model. For SE Asia we simulate flood hazard for ten different flood return periods over the entire Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, Malaysia and Laos region at 1km resolution and show that the modelling produces coherent, consistent and sensible simulations of extent and water depth.

  13. Saqqar: A 34 km diameter impact structure in Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenkmann, Thomas; Afifi, Abdulkader M.; Stewart, Simon A.; Poelchau, Michael H.; Cook, Douglas J.; Neville, Allen S.

    2015-11-01

    Here we present the first proof of an impact origin for the Saqqar circular structure in northwestern Saudi Arabia (Neville et al. ), with an apparent diameter of 34 km, centered at 29°35'N, 38°42'E. The structure is formed in Cambrian-Devonian siliciclastics and is unconformably overlain by undeformed Cretaceous and Paleogene sediments. The age of impact is not well constrained and lies somewhere between 410 and 70 Ma. The subsurface structure is constrained by 2-D reflection seismic profiles and six drilled wells. First-order structural features are a central uplift that rises approximately 2 km above regional datums, surrounded by a ring syncline. The crater rim is defined by circumferential normal faults. The central uplift and ring syncline correspond to a Bouguer gravity high and an annular ring-like low, respectively. The wells were drilled within the central uplift, the deepest among them exceed 2 km depth. Sandstone core samples from these wells show abundant indicators of a shock metamorphic overprint. Planar deformation features (PDFs) were measured with orientations along (0001), {101¯3}, and less frequently along {101¯1} and {101¯4}. Planar fractures (PFs) predominantly occur along (0001) and {101¯1}, and are locally associated with feather features (FFs). In addition, some shocked feldspar grains and strongly deformed mica flakes were found. The recorded shock pressure ranges between 5 and 15 GPa. The preserved level of shock and the absence of an allochthonous crater fill suggest that Saqqar was eroded by 1-2 km between the Devonian and Maastrichtian. The documentation of unequivocal shock features proves the formation of the Saqqar structure by a hypervelocity impact event.

  14. Organizations, Paradigms, and People: The Challenge of KM Interventions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Teresa; Burton, Yvette

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on Knowledge Management (KM) and how these interventions are put into practice by organizations and society. The topics include: 1) The Multiple Paradigm Tool; 2) Four Paradigms: tool for the Analyzing Organizations; 3) Assumptions About the Nature of Social Science; 4) Assumptions About the Nature of Society; 5) Schools of Sociological and Organizational Theory; 6) Meaning and Metaphors in the Four Paradigms; and 7) Possibilities and Conclusions.

  15. The lectin KM+ induces corneal epithelial wound healing in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Chahud, Fernando; Ramalho, Leandra N Z; Ramalho, Fernando S; Haddad, Antonio; Roque-Barreira, Maria C

    2009-04-01

    Neutrophil influx is essential for corneal regeneration (Gan et al. 1999). KM+, a lectin from Artocarpus integrifolia, induces neutrophil migration (Santos-de-Oliveira et al. 1994). This study aims at investigating a possible effect of KM+ on corneal regeneration in rabbits. A 6.0-mm diameter area of debridement was created on the cornea of both eyes by mechanical scraping. The experimental eyes received drops of KM+ (2.5 microg/ml) every 2 h. The control eyes received buffer. The epithelial wounded areas of the lectin-treated and untreated eyes were stained with fluorescein, photographed and measured. The animals were killed 12 h (group 1, n = 5), 24 h (group 2, n = 10) and 48 h (group 3, n = 5) after the scraping. The corneas were analysed histologically (haematoxylin and eosin and immunostaining for proliferation cell nuclear antigen, p63, vascular endothelial growth factor, c-Met and laminin). No significant differences were found at the epithelial gap between treated and control eyes in the group 1. However, the number of neutrophils in the wounded area was significantly higher in treated eyes in this group. Three control and seven treated eyes were healed completely and only rare neutrophils persisted in the corneal stroma in group 2. No morphological distinction was observed between treated and control eyes in group 3. In treated corneas of group 2, there was an increase in immunostaining of factors involved in corneal healing compared to controls. Thus, topical application of KM+ may facilitate corneal epithelial wound healing in rabbits by means of a mechanism that involves increased influx of neutrophils into the wounded area induced by the lectin.

  16. Depressed mantle discontinuities beneath Iceland: Evidence of a garnet controlled 660 km discontinuity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, J.; Cottaar, S.; White, R. S.; Deuss, A.

    2016-01-01

    The presence of a mantle plume beneath Iceland has long been hypothesised to explain its high volumes of crustal volcanism. Practical constraints in seismic tomography mean that thin, slow velocity anomalies representative of a mantle plume signature are difficult to image. However it is possible to infer the presence of temperature anomalies at depth from the effect they have on phase transitions in surrounding mantle material. Phase changes in the olivine component of mantle rocks are thought to be responsible for global mantle seismic discontinuities at 410 and 660 km depth, though exact depths are dependent on surrounding temperature conditions. This study uses P to S seismic wave conversions at mantle discontinuities to investigate variation in topography allowing inference of temperature anomalies within the transition zone. We employ a large data set from a wide range of seismic stations across the North Atlantic region and a dense network in Iceland, including over 100 stations run by the University of Cambridge. Data are used to create over 6000 receiver functions. These are converted from time to depth including 3D corrections for variations in crustal thickness and upper mantle velocity heterogeneities, and then stacked based on common conversion points. We find that both the 410 and 660 km discontinuities are depressed under Iceland compared to normal depths in the surrounding region. The depression of 30 km observed on the 410 km discontinuity could be artificially deepened by un-modelled slow anomalies in the correcting velocity model. Adding a slow velocity conduit of -1.44% reduces the depression to 18 km; in this scenario both the velocity reduction and discontinuity topography reflect a temperature anomaly of 210 K. We find that much larger velocity reductions would be required to remove all depression on the 660 km discontinuity, and therefore correlated discontinuity depressions appear to be a robust feature of the data. While it is not possible

  17. Acceleration of barium ions near 8000 km above an aurora

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Hallinan, T. J.; Wescott, E. M.; Foeppl, H.

    1984-01-01

    A barium shaped charge, named Limerick, was released from a rocket launched from Poker Flat Research Range, Alaska, on March 30, 1982, at 1033 UT. The release took place in a small auroral breakup. The jet of ionized barium reached an altitude of 8100 km 14.5 min after release, indicating that there were no parallel electric fields below this altitude. At 8100 km the jet appeared to stop. Analysis shows that the barium at this altitude was effectively removed from the tip. It is concluded that the barium was actually accelerated upward, resulting in a large decrease in the line-of-sight density and hence the optical intensity. The parallel electric potential in the acceleration region must have been greater than 1 kV over an altitude interval of less than 200 km. The acceleration region, although presumably auroral in origin, did not seem to be related to individual auroral structures, but appeared to be a large-scale horizontal structure. The perpendicular electric field below, as deduced from the drift of the barium, was temporally and spatially very uniform and showed no variation related to individual auroral structures passing through.

  18. How important is spatial resolution: Case studies at 48, 12 and 4 km for the U.S., Latin America and Southern Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Oglesby, Robert J; Erickson III, David J

    2009-12-01

    A critical role for regional climate models is downscaling coarse spatial resolution global model simulations of climate change to the much higher resolution required for assessment of regional changes and impacts. But what degree of downscaling is required? Fully coupled global climate models typically have resolutions of at best 100-200 km. The most recent set of IPCC reports suggest that the scale of regional/local impacts to climate change are on the order of 10 km. The scale mismatch is obvious, but less clear is what degree the climate simulations must be downscaled to meet the needs of impacts studies - other non-climate factors might also be crucial or even dominant. We have made a series of simulations with the WRF ARW for the U.S., large portions of Latin America, and South and Southeast Asia. Each set of runs includes a large outer domain at 48 km; an intermediate domain at 12 km (that is the primary basis for model results and interpretations); and one or more 'exploratory' inner domains at 4 km. The latter include regions with complex topography as well as both homogeneous and inhomogeneous land surface types. For each region a multi-year control forced by NCEP reanalyses has been made. Experiments for Asia are focusing on the effects of deforestation, while those for the U.S. and Latin America are focusing on IPCC climate change scenarios (A1FI for the U.S. and A2 for Latin America). Large-scale forcings for the latter two are provided by NCAR CCSM IPCC AR4 simulations. Preliminary results suggest that the higher resolutions have much more structure in standard climate quantities such as temperature or precipitation. Less obvious, however, is how realistic these structures are. In some cases, they clearly follow the better resolution of topography; in other instances the reason is less certain. Furthermore, observational datasets are frequently inadequate in assessing realism, especially for the non-U.S. domains. Finally, this work raises the issue of

  19. Demonstration of Femtosecond-Phase Stabilization in 2 km OpticalFiber

    SciTech Connect

    Staples, J.W.; Wilcox, R.; Byrd, J.M.

    2007-06-01

    Long-term phase drifts of less than a femtosecond per hour have been demonstrated in a 2 km length of single-mode optical fiber, stabilized interferometrically at 1530 nm. Recent improvements include a wide-band phase detector that reduces the possibility of fringe jumping due to fast external perturbations of the fiber and locking of the master CW laser wavelength to an atomic absorption line. Mode-locked lasers may be synchronized using two wavelengths of the comb, multiplexed over one fiber, each wavelength individually interferometrically stabilized.

  20. Comparison of broadband mode arrivals at ranges of 3515 km and 5171 km in the North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wage, Kathleen E.

    2003-04-01

    The Acoustic Thermometry of Ocean Climate (ATOC) provided an opportunity to observe signals propagating in the low-order modes of the ocean waveguide. Understanding the fluctuations of these mode signals is an important prerequisite to using them for tomography or other applications. In previous work, we characterized the cross-mode coherence and temporal variability of the low-order mode arrivals at 3515 km range [Wage et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. (in press)]. This study compares the mode arrivals for two different ranges : 3515 km and 5171 km, using data from the ATOC vertical line arrays at Hawaii and Kiritimati. We discuss the mode intensity and coherence statistics for each of the arrays and examine mean arrival time trends over the year-long deployment. Experimental results are compared to PE simulations of propagation through a realistic background environment perturbed by internal waves of varying strengths. The dependence of mode statistics on the path-dependent changes in the background sound speed and the parameters of the internal wave field is explored. [Work supported by an ONR Ocean Acoustics Young Faculty Award.] a)A. B. Baggeroer, T. G. Birdsall, C. Clark, J. A. Colosi, B. D. Cornuelle, D. Costa, B. D. Dushaw, M. A. Dzieciuch, A. M. G. Forbes, B. M. Howe, D. Menemenlis, J. A. Mercer, K. Metzger, W. H. Munk, R. C. Spindel, P. F. Worcester, and C. Wunsch.

  1. Efficient production and secretion of pyruvate from Halomonas sp. KM-1 under aerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Kawata, Yoshikazu; Nishimura, Taku; Matsushita, Isao; Tsubota, Jun

    2016-03-01

    The alkaliphilic, halophilic bacterium Halomonas sp. KM-1 can utilize both hexose and pentose sugars for the intracellular storage of bioplastic poly-(R)-3-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) under aerobic conditions. In this study, we investigated the effects of the sodium nitrate concentration on PHB accumulation in the KM-1 strain. Unexpectedly, we observed the secretion of pyruvate, a central intermediate in carbon- and energy-metabolism processes in all organisms; therefore, pyruvate is widely used as a starting material in the industrial biosynthesis of pharmaceuticals and is employed for the production of crop-protection agents, polymers, cosmetics, and food additives. We then further analyzed pyruvate productivity following changes in culture temperature and the buffer concentration. In 48-h batch-cultivation experiments, we found that wild-type Halomonas sp. KM-1 secreted 63.3 g/L pyruvate at a rate of 1.32 g/(L·h), comparable to the results of former studies using mutant and recombinant microorganisms. Thus, these data provided important insights into the production of pyruvate using this novel strain.

  2. Efficient production and secretion of pyruvate from Halomonas sp. KM-1 under aerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Kawata, Yoshikazu; Nishimura, Taku; Matsushita, Isao; Tsubota, Jun

    2016-03-01

    The alkaliphilic, halophilic bacterium Halomonas sp. KM-1 can utilize both hexose and pentose sugars for the intracellular storage of bioplastic poly-(R)-3-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) under aerobic conditions. In this study, we investigated the effects of the sodium nitrate concentration on PHB accumulation in the KM-1 strain. Unexpectedly, we observed the secretion of pyruvate, a central intermediate in carbon- and energy-metabolism processes in all organisms; therefore, pyruvate is widely used as a starting material in the industrial biosynthesis of pharmaceuticals and is employed for the production of crop-protection agents, polymers, cosmetics, and food additives. We then further analyzed pyruvate productivity following changes in culture temperature and the buffer concentration. In 48-h batch-cultivation experiments, we found that wild-type Halomonas sp. KM-1 secreted 63.3 g/L pyruvate at a rate of 1.32 g/(L·h), comparable to the results of former studies using mutant and recombinant microorganisms. Thus, these data provided important insights into the production of pyruvate using this novel strain. PMID:26989057

  3. Will women outrun men in ultra-marathon road races from 50 km to 1,000 km?

    PubMed

    Zingg, Matthias Alexander; Karner-Rezek, Klaus; Rosemann, Thomas; Knechtle, Beat; Lepers, Romuald; Rüst, Christoph Alexander

    2014-01-01

    It has been assumed that women would be able to outrun men in ultra-marathon running. The present study investigated the sex differences in running speed in ultra-marathons held worldwide from 50 km to 1,000 km. Changes in running speeds and the sex differences in running speeds in the annual fastest finishers in 50 km, 100 km, 200 km and 1,000 km events held worldwide from 1969-2012 were analysed using linear, non-linear and multi-level regression analyses. For the annual fastest and the annual ten fastest finishers, running speeds increased non-linearly in 50 km and 100 km, but not in 200 km and 1,000 km where running speeds remained unchanged for the annual fastest. The sex differences decreased non-linearly in 50 km and 100 km, but not in 200 and 1,000 km where the sex difference remained unchanged for the annual fastest. For the fastest women and men ever, the sex difference in running speed was lowest in 100 km (5.0%) and highest in 50 km (15.4%). For the ten fastest women and men ever, the sex difference was lowest in 100 km (10.0 ± 3.0%) and highest in 200 km (27.3 ± 5.7%). For both the fastest (r(2) = 0.003, p = 0.82) and the ten fastest finishers ever (r(2) = 0.34, p = 0.41) in 50 km, 100 km, 200 km and 1,000 km, we found no correlation between sex difference in performance and running speed. To summarize, the sex differences in running speeds decreased non-linearly in 50 km and 100 km but remained unchanged in 200 km and 1,000 km, and the sex differences in running speeds showed no change with increasing length of the race distance. These findings suggest that it is very unlikely that women will ever outrun men in ultra-marathons held from 50 km to 100 km.

  4. fine structure of 410km discontinuity beneath the Southern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, K.; Wan, X.; Ni, S.

    2005-12-01

    In the distance range of 10-14 degrees, P waves from the topside reflection off the 410km discontinuity are very sensitive to the fine structure of the discontinuity. We analyzed 49 broadband seismograms from an earthquake ( May 18, 1998) in Italy (Mw 5.8) , recorded by Orfeus and SZGRF networks. Distances between the source and the stations were from 9° to 19°, and provided a detailed look at the 410km structure. On the other hand, the azimuth of these records were in a narrow range from 334° and 356°, so the differences in azimuth may have little effects on the waveforms. From our observation, P410 phase has little change in amplitude when the distance decreases from 15° to about 11.5°. However, an abrupt termination was observed from distance 11° to 10.5°. These features cannot be explained with PREM model. We calculated several groups of models with F-K method and compared their synthetic seismograms with the observed one. These models are: 1) two-step sharp jump models, with different thickness; 2) linear models; 3) linear-sharp jump models[Tim Melbourne, Don Helmberger, Journal of Geophysical Research, 1998]; 4) models calculated from a mineralogical model[Gaherty, Wang, Geophysical research letters, 1999]; Features in the observed waveform can be well modeled with model 3 and 4 while only parts of them fitted to model 1 or 2. But when we calculated with a less detailed model, seismograms of model 4 should have more noise than model 3. In conclusion, the structure of 410km discontinuity can be considered as a linear-sharp velocity jump, which is consistent with mineralogical models.

  5. Mapping the global land surface using 1 km AVHRR data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lauer, D.T.; Eidenshink, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    The scientific requirements for mapping the global land surface using 1 km advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) data have been set forth by the U.S. Global Change Research Program; the International Geosphere Biosphere Programme (IGBP); The United Nations; the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA); the Committee on Earth Observations Satellites; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) mission to planet Earth (MTPE) program. Mapping the global land surface using 1 km AVHRR data is an international effort to acquire, archive, process, and distribute 1 km AVHRR data to meet the needs of the international science community. A network of AVHRR receiving stations, along with data recorded by NOAA, has been acquiring daily global land coverage since April 1, 1992. A data set of over 70,000 AVHRR images is archived and distributed by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) EROS Data Center, and the European Space Agency. Under the guidance of the IGBP, processing standards have been developed for calibration, atmospheric correction, geometric registration, and the production of global 10-day maximum normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) composites. The major uses of the composites are for the study of surface vegetation condition, mapping land cover, and deriving biophysical characteristics of terrestrial ecosystems. A time-series of 54 10-day global vegetation index composites for the period of April 1, 1992 through September 1993 has been produced. The production of a time-series of 33 10-day global vegetation index composites using NOAA-14 data for the period of February 1, 1995 through December 31, 1995 is underway. The data products are available from the USGS, in cooperation with NASA's MTPE program and other international organizations.

  6. 157km BOTDA with pulse coding and image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Xianyang; Wang, Zinan; Wang, Song; Xue, Naitian; Sun, Wei; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Bin; Rao, Yunjiang

    2016-05-01

    A repeater-less Brillouin optical time-domain analyzer (BOTDA) with 157.68km sensing range is demonstrated, using the combination of random fiber laser Raman pumping and low-noise laser-diode-Raman pumping. With optical pulse coding (OPC) and Non Local Means (NLM) image processing, temperature sensing with +/-0.70°C uncertainty and 8m spatial resolution is experimentally demonstrated. The image processing approach has been proved to be compatible with OPC, and it further increases the figure-of-merit (FoM) of the system by 57%.

  7. The relational database system of KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, Arnauld; Bozza, Cristiano

    2016-04-01

    The KM3NeT Collaboration is building a new generation of neutrino telescopes in the Mediterranean Sea. For these telescopes, a relational database is designed and implemented for several purposes, such as the centralised management of accounts, the storage of all documentation about components and the status of the detector and information about slow control and calibration data. It also contains information useful during the construction and the data acquisition phases. Highlights in the database schema, storage and management are discussed along with design choices that have impact on performances. In most cases, the database is not accessed directly by applications, but via a custom designed Web application server.

  8. An evaluation of the global 1-km AVHRR land dataset

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Teillet, P.M.; El Saleous, N.; Hansen, M.C.; Eidenshink, Jeffery C.; Justice, C.O.; Townshend, J.R.G.

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarizes the steps taken in the generation of the global 1-km AVHRR land dataset, and it documents an evaluation of the data product with respect to the original specifications and its usefulness in research and applications to date. The evaluation addresses data characterization, processing, compositing and handling issues. Examples of the main scientific outputs are presented and options for improved processing are outlined and prioritized. The dataset has made a significant contribution, and a strong recommendation is made for its reprocessing and continuation to produce a long-term record for global change research.

  9. Quarterly environmental radiological survey summary. Fourth quarter, 1995 100, 200, 300, and 600 Areas

    SciTech Connect

    McKinney, S.M.; Markes, B.M.

    1996-01-01

    This report provides a summary of the radiological surveys performed in support of the operational environmental monitoring program at the Hanford Site. The Fourth Quarter 1995 survey results and the status of actions required from current and past reports are described.

  10. Quarterly Environmental Radiological Survey Summary Third Quarter 1998, 100, 200, 300, and 600 Areas

    SciTech Connect

    MCKINNEY, S.M.

    1998-10-27

    This report provides a summary of the radiological surveys performed in support of near-facility environmental monitoring at the Hanford Site. The Third Quarter 1998 survey results and the status of actions required are summarized: (1) All of the eighty-five environmental radiological surveys scheduled during July, August and September were performed as planned. Fifty-one of the surveys were conducted at Project Hanford Management Contractors (PHMC) sites and thirty-four at Environmental Restoration Contractor (ERC) sites. Contamination above background levels was found at seventeen of the PHMC waste sites and two of the ERC waste sites. Contamination levels as high >1,000,000 disintegrations per minute (dpm) per 100 cm{sup 2} were reported. Of these contaminated surveys nine were in Underground Radioactive Material (URM) areas, three were in unposted areas and seven were in contamination areas. The contamination found within four of the URM and three of the CA areas was immediately cleaned up and no further action was required. The remaining five URM and two unposted sites were posted and along with the five CA sites will require remediation. Radiological Problem Reports (RPR's) were issued and the sites were turned over to the landlord for further action as required. (2) During the second quarter of 1998, 1.2 hectares (3.0 acres) were stabilized and radiologically down posted from Contamination Area (CA)/Soil Contamination (SC) to URM. (3) Four hectares (10 acres) located south and west of B-Plant were posted as a radiological buffer area as a result of a contamination spread. This off-normal occurrence is currently being investigated. (4) Four Surveillance Compliance Inspection Reports (SCIRs) remained open and had not been resolved. Tank Farms Operations has responsibility for the unresolved SCIRs.

  11. Quarterly environmental radiological survey summary - second quarter 1997 100, 200, 300, and 600 areas

    SciTech Connect

    McKinney, S.M.; Marks, B.M.

    1997-07-22

    This report provides a summary of the radiological surveys performed in support of near-facility environmental monitoring at the Hanford Site. The Second Quarter 1997 survey results and the status of actions required are summarized below: All of the routine environmental radiological surveys scheduled during April, May, and June 1997, were performed as planned with the exception of UN-216-E-9. This site was not surveyed as stabilization activities were in progress. The sites scheduled for the Environmental Restorations Contractor (ERC) team were switched with those identified for the third quarter as there was a conflict with vegetation management activities.

  12. Quarterly environmental radiological survey summary. Third quarter 1995 100, 200, 300, and 600 Areas

    SciTech Connect

    McKinney, S.M.; Markes, B.M.

    1995-09-01

    Routine radiological surveys are part of the near-facility environmental monitoring program which monitors and helps direct the reduction of the radiologically controlled areas at the Hanford Site. The routine radiological surveys are performed by the Southern Area Remediation Support Group and the Site Surveillance Radiological Control Group as directed by Near-Field Monitoring. The surveys included in this program consist of inactive waste sites; outdoor radiological control areas; tank farm perimeters and associated diversion boxes, lift stations, and vent stations; perimeters of active or uncovered waste sites such as burial grounds, retention basins, ponds, process trenches, and ditches; and road and rail surfaces. This report provides a summary of the radiological surveys performed during the Third Quarter of 1995. The status of corrective actions required from current and past reports are also discussed.

  13. Quarterly environmental radiological survey summary, first quarter 1998: 100, 200, 300, and 600 areas

    SciTech Connect

    McKinney, S.M.

    1998-04-27

    Routine radiological surveys are part of near-facility environmental monitoring, which monitors and helps direct the reduction of the radiological areas at the Hanford Site. The routine radiological surveys are performed by the Southern Area Remediation Support Group and the Site Support Services Radiological Control Group as directed by Environmental Monitoring and Investigations. The surveys performed have included inactive waste sites; outdoor radiological control areas; tank farm perimeters and associated diversion boxes, lift stations, and vent stations; perimeters of active or uncovered waste sites such as burial grounds, retention basins, ponds, process trenches, and ditches; underground pipelines; and road and rail surfaces. This report provides a summary of the radiological surveys performed in support of near-facility environmental monitoring at the Hanford Site during the first quarter 1998. The survey results and the status of actions required are also discussed. A waste site survey schedule, Routine Environmental Monitoring Schedule, Calendar year 1998, HNF-SP-0098-9, was developed by Environmental Monitoring and Investigations working with the Southern Area Remediation Support Group and the Site Support Services Radiological Control Group. Environmental Monitoring and Investigations reviews the radiological survey reports and files a copy for historical purposes and reference. Radiological conditions are tracked and trends noted. All sites are surveyed at least once each year. The survey frequencies for particular sites are based on site history, 1,551 radiological conditions, and general maintenance. Special surveys may be conducted at irregular frequencies if conditions warrant (e.g., growth of deep-rooted vegetation is noted at a waste site). Radiological surveys are conducted to detect surface contamination and document changes in vegetation growth, biological intrusion, erosion, and general site maintenance conditions. Survey data are compared with standards identified in HSRCM-1, Hanford Site Radiological Control Manual, as well as previous surveys to recognize possible trends, assess environmental impacts, and help determine where corrective actions are needed. Landlords of the sites found out of compliance with HSRCN-1 may be issued a Radiological Problem Report (RPR) from the appropriate radiological Control Group. Open Surveillance Compliance Inspection Reports (SCIRS) are listed. Surveillance of the active nuclear facilities and inside the tank farms is the responsibility of the facility. These radiological surveys are to determine surface radiological conditions and do not constitute a release survey. Therefore, surveys that detect no contamination in radiological areas do not release the site from control but may result in a posting status change.

  14. Quarterly environmental radiological survey summary second quarter 1996 100, 200, 300 and 600 areas

    SciTech Connect

    Dorian, J.J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-26

    This report provides a summary of the radiological surveys performed in support of the operational environmental monitoring program at the Hanford Site. The Second Quarter 1996 survey results and the status of actions required from current and past reports are summarized below: All the routine environmental radiological surveys scheduled during April, May, and June 1996 were completed. One Hundred twenty- five environmental radiological surveys were performed during the second quarter of 1996, twenty nine at the active waste sites and ninety six at the inactive waste sites. Contamination above background levels Wag found at three of the active waste sites and fifteen of the inactive waste sites. Contamination levels as high as 65,000 disintegrations per minute (dpm) were reported. Of these contaminated surveys seven were in Underground Radioactive Material (URM) areas and one was in an unposted area. The contamination found within three of the URM areas was immediately cleaned up and no further action was required. In the remaining four sites the areas were posted and will require decontamination. At the site where there was no posting, the contamination was below action levels, however, Site Support Services was notified. Radiological Problem Reports (RPR`s) were issued and the sites were turned over to the landlord for further action if required. During the second quarter 1996, 0. 7 hectares (1.7 acres) were stabilized and radiologically down posted from Surface Contamination (SC) to URM. No Compliance Assessment Reports (CARS) were issued for sites found out of compliance with standards identified in WHC-CM-7-5, Environmental Compliance. No Surveillance Compliance/Inspection Reports (SCIR) were closed during the Second Quarter of 1996. Five open SCIRB had not been resolved.

  15. Quarterly environmental radiological survey summary first quarter 1996 100, 200, 300, and 600 areas

    SciTech Connect

    Dorian, J.J.

    1996-04-19

    This report provides a summary of the radiological surveys performed in support of the operational environmental monitoring program at the Hanford Site. The First Quarter 1996 survey results and the status of actions required from current and past reports are summarized: All the routine environmental radiological surveys scheduled during January, February, and March 1996 were completed. One hundred four environmental radiological surveys were performed during the first quarter of 1996, thirty at the active waste sites and seventy four at the inactive waste sites. Contamination above background levels was found at six of the active waste sites and eight of the inactive waste sites. Contamination levels as high as > 1,000,000 disintegrations per minute (dpm) were reported. Of these contaminated surveys, all were in Underground Radioactive Material (URM) areas. The contamination found within eleven of the URH areas was immediately cleaned up and no further action was required. In the remaining three sites the areas were posted and will require decontamination. Radiological Problem Reports (RPR`s) were issued and the sites were turned over to the landlord for further action if required.

  16. Analysis of sex differences in open-water ultra-distance swimming performances in the FINA World Cup races in 5 km, 10 km and 25 km from 2000 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The present study investigated the changes in swimming speeds and sex differences for elite male and female swimmers competing in 5 km, 10 km and 25 km open-water FINA World Cup races held between 2000 and 2012. Methods The changes in swimming speeds and sex differences across years were analysed using linear, non-linear, and multi-level regression analyses for the annual fastest and the annual ten fastest competitors. Results For the annual fastest, swimming speed remained stable for men and women in 5 km (5.50 ± 0.21 and 5.08 ± 0.19 km/h, respectively), in 10 km (5.38 ± 0.21 and 5.05 ± 0.26 km/h, respectively) and in 25 km (5.03 ± 0.32 and 4.58 ± 0.27 km/h, respectively). In the annual ten fastest, swimming speed remained constant in 5 km in women (5.02 ± 0.19 km/h) but decreased significantly and linearly in men from 5.42 ± 0.03 km/h to 5.39 ± 0.02 km/h. In 10 km, swimming speed increased significantly and linearly in women from 4.75 ± 0.01 km/h to 5.74 ± 0.01 km/h but remained stable in men at 5.36 ± 0.21 km/h. In 25 km, swimming speed decreased significantly and linearly in women from 4.60 ± 0.06 km/h to 4.44 ± 0.08 km/h but remained unchanged at 4.93 ± 0.34 km/h in men. For the annual fastest, the sex difference in swimming speed remained unchanged in 5 km (7.6 ± 3.0%), 10 km (6.1 ± 2.5%) and 25 km (9.0 ± 3.7%). For the annual ten fastest, the sex difference remained stable in 5 km at 7.6 ± 0.6%, decreased significantly and linearly in 10 km from 7.7 ± 0.7% to 1.2 ± 0.3% and increased significantly and linearly from 4.7 ± 1.4% to 9.6 ± 1.5% in 25 km. Conclusions To summarize, elite female open-water ultra-distance swimmers improved in 10 km but impaired in 25 km leading to a linear decrease in sex difference in 10 km and a linear increase in sex difference in 25 km. The linear changes in sex differences

  17. Quantum crytography over 14km of installed optical fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, R.J.; Luther, G.G.; Morgan, G.L.; Simmons, C.

    1995-09-01

    We have made the first demonstration that low error rate quantum cryptography over long distances (14km) of installed optical fiber in a real-world environment, subject to uncontrolled temperature and mechanical influences, representing an important new step towards incorporation of quantum cryptography into existing information security systems. We also point out that the high visibility single-photon interference in our experiment allows us to infer a test of the superposition principle of quantum mechanics: a photon reaching the detector has traveled over 14km of optical fiber in a wavepacket comprising a coherent superposition of two components that are spatially separated by about 2m. In principle, there are decoherence processes (or even possible modifications of quantum mechanics) that could cause the photon`s wavefunction to collapse into one component or the other during propagation, leading to a reduction in visibility. However, our results are consistent with no such loss of quantum coherence during the 67-{mu}s propagation time.

  18. Infrared emission from the atmosphere above 200 km

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, J. P.

    1976-01-01

    The infrared radiation over the range from 4 to 1000 microns from atoms and molecules in the earth's atmosphere, between 200 and 400 km, was calculated. Only zenith lines of sight were considered. The excitation of the atoms and molecules is due to collisions with other molecules and to absorption of radiation from the earth and sun. In some cases, the abundances of the molecules had to be estimated. The most important lines are the forbidden lines from atomic oxygen at 63.1 and 147 micron, and the vibration-rotation band of nitric oxide at 5.3 micron. These lines can have intensities as high as a few times 0.001 ergs/sq cm/sec/steradian at 200 km altitude. In addition, the vibration-rotation bands of NO(+) at 4.3 micron and CO at 4.7 micron and the pure rotation lines of NO and NO(+) could be detected by infrared telescopes in space.

  19. KM3NeT/ORCA status and plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samtleben, Dorothea F. E.

    2016-04-01

    Neutrinos created in interactions of cosmic rays with the atmosphere can serve as a powerful tool to unveil the neutrino mass hierarchy (NMH). At low energies, around a few GeV, matter effects from the transition through the Earth are expected to imprint a distinct but also subtle signature on the oscillation pattern, specific to the ordering of the neutrino masses. KM3NeT/ORCA (Oscillations Research with Cosmics in the Abyss), a densely instrumented building block of the upcoming KM3NeT neutrino telescope, will be designated to measuring this signature in the Mediterranean Sea. Using detailed simulations the sensitivity towards this signature has been evaluated. The multi-PMT detectors allow in the water for an accurate reconstruction of GeV neutrino event signatures and distinction of neutrino flavours. For the determination of the mass hierarchy a median significance of 2-6σ has been estimated for three years of data taking, depending on the actual hierarchy and the oscillation parameters. At the same time the values of several oscillation parameters like θ23 will be determined to unprecedented precision.

  20. Castro ring zone: a 4,500-km2 fossil hydrothermal system in the Challis volcanic field, central Idaho.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Criss, R.E.; Ekren, E.B.; Hardyman, R.F.

    1984-01-01

    The largest fossil hydrothermal system occupying a 4500 km2 area in central Idaho is revealed by delta 18O studies. The remains of this meteoric-hydrothermal system are preserved within a sharply bounded, 15 km wide, 70-km-diameter annulus of low delta 18O rock (+2.0 to -8.8per mille) termed the Castro ring zone. The zone is centred on a less depleted (+4.5) core zone consisting of granitic rocks of the Castro pluton. This 700-km2 Eocene subvolcanic batholith has intruded, domed, and hydrothermally metamorphosed a thick sequence of Challis Volcanics, the stratigraphically low rocks in the 2000-km2 Van Horn Peak and the 1000-km2 Thunder Mountain cauldron complexes being most strongly altered. Less extreme 18O depletions occur in the youngest major ash-flow sheets of these complexes, indicating a vertical 18O gradient. Water/rock ratios of geothermal systems are surprisingly insensitive to the circulation scale.-L.-di H.

  1. Hybrid fine scale climatology and microphysics of in-cloud icing: From 32 km reanalysis to 5 km mesoscale modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamraoui, Fayçal; Benoit, Robert; Perron, Jean; Fortin, Guy; Masson, Christian

    2015-03-01

    In-cloud icing can impose safety concerns and economic challenges for various industries. Icing climate representations proved beneficial for optimal designs and careful planning. The current study investigates in-cloud icing, its related cloud microphysics and introduces a 15-year time period climatology of icing events. The model was initially driven by reanalysis data from North American Regional Reanalysis and downscaled through a two-level nesting of 10 km and 5 km, using a limited-area version of the Global Environment Multiscale Model of the Canadian Meteorological Center. In addition, a hybrid approach is used to reduce time consuming calculations. The simulation realized exclusively on significant icing days, was combined with non-significant icing days as represented by data from NARR. A proof of concept is presented here for a 1000 km area around Gaspé during January for those 15 years. An increase in the number and intensity of icing events has been identified during the last 15 years. From GEM-LAM simulations and within the atmospheric layer between 10 m and 200 m AGL, supercooled liquid water contents indicated a maximum of 0.4 g m- 3, and 50% of the values are less than 0.05 g m- 3. All values of median volume diameters (MVD) are approximately capped by 70 μm and the typical values are around 15 μm. Supercooled Large Droplets represent approximately 5%. The vertical profile of icing climatology demonstrates a steady duration of icing events until the level of 60 m. The altitudes of 60 m and 100 m indicate substantial icing intensification toward higher elevations. GEM-LAM demonstrated a substantial improvement in the calculation of in-cloud icing, reducing significantly the challenge posed by complex terrains.

  2. Measurements of laser phase fluctuations induced by atmospheric turbulence over 2 km and 17.5 km distances.

    PubMed

    Ridley, Kevin D

    2011-09-10

    A laser heterodyne system was used to measure the phase fluctuations imposed on a 1.5 μm wavelength laser beam when double-passed over long atmospheric paths. Two distances were used: 2 and 17.5 km. Results are given for intensity scintillation, phase fluctuation time series and spectra, and phase structure function. The results are found to agree well with theory: the spectrum of phase fluctuations follows the 8/3 power law predicted for Kolmogorov turbulence over 3 orders of magnitude in frequency. The methods reported here could be used to investigate large-scale temperature variations in the atmosphere. PMID:21946989

  3. The ion population between 1300 km and 230000 km in the coma of comet P/Halley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altwegg, K.; Balsiger, H.; Geiss, J.; Goldstein, R.; Ip, W. -H.; Meier, A.; Neugebauer, M.; Rosenbauer, H.; Shelley, E.

    1993-01-01

    During the encounter of the spacecraft Giotto with Comet Halley the two sensors of the ion mass spectrometer (IMS), high energy range spectrometer (HERS) and high intensity spectrometer (HIS), measured the mass and the three-dimensional velocity distributions of cometary ions. HIS looked mainly at the cold, slow part of the distribution close to the nucleus, HERS at the more energetic pick-up ions further out. After a thorough recalibration of the HIS flight spare unit and an extensive data analysis we present here continuous ion density-, composition-, velocity-, and temperature profiles for the water group ion (mass range 16-19 amu/e) along Giotto's inbound trajectory from 230,000 to 1300 km from the comet nucleus. The two sensors are in very good agreement in the region where their measurements overlap thus giving an excellent data base for the discussion of theoretical comet models. The most prominent feature where models and observations disagree is the so called pile up region between 8000 and 15,000 km from the nucleus.

  4. Wintertime density perturbations near 50 km in relation to latitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quiroz, R. S.

    1977-01-01

    Standard and reference atmospheres which depict the horizontal distribution of air density in the stratosphere and mesosphere are not realistic in that they do not provide information on the large departures from standard that may occur during a given month, nor on the time- and space-scales of atmospheric perturbations responsible for these departures. In the present paper, it is shown how this information can be obtained from a special analysis of satellite radiance measurements. Plots of the mean zonal radiance, obtained with the VTPR instrument, and the corresponding 50-km density show not only the expected strong poleward gradient of density, but also a strong density surge from late December to early January, affecting all latitudes.

  5. Transport System for Delivery Tourists At Altitude 140 km

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolonkin, Alexander

    2002-01-01

    The author offers a new method and installation for flight in space. This method uses the centrifugal force of a rotating circular cable that provides a means for the launch of a payload into outer space, to keep the fixed space stations at high altitudes (up to 200 km). The method may also be useful for landing to space bodies, for launching of the space ships (crafts), and for moving and accelerating other artificial apparatuses. The offered installation may be used as a propulsion system for space ships and/or probes. This system uses the material of any space body (i.e. stones) for acceleration and change of the space vehicle trajectory. The suggested system may be also used as a high capacity energy accumulator.

  6. Estimating worldwide solar radiation resources on a 40km grid

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, E.L.; George, R.L.; Brady, E.H.

    1996-11-01

    During 1995, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), initiated the Data Grid Task under the auspices of DOE`s Resource Assessment Program. A data grid is a framework of uniformly spaced locations (grid points) for which data are available. Estimates of monthly averages of direct normal, diffuse horizontal, and global horizontal daily-total solar radiation energy (kWh/m{sup 2}) are being made for each point on a grid covering the US, Mexico, the Caribbean, and southern Canada. The grid points are separated by approximately 40 km. Using interpolation methods, the digital data grid can be used to estimate solar resources at any location. The most encouraging result to date has been the location of sources providing worldwide data for most of the input parameters required for modeling daily total solar radiation. This is a multiyear task expected to continue through the rest of this century.

  7. Readout and data acquisition for KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belias, Anastasios; Manolopoulos, Konstantinos

    2013-05-01

    In the KM3NeT neutrino telescope design the readout concept is based on a point-to-point network connecting tenthousands of optical modules in the deep sea through a photonic network with the shore station. The time-over-threshold data from each Photo Multiplier Tube (PMT) of each optical module will be send to shore over fibres using dedicated wavelengths. Nanosecond timing accuracy will be schieved using a clock signal embedded in the data stream and measuring the roundtrip time from the shore to each optical module individually. The DAQ software architecture based on the Internet Communications Engine (ICE) will provide a common and uniform software framework for the control of each optical module and the data acquisition of the whole neutrino telescope.

  8. Changes in single skinfold thickness in 100 km ultramarathoners

    PubMed Central

    Knechtle, Beat; Baumgartner, Sabrina; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Bescós, Raúl

    2012-01-01

    Background Changes in single skinfold thickness and body fat have been investigated in ultraswimmers and ultracyclists, but not in ultrarunners. The present study investigated the changes in single skinfold thickness during a 100 km ultramarathon. Methods Firstly, we investigated associations between prerace preparation and prerace body composition and, secondly, changes in single skinfold thickness during a 100 km ultramarathon in 219 male ultramarathoners. Changes in fat mass and skeletal muscle were estimated using anthropometric methods. Results Kilometers run weekly prerace and running speed during training were negatively associated with all skinfold thicknesses (P < 0.05) except for the front thigh skinfold. During the race, skinfold thickness at the pectoral (−0.1%), suprailiac (−1.8%), and calf (−0.8%) sites decreased (P < 0.05). The subjects lost 1.9 ± 1.4 kg of body mass (P < 0.001), 0.7 ± 1.0 kg of estimated skeletal muscle mass (P < 0.001), and 0.2 ± 1.3 kg of estimated fat mass (P < 0.05). The decrease in body mass was positively related to the decrease in both estimated skeletal muscle mass (r = 0.21, P = 0.0017) and estimated fat mass (r = 0.41, P < 0.0001). Conclusion Firstly, prerace fat mass and prerace skinfold thickness were associated with both volume and speed in running training. Secondly, during the ultramarathon, skinfold thickness decreased at the pectoral, suprailiac, and calf sites, but not at the thigh site. Percent decreases in skinfold thickness for ultrarunners was lower than the percent decreases in skinfold thickness reported for ultraswimmers and ultracyclists. PMID:24198597

  9. Constraining density and velocity jumps across the 410 km discontinuity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saki, Morvarid; Thomas, Christine; Cobden, Laura; Abreu, Rafael

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the velocity and density structure of the olivine-to-wadsleyite transition using polarities of precursor arrivals to PP seismic waves that reflect off the 410 km discontinuity beneath the Northern Atlantic. Numerous source-receiver combinations have been used in order to collect a dataset of reflection points beneath our investigation area. We analyzed over 1700 seismograms from Mw > 5.8 using array seismology methods to enhance the signal to noise ratio. For each event the polarity of the PP phase is compared to polarity of the precursor signal and we find several events where the polarity of the precursors are opposite to that of PP. There does not seem to be any dependency of the observed polarities on the propagation direction of the seismic waves but interestingly there seems to be a dependency on the distance between source and receiver. The events with epicentral distances greater than 119 degrees mostly show opposite polarities, while for those with smaller epicentral distances the same polarity of the main phase and precursor signal is dominant. Using Zeoppritz equations, we analyzed more than 64 million combinations of density, compressional and shear wave velocities for both layers, above and below the 410 km discontinuity in order to find the best combination of those parameters that can explain the observations. The results are indicating combinations of density, P and S wave velocity exhibiting a smaller contrast compared to those from the pyrolite model (the density jump, however is still positive to provide physically meaningful results). The calculated reductions in both compressional and shear wave velocities go up to 13% but mostly fall within the range of less than 7- 8%. We interpret this reduction in elastic properties and seismic velocity of minerals as the effect of a higher than normal content of water of wadsleyite in this region, while we can exclude a reduction in iron.

  10. Subduction of European continental crust to 70 km depth imaged in the Western Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Anne; Zhao, Liang; Guillot, Stéphane; Solarino, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    The first conclusive evidence in support of the burial (and exhumation) of continental crust to depths larger than 90 km was provided by the discovery of coesite-bearing metamorphic rocks in the Dora Maira massif of the Western Alps (Chopin, 1984). Since then, even though similar outcrops of exhumed HP/UHP rocks have been recognized in a number of collisional belts, direct seismic evidences for subduction of continental crust in the mantle of the upper plate remain rare. In the Western Alps, the greatest depth ever recorded for the European Moho is 55 km by wide-angle seismic reflection (ECORS-CROP DSS Group, 1989). In an effort to image the European Moho at greater depth, and unravel the very complex lithospheric structure of the W-Alps, we have installed the CIFALPS temporary seismic array across the Southwestern Alps for 14 months (2012-2013). The almost linear array runs from the Rhône valley (France) to the Po plain (Italy) across the Dora Maira massif where exhumed HP/UHP metamorphic rocks of continental origin were first discovered. We used the receiver function processing technique that enhances P-to-S converted waves at velocity boundaries beneath the array. The receiver function records were migrated to depth using 4 different 1-D velocity models to account for the strongest structural changes along the profile. They were then stacked using the classical common-conversion point technique. Beneath the Southeast basin and the external zones, the obtained seismic section displays a clear converted phase on the European Moho, dipping gently to the ENE from ~35 km at the western end of the profile, to ~40 km beneath the Frontal Penninic thrust (FPT). The Moho dip then noticeably increases beneath the internal zones, while the amplitude of the converted phase weakens. The weak European Moho signal may be traced to 70-75 km depth beneath the eastern Dora Maira massif and the westernmost Po plain. At shallower level (20-40 km), we observe a set of strong

  11. SoilGrids1km — Global Soil Information Based on Automated Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Hengl, Tomislav; de Jesus, Jorge Mendes; MacMillan, Robert A.; Batjes, Niels H.; Heuvelink, Gerard B. M.; Ribeiro, Eloi; Samuel-Rosa, Alessandro; Kempen, Bas; Leenaars, Johan G. B.; Walsh, Markus G.; Gonzalez, Maria Ruiperez

    2014-01-01

    Background Soils are widely recognized as a non-renewable natural resource and as biophysical carbon sinks. As such, there is a growing requirement for global soil information. Although several global soil information systems already exist, these tend to suffer from inconsistencies and limited spatial detail. Methodology/Principal Findings We present SoilGrids1km — a global 3D soil information system at 1 km resolution — containing spatial predictions for a selection of soil properties (at six standard depths): soil organic carbon (g kg−1), soil pH, sand, silt and clay fractions (%), bulk density (kg m−3), cation-exchange capacity (cmol+/kg), coarse fragments (%), soil organic carbon stock (t ha−1), depth to bedrock (cm), World Reference Base soil groups, and USDA Soil Taxonomy suborders. Our predictions are based on global spatial prediction models which we fitted, per soil variable, using a compilation of major international soil profile databases (ca. 110,000 soil profiles), and a selection of ca. 75 global environmental covariates representing soil forming factors. Results of regression modeling indicate that the most useful covariates for modeling soils at the global scale are climatic and biomass indices (based on MODIS images), lithology, and taxonomic mapping units derived from conventional soil survey (Harmonized World Soil Database). Prediction accuracies assessed using 5–fold cross-validation were between 23–51%. Conclusions/Significance SoilGrids1km provide an initial set of examples of soil spatial data for input into global models at a resolution and consistency not previously available. Some of the main limitations of the current version of SoilGrids1km are: (1) weak relationships between soil properties/classes and explanatory variables due to scale mismatches, (2) difficulty to obtain covariates that capture soil forming factors, (3) low sampling density and spatial clustering of soil profile locations. However, as the Soil

  12. Evaluation of the 7-km GEOS-5 Nature Run

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelaro, Ronald; Putman, William M.; Pawson, Steven; Draper, Clara; Molod, Andrea; Norris, Peter M.; Ott, Lesley; Prive, Nikki; Reale, Oreste; Achuthavarier, Deepthi; Bosilovich, Michael; Buchard, Virginie; Chao, Winston; Coy, Lawrence; Cullather, Richard; da Silva, Arlindo; Darmenov, Anton; Koster, Randal; McCarty, Will; Schubert, Siegfried

    2015-01-01

    This report documents an evaluation by the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) of a two-year 7-km-resolution non-hydrostatic global mesoscale simulation produced with the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS-5) atmospheric general circulation model. The simulation was produced as a Nature Run for conducting observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs). Generation of the GEOS-5 Nature Run (G5NR) was motivated in part by the desire of the OSSE community for an improved high-resolution sequel to an existing Nature Run produced by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), which has served the community for several years. The intended use of the G5NR in this context is for generating simulated observations to test proposed observing system designs regarding new instruments and their deployments. Because NASA's interest in OSSEs extends beyond traditional weather forecasting applications, the G5NR includes, in addition to standard meteorological components, a suite of aerosol types and several trace gas concentrations, with emissions downscaled to 10 km using ancillary information such as power plant location, population density and night-light information. The evaluation exercise described here involved more than twenty-five GMAO scientists investigating various aspects of the G5NR performance, including time mean temperature and wind fields, energy spectra, precipitation and the hydrological cycle, the representation of waves, tropical cyclones and midlatitude storms, land and ocean surface characteristics, the representation and forcing effects of clouds and radiation, dynamics of the stratosphere and mesosphere, and the representation of aerosols and trace gases. Comparisons are made with observational data sets when possible, as well as with reanalyses and other long model simulations. The evaluation is broad in scope, as it is meant to assess the overall realism of basic aspects of the G5NR deemed relevant to the conduct of OSSEs

  13. Neuromuscular characteristics and fatigue during 10 km running.

    PubMed

    Paavolainen, L; Nummela, A; Rusko, H; Häkkinen, K

    1999-11-01

    This study investigated neuromuscular characteristics and fatigue during 10 km running (10 K) performance in well-trained endurance athletes with different distance running capability. Nine high (HC) and ten low (LC) caliber endurance athletes performed the 10 K on a 200 m indoor track, constant velocity lap (CVL, 4.5 m x s(-1)) 5 times during the course of the 10 K and maximal 20 m speed test before (20 m(b)) and after (20 m(a)) the 10 K. Running velocity (V), ground contact times (CT), ground reaction forces (F) and electromyographic activity (EMG) of the leg muscles (vastus lateralis; VL, biceps femoris; BF, gastrocnemius; GA) were measured during 20 m(b), 20 m(a), and CVLs. The 10 K times differed (p<0.001) between HC and LC (36.3+/-1.2 and 39.2+/-2.0 min, respectively) but no differences were observed in 20 m(b) velocity. The 10 K led to significant (p<0.05) decreases in V, F and integrated EMG (IEMG) and increases in CTs of 20 m(a) in both groups. No changes were observed in HC or LC in F and IEMG during the CVLs but HC showed shorter (p<0.05) mean CT of CVLs than LC. A significant correlation (r = -0.56, p<0.05) was observed between the mean CT of CVLs and velocity of 10 K (V10K). Pre-activity of GA in relation to the IEMG of the total contact phase during the CVLs was higher (p<0.05) in HC than LC. The relative IEMGs of VL and GA in the propulsion phase compared to the IEMG of the 20 m(b) were lower (p<0.05) in HC than LC. In conclusion, marked fatigue took place in both HC and LC during the 10 K but the fatigue-induced changes in maximal 20 m run did not differentiate endurance athletes with different V10K. However, a capability to produce force rapidly throughout the 10 K accompanied with optimal preactivation and contact phase activation seem to be important for 10 km running performance in well trained endurance athletes.

  14. KM3NeT Digital Optical Module electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Real, Diego

    2016-04-01

    The KM3NeT collaboration is currently building of a neutrino telescope with a volume of several cubic kilometres at the bottom of the Mediterranean Sea. The telescope consists of a matrix of Digital Optical Modules that will detect the Cherenkov light originated by the interaction of the neutrinos in the proximity of the detector. This contribution describes the main components of the read-out electronics of the Digital Optical Module: the Power Board, which delivers all the power supply required by the Digital Optical Molule electronics; the Central Logic Board, the main core of the read-out system, hosting 31 Time to Digital Converters with 1 ns resolution and the White Rabbit protocol embedded in the Central Logic Board Field Programmable Gate Array; the Octopus boards, that transfer the Low Voltage Digital Signals from the PMT bases to the Central Logic Board and finally the PMT bases, in charge of converting the analogue signal produced in the 31 3" PMTs into a Low Voltage Digital Signal.

  15. Stratospheric microbiology at 20 km over the Pacific Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, David J.; Griffin, Dale W.; Schuerger, Andrew C.

    2010-01-01

    An aerobiology sampling flight at 20 km was conducted on 28 April 2008 over the Pacific Ocean (36.5° N, 118–149° W), a period of time that coincided with the movement of Asian dust across the ocean. The aim of this study was to confirm the presence of viable bacteria and fungi within a transoceanic, atmospheric bridge and to improve the resolution of flight hardware processing techniques. Isolates of the microbial strains recovered were analyzed with ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) sequencing to identify bacterial species Bacillus sp., Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus endophyticus, and the fungal genus Penicillium. Satellite imagery and ground-based radiosonde observations were used to measure dust movement and characterize the high-altitude environment at the time of collection. Considering the atmospheric residency time (7–10 days), the extreme temperature regime of the environment (-75°C), and the absence of a mechanism that could sustain particulates at high altitude, it is unlikely that our samples indicate a permanent, stratospheric ecosystem. However, the presence of viable fungi and bacteria in transoceanic stratosphere remains relevant to understanding the distribution and extent of microbial life on Earth.

  16. A 233 km tunnel for lepton and hadron colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, D. J.; Cremaldi, L. M.; Datta, A.; Duraisamy, M.; Luo, T.; Lyons, G. T.

    2012-12-21

    A decade ago, a cost analysis was conducted to bore a 233 km circumference Very Large Hadron Collider (VLHC) tunnel passing through Fermilab. Here we outline implementations of e{sup +}e{sup -}, pp-bar , and {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} collider rings in this tunnel using recent technological innovations. The 240 and 500 GeV e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders employ Crab Waist Crossings, ultra low emittance damped bunches, short vertical IP focal lengths, superconducting RF, and low coercivity, grain oriented silicon steel/concrete dipoles. Some details are also provided for a high luminosity 240 GeV e{sup +}e{sup -} collider and 1.75 TeV muon accelerator in a Fermilab site filler tunnel. The 40 TeV pp-bar collider uses the high intensity Fermilab p-bar source, exploits high cross sections for pp-bar production of high mass states, and uses 2 Tesla ultra low carbon steel/YBCO superconducting magnets run with liquid neon. The 35 TeV muon ring ramps the 2 Tesla superconducting magnets at 9 Hz every 0.4 seconds, uses 250 GV of superconducting RF to accelerate muons from 1.75 to 17.5 TeV in 63 orbits with 71% survival, and mitigates neutrino radiation with phase shifting, roller coaster motion in a FODO lattice.

  17. Nausea is associated with endotoxemia during a 161-km ultramarathon.

    PubMed

    Stuempfle, Kristin J; Valentino, Taylor; Hew-Butler, Tamara; Hecht, Frederick M; Hoffman, Martin D

    2016-09-01

    This study explored possible contributing factors to gastrointestinal distress, including endotoxemia, hyperthermia, dehydration and nutrition, during a 161-km ultramarathon. Thirty runners participated in the study and 20 finished the race. At three checkpoints and the finish, runners were interviewed to assess the incidence and severity of 12 gastrointestinal symptoms and to determine dietary intake. Core temperature was measured at the same locations. Runners were weighed pre-race, at the three checkpoints and the finish to monitor hydration status. Blood markers for endotoxemia (sCD14) and inflammation (interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein) were measured pre- and post-race. Gastrointestinal symptoms were experienced by most runners (80%), with nausea being the most common complaint (60%). Runners with nausea experienced significantly greater (P = 0.02) endotoxemia than those without nausea (sCD14 mean increase 0.7 versus 0.5 µg · mL(-1)). There was a significant positive correlation (r = 0.652, P = 0.005) between nausea severity and endotoxemia level. Inflammatory response, core temperature, hydration level and race diet were similar between runners with and without nausea. This study links endotoxemia to nausea in ultramarathon runners. Other possible contributing factors to nausea such as hyperthermia, dehydration and nutrition did not appear to play a role in the symptomatic runners in this study. PMID:26707127

  18. ASIC design in the KM3NeT detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajanana, D.; Gromov, V.; Timmer, P.

    2013-02-01

    In the KM3NeT project [1], Cherenkov light from the muon interactions with transparent matter around the detector, is used to detect neutrinos. Photo multiplier tubes (PMT) used as photon sensor, are housed in a glass sphere (aka Optical Module) to detect single photons from the Cherenkov light. The PMT needs high operational voltage ( ~ 1.5 kV) and is generated by a Cockroft-Walton (CW) multiplier circuit. The electronics required to control the PMT's and collect the signals is integrated in two ASIC's namely: 1) a front-end mixed signal ASIC (PROMiS) for the readout of the PMT and 2) an analog ASIC (CoCo) to generate pulses for charging the CW circuit and to control the feedback of the CW circuit. In this article, we discuss the two integrated circuits and test results of the complete setup. PROMiS amplifies the input charge, converts it to a pulse width and delivers the information via LVDS signals. These LVDS signals carry accurate information on the Time of arrival ( < 2 ns) and Time over Threshold. A PROM block provides unique identification to the chip. The chip communicates with the control electronics via an I2C bus. This unique combination of the ASIC's results in a very cost and power efficient PMT base design.

  19. Topography of the 660-km seismic discontinuity beneath Izu-Bonin: Implications for tectonic history and slab deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castle, John C.; Creager, Kenneth C.

    1998-06-01

    We analyze the P wave codas of 65 paths from deep northwestern Pacific earthquakes recorded by arrays of stations in Germany, the western United States, India, and Turkmenistan. We identify a phase resulting from a near-source S-to-P conversion at a nearly horizontal discontinuity ranging in depth from 650 to 730 km, which we interpret as a thermally depressed spinel to perovskite and magnesiowüstite phase transition. We migrate these data along with 39 more from Wicks and Richards [1993], accounting for three-dimensional ray bending by the sloping discontinuity, to produce a high-resolution topography map of the 660-km discontinuity in the Izu-Bonin region. Assuming an equilibrium phase transition, we interpret the discontinuity depth in terms of local temperatures. The slab, if defined by a thermal anomaly greater than -400°K, is only about 100 km thick near 28°N suggesting the slab is penetrating into the lower mantle with little or no advective thickening. Farther to the north, however, cold material appears spread out over a wide region, consistent with the slab having been laid down flat on the 660-km discontinuity as the trench retreated 2000 km eastward. Both the narrow slab to the south and the flat-lying slab to the north are consistent with recent high-resolution tomographic images. The depression to 745 km along the arc is consistent with a maximum thermal anomaly of about 1100°K. Along the entire arc, the depression occurs directly beneath the deepest earthquakes, even where seismicity is dipping at 45° and stops at 450 km depth, suggesting that the slab steepens to a vertical dip at the deepest seismicity. This change to a vertical orientation suggests that the slab loses strength temporarily through a physical process which causes the seismicity to increase dramatically and then abruptly cease.

  20. One-Hundred-km-Scale Basins on Enceladus: Evidence for an Active Ice Shell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schenk, Paul M.; McKinnon, William B.

    2009-01-01

    Stereo-derived topographic mapping of 50% of Enceladus reveals at least 6 large-scale, ovoid depressions (basins) 90-175 km across and 800-to-1500 m deep and uncorrelated with geologic boundaries. Their shape and scale are inconsistent with impact, geoid deflection, or with dynamically supported topography. Isostatic thinning of Enceladus ice shell associated with upwellings (and tidally-driven ice melting) can plausibly account for the basins. Thinning implies upwarping of the base of the shell of 10-20 km beneath the depressions, depending on total shell thickness; loss of near-surface porosity due to enhanced heat flow may also contribute to basin lows. Alternatively, the basins may overly cold, inactive, and hence denser ice, but thermal isostasy alone requires thermal expansion more consistent with clathrate hydrate than water ice. In contrast to the basins, the south polar depression (SPD) is larger (350 wide) and shallower (0.4-to-0.8 km deep) and correlates with the area of tectonic deformation and active resurfacing. The SPD also differs in that the floor is relatively flat (i.e., conforms roughly to the global triaxial shape, or geoid) with broad, gently sloping flanks. The relative flatness across the SPD suggests that it is in or near isostatic equilibrium, and underlain by denser material, supporting the polar sea hypothesis of Collins and Goodman. Near flatness is also predicted by a crustal spreading origin for the "tiger stripes (McKinnon and Barr 2007, Barr 2008); the extraordinary, high CIRS heat flows imply half-spreading rates in excess of 10 cm/yr, a very young surface age (250,000 yr), and a rather thin lithosphere (hence modest thermal topography). Topographic rises in places along the outer margin of the SPD correlate with parallel ridges and deformation along the edge of the resurfaced terrain, consistent with a compressional, imbricate thrust origin for these ridges, driven by the spreading.

  1. Development of a global land cover characteristics database and IGBP DISCover from 1 km AVHRR data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loveland, T.R.; Reed, B.C.; Brown, J.F.; Ohlen, D.O.; Zhu, Z.; Yang, L.; Merchant, J.W.

    2000-01-01

    Researchers from the U.S. Geological Survey, University of Nebraska-Lincoln and the European Commission's Joint Research Centre, Ispra, Italy produced a 1 km resolution global land cover characteristics database for use in a wide range of continental- to global-scale environmental studies. This database provides a unique view of the broad patterns of the biogeographical and ecoclimatic diversity of the global land surface, and presents a detailed interpretation of the extent of human development. The project was carried out as an International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme, Data and Information Systems (IGBP-DIS) initiative. The IGBP DISCover global land cover product is an integral component of the global land cover database. DISCover includes 17 general land cover classes defined to meet the needs of IGBP core science projects. A formal accuracy assessment of the DISCover data layer will be completed in 1998. The 1 km global land cover database was developed through a continent-by-continent unsupervised classification of 1 km monthly Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) composites covering 1992-1993. Extensive post-classification stratification was necessary to resolve spectral/temporal confusion between disparate land cover types. The complete global database consists of 961 seasonal land cover regions that capture patterns of land cover, seasonality and relative primary productivity. The seasonal land cover regions were aggregated to produce seven separate land cover data sets used for global environmental modelling and assessment. The data sets include IGBP DISCover, U.S. Geological Survey Anderson System, Simple Biosphere Model, Simple Biosphere Model 2, Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme, Olson Ecosystems and Running Global Remote Sensing Land Cover. The database also includes all digital sources that were used in the classification. The complete database can be sourced from the website: http://edcwww.cr.usgs.gov/landdaac/glcc/glcc.html.

  2. File Specification for the 7-km GEOS-5 Nature Run, Ganymed Release Non-Hydrostatic 7-km Global Mesoscale Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    da Silva, Arlindo M.; Putman, William; Nattala, J.

    2014-01-01

    This document describes the gridded output files produced by a two-year global, non-hydrostatic mesoscale simulation for the period 2005-2006 produced with the non-hydrostatic version of GEOS-5 Atmospheric Global Climate Model (AGCM). In addition to standard meteorological parameters (wind, temperature, moisture, surface pressure), this simulation includes 15 aerosol tracers (dust, sea-salt, sulfate, black and organic carbon), O3, CO and CO2. This model simulation is driven by prescribed sea-surface temperature and sea-ice, daily volcanic and biomass burning emissions, as well as high-resolution inventories of anthropogenic sources. A description of the GEOS-5 model configuration used for this simulation can be found in Putman et al. (2014). The simulation is performed at a horizontal resolution of 7 km using a cubed-sphere horizontal grid with 72 vertical levels, extending up to to 0.01 hPa (approximately 80 km). For user convenience, all data products are generated on two logically rectangular longitude-latitude grids: a full-resolution 0.0625 deg grid that approximately matches the native cubed-sphere resolution, and another 0.5 deg reduced-resolution grid. The majority of the full-resolution data products are instantaneous with some fields being time-averaged. The reduced-resolution datasets are mostly time-averaged, with some fields being instantaneous. Hourly data intervals are used for the reduced-resolution datasets, while 30-minute intervals are used for the full-resolution products. All full-resolution output is on the model's native 72-layer hybrid sigma-pressure vertical grid, while the reduced-resolution output is given on native vertical levels and on 48 pressure surfaces extending up to 0.02 hPa. Section 4 presents additional details on horizontal and vertical grids. Information of the model surface representation can be found in Appendix B. The GEOS-5 product is organized into file collections that are described in detail in Appendix C. Additional

  3. Kinematics of the New Zealand plate boundary: Relative motion by GPS across networks of 1000 km and 50 km spacing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meertens, Charles M.; Rocken, Christian; Perin, Barbara; Walcott, Richard

    1993-01-01

    The NASA/DOSE 'Kinematics of the New Zealand Plate Boundary' experiment is a four-year cooperative Global Positioning System (GPS) experiment involving 6 universities and institutions in New Zealand and the United States. The investigation covers two scales, the first on the scale of plates (approximately 1000 km) and the second is on the scale of the plate boundary zone (approximately 50 km). In the first portion of the experiment, phase A, the objective is to make direct measurements of tectonic plate motion between the Australian and Pacific plates using GPS in order to determine the Euler vector of this plate pair. The phase A portion of this experiment was initiated in December 1992 with the first-epoch baseline measurements on the large scale network. The network will be resurveyed two years later to obtain velocities. The stations which were observed for phase A are shown and listed. Additional regional stations which will be used for this study are listed and are part of either CIGNET or other global tracking networks. The phase A portion of the experiment is primarily the responsibility of the UNAVCO investigators. Therefore, this report concentrates on phase A. The first year of NASA funding for phase A included only support for the field work. Processing and analysis will take place with the second year of funding. The second part of the experiemnt measured relative motion between the Australian and Pacific plates across the pate boundary zone between Hokitika and Christchurch on the South Island of New Zealand. The extent and rate of deformation will be determined by comparisons with historical, conventional surveys and by repeated GPS measurements to be made in two years. This activity was the emphasis of the LDGO portion of the study. An ancillary experiment, phase C, concentrated on plate boundary deformation in the vicinity of Wellington and was done as part of training during the early portion of the field campaign. Details of the objectives of the

  4. A high resolution (1 km) groundwater model for Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutanudjaja, Edwin; Verkaik, Jarno; de Graaf, Inge; van Beek, Rens; Erkens, Gilles; Bierkens, Marc

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater is important in many parts of Indonesia. It serves as a primary source of drinking water and industrial activities. During times of drought, it sustains water flows in streams, rivers, lakes and wetlands, and thus support ecosystem habitat and biodiversity as well as preventing hazardous forest fire. Besides its importance, groundwater is known as a vulnerable resource as unsustainable groundwater exploitation and management occurs in many areas of the country. Therefore, in order to ensure sustainable management of groundwater resources, monitoring and predicting groundwater changes in Indonesia are imperative. However, large extent groundwater models to assess these changes on a regional scale are almost non-existent and are hampered by the strong topographical and lithological transitions that characterize Indonesia. In this study, we built an 1 km resolution groundwater model for the entire Indonesian archipelago (total inland area: about 2 million km2). We adopted the approaches of Sutanudjaja et al. (2011, 2014a) and de Graaf et al. (2014) in order to make a MODFLOW (Harbaugh et al., 2000) groundwater model by using only global datasets. Aquifer schematization and properties of the groundwater model were developed from available global lithological maps (e.g. Dürr et al., 2005; Gleeson et al., 2011; Hartmann & Moorsdorf, 2012; Gleeson et al., 2014). We forced the groundwater model with the recent output of global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB version 2.0 (Sutanudjaja et al., 2014b; van Beek et al., 2011), specifically the long term average of groundwater recharge and average surface water levels derived from channel discharge. Simulation results were promising. The MODFLOW model converged with realistic aquifer properties (i.e. transmissivities) and produced reasonable groundwater head spatial distribution reflecting the positions of major groundwater bodies and surface water bodies in the country. In Vienna, we aim to show and demonstrate these

  5. Processing techniques for global land 1-km AVHRR data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eidenshink, Jeffery C.; Steinwand, Daniel R.; Wivell, Charles E.; Hollaren, Douglas M.; Meyer, David

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center (EDC) in cooperation with several international science organizations has developed techniques for processing daily Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) 1-km data of the entire global land surface. These techniques include orbital stitching, geometric rectification, radiometric calibration, and atmospheric correction. An orbital stitching algorithm was developed to combine consecutive observations acquired along an orbit by ground receiving stations into contiguous half-orbital segments. The geometric rectification process uses an AVHRR satellite model that contains modules for forward mapping, forward terrain correction, and inverse mapping with terrain correction. The correction is accomplished by using the hydrologic features coastlines and lakes from the Digital Chart of the World. These features are rasterized into the satellite projection and are matched to the AVHRR imagery using binary edge correlation techniques. The resulting coefficients are related to six attitude correction parameters: roll, roll rate, pitch, pitch rate, yaw, and altitude. The image can then be precision corrected to a variety of map projections and user-selected image frames. Because the AVHRR lacks onboard calibration for the optical wavelengths, a series of time-variant calibration coefficients derived from vicarious calibration methods and are used to model the degradation profile of the instruments. Reducing atmospheric effects on AVHRR data is important. A method has been develop that will remove the effects of molecular scattering and absorption from clear sky observations, using climatological measurements of ozone. Other methods to remove the effects of water vapor and aerosols are being investigated.

  6. Gastrointestinal distress is common during a 161-km ultramarathon.

    PubMed

    Stuempfle, Kristin Jean; Hoffman, Martin Dean

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the incidence, severity, and timing of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in finishers and non-finishers of the 161-km Western States Endurance Run. A total of 272 runners (71.0% of starters) completed a post-race questionnaire that assessed the incidence and severity (none = 0, mild = 1, moderate = 2, severe = 3, very severe = 4) of 12 upper (reflux/heartburn, belching, stomach bloating, stomach cramps/pain, nausea, vomiting) and lower (intestinal cramps/pain, flatulence, side ache/stitch, urge to defecate, loose stool/diarrhoea, intestinal bleeding/bloody faeces) GI symptoms experienced during each of four race segments. GI symptoms were experienced by most runners (96.0%). Flatulence (65.9% frequency, mean value 1.0, s = 0.6 severity), belching (61.3% frequency, mean value 1.0, s = 0.6 severity), and nausea (60.3% frequency, mean value 1.0, s = 0.7 severity) were the most common symptoms. Among race finishers, 43.9% reported that GI symptoms affected their race performance, with nausea being the most common symptom (86.0%). Among race non-finishers, 35.6% reported that GI symptoms were a reason for dropping out of the race, with nausea being the most common symptom (90.5%). For both finishers and non-finishers, nausea was greatest during the most challenging and hottest part of the race. GI symptoms are very common during ultramarathon running, and in particular, nausea is the most common complaint for finishers and non-finishers. PMID:25716739

  7. Estimation of Land Surface Temperature from 1-km AVHRR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, Corinne

    2016-04-01

    In order to re-process DLRs 1km AVHRR data archive to different geophysical and descriptive parameters of the land surface and the atmosphere, a series of scientific data processors are being developed in the framework of the TIMELINE project. The archive of DLR ranges back to the 80ies. One of the data processors is SurfTemp, which processes L2 LST and emissivity datasets from AVHRR L1b data. The development of the data processor included the selection of statistical procedures suitable for time series processing, including four mono-window and six split window algorithms. For almost all of these algorithms, new constants were generated, which better account for different atmospheric and geometric acquisition situations. The selection of optimal algorithms for SurfTemp is based on a round robin approach, in which the selected mono-window and split window algorithms are tested on the basis of a large number of TOA radiance/LST pairs, which were generated using a radiative transfer model and the SeeBorV5 profile database. The original LSTs are thereby compared to the LSTs derived from the TOA radiances using the mono- and split window algorithms. The algorithm comparison includes measures of precision, as well as the sensitivity of a method to the accuracy of its input data. The results of the round robin are presented, as well as the implementation of selected algorithms into SurfTemp. Further, first cross-validation results between the AVHRR LST and MODIS LST are shown.

  8. Clouds in ECMWF's 30 KM Resolution Global Atmospheric Forecast Model (TL639)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cahalan, R. F.; Morcrette, J. J.

    1999-01-01

    Global models of the general circulation of the atmosphere resolve a wide range of length scales, and in particular cloud structures extend from planetary scales to the smallest scales resolvable, now down to 30 km in state-of-the-art models. Even the highest resolution models do not resolve small-scale cloud phenomena seen, for example, in Landsat and other high-resolution satellite images of clouds. Unresolved small-scale disturbances often grow into larger ones through non-linear processes that transfer energy upscale. Understanding upscale cascades is of crucial importance in predicting current weather, and in parameterizing cloud-radiative processes that control long term climate. Several movie animations provide examples of the temporal and spatial variation of cloud fields produced in 4-day runs of the forecast model at the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) in Reading, England, at particular times and locations of simultaneous measurement field campaigns. model resolution is approximately 30 km horizontally (triangular truncation TL639) with 31 vertical levels from surface to stratosphere. Timestep of the model is about 10 minutes, but animation frames are 3 hours apart, at timesteps when the radiation is computed. The animations were prepared from an archive of several 4-day runs at the highest available model resolution, and archived at ECMWF. Cloud, wind and temperature fields in an approximately 1000 km X 1000 km box were retrieved from the archive, then approximately 60 Mb Vis5d files were prepared with the help of Graeme Kelly of ECMWF, and were compressed into MPEG files each less than 3 Mb. We discuss the interaction of clouds and radiation in the model, and compare the variability of cloud liquid as a function of scale to that seen in cloud observations made in intensive field campaigns. Comparison of high-resolution global runs to cloud-resolving models, and to lower resolution climate models is leading to better

  9. The isolated ˜680 km deep 30 May 2015 MW 7.9 Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Lingling; Lay, Thorne; Zhan, Zhongwen; Kanamori, Hiroo; Hao, Jin-Lai

    2016-01-01

    Deep-focus earthquakes, located in very high-pressure conditions 300 to 700 km below the Earth's surface within sinking slabs of relatively cold oceanic lithosphere, are mysterious phenomena. The largest recorded deep-focus earthquake (MW 7.9) in the Izu-Bonin slab struck on 30 May 2015 beneath the Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands, isolated from prior seismicity by over 100 km in depth, and followed by only a few small aftershocks. Globally, this is the deepest (680 km centroid depth) event with MW ≥ 7.8 in the seismological record. Seismicity indicates along-strike contortion of the Izu-Bonin slab, with horizontal flattening near a depth of 550 km in the Izu region and rapid steepening to near-vertical toward the south above the location of the 2015 event. This event was exceptionally well-recorded by seismic stations around the world, allowing detailed constraints to be placed on the source process. Analyses of a large global data set of P, SH and pP seismic phases using short-period back-projection, subevent directivity, and broadband finite-fault inversion indicate that the mainshock ruptured a shallowly-dipping fault plane with patchy slip that spread over a distance of ˜40 km with a multi-stage expansion rate (˜ 5 + km /s down-dip initially, ˜3 km/s up-dip later). During the 17 s total rupture duration the radiated energy was ˜ 3.3 ×1016 J and the stress drop was ˜38 MPa. The radiation efficiency is moderate (0.34), intermediate to that of the 1994 Bolivia and 2013 Sea of Okhotsk MW 8.3 deep earthquakes, indicating that source processes of very large deep earthquakes sample a wide range of behavior from dissipative, more viscous failure to very brittle failure. The isolated occurrence of the event, much deeper than the apparently thermally-bounded distribution of Bonin-slab seismicity above 600 km depth, suggests that localized stress concentration associated with the pronounced deformation of the Izu-Bonin slab and proximity to the 660-km phase transition

  10. 112 Gb/s PM-QPSK transmission up to 6000 km with 200 km amplifier spacing and a hybrid fiber span configuration.

    PubMed

    Downie, John D; Hurley, Jason; Cartledge, John; Bickham, Scott; Mishra, Snigdharaj

    2011-12-12

    We demonstrate transmission of 112 Gb/s PM-QPSK signals over a system with 200 km span lengths. Amplification is provided by hybrid backward-pumped Raman/EDFA amplifiers and reach lengths up to 6000 km for an 8 channel system and 5400 km for a 32 channel system are shown. As a means of maximizing OSNR, a simple hybrid fiber span configuration is used that combines two ultra-low loss fibers, one having very large effective area.

  11. Measurement of the vertical gradient of the semidiurnal tidal wind phase in winter at the 95 km level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schminder, R.; Kurschner, D.

    1984-05-01

    When supplemented by absolute reflection height measurements, low frequency wind measurements in the 90-100 km height range become truly competitive in comparison with the more widely used radar meteor wind observations. For example, height profiles of the wind parameters in the so-called meteor zone can be obtained due to the considerable interdiurnal variability of the average nighttime reflection heights controlled by geomagnetic activity. The phase of the semidiurnal tidal wind is particularly height-dependent. The measured vertical gradient of 1/4 h/km in winter corresponds to a vertical wavelength of about 50 km. Wind measurements in the upper atmosphere, at heights between 90 and 100 km, were carried out at the Collm Geophysical Observatory of Karl Marx University Leipzig for a number of years. These measurements use the closely-spaced receiver method and three measuring paths, on 179, 227, and 272 kHz. They take place every day between sunset and sunrise, i.e., nightly. A night in this sense may last as long as 18 hours in winter. Both the measurements and their evaluation are completely automatic, and the prevailing winds and tides are separated.

  12. Measurement of the Vertical Gradient of the Semidiurnal Tidal Wind Phase in Winter at the 95 Km Level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schminder, R.; Kurschner, D.

    1984-01-01

    When supplemented by absolute reflection height measurements, low frequency wind measurements in the 90-100 km height range become truly competitive in comparison with the more widely used radar meteor wind observations. For example, height profiles of the wind parameters in the so-called meteor zone can be obtained due to the considerable interdiurnal variability of the average nighttime reflection heights controlled by geomagnetic activity. The phase of the semidiurnal tidal wind is particularly height-dependent. The measured vertical gradient of 1/4 h/km in winter corresponds to a vertical wavelength of about 50 km. Wind measurements in the upper atmosphere, at heights between 90 and 100 km, were carried out at the Collm Geophysical Observatory of Karl Marx University Leipzig for a number of years. These measurements use the closely-spaced receiver method and three measuring paths, on 179, 227, and 272 kHz. They take place every day between sunset and sunrise, i.e., nightly. A night in this sense may last as long as 18 hours in winter. Both the measurements and their evaluation are completely automatic, and the prevailing winds and tides are separated.

  13. Topography of the 410 and 660 km discontinuities beneath the Korean Peninsula and southwestern Japan using teleseismic receiver functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang-Hyun; Rhie, Junkee; Park, Yongcheol; Kim, Kwang-Hee

    2014-09-01

    Topography of the 410 and 660 km seismic upper mantle discontinuities beneath the Korean Peninsula and southwestern Japan were determined using teleseismic receiver functions. P receiver functions were migrated from delayed times to corresponding piercing (conversion) points of P-to-S converted phases, using one-dimensional (1-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) models. Receiver functions were then stacked using Common Conversion Point (CCP) techniques, to enhance signal-to-noise ratios and thereby reduce uncertainty (noise). The 410 and 660 km discontinuities were clearly imaged, as positively valued amplitude peaks of CCP stacked receiver functions in the study area. Topographic variations were roughly consistent with the low temperature of the subducting Pacific Plate. However, the complex structure of the subducting Pacific Plate produced distinct changes of upper mantle discontinuities, which cannot be explained by temperature variations alone. Depression of the 410 km discontinuity, observed in a wide region extending from the Korean Peninsula to Kyushu Island, may be related to trench rollback history. Furthermore, the topography of the 660 km discontinuity varies significantly with latitude. At latitudes higher than 38°N, its depth remains unchanged, despite the presence of the stagnant slab, while significant depression has been observed at latitudes below 36°N. This may have been caused by differences in the angles of subduction of the Japan slab and the Izu-Bonin slab. However, heterogeneity of the water content of slabs may also have contributed to this topographical difference.

  14. The Central Logic Board for the KM3NeT detector: Design and production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musico, P.

    2016-07-01

    The KM3NeT deep sea neutrino observatory will include a very large number of multi-Photomultiplier (PMT) optical modules (DOM) to detect the Cherenkov light generated by secondary particles produced in neutrino interactions. The Central Logic Board (CLB) has been developed to acquire timing and amplitude information from the PMT signals, implementing time-to-digital conversion (TDC) with time over threshold (TOT) technique. The board is also used to configure all the DOM subsystems, to assist in the DOM position and orientation, calibration and to monitor temperature and humidity in the DOM itself. All the collected data are transmitted to shore using a wide-bandwidth optical network. Moreover, through the optical network, all the DOMs are kept synchronized in time within 1 ns precision using the White Rabbit (WR) Precision Time Protocol (PTP) over an Ethernet connection. A large Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) has been adopted to implement all the specifications witht the requested performances. The CLB will be also used in the base container of the detection unit (DU) to set-up and monitor all the requested functionalities: in this scenario a dedicated firmware and software will be deployed on board. The design has been started in early 2013 and several prototypes have been developed. After deep test carried on in different EU laboratories, the final mass production batch of 600 boards has been ordered and built: all the CLB are now ready for integration in the DOMs and base containers. The first two KM3NeT DU will be deployed in summer 2015 and all other units are in advanced stage of integration.

  15. Developing Knowledge Management (KM): Contributions by Organizational Learning and Total Quality Management (TQM)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Richard Yu-Yuan; Lien, Bella Ya-Hui

    2005-01-01

    Knowledge management is an integral business function for many organizations to manage intellectual resources effectively. From a resource-based perspective, organizational learning and TQM are antecedents that are closely related to KM. The purposes of this study were to explain the contents of KM, and explore the relationship between KM-related…

  16. Underwater acoustic positioning system for the SMO and KM3NeT - Italia projects

    SciTech Connect

    Viola, S.; Barbagallo, G.; Cacopardo, G.; Calí, C.; Cocimano, R.; Coniglione, R.; Costa, M.; Cuttone, G.; D'Amato, C.; D'Amato, V.; D'Amico, A.; De Luca, V.; Del Tevere, F.; Distefano, C.; Ferrera, F.; Gmerk, A.; Grasso, R.; Imbesi, M.; Larosa, G.; Lattuada, D.; and others

    2014-11-18

    In the underwater neutrino telescopes, the positions of the Cherenkov light sensors and their movements must be known with an accuracy of few tens of centimetres. In this work, the activities of the SMO and KM3NeT-Italia teams for the development of an acoustic positioning system for KM3NeT-Italia project are presented. The KM3NeT-Italia project foresees the construction, within two years, of 8 towers in the view of the several km{sup 3}-scale neutrino telescope KM3NeT.

  17. Wide Angle Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This brief movie illustrates the passage of the Moon through the Saturn-bound Cassini spacecraft's wide-angle camera field of view as the spacecraft passed by the Moon on the way to its closest approach with Earth on August 17, 1999. From beginning to end of the sequence, 25 wide-angle images (with a spatial image scale of about 14 miles per pixel (about 23 kilometers)were taken over the course of 7 and 1/2 minutes through a series of narrow and broadband spectral filters and polarizers, ranging from the violet to the near-infrared regions of the spectrum, to calibrate the spectral response of the wide-angle camera. The exposure times range from 5 milliseconds to 1.5 seconds. Two of the exposures were smeared and have been discarded and replaced with nearby images to make a smooth movie sequence. All images were scaled so that the brightness of Crisium basin, the dark circular region in the upper right, is approximately the same in every image. The imaging data were processed and released by the Cassini Imaging Central Laboratory for Operations (CICLOPS)at the University of Arizona's Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, Tucson, AZ.

    Photo Credit: NASA/JPL/Cassini Imaging Team/University of Arizona

    Cassini, launched in 1997, is a joint mission of NASA, the European Space Agency and Italian Space Agency. The mission is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington DC. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.

  18. The Crust and Mantle Relationships Beneath Central and Southern Iberian Peninsula constrained by a 550 km long multiseismic transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehsan, Siddique Akhtar; Carbonell, Ramon; Simancas, Jose Fernando; Martinez Poyatos, David; Azor, Antonio; Ayarza, Puy; Storti, Fabrizio

    2013-04-01

    A composite lithospheric cross section which is composed by data from controlled source multiseismic experiments strongly constrains the lithospheric structure of southwestern Iberia. The data includes coincident normal incidence and wide-angle profiles along an, approximately, 550 km long transect. This transect goes across, from North-to-South, the major tectonic zones that build up Southwestern part of the Iberian Peninsula (the Central Iberian Zone -CIZ-, the Ossa-Morena Zone -OMZ- and the South Portuguese Zone -SPZ-). The knowledge provided by these datasets constitutes the base to develop multidisciplinary models of the lithosphere. The multichannel deep seismic high resolution (60-90 fold) profiles, IBERSEIS & ALCUDIA were acquired in summer 2001 and 2007 are about 300 and 250 km long respectively. The transects image 20 s (TWTT), about 70 km depth. To address the crust and upper mantle structural relationships a reassessment of the normal incidence seismic reflection transect ALCUDIA has been carried out. We revised the key processing steps and applied advance analysis on the ALCUDIA transect with the aim to improve the signal to noise ratio especially in the deep parts and to produce a depth migrated image. The velocity model generated through wide-angle seismic survey (2003) was used to convert IBERSEIS time migrated stack image into depth. The new data processing flow provide better structural constraints on the shallow and deep structures as the current images reveal indentation features which strongly suggest horizontal tectonics. The ALCUDIA transect shows slightly less reflective upper crust about 13 km thick decoupled from the comparatively reflective lower crust. The reflectivity of the lower crust is continuous, high amplitude, horizontal and parallel though evidences of deformation are present as flat-ramp-flat geometry on the northeastern portion and a "Crocodile structure" wedging into the upper mantle on the southwestern portion of the ALCUDIA

  19. The effect of music on 10-km cycle time-trial performance.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Jana; Foster, Carl; Rodríguez-Marroyo, Jose; de Koning, Jos J; Mikat, Richard P; Hendrix, Charles R; Porcari, John P

    2013-01-01

    Music is widely used as an ergogenic aid in sport, but there is little evidence of its effectiveness during closed-loop athletic events. In order to determine the effectiveness of music as an ergogenic aid, well-trained and task-habituated cyclists performed 10-km cycle time trials either while listening to self-selected motivational music or with auditory input blocked. There were no statistically significant differences in performance time or physiological or psychological markers related to music (time-trial duration17.75 ± 2.10 vs 17.81 ± 2.06 min, mean power output 222 ± 66 vs 220 ± 65 W, peak heart rate184 ± 9 vs 183 ± 8 beats/min, peak blood lactate12.1 ± 2.6 vs 11.9 ± 2.1 mmol/L, and final rating of perceived exertion 8.4 ± 1.5 vs 8.5 ± 1.6). It is concluded that during exercise at competitive intensity, there is no meaningful effect of music on either performance or physiology.

  20. Observations of earthquake source parameters at 2 km depth in the Long Valley Caldera, eastern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prejean, Stephanie G.; Ellsworth, William L.

    2001-01-01

    To investigate seismic source parameter scaling and seismic efficiency in the Long Valley caldera, California, we measured source parameters for 41 earthquakes (M 0.5 to M 5) recorded at 2 km depth in the Long Valley Exploratory Well. Borehole recordings provide a wide frequency bandwidth, typically 1 to 200–300 Hz, and greatly reduce seismic noise and path effects compared to surface recordings. We calculated source parameters in both the time and frequency domains for P and S waves. At frequencies above the corner frequency, spectra decay faster than ω3, indicating that attenuation plays an important role in shaping the spectra (path averaged Qp = 100–400, Qs = 200–800). Source parameters are corrected for attenuation and radiation pattern. Both static stress drops and apparent stresses range from approximately 0.01 to 30 MPa. Although static stress drops do not vary with seismic moment for these data, our analyses are consistent with apparent stress increasing with increasing moment. To estimate tectonic driving stress and seismic efficiencies in the region, we combined source parameter measurements with knowledge of the stress field and a Coulomb failure criterion to infer a driving stress of 40–70 MPa. Subsequent seismic efficiencies are consistent with McGarr's (1999) hypothesis of a maximum seismic efficiency of 6%.

  1. On the penetration of the 660 km phase change by mantle downflows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bercovici, David; Schubert, Gerald; Tackley, Paul J.

    1993-01-01

    We present a simple analytic model of the interaction of cold convective downwelling currents with an endothermic phase change. The model describes the ponding and lateral spreading of downflows along the phase transition interface. A simple comparison of the vertical forces on the ponding material provides a necessary condition for a downflow to penetrate the phase boundary. This condition is fundamentally dependent on the geometry of the downflow. For planar downwellings, the model predicts a minimum ponding time before the structure can penetrate the phase boundary. For columnar (axisymmetric) downflows, there is no minimum time of spreading required before penetration can proceed. The model thus provides an explanation for the observation that in numerical models of three-dimensional convection with an endothermic phase change, cylindrical downflows penetrate the phase interface while planar ones do not. Since descending slabs in the Earth's mantle display a wide spectrum of geometries between planar and cylindrical (given various trench curvatures, as well as intersections of two or more subduction zones), this phenomenon may explain, in part, why some slabs appear to extend into the lower mantle while others are deflected at the 660 km discontinuity.

  2. The effect of music on 10-km cycle time-trial performance.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Jana; Foster, Carl; Rodríguez-Marroyo, Jose; de Koning, Jos J; Mikat, Richard P; Hendrix, Charles R; Porcari, John P

    2013-01-01

    Music is widely used as an ergogenic aid in sport, but there is little evidence of its effectiveness during closed-loop athletic events. In order to determine the effectiveness of music as an ergogenic aid, well-trained and task-habituated cyclists performed 10-km cycle time trials either while listening to self-selected motivational music or with auditory input blocked. There were no statistically significant differences in performance time or physiological or psychological markers related to music (time-trial duration17.75 ± 2.10 vs 17.81 ± 2.06 min, mean power output 222 ± 66 vs 220 ± 65 W, peak heart rate184 ± 9 vs 183 ± 8 beats/min, peak blood lactate12.1 ± 2.6 vs 11.9 ± 2.1 mmol/L, and final rating of perceived exertion 8.4 ± 1.5 vs 8.5 ± 1.6). It is concluded that during exercise at competitive intensity, there is no meaningful effect of music on either performance or physiology. PMID:22868289

  3. Impacts on the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2: Microanalysis and Recognition of Micrometeoroid Compositions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kearsley, A. T.; Ross, D. K.; Anz-Meador, P.; Liou, J. C.; Opiela, J.; Grime, G. W.; Webb, R. P.; Jeynes, C.; Palitsin, V. V.; Colaux, J. L.; Wozniakiewicz, P. J.; Price, M. C.; Burchell, M. J.; Cole, M. J.; Griffin, T.; Gerlach, L.

    2014-01-01

    Postflight surveys of the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) on the Hubble Space Telescope have located hundreds of features on the 2.2 by 0.8 m curved plate, evidence of hypervelocity impact by small particles during 16 years of exposure to space in low Earth orbit (LEO). The radiator has a 100 - 200 micron surface layer of white paint, overlying 4 mm thick Al alloy, which was not fully penetrated by any impact. Over 460 WFPC2 samples were extracted by coring at JSC. About half were sent to NHM in a collaborative program with NASA, ESA and IBC. The structural and compositional heterogeneity at micrometer scale required microanalysis by electron and ion beam microscopes to determine the nature of the impactors (artificial orbital debris, or natural micrometeoroids, MM). Examples of MM impacts are described elsewhere. Here we describe the development of novel electron beam analysis protocols, required to recognize the subtle traces of MM residues.

  4. Effects of training and anthropometric factors on marathon and 100 km ultramarathon race performance

    PubMed Central

    Tanda, Giovanni; Knechtle, Beat

    2015-01-01

    Background Marathon (42 km) and 100 km ultramarathon races are increasing in popularity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential associations of anthropometric and training variables with performance in these long-distance running competitions. Methods Training and anthropometric data from a large cohort of marathoners and 100 km ultramarathoners provided the basis of this work. Correlations between training and anthropometric indices of subjects and race performance were assessed using bivariate and multiple regression analyses. Results A combination of volume and intensity in training was found to be suitable for prediction of marathon and 100 km ultramarathon race pace. The relative role played by these two variables was different, in that training volume was more important than training pace for the prediction of 100 km ultramarathon performance, while the opposite was found for marathon performance. Anthropometric characteristics in terms of body fat percentage negatively affected 42 km and 100 km race performance. However, when this factor was relatively low (ie, less than 15% body fat), the performance of 42 km and 100 km races could be predicted solely on the basis of training indices. Conclusion Mean weekly training distance run and mean training pace were key predictor variables for both marathon and 100 km ultramarathon race performance. Predictive correlations for race performance are provided for runners with a relatively low body fat percentage. PMID:25995653

  5. Neutrophil activation induced by the lectin KM+ involves binding to CXCR2.

    PubMed

    Pereira-da-Silva, Gabriela; Moreno, Andréa N; Marques, Fabiana; Oliver, Constance; Jamur, Maria Célia; Panunto-Castelo, Ademilson; Roque-Barreira, Maria Cristina

    2006-01-01

    The lectin KM+ from Artocarpus integrifolia, also known as artocarpin, induces neutrophil migration by haptotaxis. The interactions of KM+ with both neutrophils and the extracellular matrix depend on the lectin's ability to recognize mannose-containing glycans. In the present study, we characterized the binding of KM+ to human neutrophils and the responses stimulated by this binding. Exposure to KM+ results in cell polarization, formation of a lamellipodium, and induction of deep ruffles on the cell surface. By fluorescence microscopy, we observed that KM+ is distributed homogeneously over the cell surface. KM+/ligand complexes are rapidly internalized, reaching maximum intracellular concentrations at 120 min, and decreasing thereafter. Furthermore, KM+ binding to the surface of human neutrophils is inhibited by the specific sugars, d-mannose or mannotriose. KM+-induced neutrophil migration is inhibited by pertussis toxin as well as by inhibition of CXCR2 activity. These results suggest that the KM+ ligand on the neutrophil surface is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). The results also suggest that neutrophil migration induced by KM+ involves binding to CXCR2.

  6. A 16-year time series of 1 km AVHRR satellite data of the conterminous United States and Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eldenshink, J.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed a 16-year time series of vegetation condition information for the conterminous United States and, Alaska using 1 km Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data. The AVHRR data have been processed using consistent methods that account for radiometric variability due to calibration uncertainty, the effects of the atmosphere on surface radiometric measurements obtained from wide field-of-view observations, and the geometric registration accuracy. The conterminous United States and Alaska data sets have an atmospheric correction for water vapor, ozone, and Rayleigh scattering and include a cloud mask derived using the Clouds from AVHRR (CLAVR) algorithm. In comparison with other AVHRR time series data sets, the conterminous United States and Alaska data are processed using similar techniques. The primary difference is that the conterminous United States and Alaska data are at 1 km resolution, while others are at 8 km resolution. The time series consists of weekly and biweekly maximum normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) composites. ?? 2006 American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing.

  7. Sub-km HIMU-type Enriched Mantle at a Mid-ocean Ridge Far From a Plume: Endeavour, JdFR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, J. B.; Michael, P. J.; Dreyer, B. M.; Clague, D. A.; Ramos, F. C.

    2015-12-01

    The Endeavour segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge is characterized by abundant enriched (E) MORB since the currently inflated axial ridge formed <105 years ago, and by the full range of depleted (D) to E-MORB during the last 2300 years in the km-wide axial graben. Two different styles of enrichment of moderately incompatible elements are present. The first characterized basalts across the ~5 km-wide ridge from >10,000 to ~4000 years ago, whereas the second characterizes more recent basalts erupted in the axial graben. We attribute the first to a higher proportion of pyroxenite to enriched peridotite in the mantle source during ridge inflation. The more recent style reflects the reduced role of pyroxenite after the axial graben formed. The enriched component for both styles is a HIMU-type because it has low 87Sr/86Sr and 176Hf/177Hf relative to 143Nd/144Nd, lower 3He/4He (~8.1 RA) than in the more depleted basalts, shallow slopes on Pb isotope diagrams, and high Nb/LREE ratios. It is regionally widespread and shared with the West Valley and Explorer segments to the north. At least 14 different samplings of mantle components occurred within <1 km of ridge length and width during a time when <1 km of upwelling occurred, indicating that the scale of mantle heterogeneity is <1 km in this setting that is far from a plume.

  8. MODIS 3 Km Aerosol Product: Applications over Land in an Urban/suburban Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munchak, L. A.; Levy, R. C.; Mattoo, S.; Remer, L. A.; Holben, B. N.; Schafer, J. S.; Hostetler, C. A.; Ferrare, R. A.

    2013-01-01

    MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments aboard the Terra and Aqua satellites have provided a rich dataset of aerosol information at a 10 km spatial scale. Although originally intended for climate applications, the air quality community quickly became interested in using the MODIS aerosol data. However, 10 km resolution is not sufficient to resolve local scale aerosol features. With this in mind, MODIS Collection 6 is including a global aerosol product with a 3 km resolution. Here, we evaluate the 3 km product over the Baltimore/Washington D.C., USA, corridor during the summer of 2011, by comparing with spatially dense data collected as part of the DISCOVER-AQ campaign these data were measured by the NASA Langley Research Center airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) and a network of 44 sun photometers (SP) spaced approximately 10 km apart. The HSRL instrument shows that AOD can vary by up to 0.2 within a single 10 km MODIS pixel, meaning that higher resolution satellite retrievals may help to characterize aerosol spatial distributions in this region. Different techniques for validating a high-resolution aerosol product against SP measurements are considered. Although the 10 km product is more statistically reliable than the 3 km product, the 3 km product still performs acceptably, with more than two-thirds of MODIS/SP collocations falling within the expected error envelope with high correlation (R > 0.90). The 3 km product can better resolve aerosol gradients and retrieve closer to clouds and shorelines than the 10 km product, but tends to show more significant noise especially in urban areas. This urban degradation is quantified using ancillary land cover data. Overall, we show that the MODIS 3 km product adds new information to the existing set of satellite derived aerosol products and validates well over the region, but due to noise and problems in urban areas, should be treated with some degree of caution.

  9. Cratering and penetration experiments in Teflon targets at velocities from 1 to 7 km/s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoerz, Friedrich; Bernhard, Ronald P.; Cintala, Mark J.; See, Thomas H.

    1995-01-01

    Approximately 20 sq m of protective thermal blankets, largely composed of Teflon, were retrieved from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) after the spacecraft had spent approximately 5.7 years in space. Examination of these blankets revealed that they contained thousands of hypervelocity impact features ranging from micron-sized craters to penetration holes several millimeters in diameter. We conducted impact experiments in an effort to reproduce such features and to -- hopefully -- understand the relationships between projectile size and the resulting crater or penetration-hole diameter over a wide range of impact velocity. Such relationships are needed to derive the size- and mass-frequency distribution and flux of natural and man-made particles in low-Earth orbit. Powder propellant and light-gas guns were used to launch soda-lime glass spheres of 3.175 mm (1/8 inch) nominal diameter (Dp) into pure Teflon FEP targets at velocities ranging from 1 to 7 km/s. Target thickness (T) was varied over more than three orders of magnitude from infinite halfspace targets (Dp/T less than 0.1) to very thin films (Dp/T greater than 100). Cratering and penetration of massive Teflon targets is dominated by brittle failure and the development of extensive spall zones at the target's front and, if penetrated, the target's rear side. Mass removal by spallation at the back side of Teflon targets may be so severe that the absolute penetration-hole diameter (Dh) can become larger than that of a standard crater (Dc) at relative target thicknesses of Dp/T = 0.6-0.9. The crater diameter is infinite halfspace Teflon targets increases -- at otherwise constant impact conditions -- with encounter velocity by a factor of V0.44. In contrast, the penetration-hole size is very thin foils (Dp/T greater than 50) is essentially unaffected by impact velocity. Penetrations at target thicknesses intermediate to these extremes will scale with variable exponents of V. Our experimental matrix is

  10. Cratering and penetration experiments in teflon targets at velocities from 1 to 7 km/s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horz, Friedrich; Cintala, Mark; Bernhard, Ronald P.; Cardenas, Frank; Davidson, William; Haynes, Gerald; See, Thomas H.; Winkler, Jerry; Knight, Jeffrey

    1994-01-01

    Approximately 20 sq m of protective thermal blankets, largely composed of Teflon, were retrieved from the Long Duration Exposure Facility after the spacecraft spent approximately 5.7 years in space. Examination of these blankets revealed that they contained thousands of hypervelocity impact features ranging from micron-sized craters to penetration holes several millimeters in diameter. We conducted impact experiments to reproduce such features and to understand the relationships between projectile size and the resulting crater or penetration hole diameter over a wide range of impact velocities. Such relationships are needed to derive the size and mass frequency distribution and flux of natural and man-made particles in low-earth orbit. Powder propellant and light-gas guns were used to launch soda-lime glass spheres into pure Teflon targets at velocities ranging from 1 to 7 km/s. Target thickness varied over more than three orders of magnitude from finite halfspace targets to very thin films. Cratering and penetration of massive Teflon targets is dominated by brittle failure and the development of extensive spall zones at the target's front and, if penetrated, the target's rear side. Mass removal by spallation at the back side of Teflon targets may be so severe that the absolute penetration hole diameter can become larger than that of a standard crater. The crater diameter in infinite halfspace Teflon targets increases, at otherwise constant impact conditions, with encounter velocity by a factor of V (exp 0.44). In contrast, the penetration hole size in very thin foils is essentially unaffected by impact velocity. Penetrations at target thicknesses intermediate to these extremes will scale with variable exponents of V. Our experimental matrix is sufficiently systematic and complete, up to 7 km/s, to make reasonable recommendations for velocity-scaling of Teflon craters and penetrations. We specifically suggest that cratering behavior and associated equations apply

  11. MODIS aerosol product at 3 km spatial resolution for urban and air quality studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattoo, S.; Remer, L. A.; Levy, R. C.; Holben, B. N.; Smirnov, A.

    2008-12-01

    The MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the Terra and Aqua satellites has been producing an aerosol product since early 2000. The original product reports aerosol optical depth and a variety of other aerosol parameters at a spatial resolution of 10 km over both land and ocean. The 10 km product is actually constructed from 500 m pixels, which permits a strict selection process to choose the "best" or "cleanest" pixels in each 10 km square for use in the aerosol retrieval. Thus, the original 10 km product provides a useful product, accurate in many applications. However, the 10 km product can miss narrow aerosol plumes and the spatial variability associated with urban air pollution. The MODIS aerosol team will be introducing a finer resolution aerosol product over land regions in the next release of the product (Collection 6). The new product will be produced at 3 km resolution. It is based on the same procedures as the original product and benefits from the same spatial variability criteria for finding and masking cloudy pixels. The 3 km product does capture the higher spatial variability associated with individual aerosol plumes. However, it is noisier than the 10 km product. Both products will be available operationally in Collection 6. The new 3km product offers new synergistic possibilities with PM2.5 monitoring networks, AERONET and various air quality models such as CMAQ.

  12. Potential of KM3NeT to observe galactic neutrino point-like sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trovato, Agata

    2016-07-01

    KM3NeT (http://www.km3net.org">http://www.km3net.org) will be the next-generation cubic-kilometre-scale neutrino telescope to be installed in the depths of the Mediterranean Sea. This location will allow for surveying the Galactic Centre, most of the Galactic Plane as well as a large part of the sky. We report KM3NeT discovery potential for the SNR RXJ1713.7-3946 and the PWN Vela X and its sensitivity to point-like sources with an E-2 spectrum.

  13. Protective effect of kombucha mushroom (KM) tea on phenol-induced cytotoxicity in albino mice.

    PubMed

    Yapar, Kursad; Cavusoglu, Kultigin; Oruc, Ertan; Yalcin, Emine

    2010-09-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the protective role of kombucha mushroom (KM) tea on cytotoxicity induced by phenol (PHE) in mice. We used weight gain and micronucleus (MN) frequency as indicators of cytotoxicity and supported these parameters with pathological findings. The animals were randomly divided into seven groups: (Group I) only tap water (Group II) 1000 microl kg(-1) b. wt KM-tea, (Group III) 35 mg kg(-1) body wt. PHE (Group IV) 35 mg kg(-1) body wt. PHE + 250 microl kg(-1) b. wt KM-tea (Group V) 35 mg kg(-1) b. wt PHE + 500 microl kg(-1) b. wt KM-tea (Group VI) 35 mg kg(-1) b. wt PHE + 750 microl kg(-1) b. wt KM-tea, (Group VII) 35 mg kg(-1) b. wt PHE + 1000 microl kg(-1) b. wt KM-tea, for 20 consecutive days by oral gavage. The results indicated that all KM-tea supplemented mice showed a lower MN frequency than erythrocytes in only PHE-treated group. There was an observable regression on account of lesions in tissues of mice supplemented with different doses of KM-tea in histopathological observations. In conclusion, the KM-tea supplementation decreases cytotoxicity induced by PHE and its protective role is dose-dependent.

  14. Hayward Fault: A 50-km-long Locked Patch Regulates Its Large Earthquake Cycle (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lienkaemper, J. J.; Simpson, R. W.; Williams, P. L.; McFarland, F. S.; Caskey, S. J.

    2010-12-01

    We have documented a chronology of 11 paleoearthquakes on the southern Hayward fault (HS) preceding the Mw6.8, 1868 earthquake. These large earthquakes were both regular and frequent, as indicated by a 0.40 coefficient of variation and mean recurrence interval (MRI) of 161 ± 65 yr (1σ of recurrence intervals). Furthermore, the Oxcal-modeled probability distribution for the average interval resembles a Gaussian rather than a more irregular Brownian passage time distribution. Our revised 3D-modeling of subsurface creep, using newly updated long-term creep rates, now suggests there is only one ~50-km-long locked patch (instead of two), confined laterally between two large patches of deep creep (≥9 km), with an extent consistent with evidence for the 1868 rupture. This locked patch and the fault’s lowest rates of surface creep are approximately centered on HS’s largest bend and a large gabbro body, particularly where the gabbro forms both east and west faces of the fault. We suggest that this locked patch serves as a mechanical capacitor, limiting earthquake size and frequency. The moment accumulation over 161 yr summed on all locked elements of the model reaches Mw6.79, but if half of the moment stored in the creeping elements were to fail dynamically, Mw could reach 6.91. The paleoearthquake histories for nearby faults of the San Francisco Bay region appear to indicate less regular and frequent earthquakes, possibly because most lack the high proportion (40-60%) of aseismic release found on the Hayward fault. The northernmost Hayward fault and Rodgers Creek fault (RCF) appear to rupture only half as frequently as the HS and are separated from the HS by a creep buffer and 5-km wide releasing bend respectively, both tending to limit through-going ruptures. The paleoseismic record allows multi-segment, Hayward fault-RCF ruptures, but does not require it. The 1868 HS rupture preceded the 1906 multi-segmented San Andreas fault (SAF) rupture, perhaps because the HS

  15. Changes in Body Mass, Hydration and Electrolytes Following a 161-km Endurance Race

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: To examine electrolyte concentrations and changes in body mass and total body water (TBW) during a 161-km ultra-marathon, and relate these to finish time and incidence of hyponatremia. Methods: Subjects were recruited from the 161-km 2008 Rio Del Lago Endurance Race. Body mass, TBW, and s...

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of the Bordetella bronchiseptica Swine Isolate KM22.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Tracy L; Shore, Sarah M; Bayles, Darrell O; Register, Karen B; Kingsley, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    Bordetella bronchiseptica swine isolate KM22 has been used in experimental infections of swine as a model of clinical B. bronchiseptica infections within swine herds and to study host-to-host transmission. Here we report the draft genome sequence of KM22. PMID:25013141

  17. Acute prior heavy strength exercise bouts improve the 20-km cycling time trial performance.

    PubMed

    Silva, Renato A S; Silva-Júnior, Fernando L; Pinheiro, Fabiano A; Souza, Patrícia F M; Boullosa, Daniel A; Pires, Flávio O

    2014-09-01

    This study verified if a prior 5 repetition maximum (5RM) strength exercise would improve the cycling performance during a 20-km cycling time trial (TT20km). After determination of the 5RM leg press exercise load, 11 trained cyclists performed a TT20km in a control condition and 10-minute after 4 sets of 5RM strength exercise bouts (potentiation condition). Oxygen uptake, blood lactate concentration, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), and power output data were recorded during the TT20km. Cycling economy index was assessed before the TT20km, and pacing strategy was analyzed assuming a "J-shaped" power output distribution profile. Results were a 6.1% reduction (p ≤ 0.05) in the time to complete the TT20km, a greater cycling economy (p < 0.01), and power output in the first 10% of the TT20km (i.e., trend; p = 0.06) in the potentiation condition. However, no differences were observed in pacing strategy, physiological parameters, and RPE between the conditions. These results suggest that 5RM strength exercise bouts improve the performance in a subsequent TT20km.

  18. A Co-Creation Blended KM Model for Cultivating Critical-Thinking Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Yu-chu

    2012-01-01

    Both critical thinking (CT) and knowledge management (KM) skills are necessary elements for a university student's success. Therefore, this study developed a co-creation blended KM model to cultivate university students' CT skills and to explore the underlying mechanisms for achieving success. Thirty-one university students participated in this…

  19. Draft genome sequence of the Bordetella bronchiseptica swine isolate KM22

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bordetella bronchiseptica swine isolate KM22 has been used in experimental infections of swine as a model of clinical B. bronchiseptica infections within swine herds and to study host-to-host transmission. Here we report the draft genome sequence of KM22....

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of the Bordetella bronchiseptica Swine Isolate KM22.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Tracy L; Shore, Sarah M; Bayles, Darrell O; Register, Karen B; Kingsley, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    Bordetella bronchiseptica swine isolate KM22 has been used in experimental infections of swine as a model of clinical B. bronchiseptica infections within swine herds and to study host-to-host transmission. Here we report the draft genome sequence of KM22.

  1. Running on age in a 15-km road run: minor influence of age on performance.

    PubMed

    Celie, Floortje; Faes, Miriam; Hopman, Maria; Stalenhoef, Anton F H; Rikkert, Marcel G M Olde

    2010-04-01

    The importance of exercise in the elderly is widely recognized, but data on performances and drop-out in short running contests are lacking. This hinders stimulation and coaching of elderly persons in active aging. The aim of the study was to determine age-related changes in running performance in the most popular Dutch road run, and how this is influenced by gender, training, and increased participation rate over the last decade. This is a retrospective analysis of 194,560 participants of a 15-km run from 1995 to 2007. Multiple regression analysis of running time by age, gender, and training was performed. Trends in participation were examined by chi-square tests and ANOVA. Trends in running time and speed were examined by t tests. With aging, running time increased with 0.20% per year (P < 0.001). Running time was on average 13% (P < 0.001) shorter in men than in women and was 15.7% (P < 0.001) shorter in participants who trained on a regular basis. Decline in performance with age was 5.9% larger for men than women (P < 0.01) and 4.5% larger for trained than untrained participants (P < 0.01). Over the last decade, participation numbers increased most for elderly (≥60 years) and female participants, mean running performance declined with 9.9% (P < 0.001). Drop-out number was low at all ages (0.13-0.29%). It appears that aging has only minor negative influences on running performance, which can even be attenuated by training. Our data suggest that exercise by means of running is a safe and rewarding option for improvement of healthy and active aging. PMID:21124752

  2. Seafloor Geodetic Evidence of Episodic Spreading 25 km East of the Juan de Fuca Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadwell, C. D.; Spiess, F. N.; Hildebrand, J. A.; Dragert, H.

    2002-12-01

    The Juan de Fuca plate is a small oceanic plate, with no exposed landmass, encompassed by the larger Pacific and North America plates. Over geologic time, the Pacific and Juan de Fuca (JdF) plates continuously diverge along the Juan de Fuca Ridge (JdFR). GPS combined with acoustic ranging (GPS-A) provides a method to observe present-day seafloor positions with centimeter resolution. From 1994-1999, using an acoustic ranging system that straddled the JdFR Cleft Segment, we observed no spreading across a 700-m wide zone spanning the central cleft. However, seaward of the northern Cascadia Subduction Zone (CSZ), a GPS-A array was observed to move continuously between 1994 to 1996 at about the average geologic rate. These contrasting results suggest that a transition zone must exist between episodic spreading occurring at the JdFR and the continuous motion nearer the CSZ. In this zone the motion would be expected to lag behind that of the bulk of the JdF plate while the ridge crest is locked and then, subsequent to a spreading event at the ridge crest, the velocity in the transition zone would be greater than the plate average to compensate for the loss. To investigate the transition zone, we established a GPS-Acoustic reference site 25 km off-axis from the Cleft array on the east flank of the JdFR. Preliminary results from analyses of the GPS-A data collected in 2000 and 2002, while still characterized by large errors, show that this site may be lagging behind the bulk of the JdF plate. Analysis of additional data, and a scheduled 2003 return to the area, should refine these results. At this time they clearly suggest that the flank region is currently in the portion of the cycle preceding a spreading event. The work was supported by NSF-OCE-9907247.

  3. Design and mass production of the optical modules for KM3NeT-Italia project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonora, Emanuele; Aiello, Sebastiano; Giordano, Valentina

    2016-04-01

    The KM3NeT European project aims at constructing a km3 underwater neutrino telescope in the depths of the Mediterranean Sea. The first phase that is under construction will comprise eight tower-like detection structures (KM3NeT-Italia), which will form the internal core of a km3-scale detector. The detection element of KM3NeT-Italia, the optical module, is made of a 13-inch pressure-resistant glass-vessel that contains a single 10-inch photomultiplier and the relative electronics. The design of the whole optical module, the main results obtained from the massive photomultipliers measurements, and the foremost phases of the mass production procedure performed at the production site of Catania are also presented.

  4. Cape Canaveral, Florida range reference atmosphere 0-70 km altitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tingle, A. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    The RRA contains tabulations for monthly and annual means, standard deviations, skewness coefficients for wind speed, pressure temperature, density, water vapor pressure, virtual temperature, dew-point temperature, and the means and standard deviations for the zonal and meridional wind components and the linear (product moment) correlation coefficient between the wind components. These statistical parameters are tabulated at the station elevation and at 1 km intervals from sea level to 30 km and at 2 km intervals from 30 to 90 km altitude. The wind statistics are given at approximately 10 m above the station elevations and at altitudes with respect to mean sea level thereafter. For those range sites without rocketsonde measurements, the RRAs terminate at 30 km altitude or they are extended, if required, when rocketsonde data from a nearby launch site are available. There are four sets of tables for each of the 12 monthly reference periods and the annual reference period.

  5. Wide-Bandgap Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Chinthavali, M.S.

    2005-11-22

    With the increase in demand for more efficient, higher-power, and higher-temperature operation of power converters, design engineers face the challenge of increasing the efficiency and power density of converters [1, 2]. Development in power semiconductors is vital for achieving the design goals set by the industry. Silicon (Si) power devices have reached their theoretical limits in terms of higher-temperature and higher-power operation by virtue of the physical properties of the material. To overcome these limitations, research has focused on wide-bandgap materials such as silicon carbide (SiC), gallium nitride (GaN), and diamond because of their superior material advantages such as large bandgap, high thermal conductivity, and high critical breakdown field strength. Diamond is the ultimate material for power devices because of its greater than tenfold improvement in electrical properties compared with silicon; however, it is more suited for higher-voltage (grid level) higher-power applications based on the intrinsic properties of the material [3]. GaN and SiC power devices have similar performance improvements over Si power devices. GaN performs only slightly better than SiC. Both SiC and GaN have processing issues that need to be resolved before they can seriously challenge Si power devices; however, SiC is at a more technically advanced stage than GaN. SiC is considered to be the best transition material for future power devices before high-power diamond device technology matures. Since SiC power devices have lower losses than Si devices, SiC-based power converters are more efficient. With the high-temperature operation capability of SiC, thermal management requirements are reduced; therefore, a smaller heat sink would be sufficient. In addition, since SiC power devices can be switched at higher frequencies, smaller passive components are required in power converters. Smaller heat sinks and passive components result in higher-power-density power converters

  6. Variation of electron and ion density distribution along Earth's magnetic field line deduced from whistler mode (wm) sounding of image/rpi satellite below altitude 5000 km

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazra, Susmita

    This thesis provides a detailed survey and analysis of whistler mode (WM) echoes observed by IMAGE/RPI satellite during the years 2000-2005 below the altitude of 5000 km. Approximately 2500 WM echoes have been observed by IMAGE during this period. This includes mostly specularly reflected whistler mode (SRWM) echoes and ~400 magnetospherically reflected whistler mode (MRWM) echoes. Stanford 2D raytracing simulations and the diffusive equilibrium density model have been applied to 82 cases of MRWM echoes, observed during August-December of the year 2005 below 5000 km to determine electron and ion density measurements along Earth's magnetic field line. These are the first results of electron and ion density measurements from WM sounding covering L-shells ~1.6-4, a wide range of geomagnetic conditions (Kp 0+ to 7), and during solar minima (F10.2~70-120) in the altitude range 90 km to 4000 km. The electron and ion density profiles obtained from this analysis were compared with in situ measurements on IMAGE (passive recording; electron density (Ne)), DMSP (~850 km; Ne and ions), CHAMP (~350 km; Ne), Alouette (~500-2000 km; Ne and ions), ISIS-1, 2 (~600-3500 km; Ne, ions), AE (~130-2000 km; ions) satellites, bottom side sounding from nearby ionosonde stations (Ne), and those by GCPM (Global Core Plasma Model), IRI-2012 (International Reference Ionosphere). Based on this analysis it is found that: (1) Ne shows a decreasing trend from L-shell 1.6 to 4 on both the day and night sides of the plasmasphere up to altitude ~1000 km, which is also confirmed by the GCPM and IRI-2012 model. (2) Above ~2000 km altitude, GCPM underestimates Ne by ~30-90% relative to RPI passive measurements, WM sounding results. (3) Below 1500 km, the Ne is higher at day side than night side MLT (Magnetic Local Time). Above this altitude, significant MLT dependence of electron density is not seen. (4) Ion densities from WM sounding measurements are within 10-35% of those from the Alouette, AE, and

  7. Global Investigation of the Mg Atom and ion Layers using SCIAMACHY/Envisat Observations between 70 km and 150 km Altitude and WACCM-MG Model Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langowski, M.; vonSavigny, C.; Burrows, J. P.; Feng, W.; Plane, J. M. C.; Marsh, D. R.; Janches, Diego; Sinnhuber, M.; Aikin, A. C.

    2014-01-01

    Mg and Mg+ concentration fields in the upper mesosphere/lower thermosphere (UMLT) region are retrieved from SCIAMACHY/Envisat limb measurements of Mg and Mg+ dayglow emissions using a 2-D tomographic retrieval approach. The time series of monthly means of Mg and Mg+ for number density as well as vertical column density in different latitudinal regions are shown. Data from the limb mesosphere-thermosphere mode of SCIAMACHY/Envisat are used, which covers the 50 km to 150 km altitude region with a vertical sampling of 3.3 km and a highest latitude of 82 deg. The high latitudes are not covered in the winter months, because there is no dayglow emission during polar night. The measurements were performed every 14 days from mid-2008 until April 2012. Mg profiles show a peak at around 90 km altitude with a density between 750 cm(exp-3) and 2000 cm(exp-3). Mg does not show strong seasonal variation at mid-latitudes. The Mg+ peak occurs 5-15 km above the neutral Mg peak at 95-105 km. Furthermore, the ions show a significant seasonal cycle with a summer maximum in both hemispheres at mid- and high-latitudes. The strongest seasonal variations of the ions are observed at mid-latitudes between 20-40 deg and densities at the peak altitude range from 500 cm(exp-3) to 6000 cm(exp-3). The peak altitude of the ions shows a latitudinal dependence with a maximum at mid-latitudes that is up to 10 km higher than the peak altitude at the equator. The SCIAMACHY measurements are compared to other measurements and WACCM model results. In contrast to the SCIAMACHY results, the WACCM results show a strong seasonal variability for Mg with a winter maximum, which is not observable by SCIAMACHY, and globally higher peak densities. Although the peak densities do not agree the vertical column densities agree, since SCIAMACHY results show a wider vertical profile. The agreement of SCIAMACHY and WACCM results is much better for Mg+, showing the same seasonality and similar peak densities. However

  8. Wide Angle View of Arsia Mons Volcano

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Arsia Mons (above) is one of the largest volcanoes known. This shield volcano is part of an aligned trio known as the Tharsis Montes--the others are Pavonis Mons and Ascraeus Mons. Arsia Mons is rivaled only by Olympus Mons in terms of its volume. The summit of Arsia Mons is more than 9 kilometers (5.6 miles) higher than the surrounding plains. The crater--or caldera--at the volcano summit is approximately 110 km (68 mi) across. This view of Arsia Mons was taken by the red and blue wide angle cameras of the Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) system. Bright water ice clouds (the whitish/bluish wisps) hang above the volcano--a common sight every martian afternoon in this region. Arsia Mons is located at 120o west longitude and 9o south latitude. Illumination is from the left.

  9. Marshall Space Flight Center Propulsion Systems Department (PSD) Knowledge Management (KM) Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caraccioli, Paul; Varnedoe, Tom; Smith, Randy; McCarter, Mike; Wilson, Barry; Porter, Richard

    2006-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's Propulsion Systems Department (PSD) is four months into a fifteen month Knowledge Management (KM) initiative to support enhanced engineering decision making and analyses, faster resolution of anomalies (near-term) and effective, efficient knowledge infused engineering processes, reduced knowledge attrition, and reduced anomaly occurrences (long-term). The near-term objective of this initiative is developing a KM Pilot project, within the context of a 3-5 year KM strategy, to introduce and evaluate the use of KM within PSD. An internal NASA/MSFC PSD KM team was established early in project formulation to maintain a practitioner, user-centric focus throughout the conceptual development, planning and deployment of KM technologies and capabilities within the PSD. The PSD internal team is supported by the University of Alabama's Aging Infrastructure Systems Center of Excellence (AISCE), lntergraph Corporation, and The Knowledge Institute. The principle product of the initial four month effort has been strategic planning of PSD KNI implementation by first determining the "as is" state of KM capabilities and developing, planning and documenting the roadmap to achieve the desired "to be" state. Activities undertaken to suppoth e planning phase have included data gathering; cultural surveys, group work-sessions, interviews, documentation review, and independent research. Assessments and analyses have beon pedormed including industry benchmarking, related local and Agency initiatives, specific tools and techniques used and strategies for leveraging existing resources, people and technology to achieve common KM goals. Key findings captured in the PSD KM Strategic Plan include the system vision, purpose, stakeholders, prioritized strategic objectives mapped to the top ten practitioner needs and analysis of current resource usage. Opportunities identified from research, analyses, cultural1KM surveys and practitioner interviews include

  10. Compilation of known and suspected Quaternary faults within 100 km of Yucca Mountain, Nevada and California

    SciTech Connect

    Piety, L.A.

    1996-12-31

    Geologic data have been compiled for known and suspected Quaternary faults in southern Nevada and southeastern California within about 100 km of the potential repository site at Yucca Mountain. The data set includes regional studies that attempt to identify and evaluate lineaments, scraps, and other possible tectonic landforms of possible Quaternary age, detailed studies that focus on a single fault, and geologic studies that were completed for purposes other than evaluation of Quaternary fault activity. Studies included in this compilation are those that were available as of December 1993. Faults that have known or suspected Quaternary activity are presented on a topographic base map at a scale of 1:250,000. Data for each fault that are pertinent to the assessment of future faulting and earthquake events are assembled on description sheets and summarized on tables. This compilation identifies ten faults within 50 km of the site but outside the site area and an additional fourteen faults between 50 km and 100 km of the site for which evidence for Holocene or late Pleistocene surface rupture has been reported in the literature. The longest and most continuous of these faults is the northwest-striking, 250-km-long Furnace Creek fault (including its possible extension into Fish Lake Valley), which is located about 50 km west of the site. In addition to identifying known or suspected Quaternary faults within about 100 km of the site, this compilation demonstrates the lack of information for most of these faults.

  11. Comparative genomic analysis of the swine pathogen Bordetella bronchisepticastrain KM22.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Tracy L; Shore, Sarah M; Register, Karen B; Bayles, Darrell O; Kingsley, Robert A; Brunelle, Brain W

    2016-01-15

    The well-characterized Bordetella bronchiseptica strain KM22, originally isolated from a pig with atrophic rhinitis, has been used to develop a reproducible swine respiratory disease model. The goal of this study was to identify genetic features unique to KM22 by comparing the genome sequence of KM22 to the laboratory reference strain RB50. To gain a broader perspective of the genetic relationship of KM22 among other B. bronchiseptica strains, selected genes of KM22 were then compared to five other B. bronchiseptica strains isolated from different hosts. Overall, the KM22 genome sequence is more similar to the genome sequences of the strains isolated from animals than the strains isolated from humans. The majority of virulence gene expression in Bordetella is positively regulated by the two-component sensory transduction system BvgAS. bopN, bvgA, fimB, and fimC were the most highly conserved BvgAS-regulated genes present in all seven strains analyzed. In contrast, the BvgAS-regulated genes present in all seven strains with the highest sequence divergence werefimN, fim2, fhaL, andfhaS. A total of eight major fimbrial subunit genes were identified in KM22. Quantitative real-time PCR data demonstrated that seven of the eight fimbrial subunit genes identified in KM22 are expressed and regulated by BvgAS. The annotation of the KM22 genome sequence, coupled with the comparative genomic analyses reported in this study, can be used to facilitate the development of vaccines with improved efficacy towards B. bronchiseptica in swine to decrease the prevalence and disease burden caused by this pathogen. PMID:26711033

  12. Comparative genomic analysis of the swine pathogen Bordetella bronchisepticastrain KM22.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Tracy L; Shore, Sarah M; Register, Karen B; Bayles, Darrell O; Kingsley, Robert A; Brunelle, Brain W

    2016-01-01

    The well-characterized Bordetella bronchiseptica strain KM22, originally isolated from a pig with atrophic rhinitis, has been used to develop a reproducible swine respiratory disease model. The goal of this study was to identify genetic features unique to KM22 by comparing the genome sequence of KM22 to the laboratory reference strain RB50. To gain a broader perspective of the genetic relationship of KM22 among other B. bronchiseptica strains, selected genes of KM22 were then compared to five other B. bronchiseptica strains isolated from different hosts. Overall, the KM22 genome sequence is more similar to the genome sequences of the strains isolated from animals than the strains isolated from humans. The majority of virulence gene expression in Bordetella is positively regulated by the two-component sensory transduction system BvgAS. bopN, bvgA, fimB, and fimC were the most highly conserved BvgAS-regulated genes present in all seven strains analyzed. In contrast, the BvgAS-regulated genes present in all seven strains with the highest sequence divergence werefimN, fim2, fhaL, andfhaS. A total of eight major fimbrial subunit genes were identified in KM22. Quantitative real-time PCR data demonstrated that seven of the eight fimbrial subunit genes identified in KM22 are expressed and regulated by BvgAS. The annotation of the KM22 genome sequence, coupled with the comparative genomic analyses reported in this study, can be used to facilitate the development of vaccines with improved efficacy towards B. bronchiseptica in swine to decrease the prevalence and disease burden caused by this pathogen.

  13. Dosimetry of secondary cosmic radiation up to an altitude of 30 km.

    PubMed

    Wissmann, F; Burda, O; Khurana, S; Klages, T; Langner, F

    2014-10-01

    Dosimetric measurements in the field of secondary cosmic radiation were extensively made during the last years. Since the majority of these measurements were performed on-board passenger aircraft at altitudes between 10 and 12 km, measurements at higher altitudes are desirable for the verification of the legal dose assessment procedures for aircrew. A simple solution is to use a high-altitude balloon that reaches altitudes as high as 30 km. In this work, it is shown that the dose rate profile up to 30 km can be measured with acceptable uncertainties using a Si-detector. PMID:24345463

  14. Dosimetry of secondary cosmic radiation up to an altitude of 30 km.

    PubMed

    Wissmann, F; Burda, O; Khurana, S; Klages, T; Langner, F

    2014-10-01

    Dosimetric measurements in the field of secondary cosmic radiation were extensively made during the last years. Since the majority of these measurements were performed on-board passenger aircraft at altitudes between 10 and 12 km, measurements at higher altitudes are desirable for the verification of the legal dose assessment procedures for aircrew. A simple solution is to use a high-altitude balloon that reaches altitudes as high as 30 km. In this work, it is shown that the dose rate profile up to 30 km can be measured with acceptable uncertainties using a Si-detector.

  15. Characterization of the KM3NeT photomultipliers in the Hellenic Open University

    SciTech Connect

    Bourlis, G.; Avgitas, T.; Tsirigotis, A.; Tzamarias, S.; Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    The KM3NeT neutrino research infrastructure will be a deep sea multidisciplinary observatory in the Mediterranean Sea hosting a neutrino telescope. The Physics Laboratory of the Hellenic Open University is involved in the characterization of the KM3NeT neutrino detector. The present work describes measurement techniques for the functional characteristics of the candidate KM3NeT photomultipliers. These characteristics include dark current, transit time spread, gain slope and single photoelectron characteristics, as well as delayed and after pulses.

  16. Mapping Land Cover Types in Amazon Basin Using 1km JERS-1 Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saatchi, Sassan S.; Nelson, Bruce; Podest, Erika; Holt, John

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, the 100 meter JERS-1 Amazon mosaic image was used in a new classifier to generate a I km resolution land cover map. The inputs to the classifier were 1 km resolution mean backscatter and seven first order texture measures derived from the 100 m data by using a 10 x 10 independent sampling window. The classification approach included two interdependent stages: 1) a supervised maximum a posteriori Bayesian approach to classify the mean backscatter image into 5 general land cover categories of forest, savannah, inundated, white sand, and anthropogenic vegetation classes, and 2) a texture measure decision rule approach to further discriminate subcategory classes based on taxonomic information and biomass levels. Fourteen classes were successfully separated at 1 km scale. The results were verified by examining the accuracy of the approach by comparison with the IBGE and the AVHRR 1 km resolution land cover maps.

  17. Photoelectron-induced waves: A likely source of 150 km radar echoes and enhanced electron modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppenheim, Meers M.; Dimant, Yakov S.

    2016-04-01

    VHF radars near the geomagnetic equator receive coherent reflections from plasma density irregularities between 130 and 160 km in altitude during the daytime. Though researchers first discovered these 150 km echoes over 50 years ago and use them to monitor vertical plasma drifts, the underlying mechanism that creates them remains a mystery. This paper uses large-scale kinetic simulations to show that photoelectrons can drive electron waves, which then enhance ion density irregularities that radars could observe as 150 km echoes. This model explains why 150 km echoes exist only during the day and why they appear at their lowest altitudes near noon. It predicts the spectral structure observed by Chau (2004) and suggests observations that can further evaluate this mechanism. It also shows the types and strength of electron modes that photoelectron-wave interactions generate in a magnetized plasma.

  18. Making sense of KM through users: Information gaps and intellectual property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascual, Roberto de Miguel; Casado, Esther Monterroso

    2014-10-01

    Despite its lack of definition, in a general sense, knowledge management (KM) is consubstantial to contemporary innovation-driven social systems (IDSSs), allowing individuals, organizations, and entire societies, to cope with their intrinsic technical uncertainties more effectively. Before the advent of IDSSs, most of the results of KM were considered naturally inappropriable as well as fractions of the public domain. In such context, patents litigation was almost anecdotic. This paper summarizes various social scientific and humanistic approaches that nourish the emergence of a new KM model in which innovation will be anchored in the claim for universality. Patentability of ICT and services is also considered on the realm of a commons-based KM.

  19. 26 km of offset on the Lake Clark fault since late Eocene time

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haeussler, Peter J.; Saltus, Richard W.

    2005-01-01

    Aeromagnetic data over the Lake Clark Fault reveal a north-trending band of magnetic anomalies that are right-laterally offset about 26 km across the fault. The magnetic anomalies correlate spatially with a belt of dated 34-39-Ma granitic plutons. Thus, the Lake Clark Fault has had ~26 km of right-lateral offset in the past 34-39 Ma. The Castle Mountain Fault, which lies along the strike of the Lake Clark Fault to the east-northeast, must have had a similar or, possibly, greater amount of offset. We infer the presence of an additional right-lateral strike-slip fault about 35 km northwest of the Lake Clark Fault, herein named the 'Telequana Fault,' on the basis of 11 km of right-lateral offset of a north-trending band of magnetic anomalies.

  20. KM3NeT tower data acquisition and data transport electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolau, C. A.; Ameli, F.; Biagioni, A.; Capone, A.; Frezza, O.; Lonardo, A.; Masullo, R.; Mollo, C. M.; Orlando, A.; Simeone, F.; Vicini, P.

    2016-04-01

    In the framework of the KM3Net European project, the production stage of a large volume underwater neutrino telescope has started. The forthcoming installation includes 8 towers and 24 strings, that will be installed 100 km off-shore Capo Passero (Italy) at 3500 m depth. The KM3NeT tower, whose layout is strongly based on the NEMO Phase-2 prototype tower deployed in March 2013, has been re-engineered and partially re-designed in order to optimize production costs, power consumption, and usability. This contribution gives a description of the main electronics, including front-end, data transport and clock distribution system, of the KM3NeT tower detection unit.

  1. Heavy metal effects on the biodegradation of fluorene by Sphingobacterium sp. KM-02 isolated from PAHs-contaminated mine soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, I.; Chon, C.; Jung, K.; Kim, J.

    2012-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds (PAHs) are widely distributed in the environment and occur ubiquitously in fossil fuels as well as in products of incomplete combustion and are known to be strongly toxic, often with carcinogenic and mutagenic properties. Fluorene is one of the 16 PAHs included in the list of priority pollutants of the Environmental Protection Agency. The fluorene-degrading bacterial strain Sphingobacterium sp. KM-02 was isolated from PAHs-contaminated soil near an abandoned mine impacted area by selective enrichment techniques. Fluorene added to the Sphingobacterium sp. KM-02 culture as sole carbon and energy source was 78.4% removed within 120 h. A fluorene degradation pathway is tentatively proposed based on mass spectrometric identification of the metabolic intermediates 9-fluorenone, 4-hydroxy-9-fluorenone, and 8-hydroxy-3,4-benzocoumarin. Further the ability of Sphingobacterium sp. KM-02 to bioremediate 100 mg/kg fluorene in mine soil was examined by composting under laboratory conditions. Treatment of microcosm soil with the strain KM-02 for 20 days resulted in a 65.6% reduction in total amounts. These results demonstrate that Sphingobacterium sp. KM-02 could potentially be used in the bioremediation of fluorene from contaminated soil. Mine impacted area comprises considerable amounts of heavy metals such as cadmium, lead, mercury, arsenic, and copper. Although some of these metals are necessary for biological life, excessive quantities often result in the inhibition of essential biological reactions via numerous pathways. A number of reports collectively show that various metals, such as Al, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Hg at a range of concentrations have adverse effects on the degradation of organic compounds. However, at present there is only limited information on the effect of individual heavy metals on the biological degradation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) including fluorene. Moreover, heavy metal effects were not

  2. 75 FR 10658 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 737-100, -200, -200C, -300, -400, and -500...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ... fuselage skin at certain lap joints, butt joints, external repair doublers, and other areas; and related... detailed analysis of fuselage skin cracks adjacent to the skin lap joints on airplanes that had scribe... airplane groupings. We are issuing this AD to prevent rapid decompression of the airplane due to...

  3. 76 FR 72858 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 737-100, -200, -200C, -300, -400, and -500...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... reports of cracking of the STA 348.2 frame above the two outboard fasteners attaching the frame inner chord and door stop fittings, and in the outboard chord at stringer S-16L. We have also received reports... the overall regulatory, economic, environmental, and energy aspects of this proposed AD. We...

  4. 75 FR 1527 - Special Conditions: Bombardier, Inc., Model DHC-8-100, -200, -300, and -400 Series Airplanes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-12

    ... comment document, published in the Federal Register on June 5, 2009 (74 FR 26946), which issued special... (425) 227-1230; or e-mail: Michael.Menkin@faa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The document designated as ``Docket No. NM405, Special Conditions No. 25-283-SC'' was published in the Federal Register...

  5. 76 FR 63229 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 737-100, -200, -200C, -300, -400, and -500...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-12

    .... ``CENTER WING (AND BOEING AUXILIARY) TANK FUEL PUMPS Intentional dry running of a center wing or auxiliary... appropriate FAA Principal Operations Inspector. ``CENTER WING (AND BOEING AUXILIARY) TANK FUEL PUMPS Center... to monitor low pressure lights. For ground operation, center wing (or auxiliary) tank fuel...

  6. 75 FR 43803 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 737-100, -200, -200C, -300, -400, and -500...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ..., 2010. On December 4, 2003 (68 FR 67027, December 1, 2003), the Director of the Federal Register... include an AD that supersedes AD 2003-24-08, Amendment 39-13377 (68 FR 67027, December 1, 2003). The... published in the Federal Register on March 1, 2010 (75 FR 9137). That NPRM proposed to continue to...

  7. 75 FR 9137 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 737-100, -200, -200C, -300, -400, and -500...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-01

    ... spindles, and to prevent severe flap asymmetry, which could result in reduced control or loss of... 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. For service information identified in this... other information. The street address for the Docket Office (telephone 800-647-5527) is in the...

  8. 75 FR 48620 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 737-100, -200, -200C, -300, -400, and -500...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-11

    ... November 7, 2003, we issued related AD 2003-03-15 R1, Amendment 39-13366 (68 FR 64802, November 17, 2003... June 15, 2006, we issued related AD 2006-13-13, Amendment 39- 14666 (71 FR 35781, June 22, 2006). (A correction of that AD was published in the Federal Register on July 3, 2006 (71 FR 37980).) That AD...

  9. 76 FR 6529 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 737-100, -200, -200C, -300, -400, and -500...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-07

    ... (75 FR 48620). That NPRM proposed to require installing two warning level indicator lights on the P2-2... 12866, (2) Is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... the flightcrew due to hypoxia (lack of oxygen in body), and consequent loss of control of the...

  10. 76 FR 47522 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 737-100, -200, -200C, -300, -400, and -500...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-05

    .... Discussion On June 5, 1995, we issued AD 95-12-17, amendment 39-9268 (60 FR 36981, July 19, 1995), for... a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26..., Amendment 39-9268 (60 FR 36981, July 19, 1995), and adding the following new AD: The Boeing Company:...

  11. 76 FR 3856 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 737-100, -200, -200C, -300, -400, and -500...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-21

    ...'' (66 FR 23086, May 7, 2001). In addition to new airworthiness standards for transport airplanes and new... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), and 3. Will not have a significant economic... proposed AD would result in all airplanes having new relays with a ground fault interrupter (GFI)...

  12. 76 FR 33988 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 737-100, -200, -200C, -300, -400, and -500...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-10

    ... (76 FR 3856). That NPRM proposed to require, depending on airplane configuration, doing certain wiring... 12866, (2) Is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... applicable, with new relays having a ground fault interrupter (GFI) feature, performing certain...

  13. 75 FR 8554 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 747-100, -200B, and -200F Series Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... August 4, 1994, we issued AD 94-17-01, Amendment 39-8996 (59 FR 41653, August 15, 1994), for certain... ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3... Amendment 39-8996 (59 FR 41653, August 15, 1994) and adding the following new AD: The Boeing Company:...

  14. 75 FR 38394 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 747-100, -200B, and -200F Series Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... could lead to the rapid decompression of the airplane and the inability of the structure to carry fail... and the inability of the structure to carry fail-safe loads. Compliance (f) You are responsible for...: Data & Services Management, P.O. Box 3707, MC 2H-65, Seattle, Washington 98124-2207; telephone 206-...

  15. Hydraulic fracturing in situ stress measurements to 2.1 km depth at Cajon Pass, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Healy, J.H.; Zoback, M.D.

    1988-01-01

    Stress measurements to 2.1 km reveal stress changes with depth that cannot be explained by an elastic response to uniform crustal strain. The data at about 1 km depth suggest that the stress is limited by the frictional strength of rock and is perturbed at greater depths by faults which intersect the borehole. The stress data indicate that there is little or no right-lateral shear stress acting on planes parallel to the San Andreas Fault. -Authors

  16. Using of Optic Fiber Links for Reference Frequency Transmission Over a Distance up to 85 km

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorova, D. M.; Malymon, A. N.; Balaev, R. I.; Kurchanov, A. F.; Troyan, V. I.

    A scheme of standard RF signal transmission over an electronically stabilized fiber link is described in the paper. The system was tested for fiber link length up to 85 km. In this scheme an intermediate controlled crystal oscillator of 100 MHz was used as a compensation node. Experimental results of the 100 MHz RF signal transmission over the 85 km optical fiber are presented. It is demonstrated that using a system of electronic compensation provides significant advantages in spatially separated standards comparison.

  17. Speed associated with plasma pH, oxygen content, total protein and urea in an 80 km race.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, R M; Hess, T M; Williams, C A; Kronfeld, D S; Griewe-Crandell, K M; Waldron, J E; Graham-Thiers, P M; Gay, L S; Splan, R K; Saker, K E; Harris, P A

    2002-09-01

    To test the hypothesis that endurance performance may be related quantitatively to changes in blood, we measured selected blood variables then determined their reference ranges and associations with speed during an 80 km race. The plan had 46 horses in a 2 x 2 factorial design testing a potassium-free electrolyte mix and a vitamin supplement. Blood samples were collected before the race, at 21, 37, 56 and 80 km, and 20 min after finishing, for assay of haematocrit, plasma pH, pO2, pCO2, [Na+], [K+], [Ca++], [Mg++], [Cl-], lactate, glucose, urea, cortisol, alpha-tocopherol, ascorbate, creatine kinase, aspartate amino transferase, lipid hydroperoxides, total protein, albumin and creatinine, and erythrocyte glutathione and glutathione peroxidase. Data from 34 finishers were analysed statistically. Reference ranges for resting and running horses were wide and overlapping and, therefore, limiting with respect to evaluation of individual horses. Speed correlations were most repeatable, with variables reflecting blood oxygen transport (enabling exercise), acidity and electrolytes (limiting exercise) and total protein (enabling then, perhaps, limiting). Stepwise regressions also included plasma urea concentration (limiting). The association of speed with less plasma acidity and urea suggests the potential for fat adaptation and protein restriction in endurance horses, as found previously in Arabians performing repeated sprints. Conditioning horses fed fat-fortified and protein-restricted diets may not only improve performance but also avoid grain-associated disorders.

  18. Emissions from an international airport increase particle number concentrations 4-fold at 10 km downwind.

    PubMed

    Hudda, Neelakshi; Gould, Tim; Hartin, Kris; Larson, Timothy V; Fruin, Scott A

    2014-06-17

    We measured the spatial pattern of particle number (PN) concentrations downwind from the Los Angeles International Airport (LAX) with an instrumented vehicle that enabled us to cover larger areas than allowed by traditional stationary measurements. LAX emissions adversely impacted air quality much farther than reported in previous airport studies. We measured at least a 2-fold increase in PN concentrations over unimpacted baseline PN concentrations during most hours of the day in an area of about 60 km(2) that extended to 16 km (10 miles) downwind and a 4- to 5-fold increase to 8-10 km (5-6 miles) downwind. Locations of maximum PN concentrations were aligned to eastern, downwind jet trajectories during prevailing westerly winds and to 8 km downwind concentrations exceeded 75 000 particles/cm(3), more than the average freeway PN concentration in Los Angeles. During infrequent northerly winds, the impact area remained large but shifted to south of the airport. The freeway length that would cause an impact equivalent to that measured in this study (i.e., PN concentration increases weighted by the area impacted) was estimated to be 280-790 km. The total freeway length in Los Angeles is 1500 km. These results suggest that airport emissions are a major source of PN in Los Angeles that are of the same general magnitude as the entire urban freeway network. They also indicate that the air quality impact areas of major airports may have been seriously underestimated. PMID:24871496

  19. Emissions from an international airport increase particle number concentrations 4-fold at 10 km downwind.

    PubMed

    Hudda, Neelakshi; Gould, Tim; Hartin, Kris; Larson, Timothy V; Fruin, Scott A

    2014-06-17

    We measured the spatial pattern of particle number (PN) concentrations downwind from the Los Angeles International Airport (LAX) with an instrumented vehicle that enabled us to cover larger areas than allowed by traditional stationary measurements. LAX emissions adversely impacted air quality much farther than reported in previous airport studies. We measured at least a 2-fold increase in PN concentrations over unimpacted baseline PN concentrations during most hours of the day in an area of about 60 km(2) that extended to 16 km (10 miles) downwind and a 4- to 5-fold increase to 8-10 km (5-6 miles) downwind. Locations of maximum PN concentrations were aligned to eastern, downwind jet trajectories during prevailing westerly winds and to 8 km downwind concentrations exceeded 75 000 particles/cm(3), more than the average freeway PN concentration in Los Angeles. During infrequent northerly winds, the impact area remained large but shifted to south of the airport. The freeway length that would cause an impact equivalent to that measured in this study (i.e., PN concentration increases weighted by the area impacted) was estimated to be 280-790 km. The total freeway length in Los Angeles is 1500 km. These results suggest that airport emissions are a major source of PN in Los Angeles that are of the same general magnitude as the entire urban freeway network. They also indicate that the air quality impact areas of major airports may have been seriously underestimated.

  20. Daytime zonal drifts in the ionospheric E and 150 km regions estimated using EAR observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peddapati, PavanChaitanya; Otsuka, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Mamoru; Yokoyama, Tatsuhiro; Patra, Amit

    2016-07-01

    The Equatorial Atmosphere Radar (EAR), located at Kototabang (0.2o S, 100.32o E, mag. lat. 10.36o S), Indonesia, is capable of detecting both E region and 150 km echoes during daytime. We have conducted multi-beam observations using the EAR during daytime covering all seasons to study seasonal variations of these echoes and their dynamics. Given the facts that drifts at the 150 km region are governed primarily by electric field, drifts at the E region are governed by both electric field and neutral wind, simultaneous observations of drifts in both E and 150 km regions would help understand their variations. In this paper we present local time and seasonal variations of zonal drifts in the E and 150 km regions estimated using multi-beam observations. Zonal drifts (positive eastward) in the E and 150 km regions are found to be in the range of -10 to -60 m/s and -40 to 80 m/s, respectively. In the E region, zonal drifts show height reversal and temporal variations having tidal signature and noticeable seasonal variations. Zonal drifts in the 150 km region also show noticeable height and seasonal variations. These results are compared with model drifts and evaluated in terms of electric field and neutral wind.

  1. Mean winds of the mesosphere (60-80 km), as measured by MF radars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manson, A. H.; Meek, C. E.; Vincent, R. A.; Smith, M. J.

    1985-07-01

    Winds data obtained from medium frequency (MF) radars for heights of 60 to 80 km are discussed: locations are Saskatoon (52 N, 107 W), Christchurch (44 S, 173 W), Adelside (35 S, 183 E) and Townsville (20 S, 147 E). Whereas well defined summer easterly jets centered near 70 km develop in summer, no regular buildups and decays are observed in winter at midlatitudes. Part of this variability can be associated with stratospheric warmings, which develop into breakdown of the polar vortex in the Northern Hemisphere. Amplitude and phase profiles of the annual and semiannual oscillations are also presented. The radar winds from Saskatoon are compared and combined with rocket derived winds up to 60 km from Primrose Lake (54 N, 110 W) to give consistent cross sections from 20 to 110 km. The SH radar winds are compared with a model based on rocket winds which extends up to 80 km. The latter evidence considerable smoothing, as no winter variability is evident. The other consistent difference is that heights of the summer easterly maxima for the model are 5 to 10 km lower than the radar winds at all latitudes.

  2. Ribulose Diphosphate Carboxylase from Freshly Ruptured Spinach Chloroplasts Having an in Vivo Km[CO(2)].

    PubMed

    Bahr, J T; Jensen, R G

    1974-01-01

    The properties of a form of ribulose diphosphate carboxylase having a high affinity for CO(2) have been studied. Its apparent Km(HCO(3) (-)) of 0.5 to 0.8 mm (pH 7.8) and calculated Km(CO(2)) of 11 to 18 mum are comparable to the values exhibited by intact chloroplasts during photosynthesis. This form of the enzyme was released from chloroplasts in hypotonic media and was unstable, rapidly converting to a form having a high Km(HCO(3) (-)) of 20 to 25 mm similar to that for the purified enzyme. Incubation of the enzyme with MgCl(2) and HCO(3) (-) yielded a third form with an intermediate Km(HCO(3) (-)) of 2.5 to 3.0 mm.The low Km form had sufficient activity both at air levels of CO(2) and at saturating CO(2) to account for the rates of photosynthesis by intact chloroplasts. The low Km form could be stabilized in the presence of ribose 5-phosphate, adenosine triphosphate, and MgCl(2), at low temperatures for up to 2 hours.

  3. Evaluation of the 29-km Eta Model. Part 1; Objective Verification at Three Selected Stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nutter, Paul A.; Manobianco, John; Merceret, Francis J. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes an objective verification of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) 29-km eta model from May 1996 through January 1998. The evaluation was designed to assess the model's surface and upper-air point forecast accuracy at three selected locations during separate warm (May - August) and cool (October - January) season periods. In order to enhance sample sizes available for statistical calculations, the objective verification includes two consecutive warm and cool season periods. Systematic model deficiencies comprise the larger portion of the total error in most of the surface forecast variables that were evaluated. The error characteristics for both surface and upper-air forecasts vary widely by parameter, season, and station location. At upper levels, a few characteristic biases are identified. Overall however, the upper-level errors are more nonsystematic in nature and could be explained partly by observational measurement uncertainty. With a few exceptions, the upper-air results also indicate that 24-h model error growth is not statistically significant. In February and August 1997, NCEP implemented upgrades to the eta model's physical parameterizations that were designed to change some of the model's error characteristics near the surface. The results shown in this paper indicate that these upgrades led to identifiable and statistically significant changes in forecast accuracy for selected surface parameters. While some of the changes were expected, others were not consistent with the intent of the model updates and further emphasize the need for ongoing sensitivity studies and localized statistical verification efforts. Objective verification of point forecasts is a stringent measure of model performance, but when used alone, is not enough to quantify the overall value that model guidance may add to the forecast process. Therefore, results from a subjective verification of the meso-eta model over the Florida peninsula are

  4. Development of Wide Band Feeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ujihara, H.; Ichikawa, R.

    2012-12-01

    Wide Band feeds are being developed at NICT, NAOJ, and some universities in Japan for VLBI2010, SKA, and MARBLE. SKA, the Square Kilometre Array, will comprise thousands of radio telescopes with square kilometer aperture size for radio astronomy. MARBLE consists of small portable VLBI stations developed at NICT and GSI in Japan. They all need wide band feeds with a greater than 1:10 frequency ratio. Thus we have been studying wide band feeds with dual linear polarization for these applications.

  5. Wide swath and high resolution optical imaging satellite of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Haruyoshi; Kato, Eri; Imai, Hiroko; Sagisaka, Masakazu

    2016-05-01

    The "Advanced optical satellite" (tentative name) is a follow-on mission from ALOS. Mission objectives of the advanced optical satellite is to build upon the existing advanced techniques for global land observation using optical sensors, as well as to promote data utilization for social needs. Wide swath and high resolution optical imager onboard the advanced optical satellite will extend the capabilities of earlier ALOS missions. The optical imager will be able to collect high-resolution (< 1 m) and wide-swath (70 km) images with high geo-location accuracy. This paper introduces a conceptual design of the advanced optical satellite.

  6. Olivine-wadsleyite-pyroxene topotaxy: Evidence for coherent nucleation and diffusion-controlled growth at the 410-km discontinuity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smyth, Joseph R.; Miyajima, Nobuyoshi; Huss, Gary R.; Hellebrand, Eric; Rubie, David C.; Frost, Daniel J.

    2012-06-01

    We have synthesized a hydrous peridotite-composition sample at 13 GPa and 1400 °C with co-existing coarse grains (˜100 μm) of olivine, wadsleyite, clinoenstatite, plus melt in a multi-anvil press. Some of the olivine grains contain fine-scale (0.5-2 μm-wide) lamellae of wadsleyite and clinoenstatite that likely resulted from transformation caused by small temperature fluctuations during the four-hour experiment. Phase compositions were determined by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). The olivine ranges from Fo94 to Fo90 in composition and contains about 4000 ppm wt. H2O. The wadsleyite is Fo87±1 in composition and contains about 10,000 ppm wt. H2O. The clinoenstatite is En93±1 in composition and about 1400 ppm wt. H2O. Transmission electron microscopy of the wadsleyite lamellae and host olivine shows that the two phases share their close-packed oxygen planes so that the wadsleyite lamellae are nearly planar and perpendicular to the [1 0 0] of olivine. The wadsleyite lamellae thus have their {1 0 1} and {0 2 1} planes parallel to the (1 0 0) plane of olivine. Additionally, larger incoherent grains of wadsleyite in olivine are found. Dislocation microtexures in the olivine and iron concentration profiles across the lamella interface suggest heterogeneous nucleation and diffusion-controlled growth of coherent wadsleyite lamellae on defects in the olivine followed by the nucleation of faster-growing incoherent grains on the lamellae. The results show that, under hydrous conditions, the olivine-wadsleyite transformation occurs close to equilibrium at conditions of the 410-km discontinuity. Furthermore, inheritance of crystallographic preferred orientations (and therefore seismic anisotropy) across the 410-km discontinuity is unlikely to be significant. In addition, hydrogen distributions among the various phases indicate that dehydration by melt extraction at 410 km will be inefficient and that H contents greater than

  7. Wide aperture seismic recording in offshore west Sicily and Bolivia

    SciTech Connect

    Tilander, N.G.; Lattimore, R.K.

    1994-12-31

    Seismic operations using the Wide Aperture Recording (WAR) technique were carried out in offshore west Sicily (16.5 km offsets) and in the Sub-Andean Cordillera of Bolivia (9.0 km offsets) where conventional offset data have traditionally proved inadequate for imaging complex subsurface structures. In both cases, noise-free wide aperture events were visible at long offsets, and were successfully stacked using both hyperbolic and linear moveout. In the Sicily datasets, the resulting seismic images disagree with earlier structural interpretations, but the lack of reliable ``calibration`` data in terms of well control or usable conventional seismic data make final evaluation and interpretation of the Sicily wide aperture data ambiguous. In Bolivia good quality seismic data are present across a portion of the WAR survey; the results show that the wide aperture technique may produce a valid structural image, provided the subsurface geometries are sufficiently broad and shallow. For tight structures, the technique is unlikely to produce valid images. In general, the authors` studies show that considerable effort is required at the data processing and interpretation stage, including full waveform and ray-trace modeling, in order to identify event arrivals and to attempt to validate the wide aperture structural images. Reliable calibration data in the form of well control or conventional seismic data are needed in order to provide an understanding of the WAR results.

  8. The isolated 678-km deep 30 May 2015 MW 7.9 Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, L.; Lay, T.; Zhan, Z.; Kanamori, H.; Hao, J.

    2015-12-01

    Deep-focus earthquakes, located 300 to 700 km below the Earth's surface within sinking slabs of relatively cold oceanic lithosphere, are mysterious phenomena. Seismic radiation from deep events is essentially indistinguishable from that for shallow stick-slip frictional-sliding earthquakes, but the confining pressure and temperature are so high for deep-focus events that a distinct process is likely needed to account for their abrupt energy release. The largest recorded deep-focus earthquake (MW 7.9) in the Izu-Bonin slab struck on 30 May 2015 beneath the Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands, isolated from prior seismicity by over 100 km in depth, and followed by only 2 small aftershocks. Globally, this is the deepest (678 km) major (MW > 7) earthquake in the seismological record. Seismicity indicates along-strike contortion of the Izu-Bonin slab, with horizontal flattening near a depth of 550 km in the Izu region and progressive steepening to near-vertical toward the south above the location of the 2015 event. Analyses of a large global data set of P, SH and pP seismic phases using short-period back-projection, subevent directivity, and broadband finite-fault inversion indicate that the mainshock ruptured a shallowly-dipping fault plane with patchy slip that spread over a distance of ~40 km with variable expansion rate (~5 km/s down-dip initially, ~3 km/s up-dip later). During the 17 s rupture duration the radiated energy was ~3.3 x 1016 J and the stress drop was ~38 MPa. The radiation efficiency is moderate (0.34), intermediate to that of the 1994 Bolivia and 2013 Sea of Okhotsk MW 8.3 earthquakes, indicating a continuum of processes. The isolated occurrence of the event suggests that localized stress concentration associated with the pronounced deformation of the Izu-Bonin slab likely played a role in generating this major earthquake.

  9. The Trigger and Data Acquisition System for the KM3NeT neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellegrino, Carmelo; Chiarusi, Tommaso

    2016-04-01

    KM3NeT is a large research infrastructure in the Mediterranean Sea that includes a network of deep-sea neutrino telescopes. The telescopes consist of vertical detection units carrying optical modules, whose separation is optimised according to the different ranges of neutrino energy that shall be explored. Two building blocks, each one made of 115 detection units, will be deployed at the KM3NeT-IT site, about 80 km from Capo Passero, Italy, to search for high-energy neutrino sources (ARCA); another building block will be installed at the KM3NeT-Fr site, about 40 km from Toulon, France, to study the hierarchy of neutrino masses (ORCA). The modular design of the KM3NeT allows for a progressive implementation and data taking even with an incomplete detector. The same scalable design is used for the Trigger and Data Acquisition Systems (TriDAS). In order to reduce the complexity of the hardware inside the optical modules, the "all data to shore" concept is adopted. This implies that the throughput is dominated by the optical background due to the decay of 40K dissolved in the sea water and to the bursts of bioluminescence, about 3 orders of magnitude larger than the physics signal, ranging from 20 Gbps to several hundreds Gbps, according to the number of detection units. In addition, information from the acoustic positioning system of the detection units must be transmitted. As a consequence of the detector construction, the on-shore DAQ infrastructure must be expanded to handle an increasing data-rate and implement an efficient fast data filtering for both the optical and acoustic channels. In this contribution, the Trigger and Data Acquisition System designed for the Phase 1 of KM3NeT and its future expansion are presented. The network infrastructure, the shore computing resources and the developed applications for handling, filtering and monitoring the optical and acoustic data-streams are described.

  10. Estimation and Attribution of the Temperature Variances in Height Range 60~140 km

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zeyu

    The SABER/TIMED temperatures collected during 2002 2006 are used to estimate for height range 60 120 km the variances of temperature (Temp-VARs) that are contributed from nonstationary perturbations. The estimation results disclose that the height range 60 140 km can be separated into two regions that are characterized by significant differences of the attributions of the Temp-VARs. In the region below 100 km height, the Temp-VARs generally increase with height, the corresponding standard deviations of temperature (Temp-SDEVs) ranges from 4 K at 60 km and 18 K at 100 km. The regions exhibiting intense Temp-VARs appear at the equator and the extra-tropics of both hemispheres. Moreover, these non-stationary temperature disturbances can be accounted primarily by the tidal variances that are derived independently by using the same data-set, in particular by the migrating diurnal, semidiurnal, and terdiurnal tide. It is also found that the region above 100 km is characterized by surprisingly large Temp-VARs with the corresponding Temp-SDEVs greater than 30 K. In a height-latitude cross-section, a stagnant maximum of Temp-SDEVs embraced by the 30-K contour remains over the course of a year at the Equator in a narrow height range 110 125 km. At the same height in Southern hemisphere, the same kind maxima appears at latitudes from the extra-tropics to polar region except during the June solstice. In contrast, the maxima appearing in Northern hemisphere high latitudes exhibits intra-seasonal variations, there such maximum are seen during the course of a year. Further investigation results confirm that the large Temp-VARs have no relevance to the tidal variances, implying the control from other processes, e.g., non-stationary planetary waves. The details will be introduced in the presentation.

  11. UNUSUALLY WIDE BINARIES: ARE THEY WIDE OR UNUSUAL?

    SciTech Connect

    Kraus, Adam L.; Hillenbrand, Lynne A. E-mail: lah@astro.caltech.ed

    2009-10-01

    We describe an astrometric and spectroscopic campaign to confirm the youth and association of a complete sample of candidate wide companions in Taurus and Upper Sco. Our survey found 15 new binary systems (three in Taurus and 12 in Upper Sco) with separations of 3''-30'' (500-5000 AU) among all of the known members with masses of 2.5-0.012 M {sub sun}. The total sample of 49 wide systems in these two regions conforms to only some expectations from field multiplicity surveys. Higher mass stars have a higher frequency of wide binary companions, and there is a marked paucity of wide binary systems near the substellar regime. However, the separation distribution appears to be log-flat, rather than declining as in the field, and the mass ratio distribution is more biased toward similar-mass companions than the initial mass function or the field G-dwarf distribution. The maximum separation also shows no evidence of a limit at approx<5000 AU until the abrupt cessation of any wide binary formation at system masses of approx0.3 M {sub sun}. We attribute this result to the post-natal dynamical sculpting that occurs for most field systems; our binary systems will escape to the field intact, but most field stars are formed in denser clusters and undergo significant dynamical evolution. In summary, only wide binary systems with total masses approx<0.3 M {sub sun} appear to be 'unusually wide'.

  12. Acute Impact of Inhaled Short Acting B2-Agonists on 5 Km Running Performance

    PubMed Central

    Dickinson, John; Hu, Jiu; Chester, Neil; Loosemore, Mike; Whyte, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Whilst there appears to be no ergogenic effect from inhaled salbutamol no study has investigated the impact of the acute inhalation of 1600 µg, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) daily upper limit, on endurance running performance. To investigate the ergogenic effect of an acute inhalation of short acting β2-agonists at doses up to 1600 µg on 5 km time trial performance and resultant urine concentration. Seven male non-asthmatic runners (mean ± SD; age 22.4 ± 4.3 years; height 1.80 ± 0.07 m; body mass 76.6 ± 8.6 kg) provided written informed consent. Participants completed six 5 km time-trials on separate days (three at 18 °C and three at 30 °C). Fifteen minutes prior to the initiation of each 5 km time-trial participants inhaled: placebo (PLA), 800 µg salbutamol (SAL800) or 1600 µg salbutamol (SAL1600). During each 5 km time-trial HR, VO2, VCO2, VE, RPE and blood lactate were measured. Urine samples (90 ml) were collected between 30-180 minutes post 5 km time-trial and analysed for salbutamol concentration. There was no significant difference in total 5 km time between treatments (PLA 1714.7 ± 186.2 s; SAL800 1683.3 ± 179.7 s; SAL1600 1683.6 ± 190.7 s). Post 5 km time-trial salbutamol urine concentration between SAL800 (122.96 ± 69.22 ug·ml-1) and SAL1600 (574.06 ± 448.17 ug·ml-1) were not significantly different. There was no improvement in 5 km time-trial performance following the inhalation of up to 1600 µg of salbutamol in non-asthmatic athletes. This would suggest that the current WADA guidelines, which allow athletes to inhale up to 1600 µg per day, is sufficient to avoid pharmaceutical induced performance enhancement. Key points Inhaling up to 1600 µg of Salbutamol does not result in improved 5 km time trial performance. The position of Salbutamol on the World Anti-Doping Agency list of prohibited appears justified. Athletes who use up to 1600 µg Salbutamol in one day need to review their therapy as it would suggest their respiratory

  13. Operation and results of the prototype KM3NeT detection unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biagi, Simone

    2016-07-01

    KM3NeT will be a km3-scale neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. The detector will consist of blocks of about one hundred detection units. Each detection unit will host 18 digital optical modules, connected along a 700 m-long vertical structure. Electro-optical cables allow for data transmission and power supply to the optical modules. The optical module comprises 31 photomultiplier tubes of 3'', instruments to monitor environmental variables and electronic boards to communicate onshore and operate the photomultipliers. A prototype detection unit has been deployed in May 2014 at the KM3NeT-It installation site 80 km SE offshore of Capo Passero, Sicily. This prototype allowed to test the deployment procedures, the mechanics and the electronic of the apparatus, the data taking and analysis procedures. A general description of the detector and some results of the prototype are presented. The first detection unit of the KM3NeT neutrino telescope will be deployed and become operative by the end of 2015.

  14. M. tuberculosis ferritin (Rv3841): Potential involvement in Amikacin (AK) & Kanamycin (KM) resistance.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Divakar; Lata, Manju; Faheem, Mohammad; Khan, Asad Ullah; Joshi, Beenu; Venkatesan, Krishnamurthy; Shukla, Sangeeta; Bisht, Deepa

    2016-09-16

    Tuberculosis is an infectious disease, caused by one of the most successful human pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Aminoglycosides, Amikacin (AK) & Kanamycin (KM) are commonly used to treat drug resistant tuberculosis. They target the protein synthesis machinery by interacting with several steps of translation. Several explanations have been proposed to explain the mechanism of aminoglycoside resistance but still our information is inadequate. Iron storing/interacting proteins were found to be overexpressed in aminoglycosides resistant isolates. Iron assimilation and utilization in M. tuberculosis plays a crucial role in growth, virulence and latency. To establish the relationship of ferritin with AK & KM resistance ferritin (Rv3841/bfrB) was cloned, expressed and antimicrobial drug susceptibility testing (DST) was carried out. Rv3841/bfrB gene was cloned and expressed in E. coli BL21 using pQE2 expression vector. Etest results for DST against AK & KM showed that the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ferritin recombinant cells was changed. Recombinants showed two fold changes in MIC with AK and three fold with KM E-strips. Overexpression of ferritin reflect the MIC shift which might be playing a critical role in the survival of mycobacteria by inhibiting/modulating the effects of AK & KM. String analysis also suggests that ferritin interacted with few proteins which are directly and indirectly involved in M. tuberculosis growth, Iron assimilation, virulence, resistance, stresses and latency. PMID:27521892

  15. Comparison of differences between MODIS 250 m and 1 km cloud masks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotarba, Andrzej Z.

    2016-11-01

    The spatial resolution of remote sensing instruments installed onboard satellites is one of the key factors for accurate estimations of cloud amount. In general terms, the larger the instantaneous field of view (IFOV), the greater the overestimation of cloud amount - assuming that data are collected with exactly the same methodology, and processed with exactly the same algorithms. While most meteorological imagers collect data at a spatial resolution of 1 km, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) offers cloud amount estimates at both 1 km (the standard product) and 250 m (additional, high-resolution products). However, these datasets are produced using different methodological approaches, which impacts the quality and reliability of the product. This study compared 250 m data with 1 km data over elevated terrain with complex orography. Results showed significant discrepancies between the datasets, with 250 m data reporting mean seasonal (June-August) cloud amount 15.8% lower, than 1 km dataset. This was not related to the presence of snow, or to the increased spatial resolution of the cloud mask. On the other hand, both 1 km and 250 m data described similar spatial variability in mean monthly cloud amount (correlation coefficients of 0.85-0.98, p < 0.01).

  16. The Effect of Boron on the Low Cycle Fatigue Behavior of Disk Alloy KM4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabb, Timothy; Gayda, John; Sweeney, Joseph

    2000-01-01

    The durability of powder metallurgy nickel base superalloys employed as compressor and turbine disks is often limited by low cycle fatigue (LCF) crack initiation and crack growth from highly stressed surface locations (corners, holes, etc.). Crack growth induced by dwells at high stresses during aerospace engine operation can be particularly severe. Supersolvus solution heat treatments can be used to produce coarse grain sizes approaching ASTM 6 for improved resistance to dwell fatigue crack growth. However, the coarse grain sizes reduce yield strength, which can lower LCF initiation life. These high temperature heat treatments also can encourage pores to form. In the advanced General Electric disk superalloy KM4, such pores can initiate fatigue cracks that limit LCF initiation life. Hot isostatic pressing (HIP) during the supersolvus solution heat treatment has been shown to improve LCF initiation life in KM4, as the HIP pressure minimizes formation of the pores. Reduction of boron levels in KM4 has also been shown to increase LCF initiation life after a conventional supersolvus heat treatment, again possibly due to effects on the formation tendencies of these pores. However, the effects of reduced boron levels on microstructure, pore characteristics, and LCF failure modes in KM4 still need to be fully quantified. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of boron level on the microstructure, porosity, LCF behavior, and failure modes of supersolvus heat treated KM4.

  17. Fluid replacement strategy during a 27-Km trail run in hot and humid conditions.

    PubMed

    Baillot, M; Le Bris, S; Hue, O

    2014-02-01

    We evaluated the effects of the fluid replacement strategy on core temperature, heart rate and urine osmolality during a 27-km trail run in tropical climate. 20 well-trained runners completed a 27-km trail race in tropical conditions. They were acclimatized to these conditions. Heart rate was monitored every 5 s, while core temperature and perceived thermal and comfort sensations were recorded before, at the 11(th) km, and just after the end of the race. Water intake, urine osmolality and body mass were measured before and after the race. Core temperature and the scores of perceived thermal and comfort sensations were significantly higher at the 11(th) km and at the end of the race compared to before the race, but not at the 11(th) km compared to the end of the race [corrected]. No participant exhibited dehydration as assessed by urine osmolality. The less the trail runners weighed, the greater the heat retention was. The less hot they felt at the end of the race, the more they lost water, and the better the performance was. The fastest runners were able to tolerate a greater variation in core temperature between the beginning and the end of the trail race with lower water intake. PMID:23868683

  18. Super-Nyquist-WDM transmission over 7,326-km seven-core fiber with capacity-distance product of 1.03 Exabit/s · km.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Koji; Tsuritani, Takehiro; Morita, Itsuro; Tsuchida, Yukihiro; Maeda, Koichi; Tadakuma, Masateru; Saito, Tsunetoshi; Watanabe, Kengo; Imamura, Katsunori; Sugizaki, Ryuichi; Suzuki, Masatoshi

    2014-01-27

    We show super-Nyquist-WDM transmission technique, where optical signals with duobinary-pulse shaping can be wavelength-multiplexed with frequency spacing of below baudrate. Duobinary-pulse shaping can reduce the signal bandwidth to be a half of baudrate while controlling inter-symbol interference can be compensated by the maximum likelihood sequence estimation in a receiver. First, we experimentally evaluate crosstalk characteristics as a function of channel spacing between the dual-channel DP-QPSK signals with duobinary-pulse shaping. As a result, the crosstalk penalty can be almost negligible as far as the ratio of baudrate to frequency spacing is maintained to be less than 1.20. Next, we demonstrate 140.7-Tbit/s, 7,326-km transmission of 7 × 201-channel 25-GHz-spaced super-Nyquist-WDM 100-Gbit/s optical signals using seven-core fiber and full C-band seven-core EDFAs. To the best of our knowledge, this is one of the first reports of high-capacity transmission experiments with capacity-distance product in excess of 1 Exabit/s · km.

  19. AmeriFlux BR-Sa1 Santarem-Km67-Primary Forest

    SciTech Connect

    Saleska, Scott

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site BR-Sa1 Santarem-Km67-Primary Forest. Site Description - The LBA Tapajos KM67 Mature Forest site is located in the Tapajos National Forest, a 450,000 ha closed-canopy upland forest in Amazonian Brazil. Bounded by the Tapajos River in the west and highway BR-163 to the east, the tower is located on a flat plateau (or planalto) that extends up to 150 km to the north, south, and east. Within the confines of the National Forest, anthropogenic disturbances are limited to a few small hunting trails. The surrounding stand is classified as primary or "old-growth"" predominantly by its uneven age distribution, emergent trees, numerous epiphytes and abundant large logs. In 2007 falling trees hit the tower guy wires rendering all instrumentation in-operational. After a complete restoration tower measurements resumed in August of 2008.

  20. Relative Density Anomalies Below 200 km as Observed by Aerodynamic Drag on Orbiting Rocket Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilinski, M.; Argrow, B.; Palo, S. E.

    2011-12-01

    We examine the geomagnetic latitude and local solar time dependence of density anomalies as observed by rocket bodies in highly eccentric orbits. Density anomalies are estimated by analyzing the fitted ballistic coefficients produced by the Air Force Space Command's High Accuracy Satellite Drag Model. Particularly, observations of rocket bodies with very low perigee altitudes allow for the examination of density anomalies between 105 km and 200 km altitudes. We evaluate the ability to extract coherent geophysical signals from this data set. Finally, a statistical comparison is made between the low altitude density anomalies and those observed by the CHAMP and GRACE satellites above 300 km. In particular, we search for density enhancements which may be associated with the dayside cusp region.

  1. Seismic evidence against a mantle chemical discontinuity near 660 km depth beneath Izu-Bonin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castle, John C.; Creager, Kenneth C.

    We analyze P-wave codas from 12 deep Izu-Bonin earthquakes recorded by hundreds of Western United States seismograph stations for evidence of small-amplitude phases caused by near-source mantle discontinuities. For nearly every event, the dominant phase in the coda is the result of an S-to-P conversion from a nearly horizontal discontinuity ranging in depth from 650 to 690 km. This is interpreted as a thermally depressed spinel to perovskite and magnesiowüstite phase transition. If the 660-km seismic discontinuity is also associated with a change in chemistry, it would be dynamically depressed by a subducting slab. We consistently see that there is no nearly horizontal discontinuity between 700 and 1000 km with shear wave velocity contrast exceeding 1%; this observation places constraints on the properties of a postulated chemical discontinuity separating the upper and lower mantles.

  2. Gravity wave and tidal structures between 60 and 140 km inferred from space shuttle reentry data

    SciTech Connect

    Fritts, D.C. ); Dingyi Wang ); Blanchard, R.C. )

    1993-03-15

    This study presents an analysis of density measurements made using high-resolution accelerometers aboard several space shuttles at altitudes from 60 to 140 km during reentry into the earth's atmosphere. The observed density fluctuations are interpreted in terms of gravity waves and tides and provide evidence of the importance of such motions well into the thermosphere. Height profiles of fractional density variance reveal that wave amplitudes increase at a rate consistent with observations at lower levels up to [approximately]90 km. The rate of amplitude growth decreases at greater heights, however, and appears to cease above [approximately]110 km. Wave amplitudes are nevertheless large at these heights and suggest that gravity waves may play an important role in forcing of the lower thermosphere.

  3. Effects of radiant heat exposure on pacing pattern during a 15-km cycling time trial.

    PubMed

    Levels, Koen; de Koning, Jos; Broekhuijzen, Iris; Zwaan, Tamara; Foster, Carl; Daanen, Hein

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of different durations of skin temperature manipulation on pacing patterns and performance during a 15-km cycling time trial. Nineteen well-trained men completed three 15-km cycling time trials in 18 °C and 50% relative humidity with 4.5-km (short-heat), 9.0-km (long-heat) or without (control) radiant heat exposure applied by infrared heaters after 1.5 km in the time trial. During the time trials, power output, mean skin temperature, rectal temperature, heart rate and rating of perceived exertion were assessed. The radiant heat exposure resulted in higher mean skin temperature during the time trial for short-heat (35.0 ± 0.6 °C) and long-heat (35.3 ± 0.5 °C) than for control (32.5 ± 1.0 °C; P < 0.001), whereas rectal temperature was similar (P = 0.55). The mean power output was less for short-heat (273 ± 8 W; P = 0.001) and long-heat (271 ± 9 W; P = 0.02) than for control (287 ± 7 W), but pacing patterns did not differ (P = 0.55). Heart rate was greatest in control (177 ± 9 beats · min(-1); P < 0.001), whereas the rating of perceived exertion remained similar. We concluded that a radiant heat exposure and associated higher skin temperature reduced overall performance, but did not modify pacing pattern during a 15-km cycling time trial, regardless of the duration of the exposure.

  4. Cooling vest worn during active warm-up improves 5-km run performance in the heat.

    PubMed

    Arngrïmsson, Sigurbjörn A; Petitt, Darby S; Stueck, Matthew G; Jorgensen, Dennis K; Cureton, Kirk J

    2004-05-01

    We investigated whether a cooling vest worn during an active warm-up enhances 5-km run time in the heat. Seventeen competitive runners (9 men, maximal oxygen uptake = 66.7 +/- 5.9 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1); 8 women, maximal oxygen uptake = 58.0 +/- 3.2 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) completed two simulated 5-km runs on a treadmill after a 38-min active warm-up during which they wore either a T-shirt (C) or a vest filled with ice (V) in a hot, humid environment (32 degrees C, 50% relative humidity). Wearing the cooling vest during warm-up significantly (P < 0.05) blunted increases in body temperature, heart rate (HR), and perception of thermal discomfort during warm-up compared with control. At the start of the 5-km run, esophageal, rectal, mean skin, and mean body temperatures averaged 0.3, 0.2, 1.8, and 0.4 degrees C lower; HR averaged 11 beats/min lower; and perception of thermal discomfort (5-point scale) averaged 0.6 point lower in V than C. Most of these differences were eliminated during the first 3.2 km of the run, and these variables were not different at the end. The 5-km run time was significantly lower (P < 0.05) by 13 s in V than C, with a faster pace most evident during the last two-thirds of the run. We conclude that a cooling vest worn during active warm-up by track athletes enhances 5-km run performance in the heat. Reduced thermal and cardiovascular strain and perception of thermal discomfort in the early portion of the run appear to permit a faster pace later in the run.

  5. On the origin of 150-km echoes: Recent observational results and current understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patra, Amit

    2012-07-01

    Discovered nearly 45 years ago, the so-called 150-km echoing phenomenon continues to be a puzzle. These are the coherent radar echoes coming from the height region of 140-180 km during daytime and are of special interest to the ionospheric scientists since they are very useful means for estimating the daytime electric fields, a crucial parameter for studying daytime electrodynamics and plasma physics, and can be observed by radar with moderate sensitivity. Although the 150-km echoes are being regularly used for studying low latitude electrodynamics, it is a bit awkward using them in the scientific work without knowing their origin. This paper is meant to present and discuss new results obtained from Gadanki (13.5o N, 79.2o E, mag. lat. 6.5o N), India to elucidate the underlying physical processes, not considered before. Two new findings, one obtained during the passage of a solar eclipse and another linked with the intermediate layer type descending properties of 150-km echoes, clearly indicate the role of electron density gradient in generating the irregularities responsible for the 150-km radar echoes, not envisioned before. Given the fact that Gadanki is located at magnetically low latitude, it is proposed that the descending echoing layers are produced by interchange instability on the gradient of daytime descending ion layer formed by meridional wind shear associated with tidal/gravity waves quite similar to that observed during nighttime. Comparative anatomy of daytime 150-km echoes and nighttime intermediate layer echoes will also be presented and discussed in an effort to have a deeper understanding on the underlying instability processes.

  6. Appraising the reliability of converted wavefield imaging: application to USArray imaging of the 410-km discontinuity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xin; Pavlis, Gary L.

    2013-03-01

    We develop a generic method to appraise the reliability of wavefield imaging methods and use it to validate some novel observations on the 410-km discontinuity. The core concept of the error appraisal method is to produce a simulated data set that replicates the geometry of the real data. Here we implemented two simulation methods: (1) flat layer primary P to S conversions, and (2) a point source scattering model for P to S conversion data based on the Born approximation and ray theory propagators. We show how the approach can be extended for any simulation algorithm. We apply this new approach to appraise recent results using a 3-D, three-component P to S conversion imaging method applied to data collected by the USArray. Multiple metrics show that the amplitude of P to S converted energy scattered from the 410-km discontinuity varies by 18 dB with a systematically lower amplitude in an irregular band running from Idaho through northern Arizona. In addition, we observe strong lateral changes in the ratio of amplitudes recovered on the radial versus the transverse component. We compute point resolution functions and a checkerboard test to demonstrate we can reliably recover relative amplitudes with a lateral scale of the order of 200 km and a vertical scale of approximately 10 km. Irregular coverage locally distorts the amplitudes recovered in the checkerboard, but a 156 km scale checkerboard pattern is recovered. Flat layer simulations show we can recover relative amplitudes to within a range of 1 dB and the reconstructed transverse to radial amplitude is everywhere less than 0.1. A model with north-south oriented ridges with a 3° wavelength and 12.5 km amplitude shows of the order of ±6 dB amplitude variations and small, but clear correlation of the transverse/radial amplitude ratio topography in the model. Finally, we model the 410-km discontinuity as a rough surface characterized by variations in amplitude and depth derived from the USArray data. The rough

  7. One kilometer (1 km) electric solar wind sail tether produced automatically.

    PubMed

    Seppänen, Henri; Rauhala, Timo; Kiprich, Sergiy; Ukkonen, Jukka; Simonsson, Martin; Kurppa, Risto; Janhunen, Pekka; Hæggström, Edward

    2013-09-01

    We produced a 1 km continuous piece of multifilament electric solar wind sail tether of μm-diameter aluminum wires using a custom made automatic tether factory. The tether comprising 90,704 bonds between 25 and 50 μm diameter wires is reeled onto a metal reel. The total mass of 1 km tether is 10 g. We reached a production rate of 70 m/24 h and a quality level of 1‰ loose bonds and 2‰ rebonded ones. We thus demonstrated that production of long electric solar wind sail tethers is possible and practical.

  8. Lunar thermal regime to 300 km. [in crust and upper mantle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keihm, S. J.; Langseth, M. G.

    1977-01-01

    Coupling of the global heat flow, crustal heat source enrichment, thermal conductivity, and temperature in the crust and upper mantle of the moon is examined. A steady-state moon in which conductive heat transfer dominates is assumed. Heat-flow measurements from the Apollo 15 and 17 missions and gamma-ray mapping of thorium conducted by the Apollo 15 and 16 missions provide data for the study of the lunar thermal regime. Temperatures in the range of 1100 to 1600 K are found for the 300-km depth level. In the upper mantle, temperature gradients are in the range of 1.8 to 3.2 K/km.

  9. Configuration Management (CM) Support for KM Processes at NASA/Johnson Space Center (JSC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cioletti, Louis

    2010-01-01

    Collection and processing of information are critical aspects of every business activity from raw data to information to an executable decision. Configuration Management (CM) supports KM practices through its automated business practices and its integrated operations within the organization. This presentation delivers an overview of JSC/Space Life Sciences Directorate (SLSD) and its methods to encourage innovation through collaboration and participation. Specifically, this presentation will illustrate how SLSD CM creates an embedded KM activity with an established IT platform to control and update baselines, requirements, documents, schedules, budgets, while tracking changes essentially managing critical knowledge elements.

  10. System Wide Information Management (SWIM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hritz, Mike; McGowan, Shirley; Ramos, Cal

    2004-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation lists questions regarding the implementation of System Wide Information Management (SWIM). Some of the questions concern policy issues and strategies, technology issues and strategies, or transition issues and strategies.

  11. World Wide Web telemedicine system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xin; Valentino, Daniel J.; So, George J.; Lufkin, Robert B.; Taira, Ricky K.

    1996-05-01

    We have designed a teleradiology and telemedicine architecture over the World-Wide Web using current HIS, RIS and PACS. Our implementation allows remote access to hypermedia medical record and automatic management of interactive communications between referring physician and consultants. Security and privacy issues are also discussed. Its successful use in a telemedicine trial to China involving hundreds of doctors has shown the potential trend of telemedicine over the World-Wide Web.

  12. San Andres Rift, Nicaraguan Shelf: A 346-Km-Long, North-South Rift Zone Actively Extending the Interior of the "Stable" Caribbean Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvajal, L. C.; Mann, P.

    2015-12-01

    The San Andres rift (SAR) is an active, 015°-trending, bathymetric and structural rift basin that extends for 346 km across the Nicaraguan platform and varies in bathymetric width from 11-27 km and in water depth from 1,250 to 2,500 m. We used four 2D regional seismic lines tied to two offshore, industry wells located west of the SAR on the Nicaraguan platform to map normal faults, transfer faults, and possibly volcanic features with the rift. The Colombian islands of San Andres (26 km2) and Providencia (17 km2) are footwall uplifts along west-dipping, normal fault bounding the eastern margin of the rift. Mapping indicates the pre-rift section is Late Cretaceous to Oligocene in age and that the onset of rifting began in the early to middle Miocene as shown by wedging of the Miocene and younger sedimentary fill controlled by north-south-striking normal faults. Structural restorations at two locations across the rift shows that the basin opened mainly by dip-slip fault motions producing a total, east-west extension of 18 km in the north and 15 km in the south. Structural restoration shows the rift formed on a 37-km-wide, elongate basement high - possibly of late Cretaceous, volcanic origin and related to the Caribbean large igneous province. Previous workers have noted that the SAR is associated with province of Pliocene to Quaternary seamounts and volcanoes which range from non-alkaline to mildly alkaline, including volcanic rocks on Providencia described as andesites and rhyolites. The SAR forms one of the few recognizable belts of recorded seismicity within the Caribbean plate. The origin of the SAR is related to Miocene and younger left-lateral displacement along the Pedro Banks fault to the north and the southwestern Hess fault to the south. We propose that the amount of left-lateral displacement that created the rift is equivalent to the amount of extension that formed it: 18-20 km.

  13. An upper limit to the product of NO and O densities from 105 to 120 km

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donahue, T. M.

    1974-01-01

    From the Ogo 6 horizon-scanning-photometer data a useful upper limit can be set to the radiance of nightglow in the O-NO afterglow continuum above 105 km. The upper limit is a factor of about 5 less than the product of observed NO densities and Jacchia (1971) O model densities.

  14. MISR 17.6 KM Gridded Cloud Motion Vectors: Overview and Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Kevin; Garay, Michael; Moroney, Catherine; Jovanovic, Veljko

    2012-01-01

    The MISR (Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer) instrument on the Terra satellite has been retrieving cloud motion vectors (CMVs) globally and almost continuously since early in 2000. In February 2012 the new MISR Level 2 Cloud product was publicly released, providing cloud motion vectors at 17.6 km resolution with improved accuracy and roughly threefold increased coverage relative to the 70.4 km resolution vectors of the current MISR Level 2 Stereo product (which remains available). MISR retrieves both horizontal cloud motion and height from the apparent displacement due to parallax and movement of cloud features across three visible channel (670nm) camera views over a span of 200 seconds. The retrieval has comparable accuracy to operational atmospheric motion vectors from other current sensors, but holds the additional advantage of global coverage and finer precision height retrieval that is insensitive to radiometric calibration. The MISR mission is expected to continue operation for many more years, possibly until 2019, and Level 2 Cloud has the possibility of being produced with a sensing-to-availability lag of 5 hours. This report compares MISR CMV with collocated motion vectors from arctic rawinsonde sites, and from the GOES and MODISTerra instruments. CMV at heights below 3 km exhibit the smallest differences, as small as 3.3 m/s for MISR and GOES. Clouds above 3 km exhibit larger differences, as large as 8.9 m/s for MISR and MODIS. Typical differences are on the order of 6 m/s.

  15. Effects of a minimalist shoe on running economy and 5-km running performance.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Joel T; Thewlis, Dominic; Tsiros, Margarita D; Brown, Nicholas A T; Buckley, Jonathan D

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if minimalist shoes improve time trial performance of trained distance runners and if changes in running economy, shoe mass, stride length, stride rate and footfall pattern were related to any difference in performance. Twenty-six trained runners performed three 6-min sub-maximal treadmill runs at 11, 13 and 15 km·h(-1) in minimalist and conventional shoes while running economy, stride length, stride rate and footfall pattern were assessed. They then performed a 5-km time trial. In the minimalist shoe, runners completed the trial in less time (effect size 0.20 ± 0.12), were more economical during sub-maximal running (effect size 0.33 ± 0.14) and decreased stride length (effect size 0.22 ± 0.10) and increased stride rate (effect size 0.22 ± 0.11). All but one runner ran with a rearfoot footfall in the minimalist shoe. Improvements in time trial performance were associated with improvements in running economy at 15 km·h(-1) (r = 0.58), with 79% of the improved economy accounted for by reduced shoe mass (P < 0.05). The results suggest that running in minimalist shoes improves running economy and 5-km running performance.

  16. Hypervelocity impact testing above 10 km/s of advanced orbital debris shields

    SciTech Connect

    Christiansen, E.L.; Crews, J.L.; Kerr, J.H.; Chhabildas, L.C.

    1996-05-01

    NASA has developed enhanced performance shields to improve the protection of spacecraft from orbital debris and meteoroid impacts. One of these enhanced shields includes a blanket of Nextel{trademark} ceramic fabric and Kevlar{trademark} high strength fabric that is positioned midway between an aluminum bumper and the spacecraft pressure wall. As part of the evaluation of this new shielding technology, impact data above 10 km/sec has been obtained by NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) from the Sandia National Laboratories HVL ({open_quotes}hypervelocity launcher{close_quotes}) and the Southwest Research Institute inhibited shaped charge launcher (ISCL). The HVL launches flyer-plates in the velocity range of 10 to 15 km/s while the ISCL launches hollow cylinders at {approximately}11.5km/s. The {gt}10km/s experiments are complemented by hydrocode analysis and light-gas gun testing at the JSC Hypervelocity Impact Test Facility (HIT-F) to assess the effects of projectile shape on shield performance. Results from the testing and analysis indicate that the Nextel{trademark}/Kevlar{trademark} shield provides superior protection performance compared to an all-aluminum shield alternative. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  17. SMOS disaggregated soil moisture product at 1 km resolution: processor overview and first validation results

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) mission provides surface soil moisture (SM) maps at a mean resolution of ~50 km. However, agricultural applications (irrigation, crop monitoring) and some hydrological applications (floods and modeling of small basins) require higher resolution SM...

  18. The Trigger and Data Acquisition System for the KM3NeT-Italia towers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favaro, M.; Chiarusi, T.; Giacomini, F.; Manzali, M.; Margiotta, A.; Pellegrino, C.

    2016-04-01

    KM3NeT-Italia is an INFN project supported with Italian PON fundings for building the core of the Italian node of the KM3NeT neutrino telescope. The detector, made of 700 10'' Optical Modules (OMs) lodged along 8 vertical structures called towers, will be deployed starting from fall 2015 at the KM3NeT-Italy site, about 80 km off Capo Passero, Italy, 3500 m deep. The all data to shore approach is used to reduce the complexity of the submarine detector, demanding for an on-line trigger integrated in the data acquisition system running in the shore station, called TriDAS. Due to the large optical background in the sea from 40K decays and bioluminescence, the throughput from the underwater detector can range up to 30 Gbps. This puts strong constraints on the design and performances of the TriDAS and of the related network infrastructure. In this contribution the technology behind the implementation of the TriDAS infrastructure is reviewed, focusing on the relationship between the various components and their performances. The modular design of the TriDAS, which allows for its scalability up to a larger detector than the 8-tower configuration is also discussed.

  19. KM Critical Success Factors: A Comparison of Perceived Importance Versus Implementation in Malaysian ICT Companies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chong, Siong Choy

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This research examines the level of perception and implementation of 11 identified knowledge management (KM) success factors and their differences among the information and communication technology (ICT) companies operating in Malaysia. Design/methodology/approach: The survey data was obtained from a study of 427 middle managers from 194…

  20. Magnetic Anomalies of the Fennoscandian Shield on a 2km resolution grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korhonen, Juha V.; Aaro, Sven; Reidar Skilbrei, Jan; All, Tarmo

    2010-05-01

    Joint magnetic anomaly grid of the Fennoscandian Shield was released 2002, smoothed and used as data for the WDMAM2007. In comparison with MF5 this grid showed superior characteristics to other sets. The data will be released as a 2 km resolution grid for the WDMAM2011 with eventual updates of anomaly levels.

  1. Enabling Grid Computing resources within the KM3NeT computing model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippidis, Christos

    2016-04-01

    KM3NeT is a future European deep-sea research infrastructure hosting a new generation neutrino detectors that - located at the bottom of the Mediterranean Sea - will open a new window on the universe and answer fundamental questions both in particle physics and astrophysics. International collaborative scientific experiments, like KM3NeT, are generating datasets which are increasing exponentially in both complexity and volume, making their analysis, archival, and sharing one of the grand challenges of the 21st century. These experiments, in their majority, adopt computing models consisting of different Tiers with several computing centres and providing a specific set of services for the different steps of data processing such as detector calibration, simulation and data filtering, reconstruction and analysis. The computing requirements are extremely demanding and, usually, span from serial to multi-parallel or GPU-optimized jobs. The collaborative nature of these experiments demands very frequent WAN data transfers and data sharing among individuals and groups. In order to support the aforementioned demanding computing requirements we enabled Grid Computing resources, operated by EGI, within the KM3NeT computing model. In this study we describe our first advances in this field and the method for the KM3NeT users to utilize the EGI computing resources in a simulation-driven use-case.

  2. Multiplicity of the 660-km discontinuity beneath the Izu-Bonin area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yuan-Ze; Yu, Xiang-Wei; Yang, Hui; Zang, Shao-Xian

    2012-05-01

    The relatively simple subducting slab geometry in the Izu-Bonin region provides a valuable opportunity to study the multiplicity of the 660-km discontinuity and the related response of the subducting slab on the discontinuity. Vertical short-period recordings of deep events with simple direct P phases beneath the Izu-Bonin region were retrieved from two seismic networks in the western USA and were used to study the structure of the 660-km discontinuity. After careful selection and pre-processing, 23 events from the networks, forming 32 pairs of event-network records, were processed. Related vespagrams were produced using the N-th root slant stack method for detecting weak down-going SdP phases that were inverted to the related conversion points. From depth histograms and the spatial distribution of the conversion points, there were three clear interfaces at depths of 670, 710 and 730 km. These interfaces were depressed approximately 20-30 km in the northern region. In the southern region, only two layers were identified in the depth histograms, and no obvious layered structure could be observed from the distribution of the conversion points.

  3. Densities inferred from ESA's Venus Express aerobraking campaign at 130 km altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruinsma, Sean; Marty, Jean-Charles; Svedhem, Håkan; Williams, Adam; Mueller-Wodarg, Ingo

    2015-04-01

    In June-July 2014, ESA performed a planned aerobraking campaign with Venus Express to measure neutral densities above 130 km in Venus' atmosphere by means of the engineering accelerometers. To that purpose, the orbit perigee was lowered to approximately 130 km in order to enhance the atmospheric drag effect to the highest tolerable levels for the spacecraft; the accelerometer resolution and precision were not sufficient at higher altitudes. This campaign was requested as part of the Venus Express Atmospheric Drag Experiment (VExADE). A total of 18 orbits (i.e. days) were processed using the attitude quaternions to correctly orient the spacecraft bus and solar arrays in inertial space, which is necessary to accurately compute the exposed surface in the ram direction. The accelerometer data provide good measurements approximately from 130-140 km altitude; the length of the profiles is about 85 seconds, and they are on the early morning side (LST=4.5) at high northern latitude (70°N-82°N). The densities are a factor 2-3 larger than Hedin's VTS-3 thermosphere model, which is consistent with earlier results obtained via classical precise orbit determination at higher altitudes. Wavelike structures with amplitudes of 20% and more are detected, with wavelengths of about 100-500 km. We cannot entirely rule out that these waves are caused by the spacecraft or due to some unknown instrumental effect, but we estimate this probability to be very low.

  4. The possible subduction of continental material to depths greater than 200 km.

    PubMed

    Ye, K; Cong, B; Ye, D

    2000-10-12

    Determining the depth to which continental lithosphere can be subducted into the mantle at convergent plate boundaries is of importance for understanding the long-term growth of supercontinents as well as the dynamic processes that shape such margins. Recent discoveries of coesite and diamond in regional ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic rocks has demonstrated that continental material can be subducted to depths of at least 120 km (ref. 1), and subduction to depths of 150-300 km has been inferred from garnet peridotites in orogenic UHP belts based on several indirect observations. But continental subduction to such depths is difficult to trace directly in natural UHP metamorphic crustal rocks by conventional mineralogical and petrological methods because of extensive late-stage recrystallization and the lack of a suitable pressure indicator. It has been predicted from experimental work, however, that solid-state dissolution of pyroxene should occur in garnet at depths greater than 150 km (refs 6-8). Here we report the observation of high concentrations of clinopyroxene, rutile and apatite exsolutions in garnet within eclogites from Yangkou in the Sulu UHP metamorphic belt, China. We interpret these data as resulting from the high-pressure formation of pyroxene solid solutions in subducted continental material. Appropriate conditions for the Na2O concentrations and octahedral silicon observed in these samples are met at depths greater than 200 km. PMID:11048717

  5. Global 4 km resolution monthly gridded Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) data set derived from FLUXNET2015

    DOE Data Explorer

    Kumar, Jitendra; Hoffman, Forrest M.; Hargrove, William W.; Collier, Nathan

    2016-08-01

    This data set contain global gridded surfaces of Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) at 2 arc minute (approximately 4 km) spatial resolution monthly for the period of 2000-2014 derived from FLUXNET2015 (released July 12, 2016) observations using a representativeness based upscaling approach.

  6. [Generalized transduction of plasmid pKM101 by temperate bacteriophage ZF40 of Erwinia carotovora].

    PubMed

    Panshchina, A I; Tovkach, F I

    2007-01-01

    It was shown that temperate bacteriophage ZF40 of Erwinia carotovora can perform generalized transduction of plasmid pKM 101. The antibiotic-resistance marker transfer is coordinated with the fact of cyclic permutation of the phage genom. The presented results create preconditions for further use of bacteriophage ZF40 as a convenient instrument for genetic study of E. carotovora.

  7. A 2-km walking test for assessing the cardiorespiratory fitness of healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Oja, P; Laukkanen, R; Pasanen, M; Tyry, T; Vuori, I

    1991-08-01

    A simple walking test was developed with 159 (females = 80, males = 79) healthy 20-65-year-old subjects. All the subjects first walked the distances of 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 km on a flat dirt road. Half of the participants were tested in the laboratory for maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), and the 2-km test was repeated again twice. In a comparison of the three distances, the 2-km test was repeatable, the most preferable subjectively and the most accurate in predicting VO2max. A sex-specific prediction model including walking time, heart rate at the end of the walk, age and body mass index predicted 73-75% of the variance in VO2max (ml.kg-1.min-1) and that with body weight 66-76%, with a standard error of estimate of the order of 9-15% of the mean. The cross-validation of the models yielded reasonable accuracy in obese men and women and in moderately active men, and less accuracy in moderately active women and highly active men. These results suggest that a fast 2-km walk supplemented with simple measurements is a feasible and accurate alternative for determining the cardiorespiratory fitness of healthy adults.

  8. Nanobeacon: A low cost time calibration instrument for the KM3NeT neutrino telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Calvo, David [IFIC. Instituto de Física Corpuscular, CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, C Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    The KM3NeT collaboration aims at the construction of a multi-km3 high-energy neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea consisting of a matrix of pressure resistant glass spheres holding each one a set (31) of small area photomultipliers. The main goal of the telescope is to observe cosmic neutrinos through the Cherenkov light induced in sea water by charged particles produced in neutrino interactions with the surrounding medium. A relative time calibration between photomultipliers of the order of 1 ns is required to achieve an optimal performance. Due to the high volume to be covered by KM3NeT, a cost reduction of the different systems is a priority. To this end a very low price calibration device, the so called Nanobeacon, has been designed and developed. At present one of such devices has already been integrated successfully at the KM3NeT telescope and eight of them in the Nemo Tower Phase II. In this article the main properties and operation of this device are described.

  9. Gm and Km immunoglobulin allotypes in Reindeer Chukchi and Siberian Eskimos.

    PubMed

    Sukernik, R I; Osipova, L P

    1982-01-01

    Blood samples from 403 Reindeer Chukchi of inland Chukotka, and 100 samples from Chaplin Eskimos of the Chukot Peninsula were tested for G 1 m (z,a,x,f), G2m (n), G3m (g,b0,b1,b3,b5,s,t), and Km (1) allotypic determinants. An apparent affinity between the Chukchi and the Eskimos could be inferred from similar frequencies of the two common haplotypes, Gmza;g and Gmza;bst, and from very similar frequencies of the Km1 allele. However, none of the Eskimos had Gmzax;g, though it occurred at a low or moderate frequency in the five Chukchi populations studied. It is assumed that Chukchi can be distinguished from adjoining Eskimos by the same G1m (x) outlier, that has been considered as a taxonomic marker useful in differentiating between Eskimos and American Indians. Comparison of North Asian and North American populations with respect to the array and frequencies of Gm haplotypes and the Km1 allele, supports the hypothesis of a nonrandom distribution of the Gmza;bst and Km1 on both sides of the Bering Strait. PMID:6957376

  10. Performance of Whipple Shields at Impact Velocities above 9 km/s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christiansen, Eric L.; Davis, Bruce A.; Piekutowski, Andrew J.; Poormon, Kevin L.

    2009-01-01

    Whipple shields were first proposed as a means of protecting spacecraft from the impact of micrometeoroids in 1947 [1] and are currently in use as micrometeoroid and orbital debris shields on modern spacecraft. In the intervening years, the function of the thin bumper used to shatter or melt threatening particles has been augmented and enhanced by the use of various types and configurations of intermediate layers of various materials. All shield designs serve to minimize the threat of a spall failure or perforation of the main wall of the spacecraft as a result of the impact of the fragments. With increasing use of Whipple shields, various ballistic limit equations (BLEs) for guiding the design and estimating the performance of shield systems have been developed. Perhaps the best known and most used are the "new" modified Cour-Palais (Christiansen) equations [2]. These equations address the three phases of impact: (1) ballistic (<3 km/s), where the projectile is moving too slowly to fragment and essentially penetrates as an intact projectile; (2) shatter (3 to 7 km/s), where the projectile fragments at impact and forms an expanding cloud of debris fragments; and (3) melt/vaporization (>7 km/s), where the projectile melts or vaporizes at impact. The performance of Whipple shields and the adequacy of the BLEs have been examined for the first two phases using the results of impact tests obtained from two-stage, light-gas gun test firings. Shield performance and the adequacy of the BLEs has not been evaluated in the melt/vaporization phase until now because of the limitations of launchers used to accelerate projectiles with controlled properties to velocities above 7.5 km/s. A three-stage, light-gas gun, developed at the University of Dayton Research Institute (UDRI) [3], is capable of launching small, aluminum spheres to velocities above 9 km/s. This launcher was used to evaluate the ballistic performance of two Whipple shield systems, various thermal protection

  11. Low-velocity zone atop the 410-km seismic discontinuity in the northwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Song, Teh-Ru Alex; Helmberger, Don V; Grand, Stephen P

    2004-02-01

    The seismic discontinuity at 410 km depth in the Earth's mantle is generally attributed to the phase transition of (Mg,Fe)2SiO4 (refs 1, 2) from the olivine to wadsleyite structure. Variation in the depth of this discontinuity is often taken as a proxy for mantle temperature owing to its response to thermal perturbations. For example, a cold anomaly would elevate the 410-km discontinuity, because of its positive Clapeyron slope, whereas a warm anomaly would depress the discontinuity. But trade-offs between seismic wave-speed heterogeneity and discontinuity topography often inhibit detailed analysis of these discontinuities, and structure often appears very complicated. Here we simultaneously model seismic refracted waves and scattered waves from the 410-km discontinuity in the western United States to constrain structure in the region. We find a low-velocity zone, with a shear-wave velocity drop of 5%, on top of the 410-km discontinuity beneath the northwestern United States, extending from southwestern Oregon to the northern Basin and Range province. This low-velocity zone has a thickness that varies from 20 to 90 km with rapid lateral variations. Its spatial extent coincides with both an anomalous composition of overlying volcanism and seismic 'receiver-function' observations observed above the region. We interpret the low-velocity zone as a compositional anomaly, possibly due to a dense partial-melt layer, which may be linked to prior subduction of the Farallon plate and back-arc extension. The existence of such a layer could be indicative of high water content in the Earth's transition zone.

  12. Foot strike pattern and gait changes during a 161-km ultramarathon.

    PubMed

    Kasmer, Mark E; Wren, Jeremy J; Hoffman, Martin D

    2014-05-01

    Foot strike pattern has not been examined during ultramarathons where fatigue or avoidance of impact might have greater effect on foot strike and other gait parameters than in shorter events. In this study, video analysis from 3 level sites at a 161-km ultramarathon was used to: (a) examine changes in foot strike pattern, stride rate, and stride length; (b) determine if foot strike pattern is related to performance; and (c) ascertain if post-race blood creatine phosphokinase (CK) concentrations differ by foot strike pattern. Rear-foot strike (RFS) prevalence was 79.9, 89.0, and 83.9% at 16.5, 90.3, and 161.1 km, respectively. There was a significant distance effect observed between the 90.3 and 161.1-km site for stride rate (p < 0.05) and across all distances for stride length (p < 0.0001), but stride rate and length were stable among the top 20 finishers. There was no effect (p = 0.3) of foot strike pattern on performance. However, top 20 finishers had greater use (p = 0.02) of a non-RFS pattern at 161.1 km than the remaining finishers. There was a trend toward greater post-race blood CK values among non-RFS runners compared with RFS runners, reaching significance at the 90.3 km site (p < 0.05). Thus, the increased RFS prevalence by race midpoint was likely because of greater muscular demands of non-RFS patterns as supported by the higher post-race blood CK concentrations among non-RFS runners. Faster runners maintained higher stride rates and lengths throughout the race and made greater use of a non-RFS pattern at the end of the race compared with the slower finishers.

  13. Risks from radionuclide migration to groundwater in the Chernobyl 30-km zone.

    PubMed

    Bugai, D A; Waters, R D; Dzhepo, S P; Skal'skij, A S

    1996-07-01

    Remediation of contaminated groundwater in the Chernobyl 30-km evacuation zone is frequently identified as a priority by technical experts and Chernobyl site officials in Ukraine. In order to evaluate the health risk basis for this groundwater remediation, we have estimated both on-site and off-site health risks caused by radionuclide migration to the groundwater and compared these risks with those from exposure to radioactive contamination on the ground surface. A simple and conservative analytical model was developed to assess radionuclide transport to the groundwater from the soil surface contaminated by radioactive fallout. 90Sr, the primary radioactive contaminant of concern for the groundwater-migration exposure pathway, was evaluated in the analysis. The estimated health risk to hypothetical, self-sufficient residents in the 30-km zone is dominated by external and internal irradiation (due primarily to ingestion of agricultural products) from 137Cs, which is present in soils of the 30-km zone in roughly equal proportion with 90Sr. The estimated risk from contaminated groundwater is approximately an order of magnitude lower. Analysis of 90Sr migration via groundwater to surface water and down-river population centers shows that, despite generally unfavorable environmental conditions in the 30-km exclusion zone, radionuclide transport via the groundwater pathway has potential to contribute only marginally to the off-site radiological risk, which is governed by wash-out of radionuclides from the contaminated river flood plain and catchment areas by surface water during spring snowmelt and rains. Health risks due to off-site radionuclide migration via groundwater are below the level requiring application of counter-measures. This analysis implies that, relative to other exposure pathways, there is little current or future health risk basis for the proposed complex and costly groundwater remediation measures in the 30-km zone. Therefore, these activities should

  14. Wide-Field Plate Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsvetkov, M. K.; Stavrev, K. Y.; Tsvetkova, K. P.; Semkov, E. H.; Mutatov, A. S.

    The Wide-Field Plate Database (WFPDB) and the possibilities for its application as a research tool in observational astronomy are presented. Currently the WFPDB comprises the descriptive data for 400 000 archival wide field photographic plates obtained with 77 instruments, from a total of 1 850 000 photographs stored in 269 astronomical archives all over the world since the end of last century. The WFPDB is already accessible for the astronomical community, now only in batch mode through user requests sent by e-mail. We are working on on-line interactive access to the data via INTERNET from Sofia and parallel from the Centre de Donnees Astronomiques de Strasbourg. (Initial information can be found on World Wide Web homepage URL http://www.wfpa.acad.bg.) The WFPDB may be useful in studies of a variety of astronomical objects and phenomena, andespecially for long-term investigations of variable objects and for multi-wavelength research. We have analysed the data in the WFPDB in order to derive the overall characteristics of the totality of wide-field observations, such as the sky coverage, the distributions by observation time and date, by spectral band, and by object type. We have also examined the totality of wide-field observations from point of view of their quality, availability and digitisation. The usefulness of the WFPDB is demonstrated by the results of identification and investigation of the photometrical behaviour of optical analogues of gamma-ray bursts.

  15. Experimental High Resolution (3 km) SMAP Soil Moisture Data Fields With Uncertainty Estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, N. N.

    2015-12-01

    NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission was launched on January 31st, 2015. The objective of the mission is global mapping of surface soil moisture and landscape freeze/thaw state. SMAP utilizes an L-band radar and radiometer sharing a rotating 6-meter mesh reflector antenna. The SMAP spacecraft is in a 685-km Sun-synchronous near-polar orbit, and viewing the surface at a constant 40-degree incidence angle with a 1000-km swath width. Merging of the high-resolution active (radar) and coarse-resolution but high-sensitivity passive (radiometer) L-band observations enable an unprecedented combination of accuracy, resolution, coverage and revisit-time for soil moisture and freeze/thaw state retrievals. However, on July 7th, 2015, the SMAP radar encountered an anomaly and is currently inoperable. Efforts are being made to revive the SMAP radar. Due to the present status of the SMAP observatory, nearly ~2.5 months (from the end of In-Orbit-Check April 13th, 2015 to July 7th, 2015) of the SMAP Active Passive product will be available to public through the NASA DAAC at National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC). The baseline L2_SM_AP product is retrieved soil moisture from the disaggregated/downscaled brightness temperature obtained by merging the coarse-resolution (~36 km) radiometer brightness temperature data and the high-resolution (~3 km) radar backscatter data. The baseline product is intermediate scale 9 km global soil moisture information. Experimentally, a much higher resolution global surface soil moisture data set is also produced at 3 km. This experimental product covering the 2.5 Spring/Summer months is the focus of this presentation. We specifically focus on the analysis of errors and reliability of this data set. The errors in disaggregated brightness temperatures and the retrived soil moisture estimates are discussed. In the presentation the accuracies of the SMAP L2-SM_AP soil moisture retrievals will be shown using summary comparisons with in

  16. Comparison of Two Fluid Replacement Protocols During a 20-km Trail Running Race in the Heat.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Rebecca M; Casa, Douglas J; Jensen, Katherine A; Stearns, Rebecca L; DeMartini, Julie K; Pagnotta, Kelly D; Roti, Melissa W; Armstrong, Lawrence E; Maresh, Carl M

    2016-09-01

    Lopez, RM, Casa, DJ, Jensen, K, Stearns, RL, DeMartini, JK, Pagnotta, KD, Roti, MW, Armstrong, LE, and Maresh, CM. Comparison of two fluid replacement protocols during a 20-km trail running race in the heat. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2609-2616, 2016-Proper hydration is imperative for athletes striving for peak performance and safety, however, the effectiveness of various fluid replacement strategies in the field setting is unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate how two hydration protocols affect physiological responses and performance during a 20-km trail running race. A randomized, counter-balanced, crossover design was used in a field setting (mean ± SD: WBGT 28.3 ± 1.9° C). Well-trained male (n = 8) and female (n = 5) runners (39 ± 14 years; 175 ± 9 cm; 67.5 ± 11.1 kg; 13.4 ± 4.6% BF) completed two 20-km trail races (5 × 4-km loop) with different water hydration protocols: (a) ad libitum (AL) consumption and (b) individualized rehydration (IR). Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA. Paired t-tests compared pre-race-post-race measures. Main outcome variables were race time, heart rate (HR), gastrointestinal temperature (TGI), fluid consumed, percent body mass loss (BML), and urine osmolality (Uosm). Race times between groups were similar. There was a significant condition × time interaction (p = 0.048) for HR, but TGI was similar between conditions. Subjects replaced 30 ± 14% of their water losses in AL and 64 ± 16% of their losses in IR (p < 0.001). Ad libitum trial experienced greater BML (-2.6 ± 0.5%) compared with IR (-1.3 ± 0.5%; p < 0.001). Pre-race to post-race Uosm differences existed between AL (-273 ± 146 mOsm) and IR (-145 ± 215 mOsm, p = 0.032). In IR, runners drank twice as much fluid than AL during the 20-km race, leading to > 2% BML in AL. Ad libitum drinking resulted in 1.3% greater BML over the 20-km race, which resulted in no thermoregulatory or performance differences from IR.

  17. A review of controlled-source electromagnetic science applications and opportunities for imaging in the depth range 20 m to 1 km (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everett, M. E.

    2009-12-01

    generated by an appropriate source easily penetrate to 1 km. This contribution reviews some of the recent scientific accomplishments in CSEM imaging of the 20 m to 1 km depth range and demonstrates its applicability across a wide range of scientific disciplines.

  18. Extending MGS-TES Temperature Retrievals in the Martian Atmosphere up to 90 Km: Retrieval Approach and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feofilov, A. G.; Kutepov, A. A.; Rezac, L.; Smith, M. D.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a methodology for performing a temperature retrieval in the Martian atmosphere in the 50-90 km altitude range using spectrally integrated 15 micrometers C02 limb emissions measured by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES), the thermal infrared spectrometer on board the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS). We demonstrate that temperature retrievals from limb observations in the 75-90 km altitude range require accounting for the non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) populations of the C02(v2) vibrational levels. Using the methodology described in the paper, we have retrieved approximately 1200 individual temperature profiles from MGS TES limb observations in the altitude range between 60 and 90 km. 0ur dataset of retrieved temperature profiles is available for download in supplemental materials of this paper. The temperature retrieval uncertainties are mainly caused by radiance noise, and are estimated to be about 2 K at 60 km and below, 4 K at 70 km, 7 K at 80 km, 10 K at 85 km, and 20 K at 90 km. We compare the retrieved profiles to Mars Climate Database temperature profiles and find good qualitative agreement. Quantitatively, our retrieved profiles are in general warmer and demonstrate strong variability with the following values for bias and standard deviations (in brackets) compared to the Martian Year 24 dataset of the Mars Climate Database: 6 (+/-20) K at 60 km, 7.5 (+/-25) K at 65 km, 9 (+/-27) K at 70 km, 9.5 (+/-27) K at 75 km, 10 (+/-28) K at 80 km, 11 (+/-29) K at 85 km, and 11.5 (+/-31) K at 90 km. Possible reasons for the positive temperature bias are discussed. carbon dioxide molecular vibrations

  19. Wide field of view telescope

    DOEpatents

    Ackermann, Mark R.; McGraw, John T.; Zimmer, Peter C.

    2008-01-15

    A wide field of view telescope having two concave and two convex reflective surfaces, each with an aspheric surface contour, has a flat focal plane array. Each of the primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary reflective surfaces are rotationally symmetric about the optical axis. The combination of the reflective surfaces results in a wide field of view in the range of approximately 3.8.degree. to approximately 6.5.degree.. The length of the telescope along the optical axis is approximately equal to or less than the diameter of the largest of the reflective surfaces.

  20. Wide-angle seismic reflection constraints on the lithosphere of the Variscan Belt on SW- Iberia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palomeras, I.; Ayarza, P.; Afonso, J.; Carbonell, R.; Martinez-Poyatos, D.; Simancas, F.; Gonzalez-Lodeiro, F.; Perez-Estaun, A.

    2008-12-01

    Two wide-angle seismic transects (A and B) were acquired across the Variscan Belt on SW-Iberia. They run across three major tectonic units in the area: South Portuguese Zone, Ossa-Morena Zone, and Central Iberian Zone. Transect A is approximately 300 km long and coincides with the course of the IBERSEIS deep seismic reflection profile. Transect B is 220 km long and is located to the SE of Transect A. The close station spacing along the transects (400 m on Transect A and 150 m on Transect B) allows to identify well defined arrivals within the upper, middle and lower crust as well as in the upper mantle. Resulting velocity models were obtained by forward modeling. The most remarkable features on these models are high velocity areas at mid crustal depths (15-20 km) with velocities in the range of 6.8-7.1 km/s. The Moho discontinuity is located at 31-33 km depth, characterized by a velocity jump from 7.1 km/s to 8.2 km/s. Shot gathers show also a sharp mantle reflection at offsets larger than 180 km which has been modeled as a fairly continuous feature with a velocity increase from 8.2 km/s to 8.4 km/s at 65-67 km depth. The nature of this boundary in still uncertain but it likely reflects a lithological change with subtle velocity/density contrasts, only visible at relatively high incidence angles. The velocity depth function for the crust in the area does not fit any of the standard average crustal velocity models due to the anomalous mid crustal velocities.

  1. One-hundred-km-scale basins on Enceladus: Evidence for an active ice shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenk, Paul M.; McKinnon, William B.

    2009-08-01

    Stereo-derived topographic mapping of ˜50% of Enceladus reveals at least 6 large-scale, ovoid depressions (basins) 90-175 km across and 800-to-1500 m deep and uncorrelated with geologic boundaries. In contrast, the south polar depression is larger and apparently shallower and correlates with active resurfacing. The shape and scale of the basins is inconsistent with impact, geoid surface deflections, or with dynamically supported topography. Isostatic thinning of Enceladus' ice shell associated with upwellings (and tidally-driven ice melting) can plausibly account for these basins. Thinning implies upwarping of the base of the shell of ˜10-20 km beneath the depressions, depending on total shell thickness; loss of near-surface porosity due to enhanced heat flow may also contribute to basin lows. Alternatively, the basins may overly cold, inactive, and hence denser ice, but thermal isostasy alone requires thermal expansion more consistent with clathrate hydrate than water ice.

  2. Characterization of the 80-mm diameter Hamamatsu PMTs for the KM3NeT project

    SciTech Connect

    Aiello, S.; Giordano, V.; Leonora, E.; Classen, L.; Reubelt, J.; Peek, H.; Visser, E.; Samtleben, D.; Kalekin, Oleg Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    The optical module designed for the KM3NeT project consists of 31 photomultipliers of 3-inch diameter housed into a 17-inch diameter glass sphere. A proposed photomultiplier was the R12199-02 Hamamatsu 80-mm diameter. 203 of such PMTs have been delivered from Hamamatsu and tested by the KM3NeT groups of NIKHEF-Amsterdam, ECAP-Erlangen and INFN-Catania. Tests have been performed to measure the main parameters, such as gain, transit time spread, dark pulses rate, fraction of spurious pulses, quantum efficiency and effective photocathode size. The main results matched with the requirements of the project. Methods and results are presented in this report.

  3. The Calibration Units of the KM3NeT neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baret, B.; Keller, P.; Clark, M. Lindsey

    2016-04-01

    KM3NeT is a network of deep-sea neutrino telescopes to be deployed in the Mediterranean Sea that will perform neutrino astronomy and oscillation studies. It consists of three-dimensional arrays of thousands of optical modules that detect the Cherenkov light induced by charged particles resulting from the interaction of a neutrino with the surrounding medium. The performance of the neutrino telescope relies on the precise timing and positioning calibration of the detector elements. Other environmental conditions which may affect light and sound transmission, such as water temperature and salinity, must also be continuously monitored. This contribution describes the technical design of the first Calibration Unit, to be deployed on the French site as part of KM3NeT Phase 1.

  4. Measured electric field in the vicinity of a thunderstorm system at an altitude of 37 km

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benbrook, J. R.; Kern, J. W.; Sheldon, W. R.

    1974-01-01

    A balloon-borne experiment to measure the atmospheric electric field was flown from the National Scientific Balloon Facility at Palestine, Texas, on July 10, 1973. The electric field and atmospheric conductivity were measured during ascent and for a 4-hour float period at 37-km altitude. Termination of the flight occurred near a thunderstorm line in west Texas. The perturbing influence of the thunderstorms on the electric field was observed at least 100 km from the storm line. The measured electric field is in reasonable agreement with calculations based on simple models of cloud structure and atmospheric conductivity. Large pulses in the measured electric field are interpreted as being the result of intracloud lightning.

  5. Neutral hydrogen flux measured at 100- to 200-km altitude in an electron aurora

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iglesias, G. E.; Anderson, H. R.

    1975-01-01

    Neutral hydrogen fluxes were measured at altitudes of 120-200 km by a rocket payload that also measured electron and proton fluxes and vector magnetic fields. An intense electron arc was crossed, while an upper limit to the flux of 0.5- to 20-keV protons was 1,000,000 per sq cm s sr keV. A neutral flux of 50,000,000 per sq cm s sr was observed, assuming hydrogen with greater than 1-keV energy, with greater north-south extent than the electron flux. Its pitch angle distribution was peaked toward 90 deg, tending toward isotropy in the center. This is fitted to a model describing spreading of an initial proton arc above 500 km.

  6. The cytotoxic mechanism of karlotoxin 2 (KmTx 2) from Karlodinium veneficum (Dinophyceae)

    PubMed Central

    Deeds, Jonathan R.; Hoesch, Robert E.; Place, Allen R.; Kao, Joseph P.Y.

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrates that the polyketide toxin karlotoxin 2 (KmTx 2) produced by Karlodinium veneficum, a dinoflagellate associated with fish kills in temperate estuaries worldwide, alters vertebrate cell membrane permeability. Microfluorimetric and electrophysiological measurements were used to determine that vertebrate cellular toxicity occurs through non-selective permeabilization of plasma membranes, leading to osmotic cell lysis. Previous studies showed that KmTx 2 is lethal to fish at naturally-occurring concentrations measured during fish kills, while sub-lethal doses severely damage gill epithelia. This study provides a mechanistic explanation for the association between K. veneficum blooms and fish kills that has long been observed in temperate estuaries worldwide. PMID:25546005

  7. Identification of pKM101-encoded loci specifying potentially lethal gene products.

    PubMed Central

    Winans, S C; Walker, G C

    1985-01-01

    Two pKM101-encoded loci (designated kilA and kilB) have been identified which elaborate products that are potentially lethal to the bacterial cell. The lethal effects of each of these products is inhibited by two other plasmid-encoded loci, designated korA and korB (for kil override). Both korA and korB are required to control the lethality of either kil gene. In the presence of korA and korB both kil genes have other phenotypes: kilB is necessary for conjugal transfer, whereas kilA is responsible for the small-colony morphology on defined media that is characteristic of pKM101-containing strains (the Slo phenotype). PMID:3881396

  8. KM3NeT Neutrino Telescope 1-ns Resolution Time To Digital Converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvo, David; Real, Diego

    2016-04-01

    The KM3NeT collaboration aims the construction of a multi-km3 high-energy neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean sea consisting of thousands of glass spheres, each of them containing 31 photomultiplier of small photocathode area. The main digitization system is composed by 31 Time to Digital Converter channels with 1-ns resolution embedded in a Field Programmable Gate Array. An architecture with low resource occupancy has been chosen allowing the implementation of other instrumentation, communication and synchronization systems on the same device. The 4-oversampling technique with two high frequency clocks working in opposed phases has been used together with an asymmetric FIFO memory. In the present article the architecture and the first results obtained with the Time to Digital Converters are presented.

  9. Progress toward a Km-scale neutrino detector in the deep ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Stokstad, R.G.

    1997-11-01

    The best particles for observing distant objects are photons and neutrinos. Because of the neutrino`s weak interaction cross section, detectors suitable for astronomy must be very large and well shielded from cosmic rays. Eventually, a detector with the order of a square km of effective area will be needed for systematic observations of distant point sources such as active galactic nuclei. Prototype detectors are currently being developed at several sites in the ocean, at Lake Baikal, and in Antarctica. This talk summarizes the status of the projects that use the deep ocean for the detector medium and shielding: DUMAND, NESTOR and ANTARES. Technical developments will be needed for a future km-scale detector; progress on one of these, a digital electronic system, is also described.

  10. ERTS surveys a 500 km squared locust breeding site in Saudi Arabia. [Red Sea coastal plain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedgley, D. E.

    1974-01-01

    From September 1972 to January 1973, ERTS-1 precisely located a 500 sq km area on the Red Sea coastal plain of Saudi Arabia within which the Desert Locust (Schistocerca gregaria, Forsk.) bred successfully and produced many small swarms. Growth of vegetation shown by satellite imagery was confirmed from ground surveys and raingauge data. The experiment demonstrates the feasibility of detecting potential locust breeding sites by satellite, and shows that an operational satellite would be a powerful tool for routine survey of the 3 x 10 to the 7th power sq km invasion area of the Desert Locust in Africa and Asia, as well as of other locust species in the arid and semi-arid tropics.

  11. First results of the KM3NeT multi-PMT DOM

    SciTech Connect

    Michael, Tino; Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    The future KM3NeT neutrino telescope will consist of several thousand digital optical modules (DOMs), each of which will be equipped with 31 3-inch photo-multiplier tubes (PMTs). This design has various advantages over the use of one large PMT per optical module, e.g. concerning effective photocathode area per module, improved background suppression and directional reconstruction. Currently, the KM3NeT collaboration is testing a prototype DOM deployed on the instrumentation line of the ANTARES neutrino telescope. The DOM has been operational since mid-April 2013. First data are presented and compared to simulation results. The results are very encouraging and indicate that muon identification and a coarse direction estimation are possible event with a single DOM.

  12. Evaluation of Whipple Bumper shields at 7 and 10 km/s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ang, J. A.; Chhabildas, L. C.; Cour-Palais, B. G.; Christiansen, E. L.; Crews, J. L.

    1992-01-01

    A series of experiments has been performed on the Sandia Hypervelocity Launcher to determine the performance limits of conventional Whipple shields against representative 0.8 g aluminum orbital debris plate-like fragments with velocities of 7 and 10 km/s. Supporting diagnostics include flash X-rays, high speed photography and transient digitizers for timing correlation. Two Whipple shield designs were tested with either a 0.030 cm or a 0.127 cm thick front sheet and a 0.407 cm thick backsheet separated by 30.5 cm. These two designs bracket the ballistic penetration limit curve for protection against these debris simulants for 7 km/s impacts.

  13. The modelled surface mass balance of the Antarctic Peninsula at 5.5 km horizontal resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Wessem, J. M.; Ligtenberg, S. R. M.; Reijmer, C. H.; van de Berg, W. J.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Barrand, N. E.; Thomas, E. R.; Turner, J.; Wuite, J.; Scambos, T. A.; van Meijgaard, E.

    2016-02-01

    This study presents a high-resolution (˜ 5.5 km) estimate of surface mass balance (SMB) over the period 1979-2014 for the Antarctic Peninsula (AP), generated by the regional atmospheric climate model RACMO2.3 and a firn densification model (FDM). RACMO2.3 is used to force the FDM, which calculates processes in the snowpack, such as meltwater percolation, refreezing and runoff. We evaluate model output with 132 in situ SMB observations and discharge rates from six glacier drainage basins, and find that the model realistically simulates the strong spatial variability in precipitation, but that significant biases remain as a result of the highly complex topography of the AP. It is also clear that the observations significantly underrepresent the high-accumulation regimes, complicating a full model evaluation. The SMB map reveals large accumulation gradients, with precipitation values above 3000 mm we yr-1 in the western AP (WAP) and below 500 mm we yr-1 in the eastern AP (EAP), not resolved by coarser data sets such as ERA-Interim. The average AP ice-sheet-integrated SMB, including ice shelves (an area of 4.1 × 105 km2), is estimated at 351 Gt yr-1 with an interannual variability of 58 Gt yr-1, which is dominated by precipitation (PR) (365 ± 57 Gt yr-1). The WAP (2.4 × 105 km2) SMB (276 ± 47 Gt yr-1), where PR is large (276 ± 47 Gt yr-1), dominates over the EAP (1.7 × 105 km2) SMB (75 ± 11 Gt yr-1) and PR (84 ± 11 Gt yr-1). Total sublimation is 11 ± 2 Gt yr-1 and meltwater runoff into the ocean is 4 ± 4 Gt yr-1. There are no significant trends in any of the modelled AP SMB components, except for snowmelt that shows a significant decrease over the last 36 years (-0.36 Gt yr-2).

  14. The prototype detection unit of the KM3NeT detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Ageron, M.; Aharonian, F.; Aiello, S.; Albert, A.; Ameli, F.; Anassontzis, E. G.; Androulakis, G. C.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Avgitas, T.; Balasi, K.; Band, H.; Barbarino, G.; Barbarito, E.; Barbato, F.; Baret, B.; Baron, S.; Barrios, J.; Belias, A.; Berbee, E.; van den Berg, A. M.; Berkien, A.; Bertin, V.; Beurthey, S.; van Beveren, V.; Beverini, N.; Biagi, S.; Biagioni, A.; Bianucci, S.; Billault, M.; Birbas, A.; Boer Rookhuizen, H.; Bormuth, R.; Bouché, V.; Bouhadef, B.; Bourlis, G.; Boutonnet, C.; Bouwhuis, M.; Bozza, C.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Cacopardo, G.; Caillat, L.; Calamai, M.; Calvo, D.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, F.; Cecchini, S.; Ceres, A.; Cereseto, R.; Champion, C.; Château, F.; Chiarusi, T.; Christopoulou, B.; Circella, M.; Classen, L.; Cocimano, R.; Coleiro, A.; Colonges, S.; Coniglione, R.; Cosquer, A.; Costa, M.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Cuttone, G.; D'Amato, C.; D'Amico, A.; De Bonis, G.; De Rosa, G.; Deniskina, N.; Destelle, J.-J.; Distefano, C.; Di Capua, F.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti-Hasankiadeh, Q.; Drakopoulou, E.; Drouhin, D.; Drury, L.; Durand, D.; Eberl, T.; Elsaesser, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Fermani, P.; Fusco, L. A.; Gajanana, D.; Gal, T.; Galatà, S.; Garufi, F.; Gebyehu, M.; Giordano, V.; Gizani, N.; Gracia Ruiz, R.; Graf, K.; Grasso, R.; Grella, G.; Grmek, A.; Habel, R.; van Haren, H.; Heid, T.; Heijboer, A.; Heine, E.; Henry, S.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Herold, B.; Hevinga, M. A.; van der Hoek, M.; Hofestädt, J.; Hogenbirk, J.; Hugon, C.; Hößl, J.; Imbesi, M.; James, C. W.; Jansweijer, P.; Jochum, J.; de Jong, M.; Jongen, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Kappos, E.; Katz, U.; Kavatsyuk, O.; Keller, P.; Kieft, G.; Koffeman, E.; Kok, H.; Kooijman, P.; Koopstra, J.; Korporaal, A.; Kouchner, A.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lamare, P.; Larosa, G.; Lattuada, D.; Le Provost, H.; Leismüller, K. P.; Leisos, A.; Lenis, D.; Leonora, E.; Lindsey Clark, M.; Llorens Alvarez, C. D.; Löhner, H.; Lonardo, A.; Loucatos, S.; Louis, F.; Maccioni, E.; Mannheim, K.; Manolopoulos, K.; Margiotta, A.; Mariş, O.; Markou, C.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Martini, A.; Masullo, R.; Melis, K. W.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Migneco, E.; Miraglia, A.; Mollo, C. M.; Mongelli, M.; Morganti, M.; Mos, S.; Moudden, Y.; Musico, P.; Musumeci, M.; Nicolaou, C.; Nicolau, C. A.; Orlando, A.; Orzelli, A.; Papaikonomou, A.; Papaleo, R.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Peek, H.; Pellegrino, C.; Pellegriti, M. G.; Perrina, C.; Piattelli, P.; Pikounis, K.; Popa, V.; Pradier, Th.; Priede, M.; Pühlhofer, G.; Pulvirenti, S.; Racca, C.; Raffaelli, F.; Randazzo, N.; Rapidis, P. A.; Razis, P.; Real, D.; Resvanis, L.; Reubelt, J.; Riccobene, G.; Rovelli, A.; Saldaña, M.; Samtleben, D. F. E.; Sanguineti, M.; Santangelo, A.; Sapienza, P.; Schmelling, J.; Schnabel, J.; Sciacca, V.; Sedita, M.; Seitz, T.; Sgura, I.; Simeone, F.; Sipala, V.; Spitaleri, A.; Spurio, M.; Stavropoulos, G.; Steijger, J.; Stolarczyk, T.; Stransky, D.; Taiuti, M.; Terreni, G.; Tézier, D.; Théraube, S.; Thompson, L. F.; Timmer, P.; Trasatti, L.; Trovato, A.; Tselengidou, M.; Tsirigotis, A.; Tzamarias, S.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Vallage, B.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vermeulen, J.; Vernin, P.; Vicini, P.; Viola, S.; Vivolo, D.; Werneke, P.; Wiggers, L.; Wilms, J.; de Wolf, E.; van Wooning, R. H. L.; Zonca, E.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.; Zwart, A.

    2016-02-01

    A prototype detection unit of the KM3NeT deep-sea neutrino telescope has been installed at 3500m depth 80 km offshore the Italian coast. KM3NeT in its final configuration will contain several hundreds of detection units. Each detection unit is a mechanical structure anchored to the sea floor, held vertical by a submerged buoy and supporting optical modules for the detection of Cherenkov light emitted by charged secondary particles emerging from neutrino interactions. This prototype string implements three optical modules with 31 photomultiplier tubes each. These optical modules were developed by the KM3NeT Collaboration to enhance the detection capability of neutrino interactions. The prototype detection unit was operated since its deployment in May 2014 until its decommissioning in July 2015. Reconstruction of the particle trajectories from the data requires a nanosecond accuracy in the time calibration. A procedure for relative time calibration of the photomultiplier tubes contained in each optical module is described. This procedure is based on the measured coincidences produced in the sea by the ^{40}K background light and can easily be expanded to a detector with several thousands of optical modules. The time offsets between the different optical modules are obtained using LED nanobeacons mounted inside them. A set of data corresponding to 600 h of livetime was analysed. The results show good agreement with Monte Carlo simulations of the expected optical background and the signal from atmospheric muons. An almost background-free sample of muons was selected by filtering the time correlated signals on all the three optical modules. The zenith angle of the selected muons was reconstructed with a precision of about 3°.

  15. Compositional mantle layering revealed by slab stagnation at ~1,000 km depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballmer, M. D.; Nakagawa, T.; Schmerr, N. C.; Ritsema, J.; Motoki, M.

    2015-12-01

    Improved constraints on lower-mantle composition are fundamental to understand the accretion, differentiation and thermochemical evolution of our planet. Whereas cosmochemical arguments indicate that lower-mantle rocks may be enriched in Si relative to upper-mantle pyrolite, seismic tomography images suggest whole-mantle convection and efficient mantle mixing. This study reconciles cosmochemical and geophysical constraints using the stagnation of some slab segments at ~1,000 km depth as the key observation. Whereas slab stagnation at ~660 km depth is well explained by the effects of the spinel-perovskite endothermic phase transition, flattening of slabs in the uppermost lower mantle remains poorly understood. Through numerical modeling of subduction, we show that enrichment of the lower mantle in intrinsically dense basaltic heterogeneity can render slabs neutrally buoyant at ~1,000 km depth. Slab stagnation (at ~660 and ~1,000 km depth) as well as unimpeded slab sinking to great depths can only coexist as three different modes of slab sinking behavior on Earth if the basalt fraction is ~8% higher in the lower than in the upper mantle, equivalent to a lower-mantle Mg/Si of ~1.18. Geodynamic models demonstrate that such a moderate compositional gradient can be sustained by compositional filtering of both slabs and plumes as they cross the transition zone, and thus persist over billions of years of whole-mantle convection. Whereas basaltic heterogeneity tends to get trapped in the transition zone and ultimately sink into the lower mantle, harzburgitic heterogeneity tends to rise into the uppermost mantle.

  16. Seismic evidence of negligible water carried below 400-km depth in subducting lithosphere.

    PubMed

    Green, Harry W; Chen, Wang-Ping; Brudzinski, Michael R

    2010-10-14

    Strong evidence exists that water is carried from the surface into the upper mantle by hydrous minerals in the uppermost 10-12 km of subducting lithosphere, and more water may be added as the lithosphere bends and goes downwards. Significant amounts of that water are released as the lithosphere heats up, triggering earthquakes and fluxing arc volcanism. In addition, there is experimental evidence for high solubility of water in olivine, the most abundant mineral in the upper mantle, for even higher solubility in olivine's high-pressure polymorphs, wadsleyite and ringwoodite, and for the existence of dense hydrous magnesium silicates that potentially could carry water well into the lower mantle (deeper than 1,000 km). Here we compare experimental and seismic evidence to test whether patterns of seismicity and the stabilities of these potentially relevant hydrous phases are consistent with a wet lithosphere. We show that there is nearly a one-to-one correlation between dehydration of minerals and seismicity at depths less than about 250 km, and conclude that the dehydration of minerals is the trigger of instability that leads to seismicity. At greater depths, however, we find no correlation between occurrences of earthquakes and depths where breakdown of hydrous phases is expected. Lastly, we note that there is compelling evidence for the existence of metastable olivine (which, if present, can explain the distribution of deep-focus earthquakes) west of and within the subducting Tonga slab and also in three other subduction zones, despite metastable olivine being incompatible with even extremely small amounts of water (of the order of 100 p.p.m. by weight). We conclude that subducting slabs are essentially dry at depths below 400 km and thus do not provide a pathway for significant amounts of water to enter the mantle transition zone or the lower mantle.

  17. Correlation of the 410 km Discontinuity Low Velocity Layer with Tomographic Wavespeed Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z.; Dueker, K. G.

    2010-12-01

    The transition zone water-filter model predicts that a hydrous melt layer at the 410-km discontinuity is only actively produced in upwelling region, and does not exist in downwelling region (Bercovici and Karato, 2003). This prediction has been tested by stacking of P-S receiver functions using the RISTRA linear array which crosses west-Texas, New Mexico and Utah. The receiver functions are binned into the NW, SE, SW azimuthal quadrants and stacked to produce well-resolved images of the 410- and 660-km discontinuities. The three receiver function quadrant stack images find a correlation between the occurrence of negative polarity 410-km low velocity layer arrival and the teleseismic body wave velocity tomogram of Schmandt and Humphreys (2010); the 410 low velocity layer arrival is absent where the velocities about the 410 km discontinuity are relatively high and present where the velocities are low. Our finding is consistent with a simple interpretation of the transition zone water filter model which predicts the production of a hydrous melt layer where upflow of sufficiently hydrated transition zone mantle occurs and destruction of a hydrous melt layer where there is downflow. We test this prediction by analyzing the Colorado Rockies Experiment and Seismic Transects (CREST) seismic data which was collected in 2008-2009. This 15 month deployment of 59 CREST stations in tandem with 31 Transportable Array stations yields a total of 161 Mb>5.5 events at 30°-95° distances. The P-S receiver functions are calculated using a multi-channel deconvolution methodology and filtered with a 30-3 s post-deconvolution filter. The receiver function dataset contains about 1800 SV components after RMS, cross-correlation, and visual data quality culling. Common conversion point images are constructed using Pds timing correction from a 3-D upper mantle tomography model (McCarthy and Aster, pers. com.) to account for lateral P/S velocity heterogeneity.

  18. Performance during a 20-km cycling time-trial after caffeine ingestion

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of caffeine ingestion on the performance and physiological variables associated with fatigue in 20-km cycling time trials. Methods In a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study, 13 male cyclists (26 ± 10 y, 71 ± 9 kg, 176 ± 6 cm) were randomized into 2 groups and received caffeine (CAF) capsules (6 mg.kg−1) or placebo (PLA) 60 min before performing 20-km time trials. Distance, speed, power, rpm, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), electromyography (EMG) of the quadriceps muscles and heart rate (HR) were continuously measured during the tests. In addition, BRUMS questionnaire was applied before and after the tests. Results Significant interactions were found in power and speed (P = 0.001), which were significantly higher at the end of the test (final 2 km) after CAF condition. A main effect of time (P = 0.001) was observed for RPE and HR, which increased linearly until the end of exercise in both conditions. The time taken to complete the test was similar in both conditions (PLA = 2191 ± 158 s vs. CAF = 2181 ± 194 s, P = 0.61). No significant differences between CAF and PLA conditions were identified for speed, power, rpm, RPE, EMG, HR, and BRUMS (P > 0.05). Conclusion The results suggest that caffeine intake 60 min before 20-km time trials has no effect on the performance or physiological responses of cyclists. PMID:25302056

  19. Silicon ions below 100 km - A case for SiO2/+/. [during meteoroid shower

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation regarding the occurrence of Si ions is conducted, taking into account an unusual metal ion structure observed during a meteor shower event. Loss processes involving silicon oxides are considered in connection with a study of the reasons for the unique Si(+) distribution found. It is suggested that below 100 km Si(+) is rapidly depleted by two- and three-body reactions with molecular oxygen, forming SiO2(+) which then recombines.

  20. The influence of performance level, age and gender on pacing strategy during a 100-km ultramarathon.

    PubMed

    Renfree, Andrew; Crivoi do Carmo, Everton; Martin, Louise

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyse the influence of performance level, age and gender on pacing during a 100-km ultramarathon. Results of a 100-km race incorporating the World Masters Championships were used to identify differences in relative speeds in each 10-km segment between participants finishing in the first, second, third and fourth quartiles of overall positions (Groups 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively). Similar analyses were performed between the top and bottom 50% of finishers in each age category, as well as within male and female categories. Pacing varied between athletes achieving different absolute performance levels. Group 1 ran at significantly lower relative speeds than all other groups in the first three 10-km segments (all P < 0.01), and significantly higher relative speeds than Group 4 in the 6th and 10th (both P < 0.01), and Group 2 in the 8th (P = 0.04). Group 4 displayed significantly higher relative speeds than Group 2 and 3 in the first three segments (all P < 0.01). Overall strategies remained consistent across age categories, although a similar phenomenon was observed within each category whereby 'top' competitors displayed lower relative speeds than 'bottom' competitors in the early stages, but higher relative speeds in the later stages. Females showed lower relative starting speeds and higher finishing speeds than males. 'Top' and 'bottom' finishing males displayed differing strategies, but this was not the case within females. Although pacing remained consistent across age categories, it differed with level of performance within each, possibly suggesting strategies are anchored on direct competitors. Strategy differs between genders and differs depending on performance level achieved in males but not females. PMID:26034882

  1. Ad-libitum drinking and performance during a 40-km cycling time trial in the heat.

    PubMed

    Berkulo, Meriam A R; Bol, Susan; Levels, Koen; Lamberts, Robert P; Daanen, Hein A M; Noakes, Timothy D

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if drinking ad-libitum can counteract potential negative effects of a hypohydrated start caused by fluid restriction during a 40-km time trial (TT) in the heat. Twelve trained males performed one 40-km cycling TT euhydrated (EU: no water during the TT) and two 40-km cycling TTs hypohydrated. During one hypohydrated trial no fluid was ingested (HYPO), during the other trial ad-libitum water ingestion was allowed (FLUID). Ambient temperature was 35.2 ± 0.2 °C, relative humidity 51 ± 3% and airflow 7 m·s(-1). Body mass (BM) was determined at the start of the test, and before and after the TT. During the TT, power output, heart rate (HR), gastrointestinal temperature, mean skin temperature, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), thermal sensation, thermal comfort and thirst sensation were measured. Prior to the start of the TT, BM was 1.2% lower in HYPO and FLUID compared to EU. During the TT, BM loss in FLUID was lower compared to EU and HYPO (1.0 ± 0.8%, 2.7 ± 0.2% and 2.6 ± 0.3%, respectively). Hydration status had no effect on power output (EU: 223 ± 32 W, HYPO: 217 ± 39 W, FLUID: 224 ± 35 W), HR, gastrointestinal temperature, mean skin temperature, RPE, thermal sensation and thermal comfort. Thirst sensation was higher in HYPO than in EU and FLUID. It was concluded that hypohydration did not adversely affect performance during a 40-km cycling TT in the heat. Therefore, whether or not participants consumed fluid during exercise did not influence their TT performance.

  2. 10 Gb/s 120-km Bidirectional Repeaterless Transmission over Single-Mode Fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delavaux, J.-M. P.; Stfusser, T.

    1995-10-01

    A successful repeaterless 10 Gb/s bidirectional transmission experiment is demonstrated at the 1550 nm wavelength through 120 km of single-mode fiber. Fiber chromatic dispersion compensation in both transmission directions is realized by insertion of the same dispersion compensating fiber in the transmission fiber span. Excellent long-term error rate performance (BER < 10- 14) is achieved by suppression of the Rayleigh backscattered signal power with low loss narrow-band fiber grating reflection filters.

  3. The effect of skin temperature on performance during a 7.5-km cycling time trial.

    PubMed

    Levels, Koen; de Koning, Jos J; Foster, Carl; Daanen, Hein A M

    2012-09-01

    Aerobic exercise performance is seriously compromised in the heat. Possibly, a high skin temperature causes a rating of perceived exertion (RPE)-mediated decrease in exercise intensity. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of skin temperature on power output during a 7.5-km cycling time trial. Thirteen well-trained male subjects performed a 7.5-km cycling time trial at 15°C and 50% relative humidity (CONTROL), with radiative heat stress during the time trial, and with (PRECOOL) or without (HEAT) precooling. Heat stress was applied by infrared heaters positioned in front of the cycle ergometer between 1.5 and 6.0 km. Skin, rectal, and pill temperature, power output, heart rate, and RPE were measured during the trial. Despite the lower mean skin temperature at the start of the time trial for PRECOOL compared to HEAT (-2.1 ± 0.7°C; P < 0.01) and CONTROL (-1.8 ± 0.6°C; P < 0.05), and a greater increase in mean skin temperature during the heat stress period for PRECOOL (4.5 ± 1.0°C) and HEAT (3.9 ± 0.8°C) than for CONTROL (-0.3 ± 0.6°C; P < 0.01), no differences in power output were found between HEAT (273 ± 45 W) and CONTROL (284 ± 43 W; P = 0.11) and between HEAT and PRECOOL (266 ± 50 W; P = 0.47). Power output during the time trial was greater for CONTROL than for PRECOOL (P < 0.05). Additionally, no differences were observed in core temperature measures, HR, and RPE. Skin temperature does not affect the selection and modulation of exercise intensity in a 7.5-km cycling time trial.

  4. World Wide Web Homepage Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillman, Michael L.

    This paper examines hypermedia design and draws conclusions about how educational research and theory applies to various aspects of World Wide Web (WWW) homepage design. "Hypermedia" is defined as any collection of information which may be textual, graphical, visual, or auditory in nature and which may be accessed via a nonlinear route. The paper…

  5. Wide band data collection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turkiewicz, J. M.

    1988-01-01

    The Incorporated Research Institutes for Seismology (IRIS) approached NASA Headquarters in 1986 about the need to collect data daily from seismic stations around the world as part of the Earth Observing System (EOS) mission. A typical IRIS Seismic Station generates 16 Megabytes of data per day when there is seismic activity. The Preliminary Design Parameters of the Wide Band Data Collection System are summarized.

  6. Partnership in Sector Wide Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolley, Hilary

    2011-01-01

    Within the context of bilateral support to the education sector in Tonga and the Solomon Islands, this paper will explore how the discourse of "partnership" has been interpreted and activated within the Sector wide approach (SWAp). In concentrating particularly on the relationship between the respective Ministries of Education and New Zealand's…

  7. The World Wide Web Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owston, Ron

    2007-01-01

    Nearly a decade ago the author wrote in one of the first widely-cited academic articles, Educational Researcher, about the educational role of the web. He argued that educators must be able to demonstrate that the web (1) can increase access to learning, (2) must not result in higher costs for learning, and (3) can lead to improved learning. These…

  8. Atmospheric pressure, density, temperature and wind variations between 50 and 200 km

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justus, C. G.; Woodrum, A.

    1972-01-01

    Data on atmospheric pressure, density, temperature and winds between 50 and 200 km were collected from sources including Meteorological Rocket Network data, ROBIN falling sphere data, grenade release and pitot tube data, meteor winds, chemical release winds, satellite data, and others. These data were analyzed by a daily difference method and results on the distribution statistics, magnitude, and spatial structure of the irregular atmospheric variations are presented. Time structures of the irregular variations were determined by the analysis of residuals from harmonic analysis of time series data. The observed height variations of irregular winds and densities are found to be in accord with a theoretical relation between these two quantities. The latitude variations (at 50 - 60 km height) show an increasing trend with latitude. A possible explanation of the unusually large irregular wind magnitudes of the White Sands MRN data is given in terms of mountain wave generation by the Sierra Nevada range about 1000 km west of White Sands. An analytical method is developed which, based on an analogy of the irregular motion field with axisymmetric turbulence, allows measured or model correlation or structure functions to be used to evaluate the effective frequency spectra of scalar and vector quantities of a spacecraft moving at any speed and at any trajectory elevation angle.

  9. 1 ns time to digital converters for the KM3NeT data readout system

    SciTech Connect

    Calvo, David [IFIC, Instituto de Física Corpuscular, CSIC- Universidad de Valencia, C Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    The KM3NeT collaboration aims at the construction of a multi-km3 high-energy neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea consisting of thousands of glass spheres (nodes), each of them containing 31 photomultiplier (PMT) of small photocathode area. The readout and data acquisition system of KM3NeT has to collect, treat and send to shore, in an economic way, the enormous amount of data produced by the photomultipliers. For this purpose, 31 high-resolution time-interval measuring channels are implemented on the Field-Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) based on Time to Digital Converter (TDC). TDC are very common devices in particles physics experiments. Architectures with low resources occupancy are desirable allowing the implementation of other instrumentation, communication and synchronization systems on the same device. The required resolution to measure both, time of flight and timestamp must be 1 ns. A 4-Oversampling technique with two high frequency clocks is used to achieve this resolution. The proposed TDC firmware is developed using very few resources in Xilinx Kintex-7.

  10. The Control Unit of KM3NeT data acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozza, Cristiano

    2016-04-01

    The KM3NeT Collaboration is building a new generation of neutrino telescopes in the Mediterranean Sea. With the telescopes, scientists will search for cosmic neutrinos to study highly energetic objects in the Universe, while one neutrino detector will be dedicated to measure the properties of the high-energy neutrino particles themselves. Control of the KM3NeT data acquisition processes is handled by the KM3NeT Control Unit, which has been designed to maximise the detector live time. The Control Unit features software programs with different roles, following the philosophy of having no single point of failure. While all programs are interconnected, each one can also work alone for most of the time in case other services are unavailable. All services run on the Common Language Runtime, which ensures portability, flexibility and automatic memory management. Each service has an embedded Web server, providing a user interface as well as programmatic access to data and functions. Data to and from detector components for monitoring and management purposes are transmitted using a custom designed protocol. The Control Unit is interfaced to one or more Message Dispatchers to control the data acquisition chain. A Data Base Interface provides fast and fault-tolerant connection to a remote Data Base.

  11. The effect of breast support on upper body muscle activity during 5 km treadmill running.

    PubMed

    Milligan, Alexandra; Mills, Chris; Scurr, Joanna

    2014-12-01

    Breast support has previously been shown to influence surface EMG of the pectoralis major during running. Reductions in muscle activity have previously been associated with a reduction in energy cost, which may be advantageous for female runners. Ten female participants performed two self-paced (average pace 9 km h(-1)) 5 km treadmill runs under two breast support conditions (low and high); an additional bare-breasted 2 min run was also conducted. Surface EMG electrodes were positioned on the pectoralis major, anterior deltoid, medial deltoid, and upper trapezius, with data collected during the first 2 min of running and each kilometer interval thereafter. Reductions in peak EMG of the pectoralis major, anterior and medial deltoid were reported when participants ran in the high breast support during the initial intervals of the run (up to the second kilometer). The increased activation in the pectoralis major, anterior and medial deltoid in the low breast support may be due to increased tension within these muscles, induced by the greater breast pain experienced in the low breast support. This may be a strategy to reduce the independent breast movement causing the pain through increased muscular activation. This study further promotes the use of a high breast support during running with potential benefits for treadmill running associated with reductions in muscular demand during a 5 km run.

  12. Characterization of cosmic rays and direction dependence in the Polar Region up to 88 km altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zábori, Balázs; Hirn, Attila; Deme, Sándor; Apáthy, István; Pázmándi, Tamás

    2016-02-01

    Aims: The sounding rocket experiment REM-RED was developed to operate on board the REXUS-17 rocket in order to measure the intensity of cosmic rays. The experiment was launched from the ESRANGE Space Center (68 °N, 21 °E) on the 17th of March 2015 at the beginning of the most intense geomagnetic storm within the preceding 10 years. The experiment provided the opportunity to measure the intensity of cosmic rays in the Polar Region up to an altitude of 88 km above sea level. Methods: The experiment employed Geiger-Müller (GM) counters oriented with their axes perpendicular to each other in order to measure the cosmic ray intensity during the flight of the rocket. This measurement setup allowed performing direction-sensitive measurements as well. During the ascent phase the rocket was spinning and hence stabilized along its longitudinal axis looking close to the zenith direction. This phase of the flight was used for studying the direction dependence of the charged particle component of the cosmic rays. Results: In comparison with earlier, similar rocket experiments performed with GM tubes at lower geomagnetic latitudes, significantly higher cosmic radiation flux was measured above 50 km. A non-isotropic behavior was found below 50 km and described in detail for the first time in the Polar Region. This behavior is in good agreement with the results of the TECHDOSE experiment that used the same type of GM tubes on board the BEXUS-14 stratospheric balloon.

  13. Albedo Properties of Small (0.5 to 20 km) Main Belt Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Erin L.; Woodward, C. E.

    2010-01-01

    Serendipitous observations of main belt asteroids by the Spitzer Space Telescope have enabled determination of main belt asteroid albedos and diameters for targets as small as 0.5 km (eg., Ryan et al. 2009, AJ, 137, 5134). We have used multi-epoch data at 5.8, 8.0 and 24 microns from the MIPSGAL and Taurus Legacy Surveys to obtain diameters and albedos for a sample of approximately 2000 main belt asteroids. Using STM and NEATM, we have obtained diameters ranging from 0.5 to 30 km and albedos ranging from 0.02 to 0.5. Results of this program reveal an albedo distribution that is more diverse in range than the albedo distribution seen in the IRAS and MSX surveys. This diversity may reflect effects of space weathering reddening which is selectively reddening larger asteroids. This reddening effect may reinforce the findings from accretion models that indicate that asteroids in the early solar system were 100 km and larger (Morbidelli et al., 2009, Icarus, in press), by suggesting that the larger asteroids are indeed the oldest members of the main belt. We will present results on the albedo distribution as a function of semi-major axis and new analysis of the mean albedo of dynamical families within the main belt. Support for this work provided in part by a National Science Foundation grant AST-0706980 to the University of Minnesota.

  14. Seismic evidence for silicate melt atop the 410-km mantle discontinuity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Revenaugh, Justin; Sipkin, S.A.

    1994-01-01

    LABORATORY results demonstrating that basic to ultrabasic melts become denser than olivine-rich mantle at pressures above 6 GPa (refs 1-3) have important implications for basalt petrogenesis, mantle differentiation and the storage of volatiles deep in the Earth. A density cross-over between melt and solid in the extensively molten Archaean mantle has been inferred from komatiitic volcanism and major-element mass balances, but present-day evidence of dense melt below the seismic low-velocity zone is lacking. Here we present mantle shear-wave impedance profiles obtained from multiple-ScS reverberation mapping for corridors connecting western Pacific subduction zone earthquakes with digital seismograph stations in eastern China, imaging a ~5.8% impedance decrease roughly 330 km beneath the Sea of Japan, Yellow Sea and easternmost Asia. We propose that this represents the upper surface of a layer of negatively buoyant melt lying on top of the olivine ??? ??- phase transition (the 410-km seismic discontinuity). Volatile-rich fluids expelled from the partial melt zone as it freezes may migrate upwards, acting as metasomatic agents and perhaps as the deep 'proto-source' of kimberlites. The remaining, dense, crystalline fraction would then concentrate above 410 km, producing a garnet-rich layer that may flush into the transition zone.

  15. Debris cloud characterization at impact velocities of 5 to 11 km/s

    SciTech Connect

    Chhabildas, L.C.; Boslough, M.B.; Reinhart, W.D.; Hall, C.A.

    1993-08-01

    A series of experiments has been performed on the Sandia HyperVelocity Launcher to impact a 1.25-mm thick aluminum bumper by an aluminum flier plate 17-mm diameter by 0.92-mm thick over the velocity range of 5 km/s to 11 km/s. Radiographic techniques were employed to record the debris cloud generated upon impact. The shape of the debris cloud is found to depend on the flier plate tilt. Generally -- the data indicate a central core of higher density surrounded by a diffused layer. These experiments allow measurements of debris cloud expansion velocities as the material undergoes a phase change from solid fragments at impact velocities of 5 km/s to a mixture of liquid and vapor phase at higher impact velocities. The expansion velocity of the debris cloud increases with increasing impact velocity, with the high-density leading edge traveling faster than the impact velocity. There is a difference between the X-ray and photographic measurements of expansion velocities at higher impact velocities. This is believed to be due to the presence of very low-density vapor in the photographic records that are not detecting using X-ray techniques.

  16. Integration of acoustical sensors into the KM3NeT optical modules

    SciTech Connect

    Enzenhöfer, A.; Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    The next generation multi-cubic-kilometre water Cherenkov neutrino telescope will be build in the Mediterranean Sea. This telescope, called KM3NeT, is currently entering a first construction phase. The KM3NeT research infrastructure will comprise 690 so-called Detection Units in its final design which will be anchored to the sea bed and held upright by submerged floats. The positions of these Detection Units, several hundred metres in length, and their attached Optical Modules for the detection of Cherenkov light have to be monitored continously to provide the telescope with its desired pointing precision. A standard way to do this is the utilisation of an acoustic positioning system using emitters at fixed positions and receivers distributed along the Detection Units. The KM3NeT neutrino telescope comprises a custom-made acoustic positioning system with newly designed emitters attached to the anchors of the Detection Units and custom-designed receivers attached to the Detection Units. This article describes an approach for a receiver and its performance. The proposed Opto-Acoustical Modules combine the optical sensors for the telescope with the acoustical sensors necessary for the positioning of the module itself. This combination leads to a compact design suited for an easy deployment of the numerous Detection Units. Furthermore, the instrumented volume can be used for scientific analyses such as marine science and acoustic particle detection.

  17. Phenome-wide analysis of genome-wide polygenic scores

    PubMed Central

    Krapohl, E; Euesden, J; Zabaneh, D; Pingault, J-B; Rimfeld, K; von Stumm, S; Dale, P S; Breen, G; O'Reilly, P F; Plomin, R

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide polygenic scores (GPS), which aggregate the effects of thousands of DNA variants from genome-wide association studies (GWAS), have the potential to make genetic predictions for individuals. We conducted a systematic investigation of associations between GPS and many behavioral traits, the behavioral phenome. For 3152 unrelated 16-year-old individuals representative of the United Kingdom, we created 13 GPS from the largest GWAS for psychiatric disorders (for example, schizophrenia, depression and dementia) and cognitive traits (for example, intelligence, educational attainment and intracranial volume). The behavioral phenome included 50 traits from the domains of psychopathology, personality, cognitive abilities and educational achievement. We examined phenome-wide profiles of associations for the entire distribution of each GPS and for the extremes of the GPS distributions. The cognitive GPS yielded stronger predictive power than the psychiatric GPS in our UK-representative sample of adolescents. For example, education GPS explained variation in adolescents' behavior problems (~0.6%) and in educational achievement (~2%) but psychiatric GPS were associated with neither. Despite the modest effect sizes of current GPS, quantile analyses illustrate the ability to stratify individuals by GPS and opportunities for research. For example, the highest and lowest septiles for the education GPS yielded a 0.5 s.d. difference in mean math grade and a 0.25 s.d. difference in mean behavior problems. We discuss the usefulness and limitations of GPS based on adult GWAS to predict genetic propensities earlier in development. PMID:26303664

  18. Extending the Purple Crow Lidar Temperature Climatology Above 100 km Altitude Using an Inversion Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalali, A.; Sica, R. J.; Argall, S.; McCullough, E. M.

    2013-12-01

    Temperature retrievals from Rayleigh-scattering lidar measurements have been performed using the algorithm given by Chanin and Hauchecorne (1980; henceforth CH) for the last 3 decades. Recently Khanna et al. have presented an inversion approach to retrieve atmospheric temperature profiles. This method uses a nonlinear inversion method with a Monte Carlo technique to determine the statistical uncertainties for the retrieved nightly average temperature profiles. Using this approach, Purple Crow Lidar temperature profiles can now be extended 10 km higher in altitude compared to those calculated with the CH method, with reduced systematic uncertainty. Argall and Sica (2007) used the CH method to produce a climatology of the Purple Crow Lidar measurements from 1994 to 2004 which was compared with the CIRA-86 model. The CH method integrates temperatures downward, and requires the assumption of a 'seed' pressure at the highest altitude, taken from a model. Geophysical variation here, in the lower thermosphere, is sufficiently large to cause temperature retrievals to be unreliable for the top 10 or more km; uncertainties due to this pressure assumption cause the top two scale heights of temperatures from each profile to be discarded until the retrieval is no longer sensitive to the seed pressure. Khanna et al. (2012) use an inversion approach which allows the corrected lidar photocount profile to be integrated upward, as opposed to downward as required by the CH method. Khanna et al. (2012) showed that seeding the retrieval at the lowest instead of top height allows a much smaller uncertainty in the contribution of the seed pressure to the temperature compared to integrating from the top of the profile. Two other benefits to seeding the retrieval at the lower altitudes (around 30 km) include reduced geophysical variability, and the availability of routine pressure measurements from radiosondes. This presentation will show an extension of the Khanna et al. (2012) comparison

  19. Communication between earthquake clusters separated by over 30 km supports simple volcano plumbing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonsdottir, K.; Jonasson, K.; Gudmundsson, M. T.; Hensch, M.; Hooper, A. J.; Holohan, E. P.; Sigmundsson, F.; Halldorsson, S. A.; Hognadottir, T.; Magnússon, E.; Pálsson, F.; Walter, T. R.; Ofeigsson, B.; Parks, M.; Roberts, M. J.; Hjorleifsdottir, V.; Cesca, S.; Guðmundsson, G.; Hreinsdottir, S.; Jarosch, A. H.; Dumont, S.; Fridriksdóttir, H. M.; Barsotti, S.; Einarsson, P.

    2015-12-01

    The subglacial Bárðarbunga volcano is composed of a large oval caldera (7x11 km) and fissures extending tens of kilometers away from the caldera along the rift zone, which marks the divergent plate boundary across Iceland. On August 16th, 2014 an intense seismic swarm started below the Bárðarbunga caldera and in the two weeks that followed a dyke migrated some 47 km laterally in the uppermost 6-10 km of the crust along the rift. The dyke propagation terminated in lava fields just north of Vatnajökull glacier, where a major (1.5 km3) six months long eruption took place. Intense earthquake activity in the caldera started in the period August 21-24 with over 70 M5 earthquakes accompanying slow caldera collapse, as verified by various geodetic measurements. The subsidence is likely due to magma withdrawal from a reservoir at depth beneath the caldera. During a five months period, October-February, the seismic activity was separated by over 30 km in two clusters; one along the caldera rims (due to piecewise caldera subsidence) and the other at the far end of the dyke (as a result of small shear movements). Here we present statistical analysis comparing the temporal behaviour of seismicity recorded in the two clusters. By comparing the earthquake rate in the dyke in temporal bins before and after caldera subsidence earthquakes to the rate away from these bins (background rate), we show that the number of dyke earthquakes was significantly higher (p <0.05) in the period 0-3 hours before a large earthquake (>M4.6) in the caldera. Increased dyke seismicity was also observed 0-3 hours following a large caldera earthquake. Elevated seismicity in the dyke before a large caldera earthquake may occur when a constriction in the dyke was reduced, followed by pressure drop in the chamber. Assuming that the large caldera earthquakes occurred when chamber pressure was lowest, the subsiding caldera piston may have caused temporary higher pressure in the dyke and thereby increased

  20. Tannase Production by Penicillium Atramentosum KM under SSF and its Applications in Wine Clarification and Tea Cream Solubilization.

    PubMed

    Selwal, Manjit K; Yadav, Anita; Selwal, Krishan K; Aggarwal, N K; Gupta, Ranjan; Gautam, S K

    2011-01-01

    Tannin acyl hydrolase commonly known as tannase is an industrially important enzyme having a wide range of applications, so there is always a scope for novel tannase with better characteristics. A newly isolated tannase-yielding fungal strain identified as Penicillium atramentosum KM was used for tannase production under solid-state fermentation (SSF) using different agro residues like amla (Phyllanthus emblica), ber (Zyzyphus mauritiana), jamun (Syzygium cumini), Jamoa (Eugenia cuspidate) and keekar (Acacia nilotica) leaves. Among these substrates, maximal extracellular tannase production i.e. 170.75 U/gds and 165.56 U/gds was obtained with jamun and keekar leaves respectively at 28ºC after 96 h. A substrate to distilled water ratio of 1:2 (w/v) was found to be the best for tannase production. Supplementation of sodium nitrate (NaNO3) as nitrogen source had enhanced tannase production both in jamun and keekar leaves. Applications of the enzyme were studied in wine clarification and tea cream solubilization. It resulted in 38.05% reduction of tannic acid content in case of jamun wine, 43.59% reduction in case of grape wine and 74% reduction in the tea extract after 3 h at 35°C. PMID:24031644

  1. Development of a high-resolution (1 km × 1 km, 1 h) emission model for Spain: The High-Elective Resolution Modelling Emission System (HERMES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldasano, José María; Güereca, Leonor Patricia; López, Eugeni; Gassó, Santiago; Jimenez-Guerrero, Pedro

    This work presents the results of the development and application of the High-Elective Resolution Modelling Emission System (HERMES). HERMES generates the emissions for Spain needed for the application of high-resolution chemistry transport models, taking the year 2004 as reference with a temporal resolution of 1 h and a spatial resolution of 1 km 2 considering both anthropogenic (power generation, industrial activities, on-road traffic, ports, airports, solvent use, domestic and commercial fossil fuel use) and biogenic sources (vegetation), using a bottom-up approach, up-to-date information and state-of-the-art methodologies for emission estimation. HERMES is capable of calculating emissions by sector-specific sources or by individual installations and stacks. The annual addition of hourly sectorial emissions leads to an estimation of total annual emissions as follows: NO x, 795 kt; NMVOCs, 1025 kt; CO, 1236 kt; SO 2, 1142 kt and TSP, 180 kt; which are distributed principally in the greater areas of the main cities, highways and large point sources. NO x, SO 2 and PM 2.5 highly correlate with the power generation by coal use, achieving higher emission levels during summertime due to the increase of electricity demand by cooling systems. NMVOCs show high correlation with temperature and solar radiation (mainly as a consequence of the important weight of biogenic emissions) causing the maximum emissions during the daylight hours of summer months. CO emissions are mostly influenced by the on-road traffic; consequently the higher emissions are attained in summer because of the increase of daily average traffic during holidays. The most significant total emission sources are on-road traffic (38%), combustion in power generation plants (33%), biogenic sources (12%) and combustion in manufacturing industries (9%). The inventory generated with HERMES emission model has been successfully integrated within the Spanish Ministry of the Environment's air quality forecasting

  2. From wide to close binaries?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggleton, Peter P.

    The mechanisms by which the periods of wide binaries (mass 8 solar mass or less and period 10-3000 d) are lengthened or shortened are discussed, synthesizing the results of recent theoretical investigations. A system of nomenclature involving seven evolutionary states, three geometrical states, and 10 types of orbital-period evolution is developed and applied; classifications of 71 binaries are presented in a table along with the basic observational parameters. Evolutionary processes in wide binaries (single-star-type winds, magnetic braking with tidal friction, and companion-reinforced attrition), late case B systems, low-mass X-ray binaries, and triple systems are examined in detail, and possible evolutionary paths are shown in diagrams.

  3. Wide Bandgap Extrinsic Photoconductive Switches

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, James S.

    2012-01-20

    Photoconductive semiconductor switches (PCSS) have been investigated since the late 1970s. Some devices have been developed that withstand tens of kilovolts and others that switch hundreds of amperes. However, no single device has been developed that can reliably withstand both high voltage and switch high current. Yet, photoconductive switches still hold the promise of reliable high voltage and high current operation with subnanosecond risetimes. Particularly since good quality, bulk, single crystal, wide bandgap semiconductor materials have recently become available. In this chapter we will review the basic operation of PCSS devices, status of PCSS devices and properties of the wide bandgap semiconductors 4H-SiC, 6H-SiC and 2H-GaN.

  4. Cast shadows in wide perspective.

    PubMed

    Pont, Sylvia C; Wijntjes, Maarten W A; Oomes, Augustinus H J; van Doom, Andrea; van Nierop, Onno; de Ridder, Huib; Koenderink, Jan J

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the apparent spatial layout of cast shadows up to very wide fields of view. We presented up to 130 degrees wide images in which two 'flat poles' were standing on a green lawn under a cloudless blue sky on a sunny day. The poles threw sharp cast shadows on the green, of which one was fixed. The observer's task was to adjust the azimuth of the shadow of the other pole such that it fitted the scene. The source elevation was kept constant. The two cast shadows are, of course, parallel in physical space, but generically not in the picture plane because of the wide perspective. We found that observers made huge systematic errors, indicating that, generically, they fail to account for these perspective effects. The systematic deviations could be well described by a weighted linear combination of the directions in the picture plane and in the physical space, with weights that depended on the positions of, and distance between, the poles.

  5. Wide Bandgap Extrinsic Photoconductive Switches

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, James S.

    2013-07-03

    Semi-insulating Gallium Nitride, 4H and 6H Silicon Carbide are attractive materials for compact, high voltage, extrinsic, photoconductive switches due to their wide bandgap, high dark resistance, high critical electric field strength and high electron saturation velocity. These wide bandgap semiconductors are made semi-insulating by the addition of vanadium (4H and 6HSiC) and iron (2H-GaN) impurities that form deep acceptors. These deep acceptors trap electrons donated from shallow donor impurities. The electrons can be optically excited from these deep acceptor levels into the conduction band to transition the wide bandgap semiconductor materials from a semi-insulating to a conducting state. Extrinsic photoconductive switches with opposing electrodes have been constructed using vanadium compensated 6H-SiC and iron compensated 2H-GaN. These extrinsic photoconductive switches were tested at high voltage and high power to determine if they could be successfully used as the closing switch in compact medical accelerators.

  6. Mean zonal acceleration and heating of the 70- to 100-km region

    SciTech Connect

    Miyahara, S.; Portnyagin, Yu.I.; Forbes, J.M. ); Solovjeva, T.V. )

    1991-02-01

    The dynamical interactions which occur in the atmospheric region around the mesopause ({approximately} 90 km) determine the boundary characteristics for the thermospheric region above. In the present work, using an empirical model of Eulerian-mean meridional motions based on monthly climatological winds from these radar data, the net vertical motions in this atmospheric regime are derived from the continuity equation. Assuming empirical prescriptions of the mean density and temperature fields, mean heat flux divergences and momentum flux divergences are estimated which exhibit very specific characteristics in the height versus latitude domain for winter, summer, and equinox conditions in both hemispheres. A numerical circulation model including gravity wave/mean flow and tide/mean flow interactions is utilized to examine possible origins of these heat and acceleration sources. At low latitudes ({le}30{degree}), it is evident that atmospheric tides represent the primary wave source contribution to zonal mean acceleration and heating of this region of the atmosphere; similarly, at middle and high latitudes ({ge}30{degree}) below about 90 km, dissipation of vertically propagating gravity waves appears to provide the dominant momentum source for the mean zonal circulation. However, above approximately 90 km and between about 40{degree} and 70{degree} latitude, very significant regions of mean heating and acceleration exist which are not accounted for by the effects of vertically propagating gravity waves and tides. The possible origins of these effects are examined. The authors suggest that the two most likely candidates to explain these observed features are (1) obliquely propagating gravity waves and/or (2) planetary scale waves.

  7. Spatially Explicit Modelling of the Belgian Major Endurance Event ‘The 100 km Dodentocht’

    PubMed Central

    Van Nieuland, Steffie; Baetens, Jan M.; De Baets, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    ‘The 100 km Dodentocht’, which takes place annually and has its start in Bornem, Belgium, is a long distance march where participants have to cover a 100 km trail in at most 24 hours. The approximately 11 000 marchers per edition are tracked by making use of passive radio-frequency-identification (RFID). These tracking data were analyzed to build a spatially explicit marching model that gives insights into the dynamics of the event and allows to evaluate the effect of changes in the starting procedure of the event. For building the model, the empirical distribution functions (edf) of the marching speeds at every section of the trail in between two consecutive checkpoints and of the checkpoints where marchers retire, are determined, taking into account age, gender, and marching speeds at previous sections. These distribution functions are then used to sample the consecutive speeds and retirement, and as such to simulate the times when individual marchers pass by the consecutive checkpoints. We concluded that the data-driven model simulates the event reliably. Furthermore, we tested three scenarios to reduce the crowdiness along the first part of the trail and in this way were able to conclude that either the start should be moved to a location outside the town center where the streets are at least 25% wider, or that the marchers should start in two groups at two different locations, and that these groups should ideally merge at about 20 km after the start. The crowdiness at the start might also be reduced by installing a bottleneck at the start in order to limit the number of marchers that can pass per unit of time. Consequently, the operating hours of the consecutive checkpoints would be longer. The developed framework can likewise be used to analyze and improve the operation of other endurance events if sufficient tracking data are available. PMID:27764202

  8. A comparison of the IGBP DISCover and University of Maryland 1 km global land cover products

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, M.C.; Reed, B.

    2000-01-01

    Two global 1 km land cover data sets derived from 1992-1993 Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data are currently available, the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme Data and Information System (IGBP-DIS) DISCover and the University of Maryland (UMd) 1 km land cover maps. This paper makes a preliminary comparison of the methodologies and results of the two products. The DISCover methodology employed an unsupervised clustering classification scheme on a per-continent basis using 12 monthly maximum NDVI composites as inputs. The UMd approach employed a supervised classification tree method in which temporal metrics derived from all AVHRR bands and the NDVI were used to predict class membership across the entire globe. The DISCover map uses the IGBP classification scheme, while the UMd map employs a modified IGBP scheme minus the classes of permanent wetlands, cropland/natural vegetation mosaic and ice and snow. Global area totals of aggregated vegetation types are very similar and have a per-pixel agreement of 74%. For tall versus short/no vegetation, the per-pixel agreement is 84%. For broad vegetation types, core areas map similarly, while transition zones around core areas differ significantly. This results in high regional variability between the maps. Individual class agreement between the two 1 km maps is 49%. Comparison of the maps at a nominal 0.5 resolution with two global ground-based maps shows an improvement of thematic concurrency of 46% when viewing average class agreement. The absence of the cropland mosaic class creates a difficulty in comparing the maps, due to its significant extent in the DISCover map. The DISCover map, in general, has more forest, while the UMd map has considerably more area in the intermediate tree cover classes of woody savanna/ woodland and savanna/wooded grassland.

  9. The effect of carbohydrate gels on gastrointestinal tolerance during a 16-km run.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Beate; Cotterill, Alexandra; Grathwohl, Dominik; Stellingwerff, Trent; Jeukendrup, Asker E

    2009-10-01

    Two studies were conducted to investigate gastrointestinal (GI) tolerance of high carbohydrate (CHO) intakes during intense running. The first study investigated tolerance of a CHO gel delivering glucose plus fructose (GLU+FRC) at different rates. The second study investigated tolerance of high intakes of glucose (GLU) vs. GLU+FRC gel. Both studies used a randomized, 2-treatment, 2-period crossover design: Endurance-trained men and women (Study 1: 26 men, 8 women; 37 +/- 11 yr; 73 +/- 9 kg; 1.76 +/- 0.07 m. Study 2: 34 men, 14 women; 35 +/- 10 yr; 70 +/- 9 kg; 1.75 +/- 0.09 m) completed two 16-km outdoor-runs. In Study 1 gels were administered to provide 1.0 or 1.4 g CHO/min with ad libitum water intake every 3.2 km. In Study 2 GLU or GLU+FRC gels were given in a double-blind manner to provide 1.4 g CHO/min. In both studies a postexercise questionnaire assessed 17 symptoms on a 10-point scale (from 0 to 9). For all treatments, GI complaints were mainly scored at the low end of the scale. In Study 1 mean scores ranged from 0.00 +/- 0.00 to 1.12 +/- 1.90, and in Study 2, from 0.00 +/- 0.0 to 1.27 +/- 1.78. GI symptoms were grouped into upper abdominal, lower abdominal, and systemic problems. There were no significant treatment differences in these categories in either study. In conclusion, despite high CHO gel intake, and regardless of the blend (GLU vs. GLU+FRC), average scores for GI symptoms were at the low end of the scale, indicating predominantly good tolerance during a 16-km run. Nevertheless, some runners (~10-20%) experienced serious problems, and individualized feeding strategies might be required. PMID:19910651

  10. Effect of lactate supplementation and sodium bicarbonate on 40-km cycling time trial performance.

    PubMed

    Northgraves, Matthew J; Peart, Daniel J; Jordan, Christian A; Vince, Rebecca V

    2014-01-01

    The use of nutritional supplements to improve sporting performance and increase training adaptations is commonplace among athletes and is an expanding market in terms of product choice and availability. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 2 ergogenic aids with extracellular blood buffering potential, namely sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and a lactate supplement, during a 40-km cycling time trial. Seven recreationally active men (age, 22.3 ± 3.3 years; height, 182.5 ± 6.5 cm; body mass, 79.2 ± 6.3 kg) completed five 40-km cycling time trials, including a familiarization trial in a randomized, blind, double placebo-controlled design. Subjects ingested (a) 300 mg·kg-1 body mass NaHCO3 (BICARB), (b) 45 mg·kg-1 body mass sodium chloride (PL-BICARB) as the placebo for the NaHCO3 trial, (c) 1115 mg lactate (LACTATE), or (d) plain flour as the placebo for the lactate trial (PL-LACTATE) 60 minutes before exercise. There was no significant difference in performance between the 4 conditions (p > 0.05). Although NaHCO3 ingestion induced significant changes in all the acid-base variables (all p < 0.05), no significant change was seen following lactate ingestion (p > 0.05). Subjects in the LACTATE condition did have a significantly higher heart rate (p < 0.05) without experiencing any greater perceived exertion (p > 0.05) than the other 3 conditions. Neither NaHCO3 nor lactate supplementation seem to improve 40-km cycling time trial performance. However, the potential benefits following LACTATE regarding perceived exertion require further research.

  11. Biochemical and Hematological Changes Following the 120-Km Open-Water Marathon Swim

    PubMed Central

    Drygas, Wojciech; Rębowska, Ewa; Stępień, Ewa; Golański, Jacek; Kwaśniewska, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Data on physiological effects and potential risks of a ultraendurance swimming are scarce. This report presents the unique case of a 61-year old athlete who completed a non-stop open-water 120-km ultramarathon swim on the Warta River, Poland. Pre-swimming examinations revealed favorable conditions (blood pressure, 110/70 mmHg; rest heart rate, 54 beats/minute, ejection fraction, 60%, 20.2 metabolic equivalents in a maximal exercise test). The swimming time and distance covered were 27 h 33 min and 120 km, respectively. Blood samples for hematological and biochemical parameters were collected 30 min, 4 hrs, 10 hrs and 8 days after the swim. The body temperature of the swimmer was 36.7°C before and 35.1°C after the swim. The hematological parameters remained within the reference range in the postexercise period except for leucocytes (17.5 and 10.6 x G/l noted 30 minutes and 4 hours after the swim, respectively). Serum urea, aspartate aminotransferase and C-reactive protein increased above the reference range reaching 11.3 mmol/l, 1054 nmol/l/s and 25.9 mg/l, respectively. Symptomatic hyponatremia was not observed. Although the results demonstrate that an experienced athlete is able to complete an ultra-marathon swim without negative health consequences, further studies addressing the potential risks of marathon swimming are required. Key points Data on biochemical changes due to long-distance swimming are scarce. This report presents the unique case of a 61-year old athlete who completed a non-stop open-water 120-km ultramarathon swim. An experienced athlete is able to complete an ultra-marathon swim without serious health consequences. Regarding the growing popularity of marathon swimming further studies addressing the potential risks of such exhaustive exercise are required. PMID:25177192

  12. PERFORMANCE TRENDS IN LARGE 10-KM ROAD RUNNING RACES IN THE UNITED STATES

    PubMed Central

    Cushman, Dan M.; Markert, Matthew; Rho, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Our study examines the current trends of runners participating in 10-km road races in the United States. Finish times and ages of all runners participating in 10 of the largest 10-km running races in the United States between 2002–2005 and 2011 were recorded. Linear regression analysis was performed to examine the trends for age, sex, and finishing time for all participants completing the course in <1 hour. A total of 408,296 runners were analyzed. There was a significant annual decrease in the ratio of men to women finishers (p < 0.001, r2 = 0.976). The average finishing time of the top 10 (men, p ≤ 0.05), 100 (men and women, p ≤ 0.05), and 1,000 (men and women, p < 0.01) significantly decreased annually. The total number of subhour finishers increased annually across all races (194 men per year, r2 = 0.584, p = 0.045; 161 women per year, r2 = 0.779, p = 0.008), whereas the percentage of overall finishers completing the course in less than an hour significantly declined for men and women (p ≤ 0.003). There was a significant trend toward younger men in all top groups except for the single fastest runner (p ≤ 0.017). Our study demonstrates that for large 10-km U.S. races: the top men and women seem to be getting faster; there are more subhour finishers, with increasingly more women accomplishing this feat compared with men; an increasingly lower percentage of overall finishers is finishing in <1 hour; and the fastest men are also increasingly younger. PMID:24077377

  13. Biochemical and hematological changes following the 120-km open-water marathon swim.

    PubMed

    Drygas, Wojciech; Rębowska, Ewa; Stępień, Ewa; Golański, Jacek; Kwaśniewska, Magdalena

    2014-09-01

    Data on physiological effects and potential risks of a ultraendurance swimming are scarce. This report presents the unique case of a 61-year old athlete who completed a non-stop open-water 120-km ultramarathon swim on the Warta River, Poland. Pre-swimming examinations revealed favorable conditions (blood pressure, 110/70 mmHg; rest heart rate, 54 beats/minute, ejection fraction, 60%, 20.2 metabolic equivalents in a maximal exercise test). The swimming time and distance covered were 27 h 33 min and 120 km, respectively. Blood samples for hematological and biochemical parameters were collected 30 min, 4 hrs, 10 hrs and 8 days after the swim. The body temperature of the swimmer was 36.7°C before and 35.1°C after the swim. The hematological parameters remained within the reference range in the postexercise period except for leucocytes (17.5 and 10.6 x G/l noted 30 minutes and 4 hours after the swim, respectively). Serum urea, aspartate aminotransferase and C-reactive protein increased above the reference range reaching 11.3 mmol/l, 1054 nmol/l/s and 25.9 mg/l, respectively. Symptomatic hyponatremia was not observed. Although the results demonstrate that an experienced athlete is able to complete an ultra-marathon swim without negative health consequences, further studies addressing the potential risks of marathon swimming are required. Key pointsData on biochemical changes due to long-distance swimming are scarce.This report presents the unique case of a 61-year old athlete who completed a non-stop open-water 120-km ultramarathon swim.An experienced athlete is able to complete an ultra-marathon swim without serious health consequences.Regarding the growing popularity of marathon swimming further studies addressing the potential risks of such exhaustive exercise are required.

  14. Experimental Demonstration of Free-Space Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution over 144km

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt-Manderbach, Tobias; Weier, Henning; Fürst, Martin; Ursin, Rupert; Tiefenbacher, Felix; Scheidl, Thomas; Perdigues, Josep; Sodnik, Zoran; Kurtsiefer, Christian; Rarity, John G.; Zeilinger, Anton; Weinfurter, Harald

    2007-01-01

    We report on the experimental implementation of a Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) protocol type quantum key distribution over a 144 km free-space link using weak coherent laser pulses. Optimization of the link transmission was achieved with bidirectional active telescope tracking, and the security was ensured by employing decoy-state analysis. This enabled us to distribute a secure key at a rate of 12.8bit/s at an attenuation of about 35 dB. Utilizing a simple transmitter setup and an optical ground station capable of tracking a spacecraft in low earth orbit, this outdoor experiment demonstrates the feasibility of global key distribution via satellites.

  15. Procedure for locating 10 km UTM grid on Alabama County general highway maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paludan, C. T. N.

    1975-01-01

    Each county highway map has a geographic grid of degrees and tens of minutes in both longitude and latitude in the margins and within the map as intersection crosses. These will be used to locate the universal transverse mercator (UTM) grid at 10 km intervals. Since the maps used may have stretched or shrunk in height and/or width, interpolation should be done between the 10 min intersections when possible. A table of UTM coordinates of 10 min intersections is required and included. In Alabama, all eastings are referred to a false easting of 500,000 m at 87 deg W longitude (central meridian, CM).

  16. Case study of polar cap scintillation modeling using DE 2 irregularity measurements at 800 km

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, S.; Basu, S.; Weber, E.J.; Coley, W.R.

    1988-08-01

    High-resolution in situ Dynamics Explorer 2 data on thermal plasma densities are used here to study the small-scale irregularity structure of the F layer patches. It is shown that spatially discrete density structures associated with polar cap patches can be detected fairly high in the topside by an in situ irregularity sensor and that they correspond to temporally discrete scintillation patches. It is also shown that it is possible to model phase and amplitude scintillation occurrence from a knowledge of irregularity amplitude at a satellite altitude of about 800 km provided that independent measurements of the peak density and scale height of the F region are available. 19 references.

  17. Compilation of atmospheric gas concentration profiles from 0 to 50 km

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. A. H.

    1982-01-01

    A set of 52 atmospheric gas concentration profiles between 0 and 50 km was compiled as a convenient reference data set for calculation of atmospheric infrared absorption or emission signals and for initialization of iterative procedures for retrieval of gas concentrations from measured data. The distributions of volume mixing ratio as a function of altitude generally correspond to typical diurnally averaged, seasonally averaged Northern Hemisphere midlatitude gas concentration profiles. Profiles are given for all gases included in current infrared atmospheric absorption line parameter compilations, and for a number of additional important trace gases.

  18. Mid-Latitude Temperatures at 87 km: Results From Multi-Instrument Fourier Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drob, Douglas P.; Picone, J. M.; Eckermann, Stephen D.; She, C . Y.; Kafkalidis, J. F.; Ortland, D. A.; Niciejewski, R. J.; Killeen, T. L.

    2000-01-01

    Using a novel Fourier fitting method we combine two years of mid-latitude temperature measurements at 87 km from the High Resolution Doppler Imager, the Colorado State University lidar, and the Peach Mountain Interferometer. After accounting for calibration bias, significant local-time variations on the order of 10 K were observed. Stationary planetary waves with amplitudes up to 10 K were observed during winter, with weaker wave amplitudes occurring during other seasons. Because of calibration biases among these instruments, we could estimate the annual mean temperature to no better than 193.5 plus or minus 8.5 K.

  19. IGBP-DIS global 1 km land cover data set, DISCover: First results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loveland, T.R.; Belward, A.S.

    1997-01-01

    The International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme Data and Information System (IGBP-DIS) is co-ordinating the development of global land data sets from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data. The first is a 1 km spatial resolution land cover product `DISCover', based on monthly Normalized Difference Vegetation Index composites from 1992 and 1993. DISCover is a 17 class land cover dataset based on the science requirements of IGBP elements. Mapping uses unsupervised classification with post-classification refinement using ancillary data. Draft Africa, North America and South America products are now available for peer review.

  20. Evidence for microorganisms in stratosphere air samples collected at a height of 41km

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wainwright, Milton; Wickramasinghe, Nalin C.; Narlikar, J. V.; Rajaratnam, P.

    2003-02-01

    Samples of air removed from the stratosphere, at an altitude of 41km, were previously found to contain viable, but non-cultureable bacteria (cocci and rods). Here, we describe experiments aimed at growing these organisms, together with any others, present in the samples. Two bacteria (Bacillus simplex and Staphylococcus pasteuri) and a single fungus, Engyodontium albus (limber)de Hoog were isolated from the samples. Contamination can never be ruled out when space-derived samples are studied on earth, however, we are confident that the organisms isolated here originated from the stratosphere.

  1. Corneal Opacity in a Participant of a 161-km Mountain Bike Race at High Altitude.

    PubMed

    Khodaee, Morteza; Torres, David R

    2016-06-01

    Visual dysfunction is a relatively uncommon complaint among athletes during ultraendurance races. The pathophysiology of most of these cases is unknown. Corneal opacity has been speculated as the etiology for most of reported cases. We are presenting a case of a 56-year-old man with a partial unilateral corneal opacity and edema at kilometer 150 of a 161-km mountain bike race in high altitude. He was not able to finish the race (12-hour cutoff) because of his visual symptoms. He completely recovered in 3 days with no sequelae. PMID:27095539

  2. Extensive middle atmosphere (20-120 KM) modification in the Global Reference Atmospheric Model (GRAM-90)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justus, C. G.; Johnson, Dale

    1990-01-01

    The Global Reference Atmospheric Model (GRAM) is currently available in the 'GRAM-88' version (Justus, et al., 1986; 1988), which includes relatively minor upgrades and changes from the 'MOD-3' version (Justus, et al., 1980). Currently a project is underway to use large amounts of data, mostly collected under the Middle Atmosphere Program (MAP) to produce a major upgrade of the program planned for release as the GRAM-90 version. The new data and program revisions will particularly affect the 25-90 km height range. Sources of data and preliminary results are described here in the form of cross-sectional plots.

  3. The design of the optical modules of the KM3NeT-Italia project towers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonora, Emanuele; Aiello, Sebastiano; Giordano, Valentina

    2016-07-01

    The KM3NeT-Italia project aims to construct a large volume underwater neutrino telescope, to be installed in the depths of the Mediterranean Sea. The R&D and mass production phases of the detection elements of the telescope, the optical modules, were entirely performed in the INFN-LNS site in the harbour of Catania. In November 2014 a first tower of 14 storeys equipped with 84 optical modules was successfully deployed in the Mediterranean Sea site. The design of the optical modules and their main components are described in this paper.

  4. The modelled surface mass balance of the Antarctic Peninsula at 5.5 km horizontal resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Wessem, J. M.; Ligtenberg, S. R. M.; Reijmer, C. H.; van de Berg, W. J.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Barrand, N. E.; Thomas, E. R.; Turner, J.; Wuite, J.; Scambos, T. A.; van Meijgaard, E.

    2015-09-01

    This study presents a high-resolution (~ 5.5 km) estimate of Surface Mass Balance (SMB) over the period 1979-2014 for the Antarctic Peninsula (AP), generated by the regional atmospheric climate model RACMO2.3 and a Firn Densification Model (FDM). RACMO2.3 is used to force the FDM, which calculates processes in the snowpack, such as meltwater percolation, refreezing and runoff. We evaluate model output with 132 in-situ SMB observations and discharge rates from 6 glacier drainage basins, and find that the model realistically simulates the strong spatial variability in precipitation, but that significant biases remain as a result of the highly complex topography of the AP. It is also clear that the observations significantly underrepresent the high-accumulation regimes. The SMB map reveals large accumulation gradients, with precipitation values above 3000 mm we yr-1 over the western AP (WAP) and below 500 mm we yr-1 on the eastern AP (EAP), not resolved by coarser data-sets such as ERA-Interim. The other SMB components are one order of magnitude smaller, with drifting snow sublimation the largest ablation term removing up to 100 mm we yr-1 of mass. Snowmelt is widespread over the AP, reaching 500 mm we yr-1 towards the northern ice shelves, but the meltwater mostly refreezes. As a result runoff fluxes are low, but still considerable (200 mm we yr-1) over the Larsen (B/C), Wilkins and George VI ice shelves. The average AP ice sheet integrated SMB, including ice shelves (an area of 4.1 × 105 km2), is estimated at 351 Gt yr-1 with an interannual variability of 58 Gt yr-1, which is dominated by precipitation (PR) (365 ± 57 Gt yr-1). The WAP (2.4 × 105 km2) SMB (276 ± 47 Gt yr-1), where PR is large (276 ± 47 Gt yr-1), dominates over the EAP (1.7 × 105 km2) SMB (75 ± 11 Gt yr-1) and PR (84 ± 11 Gt yr-1). Total sublimation is 11 ± 2 Gt yr-1 and meltwater runoff into the ocean is 4 ± 4 Gt yr-1. There are no significant trends in any of the AP SMB components, except

  5. Kinematic and Microphysical Structures of Hurricane Bob (1991) Determined from a 1.3-km-Resolution Numerical Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, Scott A.; Simpson, Joanne; Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2000-01-01

    Hurricane Bob (1991) is simulated using the Penn State/NCAR mesoscale model MM5. The simulation is conducted for a 24-h period at 4-km resolution and for a 6-h period at 1.3-km resolution. The 4-km simulation is able to fairly realistically capture the intensity and structure of the storm. The 1.3-km simulation depicts very small-scale convective structures and produces a convective band outside of the eye wall that did not occur in the 4-km simulation. The 1.3-km results are used to characterize several kinematic and cloud microphysical structures in the storm. Characteristics of air parcels flowing into and rising within the eye wall will be examined through trajectory calculations.

  6. Kinematic and Thermodynamic Structures of Hurricane Bob (1991) Determined From A 1.3-KM Resolution Numerical Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, Scott A.; Simpson, Joanne; Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2000-01-01

    Hurricane Bob (1991) is simulated using the Penn State/NCAR mesoscale model MM5. The simulation is conducted for a 24-h period at 4-km resolution and for a 6-h period at 1.3-km resolution. The 4-km simulation is able to fairly realistically capture the intensity and structure of the storm. The 1.3-km simulation depicts very small-scale convective structures and produces a convective rain band outside of the eye wall that did not occur in the 4-km simulation. The 1.3-km results are used to characterize several kinematic structures in the storm, including low-level outflow in the eye wall, multiple outflows at upper levels, and the convective rain band structure outside of the eye wall. Thermodynamic characteristics of air parcels flowing into and rising within the eye wall will also be examined through trajectory calculations.

  7. What is the minimum number of sites needed for precisely assessing the ecological status of mainstem rivers?

    EPA Science Inventory

    We evaluated the number of sites that would yield relatively precise estimates of physical, chemical, and biological condition for six raftable rivers 100-200 km long and 20-120 m wide. We used a probability design to select 20 sites on each of two rivers in Washington and four ...

  8. Wide-range CCD spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolova, Elena A.; Reyes Cortes, Santiago D.

    1996-08-01

    The utilization of wide range spectrometers is a very important feature for the design of optical diagnostics. This paper describes an innovative approach, based on charged coupled device, which allows to analyze different spectral intervals with the same diffraction grating. The spectral interval is varied by changing the position of the entrance slit when the grating is stationary. The optical system can also include a spherical mirror. In this case the geometric position of the mirror is calculated aiming at compensating the first order astigmatism and the meridional coma of the grating. This device is planned to be used in Thomson scattering diagnostic of the TOKAMAK of Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (ISTTOK).

  9. (137)Cs trapped by biomass within 20 km of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant.

    PubMed

    Koizumi, Akio; Niisoe, Tamon; Harada, Kouji H; Fujii, Yukiko; Adachi, Ayumu; Hitomi, Toshiaki; Ishikawa, Hirohiko

    2013-09-01

    Analysis of (137)Cs trapped in biomass in highly contaminated zones is crucial in predicting the long-term fate of (137)Cs following the explosion at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. We surveyed forest 20-50 km from the plant in July and September 2011 to evaluate (137)Cs trapped in biomass within 20 km of the plant. We determined the ambient dose rate and collected forest soils and twigs at 150 sampling points. Removability from the canopy was evaluated by washing leaves and branches with water and organic solvents. The biomass of the forest canopy was then calculated. (137)Cs fallout was simulated with an atmospheric transport model. The modeled dose rate agreed with observations (n = 24) (r = 0.62; p < 0.01). Washing experiments demonstrated that unremovable portions accounted for 53.9 ± 6.4% of (137)Cs trapped by deciduous canopy (n = 4) and 59.3 ± 13.8% of (137)Cs trapped by evergreen canopy (n = 10). In total, it was estimated that 74.5 × 10(12) Bq was trapped by canopy in the forest within the no-go zone, with 44.2 × 10(12) Bq allocated to unremovable portions, and that 0.86% of the total release was trapped in biomass as of September 2011. PMID:23889208

  10. A New Technique for Achieving Impact Velocities Greater Than 10 km/sec

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piekutowski, A. J.; Nolen, Angie (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This Contractor Report describes and presents the results of work that was done in an attempt to develop an augmented acceleration technique that would launch small projectiles of known shape, mass, and state to velocities of 10 km/sec and higher. The higher velocities were to be achieved by adding a third stage to a conventional two-stage, light-gas gun and using a modified firing cycle for the third stage. The technique did not achieve the desired results and was modified for use during the development program. Since the design of the components used for the augmented-acceleration, three-stage launcher could be readily adapted for use as a three-stage launcher that used a single-stage acceleration cycle; the remainder of the contract period was spent performing test firings using the modified three-stage launcher. Work with the modified three-stage launcher, although not complete, did produce test firings in which an 0.11-g cylindrical nylon projectile was launched to a velocity of 8.65 km/sec.

  11. Nighttime ionization by energetic particles at Wallops Island in the altitude region 120 to 200 km

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voss, H. D.; Smith, L. G.

    1979-01-01

    Five Nike Apache rockets, each including an energetic particle spectrometer and an electron density-electron temperature experiment, have been launched from Wallops Island (L = 2.6) near midnight under varying geomagnetic conditions. On the most recent of these (5 January 1978) an additional spectrometer with a broom magnet, and a 391.4 nm photometer were flown. The data from this flight indicate that the energetic particle flux consists predominantly of protons, neutral hydrogen and possibly other energetic nuclei. The energy spectrum becomes much softer and the flux more intense with increasing Kp for 10-100 keV. The pitch angle distribution at 180 km is asymmetrical with a peak at 90 deg indicating that the majority of particles are near their mirroring altitude. Ionization rates are calculated based on the measured energy spectrum and mirror height distribution. The resulting ionization rate profile is found to be nearly constant with altitude in the region 120 to 200 km. The measured energetic particle flux and calculated ionization rate from the five flights are found to vary with magnetic activity (based on the Kp and Dst indexes) in the same way as the independently derived ionization rates deduced from the electron density profile.

  12. The 1 km AVHRR global land data set: first stages in implementation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eidenshink, J.C.; Faundeen, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    The global land 1 km data set project represents an international effort to acquire, archive, process, and distribute 1 km AVHRR data of the entire global land surface in order to meet the needs of the international science community. A network of 26 high resolution picture transmission (HRPT) stations, along with data recorded by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), has been acquiring daily global land coverage since 1 April 1992. A data set of over 30000 AVHRR images has been archived and made available for distribution by the United States Geological Survey, EROS Data Center and the European Space Agency. Under the guidance of the International Geosphere Biosphere programme, processing standards for the AVHRR data have been developed for calibration, atmospheric correction, geometric registration, and the production of global 10-day maximum normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) composites. The major uses of the composites are related to the study of surface vegetation cover. A prototype 10-day composite was produced for the period of 21–30 June 1992. Production of an 18-month time series of 10-day composites is underway.

  13. Compositional mantle layering revealed by slab stagnation at ~1000-km depth.

    PubMed

    Ballmer, Maxim D; Schmerr, Nicholas C; Nakagawa, Takashi; Ritsema, Jeroen

    2015-12-01

    Improved constraints on lower-mantle composition are fundamental to understand the accretion, differentiation, and thermochemical evolution of our planet. Cosmochemical arguments indicate that lower-mantle rocks may be enriched in Si relative to upper-mantle pyrolite, whereas seismic tomography images suggest whole-mantle convection and hence appear to imply efficient mantle mixing. This study reconciles cosmochemical and geophysical constraints using the stagnation of some slab segments at ~1000-km depth as the key observation. Through numerical modeling of subduction, we show that lower-mantle enrichment in intrinsically dense basaltic lithologies can render slabs neutrally buoyant in the uppermost lower mantle. Slab stagnation (at depths of ~660 and ~1000 km) and unimpeded slab sinking to great depths can coexist if the basalt fraction is ~8% higher in the lower mantle than in the upper mantle, equivalent to a lower-mantle Mg/Si of ~1.18. Global-scale geodynamic models demonstrate that such a moderate compositional gradient across the mantle can persist can in the presence of whole-mantle convection. PMID:26824060

  14. High-resolution polar climate parameters derived from 1-km AVHRR data

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, T.A.; Scambos, T.A.

    1997-11-01

    This paper describes the development of a time-series of composites of albedo, surface temperature, and sea ice motion. The composites will be generated from high-resolution (Local Area Coverage and High Resolution Picture Transmission) Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR). Composites of albedo and surface (skin) temperature will be derived from AVHRR data within three hours of two selected local times (0400 and 1400 for the northern hemisphere, and 0200 and 1600 for the southern hemisphere) for each day. These products will be gridded at 1.25 km cell size in an equal-area projection compatible with recent gridded products from Special Sensor Microwave/Imager data and planned products from the TIROS Operational Verticle Sounder and other AVHRR data sets. Sea ice motion will be calculated once per day by comparing clear-sky image data of sea ice over a three-day period, and reported on a 1.25 km grid. A brief discussion of a reconnaissance survey of the output geophysical parameters for the Northern Hemisphere between August and October 1993 is also presented. 9 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Prototype of readout electronics for the LHAASO KM2A electromagnetic particle detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiang; Chang, Jing-Fan; Wang, Zheng; Fan, Lei

    2016-07-01

    The KM2A (one kilometer square extensive air shower array) is the largest detector array in the LHAASO (Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory) project. The KM2A consists of 5242 EDs (Electromagnetic particle Detectors) and 1221 MDs (Muon Detectors). The EDs are distributed and exposed in the wild. Two channels, anode and dynode, are employed for the PMT (photomultiplier tube) signal readout. The readout electronics designed in this paper aims at accurate charge and arrival time measurement of the PMT signals, which cover a large amplitude range from 20 P.E. (photoelectrons) to 2 × 105 P.E. By using a “trigger-less” architecture, we digitize signals close to the PMTs. All digitized data is transmitted to DAQ (Data Acquisition) via a simplified White Rabbit protocol. Compared with traditional high energy experiments, high precision of time measurement over such a large area and suppression of temperature effects in the wild become the key techniques. Experiments show that the design has fulfilled the requirements in this project. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11375210) and the Knowledge Innovation Fund of IHEP, Beijing

  16. Faraday laser using 1.2 km fiber as an extended cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Zhiming; Zhang, Xiaogang; Pan, Duo; Chen, Mo; Zhu, Chuanwen; Chen, Jingbiao

    2016-07-01

    We demonstrate a Faraday laser using a 1.2 km fiber as an extended cavity, which provides optical feedback and obtains small free spectrum range (FSR) of 83 kHz, and have succeeded in limiting the laser frequency to a crossover transition {5}2{S}1/2,F=2\\to {5}2{P}3/2,F\\prime =1,3 of the natural 87Rb at 780 nm. The Faraday laser is based on a Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter (FADOF) with an ultra-narrow bandwidth and the long fiber extended cavity of 1.2 km. The peak transmission assigned to the crossover transition F=2\\to F\\prime =1,3 in the FADOF is 20.5% with an ultra-narrow bandwidth of 29.1 MHz. The Allan deviation of the Faraday laser is around 6.0× {10}-11 in 0.06 to 1 s sampling time. Laser frequency is always kept in the center of the transmitted peak assigned to F=2\\to F\\prime =1,3. The Faraday laser realized here can provide light exactly resonant with an atomic transition used for atom-photon interaction experiments and is insensitive to diode temperature and injection current fluctuations.

  17. Faraday laser using 1.2 km fiber as an extended cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Zhiming; Zhang, Xiaogang; Pan, Duo; Chen, Mo; Zhu, Chuanwen; Chen, Jingbiao

    2016-07-01

    We demonstrate a Faraday laser using a 1.2 km fiber as an extended cavity, which provides optical feedback and obtains small free spectrum range (FSR) of 83 kHz, and have succeeded in limiting the laser frequency to a crossover transition {5}2{S}1/2,F=2\\to {5}2{P}3/2,F\\prime =1,3 of the natural 87Rb at 780 nm. The Faraday laser is based on a Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter (FADOF) with an ultra-narrow bandwidth and the long fiber extended cavity of 1.2 km. The peak transmission assigned to the crossover transition F=2\\to F\\prime =1,3 in the FADOF is 20.5% with an ultra-narrow bandwidth of 29.1 MHz. The Allan deviation of the Faraday laser is around 6.0× {10}-11 in 0.06 to 1 s sampling time. Laser frequency is always kept in the center of the transmitted peak assigned to F=2\\to F\\prime =1,3. The Faraday laser realized here can provide light exactly resonant with an atomic transition used for atom–photon interaction experiments and is insensitive to diode temperature and injection current fluctuations.

  18. Estimation of Global 1km-grid Terrestrial Carbon Exchange Part I: Developing Inputs and Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasai, T.; Murakami, K.; Kato, S.; Matsunaga, T.; Saigusa, N.; Hiraki, K.

    2015-12-01

    Global terrestrial carbon cycle largely depends on a spatial pattern in land cover type, which is heterogeneously-distributed over regional and global scales. However, most studies, which aimed at the estimation of carbon exchanges between ecosystem and atmosphere, remained within several tens of kilometers grid spatial resolution, and the results have not been enough to understand the detailed pattern of carbon exchanges based on ecological community. Improving the sophistication of spatial resolution is obviously necessary to enhance the accuracy of carbon exchanges. Moreover, the improvement may contribute to global warming awareness, policy makers and other social activities. In this study, we show global terrestrial carbon exchanges (net ecosystem production, net primary production, and gross primary production) with 1km-grid resolution. As methodology for computing the exchanges, we 1) developed a global 1km-grid climate and satellite dataset based on the approach in Setoyama and Sasai (2013); 2) used the satellite-driven biosphere model (Biosphere model integrating Eco-physiological And Mechanistic approaches using Satellite data: BEAMS) (Sasai et al., 2005, 2007, 2011); 3) simulated the carbon exchanges by using the new dataset and BEAMS by the use of a supercomputer that includes 1280 CPU and 320 GPGPU cores (GOSAT RCF of NIES). As a result, we could develop a global uniform system for realistically estimating terrestrial carbon exchange, and evaluate net ecosystem production in each community level; leading to obtain highly detailed understanding of terrestrial carbon exchanges.

  19. Hydration strategies, weight change and performance in a 161 km ultramarathon.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Martin D; Stuempfle, Kristin J

    2014-01-01

    To examine controversies about hydration strategies, participants (383 starters) of a 161 km ultramarathon (maximum temperature 39.0°C) underwent body weight measurements before, during and after the race; and completed a post-race questionnaire on drinking strategies and sodium supplementation use during 4 race segments. Drinking to thirst was the most common (p < 0.01) drinking strategy (used by 67.0% during at least one segment) and most runners (95.6%) used sodium supplementation during at least one segment. There was no difference in the extent of weight loss (mean 2.0-3.1%) or the weight change pattern when comparing groups using different hydration strategies. Among top-10 finishers, half had lost more than 2% of starting body weight by 90 km. We conclude that weight loss greater than 2% does not necessarily have adverse consequences on performance, and use of sodium supplements or drinking beyond thirst is not required to maintain hydration during ultra-endurance events with high thermal stress.

  20. Injuries associated with the 580 km university student grand voluntary road march: focus on foot injuries.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sang-cheon; Min, Young-gi; Lee, In-Soo; Yoon, Gi-Ho; Kang, Bo-Ra; Jung, Yoon-Seok; Cho, Joon-Pil; Kim, Gi-Woon

    2013-12-01

    College student volunteers (n = 142) completed a 580 km road march for 21 consecutive days. Each volunteer carried a backpack that weighed 14.1 ± 1.4 kg on the average. We investigated the incidence and location of blisters associated with the road march using a foot map along with other injuries. Overall, 95.1% of the subjects (135 of 142) sustained one or more injuries. All injured subjects had foot blisters, and 18% had other foot injuries. The most common locations of blister development were the right 5th toe (61%) and the left 5th toe (57%). The little toes seem to have been subjected to the greatest friction and shearing forces. March-related injuries, excluding foot injuries, were ankle pain (12.7%), knee pain (12.7%) and Achilles tendon pain (7.7%). Six subjects (4.2%) needed extra medical treatment for more than 2 weeks prior to returning to their daily lives after completion of the march due to associated injuries. The present study observed a very high incidence rate of injuries (95.1%) associated with the 580 km university students grand road march. These injuries posed an obstacle against completion of the road march and against returning to daily life. Active preventive interventions such as physical therapy and customized reinforced shoes and education program are recommended for reducing incidence rate and severity of injuries.

  1. Route Recapitulation and Route Loyalty in Homing Pigeons: Pilotage From 25 km?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biro, Dora; Meade, Jessica; Guilford, Tim

    2006-01-01

    We utilised precision Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking to examine the homing paths of pigeons (Columba livia) released 20 times consecutively 25 km from the loft. By the end of the training phase, birds had developed highly stereotyped yet individually distinct routes home, with detailed recapitulation evident at each stage of the journey. Following training, birds also participated in a series of releases from novel sites at perpendicular distances of up to 3 km from their established routes. Results showed that subjects were attracted back to their established routes and recapitulated them from the point of contact. Naïve conspecifics (yoked controls) released from the same off-route sites confirmed that the experienced birds' route choices were not influenced by constraints exerted by terrain features, but that increased experience with the general area conferred a homing advantage in the form of more efficient flight tracks, even from these novel sites. Patterns in the paths taken by experienced birds to rejoin their established routes are discussed with reference to navigational mechanisms employed by homing pigeons in their familiar area.

  2. (137)Cs trapped by biomass within 20 km of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant.

    PubMed

    Koizumi, Akio; Niisoe, Tamon; Harada, Kouji H; Fujii, Yukiko; Adachi, Ayumu; Hitomi, Toshiaki; Ishikawa, Hirohiko

    2013-09-01

    Analysis of (137)Cs trapped in biomass in highly contaminated zones is crucial in predicting the long-term fate of (137)Cs following the explosion at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. We surveyed forest 20-50 km from the plant in July and September 2011 to evaluate (137)Cs trapped in biomass within 20 km of the plant. We determined the ambient dose rate and collected forest soils and twigs at 150 sampling points. Removability from the canopy was evaluated by washing leaves and branches with water and organic solvents. The biomass of the forest canopy was then calculated. (137)Cs fallout was simulated with an atmospheric transport model. The modeled dose rate agreed with observations (n = 24) (r = 0.62; p < 0.01). Washing experiments demonstrated that unremovable portions accounted for 53.9 ± 6.4% of (137)Cs trapped by deciduous canopy (n = 4) and 59.3 ± 13.8% of (137)Cs trapped by evergreen canopy (n = 10). In total, it was estimated that 74.5 × 10(12) Bq was trapped by canopy in the forest within the no-go zone, with 44.2 × 10(12) Bq allocated to unremovable portions, and that 0.86% of the total release was trapped in biomass as of September 2011.

  3. A quarter of a world away: female humpback whale moves 10 000 km between breeding areas

    PubMed Central

    Stevick, Peter T.; Neves, Mariana C.; Johansen, Freddy; Engel, Marcia H.; Allen, Judith; Marcondes, Milton C. C.; Carlson, Carole

    2011-01-01

    Fidelity of individual animals to breeding sites is a primary determinant of population structure. The degree and scale of philopatry in a population reflect the fitness effects of social facilitation, ecological adaptation and optimal inbreeding. Patterns of breeding-site movement and fidelity are functions of social structure and are frequently sex biased. We report on a female humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) first identified by natural markings off Brazil that subsequently was photographed off Madagascar. The minimum travel distance between these locations is greater than 9800 km, approximately 4000 km longer than any previously reported movement between breeding grounds, more than twice the species' typical seasonal migratory distance and the longest documented movement by a mammal. It is unexpected to find this exceptional long-distance movement between breeding groups by a female, as models of philopatry suggest that male mammals move more frequently or over longer distances in search of mating opportunities. While such movement may be advantageous, especially in changeable or unpredictable circumstances, it is not possible to unambiguously ascribe causality to this rare observation. This finding illustrates the behavioural flexibility in movement patterns that may be demonstrated within a typically philopatric species. PMID:20943678

  4. Live monitoring and quasi-online event reconstruction for KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gal, Tamas

    2016-04-01

    KM3NeT is a new generation neutrino telescope in the abyss of the Mediterranean Sea. It will instrument a volume of several cubic kilometres of sea water in its final configuration. Currently, the project is in its first phase with the aim of constructing and installing 31 detection units up to 700 m in height, each equipped with 18 digital optical modules. The optical modules are equipped with 31 3-inch photomultipliers to detect the Cherenkov light of charged secondary particles produced in high-energy neutrino interactions. This contribution describes a live detector monitoring system, which enables real-time parameter control and a reconstruction of events soon after the data acquisition. It also allows a rapid response to or provision of external alarms of multi-messenger campaigns. The data acquisition system of KM3NeT provides pre-filtered data in event form, as well as general detector status messages. The events will be processed almost in real-time - with a delay in the range of minutes - using fast reconstruction mechanisms. This allows for high-level monitoring of the detector status using derived distributions, such as time and charge distributions and event rates. The resulting data is displayed on a web page using a dedicated, flexible web service. The same service also displays low-level monitoring data such as trigger rates, PMT hit rates and the general status of the optical modules.

  5. Compositional mantle layering revealed by slab stagnation at ~1000-km depth

    PubMed Central

    Ballmer, Maxim D.; Schmerr, Nicholas C.; Nakagawa, Takashi; Ritsema, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    Improved constraints on lower-mantle composition are fundamental to understand the accretion, differentiation, and thermochemical evolution of our planet. Cosmochemical arguments indicate that lower-mantle rocks may be enriched in Si relative to upper-mantle pyrolite, whereas seismic tomography images suggest whole-mantle convection and hence appear to imply efficient mantle mixing. This study reconciles cosmochemical and geophysical constraints using the stagnation of some slab segments at ~1000-km depth as the key observation. Through numerical modeling of subduction, we show that lower-mantle enrichment in intrinsically dense basaltic lithologies can render slabs neutrally buoyant in the uppermost lower mantle. Slab stagnation (at depths of ~660 and ~1000 km) and unimpeded slab sinking to great depths can coexist if the basalt fraction is ~8% higher in the lower mantle than in the upper mantle, equivalent to a lower-mantle Mg/Si of ~1.18. Global-scale geodynamic models demonstrate that such a moderate compositional gradient across the mantle can persist can in the presence of whole-mantle convection. PMID:26824060

  6. Caffeine and 3-km cycling performance: Effects of mouth rinsing, genotype, and time of day.

    PubMed

    Pataky, M W; Womack, C J; Saunders, M J; Goffe, J L; D'Lugos, A C; El-Sohemy, A; Luden, N D

    2016-06-01

    We assessed the efficacy of caffeine mouth rinsing on 3-km cycling performance and determined whether caffeine mouth rinsing affects performance gains influenced by the CYP1A2 polymorphism. Thirty-eight recreational cyclists completed four simulated 3-km time trials (TT). Subjects ingested either 6 mg/kg BW of caffeine or placebo 1 h prior to each TT. Additionally, 25 mL of 1.14% caffeine or placebo solution were mouth rinsed before each TT. The treatments were Placebo, caffeine Ingestion, caffeine Rinse and Ingestion+Rinse. Subjects were genotyped and classified as AA homozygotes or AC heterozygotes for the rs762551 polymorphism of the CYP1A2 gene involved in caffeine metabolism. Magnitude-based inferences were used to evaluate treatment differences in mean power output based on a predetermined meaningful treatment effect of 1.0%. AC heterozygotes (4.1%) and AA homozygotes (3.4%) benefited from Ingestion+Rinse, but only AC performed better with Ingestion (6.0%). Additionally, Rinse and Ingestion+Rinse elicited better performance relative to Placebo among subjects that performed prior to 10:00 h (Early) compared with after 10:00 h (Late). The present study provides additional evidence of genotype and time of day factors that affect the ergogenic value of caffeine intake that may allow for more personalized caffeine intake strategies to maximize performance.

  7. Using Deception to Establish a Reproducible Improvement in 4-Km Cycling Time Trial Performance.

    PubMed

    Shei, R-J; Thompson, K; Chapman, R; Raglin, J; Mickleborough, T

    2016-05-01

    We investigated whether performance gains achieved with deception persisted after the deception was revealed, and whether pacing strategy changed. 14 trained cyclists completed 4 simulated 4-km time trials (TT) on a cycle ergometer comprising familiarization and baseline trials (BAS), followed by "unaware" (of deception, UAW) and "aware" (of deception, AW) trials on separate days. In the UAW trial, participants competed against an on-screen avatar set at 102% of their baseline trial mean power output (Pmean) believing it was set at 100% of BAS Pmean. 24 h prior to the AW trial, participants were informed of the deception in the UAW trial. 4 participants did not improve in the UAW trial compared to BAS. 10 participants improved time to completion (TTC) and Pmean in the UAW and AW trials compared to BAS (p<0.03) with no significant differences between UAW and AW (p=1.0). Pacing strategy (at 0.5-km intervals) and RPE responses were unchanged (p>0.05) for these participants. In summary, deception did not improve performance in all participants. However, participants whose time trial performance improved following deception could retain their performance gains once the deception was revealed, demonstrating a similar pacing strategy and RPE response.

  8. Field-aligned electron density irregularities near 500 km Equator to polar cap topside sounder observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, R. F.

    1985-01-01

    In addition to spread F, evidence for field-aligned electron density irregularities is commonly observed on Alouette 2 topside sounder ionograms recorded near perigee (500 km). This evidence is provided by distinctive signal returns from sounder-generated Z mode waves. At low latitudes these waves become guided in wave ducts caused by field-aligned electron density irregularities and give rise to strong long-duration echoes. At high latitudes, extending well into the polar cap, these Z mode waves (and stimulated electrostatic waves at the plasma frequency) produce a series of vertical bars on the ionogram display as the satellite traverses discrete field-aligned density structures. The radio frequency (RF) noise environment to be expected in the 400 to 500 km altitude region from low to high latitudes was examined by analyzing perigee Alouette 2 topside sounder data. All observed noise bands were scaled on nearly 200 topside sounder ionograms recorded near perigee at low, mid, and high latitude telemetry stations. The minimum and maximum frequencies of each noise band were entered into a data base or computer analysis. The signals of primary interest in the perigee study were found to be sounder-generated.

  9. High-Resolution, Wide-Field-of-View Scanning Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sepulveda, Cesar; Wilson, Robert; Seshadri, Suresh

    2007-01-01

    A proposed telescope would afford high resolution over a narrow field of view (<0.10 ) while scanning over a total field of view nominally 16 wide without need to slew the entire massive telescope structure. The telescope design enables resolution of a 1-m-wide object in a 50- km-wide area of the surface of the Earth as part of a 200-km-wide area field of view monitored from an orbit at an altitude of 700 km. The conceptual design of this telescope could also be adapted to other applications both terrestrial and extraterrestrial in which there are requirements for telescopes that afford both wide- and narrow-field capabilities. In the proposed telescope, the scanning would be effected according to a principle similar to that of the Arecibo radio telescope, in which the primary mirror is stationary with respect to the ground and a receiver is moved across the focal surface of the primary mirror. The proposed telescope would comprise (1) a large spherical primary mirror that would afford high resolution over a narrow field of view and (2) a small displaceable optical relay segment that would be pivoted about the center of an aperture stop to effect the required scanning (see figure). Taken together, both comprise a scanning narrow-angle telescope that does not require slewing the telescope structure. In normal operation, the massive telescope structure would stare at a fixed location on the ground. The inner moveable relay optic would be pivoted to scan the narrower field of view over the wider one, making it possible to retain a fixed telescope orientation, while obtaining high-resolution images over multiple target areas during an interval of 3 to 4 minutes in the intended orbit. The pivoting relay segment of the narrow-angle telescope would include refractive and reflective optical elements, including two aspherical mirrors, to counteract the spherical aberration of the primary mirror. Overall, the combination of the primary mirror and the smaller relay optic

  10. Alpe Arami garnet peridotite from depth >300 km: revisited in 15 years (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrzhinetskaya, L.; Lesher, C. E.; Bozhilov, K. N.; Green, H. W.

    2009-12-01

    In the mid-1990s we recognized that collisional orogenic belts with UHP metamorphic rocks of crustal affinities, might contain mantle peridotites uplifted from depths of >300km (Dobrzhinetsklaya et al., 1996). We proposed that ilmenite rods + chromite flakes in olivine are the result of exsolution, and that they imply high solubility of TiO2 in Ol at high P-T. The conclusion that the Alpe Arami peridotite massif originates from great depth remains controversial despite the subsequent discovery of Cpx inclusions in Grt containing exsolution lamellae of clinoenstatite displaying antiphase domains. The latter observation requires that the originally precipitated pyroxene had a high-pressure C2/c space group structure consistent with an origin from >8 GPa (~250 km) (Bozhilov et al., 1999). We used confocal laser scanning microscopy to obtain quantitative 3D measurements of Ilm abundance in Ol. We find that Ilm rods can reach >1 vol. % in Ol supporting our contention that Ilm rods exsolved from olivine at 9-12 GPa, e.g. >300 km (Bozhilov et al., 2003). Arguments that Ilm rods hosted by Ol are reaction products from the breakdown of Ti-clinohumite (Risold et al., 2003) are unconvincing given that Ti-clinohumite breakdown does not produce Ilm + chromite that are characteristic of Alpe Arami olivine. Likewise, we have confirmed the high solubility of Ti in olivine at high P-T conditions in multianvil experiments (Dobrzhinetskaya et al., 2000) - findings that are strengthened by the experiments of Tinker & Lesher (2001). Using Focused Ion Beam we prepared TEM foils of the later experiments and confirm that the concentration of TiO2 in Ol increases with pressure under nearly isothermal conditions. Two reactions are proposed to account for these observations. If Ti enters the octahedral site of olivine, either an oxide phase must be formed or a phase richer in SiO2 than olivine must be consumed, leading to reaction 1: 6MgSiO3 + 2FeTiO3 = 2Ti△SiO4 + 3Mg2SiO4 + Fe2SiO4 [1

  11. On Physical Nature of the 70-km Seismic Boundary Caused by Tidal and Fluid Effects.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elena, S.; Boris, L.; Michail, R.

    2007-12-01

    Statistic analysis of the EQ catalogs (ISC, NEIC, 1960-2006; Harward Catalog, 1976-2005) showed that the seismic boundary at the 70-km depth marked out often as a real boundary, which divides all events into two separate classes: non-deep seismic events (about 85% of all events) which respond to external perturbation effects, and the deep-focus events non-responded to an outer influence. The results of two series of statistical analyses were presented. All events were subdivided into two groups: shallow events (H<=Htr) and deep events (H>Htr), where Htr is threshold value of the EQ source depth. The statistical verification of hypothesis about within-year variability existence for the events of various energy levels [Sasorova, Zhuravlev, 2006] was carried out in the first series. It was disproved the null hypothesis about uniform EQ distributions in the course of year for shallow events. But it was confirmed the null hypothesis for deep EQ. The statistical verification of hypothesis about existence non-random component in time distribution of the EQ's between the northern and southern part of the Pacific [Sasorova et al, 2006] was carried out in the second series. It was found (according the distribution-free test) that nonrandom component does not exist for deep EQs. But it is clearly manifested in time distribution of the shallow events. In both cases it was found that the Htr boundary between the shallow and the deep events was arranged at the depth between 60 and 80 km (we let to vary Htr value from 15 to 300 km). Thus the EQ with sources located above this boundary are affected by external factors, which may trigger the process of EQ generation, while the external factors don't influence on the EQ sources located below this boundary. The drastic change of EQ source parameter values via hypocenter depth was also observed near the 70-km depth boundary [Rodkin, 2004]. Revealed parameter change is connecting with difference in the deep fluid behavior. The equation

  12. A Photochemical Model for the Venus Atmosphere at 47-112 km

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnopolsky, V. A.

    2011-12-01

    The model is intended to respond to the recent findings in the Venus atmosphere from the Venus Express and ground-based submillimeter and infrared observations. It extends down to 47 km for comparison with the kinetic model for the lower atmosphere (Krasnopolsky, V.A., 2007, Icarus 191, 25-37) and to use its data as the boundary conditions. The model numerical accuracy is significantly improved by reduction of the altitude step from 2 km in the previous models to 0.5 km. Effects of the NUV absorber are approximated using the detailed photometric observations at 365 nm from Venera 14. The H2O profile is not fixed but calculated in the model. The model involves odd nitrogen and OCS chemistries based on the detected NO and OCS abundances. The number of the reactions is significantly reduced by removing of unimportant processes. Column rates for all reactions are given, and balances of production and loss may be analyzed in detail for each species. The calculated vertical profiles of CO, H2O, HCl, SO2, SO, OCS and of the O2 dayglow at 1.27 μm generally agree with the existing observational data; some differences are briefly discussed. The OH dayglow is ~30 kR, brighter than the OH nightglow by a factor of 4. The H + O3 process dominates in the nightglow excitation and O + HO2 in the dayglow, because of the reduction of ozone by photolysis. The model is extremely sensitive to small variations of eddy diffusion near 60 km: the calculated variations of SO2, SO, and OCS at and above the cloud tops are within a factor of ~30. Variations of the SO2/H2O ratio at the lower boundary have similar but weaker effect: variations within a factor of ~4 are induced by changes of SO2/H2O by ±5%. Therefore the observed variations of sulfur species originate from minor variations of the atmospheric dynamics near the cloud layer and do not require volcanism. NO cycles are responsible for production of a quarter of O2, SO2, and Cl2 in the atmosphere. A net effect of photochemistry in the

  13. A photochemical model for the Venus atmosphere at 47-112 km

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnopolsky, Vladimir A.

    2012-03-01

    The model is intended to respond to the recent findings in the Venus atmosphere from the Venus Express and ground-based submillimeter and infrared observations. It extends down to 47 km for comparison with the kinetic model for the lower atmosphere (Krasnopolsky, V.A. [2007]. Icarus 191, 25-37) and to use its results as the boundary conditions. The model numerical accuracy is significantly improved by reduction of the altitude step from 2 km in the previous models to 0.5 km. Effects of the NUV absorber are approximated using the detailed photometric observations at 365 nm from Venera 14. The H2O profile is not fixed but calculated in the model. The model involves odd nitrogen and OCS chemistries based on the detected NO and OCS abundances. The number of the reactions is significantly reduced by removing of unimportant processes. Column rates for all reactions are given, and balances of production and loss may be analyzed in detail for each species. The calculated vertical profiles of CO, H2O, HCl, SO2, SO, OCS and of the O2 dayglow at 1.27 μm generally agree with the existing observational data; some differences are briefly discussed. The OH dayglow is ∼30 kR, brighter than the OH nightglow by a factor of 4. The H + O3 process dominates in the nightglow excitation and O + HO2 in the dayglow, because of the reduction of ozone by photolysis. A key feature of Venus’ photochemistry is the formation of sulfuric acid in a narrow layer near the cloud tops that greatly reduces abundances of SO2 and H2O above the clouds. Delivery of SO2 and H2O through this bottleneck determines the chemistry and its variations above the clouds. Small variations of eddy diffusion near 60 km result in variations of SO2, SO, and OCS at and above 70 km within a factor of ∼30. Variations of the SO2/H2O ratio at the lower boundary have similar but weaker effect: the variations within a factor of ∼4 are induced by changes of SO2/H2O by ±5%. Therefore the observed variations of the

  14. Daymet: Daily Surface Weather Data on a 1-km Grid for North America, Version 2.

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, Peter E; Thornton, Michele M; Mayer, Benjamin W; Wilhelmi, Nate; Wei, Yaxing; Devarakonda, Ranjeet; Cook, Robert B

    2014-01-01

    More information: http://daymet.ornl.gov Presenter: Ranjeet Devarakonda Environmental Sciences Division Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Daymet: Daily Surface Weather Data and Climatological Summaries provides gridded estimates of daily weather parameters for North America, including daily continuous surfaces of minimum and maximum temperature, precipitation occurrence and amount, humidity, shortwave radiation, snow water equivalent, and day length. The current data product (Version 2) covers the period January 1, 1980 to December 31, 2013 [1]. The prior product (Version 1) only covered from 1980-2008. Data are available on a daily time step at a 1-km x 1-km spatial resolution in Lambert Conformal Conic projection with a spatial extent that covers the conterminous United States, Mexico, and Southern Canada as meteorological station density allows. Daymet data can be downloaded from 1) the ORNL Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) search and order tools (http://daac.ornl.gov/cgi-bin/cart/add2cart.pl?add=1219) or directly from the DAAC FTP site (http://daac.ornl.gov/cgi-bin/dsviewer.pl?ds_id=1219) and 2) the Single Pixel Tool [2] and THREDDS (Thematic Real-time Environmental Data Services) Data Server [3]. The Single Pixel Data Extraction Tool allows users to enter a single geographic point by latitude and longitude in decimal degrees. A routine is executed that translates the (lon, lat) coordinates into projected Daymet (x,y) coordinates. These coordinates are used to access the Daymet database of daily-interpolated surface weather variables. Daily data from the nearest 1 km x 1 km Daymet grid cell are extracted from the database and formatted as a table with one column for each Daymet variable and one row for each day. All daily data for selected years are returned as a single (long) table, formatted for display in the browser window. At the top of this table is a link to the same data in a simple comma-separated text format, suitable for import into a

  15. The Effect of Cycling Cadence on Subsequent 10km Running Performance in Well-Trained Triathletes

    PubMed Central

    Tew, Garry

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of different pedalling cadences on the performance of a subsequent 10km treadmill run. Eight male triathletes (age 38.9 ± 15.4 years, body mass 72.2 ± 5.2 kg, and stature 176 ± 6 cm; mean ± SD) completed a maximal cycling test, one isolated run (10km), and then three randomly ordered cycle-run sessions (65 minutes cycling + 10km run). During the cycling bout of the cycle-run sessions, subjects cycled at an intensity corresponding to 70% Pmax while maintaining one of three cadences, corresponding to preferred cadence (PC), PC+15% (fast cadence) and PC-15% (slow cadence). Slow, preferred and fast cadences were 71.8 ± 3.0, 84.5 ± 3.6, and 97.3 ± 4.3 rpm, respectively (mean ± SD). Physiological variables measured during the cycle-run and isolated run sessions were VO2, VE, RER, HR, RPE, and blood lactate. Biomechanical variables measured during the cycle-run and isolated run sessions were running velocity, stride length, stride frequency, and hip and knee angles at foot-strike and toe-off. Running performance times were also recorded. A significant effect of prior cycling exercise was found on 10km running time (p = 0.001) without any cadence effect (p = 0.801, ω2 = 0.006) (49:58 ± 8:20, 49:09 ± 8:26, 49:28 ± 8:09, and 44:45 ± 6:27 min·s-1 for the slow, preferred, fast, and isolated run conditions, respectively; mean ± SD). However, during the first 500 m of the run, running velocity was significantly higher after cycling at the preferred and fast cadences than after the slow cadence (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the slow cadence condition was associated with a significantly lower HR (p = 0.012) and VE (p = 0.026) during cycling than in the fast cadence condition. The results confirm the deterioration in running performance completed after the cycling event compared with the isolated run. However, no significant effect of cycling cadence on running performance was observed within the cadence ranges usually used

  16. Wide area microprobe analyser (WAMPA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogoyski, A.; Skidmore, B.; Maheswaran, V.; Wright, I.; Zarnecki, J.; Pillinger, C.

    2006-10-01

    Wide area microprobe analyser (WAMPA) represents a new scientific instrument concept for planetary exploration. WAMPA builds on recently published research such as sensor webs and distributed microsensors [The sensor web: a new instrument concept, SPIE Symposium on Integrated Optics, 20 26 January 2001, San Jose, CA; Design considerations for distributed microsensor systems, Proceedings of the IEEE 1999 Custom Integrated Circuits Conference (CICC ’99), May 1999, pp. 279 286] but adds new sensor and localisation concepts. WAMPA is driven by the recurrent theme in spacecraft and sensor design to achieve smaller, lighter and lower cost systems. The essential characteristics of the WAMPA design that differentiates it from other space science instruments are that WAMPA is both a wide area instrument, consisting of a distributed set of sensors, and that each probe is designed to use little, if any, power. It achieves the former by being utilised in large numbers (>10), requiring that the individual probes be low mass (<100g) and low volume (<10cm). It is envisaged that the probes would be dispersed by landers or rovers as mission support instruments rather than primary science instruments and would be used in hostile environments and rugged terrains where the lander/rover could not be risked (see Fig. 1).

  17. Wide Field Imager for Athena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meidinger, Norbert; Nandra, Kirpal; Rau, Arne; Plattner, Markus; WFI proto-Consortium

    2015-09-01

    The Wide Field Imager focal plane instrument on ATHENA will combine unprecedented survey power through its large field of view of 40 arcmin with a high count-rate capability (> 1 Crab). The energy resolution of the silicon sensor is state-of-the-art in the energy band of interest from 0.1 keV to 15 keV. At energy of 6 keV for example, the full width at half maximum of the line shall be not worse than 150 eV until the end of the mission. The performance is accomplished by a set of DEPFET active pixel sensor matrices with a pixel size well suited to the angular resolution of 5 arc sec (on-axis) of the mirror system.Each DEPFET pixel is a combined detector-amplifier structure with a MOSFET integrated onto a fully depleted 450 micron thick silicon bulk. Two different types of DEPFET sensors are planned for the WFI instrument: A set of large-area sensors to cover the physical size of 14 cm x 14 cm in the focal plane and a single gateable DEPFET sensor matrix optimized for the high count rate capability of the instrument. An overview will be given about the presently developed instrument concept and design, the status of the technology development, and the expected performance. An outline of the project organization, the model philosophy as well as the schedule will complete the presentation about the Wide Field Imager for Athena.

  18. Wide-range voltage modulation

    SciTech Connect

    Rust, K.R.; Wilson, J.M.

    1992-06-01

    The Superconducting Super Collider`s Medium Energy Booster Abort (MEBA) kicker modulator will supply a current pulse to the abort magnets which deflect the proton beam from the MEB ring into a designated beam stop. The abort kicker will be used extensively during testing of the Low Energy Booster (LEB) and the MEB rings. When the Collider is in full operation, the MEBA kicker modulator will abort the MEB beam in the event of a malfunction during the filling process. The modulator must generate a 14-{mu}s wide pulse with a rise time of less than 1 {mu}s, including the delay and jitter times. It must also be able to deliver a current pulse to the magnet proportional to the beam energy at any time during ramp-up of the accelerator. Tracking the beam energy, which increases from 12 GeV at injection to 200 GeV at extraction, requires the modulator to operate over a wide range of voltages (4 kV to 80 kV). A vacuum spark gap and a thyratron have been chosen for test and evaluation as candidate switches for the abort modulator. Modulator design, switching time delay, jitter and pre-fire data are presented.

  19. On Avenues to Kindling Wide Interests in the Elementary School: Knowledges and Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandwein, Paul

    1987-01-01

    A curriculum model is presented for stimulating wide interests at the elementary level, to develop a student pool that would sustain a nationwide residential high school for the gifted. The model presents 16 conceptual schemes for developing curricula in social sciences, humanities and sciences. (Author/KM)

  20. Daymet: Daily Surface Weather Data on a 1-km Grid for North America, Version 2.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devarakonda, R.

    2014-12-01

    Daymet: Daily Surface Weather Data and Climatological Summaries provides gridded estimates of daily weather parameters for North America, including daily continuous surfaces of minimum and maximum temperature, precipitation occurrence and amount, humidity, shortwave radiation, snow water equivalent, and day length. The current data product (Version 2) covers the period January 1, 1980 to December 31, 2013 [1]. Data are available on a daily time step at a 1-km x 1-km spatial resolution in Lambert Conformal Conic projection with a spatial extent that covers the North America as meteorological station density allows. Daymet data can be downloaded from 1) the ORNL Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) search and order tools (http://daac.ornl.gov/cgi-bin/cart/add2cart.pl?add=1219) or directly from the DAAC FTP site (http://daac.ornl.gov/cgi-bin/dsviewer.pl?ds_id=1219) and 2) the Single Pixel Tool (http://daymet.ornl.gov/singlepixel.html) and THREDDS (Thematic Real-time Environmental Data Services) Data Server (TDS) (http://daymet.ornl.gov/thredds_mosaics.html). The Single Pixel Data Extraction Tool [2] allows users to enter a single geographic point by latitude and longitude in decimal degrees. A routine is executed that translates the (lon, lat) coordinates into projected Daymet (x,y) coordinates. These coordinates are used to access the Daymet database of daily-interpolated surface weather variables. The Single Pixel Data Extraction Tool also provides the option to download multiple coordinates programmatically. The ORNL DAAC's TDS provides customized visualization and access to Daymet time series of North American mosaics. Users can subset and download Daymet data via a variety of community standards, including OPeNDAP, NetCDF Subset service, and Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Map/Coverage Service. References: [1] Thornton, P. E., Thornton, M. M., Mayer, B. W., Wilhelmi, N., Wei, Y., Devarakonda, R., & Cook, R. (2012). "Daymet: Daily surface weather on a 1

  1. Improvements in Cycling but Not Handcycling 10 km Time Trial Performance in Habitual Caffeine Users

    PubMed Central

    Graham-Paulson, Terri; Perret, Claudio; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Caffeine supplementation during whole-/lower-body exercise is well-researched, yet evidence of its effect during upper-body exercise is equivocal. The current study explored the effects of caffeine on cycling/handcycling 10 km time trial (TT) performance in habitual caffeine users. Eleven recreationally trained males (mean (SD) age 24 (4) years, body mass 85.1 (14.6) kg, cycling/handcycling peak oxygen uptake (V·peak) 42.9 (7.3)/27.6 (5.1) mL∙kg∙min−1, 160 (168) mg/day caffeine consumption) completed two maximal incremental tests and two familiarization sessions. During four subsequent visits, participants cycled/handcycled for 30 min at 65% mode-specific V·peak (preload) followed by a 10 km TT following the ingestion of 4 mg∙kg−1 caffeine (CAF) or placebo (PLA). Caffeine significantly improved cycling (2.0 (2.0)%; 16:35 vs. 16:56 min; p = 0.033) but not handcycling (1.8 (3.0)%; 24:10 vs. 24:36 min; p = 0.153) TT performance compared to PLA. The improvement during cycling can be attributed to the increased power output during the first and last 2 km during CAF. Higher blood lactate concentration (Bla) was reported during CAF compared to PLA (p < 0.007) and was evident 5 min post-TT during cycling (11.2 ± 2.6 and 8.8 ± 3.2 mmol/L; p = 0.001) and handcycling (10.6 ± 2.5 and 9.2 ± 2.9 mmol/L; p = 0.006). Lower overall ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were seen following CAF during the preload (p < 0.05) but not post-TT. Lower peripheral RPE were reported at 20 min during cycling and at 30 min during handcycling, and lower central RPE was seen at 30 min during cycling (p < 0.05). Caffeine improved cycling but not handcycling TT performance. The lack of improvement during handcycling may be due to the smaller active muscle mass, elevated (Bla) and/or participants’ training status. PMID:27348000

  2. Improvements in Cycling but Not Handcycling 10 km Time Trial Performance in Habitual Caffeine Users.

    PubMed

    Graham-Paulson, Terri; Perret, Claudio; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Caffeine supplementation during whole-/lower-body exercise is well-researched, yet evidence of its effect during upper-body exercise is equivocal. The current study explored the effects of caffeine on cycling/handcycling 10 km time trial (TT) performance in habitual caffeine users. Eleven recreationally trained males (mean (SD) age 24 (4) years, body mass 85.1 (14.6) kg, cycling/handcycling peak oxygen uptake ( V · peak) 42.9 (7.3)/27.6 (5.1) mL∙kg∙min(-1), 160 (168) mg/day caffeine consumption) completed two maximal incremental tests and two familiarization sessions. During four subsequent visits, participants cycled/handcycled for 30 min at 65% mode-specific V · peak (preload) followed by a 10 km TT following the ingestion of 4 mg∙kg(-1) caffeine (CAF) or placebo (PLA). Caffeine significantly improved cycling (2.0 (2.0)%; 16:35 vs. 16:56 min; p = 0.033) but not handcycling (1.8 (3.0)%; 24:10 vs. 24:36 min; p = 0.153) TT performance compared to PLA. The improvement during cycling can be attributed to the increased power output during the first and last 2 km during CAF. Higher blood lactate concentration (Bla) was reported during CAF compared to PLA (p < 0.007) and was evident 5 min post-TT during cycling (11.2 ± 2.6 and 8.8 ± 3.2 mmol/L; p = 0.001) and handcycling (10.6 ± 2.5 and 9.2 ± 2.9 mmol/L; p = 0.006). Lower overall ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were seen following CAF during the preload (p < 0.05) but not post-TT. Lower peripheral RPE were reported at 20 min during cycling and at 30 min during handcycling, and lower central RPE was seen at 30 min during cycling (p < 0.05). Caffeine improved cycling but not handcycling TT performance. The lack of improvement during handcycling may be due to the smaller active muscle mass, elevated (Bla) and/or participants' training status. PMID:27348000

  3. Geothermal research on the 2.5 km deep COSC-1 drillhole, Central Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascal, Christophe; Beltrami, Hugo; Daly, Stephen; Juhlin, Christopher; Kukkonen, Ilmo; Long, Mike; Rath, Volker; Renner, Joerg; Schwarz, Gerhard; Sundberg, Jan

    2015-04-01

    The scientific drilling project "Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides" (COSC), supported by ICDP and the Swedish Research Council, involves the drilling of two boreholes through carefully selected sections of the Paleozoic Caledonian orogen in Central Sweden. COSC-1, the first of the two planned boreholes, was drilled and fully cored down to 2.5 km depth during spring and summer 2014 near the town of Åre. The COSC working group is organised around six thematic teams including us, the geothermal team. The major objectives of the COSC geothermal team are: a) to contribute to basic knowledge about the thermal regime of Palaeozoic orogenic belts, ancient shield areas and high heat-producing plutons; b) to refine knowledge on climate change at high latitudes (i.e. Scandinavia), including historical global changes, recent palaeoclimate development (since last ice age) and expected future trends; c) to determine the vertical variation of the geothermal gradient, heat flow and thermal properties down to 2.5 km, and to determine the required corrections for shallow (< 1 km) heat flow data; d) to explore the geothermal potential of the Åre-Järpen area; e) to explore to what degree the conductive heat transfer is affected by groundwater flow in the uppermost crust and f) to evaluate the heat generation input and impact from the basement and the alum shales. To reach these targets the following tasks were carried out or are planned: 1) heat flow predictions from shallow boreholes; 2) geophysical logging; 3) analyses of logs and well tests; (3) determination of rock thermal properties on core samples; 4) determination of heat generation rates from radiometric and geochemical studies; 5) fracture characterisation for permeability and convective heat flow estimations; 6) analysis of convective signals; 7) analysis of paleoclimatic signals; 8) heat flow modelling and evaluation of geothermal potential and 9) Fennoscandia heat flow map compilation. The purpose of

  4. Structural and thermodynamic studies of KM+, a d-mannose binding lectin from Artocarpus integrifolia seeds.

    PubMed

    Silva-Lucca, R A; Tabak, M; Nascimento, O R; Roque-Barreira, M C; Beltramini, L M

    1999-06-01

    The KM+ lectin exhibits a novel and unusual circular dichroism (CD) spectrum that could be explained by a high proline content that would be inducing deformation of the beta-structure and/or unusual turns. KM+ was shown to be a very rigid lectin, which was very stable under a broad variety of conditions (urea, guanidine, hydrolysis, pH, etc.). Only incubation for 60 min at 333-338 K and extreme basic pH were able to induce conformational changes which could be observed by CD and fluorescence measurements. Data from CD are typical for protein denaturing associated with changes in the overall secondary structure. Data from high-performance size exclusion chromatography (SEC) showed that the denatured forms produced at pH 12.0 are eluted in clusters that co-elute with the native forms. A significant contribution from the tyrosines to the fluorescence emission upon denaturation was observed above 328 K. In fact at 328 K some broadening of the emission spectrum takes place followed by the appearance of a shoulder (approx. 305 nm) at 333 K and above. The sensitivity of tryptophan fluorescence to the addition of sugar suggests a close proximity of the tryptophan residues to the sugar binding site, K(a)=(2.9+/-0.6)x10(3) M(-1). The fraction of chromophore accessible to the quencher obtained is f(a)=0.43+/-0.08, suggesting that approximately 50% of the tryptophan residues are not accessible to quenching by d-mannose. KM+ thermal denaturation was found to be irreversible and was analyzed using a two-state model (N-->D). The results obtained for the activation energy and transition temperature from the equilibrium CD studies were: activation energy, E(a)=134+/-11 kJ/mol and transition temperature, T(m)=339+/-1 K, and from the fluorescence data: E(a)=179+/-18 kJ/mol and T(m)=337+/-1 K. Kinetic studies gave the following values: E(a)=108+/-18 kJ/mol and E(a)=167+/-12 kJ/mol for CD and fluorescence data, respectively.

  5. Improvements in Cycling but Not Handcycling 10 km Time Trial Performance in Habitual Caffeine Users.

    PubMed

    Graham-Paulson, Terri; Perret, Claudio; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria

    2016-06-25

    Caffeine supplementation during whole-/lower-body exercise is well-researched, yet evidence of its effect during upper-body exercise is equivocal. The current study explored the effects of caffeine on cycling/handcycling 10 km time trial (TT) performance in habitual caffeine users. Eleven recreationally trained males (mean (SD) age 24 (4) years, body mass 85.1 (14.6) kg, cycling/handcycling peak oxygen uptake ( V · peak) 42.9 (7.3)/27.6 (5.1) mL∙kg∙min(-1), 160 (168) mg/day caffeine consumption) completed two maximal incremental tests and two familiarization sessions. During four subsequent visits, participants cycled/handcycled for 30 min at 65% mode-specific V · peak (preload) followed by a 10 km TT following the ingestion of 4 mg∙kg(-1) caffeine (CAF) or placebo (PLA). Caffeine significantly improved cycling (2.0 (2.0)%; 16:35 vs. 16:56 min; p = 0.033) but not handcycling (1.8 (3.0)%; 24:10 vs. 24:36 min; p = 0.153) TT performance compared to PLA. The improvement during cycling can be attributed to the increased power output during the first and last 2 km during CAF. Higher blood lactate concentration (Bla) was reported during CAF compared to PLA (p < 0.007) and was evident 5 min post-TT during cycling (11.2 ± 2.6 and 8.8 ± 3.2 mmol/L; p = 0.001) and handcycling (10.6 ± 2.5 and 9.2 ± 2.9 mmol/L; p = 0.006). Lower overall ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were seen following CAF during the preload (p < 0.05) but not post-TT. Lower peripheral RPE were reported at 20 min during cycling and at 30 min during handcycling, and lower central RPE was seen at 30 min during cycling (p < 0.05). Caffeine improved cycling but not handcycling TT performance. The lack of improvement during handcycling may be due to the smaller active muscle mass, elevated (Bla) and/or participants' training status.

  6. Diffusive modeling of global river and floodplain dynamics based on 1km-resolution DEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, D.; Kanae, S.; Oki, T.

    2009-12-01

    Terrestrial water circulation is important both as a component of the climate system and as a freshwater supplying system for human beings. Recent advances in remote sensing have achieved global-scale observation of surface water storage and movement from satellites (e.g. inundated area extent by microwave imagers, terrestrial water storage by GRACE, water surface altitude and river discharge possibly by SWOT). On the other hand, global river routing models, which are practically the only available tool for simulating terrestrial water circulation, have not adequately represented the physical mechanism of terrestrial water storage and movement, such as floodplain inundation dynamics regulated by much smaller-scale topography than global model resolution. A newly developed global river routing model named “Catchment-based Macro-scale Floodplain model” (CaMa-Flood) overcomes this drawback by detailed representation of sub-grid-scale topography (ex. river channel cross-section, catchment boundaries, and floodplain elevation profile). These sub-grid features regulating surface water dynamics are objectively parameterized based on 1km-resolution global DEM and flow direction map. This approach enables explicit prediction of surface water altitude, which is essential for diffusive wave modeling of floodplain inundation dynamics. Thus, CaMa-Flood is expected to simulate not only realistic river discharge but also water depth, inundated area extent, and surface water storage. Improvements from previous global river routing models achieved by CaMa-Flood are summarized as follows: (1) objective parameterization of sub-grid topographies using 1km-resolution datasets, (2) explicit representation of floodplain inundation dynamics, (3) diffusive wave modeling for flow computation instead of kinematic wave modeling, and (4) two dimensional expression of inundated area extent which can be validated against satellite observations. Ability of CaMa-Flood is tested by comparing

  7. Wide speed range turboshaft study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dangelo, Martin

    1995-01-01

    NASA-Lewis and NASA-Ames have sponsored a series of studies over the last few years to identify key high speed rotorcraft propulsion and airframe technologies. NASA concluded from these studies that for near term aircraft with cruise speeds up to 450 kt, tilting rotor rotorcraft concepts are the most economical and technologically viable. The propulsion issues critical to tilting rotor rotorcraft are: (1) high speed cruise propulsion system efficiency and (2) adequate power to hover safely with one engine inoperative. High speed cruise propeller efficiency can be dramatically improved by reducing rotor speed, yet high rotor speed is critical for good hover performance. With a conventional turboshaft, this wide range of power turbine operating speeds would result in poor engine performance at one or more of these critical operating conditions. This study identifies several wide speed range turboshaft concepts, and analyzes their potential to improve performance at the diverse cruise and hover operating conditions. Many unique concepts were examined, and the selected concepts are simple, low cost, relatively low risk, and entirely contained within the power turbine. These power turbine concepts contain unique, incidence tolerant airfoil designs that allow the engine to cruise efficiently at 51 percent of the hover rotor speed. Overall propulsion system efficiency in cruise is improved as much as 14 percent, with similar improvements in engine weight and cost. The study is composed of a propulsion requirement survey, a concept screening study, a preliminary definition and evaluation of selected concepts, and identification of key technologies and development needs. In addition, a civil transport tilting rotor rotorcraft mission analysis was performed to show the benefit of these concepts versus a conventional turboshaft. Other potential applications for this technology are discussed.

  8. Distribution and relations of 4- to 10-km-diameter craters to global geologic units of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Condit, C.D.

    1978-01-01

    By correlating the 1:25,000,000 geologic map of Mars of Scott and Carr (1977) with 4- to 10-km-diameter crater density data from Mariner 9 images, the average crater density for 23 of the equatorial geologic-geomorphic units on Mars was computed. The correlation of these two data sets was accomplished by digitizing both the crater density data and geologic map at the same scale and by comparing them in a computer. This technique assigns the crater density value found in the corresponding location on the geologic data set to a discrete computer file assigned each of the 23 geologic units. By averaging the crater density values accumulated in each file, an "average" crater density for each geologic unit was obtained. Condit believes these average crater density values are accurate indicators of the relative age of the geologic units considered. The statistical validity of these average values is strongest for the geologic units of the largest areal extent. The relative ages as obtained from the average crater density values for the seven largest geologic units, from youngest to oldest, are: Tharsis volcanic material, 21 ?? 4 craters/106km2; smooth plains material, 57 ?? 14 craters/106km2; rolling plains material, 66 ?? 16 craters/106km2; plains materials, 80 ?? 17 craters/106km2; ridged plains material, 128 ?? 25 craters/106km2; hilly and cratered material, 137 ?? 38 craters/106km2; and cratered plateau material, 138 ?? 27 craters/106km2. ?? 1978.

  9. Moon shadow observation with ANTARES and KM3NeT neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanguineti, Matteo; Distefano, Carla

    2016-04-01

    The ANTARES detector is the largest neutrino telescope currently in operation in the Northern Hemisphere. The search for point-like neutrino sources is one of the main goals of ANTARES, so a reliable way to evaluate the detector pointing performance is needed. The Moon shadow measurement, i.e. the deficit in the atmospheric muon flux in the direction of the Moon induced by absorption of cosmic rays, allows the estimation of the angular resolution and the pointing accuracy. The 2007-2012 ANTARES data set shows a significance of Moon shadowing around 3σ. This is the first measurement of the ANTARES angular resolution and absolute pointing for atmospheric muons using a celestial calibration source. The same approach has been used to estimate also the expected Moon shadow significance with the KM3NeT-ARCA detector, the future cubic kilometre scale detector that will be installed in Sicily.

  10. A BOTDA with break interrogation function over 72 km sensing length.

    PubMed

    Hu, Junhui; Zhang, Xuping; Yao, Yuguo; Zhao, Xiaodong

    2013-01-14

    A BOTDA with the capacity of break interrogation is proposed and demonstrated experimentally. In our configuration, coherent detection and double sideband probe method are employed to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and to effectively reduce nonlocal effects, respectively. Without amplification, a 72 km sensing range with 5-meter resolution and an estimated temperature uncertainty of 1.8 °C are obtained. Benefiting from the flexible optical configuration, this sensor system has the capacity of break interrogation as a coherent optical time domain reflectometry (COTDR) if there is a break in the fiber under test (FUT). The sensor achieves a dynamic range of 36 dB with a 100 m spatial resolution, which offers an excellent solution for the requisite of two-end-access in BOTDA, and significantly enhances the robustness of the sensing system.

  11. Gravity wave structure between 60 and 90 km inferred from Space Shuttle reentry data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritts, David C.; Blanchard, Robert C.; Coy, Lawrence

    1989-01-01

    Density fluctuations obtained along seven Space Shuttle reentry tracks are used to examine the horizontal structure and the vertical distribution of density variance in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. The tracks lie primarily over open ocean at middle and low latitudes and represent the only measurements of horizontal atmospheric structure at these heights available to date. The density fluctuations are interpreted in terms of gravity-wave motions and reveal significant density (and velocity) variance at horizontal scales ranging from about 10 to 1000 km. Fluctuation amplitudes are used to infer corresponding velocity perturbations and characteristic vertical scales and frequencies of the wave spectrum. Results suggest that the mean velocity variance is smaller over the Pacific ocean than over major land masses, and that the variance increases with height in a manner consistent with that expected in the present of wave saturation processes.

  12. The Case for a Hubble Constant of 30 km s-1 Mpc-1.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, J G; Blanchard, A; Silk, J; Turner, M S

    1995-02-17

    Although recent determinations of the distance to the Virgo cluster based on Cepheid variable stars represent an important step in pinning down the Hubble constant, after 65 years a definitive determination of the Hubble constant still eludes cosmologists. At present, most of the observational determinations place the Hubble constant between 40 and 90 kilometers per second per megaparsec (km s(-1) Mpc(-1)). The case is made here for a Hubble constant that is even smaller than the lower bound of the accepted range on the basis of the great advantages, all theoretical in nature, of a Hubble constant of around 30 kilometers per second per megaparsec. Such a value for the Hubble cures all of the ills of the current theoretical orthodoxy, that is, a spatially flat universe composed predominantly of cold dark matter. PMID:17811436

  13. Deep sea tests of a prototype of the KM3NeT digital optical module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Ageron, M.; Aharonian, F.; Aiello, S.; Albert, A.; Ameli, F.; Anassontzis, E. G.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; de Asmundis, R.; Balasi, K.; Band, H.; Barbarino, G.; Barbarito, E.; Barbato, F.; Baret, B.; Baron, S.; Belias, A.; Berbee, E.; van den Berg, A. M.; Berkien, A.; Bertin, V.; Beurthey, S.; van Beveren, V.; Beverini, N.; Biagi, S.; Bianucci, S.; Billault, M.; Birbas, A.; Boer Rookhuizen, H.; Bormuth, R.; Bouché, V.; Bouhadef, B.; Bourlis, G.; Bouwhuis, M.; Bozza, C.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Cacopardo, G.; Caillat, L.; Calamai, M.; Calvo, D.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, F.; Cecchini, S.; Ceres, A.; Cereseto, R.; Champion, C.; Château, F.; Chiarusi, T.; Christopoulou, B.; Circella, M.; Classen, L.; Cocimano, R.; Colonges, S.; Coniglione, R.; Cosquer, A.; Costa, M.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Curtil, C.; Cuttone, G.; D'Amato, C.; D'Amico, A.; De Bonis, G.; De Rosa, G.; Deniskina, N.; Destelle, J.-J.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti-Hasankiadeh, Q.; Drakopoulou, E.; Drouhin, D.; Drury, L.; Durand, D.; Eberl, T.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Elsaesser, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Fermani, P.; Fusco, L. A.; Gajana, D.; Gal, T.; Galatà, S.; Gallo, F.; Garufi, F.; Gebyehu, M.; Giordano, V.; Gizani, N.; Gracia Ruiz, R.; Graf, K.; Grasso, R.; Grella, G.; Grmek, A.; Habel, R.; van Haren, H.; Heid, T.; Heijboer, A.; Heine, E.; Henry, S.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Herold, B.; Hevinga, M. A.; van der Hoek, M.; Hofestädt, J.; Hogenbirk, J.; Hugon, C.; Hößl, J.; Imbesi, M.; James, C.; Jansweijer, P.; Jochum, J.; de Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Kappos, E.; Katz, U.; Kavatsyuk, O.; Keller, P.; Kieft, G.; Koffeman, E.; Kok, H.; Kooijman, P.; Koopstra, J.; Korporaal, A.; Kouchner, A.; Koutsoukos, S.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lamare, P.; Larosa, G.; Lattuada, D.; Le Provost, H.; Leisos, A.; Lenis, D.; Leonora, E.; Lindsey Clark, M.; Liolios, A.; Llorens Alvarez, C. D.; Löhner, H.; Lo Presti, D.; Louis, F.; Maccioni, E.; Mannheim, K.; Manolopoulos, K.; Margiotta, A.; Mariş, O.; Markou, C.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Martini, A.; Masullo, R.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Migneco, E.; Miraglia, A.; Mollo, C.; Mongelli, M.; Morganti, M.; Mos, S.; Moudden, Y.; Musico, P.; Musumeci, M.; Nicolaou, C.; Nicolau, C. A.; Orlando, A.; Orzelli, A.; Papageorgiou, K.; Papaikonomou, A.; Papaleo, R.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Peek, H.; Pellegrino, C.; Pellegriti, M. G.; Perrina, C.; Petridou, C.; Piattelli, P.; Pikounis, K.; Popa, V.; Pradier, Th.; Priede, M.; Pühlhofer, G.; Pulvirenti, S.; Racca, C.; Raffaelli, F.; Randazzo, N.; Rapidis, P. A.; Razis, P.; Real, D.; Resvanis, L.; Reubelt, J.; Riccobene, G.; Rovelli, A.; Royon, J.; Saldaña, M.; Samtleben, D. F. E.; Sanguineti, M.; Santangelo, A.; Sapienza, P.; Savvidis, I.; Schmelling, J.; Schnabel, J.; Sedita, M.; Seitz, T.; Sgura, I.; Simeone, F.; Siotis, I.; Sipala, V.; Solazzo, M.; Spitaleri, A.; Spurio, M.; Stavropoulos, G.; Steijger, J.; Stolarczyk, T.; Stransky, D.; Taiuti, M.; Terreni, G.; Tézier, D.; Théraube, S.; Thompson, L. F.; Timmer, P.; Trapierakis, H. I.; Trasatti, L.; Trovato, A.; Tselengidou, M.; Tsirigotis, A.; Tzamarias, S.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Vallage, B.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vermeulen, J.; Vernin, P.; Viola, S.; Vivolo, D.; Werneke, P.; Wiggers, L.; Wilms, J.; de Wolf, E.; van Wooning, R. H. L.; Yatkin, K.; Zachariadou, K.; Zonca, E.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.; Zwart, A.

    2014-09-01

    The first prototype of a photo-detection unit of the future KM3NeT neutrino telescope has been deployed in the deep waters of the Mediterranean Sea. This digital optical module has a novel design with a very large photocathode area segmented by the use of 31 three inch photomultiplier tubes. It has been integrated in the ANTARES detector for in-situ testing and validation. This paper reports on the first months of data taking and rate measurements. The analysis results highlight the capabilities of the new module design in terms of background suppression and signal recognition. The directionality of the optical module enables the recognition of multiple Cherenkov photons from the same $^{40}$K decay and the localization bioluminescent activity in the neighbourhood. The single unit can cleanly identify atmospheric muons and provide sensitivity to the muon arrival directions.

  14. Experimental single-photon exchange along a space link of 7000 km

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dequal, Daniele; Vallone, Giuseppe; Bacco, Davide; Gaiarin, Simone; Luceri, Vincenza; Bianco, Giuseppe; Villoresi, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Extending the single-photon transmission distance is a basic requirement for the implementation of quantum communication on a global scale. In this work we report the single-photon exchange from a medium Earth orbit satellite (MEO) at more than 7000 km of slant distance to the ground station at the Matera Laser Ranging Observatory. The single-photon transmitter was realized by exploiting the corner cube retroreflectors mounted on the LAGEOS-2 satellite. Long duration of data collection is possible with such altitude, up to 43 min in a single passage. The mean number of photons per pulse (μsat) has been limited to 1 for 200 s, resulting in an average detection rate of 3.0 counts/s and a signal-to-noise ratio of 1.5. The feasibility of single-photon exchange from MEO satellites paves the way to tests of quantum mechanics in moving frames and to global quantum Information.

  15. Experimental demonstration of free-space decoy-state quantum key distribution over 144 km.

    PubMed

    Schmitt-Manderbach, Tobias; Weier, Henning; Fürst, Martin; Ursin, Rupert; Tiefenbacher, Felix; Scheidl, Thomas; Perdigues, Josep; Sodnik, Zoran; Kurtsiefer, Christian; Rarity, John G; Zeilinger, Anton; Weinfurter, Harald

    2007-01-01

    We report on the experimental implementation of a Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) protocol type quantum key distribution over a 144 km free-space link using weak coherent laser pulses. Optimization of the link transmission was achieved with bidirectional active telescope tracking, and the security was ensured by employing decoy-state analysis. This enabled us to distribute a secure key at a rate of 12.8 bit/s at an attenuation of about 35 dB. Utilizing a simple transmitter setup and an optical ground station capable of tracking a spacecraft in low earth orbit, this outdoor experiment demonstrates the feasibility of global key distribution via satellites. PMID:17358463

  16. An Architecture Trade Study for Passive 10-km Soil Moisture Measurements from Low-Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellerano, Fernando; ONeill, P.; Dod, L.; Krebs, Carolyn (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In 1999 NASA HQ, as a result of an internal NASA study on potential Earth Science Enterprise Post-2002 Missions, directed the hydrology community to focus on achieving a 10-km spatial resolution global soil moisture mission. This type of resolution represents a significant technological challenge for an L-band radiometer in sun-synchronous low-earth orbit. An engineering trade study has been completed to determine alternative system configurations that could achieve the science requirements and to identify the most appropriate technology investments and development path for NASA to pursue in order to bring about such a mission. The results of the study are presented here together with a short discussion of future efforts.

  17. Aspects of the optical system relevant for the KM3NeT timing calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kieft, Gerard

    2016-04-01

    KM3NeT is a future research infrastructure in the Mediterranean Sea housing the large Cherenkov telescope arrays of optical modules for neutrino detection. The detector control and data transmission system is based on fibre optical technology. For timing calibration of the detector signals the optical system is used to send and fan-out an onshore clock signal, derived from a GPS receiver, to all optical modules in the deep sea. The optical modules use this clock signal to time stamp the light pulses detected by the photomultipliers inside the modules. The delay time between the GPS clock on shore and the clock in each optical module is measured with sub-nanosecond precision using a White Rabbit based timing calibration system. The aspects of the optical system relevant for the timing calibration and the quantification of their effect will be presented.

  18. Deep turbulence effects mitigation with coherent combining of 21 laser beams over 7 km.

    PubMed

    Weyrauch, Thomas; Vorontsov, Mikhail; Mangano, Joseph; Ovchinnikov, Vladimir; Bricker, David; Polnau, Ernst; Rostov, Andrey

    2016-02-15

    We demonstrate coherent beam combining and adaptive mitigation of atmospheric turbulence effects over 7 km under strong scintillation conditions using a coherent fiber array laser transmitter operating in a target-in-the-loop setting. The transmitter system is composed of a densely packed array of 21 fiber collimators with integrated capabilities for piston, tip, and tilt control of the outgoing beams wavefront phases. A small cat's-eye retro reflector was used for evaluation of beam combining and turbulence compensation performance at the target plane, and to provide the feedback signal for control of piston and tip/tilt phases of the transmitted beams using the stochastic parallel gradient descent maximization of the power-in-the-bucket metric.

  19. Experimental demonstration of coherent beam combining over a 7 km propagation path.

    PubMed

    Weyrauch, Thomas; Vorontsov, Mikhail A; Carhart, Gary W; Beresnev, Leonid A; Rostov, Andrey P; Polnau, Ernst E; Liu, Jony Jiang

    2011-11-15

    We demonstrate coherent combining (phase locking) of seven laser beams emerging from an adaptive fiber-collimator array over a 7 km atmospheric propagation path using a target-in-the-loop (TIL) setting. Adaptive control of the piston and the tip and tilt wavefront phase at each fiber-collimator subaperture resulted in automatic focusing of the combined beam onto an unresolved retroreflector target (corner cube) with precompensation of quasi-static and atmospheric turbulence-induced phase aberrations. Both phase locking (piston) and tip-tilt control were performed by maximizing the target-return optical power using iterative stochastic parallel gradient descent (SPGD) techniques. The performance of TIL coherent beam combining and atmospheric mitigation was significantly increased by using an SPGD control variation that accounts for the round-trip propagation delay (delayed SPGD).

  20. Detection of EUV/Soft X-ray bremsstrahlung emission at terrestrial altitudes above 750 km

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsiyannis, A.; Dominique, M.; De Keyser, J.; Berghmans, D.; Michel, K.; Dammasch, I. E.; Borremans, K.; De Donder, E.; Ben Moussa, A.

    2015-12-01

    LYRA is a fast radiometer on-board the PROBA-2 mission designed to observe the solar activity from UV to Soft X-rays and consists of three redundant units of four different optical bandpasses each. Since the start of operation in 2010, LYRA regularly observes disturbances with a characteristic signature that have no direct solar origin. Instead the frequency of occurrence correlates with the ApA_p index of geomagnetic activity on Earth's surface and the location of these detections coincides with the McIlwain L ≈ 3 zon. By comparing the wavelength sensitivity of the main PROBA-2 instruments, the wavelength range of the detected photons can be narrowed down to the range of 0.07-1 KeV (1-17 nm) and the altitudes of their source to those above PROBA-2's orbit (~750 km). A discussion on the magnetospheric origins of this emission is included.

  1. Beyond Vmax and Km: How details of enzyme function influence geochemical cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steen, A. D.

    2015-12-01

    Enzymes catalyze the vast majority of chemical reactions relevant to geomicrobiology. Studies of the activities of enzymes in environmental systems often report Vmax (the maximum possible rate of reaction; often proportional to the concentration of enzymes in the system) and sometimes Km (a measure of the affinity between enzymes and their substrates). However, enzyme studies - particularly those related to enzymes involved in organic carbon oxidation - are often limited to only those parameters, and a relatively limited and mixed set of enzymes. Here I will discuss some novel methods to assay and characterize the specific sets of enzymes that may be important to the carbon cycle in aquatic environments. First, kinetic experiments revealed the collective properties of the complex mixtures of extracellular peptidases that occur where microbial communities are diverse. Crystal structures combined with biochemical characterization of specific enzymes can yield more detailed information about key steps in organic carbon transformations. These new techniques have the potential to provide mechanistic grounding to geomicrobiological models.

  2. Modes of zonal mean temperature variability 20-100 km from the TIMED/SABER observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Y.; Sheng, Z.; Shi, H. Q.

    2014-03-01

    In this study we investigate the spatial variabilities of the zonal mean temperature (20-100 km) from the TIMED (Thermosphere, Ionosphere, Mesosphere, Energetics and Dynamics)/SABER (Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry) satellite using the empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs). After removing the climatological annual mean, the first three EOFs are able to explain 87.0% of temperature variabilities. The primary EOF represents 74.1% of total anomalies and is dominated by the north-south contrast. Patterns in the second and third EOFs are related to the semiannual oscillations (SAO) and mesospheric temperature inversions (MTI), respectively. The quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) component is also decomposed into the seventh EOF with contributions of 1.2%. Last, we use the first three modes and annual mean temperature to reconstruct the data. The result shows small differences are in low latitude, which increase with latitude in the middle stratosphere and upper mesosphere.

  3. Vertical transport and photochemistry in the terrestrial mesosphere and lower thermosphere /50-120 km/

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, M.; Yung, Y. L.; Waters, J. W.

    1981-05-01

    A study is conducted of the coupled effects of kinetics, solar cycle flux variations, and vertical transport on the distribution of long-lived hydrogen-carbon-oxygen compounds in the terrestrial mesosphere and lower thermosphere, using a one-dimensional aeronomy model. The calculations account for the important chemical reactions and use rocket measurements of the solar flux at solar minimum and maximum. Photodissociation rates appropriate for the mesosphere are determined with a spherical shell atmosphere formalism. Detailed corrections for the O2 Schumann-Runge bands and the temperature dependence of the CO2 cross sections are used. An eddy diffusion profile is derived which is in agreement with the Aladdin 74 mass spectral measurements of atomic O, O2, CO2, and Ar in the lower thermosphere and observations of the O3 minimum at about 80 km.

  4. Lower thermosphere (80-100 km) dynamics response to solar and geomagnetic activity: Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazimirovsky, E. S.

    1989-01-01

    The variations of solar and geomagnetic activity may affect the thermosphere circulation via plasma heating and electric fields, especially at high latitudes. The possibility exists that the energy involved in auroral and magnetic storms can produce significant changes of mesosphere and lower thermosphere wind systems. A study of global radar measurements of winds at 80 to 100 km region revealed the short term effects (correlation between wind field and geomagnetic storms) and long term variations over a solar cycle. It seems likely that the correlation results from a modification of planetary waves and tides propagated from below, thus altering the dynamical regime of the thermosphere. Sometimes the long term behavior points rather to a climatic variation with the internal atmospheric cause than to a direct solar control.

  5. The Case for a Hubble Constant of 30 km s-1 Mpc-1.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, J G; Blanchard, A; Silk, J; Turner, M S

    1995-02-17

    Although recent determinations of the distance to the Virgo cluster based on Cepheid variable stars represent an important step in pinning down the Hubble constant, after 65 years a definitive determination of the Hubble constant still eludes cosmologists. At present, most of the observational determinations place the Hubble constant between 40 and 90 kilometers per second per megaparsec (km s(-1) Mpc(-1)). The case is made here for a Hubble constant that is even smaller than the lower bound of the accepted range on the basis of the great advantages, all theoretical in nature, of a Hubble constant of around 30 kilometers per second per megaparsec. Such a value for the Hubble cures all of the ills of the current theoretical orthodoxy, that is, a spatially flat universe composed predominantly of cold dark matter.

  6. Microprobe Evaluations of Grain Boundary Segregation in KM4 and IN100

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabb, T. P.; Smith, J. W.

    2001-01-01

    Turbine disk alloys subjected to fatigue cycles with dwells at high temperatures and stresses can fail by cracking along grain boundaries. This could be due to concentrated creep deformation or environmental attack at grain boundaries. It would be important to identify any chemical segregation along grain boundaries to aid understanding of this intergranular failure mode. The objective of this study was to evaluate the degree of chemical segregation present at the grain boundaries of two disk alloys, KM4 and IN 100. An electron microprobe employing wavelength dispersive x-ray chemical analyses was used to characterize the chemistry along multiple grain boundaries in metallographically prepared samples of each alloy. Some degrees of boron, chromium, and cobalt enrichment of grain boundaries were observed in each alloy.

  7. Biological entities isolated from the stratosphere (22-27km): case for their space origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wainwright, Milton; Rose, Christopher E.; Baker, Alexander J.; Wickramasinghe, N. Chandra

    2013-09-01

    Biological entities were isolated at a height of between 22-27 km in the stratosphere. Sampling of this region was carried out in the UK in July 2013 using a relatively simple low-cost balloon-borne sampler carrying aseptically clean scanning electron microscope stubs onto which aerosols were directly captured. The entities varied from a presumptive colony of ultra-small bacteria to two unusual individual organisms - part of a diatom frustule and a 200 micron-sized particle mass interlaced with biological filaments. Biological entities of this nature have not previously been reported occurring in the stratosphere; their likely origin is discussed and we provide arguments to support our view that such biological entities may have arrived from space. The new data gives strong confirmation of the Hoyle-Wickramasinghe theory of cometary panspermia.

  8. Estimation of Global 1km-grid Terrestrial Carbon Exchange Part II: Evaluations and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, K.; Sasai, T.; Kato, S.; Niwa, Y.; Saito, M.; Takagi, H.; Matsunaga, T.; Hiraki, K.; Maksyutov, S. S.; Yokota, T.

    2015-12-01

    Global terrestrial carbon cycle largely depends on a spatial pattern in land cover type, which is heterogeneously-distributed over regional and global scales. Many studies have been trying to reveal distribution of carbon exchanges between terrestrial ecosystems and atmosphere for understanding global carbon cycle dynamics by using terrestrial biosphere models, satellite data, inventory data, and so on. However, most studies remained within several tens of kilometers grid spatial resolution, and the results have not been enough to understand the detailed pattern of carbon exchanges based on ecological community and to evaluate the carbon stocks by forest ecosystems in each countries. Improving the sophistication of spatial resolution is obviously necessary to enhance the accuracy of carbon exchanges. Moreover, the improvement may contribute to global warming awareness, policy makers and other social activities. We show global terrestrial carbon exchanges (net ecosystem production, net primary production, and gross primary production) with 1km-grid resolution. The methodology for these estimations are shown in the 2015 AGU FM poster "Estimation of Global 1km-grid Terrestrial Carbon Exchange Part I: Developing Inputs and Modelling". In this study, we evaluated the carbon exchanges in various regions with other approaches. We used the satellite-driven biosphere model (BEAMS) as our estimations, GOSAT L4A CO2 flux data, NEP retrieved by NICAM and CarbonTracer2013 flux data, for period from Jun 2001 to Dec 2012. The temporal patterns for this period were indicated similar trends between BEAMS, GOSAT, NICAM, and CT2013 in many sub-continental regions. Then, we estimated the terrestrial carbon exchanges in each countries, and could indicated the temporal patterns of the exchanges in large carbon stock regions.Global terrestrial carbon cycle largely depends on a spatial pattern of land cover type, which is heterogeneously-distributed over regional and global scales. Many

  9. Ballistic Performance of Porous-Ceramic, Thermal Protection Systems to 9 km/s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Joshua E.; Bohl, William E.; Foreman, Cory D.; Christiansen, Eric C.; Davis, Bruce A.

    2010-01-01

    Porous-ceramic, thermal protection systems are used heavily in current reentry vehicles like the Orbiter, and they are currently being proposed for the next generation of US manned spacecraft, Orion. These materials insulate the structural components and sensitive components of a spacecraft against the intense thermal environments of atmospheric reentry. These materials are also highly exposed to solid particle space environment hazards. This paper discusses recent impact testing up to 9.65 km/s on ceramic tiles similar to those used on the Orbiter. These tiles are a porous-ceramic insulator of nominally 8 lb/ft(exp 3) alumina-fiber-enhanced-thermal-barrier (AETB8) coated with a damage-resistant, toughened-unipiece-fibrous-insulation/reaction-cured-glass layer (TUFI/RCG).

  10. Ballistic Performance of Porous Ceramic Thermal Protection Systems at 9 km/s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Joshua E.; Bohl, W. E.; Foreman, C. D.; Christiansen, Eric L.; Davis, B. A.

    2009-01-01

    Porous-ceramic, thermal-protection-systems are used heavily in current reentry vehicles like the Orbiter, and they are currently being proposed for the next generation of manned spacecraft, Orion. These materials insulate the structural components and sensitive electronic components of a spacecraft against the intense thermal environments of atmospheric reentry. Furthermore, these materials are also highly exposed to space environmental hazards like meteoroid and orbital debris impacts. This paper discusses recent impact testing up to 9 km/s on ceramic tiles similar to those used on the Orbiter. These tiles have a porous-batting of nominally 8 lb/cubic ft alumina-fiber-enhanced-thermal-barrier (AETB8) insulating material coated with a damage-resistant, toughened-unipiece-fibrous-insulation (TUFI) layer.

  11. POLAR/TIDE Survey of Thermal O+ Characteristics near 5000km Altitude over the Polar Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, B. A.; Horwitz, J. L.; Su, Y. J.; Elliott, Heather A.; Comfort, Richard H.; Moore, Thomas E.; Giles, Barbara A.; Craven, Paul D.; Chandler, Michael O.; Pollock, Craig J.

    1998-01-01

    We analyze measurements of thermal 0+ parameters from the Thermal Ion Dynamics Experiment (TIDE) on POLAR for April - May, 1996 obtained near 5000 km altitude within the polar cap ionosphere - magnetosphere interface region. Certain aspects of O+ parameters in this region were explored by Su et. al. [1998]. In this report, we hope to extend our understanding of the O+ behavior by examining relationships of densities, parallel velocities, and temperatures to the convection velocities, IMF By and Bz components. Preliminary results with the convection velocities are currently being analyzed. In doing so, we are guided in part by the Cleft Ion Fountain paradigm and model developed by Horwitz and Lockwood [1985] which involves downward O+ flows in the polar magnetosphere.

  12. The effect of an 1100 km run on testicular, adrenal and thyroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Schürmeyer, T; Jung, K; Nieschlag, E

    1984-08-01

    Although endocrine effects of physical or psychological stress are well documented, it is not known to what extent adaptation to prolonged exertion occurs. We therefore investigated the impact of an 1100 km run of 20 days' duration on selected pituitary, testicular, adrenal and thyroid hormones. Blood samples were obtained from five male athletes prior to and after the day's run on the 1st, 5th, 9th, 14th and 19th day. Results show that adrenal and thyroid function soon adapt to the daily strain. Testosterone levels, however, were markedly decreased throughout the 20 days while LH levels remained unchanged. Thus it appears that the reproductive endocrine system is more susceptible to long-term stress effects than the more vital functions of the thyroid and adrenal glands.

  13. ASASSN-16km: Discovery of A Supernova in ESO 197-G 010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, J. S.; Prieto, J. L.; Ricci, C.; Oh, K.; Stanek, K. Z.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; Kochanek, C. S.; Shields, J.; Shappee, B. J.; Bersier, D.; Dong, Subo; Bose, S.; Chen, Ping; Brimacombe, J.

    2016-09-01

    During the ongoing All Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN or "Assassin"), using data from the quadruple 14-cm "Cassius" telescope in Cerro Tololo, Chile, we discovered a Type Ia supernova in the galaxy ESO 197-G 010. ASASSN-16km (AT 2016ggb) was discovered in images obtained on UT 2016-09-12.34 at V~16.3 mag. We also detect the object in images obtained on UT 2016-09-13.15 (V~16.2), UT 2016-09-10.15 (V~16.3), UT 2016-09-09.15 (V~16.6), UT 2016-09-05.110 (V~17.1), and UT 2016-09-02.41 (V~17.6).

  14. Pioneer Venus 12.5 km Anomaly Workshop Report, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seiff, A.; Sromovsky, L.; Borucki, W.; Craig, R.; Juergens, D.; Young, R. E.; Ragent, B.

    1995-01-01

    A workshop was convened at Ames Research Center on September 28 and 29, 1993, to address the unexplained electrical anomalies experienced in December 1978 by the four Pioneer Venus probes below a Venus altitude of 12.5 km. These anomalies caused the loss of valuable data in the deep atmosphere, and, if their cause were to remain unexplained, could reoccur on future Venus missions. The workshop participants reviewed the evidence and studied all identified mechanisms that could consistently account for all observed anomalies. Both hardware problems and atmospheric interactions were considered. Based on a workshop recommendation, subsequent testing identified the cause as being an insulation failure of the external harness. All anomalous events are now explained.

  15. Status Update Report for the Peregrine 100km Sounding Rocket Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyer, Jonny; Zilliac, Greg; Doran, Eric; Marzona, Mark Thadeus; Lohner, Kevin; Karlik, Evan; Cantwell, Brian; Karabeyoglu, Arif

    2008-01-01

    The Peregrine Sounding Rocket Program is a joint basic research program of NASA Ames Research Center, NASA Wallops, Stanford University and the Space Propulsion Group, Inc. (SPG). The goal is to determine the applicability of liquifying hybrid technology to a small launch system. The approach is to design, build, test and y a stable, efficient liquefying fuel hybrid rocket vehicle to an altitude of 100 km. The program was kicked o in October of 2006 and has seen considerable progress in the subsequent 18 months. Two virtually identical vehicles will be constructed and own out of the NASA Sounding Rocket Facility at Wallops Island. This paper presents the current status of the project as of June 2008. For background on the project, the reader is referred to last year's paper.

  16. Multiple broadly synchronous km-scale exhumation episodes on different continents: implications for controlling processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Paul; Duddy, Ian; Japsen, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Numerous low temperature thermochronology studies have defined regional cooling episodes which imply removal of several km of section over areas of several 104 km2. The origin of such events has long been the subject of debate, while their reality has sometimes been questioned because of the lack of a viable mechanism. Kilometre-scale denudation at rifted margins has traditionally been interpreted as related to rifting and breakup, magnified by the flexural response to denudation of the uplifted rift flanks. But it is now clear that at many margins the post-breakup history is more complex, with km-scale uplift and erosion commonly post-dating breakup by 10s of Myr and often affecting regions many 100s of kilometres inland of the margins (Green et al., 2013; Brown et al., 2014). Numerous examples around the world of km-scale exhumation affecting regions distant from continental margins, including cratonic regions traditionally regarded as stable over Phanerozoic time (e.g. Ault et al., 2009; Flowers & Kelley, 2011), cannot be explained by margin-related mechanisms. It has also become clear that periods of exhumation are separated by episodes of burial, defining a series of positive and negative vertical movements. Previous studies have defined a broad synchroneity of Early, Middle and Late Cenozoic exhumation events in regions from Alaska to Greenland, Norway and Svalbard (Green and Duddy, 2010). New results from SE Australia define a series of exhumation episodes ranging in time from Carboniferous to Cenozoic which are broadly synchronous with similar events previously defined in Brazil and South Africa (Green et al. 2013). While estimates of the timing of exhumation in different areas are subject to some uncertainty, data across three southern hemisphere continents show a broad synchronicity in similar fashion to the northern hemisphere examples cited above. Dynamic topography has been invoked as a possible mechanism for producing uplift, the effects of which

  17. The expanding photosphere method applied to SN 1992am AT cz = 14 600 km/s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, Brian P.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Eastman, Ronald G.; Hamuy, Mario; Phillips, Mark M.; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.; Maza, Jose; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Ho, Luis C.; Matheson, Thomas

    1994-01-01

    We present photometry and spectroscopy of Supernova (SN) 1992am for five months following its discovery by the Calan Cerro-Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) SN search. These data show SN 1992am to be type II-P, displaying hydrogen in its spectrum and the typical shoulder in its light curve. The photometric data and the distance from our own analysis are used to construct the supernova's bolometric light curve. Using the bolometric light curve, we estimate SN 1992am ejected approximately 0.30 solar mass of Ni-56, an amount four times larger than that of other well studied SNe II. SN 1992am's; host galaxy lies at a redshift of cz = 14 600 km s(exp -1), making it one of the most distant SNe II discovered, and an important application of the Expanding Photsphere Method. Since z = 0.05 is large enough for redshift-dependent effects to matter, we develop the technique to derive luminosity distances with the Expanding Photosphere Method at any redshift, and apply this method to SN 1992am. The derived distance, D = 180(sub -25) (sup +30) Mpc, is independent of all other rungs in the extragalactic distance ladder. The redshift of SN 1992am's host galaxy is sufficiently large that uncertainties due to perturbations in the smooth Hubble flow should be smaller than 10%. The Hubble ratio derived from the distance and redshift of this single object is H(sub 0) = 81(sub -15) (sup +17) km s(exp -1) Mpc(exp -1). In the future, with more of these distant objects, we hope to establish an independent and statistically robust estimate of H(sub 0) based solely on type II supernovae.

  18. Letter of intent for KM3NeT 2.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Ageron, M.; Aharonian, F.; Aiello, S.; Albert, A.; Ameli, F.; Anassontzis, E.; Andre, M.; Androulakis, G.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Avgitas, T.; Barbarino, G.; Barbarito, E.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Martí, J.; Belhorma, B.; Belias, A.; Berbee, E.; van den Berg, A.; Bertin, V.; Beurthey, S.; van Beveren, V.; Beverini, N.; Biagi, S.; Biagioni, A.; Billault, M.; Bondì, M.; Bormuth, R.; Bouhadef, B.; Bourlis, G.; Bourret, S.; Boutonnet, C.; Bouwhuis, M.; Bozza, C.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Buis, E.; Busto, J.; Cacopardo, G.; Caillat, L.; Calamai, M.; Calvo, D.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Cecchini, S.; Celli, S.; Champion, C.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Cherubini, S.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Classen, L.; Cocimano, R.; Coelho, J. A. B.; Coleiro, A.; Colonges, S.; Coniglione, R.; Cordelli, M.; Cosquer, A.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Cuttone, G.; D'Amico, A.; De Bonis, G.; De Rosa, G.; De Sio, C.; Di Capua, F.; Di Palma, I.; Díaz García, A. F.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti-Hasankiadeh, Q.; Drakopoulou, E.; Drouhin, D.; Drury, L.; Durocher, M.; Eberl, T.; Eichie, S.; van Eijk, D.; El Bojaddaini, I.; El Khayati, N.; Elsaesser, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Fassi, F.; Favali, P.; Fermani, P.; Ferrara, G.; Filippidis, C.; Frascadore, G.; Fusco, L. A.; Gal, T.; Galatà, S.; Garufi, F.; Gay, P.; Gebyehu, M.; Giordano, V.; Gizani, N.; Gracia, R.; Graf, K.; Grégoire, T.; Grella, G.; Habel, R.; Hallmann, S.; van Haren, H.; Harissopulos, S.; Heid, T.; Heijboer, A.; Heine, E.; Henry, S.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Hevinga, M.; Hofestädt, J.; Hugon, C. M. F.; Illuminati, G.; James, C. W.; Jansweijer, P.; Jongen, M.; de Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U. F.; Keller, P.; Kieft, G.; Kießling, D.; Koffeman, E. N.; Kooijman, P.; Kouchner, A.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lamare, P.; Leisos, A.; Leonora, E.; Clark, M. Lindsey; Liolios, A.; Llorens Alvarez, C. D.; Lo Presti, D.; Löhner, H.; Lonardo, A.; Lotze, M.; Loucatos, S.; Maccioni, E.; Mannheim, K.; Margiotta, A.; Marinelli, A.; Mariş, O.; Markou, C.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Martini, A.; Mele, R.; Melis, K. W.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Migneco, E.; Mijakowski, P.; Miraglia, A.; Mollo, C. M.; Mongelli, M.; Morganti, M.; Moussa, A.; Musico, P.; Musumeci, M.; Navas, S.; Nicolau, C. A.; Olcina, I.; Olivetto, C.; Orlando, A.; Papaikonomou, A.; Papaleo, R.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Peek, H.; Pellegrino, C.; Perrina, C.; Pfutzner, M.; Piattelli, P.; Pikounis, K.; Poma, G. E.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Pratolongo, F.; Pühlhofer, G.; Pulvirenti, S.; Quinn, L.; Racca, C.; Raffaelli, F.; Randazzo, N.; Rapidis, P.; Razis, P.; Real, D.; Resvanis, L.; Reubelt, J.; Riccobene, G.; Rossi, C.; Rovelli, A.; Saldaña, M.; Salvadori, I.; Samtleben, D. F. E.; Sánchez García, A.; Sánchez Losa, A.; Sanguineti, M.; Santangelo, A.; Santonocito, D.; Sapienza, P.; Schimmel, F.; Schmelling, J.; Sciacca, V.; Sedita, M.; Seitz, T.; Sgura, I.; Simeone, F.; Siotis, I.; Sipala, V.; Spisso, B.; Spurio, M.; Stavropoulos, G.; Steijger, J.; Stellacci, S. M.; Stransky, D.; Taiuti, M.; Tayalati, Y.; Tézier, D.; Theraube, S.; Thompson, L.; Timmer, P.; Tönnis, C.; Trasatti, L.; Trovato, A.; Tsirigotis, A.; Tzamarias, S.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Vallage, B.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vermeulen, J.; Vicini, P.; Viola, S.; Vivolo, D.; Volkert, M.; Voulgaris, G.; Wiggers, L.; Wilms, J.; de Wolf, E.; Zachariadou, K.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2016-08-01

    The main objectives of the KM3NeT Collaboration are (i) the discovery and subsequent observation of high-energy neutrino sources in the Universe and (ii) the determination of the mass hierarchy of neutrinos. These objectives are strongly motivated by two recent important discoveries, namely: (1) the high-energy astrophysical neutrino signal reported by IceCube and (2) the sizable contribution of electron neutrinos to the third neutrino mass eigenstate as reported by Daya Bay, Reno and others. To meet these objectives, the KM3NeT Collaboration plans to build a new Research Infrastructure consisting of a network of deep-sea neutrino telescopes in the Mediterranean Sea. A phased and distributed implementation is pursued which maximises the access to regional funds, the availability of human resources and the synergistic opportunities for the Earth and sea sciences community. Three suitable deep-sea sites are selected, namely off-shore Toulon (France), Capo Passero (Sicily, Italy) and Pylos (Peloponnese, Greece). The infrastructure will consist of three so-called building blocks. A building block comprises 115 strings, each string comprises 18 optical modules and each optical module comprises 31 photo-multiplier tubes. Each building block thus constitutes a three-dimensional array of photo sensors that can be used to detect the Cherenkov light produced by relativistic particles emerging from neutrino interactions. Two building blocks will be sparsely configured to fully explore the IceCube signal with similar instrumented volume, different methodology, improved resolution and complementary field of view, including the galactic plane. One building block will be densely configured to precisely measure atmospheric neutrino oscillations.

  19. Fiber-Level Modeling of Dynamic Strength of Kevlar® KM2 Ballistic Fabric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grujicic, M.; Hariharan, A.; Pandurangan, B.; Yen, C.-F.; Cheeseman, B. A.; Wang, Y.; Miao, Y.; Zheng, J. Q.

    2012-07-01

    In recent years, modeling of the high-performance ballistic fabric has gradually shifted from the continuum and yarn length scales to the sub-yarn length scale which enabled establishment of the relationships between the fabric penetration resistance and various fiber-level phenomena such as fiber-fiber friction, fiber twist, transverse properties of the fibers, and the stochastic nature of fiber strength. In general, these sub-yarn modeling schemes involve special numerical techniques (e.g., digital-element method) and customized computational codes. This status of the sub-yarn fabric-modeling methods and tools makes them not readily available to wider academic and industrial research communities. In the present work, an attempt is made to use conventional finite-element methods and tools in order to carry out sub-yarn numerical analysis of the penetration resistance of Kevlar® KM2 ballistic fabric. The goal was to demonstrate that results could be obtained which are comparable to their digital-element method = based counterparts. Specifically, a series of transient nonlinear dynamics finite-element analyses was carried out in order to investigate the role of the following two important sub-yarn phenomena on the penetration resistance of Kevlar® KM2 fabric: (a) fiber transverse properties including nonlinear elastic and plastic response and (b) fiber-fiber friction within the context of stochastically distributed fiber axial strength. It is generally found that the results obtained are consistent with their digital-element method-based counterparts.

  20. Hydration kinetics and 10-km outdoor running performance following 75% versus 150% between bout fluid replacement.

    PubMed

    Davis, Brett Alan; Thigpen, Lauren Kellet; Hornsby, Jared Heath; Green, James Matthew; Coates, Thomas Elliot; O'Neal, Eric Kyle

    2014-01-01

    Current American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) guidelines recommend replacing 150% of sweat losses between training bouts separated by ≤12 hours, but little evidence exists concerning the implications of this strategy for runners. Participants (n = 13) in this study replaced 75% (1637 ± 372 mL) or 150% (3099 ± 850 mL) of sweat losses following an outdoor evening run (∼75 minutes; Wet-bulb-globe temperature (WBGT) = ∼27°C) and consumed a standardised evening meal and breakfast before completing an outdoor (WBGT = ∼23°C) 10-km time-trial the following morning. Urine was collected between runs and urine specific gravity (USG) was assessed pre-run. Significant differences were found in pre-run body mass (75% = 69.6 ± 9.2; 150% = 70.1 ± 9.3 kg; P = 0.02) and USG (75% = 1.026 ± 0.005; 150% = 1.014 ± 0.007; P < 0.001). Heart rate during 10-km run (168 ± 14 versus 168 ± 12 beats min(-1)) and post-run intestinal temperature (39.08 ± 0.52 versus 39.00 ± 0.70 °C) did not differ for 75% and 150%, respectively, despite an ∼3% performance improvement (75% = 47.28 ± 6.64; 150% = 45.93 ± 6.04 minutes; P = 0.001) due to a faster pace in the second half of the run with 150% replacement. Session rate of perceived exertion (RPE) was lower (P = 0.02) during 150% (7.5 ± 1.3) versus 75% (8.4 ± 0.9). Reluctant drinkers potentially hinder training quality between evening and morning runs in the heat, but copious urine production and difficulty in consuming recommended fluid volumes suggest fluid replacement <150% may be more ideal.

  1. Tropospheric tides from 80 to 400 km: Propagation, interannual variability, and solar cycle effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberheide, J.; Forbes, J. M.; HäUsler, K.; Wu, Q.; Bruinsma, S. L.

    2009-01-01

    Recent observations and model simulations demonstrate unequivocally that non-Sun-synchronous (nonmigrating) tides due to deep tropical convection produce large longitudinal and local time variations in bulk ionosphere-thermosphere-mesosphere properties. We thus stand at an exciting research frontier: understanding how persistent, large-scale tropospheric weather systems affect the geospace environment. Science challenge questions include: (1) How much of the tropospheric influence is due to tidal propagation directly into the upper thermosphere? (2) How large is the interannual and the solar cycle variability of the tides and what causes them? These questions are addressed using solar maximum to solar minimum tidal wind and temperature analyses from the Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Electrodynamics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite in the mesosphere/lower thermosphere (MLT), and from the Challenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP) satellite at ˜400 km. A physics-based empirical fit model is used to connect the TIMED with the CHAMP tides, i.e., to close the "thermospheric gap" of current spaceborne observations. Temperature, density, and horizontal and vertical wind results are presented for the important diurnal, eastward, wave number 3 (DE3) tide and may be summarized as follows. (1) Upper thermospheric DE3 tidal winds and temperatures are fully attributable to troposphere forcing. (2) A quasi-2-year 15-20% amplitude modulation in the MLT is presumably caused by the QBO. No perceivable solar cycle dependence is found in the MLT region. DE3 amplitudes in the upper thermosphere can increase by a factor of 3 in the zonal wind, by ˜60% in temperature and by a factor of 5 in density, caused by reduced dissipation above 120 km during solar minimum.

  2. Tropospheric tides from 80 to 400 km: Propagation, interannual variability, and solar cycle effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberheide, J.; Forbes, J. M.; Häusler, K.; Wu, Q.; Bruinsma, S. L.

    2009-12-01

    Recent observations and model simulations demonstrate unequivocally that non-Sun-synchronous (nonmigrating) tides due to deep tropical convection produce large longitudinal and local time variations in bulk ionosphere-thermosphere-mesosphere properties. We thus stand at an exciting research frontier: understanding how persistent, large-scale tropospheric weather systems affect the geospace environment. Science challenge questions include: (1) How much of the tropospheric influence is due to tidal propagation directly into the upper thermosphere? (2) How large is the interannual and the solar cycle variability of the tides and what causes them? These questions are addressed using solar maximum to solar minimum tidal wind and temperature analyses from the Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Electrodynamics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite in the mesosphere/lower thermosphere (MLT), and from the Challenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP) satellite at ˜400 km. A physics-based empirical fit model is used to connect the TIMED with the CHAMP tides, i.e., to close the “thermospheric gap” of current spaceborne observations. Temperature, density, and horizontal and vertical wind results are presented for the important diurnal, eastward, wave number 3 (DE3) tide and may be summarized as follows. (1) Upper thermospheric DE3 tidal winds and temperatures are fully attributable to troposphere forcing. (2) A quasi-2-year 15-20% amplitude modulation in the MLT is presumably caused by the QBO. No perceivable solar cycle dependence is found in the MLT region. DE3 amplitudes in the upper thermosphere can increase by a factor of 3 in the zonal wind, by ˜60% in temperature and by a factor of 5 in density, caused by reduced dissipation above 120 km during solar minimum.

  3. Oxidative stress, inflammation, and muscle soreness in an 894-km relay trail run.

    PubMed

    Rowlands, David S; Pearce, E; Aboud, A; Gillen, J B; Gibala, M J; Donato, S; Waddington, J M; Green, J G; Tarnopolsky, M A

    2012-05-01

    We describe the effects of multi-day relay trail running on muscle soreness and damage, and systemic immune, inflammatory, and oxidative responses. 16 male and 4 female athletes ran 894 km in 47 stages over 95 h, with mean (SD) 6.4 (1.0) stages per athlete and 19.0 (1.7) km per stage. We observed post-pre run increases in serum creatine kinase (qualified effect size extremely large, p = 0.002), IL-6 (extremely large, p < 0.001), urinary 8-isoprostane/creatinine (extremely large, p = 0.04), TNF-α (large, p = 0.002), leukocyte count (very large, p < 0.0001) and neutrophil fraction (very large, p < 0.001); and reductions in hemoglobin (moderate, p < 0.001), hematocrit (moderate, p < 0.001), and lymphocyte fraction (trivial, p < 0.001). An increase in ORAC total antioxidant capacity (TAC, small, p = 0.3) and decrease in urinary 8-OHdG/creatinine (small, p = 0.1) were not statistically significant. During the run, muscle soreness was most frequent in the quadriceps. The threshold for muscle pain (pain-pressure algometry) in the vastus lateralis and gastrocnemius was lower post-run (small, p = 0.04 and 0.03). Average running speed was correlated with algometer pain and leukocyte count (large, r = 0.52), and TAC was correlated with IL-6 (very large, r = 0.76) and 8-isoprostane/creatinine (very large, r = -0.72). Multi-day stage-racing increases inflammation, lipid peroxidation, muscle damage and soreness without oxidative DNA damage. High TAC is associated with reduced exercise-induced lipid peroxidation, but is not related to immune response or muscle damage. PMID:21922261

  4. cDNA cloning and functional expression of KM+, the mannose-binding lectin from Artocarpus integrifolia seeds.

    PubMed

    daSilva, Luis L P; de Molfetta-Machado, Jeanne Blanco; Panunto-Castelo, Ademilson; Denecke, Jurgen; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique; Roque-Barreira, Maria-Cristina; Goldman, Maria Helena S

    2005-11-30

    KM+, a mannose-binding lectin present in the seeds of Artocarpus integrifolia, has interesting biological properties and potential pharmaceutical use [A. Panunto-Castelo, M.A. Souza, M.C. Roque-Barreira, J.S. Silva, KM(+), a lectin from Artocarpus integrifolia, induces IL-12 p40 production by macrophages and switches from type 2 to type 1 cell-mediated immunity against Leishmania major antigens, resulting in BALB/c mice resistance to infection, Glycobiology 11 (2001) 1035-1042. ; L.L.P. daSilva, A. Panunto-Castelo, M.H.S. Goldman, M.C. Roque-Barreira, R.S. Oliveira, M.D. Baruffi, J.B. Molfetta-Machado, Composition for preventing or treating appearance of epithelia wounds such as skin and corneal wounds or for immunomodulating, comprises lectin, Patent number WO20041008.]. Here, we have isolated clones encoding the full-length KM+ primary sequence from a cDNA library, through matrix PCR-based screening methodology. Analysis of KM+ nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences provided strong evidence that it neither enters the secretory pathway nor undergoes post-translational modifications, which is in sharp contrast with jacalin, the more abundant lectin from A. integrifolia seeds. Current investigations into the KM+ properties are often impaired by the difficulty in obtaining sufficient quantities of jacalin-free KM+ through direct seed extraction. To obtain active recombinant protein (rKM+) in larger amounts, we tested three different expression systems. Expression vectors were constructed to produce: (a) rKM+ in E. coli in its native form, (b) rKM+ with GST as an N-terminal tag and (c) native rKM+ in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The presence of the GST-tag significantly improved the overall rKM+ yield; however, most of the obtained rGST-KM+ was insoluble. Production of rKM+ in the yeast host yielded the highest quantities of soluble lectin that retained the typical high-mannose oligosaccharide-binding properties of the natural protein. The possible biotechnological

  5. Biodegradation of biphenyl and 2-chlorobiphenyl by a Pseudomonas sp. KM-04 isolated from PCBs-contaminated coal mine soil.

    PubMed

    Nam, In-Hyun; Chon, Chul-Min; Jung, Ka-Young; Kim, Jae-Gon

    2014-07-01

    The biphenyl-degrading strain, Pseudomonas sp. KM-04, was isolated from polychlorinated biphenyls-contaminated soil sample obtained from the vicinity of a former coal mine. We herein report that strain KM-04 can use biphenyl as a sole carbon source, and resting cells convert biphenyl to its corresponding metabolic intermediates. Incubation of KM-04 with autoclaved mining-contaminated soil for 10 days in a slurry system reduced the levels of biphenyl and 2-chlorobiphenyl by 98.5 % and 82.3 %, respectively. Furthermore, treatment of a mine-soil microcosm with strain KM-04 for 15 days in a composting system under laboratory conditions reduced the levels of biphenyl and 2-chlorobiphenyl by 87.1 % and 68.7 %, respectively. These results suggest that KM-04 is a potential candidate for the biological removal of biphenyl and its chlorinated derivatives from polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated mining areas.

  6. On the 300km discontinuity with Conversion Phases SdP in the Tonga-Fiji Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Y.; Sui, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Conversion phases SdP are powerful for retrieving information of velocity interfaces of deep structure of Earth's interior. The high sensitivity seismograph network Japan (Hi-net) has about 800 seismometers which can provide digital waveform data from since 2004 through internet. The difference between the focal depths and the depth of 300 km discontinuity determines the sizes of Fresnel zones at the discontinuity for the waveform data from the seismic network, so seismic waveform of six earthquakes with depths from 145 to 220km between 2004 and 2011 beneath Tonga-Fiji region are retrieved from Hi-net (www.hinet.bosai.go.jp). The magnitudes of the events used are Mb 5.0-5.7 which means there are good signal-noise ratios and relatively simple source time functions. In this study, the focal depths determined with pP phases are provided by EHB database for those before 2006 and www.globalcmt.org for those after that year. After filtering with 0.2-1.0Hz (e.g. Castle and Creager, JGR, 2000) and manually selection, waveform data are divided to 5-8 groups related to the regional locations of seismometers and proceeded with N-th root slant-stack method, then we can get the related vespegram in differential time vs slowness. There are 38 vespegrams for 6 events. From the vespegrams, the conversion phases are picked according to the references of the theoretical values of the differential times and slownesses. The parameters read from vespegrams are inverted with IASP91 model to the depths and locations of conversion points. The conversion points related to 300 km discontinuity are distributed from 302 to 328km in the Fuji-Tonga region. For the vespegrams from one certain event but sub-networks, the depth variation are less than 20 km, mostly are less than 11km. Especially, the depth variation of the event 6 are just 8 km. So in the square region with 200 * 300 km, the lateral variation of the depth of the 300 km discontinuity is relatively small. Comparing with the former

  7. Acylhydrazones as Widely Tunable Photoswitches.

    PubMed

    van Dijken, Derk Jan; Kovaříček, Petr; Ihrig, Svante P; Hecht, Stefan

    2015-12-01

    Molecular photoswitches have attracted much attention in biological and materials contexts. Despite the fact that existing classes of these highly interesting functional molecules have been heavily investigated and optimized, distinct obstacles and inherent limitations remain. Considerable synthetic efforts and complex structure-property relationships render the development and exploitation of new photoswitch families difficult. Here, we focus our attention on acylhydrazones: a novel, yet underexploited class of photochromic molecules based on the imine structural motif. We optimized the synthesis of these potent photoswitches and prepared a library of over 40 compounds, bearing different substituents in all four crucial positions of the backbone fragment, and conducted a systematic study of their photochromic properties as a function of structural variation. This modular family of organic photoswitches offers a unique combination of properties and the compounds are easily prepared on large scales within hours, through an atom-economic synthesis, from commercially available starting materials. During our thorough spectroscopic investigations, we identified photoswitches covering a wide range of thermal half-lives of their (Z)-isomers, from short-lived T-type to thermally stable P-type derivatives. By proper substitution, excellent band separation between the absorbance maxima of (E)- and (Z)-isomers in the UV or visible region could be achieved. Our library furthermore includes notable examples of rare negative photochromic systems, and we show that acylhydrazones are highly fatigue resistant and exhibit good quantum yields. PMID:26580808

  8. Wide Bandgap Extrinsic Photoconductive Switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, James Stephen

    Wide Bandgap Extrinsic Photoconductive Switches Semi-insulating Gallium Nitride, 4H and 6H Silicon Carbide are attractive materials for compact, high voltage, extrinsic, photoconductive switches due to their wide bandgap, high dark resistance, high critical electric field strength and high electron saturation velocity. These wide bandgap semiconductors are made semi-insulating by the addition of vanadium (4H and 6H-SiC) and iron (2H-GaN) impurities that form deep acceptors. These deep acceptors trap electrons donated from shallow donor impurities. The electrons can be optically excited from these deep acceptor levels into the conduction band to transition the wide bandgap semiconductor materials from a semi-insulating to a conducting state. Extrinsic photoconductive switches with opposing electrodes have been constructed using vanadium compensated 6H-SiC and iron compensated 2H-GaN. These extrinsic photoconductive switches were tested at high voltage and high power to determine if they could be successfully used as the closing switch in compact medical accelerators. The successful development of a vanadium compensated, 6H-SiC extrinsic photoconductive switch for use as a closing switch for compact accelerator applications was realized by improvements made to the vanadium, nitrogen and boron impurity densities. The changes made to the impurity densities were based on the physical intuition outlined and simple rate equation models. The final 6H-SiC impurity 'recipe' calls for vanadium, nitrogen and boron densities of 2.5 e17 cm-3, 1.25e17 cm-3 and ≤ 1e16 cm-3, respectively. This recipe was originally developed to maximize the quantum efficiency of the vanadium compensated 6H-SiC, while maintaining a thermally stable semi-insulating material. The rate equation models indicate that, besides increasing the quantum efficiency, the impurity recipe should be expected to also increase the carrier recombination time. Three generations of 6H-SiC materials were tested. The

  9. Wide area continuous offender monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Hoshen, J.; Drake, G.; Spencer, D.

    1996-11-01

    The corrections system in the U.S. is supervising over five million offenders. This number is rising fast and so are the direct and indirect costs to society. To improve supervision and reduce the cost of parole and probation, first generation home arrest systems were introduced in 1987. While these systems proved to be helpful to the corrections system, their scope is rather limited because they only cover an offender at a single location and provide only a partial time coverage. To correct the limitations of first-generation systems, second-generation wide area continuous electronic offender monitoring systems, designed to monitor the offender at all times and locations, are now on the drawing board. These systems use radio frequency location technology to track the position of offenders. The challenge for this technology is the development of reliable personal locator devices that are small, lightweight, with long operational battery life, and indoors/outdoors accuracy of 100 meters or less. At the center of a second-generation system is a database that specifies the offender`s home, workplace, commute, and time the offender should be found in each. The database could also define areas from which the offender is excluded. To test compliance, the system would compare the observed coordinates of the offender with the stored location for a given time interval. Database logfiles will also enable law enforcement to determine if a monitored offender was present at a crime scene and thus include or exclude the offender as a potential suspect.

  10. Orphan Basin crustal structure from a dense wide-angle seismic profile - layered modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, K. W. Helen; Watremez, Louise; Louden, Keith E.; Nedimović, Mladen R.; Karner, Garry D.

    2014-05-01

    The Orphan Basin is a large, deep water basin to the east of Newfoundland and northwest of Flemish Cap, Canada. It contains a considerably wide series of rift basins that provides an excellent opportunity to study continental crustal deformations under varying degrees of extension. We present a 500-km-long P-wave velocity model across the complete rift system of the Orphan Basin, from Flemish Cap to the Bonavista Platform, using high-resolution refraction and wide-angle reflection data from 89 ocean-bottom seismometers (OBS). This layered model builds on a first-arrival traveltime tomography model (Watremez et al., this session) and is formed using additional constraints from a coincident multichannel seismic reflection profile, gravity data and borehole data from three wells. The layered model helps detail deep sediment and crustal variations across this wide region of extended continental crust. The sedimentary section contains post-rift Tertiary (vp~1.7-3.5 km/s) and syn-rift Cretaceous and Jurassic (vp~4-5.4 km/s) layers within both the eastern and the western sub-basins, separated by three basement highs, suggesting that the two sub-basins may have opened during a single, extended rifting event. The crust is composed of three layers with vp of 5.4-6.1, 6.1-6.5 and 6.3-7.1 km/s of highly variable combined thicknesses, from 32 km beneath Flemish Cap and the Bonavista Platform to <10 km beneath both western and eastern sub-basins. The shape of the crustal thinning appears highly asymmetrical across the two sub-basins. Flemish Cap crust thins westward within the eastern sub-basin into a narrow zone (35 km) of hyperextended crust (<10 km thick) beneath an 8-km-deep sedimentary basin. In contrast, the Bonavista Platform crust thins eastward within the western sub-basin into a wider zone (116 km) of hyperextended crust. Separating the two rift basins is a central section with two distinctive zones of thicker (10-16 km) crust, where muted topography characterizes the

  11. Reassessing Transuranic Element Contamination Within the 30 km Exclusion Zone of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tryshyn, V.; Gaidar, O.; Ageyev, V.; Sazheniuk, A.

    2011-12-01

    Following the Chernobyl catastrophe in 1986, large amounts of radionuclides were dispersed into the environment and spread across a large territory. An evacuated 30 km exclusion zone was established around the site to limit access to the most heavily contaminated areas. The highest concentrations of radionuclide deposition, particularly for the transuranic elements such as americium, plutonium and the minor actinides, are located on the territories adjacent to the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. Assessing the distribution and movement of radionuclides in these areas remains a high priority, but many previous studies were carried out without appropriately accounting for specific characteristics of Chernobyl fallout, namely, the significant role of hot particles (fuel particles). Evaluation of the distribution and impact of Chernobyl contamination often relied on piecing together data on different radionuclides provided by different organizations. The compositional and spatial heterogeneity of Chernobyl fallout make it difficult to evaluate the accuracy of such disparate data sets. The Institute of Nuclear Research, Kiev (INR) has been involved in the tracking and study of contamination in areas impacted by the Chernobyl accident since the first days of the catastrophe. INR has developed comprehensive evaluation methods to support detailed assessment of the distribution and levels of contamination for transuranic elements across the 30 km exclusion zone. This approach to carrying out investigations ensures collection of representative data at all stages. Assessments now include a transuranic focus, taking into account over 3500 variables, and incorporating specific features of the Chernobyl fallout and geography. The basic principles developed for data collection include several modifications: Evaluation of existing survey data (such as airborne gamma surveys) and the spatial heterogeneity to target selection of sampling locations; Measurements of the concentrations

  12. Relationship between the 2.4-km run and multistage shuttle run test performance in military personnel.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, David M; Blacker, Sam D; Richmond, Victoria L; Rayson, Mark P; Bilzon, James L J

    2014-02-01

    In the United Kingdom, all branches of the armed forces use 2.4-km run time and/or the 20-m multistage shuttle run test (MSRT) to assess the aerobic fitness of their personnel. This study quantified the relationship between these two tests in 156 army recruits and officer cadets (100 men and 56 women) to ensure equivalence in the required aerobic fitness standards. The 2.4-km run was performed on surfaced roads and tracks around the training establishment and the MSRT in a gymnasium. Ordinary least product regression was used to describe the relationship between average 2.4-km running speed (km · h(-1)) and the total number of shuttles completed on the U.K. version of the MSRT (r = 0.91, p < 0.01), showing MSRT shuttles = (9.708×2.4-km run speed) - 52.56, with a standard error of prediction of approximately 8 shuttles or 0.8 km · h(-1). The British Army 2.4-km run biannual fitness assessment standard for young men of 10:30 min:s equates to a MSRT score of 82 shuttles (level 10 and 1 shuttle) and for young women of 13:00 min:s equates to 56 shuttles (level 7 and 6 shuttles), with a standard error of estimate of approximately 8 shuttles. PMID:24491618

  13. Cultivation of methanogenic community from 2-km deep subseafloor coalbeds using a continuous-flow bioreactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imachi, H.; Tasumi, E.; Morono, Y.; Ito, M.; Takai, K.; Inagaki, F.

    2013-12-01

    Deep subseafloor environments associated with hydrocarbon reservoirs have been least explored by previous scientific drilling and hence the nature of deep subseafloor life and its ecological roles in the carbon cycle remain largely unknown. In this study, we performed cultivation of subseafloor methanogenic communities using a continuous-flow bioreactor with polyurethane sponges, called down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor. The sample used for the reactor cultivation was obtained from 2 km-deep coalbeds off the Shimokita Peninsula of Japan, the northwestern Pacific, during the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 337 using a riser drilling technology of the drilling vessel Chikyu. The coalbed samples were incubated anaerobically in the DHS reactor at the in-situ temperature of 40°C. Synthetic seawater supplemented with a tiny amount of yeast extract, acetate, propionate and butyrate was provided into the DHS reactor. After 34 days of the bioreactor operation, a small production of methane was observed. The methane concentration was gradually increased and the stable carbon isotopic composition of methane was consistency 13C-depleted during the bioreactor operation, indicating the occurrence of microbial methanogenesis. Microscopic observation showed that the enrichment culture contained a variety of microorganisms, including methanogen-like rod-shaped cells with F420 auto-fluorescence. Interestingly, many spore-like particles were observed in the bioreactor enrichment. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA genes showed the growth of phylogenetically diverse bacteria and archaea in the DHS reactor. Predominant archaeal components were closely related to hydrogenotrophic methanogens within the genus Methanobacterium. Some predominant bacteria were related to the spore-formers within the class Clostridia, which are overall in good agreement with microscopic observations. By analyzing ion images using a nano-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry (Nano

  14. Effects of dietary nitrate, caffeine, and their combination on 20-km cycling time trial performance.

    PubMed

    Glaister, Mark; Pattison, John R; Muniz-Pumares, Daniel; Patterson, Stephen D; Foley, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the acute supplementation effects of dietary nitrate, caffeine, and their combination on 20-km cycling time trial performance. Using a randomized, counterbalanced, double-blind Latin-square design, 14 competitive female cyclists (age: 31 ± 7 years; height: 1.69 ± 0.07 m; body mass: 61.6 ± 6.0 kg) completed four 20-km time trials on a racing bicycle fitted to a turbo trainer. Approximately 2.5 hours before each trial, subjects consumed a 70-ml dose of concentrated beetroot juice containing either 0.45 g of dietary nitrate or with the nitrate content removed (placebo). One hour before each trial, subjects consumed a capsule containing either 5 mg·kg of caffeine or maltodextrin (placebo). There was a significant effect of supplementation on power output (p = 0.001), with post hoc tests revealing higher power outputs in caffeine (205 ± 21 W) vs. nitrate (194 ± 22 W) and placebo (194 ± 25 W) trials only. Caffeine-induced improvements in power output corresponded with significantly higher measures of heart rate (caffeine: 166 ± 12 b·min vs. placebo: 159 ± 15 b·min; p = 0.02), blood lactate (caffeine: 6.54 ± 2.40 mmol·L vs. placebo: 4.50 ± 2.11 mmol·L; p < 0.001), and respiratory exchange ratio (caffeine: 0.95 ± 0.04 vs. placebo: 0.91 ± 0.05; p = 0.03). There were no effects (p ≥ 0.05) of supplementation on cycling cadence, rating of perceived exertion, (Equation is included in full-text article.), or integrated electromyographic activity. The results of this study support the well-established beneficial effects of caffeine supplementation on endurance performance. In contrast, acute supplementation with dietary nitrate seems to have no effect on endurance performance and adds nothing to the benefits afforded by caffeine supplementation.

  15. Risk of Hypothermia in a New Olympic Event: the 10-km Marathon Swim

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Renata R. T.; Mendes, Fernanda SNS; Nobrega, Antonio Claudio L.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There are no available data addressing the potential clinical risks of open-water swimming competitions. OBJECTIVE: Address the risks of hypothermia and hypoglycemia during a 10-km open-water swimming competition in order to alert physicians to the potential dangers of this recently-introduced Olympic event. METHODS: This was an observational cross-sectional study, conducted during a 10-km open-water event (water temperature 21°C). The highest ranked elite open-water swimmers in Brazil (7 men, 5 women; ages 21±7 years old) were submitted to anthropometrical measurements on the day before competition. All but one athlete took maltodextrine ad libitum during the competition. Core temperature and capillary glycemia data were obtained before and immediately after the race. RESULTS: Most athletes (83%) finished the race with mild to moderate hypothermia (core temperature <35°C). The body temperature drop was more pronounced in female athletes (4.2±0.7°C vs. male: 2.7±0.8°C; p=0.040). When data from the athlete who did not take maltodextrine was excluded, capillary glycemia increased among athletes (pre 86.6±8.9 mg/dL; post 105.5±26.9 mg/dL; p=0.014). Time to complete the race was inversely related to pre- competition body temperature in men (r=−0.802; p=0.030), while it was inversely correlated with the change in capillary glycemia in women (r=−0.898; p=0.038). CONCLUSION: Hypothermia may occur during open-water swimming events even in elite athletes competing in relatively warm water. Thus, core temperature must be a chief concern of any physician during an open-water swim event. Capillary glycemia may have positive effects on performance. Further studies that include more athletes in a controlled setting are warranted. PMID:19488594

  16. Effects of dietary nitrate, caffeine, and their combination on 20-km cycling time trial performance.

    PubMed

    Glaister, Mark; Pattison, John R; Muniz-Pumares, Daniel; Patterson, Stephen D; Foley, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the acute supplementation effects of dietary nitrate, caffeine, and their combination on 20-km cycling time trial performance. Using a randomized, counterbalanced, double-blind Latin-square design, 14 competitive female cyclists (age: 31 ± 7 years; height: 1.69 ± 0.07 m; body mass: 61.6 ± 6.0 kg) completed four 20-km time trials on a racing bicycle fitted to a turbo trainer. Approximately 2.5 hours before each trial, subjects consumed a 70-ml dose of concentrated beetroot juice containing either 0.45 g of dietary nitrate or with the nitrate content removed (placebo). One hour before each trial, subjects consumed a capsule containing either 5 mg·kg of caffeine or maltodextrin (placebo). There was a significant effect of supplementation on power output (p = 0.001), with post hoc tests revealing higher power outputs in caffeine (205 ± 21 W) vs. nitrate (194 ± 22 W) and placebo (194 ± 25 W) trials only. Caffeine-induced improvements in power output corresponded with significantly higher measures of heart rate (caffeine: 166 ± 12 b·min vs. placebo: 159 ± 15 b·min; p = 0.02), blood lactate (caffeine: 6.54 ± 2.40 mmol·L vs. placebo: 4.50 ± 2.11 mmol·L; p < 0.001), and respiratory exchange ratio (caffeine: 0.95 ± 0.04 vs. placebo: 0.91 ± 0.05; p = 0.03). There were no effects (p ≥ 0.05) of supplementation on cycling cadence, rating of perceived exertion, (Equation is included in full-text article.), or integrated electromyographic activity. The results of this study support the well-established beneficial effects of caffeine supplementation on endurance performance. In contrast, acute supplementation with dietary nitrate seems to have no effect on endurance performance and adds nothing to the benefits afforded by caffeine supplementation. PMID:24978834

  17. Cardiac Troponin T and I Release After a 30-km Run.

    PubMed

    Klinkenberg, Lieke J J; Luyten, Peter; van der Linden, Noreen; Urgel, Kim; Snijders, Daniëlle P C; Knackstedt, Christian; Dennert, Robert; Kietselaer, Bastiaan L J H; Mingels, Alma M A; Cardinaels, Eline P M; Peeters, Frederique E C M; van Suijlen, Jeroen D E; Ten Kate, Joop; Marsch, Elke; Theelen, Thomas L; Sluimer, Judith C; Wouters, Kristiaan; Bekers, Otto; Bekkers, Sebastiaan C A M; van Loon, Luc J C; van Dieijen-Visser, Marja P; Meex, Steven J R

    2016-07-15

    Prolonged endurance-type exercise is associated with elevated cardiac troponin (cTn) levels in asymptomatic recreational athletes. It is unclear whether exercise-induced cTn release mirrors a physiological or pathological underlying process. The aim of this study was to provide a direct comparison of the release kinetics of high-sensitivity cTnI (hs-cTnI) and T (hs-cTnT) after endurance-type exercise. In addition, the effect of remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC), a cardioprotective strategy that limits ischemia-reperfusion injury, was investigated in a randomized controlled crossover manner. Twenty-five healthy volunteers completed an outdoor 30-km running trial preceded by RIPC (4 × 5 min 220 mm Hg unilateral occlusion) or control intervention. hs-cTnT, hs-cTnI, and sensitive cTnI (s-cTnI) concentrations were examined before, immediately after, 2 and 5 hours after the trial. The completion of a 30-km run resulted in a significant increase in circulating cTn (time: all p <0.001), with maximum hs-cTnT, hs-cTnI, and s-cTnI levels of 47 ± 27, 69 ± 62, and 82 ± 64 ng/L (mean ± SD), respectively. Maximum hs-cTnT concentrations were measured in 60% of the participants at 2 hours after exercise, compared with maximum hs-cTnI and s-cTnI concentrations at 5 hours in 84% and 80% of the participants. Application of an RIPC stimulus did not reduce exercise-induced cTn release (time × trial: all p >0.5). In conclusion, in contrast to acute myocardial infarction, maximum hs-cTnT levels after exercise precede maximum hs-cTnI levels. Distinct release kinetics of hs-cTnT and hs-cTnI and the absence of an effect of RIPC favors the concept that exercise-induced cTn release may be mechanistically distinct from cTn release in acute myocardial infarction. PMID:27282835

  18. Wide Range SET Pulse Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuler, Robert L.; Chen, Li

    2012-01-01

    A method for measuring a wide range of SET pulses is demonstrated. Use of dynamic logic, faster than ordinary CMOS, allows capture of short pulses. A weighted binning of SET lengths allows measurement of a wide range of pulse lengths with compact circuitry. A pulse-length-conservative pulse combiner tree routes SETs from combinational logic to the measurement circuit, allowing SET measurements in circuits that cannot easily be arranged in long chains. The method is applied to add-multiplex combinational logic, and to an array of NFET routing switches, at .35 micron. Pulses are captured in a chain of Domino Logic AND gates. Propagation through the chain is frozen on the trailing edge by dropping low the second "enable" input to the AND gates. Capacitive loading is increased in the latter stages to create an approximately logarithmic weighted binning, so that a broad range of pulse lengths can be captured with a 10 stage capture chain. Simulations show pulses can be captured which are 1/5th the length of those typically captured with leading edge triggered latch methods, and less than the length of those captured with a trailing edge latch method. After capture, the pulse pattern is transferred to an SEU protected shift register for readout. 64 instances of each of two types of logic are used as targets. One is a full adder with a 4 to 1 mux on its inputs. The other is a 4 x 4 NFET routing matrix. The outputs are passed through buffered XNOR comparators to identify pulses, which are merged in a buffered not-nand (OR) tree designed to avoid pulse absorption as much as possible. The output from each of the two test circuits are input into separate pulse measurement circuits. Test inputs were provided so that the circuit could be bench tested and calibrated. A third SET measurement circuit with no inputs was used to judge the contribution from direct hits on the measurement circuit. Heavy ions were used with an LET range from 12 to 176. At LET of 21 and below, the very

  19. Experiments on 1,000 km/s flyer acceleration and collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karasik, Max; Weaver, J. L.; Aglitskiy, Y.; Kehne, D. M.; Zalesak, S. T.; Velikovich, A. L.; Oh, J.; Serlin, V.; Obenschain, S. P.

    2012-10-01

    We will present results from follow-on experiments to the record-high velocities achieved using the ultra-uniform deep-uv drive of the Nike KrF laser [Karasik et al, Phys. Plasmas 17, 056317 (2010)], in which highly accelerated planar foils of deuterated polystyrene were made to collide with a witness foil to produce ˜1 Gbar shock pressures and result in heating of matter to thermonuclear temperatures. Such velocities may indicate a path to lower minimum energy required for central ignition. Still higher velocities and higher target densities are required for impact fast ignition. New results give velocity of >1,100 km/s achieved through improvements in pulseshaping. Variation of second foil parameters results in significant change in fusion neutron production on impact. In-flight target density is inferred from target heating upon collision via DD neutron time-of-flight ion temperature measurement. Availability of pressures generated by collisions of such highly accelerated flyers may provide an experimental platform for study of matter at extreme conditions. Work is supported by US DOE (NNSA).

  20. Probability of successful larval dispersal declines fivefold over 1 km in a coral reef fish.

    PubMed

    Buston, Peter M; Jones, Geoffrey P; Planes, Serge; Thorrold, Simon R

    2012-05-22

    A central question of marine ecology is, how far do larvae disperse? Coupled biophysical models predict that the probability of successful dispersal declines as a function of distance between populations. Estimates of genetic isolation-by-distance and self-recruitment provide indirect support for this prediction. Here, we conduct the first direct test of this prediction, using data from the well-studied system of clown anemonefish (Amphiprion percula) at Kimbe Island, in Papua New Guinea. Amphiprion percula live in small breeding groups that inhabit sea anemones. These groups can be thought of as populations within a metapopulation. We use the x- and y-coordinates of each anemone to determine the expected distribution of dispersal distances (the distribution of distances between each and every population in the metapopulation). We use parentage analyses to trace recruits back to parents and determine the observed distribution of dispersal distances. Then, we employ a logistic model to (i) compare the observed and expected dispersal distance distributions and (ii) determine the relationship between the probability of successful dispersal and the distance between populations. The observed and expected dispersal distance distributions are significantly different (p < 0.0001). Remarkably, the probability of successful dispersal between populations decreases fivefold over 1 km. This study provides a framework for quantitative investigations of larval dispersal that can be applied to other species. Further, the approach facilitates testing biological and physical hypotheses for the factors influencing larval dispersal in unison, which will advance our understanding of marine population connectivity.

  1. Estimation of suspended loads in the Danube River at Göd (1668 river km), Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tóth, Bence; Bódis, Erika

    2015-04-01

    Sediment rating curves were used to estimate suspended particulate matter (SPM) loads in the Danube River at Göd (1668 river km), Hungary, in conjunction with a sampling program conducted between 2003 and 2012. Contrary to its water quality significance, only a few studies have focused on the annual transport of SPM in this section of the river. Based on the results, we can state that (1) the SRC method (in certain cases with correction factors) provided reliable estimates of the annual SPM loads in this section of the river; (2) the division of the dataset into seasonal or temperature subsets did not significantly improve the estimations, moreover, annual datasets may provide additional hydrologic information on the water year or the annual water regime; (3) large amounts of the SPM were transported during short, but high water discharge periods, hence, calendar based-sampling should be supplemented with event-based sampling, and (4) the SPM load of the river has declined by about 50% over previous decades, which is most likely due to the installation of hydropower plants on the upper (German, Austrian, Slovakian) stretches of the Danube River.

  2. Compression of regions in the global advanced very high resolution radiometer 1-km data set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kess, Barbara L.; Steinwand, Daniel R.; Reichenbach, Stephen E.

    1994-01-01

    The global advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) 1-km data set is a 10-band image produced at USGS' EROS Data Center for the study of the world's land surfaces. The image contains masked regions for non-land areas which are identical in each band but vary between data sets. They comprise over 75 percent of this 9.7 gigabyte image. The mask is compressed once and stored separately from the land data which is compressed for each of the 10 bands. The mask is stored in a hierarchical format for multi-resolution decompression of geographic subwindows of the image. The land for each band is compressed by modifying a method that ignores fill values. This multi-spectral region compression efficiently compresses the region data and precludes fill values from interfering with land compression statistics. Results show that the masked regions in a one-byte test image (6.5 Gigabytes) compress to 0.2 percent of the 557,756,146 bytes they occupy in the original image, resulting in a compression ratio of 89.9 percent for the entire image.

  3. Ediacaran 2,500-km-long synchronous deep continental subduction in the West Gondwana Orogen.

    PubMed

    Ganade de Araujo, Carlos E; Rubatto, Daniela; Hermann, Joerg; Cordani, Umberto G; Caby, Renaud; Basei, Miguel A S

    2014-10-16

    The deeply eroded West Gondwana Orogen is a major continental collision zone that exposes numerous occurrences of deeply subducted rocks, such as eclogites. The position of these eclogites marks the suture zone between colliding cratons, and the age of metamorphism constrains the transition from subduction-dominated tectonics to continental collision and mountain building. Here we investigate the metamorphic conditions and age of high-pressure and ultrahigh-pressure eclogites from Mali, Togo and NE-Brazil and demonstrate that continental subduction occurred within 20 million years over at least a 2,500-km-long section of the orogen during the Ediacaran. We consider this to be the earliest evidence of large-scale deep-continental subduction and consequent appearance of Himalayan-scale mountains in the geological record. The rise and subsequent erosion of such mountains in the Late Ediacaran is perfectly timed to deliver sediments and nutrients that are thought to have been necessary for the subsequent evolution of sustainable life on Earth.

  4. Monthly mean global climatology of temperature, wind, geopotential height, and pressure for 0 - 120 km

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, Eric L.; Chandra, Sushil; Schoeberl, Mark R.; Barnett, John J.

    1988-01-01

    A monthly mean climatology is presented of temperature, wind, and geopotential height with nearly pole-to-pole coverage (80 S to 80 N) for 0 to 210 km, which can be used as a function of altitude and pressure. The purpose is to provide a reference for various atmospheric research and analysis activities. Data sources and methods of computation are described; in general, hydrostatic and thermal wind balance are maintained at all levels and latitudes. As observed in a series of cross-sectional plots, this climatology accurately reproduces most of the characteristic features of the atmosphere such as equatorial wind and the general structure of the tropopause, stratopause, and mesopause. A series of zonal wind profiles is also represented comparing this climatological wind with monthly mean climatological direct wind measurements in the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere. The temperature and zonal wind climatology at stratospheric levels is compared with corresponding data from the National Meteorological Center, and general agreement is observed between the two data sets. Tables of the climatological values as a function of latitude and height for each month are contained in Appendix B, and are also available in floppy disk.

  5. Diversity of Pico- to Mesoplankton along the 2000 km Salinity Gradient of the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yue O O; Karlson, Bengt; Charvet, Sophie; Andersson, Anders F

    2016-01-01

    Microbial plankton form the productive base of both marine and freshwater ecosystems and are key drivers of global biogeochemical cycles of carbon and nutrients. Plankton diversity is immense with representations from all major phyla within the three domains of life. So far, plankton monitoring has mainly been based on microscopic identification, which has limited sensitivity and reproducibility, not least because of the numerical majority of plankton being unidentifiable under the light microscope. High-throughput sequencing of taxonomic marker genes offers a means to identify taxa inaccessible by traditional methods; thus, recent studies have unveiled an extensive previously unknown diversity of plankton. Here, we conducted ultra-deep Illumina sequencing (average 10(5) sequences/sample) of rRNA gene amplicons of surface water eukaryotic and bacterial plankton communities sampled in summer along a 2000 km transect following the salinity gradient of the Baltic Sea. Community composition was strongly correlated with salinity for both bacterial and eukaryotic plankton assemblages, highlighting the importance of salinity for structuring the biodiversity within this ecosystem. In contrast, no clear trends in alpha-diversity for bacterial or eukaryotic communities could be detected along the transect. The distribution of major planktonic taxa followed expected patterns as observed in monitoring programs, but groups novel to the Baltic Sea were also identified, such as relatives to the coccolithophore Emiliana huxleyi detected in the northern Baltic Sea. This study provides the first ultra-deep sequencing-based survey on eukaryotic and bacterial plankton biogeography in the Baltic Sea. PMID:27242706

  6. Patterns of Mass Mortality among Rocky Shore Invertebrates across 100 km of Northeastern Pacific Coastline.

    PubMed

    Jurgens, Laura J; Rogers-Bennett, Laura; Raimondi, Peter T; Schiebelhut, Lauren M; Dawson, Michael N; Grosberg, Richard K; Gaylord, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Mass mortalities in natural populations, particularly those that leave few survivors over large spatial areas, may cause long-term ecological perturbations. Yet mass mortalities may remain undocumented or poorly described due to challenges in responding rapidly to unforeseen events, scarcity of baseline data, and difficulties in quantifying rare or patchily distributed species, especially in remote or marine systems. Better chronicling the geographic pattern and intensity of mass mortalities is especially critical in the face of global changes predicted to alter regional disturbance regimes. Here, we couple replicated post-mortality surveys with preceding long-term surveys and historical data to describe a rapid and severe mass mortality of rocky shore invertebrates along the north-central California coast of the northeastern Pacific Ocean. In late August 2011, formerly abundant intertidal populations of the purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, a well-known ecosystem engineer), and the predatory six-armed sea star (Leptasterias sp.) were functionally extirpated from ~100 km of coastline. Other invertebrates, including the gumboot chiton (Cryptochiton stelleri) the ochre sea star (Pisaster ochraceus), and subtidal populations of purple sea urchins also exhibited elevated mortality. The pattern and extent of mortality suggest the potential for long-term population, community, and ecosystem consequences, recovery from which may depend on the different dispersal abilities of the affected species.

  7. Sudbury Breccia and suevite as glacial indicators transported 800 km to Kentland Astrobleme, Indiana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mchone, John F.; Dietz, Robert S.; Peredery, Walter V.

    1992-01-01

    A glacial erratic whose place of origin is known by direct comparison with bedrock is known as an indicator. In 1971, while visiting the known astrobleme at Kentland, Indiana, Peredery recognized and sampled in the overlying glacial drift deposits a distinctive boulder of Sudbury suevite (black member, Onaping Formation) that normally occurs within the Sudbury Basin as an impact fall-back or wash-in deposit. The rock was sampled (but later mislaid) from a farmer's cairn next to a cleared field. Informal reports of this discovery prompted the other authors to recently reconnoiter the Kentland locality in an attempt to relocate the original boulder. Several breccia blocks were sampled but laboratory examination proved most of these probably to be diamictites from the Precambrian Gowganda Formation, which outcrops extensively in the southern Ontario. However, one sample was confirmed as typical Sudbury Breccia, which outcrops in the country rock surrounding the Sudbury Basin. Thus two glacial indicators were transported by Pleistocene continental glaciers about 820 km over a tightly proscribed path and, curiously, from one astrobleme to another. Brecciated boulders in the Illinois/Indiana till plain are usually ascribed to the Gowganda or Mississagi formations in Ontario. But impact-generated rocks need not be confused. The carbonaceous matrix of the suevite, for example, was sufficiently distinctive to assign it to the upper portion of the black Onaping. The unique and restricted source area of these indicators provide an accurate and reliable control for estimating Pleistocene ice movement.

  8. The latitudinal distribution of ozone to 35 km altitude from ECC ozonesonde observations, 1982-1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komhyr, W. D.; Oltmans, S. J.; Lathrop, J. A.; Kerr, J. B.; Matthews, W. A.

    1994-01-01

    Electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozone-sonde observations, made in recent years at ten stations whose locations range from the Arctic to Antarctica, have yielded a self-consistent ozone data base from which mean seasonal and annual latitudinal ozone vertical distributions to 35 km have been derived. Ozone measurement uncertainties are estimated, and results are presented in the Bass-Paur (1985) ozone absorption coefficient scale adopted for use with Dobson ozone spectrophotometers January 1, 1992. The data should be useful for comparison with model calculations of the global distribution of atmospheric ozone, for serving as apriori statistical information in deriving ozone vertical distributions from satellite and Umkehr observations, and for improving the satellite and Umkehr ozone inversion algorithms. Attention is drawn to similar results based on a less comprehensive data set published in Ozone in the Atmosphere, Proceedings of the 1988 Quadrennial Ozone Symposium where errors in data tabulations occurred for three of the stations due to inadvertent transposition of ozone partial pressure and air temperature values.

  9. A metagenomic window into carbon metabolism at 3 km depth in Precambrian continental crust.

    PubMed

    Magnabosco, Cara; Ryan, Kathleen; Lau, Maggie C Y; Kuloyo, Olukayode; Sherwood Lollar, Barbara; Kieft, Thomas L; van Heerden, Esta; Onstott, Tullis C

    2016-03-01

    Subsurface microbial communities comprise a significant fraction of the global prokaryotic biomass; however, the carbon metabolisms that support the deep biosphere have been relatively unexplored. In order to determine the predominant carbon metabolisms within a 3-km deep fracture fluid system accessed via the Tau Tona gold mine (Witwatersrand Basin, South Africa), metagenomic and thermodynamic analyses were combined. Within our system of study, the energy-conserving reductive acetyl-CoA (Wood-Ljungdahl) pathway was found to be the most abundant carbon fixation pathway identified in the metagenome. Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase genes that have the potential to participate in (1) both autotrophic and heterotrophic metabolisms through the reversible oxidization of CO and subsequent transfer of electrons for sulfate reduction, (2) direct utilization of H2 and (3) methanogenesis were identified. The most abundant members of the metagenome belonged to Euryarchaeota (22%) and Firmicutes (57%)-by far, the highest relative abundance of Euryarchaeota yet reported from deep fracture fluids in South Africa and one of only five Firmicutes-dominated deep fracture fluids identified in the region. Importantly, by combining the metagenomics data and thermodynamic modeling of this study with previously published isotopic and community composition data from the South African subsurface, we are able to demonstrate that Firmicutes-dominated communities are associated with a particular hydrogeologic environment, specifically the older, more saline and more reducing waters. PMID:26325359

  10. Climatological analysis of the real-time NSSL 4km WRF-ARW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goines, D. C.; Kennedy, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model has been used for dynamic downscaling ofGlobal Climate Models (GCMs) to forecast smaller scale phenomena that GCMs cannot resolve at coarseresolutions. High resolution convection-allowing (CA) WRF simulations have gained popularity in recent yearsdue to their ability to resolve the structure of high impact phenomena such as topographically inducedprecipitation, mesoscale convective systems, and supercell thunderstorms. An accurate representation of theseextreme events is important for climate mitigation and adaptation strategies by policy makers. With the usage ofdownscaling and fine resolutions of WRF simulations becoming more recurrent, the question still remains: dohigh resolution CA WRF simulations correctly represent climatological precipitation? This study examines theclimatology of precipitation over the U.S. Central Plains produced for 7 years (2007-2013) by the NationalSevere Storms Laboratory (NSSL) high resolution (4km) CA WRF model. Precipitation forecasts for variousforecast hours are analyzed to determine whether the model climatology is similar to observations. TheMeteorological Evaluation Tool (MET) Method for Object-Based Diagnostic Evaluation (MODE) is utilized tocompare the precipitation forecasts to observations. The National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP)Stage IV multi-sensor precipitation analysis is used as the truth for model assessment. Model performance isinvestigated for a variety of synoptic regimes using self-organizing maps (SOMs).

  11. Near-Cloud Aerosol Properties from the 1 Km Resolution MODIS Ocean Product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varnai, Tamas; Marshak, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    This study examines aerosol properties in the vicinity of clouds by analyzing high-resolution atmospheric correction parameters provided in the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) ocean color product. The study analyzes data from a 2 week long period of September in 10 years, covering a large area in the northeast Atlantic Ocean. The results indicate that on the one hand, the Quality Assessment (QA) flags of the ocean color product successfully eliminate cloud-related uncertainties in ocean parameters such as chlorophyll content, but on the other hand, using the flags introduces a sampling bias in atmospheric products such as aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and Angstrom exponent. Therefore, researchers need to select QA flags by balancing the risks of increased retrieval uncertainties and sampling biases. Using an optimal set of QA flags, the results reveal substantial increases in optical thickness near clouds-on average the increase is 50% for the roughly half of pixels within 5 km from clouds and is accompanied by a roughly matching increase in particle size. Theoretical simulations show that the 50% increase in 550nm AOT changes instantaneous direct aerosol radiative forcing by up to 8W/m2 and that the radiative impact is significantly larger if observed near-cloud changes are attributed to aerosol particles as opposed to undetected cloud particles. These results underline that accounting for near-cloud areas and understanding the causes of near-cloud particle changes are critical for accurate calculations of direct aerosol radiative forcing.

  12. A simple theory of cloud spreading at ranges from 1-2000 km

    SciTech Connect

    Gifford, F.A.

    1987-01-01

    Examples support the conclusion that cloud or plume spreading in the troposphere proceeds rapidly and rather steadily for times on the order of a day or two and to distances of several hundreds of kilometers. Subsequently, possibly after a transition to the asymptotic rate of relative diffusion, the cloud begins to develop a streaky structure under the influence of the large-scale, enstrophy-cascade range of motions. The GASP spectra indicate that the transition between these two modes of spreading begins at several hundred kilometers ad is well developed by about 1000 km, in terms of spectral wavelength. The cloud streaks and patches elongate rapidly, evidently at the exponential rate, but spread laterally more slowly, at a rate that represents the effects of the conservation of cloud area under large-scale deformation and the lateral diffusion at the asymptotic rate. Although this relative diffusion occurs at a comparatively slow rate, it is very effective in reducing cloud concentrations in combination with the rapid, large-scale cloud stretching by the 2-D, enstrophy-cascade range eddies. The LANL heavy-methane cloud data indicate that the net result is very rapid decay of cloud concentration, apparently at an exponential rate.

  13. First thoughts on KM3NeT on-shore data storage and distribution facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavrianakou, M.

    2009-04-01

    The KM3NeT project studies the design of an underwater neutrino telescope combined with a multidisciplinary underwater observatory in the Mediterranean. Data from the telescope will arrive on shore where they will be processed in real time at a data filter farm and subsequently stored and backed up at a central computing centre located on site. From there we propose a system whereby the data are distributed to participating institutes equipped with large computing centres for further processing, duplication and distribution to smaller centres. The data taking site hosts the central data management services, including the database servers, bookkeeping systems and file catalogue services, the data access and file transfer systems, data quality monitoring systems and transaction monitoring daemons and is equipped with fast network connection to all large computing sites. Data and service challenges in the course of the preparatory phase must be anticipated in order to test the hardware and software components in terms of robustness and performance, scalability as well as modularity and replaceability, given the rapid evolution of the market both in terms of CPU performance and storage capacity. The role of the GRID would also have to be evaluated and the appropriate implementation selected on time for an eventual test in the context of a data challenge before the start of data taking.

  14. Energy status and oxidation reduction status in rat liver at high altitude /3.8 km/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, R. D.; Pace, N.

    1980-01-01

    Adult male rats were exposed to 3.8-km altitude for intervals ranging from 1 h-60 d. Liver samples were taken under light ether anesthesia and were examined by enzymatic analyses. Within 1-6 h of hypoxic exposure, ATP levels decreased while ADP and AMP levels increased, producing a fall in calculated ATP/ADP and adenylate charge ratios. Concurrently, lactate/pyruvate and alpha-glycerophosphate/dihydroxyacetone phosphate ratios increased markedly. Direct measurements of cellular pyridine nucleotides indicated increased NADH/NAD and NADPH/NADP ratios. Levels of total adenosine phosphates and pyridine nucleotides decreased in a significant accompanying response. Many metabolite levels and calculated ratios returned to near-normal values within 1 week of exposure, indicating secondary intracellular adjustments to hypoxic stress; however, persistence of that stress is reflected in lactate concentrations and both substrate redox ratios. Results support and explore concepts that increased oxidation-reduction status and decreased energy status are primary events during hypoxia.

  15. Estimation of Surface Air Temperature from MODIS 1km Resolution Land Surface Temperature Over Northern China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Suhung; Leptoukh, Gregory G.; Gerasimov, Irina

    2010-01-01

    Surface air temperature is a critical variable to describe the energy and water cycle of the Earth-atmosphere system and is a key input element for hydrology and land surface models. It is a very important variable in agricultural applications and climate change studies. This is a preliminary study to examine statistical relationships between ground meteorological station measured surface daily maximum/minimum air temperature and satellite remotely sensed land surface temperature from MODIS over the dry and semiarid regions of northern China. Studies were conducted for both MODIS-Terra and MODIS-Aqua by using year 2009 data. Results indicate that the relationships between surface air temperature and remotely sensed land surface temperature are statistically significant. The relationships between the maximum air temperature and daytime land surface temperature depends significantly on land surface types and vegetation index, but the minimum air temperature and nighttime land surface temperature has little dependence on the surface conditions. Based on linear regression relationship between surface air temperature and MODIS land surface temperature, surface maximum and minimum air temperatures are estimated from 1km MODIS land surface temperature under clear sky conditions. The statistical errors (sigma) of the estimated daily maximum (minimum) air temperature is about 3.8 C(3.7 C).

  16. Pile driving zone of responsiveness extends beyond 20 km for harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena (L.)).

    PubMed

    Tougaard, Jakob; Carstensen, Jacob; Teilmann, Jonas; Skov, Henrik; Rasmussen, Per

    2009-07-01

    Behavioral reactions of harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) to underwater noise from pile driving were studied. Steel monopile foundations (4 m diameter) for offshore wind turbines were driven into hard sand in shallow water at Horns Reef, the North Sea. The impulsive sounds generated had high sound pressures [source level 235 dB re 1 microPa(pp) at 1 m, transmission loss 18 log(distance)] with a strong low frequency emphasis but with significant energy up to 100 kHz. Reactions of porpoises were studied by passive acoustic loggers (T-PODs). Intervals between echolocation events (encounters) were analyzed, and a significant increase was found from average 5.9 h between encounters in the construction period as a whole to on average 7.5 h between first and second encounters after pile driving. The size of the zone of responsiveness could not be inferred as no grading in response was observed with distance from the pile driving site but must have exceeded 21 km (distance to most distant T-POD station). PMID:19603857

  17. Near-global freshwater-specific environmental variables for biodiversity analyses in 1 km resolution.

    PubMed

    Domisch, Sami; Amatulli, Giuseppe; Jetz, Walter

    2015-01-01

    The lack of freshwater-specific environmental information at sufficiently fine spatial grain hampers broad-scale analyses in aquatic biology, biogeography, conservation, and ecology. Here we present a near-global, spatially continuous, and freshwater-specific set of environmental variables in a standardized 1 km grid. We delineate the sub-catchment for each grid cell along the HydroSHEDS river network and summarize the upstream climate, topography, land cover, surface geology and soil to each grid cell using various metrics (average, minimum, maximum, range, sum, inverse distance-weighted average and sum). All variables were subsequently averaged across single lakes and reservoirs of the Global lakes and Wetlands Database that are connected to the river network. Monthly climate variables were summarized into 19 long-term climatic variables following the 'bioclim' framework. This new set of variables provides a basis for spatial ecological and biodiversity analyses in freshwater ecosystems at near global extent, yet fine spatial grain. To facilitate the generation of freshwater variables for custom study areas and spatial grains, we provide the 'r.stream.watersheds' and 'r.stream.variables' add-ons for the GRASS GIS software. PMID:26647296

  18. Scots pine fine roots adjust along a 2000-km latitudinal climatic gradient.

    PubMed

    Zadworny, Marcin; McCormack, M Luke; Mucha, Joanna; Reich, Peter B; Oleksyn, Jacek

    2016-10-01

    Patterns of plant biomass allocation and functional adjustments along climatic gradients are poorly understood, particularly belowground. Generally, low temperatures suppress nutrient release and uptake, and forests under such conditions have a greater proportion of their biomass in roots. However, it is not clear whether 'more roots' means better capacity to acquire soil resources. Herein we quantified patterns of fine-root anatomy and their biomass distribution across Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) populations both along a 2000-km latitudinal gradient and within a common garden experiment with a similar range of populations. We found that with decreasing mean temperature, a greater percentage of Scots pine root biomass was allocated to roots with higher potential absorptive capacity. Similar results were seen in the common experimental site, where cold-adapted populations produced roots with greater absorptive capacity than populations originating from warmer climates. These results demonstrate that plants growing in or originated from colder climates have more acquisitive roots, a trait that is likely adaptive in the face of the low resource availability typical of cold soils. PMID:27301778

  19. Assessment of the 60 km Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) with Near Real-Time Aircraft Reports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, R. E.; Richard, C.; Kim, S.; Bailey, D.

    1998-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing the Center-TRA-CON Advisory System (CTAS), a set of Air Traffic Management (ATM) Decision Support Tools (DST) for en route (Center) and terminal (TRACON) airspace designed to enable controllers to increase capacity and flight efficiency. A crucial component of the CTAS, or any ATM DST, is the computation of the time-of-flight of aircraft along flight path segments. Earlier NASA studies show that accurate knowledge of the wind through which the aircraft are flying is required to estimate time-of-flight accurately. There are current envisioned to be two sources of wind data for CTAS: The Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) for the Center airspace, a numerical model developed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Forecast System Laboratory (FSL) and run operationally by the National Weather Service (NWS) National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP); and The Integrated Terminal Weather System (ITWS) Terminal Winds (TW) for the TRACON airspace, developed at MIT Lincoln Laboratory under funding from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). This study has three goals: (1) determine the errors in the baseline 60 km resolution RUC forecast wind fields relative to the needs of en route DSTs such as CTAS, (2) determine the benefit of using the TW algorithm to refine the RUC forecast wind fields with near real-time Meteorological Data Collection and Reporting System (MDCRS) reports, and (3) identify factors that influence wind errors in order to improve accuracy and estimate errors in real time.

  20. How to evacuate 10 km3 of mud: saturate with gas and decrease the pressure!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imbert, Patrice; Geiss, Bernard; Fatjó de Martín, Núria

    2014-06-01

    The crest of the Absheron anticline in the South Caspian Basin at a few hundred meters below the present seafloor shows a subcircular depression about 8 km in diameter and 200 m deep, bounded by steep edges dipping 15° to 45° into it. The depression and the surrounding series are respectively filled and overlain by a regional mass-transport deposit (MTD) 150 m thick outside the depression and 300 m thick inside, composed mostly of extensional blocks. Geometric and stratigraphic analyses indicate that 150 m of initially deposited sediment were removed from a closed area after burial. Seismic evidence of shallow gas accumulations below the crater-like feature suggests that gas likely played a significant role in its development. The model proposed for the emplacement of the crater is that the gas-bearing cover of a shallow gas reservoir underwent exsolution when its overburden thinned during an episode of extensional slope failure. This resulted in loss of resistance to shear and evacuation of the gas-bearing sediment, likely at the shearing base of the failed mass. This evacuation feature is considered an example where the presence of gas locally governs the morphology of an MTD. The interpreted process shows a positive feedback between slope failure and loss of strength at the base of the resulting MTD.

  1. Synchronization of clocks through 12 km of strongly turbulent air over a city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinclair, Laura C.; Swann, William C.; Bergeron, Hugo; Baumann, Esther; Cermak, Michael; Coddington, Ian; Deschênes, Jean-Daniel; Giorgetta, Fabrizio R.; Juarez, Juan C.; Khader, Isaac; Petrillo, Keith G.; Souza, Katherine T.; Dennis, Michael L.; Newbury, Nathan R.

    2016-10-01

    We demonstrate real-time, femtosecond-level clock synchronization across a low-lying, strongly turbulent, 12-km horizontal air path by optical two-way time transfer. For this long horizontal free-space path, the integrated turbulence extends well into the strong turbulence regime corresponding to multiple scattering with a Rytov variance up to 7 and with the number of signal interruptions exceeding 100 per second. Nevertheless, optical two-way time transfer is used to synchronize a remote clock to a master clock with femtosecond-level agreement and with a relative time deviation dropping as low as a few hundred attoseconds. Synchronization is shown for a remote clock based on either an optical or microwave oscillator and using either tip-tilt or adaptive-optics free-space optical terminals. The performance is unaltered from optical two-way time transfer in weak turbulence across short links. These results confirm that the two-way reciprocity of the free-space time-of-flight is maintained both under strong turbulence and with the use of adaptive optics. The demonstrated robustness of optical two-way time transfer against strong turbulence and its compatibility with adaptive optics is encouraging for future femtosecond clock synchronization over very long distance ground-to-air free-space paths.

  2. Evaluation of the 29-km Eta Model for Weather Support to the United States Space Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manobianco, John; Nutter, Paul

    1997-01-01

    The Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) conducted a year-long evaluation of NCEP's 29-km mesoscale Eta (meso-eta) weather prediction model in order to identify added value to forecast operations in support of the United States space program. The evaluation was stratified over warm and cool seasons and considered both objective and subjective verification methodologies. Objective verification results generally indicate that meso-eta model point forecasts at selected stations exhibit minimal error growth in terms of RMS errors and are reasonably unbiased. Conversely, results from the subjective verification demonstrate that model forecasts of developing weather events such as thunderstorms, sea breezes, and cold fronts, are not always as accurate as implied by the seasonal error statistics. Sea-breeze case studies reveal that the model generates a dynamically-consistent thermally direct circulation over the Florida peninsula, although at a larger scale than observed. Thunderstorm verification reveals that the meso-eta model is capable of predicting areas of organized convection, particularly during the late afternoon hours but is not capable of forecasting individual thunderstorms. Verification of cold fronts during the cool season reveals that the model is capable of forecasting a majority of cold frontal passages through east central Florida to within +1-h of observed frontal passage.

  3. Capture of Cometary Dust Grains in Impacts at 6.1 km s-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burchell, M. J.; Foster, N.; Kearsley, A.; Wozniakiewicz, P.

    2009-12-01

    The NASA Stardust mission to comet 81P/Wild 2 collected grains of cometary dust freshly ejected from the comet during a fly-by at a speed of 6.1 km s-1. These were captured on aluminum foils and in blocks of silica aerogel. The dust underwent a severe shock during capture. The nature of the shock process depends on the properties of the dust and the collecting media. On the aluminium, the shock process and impact damage is typical of that between high-density (or hard materials) at high velocity, resulting in craters lined with impactor residues. The peak shock pressures are estimated at 60-80 GPa. Two main crater types are seen, simple bowl shaped and multiple pit craters: these reflect the degree of consolidation of the original dust grain. Capture in the low density aerogel was via a more gradual slowing of the dust grains accompanied by a variety of effects on the grains (complete break up of weak grains vs. ablation of well consolidated grains). The relation between the structure of the dust grains and the resulting impact features in both collector materials is discussed.

  4. Diversity of Pico- to Mesoplankton along the 2000 km Salinity Gradient of the Baltic Sea

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yue O. O.; Karlson, Bengt; Charvet, Sophie; Andersson, Anders F.

    2016-01-01

    Microbial plankton form the productive base of both marine and freshwater ecosystems and are key drivers of global biogeochemical cycles of carbon and nutrients. Plankton diversity is immense with representations from all major phyla within the three domains of life. So far, plankton monitoring has mainly been based on microscopic identification, which has limited sensitivity and reproducibility, not least because of the numerical majority of plankton being unidentifiable under the light microscope. High-throughput sequencing of taxonomic marker genes offers a means to identify taxa inaccessible by traditional methods; thus, recent studies have unveiled an extensive previously unknown diversity of plankton. Here, we conducted ultra-deep Illumina sequencing (average 105 sequences/sample) of rRNA gene amplicons of surface water eukaryotic and bacterial plankton communities sampled in summer along a 2000 km transect following the salinity gradient of the Baltic Sea. Community composition was strongly correlated with salinity for both bacterial and eukaryotic plankton assemblages, highlighting the importance of salinity for structuring the biodiversity within this ecosystem. In contrast, no clear trends in alpha-diversity for bacterial or eukaryotic communities could be detected along the transect. The distribution of major planktonic taxa followed expected patterns as observed in monitoring programs, but groups novel to the Baltic Sea were also identified, such as relatives to the coccolithophore Emiliana huxleyi detected in the northern Baltic Sea. This study provides the first ultra-deep sequencing-based survey on eukaryotic and bacterial plankton biogeography in the Baltic Sea. PMID:27242706

  5. Hydrothermal recharge and discharge across 50 km guided by seamounts on a young ridge flank.

    PubMed

    Fisher, A T; Davis, E E; Hutnak, M; Spiess, V; Zühlsdorff, L; Cherkaoui, A; Christiansen, L; Edwards, K; Macdonald, R; Villinger, H; Mottl, M J; Wheat, C G; Becker, K

    2003-02-01

    Hydrothermal circulation within the sea floor, through lithosphere older than one million years (Myr), is responsible for 30% of the energy released from plate cooling, and for 70% of the global heat flow anomaly (the difference between observed thermal output and that predicted by conductive cooling models). Hydrothermal fluids remove significant amounts of heat from the oceanic lithosphere for plates typically up to about 65 Myr old. But in view of the relatively impermeable sediments that cover most ridge flanks, it has been difficult to explain how these fluids transport heat from the crust to the ocean. Here we present results of swath mapping, heat flow, geochemistry and seismic surveys from the young eastern flank of the Juan de Fuca ridge, which show that isolated basement outcrops penetrating through thick sediments guide hydrothermal discharge and recharge between sites separated by more than 50 km. Our analyses reveal distinct thermal patterns at the sea floor adjacent to recharging and discharging outcrops. We find that such a circulation through basement outcrops can be sustained in a setting of pressure differences and crustal properties as reported in independent observations and modelling studies.

  6. Organic geochemistry of the 9.6 km Bertha Rogers No. 1. well, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Price, L.C.; Clayton, J.L.; Rumen, L.L.

    1981-01-01

    Organic geochemical analyses of fine-grained rocks from the 9.590 km Bertha Rogers No. 1 well have been carried out: total organic carbon, Soxhlet extraction and silica gel chromatography, C15+ saturated and aromatic hydrocarbon gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, pyrolysis, kerogen analysis, X-ray diffraction and visual kerogen analysis. Rocks ranged in age from Permian to Ordovician; the well has an estimated bottom hole temperature of 225??C. Some data from this study are inconsistent with conventional theories concerning the generation and thermal destruction of hydrocarbons. For example, appreciable amounts of C15+ gas-condensate-like hydrocarbons are present in very old rocks currently at temperatures where current theory predicts that only methane and graphite should remain. Also, substantial amounts of pyrolyzable C15+ hydrocarbons remain on the kerogen in these deeply buried Paleozoic rocks. This suggests, at least in somes cases, that temperatures much higher than those predicted by current theory are required for generation and thermal destruction of hydrocarbons. The data from this well also suggest that original composition of organic matter and environment of deposition may have a much stronger influence on the organic geochemical characteristics of fine-grained sediments than has previously been ascribed to them. The results from this well, from other deep hot wells in which temperatures exceed 200??C, and from laboratory experiments, suggest that some of the basic concepts of the generation and maturation of petroleum hydrocarbons may be in error and perhaps should be reexamined. ?? 1981.

  7. The effects of deionization processes on meteor radar diffusion coefficients below 90 km

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Younger, J. P.; Lee, C. S.; Reid, I. M.; Vincent, R. A.; Kim, Y. H.; Murphy, D. J.

    2014-08-01

    The decay times of VHF radar echoes from underdense meteor trails are reduced in the lower portions of the meteor region. This is a result of plasma neutralization initiated by the attachment of positive trail ions to neutral atmospheric molecules. Decreased echo decay times cause meteor radars to produce erroneously high estimates of the ambipolar diffusion coefficient at heights below 90 km, which affects temperature estimation techniques. Comparisons between colocated radars and satellite observations show that meteor radar estimates of diffusion coefficients are not consistent with estimates from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder satellite instrument and that colocated radars operating at different frequencies estimate different values of the ambipolar diffusion coefficient for simultaneous detections of the same meteors. Loss of free electrons from meteor trails due to attachment to aerosols and chemical processes were numerically simulated and compared with observations to determine the specific mechanism responsible for low-altitude meteor trail plasma neutralization. It is shown that three-body attachment of positive metal ions significantly reduces meteor radar echo decay times at low altitudes compared to the case of diffusion only that atmospheric ozone plays little part in the evolution of low-altitude underdense meteor trails and that the effect of three-body attachment begins to exceed diffusion in echo decay times at a constant density surface.

  8. Desulfotomaculum spp.and Methanobacterium spp. Dominate a 4-5 km Deep Fault

    SciTech Connect

    Moser, Duane P.; Gihring, Thomas M.; Brockman, Fred J.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Balkwill, David L.; Dollhopf, M E.; Lollar, B S.; Pratt, Lisa; Boice, E.; Southam, G; Wanger, Greg; Baker, Brett; Pfiffner, S; Lin, L; Onstott, T C.

    2005-12-01

    Sulfidic, 54-60 C, 3 to 30 million year old meteoric water stably Alkaline, sulfidic, 54 to 60 C, 4 to 53 million-year-old meteoric water emanating from a borehole intersecting quartzite-hosted fractures >3.3 km beneath the surface supported a microbial community dominated by a bacterial species affiliated with Desulfotomaculum spp. and an archaeal species related to Methanobacterium spp. The geochemical homogeneity over the 650-m length of the borehole, the lack of dividing cells, and the absence of these microorganisms in mine service water support an indigenous origin for the microbial community. The coexistence of these two microorganisms is consistent with a limiting flux of inorganic carbon and SO4 2 in the presence of high pH, high concentrations of H2 and CH4, and minimal free energy for autotrophic methanogenesis. Sulfide isotopic compositions were highly enriched, consistent with microbial SO4 2 reduction under hydrologic isolation. An analogous microbial couple and similar abiogenic gas chemistry have been reported recently for hydrothermal carbonate vents of the Lost City near the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (D. S. Kelly et al., Science 307:1428-1434, 2005), suggesting that these features may be common to deep subsurface habitats (continental and marine) bearing this geochemical signature. The geochemical setting and microbial communities described here are notably different from microbial ecosystems reported for shallower continental subsurface environments.

  9. No fluid overload in male ultra-runners during a 100 km ultra-run.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Senn, Oliver; Imoberdorf, Reinhard; Joleska, Irena; Wirth, Andrea; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the change in body composition and hydration status in 27 male ultra-runners during a 100 km ultra-run. The athletes drank fluids ad libitum during the run; intake of calories, fluids, and electrolytes during performance were determined. Body mass decreased by 1.9 kg, haematocrit decreased, plasma [Na(+)] remained unchanged, and urinary specific gravity and plasma volume increased. Fluid intake was 0.52 (0.18) L/h and was related to running speed (r = 0.50; p = 0.0081). Δ body mass was associated with total fluid intake during the race (r = 0.49, p = 0.0095). Sodium intake amounted to 425 (478) mg/h and potassium intake to 140 (179) mg/h. Sodium and potassium intake were not related to either postrace concentration or change in plasma concentration. Sodium intake, however, was related to Δ urinary sodium concentration (r = 0.45, p = 0.0227). The increase in plasma volume was significantly and negatively related to both postrace plasma [Na(+)] (r = - 0.42, p = 0.0278) and the postrace potassium-to-sodium ratio in urine (r = - 0.44, p = 0.0218). To conclude, we found no fluid overload in these ultra-runners, the increase in plasma volume was most probably due to a stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) since sodium intake was not related to both the change in plasma [Na(+)] or postrace plasma [Na(+)]. PMID:21253973

  10. Muon and neutrino energy reconstruction for KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drakopoulou, Evangelia

    2016-07-01

    KM3NeT/ARCA is a European deep-sea research infrastructure that will host a neutrino telescope with a volume of several cubic kilometers at the bottom of the Mediterranean Sea. The telescope will search for galactic and extragalactic neutrinos from astrophysical sources like gamma ray bursts, super-novae or colliding stars. The analyses performed in large water Cherenkov detectors rely upon the reconstruction of the muon direction and energy, and consequently, those of the neutrino. The estimation of the muon energy is also critical for the differentiation of muons from neutrinos originating from astrophysical sources from muons and neutrinos that have been generated in the atmosphere and constitute the detector background. The energy is derived from the detection of the Cherenkov light produced by the muons that are created during the charged current interactions of neutrinos in or in the vicinity of the detector. We describe a method to determine the muon and neutrino energy employing a Neural Network. An energy resolution of about 0.29 has been achieved for muons at the TeV range.

  11. Diversity of Pico- to Mesoplankton along the 2000 km Salinity Gradient of the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yue O O; Karlson, Bengt; Charvet, Sophie; Andersson, Anders F

    2016-01-01

    Microbial plankton form the productive base of both marine and freshwater ecosystems and are key drivers of global biogeochemical cycles of carbon and nutrients. Plankton diversity is immense with representations from all major phyla within the three domains of life. So far, plankton monitoring has mainly been based on microscopic identification, which has limited sensitivity and reproducibility, not least because of the numerical majority of plankton being unidentifiable under the light microscope. High-throughput sequencing of taxonomic marker genes offers a means to identify taxa inaccessible by traditional methods; thus, recent studies have unveiled an extensive previously unknown diversity of plankton. Here, we conducted ultra-deep Illumina sequencing (average 10(5) sequences/sample) of rRNA gene amplicons of surface water eukaryotic and bacterial plankton communities sampled in summer along a 2000 km transect following the salinity gradient of the Baltic Sea. Community composition was strongly correlated with salinity for both bacterial and eukaryotic plankton assemblages, highlighting the importance of salinity for structuring the biodiversity within this ecosystem. In contrast, no clear trends in alpha-diversity for bacterial or eukaryotic communities could be detected along the transect. The distribution of major planktonic taxa followed expected patterns as observed in monitoring programs, but groups novel to the Baltic Sea were also identified, such as relatives to the coccolithophore Emiliana huxleyi detected in the northern Baltic Sea. This study provides the first ultra-deep sequencing-based survey on eukaryotic and bacterial plankton biogeography in the Baltic Sea.

  12. EVIDENCE FOR 1000 km s{sup -1} MOLECULAR OUTFLOWS IN THE LOCAL ULIRG POPULATION

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Aeree; Yun, Min S.; Naraynan, Gopal; Heyer, Mark; Erickson, Neal R.

    2011-05-01

    The feedback from galactic outflows is thought to play an important role in shaping the gas content, star formation history, and ultimately the stellar mass function of galaxies. Here we present evidence for massive molecular outflows associated with ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) in the co-added Redshift Search Receiver {sup 12}CO (1-0) spectrum. Our stacked spectrum of 27 ULIRGs at z = 0.043-0.11 ({nu}{sub rest} = 110-120 GHz) shows broad wings around the CO line with {Delta}V(FWZI) {approx} 2000 km s{sup -1}. Its integrated line flux accounts for up to 25% {+-} 5% of the total CO line luminosity. When interpreted as a massive molecular outflow wind, the associated mechanical energy can be explained by a concentrated starburst with star formation rate (SFR) {>=}100 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}, which agrees well with their SFR derived from the FIR luminosity. Using the high signal-to-noise stacked composite spectrum, we also probe {sup 13}CO and {sup 12}CN emission in the sample and discuss how the chemical abundance of molecular gas may vary depending on the physical conditions of the nuclear region.

  13. Ediacaran 2,500-km-long synchronous deep continental subduction in the West Gondwana Orogen.

    PubMed

    Ganade de Araujo, Carlos E; Rubatto, Daniela; Hermann, Joerg; Cordani, Umberto G; Caby, Renaud; Basei, Miguel A S

    2014-01-01

    The deeply eroded West Gondwana Orogen is a major continental collision zone that exposes numerous occurrences of deeply subducted rocks, such as eclogites. The position of these eclogites marks the suture zone between colliding cratons, and the age of metamorphism constrains the transition from subduction-dominated tectonics to continental collision and mountain building. Here we investigate the metamorphic conditions and age of high-pressure and ultrahigh-pressure eclogites from Mali, Togo and NE-Brazil and demonstrate that continental subduction occurred within 20 million years over at least a 2,500-km-long section of the orogen during the Ediacaran. We consider this to be the earliest evidence of large-scale deep-continental subduction and consequent appearance of Himalayan-scale mountains in the geological record. The rise and subsequent erosion of such mountains in the Late Ediacaran is perfectly timed to deliver sediments and nutrients that are thought to have been necessary for the subsequent evolution of sustainable life on Earth. PMID:25319269

  14. Expansion cone for the 3-inch PMTs of the KM3NeT optical modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The KM3NeT Collaboration

    2013-03-01

    Detection of high-energy neutrinos from distant astrophysical sources will open a new window on the Universe. The detection principle exploits the measurement of Cherenkov light emitted by charged particles resulting from neutrino interactions in the matter containing the telescope. A novel multi-PMT digital optical module (DOM) was developed to contain 31 3-inch photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). In order to maximize the detector sensitivity, each PMT will be surrounded by an expansion cone which collects photons that would otherwise miss the photocathode. Results for various angles of incidence with respect to the PMT surface indicate an increase in collection efficiency by 30% on average for angles up to 45° with respect to the perpendicular. Ray-tracing calculations could reproduce the measurements, allowing to estimate an increase in the overall photocathode sensitivity, integrated over all angles of incidence, by 27% (for a single PMT). Prototype DOMs, being built by the KM3NeT consortium, will be equipped with these expansion cones.

  15. Patterns of plant biomass allocation in temperate grasslands across a 2500-km transect in northern China.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wentao; Jiang, Yong; Lü, Xiaotao; Wang, Xue; Li, Mai-He; Bai, Edith; Han, Xingguo; Xu, Zhuwen

    2013-01-01

    Plant biomass allocation between below- and above-ground parts can actively adapt to the ambient growth conditions and is a key parameter for estimating terrestrial ecosystem carbon (C) stocks. To investigate how climatic variations affect patterns of plant biomass allocation, we sampled 548 plants belonging to four dominant genera (Stipa spp., Cleistogenes spp., Agropyron spp., and Leymus spp.) along a large-scale (2500 km) climatic gradient across the temperate grasslands from west to east in northern China. Our results showed that Leymus spp. had the lowest root/shoot ratios among the each genus. Root/shoot ratios of each genera were positively correlated with mean annual temperature (MAT), and negatively correlated with mean annual precipitation (MAP) across the transect. Temperature contributed more to the variation of root/shoot ratios than precipitation for Cleistogenes spp. (C4 plants), whereas precipitation exerted a stronger influence than temperature on their variations for the other three genera (C3 plants). From east to west, investment of C into the belowground parts increased as precipitation decreased while temperature increased. Such changes in biomass allocation patterns in response to climatic factors may alter the competition regimes among co-existing plants, resulting in changes in community composition, structure and ecosystem functions. Our results suggested that future climate change would have great impact on C allocation and storage, as well as C turnover in the grassland ecosystems in northern China. PMID:23977135

  16. A new global 1-km dataset of percentage tree cover derived from remote sensing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeFries, R.S.; Hansen, M.C.; Townshend, J.R.G.; Janetos, A.C.; Loveland, T.R.

    2000-01-01

    Accurate assessment of the spatial extent of forest cover is a crucial requirement for quantifying the sources and sinks of carbon from the terrestrial biosphere. In the more immediate context of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, implementation of the Kyoto Protocol calls for estimates of carbon stocks for a baseline year as well as for subsequent years. Data sources from country level statistics and other ground-based information are based on varying definitions of 'forest' and are consequently problematic for obtaining spatially and temporally consistent carbon stock estimates. By combining two datasets previously derived from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) at 1 km spatial resolution, we have generated a prototype global map depicting percentage tree cover and associated proportions of trees with different leaf longevity (evergreen and deciduous) and leaf type (broadleaf and needleleaf). The product is intended for use in terrestrial carbon cycle models, in conjunction with other spatial datasets such as climate and soil type, to obtain more consistent and reliable estimates of carbon stocks. The percentage tree cover dataset is available through the Global Land Cover Facility at the University of Maryland at http://glcf.umiacs.umd.edu.

  17. Purification of Lovastatin from Aspergillus terreus (KM017963) and Evaluation of its Anticancer and Antioxidant Properties.

    PubMed

    Bhargavi, Sd; Praveen, Vk; Marium, Salah; Sreepriya, M; Savitha, J

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common malignancy in women worldwide and thus one of the leading causes of mortality in women. Lovastatin, a non polar, anticholesterol drug has previously been reported to exert antitumour activity in vitro. In the present study, lovastatin from Aspergillus terreus (KM017963) was purified by adsorption chromatography and evaluated for its anticancer and anti-oxidant properties with a human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa). Growth inhibitory and proapoptotic effects of purified lovastatin on HeLa cells were investigated by determining its influence on cell numbers, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), DNA fragmentation and antioxidant properties in terms of hydroxy radical scavenging effects as well as levels of total reduced glutathione. Cell cycle analysis by ow cytometry (propidium iodide staining) confirmed induction of apoptotic cell death and revealed cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase. The results of the study give leads for the anticancer effects of lovastatin and its potential usefulness in the chemotherapy of cervical cancer. PMID:27644619

  18. Influence of a 100-km ultra-marathon on hepatitis B carrier runners.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Y-H; Hou, S-K; How, C-K; Li, L-H; Kao, W-F; Yang, C-C; Chou, S-L; Shiau, Y-T S; Lam, C; Chen, R-J

    2013-09-01

    This study compares the serological markers between runners who are hepatitis B virus carries (HBVc) and runners who are non-HBVc in a 100-km ultra-marathon race. Blood samples of 8 HBVc and 18 non-HBVc runners were drawn 1 week before, immediately following, and 24 h after the race. Samples were analyzed and compared between the 2 groups for liver function tests, muscle damage markers and oxidative stress cytokines. For HBVc runners, HBV-DNA (hepatitis B virus-deoxyribonucleic acid) levels were also evaluated for virus reactivation. The results demonstrate a statistically significant increase in both immediate and 24-h post-race values for alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), compared with pre-race values. No statistically significant difference was observed between the 2 groups for the values of AST, LDH, CK, hs-CRP, IL-6 and TNF-α either before or after the race. There was also no statistically significant change in the levels of HBV-DNA in HBVc runners. These findings suggest that HBVc runners do not have higher risks of liver function impairment, muscle breakdown and inflammatory response compared to non-HBVc runners in such endurance races. PMID:23444084

  19. Changes in Humpback Whale Song Occurrence in Response to an Acoustic Source 200 km Away

    PubMed Central

    Risch, Denise; Corkeron, Peter J.; Ellison, William T.; Van Parijs, Sofie M.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of underwater anthropogenic sound on marine mammals is of increasing concern. Here we show that humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) song in the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary (SBNMS) was reduced, concurrent with transmissions of an Ocean Acoustic Waveguide Remote Sensing (OAWRS) experiment approximately 200 km away. We detected the OAWRS experiment in SBNMS during an 11 day period in autumn 2006. We compared the occurrence of song for 11 days before, during and after the experiment with song over the same 33 calendar days in two later years. Using a quasi-Poisson generalized linear model (GLM), we demonstrate a significant difference in the number of minutes with detected song between periods and years. The lack of humpback whale song during the OAWRS experiment was the most substantial signal in the data. Our findings demonstrate the greatest published distance over which anthropogenic sound has been shown to affect vocalizing baleen whales, and the first time that active acoustic fisheries technology has been shown to have this effect. The suitability of Ocean Acoustic Waveguide Remote Sensing technology for in-situ, long term monitoring of marine ecosystems should be considered, bearing in mind its possible effects on non-target species, in particular protected species. PMID:22253769

  20. Near-global freshwater-specific environmental variables for biodiversity analyses in 1 km resolution.

    PubMed

    Domisch, Sami; Amatulli, Giuseppe; Jetz, Walter

    2015-12-08

    The lack of freshwater-specific environmental information at sufficiently fine spatial grain hampers broad-scale analyses in aquatic biology, biogeography, conservation, and ecology. Here we present a near-global, spatially continuous, and freshwater-specific set of environmental variables in a standardized 1 km grid. We delineate the sub-catchment for each grid cell along the HydroSHEDS river network and summarize the upstream climate, topography, land cover, surface geology and soil to each grid cell using various metrics (average, minimum, maximum, range, sum, inverse distance-weighted average and sum). All variables were subsequently averaged across single lakes and reservoirs of the Global lakes and Wetlands Database that are connected to the river network. Monthly climate variables were summarized into 19 long-term climatic variables following the 'bioclim' framework. This new set of variables provides a basis for spatial ecological and biodiversity analyses in freshwater ecosystems at near global extent, yet fine spatial grain. To facilitate the generation of freshwater variables for custom study areas and spatial grains, we provide the 'r.stream.watersheds' and 'r.stream.variables' add-ons for the GRASS GIS software.

  1. Pile driving zone of responsiveness extends beyond 20 km for harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena (L.)).

    PubMed

    Tougaard, Jakob; Carstensen, Jacob; Teilmann, Jonas; Skov, Henrik; Rasmussen, Per

    2009-07-01

    Behavioral reactions of harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) to underwater noise from pile driving were studied. Steel monopile foundations (4 m diameter) for offshore wind turbines were driven into hard sand in shallow water at Horns Reef, the North Sea. The impulsive sounds generated had high sound pressures [source level 235 dB re 1 microPa(pp) at 1 m, transmission loss 18 log(distance)] with a strong low frequency emphasis but with significant energy up to 100 kHz. Reactions of porpoises were studied by passive acoustic loggers (T-PODs). Intervals between echolocation events (encounters) were analyzed, and a significant increase was found from average 5.9 h between encounters in the construction period as a whole to on average 7.5 h between first and second encounters after pile driving. The size of the zone of responsiveness could not be inferred as no grading in response was observed with distance from the pile driving site but must have exceeded 21 km (distance to most distant T-POD station).

  2. Population genetic studies of the Philippine Negritos. II. gm and km allotypes of three population groups.

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, H; Miyazaki, T; Omoto, K; Misawa, S; Harada, S; Hirai, M; Sumpaico, J S; Medado, P M; Ogonuki, H

    1979-01-01

    Serum samples of the three tribal Negrito populations in the Philippine Islands (127 from Zambales, 87 from Bataan, and 93 from Agusan) were tested for Glm(1,2,3 and 17), and G3m(5,6,11,13,14,15,16, and 21), and Km(1). The GMpatterm of the Negritos is characterized by three haplotypes, Gm1,17;21, Gm1,2,17;21, and Gm1,3;5,11,13,14, which is also characteristic of Mongoloid-related populations, especially with high incidence of the latter haplotype. They also have the haplotype, Gm1,17;5,13,14, prevalent in Africa, New Guinea, and northern Australia, suggesting an ancient link between the Negritos and the New Guinean-Australian group. Two unusual samples of G3m(15) positive without G3m(16) observed in Zambales Negritos suggest the presence of Gm1,17;5,11,13,14,15 haplotype in the population. This appears to be unique to Zambales Negritos and the first such samples to be found. PMID:433923

  3. Morphological traits: predictable responses to macrohabitats across a 300 km scale

    PubMed Central

    Yates, Michelle L.; Binns, Matthew; Gibb, Heloise

    2014-01-01

    Species traits may provide a short-cut to predicting generalities in species turnover in response to environmental change, particularly for poorly known taxa. We ask if morphological traits of assemblages respond predictably to macrohabitats across a large scale. Ant assemblages were collected at nine paired pasture and remnant sites from within three areas along a 300 km distance. We measured ten functional morphological traits for replicate individuals of each species. We used a fourth corner model to test associations between microhabitat variables, macrohabitats (pastures and remnants) and traits. In addition, we tested the phylogenetic independence of traits, to determine if responses were likely to be due to filtering by morphology or phylogeny. Nine of ten traits were predicted by macrohabitat and the majority of these traits were independent of phylogeny. Surprisingly, microhabitat variables were not associated with morphological traits. Traits which were associated with macrohabitats were involved in locomotion, feeding behaviour and sensory ability. Ants in remnants had more maxillary palp segments, longer scapes and wider eyes, while having shorter femurs, smaller apical mandibular teeth and shorter Weber’s lengths. A clear relationship between traits and macrohabitats across a large scale suggests that species are filtered by coarse environmental differences. In contrast to the findings of previous studies, fine-scale filtering of morphological traits was not apparent. If such generalities in morphological trait responses to habitat hold across even larger scales, traits may prove critical in predicting the response of species assemblages to global change. PMID:24688850

  4. The HyperV 8000 μg, 50 km/s Plasma Railgun for PLX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brockington, Samuel; Case, Andrew; Messer, Sarah; Wu, Linchun; Witherspoon, F. Douglas

    2012-10-01

    HyperV has developed a gas fed, pulsed, plasma railgun which accelerates 8000 μg of argon to 50 km/s meeting the performance requirements originally specified for the Plasma Liner Experiment (PLX). The present 2.5 cm square-bore plasma railgun forms plasma armatures from high density neutral gas, pre-ionizes it electro-thermally, and accelerates the armature with 30 cm long parallel-plate railgun electrodes driven by a pulse forming network (PFN). A high voltage, high current linear array spark-gap switch and flexible, low-inductance transmission line were designed and constructed to handle the increased current load. We will describe these systems and present initial performance data from high current operation of the plasma rail gun from spectroscopy, interferometry, and imaging systems. Measurements of momentum, pressure, magnetic field, and other optical diagnostics will also be discussed as well as plans for upcoming experimentation to increase performance even further. Work supported by USDOE under DE-FG02-05ER54810 and DE-FG02-08ER85114.

  5. A metagenomic window into carbon metabolism at 3 km depth in Precambrian continental crust.

    PubMed

    Magnabosco, Cara; Ryan, Kathleen; Lau, Maggie C Y; Kuloyo, Olukayode; Sherwood Lollar, Barbara; Kieft, Thomas L; van Heerden, Esta; Onstott, Tullis C

    2016-03-01

    Subsurface microbial communities comprise a significant fraction of the global prokaryotic biomass; however, the carbon metabolisms that support the deep biosphere have been relatively unexplored. In order to determine the predominant carbon metabolisms within a 3-km deep fracture fluid system accessed via the Tau Tona gold mine (Witwatersrand Basin, South Africa), metagenomic and thermodynamic analyses were combined. Within our system of study, the energy-conserving reductive acetyl-CoA (Wood-Ljungdahl) pathway was found to be the most abundant carbon fixation pathway identified in the metagenome. Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase genes that have the potential to participate in (1) both autotrophic and heterotrophic metabolisms through the reversible oxidization of CO and subsequent transfer of electrons for sulfate reduction, (2) direct utilization of H2 and (3) methanogenesis were identified. The most abundant members of the metagenome belonged to Euryarchaeota (22%) and Firmicutes (57%)-by far, the highest relative abundance of Euryarchaeota yet reported from deep fracture fluids in South Africa and one of only five Firmicutes-dominated deep fracture fluids identified in the region. Importantly, by combining the metagenomics data and thermodynamic modeling of this study with previously published isotopic and community composition data from the South African subsurface, we are able to demonstrate that Firmicutes-dominated communities are associated with a particular hydrogeologic environment, specifically the older, more saline and more reducing waters.

  6. Patterns of Mass Mortality among Rocky Shore Invertebrates across 100 km of Northeastern Pacific Coastline.

    PubMed

    Jurgens, Laura J; Rogers-Bennett, Laura; Raimondi, Peter T; Schiebelhut, Lauren M; Dawson, Michael N; Grosberg, Richard K; Gaylord, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Mass mortalities in natural populations, particularly those that leave few survivors over large spatial areas, may cause long-term ecological perturbations. Yet mass mortalities may remain undocumented or poorly described due to challenges in responding rapidly to unforeseen events, scarcity of baseline data, and difficulties in quantifying rare or patchily distributed species, especially in remote or marine systems. Better chronicling the geographic pattern and intensity of mass mortalities is especially critical in the face of global changes predicted to alter regional disturbance regimes. Here, we couple replicated post-mortality surveys with preceding long-term surveys and historical data to describe a rapid and severe mass mortality of rocky shore invertebrates along the north-central California coast of the northeastern Pacific Ocean. In late August 2011, formerly abundant intertidal populations of the purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, a well-known ecosystem engineer), and the predatory six-armed sea star (Leptasterias sp.) were functionally extirpated from ~100 km of coastline. Other invertebrates, including the gumboot chiton (Cryptochiton stelleri) the ochre sea star (Pisaster ochraceus), and subtidal populations of purple sea urchins also exhibited elevated mortality. The pattern and extent of mortality suggest the potential for long-term population, community, and ecosystem consequences, recovery from which may depend on the different dispersal abilities of the affected species. PMID:26039349

  7. Patterns of Mass Mortality among Rocky Shore Invertebrates across 100 km of Northeastern Pacific Coastline

    PubMed Central

    Jurgens, Laura J.; Rogers-Bennett, Laura; Raimondi, Peter T.; Schiebelhut, Lauren M.; Dawson, Michael N.; Grosberg, Richard K.; Gaylord, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Mass mortalities in natural populations, particularly those that leave few survivors over large spatial areas, may cause long-term ecological perturbations. Yet mass mortalities may remain undocumented or poorly described due to challenges in responding rapidly to unforeseen events, scarcity of baseline data, and difficulties in quantifying rare or patchily distributed species, especially in remote or marine systems. Better chronicling the geographic pattern and intensity of mass mortalities is especially critical in the face of global changes predicted to alter regional disturbance regimes. Here, we couple replicated post-mortality surveys with preceding long-term surveys and historical data to describe a rapid and severe mass mortality of rocky shore invertebrates along the north-central California coast of the northeastern Pacific Ocean. In late August 2011, formerly abundant intertidal populations of the purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, a well-known ecosystem engineer), and the predatory six-armed sea star (Leptasterias sp.) were functionally extirpated from ~100 km of coastline. Other invertebrates, including the gumboot chiton (Cryptochiton stelleri) the ochre sea star (Pisaster ochraceus), and subtidal populations of purple sea urchins also exhibited elevated mortality. The pattern and extent of mortality suggest the potential for long-term population, community, and ecosystem consequences, recovery from which may depend on the different dispersal abilities of the affected species. PMID:26039349

  8. Augmenting performance feedback does not affect 4 km cycling time-trials in the heat.

    PubMed

    Waldron, Mark; Villerius, Vincent; Murphy, Aron

    2015-01-01

    We compared the effects of (1) accurate and (2) surreptitiously augmented performance feedback on power output and physiological responses to a 4000 m time-trial in the heat. Nine cyclists completed a baseline (BaseL) 4000 m time-trial in ambient temperatures of 30°C, followed by two further 4000 m time-trials at the same temperature, randomly assigning the participants to an accurate (ACC; accurate feedback of baseline) or deceived (DEC; 2% increase above baseline) feedback group. The total power output (PO) and aerobic (Paer) and anaerobic (Pan) contributions were determined at 0.4 km stages during the time-trials, alongside measurements of rectal (Trec) and skin (Tskin) temperatures. There were no differences (P > 0.05) in any of the variables between BaseL, ACC and DEC, despite increases (P < 0.05) in Trec and Tskin. Typical pacing profiles were demonstrated; however, there was no interaction (P > 0.05) between feedback condition and time-trial stage. Providing surreptitiously augmented performance feedback to well-trained cyclists did not alter their performance or physiological responses to a 4000 m time-trial in a hot environment. The assumed influence of augmented performance feedback was nullified in the heat, perhaps reflecting a central down-regulation of exercise intensity in response to an increased body temperature.

  9. Cloning and characterization of two xyloglucanases from Paenibacillus sp. strain KM21.

    PubMed

    Yaoi, Katsuro; Nakai, Tomonori; Kameda, Yoshiro; Hiyoshi, Ayako; Mitsuishi, Yasushi

    2005-12-01

    Two xyloglucan-specific endo-beta-1,4-glucanases (xyloglucanases [XEGs]), XEG5 and XEG74, with molecular masses of 40 kDa and 105 kDa, respectively, were isolated from the gram-positive bacterium Paenibacillus sp. strain KM21, which degrades tamarind seed xyloglucan. The genes encoding these XEGs were cloned and sequenced. Based on their amino acid sequences, the catalytic domains of XEG5 and XEG74 were classified in the glycoside hydrolase families 5 and 74, respectively. XEG5 is the first xyloglucanase belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 5. XEG5 lacks a carbohydrate-binding module, while XEG74 has an X2 module and a family 3 type carbohydrate-binding module at its C terminus. The two XEGs were expressed in Escherichia coli, and recombinant forms of the enzymes were purified and characterized. Both XEGs had endoglucanase active only toward xyloglucan and not toward Avicel, carboxymethylcellulose, barley beta-1,3/1,4-glucan, or xylan. XEG5 is a typical endo-type enzyme that randomly cleaves the xyloglucan main chain, while XEG74 has dual endo- and exo-mode activities or processive endo-mode activity. XEG5 digested the xyloglucan oligosaccharide XXXGXXXG to produce XXXG, whereas XEG74 digestion of XXXGXXXG resulted in XXX, XXXG, and GXXXG, suggesting that this enzyme cleaves the glycosidic bond of unbranched Glc residues. Analyses using various oligosaccharide structures revealed that unique structures of xyloglucan oligosaccharides can be prepared with XEG74. PMID:16332739

  10. Cloning and Characterization of Two Xyloglucanases from Paenibacillus sp. Strain KM21

    PubMed Central

    Yaoi, Katsuro; Nakai, Tomonori; Kameda, Yoshiro; Hiyoshi, Ayako; Mitsuishi, Yasushi

    2005-01-01

    Two xyloglucan-specific endo-β-1,4-glucanases (xyloglucanases [XEGs]), XEG5 and XEG74, with molecular masses of 40 kDa and 105 kDa, respectively, were isolated from the gram-positive bacterium Paenibacillus sp. strain KM21, which degrades tamarind seed xyloglucan. The genes encoding these XEGs were cloned and sequenced. Based on their amino acid sequences, the catalytic domains of XEG5 and XEG74 were classified in the glycoside hydrolase families 5 and 74, respectively. XEG5 is the first xyloglucanase belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 5. XEG5 lacks a carbohydrate-binding module, while XEG74 has an X2 module and a family 3 type carbohydrate-binding module at its C terminus. The two XEGs were expressed in Escherichia coli, and recombinant forms of the enzymes were purified and characterized. Both XEGs had endoglucanase active only toward xyloglucan and not toward Avicel, carboxymethylcellulose, barley β-1,3/1,4-glucan, or xylan. XEG5 is a typical endo-type enzyme that randomly cleaves the xyloglucan main chain, while XEG74 has dual endo- and exo-mode activities or processive endo-mode activity. XEG5 digested the xyloglucan oligosaccharide XXXGXXXG to produce XXXG, whereas XEG74 digestion of XXXGXXXG resulted in XXX, XXXG, and GXXXG, suggesting that this enzyme cleaves the glycosidic bond of unbranched Glc residues. Analyses using various oligosaccharide structures revealed that unique structures of xyloglucan oligosaccharides can be prepared with XEG74. PMID:16332739

  11. Comparisons between primrose lake (54°N, 110°W) ROCOB winds (20-60 km) and Saskatoon (52°N, 107°W) M. F. radar winds (60-110 km): 1978-1982

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manson, A. H.; Meek, C. E.

    The development of the new CIRA will require the combination of winds from many sources, e.g. rockets (ROCOB) up to ~60 km, and radar winds ~60-110 km. Difficulties are that such rocket data have larger errors at 60-65 km, and tidal effects may become significant. Radar data for 60-80 km may also have tidal contamination, due to <~ 16h of data per day: from 80-110 km tidal corrections are usually reliable. Comparisons are made between the unique Saskatoon MF radar set, which is continuous from mid 1978-1983, and the ROCOB data from Primrose Lake, which is only 340 km northwest. While the agreement is satisfactory, special care is required when matching the two regions: particular problems are the low rocket sampling rate, and the unexpectedly large amplitude of the diurnal tide. Important differences from the zonal winds of CIRA-72 emerge, especially in winter months. Meridional cross-sections differ from previous data models in the extent of the summer equatorward flow.

  12. An Observation-base investigation of nudging in WRF for downscaling surface climate information to 12-km Grid Spacing

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous research has demonstrated the ability to use the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model and contemporary dynamical downscaling methods to refine global climate modeling results to a horizontal resolution of 36 km. Environmental managers and urban planners have expre...

  13. Vertical profile of H 2SO 4 vapor at 70-110 km on Venus and some related problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnopolsky, Vladimir A.

    2011-09-01

    The vertical profile of H 2SO 4 vapor is calculated using current atmospheric and thermodynamic data. The atmospheric data include the H 2O profiles observed at 70-112 km by the SOIR solar occultations, the SPICAV-UV profiles of the haze extinction at 220 nm, the VeRa temperature profiles, and a typical profile of eddy diffusion. The thermodynamic data are the saturated vapor pressures of H 2O and H 2SO 4 and chemical potentials of these species in sulfuric acid solutions. The calculated concentration of sulfuric acid in the cloud droplets varies from 85% at 70 km to a minimum of 70% at 90 km and then gradually increasing to 90-100% at 110 km. The H 2SO 4 vapor mixing ratio is ˜10 -12 at 70 and 110 km with a deep minimum of 3 × 10 -18 at 88 km. The H 2O-H 2SO 4 system matches the local thermodynamic equilibrium conditions up to 87 km. The column photolysis rate of H 2SO 4 is 1.6 × 10 5 cm -2 s -1 at 70 km and 23 cm -2 s -1 at 90 km. The calculated abundance of H 2SO 4 vapor at 90-110 km and its photolysis rate are smaller than those presented in the recent model by Zhang et al. (Zhang, X., Liang, M.C., Montmessin, F., Bertaux, J.L., Parkinson, C., Yung, Y.L. [2010]. Nat. Geosci. 3, 834-837) by factors of 10 6 and 10 9, respectively. Assumptions of 100% sulfuric acid, local thermodynamic equilibrium, too warm atmosphere, supersaturation of H 2SO 4 (impossible for a source of SO X), and cross sections for H 2SO 4·H 2O (impossible above the pure H 2SO 4) are the main reasons of this huge difference. Significant differences and contradictions between the SPICAV-UV, SOIR, and ground-based submillimeter observations of SO X at 70-110 km are briefly discussed and some weaknesses are outlined. The possible source of high altitude SO X on Venus remains unclear and probably does not exist.

  14. Taxonomic characterization and metabolic analysis of the Halomonas sp. KM-1, a highly bioplastic poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)-producing bacterium.

    PubMed

    Kawata, Yoshikazu; Shi, Lian-Hua; Kawasaki, Kazunori; Shigeri, Yasushi

    2012-04-01

    In a brief previous report, the gram-negative moderately halophilic bacterium, Halomonas sp. KM-1, that was isolated in our laboratory was shown to produce the bioplastic, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB), using biodiesel waste glycerol (Kawata and Aiba, Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., 74, 175-177, 2010). Here, we further characterized this KM-1 strain and compared it to other Halomonas strains. Strain KM-1 was subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. Strain KM-1 was rod-shaped and formed colonies on a plate that were cream-beige in color, smooth, opaque, and circular with entire edges. KM-1 grew under environmental conditions of 0.1%-10% (w/v) NaCl, pH 6.5-10.5 and at temperatures between 10°C and 45°C. The G+C content of strain KM-1 was 63.9 mol%. Of the 16 Halomonas strains examined in this study, the strain KM-1 exhibited the highest production of PHB (63.6%, w/v) in SOT medium supplemented with 10% glycerol, 10.0 g/L sodium nitrate and 2.0 g/L dipotassium hydrogen phosphate. The intracellular structures within which PHB accumulated had the appearance of intracellular granules with a diameter of approximately 0.5 μm, as assessed by electron microscopy. The intra- and extra-cellular metabolites of strain KM-1 were analyzed by capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry. In spite of the high amount of PHB stored intra-cellularly, as possible precursors for PHB only a small quantity of 3-hydroxybutyric acid and acetyl CoA, and no quantity of 3-hydroxybutyl CoA, acetoacetyl CoA and acetoacetate were detected either intra- or extra-cellularly, suggesting highly efficient conversion of these precursors to PHB.

  15. Ensemble flood simulation for a small dam catchment in Japan using 10 and 2 km resolution nonhydrostatic model rainfalls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Kenichiro; Otsuka, Shigenori; Apip; Saito, Kazuo

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a study on short-term ensemble flood forecasting specifically for small dam catchments in Japan. Numerical ensemble simulations of rainfall from the Japan Meteorological Agency nonhydrostatic model (JMA-NHM) are used as the input data to a rainfall-runoff model for predicting river discharge into a dam. The ensemble weather simulations use a conventional 10 km and a high-resolution 2 km spatial resolutions. A distributed rainfall-runoff model is constructed for the Kasahori dam catchment (approx. 70 km2) and applied with the ensemble rainfalls. The results show that the hourly maximum and cumulative catchment-average rainfalls of the 2 km resolution JMA-NHM ensemble simulation are more appropriate than the 10 km resolution rainfalls. All the simulated inflows based on the 2 and 10 km rainfalls become larger than the flood discharge of 140 m3 s-1, a threshold value for flood control. The inflows with the 10 km resolution ensemble rainfall are all considerably smaller than the observations, while at least one simulated discharge out of 11 ensemble members with the 2 km resolution rainfalls reproduces the first peak of the inflow at the Kasahori dam with similar amplitude to observations, although there are spatiotemporal lags between simulation and observation. To take positional lags into account of the ensemble discharge simulation, the rainfall distribution in each ensemble member is shifted so that the catchment-averaged cumulative rainfall of the Kasahori dam maximizes. The runoff simulation with the position-shifted rainfalls shows much better results than the original ensemble discharge simulations.

  16. Transmission of 112 Gb/s PM-QPSK signals over up to 635 km of multimode optical fiber.

    PubMed

    Downie, John D; Hurley, Jason E; Kuksenkov, Dmitri V; Lynn, Christopher M; Korolev, Andrey E; Nazarov, Vladimir N

    2011-12-12

    We investigate transmission of 112 Gb/s PM-QPSK signals over 50 μm core diameter OM3 multimode fiber using the center launch approach. We demonstrate successful transmission of 16 DWDM channels over a distance of 635 km for a capacity-distance product of 1016 Tb/s-km. The limiting impairment appears due to mode coupling and multipath interference effects.

  17. Evaluation of medium-range runoff forecasts for a 50 km2 watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kneis, David; Bürger, Gerd; Bronstert, Axel

    2010-05-01

    Forecasting of medium-range runoff for small mountainous catchments is a particular challenge for a number of reasons: (1) Reaction times are short, thus hydrological forecasts necessarily rely on the uncertain output of numerical weather prediction (NWP) models, (2) There is a high sensitivity to positional errors in the quantitative precipitation forecast (QPF) as well as to errors in quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE), (3) Given that rainfall is spatially variable, small catchments are generally more likely to experience extreme areal precipitation than larger river basins, (4) Runoff-coefficients are typically high and flood events originate from both heavy rainfall or/and snow melt. Nevertheless, there is a demand for medium-range hydrological forecasts for small catchments which can be used for the purposes of early warning and the proactive management of multi-purpose reservoirs. We studied the quality of runoff forecasts for the Lehnmühle Reservoir watershed (50 km2) located at the border between Germany and Czech Republic (Weißeritz River). For this catchment, we set up the conceptual, semi-distributed hydrological model LARSIM which is in operational use at many flood forecasting centres. LARSIM is typically run as a continuous model with stream flow assimilation enabled during the simulation period. The usual time step of in- and output is 1 h. We produced medium-range forecasts (actually 'hindcasts') of runoff by driving the calibrated hydrological model with NWP data of the past. For the period 2000-2008, we computed daily forecasts with a maximum lead time of +120 h based on the 51-member ensemble prediction issued by the ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecast). Expanded downscaling, a variant of empirical downscaling, was used to make the spatially coarse ECMWF forecast applicable to the target scale. For the period 2005-2008, we also tried the deterministic COSMO-EU forecast (+78 h maximum lead time, 7×7 km resolution

  18. Detection of Postseismic Crustal Movement of an Earthquake with Focal Depth Exceeding 650 km

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heki, K.; Mitsui, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Although a deep-focus earthquake often causes strong ground shaking due to low attenuation of seismic waves propagating through the subducting slab, it never leaves permanent deformation of the surface detectable with GPS. Here we report that a deep earthquake on August 14, 2012 (Mw 7.7, focal depth 654 km) beneath Sakhalin has been causing postseismic crustal movements in Hokkaido exceeding a centimeter by a hitherto unknown mechanism. Heki and Mitsui (EPSL 2013) found landward movements of GPS stations to have accelerated on segments adjacent to those ruptured in the 2003 Tokachi-Oki (Mw8.0) and the 2011 Tohoku-Oki (Mw9.0) earthquakes in NE Japan. Sea floor GPS measurements by Japan Coast Guard also revealed post-2011 landward movement of MYG1 as fast as ~30 cm per year. From these observations, we inferred that the subduction of the Pacific Plate slab was significantly accelerated (1.5 and 3 times) after the two interplate earthquakes. During interseismic periods, the balance between the up-dip (viscous resistance and interplate coupling) and down-dip (slab pull and ridge push) forces realizes constant subduction rate. A megathrust event reduces interplate coupling, and let down-dip force temporarily exceed the other one, resulting in the accelerated subduction under the new balance attained by increased viscous resistance. Accelerated regime would be temporary and the geological rate will resume as interplate coupling recovers. We newly found that the landward movements of GPS stations in the eastern Hokkaido have undergone small but distinct acceleration of up to 1 cm/year in conjunction with the 2012 August deep-focus earthquake. Within-slab seismicity of down-dip compression mechanisms is activated in the deep part of subducting slabs after megathrust events (Lay et al., PEPI 1989), due possibly to the increased edge resistance caused by the slab acceleration. The 2012 deep earthquake occurred close to the down-dip end of the straight part of the Pacific

  19. Towards a Better Understanding of the Venus Atmosphere - Observations needed between 65 - 120 km

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limaye, S. S.; Clancy, R. T.; Rengel, M.; Sorning, M.

    2013-12-01

    Through a half century of exploring Venus with spacecraft, we have learned that the planet and its atmos-phere continue to hold many mysteries. The ubiquitous clouds contain one or more particulate or gaseous spe-cies which absorb much of the incident UV solar radiation. While there are some candidates, the identity and physical properties of the UV absorber are unknown. Energy emitted by the surface and lower atmosphere es-capes through small- and large-scale inhomogeneities in opacity in the near-infrared region of the spectrum, and thus a better knowledge of the UV absorber distribution and Venus clouds are needed to understand the energy balance which drives the atmospheric circulation. First-principles postulates predicted a global day-side to night-side circulation for the entire atmosphere, but subsequent measurements show that this exists only in the 90-120 km layer and superrotation is present throughout the atmosphere below. However, systematic measure-ments are lacking and details of the day-night circulation are very sketchy. Döppler observations at (emitted) infrared [1] and reflected visible [2] wavelengths and imaging observa-tions at near infrared wavelengths from telescopes and spacecraft [3] provide insights into the circulation, above, near and below the cloud tops, but much less is known about the winds in the lower atmosphere. Recent efforts by many groups have been able to achieve some resemblance between the model results and some aspects of observed circulation. The different models disagree on the details and the processes for the maintenance of the circulation [4]. One of the dominant problems inhibiting further progress is uncertainty in the distribution of heating by absorbed solar energy and thermal radiation emitted from the lower atmosphere and surface [5], and a better understanding of the nature of the ultraviolet absorber will help. Only Döppler measurements are possible to learn about the circulation above the cloud tops but

  20. Discovery of 3 km long seafloor fracture system in the Central North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, R. B.; Blomberg, A.; Landschulze, K.; Baumberger, T.; Økland, I.; Reigstad, L.; Gracias, N.; Mørkved, P. T.; Stensland, A.; Lilley, M. D.; Thorseth, I. H.

    2013-12-01

    We have discovered a 3 km long seafloor fracture system in the Central North Sea (block 16/4). The discovery was made using a synthetic aperture sonar (HISAS) mounted on a Kongsberg Hugin AUV. The surface expression of the structure - named the Hugin Fracture - changes along the strike and it is characterized by: 1) linear; 2) en echelon; and 3) branching segments. Ring-structures, that typically are 5-10 meters across, are common along the feature. Micro-bathymetry acquired using the HISAS system demonstrates that sub-meter scale elevation changes occur across the fracture. Microbial mats occur along different parts of the structure showing that active seepage is taking place. AUV based photo-imaging of parts of the structure shows that the microbial mats predominantly are associated with ring structures and some of the linear fracture segments. Sediment pore waters extracted from push cores show Na, Cl and Mg contents that are 10-15% lower compared to background pore fluid concentrations. This points towards a fresh water input. The fracture pore fluid compositions are also characterized by elevated methane, ammonium and hydrogen sulphide contents compared to the background seawater. The presence of these volatiles is likely caused by subsurface microbial activity, and carbon isotope analyses confirm a biological source of the detected methane. However, the presence of ethane (CH4/C2H6 of 126) indicates a small input of a thermogenic carbon to these fluids. Subsurface imaging using a hull mounted parametric sub bottom profiler reveal Holocene stratified sediments overlying quaternary moraine in the area. The sub bottom profiler data show sub-meter scale vertical movements along the fracture. Associated with the structures are small bright spots that may reflect gas accumulations. No deep-seated fault system is apparent below the fracture in 3D seismic data from the area. However, the 3D seismic data show that the structure is located above the boundary of a

  1. Recent Pulsed Airborne Lidar measurements of Atmospheric CO2 Column Absorption to 13 km altitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abshire, J. B.; Riris, H.; Allan, G. R.; Weaver, C. J.; Mao, J.; Hasselbrack, W.; Sun, X.; Rodriguez, M. R.

    2010-12-01

    We have developed a lidar technique for measuring atmospheric CO2 concentrations as a candidate for NASA’s ASCENDS mission. It uses pulsed laser transmitters to simultaneously measure a CO2 absorption line in the 1570 nm band, O2 extinction in the Oxygen A-band and surface height and backscatter. The lidar measures the energy and time of flight of the laser echoes reflected from the atmosphere and surface. The lasers step in wavelength across the CO2 line and an O2 line pair during the measurement. The receiver uses a telescope and photon counting detectors, and measures the time resolved backscatter of the laser echoes. Signal processing is used to isolate the laser echo signals from the surface, estimate their range, and reject laser photons scattered in the atmosphere. The gas extinction and column densities for the CO2 and O2 gases are estimated via the IPDA technique. We developed a lidar to demonstrate the CO2 measurement from aricraft. The lidar steps the pulsed laser’s wavelength across a selected CO2 line with 20 or 30 steps per scan. The line scan rate is 450 Hz and laser pulse widths are 1 usec. The time resolved laser backscatter is collected by a 20 cm telescope, detected by a photomultiplier and is recorded by a photon counting system. During July and August 2009 we made 5 two hour long flights while installed on the NASA Glenn Lear-25 aircraft. We measured the atmospheric CO2 absorption and line shapes using the 1572.33 nm CO2 line. Measurements were made at stepped altitudes from 3-13 km over a variety of surfaces in Nebraska, Illinois, the SGP ARM site, and near and over the Chesapeake Bay. Strong laser signals and clear line shapes were observed at all altitudes, and some measurements were made through thin clouds. The Oklahoma and east coast flights were coordinated with the NASA LaRC/ITT CO2 lidar on their UC-12 aircraft, a LaRC in-situ CO2 sensor, and the Oklahoma flights also included a JPL CO2 lidar on a Twin Otter aircraft. Ed Browell

  2. Periodic variations stratospheric temperature from 20-65 km at 80 deg N to 30 deg S

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nastrom, G. D.; Belmont, A. D.

    1975-01-01

    Results for a seasonally varying diurnal tide in temperature at Churchill are presented, and possible significant aliasing of longer period waves by this tide is discussed. A diurnal tide whose amplitude and phase are coherent throughout the year is found to have little effect on periodic amplitudes other than the long-term mean, because most rocketsonde observations are taken near the same local time each day. Errors in periodic components arising from lack of solar radiation corrections are found to be largest for the long-term mean with a small influence noted in the annual wave's amplitude. Spatial variations of the amplitudes and phases of long-period waves are examined through the use of height-latitude sections, 20-65 km, at 80 deg N to 30 deg S. The quasi-biennial oscillation and semiannual waves have tropical maxima of 2 and 3C near 30 and 40 km respectively. The annual wave's maximum is over 22C near 45 km at 70 deg N and the terannual wave's maximum is over 6C near 55 km at 80 deg N. The semiannual wave has to polar maxima: 7C near 75 deg N at 32 km and 3C above 60 km north of 35 deg N.

  3. The RF spectra of first and subsequent lightning return strokes in the 1- to 200-km range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serhan, G. I.; Uman, M. A.; Childers, D. G.; Lin, Y. T.

    1980-01-01

    An experimental characterization of the frequency spectra of first and subsequent stroke electric fields are presented over a distance range from about 1 km, where the fields are primarily electrostatic, to 200 km, where they are primarily radiation. Spectra are presented to about 700 kHz for lightning within 12 km and to about 300 kHz for lightning at 50 and 200 km. It is shown that the return stroke ground wave spectrum beyond 50 km has a peak near 4 kHz but that within 10 km the spectrum shows a steady increase with decreasing frequency to 1 kHz. Frequency spectra at all ranges fall off roughly as 1/f for frequencies between 5 and 100 kHz, while the falloff above 100 kHz is faster as the distance to the stroke increases. From this high-frequency attenuation an RF conductivity for central Florida of between 0.002 and 0.005/ohm/m was determined.

  4. Atomic oxygen between 80 and 120 km: Evidence for a rapid spatial variation in vertical transport near the ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donahue, T. M.; Wasser, B.

    1977-01-01

    Analysis of OGO-6 OI green line photometer results was carried out for 8 cases when the alignment of the spacecraft was such that local emission rates could be determined below the altitude of maximum emission and down to about 80 km. Results show a variation on a scale of 6 deg to 8 deg in latitude between regions where the emission rate increases rapidly between 90 and 95 km and regions where it increases slowly from 80 km to 95 km. Latitude-altitude maps of iso-emissivity contours and iso-density contours for oxygen concentration are presented. The latter are computed under 3 assumptions concerning excitation mechanisms. Comparisons of the spatial variations of oxygen density with the results of a time dependent theory suggest the regions of strong downward transport alternate on a scale of about 1000 km with regions of weak transport near 90 km. In the first case conversion of O to O3 at night appears to be overwhelmed by downward transport of O.

  5. COLLISIONAL EVOLUTION OF ULTRA-WIDE TRANS-NEPTUNIAN BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, Alex H.; Kavelaars, J. J.

    2012-01-10

    The widely separated, near-equal mass binaries hosted by the cold classical Kuiper Belt are delicately bound and subject to disruption by many perturbing processes. We use analytical arguments and numerical simulations to determine their collisional lifetimes given various impactor size distributions and include the effects of mass loss and multiple impacts over the lifetime of each system. These collisional lifetimes constrain the population of small (R {approx}> 1 km) objects currently residing in the Kuiper Belt and confirm that the size distribution slope at small size cannot be excessively steep-likely q {approx}< 3.5. We track mutual semimajor axis, inclination, and eccentricity evolution through our simulations and show that it is unlikely that the wide binary population represents an evolved tail of the primordially tight binary population. We find that if the wide binaries are a collisionally eroded population, their primordial mutual orbit planes must have preferred to lie in the plane of the solar system. Finally, we find that current limits on the size distribution at small radii remain high enough that the prospect of detecting dust-producing collisions in real time in the Kuiper Belt with future optical surveys is feasible.

  6. Presence of PAH or HAC below 900 km in the Titan's stratosphere?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordier, Daniel; COURS, Thibaud; Rey, Michael; Maltagliati, Luca; Seignovert, Benoit; Biennier, Ludovic

    2016-10-01

    In 2006, during Cassini's 10th flyby of Titan (T10), Bellucci et al. (2009) observed a solar occultation by Titan's atmosphere through the solar port of the Cassini/VIMS instrument. These authors noticed the existence of an unexplained additional absorption superimposed to the CH4 3.3 microns band. Because they were unable to model this absorption with gases, they attributed this intriguing feature to the signature of solid state organic components. Kim et al. (2011) revisited the data collected by Bellucci et al. (2009) and they considered the possible contribution of aerosols formed by hydrocarbon ices. They specifically took into account C2H6, CH4, CH3CN, C5H12 and C6H12 ices. More recently, Maltagliati et al. (2015) analyzed a set of four VIMS solar occultations, corresponding to flybys performed between January 2006 and September 2011 at different latitudes. They confirmed the presence of the 3.3 µm absorption in all occultations and underlined the possible importance of gaseous ethane, which has a strong plateau of absorption lines in that wavelength range. In this work, we show that neither hydrocarbon ices nor molecular C2H6 cannot satisfactorily explain the observed absorption. Our simulations speak in favor of an absorption due to the presence of PAH molecules or HAC in the stratosphere of Titan. PAH have been already considered by Lopes-Puertas et al. (2013) at altitudes larger than ~900 km and tentatively identified in the stratosphere by Maltagliati et al. (2015); PAH and HAC are good candidates for Titan's aerosols precursors.

  7. Carbohydrate Management in Athletes with Type 1 Diabetes in a 10 km Run Competition.

    PubMed

    Murillo, S; Brugnara, L; Del Campo, E; Yagüe, I; Dueñas, B; Novials, A

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the real consumption of CHO during a 10 km competitive run, to compare data with the recommended quantities according to current guidelines, and to analyse the clinical events associated with these different amounts. Protocol 1: observational study including 31 athletes with T1D and 127 athletes without diabetes, comparing data taken from dietary records of CHO intake on the competition day. Protocol 2: single-blind randomized trial in 18 athletes with T1D, testing a pre-exercise CHO supplement of 0.7 g CHO·kg(- 1) (n=10) or 0.35 g CHO·kg(- 1) (n=8). The results showed that T1D athletes consumed a lower quantity of CHO than athletes without diabetes at their usual breakfast and during the meal taken<1 h after the competition, but no differences were found in the supplement taken before the competition. In the randomized study, athletes consuming the higher dose of CHO (0.7 g CHO·kg(- 1)) showed increased glycemic levels, comparing with the lower dose (0.35 g CHO·kg(- 1)). In conclusion, athletes with T1D seem to increase CHO intake prior to the competition consuming similar amounts to those athletes without diabetes, but consuming smaller quantities of CHO than the recommended amounts. This appears to induce a more stable glycemic response, in comparison with supplements with high-CHO content. PMID:25958941

  8. Efficient production of mannosylerythritol lipids with high hydrophilicity by Pseudozyma hubeiensis KM-59.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Masaaki; Morita, Tomotake; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Kakugawa, Koji; Kitamoto, Dai

    2008-02-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are one of the most promising biosurfactants known because of their multifunctionality and biocompatibility. A previously isolated yeast strain, Pseudozyma sp. KM-59, mainly produced a hydrophilic MEL, namely MEL-C (4-O-[4'-O-acetyl-2',3'-di-O-alka(e)noyl-beta-D: -mannopyranosyl]-D: -erythritol). In this study, we taxonomically characterize the strain in detail and investigate the culture conditions. The genetic, morphological, and physiological characteristics of the strain coincided well with those of Pseudozyma hubeiensis. On batch culture for 4 days under optimal conditions, the yield of all MELs was 21.8 g/l; MEL-C comprised approximately 65% of the all MELs. Consequently, on fed-batch culture for 16 days, the yield reached 76.3 g/l; the volumetric productivity was approximately 4.8 g l(-1) day(-1). We further examined the surface-active and self-assembling properties of the hydrophilic MELs produced by the yeast strain. They showed higher emulsifying activities against soybean oil and a mixture of hydrocarbons (2-methylnaphtarene and hexadecane, 1:1) than the synthetic surfactants tested. On water penetration scans, they efficiently formed lyotropic liquid crystalline phases such as myelines and lamella (L alpha) in a broad range of their concentrations, indicating higher hydrophilicity than conventional MELs. More interestingly, there was little difference in the liquid crystal formation between the crude product and purified MEL-C. The present glycolipids with high hydrophilicity are thus very likely to have practical potential without further purification and to expand the application of MELs especially their use in washing detergents and oil-in-water-type emulsifiers. PMID:18071643

  9. Aircraft measurements of NO and NOy at 12 km over the Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koike, M.; Kondo, Y.; Makino, Y.; Sugimura, Y.

    1994-01-01

    Measurements of nitric oxide (NO) and total reactive nitrogen (NOy) at altitudes about 12 km were made from two aircraft missions over the central and western Pacific Ocean at latitudes between 65 deg N and 65 deg S during the International Strato-Tropospheric Air Chemistry (INSTAC) program. NO measurements were performed during the first mission in late February and early march 1990, while NOy measurements were performed during the second mission in October 1990. Lowest NO and NOy mixing ratios in the upper troposphere were observed near the equator to be about 30 to approximately 70pptv and 150 to approximately 220pptv, respectively. NOy mixing ratios in the upper troposphere were higher in the northern middle latitude than in the southern middle latitude; 300 to approximately 900pptv in 30 deg N to approximately 50 deg N and 250 to approximately 400pptv around 25 deg S and 50 deg S possibly due to the transport of the polluted air from the boundary layer and the emissions from the commercial aircraft in the northern middle latitudes. Near the equator up to 40 deg S, the NO values showed very high variability and reached between 200 and 2000 pptv. NOy(pptv)/ozone(ppbv) ratios in the upper troposphere were between about 3 and 20 and these values seem to be higher in the lower latitude except for the polluted air in the northern middle latitude. These NOy/ozone ratios in the equatorial upper troposphere are higher than those in the lower stratosphere observed by others. These features of NO and NOy in the equatorial upper troposphere suggest that NOx is produced possibly by the lightning.

  10. Hyperveolcity impacts on aluminum from 6 to 11 km/s for hydrocode benchmarking.

    SciTech Connect

    Saul, W. Venner; Reinhart, William Dodd; Thornhill, Tom Finley, III; Lawrence, Raymond Jeffery Jr.; Chhabildas, Lalit Chandra; Bessette, Gregory Carl; Kipp, Marlin E.

    2003-04-01

    A systematic computational and experimental study is presented on impact generated debris resulting from record-high impact speeds recently achieved on the Sandia three-stage light-gas gun. In these experiments, a target plate of aluminum is impacted by a titanium-alloy flyer plate at speeds ranging from 6.5 to 11 km/s, producing pressures from 1 Mb to over 2.3 Mb, and temperatures as high as 15000 K (>1 eV). The aluminum plate is totally melted at stresses above 1.6 Mb. Upon release, the thermodynamic release isentropes will interact with the vapor dome. The amount of vapor generated in the debris cloud will depend on many factors such as the thickness of the aluminum plate, super-cooling, vaporization kinetics, the distance, and therefore time, over which the impact-generated debris is allowed to expand. To characterize the debris cloud, the velocity history produced by stagnation of the aluminum expansion products against a witness plate is measured using velocity interferometry. X-ray measurements of the debris cloud are also recorded prior to stagnation against an aluminum witness plate. Both radiographs and witness-plate velocity measurements suggest that the vaporization process is both time-dependent and heterogeneous when the material is released from shocked states around 230 GPa. Experiments suggest that the threshold for vaporization kinetics in aluminum should become significant when expanded from shocked states over 230 GPa. Numerical simulations are conducted to compare the measured x-ray radiographs of the debris cloud and the time-resolved experimental interferometer record with calculational results using the 3-D hydrodynamic wavecode, CTH. Results of these experiments and calculations are discussed in this paper.

  11. Cloud-cloud collision in the Galactic center 50 km s-1 molecular cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuboi, Masato; Miyazaki, Atsushi; Uehara, Kenta

    2015-12-01

    We performed a search of star-forming sites influenced by external factors, such as SNRs, H II regions, and cloud-cloud collisions (CCCs), to understand the star-forming activity in the Galactic center region using the NRO Galactic Center Survey in SiO v = 0, J = 2-1, H13CO+J = 1-0, and CS J = 1-0 emission lines obtained with the Nobeyama 45 m telescope. We found a half-shell-like feature (HSF) with a high integrated line intensity ratio of ∫TB(SiO v = 0, J = 2-1)dv/∫TB(H13CO+J = 1-0)dv ˜ 6-8 in the 50 km s-1 molecular cloud; the HSF is a most conspicuous molecular cloud in the region and harbors an active star-forming site where several compact H II regions can be seen. The high ratio in the HSF indicates that the cloud contains huge shocked molecular gas. The HSF can be also seen as a half-shell feature in the position-velocity diagram. A hypothesis explaining the chemical and kinetic properties of the HSF is that the feature originates from a CCC. We analyzed the CS J = 1-0 emission line data obtained with the Nobeyama Millimeter Array to reveal the relation between the HSF and the molecular cloud cores in the cloud. We made a cumulative core mass function (CMF) of the molecular cloud cores within the HSF. The CMF in the CCC region is not truncated at least up to ˜2500 M⊙, although the CMF of the non-CCC region reaches the upper limit of ˜1500 M⊙. Most massive molecular cores with Mgas > 750 M⊙ are located only around the ridge of the HSF and adjoin the compact H II region. These may be a sign of massive star formation induced by CCCs in the Galactic center region.

  12. Evidence for Methyl-Compound-Activated Life in Coal Bed System 2 km Below Sea Floor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trembath-reichert, E.; Morono, Y.; Dawson, K.; Wanger, G.; Bowles, M.; Heuer, V.; Hinrichs, K. U.; Inagaki, F.; Orphan, V. J.

    2014-12-01

    IODP Expedition 337 set the record for deepest marine scientific drilling down to 2.4 kmbsf. This cruise also had the unique opportunity to retrieve deep cores from the Shimokita coal bed system in Japan with the aseptic and anaerobic conditions necessary to look for deep life. Onboard scientists prepared nearly 1,700 microbiology samples shared among five different countries to study life in the deep biosphere. Samples spanned over 1 km in sampling depths and include representatives of shale, sandstone, and coal lithologies. Findings from previous IODP and deep mine expeditions suggest the genetic potential for methylotrophy in the deep subsurface, but it has yet to be observed in incubations. A subset of Expedition 337 anoxic incubations were prepared with a range of 13C-methyl substrates (methane, methylamine, and methanol) and maintained near in situ temperatures. To observe 13C methyl compound metabolism over time, we monitored the δ13C of the dissolved inorganic carbon (by-product of methyl compound metabolism) over a period of 1.5 years. Elemental analysis (EA), ion chromatograph (IC), 13C volatile fatty acid (VFA), and mineral-associated microscopy data were also collected to constrain initial and endpoint conditions in these incubations. Our geochemical evidence suggests that the coal horizon incubated with 13C-methane showed the highest activity of all methyl incubations. This provides the first known observation of methane-activated metabolism in the deep biosphere, and suggests there are not only active cells in the deeply buried terrigenous coal bed at Shimokita, but the presence of a microbial community activated by methylotrophic compounds.

  13. The muc genes of pKM101 are induced by DNA damage.

    PubMed Central

    Elledge, S J; Walker, G C

    1983-01-01

    A gene fusion was constructed in vitro that resulted in the synthesis of a hybrid protein consisting of the amino-terminal segment of the MucB protein of the mutagenesis-enhancing plasmid pKM101 joined to an enzymatically active carboxy-terminal segment of the beta-galactosidase protein. In strains bearing this fusion, beta-galactosidase activity was induced by UV radiation and other DNA-damaging agents. A genetic analysis of the regulation of expression of the phi (mucB'-lacZ') fusion was consistent with the LexA protein acting as the direct repressor of the mucB gene. Examination of the expression of the mucA and phi (mucB'-lacZ') gene products in maxicells in the presence and absence of a high-copy-number plasmid carrying the lexA+ gene demonstrated that lexA regulated both the mucA and mucB genes, thus supporting our conclusion that the two genes are organized in an operon with the mucA gene transcribed first. An analysis of the effects of the recA430(lexB30) mutation on muc expression led to the discovery of the differential ability of the recA430 gene product to induce expression of a dinB::Mu d1(Ap lac) fusion located on the chromosome and the same phi (dinB'-lacZ+) fusion cloned into plasmid pBR322. Models to account for the role of the recA430 allele on the expression of damage-inducible genes and on mutagenesis are discussed. Images PMID:6350267

  14. Leukocyte Subset Changes in Response to a 164-km Road Cycle Ride in a Hot Environment

    PubMed Central

    LUK, HUI-YING; MCKENZIE, AMY L.; DUPLANTY, ANTHONY A.; BUDNAR, RONALD G.; LEVITT, DANIELLE; FERNANDEZ, ALEX; LEE, ELAINE C.; ARMSTRONG, LAWRENCE E.; VINGREN, JAKOB L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this observational study was to determine the circulating leukocyte subset response to completing the 2013 Hotter’N Hell Hundred recreational 164-km road cycle event in a hot and humid environmental condition. Twenty-eight men and four women were included in this study. Whole blood samples were obtained 1–2 hours before (PRE) and immediately after (POST) the event. Electronic sizing/sorting and cytometry were used to determine complete blood counts (CBC) including neutrophil, monocyte, and lymphocyte subsets. The concentration of circulating total leukocytes (103·μL−1) increased 134% from PRE to POST with the greatest increase in neutrophils (319%, p<0.0001). Circulating monocytes (including macrophages) increased 24% (p=0.004) and circulating lymphocytes including B and T cells increased 53% (p<0.0001). No association was observed between rolling time or relative intensity and leukocyte subset. Completing the Hotter n′ Hell Hundred (HHH), a 100 mile recreational cycling race in extreme (hot and humid) environmental conditions, induces a substantial increase in total leukocytes in circulation. The contribution of increases in specific immune cell subsets is not equal, with neutrophils increasing to greater than 4-fold starting values from PRE to POST race. It is likely that exercise in stressful environmental conditions affects the complement of circulating immune cells, although activational state and characterization of specific leukocyte subsets remains unclear. The observed increase in circulating cell sub-populations suggests that the circulating immune surveillance system may be acutely affected by exercise in hot and humid conditions. PMID:27293505

  15. Expedition to the 30-km Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and the Utilization of its Experience in Education and Communication

    SciTech Connect

    Aszodi, Attila; Yamaji, Bogdan; Silye, Judit; Pazmandi, Tamas

    2006-07-01

    Between May 28 - June 4, 2005, under the organization of the Hungarian Nuclear Society (HNS) and the Hungarian Young Generation Network (HYGN) - which operates within the framework of the HNS - a scientific expedition visited the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant and the surrounding exclusion zone. The participants were young Hungarian nuclear professionals supervised by more experienced experts. The main scientific goals of the expedition were the followings: Get personal experiences in a direct way about the current status of the Chernobyl Power Plant and its surroundings, the contamination of the environment and about the doses. Gather information about the state of the shut down power plant and the shelter built above the damaged 4. unit. Training of young nuclear experts by performing on site measurements. The Hungarian expedition successfully achieved its objectives by performing wide-range of environmental and dosimetric measurements and collecting numerous biological and soil samples. Within the 30-km exclusion zone the influence of the accident occurred 20 years ago still could be measured clearly; however the level of the radioactivity is manageable in most places. The dosimetric measurements showed that no considerable exposure occurred among the members of the expedition. The analysis of samples has been started at the International Chernobyl Center in Slavutich. During the expedition not only environmental sampling and in-situ measurements were carried out but it was also well documented with photos and video recordings for educational, training and PR purposes. A documentary TV film was recorded during the expedition. The first-hand knowledge acquired during the expedition helps the authentic communication of the accident and its present-day consequences, which is especially important in 2006, 20 years after the Chernobyl accident. Since Ukraine and Hungary are neighbor countries the media constantly discuss the accident, the consequences and the risks of

  16. SAR interferometry for DEM generation: wide-area error assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, Daniel; Broquetas, Antoni; Pena, Ramon; Arbiol, Roman; Castillo, Manuel; Pala, Vincenc

    1998-11-01

    The present work consists on the generation of a DEM using ERS satellites interferometric data over a wide area (50 X 50 Km) with an error study using a high accuracy reference DEM, focusing on the atmosphere induced errors. The area is heterogeneous with flat and rough topography ranging from sea level up to 1200 m in the inland ranges. The ERS image has a 100 X 100 Km2 area and has been divided in four quarters to ease the processing. The phase unwrapping algorithm, which is a combination of region growing and least squares techniques, worked out successfully the rough topography areas. One quarter of the full scene was geocoded over a local datum ellipsoid to a UTM grid. The resulting DEM was compared to a reference one provided by the Institut Cartografic de Catalunya. Two types of atmospheric error or artifacts were found: a set of very localized spots, up to one phase cycle, which generated ghost hills up to 100, and a slow trend effect which added up to 50 m to some areas in the image. Besides of the atmospheric errors, the quality of the DEM was assessed. The quantitative error study was carried out locally at several areas with different topography.

  17. Gravity waves from 30 to 160 km observed by an Fe lidar at McMurdo, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, X.; Chen, C.; Yu, Z.; Fong, W.; Roberts, B. R.; Lu, X.; Fuller-Rowell, T. J.; Vadas, S. L.; McDonald, A.; Gardner, C. S.

    2012-12-01

    Observations of gravity waves in the neutral atmosphere were usually limited to ~105 km where lidars can have appreciable signals. The first discovery of neutral Fe layers with gravity wave signatures in the thermosphere up to 160 km by an Fe Boltzmann lidar campaign at McMurdo, Antarctica has significantly pushed the limit to ~160 km. Two channels of Fe signals allow us to derive the Fe density from ~75 to 160 km and Fe temperature from ~80 to 150 km using the Fe Boltzmann technique. Furthermore, operating at UV 372 and 374 nm, this Alexandrite-laser-based Fe Boltzmann lidar produces strong Rayleigh scattering signals from air molecules. High-resolution measurements of temperatures are thus achieved from 30 to ~70 km utilizing the Rayleigh integration technique. As a consequence, the McMurdo Fe lidar data provide the first opportunity to trace gravity waves from ~30 km all the way up to ~160 km with a single ground-based instrument, which is the main focus of the current study. McMurdo (77.83S, 166.66E) is in the gap region between the South Pole and the Antarctic Circle. Located on the Ross Island, McMurdo is next to the most southerly active volcano Mt. Erebus, also to the east of the Trans-Antarctic Mountains, and by the poleward edge of the aurora oval as its geomagnetic latitude is near 80 deg. McMurdo turns out to be a 'hot spot' for waves, and large amplitude waves are frequently observed from the stratosphere to the thermosphere. All these factors may have contributed to, or influence, the very rich wave activities, the formation of converged Fe layers in the thermosphere, and the elevated thermospheric temperatures revealed by the lidar data of temperature and Fe density. Starting from late December 2010, the University of Colorado lidar group has collected over 1900 hours of data in the first 19 months at McMurdo, establishing a database for gravity wave studies. In this paper we will characterize gravity wave parameters from ~30 km up to 160 km for the

  18. Dynamic plumbing systems along the 100 km long Arctic Vestnesa Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaza-Faverola, Andreia; Buenz, Stefan; Vadakkepuliyambatta, Sunil; Mienert, Jurgen; Chand, Shyam; Johnson, Joel; Greinert, Jens

    2014-05-01

    Vestnesa is a ridge-like contour-current controlled sediment succession that lies above young oceanic crust created during the tectonic opening of Fram Strait. It is surrounded by the Molloy transform fault to the southwest, the Molloy deep to the north-west, the Knipovich oceanic ridge to the south-east, and the continental margin of Svalbard to the northeast. Although interrupted in places, a mostly continuous bottom simulating reflector (BSR), the seismic indicator for the base of the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ), extends for tens of kilometers from the crest of the ridge towards its northern and southern flanks. High-resolution P-Cable 2D seismic data show vertical fluid migration pathways, distributed in clusters along the 100 km long ridge, connecting the free gas system beneath the GHSZ through a 160-180 m thick hydrate stability zone to seabed pockmarks at the crest of the ridge. Among these clusters only those lying towards the easternmost end of the ridge have been documented to be periodically active in terms of present-day seafloor gas seepage. The methane release activity shows particularly well on 18 kHz echosounder data over a time period from 2008 to 2013. Gas hydrates have been recovered in shallow sediment cores (<6 mbsf) at the active seafloor seepage site. Gas analyses show heavier gases in addition to methane, as a hydrate-forming gas. Within the framework of CAGE - Center for Arctic Gas Hydrate, Environment and Climate, we are investigating the development of the plumbing systems of the Arctic Vestnesa Ridge in space and time domains. We compare the modeled base of the GHSZ for different gas compositions against the depth of the BSR in the region and discuss the elements of fluid migration systems that could explain observed lateral changes in BSR depths and the switching between active and inactive plumbing systems. The Centre of Excellence is funded by the Norwegian Research Council (grant No. 223259) over a period of ten years.

  19. Vastus medialis muscle oxygenation trends during a simulated 20-km cycle time trial.

    PubMed

    Neary, J P; Hall, K; Bhambhani, Y N

    2001-09-01

    In this study we examined the oxygenation trend of the vastus medialis muscle during sustained high-intensity exercise. Ten cyclists performed an incremental cycle ergometer test to voluntary exhaustion [mean (SD) maximum oxygen uptake 4.29 (0.63) l x min(-1); relative to body mass 60.8 (2.4) ml x kg(-1)min(-1)] and a simulated 20-km time trial (20TT) on a wind-loaded roller system using their own bicycle (group time = 23-31 min) in two separate sessions. Cardiorespiratory responses were monitored using an automated metabolic cart and a wireless heart rate monitor. Tissue absorbency, which was used as an index of muscle oxygenation, was recorded simultaneously from the vastus medialis using near-infrared spectroscopy. Group mean values for oxygen uptake, ventilation, heart rate, respiratory exchange ratio, power output, and rating of perceived exhaustion were significantly (P < or = 0.05) higher during the incremental test compared to the 20TT [4.29 (0.63) l x min(-1) vs 4.01 (0.55) l x min(-1), 120.4 (26) l x min(-1) vs 97.6 (16.1) l x min(-1), 195 (8) beats x min(-1) vs 177 (9) beats min(-1), 1.15 (0.06) vs 0.93 (0.06), 330.1 (31) W vs 307.2 (24.5) W, and 19 (1.5) vs 16 (1.7), respectively]. Oxygen uptake and heart rate during the 20TT corresponded to 93.5% and 90.7%, respectively, of the maximal values observed during the incremental test. Comparison of the muscle oxygenation trends between the two tests indicated a significantly greater degree of deoxygenation during the 20TT [-699 (250) mV vs 439 (273) mV; P < or = 0.05] and a significant delay in the recovery oxygenation from the 20TT. The mismatching of whole-body oxygen uptake and localised tissue oxygenation between the two tests could be due to differences in muscle temperature, pH, localised blood flow and motor unit recruitment patterns between the two tests.

  20. IAP RAS microwave radiometry complex: sounding atmospheric thermal structure from the ground up to 55km.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belikovich, Mikhail; Shvetsov, Alexander; Ryskin, Vitaly; Mukhin, Dmitry; Kulikov, Mikhail; Feigin, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Thermal structure is the key characteristic of the atmosphere. Depending on the altitude, it is measured by different methods. In troposphere a plethora of in-situ techniques exists while in middle atmosphere remote sensing is primary type of measurement. The remote sensing is conducted in different wavelengths: optical, infrared and microwave. Satellite based measurements are the most popular kind of remote sensing measurements as it provides global coverage. Ground based passive microwave remote sensing technique has its place when one need permanent monitoring with high time resolution in order to study short-term local events like gravity waves. Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IAP RAS) develops multi-purpose radiometry complex for constant atmospheric monitoring. For now, it measures temperature profiles from ground to 55km, tropospheric water vapor and ozone. It consists of several radiometers with spectral bands ranging from 20 to 112 GHz. In 2015 two radiometers were added in order to measure thermal structure at surface level and troposphere: scanning device operating in 55-59GHz, and device at 50-55GHz. The change led to modifying the retrieval software. The work presents the description of the radiometry complex and corresponding retrieval software. The main part is devoted to new radiometers and enhancements in retrieval procedure. The retrieval algorithms are described: for each device separately and for the whole temperature retrieval part of the complex. The use of the single procedure for the group of radiometers helps to merge the profile with each other correctly. The main issue of the single procedure (numerical complexity aside) is dealing with the possible difference in calibration of the devices. Error analysis of the procedures is conducted. The characteristics of the complex and the retrieval algorithms are presented. The capabilities of the algorithms are shown on simulated and real data; the last one was